Science.gov

Sample records for river fish passage

  1. Channel Modification for Fish Passage on Umatilla River, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Sanguine, William L.

    1985-06-01

    This report describes the construction of modifications to the bed of the Umatilla River and to the Threemile Dam fish ladder to improve fish passage during periods of low flow. The report also provides a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of the modified channel in improving fish passage. (ACR)

  2. Yakima River Basin Fish Passage Phase II Fish Screen Construction, Project Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, R. Dennis

    2008-01-01

    On December 5, 1980, Congress passed the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Public Law 96-501). The Act created the Northwest Power Planning Council (now the Northwest Power and Conservation Council). The Council was charged with the responsibility to prepare a Regional Conservation and Electric Power Plan and to develop a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife including related spawning grounds and habitat on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The Council adopted its Fish and Wildlife Program on November 15, 1982. Section 800 of the Program addresses measures in the Yakima River Basin. The Yakima measures were intended to help mitigate hydroelectric impacts in the basin and provide off-site mitigation to compensate for fish losses caused by hydroelectric project development and operations throughout the Columbia River Basin. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) was designated as a major source of funding for such off-site mitigation measures and was requested to initiate discussions with the appropriate Federal project operators and the Council to determine the most expeditious means for funding and implementing the program. The primary measures proposed for rapid implementation in the Yakima River basin were the installation of fish passage and protective facilities. Sec. 109 of The Hoover Power Plant Act of 1984, authorized the Secretary of the Interior to design, construct, operate, and maintain fish passage facilities within the Yakima River Basin. Under Phase I of the program, improvements to existing fish passage facilities and installation of new fish ladders and fish screens at 16 of the largest existing diversion dams and canals were begun in 1984 and were completed in 1990. The Yakima Phase II fish passage program is an extension of the Phase I program. In 1988, the Yakama Nation (YN) submitted an application to amend Sections 803(b) and 1403(4.5) of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council

  3. Fish-passage facilities as ecological traps in large neotropical rivers.

    PubMed

    Pelicice, Fernando Mayer; Agostinho, Angelo Antonio

    2008-02-01

    At present most of the large rivers of South America are impounded. Management plans historically have relied on the construction of fish passages, specifically ladders, to mitigate the impact of these waterway blockages on fisheries and biodiversity. Nevertheless, the design of these facilities is not ecologically sound and they are not monitored continually. Consequently, the real role of South American fish passages in fisheries and biodiversity management is unclear and the results of some studies suggest that ladders are problematic in fish conservation. We examined the characteristics and negative aspects of fish passages within a larger context and considered the notion that these facilities are ecological traps in some Brazilian impoundments. Four conditions are required to characterize a fish passage as an ecological trap: (1) attractive forces leading fish to ascend the passage; (2) unidirectional migratory movements (upstream); (3) the environment above the passage has poor conditions for fish recruitment (e.g., the absence of spawning grounds and nursery areas); and (4) the environment below the passage has a proper structure for recruitment. When these conditions exist individuals move to poor-quality habitats, fitness is reduced, and populations are threatened. To exemplify this situation we analyzed two case studies in the upper Paraná River basin, Brazil, in which the four conditions were met and migratory fish populations were declining. If passages work as ecological traps, regional fisheries will be in danger of collapse and conservation policies toward biodiversity will become more difficult and ineffective. The situation demands the closing of the passage in conjunction with alternative management actions to preserve system functionality, especially the conservation of critical habitats downstream and the restoration of damaged habitats in the region.

  4. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project : Annual Progress Report October 2007 - September 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, James P.; Duke, Bill; Loffink, Ken

    2008-12-30

    In the late 1990s, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate fish migration conditions in the basin. Migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow requirements, and providing trap and haul efforts when needed. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the Walla Walla River basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage and trapping facility design, operation, and criteria. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. Beginning in March of 2007, two work elements from the Walla Walla Fish Passage Operations Project were transferred to other projects. The work element Enumeration of Adult Migration at Nursery Bridge Dam is now conducted under the Walla Walla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project and the work element Provide Transportation Assistance is conducted under the Umatilla Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance Project. Details of these activities can be found in those project's respective annual reports.

  5. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Water Diversions on the Umatilla River; 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1995-01-01

    We report on our progress from October 1993 through September 1994 in evaluating juvenile salmonid bypass facilities and juvenile salmonid passage through ladder facilities, and investigating passage conditions for juvenile fish at diversion dam facilities on the lower Umatilla River in northeastern Oregon. We also report on our progress in evaluating adult salmonid passage at and between dams on the lower Umatilla River and upriver migration using radio telemetry. Two principal studies are also included. Report A (ODFW): To evaluate the juvenile salmonid bypass facilities a Feed and Furnish canals, juvenile salmonid passage through fish ladders at Stanfield, Feed Canal, Westland, and Three Mile Falls dams, and the juvenile salmonid trap and haul procedures at Westland Canal. To investigate passage conditions at all passage facilities. Report B (CTUIR): To examine the passage of adult salmonids past diversions in the lower Umatilla River and their movement in the upper river after transport, using radio telemetry, and to assess factors for successful homing. These studies are part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the Umatilla River Basin, including restoration of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), as well as enhancement of summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

  6. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, James P.; Duke, Bill B.

    2006-02-01

    In the late 1990s, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate fish migration conditions in the basin. The migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow requirements, and providing trap and haul efforts when needed. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the Walla Walla River basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage criteria and passage and trapping facility design and operation. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. During the 2004-2005 project year, there were 590 adult summer steelhead, 31 summer steelhead kelts (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 70 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus); 80 adult and 1 jack spring Chinook (O. tshawytscha) enumerated at the Nursery Bridge Dam fishway video counting window between December 13, 2004, and June 16, 2005. Summer steelhead and spring chinook were observed moving upstream while bull trout were observed moving both upstream and downstream of the facility. In addition, the old ladder trap was operated by ODFW in order to enumerate fish passage. Of the total, 143 adult summer steelhead and 15 summer steelhead kelts were enumerated at the west ladder at Nursery Bridge Dam during the video efforts between February 4 and May 23, 2005. Operation of the Little Walla Walla River

  7. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Water Diversions in the Umatilla River; 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1994-03-01

    This report presents progress from October 1992 through September 1993 in evaluating juvenile fish bypass facilities at Three Mile Falls, Maxwell, Westland, and Feed Canal dams on the Umatilla River, and in evaluating adult fish passage in the lower Umatilla River. Also reported is an effort to evaluate delayed mortality and stress responses of juvenile salmonids resulting from trapping and transport at high temperatures. These studies are part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the matilla River Basin, including restoration of coho salmon and chinook salmon, as well as enhancement of summer steelhead.

  8. A multi-scale GIS and hydrodynamic modelling approach to fish passage assessment: Clarence and Shoalhaven Rivers, NSW Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, Rita M.; Reinfelds, Ivars V.; Butler, Gavin L.; Walsh, Chris T.; Broderick, Tony J.; Chisholm, Laurie A.

    2016-05-01

    Natural barriers such as waterfalls, cascades, rapids and riffles limit the dispersal and in-stream range of migratory fish, yet little is known of the interplay between these gradient dependent landforms, their hydraulic characteristics and flow rates that facilitate fish passage. The resurgence of dam construction in numerous river basins world-wide provides impetus to the development of robust techniques for assessment of the effects of downstream flow regime changes on natural fish passage barriers and associated consequences as to the length of rivers available to migratory species. This paper outlines a multi-scale technique for quantifying the relative magnitude of natural fish passage barriers in river systems and flow rates that facilitate passage by fish. First, a GIS-based approach is used to quantify channel gradients for the length of river or reach under investigation from a high resolution DEM, setting the magnitude of identified passage barriers in a longer context (tens to hundreds of km). Second, LiDAR, topographic and bathymetric survey-based hydrodynamic modelling is used to assess flow rates that can be regarded as facilitating passage across specific barriers identified by the river to reach scale gradient analysis. Examples of multi-scale approaches to fish passage assessment for flood-flow and low-flow passage issues are provided from the Clarence and Shoalhaven Rivers, NSW, Australia. In these river systems, passive acoustic telemetry data on actual movements and migrations by Australian bass (Macquaria novemaculeata) provide a means of validating modelled assessments of flow rates associated with successful fish passage across natural barriers. Analysis of actual fish movements across passage barriers in these river systems indicates that two dimensional hydraulic modelling can usefully quantify flow rates associated with the facilitation of fish passage across natural barriers by a majority of individual fishes for use in management

  9. White River Falls Fish Passage Project, Tygh Valley, Oregon : Final Technical Report, Volume I..

    SciTech Connect

    Oregon. Dept. of Fish and Wildlife; Mount Hood National Forest

    1985-06-01

    Studies were conducted to describe current habitat conditions in the White River basin above White River Falls and to evaluate the potential to produce anadromous fish. An inventory of spawning and rearing habitats, irrigation diversions, and enhancement opportunities for anadromous fish in the White River drainage was conducted. Survival of juvenile fish at White River Falls was estimated by releasing juvenile chinook and steelhead above the falls during high and low flow periods and recapturing them below the falls in 1983 and 1984. Four alternatives to provide upstream passage for adult salmon and steelhead were developed to a predesign level. The cost of adult passage and the estimated run size of anadromous fish were used to determine the benefit/cost ratio of the preferred alternative. Possible effects of the introduction of anadromous fish on resident fish and on nearby Oak Springs Hatchery were evaluated. This included an inventory of resident species, a genetic study of native rainbow, and the identification of fish diseases in the basin. 28 figs., 23 tabs.

  10. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, James P.; Duke, Bill B.

    2004-03-01

    In the late 1990's, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate fish migration conditions in the basin. The migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow requirements, and initiating trap and haul efforts. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the Walla Walla River basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage criteria and passage and trapping facility design and operation. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. During the 2002-2003 project year, there were 545 adult summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 29 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus); 1 adult and 1 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) enumerated at the Nursery Bridge Dam fishway adult trap between January 1 and June 23, 2003. Summer steelhead and spring chinook were observed moving upstream while bull trout were observed moving both upstream and downstream of the facility. Operation of the Little Walla Walla River juvenile trap for trap and haul purposes was not necessary this year. The project transported 21 adult spring chinook from Ringold Springs Hatchery and 281 from Threemile Dam to the South Fork Walla Walla Brood Holding Facility. Of these, 290 were outplanted in August for natural spawning in the basin.

  11. Fish passage and protective facilities, Yakima River basin, Washington: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), propose to administer the construction of fish passage and protective facilities at 20 existing irrigation and/or hydroelectric diversions in the Yakima River basin, Washington, for the improvement of anadromous fish populations. This action would implement the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program for natural propagation activities to mitigate hydroelectric impacts in the Yakima basin and to provide offsite enhancement to compensate for fish and wildlife losses caused by hydroelectric project development and operations throughout the Columbia River basin. The Yakima River basin is located in south-central Washington (see frontispiece map) and drains an area of about 6000 square miles. The basin centers around the city of Yakima and includes most of Yakima, Kittitas, and Benton Counties. The Yakima River heads near the eastern crest of the Cascade Range and flows generally southeastward for over 200 miles to its confluence with the Columbia River near Richland. Major tributaries include the Kachess, Cle Elum, and Teanaway Rivers and the Naches River, which has several major tributaries of its own--the Bumping, American, and Tieton Rivers. Ahtanum, Toppenish, and Satus Creeks join the Yakima River in the lower part of the basin. Natural runoff for the basin above Parker (Sunnyside Diversion Dam) averaged about 3.5 million acre-feet annually for the period 1940-1976. 21 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, Brian C.; Duke, Bill B.

    2004-02-01

    In the late 1990's, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate migration conditions in the basin. The migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow measures, and initiating trap and haul efforts. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage criteria and passage and trapping facility design and operation. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. During the 2000-2001 project year, there were 624 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 24 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), and 47 spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) counted at the Nursery Bridge Dam adult trap between December 27, 2000 and June 7, 2001. The Little Walla Walla River juvenile trap was not operated this year. The project transported 1600 adult spring chinook from Ringold Springs Hatchery to the South Fork Walla Walla Brood Holding Facility and outplanted 1156 for natural spawning in the basin. The project also provided equipment for transportation of juveniles captured during the construction fish salvage at Nursery Bridge Dam.

  13. Frankenmuth Dam Fish Passage, Cass River, Saginaw County, Michigan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    near the dam. The City’s water main crosses the Cass River approximately 200 feet upstream of the dam. A City wastewater treatment plant facility...landfill is located on City owned wastewater treatment plant facility property downstream of where the proposed rock ramp would be constructed (refer...necessary, the material would be disposed of at a licensed landfill, or potentially on part of the City owned wastewater treatment plant facility property

  14. Cost-efficiency aspects for fish passage restoration in the Ruhr River Basin.

    PubMed

    Weyand, M; Redeker, M; Nusch, E A

    2006-01-01

    The protection and sustainable management of the aquatic ecosystems is the central aim of the European Water Framework Directive. Due to the aspiration for good ecological status of the water bodies free fish passage will play an important part in river basin management. The Ruhr River has seen severe anthropogenic modifications due to urbanisation and industrialisation in the 19th and 20th centuries leading in the existence of approx. 1300 weirs within the Ruhr River Basin. The majority of the barriers are assessed as not passable or restricted passable. Against this background the Ruhrverband made a holistic approach towards restoring fish passage within the Ruhr catchment. Besides the scientific and technical aspects, such as the determination of potential (spawning) habitats and the development of measures in order to reach them, they also considered cost-benefit-ratio considerations for the Ruhr catchment as a whole as well as for site-specific designs of fish passage structures. Various benefits were evaluated taking into account different fields of economic interest. The model of financing all necessary measures should involve all responsible parties benefiting from the water utilizations. Such a mutual procedure delivers a fair cost distribution as well as an efficient implementation of measures.

  15. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, James P.

    2004-12-01

    In the late 1990s, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate fish migration conditions in the basin. The migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow requirements, and providing trap and haul efforts when needed. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the Walla Walla River basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage criteria and passage and trapping facility design and operation. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. During the 2003-2004 project year, there were 379 adult summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 36 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus); 108 adult and 3 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) enumerated at the Nursery Bridge Dam fishway video counting window between December 21, 2003, and June 30, 2004. Summer steelhead and spring chinook were observed moving upstream while bull trout were observed moving both upstream and downstream of the facility. In addition, the old ladder trap was operated by the WWBNPME project in order to radio tag spring chinook adults. A total of 2 adult summer steelhead, 4 bull trout, and 23 adult spring chinook were enumerated at the west ladder at Nursery Bridge Dam during the trapping operations between May 6 and May 23, 2004. Operation of the Little Walla Walla

  16. Dams in the Mekong River Basin: Options for Improved Sediment and Fish Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, T. B.; Loucks, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Mekong River and its tributaries comprise one of the most productive fish habitats in the world today. The economic value of the Mekong fishery in Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam is among the highest in the world, providing income and food security to tens of millions of people. However, the construction of multiple dams in the basin will reduce sediment discharge, which will adversely impact nutrient transport and habitat quality and availability, and disrupt fish migration routes. Thus, of considerable interest is the identification of alternatives to the location, design and operation of planned hydropower dams that could improve sediment passage, enable migratory fish passage, and sustain fish production for local use. This paper describes the results of simulation studies designed to identify and evaluate such alternatives, as well as their potential impact on hydropower production. Dam sites in Cambodia and Lao PDR on tributaries and on the mainstream Mekong River will be discussed. Evaluations of sediment management techniques such as flushing, sluicing and bypassing will be discussed. This study is intended to inform decision makers in Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam about potential alternatives to current plans as they prepare decisions regarding the development of over 100 hydropower dams throughout the basin.

  17. Evaluation of Fish Passage Sites in the Walla Walla River Basin, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, Mickie A.

    2008-08-29

    In 2008, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the Hofer Dam fish screen and provided technical assistance at two other fish passage sites as requested by the Bonneville Power Administration, the Walla Walla Watershed Council, or the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. Evaluation of new sites such as Hofer Dam focuses on their design, construction, operation, and maintenance to determine if they effectively provide juvenile salmonids with safe passage through irrigation diversions. There were two requests for technical assistance in 2008. In the first, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation requested an evaluation of the Nursery Bridge fish screens associated with the fish ladder on the east side of the Walla Walla River. One set of brushes that clean the screens was broken for an extended period. Underwater videography and water velocity measurements were used to determine there were no potential adverse effects on juvenile salmonids when the west set of screens was clean enough to pass water normally. A second request, received from the National Marine Fisheries Service and the Walla Walla Watershed Council, asked for evaluation of water velocities through relatively new head gates above and adjacent to the Eastside Ditch fish screens on the Walla Walla River. Water moving through the head gates and not taken for irrigation is diverted to provide water for the Nursery Bridge fish ladder on the east side of the river. Elevations used in the design of the head gates were incorrect, causing excessive flow through the head gates that closely approached or exceeded the maximum swimming burst speed of juvenile salmonids. Hofer Dam was evaluated in June 2008. PNNL researchers found that conditions at Hofer Dam will not cause impingement or entrainment of juvenile salmonids but may provide habitat for predators and lack strong sweeping flows to encourage juvenile salmonid passage downstream. Further evaluation of

  18. Passage of native riverine fishes through geometrically different sections of a vertical slot fishway on the Moselle River, Germany

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitsch, Matthias; Mockenhaupt, Bernd; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    In order to study effects of different geometric types of pools or change of the flow direction on the passability of fish, sets of PIT antennas were installed inside a modern vertical slot fishway at the mouth of the River Moselle. Fish of 13 abundant species were caught and tagged with PIT tags in 2013 and released in the tailwater of Koblenz. 16% of the tagged fish were detected entering the fishway a short time after release. These individuals provided data on entry and passage rates for different sections of the fishway. Preliminary results show differences in passage time and passage rates between different sections of the fishway.

  19. Upstream movements of Atlantic Salmon in the Lower Penobscot River, Maine following two dam removals and fish passage modifications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izzo, Lisa K.; Maynard, George A.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The Penobscot River Restoration Project (PRRP), to be completed in 2016, involved an extensive plan of dam removal, increases in hydroelectric capacity, and fish passage modifications to increase habitat access for diadromous species. As part of the PRRP, Great Works and Veazie dams were removed, making Milford Dam the first impediment to federally endangered Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar. Upstream habitat access for Atlantic Salmon is dependent upon successful and timely passage at Milford Dam because nearly all suitable spawning habitat is located upstream. In 2014 and 2015, a total of 73 adult salmon were radio-tagged to track their upstream movements through the Penobscot River to assess potential delays at (1) the dam remnants, (2) the confluence of the Stillwater Branch and the main stem of the Penobscot River below the impassable Orono Dam, and (3) the Milford Dam fish lift (installed in 2014). Movement rates through the dam remnants and the Stillwater confluence were comparable to open river reaches. Passage efficiency of the fish lift was high in both years (95% and 100%). However, fish experienced long delays at Milford Dam, with approximately one-third of fish taking more than a week to pass in each year, well below the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission passage standard of 95% within 48 h. Telemetry indicates most fish locate the fishway entrance within 5 h of arrival and were observed at the entrance at all hours of the day. These data indicate that overall transit times through the lower river were comparable to reported movement rates prior to changes to the Penobscot River due to the substantial delays seen at Milford Dam. The results of this study show that while adult Atlantic Salmon locate the new fish lift entrance quickly, passage of these fish was significantly delayed under 2014–2015 operations.

  20. Clackamas/Hood River Habitat Enhancement Program; Collawash River Falls Fish Passage Project, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Deibel, Robert H.

    1993-04-01

    The Forest Service conducted physical habitat and biological monitoring of the project area in 1992. The physical habitat monitoring included determining if the Forest Service needed to do additional channel work and also documenting how the channel changed at various flow events. There appeared to be little change in conditions at the site from 1991 to 1992. In the spring of 1992, summer steelhead were seen upstream of the falls area and one spring chinook salmon was observed in the first pool below the initial cascade. These results imply that the reduction in the number of cascades facilitates fish access through the area. The Forest Service plans to continue monitoring channel changes through time and also plans to continue to do biological monitoring of the upstream areas. Physical habitat monitoring will be conducted to determine if channel maintenance work is necessary to ensure that fish passage remains at the levels approximating conditions seen in 1991 and 1992.

  1. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume 1, Oregon, Supplement B, White River Falls Fish Passage, 1983 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-04-01

    White River Falls are located in north central Oregon approximately 25 miles south of the City of The Dalles. The project site is characterized by a series of three natural waterfalls with a combined fall of 180 ft. In the watershed above the falls are some 120 miles of mainstem habitat and an undetermined amount of tributary stream habitat that could be opened to anadromous fish, if passage is provided around the falls. The purpose of this project is to determine feasibility of passage, select a passage scheme, and design and construct passage facilities. This report provides information on possible facilities that would pass adult anadromous fish over the White River Falls. 25 references, 29 figures, 12 tables. (ACR)

  2. Umatilla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, James P.; Duke, Bill B.

    2004-03-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were enumerated at Threemile Dam from August 17, 2002 to September 29, 2003. A total of 3,080 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 1716 adult, 617 jack, and 1,709 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 3,820 adult and 971 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 3,607 adult and 135 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were counted. All fish were enumerated at the east bank facility. Of the fish counted, 6 summer steelhead and 330 adult and 49 jack spring chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were 2,882 summer steelhead; 1161 adult, 509 jack and 1,546 subjack fall chinook; 3,704 adult and 915 jack coho; and 2,406 adult and 31 jack spring chinook either released at, or allowed to volitionally migrate past, Threemile Dam. Also, 109 summer steelhead; 532 adult and 32 jack fall chinook; and 560 adult and 28 jack spring chinook were collected for brood. In addition, 282 spring chinook were collected for the outplanting efforts in the Walla Walla Basin. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The canal was open for 159 days between January 27 and July 4, 2003. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 145 days and were trapped 11 days. An estimated 205 pounds of juvenile fish were transported from Westland to the Umatilla River boat ramp (RM 0.5). Approximately 82% of the juveniles transported were salmonids. No steelhead kelts were hauled from Westland this year. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was opened on September 16, 2002. and continued until November 1, 2002. The bypass was reopened March 3, 2003 and ran until July 3, 2003. The juvenile trap was operated by the Umatilla Passage Evaluation

  3. Restoring river connectivity: prioritizing passage improvements for diadromous fishes and lampreys.

    PubMed

    Nunn, A D; Cowx, I G

    2012-06-01

    Physical obstructions are becoming increasingly recognized as major factors influencing the migrations, population structures, spawning success and recruitment of freshwater organisms. This paper presents a simple but effective method, intended for use by environmental managers, government agencies and conservation bodies, of rapidly assessing and prioritizing barriers to the migrations of diadromous fishes and lampreys for passage improvements. A prioritization matrix was developed using information on fish stock status, the passage efficiency of fishes at individual structures, the distance from the tidal limit and the passability of downstream barriers, and the quantity and quality of habitat upstream of each structure. Importantly, the 'Likelihood of access' was incorporated into the matrix to account for passage efficiency at downstream barriers. Barriers ranked as the highest priority for passage improvements were those characterized by poor fish stocks upstream, low passage efficiency, easy passage from downstream, and a large quantity and high quality of habitat upstream. Prioritization of migration barriers should ensure that access improvements are targeted to achieve optimum benefits.

  4. Umatilla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, Brian C.; Duke, Bill B.

    2003-02-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, Oregon is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were enumerated at Threemile Dam from August 22, 2001 to September 12, 2002. A total of 5,519 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 1,146 adult, 1,158 jack, and 970 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 22,792 adult and 80 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 5,058 adult and 188 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were counted. All fish were enumerated at the east bank facility. Of the fish counted, 261 adult and 14 jack spring chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam for release. There were 5,359 summer steelhead; 622 adult, 1,041 jack and 867 subjack fall chinook; 22,513 adult and 76 jack coho; and 4,061 adult and 123 jack spring chinook either released at, or allowed to volitionally migrate past, Threemile Dam. In addition, 110 summer steelhead; 462 adult and 24 jack fall chinook; and 560 adult and 28 jack spring chinook were collected for brood. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The canal was open for 141 days between February 22 and July 12, 2002. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 134 days and were trapped 5 days. An estimated 200 pounds of juvenile fish were transported from Westland. Approximately 90% of the juveniles transported were salmonids. No steelhead kelts were hauled from Westland this year. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was opened August 16, 2002. The bypass was run until October 31, 2001 with the exception of the period from August 29 to September 16. The bypass was reopened March 7, 2002 and ran until July 8. The juvenile trap was operated from July 8 to July 12 by the Umatilla Passage Evaluation project.

  5. Restoration of fish passage: development and results of a master plan established for the Ruhr River Basin.

    PubMed

    Weyand, M; Redeker, M; Nusch, E A

    2005-01-01

    According to the central aim of the European Water Framework Directive, the protection and sustained management of the aquatic ecological system, the ecological condition of a specific type of water, will be the primary parameter in future. Aiming at good ecological status in surface water bodies, population diversity and abundance of fish and macroinvertebrates is decisive. Free passage in river systems, to allow the natural migration of fish and all other aquatic organisms, is a prerequisite. To achieve this for the Ruhr River Basin a study has been commissioned in order to develop a master plan for river continuum restoration. Sustainable development aimed at promoting biodiversity in the surface water body system is a key objective. This project is complemented by investigations of the sediment--which is the nursery of the fish--in the rivers to identify river sections or tributaries which obviously provide a suitable habitat for the successful reproduction of big Salmonidae. The master plan illustrates the inherent problems of projects aimed at the restoration of fish passage in water bodies which are strongly affected by anthropogenic modifications. The results obtained may as well be transferred to other catchments with similar use patterns.

  6. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Three-Mile Falls Dam; Umatilla River, Oregon, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.

    1990-09-01

    We report on our progress from October 1989 through September 1990 on evaluating juvenile fish bypass and adult fish passage facilities at Three Mile Falls Dam on the Umatilla River. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). Study objectives addressed by ODFW and CTUIR are: (1) ODFW (Report A): Operate and evaluate the juvenile fish bypass system in the West Extension Irrigation District canal at Three Mile Falls Dam; and (2) CTUIR (Report 8): Examine the passage of adult salmonids at Three Mile Falls Dam. The study is part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the Umatilla River Basin that includes restorations of coho salmon Oncorhynchus Wsutch and chinook salmon 0. tshawytscha and enhancement of summer steelhead 0. mytiss.

  7. Proposed fish passage improvements at Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam, Umatilla River, Oregon: Finding of no significant impact

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation proposes to administer the construction of fish passage and protective facilities at Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam on the Umatilla River in Oregon to increase the numbers of anadromous fish. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to provide funding for the project. These agencies' actions would implement section 904(d) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program which addresses the provision of offsite enhancement to compensate for fish and wildlife losses caused by hydroelectric project development and operations throughout the Columbia River Basin. This Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) decision document for both agencies. The proposed action would improve both upstream and downstream passage by providing a new right bank ladder on Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam, modifying the existing left bank ladder, and installing rotary drum fish screens and related structures on the adjacent West Extension Irrigation District (WEID) Canal. Four other alternatives are considered in the environmental assessment (EA): a concrete apron plus a left bank ladder; a cap on the crest of the dam plus a left bank ladder; dam removal; and no action. 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Finding of no significant impact. Proposed fish passage improvements at Three Mile Falls Diverson Dam, Umatilla River, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    The proposed action would improve both upstream and downstream passage by providing a new right bank ladder on Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam, modifying the existing left bank ladder, and installing rotary drum fish screens and related structures on the adjacent West Extension Irrigation District (WEID) Canal. Four other alternatives are considered in the environmental assessment (EA): a concrete apron plus a left bank ladder; a cap on the crest of the dam plus a left bank ladder; dam removal; and no action. The proposed fish passage improvements would have effects on the anadromous and resident fish populations which, viewed in the context of the Umatilla River basin, would be beneficial. Resident fish would receive incidental benefits from reduced mortalities at the diversion structures. However, given the regional context, as specified in the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, in which the proposed passage improvements would be implemented and the large increase in anadromous fish production necessary to restore historical population levels, the proposed actions are not considered to have significant environmental impacts.

  9. Fish Passage Improvements at Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam, Umatilla River, Oregon, Final Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown Author

    1985-05-01

    This report contains the results and conclusions from the biological assessment and outlines several alternative plans for solving fish passage problems at the dam. A recommended plan, based on consensus of the fisheries agencies and the tribes, is described, and the rationale for that decision is discussed. Data needs for final designs, a tentative construction schedule, and a discussion of operation and maintenance needs are presented.

  10. A retrospective on hydroacoustic assessment of fish passage in Alaskan rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burwen, Debby; Fleischman, Steve; Maxwell, Suzanne; Pfisterer, Carl

    2005-04-01

    The Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADFG) has enumerated fish stocks in rivers for over 30 years using a variety of acoustic technologies including single-, dual-, and split-beam sonar. Most recently, ADFG has evaluated a relatively new sonar technology at several sites in Alaska to determine its applicability to counting migrating fish in rivers. The new system, called a Dual frequency IDentification SONar (DIDSON), is a high-definition imaging sonar designed and manufactured by the University of Washington's Applied Physics Lab for military applications such as diver detection and underwater mine identification. Results from experiments conducted in 2002-2004 indicate that DIDSON provides significant improvements in our ability to detect, track, and determine the direction of travel of migrating fish in rivers. One of the most powerful uses of the DIDSON has been to combine its camera-like images of fish swimming behavior with corresponding split-beam data. These linked datasets have allowed us to evaluate the effects of fish orientation and swimming behavior on echo shape parameters that have proven useful in the classification of certain fish species.

  11. Cowlitz Falls Fish Passage.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system.

  12. A barrier to upstream migration in the fish passage of Itaipu Dam (Canal da Piracema), Paraná River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Fontes Júnior, Hélio Martins; Makrakis, Sergio; Gomes, Luiz Carlos; Latini, João Dirço

    2012-01-01

    The majority of the fish passages built in the Neotropical region are characterised by low efficiency and high selectivity; in many cases, the benefits to fish populations are uncertain. Studies conducted in the Canal da Piracema at Itaipu dam on the Parana River indicate that the system component designated as the Discharge channel in the Bela Vista River (herein named Canal de deságue no rio Bela Vista or CABV), a 200 m long technical section, was the main barrier to the upstream migration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of restriction imposed by the CABV on upstream movements of Prochilodus lineatus and Leporinus elongatus, Characiformes. Fish were tagged with passive integrated transponders (PIT tags) and released both downstream and upstream of this critical section. Individuals of both species released downstream of the CABV took much more time to reach the upper end of the system (43.6 days vs. 15.9 days), and passed in much lower proportions (18% vs. 60.8%) than those tagged upstream of this component. Although more work is needed to differentiate between fishway effects and natural variation in migratory motivation, the results clearly demonstrate passage problems at the CABV.

  13. Umatilla River Fish Passage Operations Project : Annual Progress Report October 2007 - September 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, James P.; Loffink, Ken; Duke, Bill

    2008-12-31

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were enumerated at Threemile Dam from June 7, 2007 to August 11, 2008. A total of 3,133 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 1,487 adult, 1,067 jack, and 999 subjack fall Chinook (O. tshawytscha); 5,140 adult and 150 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 2,009 adult, 517 jack, and 128 subjack spring Chinook (O. tshawytscha) were counted. All fish were enumerated at the east bank facility. Of the fish counted, 1,442 summer steelhead and 88 adult and 84 jack spring Chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were 1,497 summer steelhead; 609 adult, 1,018 jack and 979 subjack fall Chinook; 5,036 adult and 144 jack coho; and 1,117 adult, 386 jack and 125 subjack spring Chinook either released at, or allowed to volitionally migrate past, Threemile Dam. Also, 110 summer steelhead; 878 adult and 43 jack fall Chinook; and 560 adult and 28 jack spring Chinook were collected as broodstock for the Umatilla River hatchery program. In addition, there were 241 adult and 15 jack spring Chinook collected at Threemile Dam for outplanting in the South Fork Walla Walla River and Mill Cr, a tributary of the mainstem Walla Walla River. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at river mile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for out-migrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The canal was open for 158 days between February 11, 2008 and July 18, 2008. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 150 days and were trapped 6 days. There were also 2 days when fish were directed into and held in the canal forebay between the time the bypass was closed and the trap opened. An estimated 64 pounds of fish were transported from the Westland trapping facility. Approximately 25.8% of the fish transported were salmonids. In addition, one

  14. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Water Diversions in the Umatilla River; 1990-1991 Progress Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1992-06-01

    We report on our effort from October 1990 through March 1991 to prepare for the evaluation of the juvenile fish bypass facility in the West Extension Irrigation District Canal at Three Mile Falls Dam on the Umatilla River. We also report on our preliminary activities to prepare for future evaluations at Maxwell and Westland diversion dams. A detailed sampling plan was written to guide our efforts in the evaluation process and associated preparatory activities were conducted. In the sampling plan, we developed experimental designs for evaluating the passage of juvenile salmonids through the bypass system including the evaluation at design flow of injury and mortality rates, and passage of juvenile salmonids through and over the screens. We designed and fabricated fish nets for screen leakage tests, and holding facilities for test fish. Modifications to improve evaluation activities were incorporated into the collection facility, and our sampling gear. We designed and fabricated collection systems for the juvenile fish bypass facilities at Maxwell and Westland diversion dams. Preliminary monitoring of system operation was performed at Westland Diversion Dam. We offer recommendations for improving preparations and designs of future evaluations, and also recommend that a detailed evaluation of the Maxwell and Westland juvenile facilities, including evaluation of fish condition and fish passage through or over the screens, be conducted.

  15. Identifying and Evaluating Options for Improving Sediment Management and Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams in the Lower Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, T. B.; Reed, P. M.; Loucks, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Mekong River basin in Southeast Asia is undergoing intensive and pervasive hydropower development to satisfy demand for increased energy and income to support its growing population of 60 million people. Just 20 years ago this river flowed freely. Today some 30 large dams exist in the basin, and over 100 more are being planned for construction. These dams will alter the river's natural water, sediment and nutrient flows, thereby impacting river morphology and ecosystems, and will fragment fish migration pathways. In doing so, they will degrade one of the world's most valuable and productive freshwater fish habitats. For those dams that have not yet been constructed, there still exist opportunities to modify their siting, design and operation (SDO) to potentially achieve a more balanced set of tradeoffs among hydropower production, sediment/nutrient passage and fish passage. We introduce examples of such alternative SDO opportunities for Sambor Dam in Cambodia, planned to be constructed on the main stem of the Mekong River. To evaluate the performance of such alternatives, we developed a Python-based simulation tool called PySedSim. PySedSim is a daily time step mass balance model that identifies the relative tradeoffs among hydropower production, and flow and sediment regime alteration, associated with reservoir sediment management techniques such as flushing, sluicing, bypassing, density current venting and dredging. To date, there has been a very limited acknowledgement or evaluation of the significant uncertainties that impact the evaluation of SDO alternatives. This research is formalizing a model diagnostic assessment of the key assumptions and parametric uncertainties that strongly influence PySedSim SDO evaluations. Using stochastic hydrology and sediment load data, our diagnostic assessment evaluates and compares several Sambor Dam alternatives using several performance measures related to energy production, sediment trapping and regime alteration, and

  16. Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    Implementation of the Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project -- Phase 2 would significantly improve the production of anadromous fish in the Yakima River system. The project would provide offsite mitigation and help to compensate for lower Columbia River hydroelectric fishery losses. The Phase 2 screens would allow greater numbers of juvenile anadromous fish to survive. As a consequence, there would be higher returns of adult salmon and steelhead to the Yakima River. The proposed action would play an integral part in the overall Yakima River anadromous fish enhancement program (fish passage improvement, habitat enhancement, hatchery production increases, and harvest management). These would be environmental benefits associated with implementation of the Fish Passage and Protective Facilities Phase 2 Project. Based on the evaluation presented in this assessment, there would be no significant adverse environmental impacts if the proposed action was carried forward. No significant adverse environmental effects have been identified from construction and operation of the Yakima Phase 2 fish passage project. Proper design and implementation of the project will ensure no adverse effects will occur. Based on the information in this environmental analysis, BPA's and Reclamation's proposal to construct these facilities does not constitute a major Federal action that could significantly affect the quality of the human environment. 8 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Prioritizing removal of dams for passage of diadromous fishes on a major river system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, P.M.; Ross, R.M.; Dropkin, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Native diadromous fishes have been extirpated from much of the Susquehanna River system for nearly a century. Recent restoration efforts have focused on removal of dams, but there are hundreds of dams and presently there is no biologically based system to assist in prioritizing their removal. We present a new method that uses existing habitat suitability index models (HSI) for American shad Alosa sapidissima, alewife A. pseudoharengus, blueback herring A. aestivalis, and American eel Anguilla rostrata to prioritize the removal of non-hydropower dams within the Susquehanna River system. We ranked HSI scores for each of the four species, association between a landscape-scale factor and HSIs, length of river opened by removing a dam, and distance from the mouth at Chesapeake Bay for each dam and then calculated a mean rank prioritization for dam removal by averaging the ranks for the seven criteria. This prioritization method is resistant to outliers, is not strongly affected by somewhat arbitrary decisions on metrics included in the analysis, and provides a biologically based prioritization for dam removal that can be easily amended to include other metrics or adapted to other river systems and that complements other social and economic considerations that must be included in decisions to remove dams.

  18. Umatilla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, James P.; Duke, Bill B.

    2005-08-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were enumerated at Threemile Dam from August 19, 2003 to July 8, 2004. A total of 3,388 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 1,482 adult, 638 jack, and 2,150 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 8,319 adult and 667 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 2,965 adult and 270 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were counted. All fish were enumerated at the east bank facility. Of the fish counted, 34 summer steelhead and 31 adult and 9 jack spring chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were 3,166 summer steelhead; 1,076 adult, 554 jack and 2,026 subjack fall chinook; 8,213 adult and 647 jack coho; and 2,152 adult and 174 jack spring chinook either released at, or allowed to volitionally migrate past, Threemile Dam. Also, 121 summer steelhead; 388 adult and 19 jack fall chinook; and 561 adult and 29 jack spring chinook were collected for brood. In addition, 239 spring chinook were collected for the outplanting efforts in the Walla Walla Basin. There were also 25 pair hatchery steelhead adults collected for the progeny maker study. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The canal was open for 184 days between January 12 and July 6, 2004. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 173 days and were trapped 10 days. An estimated 44 pounds of juvenile fish were transported from Westland to the Umatilla River boat ramp (RM 0.5). Approximately 84% of the juveniles transported were salmonids. No steelhead kelts were hauled from Westland this year. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was opened on February 10, 2004 for outmigration sampling and continued until July 7, 2004 when sampling was discontinued

  19. Umatilla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, Brian C.; Duke, Bill B.

    2003-02-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were enumerated at Threemile Dam from August 17, 2000 to July 7, 2001. A total of 3,662 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 643 adult, 437 jack, and 4,948 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 4,654 adult and 1,276 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 4,382 adult and 185 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were counted. All fish were enumerated at the east bank facility. Of the fish counted, 14 summer steelhead and 847 adult and 74 jack spring chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were 3,433 summer steelhead; 71 adult, 298 jack and 4,647 subjack fall chinook; 4,435 adult and 1,180 jack coho; and 2,873 adult and 55 jack spring chinook either released at, or allowed to volitionally migrate past, Threemile Dam. In addition, 116 summer steelhead; 565 adult and 38 jack fall chinook; and 646 adult and 31 jack spring chinook were collected for brood. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The canal was open for 147 days between February 5 and July 26, 2001. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 127 days and were trapped 18 days. An estimated 350 pounds of juvenile fish were transported from Westland to the Umatilla River boat ramp (RM 0.5). Approximately 92% of the juveniles transported were salmonids. No steelhead kelts were hauled from Westland this year. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was open throughout the summer of 2000 and continued to run until October 27, 2000. The bypass was reopened March 8, 2001 and ran until July 9, 2001. The juvenile trap was not operated this year.

  20. PNNL Tests Fish Passage System

    ScienceCinema

    Colotelo, Alison

    2016-08-18

    Scientists from PNNL are testing a fish transportation system developed by Whooshh Innovations. The Whooshh system uses a flexible tube that works a bit like a vacuum, guiding fish over hydroelectric dams or other structures. Compared to methods used today, this system could save money while granting fish quicker, safer passage through dams and hatcheries.

  1. PNNL Tests Fish Passage System

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison

    2015-03-13

    Scientists from PNNL are testing a fish transportation system developed by Whooshh Innovations. The Whooshh system uses a flexible tube that works a bit like a vacuum, guiding fish over hydroelectric dams or other structures. Compared to methods used today, this system could save money while granting fish quicker, safer passage through dams and hatcheries.

  2. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume I, Oregon Supplement 5: White River Falls Fish Passage, 1983 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, Robert

    1984-04-01

    Biological and physical characteristics of White River drainage were studied in 1983 to determine the feasibility of introducing anadromous salmonids into the watershed. Access to White River by anadromous fish is presently blocked by waterfalls located 3.4 km from the confluence with the Deschutes River. Mortality of juvenile chinook salmon from a 43 m free fall at White River Falls does not appear to be significant during high flows (300 to 500 cfs) but may be significant at low flows (115 to 150 cfs). At low flow the recapture of fish released in the south channel above the falls was 54% lower than the recapture of control fish released below the falls. The recapture of two releases in the north channel was 37% lower than the recapture of control groups. We surveyed 94 km of the lower reaches of 7 tributaries below the boundary of the Mt. Hood National Forest. We identified 8325 m/sup 2/ of anadromous spawning gravel of which 52% was good quality, 20 water withdrawals for irrigation that took a total of 33 cfs of water, 13 barriers to upstream migration of which 3 were waterfalls of 3.1 to 7.6 m, and 138 major holding and rearing pools. Maximum water temperatures of 25/sup 0/C or greater and diurnal fluctuations of around 10/sup 0/C were recorded in the lower reaches of several streams. The maximum water temperature in upper reaches of streams above the forest boundary was 13 to 14/sup 0/C. Habitat improvement opportunities identified in surveys of the lower reaches included barrier modifications for upstream passage, in-stream structures to develop pools and retain gravels, structures to reduce bank erosion, and streamside fensing to protect riparian zones. 10 references, 34 figures, 20 tables.

  3. White River Falls Fish Passage Project, Tygh Valley, Oregon : Final Technical Report, Volume II, Appendix A, Fisheries Habitat Inventory.

    SciTech Connect

    Oregon. Dept. of Fish and Wildlife; Mount Hood National Forest

    1985-06-01

    Stream habitat inventories on 155 stream miles in the White River drainage on the Mt. Hood National Forest are summarized in this report. Inventory, data evaluation, and reporting work were accomplished within the framework of the budgetary agreements established between the USDA Forest Service, Mt. Hood National Forest, and the Bonneville Power Administration, in the first 2 years of a multiyear program. One hundred forty-two stream miles of those inventoried on the Forest appear suitable for anadromous production. The surveyed area appears to contain most or all of the high quality fish habitat which would be potentially available for anadromous production if access is provided above the White River Falls below the Forest boundary. About 34 stream miles would be immediately accessible without further work on the Forest with passage at the Falls. Seventy-two additional miles could be made available with only minor (requiring low investment of money and planning) passage work further up the basin. Thirty-six miles of potential upstream habitat would likely require major investment to provide access.

  4. Impact of estuary barrage construction on fish assemblages in the lower part of a river and the role of fishways as a passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Ju-Duk; Kim, Jeong-Hui; Park, Sang-Hyeon; Kim, Eve; Jang, Min-Ho

    2017-03-01

    The construction of an estuary barrage, an instream structure in the lower reaches of a river, causes significant physical changes in water flow patterns and river morphology, and results in altered environmental conditions. Here, we examined the impact of the Geum River estuary barrage, completed in 1990, on fish assemblages by using a literature search and fresh surveys of fishways in the barrage. We found that fish assemblages upstream and downstream of the barrage were altered following its completion. After construction, more species were found in the freshwater area, with a particularly great increase in freshwater species. Conversely, estuarine and marine species were only consistently caught in the downstream salt-water area, although the number of species increased. In total, 15,829 fish from 47 species and 20 families were identified at the three types (pool and weir, rubble type, and boat passage) of fishways in the barrage. The dominant species were Chelon haematocheilus, an estuarine species, Coilia nasus, a diadromous species, and Erythroculter erythropterus, a freshwater species. The mean total length of fish (101.9 ± 76.0 mm) in the boat passage fishway was approximately 100 mm lesser than those in the pool and weir (207.2 ± 112.8 mm) and rubble type (205.8 ± 112.7 mm) fishways. The boat passage fishway was the most efficient for fish movements. The current fishway system is not sufficient for fish migration, and thus additional ways are required to improve the system such as the boat passage. Few estuarine or diadromous species were found in both freshwater and salt-water areas, but freshwater fishes that accidently moved to salt-water area actively used fishways. Therefore, fishway management in the Geum River estuary barrage has to focus on freshwater fish; however, this may need to change to a focus on migratory fishes depending on ecological life cycles of migratory fish.

  5. Impact of estuary barrage construction on fish assemblages in the lower part of a river and the role of fishways as a passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Ju-Duk; Kim, Jeong-Hui; Park, Sang-Hyeon; Kim, Eve; Jang, Min-Ho

    2017-02-01

    The construction of an estuary barrage, an instream structure in the lower reaches of a river, causes significant physical changes in water flow patterns and river morphology, and results in altered environmental conditions. Here, we examined the impact of the Geum River estuary barrage, completed in 1990, on fish assemblages by using a literature search and fresh surveys of fishways in the barrage. We found that fish assemblages upstream and downstream of the barrage were altered following its completion. After construction, more species were found in the freshwater area, with a particularly great increase in freshwater species. Conversely, estuarine and marine species were only consistently caught in the downstream salt-water area, although the number of species increased. In total, 15,829 fish from 47 species and 20 families were identified at the three types (pool and weir, rubble type, and boat passage) of fishways in the barrage. The dominant species were Chelon haematocheilus, an estuarine species, Coilia nasus, a diadromous species, and Erythroculter erythropterus, a freshwater species. The mean total length of fish (101.9 ± 76.0 mm) in the boat passage fishway was approximately 100 mm lesser than those in the pool and weir (207.2 ± 112.8 mm) and rubble type (205.8 ± 112.7 mm) fishways. The boat passage fishway was the most efficient for fish movements. The current fishway system is not sufficient for fish migration, and thus additional ways are required to improve the system such as the boat passage. Few estuarine or diadromous species were found in both freshwater and salt-water areas, but freshwater fishes that accidently moved to salt-water area actively used fishways. Therefore, fishway management in the Geum River estuary barrage has to focus on freshwater fish; however, this may need to change to a focus on migratory fishes depending on ecological life cycles of migratory fish.

  6. Evaluation of a Fish Passage Site in the Walla Walla River Basin, 2009 Annual Report : September 2008 - August 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, Mickie A.

    2009-08-20

    In 2009, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated the Touchet Consolidated Facility to determine if it is designed, constructed, operated, and maintained to effectively provide juvenile salmonids with safe passage past the diversion and back to the Touchet River. Completed in 2008, the Touchet Consolidated Facility combined two irrigation diversions with an existing intake for the Touchet Acclimation Facility. The consolidated facility includes a separate fish screen and intake for each user, a pool and chute fishway, and an adult fish trap. The fish screens portions of the facility were evaluated on April 20, 2009, using underwater videography, acoustic Doppler velocimeter measurements, and visual observations while water was diverted to the acclimation facility alone and again as water was diverted to the irrigation system and pond together. The facility is in good condition and is well maintained, although water velocities within the site do not meet the criteria set by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). Approach velocities above 0.4 ft/s at the upstream end of the facility and decreases in sweep velocity toward the bypass are likely caused by the proximity of the upstream screen to the spill over stoplogs that control flow at the upstream end of the forebay. We recommend working with Touchet Acclimation Facility staff to try different configurations and heights of forebay stoplogs while PNNL staff measure water velocities, allowing real-time monitoring of changes in approach and sweep velocities resulting from the configuration changes. It may be possible to bring approach and sweep velocities more in line with the NMFS criteria for juvenile fish screens. We also recommend evaluating the facility later in the year when river levels are low and the irrigation district is the only water user. During the site visit, it was noted that the upstream end of the fishway has relatively closely spaced louvers that point downstream. During higher

  7. Perspective: Towards environmentally acceptable criteria for downstream fish passage through mini hydro and irrigation infrastructure in the Lower Mekong River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgartner, Lee J.; Daniel Deng, Z.; Thorncraft, Garry; Boys, Craig A.; Brown, Richard S.; Singhanouvong, Douangkham; Phonekhampeng, Oudom

    2014-01-01

    Tropical rivers have high annual discharges optimal for hydropower and irrigation development. The Mekong River is one of the largest tropical river systems, supporting a unique mega-diverse fish community. Fish are an important commodity in the Mekong, contributing a large proportion of calcium, protein, and essential nutrients to the diet of the local people and providing a critical source of income for rural households. Many of these fish migrate not only upstream and downstream within main-channel habitats but also laterally into highly productive floodplain habitat to both feed and spawn. Most work to date has focused on providing for upstream fish passage, but downstream movement is an equally important process to protect. Expansion of hydropower and irrigation weirs can disrupt downstream migrations and it is important to ensure that passage through regulators or mini hydro systems is not harmful or fatal. Many new infrastructure projects (<6 m head) are proposed for the thousands of tributary streams throughout the Lower Mekong Basin and it is important that designs incorporate the best available science to protect downstream migrants. Recent advances in technology have provided new techniques which could be applied to Mekong fish species to obtain design criteria that can facilitate safe downstream passage. Obtaining and applying this knowledge to new infrastructure projects is essential in order to produce outcomes that are more favorable to local ecosystems and fisheries.

  8. Synthesis of downstream fish passage information at projects owned by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the Willamette River Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Amy C.; Kock, Tobias J.; Hansen, Gabriel S.

    2017-08-07

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) operates the Willamette Valley Project (Project) in northwestern Oregon, which includes a series of dams, reservoirs, revetments, and fish hatcheries. Project dams were constructed during the 1950s and 1960s on rivers that supported populations of spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), winter steelhead (O. mykiss), and other anadromous fish species in the Willamette River Basin. These dams, and the reservoirs they created, negatively affected anadromous fish populations. Efforts are currently underway to improve passage conditions within the Project and enhance populations of anadromous fish species. Research on downstream fish passage within the Project has occurred since 1960 and these efforts are documented in numerous reports and publications. These studies are important resources to managers in the Project, so the USACE requested a synthesis of existing literature that could serve as a resource for future decision-making processes. In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted an extensive literature review on downstream fish passage studies within the Project. We identified 116 documents that described studies conducted during 1960–2016. Each of these documents were obtained, reviewed, and organized by their content to describe the state-of-knowledge within four subbasins in the Project, which include the North Santiam, South Santiam, McKenzie, and Middle Fork Willamette Rivers. In this document, we summarize key findings from various studies on downstream fish passage in the Willamette Project. Readers are advised to review specific reports of interest to insure that study methods, results, and additional considerations are fully understood.

  9. 75 FR 60804 - Nimbus Hatchery Fish Passage Project, Lower American River, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ....gov . Public meetings will be held at the California State University Sacramento Aquatic Center, 1901.... CDFG is evaluating potential changes in fishing regulations to help protect spawning salmon and...: Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region, Regional Library, 2800 Cottage Way, Sacramento, CA 95825...

  10. Environmental Assessment : Tumwater Dam and Dryden Dam Fish Passage Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1986-01-01

    Existing fish passage facilities at Tumwater Dam and Dryden Dam currently do not effectively pass the anadromous fish runs in the Wenatchee River. At Tumwater Dam, the proposed action includes the construction of a new fish ladder which will improve water flow characteristics and, subsequently, fish passage. In order to improve fish passage at Dryden Dam, a new fish ladder will be constructed to replace the existing ladder and another ladder will be constructed. The proposed action will supplement mitigation of adverse hydroelectric impacts to the fisheries of the Columbia River basin. The proposal to fund the Tumwater Dam and Dryden Dam Fish Passage facilities does not appear to constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment and would not require an environmental impact statement.

  11. 12. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF FISH PASSAGE BETWEEN THE SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF FISH PASSAGE BETWEEN THE SOUTH END OF POWERHOUSE #1 AND NAVIGATION LOCK #1. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  12. Assessing upstream fish passage connectivity with network analysis.

    PubMed

    McKay, S Kyle; Schramski, John R; Conyngham, Jock N; Fischenich, J Craig

    2013-09-01

    Hydrologic connectivity is critical to the structure, function, and dynamic process of river ecosystems. Dams, road crossings, and water diversions impact connectivity by altering flow regimes, behavioral cues, local geomorphology, and nutrient cycling. This longitudinal fragmentation of river ecosystems also increases genetic and reproductive isolation of aquatic biota such as migratory fishes. The cumulative effects on fish passage of many structures along a river are often substantial, even when individual barriers have negligible impact. Habitat connectivity can be improved through dam removal or other means of fish passage improvement (e.g., ladders, bypasses, culvert improvement). Environmental managers require techniques for comparing alternative fish passage restoration actions at alternative or multiple locations. Herein, we examined a graph-theoretic algorithm for assessing upstream habitat connectivity to investigate both basic and applied fish passage connectivity problems. First, we used hypothetical watershed configurations to assess general alterations to upstream fish passage connectivity with changes in watershed network topology (e.g., linear vs. highly dendritic) and the quantity, location, and passability of each barrier. Our hypothetical network modeling indicates that locations of dams with limited passage efficiency near the watershed outlet create a strong fragmentation signal but are not individually sufficient to disconnect the system. Furthermore, there exists a threshold in the number of dams beyond which connectivity declines precipitously, regardless of watershed topology and dam configuration. Watersheds with highly branched configurations are shown to be less susceptible to disconnection as measured by this metric. Second, we applied the model to prioritize barrier improvement in the mainstem of the Truckee River, Nevada, USA. The Truckee River application demonstrates the ability of the algorithm to address conditions common in fish

  13. Development of computational fluid dynamics--habitat suitability (CFD-HSI) models to identify potential passage--Challenge zones for migratory fishes in the Penobscot River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, Alexander J.; Dudley, Robert W.; Chelminski, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics-habitat suitability (CFD–HSI) model was developed to identify potential zones of shallow depth and high water velocity that may present passage challenges for five anadromous fish species in the Penobscot River, Maine, upstream from two existing dams and as a result of the proposed future removal of the dams. Potential depth-challenge zones were predicted for larger species at the lowest flow modeled in the dam-removal scenario. Increasing flows under both scenarios increased the number and size of potential velocity-challenge zones, especially for smaller species. This application of the two-dimensional CFD–HSI model demonstrated its capabilities to estimate the potential effects of flow and hydraulic alteration on the passage of migratory fish.

  14. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation : Fish Passage and Habitat Improvement in the Upper Flathead River Basin, 1991-1996 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knotek, W.Ladd; Deleray, Mark; Marotz, Brian L.

    1997-08-01

    In the past 50 years, dramatic changes have occurred in the Flathead Lake and River system. Degradation of fishery resources has been evident, in part due to deterioration of aquatic habitat and introduction of non-endemic fish and invertebrate species. Habitat loss has been attributed to many factors including the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam, unsound land use practices, urban development, and other anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Fish migration has also been limited by barriers such as dams and impassible culverts. Cumulatively, these factors have contributed to declines in the distribution and abundance of native fish populations. Recovery of fish populations requires that a watershed approach be developed that incorporates long-term aquatic habitat needs and promotes sound land use practices and cooperation among natural resource management agencies. In this document, the authors (1) describe completed and ongoing habitat improvement and fish passage activities under the Hungry Horse Fisheries Mitigation Program, (2) describe recently identified projects that are in the planning stage, and (3) develop a framework for identifying prioritizing, implementing, and evaluating future fish habitat improvement and passage projects.

  15. Feasibility of Documenting and Estimating Adult Fish Passage at Large Hydroelectric Facilities in the Snake River Using Video Technology; 1993 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Pederson, David R.; Fryer, Jeffrey

    1994-07-01

    Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River to evaluate the feasibility of using video technology to document and estimate fish ladder passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, sockeye salmon O. nerka, and steelhead O. mykiss. A video system was to produced video images during salmon passage periods. A technician identified and counted fish images from the video record. Fish ladder passage estimates of target species made from the video record were similar to estimates made by on-site counters during daytime periods, indicating that the two methods were relatively precise. We also found that a significant percentage (6.4% and 8.3%) of target salmonids migrated during nighttime periods when on-site counts were not typically made during the two years of study. Analysis of the video record permitted verification of individual sockeye salmon identified and counted by on-site count personnel, and provided data useful to managers of this ESA-listed stock. Analysis of the video record also permitted collection of additional data such as length measurements of individual specimens, which was used to regulate a fishery located upstream.

  16. Estimating reach-specific fish movement probabilities in rivers with a Bayesian state-space model: application to sea lamprey passage and capture at dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holbrook, Christopher M.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan P.; Twohey, Michael B.; Binder, Thomas R.; Krueger, Charles C.; Jones, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Improved methods are needed to evaluate barriers and traps for control and assessment of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes. A Bayesian state-space model provided reach-specific probabilities of movement, including trap capture and dam passage, for 148 acoustic tagged invasive sea lamprey in the lower Cheboygan River, Michigan, a tributary to Lake Huron. Reach-specific movement probabilities were combined to obtain estimates of spatial distribution and abundance needed to evaluate a barrier and trap complex for sea lamprey control and assessment. Of an estimated 21 828 – 29 300 adult sea lampreys in the river, 0%–2%, or 0–514 untagged lampreys, could have passed upstream of the dam, and 46%–61% were caught in the trap. Although no tagged lampreys passed above the dam (0/148), our sample size was not sufficient to consider the lock and dam a complete barrier to sea lamprey. Results also showed that existing traps are in good locations because 83%–96% of the population was vulnerable to existing traps. However, only 52%–69% of lampreys vulnerable to traps were caught, suggesting that traps can be improved. The approach used in this study was a novel use of Bayesian state-space models that may have broader applications, including evaluation of barriers for other invasive species (e.g., Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.)) and fish passage structures for other diadromous fishes.

  17. Evaluation of Fish Passage Conditions for Juvenile Salmonids Using Sensor Fish at Detroit Dam, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Joanne P.

    2010-01-29

    Fish passage conditions through two spillways at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions through Spillbay 3 and Spillbay 6 at 1.5- and 3.5-ft gate openings, identifying potential fish injury regions of the routes. The study was performed in July 2009, concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish and live fish were deployed at elevations approximately 3 ft above structure at depths determined using a computational fluid dynamics model. Data collected were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates.

  18. Unintended consequences and trade-offs of fish passage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    8. McLaughlin, Robert L.; Smyth, Eric R.; Castro-Santos, Theodore; Jones, Michael L.; Koops, Marten A.; Pratt, Thomas C.; Vélez-Espino, Luis-Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We synthesized evidence for unintended consequences and trade-offs associated with the passage of fishes. Provisioning of fish passageways at dams and dam removals are being carried out increasingly as resource managers seek ways to reduce fragmentation of migratory fish populations and restore biodiversity and nature-like ecosystem services in tributaries altered by dams. The benefits of provisioning upstream passage are highlighted widely. Possible unwanted consequences and trade-offs of upstream passage are coming to light, but remain poorly examined and underappreciated. Unintended consequences arise when passage of native and desirable introduced fishes is delayed, undone (fallback), results in patterns of movement and habitat use that reduce Darwinian fitness (e.g. ecological traps), or is highly selective taxonomically and numerically. Trade-offs arise when passage decisions intended to benefit native species interfere with management decisions intended to control the unwanted spread of non-native fishes and aquatic invertebrates, or genes, diseases and contaminants carried by hatchery and wild fishes. These consequences and trade-offs will vary in importance from system to system and can result in large economic and environmental costs. For some river systems, decisions about how to manage fish passage involve substantial risks and could benefit from use of a formal, structured process that allows transparent, objective and, where possible, quantitative evaluation of these risks. Such a process can also facilitate the design of an adaptive framework that provides valuable insights into future decisions.

  19. The Sensor Fish: Measuring Fish Passage in Severe Hydraulic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J. ); Duncan, Joanne P. ); Gilbride, Theresa L. )

    2003-05-28

    This article describes PNNL's efforts to develop the Sensor Fish, a waterproof sensor package that travels thru the turbines of spillways of hydroelectric dam to collect pressure and acceleration data on the conditions experienced by live salmon smolts during dam passage. Sensor Fish development is sponsored by the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine Survival Program. The article also gave two recent examples of Sensor Fish use: turbine passage at a McNary Kaplan turbine and spill passage in topspill at Rock Island Dam.

  20. White River Falls Fish Passage Project, Tygh Valley, Oregon : Final Technical Report, Volume III, Appendix B, Fisheries Report; Appendix C, Engineering Alternative Evaluation; Appendix D, Benefit/Cost Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Oregon. Dept. of Fish and Wildlife; Mount Hood National Forest

    1985-06-01

    Studies were conducted to describe current habitat conditions in the White River basin above White River Falls and to evaluate the potential to produce anadromous fish. An inventory of spawning and rearing habitats, irrigation diversions, and enhancement opportunities for anadromous fish in the White River drainage was conducted. Survival of juvenile fish at White River Falls was estimated by releasing juvenile chinook and steelhead above the falls during high and low flow periods and recapturing them below the falls in 1983 and 1984. Four alternatives to provide upstream passage for adult salmon and steelhead were developd to a predesign level. The cost of adult passage and the estimated run size of anadromous fish were used to determine the benefit/cost of the preferred alternative. Possible effects of the introduction of anadromous fish on resident fish and on nearby Oak Springs Hatchery were evaluated. This included an inventory of resident species, a genetic study of native rainbow, and the identification of fish diseases in the basin. This volume contains appendices of habitat survey data, potential production, resident fish population data, upstream passage designs, and benefit/cost calculations. (ACR)

  1. John Day Fish Passage and Screening; 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Steve

    2002-03-26

    The accomplishments of the John Day, Umatilla, and Walla Walla Fish Passage and Screening Programs include the following: Operation and maintenance of 364 existing fish screening devices (see Table 4), replacement of 18 outdated fish screening devices that totaled 31 rotary drums (some were multiple drum systems), 4 new screens at unscreened diversions, 26 pump intake fish screens, fabrication of components for 16 additional fish screens for the Rogue basin, construction of two fish passage structures, and participation in other activities. After the replacement or construction of 22 fish screening devices during 2001, we now have 108 screening devices that meet NMFS criteria. Funding for these projects was attained from BPA, NMFS and OWEB. The John Day Fish Passage and Screening Program focused construction efforts into new and replacement fish screening devices for these various programs throughout the state of Oregon. The program also continued to develop and implement innovative designs to meet the diverse and expanding needs for the state of Oregon. Projects completed during this report period meet the current National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) criteria. Fish species targeted for protection include ESA Listed Mid-Columbia steelhead, Columbia basin bull trout, anadromous and resident salmonids, and numerous non-game fish species. Priority project locations have been identified as the upper reaches of the Middle Fork, North Fork, South Fork and the Mainstem of the John Day River and their tributaries. These upper reaches contain critical salmon and steelhead spawning and rearing habitat.

  2. Research and development of fish passage technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hackney, P.A.

    1986-12-01

    Any fish passage provided at TVA's John Sevier Fossil Plant (JSF) would involve only warmwater species. Although some anadromous (marine) warmwater species (e.g., American shad, blueback herring) are currently passed upstream and downstream through structures deliberately built for that purpose, effectiveness of this technology for passage of adults and young of potential target species (e.g., paddlefish and sauger/walleye) in Cherokee Reservoir is unproven. Downstream passage is by far the larger and more poorly understood subject of fish migration and should be investigated first. Currently, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is conducting research on downstream fish passage (Project RP 2694). It will ultimately be necessary to adapt this information to the target species and site specificity at JSF.

  3. Fish Passage Center 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Michele

    2008-11-25

    and McNary dams), whereas prior to 2005 spill was terminated at these projects after the spring period. In addition, the 2007 operations agreement provided regardless of flow conditions. For the first time spill for fish passage was provided in the low flow conditions that prevailed in the Snake River throughout the spring and summer migration periods. Gas bubble trauma (GBT) monitoring continued throughout the spill period. A higher incidence of rank 1, GBT signs were observed in late arriving steelhead smolts arriving after the 95% passage date had occurred. During this time dissolved gas levels were generally below the 110% water quality standard in the forebay where fish were sampled. This occurrence was due to prolonged exposure and extended travel times due to low migration flows. The 2007 migration conditions differed from any year in the historic record. The migration conditions combined low river flows in the Snake River with spill throughout the spring and summer season. The juvenile migration characteristics observed in 2007 were unique compared to past years in that high levels of 24 hour spill for fish passage were provided in low flow conditions, and with a delayed start to the smolt transportation program a smaller proportion of the total run being transported. This resulted in relatively high spring juvenile survival despite the lower flows. The seasonal spring average flow in the Snake River was 61 Kcfs much lower than the spring time average of 120 Kcfs that occurred in 2006. However juvenile steelhead survival through the Lower Granite to McNary reach in 2007 was nearly 70% which was similar to the juvenile steelhead survival seen in 2006 under higher migration flows. The low flows in the May-July period of 2007 were similar to the 2001 low flow year, yet survival for fall chinook juveniles in this period in 2007 was much higher. In 2001 the reach survival estimate for juvenile fall Chinook from Lower Granite to McNary Dam ranged from 0

  4. Feasibility of Documenting and Estimating Adult Fish Passage at Large Hydroelectric Facilities in the Snake River Using Video Technology; 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Pederson, David R.; Schartzberg, Mathew

    1993-03-01

    A field study was conducted at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River in 1992 to evaluate the feasibility of using time-lapse video technology to document and estimate fish ladder passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, sockeye salmon 0. nerka, and steelhead 0. mykiss using time-lapse video technology. High quality video images were produced with a time-lapse video system operating in 72 h mode from 1 May through 31 December, 1992 and fish were counted from 1 June through 15 December. From the video record we counted 15 sockeye salmon, 3,283 summer chinook salmon, 1,022 fall chinook salmon, and 125,599 steelhead. The composite count of target species generated from the video record was similar (p = 0.617) to the estimate made by on-site counters during identical time periods indicating that the two methods were precise. Comparisons of 24 h video counts and on-site (10 and 16 h) counts showed that a significant (p < 0.001) proportion of target salmonids migrated during the nighttime when on-site counts are not typically made at Lower Granite Dam. The mean sockeye salmon fork length measured from video images was 453 mm. Mean fork-lengths reported for Snake River sockeye salmon between 1953 and 1965 were much greater ({female} = 546 mm {male} = 577 mm). Cost comparisons showed that video costs were less than half those of on-site counting methods. The video method also included the collection of additional data. A computer software demonstration program was developed that graphically illustrated the possibilities of a completely automated, computerized fish counting and identification system.

  5. Numerical modeling of fish passage at the Lower Granite dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Larry; Li, Songheng; Hansen, Ken

    2005-11-01

    Being the first collector dam on the Snake River, the Lower Granite Dam is important to juvenile fish downstream passage. To improve the performance of the Behavioral-Guidance-Structure(BGS), Surface-Bypass-Collector(SBC), and Removable-Spillway-Weir (RSW) on fish passage, numerical simulations have been conducted using the 3D CFD model developed at IIHR-Hydroscience & Engineering. The code solves the RANS equations with two-equation turbulence models. Multi-block structured grids were generated. The model was first compared in the total force and distribution on the BGS wall with the prototype data and the comparison gave a satisfactory agreement. Then runs with combinations of the BGS, SBC, RSW, trash boom, and loading of the units and spillway were conducted, and the primary flow patterns, pressure distribution on the BGS wall, velocity, and acceleration status of flow approaching the RSW were analyzed and compared.

  6. 76 FR 20707 - Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas County, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas... Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction... FEIS on the proposed Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project. The...

  7. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program Final EIS (DOE EIS /SA-156) - Upper Salmon River Anadromous Fish Passage Improvement Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Carl J.

    2004-07-13

    BPA proposes to fund IDFG to plan and complete construction of fish passage improvements and water conservation activities that are contained within IDFG’s Statement of Work (SOW) for the period 7/1/04 to 6/30/05. The funding request contained in their SOW is part of an ongoing IDFG effort to fund anadromous fish passage projects that fall outside the scope of the Mitchell Act. The proposed SOW activities fall within the following four categories: Phase I-Planning and Design (gather data, perform investigations, and exchange information; perform surveys and assessments to be compliant; survey project sites and perform engineering designs; perform contract and project management); Phase II-Construction and Implementation (procure materials and supplies, prepare contracts and solicit bids, plant native seedlings, complete capital improvements); Phase III-Operation and Maintenance (maintain office operations); and Phase IV- Monitoring and Evaluation (monitor and evaluate post-project effects, reporting). The SOW culminates with proposed construction of 18 capital improvement projects (Table 1 attached). The types of capital improvements include: screening gravity water diversions; consolidating and/or eliminating ditches; evaluating and screening pump diversions; evaluating and implementing water conservation activities; constructing screens along migration routes and rearing areas for hatchery and wild salmon; improving upstream and downstream passage for anadromous fish; and maximize benefits to aquatic habitat. Because each of the proposed projects in the SOW is still in the planning stages, the specifics of each still need to be completed.

  8. Education in Engineering and Ecohydrology for Fish Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlfeld, D.; Towler, B.

    2011-12-01

    Historical fish migration routes linking feeding and spawning habitats have been significantly impacted by culverts, dikes, dams, and other barriers on waterways throughout the world. For example an estimated 2.5 million barriers to fish migration exist in the United States. In recent years, there has been an increased focus on removing or mitigating these barriers as an efficient mechanism to restore habitat. Effective design and implementation of these measures requires specialists with skills at the intersection of engineering, hydrology and biology. Recognizing the need for a cadre of engineers with the additional skills in hydraulics and ecohydrology needed to analyze and design solutions for enhancing fish passage in streams and rivers, the University of Massachusetts Amherst now offers a Master of Science in Civil Engineering (MSCE) degree with a specialization in Fish Passage Engineering. The curriculum is offered in conjunction with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is informed by the recommendations of the Curriculum Working Group of the Bioengineering Section of the American Fisheries Society. The curriculum is offered through the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. This presentation will describe the motivation for the degree, the content of coursework and the challenges inherent in developing an interdisciplinary education program spanning biogeosciences and engineering.

  9. Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through a Francis Turbine and Regulating Outlet at Cougar Dam, Oregon, Using Sensor Fish, 2009–2010

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Joanne P.

    2011-05-23

    Fish passage conditions through a Francis turbine and a regulating outlet (RO) at Cougar Dam on the south fork of the McKenzie River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions, identifying potential fish injury regions encountered during passage via specific routes. The RO investigation was performed in December 2009 and the turbine evaluation in January 2010, concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision, strike, and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Comparison of the three passage routes evaluated at Cougar Dam indicates that the RO passage route through the 3.7-ft gate opening was relatively the safest route for fish passage under the operating conditions tested; turbine passage was the most deleterious. These observations were supported also by the survival and malady estimates obtained from live-fish testing. Injury rates were highest for turbine passage. Compared to mainstem Columbia River passage routes, none of the Cougar Dam passage routes as tested are safe for juvenile salmonid passage.

  10. Facilitating fish passage at ultra low head dams: An alternative to dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Odeh, M.

    2004-01-01

    Ecosystem sustainability and returning the biological integrity to rivers continue to change the landscape of fish passage technology. Installing a conventional fishways has a limited degree of success in accommodating fish passage needs. Recently, the option of total dam removal has been gaining momentum among resource managers, conservationists, and even engineers. Certain dams, however, cannot be removed, and conventional fishways are either too expensive to build or the real estate is simply not available; yet freedom of passage must be attained. At the Little Falls Dam on the Potomac River a notch in the crest of the dam was installed to accommodate passage of fish. The notch has three labyrinth weirs used for energy dissipation. Water velocities are maintained at less than about 4 m/s anywhere within the passage structure during migratory season of the target species (American shad). Construction of this novel design was recently completed (March 2000) and future biological evaluations are ongoing. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  11. Upstream dispersal of an invasive crayfish aided by a fish passage facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Stuart; Loughman, Zachary J.

    2015-01-01

    Fish passage facilities for reservoir dams have been used to restore habitat connectivity within riverine networks by allowing upstream passage for native species. These facilities may also support the spread of invasive species, an unintended consequence and potential downside of upstream passage structures. We documented dam passage of the invasive virile crayfish, Orconectes virilis (Hagen, 1870), at fish ladders designed for upstream passage of American eels, Anguilla rostrata (Lesueur, 1817), in the Shenandoah River drainage, USA. Ladder use and upstream passage of 11 virile crayfish occurred from 2007–2014 during periods of low river discharge (<30 m3s–1) and within a wide range of water temperatures from 9.0–28.6 °C. Virile crayfish that used the eel ladders were large adults with a mean carapace length and width of 48.0 mm and 24.1 mm, respectively. Our data demonstrated the use of species-specific fish ladders by a non-target non-native species, which has conservation and management implications for the spread of aquatic invasive species and upstream passage facilities. Specifically, managers should consider implementing long-term monitoring of fish passage facilities with emphasis on detection of invasive species, as well as methods to reduce or eliminate passage of invasive species. 

  12. Automatic system for monitoring fish passage at dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castignolles, Nathalie; Cattoen, Michel; Larinier, M.

    1994-09-01

    Devices called fishways or fish passes are constructed in rivers to help migratory fish get over obstacles (dams). There counting windows are used to monitor fish passage by video-based counting. Our goal is to design and construct a vision system to automate this process. Images are taken by a video camera fitted with an electronic shutter in a backlit fishway. They are stored on optical disks in real time but are processed in delayed time. Faced with high volumes of data, a compression is necessary and an electronic board has been designed to accomplish it in real time. The coding method used is based on a run description of binarized images. Then, a tracking process is implemented on a micro-computer to count the fish crossing the pass. It includes fish recognition, which is based on a Bayesian classification process. In order to reduce processing times, recognition operations (labelling, parameter extraction) are accomplished on coded images. Classification results are satisfactory and are improved by the temporal redundancy generated by the tracking process. Image processing time permits the user, on average, to process images faster than they have been stored. Thus there is no data accumulation. At the end of the processing it is possible to edit a result file, to choose a fish, view its crossing images and change its species if wrong.

  13. Hydrologic and hydraulic factors affecting passage of paddlefish through dams in the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zigler, S.J.; Dewey, M.R.; Knights, B.C.; Runstrom, A.L.; Steingraeber, M.T.

    2004-01-01

    Populations of paddlefish Polyodon spathula have been adversely affected by dams that can block their movements. Unlike high-head dams that preclude fish passage (unless they are equipped with fishways), the dams on the upper Mississippi River are typically low-head dams with bottom release gates that may allow fish passage under certain conditions. We evaluated the relation of dam head and river discharge to the passage of radio-tagged paddlefish through dams in the upper Mississippi River. Radio transmitters were surgically implanted into 71 paddlefish from Navigation Pools 5A and 8 of the upper Mississippi River and from two tributary rivers during fall 1994 through fall 1996. We tracked paddlefish through September 1997 and documented 53 passages through dams, 20 upstream and 33 downstream. Passages occurred mostly during spring (71%) but also occurred sporadically during summer and fall (29%). Spring passages varied among years in response to hydrologic conditions. We evaluated patterns in upstream and downstream passages with Cox proportional hazard regression models. Model results indicated that dam head height strongly affected the upstream passage of paddlefish but not the downstream passage. Several paddlefish, however, passed upstream through a dam during periods when the minimum head at the dam was substantial ( greater than or equal to 1m). In these cases, we hypothesize that paddlefish moved upstream through the lock chamber.

  14. Model for Predicting Passage of Invasive Fish Species Through Culverts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neary, V.

    2010-12-01

    Conservation efforts to promote or inhibit fish passage include the application of simple fish passage models to determine whether an open channel flow allows passage of a given fish species. Derivations of simple fish passage models for uniform and nonuniform flow conditions are presented. For uniform flow conditions, a model equation is developed that predicts the mean-current velocity threshold in a fishway, or velocity barrier, which causes exhaustion at a given maximum distance of ascent. The derivation of a simple expression for this exhaustion-threshold (ET) passage model is presented using kinematic principles coupled with fatigue curves for threatened and endangered fish species. Mean current velocities at or above the threshold predict failure to pass. Mean current velocities below the threshold predict successful passage. The model is therefore intuitive and easily applied to predict passage or exclusion. The ET model’s simplicity comes with limitations, however, including its application only to uniform flow, which is rarely found in the field. This limitation is addressed by deriving a model that accounts for nonuniform conditions, including backwater profiles and drawdown curves. Comparison of these models with experimental data from volitional swimming studies of fish indicates reasonable performance, but limitations are still present due to the difficulty in predicting fish behavior and passage strategies that can vary among individuals and different fish species.

  15. Fish Passage Center; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Michele

    1999-06-01

    The 1998 operations of the Columbia and Snake rivers system illustrated that there was potential flexibility in the operation of the hydrosystem to improve fish passage for juvenile salmon and increase the degree to which the NMS Biological Opinion measures could have been implemented successfully. This additional flexibility was not exercised. Some measures of the Biological Opinion were not implemented. The 1998 operation showed that the Hells Canyon Complex, operation, the Upper Snake River operation and Non-treaty storage operation could have provided flexibility to meet early spring and later summer flows.

  16. Sensor Fish: an autonomous sensor package for characterizing complex flow fields and fish passage

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Lu, Jun

    2016-10-04

    Fish passing through dams or other hydraulic structures may be injured or killed despite advances in turbine design, project operations, and other fish bypass systems. The Sensor Fish (SF) device is an autonomous sensor package that characterizes the physical conditions and stressors to which fish are exposed during passage through hydro facilities. It was designed to move passively as a neutrally buoyant object through severe hydraulic environments, while collecting high-resolution sensor data. Since its first generation1, the SF device has been successfully deployed in many fish passage studies and has evolved to be a major tool for characterizing fish passage conditions during fish passage in the Columbia River Basin. To better accelerate hydropower development, the U.S. Department of Energy Water Power Program provided funding to develop a new generation (Gen 2 SF) to incorporate more capabilities and accommodate a wider range of users over a broader range of turbine designs and operating environments. The Gen 2 SF (Figure 1) is approximately the size and density of a yearling salmon smolt and is nearly neutrally buoyant. It contains three-dimensional (3D) rotation sensors, 3D linear acceleration sensors, a pressure sensor, a temperature sensor, a 3D orientation sensor, a radiofrequency (RF) transmitter, and a recovery module2. A low-power microcontroller collects data from the sensors and stores up to 5 min of data on internal flash memory at a sampling frequency of 2048 Hz. The recovery module makes the SF positively buoyant after a pre-programmed period of time, causing it to float to the surface for recovery.

  17. Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through a Francis Turbine, Spillway, and Regulating Outlet at Detroit Dam, Oregon, Using Sensor Fish, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2011-05-06

    Fish passage conditions through two spillways, a Francis turbine, and a regulating outlet (RO) at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions, identifying potential fish injury regions within the routes. The study was performed in July, October, and December 2009 concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe strike, collision, and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Comparison of the three passage routes evaluated at Detroit Dam indicates that the RO passage route through the 5-ft gate opening was relatively the safest route for fish passage under the operating conditions tested; turbine passage was the most deleterious. These observations were supported also by the survival and malady estimates obtained from live-fish testing. Injury rates were highest for turbine and spillway passage. However, none of the passage routes tested is safe for juvenile salmonid passage.

  18. Fish passage research: S.O. Conte Anadromous Fish Research Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garebedian, Steve

    2008-01-01

    The Leetown Science Center’s S.O. Conte Anadromous Fish Research Laboratory conducts basic and applied scientific studies of fish passage and migration to define underlying principles and relationships of fish behavior and hydraulics, and to develop integrated, predictive research that can be applied to a wide range of fish passage problems.

  19. Binary fish passage models for uniform and nonuniform flows

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, Vincent S

    2011-01-01

    Binary fish passage models are considered by many fisheries managers to be the best 21 available practice for culvert inventory assessments and for fishway and barrier design. 22 Misunderstandings between different binary passage modeling approaches often arise, 23 however, due to differences in terminology, application and presentation. In this paper 24 one-dimensional binary fish passage models are reviewed and refined to clarify their 25 origins and applications. For uniform flow, a simple exhaustion-threshold (ET) model 26 equation is derived that predicts the flow speed threshold in a fishway or velocity barrier 27 that causes exhaustion at a given maximum distance of ascent. Flow speeds at or above 28 the threshold predict failure to pass (exclusion). Flow speeds below the threshold predict 29 passage. The binary ET model is therefore intuitive and easily applied to predict passage 30 or exclusion. It is also shown to be consistent with the distance-maximizing model. The 31 ET model s limitation to uniform flow is addressed by deriving a passage model that 32 accounts for nonuniform flow conditions more commonly found in the field, including 33 backwater profiles and drawdown curves. Comparison of these models with 34 experimental observations of volitional passage for Gambusia affinis in uniform and 35 nonuniform flows indicates reasonable prediction of binary outcomes (passage or 36 exclusion) if the flow speed is not near the threshold flow velocity. More research is 37 needed on fish behavior, passage strategies under nonuniform flow regimes and 38 stochastic methods that account for individual differences in swimming performance at or 39 near the threshold flow speed. Future experiments should track and measure ground 40 speeds of ascending fish to test nonuniform flow passage strategies and to improve model 41 predictions. Stochastic models, such as Monte-Carlo techniques, that account for 42 different passage performance among individuals and allow

  20. Upper York Creek Dam Removal, Fish Passage, and Ecosystem Restoration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the Upper York Creek Dam Removal, Fish Passage, and Ecosystem Restoration part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  1. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage Through Bonneville Dam in 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R. ); Schilt, Carl R.; Kim, J; Escher, Charles; Skalski, John R.

    2003-08-15

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2002. The ERDC contracted with MEVATEC Corporation to provide staff ranging from scientists to technicians to help conduct the study. This study supports the Portland-District goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. In this report, we present results of two studies of juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam that we carried out in the 2002 downstream passage season April 20 through July 15, 2002. The first study of Project-wide FPE provides hourly estimates of fish passage and associated variances for all operating turbine units, spill bays, and the two sluiceway entrances at Powerhouse 1 (B1), as well as estimates of a variety of fish-passage efficiency and effectiveness measures. This was the third consecutive year of full-project hydroacoustic sampling and passage estimation. The second study was more narrowly focused on B2 turbines and had two components: (1) to sample the FGE at two modified turbine intakes and compare them with efficiencies of other B2 units that were sampled in the first study, and (2) to evaluate proportions of fish passing up into gatewell slots versus through screen gaps at a few B2 turbine intakes.

  2. Federal interagency nature‐like fishway passage design guidelines for Atlantic coast diadromous fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turek, James; Haro, Alexander J.; Towler, Brett

    2016-01-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) have collaborated to develop passage design guidance for use by engineers and other restoration practitioners considering and designing nature‐like fishways (NLFs). The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide a summary of existing fish swimming and leaping performance data and the best available scientific information on safe, timely and effective passage for 14 diadromous fish species using Atlantic Coast rivers and streams. These guidelines apply to passage sites where complete barrier removal is not possible. This technical memorandum presents seven key physical design parameters based on the biometrics and swimming mode and performance of each target fishes for application in the design of NLFs addressing passage of a species or an assemblage of these species. The passage parameters include six dimensional guidelines recommended for minimum weir opening width and depth, minimum pool length, width and depth, and maximum channel slope, along with a maximum flow velocity guideline for each species. While these guidelines are targeted for the design of step‐pool NLFs, the information may also have application in the design of other NLF types being considered at passage restoration sites and grade control necessary for infrastructure protection upstream of some dam removals, and in considering passage performance at sites such as natural bedrock features.

  3. Transport, dam passage, and size selection of adult Atlantic Salmon in the Penobscot River, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sigourney, Douglas B.; Zydlewski, Joseph; Hughes, Edward; Cox, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Prior to 2012, returning adult Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar had to pass through fishways at three dams in the lower section of the Penobscot River, Maine: Veazie Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 48; removed in 2013), Great Works Dam (rkm 60; removed in 2012), and Milford Dam (rkm 62). To facilitate better passage through the lower river, a fish transport program was implemented in 2010 and 2011. Fish were captured at Veazie Dam and were either transported by truck above Milford Dam (TRKD group) or released into the head pond above Veazie Dam (run-of-the-river [ROR] group). To assess the efficacy of transport, we used PIT telemetry to compare the performance and passage of TRKD and ROR fish based on their (1) success in reaching one of the three dams upstream of Milford Dam, (2) time taken to reach an upstream dam (transit time), and (3) success in passing that upstream dam. In both years, the percentage of fish detected at upstream dams was higher for the TRKD group (82.4% in 2010; 78.6% in 2011) than for the ROR group (41.3% in 2010; 22.4% in 2011). In addition, median transit time was faster for TRKD fish (7 d in 2010; 5 d in 2011) than for ROR fish (23 d in 2010; 25 d in 2011). However, passage success through the upstream dams did not differ between the two release groups. Our analysis also revealed a strong, negative size-selective force on dam passage: larger fish were consistently less likely to successfully pass dams than smaller fish. Finally, environmental conditions also influenced passage success. Our analysis shows that the transport of adult Atlantic Salmon can be an effective means by which to increase migration success in systems where upstream passage is poor.

  4. Evaluation of Fish Passage at Whitewater Parks Using 2D and 3D Hydraulic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardee, T.; Nelson, P. A.; Kondratieff, M.; Bledsoe, B. P.

    2016-12-01

    In-stream whitewater parks (WWPs) are increasingly popular recreational amenities that typically create waves by constricting flow through a chute to increase velocities and form a hydraulic jump. However, the hydraulic conditions these structures create can limit longitudinal habitat connectivity and potentially inhibit upstream fish migration, especially of native fishes. An improved understanding of the fundamental hydraulic processes and potential environmental effects of whitewater parks is needed to inform management decisions about Recreational In-Channel Diversions (RICDs). Here, we use hydraulic models to compute a continuous and spatially explicit description of velocity and depth along potential fish swimming paths in the flow field, and the ensemble of potential paths are compared to fish swimming performance data to predict fish passage via logistic regression analysis. While 3d models have been shown to accurately predict trout movement through WWP structures, 2d methods can provide a more cost-effective and manager-friendly approach to assessing the effects of similar hydraulic structures on fish passage when 3d analysis in not feasible. Here, we use 2d models to examine the hydraulics in several WWP structures on the North Fork of the St. Vrain River at Lyons, Colorado, and we compare these model results to fish passage predictions from a 3d model. Our analysis establishes a foundation for a practical, transferable and physically-rigorous 2d modeling approach for mechanistically evaluating the effects of hydraulic structures on fish passage.

  5. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) passage at the Dalles Dam, Columbia River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Wright, C.D.; Van Der Leeuw, B. K.; Kofoot, E.E.; Peery, C.A.; Moser, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) ???95 cm TL were monitored using acoustic and radio telemetry at a large hydroelectric dam (the Dalles Dam) on the Columbia River, during March 2004 through November 2005 to determine timing and routes of passage and to characterize general movements. Transmitters were surgically implanted into 148 fish during the study; 90 were released into the tailrace and 58 into the forebay. We documented 26 passage events by 19 tagged fish: eight upstream via fish ladders and 18 downstream, mostly through open spill gates. During the study 17 fish entered the two ladders one or more times; 11 entered only the east ladder, three entered only the north ladder, and three entered both ladders at sometime. Residence time within the ladders by individual fish was variable, ranging from about 1 min to nearly 6 months (median = 7.7 h). Only six fish successfully ascended the east ladder, one fish twice. We could not unequivocally determine which fish ladder one fish used to pass upstream. Differences in construction between the north and east fish ladders may account for the greater success of the east fish ladder in passing sturgeon upstream. Changes to operations at hydroelectric dams to benefit migrating anadromous salmonids may influence upstream or downstream passage by white sturgeon. Altering patterns and timing of spill discharge, altering fish ladder entrance attraction flows, and the use of lights, sound, and partial barriers to direct other species of fish to preferred passage routes have unknown effects on sturgeon passage. A better understanding of the consequences to the metapopulation of increasing or precluding upstream or downstream passage is needed. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  6. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage through Bonneville Dam in 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Schilt, Carl R.; Kim, Jina; Johnson, Peter N.; Hanks, Michael E.; Patterson, Deborah S.; Skalski, John R.; Hedgepeth, J

    2005-12-22

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2004. These studies support the Portland District's goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 2 (B2). In this report, we present results of four studies related to juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam. The studies were conducted between April 15 and July 15, 2004, encompassing most of the spring and summer migrations. Studies included evaluations of (1) Project fish passage efficiency and other major passage metrics, (2) B2 fish guidance efficiency and gap loss, (3) smolt approach and fate at the B2 Corner Collector (B2CC), and (4) B2 vertical barrier screen head differential.

  7. Colwater fish in rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    A standard sampling protocol to assess the fish assemblages and abundances in large, coldwater rivers is most accurate and precise if consistent gears and levels of effort are used at each site. This requires thorough crew training, quality control audits, and replicate sampling...

  8. Colwater fish in rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    A standard sampling protocol to assess the fish assemblages and abundances in large, coldwater rivers is most accurate and precise if consistent gears and levels of effort are used at each site. This requires thorough crew training, quality control audits, and replicate sampling...

  9. 75 FR 5626 - Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas County, WA INT-DES...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas... upstream adult fish passage facilities at the dam, as well as analyses associated with the implementation... alternatives at the dam for the Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities Project. Cle Elum Dam did not include fish...

  10. Technologies for evaluating fish passage through turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2003-10-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of two types of technologies to observe fish and near neutrally buoyant drogues as they move through hydropower turbines. Existing or reasonably modified light-emitting and ultrasonic technologies were used to observe flow patterns, the response of fish to flow, and interactions between fish and turbine structures with good spatial and temporal accuracy. This information can be used to assess the biological benefits of turbine design features such as reductions in gaps at the tips and hub of turbine runner blades, reshaping wicket gates and stay vanes, modifications to draft tube splitter piers, and design changes that enhance egress through the powerhouse and tailrace.

  11. Benefits of fish passage and protection measures at hydroelectric projects

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.; Jones, D.W.

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hydropower Program is engaged in a multi-year study of the costs and benefits of environmental mitigation measures at nonfederal hydroelectric power plants. An initial report (Volume 1) reviewed and surveyed the status of mitigation methods for fish passage, instream flows, and water quality; this paper focuses on the fish passage/protection aspects of the study. Fish ladders were found to be the most common means of passing fish upstream; elevators/lifts were less common, but their use appears to be increasing. A variety of mitigative measures is employed to prevent fish from being drawn into turbine intakes, including spill flows, narrow-mesh intake screens, angled bar racks, and lightor sound-based guidance measures. Performance monitoring and detailed, quantifiable performance criteria were frequently lacking at non-federal hydroelectric projects. Volume 2 considers the benefits and costs of fish passage and protection measures, as illustrated by case studies for which performance monitoring has been conducted. The report estimates the effectiveness of particular measures, the consequent impacts on the fish populations that are being maintained or restored, and the resulting use and non-use values of the maintained or restored fish populations.

  12. John Day Fish Passage and Screening; 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hartlerode, Ray; Dabashinsky, Annette; Allen, Steve

    2003-01-28

    This project is necessary to insure that replacement of fish screening devices and fishways meet current NMFS design criteria for the protection of all salmonid life stages. The mission of the fish passage program in Northeast Oregon is to protect and enhance fish populations by assisting private landowners, public landowners, irrigation districts and others by maintaining fish screening devices and fishways. These facilities reduce or eliminate fish loss associated with irrigation withdrawals, and as a result insure fish populations are maintained for enjoyment by present and future generations. Assistance is provided through state and federal programs. This can range from basic technical advice to detailed construction, fabrication and maintenance of screening and passage facilities. John Day screens personnel identified 50 sites for fish screen replacement, and one fish passage project. These sites are located in critical spawning, rearing and migration areas for spring chinook, summer steelhead and bull trout. All projects were designed and implemented to meet current NMFS criteria. It is necessary to have a large number of sites identified due to changes in weather, landowner cooperation and access issues that come up as we try and implement our goal of 21 completed projects.

  13. Exploring the Role of Shear Stress and Severe Turbulence in Downstream Fish Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.; Carlson, T.; Ferguson, J.; Richmond, M.; Sale, M.

    1999-07-06

    Fish may be exposed to damaging levels of fluid shear stress and turbulence while passing through hydroelectric power plants. The generally assumed locations for such potential damage are the turbine and draft tube passages, although it is possible that fish are also injured during passage over the spillway or through sluiceways and fish bypass outfalls. Unless mitigated, fluid-induced injuries and mortality could frustrate efforts to develop advanced, fish-friendly turbines or to provide safe alternate downstream passages. The effects of shear stress and turbulence on fish are poorly understood, in part because of the difficulties in conceptualizing these phenomena, determining their magnitudes and distribution within hydroelectric systems, and then recreating them in a controlled laboratory environment. We define the fluid phenomena that are relevant to the assessment of effects on fish. The magnitudes of fluid stresses associated with man-altered aquatic environments are often considerably higher than those found in natural environments (e.g., normal river flows). However, levels of shear stresses that occur during flash floods appear to be comparable to those expected within a turbine. Past studies of the effects of shear stress on fish are of limited value, mainly because of their narrow scope and lack of instrumentation to measure velocities on appropriately small scales. A laboratory experiment to study the effects of shear stress and turbulence on fish is described.

  14. Fish Passage Assessment: Big Canyon Creek Watershed, Technical Report 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Richard

    2004-02-01

    This report presents the results of the fish passage assessment as outlined as part of the Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed project as detailed in the CY2003 Statement of Work (SOW). As part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP), this project is one of Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) many efforts at off-site mitigation for damage to salmon and steelhead runs, their migration, and wildlife habitat caused by the construction and operation of federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The proposed restoration activities within the Big Canyon Creek watershed follow the watershed restoration approach mandated by the Fisheries and Watershed Program. Nez Perce Tribal Fisheries/Watershed Program vision focuses on protecting, restoring, and enhancing watersheds and treaty resources within the ceded territory of the Nez Perce Tribe under the Treaty of 1855 with the United States Federal Government. The program uses a holistic approach, which encompasses entire watersheds, ridge top to ridge top, emphasizing all cultural aspects. We strive toward maximizing historic ecosystem productive health, for the restoration of anadromous and resident fish populations. The Nez Perce Tribal Fisheries/Watershed Program (NPTFWP) sponsors the Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed project. The NPTFWP has the authority to allocate funds under the provisions set forth in their contract with BPA. In the state of Idaho vast numbers of relatively small obstructions, such as road culverts, block thousands of miles of habitat suitable for a variety of fish species. To date, most agencies and land managers have not had sufficient, quantifiable data to adequately address these barrier sites. The ultimate objective of this comprehensive inventory and assessment was to identify all barrier crossings within the watershed. The barriers were then prioritized according to the amount of

  15. Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified mortality of fish eggs and larvae. An analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage Through Bonneville Dam in 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Hughes, James S.; Bouchard, Kyle E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Schilt, Carl R.; Hanks, Michael E.; Kim, Jina; Skalski, John R.; Hedgepeth, J.; Nagy, William T.

    2006-12-04

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2005. These studies support the Portland District's goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 2 (B2). In this report, we present results of two studies related to juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam. The studies were conducted between April 16 and July 15, 2005, encompassing most of the spring and summer migrations. Studies included evaluations of (1) Project fish passage efficiency and other major passage metrics, and (2) smolt approach and fate at B1 Sluiceway Outlet 3C from the B1 forebay. Some of the large appendices are only presented on the compact disk (CD) that accompanies the final report. Examples include six large comma-separated-variable (.CSV) files of hourly fish passage, hourly variances, and Project operations for spring and summer from Appendix E, and large Audio Video Interleave (AVI) files with DIDSON-movie clips of the area upstream of B1 Sluiceway Outlet 3C (Appendix H). Those video clips show smolts approaching the outlet, predators feeding on smolts, and vortices that sometimes entrained approaching smolts into turbines. The CD also includes Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Files (PDF) of the entire report and appendices.

  17. Identifying the Effects on Fish of Changes in Water Pressure during Turbine Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, James M.; Abernethy, Cary S.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2003-09-01

    Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including pressure changes during turbine passage and dissolved gas supersaturation. We investigated the responses of fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to these two stresses, singly and in combination, in the laboratory. Fish were exposed to total dissolved gas levels of 100%, 120%, or 135% of saturation while being held at either surface or 30 ft of pressure. Some of these fish were then subjected to decreases in pressure simulating passage through a Kaplan turbine under “worst case” (to 0.1 atmospheres) or more “fish friendly” (to 0.5 atmospheres) scenarios. Surface- and depth-acclimated Chinook salmon and bluegill, with no exposure to dissolved gas above ambient levels, were subjected to decreases in pressure simulating passage through a bulb turbine under “worst case” (to 0.68 atmospheres) or more “fish friendly” (to 1.0 atmospheres) scenarios. Bluegill, the most pressure-sensitive among the three species, incurred injuries that ranged from mild (internal hemorrhaging) (bulb turbine) to death (Kaplan turbine). For each type of turbine passage, bluegill acclimated to 30 ft depth and subjected to the more severe pressure nadir were more susceptible to injury/death. However, even control bluegill (i.e., not subjected to simulated turbine passage) experienced mild to moderate injury from rapidly ascending from 30 ft of pressure to surface pressure. The dissolved gas level had only a small additive effect on the injury/death rate of bluegill subjected to simulated Kaplan turbine passage. Thus, while physoclistous fish, such as bluegill, appear to be susceptible to injury from any rapid pressure decrease, those that are most severe (e.g., Kaplan turbine passage) are likely to be most injurious. Chinook salmon and rainbow trout were much

  18. Influence of seasonal, diel, lunar, and other environmental factors on upstream fish passage in the igarapava fish ladder, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bizzotto, P.M.; Godinho, Alexandre L.; Vono, V.; Kynard, B.; Godinho, Hugo P.

    2009-01-01

    Upstream fish passage was evaluated during 12 months in the vertical-slot Igarapava Fish Ladder constructed around Igarapava Dam, in the heavily dammed Grande River, Southeast Brazil. A video monitoring system was used to observe 61,621 fish that passed the ladder, of which 93.5% were identified to 15 taxa. Among the migratory species, the most abundant were Pimelodus maculatus (33.6% of all fish), Leporinus octofasciatus (31.4%), Leporinus friderici (4.5%), and Prochilodus lineatus (3.1%). Seven taxa were classified as nonmigratory, and of these taxa, the small Bryconamericus stramineus was the most abundant (12.7%) of all fishes. Passage of the 'nonmigratory' taxa upstream in the ladder shows they are migratory in this system and have a strong behavioural drive to move to upstream habitat. Passage of most taxa had a strong seasonal pattern. While some species passed primarily during the day, others showed a distinct nocturnal pattern. Lunar phase and water temperature also strongly affected passage of some taxa. Rainfall and dam discharge had a small or null influence on most taxa; perhaps due to the fairly small catchment area of the reservoir and the highly regulated discharge at Igarapava Dam. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish-Passage Efficiency at Bonneville Dam in 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Schilt, Carl R.; Hanks, Michael E.; Johnson, Peter N.; Kim, Jina; Skalski, John R.; Patterson, Deborah S.; Nagy, William T.; Lawrence, Larry R.

    2002-10-11

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that scientists with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) conduct the hydroacoustic fish-passage studies described in this report. The ERDC also contracted with MEVATEC Corporation and Dyntel to provide staff ranging from scientists to technicians for the study. This study supports the Portland-District goal of maximizing fish passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing the Bonneville Project. This report presents results of two hydroacoustic studies of juvenile salmonids. One was a Project-wide study of fish-passage efficiency, and the other was more narrowly focused upon the approach, vertical distribution, and fish-guidance efficiency (FGE) of fish at Unit 15, where the Portland District extensively modified the gatewell and vertical barrier screen to improve gatewell flow and FGE. The goal of the larger of the two studies was to provide project-wide estimates of FPE, spill efficiency, and spill effectiveness for run-of-river fish passing the Bonneville Project during the 2001 out-migration. This type of study also provides estimates of the horizontal, vertical, and diel distributions of fish passage and FGE by turbine unit. These data will provide a baseline for evaluating the performance of future management efforts to improve juvenile fish passage. The goal of the second study was to assess the effect of gatewell and vertical-barrier-screen modifications on the FGE of Unit 15.

  20. Fish Passage Center; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Michele

    2002-07-01

    Extremely poor water conditions within the Columbia River Basin along with extraordinary power market conditions created an exceptionally poor migration year for juvenile salmon and steelhead. Monthly 2001 precipitation at the Columbia above Grand Coulee, the Snake River above Ice Harbor, and the Columbia River above The Dalles was approximately 70% of average. As a result the 2001 January-July runoff volume at The Dalles was the second lowest in Columbia River recorded history. As a compounding factor to the near record low flows in 2001, California energy deregulation and the resulting volatile power market created a financial crisis for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Power emergencies were first declared in the summer and winter of 2000 for brief periods of time. In February of 2001, and on April 3, the BPA declared a ''power emergency'' and suspended many of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Biological Opinion (Opinion) measures that addressed mainstem Columbia and Snake Rivers juvenile fish passage. The river and reservoir system was operated primarily for power generation. Power generation requirements in January through March coincidentally provided emergence and rearing flows for the Ives-Pierce Islands spawning area below Bonneville Dam. In particular, flow and spill measures to protect juvenile downstream migrant salmon and steelhead were nearly totally suspended. Spring and summer flows were below the Opinion migration target at all sites. Maximum smolt transportation was implemented instead of the Opinion in-river juvenile passage measures. On May 16, the BPA Administrator decided to implement a limited spill for fish passage at Bonneville and The Dalles dams. On May 25, a limited spill program was added at McNary and John Day dams. Spill extended to July 15. Juvenile migrants, which passed McNary Dam after May 21, experienced a noticeable, improved survival, as a benefit of spill at John Day Dam. The suspension of Biological Opinion

  1. Eco-Design of River Fishways for Upstream Passage: Application for Hanfeng Dam, Pengxi River, China

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Rainey, William S.

    2012-05-20

    This paper provides a scientific approach to eco-design of river fishways to allow upstream movement of fish past new and existing dams in China. This eco-design approach integrates principles of fish ecology/behavior and engineering, a scientific field also known as bio-engineering or eco-hydraulics. We define a fishway as a structure or mechanism to convey fish upstream past a dam. Man-made or natural stream beds can be part of the fishway mechanism. Fish include bony and non-bony fishes, and upstream passage is the concern here, not downstream passage. The problem is dams block access to upstream habitat used for spawning, rearing, and refuge, i.e., dams decrease habitat connectivity. A solution to alleviate this problem is to design fishways, preferably while the dam is being designed, but if necessary, as retrofits afterward to provide a route that fish can and will use to pass safely upstream without undue delay. Our eco-design approach for fishways involves eight steps: 1) identify the primary species of importance; 2) understand basic ecology and behavior of these fish; 3) characterize the environmental conditions where passage is or will be blocked; 4 identify fishway alternatives and select a preferred alternative; 5) establish eco-design criteria for the fishway, either from management agencies or, if necessary, developed specifically for the given site; 6) where needed, identify and perform research required to resolve critical uncertainties and finalize the eco-design criteria; 7) apply the eco-design criteria and site-specific considerations to design the fishway, involving peer-review by local stakeholders in the process; 8) build the fishway, monitor its effectiveness, and apply the lessons learned. Example fishways are described showing a range of eco-designs depending on the dam site and fish species of concern. We apply the eco-design principles to recommend an approach and next steps for a fishway to pass fish upstream at Hanfeng Dam, an

  2. Philadelphia Electric Company's East Fish Passage Facility at the Conowingo Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Brunot, J.T. ); Frese, C.R. )

    1992-01-01

    The Conowingo East Fish Passage Facility employs the latest technology to attract, collect, and pass American Shad upstream of the dam as they make their annual spring spawning run u the Susquehanna River. The facility is designed to move up to 750,000 American Shad and 5 million River Herring per season, i.e., April 1 through June 15. The facility is designed so that if the numbers of American Shad warrant, the capacity of the flit may be doubled in the future. This paper will discuss the key elements in the design of a fishway, including planning, engineering, and hydraulic modelling. The paper will also address installation and operational experience at Philadelphia Electric's new East Side Fish Passage Facility.

  3. Effect of multiple turbine passage on juvenile Snake River salmonid survival

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, K. D.; Anderson, J. J.; Vucellck, J. A.

    2005-09-01

    Juvenile salmonids originating in the Snake River upstream of Lower Granite Dam must pass up to eight hydroelectric projects during their downstream migration to the Pacific Ocean. Fish may pass a project through a turbine or a spillbay or be screened into a bypass system that either collects fish into a barge or releases them downstream of the project. Previous reviews of studies of downstream passage for salmon at hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River basin found higher mean mortality at turbines than for spillways or bypass systems. The potential mechanisms of mortality during turbine passage may include pressure changes, cavitation, shear, turbulence, strike, or grinding. Observing those mechanisms is challenging in the field, but laboratory studies have demonstrated that a single exposure to shear or pressure changes similar to turbine passage conditions can result in injury for some individuals. Because fish pass several dams along their migration, individuals experience a series of passage events. If estimates of surviving the passage of a single project are applied to each passage event, then the underlying assumption is that the mortality at each project is independent of previous exposure. If individuals approaching a project were already sub-lethally stressed, higher than expected mortality rates might occur upon subsequent passage events. Report presents the hypothesis that fish passing more than one turbine will experience a greater than expected rate of mortality. Because measuring an incremental increase in mortality would be challenging in the field, scientists developed an approach to first assess whether such an increment has any potential to influence a fish population. This approach identified populations at risk and will help design laboratory or field experiments to address those risks.

  4. Sediment Transport through Road Culverts Retrofit for Fish Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, M.; Cashman, E.; Siegfried, L.; Smith, W. J.; Dillon, A.

    2007-12-01

    A critical component of watershed restoration includes improved mobility within the watershed for fish and other aquatic organisms. At the large scale, this effort includes installation of fish ladders around dams and at smaller scales replacement or retrofit of road culverts or installation of roughened channels to mitigate steep channel slopes. A project to quantify changes in culvert hydraulic performance and hydraulic capacity for three culvert shapes and six fish passage retrofit designs was initiated in June 2005. In 2007, laboratory physical model experiments were conducted to evaluate sediment transport and trapping characteristics of these designs over a range of flows. Generally, experimental results indicate trapped sediment in culverts retrofit to improve fish passage decreases the effectiveness of the retrofit due to sediment deposition in areas with lower velocities (where fish can rest). Other observations include: 1. Trapped sediment reduced the effective culvert barrel roughness and, thus, decreased water depths and increased velocities through the culvert, compared to clear water experiments with the retrofit baffles. 2. High flows (culvert barrel water depth/culvert height greater than 0.5) successfully cleared trapped sediment under conditions of minimal transport from upstream 3. Preliminary results indicate moderate flows (culvert barrel water depth/culvert height between 0.25 to 0.5) in combination with moderate sediment feed rates caused the greatest accumulation of trapped sediment These experiments highlight the importance of including sediment accumulation in design and analysis, and potentially impact design recommendations for culverts retrofit for fish passage and other similar fish passage improvement structures.

  5. Fish as vectors in the dispersal of Bythotrephes cederstroemi: Diapausing eggs survive passage through the gut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarnagin, S.T.; Swan, B.K.; Kerfoot, W.C.

    2000-01-01

    1. Bythotrephes cederstroemi (Crustacea: Onychopoda: Cercopagidae) is an introduced invertebrate predator currently spreading through the Laurentian Great Lakes region of North America. We examined a previously unsuspected way in which B. cederstroemi may be dispersed by fish by their consumption of diapausing eggs. 2. Ninety-four percentage of the mature B. cederstroemi diapausing eggs consumed by fish were egested apparently intact. This proportion is considerably above previous estimates for the ephippial eggs of Daphnia. The hatching success of diapausing eggs was compared among four categories: (a) eggs released naturally by B. cederstroemi (control, 73% hatched (b) eggs released during 'stressful confinement' (46% hatched) (c) eggs dissected from dead females (13% hatched) and (d) eggs recovered from faecal pellets following consumption by fish (viable gut passage experiment, 41% hatched). 3. Samples of small fish and B. cederstroemi were collected simultaneously. Examination of gut contents revealed that fish contained B. cederstroemi diapausing eggs and that B. cederstroemi bearing resting eggs were consumed selectively over those without eggs. Moreover, fish selected B. cederstroemi bearing mature rather than immature diapausing eggs. 4. The fact that diapausing eggs survive gut passage is important for the dispersal of B. cederstroemi. Fish often move between the pelagic and littoral zones of lakes and may thus disperse diapausing eggs widely. Fish may also move between lakes connected by river systems and can be caught and passively dispersed by anglers or piscivorous birds. Our results demonstrate the potential for fish to act as vectors in the spread of B. cederstroemi.

  6. The development of advanced hydroelectric turbines to improve fish passage survival

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, Glenn F.

    2001-09-01

    Recent efforts to improve the survival of hydroelectric turbine-passed juvenile fish have explored modifications to both operation and design of the turbines. Much of this research is being carried out by power producers in the Columbia River basin (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the public utility districts), while the development of low impact turbines is being pursued on a national scale by the U.S. Department of Energy. Fisheries managers are involved in all aspects of these efforts. Advanced versions of conventional Kaplan turbines are being installed and tested in the Columbia River basin, and a pilot scale version of a novel turbine concept is undergoing laboratory testing. Field studies in the last few years have shown that improvements in the design of conventional turbines have increased the survival of juvenile fish. There is still much to be learned about the causes and extent of injuries in the turbine system (including the draft tube and tailrace), as well as the significance of indirect mortality and the effects of turbine passage on adult fish. However, improvements in turbine design and operation, as well as new field, laboratory, and modeling techniques to assess turbine-passage survival, are contributing toward resolution of the downstream fish passage issue at hydroelectric power plants.

  7. Predicted redistribution of Ceratomyxa shasta genotypes with salmonid passage in the Deschutes River, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Matthew E T; Bartholomew, Jerri L

    2012-12-01

    A series of dams on the Deschutes River, Oregon, act as migration barriers that segregate the river system into upper and lower basins. Proposed fish passage between basins would reunite populations of native potamodromous fish and allow anadromous fish of Deschutes River origin access to the upper basin. We assessed the potential redistribution of host-species-specific genotypes (O, I, II, III) of the myxozoan parasite Ceratomyxa shasta that could occur with fish passage and examined the influence of nonnative fish on genotype composition. To determine the present distribution of the parasite genotypes, we exposed eight salmonid species-three native and five stocked for sport fishing-in present and predicted anadromous salmonid habitats. We monitored fish for infection by C. shasta and sequenced a section of the parasite ribosomal DNA gene from fish and water samples to determine parasite genotype. Genotype O was present in both upper and lower basins and detected only in steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss. Genotype I was spatially limited to the lower basin, isolated predominantly from Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha, and lethal for this species only. Genotype II was detected in both basins and in multiple species, but only as a minor component of the infection. Genotype III was also present in both basins, had a wide host range, and caused mortality in native steelhead and multiple nonnative species. Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and kokanee O. nerka were the least susceptible to infection by any genotype of C. shasta. Our findings confirmed the host-specific patterns of C. shasta infections and indicated that passage of Chinook salmon would probably spread genotype I into the upper Deschutes River basin, but with little risk to native salmonid populations.

  8. Performance of fish passage structures at upstream barriers to migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunt, C.M.; Castro-Santos, T.; Haro, A.

    2012-01-01

    Attraction and passage efficiency were reviewed and compared from 19 monitoring studies that produced data for evaluations of pool-and-weir, Denil, vertical-slot and nature-like fishways. Data from 26 species of anadromous and potamodromous fishes from six countries were separated by year and taxonomic family into a matrix with 101 records. Attraction performance was highly variable for the following fishway structures: pool-and-weir (attraction range = 29–100%, mean = 77%, median = 81%), vertical-slot (attraction range = 0–100%, mean = 63%, median = 80%), Denil (attraction range = 21–100%, mean = 61%, median = 57%) and nature-like (attraction range = 0–100%, mean = 48%, median = 50%). Mean passage efficiency was inversely related to mean attraction efficiency by fishway structure type, with the highest passage for nature-like fishways (range = 0–100%, mean = 70%, median = 86%), followed by Denil (range = 0–97%, mean = 51%, median = 38%), vertical-slot (range = 0–100%, mean = 45%, median = 43%) and pool-and-weir (range = 0–100%, mean = 40%, median = 34%). Principal components analysis and logistic regression modelling indicated that variation in fish attraction was driven by biological characteristics of the fish that were studied, whereas variation in fish passage was related to fishway type, slope and elevation change. This meta-analysis revealed that the species of fish monitored and structural design of the fishways have strong implications for both attraction and passage performance, and in most cases, existing data are not sufficient to support design recommendations. Many more fishway evaluations are needed over a range of species, fishway types and configurations to characterize, to optimize and to design new fishways. Furthermore, these studies must be performed in a consistent manner to identify the relative contributions of fish attraction and

  9. Fish Passage: A New Tool to Investigate Fish Movement: JSATS

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2011-04-20

    A new system is being used to determine fish mortality issues related to hydroelectric facilities in the Pacific Northwest. Called the juvenile salmon acoustic telemetry system (JSATS), this tool allows researchers to better understand fish movement, behavior, and survival around dams and powerhouses.

  10. Fish behavior in relation to modeling fish passage through hydropower turbines: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, C.C.; Whitney, R.R.

    1997-06-01

    We evaluated the literature on fish behavior as it relates to passage of fish near or through hydropower turbines. The goal was to foster compatibility of engineered systems with the normal behavior patterns of fish species and life stages such that entrainment into turbines and injury in passage are minimized. We focused on aspects of fish behavior that could be used for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of fish trajectories through turbine systems. Downstream-migrating salmon smolts are generally surface oriented and follow flow. Smolts orient to the ceilings of turbine intakes but are horizontally distributed more evenly, except as affected by intake-specific turbulence and vortices. Smolts often enter intakes oriented head-upstream. Non-salmonids are entrained episodically, suggesting accidental capture of schools (often of juveniles or in cold water) and little behavioral control during turbine passage. Models of fish trajectories should not assume neutral buoyancy throughout the time a fish passes through a turbine, largely because of pressure effects on swim bladders. Fish use their lateral line system to sense obstacles and change their orientation, but this sensory-response system may not be effective in the rapid passage times of turbine systems. A Effects of pre-existing stress levels on fish performance in turbine passage are not well known but may be important. There are practical limits of observation and measurement of fish and flows in the proximity of turbine runners that may inhibit development of information germane to developing a more fish-friendly turbine. We provide recommendations for CFD modelers of fish passage and for additional research. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2003-03-01

    In 2002, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met National Marine Fisheries Service criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. In addition, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2002, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Marine Fisheries Service. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to increase safe juvenile fish passage. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris should be improved at some sites.

  12. Evaluation of the potential for fish passage through the N Reactor and the Hanford generating project discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Vail, L.W.; Neitzel, D.A.

    1987-09-01

    The potential for juvenile downstream-migrating salmonids to encounter both the Hanford Generating Project (HGP) and N Reactor discharges was evaluated. Three general scenarios were assessed for fish exposure: (1) HGP plume centerline passage followed by N Reator plum centerline passage, (2) HGP plume centerline passage including intersection with the N Reactor plume, and (3) noncenterline plume passage through the edge of first the HGP and then the N Reactor plume. It is highly unlikely that a fish would pass through both plume centerlines because of the location of the two discharges and because of river-mixing characteristics near the discharges. For the set of conditions that we evaluated, exposure to elevated temperatures would be of insufficient duration to result in mortalities to fish that might encounter both the HGP and N Reactor plumes.

  13. Fish Passage Center; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Michele

    2004-09-01

    The runoff volumes in 2003 were below average for the January to July period above Lower Granite Dam (79%) and The Dalles Dam (82%). The year 2003 hydrosystem operations and runoff conditions resulted in flows that met the spring seasonal Biological Opinion flow objectives at Lower Granite Dam, McNary Dam and Priest Rapids Dam. However, summer seasonal flows at Lower Granite Dam and McNary Dam were considerably below the Biological Opinion objectives of 50.7 Kcfs at Lower Granite Dam and 2000 Kcfs at McNary Dam. Actual summer seasonal flows were just 32.3 Kcfs and 135.5 Kcfs, respectively. In most instances spill was provided as described by the Biological Opinion program for fish passage, within the constraints of the State waivers for total dissolved gas supersaturation levels. Spill was altered during spill testing and most notably during the month of August at Ice Harbor dam. At this project spill was modified from a 24-hour program to a 12-hour nightly spill period pending the evaluation of studies being conducted in-season. Spill was not returned to full implementation of the Biological Opinion levels even after data showed that spillway passage had the highest associated fish survival. This experience demonstrated the difficulty of managing the hydrosystem for fish passage based on preliminary data and data collected in-season. Increased hatchery releases and higher wild fish production resulted in a population of yearling chinook at Lower Granite Dam being one of the highest observed in recent years. However, the increased hatchery production may have been offset to some extent by decreased survival from release to Lower Granite Dam as suggested by the lower than average survival observed for the PIT tagged trap released fish to Lower Monumental Dam. Travel times were also longer for hatchery spring chinook compared to recent past years. The short duration of high flows that occurred in the Lower Snake River was too late for yearling chinook, but likely was

  14. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-59) - Reestablish Safe Access into Tributaries of the Yakima Subbasin, Tucker Creek Fish Passage Project

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Shannon C.

    2001-08-14

    BPA proposes to fund a project that will reestablish fish passage on Tucker Creek, a tributary to the Yakima River in Kittitas County, Washington. A concrete undershot/siphon crossing under Tucker Creek forms a single barrier to fish passage about 0.7 miles from the Yakima River. The Kittitas Reclamation District siphon precludes passage to all life stages of anadromous fish. Habitat above the barrier is intact, with an abundance of pools, clean spawning riffles and large woody debris. Resident salmonids are evident above the barrier. Approximately 1½ miles of anadromous fish habitat will be gained by achieving passage over the siphon structure. This project will reestablish passage in Tucker Creek by constructing a series of eight rock grade-controls downstream and within 500 feet of the siphon.

  15. A fish-eye view of riverine hydropower systems. Understanding the biological response to turbine passage

    SciTech Connect

    Pracheil, Brenda M.; DeRolph, Christopher R.; Schramm, Michael P.; Bevelhimer, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    One-way connectivity maintained by fish passing through hydropower turbines in fragmented rivers can be important to population dynamics, but can introduce a new and significant source of mortality due to turbine-associated mortality. Sources of mortality during downstream turbine passage can come from several sources including blade strike, shear forces, cavitation, or pressure decreases, and parsing the contributions of these individual forces is important for advancing and deploying turbines that minimize these impacts to fishes. We used a national hydropower database and conducted a systematic review of the literature to accomplish three goals: (1) report on the spatial distribution of turbine types and generation capacities in the USA, (2) determine fish mortality rates among turbine types and fish species and (3) examine relationships between physical forces similar to those encountered during fish turbine passage and fish injury and mortality. We found that while Francis turbines generate 56% of all US hydropower and have the highest associated fish mortality of any turbine type, these turbines are proportionally understudied compared to less-common and less injury-associated Kaplan turbines, particularly in the Pacific Northwest. While juvenile salmonid species in actual or simulated Kaplan turbine conditions were the most commonly studied, the highest mortality rates were reported in percid fishes passing through Francis turbines. Also, although there are several mechanisms of turbine-associated injury, barotrauma was the most commonly studied with swim bladder rupture, exopthalmia, eye gas bubbles, and prolapsed cloaca being the most serious symptoms associated with rapid pressure decreases. Future studies should focus on understanding which species are most at-risk to turbine passage mortality and, subsequently, increasing the diversity of taxonomy and turbine types in evaluations of turbine mortality.

  16. A fish-eye view of riverine hydropower systems. Understanding the biological response to turbine passage

    DOE PAGES

    Pracheil, Brenda M.; DeRolph, Christopher R.; Schramm, Michael P.; ...

    2016-01-01

    One-way connectivity maintained by fish passing through hydropower turbines in fragmented rivers can be important to population dynamics, but can introduce a new and significant source of mortality due to turbine-associated mortality. Sources of mortality during downstream turbine passage can come from several sources including blade strike, shear forces, cavitation, or pressure decreases, and parsing the contributions of these individual forces is important for advancing and deploying turbines that minimize these impacts to fishes. We used a national hydropower database and conducted a systematic review of the literature to accomplish three goals: (1) report on the spatial distribution of turbinemore » types and generation capacities in the USA, (2) determine fish mortality rates among turbine types and fish species and (3) examine relationships between physical forces similar to those encountered during fish turbine passage and fish injury and mortality. We found that while Francis turbines generate 56% of all US hydropower and have the highest associated fish mortality of any turbine type, these turbines are proportionally understudied compared to less-common and less injury-associated Kaplan turbines, particularly in the Pacific Northwest. While juvenile salmonid species in actual or simulated Kaplan turbine conditions were the most commonly studied, the highest mortality rates were reported in percid fishes passing through Francis turbines. Also, although there are several mechanisms of turbine-associated injury, barotrauma was the most commonly studied with swim bladder rupture, exopthalmia, eye gas bubbles, and prolapsed cloaca being the most serious symptoms associated with rapid pressure decreases. Future studies should focus on understanding which species are most at-risk to turbine passage mortality and, subsequently, increasing the diversity of taxonomy and turbine types in evaluations of turbine mortality.« less

  17. Fish Passage Center; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Michele

    2005-07-01

    The runoff volume for 2004 was below average throughout the Columbia Basin. At The Dalles the January-July runoff volume was 77% of average or 83.0 MAF. Grand Coulee, Hungry Horse, and Libby were below their Biological Opinion reservoir target elevations on April 10 at the beginning of the spring salmon migration season. All major storage reservoirs except Libby, Grand Coulee, Hungry Horse, Dworshak, and Brownlee were within a few feet of full by the end of June and early July. Overall, NOAA Biological Opinion seasonal flow targets were not met at any project for either spring or summer migrations of salmon and steelhead. Overall, spill was reduced in 2004. Implementation of Biological Opinion spill for fish passage measures was wrought with contention in 2004, particularly for summer spill which was finally the subject of litigation. The spring migration spill season began with debate among the fishery mangers and tribes and action agencies regarding spill at Bonneville Dam for the Spring Creek Hatchery release. The USFWS agreed to a spill test versus a corner collector operation to determine the best route for survival for these fish. The USFWS agreement includes no spill for early Spring Creek Hatchery releases for the next two years. Spring spill at Snake River transportation sites was eliminated after April 23, and transportation was maximized. The federal operators and regulators proposed to reduce Biological Opinion summer spill measures, while testing the impact of those reductions. This proposal was eventually rejected in challenges in the Federal Ninth Circuit Court. The Corps of Engineers reported that spill at Bonneville Dam in the 2002 to 2004 period was actually lower than reported due to a spill calibration error at the project. Because flows were low and spill levels were easily controlled few fish were observed with any signs of Gas Bubble Trauma. The annual Smolt Monitoring Program was implemented and provided in-season timing and passage

  18. John Day Fish Passage and Screening; 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Steve

    2005-02-01

    The primary goal of the Oregon Screens Project was to implement 20 replacement screens projects in the John Day sub-basin and any projects identified in the Umatilla and Walla Walla sub-basins. A secondary goal is to complete a passage project, if one is identified, in any of the above sub-basins. Mid-Columbia ESU listed steelhead and USF&W listed bull trout inhabit these sub-basins and are present at most locations, along with a variety of resident fish species. We also provide assistance to our Enterprise Screen Shop, in the Grande Ronde/Imnaha subbasins, if needed. All projects were designed and implemented under current National Marine Fisheries Service screening and passage criteria.

  19. John Day Fish Passage and Screening; 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Steve

    2004-02-01

    The primary goal of the Oregon Screens Project was to implement 20 replacement screens projects in the John Day sub-basin and any projects identified in the Umatilla and Walla Walla sub-basins. A secondary goal is to complete a passage project, if one is identified, in any of the above sub-basins. Mid-Columbia ESU listed steelhead and USF&W listed bull trout inhabit these sub-basins and are present at most locations, along with a variety of resident fish species. We also provide assistance to our Enterprise Screen Shop, in the Grande Ronde/Imnaha sub-basins, if needed. All projects were designed and implemented under current National Marine Fisheries Service screening and passage criteria.

  20. An assessment of fish assemblage structure in a large river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiraly, Ian A.; Coghlan, S.M.; Zydlewski, Joseph; Hayes, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Penobscot River drains the largest watershed in Maine and once provided spawning and rearing habitats to 11 species of diadromous fishes. The construction of dams blocked migrations of these fishes and likely changed the structure and function of fish assemblages throughout the river. The proposed removal of two main-stem dams, improved upstream fish passage at a third dam, and construction of a fish bypass on a dam obstructing a major tributary is anticipated to increase passage of and improve habitat connectivity for both diadromous and resident fishes. We captured 61 837 fish of 35 species in the Penobscot River and major tributaries, through 114 km of boat electrofishing. Patterns of fish assemblage structure did not change considerably during our sampling; relatively few species contributed to seasonal and annual variability within the main-stem river, including smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, white sucker Catostomus commersonii, pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, and golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas. However, distinct fish assemblages were present among river sections bounded by dams. Many diadromous species were restricted to tidal waters downriver of the Veazie Dam; Fundulus species were also abundant within the tidal river section. Smallmouth bass and pumpkinseed were most prevalent within the Veazie Dam impoundment and the free-flowing river section immediately upriver, suggesting the importance of both types of habitat that supports multiple life stages of these species. Further upriver, brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus, yellow perch Perca flavescens, chain pickerel Esox niger, and cyprinid species were more prevalent than within any other river section. Our findings describe baseline spatial patterns of fish assemblages in the Penobscot River in relation to dams with which to compare assessments after dam removal occurs.

  1. Comparative Study of Barotrauma Risk during Fish Passage through Kaplan Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Romero-Gomez, Pedro; Serkowski, John A.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Graf, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Rapid pressure changes in hydroelectric turbine flows can cause barotrauma that can be hazardous to the passage of fish, in particular migratory juvenile salmonids. Although numerous laboratory tests have evaluated the effect of rapid decompression in fish species of relevance, numerical modeling studies offer the advantage of predicting, for new turbine designs, the potential risks of mortality and injury from rapid pressure change during turbine passage. However, rapid pressure change is only one of several hydraulic risks encountered by fish during turbine passage in addition to blade strike, shear, and turbulence. To better understand the role of rapid pressure changes, the present work focuses on the application of a computational fluid dynamics based method for evaluating the risk of pressure-related mortality to fish passing through an early 1960s era original hydroelectric Kaplan turbine at Wanapum Dam (Columbia River, Washington), and a modern advanced Kaplan turbine installed in 2005. The results show that the modeling approach acceptably reproduced the nadir pressure distributions compared to field data previously collected at the site using an autonomous sensor. Our findings show that the new advanced-design unit performs better, in terms of reduced barotrauma risk to fish from exposure to low pressures, than the original turbine unit. The outcomes allow for comparative analyses of turbine designs and operations prior to installation, an advantage that can potentially be integrated in the process of designing new turbine units to achieve superior environmental performance. Overall, the results show that modern turbine designs can achieve the multiple objectives of increasing power generation, lowering cavitation potential, and reducing barotrauma risks to passing fish.

  2. A computational fluid dynamics modeling study of guide walls for downstream fish passage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulligan, Kevin; Towler, Brett; Haro, Alexander J.; Ahlfeld, David P.

    2017-01-01

    A partial-depth, impermeable guidance structure (or guide wall) for downstream fish passage is typically constructed as a series of panels attached to a floating boom and anchored across a water body (e.g. river channel, reservoir, or power canal). The downstream terminus of the wall is generally located nearby to a fish bypass structure. If guidance is successful, the fish will avoid entrainment in a dangerous intake structure (i.e. turbine intakes) while passing from the headpond to the tailwater of a hydroelectric facility through a safer passage route (i.e. the bypass). The goal of this study is to determine the combination of guide wall design parameters that will most likely increase the chance of surface-oriented fish being successfully guided to the bypass. To evaluate the flow field immediately upstream of a guide wall, a parameterized computational fluid dynamics model of an idealized power canal was constructed in © ANSYS Fluent v 14.5 (ANSYS Inc., 2012). The design parameters investigated were the angle and depth of the guide wall and the average approach velocity in the power canal. Results call attention to the importance of the downward to sweeping flow ratio and demonstrate how a change in guide wall depth and angle can affect this important hydraulic cue to out-migrating fish. The key findings indicate that a guide wall set at a small angle (15° is the minimum in this study) and deep enough such that sweeping flow dominant conditions prevail within the expected vertical distribution of fish approaching the structure will produce hydraulic conditions that are more likely to result in effective passage.

  3. Sluiceway Operations for Adult Steelhead Downstream Passage at The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Tackley, Sean C.

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated adult steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss; fallbacks and kelts) downstream passage at The Dalles Dam in the Columbia River, USA, during the late fall, winter, and early spring months between 2008 and 2011. The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy of operating the dam’s ice-and-trash sluiceway during non-spill months to provide a relatively safe, non-turbine, surface outlet for overwintering steelhead fallbacks and downstream migrating steelhead kelts. We applied the fixed-location hydroacoustic technique to estimate fish passage rates at the sluiceway and turbines of the dam. The spillway was closed during our sampling periods, which generally occurred in late fall, winter, and early spring. The sluiceway was highly used by adult steelhead (91–99% of total fish sampled passing the dam) during all sampling periods. Turbine passage was low when the sluiceway was not operated. This implies that lack of a sluiceway route did not result in increased turbine passage. However, when the sluiceway was open, adult steelhead used it to pass through the dam. The sluiceway may be operated during late fall, winter, and early spring to provide an optimal, non-turbine route for adult steelhead (fallbacks and kelts) downstream passage at The Dalles Dam.

  4. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Vucelick, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2004-05-01

    In 2003, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. PNNL collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met the Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. In addition, PNNL conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2003, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to improve juvenile fish passage conditions. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris could be improved at some sites.

  5. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Washington, Volume IIA, Tumwater Falls and Dryden Dam Fish Passage, 1983 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown Author

    1984-05-01

    This engineering feasibility and predesign report on the Tumwater Falls and Dryden Dam Fish Passage Project provides BPA with information for planning purposes and will serve as a discussion document for interested agencies. Tumwater Falls and Dryden Dams, both on the Wenatchee River, were built in the early 1900's as diversions for hydropower, and irrigation and hydropower, respectively. The present fishway facilities at both sites are inadequate to properly pass the anadromous fish runs in the Wenatchee River. These runs include spring and summer chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon and steelhead trout. Predesign level drawings are provided in this report that represent fishway schemes capable of adequately passing present and projected fish runs. The effects of present passage facilities on anadromous fish stocks is addressed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The quantitative treatment assesses losses of adult migrants due to the structures and places an estimated value on those fish. The dollar figure is estimated to be between $391,000 and $701,000 per year for both structures. The qualitative approach to benefits deals with the concept of stock vigor, the need for passage improvements to help ensure the health of the anadromous fish stock. 29 references, 27 figures, 5 tables.

  6. Little Naches River Passage Project : Annual Report FY90 and FY89.

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Dianna; Russell, Kent N.; Haner, Jill

    1991-03-01

    As part of the implementation of section 704d(1) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the USDA Forest Service received funding from the Bonneville Power Administration to improve passage for anadromous salmonids on the Little Naches River: tributary to the Naches, Yakima, and Columbia Rivers. The project's goal was to provide anadromous salmonid access to an additional 24 miles of stream habitat in the Little Naches River and its tributaries. The target species for this project are chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and potentially coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). The project was divided into two subprojects. The first consisted of the construction and maintenance of a concrete fishway to allow anadromous salmonid passage at Salmon Falls. The second sub-project rehabilitated the stream channel below Salmon Falls to permit fish migration to the Falls during low flows. Both subprojects were completed in 1987, essentially on budget. This report documents the monitoring and maintenance work performed to date.

  7. Fish Passage Center; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown author

    1994-04-01

    The 1993 downstream migration of juvenile salmon experienced much better outmigration conditions than in recent years. Higher flows occurred in the spring, due to above-average spring precipitation and larger runoff volumes. Higher flows in the summer period resulted from implementation of Opinion flow targets. All indicators, passage indices, proportion of marks reaptured, and migration duration and pattern, indicate that fall chinook juveniles in particular benefitted from the passage conditions provided in 1993. Wild and hatchery spring chinook and steelhead responded to the conditions provided with faster travel times and a higher proportion reaching sample sites, when compared to past years, indicating improved survival. High uncontrolled runoff resulted in higher spill levels, benefitting fish passage, but also minor incidence of gas bubble trauma. Large scale problems were not observed. Very low returns of chinook jacks and one salt steelhead reflected the dismal outmigration conditions provided under the 1992 mitigation measures.

  8. Environmental mitigation at hydroelectric projects: Volume II. Benefits and costs of fish passage and protection

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J. E.; Cada, G. F.; Dauble, D. D.; Hunt, R. T.; Jones, D. W.; Rinehart, B. N.; Sommers, G. L.; Costello, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy, through its hydropower program, is studying environmental mitigation practices at hydroelectric projects. The study of environmental mitigation is intended to provide greater understanding of environmental problems and solutions that are associated with conventional hydroelectric projects. This volume examines upstream and downstream fish passage/protection technologies and the associated practices, benefits, and costs. Fish passage/protection mitigation technologies are investigated by three methods: (a) national, regional (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission regions), and temporal frequencies of fish passage/protection mitigation are examined at 1,825 operating and conventional (excludes pumped storage) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regulated hydroelectric sites in the United States; (b) general fish passage/protection mitigation costs are discussed for 50 FERC regulated hydroelectric projects; and (c) 16 case studies are used to examine specific fish passage/protection mitigation practices, benefits, and costs.

  9. The Application of Traits-Based Assessment Approaches to Estimate the Effects of Hydroelectric Turbine Passage on Fish Populations

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, Glenn F; Schweizer, Peter E

    2012-04-01

    One of the most important environmental issues facing the hydropower industry is the adverse impact of hydroelectric projects on downstream fish passage. Fish that migrate long distances as part of their life cycle include not only important diadromous species (such as salmon, shads, and eels) but also strictly freshwater species. The hydropower reservoirs that downstream-moving fish encounter differ greatly from free-flowing rivers. Many of the environmental changes that occur in a reservoir (altered water temperature and transparency, decreased flow velocities, increased predation) can reduce survival. Upon reaching the dam, downstream-migrating fish may suffer increased mortality as they pass through the turbines, spillways and other bypasses, or turbulent tailraces. Downstream from the dam, insufficient environmental flow releases may slow downstream fish passage rates or decrease survival. There is a need to refine our understanding of the relative importance of causative factors that contribute to turbine passage mortality (e.g., strike, pressure changes, turbulence) so that turbine design efforts can focus on mitigating the most damaging components. Further, present knowledge of the effectiveness of turbine improvements is based on studies of only a few species (mainly salmon and American shad). These data may not be representative of turbine passage effects for the hundreds of other fish species that are susceptible to downstream passage at hydroelectric projects. For example, there are over 900 species of fish in the United States. In Brazil there are an estimated 3,000 freshwater fish species, of which 30% are believed to be migratory (Viana et al. 2011). Worldwide, there are some 14,000 freshwater fish species (Magurran 2009), of which significant numbers are susceptible to hydropower impacts. By comparison, in a compilation of fish entrainment and turbine survival studies from over 100 hydroelectric projects in the United States, Winchell et al. (2000

  10. Gila River Basin Native Fishes Conservation Program

    Treesearch

    Doug Duncan; Robert W. Clarkson

    2013-01-01

    The Gila River Basin Native Fishes Conservation Program was established to conserve native fishes and manage against nonnative fishes in response to several Endangered Species Act biological opinions between the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on Central Arizona Project (CAP) water transfers to the Gila River basin. Populations of some Gila...

  11. Factors affecting stranding of juvenile salmonids by wakes from ship passage in the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Walter H.; Skalski, John R.

    2011-09-01

    The effects of deep-draft vessel traffic in confined riverine channels on shorelines and fish are of widespread concern. In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, wakes and subsequent beach run-up from ships transiting the Lower Columbia River have been observed to strand juvenile salmon and other fish. As part of a before-and-after study to assess stranding effects that may be associated with channel deepening, we measured 19 co-variables from observations of 126 vessel passages at three low-slope beaches and used multiple logistic regression to discern the significant factors influencing the frequency of stranding. Subyearling Chinook salmon were 82% of the fish stranded over all sites and seasons. Given a low-slope beach, stranding frequencies for juvenile salmon were significantly related to river location, salmon density in the shallows, a proxy for ship kinetic energy, tidal height, and two interactions. The beach types selected for our study do not include all the beach types along the Lower Columbia River so that the stranding probabilities described here cannot be extrapolated river-wide. A more sophisticated modeling effort, informed by additional field data, is needed to assess salmon losses by stranding for the entire lower river. Such modeling needs to include river-scale factors such as beach type, berms, proximity to navigation channel, and perhaps, proximity to tributaries that act as sources of out-migrating juvenile salmon. At both river and beach scales, no one factor produces stranding; rather interactions among several conditions produce a stranding event and give stranding its episodic nature.

  12. Route-Specific Passage Proportions and Survival Rates for Fish Passing through John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-04

    This report fulfills a request of the U.S. Army Engineer District, Portland, Oregon, to produce an interim report of estimates of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates for lower Columbia River dams in 2010 and 2011. The estimates are needed to update the Compass Model for the Columbia River Treaty and the new Biological Opinion before detail technical reports are published in late 2012. This report tabulates route-specific fish-passage proportions and survival rates for steelhead and Chinook salmon smolts passing through various sampled routes at John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011. Results were compiled from analyses of data acquired in spring 2010 and 2011 studies that were specifically designed to estimate dam-passage and forebay-to-tailrace survival rates, travel time metrics, and spill passage efficiency, as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. The study designs allowed for estimation of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates as well as estimation of forebay-passage survival, all of which are summarized herein.

  13. Dealing with uncertainty when assessing fish passage through culvert road crossings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Gregory B.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, Byron J.; Straight, Carrie A.; Hagler, Megan M.; Peterson, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Assessing the passage of aquatic organisms through culvert road crossings has become increasingly common in efforts to restore stream habitat. Several federal and state agencies and local stakeholders have adopted assessment approaches based on literature-derived criteria for culvert impassability. However, criteria differ and are typically specific to larger-bodied fishes. In an analysis to prioritize culverts for remediation to benefit imperiled, small-bodied fishes in the Upper Coosa River system in the southeastern United States, we assessed the sensitivity of prioritization to the use of differing but plausible criteria for culvert impassability. Using measurements at 256 road crossings, we assessed culvert impassability using four alternative criteria sets represented in Bayesian belief networks. Two criteria sets scored culverts as either passable or impassable based on alternative thresholds of culvert characteristics (outlet elevation, baseflow water velocity). Two additional criteria sets incorporated uncertainty concerning ability of small-bodied fishes to pass through culverts and estimated a probability of culvert impassability. To prioritize culverts for remediation, we combined estimated culvert impassability with culvert position in the stream network relative to other barriers to compute prospective gain in connected stream habitat for the target fish species. Although four culverts ranked highly for remediation regardless of which criteria were used to assess impassability, other culverts differed widely in priority depending on criteria. Our results emphasize the value of explicitly incorporating uncertainty into criteria underlying remediation decisions. Comparing outcomes among alternative, plausible criteria may also help to identify research most needed to narrow management uncertainty.

  14. Dealing With Uncertainty When Assessing Fish Passage Through Culvert Road Crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Gregory B.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, Byron J.; Straight, Carrie A.; Hagler, Megan M.; Peterson, James T.

    2012-09-01

    Assessing the passage of aquatic organisms through culvert road crossings has become increasingly common in efforts to restore stream habitat. Several federal and state agencies and local stakeholders have adopted assessment approaches based on literature-derived criteria for culvert impassability. However, criteria differ and are typically specific to larger-bodied fishes. In an analysis to prioritize culverts for remediation to benefit imperiled, small-bodied fishes in the Upper Coosa River system in the southeastern United States, we assessed the sensitivity of prioritization to the use of differing but plausible criteria for culvert impassability. Using measurements at 256 road crossings, we assessed culvert impassability using four alternative criteria sets represented in Bayesian belief networks. Two criteria sets scored culverts as either passable or impassable based on alternative thresholds of culvert characteristics (outlet elevation, baseflow water velocity). Two additional criteria sets incorporated uncertainty concerning ability of small-bodied fishes to pass through culverts and estimated a probability of culvert impassability. To prioritize culverts for remediation, we combined estimated culvert impassability with culvert position in the stream network relative to other barriers to compute prospective gain in connected stream habitat for the target fish species. Although four culverts ranked highly for remediation regardless of which criteria were used to assess impassability, other culverts differed widely in priority depending on criteria. Our results emphasize the value of explicitly incorporating uncertainty into criteria underlying remediation decisions. Comparing outcomes among alternative, plausible criteria may also help to identify research most needed to narrow management uncertainty.

  15. Dealing with uncertainty when assessing fish passage through culvert road crossings.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gregory B; Freeman, Mary C; Freeman, Byron J; Straight, Carrie A; Hagler, Megan M; Peterson, James T

    2012-09-01

    Assessing the passage of aquatic organisms through culvert road crossings has become increasingly common in efforts to restore stream habitat. Several federal and state agencies and local stakeholders have adopted assessment approaches based on literature-derived criteria for culvert impassability. However, criteria differ and are typically specific to larger-bodied fishes. In an analysis to prioritize culverts for remediation to benefit imperiled, small-bodied fishes in the Upper Coosa River system in the southeastern United States, we assessed the sensitivity of prioritization to the use of differing but plausible criteria for culvert impassability. Using measurements at 256 road crossings, we assessed culvert impassability using four alternative criteria sets represented in Bayesian belief networks. Two criteria sets scored culverts as either passable or impassable based on alternative thresholds of culvert characteristics (outlet elevation, baseflow water velocity). Two additional criteria sets incorporated uncertainty concerning ability of small-bodied fishes to pass through culverts and estimated a probability of culvert impassability. To prioritize culverts for remediation, we combined estimated culvert impassability with culvert position in the stream network relative to other barriers to compute prospective gain in connected stream habitat for the target fish species. Although four culverts ranked highly for remediation regardless of which criteria were used to assess impassability, other culverts differed widely in priority depending on criteria. Our results emphasize the value of explicitly incorporating uncertainty into criteria underlying remediation decisions. Comparing outcomes among alternative, plausible criteria may also help to identify research most needed to narrow management uncertainty.

  16. Indirect effects of impoundment on migrating fish: temperature gradients in fish ladders slow dam passage by adult Chinook salmon and steelhead.

    PubMed

    Caudill, Christopher C; Keefer, Matthew L; Clabough, Tami S; Naughton, George P; Burke, Brian J; Peery, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T) at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead (O. mykiss) experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT > 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species.

  17. Indirect Effects of Impoundment on Migrating Fish: Temperature Gradients in Fish Ladders Slow Dam Passage by Adult Chinook Salmon and Steelhead

    PubMed Central

    Caudill, Christopher C.; Keefer, Matthew L.; Clabough, Tami S.; Naughton, George P.; Burke, Brian J.; Peery, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T) at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead (O. mykiss) experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT > 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species. PMID:24392020

  18. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Facilities at Water Diversions in the Umatilla River; 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1993-03-01

    We report on our progress from October 1991 through September 1992 in evaluating juvenile fish bypass facilities at Three Mile Falls and Westland dams on the Umatilla River. We also report on our progress from October 1991 through June 1992 in evaluating adult fish passage in the lower Umatilla River and adult fish passage facilities at Three Mile Falls Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). These are the study objectives addressed by ODFW and CTUIR: (1) Report A (ODFW): To evaluate the juvenile fish bypass facility in the West Extension Irrigation District Canal at Three Mile Falls Dam and document juvenile salmonid passage through the juvenile fish bypass facility and east-bank adult fish ladder. To measure velocity and develop trap designs at Westland Dam. (2) Report B (CTUIR): To examine the passage of adult salmonids at Three Mile Falls Dam. The study is part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the Umatilla River Basin, including restoration of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), as well as enhancement of summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

  19. Fish Passage Assessment of an Advanced Hydropower Turbine and Conventional Turbine Using Blade-strike Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-01-04

    In the Columbia and Snake River basins, several species of Pacific salmon were listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 due to significant declines of fish population. Dam operators and design engineers are thus faced with the task of making those hydroelectric facilities more ecologically friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, applied for re-licensing from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that were designed to increase power generation and improve fish passage conditions. We applied both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models to the newly installed turbine and an existing turbine. Modeled probabilities were compared to the results of a large-scale live fish survival study and a sensor fish study under the same operational parameters. Overall, injury rates predicted by the deterministic model were higher than experimental rates of injury while those predicted by the stochastic model were in close agreement with experiment results. Fish orientation at the time of entry into the plane of the leading edges of the turbine runner blades was an important factor contributing to uncertainty in modeled results. The advanced design turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the existing turbine design; however, there was no statistical evidence that suggested significant differences in blade-strike injuries between the two turbines and the hypothesis that direct fish survival rate through the advanced hydropower turbine is equal or better than that through the conventional turbine could not be rejected.

  20. Investigating passage of ESA-listed juvenile fall Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam during winter when the fish bypass system is not operated

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.

    2007-01-01

    During the winter of 2006-07, we radio and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagged, and released 99 juvenile fall Chinook salmon to evaluate over-wintering behavior and dam passage in the lower Snake River, Washington. All fish were released 10 km upstream of Lower Granite Dam at Granite Point in early November, 2006. Fixed radio telemetry detection sites located in the forebay and tailrace areas of Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, Bonneville dams, and at Lyle, Washington were used to monitor fish movements and dam passage through early-May 2007. Of the 99 fish released during our study, 80 passed Lower Granite Dam and were detected at downstream detection sites, 37 passed Little Goose Dam, 41 passed Lower Monumental Dam, 31 passed Ice Harbor Dam, 18 passed Lyle, WA, and 13 passed Bonneville Dam. Of the fish that passed Lower Granite Dam in the fall, 63 fish did so during the extended bypass period from November 1 through December 16. Of these fish, 53 were also detected by the PIT-tag interrogation system. Fifteen of the fish that passed Lower Granite Dam in the fall continued to pass lower Snake River dams and exit the system by the end of January. The remaining fish either died, their tags failed, or they resided in Little Goose Reservoir until spring when relatively few continued their seaward migration. Passage of tagged fish past lower Snake River dams generally declined during the winter as temperatures decreased, but increased again in the spring as temperatures and flows increased. Fish residence times in reservoirs and forebays was lengthy during the winter (up to 160 d), and varied by reservoir and time of year. We observed no diel trends in fish passage. Very few fish were detected at PIT-tag interrogation sites in the spring compared to detection by radio telemetry detection sites indicating that fish may have passed via spill. We believe that passage of overwintering juvenile fall Chinook salmon during winter is due more

  1. Assessment of fish passage technology applicable to John Sevier detention dam

    SciTech Connect

    Pasch, R.W.

    1986-12-01

    This report provides an assessment of existing technologies and developments in fish passage technology applicable to moving sauger and paddlefish upstream and downstream of the John Sevier detention dam. (ACR)

  2. Fish passage mitigation of impacts from hydroelectric power projects in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.

    1996-10-01

    Obstruction of fish movements by dams continues to be the major environmental issue facing the hydropower industry in the US. Dams block upstream migrations, which can cut off adult fish form their historical spawning grounds and severely curtail reproduction. Conversely, downstream-migrating fish may be entrained into the turbine intake flow and suffer turbine-passage injury or mortality. Hydroelectric projects can interfere with the migrations of a wide variety of fish. Maintenance, restoration or enhancement of populations of these species may require the construction of facilities to allow for upstream and downstream fish passage. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), by law, must give fish and wildlife resources equal consideration with power production in its licensing decisions, must be satisfied that a project is consistent with comprehensive plans for a waterway (including fisheries management plans), and must consider all federal and state resource agency terms and conditions for the protection of fish and wildlife. As a consequence, FERC often requires fish passage mitigation measures as a condition of the hydropower license when such measures are deemed necessary for the protection of fish. Much of the recent research and development efforts of the US Department of Energy`s Hydropower Program have focused on the mitigation of impacts to upstream and downstream fish passage. This paper descries three components of that effort: (1) a survey of environmental mitigation measures at hydropower sites across the country; (2) a critical review of the effectiveness of fish passage mitigation measures at 16 case study sites; and (3) ongoing efforts to develop new turbine designs that minimize turbine-passage mortality.

  3. Fish Movement Ecology in High Gradient Headwater Streams: Its Relevance to Fish Passage Restoration through Stream Culvert Barriers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, Robert L.; Dunham, Jason B.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary Restoration of fish passage through culvert barriers has emerged as a major issue in the Pacific Northwest and nationwide. The problem has many dimensions, including the huge number of potential barriers, uncertainty about which structures are actually barriers, the benefits and risks involved with restoration, and the financial costs and timelines. This report attempts to address what we call 'thinking outside of the pipe' in terms of fish passage information needs. This means understanding the value of each potential passage restoration project in the context of other possible projects, and to view individual restoration projects within a larger landscape of habitats and population processes. In this report we provide a brief review of some essential characteristics of animal movement and examples from a focal group of fishes in Washington State: salmon, trout, and char. While several other fishes and many other species use streams where culvert passage barriers may occur, it is the salmonids that are by far the most widespread and in most cases extending furthest into the headwaters of stream networks in Washington. We begin this report by outlining some basic characteristics of animal movement and then apply that foundation to the case of salmonid fishes. Next we consider the consequences of disrupting fish movement with human-constructed barriers, such as culverts. Finally, this body of evidence is summarized and we propose a short list of what we view as high priority information needs to support more effective restoration of fish passage through culverts.

  4. Fish passage in a western Iowa stream modified by grade control structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litvan, M.E.; Pierce, C.L.; Stewart, T.W.; Larson, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Grade control structures (GCSs) are commonly used in streams of western Iowa to control bank erosion and channel headcutting but may be barriers to fish passage. From May 2002 to May 2006, we used mark-recapture methods to evaluate fish passage over a total of five GCSs, ranging in slope (run : rise) from 13:1 to 18:1 in Turkey Creek, Cass County, Iowa. Three structures, over which limited fish movement was documented from 2002 to 2004, were modified in the winter of 2004-2005 to facilitate fish passage. Before modification, the majority of recaptured fish were recaptured at the station where they were originally marked; only 1% displayed movement between sites and either upstream or downstream over a GCS. After modification fish passage improved, 14% of recaptured fish displayed movement either upstream or downstream over a GCS. Individuals of four target species - channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, yellow bullhead Ameiurus natalis, black bullhead A. melas, and creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus - passed over at least one modified structure. The majority of documented movements over GCSs were in the upstream direction and occurred in late spring and early summer, when streamflow was relatively high. Although we documented low numbers of fish passing both upstream and downstream over GCSs, these structures are probably barriers to fish movement during periods of low flow and when there is a structural failure, such as in-channel movement of riprap. Grade control structures are pervasive in western Iowa streams; nearly every low-order stream contains at least one instream structure. To sustain fish populations, management efforts should focus on constructing or modifying GCSs to allow fish passage. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  5. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.; McMichael, G.; Chamness, M.

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met National Marine Fisheries Service criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. In addition, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2002, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Marine Fisheries Service. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to increase safe juvenile fish passage. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris should be improved at some sites.

  6. Environmental mitigation at hydroelectric projects. Volume 2, Benefits and costs of fish passage and protection

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L.; Cada, G.F.; Jones, D.W.; Dauble, D.D.; Hunt, R.T.; Costello, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    This study examines envirorunental mitigation practices that provide upstream and downstream fish passage and protection at hydroelectric projects. The study includes a survey of fish passage and protection mitigation practices at 1,825 hydroelectric plants regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to determine frequencies of occurrence, temporal trends, and regional practices based on FERC regions. The study also describes, in general terms, the fish passage/protection mitigation costs at 50 non-Federal hydroelectric projects. Sixteen case studies are used to examine in detail the benefits and costs of fish passage and protection. The 16 case studies include 15 FERC licensed or exempted hydroelectric projects and one Federally-owned and-operated hydroelectric project. The 16 hydroelectric projects are located in 12 states and range in capacity from 400 kilowatts to 840 megawatts. The fish passage and protection mitigation methods at the case studies include fish ladders and lifts, an Eicher screen, spill flows, airburst-cleaned inclined and cylindrical wedgewire screens, vertical barrier screens, and submerged traveling screens. The costs, benefits, monitoring methods, and operating characteristics of these and other mitigation methods used at the 16 case studies are examined.

  7. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    In the summer and fall of 2001 the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Data were collected to determine if velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met current National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. Based on our studies in 2001, we concluded that: in general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set forth by the NMFS; most facilities efficiently protected juvenile fish from entrainment, impingement, or migration delay; automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were well greased and operative; and removal of sediment build-up and accumulated leafy and woody debris are areas that continue to improve. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being followed and problems still occur, evaluation results can be used to suggest means to better protect fish at screening facilities. There has been a progressive improvement in the maintenance and effectiveness of fish screen facilities in the Yakima River Basin during the last several years, in part, as a result of regular screen evaluations and the rapid feedback of information necessary to improve operations and design of these important fish protection devices. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being

  8. Fish movement ecology in high gradient headwater streams: Its relevance to fish passage restoration through stream culvert barriers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, Robert L.; Dunham, Jason B.

    2007-01-01

    Restoration of fish passage through culvert barriers has emerged as a major issue in the Pacific Northwest and nationwide, in part, because of their potential influence on fish movement. Movement is an essential mechanism by which mobile animals acquire the resources necessary for the successful completion of their life-cycles. In this report, we provide a brief review of some essential characteristics of animal movement and examples from a focal group of fishes in Washington State: salmon, trout, and char. We begin by outlining some basic characteristics of animal movement and then apply that foundation to the case of salmonid fishes. Next we consider the consequences of disrupting fish movement with human-constructed barriers, such as culverts. Finally, this body of evidence is summarized, and we propose a short list of what we view as high priority information needs to support more effective restoration of fish passage through culverts.

  9. Sensor Fish Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through John Day Dam Spillbay 20 with a Modified Flow Deflector

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Joanne P.

    2011-04-29

    Fish passage conditions over a modified deflector in Spillbay 20 at John Day Dam were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objectives of the study were to describe and compare passage exposure conditions at two spill discharges, 2.4 and 4.0 thousand cubic feet per second (kcfs), identifying potential fish injury regions within the routes, and to evaluate a low-tailwater condition at the 2.4-kcfs discharge. The study was performed in April 2010 concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision and shear events; 2) differences in passage conditions between treatments; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Nearly all Sensor Fish significant events were classified as collisions; the most severe occurred at the gate, on the spillbay chute, or at the deflector transition. Collisions in the gate region were observed only during the 2.4-kcfs discharge, when the tainter gate was open 1.2 ft. One shear event was observed during the evaluation, occurring at the deflector transition during passage at the 2.4-kcfs discharge at low tailwater. Flow quality, computed using the Sensor Fish turbulence index, was best for passage at the low-flow low-tailwater condition as well. The worst flow quality was observed for the 4.0-kcfs test condition. Contrasting the passage exposure conditions, the 2.4-kcfs low-tailwater treatment would be most deleterious to fish survival and well-being.

  10. Physiological, energetic and behavioural correlates of successful fishway passage of adult sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in the Seton River, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Pon, L B; Hinch, S G; Cooke, S J; Patterson, D A; Farrell, A P

    2009-04-01

    Electromyogram (EMG) radio telemetry was used in conjunction with physiological biopsy to relate prior physiological condition and subsequent swimming energetics and behaviours to passage success of 13 wild adult sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka at a vertical-slot fishway on the Seton River, British Columbia. At the time of capture, plasma lactate, glucose and cortisol levels indicated that fish were not exhibiting unusually high levels of physiological stress. Very few differences existed between successful and unsuccessful fish in body size, initial plasma physiology and energy state and mean swim speed and energy use during passage. Generally, fish did not employ burst swimming during successful or failed attempts at passage, indicating that failure was probably not related to metabolic acidosis. Plasma Na(+) concentration was significantly lower in unsuccessful fish (P < 0.05), which is suggestive of a depressed ionic state or a possible stress component, although values in all fish were within an expected range for migrant adult O. nerka. Nevertheless, six of 13 fish failed to reascend the fishway and remained in the tailrace of the dam for more than a day on average before moving downstream and away from the dam. During this time, fish were observed actively seeking a means of passage, suggesting that there may have been other, undetermined causes of passage failure.

  11. Planning Guide for Fish Passage at Pittsburgh District Dams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    reconfigured to modify the flow field during pumping operation to eliminate a nuisance vortex and create desirable low- velocity conditions in the...fish activity was greatest. Finally, 5-cm wedge wire bar racks were attached to the trash racks to physically exclude fish longer than approximately

  12. Dam Removal Provides Fish Passage, Water Quality Benefits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Bishopville Pond Dam in Maryland has been replaced with a series of pools, runs and step-like structures, improving water quality downstream and providing access for key fish species to spawn upstream.

  13. Investigating passage of ESA-listed juvenile fall Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam during winter when the fish bypass system is not operated. 2006 Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Connor, William P.

    2007-01-01

    During the winter of 2005-06, we radio and PIT tagged and released 48 juvenile fall Chinook salmon to evaluate over-wintering behavior and dam passage in the lower Snake River, Washington. Fish were released at the upstream end of the Lower Granite Dam forebay in November and December 2005. Fixed radio telemetry detection sites located in forebay and tailrace areas of Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental and Ice Harbor dams were used to monitor fish movements and dam passage through early-May 2006. Of the 48 fish released during our study, 39 (81 %) passed Lower Granite Dam and were detected at downstream detection sites, 29 (60%) passed Little Goose Dam, 25 (52%) passed Lower Monumental Dam, and 15 (31%) passed Ice Harbor Dam. Thirty-seven (95%), 23 (79%), 16 (64%), and 9 (60%) of the fish that passed Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and Ice Harbor dams respectively, did so when the fish bypass system was not operated. Passage of tagged fish past lower Snake River dams generally declined during the winter, but increased again after bypass began in April. Fish residence times in reservoirs and forebays was lengthy during the winter (up to 118 d), and varied by reservoir and time of year. We observed no diel passage trends. Only 15 of the 48 fish were subsequently detected at a PIT-tag interrogation site the following spring. We believe that passage of overwintering juvenile fall Chinook salmon during winter is due more to chance than directed downstream movement. Since the primary route of passage during the winter is through powerhouse turbines, the potential exists for increased mortality for over-wintering juvenile fall Chinook salmon in the Snake River. Our findings also have implications for transportation studies of subyearling fall Chinook salmon in the Snake River. Specifically, the finding that some fish can pass undetected during the winter may bias smolt-to-adult return rate calculations that are typically used to measure the

  14. Hood River Production Program : Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Coccoli, Holly; Lambert, Michael

    2000-02-01

    Effective habitat protection and rehabilitation are essential to the long-term recovery of anadromous fish populations in the Hood River subbasin. This Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan was prepared to advance the goals of the Hood River Production Program (HRRP) which include restoring self-sustaining runs of spring chinook salmon and winter and summer steelhead. The HRPP is a fish supplementation and monitoring and evaluation program initiated in 1991 and funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program. The HRPP is a joint effort of the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Using recent watershed assessment and federal watershed analysis reports, this Plan reviews the historic and current condition of riparian, instream and upland habitats; natural watershed processes; anadromous and resident fish populations; identifies limiting factors, and indicates those subbasin areas that need protection or are likely to respond to restoration. Primary habitat restoration needs were identified as (1) improved fish screening and upstream adult passage at water diversions; (2) improved spawning gravel availability, instream habitat structure and diversity; and (3) improved water quality and riparian conditions. While several early action projects have been initiated in the Hood River subbasin since the mid 1990s, this Plan outlines additional projects and strategies needed to protect existing high quality habitat, correct known fish survival problems, and improve the habitat capacity for natural production to meet HRPP goals.

  15. Innovative technologies for fish passage: Aspects of development and implementation. Summary and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.J.C.

    1995-06-01

    A number of vendors of innovative systems designed to facilitate fish passage through hydroelectric facilities were interviewed for this study. They identified several significant barriers to the development and commercialization of their technologies. This study examined a number of fish passage technologies that were identified as innovative. These systems encompassed a range of new (or at least relatively untried in the sense of an established setting) and creative ideas that impinge on various points in the process of fish passage downstream. Technologies examined ranged from variations on established technologies (such as screens) to completely new and alternative systems for the generation of electricity from the potential energy of flowing water without the intervention of high head dams.

  16. Hydraulic assessment of existing and alternative stream crossings providing fish and wildlife passage at seven sites in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zarriello, Phillip J.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Seven existing road crossing structures at streams in Massachusetts were evaluated hydraulically and compared to hypothetical alternative structures designed for Aquatic Organism Passage (AOP) using standards developed by the Massachusetts River Continuity Partnership. Hydraulic simulations made for flood flows ranging from 20- to 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) indicate that the existing structures are at full capacity for many of the simulated AEP floods, causing appreciable backwater upstream from the structure, which exacerbates upstream flooding and causes road overflow in many cases. The existing structures also create an impediment to AOP by failing to meet standards for openness, height, span, and velocity. Simulated hypothetical road crossing structures that provide for fish and wildlife passage by meeting or exceeding the AOP standards were able to convey most simulated AEP flood flows without causing appreciable backwater upstream from the structure. At sites where backwater was still present, it occurred only at the highest simulated flows and was compounded by the low downstream gradient that affected the water-surface elevation at the structure. The simulations of the alternative structures also indicate that, in addition to improved passage for fish and wildlife, the structures are more resilient to large floods and provide a greater buffer to uncertainties and potential changes in flood flows than the existing stream-crossing structures.

  17. Modeling the effect of varying swim speeds on fish passage through velocity barriers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, T.

    2006-01-01

    The distance fish can swim through zones of high-velocity flow is an important factor limiting the distribution and conservation of riverine and diadromous fishes. Often, these barriers are characterized by nonuniform flow conditions, and it is likely that fish will swim at varying speeds to traverse them. Existing models used to predict passage success, however, typically include the unrealistic assumption that fish swim at a constant speed regardless of the speed of flow. This paper demonstrates how the maximum distance of ascent through velocity barriers can be estimated from the swim speed-fatigue time relationship, allowing for variation in both swim speed and water velocity.

  18. Passages: Rafting the Green River as an Analogy to the Mid-Life Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenhart, Myra W.

    To help adults develop an awareness of midlife issues, to encourage personal acceptance of the transition, and to introduce appropriate coping skills, a speech communication course was designed that relied on river trip activities to develop insights about this passage. The vehicle for the seminar was a four-day raft trip down the Green River,…

  19. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vucelick, J.; McMichael, G.; Chamness, M.

    2004-05-01

    In 2003, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. PNNL collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service [NMFS]) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. In addition, PNNL conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2003, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the NOAA Fisheries. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to improve juvenile fish passage conditions. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris could be improved at some sites.

  20. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1988.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1987-10-01

    The FY 1988 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Work Plan (Work Plan) presents Bonneville Power Administration's plans for implementing the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) in FY 1988. The Work Plan focuses on individual Action Items found in the amended Program for which Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has determined it has authority and responsibility to implement. The FY 1988 Work Plan emphasizes continuation of 95 ongoing projects, most of which involve protection, mitigation, or enhancement of anadromous fishery resources. These continuing activities are summarized briefly by Program area: (1) mainstem passage; (2) artificial propagation; (3) natural propagation; (4) resident fish and wildlife; and (5) planning activities.

  1. Status of downstream fish passage at hydroelectric projects in the northeast, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Odeh, Mufeed; Orvis, Curtis

    1997-01-01

    In the northeastern United States several guidance, protection, and conveyance methods have been employed to assist downstream migrating fish. Overlay racks, standard bar racks with close spacing, louvers, curtain walls, guide walls, netting, and other means have been used to guide and protect fish from entrainment. The design process of these facilities comprises consideration of various factors, including flow approach, attraction flow, guidance and protection devices, bypass location, conveyance mechanism, and plunge pool conditions. This paper presents the status of the design criteria for downstream fish passage facilities at hydroelectric sites in the northeast part of the United States. Examples of existing facilities are given.

  2. Fish Passage Center; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Michele; Berggren, Thomas J.; Filardo, Margaret

    2003-09-01

    The runoff volumes in 2002 were near average for the January to July period above Lower Granite Dam (80%) and The Dalles Dam (97%). The year 2002 hydrosystem operations and runoff conditions resulted in flows that were less than the seasonal Biological Opinion (Opinion) flow objectives at Lower Granite Dam for both the spring and summer period. The seasonal flow objectives for Priest Rapids and McNary dams were exceeded for the spring period, but at McNary Dam summer flow objectives were not met. While seasonal flow objectives were exceeded for the spring at McNary Dam, the 2002 season illustrated that Biological Opinion management to seasonal flow targets can result in conditions where a major portion of the juvenile fish migration migrates in conditions that are less than the flow objectives. The delay in runoff due to cool weather conditions and the inability of reservoirs to augment flows by drafting lower than the flood control elevations, resulted in flows less than the Opinion objectives until May 22, 2002. By this time approximately 73% of the yearling chinook and 56% of steelhead had already passed the project. For the most part, spill in 2002 was managed below the gas waiver limits for total dissolved gas levels and the NMFS action criteria for dissolved gas signs were not exceeded. The exception was at Lower Monumental Dam where no Biological Opinion spill occurred due to the need to conduct repairs in the stilling basin. Survival estimates obtained for PIT tagged juveniles were similar in range to those observed prior to 2001. A multi-year analysis of juvenile survival and the factors that affect it was conducted in 2002. A water transit time and flow relation was demonstrated for spring migrating chinook and steelhead of Snake River and Mid Columbia River origin. Returning numbers of adults observed at Bonneville Dam declined for spring chinook, steelhead and coho, while summer and fall chinook numbers increased. However, all numbers were far greater

  3. Fish Passage Center; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Michele

    2001-06-01

    The year 2000 hydrosystem operations illustrated two main points: (1) that the NMFS Biological Opinion on the operations of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) fish migration measures could not be met in a slightly below average water year, and; (2) the impacts and relationships of energy deregulation and volatile wholesale energy prices on the ability of the FCRPS to provide the Biological Opinion fish migration measures. In 2000, a slightly below average water year, the flow targets were not met and, when energy ''emergencies'' were declared, salmon protection measures were reduced. The 2000 migration year was a below average runoff volume year with an actual run off volume of 61.1 MAF or 96% of average. This year illustrated the ability of the hydro system to meet the migration protection measures established by the NMFS Biological Opinion. The winter operation of storage reservoirs was based upon inaccurate runoff volume forecasts which predicted a January-July runoff volume forecast at The Dalles of 102 to 105% of average, from January through June. Reservoir flood control drafts during the winter months occurred according to these forecasts. This caused an over-draft of reservoirs that resulted in less volume of water available for fish flow augmentation in the spring and the summer. The season Biological Opinion flow targets for spring and summer migrants at Lower Granite and McNary dams were not met. Several power emergencies were declared by BPA in the summer of 2000. The first in June was caused by loss of resources (WNP2 went off-line). The second and third emergencies were declared in August as a result of power emergencies in California and in the Northwest. The unanticipated effects of energy deregulation, power market volatility and rising wholesale electricity prices, and Californian energy deregulation reduced the ability of the FCRPS to implement fish protection measures. A Spill Plan Agreement was implemented in the FCRPS. Under this

  4. The Mississippi River: A place for fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, Harold; Ickes, Brian; Chen, Yushun; Chapman, Duane C.; Jackson, John; Chen, Daqing; Li, Zhongjie; Kilgore, Jack; Phelps, Quinton; Eggleton, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Mississippi River flows 3,734 km from its source at Lake Itasca, Minnesota to its outlet at the Gulf of Mexico. Along its course, it collects water from portions of two Canadian provinces and 41 % of the conterminous United States. Although greatly altered for navigation and flood control throughout much of its length, the Mississippi River remains an important fishery resource that provides habitat for 188 species of fishes and recreational and commercial fishing opportunities. The objectives of this chapter are to describe the contemporary fisheries habitat throughout the Mississippi River, identify how management to achieve human benefits influences the fishes and their habitats, and summarize efforts to conserve and enhance fish habitat. The 826-km headwater reach is entirely in Minnesota and remains largely unaltered. The reaches that extend 1,059 km from St. Anthony Falls, Minnesota to above the confluence with the Missouri River near St. Louis, Missouri have been altered by impoundment that has affected floodplain function, increased sedimentation of backwaters, and homogenized the formerly diverse aquatic habitats. After the confluence with the Missouri River, the Mississippi River flows freely for 1,849 km to the Gulf of Mexico. The alterations of the free-flowing reaches of greatest significance to the fisheries resource are reducing the duration and height of the flood pulse as a consequence of shortening the river channel, disconnection of the river from its historic and present floodplain, and loss of secondary channel-island complexes. Engineering features to improve commercial navigation have also added habitat and, when wisely manipulated, can be used to rehabilitate habitat. Some aspects of water quality have improved, but legacy chemicals and nutrient-laden inflows and sediments remain problems. Although true restoration in the sense of restoring all environmental conditions to an unaltered state is unlikely, the future value of the

  5. Fish passage and abundance around grade control structures on incised streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, J.T.; Papanicolaou, A.N.; Pierce, C.L.; Dermisis, D.C.; Litvan, M.E.; Larson, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes research from separate studies of fish passage over weirs (Larson et al., 2004; Litvan, 2006; Litvan, et al., 2008a-c) and weir hydraulics (Papanicolaou and Dermisis, 2006; Papanicolaou and Dermisis, in press). Channel incision in the deep loess region of western Iowa has caused decreased biodiversity because streams have high sediment loads, altered flow regimes, lost habitat, and lost lateral connectivity with their former floodplains. In-stream grade control structures (GCS) are built to prevent further erosion, protect infrastructure, and reduce sediment loads. However, GCS can have a detrimental impact on fisheries abundance and migration, biodiversity, and longitudinal connectivity. Fish mark-recapture studies were performed on stretches of streams with and without GCS. GCS with vertical or 1:4 (rise/run) downstream slopes did not allow fish migration, but GCS with slopes ??? 1:15 did. GCS sites were characterized by greater proportions of pool habitat, maximum depths, fish biomass, slightly higher index of biotic integrity (IBI) scores, and greater macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity than non-GCS sites. After modification of three GCS, IBI scores increased and fish species exhibiting truncated distributions before were found throughout the study area. Another study examined the hydraulic performance of GCS to facilitate unimpeded fish passage by determining the mean and turbulent flow characteristics in the vicinity of the GCS via detailed, non-intrusive field tests. Mean flow depth (Y) and velocity (V) atop the GCS were critical for evaluating GCS performance. Turbulent flow measurements illustrated that certain GCS designs cause sudden constrictions which form eddies large enough to disorient fish. GCS with slopes ??? 1:15 best met the minimum requirements to allow catfish passage of a flow depth of ??? 0.31 m and a mean flow velocity of ??? 1.22 m/s. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  6. Evaluation of swimming performance for fish passage of longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae using an experimental flume.

    PubMed

    Dockery, D R; McMahon, T E; Kappenman, K M; Blank, M

    2017-03-01

    The swimming performance of longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae, the most widely distributed minnow (Cyprinidae) in North America, was assessed in relation to potential passage barriers. The study estimated passage success, maximum ascent distances and maximum sprint speed in an open-channel flume over a range of water velocities and temperatures (10·7, 15·3 and 19·3° C). Rhinichthys cataractae had high passage success (95%) in a 9·2 m flume section at mean test velocities of 39 and 64 cm s(-1) , but success rate dropped to 66% at 78 cm s(-1) . Only 20% of fish were able to ascend a 2·7 m section with a mean velocity of 122 cm s(-1) . Rhinichthys cataractae actively selected low-velocity pathways located along the bottom and corners of the flume at all test velocities and adopted position-holding behaviour at higher water velocities. Mean volitional sprint speed was 174 cm s(-1) when fish volitionally sprinted in areas of high water velocities. Swimming performance generally increased with water temperature and fish length. Based on these results, fishways with mean velocities <64 cm s(-1) should allow passage of most R. cataractae. Water velocities >100 cm s(-1) within structures should be limited to short distance (<1 m) and structures with velocities ≥158 cm s(-1) would probably represent movement barriers. Study results highlighted the advantages of evaluating a multitude of swimming performance metrics in an open-channel flume, which can simulate the hydraulic features of fishways and allow for behavioural observations that can facilitate the design of effective passage structures. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Fishes of the White River basin, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, Charles G.; Lydy, Michael J.; Frey, Jeffrey W.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1875, researchers have reported 158 species of fish belonging to 25 families in the White River Basin. Of these species, 6 have not been reported since 1900 and 10 have not been reported since 1943. Since the 1820's, fish communities in the White River Basin have been affected by the alteration of stream habitat, overfishing, the introduction of non-native species, agriculture, and urbanization. Erosion resulting from conversion of forest land to cropland in the 1800's led to siltation of streambeds and resulted in the loss of some silt-sensitive species. In the early 1900's, the water quality of the White River was seriously degraded for 100 miles by untreated sewage from the City of Indianapolis. During the last 25 years, water quality in the basin has improved because of efforts to control water pollution. Fish communities in the basin have responded favorably to the improved water quality.

  8. Synthesis of Biological Reports on Juvenile Fish Passage and Survival at Bonneville Dam through 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Johnson, Gary E.; Giorgi, Albert E.; Johnson, Richard L.; Stevenson, John R.; Schilt, Carl R.; Johnson, Peter N.; Patterson, Deborah S.

    2005-06-01

    This report describes a review of available literature on juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam from 1939 through 2005. Studies of interest included project-wide fish-passage efficiency (FPE) studies by radio telemetry and fixed-aspect hydroacoustics, fish survival studies (direct and indirect), FGE studies, powerhouse and unit (by netting, hydroacoustics, and radio telemetry), predation studies in the forebay and tailrace, behavioral studies on forebay approach and egress, and surface-bypass studies. The FPE effort will include a review of available distribution data (horizontal, diel, and vertical) for juvenile salmon. This study does not repeat the results of previous review and synthesis studies but cites them. Where no previous review exists for a subject area, all reports were reviewed and synthesized. The report includes an annotated bibliography summarizing each of the documents reviewed and a DVD disk containing all of the original papers and reports along with an HTML index to the documents.

  9. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Iwamoto, Robert N.; Sandford, Benjamin P.; McIntyre, Kenneth W.

    1994-04-01

    A pilot study was conducted to estimate survival of hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. The goals of the study were to: (1) field test and evaluate the Single-Release, Modified-Single-Release, and Paired-Release Models for the estimation of survival probabilities through sections of a river and hydroelectric projects; (2) identify operational and logistical constraints to the execution of these models; and (3) determine the usefulness of the models in providing estimates of survival probabilities. Field testing indicated that the numbers of hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon needed for accurate survival estimates could be collected at different areas with available gear and methods. For the primary evaluation, seven replicates of 830 to 1,442 hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon were purse-seined from Lower Granite Reservoir, PIT tagged, and released near Nisqually John boat landing (River Kilometer 726). Secondary releases of PIT-tagged smolts were made at Lower Granite Dam to estimate survival of fish passing through turbines and after detection in the bypass system. Similar secondary releases were made at Little Goose Dam, but with additional releases through the spillway. Based on the success of the 1993 pilot study, the authors believe that the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models will provide accurate estimates of juvenile salmonid passage survival for individual river sections, reservoirs, and hydroelectric projects in the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

  10. Potential effects of dams on migratory fish in the Mekong River: lessons from salmon in the Fraser and Columbia Rivers.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, John W; Healey, Michael; Dugan, Patrick; Barlow, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effects of water resource development on migratory fish in two North American rivers using a descriptive approach based on four high-level indicators: (1) trends in abundance of Pacific salmon, (2) reliance on artificial production to maintain fisheries, (3) proportion of adult salmon that are wild- versus hatchery-origin, and (4) number of salmon populations needing federal protection to avoid extinction. The two rivers had similar biological and physical features but radically different levels of water resource development: the Fraser River has few dams and all are located in tributaries, whereas the Columbia River has more than 130 large mainstem and tributary dams. Not surprisingly, we found substantial effects of development on salmon in the Columbia River. We related the results to potential effects on migratory fish in the Mekong River where nearly 200 mainstem and tributary dams are installed, under construction, or planned and could have profound effects on its 135 migratory fish species. Impacts will vary with dam location due to differential fish production within the basin, with overall effects likely being greatest from 11 proposed mainstem dams. Minimizing impacts will require decades to design specialized fish passage facilities, dam operations, and artificial production, and is complicated by the Mekong's high diversity and productivity. Prompt action is needed by governments and fisheries managers to plan Mekong water resource development wisely to prevent impacts to the world's most productive inland fisheries, and food security and employment opportunities for millions of people in the region.

  11. Potential Effects of Dams on Migratory Fish in the Mekong River: Lessons from Salmon in the Fraser and Columbia Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, John W.; Healey, Michael; Dugan, Patrick; Barlow, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effects of water resource development on migratory fish in two North American rivers using a descriptive approach based on four high-level indicators: (1) trends in abundance of Pacific salmon, (2) reliance on artificial production to maintain fisheries, (3) proportion of adult salmon that are wild- versus hatchery-origin, and (4) number of salmon populations needing federal protection to avoid extinction. The two rivers had similar biological and physical features but radically different levels of water resource development: the Fraser River has few dams and all are located in tributaries, whereas the Columbia River has more than 130 large mainstem and tributary dams. Not surprisingly, we found substantial effects of development on salmon in the Columbia River. We related the results to potential effects on migratory fish in the Mekong River where nearly 200 mainstem and tributary dams are installed, under construction, or planned and could have profound effects on its 135 migratory fish species. Impacts will vary with dam location due to differential fish production within the basin, with overall effects likely being greatest from 11 proposed mainstem dams. Minimizing impacts will require decades to design specialized fish passage facilities, dam operations, and artificial production, and is complicated by the Mekong's high diversity and productivity. Prompt action is needed by governments and fisheries managers to plan Mekong water resource development wisely to prevent impacts to the world's most productive inland fisheries, and food security and employment opportunities for millions of people in the region.

  12. Benefits transfer and the aquatic environment: An investigation into the context of fish passage improvement.

    PubMed

    King, Steve; Fraser, Iain; O'Hanley, Jesse R

    2016-12-01

    We present findings from a choice experiment investigating improvements in the aquatic environment from mitigation of barriers to fish passage. Implemented at a local and national level, results reveal positive preferences for increased numbers of fish species as well as fish abundance. In addition, we examine if in this case the willingness to pay estimates are suitable for direct transfer between national and local settings. For both samples, we consider the extent to which stated attribute non-attendance impacts estimates of willingness to pay and the potential ability of researchers to transfer values between contexts. Implications of the use of benefit transfer within this policy context are discussed in light of our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Upstream Passage, Spawning, and Stock Identification of Fall Chinook in the Snake River, 1992 and 1993 : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, H. Lee; Mendel, Glen W.

    1997-05-01

    This final report of the 3-year study summarizes activities and results for 1993. Study objectives were to: (1) determine the source of losses (or accounting errors) for adult chinook salmon between Ice Harbor Dam (IHR) and Lower Granite Dam (LGR), and upstream of LGR in the Snake River; (2) identify spawning locations upstream of LGR for calibration of aerial redd surveys, redd habitat mapping, carcass recovery for genetic stock profile analysis, and correction of estimated adult/redd ratios; and (3) estimate passage and migration times at Snake River. 200 fall chinook salmon were radio tagged and tracked with aerial, fixed-site, and ground mobile tracking. Fish were released upstream of IHR at Charbonneau Park (CHAR). 190 of the fish were tracked or relocated away from CHAR. 59 fish descended to below IHR without crossing Lower Monumental Dam (LMO). Another 128 salmon passed upstream of LMO without falling back at IHR. Only 80 salmon passed Little Goose Dam (LGO) without falling back at a downstream dam; 66 of these fish passed LGR. Many fish that fell back reascended the dams. A total of 72 salmon released at CHAR passed upstream of LGR, including fish that had fallen back and reascended a dam. Over 80 percent of the salmon that entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery each year had reached LGO before descending to the hatchery. Extensive wandering was documented between LMO and upstream of LGR before salmon entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery or the Tucannon River. In 1993, 41 salmon were found to be of hatchery origin when recovered. These fish entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery with similar movements to unmarked salmon. Each year a few salmon have remained near the hatchery without entering, which suggests the hatchery may have inadequate attraction flows. Fall chinook passed lower Snake River dams in 2-5 days each on average. Median travel times through LMO and LGO were 1.0-1.3 days each, which was slower than for spring chinook or steelhead in 1993. 5 refs., 21 figs., 20 tabs.

  14. Importance of reservoir tributaries to spawning of migratory fish in the upper Paraná River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    da Silva, P.S.; Makrakis, Maristela Cavicchioli; Miranda, Leandro E.; Makrakis, Sergio; Assumpcao, L.; Paula, S.; Dias, João Henrique Pinheiro; Marques, H.

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of rivers by dams transforms previously lotic reaches above the dam into lentic ones and limits or prevents longitudinal connectivity, which impairs access to suitable habitats for the reproduction of many migratory fish species. Frequently, unregulated tributaries can provide important habitat heterogeneity to a regulated river and may mitigate the influence of impoundments on the mainstem river. We evaluated the importance of tributaries to spawning of migratory fish species over three spawning seasons, by comparing several abiotic conditions and larval fish distributions in four rivers that are tributaries to an impounded reach of the Upper Parana River, Brazil. Our study confirmed reproduction of at least 8 long-distance migrators, likely nine, out of a total of 19 occurring in the Upper Parana River. Total larval densities and percentage species composition differed among tributaries, but the differences were not consistent among spawning seasons and unexpectedly were not strongly related to annual differences in temperature and hydrology. We hypothesize that under present conditions, densities of larvae of migratory species may be better related to efficiency of fish passage facilities than to temperature and hydrology. Our study indicates that adult fish are finding suitable habitat for spawning in tributaries, fish eggs are developing into larvae, and larvae are finding suitable rearing space in lagoons adjacent to the tributaries. Our findings also suggest the need for establishment of protected areas in unregulated and lightly regulated tributaries to preserve essential spawning and nursery habitats.

  15. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, James R.; Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.

    2009-06-23

    In 2008, the National Marine Fisheries Service completed the sixteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,565 hatchery steelhead O. mykiss, 15,991 wild steelhead, and 9,714 wild yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. These included 122,061 yearling Chinook salmon tagged at Lower Granite Dam for evaluation of latent mortality related to passage through Snake River dams. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the single-release model). Primary research objectives in 2008 were to: (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead, (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions, and (3) evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2008 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Survival

  16. Fish Passage though Hydropower Turbines: Simulating Blade Strike using the Discrete Element Method

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ

    2014-12-08

    mong the hazardous hydraulic conditions affecting anadromous and resident fish during their passage though turbine flows, two are believed to cause considerable injury and mortality: collision on moving blades and decompression. Several methods are currently available to evaluate these stressors in installed turbines, i.e. using live fish or autonomous sensor devices, and in reduced-scale physical models, i.e. registering collisions from plastic beads. However, a priori estimates with computational modeling approaches applied early in the process of turbine design can facilitate the development of fish-friendly turbines. In the present study, we evaluated the frequency of blade strike and nadir pressure environment by modeling potential fish trajectories with the Discrete Element Method (DEM) applied to fish-like composite particles. In the DEM approach, particles are subjected to realistic hydraulic conditions simulated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and particle-structure interactions—representing fish collisions with turbine blades—are explicitly recorded and accounted for in the calculation of particle trajectories. We conducted transient CFD simulations by setting the runner in motion and allowing for better turbulence resolution, a modeling improvement over the conventional practice of simulating the system in steady state which was also done here. While both schemes yielded comparable bulk hydraulic performance, transient conditions exhibited a visual improvement in describing flow variability. We released streamtraces (steady flow solution) and DEM particles (transient solution) at the same location from where sensor fish (SF) have been released in field studies of the modeled turbine unit. The streamtrace-based results showed a better agreement with SF data than the DEM-based nadir pressures did because the former accounted for the turbulent dispersion at the intake but the latter did not. However, the DEM-based strike frequency is more

  17. Endangered river fish: factors hindering conservation and restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooke, Steven J.; Paukert, Craig P.; Hogan, Zeb

    2012-01-01

    Globally, riverine fish face many anthropogenic threats including riparian and flood plain habitat degradation, altered hydrology, migration barriers, fisheries exploitation, environmental (climate) change, and introduction of invasive species. Collectively, these threats have made riverine fishes some of the most threatened taxa on the planet. Although much effort has been devoted to identifying the threats faced by river fish, there has been less effort devoted to identifying the factors that may hinder our ability to conserve and restore river fish populations and their watersheds. Therefore, we focus our efforts on identifying and discussing 10 general factors (can also be viewed as research and implementation needs) that constrain or hinder effective conservation action for endangered river fish: (1) limited basic natural history information; (2) limited appreciation for the scale/extent of migrations and the level of connectivity needed to sustain populations; (3) limited understanding of fish/river-flow relationships; (4) limited understanding of the seasonal aspects of river fish biology, particularly during winter and/or wet seasons; (5) challenges in predicting the response of river fish and river ecosystems to both environmental change and various restoration or management actions; (6) limited understanding of the ecosystem services provided by river fish; (7) the inherent difficulty in studying river fish; (8) limited understanding of the human dimension of river fish conservation and management; (9) limitations of single species approaches that often fail to address the broader-scale problems; and (10) limited effectiveness of governance structures that address endangered river fish populations and rivers that cross multiple jurisdictions. We suggest that these issues may need to be addressed to help protect, restore, or conserve river fish globally, particularly those that are endangered.

  18. Restoring stream habitat connectivity: a proposed method for prioritizing the removal of resident fish passage barriers.

    PubMed

    O'Hanley, Jesse R; Wright, Jed; Diebel, Matthew; Fedora, Mark A; Soucy, Charles L

    2013-08-15

    Systematic methods for prioritizing the repair and removal of fish passage barriers, while growing of late, have hitherto focused almost exclusively on meeting the needs of migratory fish species (e.g., anadromous salmonids). An important but as of yet unaddressed issue is the development of new modeling approaches which are applicable to resident fish species habitat restoration programs. In this paper, we develop a budget constrained optimization model for deciding which barriers to repair or remove in order to maximize habitat availability for stream resident fish. Habitat availability at the local stream reach is determined based on the recently proposed C metric, which accounts for the amount, quality, distance and level of connectivity to different stream habitat types. We assess the computational performance of our model using geospatial barrier and stream data collected from the Pine-Popple Watershed, located in northeast Wisconsin (USA). The optimization model is found to be an efficient and practical decision support tool. Optimal solutions, which are useful in informing basin-wide restoration planning efforts, can be generated on average in only a few minutes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Bypass Facilities and Passage at Water Diversions on the Lower Umatilla River; 1991-1995 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, William A.; Knapp, Suzanne M.; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1997-07-01

    Outdated juvenile and adult fish passage facilities were recently reconstructed at the five major irrigation dams on the lower Umatilla River, Oregon to meet National marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) design standards. Changes in design at juvenile fish bypass facilities included reduced mesh size on the rotating drum screens, larger screening area, a more oblique orientation of the drum screens to canal flow, improved screen seals, replacement of bypass portals with vertical slot bypass channels, and increased bypass pipe diameters. Weir-and-pool adult fish ladders and jump pools were replaced with vertical-slot ladders. From 1991--1995, they investigated injury and travel rate of juvenile fish moving through the facilities, and efficiency of screens in preventing fish entry into the canals. Water velocities in front of canal screens, at bypass channel entrances, and at ladder diffusers were measured to assess adherence to NMFS criteria and identify hydraulic patterns. Biological evaluations were conducted by releasing and recapturing marked yearling summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), yearling spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and subyearling fall chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in varying locations within the fish passage facilities.

  20. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-91) - Hood River Fish Habitat (Evans Creek Culvert Replacement)

    SciTech Connect

    Yarde, Richard

    2002-10-01

    BPA and the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO) propose to remove a culvert acting as a fish passage barrier, and replace it with a bridge. The culvert is located on a private residential / farm access road on Evans Creek, a tributary to the East Fork Hood River. The culvert will be replaced with a clear-span bridge in order to eliminate the passage barrier and open several miles of stream as fish habitat.

  1. Utilities plan fish lifts for Susquehanna River Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Pennsylvania Power Light Co., Baltimore Gas Electric Co., and Metropolitan Edison Co. will install fish lifts at three dams on the Susquehanna River to aid the spawning of American shad. The utilities estimate the lifts will cost a total of $15 million. PP L will install two lifts at its 108-MW Holtwood Dam, according to the utility's Bob Domermuth, a project scientist. One will be located at the spillway and the second in the tailrace. The two lifts will cost approximately $8 million. At the 417-MW Safe Harbor Dam, which PP L and BG E jointly own, one lift costing $5 million to $6 million will be built on the west side of the powerhouse. Met Ed will install a lift at its 20-MW York Haven Dam, the farthest upstream, at a cost of $3 million. Lifts at Holtwood and Safe Harbor will be completed in time for the spring 1997 shad run; York Haven's passage is to be completed no later than the spring of the year 2000. In 1991, Philadelphia Electric Co. completed a lift at its 512-MW Conowingo Dam, the first dam shad encounter as they swim upstream from the ocean. The utilities agreed with state and federal fish and wildlife agencies to build the lifts, after a decade of studying shad population and rebuilding stocks. Although the agreement is only in draft form, the utilities have begun studying fish movement to determine the best lift designs. While American shad is the species targeted by the effort, the lifts will open the river to all species, Comermuth said. The utilities also are preparing a bid package soliciting design and construction proposals.

  2. Fish passage through hydropower turbines: Simulating blade strike using the discrete element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, M. C.; Romero-Gomez, P.

    2014-03-01

    Among the hazardous hydraulic conditions affecting anadromous and resident fish during their passage though hydro-turbines two common physical processes can lead to injury and mortality: collisions/blade-strike and rapid decompression. Several methods are currently available to evaluate these stressors in installed turbines, e.g. using live fish or autonomous sensor devices, and in reduced-scale physical models, e.g. registering collisions from plastic beads. However, a priori estimates with computational modeling approaches applied early in the process of turbine design can facilitate the development of fish-friendly turbines. In the present study, we evaluated the frequency of blade strike and rapid pressure change by modeling potential fish trajectories with the Discrete Element Method (DEM) applied to fish-like composite particles. In the DEM approach, particles are subjected to realistic hydraulic conditions simulated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and particle-structure interactions-representing fish collisions with turbine components such as blades-are explicitly recorded and accounted for in the calculation of particle trajectories. We conducted transient CFD simulations by setting the runner in motion and allowing for unsteady turbulence using detached eddy simulation (DES), as compared to the conventional practice of simulating the system in steady state (which was also done here for comparison). While both schemes yielded comparable bulk hydraulic performance values, transient conditions exhibited an improvement in describing flow temporal and spatial variability. We released streamtraces (in the steady flow solution) and DEM particles (transient solution) at the same locations where sensor fish (SF) were released in previous field studies of the advanced turbine unit. The streamtrace- based results showed a better agreement with SF data than the DEM-based nadir pressures did because the former accounted for the turbulent dispersion at the

  3. Fish passage through a simulated horizontal bulb turbine pressure regime: A supplement to "Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish"

    SciTech Connect

    Abernethy, C. S.; Amidan, B. G.; Cada, G. F.

    2003-07-01

    Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including pressure changes during turbine passage. The responses of fall chinook salmon and bluegill sunfish to rapid pressure change was investigated at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Previous test series evaluated the effects of passage through a vertical Kaplan turbine under the “worst case” pressure conditions (Abernethy et al. 2001) and under less severe conditions where pressure changes were minimized (Abernethy et al. 2002). For this series of tests, pressure changes were modified to simulate passage through a horizontal bulb turbine, commonly installed at low-head dams. The results were compared to results from previous test series. Tests indicated that for most of the cross-sectional area of a horizontal bulb turbine, pressure changes occurring during turbine passage are not harmful to fall chinook salmon and only minimally harmful to bluegill. However, some areas within a horizontal bulb turbine may have extreme pressure conditions that would be harmful to fish. These scenarios were not tested because they represent a small cross-sectional area of the turbine compared to the centerline pressures scenarios used in these tests.

  4. Fish Passage Through a Simulated Horizontal Bulb Turbine Pressure Regime: A Supplement to"Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish"

    SciTech Connect

    Abernethy, Cary S. ); Amidan, Brett G. ); Cada, G F.

    2003-07-31

    Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including pressure changes during turbine passage. The responses of fall chinook salmon and bluegill sunfish to rapid pressure change was investigated at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Previous test series evaluated the effects of passage through a vertical Kaplan turbine under the"worst case" pressure conditions and under less severe conditions where pressure changes were minimized. For this series of tests, pressure changes were modified to simulate passage through a horizontal bulb turbine, commonly installed at low head dams. The results were compared to results from previous test series. Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including pressure changes during turbine passage. The responses of fall chinook salmon and bluegill sunfish to rapid pressure change was investigated at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Previous test series evaluated the effects of passage through a vertical Kaplan turbine under the"worst case" pressure conditions and under less severe conditions where pressure changes were minimized. For this series of tests, pressure changes were modified to simulate passage through a horizontal bulb turbine, commonly installed at low head dams. The results were compared to results from previous test series. Both fish species were acclimated for 16-22 hours at either surface (101 kPa; 1 atm) or 30 ft (191 kPa; 1.9 atm) of pressure in a hyperbaric chamber before exposure to a pressure scenario simulating passage through a horizontal bulb turbine. The simulation was as follows: gradual pressure increase to about 2 atm of pressure, followed by a sudden (0.4 second) decrease in pressure to either 0.7 or 0.95 atm, followed by gradual return to 1 atm (surface water pressure). Following the exposure, fish were held at

  5. Reducing the Impacts of Hydroelectric Dams on Juvenile Anadromous Fishes: Bioengineering Evaluations Using Acoustic Imaging in the Columbia River, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hedgepeth, J.; Khan, Fenton; Mueller, Robert P.; Nagy, William T.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Weiland, Mark A.

    2008-07-29

    Dams impact the survival of juvenile anadromous fishes by obstructing migration corridors, lowering water quality, delaying migrations, and entraining fish in turbine discharge. To reduce these impacts, structural and operational modifications to dams— such as voluntary spill discharge, turbine intake guidance screens, and surface flow outlets—are instituted. Over the last six years, we have used acoustic imaging technology to evaluate the effects of these modifications on fish behavior, passage rates, entrainment zones, and fish/flow relationships at hydroelectric projects on the Columbia River. The imaging technique has evolved from studies documenting simple movement patterns to automated tracking of images to merging and analysis with concurrent hydraulic data. This chapter chronicles this evolution and shows how the information gleaned from the scientific evaluations has been applied to improve passage conditions for juvenile salmonids. We present data from Bonneville and The Dalles dams that document fish behavior and entrainment zones at sluiceway outlets (14 to 142 m3/s), fish passage rates through a gap at a turbine intake screen, and the relationship between fish swimming effort and hydraulic conditions. Dam operators and fisheries managers have applied these data to support decisions on operational and structural changes to the dams for the benefit of anadromous fish populations in the Columbia River basin.

  6. Methylmercury concentrations in six fish species from two Colombian rivers.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Santiago; Jessick, Ashley M; Palacio, Jaime A; Kolok, Alan S

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether fish collected from the La Miel or Nechí Rivers (Colombia) differed in muscle methyl mercury (meHg) concentration. Two fish from six different species were collected from markets adjacent to each river. Overall, fish collected from the market adjacent to the Nechí River contained higher levels of meHg. This result however is being driven by very high meHg concentrations in four individual fish, three of which are Pimelodid, long-whiskered catfish. These catfish may represent ideal sentinel organism for the detection of meHg contamination in Colombian rivers.

  7. Distribution and relative abundance of fishes in littoral areas of Chief Joseph Reservoir, Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, Dena M.; Venditti, David A.; Robinson, T. Craig; Beeman, John W.; Maule, Alec G.

    2004-01-01

    We surveyed fish assemblages in littoral areas of Chief Joseph Reservoir of the upper Columbia River to aid in understanding this ecosystem. Fish distributions and abundances were examined during April-July 1999 in relation to environmental conditions in the reservoir. We also compared the fish assemblages in Chief Joseph reservoir in 1999 to a past study conducted during 1974-1975, and to assemblages in other areas of the Columbia River. During 67 hr of electrofishing and 78 beach seine hauls in Chief Joseph Reservoir, 7460 fishes representing 8 families were collected. The majority of the catch was native – northern pikeminnow; redside shiners; longnose, bridgelip, and largescale suckers; and sculpins. The most abundant introduced species was walleye, and one species, rainbow trout, was mostly of net-pen origin. Larger sizes of suckers and northern pikeminnow were most abundant in the upper reservoir, likely due to upstream spawning migrations. The lower reservoir contained greater abundances of smaller fishes, and this area had lower flows, smaller substrates, and more complex shorelines that offered these fishes refugia. Only adult suckers displayed significant differences in abundances related to substrate. The relative abundances of species appeared to have changed since the 1970s, when the dominant fishes were northern pikeminnow, peamouth, largescale suckers, and walleye. Fish assemblage differences between Chief Joseph Reservoir and lower Columbia River reservoirs were also evident due to the morphology of the reservoir, its more northerly location, and the lack of fish passage facilities at Chief Joseph Dam. Our study is one of the few descriptions of fishes in the upper Columbia Rivers.

  8. Passage Distribution and Federal Columbia River Power System Survival for Steelhead Kelts Tagged Above and at Lower Granite Dam, Year 2

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Harnish, Ryan A.; Jones, Bryan W.; Hanson, Amanda C.; Trott, Donna M.; Greiner, Michael J.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Deng, Zhiqun; Brown, Richard S.; Weiland, Mark A.; Li, X.; Fu, Tao

    2014-03-28

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations have declined throughout their range in the last century and many populations, including those of the Snake River Basin are listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. The reasons for their decline are many and complex, but include habitat loss and degradation, overharvesting, and dam construction. The 2008 Biological Opinion calls for an increase in the abundance of female steelhead through an increase in iteroparity (i.e., repeat spawning) and this can be realized through a combination of reconditioning and in-river survival of migrating kelts. The goal of this study is to provide the data necessary to inform fisheries managers and dam operators of Snake River kelt migration patterns, survival, and routes of dam passage. Steelhead kelts (n = 487) were captured and implanted with acoustic transmitters and passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tags at the Lower Granite Dam (LGR) Juvenile Fish Facility and at weirs located in tributaries of the Snake and Clearwater rivers upstream of LGR. Kelts were monitored as they moved downstream through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) by 15 autonomous and 3 cabled acoustic receiver arrays. Cabled receiver arrays deployed on the dam faces allowed for three-dimensional tracking of fish as they approached the dam face and were used to determine the route of dam passage. Overall, 27.3% of the kelts tagged in this study successfully migrated to Martin Bluff (rkm 126, as measured from the mouth of the Columbia River), which is located downstream of all FCRPS dams. Within individual river reaches, survival per kilometer estimates ranged from 0.958 to 0.999; the lowest estimates were observed in the immediate forebay of FCRPS dams. Steelhead kelts tagged in this study passed over the spillway routes (spillway weirs, traditional spill bays) in greater proportions and survived at higher rates compared to the few fish passed through powerhouse routes (turbines and juvenile

  9. Passage Distribution and Federal Columbia River Power System Survival for Steelhead Kelts Tagged Above and at Lower Granite Dam, Year 2

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison H.A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Jones, Bryan W.; Hanson, Amanda C.; Trott, Donna M.; Greiner, Michael J.; Mcmichael, Geoffrey A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Deng, Zhiqun; Brown, Richard S.; Weiland, Mark A.; Li, Xinya; Fu, Tao

    2014-12-15

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations have declined throughout their range in the last century and many populations, including those of the Snake River Basin are listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. The reasons for their decline are many and complex, but include habitat loss and degradation, overharvesting, and dam construction. The 2008 Biological Opinion calls for an increase in the abundance of female steelhead through an increase in iteroparity (i.e., repeat spawning) and this can be realized through a combination of reconditioning and in-river survival of migrating kelts. The goal of this study is to provide the data necessary to inform fisheries managers and dam operators of Snake River kelt migration patterns, survival, and routes of dam passage. Steelhead kelts (n = 487) were captured and implanted with acoustic transmitters and passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tags at the Lower Granite Dam (LGR) Juvenile Fish Facility and at weirs located in tributaries of the Snake and Clearwater rivers upstream of LGR. Kelts were monitored as they moved downstream through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) by 15 autonomous and 3 cabled acoustic receiver arrays. Cabled receiver arrays deployed on the dam faces allowed for three-dimensional tracking of fish as they approached the dam face and were used to determine the route of dam passage. Overall, 27.3% of the kelts tagged in this study successfully migrated to Martin Bluff (rkm 126, as measured from the mouth of the Columbia River), which is located downstream of all FCRPS dams. Within individual river reaches, survival per kilometer estimates ranged from 0.958 to 0.999; the lowest estimates were observed in the immediate forebay of FCRPS dams. Steelhead kelts tagged in this study passed over the spillway routes (spillway weirs, traditional spill bays) in greater proportions and survived at higher rates compared to the few fish passed through powerhouse routes (turbines and juvenile

  10. A fish survey of the White River, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoppettone, G. Gary; Rissler, Peter H.; Shea, Sean

    2004-01-01

    In spring and summer 1991 and 1992, we surveyed fishes of the White River system, Nye and White Pine Counties, Nevada, to determine the status of natives. There are 5 known native fishes to the White River: Lepidomeda albivallis (White River spinedace), Crenichthys baileyi albivallis (Preston White River springfish), Crenichthys baileyi thermophilus (Moorman White River springfish), Catostomus clarki intermedius (White River desert sucker), and Rhinichthys osculus ssp. (White River speckled dace). All 5 had declined in range. Lepidomeda albivallis had experienced the greatest decline, with less than 50 remaining, and these were restricted to a 70-m stream reach. Rhinichthys osculus spp. was most widespread, found in 18 spring systems. Cottus bairdi (mottled sculpin) was collected for the 1st time from the White River system, where it was probably native. Protective measures should be implemented to conserve all native White River fishes to include C. bairdi.

  11. Effect of Multiple Turbine Passage on Juvenile Snake River Salmonid Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Kenneth D.; Anderson, James J.; Vucelick, Jessica A.

    2005-10-14

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to identify populations of migrating juvenile salmonids with a potential to be impacted by repeated exposure to turbine passage conditions. This study is part of a research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Wind/Hydropower Program. The program's goal is to increase hydropower generation and capacity while enhancing environmental performance. Our study objective is to determine whether the incremental effects of turbine passage during downstream migration impact populations of salmonids. When such a potential is found to exist, a secondary objective is to determine what level of effect of passing multiple turbines is required to decrease the number of successful migrants by 10%. This information will help identify whether future laboratory or field studies are feasible and design those studies to address conditions that present the greatest potential to improve dam survival and thus benefit fish and power generation.

  12. Influence of multiple dam passage on survival of juvenile Chinook salmon in the Columbia River estuary and coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Rechisky, Erin L; Welch, David W; Porter, Aswea D; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C; Winchell, Paul M

    2013-04-23

    Multiple dam passage during seaward migration is thought to reduce the subsequent survival of Snake River Chinook salmon. This hypothesis developed because juvenile Chinook salmon from the Snake River, the Columbia River's largest tributary, migrate >700 km through eight hydropower dams and have lower adult return rates than downstream populations that migrate through only 3 or 4 dams. Using a large-scale telemetry array, we tested whether survival of hatchery-reared juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon is reduced in the estuary and coastal ocean relative to a downstream, hatchery-reared population from the Yakima River. During the initial 750-km, 1-mo-long migration through the estuary and coastal ocean, we found no evidence of differential survival; therefore, poorer adult returns of Snake River Chinook may develop far from the Columbia River. Thus, hydrosystem mitigation efforts may be ineffective if differential mortality rates develop in the North Pacific Ocean for reasons unrelated to dam passage.

  13. Effects of grade control structures on fish passage, biological assemblages, and hydraulic environments in western Iowa streams: a multidisciplinary review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, J.T.; Culler, M.E.; Dermisis, D.C.; Pierce, Clay; Papanicolaou, A.N.; Stewart, T.W.; Larson, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Land use changes and channelization of streams in the deep loess region of western Iowa have led to stream channel incision, altered flow regimes, increased sediment inputs, decreased habitat diversity and reduced lateral connectivity of streams and floodplains. Grade control structures (GCSs) are built in streams to prevent further erosion, protect infrastructure and reduce sediment loads. However, GCS can have a detrimental impact on fisheries and biological communities. We review three complementary biological and hydraulic studies on the effects of GCS in these streams. GCS with steep (≥1:4 rise : run) downstream slopes severely limited fish passage, but GCS with gentle slopes (≤1:15) allowed greater passage. Fish assemblages were dominated by species tolerant of degradation, and Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scores were indicative of fair or poor biotic integrity. More than 50% of fish species had truncated distributions. After modification of GCS to reduce slopes and permit increased passage, IBI scores increased and several species were detected further upstream than before modification. Total macroinvertebrate density, biomass and taxonomic diversity and abundance of ecologically sensitive taxa were greater at GCS than in reaches immediately upstream, downstream or ≥1 km from GCS. A hydraulic study confirmed results from fish passage studies; minimum depths and maximum current velocities at GCS with gentle slopes (≤1:15) were more likely to meet minimum criteria for catfish passage than GCS with steeper slopes. Multidisciplinary approaches such as ours will increase understanding of GCS-associated factors influencing fish passage, biological assemblage structure and other ecological relationships in streams.

  14. Fresh water fishes as indicators of Kaveri River pollution.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, T S; Mohamed, M Aneez; Chandrasekar, R; Sundramoorthy, M

    2003-10-01

    The survey of fish fauna in Kaveri River at polluted and unpolluted sites revealed a direct effect on the distribution of fishes in that 14 species were observed in unpolluted site and only 6 species in polluted site. Further, the haemotological parameters like RBC, WBC and haemoglobin content increased in fishes collected from polluted site whereas the organic constituents of muscle decreased in the above fishes when compared to the fishes of unpolluted site. The reason for the above changes is discussed.

  15. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, M. A.

    2001-03-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 21 Phase II screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. The sites were examined in 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide fish a safe, efficient return to the Yakima River. Data were collected to determine if velocities in front of the screens and in the bypass met current National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) criteria to promote safe and timely fish bypass and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. Based on the results of our studies in 2000, we conclude that: in general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set forth by the NMFS; most facilities were efficiently protecting juvenile fish from entrainment, impingement, or migration delay; automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were well greased and inoperative; and removal of sediment build-up and accumulated leafy and woody debris are areas that continue to improve.

  16. Multimetric Fish Indices for Midcontinent (USA) Great Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Great River Ecosystems we developed a fish-assemblage based multimetric index (Great River Fish Index,GRFIn) as an indicator of ecological conditions in the Lower Missouri, impounded Upper Mississippi, unimpounded...

  17. Wanapum Dam Advanced Hydro Turbine Upgrade Project: Part 2 - Evaluation of Fish Passage Test Results Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Dresser, Thomas J.; Dotson, Curtis L.; Fisher, Richard K.; Graf, Michael J.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Mathur, Dilip; Heisey, Paul G.

    2007-10-10

    This paper, the second part of a 2 part paper, discusses the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to gain further insight into the results of fish release testing conducted to evaluate the modifications made to upgrade Unit 8 at Wanapum Dam. Part 1 discusses the testing procedures and fish passage survival. Grant PUD is working with Voith Siemens Hydro (VSH) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) of DOE and Normandeau Associates in this evaluation. VSH has prepared the geometry for the CFD analysis corresponding to the four operating conditions tested with Unit 9, and the 5 operating conditions tested with Unit 8. Both VSH and PNNL have conducting CFD simulations of the turbine intakes, stay vanes, wicket gates, turbine blades and draft tube of the units. Primary objectives of the analyses were: • determine estimates of where the inserted fish passed the turbine components • determine the characteristics of the flow field along the paths calculated for pressure, velocity gradients and acceleration associated with fish sized bodies • determine the velocity gradients at the structures where fish to structure interaction is predicted. • correlate the estimated fish location of passage with observed injuries • correlate the calculated pressure and acceleration with the information recorded with the sensor fish • utilize the results of the analysis to further interpret the results of the testing. This paper discusses the results of the CFD analyses made to assist the interpretation of the fish test results.

  18. Synthesis of juvenile lamprey migration and passage research and monitoring at Columbia and Snake River Dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Weiland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.

    2016-01-01

    We compiled and summarized previous sources of data and research results related to the presence, numbers, and migration timing characteristics of juvenile (eyed macropthalmia) and larval (ammocoetes) Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus, in the Columbia River basin (CRB). Included were data from various screw trap collections, data from historic fyke net studies, catch records of lampreys at JBS facilities, turbine cooling water strainer collections, and information on the occurrence of lampreys in the diets of avian and piscine predators. We identified key data gaps and uncertainties that should be addressed in a juvenile lamprey passage research program. The goal of this work was to summarize information from disparate sources so that managers can use it to prioritize and guide future research and monitoring efforts related to the downstream migration of juvenile Pacific lamprey within the CRB. A common finding in all datasets was the high level of variation observed for CRB lamprey in numbers present, timing and spatial distribution. This will make developing monitoring programs to accurately characterize lamprey migrations and passage more challenging. Primary data gaps centered around our uncertainty on the numbers of juvenile and larval present in the system which affects the ability to assign risk to passage conditions and prioritize management actions. Recommendations include developing standardized monitoring methods, such as at juvenile bypass systems (JBS’s), to better document numbers and timing of lamprey migrations at dams, and use biotelemetry tracking techniques to estimate survival potentials for different migration histories.

  19. Quantifying Barotrauma Risk to Juvenile Fish during Hydro-turbine Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Ebner, Laurie L.; Sick, Mirjam; Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2014-03-15

    We introduce a method for hydro turbine biological performance assessment (BioPA) to bridge the gap between field and laboratory studies on fish injury and turbine engineering design. Using this method, a suite of biological performance indicators is computed based on simulated data from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a proposed hydro turbine design. Each performance indicator is a measure of the probability of exposure to a certain dose of an injury mechanism. If the relationship between the dose of an injury mechanism (stressor) and frequency of injury (dose-response) is known from laboratory or field studies, the likelihood of fish injury for a turbine design can be computed from the performance indicator. By comparing the values of the indicators from various turbine designs, engineers and biologists can identify the more-promising designs and operating conditions to minimize hydraulic conditions hazardous to passing fish. In this paper, the BioPA method is applied to estimate barotrauma induced mortal injury rates for Chinook salmon exposed to rapid pressure changes in Kaplan-type hydro turbines. Following the description of the general method, application of the BioPA to estimate the probability of mortal injury from exposure to rapid decompression is illustrated using a Kaplan hydro turbine at the John Day Dam on the Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest region of the USA. The estimated rates of mortal injury increased from 0.3% to 1.7% as discharge through the turbine increased from 334 to 564 m3/s for fish assumed to be acclimated to a depth of 5 m. The majority of pressure nadirs occurred immediately below the runner blades, with the lowest values in the gap at the blade tips and just below the leading edge of the blades. Such information can help engineers focus on problem areas when designing new turbine runners to be more fish-friendly than existing units.

  20. Velocity Measurements at Six Fish Screening Facilities in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, Summer 1988 : Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Abernethy, C. Scott; Neitzel, Duane A.; Lusty, E. William

    1989-11-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (WDOE) are funding the construction and evaluation of fish passage facilities and fish protection facilities at irrigation and hydroelectric diversions in the Yakima River Basin, Washington State. The program provides offsite enhancement to compensate for fish and wildlife losses caused by hydroelectric development throughout the Columbia River Basin, and addresses natural propagation of salmon to help mitigate the impact of irrigation in the Yakima River Basin. This report evaluates the flow characteristics of the screening facilities. Studies consisted of velocity measurements taken in front of the rotary drum screens and within the fish bypass systems during peak flows. Measurements of approach velocity and sweep velocity were emphasized in these studies; however, vertical velocity was also measured. 5 refs., 18 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Synthesis of Sensor Fish Data for Assessment of Fish Passage Conditions at Turbines, Spillways, and Bypass Facilities – Phase 1: The Dalles Dam Spillway Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Serkowski, John A.; Fu, Tao; Carlson, Thomas J.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2007-12-31

    This report summarizes the characterization of spillway passage conditions at The Dalles Dam in 2006 and the effort to complete a comprehensive database for data sets from The Dalles Dam spillway Sensor Fish and balloon-tagged live fish experiments. Through The Dalles Dam spillway case study, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers evaluated the database as an efficient means for accessing and retrieving system-wide data for the U.S Army Corps of Engineers (USACE).

  2. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vucelick, Jessica; McMichael, Geoffrey; Chamness, Mickie

    2006-02-01

    In 2004, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 25 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. PNNL collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. In addition, PNNL conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2004, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by NOAA Fisheries. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well-greased and operative. (4) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris could be improved at some sites. (5) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to improve passage conditions for juvenile fish. For example, Taylor has had problems meeting bypass flow and submergence operating criteria since the main river channel shifted away from the site 2 years ago, and Fruitvale consistently has had problems meeting bypass flow criteria when the water is low. (6) Continued problems at Gleed point to design flaws. This site should be considered for redesign or replacement.

  3. A summary of 22 Years of Fish Screen Evaluation in the Yakima River Basin, Summary Report 1985-2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, Mickie A.

    2007-12-03

    Sixty fish screen facilities were constructed in the Yakima River basin between 1985 and 2006 as part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council plan to mitigate the effects of federal hydroelectric projects on fish and wildlife populations. This report summarizes evaluations of some of those and other fish screen facilities conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) from 1985 through 2006. The objective of these studies was to determine if the newly designed and constructed fish screens were effective at providing juvenile salmonids safe passage past irrigation diversions. To answer that question, PNNL conducted release-and-catch studies at eight Phase I sites in the Yakima River basin. Increasing concerns about the impacts of hatchery fish releases on the wild fish population, as well as the cost and time necessary to perform these kinds of biological studies at more than 60 planned Phase II sites, required development of techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of the sites without releasing fish. The new techniques involved collecting information on screen design, operation, and effectiveness at guiding fish safely through the fish screen facility. Performance measures including water velocities and passage conditions provide a good alternative to biological studies at significantly lower cost and time. Physical techniques were used at all 10 Phase I and 28 Phase II sites evaluated by PNNL over the following 19 years. Results of these studies indicate the Phase I and II fish screen facilities are designed and capable of providing safe passage for juvenile salmonids so long as construction, maintenance, and operations meet the criteria used in the design of each site and the National Marine Fisheries Service criteria for juvenile fish screen design.

  4. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, S.L.; Neitzel, Duane A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.

    2000-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 20 Phase II screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. The sites were examined to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide fish a safe, efficient return to the Yakima River. Data were collected to determine if velocities in front of the screens and in the bypass met current National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) criteria to promote safe and timely fish bypass and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set forth by the NMFS. Although velocities often fluctuated from one sampling location to the next, average sweep velocities typically exceeded approach velocities and increased toward the bypass. Mean approach velocities were below the NMFS criteria of < 0.4 feet per second (fps) at most sites (Table 1). Based on our observations in 1999, we believe that most facilities were efficiently protecting juvenile fish from entrainment, impingement, or migration delay. Most screens were properly sealed to prevent fish entrainment and injury, although potential problems were identified at several screen sites. Six sites (one fewer than the seven sites identified in 1998) had loose or damaged seals that might have allowed fish to be entrained (Table 1). Other sites still had spaces larger than 3/32 in. where small fish could possibly pass into the irrigation canal.

  5. Perfluorinated Compounds in Fish from US Urban Rivers and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have recently received scientific and regulatory attention due to their broad environmental distribution, persistence, bioaccumulative potential, and toxicity. Some studies suggest that the consumption of fish from contaminated waters may be a major source of human exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or other long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids. Much of the existing PFC fish tissue literature focuses on marine fish species and on fish collected outside of the continental U.S. To broaden the assessment of PFCs in U.S. fish, a comprehensive characterization of PFC contamination in freshwater fish was initiated on a national scale during the U.S. EPA 2008-2009 National Rivers and Streams Assessment and during the Great Lakes Human Health Fish Tissue Study component of the 2010 EPA National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA/GL). National estimates were developed for PFCs in fish from urban rivers and regional estimates for fish in the U.S. Great Lakes using an unequal probability design. Fish were collected from a statistically representative set of 164 urban river sites and from 157 randomly selected nearshore sites in the U.S. throughout the five Great Lakes. The probability design allowed extrapolation to the sampled population of 17,059 km in urban rivers and a nearshore area of 11,091 km2 in the Great Lakes. Fish fillet tissue was analyzed for 13 PFCs using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spec

  6. Anadronous Fish Habitat Enhancement for the Middle Fork and Upper Salmon River, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, John

    1990-01-01

    The wild and natural salmon and steelhead populations in the Middle Fork and Upper Salmon River are at a critical low. Habitat enhancement through decreasing sediment loads, increasing vegetative cover, removing passage barriers, and providing habitat diversity is imperative to the survival of these specially adapted fish, until passage problems over the Columbia River dams are solved. Personnel from the Boise and Sawtooth National Forests completed all construction work planned for 1988. In Bear Valley, 1573 feet of juniper revetment was constructed at eleven sites, cattle were excluded from 1291 feet of streambanks to prevent bank breakdown, and a small ephemeral gully was filled with juniper trees. Work in the Upper Salmon Drainage consisted of constructing nine rock sills/weirs, two rock deflectors, placing riprap along forty feet of streambank, construction of 2.1 miles of fence on private lands, and opening up the original Valley Creek channel to provide spring chinook passage to the upper watershed. A detailed stream survey of anadromous fish habitat covering 72.0 miles of streams in the Middle Fork Sub-basin was completed.

  7. Fish depth distributions in the Lower Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Killgore, K. J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of literature exists about depth distribution of fish in oceans, lakes and reservoirs, but less is known about fish depth distribution in large rivers. Most of the emphasis on fish distributions in rivers has focused on longitudinal and latitudinal spatial distributions. Knowledge on depth distribution is necessary to understand species and community habitat needs. Considering this void, our goal was to identify patterns in fish benthic distribution along depth gradients in the Lower Mississippi River. Fish were collected over 14 years in depths down to 27 m. Fish exhibited non-random depth distributions that varied seasonally and according to species. Species richness was highest in shallow water, with about 50% of the 62 species detected no longer collected in water deeper than 8 m and about 75% no longer collected in water deeper than 12 m. Although richness was highest in shallow water, most species were not restricted to shallow water. Rather, most species used a wide range of depths. A weak depth zonation occurred, not as strong as that reported for deep oceans and lakes. Larger fish tended to occur in deeper water during the high-water period of an annual cycle, but no correlation was evident during the low-water period. The advent of landscape ecology has guided river research to search for spatial patterns along the length of the river and associated floodplains. Our results suggest that fish assemblages in large rivers are also structured vertically. 

  8. Enloe Dam Passage Project, Volume I, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, M.L.

    1985-07-01

    This report discusses issues related to the provision of fish passage facilities at Enloe Dam and the introduction of anadromous salmonid fish to the upper Similkameen River basin. The species of fish being considered is a summer run of steelhead trout adapted to the upper Columbia basin. (ACR)

  9. St. Louis River fish migrations: Gains and losses of ecosystem ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Twin Ports fishery has undergone change from a migratory fish-based fishery to a Lake Superior-based fishery, and is now returning to a diverse fishery that includes fish of both life histories. These changes reflect past disturbances to the Great Lakes ecosystem as well as recent water quality improvement and efforts to restore habitat in the St. Louis River. Migratory fishes are an important ecosystem service for the St. Louis River, and improvements to the ecosystem quality within the St. Louis River Area of Concern has benefited migratory fishes. The coastal wetlands within the lower river provide direct support to a variety of high-value, recreationally-important fish species, including walleye, northern pike, and bass. Moreover, these wetlands serve as nursery habitat for a broader suite of high-value, commercially-important species. Restoration has likely improved the value of these coastal wetlands because low-value rough species tend to be more prevalent in degraded coastal wetlands, whereas high-value commercial and game fishes are more prevalent in high-quality coastal wetlands. There have been losses in ecosystem services, as well. Owing to legacy contamination of mercury and PCBs, migratory fishes in the St. Louis River have sufficiently high contaminant burdens to warrant consumption advisories, and recent movement research demonstrates that there is a positive relationship between increased use of St. Louis River habitat (versus Lake Superior)

  10. Re-Analysis of Hydroacoustic Fish-Passage Data from Bonneville Dam after Spill-Discharge Corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Kim, Jina; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.

    2007-06-07

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Portland District asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to re-analyze four years of fixed-aspect hydroacoustic data after the District made adjustments to spill discharge estimates. In this report, we present new estimates of all major fish-passage metrics for study years 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2004, as well as estimates for 2005. This study supports the Portland District and its effort to maximize survival of juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes through Bonneville Dam include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines at Powerhouse 2 (B2) and a sluiceway including the B2 Corner Collector. The original reports and all associated results, discussion, and conclusions for non flow-related metrics remain valid and useful, but effectiveness measures for study years 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2004 as reported in previous reports by Ploskey et al. should be superseded with the new estimates reported here. The fish-passage metrics that changed the most were related to effectiveness. Re-analysis produced spill effectiveness estimates that ranged from 12% to 21% higher than previous estimates in spring and 16.7% to 27.5% higher in summer, but the mean spill effectiveness over all years was only slightly above 1:1 (1.17 for spring and 1.29 for summer). Conversely surface-passage effectiveness decreased in the years this metric was measured (by 10.1% in spring and 10.7% in summer of 2002 and 9.5% in spring and 10.2% in summer of 2004). The smallest changes in the re-analysis were in project fish passage efficiency (0%-1%) and spill efficiency (0.9%-3.0%).

  11. Distributions of small nongame fishes in the lower Yellowstone River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duncan, Michael B.; Bramblett, Robert G.; Zale, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    The Yellowstone River is the longest unimpounded river in the conterminous United States. It has a relatively natural flow regime, which helps maintain diverse habitats and fish assemblages uncommon in large rivers elsewhere. The lower Yellowstone River was thought to support a diverse nongame fish assemblage including several species of special concern. However, comprehensive data on the small nongame fish assemblage of the lower Yellowstone River is lacking. Therefore, we sampled the Yellowstone River downstream of its confluence with the Clark’s Fork using fyke nets and otter trawls to assess distributions and abundances of small nongame fishes. We captured 42 species (24 native and 18 nonnative) in the lower Yellowstone River with fyke nets. Native species constituted over 99% of the catch. Emerald shiners Notropis atherinoides, western silvery minnows Hybognathus argyritis, flathead chubs Platygobio gracilis, sand shiners Notropis stramineus, and longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae composed nearly 94% of fyke net catch and were caught in every segment of the study area. We captured 24 species by otter trawling downstream of the Tongue River. Sturgeon chubs Macrhybopsis gelida, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, flathead chubs, stonecats Noturus flavus, and sicklefin chubs Macrhybopsis meeki composed 89% of the otter trawl catch. The upstream distributional limit of sturgeon chubs in the Yellowstone River was the Tongue River; few sicklefin chubs were captured above Intake Diversion Dam. This study not only provides biologists with baseline data for future monitoring efforts on the Yellowstone River but serves as a benchmark for management and conservation efforts in large rivers elsewhere as the Yellowstone River represents one of the best references for a naturally functioning Great Plains river.

  12. LARGE RIVER ASSESSMENT METHODS FOR BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES AND FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple projects are currently underway to increase our understanding of the varying results of different sampling methods and designs used for the biological assessment and monitoring of large (boatable) rivers. Studies include methods used to assess fish, benthic macroinverte...

  13. LARGE RIVER ASSESSMENT METHODS FOR BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES AND FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple projects are currently underway to increase our understanding of the varying results of different sampling methods and designs used for the biological assessment and monitoring of large (boatable) rivers. Studies include methods used to assess fish, benthic macroinverte...

  14. Diversity in migratory patterns among Neotropical fishes in a highly regulated river basin.

    PubMed

    Makrakis, M C; Miranda, L E; Makrakis, S; Fontes Júnior, H M; Morlis, W G; Dias, J H P; Garcia, J O

    2012-07-01

    Migratory behaviour of selected fish species is described in the Paraná River, Brazil-Argentina-Paraguay, to search for patterns relevant to tropical regulated river systems. In a 10 year mark-recapture study, spanning a 1425 km section of the river, 32 867 fishes composed of 18 species were released and 1083 fishes were recaptured. The fishes recaptured were at liberty an average 166 days (maximum 1548 days) and travelled an average 35 km (range 0-625 km). Cluster analysis applied to variables descriptive of movement behaviour identified four general movement patterns. Cluster 1 included species that moved long distances (mean 164 km) upstream (54%) and downstream (40%) the mainstem river and showed high incidence (27%) of passage through dams; cluster 2 also exhibited high rate of movement along the mainstem (49% upstream, 13% downstream), but moved small distances (mean 10 km); cluster 3 included the most fishes moving laterally into tributaries (45%) or not moving at all (25%), but little downstream movement (8%); fishes in cluster 4 exhibited little upstream movement (13%) and farthest downstream movements (mean 41 km). Whereas species could be numerically clustered with statistical models, a species ordination showed ample spread, suggesting that species exhibit diverse movement patterns that cannot be easily classified into just a few classes. The cluster and ordination procedures also showed that adults and juveniles of the same species exhibit similar movement patterns. Conventional concepts about Neotropical migratory fishes portray them as travelling long distances upstream. The present results broaden these concepts suggesting that migratory movements are more diverse, could be long, short or at times absent, upriver, downriver or lateral, and the diversity of movements can vary within and among species. The intense lateral migrations exhibited by a diversity of species, especially to and from large tributaries (above reservoirs) and reservoir

  15. Freshwater Fish Assemblage Patterns in Rhode Island Streams and Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Patterns in fish assemblages in streams and rivers can inform watershed and water management, yet these patterns are not well characterized for the U.S. state of Rhode Island. Here we relate freshwater fish data collected by the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Managemen...

  16. Phenology of larval fish in the St. Louis River estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little work has been done on the phenology of fish larvae in Great Lakes coastal wetlands. As part of an aquatic invasive species early detection study, we conducted larval fish surveys in the St. Louis River estuary (SLRE) in 2012 and 2013. Using multiple gears in a spatially ba...

  17. Larval fish distribution in the St. Louis River estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to determine what study design, environmental, and habitat variables contribute to the distribution and abundance of larval fish in the St. Louis River estuary. Larval fish habitat associations are poorly understood in Great Lakes coastal wetlands, yet critical ...

  18. Phenology of larval fish in the St. Louis River estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little work has been done on the phenology of fish larvae in Great Lakes coastal wetlands. As part of an aquatic invasive species early detection study, we conducted larval fish surveys in the St. Louis River estuary (SLRE) in 2012 and 2013. Using multiple gears in a spatially ba...

  19. Freshwater Fish Assemblage Patterns in Rhode Island Streams and Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Patterns in fish assemblages in streams and rivers can inform watershed and water management, yet these patterns are not well characterized for the U.S. state of Rhode Island. Here we relate freshwater fish data collected by the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Managemen...

  20. Larval fish distribution in the St. Louis River estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to determine what study design, environmental, and habitat variables contribute to the distribution and abundance of larval fish in the St. Louis River estuary. Larval fish habitat associations are poorly understood in Great Lakes coastal wetlands, yet critical ...

  1. Historic changes in fish assemblage structure in midwestern nonwadeable rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parks, Timothy P.; Quist, Michael C.; Pierce, Clay L.

    2014-01-01

    Historical change in fish assemblage structure was evaluated in the mainstems of the Des Moines, Iowa, Cedar, Wapsipinicon, and Maquoketa rivers, in Iowa. Fish occurrence data were compared in each river between historical and recent time periods to characterize temporal changes among 126 species distributions and assess spatiotemporal patterns in faunal similarity. A resampling procedure was used to estimate species occurrences in rivers during each assessment period and changes in species occurrence were summarized. Spatiotemporal shifts in species composition were analyzed at the river and river section scale using cluster analysis, pairwise Jaccard's dissimilarities, and analysis of multivariate beta dispersion. The majority of species exhibited either increases or declines in distribution in all rivers with the exception of several “unknown” or inconclusive trends exhibited by species in the Maquoketa River. Cluster analysis identified temporal patterns of similarity among fish assemblages in the Des Moines, Cedar, and Iowa rivers within the historical and recent assessment period indicating a significant change in species composition. Prominent declines of backwater species with phytophilic spawning strategies contributed to assemblage changes occurring across river systems.

  2. Habits and Habitats of Fishes in the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norwick, R.; Janvrin, J.; Zigler, S.; Kratt, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi River consists of 26 navigation pools that provide abundant habitat for a host of natural resources, such as fish, migratory waterfowl, non-game birds, deer, beaver, muskrats, snakes, reptiles, frogs, toads, salamanders, and many others. Of all the many different types of animals that depend on the river, fish are the most diverse with over 140 different species. The sport fishery is very diverse with at least 25 species commonly harvested. Fish species, such as walleyes, largemouth bass, bluegills, and crappies are favorites of sport anglers. Others such as common carp, buffalos, and channel catfish, are harvested by commercial anglers and end up on the tables of families all over the country. Still other fishes are important because they provide food for sport or commercial species. The fishery resources in these waters contribute millions of dollars to the economy annually. Overall, the estimate impact of anglers and other recreational users exceeds $1.2 billion on the Upper Mississippi River. The fisheries in the various reaches of the river of often are adversely affected by pollution, urbanization, non-native fishes, navigation, recreational boating, fishing, dredging, and siltation. However, state and federal agencies expend considerable effort and resources to manage fisheries and restore river habitats. This pamphlet was prepared to help you better understand what fishery resources exist, what the requirements of each pecies are, and how man-induced changes that are roposed or might occur could affect them.

  3. Linking landscapes and habitat suitability scores for diadromous fish restoration in the susquehanna river basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, P.M.; Ross, R.M.; Dropkin, D.S.; Campbell, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Dams within the Susquehanna River drainage, Pennsylvania, are potential barriers to migration of diadromous fishes, and many are under consideration for removal to facilitate fish passage. To provide useful input for prioritizing dam removal, we examined relations between landscape-scale factors and habitat suitability indices (HSIs) for native diadromous species of the Susquehanna River. We used two different methods (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service method: Stier and Crance [1985], Ross et al. [1993a, 1993b, 1997], and Pardue [1983]; Pennsylvania State University method: Carline et al. [1994]) to calculate HSIs for several life stages of American shad Alosa sapidissima, alewives Alosa pseudoharengus, and blueback herring Alosa aestivalis and a single HSI for American eels Anguilla rostrata based on habitat variables measured at transects spaced every 5 km on six major Susquehanna River tributaries. Using geographical information systems, we calculated land use and geologic variables upstream from each transect and associated those data with HSIs calculated at each transect. We then performed canonical correlation analysis to determine how HSIs were linked to geologic and land use factors. Canonical correlation analysis identified the proportion of watershed underlain by carbonate rock as a positive correlate of HSIs for all species and life stages except American eels and juvenile blueback herring. We hypothesize that potential mechanisms linking carbonate rock to habitat suitability include increased productivity and buffering capacity. No other consistent patterns of positive or negative correlation between landscape-scale factors and HSIs were evident. This analysis will be useful for prioritizing removal of dams in the Susquehanna River drainage, because it provides a broad perspective on relationships between habitat suitability for diadromous fishes and easily measured landscape factors. This approach can be applied elsewhere to elucidate relationships

  4. Ecological fish production in two small lowland rivers in Poland.

    PubMed

    Penczak, Tadeusz

    1981-02-01

    Estimates were made of the ecological fish production in two small lowland rivers uninhabited by salmonids. Eight sites were examined in the Utrata River drainage basin, and five in the Zalewka Brook. Nets were placed at the upper and lower limits of each site and fish were captured using electrofishing apparatus; at the four sites estimates of fish density were verified by the use of rotenone. Twelfe fish species were found, the following being dominant: Three-spined Stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus L., Loach, Nemachilus barbatulus (L.), Gudgeon, Gobio gobio (L.). Ecological fish production ranged from 30.7 to 807.2 kg ha(-1) a(-1) (mean: 210.9 kg ha(-1) a(-1)). Production was highest at the sites with the lowest number of species, the maximum value occurring in the headspring section with three species.

  5. The fishes of Buffalo National River, Arkansas, 2001-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.; Justus, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    During June through September 2001 and 2002, extensive fish community sampling was conducted at 29 sites within the boundaries of Buffalo National River. Samples were collected using backpack, tote barge, and boat electrofishing equipment. Kick seining also was used at all sites. To supplement these results, samples were collected in 2003 from less typical habitats and during other seasons of the year. Ten supplemental samples were collected from the Buffalo River and five samples were collected from tributaries of the Buffalo River. During the 3 years of sampling, 66 species of fish were collected or observed from the 42 sampling sites. Stonerollers, duskystripe shiners, longear sunfish, and rainbow darters were among the more abundant fish species at most sites. Each of these species is common and abundant throughout much of the Ozark Plateaus in creeks and small rivers. Other species (for example, banded sculpin, southern redbelly dace, orangethroat darter, and Ozark minnow) were among the more abundant species at other sites. These species prefer small- to medium-sized, springfed streams or small creeks. A preliminary list of species expected to occur at Buffalo National River provided by the National Park Service incorrectly listed 47 species because of incorrect species range or habitat requirements. Upon revising this list, the inventory yielded 66 of the 78 species (85 percent). Twelve additional species not collected in 2001-2003 may occur at Buffalo National River for two primary reasons--because the species had been collected previously at the park, or because the park occurs within the known species range and habitats found at the park are suitable for the species. Although no fish species collected from Buffalo National River are federally-listed threatened or endangered species, several species collected at Buffalo National River may be of special interest to National Park Service managers and others. Ten species are endemic to the Ozark Plateaus area

  6. Effects of Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Fish Residing in the Snake and Columbia Rivers, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schrank, Boyd P.

    1998-03-01

    Increased spill at dams has commonly brought dissolved gas supersaturation higher than levels established by state and federal water quality criteria in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. These increased spill volumes are intended to provide safe passage for migrating juvenile salmon. However, dissolved gas supersaturation resulting from spill in past decades has led to gas bubble disease (GBD) in fish. Therefore, during the period of high spill in 1996, the authors monitored the prevalence and severity of gas bubble disease by sampling resident fish in Priest Rapids Reservoir and downstream from Bonneville, Priest Rapids, and Ice Harbor Dams.

  7. Circulation and mixing along the North Passage in the Changjiang River estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Xiang; Shi, John Z.; Hu, Guo-Dong; Xiong, Long-Bing

    2015-08-01

    Simultaneous field observations were made of time series of water level, current velocity, salinity and suspended sediment concentration at ten hydrological gauging stations along the North Passage in the Changjiang River estuary on 17 to 24 February (dry season) and 12 to 18 August 2012 (wet season), respectively. Quantitative analyses of those data are attempted to understand circulation and mixing along the Deepwater Navigational Channel in this estuary. Landward subtidal flow only appears during the neap tide. The maximum bottom landward velocity is in the order of 0.05-0.1 m·s- 1 in the dry season and 0.15-0.2 m·s- 1 in the wet season, respectively. In both dry and wet seasons, calculated mixing parameter (M), which is the ratio of the tidal timescale to the vertical mixing timescale, is below the critical value (1.0) on a neap tide but above it on a spring tide within the middle and lower reaches of the Channel. This suggests that tidal variation of mixing may be able to generate the tidal straining circulation during the periodic stratified spring tide. The interaction between significant river shear flow and longitudinal density gradient, a process termed "river effect" in this study, is revealed as the major reason for seasonal variation of stratification. The competition between tidal stirring, gravitational circulation and river effect could produce an increase in tidal mean value of the potential energy anomaly (ϕ) from neap to spring tides. Tidal mean value of the Simpson number (Si) over a neap tide surpasses the critical value (8.4 × 10- 1) within the middle reach of the Channel, suggesting the occurrence of persistent stratification there. Tidal mean Si over a spring tide is in the order of 8.4 × 10- 1-8.8 × 10- 2 within the middle reach, suggesting the occurrence of strain induced periodic stratification (SIPS). Shear prevails within the pycnocline in the middle and lower reaches of the Channel on a neap tide, with the value of squared shear

  8. Fish community response to dam removal in a Maine coastal river tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Hogg, Robert S.; Coghlan, Stephen M.; Gardner, Cory

    2016-01-01

    Sedgeunkedunk Stream, a third-order tributary to the Penobscot River in Maine, historically has supported several anadromous fishes including Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, and Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Two small dams constructed in the 1800s reduced or eliminated spawning runs entirely. In 2009, efforts to restore marine–freshwater connectivity in the system culminated in removal of the lowermost dam (Mill Dam) providing access to 4.7 km of lotic habitat and unimpeded passage into the lentic habitat of Fields Pond. In anticipation of these barrier removals, we initiated a modified before-after-control-impact study, and monitored stream fish assemblages in fixed treatment and reference sites. Electrofishing surveys were conducted twice yearly since 2007. Results indicated that density, biomass, and diversity of the fish assemblage increased at all treatment sites upstream of the 2009 dam removal. No distinct changes in these metrics occurred at reference sites. We documented recolonization and successful reproduction of Atlantic Salmon, Alewife, and Sea Lamprey in previously inaccessible upstream reaches. These results clearly demonstrate that dam removal has enhanced the fish assemblage by providing an undisrupted stream gradient linking a small headwater lake and tributary with a large coastal river, its estuary, and the Atlantic Ocean.

  9. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Screen Evaluations, 2001 : Burlingame and Little Walla Walla Sites.

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, M.A.

    2001-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 2 newly constructed fish screen sites in the Walla Walla River Basin during the spring of 2001. The fish screens facilities at the Little Walla Walla River in Milton-Freewater, Oregon and at Burlingame west of Walla Walla, Washington were examined to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide for safe fish passage. Data were collected to determine if velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met current National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. Due to a calibration problem with the instrument used to measure water velocities during the spring evaluations, we re-evaluated the water velocities at both sites after the canals discharges were increased in the fall. Based on the results of our studies in 2001, we concluded: Burlingame site--The rotary-drum screen design appeared to be efficiently protecting juvenile fish from entrainment, impingement, and migration delay in May and June. However, sediment and debris accumulations in the screen forebay could result in screen seal wear (due to silt) and may increase mortality due to predation in the screen forebay (due to woody debris accumulations along the screen face). All approach velocities were below the NMFS criteria of 0.4 feet per second in November. Sweep velocities were appreciably higher than approach velocities, however sweep velocities did not increase toward the bypass. Bypass velocity was greater than sweep velocities. Little Walla Walla--The flat-plate screen design appeared to be efficiently protecting juvenile fish from entrainment, impingement, and migration delay in May and June. All approach velocities were below the NMFS criteria of 0.4 feet per second in November. Sweep velocities were substantially higher than approach velocities and increased toward the bypass

  10. Influence of multiple dam passage on survival of juvenile Chinook salmon in the Columbia River estuary and coastal ocean

    PubMed Central

    Rechisky, Erin L.; Welch, David W.; Porter, Aswea D.; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C.; Winchell, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple dam passage during seaward migration is thought to reduce the subsequent survival of Snake River Chinook salmon. This hypothesis developed because juvenile Chinook salmon from the Snake River, the Columbia River’s largest tributary, migrate >700 km through eight hydropower dams and have lower adult return rates than downstream populations that migrate through only 3 or 4 dams. Using a large-scale telemetry array, we tested whether survival of hatchery-reared juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon is reduced in the estuary and coastal ocean relative to a downstream, hatchery-reared population from the Yakima River. During the initial 750-km, 1-mo-long migration through the estuary and coastal ocean, we found no evidence of differential survival; therefore, poorer adult returns of Snake River Chinook may develop far from the Columbia River. Thus, hydrosystem mitigation efforts may be ineffective if differential mortality rates develop in the North Pacific Ocean for reasons unrelated to dam passage. PMID:23576733

  11. Biomonitoring of heavy metals in fish from the Danube River.

    PubMed

    Zrnčić, Snježana; Oraić, Dražen; Ćaleta, Marko; Mihaljević, Željko; Zanella, Davor; Bilandžić, Nina

    2013-02-01

    The Croatian part of the Danube River extends over 188 km and comprises 58 % of the country's overall area used for commercial freshwater fishing. To date, the heavy metal contamination of fish in the Croatian part of the Danube has not been studied. The main purpose of this study was to determine heavy metal levels in muscle tissue of sampled fish species and to analyze the measured values according to feeding habits of particular groups. Lead ranged from 0.015 μg(-1) dry weight in planktivorous to 0.039 μg(-1) dry weight in herbivorous fish, cadmium from 0.013 μg(-1) dry weight in herbivorous to 0.018 μg(-1) dry weight in piscivorous fish, mercury from 0.191 μg(-1) dry weight in omnivorous to 0.441 μg(-1) dry weight in planktivorous fish and arsenic from 0.018 μg(-1) dry weight in planktivorous to 0.039 μg(-1) dry weight in omnivorous fish. Among the analyzed metals in muscle tissue of sampled fish, only mercury exceeded the maximal level (0.5 mg kg(-1)) permitted according to the national and EU regulations determining maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs, indicating a hazard for consumers of fish from the Danube River.

  12. Simulated passage through a modified Kaplan turbine pressure regime: A supplement to "Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish"

    SciTech Connect

    Abernethy, C. S.; Amidan, B. G.; Cada, G. F.

    2002-04-01

    A previous test series (Abernethy et al. 2001) evaluated the effects of passage through a Kaplan turbine under the “worst case” pressure conditions. For this series of tests, pressure changes were modified to simulate passage through a Kaplan turbine under a more “fish-friendly” mode of operation. The results were compared to results from Abernethy et al. (2001). These data indicate that altered operating conditions that raise the nadir (low point) of the turbine passage pressure regime could reduce the injury and mortality rates of fish during turbine passage. Fall Chinook salmon were not injured or killed when subjected to the modified pressure scenario. Bluegills were more sensitive to pressure effects than fall Chinook salmon, but injury and mortality rates were lower under the modified Kaplan pressure regime. This improvement was particularly significant among fish that were acclimated to greater water pressures (traveling at greater depth).

  13. Kootenai River Resident Fish Assessment, FY2008 KTOI Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Holderman, Charles

    2009-06-26

    The overarching goal of project 1994-049-00 is to recover a productive, healthy and biologically diverse Kootenai River ecosystem, with emphasis on native fish species rehabilitation. It is especially designed to aid the recovery of important fish stocks, i.e. white sturgeon, burbot, bull trout, kokanee and several other salmonids important to the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho and regional sport-fisheries. The objectives of the project have been to address factors limiting key fish species within an ecosystem perspective. Major objectives include: establishment of a comprehensive and thorough biomonitoring program, investigate ecosystem--level in-river productivity, test the feasibility of a large-scale Kootenai River nutrient addition experiment (completed), to evaluate and rehabilitate key Kootenai River tributaries important to the health of the lower Kootenai River ecosystem, to provide funding for Canadian implementation of nutrient addition and monitoring in the Kootenai River ecosystem (Kootenay Lake) due to lost system productivity created by construction and operation of Libby Dam, mitigate the cost of monitoring nutrient additions in Arrow Lakes due to lost system productivity created by the Libby-Arrow water swap, provide written summaries of all research and activities of the project, and, hold a yearly workshop to convene with other agencies and institutions to discuss management, research, and monitoring strategies for this project and to provide a forum to coordinate and disseminate data with other projects involved in the Kootenai River basin.

  14. SIMULATING FISH ASSEMBLAGE DYNAMICS IN RIVER NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    My recently retired colleague, Joan Baker, and I have developed a prototype computer simulation model for studying the effects of human and non-human alterations of habitats and species availability on fish assemblage populations. The fish assemblage model, written in R, is a sp...

  15. SIMULATING FISH ASSEMBLAGE DYNAMICS IN RIVER NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    My recently retired colleague, Joan Baker, and I have developed a prototype computer simulation model for studying the effects of human and non-human alterations of habitats and species availability on fish assemblage populations. The fish assemblage model, written in R, is a sp...

  16. Passage performance of long-distance upstream migrants at a large dam on the Paraná River and the compounding effects of entry and ascent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Ricardo Luiz; Makrakis, Sergio; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Makrakis, Maristela Cavicchioli; Dias, João Henrique Pinheiro; Belmont, René Fuster

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results of a fishway evaluation performed at the Engenheiro Sérgio Motta Hydroelectric Power Plant (known as Porto Primavera) - CESP, Paraná River, Brazil. The evaluation was designed to quantify entry and passage proportions of 4 long-distance migratory fish species: Brycon orbignyanus (piracanjuba), Piaractus mesopotamicus (pacu), Prochilodus lineatus (curimba), and Rhinelepis aspera (cascudo-preto). Proportions finding and entering the fishway differed between species, ranged from 7.4 % (Prochilodus lineatus) to 55.4% (Piaractus mesopotamicus). Also, proportion passing was different between species, ranged from 31% (R. aspera) to 100% (Prochilodus lineatus). Fish that were marked and released within the fishway had greater failure rates than those that entered volitionally. Total time to pass ranged from 1.48 hours (Prochilodus lineatus) to 178.9 hours (R. aspera). Failure rates were greatest in the lower end of the fishway. Although some individuals of all species passed successfully, significant challenges remain to restoring connectivity of the upper Paraná River.

  17. Migrations and swimming capabilities of endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) to guide passage designs in the fragmented Yellowstone River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Fuller, D. B.; McElroy, Brandon J.

    2015-01-01

    Fragmentation of the Yellowstone River is hypothesized to preclude recruitment of endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) by impeding upstream spawning migrations and access to upstream spawning areas, thereby limiting the length of free-flowing river required for survival of early life stages. Building on this hypothesis, the reach of the Yellowstone River affected by Intake Diversion Dam (IDD) is targeted for modification. Structures including a rock ramp and by-pass channel have been proposed as restoration alternatives to facilitate passage. Limited information on migrations and swimming capabilities of pallid sturgeon is available to guide engineering design specifications for the proposed structures. Migration behavior, pathways (channel routes used during migrations), and swimming capabilities of free-ranging wild adult pallid sturgeon were examined using radiotelemetry, and complemented with hydraulic data obtained along the migration pathways. Migrations of 12–26% of the telemetered pallid sturgeon population persisted to IDD, but upstream passage over the dam was not detected. Observed migration pathways occurred primarily through main channel habitats; however, migrations through side channels up to 3.9 km in length were documented. The majority of pallid sturgeon used depths of 2.2–3.4 m and mean water velocities of 0.89–1.83 m/s while migrating. Results provide inferences on depths, velocities, and habitat heterogeneity of reaches successfully negotiated by pallid sturgeon that may be used to guide designs for structures facilitating passage at IDD. Passage will provide connectivity to potential upstream spawning areas on the Yellowstone River, thereby increasing the likelihood of recruitment for this endangered species.

  18. Nonnative Fishes in the Upper Mississippi River System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irons, Kevin S.; DeLain, Steven A.; Gittinger, Eric; Ickes, Brian S.; Kolar, Cindy S.; Ostendort, David; Ratcliff, Eric N.; Benson, Amy J.; Irons, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction, spread, and establishment of nonnative species is widely regarded as a leading threat to aquatic biodiversity and consequently is ranked among the most serious environmental problems facing the United States today. This report presents information on nonnative fish species observed by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program on the Upper Mississippi River System a nexus of North American freshwater fish diversity for the Nation. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program, as part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Environmental Management Plan, is the Nation's largest river monitoring program and stands as the primary source of standardized ecological information on the Upper Mississippi River System. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program has been monitoring fish communities in six study areas on the Upper Mississippi River System since 1989. During this period, more than 3.5 million individual fish, consisting of 139 species, have been collected. Although fish monitoring activities of the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program focus principally on entire fish communities, data collected by the Program are useful for detecting and monitoring the establishment and spread of nonnative fish species within the Upper Mississippi River System Basin. Sixteen taxa of nonnative fishes, or hybrids thereof, have been observed by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program since 1989, and several species are presently expanding their distribution and increasing in abundance. For example, in one of the six study areas monitored by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program, the number of established nonnative species has increased from two to eight species in less than 10 years. Furthermore, contributions of those eight species can account for up to 60 percent of the total annual catch and greater than 80 percent of the observed biomass. These observations are critical because the Upper Mississippi River System stands as a nationally significant pathway for

  19. Fishes of Selected Aquatic Habitats on the Lower Mississippi River

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    FISHES OF SELECTED AQUATIC HABITATS ON Final report THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI RIVER s. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER...Royal Road, Springfield, Va. 22151. IS. KEY WORDS (Continue on evero* aide ilnoc*oary and identify by block number) Aquatic Habitats Mississippi River...is part of the Enviromental and Water Quality Opera- tional Studies (EWQOS) sponsored by the Office of the Chief of Engineers. The basic objective of

  20. Contaminants in fishes from great lakes-influenced sections and above dams of three Michigan Rivers: III. Implications for health of bald eagles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giesy, J.P.; Bowerman, W.W.; Mora, M.A.; Verbrugge, D.A.; Othoudt, R. A.; Newsted, J.L.; Summer, C. L.; Aulerich, R.J.; Bursian, S.J.; Ludwig, J. P.; Dawson, G. A.; Kubiak, T.J.; Best, D. A.; Tillitt, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, there have been discussions of the relative merits of passage of fishes around hydroelectric dams on three rivers (Au Sable, Manistee, and Muskegon) in Michigan. A hazard assessment was conducted to determine the potential for adverse effects on bald eagles that could consume such fishes from above and below dams on the three primary rivers. The hazard assessments were verified by comparing the reproductive productivities of eagles nesting in areas where they ate primarily fish from either above or below dams on the three primary rivers, as well as on two additional rivers in Michigan, the Menominee and Thunder Bay. Concentrations of organochlorine insecticides (OCI), polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), and total mercury (Hg) were measured in composite samples of fishes from above and below hydroelectric dams on the Manistee and Muskegon Rivers, which flow into Lake Michigan, and the Au Sable River, which flows into Lake Huron. Mean concentrations of OCI, total PCBs, and TCDD-EQ were all greater in fishes from below the dams than in those from above. The hazard assessment indicated that current concentrations of Hg and OCI other than DDT (DDT + DDE + DDD) in fish from neither above nor below dams would present a significant hazard to bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Both total PCBs and TCDD-EQ in fishes from below the dams currently present a significant hazard to bald eagles, since their mean hazard quotients (HQ) were all greater than one.

  1. Contaminants of fishes from Great Lakes-influenced sections and above dams of three Michigan rivers: III. Implications for health of bald eagles.

    PubMed

    Giesy, J P; Bowerman, W W; Mora, M A; Verbrugge, D A; Othoudt, R A; Newsted, J L; Summer, C L; Aulerich, R J; Bursian, S J; Ludwig, J P

    1995-10-01

    Recently, there have been discussions of the relative merits of passage of fishes around hydroelectric dams on three rivers (Au Sable, Manistee, and Muskegon) in Michigan. A hazard assessment was conducted to determine the potential for adverse effects on bald eagles that could consume such fishes from above and below dams on the three primary rivers. The hazard assessments were verified by comparing the reproductive productivities of eagles nesting in areas where they ate primarily fish from either above or below dams on the three primary rivers, as well as on two additional rivers in Michigan, the Menominee and Thunder Bay. Concentrations of organochlorine insecticides (OCI), polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), and total mercury (Hg) were measured in composite samples of fishes from above and below hydroelectric dams on the Manistee and Muskegon Rivers, which flow into Lake Michigan, and the Au Sable River, which flows into Lake Huron. Mean concentrations of OCI, total PCBs, and TCDD-EQ were all greater in fishes from below the dams than in those from above. The hazard assessment indicated that current concentrations of Hg and OCI other than DDT (DDT+DDE+DDD) in fish from neither above nor below dams would present a significant hazard to bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Both total PCBs and TCDD-EQ in fishes from below the dams currently present a significant hazard to bald eagles, since their mean hazard quotients (HQ) were all greater than one.

  2. Characterization of Pump Flow at the Grand Coulee Pumping Station for Fish Passage, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Johnson, Robert L.

    2005-03-31

    This report describes a study conducted by PNNL for the Bonneville Power Administration to characterized the conditions fish experience when entrained in pump flow at the Grand Coulee Dam. PNNL used the Sensor Fish to measure the acceleration and pressure conditions that might be experienced by fish who are pulled through the pumps and turbines at Grand Coulee Dam's pump generation station and transported up into the feeder canal leading to Banks Lake. The probability that fish would be struck by the pump generating plant's new 9-bladed turbines was also calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. Our measurements showed relatively low turbulence except in the immediate vicinity of the runner environment. The highest pressure experienced by the Sensor Fish was estimated at 157 psi (the pressure gauge saturated at 155 psi). The probability of strike was also calculated, based on the average length of hatchery-reared juvenile kokanee (land-locked sockeye). Strike probabilities ranged from 0.755 for 2.36-inch fish to 0.3890 for 11.8-inch fish. The probability of strike estimates indicate that the majority (77%) of kokanne would be carried through the pump without being struck and most likely without injury resulting from pressure and turbulence exposure. Of the 23% that might be struck it is expected that 60% would arrive in Banks Lake without visible external injuries. Thus more than 90% of entrained fish would be expected to arrive in Banks Lake without injury.

  3. John Day River Sub-Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project; 2008 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Russ M.; Alley, Pamela D.; Goin Jr, Lonnie

    2009-07-15

    Work undertaken in 2008 included: (1) Seven new fence projects were completed thereby protecting approximately 10.97 miles of streams with 16.34 miles of riparian fence; (2) Renewal of one expired lease was completed thereby continuing to protect 0.75 miles of stream with 1.0 mile of riparian fence. (3) Maintenance of all active project fences (106.54 miles), watergaps (78), spring developments (33) were checked and repairs performed; (3) Planted 1000 willow/red osier on Fox Creek/Henslee property; (4) Planted 2000 willows/red osier on Middle Fork John Day River/Coleman property; (5) Planted 1000 willow/red osier cuttings on Fox Creek/Johns property; (6) Since the initiation of the Fish Habitat Project in 1984 we have 126.86 miles of stream protected using 211.72 miles of fence protecting 5658 acres. The purpose of the John Day Fish Habitat Enhancement Program is to enhance production of indigenous wild stocks of spring Chinook and summer steelhead within the sub basin through habitat protection, enhancement and fish passage improvement. The John Day River system supports the largest remaining wild runs of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead in Northeast Oregon.

  4. Swimming performance of upstream migrant fishes in open-channel flow: A new approach to predicting passage through velocity barriers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, A.; Castro-Santos, T.; Noreika, J.; Odeh, M.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to traverse barriers of high-velocity flow limits the distributions of many diadromous and other migratory fish species, yet very few data exist that quantify this ability. We provide a detailed analysis of sprint swimming ability of six migratory fish species (American shad (Alosa sapidissima), alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis), striped bass (Morone saxatilis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni)) against controlled water velocities of 1.5-4.5 m??s-1 in a large, open-channel flume. Performance was strictly voluntary: no coercive incentives were used to motivate fish to sprint. We used these data to generate models of maximum distance traversed, taking into account effects of flow velocity, body length, and temperature. Although the maximum distance traversed decreased with increasing velocity, the magnitude of this effect varied among species. Other covariate effects were likewise variable, with divergent effects of temperature and nonuniform length effects. These effects do not account for all of the variability in performance, however, and behavioral traits may account for observed interspecific differences. We propose the models be used to develop criteria for fish passage structures, culverts, and breached dams.

  5. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, R. Todd; Sexton, Amy D.

    2003-02-01

    development of a 105-foot well for off-stream livestock watering at approximately River Mile 12.0 Wildhorse Creek and construction of an engineered stream ford at approximately River Mile 3.0 Mission Creek. A total of $277,848 in financial cost share assistance was provided by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Workforce Investment Act, Oregon Watershed Enhancement Board, Umatilla County and Pheasants Forever for planning efforts and habitat enhancements. Monitoring continued to quantify baseline conditions and the effects of habitat enhancements in the upper basin. Daily stream temperatures were collected from June through September at 22 sites. Suspended sediment samples were obtained at three gage stations to arrive at daily sediment load estimates. Photographs were taken at 96 existing and three newly established photo points to document habitat recovery and pre-project conditions. Transects were measured at three stream channel cross sections to assist with engineering and design and to obtain baseline data regarding channel morphology. Biological inventories were conducted at River Mile 3.0 Mission Creek to determine pre-project fish utilization above and below the passage barrier. Post-project inventories were also conducted at River Mile 85.0 of the Umatilla River at a project site completed in 1999. Umatilla Subbasin Watershed Assessment efforts were continued under a subcontract with Eco-Pacific. This watershed assessment document and working databases will be completed in fiscal year 2002 and made available to assist project personnel with sub-watershed prioritization of habitat needs. Water Works Consulting, Duck Creek Associates and Ed Salminen Consulting were subcontracted for watershed assessment and restoration planning in the Meacham Creek Subwatershed. A document detailing current

  6. Fishes of the Blackwater River Drainage, Tucker County, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cincotta, Daniel A.; Welsh, Stuart; Wegman, Douglas P.; Oldham, Thomas E.; Hedrick, Lara B.

    2015-01-01

    The Blackwater River, a tributary of the upper Cheat River of the Monongahela River, hosts a modest fish fauna. This relatively low diversity of fish species is partly explained by its drainage history. The Blackwater was once part of the prehistoric, northeasterly flowing St. Lawrence River. During the Pleistocene Epoch, the fauna was significantly affected by glacial advance and by proglacial lakes and their associated overflows. After the last glacial retreat, overflow channels, deposits, and scouring altered drainage courses and connected some of the tributaries of the ancient Teays and Pittsburgh drainages. These major alterations allowed the invasion of fishes from North America's more species-rich southern waters. Here we review fish distributions based on 67 surveys at 34 sites within the Blackwater River drainage, and discuss the origin and status of 37 species. Within the Blackwater River watershed, 30 species (20 native, 10 introduced) have been reported from upstream of Blackwater Falls, whereas 29 (26 native, 3 introduced) have been documented below the Falls. Acid mine drainage, historic lumbering, and human encroachment have impacted the Blackwater's ichthyofauna. The fishes that have been most affected are Salvelinus fontinalis (Brook Trout), Clinostomus elongatus (Redside Dace), Nocomis micropogon (River Chub), Hypentelium nigricans (Northern Hog Sucker), Etheostoma flabellare (Fantail Darter), and Percina maculata(Blackside Darter). The first two species incurred range reductions, whereas the latter four were probably extirpated. In the 1990s, acid remediation dramatically improved the water quality of the river below Davis. Recent surveys in the lower drainage revealed 15 fishes where none had been observed since at least the 1940s; seven of these (Cyprinella spiloptera [Spotfin Shiner], Luxilus chrysocephalus [Striped Shiner], Notropis photogenis [Silver Shiner], N. rubellus [Rosyface Shiner];Micropterus dolomieu

  7. UV filters bioaccumulation in fish from Iberian river basins.

    PubMed

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2015-06-15

    The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/g dry weight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7 ng/gd.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23 ng/gd.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04-0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web.

  8. Compliance Monitoring of Yearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Spring 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-07

    The study was designed to estimate dam passage survival at Bonneville Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and to provide additional fish passage performance measures at that site as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  9. Compliance Monitoring of Yearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at John Day Dam, Spring 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Hughes, James S.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-02-01

    The study was designed to estimate dam passage survival at John Day Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and to provide additional fish passage performance measures at that site as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  10. Compliance Monitoring of Yearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at John Day Dam, Spring 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Hughes, James S.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-01

    The study was designed to estimate dam passage survival at John Day Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and to provide additional fish passage performance measures at that site as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  11. Compliance Monitoring of Yearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Spring 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-03-01

    The study was designed to estimate dam passage survival at Bonneville Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and to provide additional fish passage performance measures at that site as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  12. 76 FR 13438 - Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... POWER AND CONSERVATION PLANNING COUNCIL Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program AGENCY... Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 4(h) of the Northwest Power Act, the Council has amended its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to add...

  13. 75 FR 64752 - Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... POWER AND CONSERVATION PLANNING COUNCIL Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program AGENCY... Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 4(h) of the Northwest Power Act, the Council has amended its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to add...

  14. 76 FR 13676 - Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... POWER AND CONSERVATION PLANNING COUNCIL Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program AGENCY... Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 4(h) of the Northwest Power Act, the Council has amended its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to add...

  15. FISH ASSEMBLAGE GROUPS IN THE UPPER TENNESSEE RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hierarchical clustering technique was used to classify sites in the upper Tennessee River basin based on relative abundance of fish species. Five site groups were identified. These groups differed mainly by the occurrence of minnow and darter species. Drainage area and ecore...

  16. Lost, a desert river and its native fishes: a historical perspective of the lower Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Gordon A.; Marsh, Paul C.

    2002-01-01

    The Colorado River had one of the most unique fish communities in the world. Seventy-five percent of those species were found no where else in the world. Settlement of the lower basin brought dramatic changes to both the river and its native fish. Those changes began more than 120 years ago as settlers began stocking nonnative fishes. By 1930, nonnative fish had spread throughout the lower basin and replaced native communities. All resemblance of historic river conditions faded with the construction of Hoover Dam in 1935 and other large water development projects. Today, few remember what the Colorado River was really like. Seven of the nine mainstream fishes are now federally protected as endangered. Federal and state agencies are attempting to recover these fish; however, progress has been frustrated due to the severity of human impact. This report presents testimony, old descriptions, and photographs describing the changes that have taken place in hopes that it will provide managers, biologists, and the interested public a better appreciation of the environment that shaped these unique fish.

  17. An Analysis of Stream Culvert Fish Passage on the Navy Railroad Line between Bremerton and Shelton, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    May, Christopher W.; Miller, Martin C.; Southard, John A.

    2004-10-25

    The Navy railroad service line runs between Shelton, Bremerton, and Silverdale, and is used by the Navy to transfer freight to its facilities. It is also used by commercial clients to ship service items and bulk cargo for municipalities along portions of the route. Culverts of various size and construction convey streams and stormwater runoff under the railroad line. These allow transfer of water and, in some cases allow for passage of juvenile and adult salmon into waters upstream of the culverts. As part of this project, 21 culverts along a 34-mile reach (Shelton to Bremerton) of this railroad were surveyed to evaluate their function and ability to allow salmon to utilize the streams. The culverts and attached watersheds were evaluated using criteria developed by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife to assign a Priority Index (PI) to barriers present on each fish-bearing stream. The PI is a relative numeric rating indicator, assigned using consistent criteria related to the degree of potential habitat gained by removing barriers and improving the function of the watershed. Of the 21 culverts evaluated, five were found to be complete fish-passage barriers and six were found to be partial barriers, primarily to juvenile salmon. Three of these culverts had PI ratings above 10 and five others had ratings between 7 and 10. Corrective action can be taken based on any PI rating, but the WDFW normally assigns lower priority to projects with PI scores lower than 15. Several of the stream and culverts had previously been evaluated for structural integrity and function and have been scheduled for repair. A narrative indicating the condition of the culvert has been prepared as well as a table indicating the PI scores and a summary of recommendations for action for each culvert.

  18. Optimum swimming pathways of fish spawning migrations in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McElroy, Brandon; DeLonay, Aaron; Jacobson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Fishes that swim upstream in rivers to spawn must navigate complex fluvial velocity fields to arrive at their ultimate locations. One hypothesis with substantial implications is that fish traverse pathways that minimize their energy expenditure during migration. Here we present the methodological and theoretical developments necessary to test this and similar hypotheses. First, a cost function is derived for upstream migration that relates work done by a fish to swimming drag. The energetic cost scales with the cube of a fish's relative velocity integrated along its path. By normalizing to the energy requirements of holding a position in the slowest waters at the path's origin, a cost function is derived that depends only on the physical environment and not on specifics of individual fish. Then, as an example, we demonstrate the analysis of a migration pathway of a telemetrically tracked pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Missouri River (USA). The actual pathway cost is lower than 105 random paths through the surveyed reach and is consistent with the optimization hypothesis. The implication—subject to more extensive validation—is that reproductive success in managed rivers could be increased through manipulation of reservoir releases or channel morphology to increase abundance of lower-cost migration pathways.

  19. Optimum swimming pathways of fish spawning migrations in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McElroy, Brandon; DeLonay, Aaron; Jacobson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Fishes that swim upstream in rivers to spawn must navigate complex fluvial velocity fields to arrive at their ultimate locations. One hypothesis with substantial implications is that fish traverse pathways that minimize their energy expenditure during migration. Here we present the methodological and theoretical developments necessary to test this and similar hypotheses. First, a cost function is derived for upstream migration that relates work done by a fish to swimming drag. The energetic cost scales with the cube of a fish's relative velocity integrated along its path. By normalizing to the energy requirements of holding a position in the slowest waters at the path's origin, a cost function is derived that depends only on the physical environment and not on specifics of individual fish. Then, as an example, we demonstrate the analysis of a migration pathway of a telemetrically tracked pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Missouri River (USA). The actual pathway cost is lower than 105 random paths through the surveyed reach and is consistent with the optimization hypothesis. The implication—subject to more extensive validation—is that reproductive success in managed rivers could be increased through manipulation of reservoir releases or channel morphology to increase abundance of lower-cost migration pathways.

  20. Mad River Sculpins: Just Another Fish Story?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downhower, Jerry F.; Brown, Luther

    1983-01-01

    Discusses findings that suggest that mating preferences of female mottled sculpins (small North American fish) are influenced by at least four major factors, and that the relative importance of these factors changes through time. The type of choice that a female makes thus depends on time of breeding. (JN)

  1. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M.

    2005-10-01

    wild fish were combined in some of the analyses. Overall, the percentages for combined release groups used in survival analyses were 68% hatchery-reared yearling Chinook salmon and 32% wild. For steelhead, the overall percentages were 73% hatchery-reared and 27% wild. Estimated survival from the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam to the tailrace of Little Goose Dam averaged 0.923 for yearling Chinook salmon and 0.860 for steelhead. Respective average survival estimates for yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead were 0.875 and 0.820 from Little Goose Dam tailrace to Lower Monumental Dam tailrace; 0.818 and 0.519 from Lower Monumental Dam tailrace to McNary Dam tailrace (including passage through Ice Harbor Dam); and 0.809 and 0.465 from McNary Dam tailrace to John Day Dam tailrace. Survival for yearling Chinook salmon from John Day Dam tailrace to Bonneville Dam tailrace (including passage through The Dalles Dam) was 0.735. We were unable to estimate survival through this reach for steelhead during 2004 because too few fish were detected at Bonneville Dam due to operation of the new corner collector at the second powerhouse. Combining average estimates from the Snake River smolt trap to Lower Granite Dam, from Lower Granite Dam to McNary Dam, and from McNary Dam to Bonneville Dam, estimated annual average survival through the entire hydropower system from the head of Lower Granite reservoir to the tailrace of Bonneville Dam (eight projects) was 0.353 (s.e. 0.045) for Snake River yearling Chinook salmon. We could not empirically estimate survival through the entire system for steelhead in 2004 because of low detection rates for this species at Bonneville Dam. For yearling spring Chinook salmon released in the Upper Columbia River, estimated survival from point of release to McNary Dam tailrace was 0.484 (s.e. 0.005) for fish released from Leavenworth Hatchery, 0.748 (s.e. 0.015) for fish released from Entiat Hatchery, 0.738 (s.e. 0.036) for fish released from Winthrop Hatchery

  2. Investigating phenology of larval fishes in St. Louis River ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As part of the development of an early detection monitoring strategy for non-native fishes, larval fish surveys have been conducted since 2012 in the St. Louis River estuary. Survey data demonstrates there is considerable variability in fish abundance and species assemblages across different habitats and at multiple temporal scales. To optimize early detection monitoring we need to understand temporal and spatial patterns of larval fishes related to their development and dispersion, as well as the environmental factors that influence them. In 2016 we designed an experiment to assess the phenological variability in larval fish abundance and assemblages amongst shallow water habitats. Specifically, we sought to contrast different thermal environments and turbidity levels, as well as assess the importance of vegetation in these habitats. To evaluate phenological differences we sampled larval fish bi-weekly at nine locations from mid-May to mid-July. Sampling locations were split between upper estuary and lower estuary to contrast river versus seiche influenced habitats. To assess differences in thermal environments, temperature was monitored every 15 minutes at each sampling location throughout the study, beginning in early April. Our design also included sampling at both vegetated (or pre-vegetated) and non-vegetated stations within each sampling location throughout the study to assess the importance of this habitat variable. Hydroacoustic surveys (Biosonics) were

  3. Fish assemblage structure following Impoundment of a Great Plains river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quist, M.C.; Hubert, W.A.; Rahel, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the upstream and downstream effect of impoundments on stream fish assemblages is important in managing fish populations and predicting the effects of future human activities on stream ecosystems. We used information collected over a 41-year period (1960-2001) to assess changes in fish assemblage structure resulting from impoundment of the Laramie River by Grayrocks Reservoir. Prior to impoundment (i.e., 1960-1979), fish assemblages were dominated by native catostomids and cyprinids. After impoundment several exotic species (e.g., smallmouth bass [Micropterus dolomieu], walleye [Sander vitreus; formerly Stizostedion vitreum], yellow perch [Perca flavescens], brown trout [Salmo trutta]) were sampled from reaches upstream and downstream of the reservoir. Suckermouth minnows (Phenacobius mirabilis) were apparently extirpated, and hornyhead chubs (Nocomis biguttatus) and common shiners (Luxilus cornutus) became rare upstream of Grayrocks Reservoir. The lower Laramie River downstream from Grayrocks Reservoir near its mouth retains habitat characteristics similar to those prior to impoundment (e.g., shallow, braided channel morphology) and is the only downstream area where several sensitive species persist, including sucker-mouth minnows, hornyhead chubs, and bigmouth shiners (Notropis dorsalis). Grayrocks Reservoir serves as a source of exotic piscivores to both upstream and downstream reaches and has altered downstream habitat characteristics. These impacts have had a substantial influence on native fish assemblages. Our results suggest that upstream and downstream effects of impoundment on fish assemblage structure are similar and that downstream reaches which retain habitat characteristics similar to pre-impoundment conditions may serve as areas of refuge for native species.

  4. Natural flow regimes, nonnative fishes, and native fish persistence in arid-land river systems.

    PubMed

    Propst, David L; Gido, Keith B; Stefferud, Jerome A

    2008-07-01

    Escalating demands for water have led to substantial modifications of river systems in arid regions, which coupled with the widespread invasion of nonnative organisms, have increased the vulnerability of native aquatic species to extirpation. Whereas a number of studies have evaluated the role of modified flow regimes and nonnative species on native aquatic assemblages, few have been conducted where the compounding effects of modified flow regimes and established nonnatives do not confound interpretations, particularly at spatial and temporal scales that are relevant to conservation of species at a range-wide level. By evaluating a 19-year data set across six sites in the relatively unaltered upper Gila River basin, New Mexico, USA, we tested how natural flow regimes and presence of nonnative species affected long-term stability of native fish assemblages. Overall, we found that native fish density was greatest during a wet period at the beginning of our study and declined during a dry period near the end of the study. Nonnative fishes, particularly predators, generally responded in opposite directions to these climatic cycles. Our data suggested that chronic presence of nonnative fishes, coupled with naturally low flows reduced abundance of individual species and compromised persistence of native fish assemblages. We also found that a natural flow regime alone was unlikely to ensure persistence of native fish assemblages. Rather, active management that maintains natural flow regimes while concurrently suppressing or excluding nonnative fishes from remaining native fish strongholds is critical to conservation of native fish assemblages in a system, such as the upper Gila River drainage, with comparatively little anthropogenic modification.

  5. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Screen Evaluations; Nursery Bridge Fishway and Garden City/Lowden II Sites, 2003 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vucelick, J.; McMichael, G.

    2003-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the fish screens at the Nursery Bridge Fishway and the newly constructed Garden City/Lowden II site west of Walla Walla, Washington, in the Walla Walla River Basin during spring and summer 2003. Both fish screen facilities were examined to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide for safe fish passage. At the Nursery Bridge Fishway, the screens were evaluated specifically to determine whether the louvers that aid in controlling water flow from behind the screens could be adjusted so that the screens would meet fish protection criteria. Data were collected to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met current National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) (formerly National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage before and after changing the louver settings. Rock weirs downstream of the dam were also evaluated to determine whether they might impede upstream migration of juvenile salmonids during low flow conditions. At the Garden City/Lowden II site, data were collected to establish a baseline for operating conditions and to determine whether any changes in the baffle settings were needed.

  6. Liver metallothionein of fish in rivers of Taiwan -- a field study on Erh-jen river

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.L.; Tsong, H.A.

    1994-12-31

    Erh-jen river in southern Taiwan is contaminated especially down stream with heavy metal effluent from nearby electroplate, metal surface treatment and used metal reclamation plants. Liver metallothionein content of five species of fish caught at 6 stations along the river was analyzed using silver saturation method. The most often found species down stream include Tilapia sp., Megalops cyprinoids and Liza macrolepis. The possibility of using fish liver metallothionein content to indicate heavy metal exposure was investigated in this study. Liver metallothionein content of 47 tilapia caught at 3 stations down stream is 81 + 8 {mu}g/g. Compared to the average of 10 + 1 {mu}g/g and 10 + 2 {mu}g/g of 6 and 9 tilapia caught at 2 control sites, this shows an increase of tilapia liver metallothionein content in Erh-jen river. 6 tilapia caught at pond beside Erh-jen river had significantly (p < 0.05) lower liver metallothionein content, which is 36 + 15 {mu}g/g. Liver metallothionein content of 33 Liza macrolepis caught at 3 stations down stream was 151 + 22 {mu}g/g, compared to 15 + 2 {mu}g/g of 9 samples caught at control site, this difference was also significant (p < 0.05). These results show the induction of liver metallothionein in fish of Erh-jen river. This study shows the applicability of fish liver metallothionein as a biomarker of heavy metal contamination in rivers in Taiwan.

  7. Contaminant residues in fish from Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, Parley V.

    1989-01-01

    Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, Madison Parish, Louisiana, consists of bottomland hardwood swamps interspersed with small lakes and bayous supporting a diverse assemblage of waterfowl, fish, and assorted species of game and nongame wildlife. Fish collected in the refuge in 1984–85 from areas receiving direct inflow from agricultural runoff contained from 5 to 10 μg/g total DDT (primarily DDE) and toxaphene (measured on a whole-body, wet-weight basis). These concentrations in fish, which were still high enough to pose a threat to fish-eating birds and wildlife, demonstrated that residues from past use of DDT and toxaphene in the area were still available for transport and uptake. In future water projects, the incorporation of structures to prevent contaminated runoff from entering the refuge should reduce waterborne contamination to the refuge.

  8. Improvement of Anadromous Fish Habitat and Passage in Omak Creek, 2008 Annual Report : February 1, 2008 to January 31, 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Dasher, Rhonda; Fisher, Christopher

    2009-06-09

    During the 2008 season, projects completed under BPA project 2000-100-00 included installation of riparian fencing, maintenance of existing riparian fencing, monitoring of at-risk culverts and installation of riparian vegetation along impacted sections of Omak Creek. Redd and snorkel surveys were conducted in Omak Creek to determine steelhead production. Canopy closure surveys were conducted to monitor riparian vegetation recovery after exclusion of cattle since 2000 from a study area commonly known as the Moomaw property. Additional redd and fry surveys were conducted above Mission Falls and in the lower portion of Stapaloop Creek to try and determine whether there has been successful passage at Mission Falls. Monitoring adult steelhead trying to navigate the falls resulted in the discovery of shallow pool depth at an upper pool that is preventing many fish from successfully navigating the entire falls. The Omak Creek Habitat and Passage Project has worked with NRCS to obtain additional funds to implement projects in 2009 that will address passage at Mission Falls, culvert replacement, as well as additional riparian planting. The Omak Creek Technical Advisory Group (TAG) is currently revising the Omak Creek Watershed Assessment. In addition, the group is revising strategy to focus efforts in targeted areas to provide a greater positive impact within the watershed. In 2008 the NRCS Riparian Technical Team was supposed to assess areas within the watershed that have unique problems and require special treatments to successfully resolve the issues involved. The technical team will be scheduled for 2009 to assist the TAG in developing strategies for these special areas.

  9. Phase I Water Rental Pilot Project : Snake River Resident Fish and Wildlife Resources and Management Recommendations.

    SciTech Connect

    Riggin, Stacey H.; Hansen, H. Jerome

    1992-10-01

    The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project was implemented as a part of the Non-Treaty Storage Fish and Wildlife Agreement (NTSA) between Bonneville Power Administration and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. The goal of the project is to improve juvenile and adult salmon and steelhead passage in the lower Snake River with the use of rented water for flow augmentation. The primary purpose of this project is to summarize existing resource information and provide recommendations to protect or enhance resident fish and wildlife resources in Idaho with actions achieving flow augmentation for anadromous fish. Potential impacts of an annual flow augmentation program on Idaho reservoirs and streams are modeled. Potential sources of water for flow augmentation and operational or institutional constraints to the use of that water are identified. This report does not advocate flow augmentation as the preferred long-term recovery action for salmon. The state of Idaho strongly believes that annual drawdown of the four lower Snake reservoirs is critical to the long-term enhancement and recovery of salmon (Andrus 1990). Existing water level management includes balancing the needs of hydropower production, irrigated agriculture, municipalities and industries with fish, wildlife and recreation. Reservoir minimum pool maintenance, water quality and instream flows are issues of public concern that will be directly affected by the timing and quantity of water rental releases for salmon flow augmentation, The potential of renting water from Idaho rental pools for salmon flow augmentation is complicated by institutional impediments, competition from other water users, and dry year shortages. Water rental will contribute to a reduction in carryover storage in a series of dry years when salmon flow augmentation is most critical. Such a reduction in carryover can have negative impacts on reservoir fisheries by eliminating shoreline spawning beds, reducing available fish habitat

  10. Identifying the effects on fish of changes in water pressure during turbine passage

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, James M.; Abernathy, C. Scott; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2003-09-01

    This article discusses experiments conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to determine how water pressure and dissolved gas levels associated with hydroelectric facilities may affect the survival of fish. The results of the experiments are discussed as well as how these results can be applied to turbine designs and plant operation.

  11. Further Tests of Changes in Fish Escape Behavior Resulting from Sublethal Stresses Associated with Hydroelectric Turbine Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Ryon, M.G.

    2004-10-20

    Fish that pass through a hydroelectric turbine may not be killed directly, but may nonetheless experience sublethal stresses that will increase their susceptibility to predators (indirect mortality). There is a need to develop reliable tests for indirect mortality so that the full consequences of passage through turbines (and other routes around a hydroelectric dam) can be assessed. The most commonly used laboratory technique for assessing susceptibility to predation is the predator preference test. In this report, we evaluate the field application of a new technique that may be valuable for assessing indirect mortality, based on changes in a behavioral response to a startling stimulus (akin to perceiving an approaching predator). The behavioral response is a rapid movement commonly referred to as a startle response, escape response, or C-shape, based on the characteristic body position assumed by the fish. When viewed from above, a startled fish bends into a C-shape, then springs back and swims away in a direction different from its original orientation. This predator avoidance (escape) behavior can be compromised by sublethal stresses that temporarily stun or disorient the fish. Initial studies demonstrated that turbulence created in a small laboratory tank can alter escape behavior. As a next step, we converted our laboratory design to a more portable unit, transported it to Alden Research Laboratory in Holden, Massachusetts, and used it to test fish that passed uninjured through a pilot-scale turbine runner. Rainbow trout were either passed through the turbine or exposed to handling stresses, and their behavior was subsequently evaluated. Groups of five fish were given a startle stimulus (a visual and pressure wave cue) and filmed with a high-speed (500 frames per s) video camera. The reactions of each group of fish to the startle stimulus were filmed at nominally 1-, 5-, and 15-min post-exposure. We compared the behaviors of 70 fish passed through the turbine

  12. Effects of an introduced piscivorous fish on native benthic fishes in a coastal river

    Treesearch

    Jason L. White; Bret C. Harvey

    2001-01-01

    We used field surveys to compare the density and mesohabitat-scale distribution of the native coastrange sculpin (Cottus aleuticus) and the prickly sculpin (C. asper) in coastal rivers in northwestern California, U.S.A., with and without an introduced piscivorous fish, the Sacramento pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus grandis. We also measured mortality of tethered prickly...

  13. Fish Health Study Ashtabula River Natural Resource Damage Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazer, V.S.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Baumann, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Ashtabula River is located in northeast Ohio, flowing into Lake Erie at Ashtabula, Ohio. Tributaries include Fields Brook, Hubbard Run, Strong Brook, and Ashtabula Creek. The bottom sediments, bank soils and biota of Fields Brook have been severely contaminated by unregulated discharges of hazardous substances. Hazardous substances have migrated downstream from Fields Brook to the Ashtabula River and Harbor, contaminating bottom sediments, fish and wildlife. There are presently more than 1,000,000 cubic yards of contaminated sediment in the Ashtabula River and Harbor, much of which originated from Fields Brook. Contaminants include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated benzenes, chlorinated ethenes, hexachlorobutadiene, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), other organic chemicals, heavy metals and low level radionuclides. A Preassessment Screen, using existing data, was completed for the Ashtabula River and Harbor on May 18, 2001. Among the findings was that the fish community at Ashtabula contained approximately 45 percent fewer species and 52 percent fewer individuals than the Ohio EPA designated reference area, Conneaut Creek. The Ashtabula River and Conneaut Creek are similar in many respects, with the exception of the presence of contamination at Ashtabula. The difference in the fish communities between the two sites is believed to be at least partially a result of the hazardous substance contamination at Ashtabula. In order to investigate this matter further, the Trustees elected to conduct a study of the status and health of the aquatic biological communities of the Ashtabula River and Conneaut Creek in 2002-2004. The following document contains brief method descriptions (more detail available in attached Appendix A) and a summary of the data used to evaluate the health status of brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) collected from the above sites.

  14. Native fish population and habitat study, Santa Ana River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulff, Marissa L.; Brown, Larry R.; May, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Collection of additional data on the Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae) and the Arroyo Chub (Gila orcutti) has been identified as a needed task to support development of the upper Santa Ana River Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP; http://www.uppersarhcp.com/). The ability to monitor population abundance and understanding the habitats used by species are important when developing such plans. The Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae) is listed as a threatened species under federal legislation and is considered a species of special concern in California by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (Moyle 2002). The Arroyo Chub (Gila orcutti) is considered a species of special concern in California by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (Moyle 2002). Both species are present in the Santa Ana River watershed in the area being evaluated for establishment of the upper Santa Ana River Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP; http://www.uppersarhcp.com/). The HCP is a collaborative effort involving the water resource agencies of the Santa Ana River Watershed, the US Fish and Wildlife Service, California Department of Fish and Wildlife, and other government agencies and stakeholder organizations. The goals of the HCP are to: 1) enable the water resource agencies to provide a reliable water supply for human uses; 2) conserve and maintain natural rivers and streams that provide habitat for a diversity of unique and rare species; and 3) maintain recreational opportunities for activities such as hiking, fishing, and wildlife viewing, provided by the protection of these habitats and the river systems they depend on. The HCP will specify how species and their habitats will be protected and managed in the future and will provide the incidental take permits needed by the water resource agencies under the federal and State endangered species acts to maintain, operate, and improve their water resource infrastructure. Although the Santa Ana Sucker has been the subject of

  15. Metal levels in fish from the Savannah River: potential hazards to fish and other receptors.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gaines, Karen F; Boring, C Shane; Stephens, Warren L; Snodgrass, Joel; Dixon, Carline; McMahon, Michael; Shukla, Sheila; Shukla, Tara; Gochfeld, Michael

    2002-05-01

    Fish are ideal indicators of heavy metal contamination in aquatic systems because they occupy different trophic levels and are different sizes and ages. In this paper, we report concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, manganese, strontium(88) and mercury in the muscle of 11 species of fish from the Savannah River near the Savannah River Site. We test the hypotheses that there are no locational, species, or trophic-level differences in contaminant levels. There were significant species differences for all metals; higher-trophic-level fish generally had higher levels of arsenic, chromium, and copper. There were relatively few locational differences, and where there were such differences, they were small. The relationships between body weight and contaminant levels were generally positive, except for strontium, where there was a negative correlation for bowfin (Amia cal va), bass (Micropterus salmoides), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), and shellcracker (Lepomis microlophus) and no relationship for the other species. The levels of most metals were similar to, or lower than, those for the United States generally, and the levels of metals in fish from the Savannah River do not appear to pose a health threat to the fish themselves or to higher-order consumers, based on levels known to cause effects. 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  16. How restructuring river connectivity changes freshwater fish biodiversity and biogeography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, Heather L.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Arunachalam, Muthukumarasamy; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Fagan, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Interbasin water transfer projects, in which river connectivity is restructured via man-made canals, are an increasingly popular solution to address the spatial mismatch between supply and demand of fresh water. However, the ecological consequences of such restructuring remain largely unexplored, and there are no general theoretical guidelines from which to derive these expectations. River systems provide excellent opportunities to explore how network connectivity shapes habitat occupancy, community dynamics, and biogeographic patterns. We apply a neutral model (which assumes competitive equivalence among species within a stochastic framework) to an empirically derived river network to explore how proposed changes in network connectivity may impact patterns of freshwater fish biodiversity. Without predicting the responses of individual extant species, we find the addition of canals connecting hydrologically isolated river basins facilitates the spread of common species and increases average local species richness without changing the total species richness of the system. These impacts are sensitive to the parameters controlling the spatial scale of fish dispersal, with increased dispersal affording more opportunities for biotic restructuring at the community and landscape scales. Connections between isolated basins have a much larger effect on local species richness than those connecting reaches within a river basin, even when those within-basin reaches are far apart. As a result, interbasin canal projects have the potential for long-term impacts to continental-scale riverine communities.

  17. How restructuring river connectivity changes freshwater fish biodiversity and biogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Heather J.; Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Arunachalam, Muthukumarasamy; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Fagan, William F.

    2011-05-01

    Interbasin water transfer projects, in which river connectivity is restructured via man-made canals, are an increasingly popular solution to address the spatial mismatch between supply and demand of fresh water. However, the ecological consequences of such restructuring remain largely unexplored, and there are no general theoretical guidelines from which to derive these expectations. River systems provide excellent opportunities to explore how network connectivity shapes habitat occupancy, community dynamics, and biogeographic patterns. We apply a neutral model (which assumes competitive equivalence among species within a stochastic framework) to an empirically derived river network to explore how proposed changes in network connectivity may impact patterns of freshwater fish biodiversity. Without predicting the responses of individual extant species, we find the addition of canals connecting hydrologically isolated river basins facilitates the spread of common species and increases average local species richness without changing the total species richness of the system. These impacts are sensitive to the parameters controlling the spatial scale of fish dispersal, with increased dispersal affording more opportunities for biotic restructuring at the community and landscape scales. Connections between isolated basins have a much larger effect on local species richness than those connecting reaches within a river basin, even when those within-basin reaches are far apart. As a result, interbasin canal projects have the potential for long-term impacts to continental-scale riverine communities.

  18. Characterizing the Fish Passage Environment at The Dalles Dam Spillway: 2001-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Serkowski, John A.; Cook, Chris B.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Perkins, William A.

    2007-10-10

    The spill environment at The Dalles Dam in 2001-2004 was characterized using a field-deployed autonomous sensor (the so-called Sensor Fish), computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, and Lagrangian particle tracking. The sensor fish has a self-contained capability to digitally the record pressure and triaxial accelerations it was exposed to following its release into the spillway. After recovery downstream of the tailrace, the data stored in the memory of the sensor are downloaded and stored for analysis. The spillway, stilling basin, and tailrace hydrodynamics were simulated using an unsteady, free-surface, three-dimensional CFD code that solved the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with a two-equation turbulence model. The results from the CFD simulations were then used in a Lagrangian particle tracking model that included the effects of mass, drag, and buoyancy in the particle equation of motion. A random walk method was used to simulate the effects of small-scale turbulence on the particle motion. Several operational and structural conditions were evaluated using the Sensor Fish, CFD, and particle tracking. Quantifying events such as strike and stilling basin retention time characterized exposure conditions in the spill environment.

  19. Assessment of Habitat, Fish Communities, and Streamflow Requirements for Habitat Protection, Ipswich River, Massachusetts, 1998-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Parker, Gene W.

    2001-01-01

    ponded conditions). In comparison to a nearby river (Lamprey River, N.H.), and a reference fish community developed for inland New England streams, the Ipswich fish community would be expected to have appreciably higher percentages of fluvial-dependent and fluvial-specialist species were streamflows restored.Four riffle sites on the mainstem of the Ipswich River were identified as critical habitat areas because they are among the first sites to exhibit fish-passage problems or to dry during low flows. A watershed-scale precipitation-runoff model previously developed for the Ipswich River was used to simulate streamflows at these four sites for the period 1961-95 under no withdrawals (for water supply) and 1991 land use to evaluate habitat suitability under conditions that approximate the natural flow conditions. These simulated flows were used to calculate streamflow requirements by the Tennant and New England Aquatic-Base-Flow methods. Stream channels were surveyed at the critical riffle sites, and Water Surface Profile models were used to simulate streamflows and hydraulic characteristics needed for determining streamflow requirements by use of the Wetted-Perimeter and R2Cross methods. Normalized by drainage area to units of cubic feet per second per square mile, these methods yielded the following streamflow requirements: 0.50 cubic feet per second per square mile for the Tennant 30-percent QMA method, 0.42 cubic feet per second per square mile for the wetted-perimeter value necessary to maintain wetted perimeter at three altered riffle sites, 0.42 cubic feet per second per square mile for the R2Cross value required to maintain R2Cross hydraulic criteria at a natural riffle site, and 0.34 cubic feet per second per square mile for the aquatic-base-flow median of monthly mean flows for August for the simulated 1961-95 period under no withdrawals and 1991 land use. The mean streamflow requirement determined from these four methods is 0.42 cubic feet per second per square

  20. Use of preserved museum fish to evaluate historical and current mercury contamination in fish from two rivers in Oklahoma, USA.

    PubMed

    Hill, J Jaron; Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W; Pinder, John E; Drenner, S Matthew

    2010-02-01

    We examined the effects of a commonly used preservation technique on mercury concentration in fish tissue. After fixing fish muscle tissue in formalin followed by preservation in isopropanol, we found that mercury concentration in fish muscle tissue increased by 18%, reaching an asymptote after 40 days. We used formalin-isopropanol-preserved longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) from the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History to examine historical changes and predict current mercury concentrations in fish from two rivers in southeastern Oklahoma. Glover River was free-flowing, while Mountain Fork River was impounded in 1970 and a coldwater trout fishery was established upstream from the collection site in 1989. Mercury concentrations in longear sunfish from Glover River showed no historical changes from 1963 to 2001. Mercury concentrations in longear sunfish from Mountain Fork River showed no change from 1925 to 1993 but declined significantly from 1993 to 2003. We also compared mercury concentrations of the most recently collected longear sunfish in the museum to mercury concentrations of unpreserved fish collected from the rivers in 2006. Concentrations of mercury in museum fish were not significantly different from mercury concentrations in unpreserved fish we collected from the rivers. Our study indicates that preserved museum fish specimens can be used to evaluate historical changes and predict current levels of mercury contamination in fish.

  1. Evaluation of the Fish Passage Effectiveness of the Bonneville I Prototype Surface Collector using Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Fish Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, Derrek M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Moursund, Robert; Carlson, Thomas J.; Adams, Noah; Rhondorf, D.

    2001-05-01

    This report describes tests conducted at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River in the spring of 2000 using three-dimensional acoustic telemetry and computational fluid dynamics hydraulic modeling to observe the response of outmigrating juvenile steelhead and yearling chinook to a prototype surface collector installed at the Powerhouse. The study described in this report was one of several conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to prepare a decision document on which of two bypass methods: surface flow bypass or extended-length submersible bar screens to use to help smolts pass around Bonneville dams without going through the turbines.

  2. Optimum Pathways of Fish Spawning Migrations in Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElroy, B. J.; Jacobson, R. B.; Delonay, A.

    2010-12-01

    Many fish species migrate large distances upstream in rivers to spawn. These migrations require energetic expenditures that are inversely related to fecundity of spawners. Here we present the theory necessary to quantify relative energetic requirements of upstream migration pathways and then test the hypothesis that least-cost paths are taken by the federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphyrhyncus Albus), a benthic rheophile, in the lower Missouri River, USA. Total work done by a fish through a migratory path is proportional to the size of the fish, the total drag on the fish, and the distance traversed. Normalizing by the work required to remain stationary at the beginning of a path, relative work expenditure at each point of the path is found to be the cube of the ratio of the velocity along the path to the velocity at the start of the path. This is the velocity of the fish relative to the river flow. A least-cost migratory pathway can be determined from the velocity field in a reach as the path that minimizes a fish's relative work expenditure. We combine location data from pallid sturgeon implanted with telemetric tags and pressure-sensitive data storage tags with depth and velocity data collected with an acoustic Doppler profiler. During spring 2010 individual sturgeon were closely followed as they migrated up the Missouri River to spawn. These show that, within a small margin, pallid sturgeon in the lower Missouri River select least-cost paths as they swim upstream (typical velocities near 1.0 - 1.2 m/s). Within the range of collected data, it is also seen that many alternative paths not selected for migration are two orders of magnitude more energetically expensive (typical velocities near 2.0 - 2.5 m/s). In general these sturgeon migrated along the inner banks of bends avoiding high velocities in the thalweg, crossing the channel where the thalweg crosses in the opposite direction in order to proceed up the inner bank of subsequent bends. Overall, these

  3. Further tests of changes in fish escape behavior resulting from sublethal stresses associated with hydroelectric turbine passage

    SciTech Connect

    Ryon, Michael G.; Cada, Glenn F.; Smith, John G.

    2004-04-01

    Fish that pass through a hydroelectric turbine may not be killed directly, but may nonetheless experience sublethal stresses that will increase their susceptibility to predators (indirect mortality). There is a need to develop reliable tests for indirect mortality so that the full consequences of passage through turbines (and other routes around a hydroelectric dam) can be assessed. The most commonly used laboratory technique for assessing susceptibility to predation is the predator preference test. This report evaluates the field application of a new technique that may be valuable for assessing indirect mortality, based on changes in a behavioral response to a startling stimulus (akin to perceiving an approaching predator). The study compared the behaviors of 70 fish passed through the turbine and another 70 under control conditions (either transferred from the holding tank or injected into the Alden loop downstream of turbine). The resulting image files were analyzed for a variety of behavioral measures including: presence of a startle response, time to first reaction, duration of reaction, time to formation of the maximum C-shape, time to completion of the C-shape, completeness of the C-shape, direction of turn, and degree of turn. The data were evaluated for statistical significance and patterns of response were identified.

  4. Genotoxicity Effects in Freshwater Fish from a Brazilian Impacted River.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Isac Silva; Cestari, Marta Margarete; Bezerra, Marcos de Almeida; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the incidence of nuclear abnormalities (NA) in four fish species from an impacted river in Northeastern Brazil, characterized by accumulation of heavy metals and organic sewage. Two carnivores (Serrasalmus brandtii and Hoplias malabaricus) and two omnivore species (Oreochromis niloticus and Geophagus brasiliensis), used as food sources by local populations, were collected during the dry and the rainy season along Contas River basin. Nuclear abnormalities (bulbs, binuclei, lobes, micronuclei, notches, and vacuoles) were reported in all fish samples, with high occurrence in S. brandtii and H. malabaricus, species commonly found in local fish markets. This result agrees with previous analyses of accumulation of trace metals in both species, suggesting an association of genotoxic effects and biomagnification. Moreover, native specimens collected near urban areas presented higher frequencies of NA while O. niloticus seems to be more tolerant to environmental contamination. Therefore, effective policies are required to reduce the contamination of Contas River, since pollution by xenobiotics are potential threats to both local biodiversity and human population.

  5. Bioassessment of fish communities of the upper Delaware River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Snik, Gray E.; Ross, R.M.; Bennett, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the biotic integrity of the middle-to-upper Delaware River. We sampled fish and assembled water quality data for eight stations and three habitat types (pool, riffle, and submerged aquatic vegetation [SAV]) of the Delaware River and applied an existing index of biotic integrity (IBI) recently developed for the northern mid-Atlantic slope drainages. We used Spearman's correlation to test IBI scores against measures of water quality (WQI) and cultural pollution. IBI scores were not significantly correlated with WQI, but were significantly negatively correlated with sewage load of adjacent tributaries (rs = -0.647, p = 0.08). Sites ranged from good to fair in biotic integrity. Fish assemblage composition from all three habitat types was necessary in order to accurately characterize biotic integrity. Of the three habitat types, fish assemblages from SAV habitats had the greatest positive effect on biotic integrity. Continued application of the IBI may be useful as a long-term monitoring tool as this river corridor becomes increasingly urbanized.

  6. An experiment to control nonnative fish in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coggins,, Lewis G.; Yard, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The humpback chub (Gila cypha) is an endangered native fish found only in the Colorado River Basin. In Grand Canyon, most humpback chub are found in the Little Colorado River and its confluence with the Colorado River. For decades, however, nonnative rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), which prey on and compete with native fish, have dominated the Grand Canyon fish community. Between 2003 and 2006, scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey and Arizona Game and Fish Department experimentally removed 23,266 nonnative fish from a 9.4-mile-long reach of the Colorado River near where it joins the Little Colorado River. During the experiment, rainbow trout were reduced by as much as 90% and native fish abundance apparently increased in the reach. Concurrent environmental changes and a decrease in rainbow trout throughout the river make it difficult to determine if the apparent increase in native fish was the result of the experiment.

  7. Savannah River Aquatic Ecology Program. Volume I. Adult fish. Annual report, November 1983-August 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.; Osteen, D.V.

    1985-05-01

    A multipurpose study on the fish community of the Savannah River near the Savannah River Plant was conducted between September 1983 and August 1984. The major portion of this study examined the abundance and distribution of fishes near the Savannah River Plant in relation to the thermal discharges into the river, creeks and the floodplain swamp. Another portion of the study examined the rates of impingement of juvenile and adult fishes onto the river water intake screens in order to assess the potential influence of this plant operation on the fish community. 24 refs., 13 figs., 23 tabs.

  8. EPA's National Reassessment of Contaminants in Fish from U.S. Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple EPA offices collaborated to conduct a reassessment of fish contamination in U.S. rivers as part of the Agency’s 2013-14 National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA). This is the first national assessment of contamination in river fish that will generate probabili...

  9. EPA's National Reassessment of Contaminants in Fish from U.S. Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple EPA offices collaborated to conduct a reassessment of fish contamination in U.S. rivers as part of the Agency’s 2013-14 National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA). This is the first national assessment of contamination in river fish that will generate probabili...

  10. Compliance Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at The Dalles Dam, Summer 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon at The Dalles Dam during summer 2012. Under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion, dam passage survival is required to be greater than or equal to 0.93 and estimated with a standard error (SE) less than or equal to 0.015. The study also estimated survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam and through the tailrace to 2 km downstream of the dam, forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and fish passage efficiency (FPE), as required by the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  11. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-07-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The goal of the study was to provide fish passage and distribution data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. During the year-long study period - February 1, 2010 to January 31, 2011the objectives of the hydroacoustic evaluation of fish passage and distribution at LOP were to: 1. Estimate passage rates, run timing, horizontal distribution, and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for smolt-size fish. 2. Estimate passage rates, run timing and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for small-size fish. 3. Estimate passage rates and run timing at the regulating outlets for smolt-size fish. 4. Estimate vertical distribution of smolt-size fish in the forebay near the upstream face of the dam. The fixed-location hydroacoustic technique was used to accomplish the objectives of this study. Transducers (420 kHz) were deployed in each penstock intake, above each RO entrance, and on the dam face; a total of nine transducers (2 single-beam and 7 split-beam) were used. We summarize the findings from the hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011 as follows. • Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> ~90 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. • During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish ± 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt

  12. Columbia River Fishes of the Lewis and Clark Expedition

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.

    2007-06-21

    The Lewis and Clark expedition crossed the Continental Divide in 1805 on the way west to the Pacific Ocean. Based on journal entries, members of the expedition probably encountered two species of resident salmonids and four of the six species of anadromous salmonids and steelhead (Family Salmonidae, genus Oncorhynchus). The salmonid species were called common salmon (now known as Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha), red char (sockeye salmon O.nerka) white salmon trout (coho salmon [also known as silver salmon] O. kisutch), salmon trout (steelhead O. mykiss), and spotted trout (cutthroat trout O. clarkii). There was no evidence of the expedition encountering pink salmon O. gorbuscha, chum salmon O. keta, or species of true char Salvelinus spp. Common fishes procured from Indian tribes living along the lower Columbia River included eulachon Thaleichthys pacificus and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. The identity of three additional resident freshwater species is questionable. Available descriptions suggest that what they called mullet were largescale sucker Catastomus macrocheilus, and that chubb were peamouth Mylocheilus caurinus. The third questionable fish, which they called bottlenose, was probably mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni, although there is no evidence that the species was observed in the Columbia River drainage. Missing from the species list were more than 20 other fishes known to Sahaptin-speaking people from the mid-Columbia region. More complete documentation of the icthyofauna of the Pacific Northwest region did not occur until the latter half of the 19th century. However, journals from the Lewis and Clark expedition provide the first documentation of Columbia River fishes.

  13. Smolt Migration Characteristics and Mainstem Snake and Columbia River Detection Rates of PIT-Tagged Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Naturally-Produced Spring Chinook Salmon, 1996 Annual Report : Fish Research Project, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Sankovich, Paul; Keefe, MaryLouise; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    This is the fifth year of a multi-year study to assess smolt migration characteristics and cumulative detection rates of naturally-produced chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), from northeast Oregon streams. The goal of this project is to develop an understanding of interpopulation and interannual variation in several early life history characteristics of naturally-produced chinook salmon from the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins. This project provides information useful in the recovery of listed Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. Specific populations included in the study are (1) Catherine Creek, (2) upper Grande Ronde River, (3) Lostine River, (4) Imnaha River, (5) Wenaha River, and (6) Minam River. In this document, we present findings from research completed in 1996. Naturally-produced chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins have declined drastically in recent years due in part to habitat alterations and hydropower development. Declines have continued despite extensive mitigation efforts, including fish passage improvements, artificial production, supplementation, and habitat modification (BPA Division of Fish and Wildlife 1990). Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (hereafter referred to as chinook salmon), which include naturally-produced chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River subbasins, have been listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 as threatened or endangered since 1992.

  14. Distribution and habitat use of the Missouri River and Lower Yellowstone River benthic fishes from 1996 to 1998: A baseline for fish community recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Gladish, D.W.; Arab, A.

    2011-01-01

    Past and present Missouri River management practices have resulted in native fishes being identified as in jeopardy. In 1995, the Missouri River Benthic Fishes Study was initiated to provide improved information on Missouri River fish populations and how alterations might affect them. The study produced a baseline against which to evaluate future changes in Missouri River operating criteria. The objective was to evaluate population structure and habitat use of benthic fishes along the entire mainstem Missouri River, exclusive of reservoirs. Here we use the data from this study to provide a recent-past baseline for on-going Missouri River fish population monitoring programmes along with a more powerful method for analysing data containing large percentages of zero values. This is carried out by describing the distribution and habitat use of 21 species of Missouri River benthic fishes based on catch-per-unit area data from multiple gears. We employ a Bayesian zero-inflated Poisson model expanded to include continuous measures of habitat quality (i.e. substrate composition, depth, velocity, temperature, turbidity and conductivity). Along with presenting the method, we provide a relatively complete picture of the Missouri River benthic fish community and the relationship between their relative population numbers and habitat conditions. We demonstrate that our single model provides all the information that is often obtained by a myriad of analytical techniques. An important advantage of the present approach is reliable inference for patterns of relative abundance using multiple gears without using gear efficiencies.

  15. Radionuclides in Peconic River fish, mussels, and sediments.

    PubMed

    Rapiejko, A; Rosson, R; Lahr, J; Garcia, R; Kahn, B

    2001-12-01

    For regulatory oversight and quality control of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) actions, fish, mussels, and sediments were analyzed from the Peconic River system on Long Island, NY, downstream of the Brookhaven National Laboratory, as well as from control locations. The analyses were for photon-emitting radionuclides (notably 60Co and 137Cs), uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sediments were cored in 4 sections to 0.37 m depth, whole fish were analyzed, and mussels were separated into flesh and shells. Radioisotopes of the cited elements were detected in sediment, some of the fish contained 137Cs, 241Am, and uranium, and mussel flesh contained 137Cs and uranium. All of the 60Co, 233U, and enriched uranium, and some of the 137Cs and 241Am, can most likely be attributed to Brookhaven National Laboratory. The other radionuclides (and some of the 137Cs and 241Am) are believed to have either fallout or nature as their origin. The New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) evaluated the radiological data in terms of adverse health implications due to consumption of fish with the levels of reported radioactivity. The NYSDOH determined that the added radiation doses likely to result from eating this fish are a small fraction of the radiation dose that normally results from radionuclides present in the body from natural sources.

  16. Heterogeneous detection probabilities for imperiled Missouri River fishes: implications for large-river monitoring programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, J.T.; Paukert, Craig P.; Doyle, W.J.; Hill, Tracy D.; Steffensen, K.D.; Travnichek, Vincent H.

    2012-01-01

    Occupancy modeling was used to determine (1) if detection probabilities (p) for 7 regionally imperiled Missouri River fishes (Scaphirhynchus albus, Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, Cycleptus elongatus, Sander canadensis, Macrhybopsis aestivalis, Macrhybopsis gelida, and Macrhybopsis meeki) differed among gear types (i.e. stationary gill nets, drifted trammel nets, and otter trawls), and (2) how detection probabilities were affected by habitat (i.e. pool, bar, and open water), longitudinal position (five 189 to 367 rkm long segments), sampling year (2003 to 2006), and season (July 1 to October 30 and October 31 to June 30). Adult, large-bodied fishes were best detected with gill nets (p: 0.02–0.74), but most juvenile large-bodied and all small-bodied species were best detected with otter trawls (p: 0.02–0.58). Trammel nets may be a redundant sampling gear for imperiled fishes in the lower Missouri River because most species had greater detection probabilities with gill nets or otter trawls. Detection probabilities varied with river segment for S. platorynchus, C. elongatus, and all small-bodied fishes, suggesting that changes in habitat influenced gear efficiency or abundance changes among river segments. Detection probabilities varied by habitat for adult S. albus and S. canadensis, year for juvenile S. albus, C. elongatus, and S. canadensis, and season for adult S. albus. Concentrating sampling effort on gears with the greatest detection probabilities may increase species detections to better monitor a population's response to environmental change and the effects of management actions on large-river fishes.

  17. Compliance Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Smolt Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon at Bonneville Dam during summer 2012, as required by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam to the tailrace 1 km below the dam, as well as forebay residence time, tailrace egress, and spill passage efficiency, as required in the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  18. Survival and Passage of Yearling and Subyearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead at McNary Dam, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, James S.; Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Fischer, Eric S.; Batton, George; Carlson, Thomas J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Deng, Zhiqun; Etherington, D. J.; Fu, Tao; Greiner, Michael J.; Ingraham, John M.; Kim, Jin A.; Li, Xi; Martinez, Jayson J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Rayamajhi, Bishes; Seaburg, Adam; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Wagner, Katie A.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2013-12-23

    The study was designed to evaluate the passage and survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead at McNary Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a virtual/paired-release model. This study supports the USACE’s continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARDIZED LARGE RIVER BIOASSESSMENT PROTOCOLS (LR-BP) FOR FISH ASSEMBLAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted research comparing several methods currently in use for the bioassessment and monitoring of fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages for large rivers. Fish data demonstrate that electrofishing 1000 m of shoreline is sufficient for bioassessments on boatable ri...

  20. DETECTION OF TEMPORAL TRENDS IN OHIO RIVER FISH ASSEMBLAGES BASED ON LOCKCHAMBER SURVEYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO), along with cooperating state and federal agencies, sampled fish assemblages from the lockchambers of Ohio River navigational dams from 1957 to 2001. To date, 377 lockchamber rotenone events have been conducted, resulti...

  1. DETECTION OF TEMPORAL TRENDS IN OHIO RIVER FISH ASSEMBLAGES BASED ON LOCKCHAMBER SURVEYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO), along with cooperating state and federal agencies, sampled fish assemblages from the lockchambers of Ohio River navigational dams from 1957 to 2001. To date, 377 lockchamber rotenone events have been conducted, resulti...

  2. Invasive zebra mussels (Driessena polymorpha) and Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) survive gut passage of migratory fish species: implications for dispersal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gatlin, Michael R.; Shoup, Daniel E.; Long, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction and spread of invasive species is of great concern to natural resource managers in the United States. To effectively control the spread of these species, managers must be aware of the multitude of dispersal methods used by the organisms. We investigated the potential for survival through the gut of a migrating fish (blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus) as a dispersal mechanism for two invasive bivalves: zebra mussel (Driessena polymorpha) and Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea). Blue catfish (N = 62) were sampled over several months from Sooner Lake, Oklahoma, transported to a laboratory and held in individual tanks for 48 h. All fecal material was collected and inspected for live mussels. Survival was significantly related to water temperature in the lake at the time of collection, with no mussels surviving above 21.1 C°, whereas 12 % of zebra mussels (N = 939) and 39 % of Asian clams (N = 408) consumed in cooler water survived gut passage. This research demonstrates the potential for blue catfish to serve as a dispersal vector for invasive bivalves at low water temperatures.

  3. Juvenile Salmonid Pit-Tag Studies at Prosser Dam and the Chandler Canal Fish Collection Facility, Yakima River, 1991 and 1992 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ruehle, Thomas E.; Sandford, Benjamin P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991 and 1992, the National Marine Fisheries Service completed the second and third years of a 3-year study to estimate juvenile salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) timing and survival characteristics related to passage through the Prosser Dam complex, including the Chandler Canal and the Chandler fish collection facility, on the Yakima River. Yearling chinook (O. tshawyacha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) were collected at the Chandler facility, PIT tagged, and released at various locations in the Yakima River, Chandler Canal, and the Chandler facility. Individual fish were subsequently detected at PIT-tag detection monitors at the Chandler facility and/or McNary Dam on the Columbia River. Survival through various reaches, PIT-tag detection efficiency, and Chandler Canal fish entrainment proportion parameters were estimated using maximum likelihood techniques. The research objectives in 1991 and 1992 were to: (1) assess the effects of passage through the Chandler Canal and the Chandler facility on the survival of juvenile salmonids, (2) determine the entrainment rate of juvenile salmonids into the Chandler Canal as a function of river flow, and (3) determine the efficiency and reliability of the PIT-tag monitoring system at the Chandler facility. The initial 1990 research plan was expanded in 1991 and 1992 to include several more release locations and many more release days.

  4. Dynamics of fish diseases in the lower Elbe River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, H.

    1984-03-01

    As part of a survey on population dynamics and ecology of fishesin the Elbe River, seasonal and regional fluctuations of external fish diseases were studied from the open North Sea to Hamburg in 1981 1982. Clinical signs of 11 different diseases, several of them not being recorded before, were noted in 22 fish species. Averaged over all samples, the total disease prevalence was below 1 % in 16 species. Highest prevalences were found in smelt (12.7 %), eel (9.2 %), and flounder (5.5 %). The frequency of most diseases increased in larger (older) fish. High prevalences of skeletal abnormalities in cod could be related to abnormal migration habits of diseased fish. Spawning papillomatosis, skin ulceration, and fin rot in smelt occurred predominantly during the spawning season. Most diseases observed occurred at relatively high prevalences in the central Elbe estuary between Cuxhaven and Brunsbüttel. This is most obvious for lymphocystis, fin rot, skin ulceration, and bleaching syndrome in flounder, but such a tendency also seems to occur in cauliflower disease of eel, as well as spawning papillomatosis and pharyngeal granuloma in smelt. This area is less heavily polluted and less frequently affected by oxygen deficiency than the area upstream of Glückstadt, where diseases in general occurred at lower frequencies. Therefore, it is concluded that neither pollution nor lack of oxygen are the main triggers for the outbreak of diseases in Elbe fish. It is supposed that large tidal fluctuations of salinity are a major stress factor for fish in the estuary between Cuxhaven and Brunsbüttel. Flounder from this area usually are in a relatively bad nutritional state. Their condition factor increases significantly towards Hamburg, while their disease prevalence decreases in the same direction.

  5. Environmental and industrial factors relating to flavor tainting of fish in the upper Wisconsin river

    SciTech Connect

    Heil, T.P.; Lindsay, R.C. )

    1990-08-01

    Extracts from Large Toothed Aspen (Populous grandidenta Michx.) and Jack Pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) contained many odor compounds found in flavor-tainted walleye from the Wisconsin River, including alkylphenols. Aspen wood contained 8 ppb of 2-isopropylphenol, and river sediments also contained low ppb levels of many alkylphenols, including 2-isopropylphenol. Thiophenol and thiocresol which sporadically cause offensive sulfury taints in Wisconsin River fish were also found in river sediment. Quantitative analysis of fish for alkylphenols supported a hypothesis involving a food chain-mediated seasonal fluctuation of alkylphenol levels in fish. Thiophenols are postulated to be derived from pulp mill activities on the river.

  6. Environmental and industrial factors relating to flavor tainting of fish in the upper Wisconsin river.

    PubMed

    Heil, T P; Lindsay, R C

    1990-08-01

    Extracts from Large Toothed Aspen (Populous grandidenta Michx.) and Jack Pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) contained many odor compounds found in flavor-tainted walleye from the Wisconsin River, including alkylphenols. Aspen wood contained 8 ppb of 2-isopropylphenol, and river sediments also contained low ppb levels of many alkylphenols, including 2-isopropylphenol. Thiophenol and thiocresol which sporadically cause offensive sulfury taints in Wisconsin River fish were also found in river sediment. Quantitative analysis of fish for alkylphenols supported a hypothesis involving a food chain-mediated seasonal fluctuation of alkylphenol levels in fish. Thiophenols are postulated to be derived from pulp mill activities on the river.

  7. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program, 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    St. Hilaire, Danny R.

    2006-05-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contractual obligations with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's (ODFW), Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program (Program). The Program works cooperatively with private landowners to develop long-term restoration agreements, under which, passive and active Habitat Improvement Projects are conducted. Historically, projects have included livestock exclusion fencing (passive restoration) to protect riparian habitats, along with the installation of instream structures (active restoration) to address erosion and improve fish habitat conditions. In recent years, the focus of active restoration has shifted to bioengineering treatments and, more recently, to channel re-design and re-construction aimed at improving fish habitat, through the restoration of stable channel function. This report provides a summary of Program activities for the 2005 calendar year (January 1 through December 31, 2005), within each of the four main project phases, including: (1) Implementation--Pre-Work, (2) Implementation--On Site Development, (3) Operation and Maintenance (O&M), and (4) Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E). This report also summarizes activities associated with Program Administration, Interagency Coordination, and Public Education.

  8. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Screens Evaluations, 2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, Mickie; Abernethy, Scott; Tunnicliffe, Cherylyn

    2007-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated Gardena Farms, Little Walla Walla, and Garden City/Lowden II Phase II fish screen facilities and provided underwater videography beneath a leaking rubber dam in the Walla Walla River basin in 2006. Evaluations of the fish screen facilities took place in early May 2006, when juvenile salmonids are generally outmigrating. At the Gardena Farms site, extended high river levels caused accumulations of debris and sediment in the forebay. This debris covered parts of the bottom drum seals, which could lead to early deterioration of the seals and drum screen. Approach velocities were excessive at the upstream corners of most of the drums, leading to 14% of the total approach velocities exceeding 0.4 feet per second (ft/s). Consequently, the approach velocities did not meet National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) design criteria guidelines for juvenile fish screens. The Little Walla Walla site was found to be in good condition, with all approach, sweep, and bypass velocities within NMFS criteria. Sediment buildup was minor and did not affect the effectiveness of the screens. At Garden City/Lowden II, 94% of approach velocities met NMFS criteria of 0.4 ft/s at any time. Sweep velocities increased toward the fish ladder. The air-burst mechanism appears to keep large debris off the screens, although it does not prevent algae and periphyton from growing on the screen face, especially near the bottom of the screens. In August 2006, the Gardena Farm Irrigation District personnel requested that we look for a leak beneath the inflatable rubber dam at the Garden City/Lowden II site that was preventing water movement through the fish ladder. Using our underwater video equipment, we were able to find a gap in the sheet piling beneath the dam. Erosion of the riverbed was occurring around this gap, allowing water and cobbles to move beneath the dam. The construction engineers and irrigation district staff were able to use the video

  9. Synergistic and singular effects of river discharge and lunar illumination on dam passage of upstream migrant yellow-phase American eels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Stuart; Aldinger, Joni L.; Braham, Melissa; Zimmerman, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of dam passage can be useful for management and conservation assessments of American eel, particularly if passage counts can be examined over multiple years. During a 7-year study (2007–2013) of upstream migration of American eels within the lower Shenandoah River (Potomac River drainage), we counted and measured American eels at the Millville Dam eel pass, where annual study periods were determined by the timing of the eel pass installation during spring or summer and removal during fall. Daily American eel counts were analysed with negative binomial regression models, with and without a year (YR) effect, and with the following time-varying environmental covariates: river discharge of the Shenandoah River at Millville (RDM) and of the Potomac River at Point of Rocks, lunar illumination (LI), water temperature, and cloud cover. A total of 17 161 yellow-phase American eels used the pass during the seven annual periods, and length measurements were obtained from 9213 individuals (mean = 294 mm TL, s.e. = 0.49, range 183–594 mm). Data on passage counts of American eels supported an additive-effects model (YR + LI + RDM) where parameter estimates were positive for river discharge (β = 7.3, s.e. = 0.01) and negative for LI (β = −1.9, s.e. = 0.34). Interestingly, RDM and LI acted synergistically and singularly as correlates of upstream migration of American eels, but the highest daily counts and multiple-day passage events were associated with increased RDM. Annual installation of the eel pass during late spring or summer prevented an early spring assessment, a period with higher RDM relative to those values obtained during sampling periods. Because increases in river discharge are climatically controlled events, upstream migration events of American eels within the Potomac River drainage are likely linked to the influence of climate variability on flow regime.

  10. Fish communities of the Sacramento River Basin: Implications for conservation of native fishes in the Central Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, J.T.; Brown, L.R.

    2002-01-01

    The associations of resident fish communities with environmental variables and stream condition were evaluated at representative sites within the Sacramento River Basin, California between 1996 and 1998 using multivariate ordination techniques and by calculating six fish community metrics. In addition, the results of the current study were compared with recent studies in the San Joaquin River drainage to provide a wider perspective of the condition of resident fish communities in the Central Valley of California as a whole. Within the Sacramento drainage, species distributions were correlated with elevational and substrate size gradients; however, the elevation of a sampling site was correlated with a suite of water-quality and habitat variables that are indicative of land use effects on physiochemical stream parameters. Four fish community metrics - percentage of native fish, percentage of intolerant fish, number of tolerant species, and percentage of fish with external anomalies - were responsive to environmental quality. Comparisons between the current study and recent studies in the San Joaquin River drainage suggested that differences in water-management practices may have significant effects on native species fish community structure. Additionally, the results of the current study suggest that index of biotic integrity-type indices can be developed for the Sacramento River Basin and possibly the entire Central Valley, California. The protection of native fish communities in the Central Valley and other arid environments continues to be a conflict between human needs for water resources and the requirements of aquatic ecosystems; preservation of these ecosystems will require innovative management strategies.

  11. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Zabel, Richard W.

    2004-01-01

    For juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, sockeye salmon O. nerka, and steelhead O. mykiss that migrate through reservoirs, hydroelectric projects, and free-flowing sections of the Snake and Columbia Rivers, survival estimates are essential to develop effective strategies for recovering depressed stocks. Many management strategies were based on estimates of system survival (Raymond 1979; Sims and Ossiander 1981) derived in a river system considerably different from today's (Williams and Matthews 1995; Williams et al. 2001). Knowledge of the magnitude, locations, and causes of smolt mortality under present passage conditions, and under conditions projected for the future, are necessary to develop strategies that will optimize smolt survival during migration. From 1993 through 2002, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the University of Washington (UW) demonstrated the feasibility of using three statistical models to estimate survival of PIT-tagged (Prentice et al. 1990a) juvenile salmonids passing through Snake River dams and reservoirs (Iwamoto et al. 1994; Muir et al. 1995, 1996, 2001a, 2003; Smith et al. 1998, 2000a,b; Hockersmith et al. 1999; Zabel et al. 2001, 2002). Evaluation of assumptions for these models indicated that all were generally satisfied, and accurate and precise survival estimates were obtained. In 2003, NMFS and UW completed the eleventh year of the study. Flow levels during the early portion of the 2003 spring migration were similar to 2002, and only slightly higher than in the drought conditions during 2001. However, flow levels were much greater during the later part of the migration in 2003. Spill levels were similar to 2002, much higher than in 2001. Research objectives were to: (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate

  12. Downstream passage and impact of turbine shutdowns on survival of silver American Eels at five hydroelectric dams on the Shenandoah River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eyler, Sheila; Welsh, Stuart; Smith, David; Rockey, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Hydroelectric dams impact the downstream migrations of silver American Eels Anguilla rostrata via migratory delays and turbine mortality. A radiotelemetry study of American Eels was conducted to determine the impacts of five run-of-the-river hydroelectric dams located over a 195-km stretch of the Shenandoah River, Virginia–West Virginia, during fall 2007–summer 2010. Overall, 96 radio-tagged individuals (mean TL = 85.4 cm) migrated downstream past at least one dam during the study. Most American Eels passed dams relatively quickly; over half (57.9%) of the dam passage events occurred within 1 h of reaching a dam, and most (81.3%) occurred within 24 h of reaching the dam. Two-thirds of the dam passage events occurred via spill, and the remaining passage events were through turbines. Migratory delays at dams were shorter and American Eels were more likely to pass via spill over the dam during periods of high river discharge than during low river discharge. The extent of delay in migration did not differ between the passage routes (spill versus turbine). Twenty-eight American Eels suffered turbine-related mortality, which occurred at all five dams. Mortality rates for eels passing through turbines ranged from 15.8% to 40.7% at individual dams. Overall project-specific mortality rates (with all passage routes combined) ranged from 3.0% to 14.3%. To protect downstream-migrating American Eels, nighttime turbine shutdowns (1800–0600 hours) were implemented during September 15–December 15. Fifty percent of all downstream passage events in the study occurred during the turbine shutdown period. Implementation of the seasonal turbine shutdown period reduced cumulative mortality from 63.3% to 37.3% for American Eels passing all five dams. Modifying the turbine shutdown period to encompass more dates in the spring and linking the shutdowns to environmental conditions could provide greater protection to downstream-migrating American Eels.

  13. Metals in edible fish from Vistula River and Dead Vistula River channel, Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Wyrzykowska, Barbara; Falandysz, Jerzy; Jarzyńska, Grażyna

    2012-01-01

    Metals including Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn were determined in muscle tissue of 12 fish species by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and cold vapour-atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS). Fish were collected from Vistula River at lower course and Dead Vistula River channel in south of Baltic Sea in Poland. The fish species examined include Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus), Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius), Bull-rout (Myoxocephalus scorpius), Tench (Tinca tinca), Bream (Abramis brama), Burbot (Lota lot), Perch (Perca perca), Roach (Rutilus rutilus), Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), Pikeperch (Stizostediun lucioperca), Brown salmon (Salmo trutta m. Trutta) and Eel (Anguilla anguilla). The median values of metal concentrations in fresh muscle tissue of 11 fish species varied as follows: Al < 0.5-60; Ba < 0.05-0.31; Ca 120-1800; Cd < 0.05-0.096; Co < 0.10; Cr < 0.10-0.50; Cu < 0.15-0.77; Fe 1.5-21; Hg 0.0058-0.65; K 1800-4200; Mg 130-560; Mn 0.12-0.59; Na 350-840; Ni < 0.2-0.31; Pb < 0.75; Sr 0.079-2.9; Zn 3.3-23 μg/g fresh weight. The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) values calculated in this study for Cd and Hg from muscles of fish species collected from Vistula River were low in the range of 0.4 for Hg and 0.8 for Cd.

  14. Dam operations affect route-specific passage and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon at a main-stem diversion dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Russell W.; Kock, Tobias J.; Couter, Ian I; Garrison, Thomas M; Hubble, Joel D; Child, David B

    2016-01-01

    Diversion dams can negatively affect emigrating juvenile salmon populations because fish must pass through the impounded river created by the dam, negotiate a passage route at the dam and then emigrate through a riverine reach that has been affected by reduced river discharge. To quantify the effects of a main-stem diversion dam on juvenile Chinook salmon in the Yakima River, Washington, USA, we used radio telemetry to understand how dam operations and river discharge in the 18-km reach downstream of the dam affected route-specific passage and survival. We found evidence of direct mortality associated with dam passage and indirect mortality associated with migration through the reach below the dam. Survival of fish passing over a surface spill gate (the west gate) was positively related to river discharge, and survival was similar for fish released below the dam, suggesting that passage via this route caused little additional mortality. However, survival of fish that passed under a sub-surface spill gate (the east gate) was considerably lower than survival of fish released downstream of the dam, with the difference in survival decreasing as river discharge increased. The probability of fish passing the dam via three available routes was strongly influenced by dam operations, with passage through the juvenile fish bypass and the east gate increasing with discharge through those routes. By simulating daily passage and route-specific survival, we show that variation in total survival is driven by river discharge and moderated by the proportion of fish passing through low-survival or high-survival passage routes.

  15. Passage and behaviour of cultured Lake Sturgeon in a prototype side-baffle fish ladder: I. Ladder hydraulics and fish ascent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Pugh, D.; Parker, T.

    2011-01-01

    Research and development of a fish ladder for sturgeons requires understanding ladder hydraulics and sturgeon behaviour in the ladder to insure the ladder is safe and provides effective passage. After years of research and development, we designed and constructed a full-scale prototype side-baffle ladder inside a spiral flume (38.3m long??1m wide??1m high) on a 6% (1:16.5) slope with a 1.92-m rise in elevation (bottom to top) to test use by sturgeons. Twenty-eight triangular side baffles, each extending part way across the flume, alternated from inside wall to outside wall down the ladder creating two major flow habitats: a continuous, sinusoidal flow down the ladder through the vertical openings of side-baffles and an eddy below each side baffle. Ascent and behaviour was observed on 22 cultured Lake Sturgeon=LS (Acipenser fulvescens) repeatedly tested in groups as juveniles (as small as 105.1cm TL, mean) or as adults (mean TL, 118cm) during four periods (fall 2002 and 2003; spring 2003 and 2007). Percent of juveniles entering the ladder that ascended to the top was greater in spring (72.7%) than in fall (40.9-45.5%) and 90.9% of 11 adults, which ascended as juveniles, ascended to the top. Six LS (27.3%) never swam to the top and seven (31.8%) swam to the top in all tests, indicating great variability among individuals for ascent drive. Some LS swam directly to the top in <1min, but most rested in an eddy during ascent. Juveniles swimming through outside wall baffle slots (mean velocity, 1.2ms-1) swam at 1.8-2.2body lengthss-1 and 3.2-3.3tail beatss-1, either at or approaching prolonged swimming speed. The side-baffle ladder was stream-like and provided key factors for a sturgeon ladder: a continuous flow and no full cross-channel walls, abundant eddies for resting, an acceptable water depth, and a water velocity fish could ascend swimming 2bls-1. A side-baffle ladder passes LS and other moderate-swimming fishes. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  16. CTUIR Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project : A Columbia River Basin Fish Habitat Project 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoverson, Eric D.; Amonette, Alexandra

    2009-02-09

    The Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project (UAFHP) is an ongoing effort to protect, enhance, and restore riparian and instream habitat for the natural production of anadromous salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin, Northeast Oregon. Flow quantity, water temperature, passage, and lack of in-stream channel complexity have been identified as the key limiting factors in the basin. During the 2008 Fiscal Year (FY) reporting period (February 1, 2008-January 31, 2009) primary project activities focused on improving instream and riparian habitat complexity, migrational passage, and restoring natural channel morphology and floodplain function. Eight primary fisheries habitat enhancement projects were implemented on Meacham Creek, Birch Creek, West Birch Creek, McKay Creek, West Fork Spring Hollow, and the Umatilla River. Specific restoration actions included: (1) rectifying one fish passage barrier on West Birch Creek; (2) participating in six projects planting 10,000 trees and seeding 3225 pounds of native grasses; (3) donating 1000 ft of fencing and 1208 fence posts and associated hardware for 3.6 miles of livestock exclusion fencing projects in riparian areas of West Birch and Meacham Creek, and for tree screens to protect against beaver damage on West Fork Spring Hollow Creek; (4) using biological control (insects) to reduce noxious weeds on three treatment areas covering five acres on Meacham Creek; (5) planning activities for a levee setback project on Meacham Creek. We participated in additional secondary projects as opportunities arose. Baseline and ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities were also completed on major project areas such as conducting photo point monitoring strategies activities at the Meacham Creek Large Wood Implementation Project site (FY2006) and at additional easements and planned project sites. Fish surveys and aquatic habitat inventories were conducted at project sites prior to implementation. Proper selection and implementation of

  17. Introduction to historical changes in large river fish assemblages of the Americas

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book’s objective is to document historical changes in the fish assemblages of large American rivers, and to determine patterns in and rationale for those changes. In this chapter, we review pertinent literature on large rivers and fish assemblages worldwide and briefly intr...

  18. Introduction to historical changes in large river fish assemblages of the Americas

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book’s objective is to document historical changes in the fish assemblages of large American rivers, and to determine patterns in and rationale for those changes. In this chapter, we review pertinent literature on large rivers and fish assemblages worldwide and briefly intr...

  19. Development of an Index of Ecological Condition Based on Great River Fish Assemblages, Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Great River Ecosystems we developed a fish-assemblage based multimetric index (Great River Fish Index,GRFIn) as an indicator of ecological conditions in the Lower Missouri, impounded Upper Mississippi,.unimpounded...

  20. Development of an Index of Ecological Condition based on Great River Fish Assemblages

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Great River Ecosystems we developed a fish-assemblage based multimetric index (Great River Fish Index,GRFIn) as an indicator of ecological conditions in the Lower Missouri, impounded Upper Mississippi,.unimpoun...

  1. Development of an Index of Ecological Condition based on Great River Fish Assemblages

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Great River Ecosystems we developed a fish-assemblage based multimetric index (Great River Fish Index,GRFIn) as an indicator of ecological conditions in the Lower Missouri, impounded Upper Mississippi,.unimpoun...

  2. Development of an Index of Ecological Condition Based on Great River Fish Assemblages, Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Great River Ecosystems we developed a fish-assemblage based multimetric index (Great River Fish Index,GRFIn) as an indicator of ecological conditions in the Lower Missouri, impounded Upper Mississippi,.unimpounded...

  3. CONNECTICUT RIVER FISH TISSUE CONTAMINANT STUDY (2000): ECOLOGICAL AND HUMAN HEALTH RISK SCREENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study targeted commonly caught recreational fish, as well as other fish that are important in the river food chain. Smallmouth bass, white suckers and yellow perch were collected during 2000 from the mainstem of the Connecticut River and composite samples were analyzed for t...

  4. CONNECTICUT RIVER FISH TISSUE CONTAMINANT STUDY (2000): ECOLOGICAL AND HUMAN HEALTH RISK SCREENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study targeted commonly caught recreational fish, as well as other fish that are important in the river food chain. Smallmouth bass, white suckers and yellow perch were collected during 2000 from the mainstem of the Connecticut River and composite samples were analyzed for t...

  5. Hydrologic habitat preferences of select southeastern USA fishes resilient to river ecosystem fragmentation

    Treesearch

    Andrew L. Rypel; David R. Bayne

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale habitat preferences of riverine taxa are not always revealed by examining community data. Here, we show how lipid and growth can be used to evaluate hydrologic habitat preferences of fishes resilient to river fragmentation (i.e. species that can tolerate river fragmentation by dams, but not collapse). Lipid content was examined for seven fishes in a major...

  6. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, S.L.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Neitzel, D.A.

    1999-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 19 Phase II screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. The sites were examined to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide fish a safe, efficient return to the Yakima River.

  7. SETTING EXPECTATIONS FOR THE OHIO RIVER FISH INDEX BASED ON IN-STREAM HABITAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of habitat criteria for setting fish community assessment expectations is common for streams, but a standard approach for great rivers remains largely undeveloped. We developed assessment expectations for the Ohio River Fish Index (ORFIN) based on measures of in-stream h...

  8. River and fish pollution in Malaysia: A green ergonomics perspective.

    PubMed

    Poon, Wai Ching; Herath, Gamini; Sarker, Ashutosh; Masuda, Tadayoshi; Kada, Ryohei

    2016-11-01

    Human activities, such as industrial, agricultural, and domestic pursuits, discharge effluents into riverine ecological systems that contains aquatic resources, such as fish, which are also used by humans. We conducted case studies in Malaysia to investigate the impacts of these human activities on water and fish resources, as well as on human well-being from an ergonomics perspective. This research shows that a green ergonomics approach can provide us with useful insights into sustainable relationships between humans and ecology in facilitating human well-being in consideration of the overall performance of the social-ecological system. Heavy metal concentrations contained in the effluents pollute river water and contaminate fish, eventually creating significant health risks and economic costs for residents, including the polluters. The study suggests a number of policy interventions to change human behavior and achieve greater collaboration between various levels of government, academia, civil society, and businesses to help establish sustainable relationships between humans and ecology in Malaysia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the fish passage effectiveness of the Bonneville I prototype surface collector using three-dimensional ultrasonic fish tracking - Final Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faber, D.M; Weiland, M.A.; Moursund, R.A.; Carlson, T.J.; Adams, N.; Rondorf, D.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes tests conducted at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River in the spring of 2000. The studies used three-dimensional (3D) acoustic telemetry and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) hydraulic modeling techniques to evaluate the response of outmigrating juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and yearling chinook (O. tshawytscha) to the Prototype Surface Collector (PSC) installed at Powerhouse I of Bonneville Dam in 1998 to test the concept of using a deep-slot surface bypass collector to divert downstream migrating salmon from turbines. The study was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the Waterways Experiment Station of the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers (COE), Asci Corporation, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and was sponsored by COE’s Portland District. The goal of the study was to observe the three-dimensional behavior of tagged fish (fish bearing ultrasonic micro-transmitters) within 100 meters (m) of the surface flow bypass structure to test hypotheses about the response of migrants to flow stimuli generated by the presence of the surface flow bypass prototype and its operation. Research was done in parallel with radio telemetry studies conducted by USGS and hydroacoustic studies conducted by WES & Asci to evaluate the prototype surface collector.

  10. River water temperature and fish growth forecasting models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, E.; Pike, A.; Lindley, S.; Mendelssohn, R.; Dewitt, L.; Melton, F. S.; Nemani, R. R.; Hashimoto, H.

    2010-12-01

    Water is a valuable, limited, and highly regulated resource throughout the United States. When making decisions about water allocations, state and federal water project managers must consider the short-term and long-term needs of agriculture, urban users, hydroelectric production, flood control, and the ecosystems downstream. In the Central Valley of California, river water temperature is a critical indicator of habitat quality for endangered salmonid species and affects re-licensing of major water projects and dam operations worth billions of dollars. There is consequently strong interest in modeling water temperature dynamics and the subsequent impacts on fish growth in such regulated rivers. However, the accuracy of current stream temperature models is limited by the lack of spatially detailed meteorological forecasts. To address these issues, we developed a high-resolution deterministic 1-dimensional stream temperature model (sub-hourly time step, sub-kilometer spatial resolution) in a state-space framework, and applied this model to Upper Sacramento River. We then adapted salmon bioenergetics models to incorporate the temperature data at sub-hourly time steps to provide more realistic estimates of salmon growth. The temperature model uses physically-based heat budgets to calculate the rate of heat transfer to/from the river. We use variables provided by the TOPS-WRF (Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System - Weather Research and Forecasting) model—a high-resolution assimilation of satellite-derived meteorological observations and numerical weather simulations—as inputs. The TOPS-WRF framework allows us to improve the spatial and temporal resolution of stream temperature predictions. The salmon growth models are adapted from the Wisconsin bioenergetics model. We have made the output from both models available on an interactive website so that water and fisheries managers can determine the past, current and three day forecasted water temperatures at

  11. Fish assemblage shifts in the Powder River of Wyoming: an unregulated prairie river system previously considered to be relatively pristine.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senecal, Anna C.; Walters, Annika W.; Hubert, Wayne A.

    2016-01-01

    Wyoming’s Powder River is considered an example of a pristine prairie river system. While the river hosts a largely native fish assemblage and remains unimpounded over its 1,146-km course to the Yellowstone River confluence, the hydrologic regime has been altered through water diversion for agriculture and natural gas extraction and there has been limited study of fish assemblage structure. We analyzed fish data collected from the mainstem Powder River in Wyoming between 1896 and 2008. Shifts in presence/absence and relative abundance of fish species, as well as fish assemblage composition, were assessed among historical and recent samples. The recent Powder River fish assemblage was characterized by increased relative abundances of sand shiner Notropis stramineus and plains killifish Fundulus zebrinus, and decreases in sturgeon chub Macrhybopsis gelida. Shifts in fish species relative abundance are linked to their reproductive ecology with species with adhesive eggs generally increasing in relative abundance while those with buoyant drifting eggs are decreasing. Assemblage shifts could be the result of landscape level changes, such as the loss of extreme high and low flow events and changing land use practices.

  12. Hypoxia, Blackwater and Fish Kills: Experimental Lethal Oxygen Thresholds in Juvenile Predatory Lowland River Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Small, Kade; Kopf, R. Keller; Watts, Robyn J.; Howitt, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia represents a growing threat to biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems. Here, aquatic surface respiration (ASR) and oxygen thresholds required for survival in freshwater and simulated blackwater are evaluated for four lowland river fishes native to the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), Australia. Juvenile stages of predatory species including golden perch Macquaria ambigua, silver perch Bidyanus bidyanus, Murray cod Maccullochella peelii, and eel-tailed catfish Tandanus tandanus were exposed to experimental conditions of nitrogen-induced hypoxia in freshwater and hypoxic blackwater simulations using dried river red gum Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf litter. Australia's largest freshwater fish, M. peelii, was the most sensitive to hypoxia but given that we evaluated tolerances of juveniles (0.99±0.04 g; mean mass ±SE), the low tolerance of this species could not be attributed to its large maximum attainable body mass (>100,000 g). Concentrations of dissolved oxygen causing 50% mortality (LC50) in freshwater ranged from 0.25±0.06 mg l−1 in T. tandanus to 1.58±0.01 mg l−1 in M. peelii over 48 h at 25–26°C. Logistic models predicted that first mortalities may start at oxygen concentrations ranging from 2.4 mg l−1 to 3.1 mg l−1 in T. tandanus and M. peelii respectively within blackwater simulations. Aquatic surface respiration preceded mortality and this behaviour is documented here for the first time in juveniles of all four species. Despite the natural occurrence of hypoxia and blackwater events in lowland rivers of the MDB, juvenile stages of these large-bodied predators are vulnerable to mortality induced by low oxygen concentration and water chemistry changes associated with the decomposition of organic material. Given the extent of natural flow regime alteration and climate change predictions of rising temperatures and more severe drought and flooding, acute episodes of hypoxia may represent an underappreciated risk to riverine fish communities. PMID

  13. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix C: Anadromous Fish and Juvenile Fish Transportation.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings.

  14. Composition of Age-0 Fish Assemblages in the Apalachicola River, River Styx, and Battle Bend, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Stephen J.; Buttermore, Elissa N.; Burgess, O. Towns; Pine, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Light traps were used to sample the age-0 year class of fish communities in the Apalachicola River and associated floodplain water bodies of River Styx and Battle Bend, Florida, in 2006-2007. A total of 629 light traps were deployed during the spring and early summer months (341 between March 15 and June 6, 2006; 288 between March 9 and July 3, 2007). For combined years, 13.8 percent of traps were empty and a total of 20,813 age-0 fish were captured representing at least 40 taxa of 29 genera and 16 families. Trap catches were dominated by relatively few species, with the most abundant groups represented by cyprinids, centrarchids, percids, and catostomids. Six taxa accounted for about 80 percent of all fish collected: Micropterus spp. (28.9 percent), Notropis texanus (28.9 percent), Lepomis macrochirus (7.9 percent), Carpiodes cyprinus (6.2 percent), Cyprinidae sp. (4.6 percent), and Minytrema melanops (4.2 percent). Based on chronological appearance in light traps and catch-per-unit effort, including data from previous years of sampling, peak spawning periods for most species occurred between early March and mid-June. A complementary telemetry study of pre-reproductive adults of select target species (Micropterus spp., Lepomis spp., and M. melanops) revealed distinct patterns of habitat use, with some individual fish exclusively utilizing mainstem river habitat or floodplain habitat during spawning and post-spawning periods, and other individuals migrating between habitats. A comparison of light-trap catches between a pre-enhancement, high-water year (2003) and post-enhancement, low-water year (2007) for the oxbow at Battle Bend revealed some difference in community composition, with slightly greater values of diversity and evenness indices in 2007. Two dominant species, Lepomis macrochirus and Micropterus salmoides, were substantially greater in relative abundance among all age-0 fish collected in 2007 in comparison to 2003. Excavation of sediments at the mouth

  15. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Screen Evaluations, 2003: Nursery Bridge Fishway and Garden City-Lowden II

    SciTech Connect

    Vucelick, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.

    2003-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated the fish screens at the Nursery Bridge Fishway and at the newly constructed Garden City-Lowden II site west of Walla Walla, Washington in the Walla Walla River Basin during the spring and summer of 2003. Both fish screen facilities were examined to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide for safe fish passage. At the Nursery Bridge Fishway, the screens were evaluated specifically to determine whether the louvers that aid in controlling water flow from behind the screens could be adjusted so that the screens would meet fish protection criteria. Data were collected to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met current National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries ((NOAA Fisheries), formerly National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage before and after changing the louver settings. Rock weirs downstream of the dam were also evaluated to determine whether they might impede upstream migration of juvenile salmonids during low flow conditions. At the Garden City-Lowden II site, data were collected to establish a baseline for operating conditions and to determine whether any changes in the baffle settings were needed. Based on the results of our studies in 2003, we concluded: Nursery Bridge Site: (1) 68% of the initial velocity measurements on the west screen exceeded the NOAA Fisheries criteria of 0.4 ft/s for approach velocity; (2) A simple adjustment of the existing louvers was not sufficient to fix the problem; (3) The sediment and debris load in the river upstream of the screens exceeded the design criteria for the site, which had frequent breakdowns in the screen cleaning systems; and (4) The rock weirs downstream of the dam would not be expected to impede upstream movement of juvenile fish during low flow conditions. Garden City-Lowden II: (1) The flat inclined-plate screen design

  16. [Effect of environmental factors on fish community structure in the Huntai River Basin at multiple scales].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-li; Li, Yan-fen; Xu, Zong-xue

    2014-09-01

    In June 2012, fishes was investigated at 65 sampling sites in the Huntai River basin in Northeast of China. Forty species were collected, belonging to 9 orders, 14 families,33 genera. Cobitidae and Cyprinidae were the dominant fishes in the community structure in the Huntai River basin, accounting for 13. 21% and 65. 83% of the fish community, respectively. There were two types of spatial distribution of fish community, one was distributed in the head water and tributaries in the upstream, and the other was in the plain rivers. Nemachilus nudus, Cobitis granoei and Phoxinus lagowskii dominated the local community in the upper reaches of the Dahuofang Reservoir and shenwo River, while Carassius ayratus and Hemiculter leucisculdus dominated the local community in the plain rivers. CCA (canonical correspondence analysis) was used to distinguish the primary environmental variables that affected the fish community structure. The results indicated fish community was mainly affected by environment factors at watershed and reach scales. Proportions of woodland and urban land, and altitude were three important environmental factors affecting the fish community at the watershed scale. Dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, pH and habitat inhomogeneity significantly affected the fish community at the reach scale, whereas substrate didn't show significant influence at the microhabitat scale. Environmental factors at watershed scale explained 7. 66% of the variation of fish community structure, environmental factors at reach scale explained 10. 57% of the variation of fish community structure. Environmental factors at reach scale influenced the fish community more significantly.

  17. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Detroit Dam, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ham, Kenneth D.

    2012-11-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Detroit Dam (DET) on the North Santiam River, Oregon for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at DET and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to regulatory requirements necessitated by the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. The goal of the study was to provide information of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at DET from February 2011 through February 2012. The results of the hydroacoustic study provide new and, in some cases, first-ever data on passage estimates, run timing, distributions, and relationships between fish passage and environmental variables at the dam. This information will inform management decisions on the design and development of surface passage and collection devices to help restore Chinook salmon populations in the North Santiam River watershed above DET. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 182,526 smolt-size fish (±4,660 fish, 95% CI) passed through turbine penstock intakes. Run timing peaked in winter and early spring months. Passage rates were highest during late fall, winter and early spring months and low during summer. Horizontal distribution for hours when both turbine units were operated simultaneously indicated Unit 2 passed almost twice as much fish as Unit 1. Diel distribution for smolt-size fish during the study period was fairly uniform, indicating fish were passing the turbines at all times of the day. A total of 5,083 smolt-size fish (± 312 fish, 95% CI) were estimated passed via the spillway when it was open between June 23 and September 27, 2011. Daily passage was low at the spillway during the June-August period, and

  18. Long-term evolution of fish communities in European mountainous rivers: past log driving effects, river management and species introduction (Salzach River, Danube).

    PubMed

    Haidvogl, Gertrud; Pont, Didier; Dolak, Horst; Hohensinner, Severin

    Using historical sources from the turn of the 19th to the 20th century, we investigated the long-term evolution of the fish community in a mountainous river network and the influence of different human uses and management measures. Within the alpine Salzach catchment, historical presence was reconstructed for 26 fish species, abundance classes for 19 species. Due to channelization, flood protection and dam erections, the spatial distribution of fish species was reduced during the 20th century. Many rheophilic and eurytopic fish species historically inhabited river reaches along a wide longitudinal profile and were present in more upstream river reaches than nowadays. The decrease of species diversity in the headwater sections is a consequence of lost lateral connectivity. Strongest effects are reported for sensitive species requiring different habitat types during their life cycles (especially pike, nase, Danube salmon). One of the most important shifts from the historical fish community to the present one reflects the deliberate introduction of fish species for fisheries. Rainbow trout and brook trout, absent from the historical fish assemblage, today represent up to 29 % of the total number of fish occurrences. In contrast, log driving, one of the most common historical pressures in European mountainous rivers, did not show significant negative effects on the past fish ecological situation. This result strongly differs from the impacts of log driving and deforestation demonstrated for recent times, and could be related to the change in log driving practices during the 20th century and to the high societal value of fish before the industrialization period along with other historical pressures affecting fish in rivers without log driving. In general, our results can be valid for a large number of European mountainous rivers. They highlight the usefulness of such detailed historical studies for our understanding of the long-term evolution of fish communities and

  19. Yakima and Touchet River Basins Phase II Fish Screen Evaluation, 2006-2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, Mickie; Tunnicliffe, Cherylyn

    2007-03-01

    In 2006, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers evaluated 27 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima and Touchet river basins. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performs these evaluations for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to determine whether the fish screening devices meet those National Marine Fisheries (NMFS) criteria for juvenile fish screen design, that promote safe and timely passage of juvenile salmonids. The NMFS criteria against which the sites were evaluated are as follows: (1) a uniform flow distribution over the screen surface to minimize approach velocity; (2) approach velocities less than or equal to 0.4 ft/s protects the smallest salmonids from impingement; (3) sweep velocities that are greater than approach velocities to minimize delay of out-migrating juveniles and minimize sediment deposition near the screens; (4) a bypass flow greater than or equal to the maximum flow velocity vector resultant upstream of the screens to also minimize delay of out-migrating salmonids; (5) a gradual and efficient acceleration of flow from the upstream end of the site into the bypass entrance to minimize delay of out-migrating salmonids; and (6) screen submergence between 65% and 85% for drum screen sites. In addition, the silt and debris accumulation next to the screens should be kept to a minimum to prevent excessive wear on screens, seals and cleaning mechanisms. Evaluations consist of measuring velocities in front of the screens, using an underwater camera to assess the condition and environment in front of the screens, and noting the general condition and operation of the sites. Results of the evaluations in 2006 include the following: (1) Most approach velocities met the NMFS criterion of less than or equal to 0.4 ft/s. Of the sites evaluated, 31% exceeded the criterion at least once. Thirty-three percent of flat-plate screens had problems compared to 25% of drum screens. (2) Woody debris and gravel deposited during high river

  20. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima and Touchet River Basins, 2005-2006 Annual Reports.

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, Mickie; Abernethy, C.; Tunnicliffe, Cherylyn

    2006-02-01

    In 2005, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers evaluated 25 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima and Touchet river basins. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performs these evaluations for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to determine whether the fish screening devices meet National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. Evaluations consist of measuring velocities in front of the screens, using an underwater camera to look at the condition and environment in front of the screens, and noting the general condition and operation of the sites. Results of the evaluations in 2005 include the following: (1) Most approach velocities met the NMFS criterion of less than or equal to 0.4 fps. Less than 13% of all approach measurements exceeded the criterion, and these occurred at 10 of the sites. Flat-plate screens had more problems than drum screens with high approach velocities. (2) Bypass velocities generally were greater than sweep velocities, but sweep velocities often did not increase toward the bypass. The latter condition could slow migration of fish through the facility. (3) Screen and seal materials generally were in good condition. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well-greased and operative. (5) Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) generally operate and maintain fish screen facilities in a way that provides safe passage for juvenile fish. (6) In some instances, irrigators responsible for specific maintenance at their sites (e.g., debris removal) are not performing their tasks in a way that provides optimum operation of the fish screen facility. New ways need to be found to encourage them to maintain their facilities properly. (7) We recommend placing datasheets providing up-to-date operating criteria and design flows in each sites logbox. The datasheet should include

  1. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Screen Evaluations; Nursery Bridge Fishway and Garden City/Lowden II Sites, 2005-2006 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, Mickie

    2006-06-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated two fish screen facilities in the Walla Walla River basin in 2005 and early 2006. The Garden City/Lowden screen site was evaluated in April and June 2005 to determine whether the fish screens met National Marine Fisheries Service criteria to provide safe passage for juvenile salmonids. Louvers behind the screens at the Nursery Bridge Fishway were modified in fall 2005 in an attempt to minimize high approach velocities. PNNL evaluated the effects of those modifications in March 2006. Results of the Garden City/Lowden evaluations indicate the site performs well at varying river levels and canal flows. Approach velocities did not exceed 0.4 feet per second (fps) at any time. Sweep velocities increased toward the fish ladder in March but not in June. The air-burst mechanism appears to keep large debris off the screens, although it does not prevent algae and periphyton from growing on the screen face, especially near the bottom of the screens. At Nursery Bridge, results indicate all the approach velocities were below 0.4 fps under the moderate river levels and operational conditions encountered on March 7, 2006. Sweep did not consistently increase toward the fish ladder, but the site generally met the criteria for safe passage of juvenile salmonids. Modifications to the louvers seem to allow more control over the amount of water moving through the screens. We will measure approach velocities when river levels are higher to determine whether the louver modifications can help correct excessive approach velocities under a range of river levels and auxiliary water supply flows.

  2. Fish communities and related environmental conditions of the lower Boise River, southwestern Idaho, 1974-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCoy, Dorene E.

    2006-01-01

    Within the last century, the lower Boise River has been transformed from a meandering, braided, gravel-bed river that supported large runs of salmon to a channelized, regulated, urban river that provides flood control and irrigation water to more than 1,200 square miles of land. An understanding of the current status of the river's fish communities and related environmental conditions is important to support the ongoing management of the Boise River. Therefore, fish community data from the U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game collected since 1974 were analyzed to describe the status of fish communities in the lower Boise River. Each set of data was collected to address different study objectives, but is combined here to provide an overall distribution of fish in the lower Boise River over the last 30 years. Twenty-two species of fish in 7 families have been identified in the lower Boise River-3 salmonidae, trout and whitefish; 2 cottidae, sculpins; 3 catostomidae, suckers; 7 cyprinidae, minnows; 4 centrarchidae, sunfish; 2 ictaluridae, catfish; and 1 cobitidae, loach. Analysis of fish community data using an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) for Northwest rivers shows a decrease in the biotic integrity in a downstream direction, with the lowest IBI near the mouth of the Boise River. The number of tolerant and introduced fish were greater in the lower reaches of the river. Changes in land use, habitat, and water quality, as well as regulated streamflow have affected the lower Boise River fish community. IBI scores were negatively correlated with maximum instantaneous water temperature, specific conductance, and suspended sediment; as well as the basin land-use metrics, area of developed land, impervious surface area, and the number of major diversions upstream of a site. Fish communities in the upstream reaches were dominated by piscivorous fish, whereas the downstream reaches were dominated by tolerant, omnivorous fish. The percentage of

  3. [Hygienic evaluation of the safety of commercial type of fishes from the Amur River].

    PubMed

    Chukhlebova, L M

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives the results of an integrated assessment of the hygienic parameters of the fish newly caught from the Amur River. Microbiological assay of its muscle tissue for various pollutants (nitrosamines, petroleum products, heavy metals) was used as a basic study. The consequences of the saprophytic and opportunistic bacteria being introduced into the fish with its multicomponent pollution by the toxicants, as well as reduced fish resistance to the causative agents of various diseases are discussed. The investigations show that the fish caught during freezing-over in the main stream of the Amur River falls short its safety requirements. Long-term frozen storage of the fish lowers its nutritional value.

  4. Investigating phenology of larval fishes in St. Louis River estuary shallow water habitats

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the development of an early detection monitoring strategy for non-native fishes, larval fish surveys have been conducted since 2012 in the St. Louis River estuary. Survey data demonstrates there is considerable variability in fish abundance and species assemblages acro...

  5. Investigating phenology of larval fishes in St. Louis River estuary shallow water habitats

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the development of an early detection monitoring strategy for non-native fishes, larval fish surveys have been conducted since 2012 in the St. Louis River estuary. Survey data demonstrates there is considerable variability in fish abundance and species assemblages acro...

  6. MERCURY CONCENTRATION IN FISH FROM STREAMS/RIVERS THROUGHOUT THE WESTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We collected 2,707 fish from 626 stream/river sites in 12 western USA states using a probability design to assess the spatial extent of whole fish mercury (Hg) concentrations. In all large (> 120 mm) fish, Hg concentrations (mean µg¿g-1; SD) in both piscivores (0.260; 0.241) and ...

  7. MERCURY CONCENTRATION IN FISH FROM STREAMS AND RIVERS THROUGHOUT THE WESTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We collected and analyzed 2,707 large fish from 626 stream/river sites in 12 western U.S. states using a probability design to assess the regional distribution of whole fish mercury (Hg) concentrations. Large (>120 mm total length) fish Hg levels were strongly related to both fis...

  8. MERCURY CONCENTRATION IN FISH FROM STREAMS AND RIVERS THROUGHOUT THE WESTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We collected and analyzed 2,707 large fish from 626 stream/river sites in 12 western U.S. states using a probability design to assess the regional distribution of whole fish mercury (Hg) concentrations. Large (>120 mm total length) fish Hg levels were strongly related to both fis...

  9. MERCURY CONCENTRATION IN FISH FROM STREAMS/RIVERS THROUGHOUT THE WESTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We collected 2,707 fish from 626 stream/river sites in 12 western USA states using a probability design to assess the spatial extent of whole fish mercury (Hg) concentrations. In all large (> 120 mm) fish, Hg concentrations (mean µg¿g-1; SD) in both piscivores (0.260; 0.241) and ...

  10. A piecewise regression approach for determining biologically relevant hydraulic thresholds for the protection of fish at river infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Boys, Craig A.; Robinson, Wayne; Miller, Brett; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Baumgartner, Lee J.; Navarro, Anna; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2016-05-13

    Barotrauma injury can occur when fish are exposed to rapid decompression during downstream passage through river infrastructure. A piecewise regression approach was used to objectively quantify barotrauma injury thresholds in two physoclistous species (Murray cod Maccullochella peelii and silver perch Bidyanus bidyanus) following simulated infrastructure passage in barometric chambers. The probability of injuries such as swim bladder rupture; exophthalmia; and haemorrhage and emphysema in various organs increased as the ratio between the lowest exposure pressure and the acclimation pressure (ratio of pressure change RPCE/A) fell. The relationship was typically non-linear and piecewise regression was able to quantify thresholds in RPCE/A that once exceeded resulted in a substantial increase in barotrauma injury. Thresholds differed among injury types and between species but by applying a multi-species precautionary principle, the maintenance of exposure pressures at river infrastructure above 70% of acclimation pressure (RPCE/A of 0.7) should sufficiently protect downstream migrating juveniles of these two physoclistous species. These findings have important implications for determining the risk posed by current infrastructures and informing the design and operation of new ones.

  11. Development of a spatially distributed model of fish population density for habitat assessment of rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Pengzhe; Iwasaki, Akito; Ryo, Masahiro; Saavedra, Oliver; Yoshimura, Chihiro

    2013-04-01

    Flow conditions play an important role in sustaining biodiversity of river ecosystem. However, their relations to freshwater fishes, especially to fish population density, have not been clearly described. This study, therefore, aimed to propose a new methodology to quantitatively link habitat conditions, including flow conditions and other physical conditions, to population density of fish species. We developed a basin-scale fish distribution model by integrating the concept of habitat suitability assessment with a distributed hydrological model (DHM) in order to estimate fish population density with particular attention to flow conditions. Generalized linear model (GLM) was employed to evaluate the relationship between population density of fish species and major environmental factors. The target basin was Sagami River in central Japan, where the river reach was divided into 10 sections by estuary, confluences of tributaries, and river-crossing structures (dams, weirs). The DHM was employed to simulate river discharge from 1998 to 2005, which was used to calculate 10 flow indices including mean discharge, 25th and 75th percentile discharge, duration of low and high flows, number of floods. In addition, 5 water quality parameters and 13 other physical conditions (such as basin area, river width, mean diameter of riverbed material, and number of river-crossing structures upstream and downstream) of each river section were considered as environmental variables. In case of Sagami River, 10 habitat variables among them were then selected based on their correlations to avoid multicollinearity. Finally, the best GLM was developed for each species based on Akaike's information criterion. As results, population densities of 16 fish species in Sagami River were modelled, and correlation coefficients between observed and calculated population densities for 10 species were more than 0.70. The key habitat factors for population density varied among fish species. Minimum

  12. White Sturgeon Passage at The Dalles Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Researchers at the USGS Western Fisheries Research Center's Columbia River Research Laboratory, working with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, sought to better understand upstream and downstream passage of white sturgeon at dams. A study at The Dalles Dam provided the opportunity to compare two fish ladders; one that passes sturgeon upstream to one that does not, to determine if subtle differences in construction result in better passage of white sturgeon. Researchers conducted a study using a combination of acoustic and radio telemetry technologies to obtain information on juvenile and adult white sturgeon near The Dalles Dam, with the objectives of characterizing the distribution and movements of white sturgeon in the immediate vicinity of the dam and to determine timing and routes of upstream and downstream passage.

  13. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2012-05-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE), to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE's Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. We conducted a hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011. Findings from this 1 year of study should be applied carefully because annual variation can be expected due to variability in adult salmon escapement, egg-to-fry and fry-to-smolt survival rates, reservoir rearing and predation, dam operations, and weather. Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> {approx}90 mm and < 300 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. Passage peaks were also evident in early spring, early summer, and late fall. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish {+-} 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt-size fish passed through turbine penstock intakes. Of this total, 84% passed during December-January. Run timing for small-size fish ({approx}65-90 mm) peaked (702 fish) on December 18. Diel periodicity of smolt-size fish showing crepuscular peaks was evident in fish passage into turbine penstock intakes. Relatively few fish passed into the Regulating Outlets (ROs) when they were open in summer (2 fish/d) and winter (8 fish/d). Overall, when the ROs were open, RO efficiency (RO passage divided by total project passage) was 0.004. In linear regression analyses, daily fish passage (turbines and ROs combined) for smolt-size fish was significantly related to project

  14. Passage and behavior of radio-tagged adult Pacific lampreys (Entosphenus tridentatus) at the Willamette Falls Project, Oregon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Magie, Robert J.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.

    2010-01-01

    Populations of Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) in the Columbia River basin have declined and passage problems at dams are a contributing factor. We used radio telemetry to monitor the passage of adult Pacific lampreys at the Willamette Falls Project (a hydroelectric dam integrated into a natural falls) on the Willamette River near Portland, Oregon. In 2005 and 2006, fish were captured at the Project, implanted with a radio tag, and released downstream. We tagged 136 lampreys in 2005 and 107 in 2006. Over 90% of the fish returned to the Project in 7 – 9 h and most were detected from 2000 – 2300 h. In 2005, 43 fish (34%) passed the dam via the fishway, with peak passage in August. No fish passed over the falls, but 13% ascended at least partway up the falls. In 2006, 24 fish (23%) passed the Project using the fishway, with most prior to 9 June when the powerhouse was off. Although 19 lampreys ascended the falls, only two passed via this route. The time for fish to pass through the fishway ranged from 4 – 74 h, depending on route. Many fish stayed in the tailrace for hours to almost a year and eventually moved downstream. Our results indicate that passage of lampreys at the Project is lower than that for lampreys at dams on the Columbia River. Low passage success may result from low river flows, impediments in fishways, delayed tagging effects, changing environmental conditions, or performance or behavioral constraints.

  15. Behaviour and locomotor activity of a migratory catostomid during fishway passage.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana T; Hatry, Charles; Thiem, Jason D; Gutowsky, Lee F G; Hatin, Daniel; Zhu, David Z; Dawson, Jeffery W; Katopodis, Christos; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Fishways have been developed to restore longitudinal connectivity in rivers. Despite their potential for aiding fish passage, fishways may represent a source of significant energetic expenditure for fish as they are highly turbulent environments. Nonetheless, our understanding of the physiological mechanisms underpinning fishway passage of fish is still limited. We examined swimming behaviour and activity of silver redhorse (Moxostoma anisurum) during its upriver spawning migration in a vertical slot fishway. We used an accelerometer-derived instantaneous activity metric (overall dynamic body acceleration) to estimate location-specific swimming activity. Silver redhorse demonstrated progressive increases in activity during upstream fishway passage. Moreover, location-specific passage duration decreased with an increasing number of passage attempts. Turning basins and the most upstream basin were found to delay fish passage. No relationship was found between basin-specific passage duration and activity and the respective values from previous basins. The results demonstrate that successful fishway passage requires periods of high activity. The resultant energetic expenditure may affect fitness, foraging behaviour and increase susceptibility to predation, compromising population sustainability. This study highlights the need to understand the physiological mechanisms underpinning fishway passage to improve future designs and interpretation of biological evaluations.

  16. Behaviour and Locomotor Activity of a Migratory Catostomid during Fishway Passage

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana T.; Hatry, Charles; Thiem, Jason D.; Gutowsky, Lee F. G.; Hatin, Daniel; Zhu, David Z.; W. Dawson, Jeffery; Katopodis, Christos; J. Cooke, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Fishways have been developed to restore longitudinal connectivity in rivers. Despite their potential for aiding fish passage, fishways may represent a source of significant energetic expenditure for fish as they are highly turbulent environments. Nonetheless, our understanding of the physiological mechanisms underpinning fishway passage of fish is still limited. We examined swimming behaviour and activity of silver redhorse (Moxostoma anisurum) during its upriver spawning migration in a vertical slot fishway. We used an accelerometer-derived instantaneous activity metric (overall dynamic body acceleration) to estimate location-specific swimming activity. Silver redhorse demonstrated progressive increases in activity during upstream fishway passage. Moreover, location-specific passage duration decreased with an increasing number of passage attempts. Turning basins and the most upstream basin were found to delay fish passage. No relationship was found between basin-specific passage duration and activity and the respective values from previous basins. The results demonstrate that successful fishway passage requires periods of high activity. The resultant energetic expenditure may affect fitness, foraging behaviour and increase susceptibility to predation, compromising population sustainability. This study highlights the need to understand the physiological mechanisms underpinning fishway passage to improve future designs and interpretation of biological evaluations. PMID:25853245

  17. Study of Fish in the Main Channel of the Mississippi River Between River Miles 500 and 513.5.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    parasitizes many commercially taken fish species (Pflieger 1975). Larval lampreys require clear moving waters with stable silt and sand bars for completion...they parasitize commercial fish species. The importance of the main channel to this species is probably simi- lar to that for the chestnut lamprey . 124...AD-A096 287 LGL ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH ASSOCIATES INC BRYAN TX F/B 8/1 STUDY OF FISH IN THE MAIN CHANNEL OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER BETW--ETC(U) JAN 81

  18. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing through Bonneville Dam, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Batten, G.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Kim, Jin A.; Johnson, Gary E.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Hughes, James S.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Etherington, D. J.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Greiner, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Martinez, Jayson J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Rayamajhi, Bishes; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2013-02-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2011. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a virtual/paired-release model. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon using a virtual release, paired reference release survival model. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  19. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing through Bonneville Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Kim, Jin A.; Royer, Ida M.; Batten, George W.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Etherington, D. J.; Faber, Derrek M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Hennen, Matthew J.; Mitchell, Tyler; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2011-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2010. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a single-release model. This also was the last year of evaluation of effects of a behavioral guidance device installed in the Powerhouse 2 forebay. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  20. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing Through Bonneville Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Kim, Jin A.; Royer, Ida M.; Batten, George W.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Etherington, D. J.; Faber, Derrek M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Hennen, Matthew J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2012-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2010. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a single-release model. This also was the last year of evaluation of effects of a behavioral guidance device installed in the Powerhouse 2 forebay. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  1. Assessment of elemental contaminants in water and fish samples from Aba river.

    PubMed

    Alinnor, I J

    2005-03-01

    The elemental contaminants in water and fish samples from Aba river were studied. The elements studied were Zn, Ni, As, Hg, Co and Mn. Three water samples and three samples of different fish species were collected from different locations in the river. The water and fish samples were analysed for elemental contaminants using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The elemental toxicants Zn and Mn were identified in appreciable amounts in fresh fish species namely, Lates niloticus and Oriochronis niloticus, of mean values 8.012 ppm and 0.861 ppm, respectively. The analysis also shows arsenic concentration of mean value 0.01 ppm in Lates niloticus. The analysis of frozen fish samples purchased from the Waterside market located near the river shows Ni and Hg levels of mean values 0.83 ppm and 0.02 ppm, respectively. The levels of elemental contaminants As, Zn, Hg and Mn from the water samples have mean values 0.082 ppm, 11.284 ppm, 0.201 ppm and 1.024 ppm, respectively. There are five industries that discharge waste products into Aba river. In view of this, there is a need to determine the level of pollution of the river, since the inhabitants depend on the river for their drinking water, fishing and other domestic uses. This study is aimed at determining the level of heavy metal toxicants in fish and water samples from the river. The effect of these elemental contaminants and the associated health hazards were examined.

  2. Amino acid cycling in the Mississippi River Plume and effects from the passage of Hurricanes Isadore and Lili

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Thomas S.; Grace, Bryan L.; Carman, Kevin R.; Maulana, Ivan

    2014-08-01

    We present data on the effects of Hurricanes Isadore and Lili on the spatial and temporal variations in concentrations of amino acids, and other bulk dissolved and particulate constituents in surface waters of the Mississippi River Plume (MRP) collected during 3 survey cruises (March 2002, October 2002, and April 2004). Abiotic factors (e.g., particle sorption and sediment resuspension) had the largest contribution in describing DAA and PAA dynamics in the MRP. The range of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (88.61 to 699.90 μM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) (0.08 to 32.72 μM) values was slightly higher than the range observed for a broader region of the Louisiana shelf, but in general agreed with peak values at the mid-salinity range of the plume. The positive and negative correlations between acidic (e.g., aspartic acid and glutamic acid) and basic (e.g., histidine and arginine) DAA and salinity, respectively, in the MRP, were largely controlled by differential partitioning of amino acids with suspended sediments. Concentrations of β-alanine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and δ-aminovaleric acid were significantly higher during October 2002 compared to spring sampling events, due to resuspension of shelf sediments caused by the recent passage of Hurricane Isadore and the approach of Hurricane Lili, as it entered the Gulf of Mexico during our sampling.

  3. Juvenile Passage Program : A Plan for Estimating Smolt Travel Time and Survival in the Snake and Columbia Rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, J. R.; Giorgi, Albert E.

    1993-10-01

    A plan for developing a program to evaluate juvenile salmon passage is presented that encompasses the Snake (Lower Granite to McNary Dams), Mid-Columbia (Wells to McNary Dams), and Lower Columbia (McNary to Bonneville Dams) segments of the Snake/Columbia River system. This plan focuses on the use of PIT-tag technology to routinely estimate travel times and reach survival of outmigrating yearling and subyearling Chinook, sockeye, and steelhead during spring and summer months. The proposed program outlines tagging studies that could be implemented in (a) 1992, (b) near term (1993--94), and (c) long term (1995 to the next decade). The evolution of this program over time parallels plans to establish additional PIT-tag detector and slide-gate systems at Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams. The eventual ability to concurrently estimate travel time and survival of release groups will permit evaluation of travel time-survival-flow relationships and identify possible mortality {open_quotes}hot spots{close_quotes} for remediation.

  4. Correlation between fish distribution and water qualities in the Kaname river, Japan: application of multivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsumi, M.; terada, K.; Tajima, F.; Kitano, T.

    2012-12-01

    In order to find physical and chemical environment factors which relate to the fish fauna distribution, we investigated the temporal and spatial change of water qualities and fish distributions in Kaname river, Japan. We investigated the fish distribution, physical water parameters (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Chl-a and turbidity) and chemical water parameters (nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, orthophosphoric and suspended solids). We conducted the multivariate analyses using these observational data and discussed the relationship between water environment parameters and fish habitat distribution.

  5. Conserving large-river fishes: Is the highway analogy an appropriate paradigm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galat, D.L.; Zweimuller, I.

    2001-01-01

    A tenet of the flood pulse concept, the highway analogy, states that the mare channel of large floodplain rivers is used by fishes mainly as a route for gaining access to floodplain habitats. We examined this proposition by analyzing habitat use for freshwater fishes in 4 large rivers in the United States (Colorado, Columbia, Mississippi, Missouri) and 4 in Europe (Danube, Rhine, Rho??ne, Volga). Fish species from floodplain segments of each river were classified as fluvial specialist, fluvial dependent, and macrohabitat generalist based on literature and expert opinion. We also summarized the proportion of imperiled and introduced fishes present in each of these categories. The high proportion (mean ?? 1 SD = 29 ?? 17.5%) of fluvial specialist fishes inhabiting north-temperate large rivers was inconsistent with the highway analogy. Most members of the families Petromyzontidae, Acidpenseridae, Hiodontidae, Osmeridae, Salmonidae, and Gobiidae require flowing water during some life stage. Between 29 and 100% of the native fish assemblage was of conservation concern, and from 50 to 85% of these fishes required riverine habitats to complete their life cycles. Macrohabitat generalists are adapted to capitalize on floodplain habitats and composed from 44 to 96% of introduced fishes in the rivers studied. Habitat diversity inherent in main-channel complexes of unaltered large rivers and reestablished in regulated large rivers is essential to meet life-history needs of native fluvial fishes while discouraging expansion of introduced species. Restoration of north-temperate large rivers and their native fish fauna should incorporate the dynamic interplay among main channel, floodplain, and tributary habitats and processes.

  6. Management of fish populations in large rivers: a review of tools and approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petts, Geoffrey E.; Imhoff, Jack G.; Manny, Bruce A.; Maher, John F. B.; Weisberg, Stephen B.

    1989-01-01

    In common with most branches of science, the management of riverine fish populations is characterised by reductionist and isolationist philosophies. Traditional fish management focuses on stocking and controls on fishing. This paper presents a concensus of scientists involved in the LARS workshop on the management of fish populations in large rivers. A move towards a more holistic philosophy is advocated, with fish management forming an integral part of sustainable river development. Based upon a questionnaire survey of LARS members, with wide-ranging expertise and experience from all parts of the world, lists of management tools currently in use are presented. Four categories of tools are described: flow, water-quality, habitat, and biological. The potential applications of tools for fish management in large rivers is discussed and research needs are identified. The lack of scientific evaluations of the different tools remains the major constraint to their wider application.

  7. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Screen Evaluations; Nursery Bridge Fishway, Garden City/Lowden II, and Little Walla Walla Sites, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vucelick, J.; McMichael, G.

    2004-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the fish screens at the Nursery Bridge Fishway, the Garden City/Lowden II site west of Walla Walla, Washington, and the Little Walla Walla site in Milton-Freewater, Oregon, in the Walla Walla River Basin during 2004. The fish-screen facilities were examined to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide for safe fish passage. At the Nursery Bridge Fishway, the screens were evaluated specifically to determine whether the louvers that aid in controlling water flow from behind the screens could be adjusted so that the screens would meet fish-protection criteria. Data were collected to determine whether velocities in front of the screens met current National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA Fisheries) (formerly NMFS) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage before and after changing the louver settings. The Little Walla Walla screens were evaluated to determine how a build-up of algae on the screens affected water velocities.

  8. Application of the target fish community model to an urban river system.

    PubMed

    Meixler, Marcia S

    2011-04-01

    Several models have been developed to assess the biological integrity of aquatic systems using fish community data. One of these, the target fish community (TFC) model, has been used primarily to assess the biological integrity of larger, mainstem rivers in southern New England with basins characterized by dispersed human activities. We tested the efficacy of the TFC approach to specify the fish community in the highly urbanized Charles River watershed in eastern Massachusetts. To create a TFC for the Charles River we assembled a list of fish species that historically inhabited the Charles River watershed, identified geomorphically and zoogeographically similar reference rivers regarded as being in high quality condition, amassed fish survey data for the reference rivers, and extracted from the collections the information needed to define a TFC. We used a similarity measurement method to assess the extent to which the study river community complies with the TFC and an inference approach to summarize the manner in which the existing fish community differed from target conditions. The five most abundant species in the TFC were common shiners (34%), fallfish (17%) redbreast sunfish (11%), white suckers (8%), and American eel (7%). Three of the five species predicted to be most abundant in the TFC were scarce or absent in the existing river community. Further, the river was dominated by macrohabitat generalists (99%) while the TFC was predicted to contain 19% fluvial specialist species, 43% fluvial dependent species, and 38% macrohabitat generalist species. In addition, while the target community was dominated by fish intolerant (37%) and moderately tolerant (39%) of water quality degradation, the existing community was dominated by tolerant individuals (59%) and lacked intolerant species expected in the TFC. Similarity scores for species, habitat use specialization, and water quality degradation tolerance categories were 28%, 35% and 66%, respectively. The clear

  9. New Concepts in Fish Ladder Design: Analysis of Barriers to Upstream Fish Migration, Volume IV of IV, Investigation of the Physical and Biological Conditions Affecting Fish Passage Success at Culverts and Waterfalls, 1982-1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Patrick D.; Orsborn, John F.

    1985-08-01

    A synopsis of the project components was prepared to provide an overview for persons who are not fisheries scientists or engineers. This short report can be used also by technical persons who are interested in the scope of the project, and as a summary of the three main reports. The contents includes an historical perspective on fishway design which provides the basis for this project. The major project accomplishments and significant additions to the body of knowledge about the analysis and design of fishways are discussed. In the next section the research project organization, objectives and components are presented to familiarize the reader with the scope of this project. The summary report concludes with recommendations for assisting in the enhancement and restoration of fisheries resources from the perspective of fish passage problems and their solution. Promising research topics are included.

  10. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Characterization of Pump Flow at the Grand Coulee Dam Pumping Station for Fish Passage, 2004-2005 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, T.; Duncan, J.; Johnson, R.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Bonneville Power Administration to characterize the conditions fish experience when entrained in pump flow at the Grand Coulee Dam. PNNL conducted field studies at Grand Coulee Dam in 2004 using the Sensor Fish to measure the acceleration and pressure conditions that might be experienced by fish that pass through pumps at Grand Coulee Dam's Pump-Generating Plant and are transported up into the feeder canal leading to Banks Lake. The probability that fish would be struck by the Pump-Generating Plant's new nine-bladed turbines was also estimated. Our measurements showed relatively low turbulence except in the immediate vicinity of the runner environment. The lowest and highest pressures experienced by the Sensor Fish were 6.4 and 155 psi (the pressure gauge saturated at 155 psi). The probability of strike was also calculated, based on the average length of hatchery-reared juvenile kokanee (land-locked sockeye). Strike probabilities ranged from 0.0755 for 2.36-inch fish to 0.3890 for 11.8-inch fish. The probability of strike estimates indicate that the majority (77%) of recently released hatchery kokanee would be carried through the test pump without being struck and most likely with low risk of injury resulting from pressure and turbulence exposure. Of the 23% that might be struck it is expected that 60% would arrive in Banks Lake without visible external injuries. Thus more than 90% of entrained fish could be expected to arrive in Banks Lake without significant injury, assuming that no kokanee were injured or killed by pressure exposure during passage.

  11. Status and conservation of the fish fauna of the Alabama River system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, Mary C.; Irwin, E.R.; Burkhead, N.M.; Freeman, B.J.; Bart, H.L.; Rinne, John N.; Hughes, Robert M.; Calamusso, Bob

    2005-01-01

    The Alabama River system, comprising the Alabama, Coosa, and Tallapoosa subsystems, forms the eastern portion of the Mobile River drainage. Physiographic diversity and geologic history have fostered development in the Alabama River system of globally significant levels of aquatic faunal diversity and endemism. At least 184 fishes are native to the system, including at least 33 endemic species. During the past century, dam construction for hydropower generation and navigation resulted in 16 reservoirs that inundate 44% of the length of the Alabama River system main stems. This extensive physical and hydrologic alteration has affected the fish fauna in three major ways. Diadromous and migratory species have declined precipitously. Fish assemblages persisting downstream from large main-stem dams have been simplified by loss of species unable to cope with altered flow and water quality regimes. Fish populations persisting in the headwaters and in tributaries to the mainstem reservoirs are now isolated and subjected to effects of physical and chemical habitat degradation. Ten fishes in the Alabama River system (including seven endemic species) are federally listed as threatened or endangered. Regional experts consider at least 28 additional species to be vulnerable, threatened, or endangered with extinction. Conserving the Alabama River system fish fauna will require innovative dam management, protection of streams from effects of urbanization and water supply development, and control of alien species dispersal. Failure to manage aggressively for integrity of remaining unimpounded portions of the Alabama River system will result in reduced quality of natural resources for future generations, continued assemblage simplification, and species extinction.

  12. Fish assemblage structure and habitat associations in a large western river system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, C.D.; Quist, Michael; Hardy, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal gradients of fish assemblage and habitat structure were investigated in the Kootenai River of northern Idaho. A total of 43 500-m river reaches was sampled repeatedly with several techniques (boat-mounted electrofishing, hoop nets and benthic trawls) in the summers of 2012 and 2013. Differences in habitat and fish assemblage structure were apparent along the longitudinal gradient of the Kootenai River. Habitat characteristics (e.g. depth, substrate composition and water velocity) were related to fish assemblage structure in three different geomorphic river sections. Upper river sections were characterized by native salmonids (e.g. mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni), whereas native cyprinids (peamouth Mylocheilus caurinus, northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and non-native fishes (pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, yellow perch Perca flavescens) were common in the downstream section. Overall, a general pattern of species addition from upstream to downstream sections was discovered and is likely related to increased habitat complexity and additions of non-native species in downstream sections. Assemblage structure of the upper sections were similar, but were both dissimilar to the lower section of the Kootenai River. Species-specific hurdle regressions indicated the relationships among habitat characteristics and the predicted probability of occurrence and relative abundance varied by species. Understanding fish assemblage structure in relation to habitat could improve conservation efforts of rare fishes and improve management of coldwater river systems.

  13. Geographical distribution of perfluorinated compounds in fish from Minnesota lakes and rivers.

    PubMed

    Delinsky, Amy D; Strynar, Mark J; McCann, Patricia J; Varns, Jerry L; McMillan, Larry; Nakayama, Shoji F; Lindstrom, Andrew B

    2010-04-01

    In response to growing interest in human exposure to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), the state of Minnesota measured and reported PFC concentrations in fish collected from the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. To better determine the geographical distribution of PFC contamination throughout Minnesota, fish were collected from 59 lakes throughout the state and several areas along the Mississippi River. Composite fish samples were analyzed for 10 PFC analytes by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). PFOS (perfluorooctanesulfonate) was the most commonly detected PFC, occurring in 73% of fish from the Mississippi River but only 22% of fish from lakes. Fish from Mississippi River Pool 2 near the Minneapolis-St. Paul area had the highest levels of PFOS, whereas locations upstream had PFOS concentrations below 40 ng/g, the concentration at which Minnesota issues "one meal per week" fish consumption advice. Fish from most Minnesota lakes tested (88%) had PFOS concentrations below 3 ng/g. Two lakes, McCarrons and Zumbro, contained fish with PFOS levels above 40 ng/g. The results reported here will help researchers to better understand the extent of PFC contamination in Minnesota fish and evaluate potential sources of contamination and will provide a basis for comprehensive fish consumption advice.

  14. First-year dam removal activities in the Elwha River - dam removal, sediment dispersal, and fish relocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duda, J. J.; McMillan, J. R.; Moses, R.; McHenry, M.; Pess, G. R.; Brenkman, S.; Peters, R.; Zimmerman, M.; Warrick, J. A.; Curran, C. A.; Magirl, C. S.; Beirne, M.; Rubin, S.

    2012-12-01

    Elwha Dam site and into the tributaries containing the transplanted fish. When passage above the Glines Canyon Dam is restored in 2013, salmon will have access to over 65 river kilometers of mainstem spawning and rearing habitat, at least as much floodplain channel habitat, and numerous tributaries; most of this habitat occurs in the wilderness of Olympic National Park. This presentation will provide an update of dam removal progress, highlight some pre-dam removal studies and ongoing monitoring, and detail recent fish relocation efforts.

  15. Changes in the fish fauna of the Kissimmee River basin, peninsular Florida: Nonnative additions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nico, L.G.

    2005-01-01

    Recent decades have seen substantial changes in fish assemblages in rivers of peninsular Florida. The most striking change has involved the addition of nonnative fishes, including taxa from Asia, Africa, and Central and South America. I review recent and historical records of fishes occurring in the Kissimmee River basin (7,800 km2), a low-gradient drainage with 47 extant native fishes (one possibly the result of an early transplant), at least 7 foreign fishes (most of which are widely established), and a stocked hybrid. Kissimmee assemblages include fewer marine fishes than the nearby Peace and Caloosahatchee rivers, and fewer introduced foreign fishes than south Florida canals. Fish assemblages of the Kissimmee and other subtropical Florida rivers are dynamic, due to new introductions, range expansions of nonnative fishes already present, and periodic declines in nonnative fish populations during occasional harsh winters. The addition, dispersal, and abundance of nonnative fishes in the basin is linked to many factors, including habitat disturbance, a subtropical climate, and the fact that the basin is centrally located in a region where drainage boundaries are blurred and introductions of foreign fishes commonplace. The first appearance of foreign fishes in the basin coincided with the complete channelization of the Kissimmee River in the 1970s. Although not a causal factor, artificial waterways connecting the upper lakes and channelization of the Kissimmee River have facilitated dispersal. With one possible exception, there have been no basin-wide losses of native fishes. When assessing change in peninsular Florida waters, extinction or extirpation of fishes appears to be a poor measure of impact. No endemic species are known from peninsular Florida (although some endemic subspecies have been noted). Most native freshwater fishes are themselves descended from recent invaders that reached the peninsula from the main continent. These invasions likely were

  16. Behavior and passage of juvenile salmonids during evaluation of a new fish screen at Cowlitz Falls Dam, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, T.J.; Kritter , M.A; Liedtke, T.L.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    In spring of 2006, Tacoma Power installed a new fish screen at the Cowlitz Falls Project (CFP) with the purpose of improving the collection of anadromous juvenile fish for downstream transport. The new fish screen was placed between the upstream baffle panels and the fish gates and flume system that lead to the Cowlitz Falls Fish Facility. We initiated a radio telemetry evaluation of the screen using juvenile coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch), steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). These evaluations were intended to provide guidance to direct efforts to further improve juvenile fish collection. Based on study findings in 2006, and 2007 the screen will be modified and evaluated again in 2008.

  17. RELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS TO FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE UPPER FRENCH BROAD RIVER BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish assemblages at 16 sites in the upper French Broad River basin, North Carolina were related to environmental variables using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and linear regression. This study was conducted at the landscape scale because regional variables are controlle...

  18. 2008-09 National Rivers and Streams Assessment Fish Tissue Data Dictionary

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) is providing the fish tissue results from the 2008-09 National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA). This document includes the “data dictionary” for Mercury, Selenium, PBDEs, PCBs, Pesticides and PFCs.

  19. RELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS TO FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE UPPER FRENCH BROAD RIVER BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish assemblages at 16 sites in the upper French Broad River basin, North Carolina were related to environmental variables using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and linear regression. This study was conducted at the landscape scale because regional variables are controlle...

  20. Data Summary Report for Savannah River Integrator Operable Unit Fish Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, B.

    2001-02-13

    This report presents the results of the verification and validation of the analytical data for the Savannah River Fish (SRF) investigation. The data were validated to determine if the records conform to the technical criteria associated with definitive data.

  1. Longitudinal differences in habitat complexity and fish assemblage structure of a great plains river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eitzmann, J.L.; Paukert, C.P.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the spatial variation in the Kansas River (USA) fish assemblage to determine how fish community structure changes with habitat complexity in a large river. Fishes were collected at ten sites throughout the Kansas River for assessing assemblage structure in summer 2007. Aerial imagery indicated riparian land use within 200 m from the river edge was dominated by agriculture in the upper river reaches (>35) and tended to increase in urban land use in the lower reaches (>58). Instream habitat complexity (number of braided channels, islands) also decreased with increased urban area (<25). Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that species that prefer high-velocity flows and sandy substrate (e.g., blue sucker Cycleptus elongatus and shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) were associated with the upper river reaches. Abundance of omnivorous and planktivorous fish species were also higher in the lower river. The presence of fluvial dependent and fluvial specialist species was associated with sites with higher water flows, more sand bars, and log jams. Our results suggest that conserving intolerant, native species in the Kansas River may require maintaining suitable habitat for these species and restoration of impacted areas of the river.

  2. Effects of hydrologic infrastructure on flow regimes of California's Central Valley rivers: Implications for fish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Larry R.; Bauer, Marissa L.

    2010-01-01

    Alteration of natural flow regimes is generally acknowledged to have negative effects on native biota; however, methods for defining ecologically appropriate flow regimes in managed river systems are only beginning to be developed. Understanding how past and present water management has affected rivers is an important part of developing such tools. In this paper, we evaluate how existing hydrologic infrastructure and management affect streamflow characteristics of rivers in the Central Valley, California and discuss those characteristics in the context of habitat requirements of native and alien fishes. We evaluated the effects of water management by comparing observed discharges with estimated discharges assuming no water management ("full natural runoff"). Rivers in the Sacramento River drainage were characterized by reduced winter–spring discharges and augmented discharges in other months. Rivers in the San Joaquin River drainage were characterized by reduced discharges in all months but particularly in winter and spring. Two largely unaltered streams had hydrographs similar to those based on full natural runoff of the regulated rivers. The reduced discharges in the San Joaquin River drainage streams are favourable for spawning of many alien species, which is consistent with observed patterns of fish distribution and abundance in the Central Valley. However, other factors, such as water temperature, are also important to the relative success of native and alien resident fishes. As water management changes in response to climate change and societal demands, interdisciplinary programs of research and monitoring will be essential for anticipating effects on fishes and to avoid unanticipated ecological outcomes.

  3. Contaminants in fishes from Great Lakes-influenced sections and above dams of three Michigan rivers. II: Implications for health of mink.

    PubMed

    Giesy, J P; Verbrugge, D A; Othout, R A; Bowerman, W W; Mora, M A; Jones, P D; Newsted, J L; Vandervoort, C; Heaton, S N; Aulerich, R J

    1994-08-01

    Populations of mink (Mustela vison) have declined in many areas of the world. Such declines have been linked to exposures to synthetic, halogenated hydrocarbons. In the Great Lakes region, mink are fewer in areas along the shore of the Great Lakes and their tributaries where mink have access to fish from the Great Lakes. Recently, there has been discussion of the relative merits of passage of fishes around hydroelectric dams on rivers in Michigan. A hazard assessment was conducted to determine the potential for adverse effects on mink, which could consume such fishes from above or below dams on the rivers. Concentrations of organochlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), and total mercury were measured in composite samples of fishes from above or below hydroelectric dams on the Manistee and Muskegon Rivers, which flow into Lake Michigan, and the Au Sable River, which flows into Lake Huron. Concentrations of organochlorine insecticides, PCBs, and TCDD-EQ were all greater in fishes from below the dams than those from above. Concentrations of neither organochlorine insecticides nor mercury in fishes are currently a risk to mink above or below the dams. All of the species of fishes collected from downstream of the dams contained concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ, which represent a hazard to mink. The hazard index for PCBs was less than one for the average of all species from the upstream reaches of the Manistee and Au Sable Rivers, but not the Muskegon. The hazard index (concentration in fish/NOAEC) was greater than 1 for all of the species collected from below the dams, in all three rivers. The greatest hazard index was observed for carp (Cyprinus carpio) downstream on the Muskegon River. Because the concentrations of PCBs used in the hazard assessment were corrected for relative toxic potencies, the hazard ratios based on PCBs should be similar to those based on TCDD-EQ. This was found to be

  4. Trading-off fish biodiversity, food security, and hydropower in the Mekong River Basin.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Guy; Baran, Eric; Nam, So; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Levin, Simon A

    2012-04-10

    The Mekong River Basin, site of the biggest inland fishery in the world, is undergoing massive hydropower development. Planned dams will block critical fish migration routes between the river's downstream floodplains and upstream tributaries. Here we estimate fish biomass and biodiversity losses in numerous damming scenarios using a simple ecological model of fish migration. Our framework allows detailing trade-offs between dam locations, power production, and impacts on fish resources. We find that the completion of 78 dams on tributaries, which have not previously been subject to strategic analysis, would have catastrophic impacts on fish productivity and biodiversity. Our results argue for reassessment of several dams planned, and call for a new regional agreement on tributary development of the Mekong River Basin.

  5. Trading-off fish biodiversity, food security, and hydropower in the Mekong River Basin

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Guy; Baran, Eric; Nam, So; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Levin, Simon A.

    2012-01-01

    The Mekong River Basin, site of the biggest inland fishery in the world, is undergoing massive hydropower development. Planned dams will block critical fish migration routes between the river's downstream floodplains and upstream tributaries. Here we estimate fish biomass and biodiversity losses in numerous damming scenarios using a simple ecological model of fish migration. Our framework allows detailing trade-offs between dam locations, power production, and impacts on fish resources. We find that the completion of 78 dams on tributaries, which have not previously been subject to strategic analysis, would have catastrophic impacts on fish productivity and biodiversity. Our results argue for reassessment of several dams planned, and call for a new regional agreement on tributary development of the Mekong River Basin. PMID:22393001

  6. Trout piscivory in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon: Effects of turbidity, temperature, and fish prey availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yard, Michael D.; Coggins,, Lewis G.; Baxter, Colden V.; Bennett, Glenn E.; Korman, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Introductions of nonnative salmonids, such as rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta, have affected native fishes worldwide in unforeseen and undesirable ways. Predation and other interactions with nonnative rainbow trout and brown trout have been hypothesized as contributing to the decline of native fishes (including the endangered humpback chub Gila cypha) in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon. A multiyear study was conducted to remove nonnative fish from a 15-km segment of the Colorado River near the Little Colorado River confluence. We evaluated how sediment, temperature, fish prey availability, and predator abundance influenced the incidence of piscivory (IP) by nonnative salmonids. Study objectives were addressed through spatial (upstream and downstream of the Little Colorado River confluence) and temporal (seasonal and annual) comparisons of prey availability and predator abundance. Data were then evaluated by modeling the quantity of fish prey ingested by trout during the first 2 years (2003–2004) of the mechanical removal period. Field effort resulted in the capture of 20,000 nonnative fish, of which 90% were salmonids. Results indicated that the brown trout IP was higher (8–70%) than the rainbow trout IP (0.5–3.3%); however, rainbow trout were 50 times more abundant than brown trout in the study area. We estimated that during the study period, over 30,000 fish (native and nonnative species combined) were consumed by rainbow trout (21,641 fish) and brown trout (11,797 fish). On average, rainbow trout and brown trout ingested 85% more native fish than nonnative fish in spite of the fact that native fish constituted less than 30% of the small fish available in the study area. Turbidity may mediate piscivory directly by reducing prey detection, but this effect was not apparent in our data, as rainbow trout IP was greater when suspended sediment levels (range = 5.9–20,000 mg/L) were higher.

  7. Fish Assemblage Response to a Small Dam Removal in the Eightmile River System, Connecticut, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulos, Helen M.; Miller, Kate E.; Kraczkowski, Michelle L.; Welchel, Adam W.; Heineman, Ross; Chernoff, Barry

    2014-11-01

    We examined the effects of the Zemko Dam removal on the Eightmile River system in Salem, Connecticut, USA. The objective of this research was to quantify spatiotemporal variation in fish community composition in response to small dam removal. We sampled fish abundance over a 6-year period (2005-2010) to quantify changes in fish assemblages prior to dam removal, during drawdown, and for three years following dam removal. Fish population dynamics were examined above the dam, below the dam, and at two reference sites by indicator species analysis, mixed models, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and analysis of similarity. We observed significant shifts in fish relative abundance over time in response to dam removal. Changes in fish species composition were variable, and they occurred within 1 year of drawdown. A complete shift from lentic to lotic fishes failed to occur within 3 years after the dam was removed. However, we did observe increases in fluvial and transition (i.e., pool head, pool tail, or run) specialist fishes both upstream and downstream from the former dam site. Our results demonstrate the importance of dam removal for restoring river connectivity for fish movement. While the long-term effects of dam removal remain uncertain, we conclude that dam removals can have positive benefits on fish assemblages by enhancing river connectivity and fluvial habitat availability.

  8. Fish assemblage response to a small dam removal in the Eightmile River system, Connecticut, USA.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Helen M; Miller, Kate E; Kraczkowski, Michelle L; Welchel, Adam W; Heineman, Ross; Chernoff, Barry

    2014-11-01

    We examined the effects of the Zemko Dam removal on the Eightmile River system in Salem, Connecticut, USA. The objective of this research was to quantify spatiotemporal variation in fish community composition in response to small dam removal. We sampled fish abundance over a 6-year period (2005-2010) to quantify changes in fish assemblages prior to dam removal, during drawdown, and for three years following dam removal. Fish population dynamics were examined above the dam, below the dam, and at two reference sites by indicator species analysis, mixed models, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and analysis of similarity. We observed significant shifts in fish relative abundance over time in response to dam removal. Changes in fish species composition were variable, and they occurred within 1 year of drawdown. A complete shift from lentic to lotic fishes failed to occur within 3 years after the dam was removed. However, we did observe increases in fluvial and transition (i.e., pool head, pool tail, or run) specialist fishes both upstream and downstream from the former dam site. Our results demonstrate the importance of dam removal for restoring river connectivity for fish movement. While the long-term effects of dam removal remain uncertain, we conclude that dam removals can have positive benefits on fish assemblages by enhancing river connectivity and fluvial habitat availability.

  9. Trophic Structure and Mercury Biomagnification in Tropical Fish Assemblages, Iténez River, Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Pouilly, Marc; Rejas, Danny; Pérez, Tamara; Duprey, Jean-Louis; Molina, Carlos I.; Hubas, Cédric; Guimarães, Jean-Remy D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined mercury concentrations in three fish assemblages to estimate biomagnification rates in the Iténez main river, affected by anthropogenic activities, and two unperturbed rivers from the Iténez basin, Bolivian Amazon. Rivers presented low to moderate water mercury concentrations (from 1.25 ng L−1 to 2.96 ng L−1) and natural differences in terms of sediment load. Mercury biomagnification rates were confronted to trophic structure depicted by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes composition (δ15N; δ13C) of primary trophic sources, invertebrates and fishes. Results showed a slight fish contamination in the Iténez River compared to the unperturbed rivers, with higher mercury concentrations in piscivore species (0.15 µg g−1 vs. 0.11 µg g−1 in the unperturbed rivers) and a higher biomagnification rate. Trophic structure analysis showed that the higher biomagnification rate in the Iténez River could not be attributed to a longer food chain. Nevertheless, it revealed for the Iténez River a higher contribution of periphyton to the diet of the primary consumers fish species; and more negative δ13C values for primary trophic sources, invertebrates and fishes that could indicate a higher contribution of methanotrophic bacteria. These two factors may enhance methylation and methyl mercury transfer in the food web and thus, alternatively or complementarily to the impact of the anthropogenic activities, may explain mercury differences observed in fishes from the Iténez River in comparison to the two other rivers. PMID:23741452

  10. Acoustic assessment of fish resources in subtropical run-off-river hydropower plant in the Pearl River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z.; Zhu, S. L.; Li, J.; Yang, J. P.; Li, Y. F.; Li, X. H.

    2017-08-01

    As the utmost downstream dam in the main stream of Xijiang River, Changzhou Hydro-Junction has changed the original hydrological characteristics and ecological environment of Xijiang River. In order to grasp the fish distribution and standing crops after reservoir impoundment, a split beam echo-sounder EY60 (120 kHz) was used in the river channel from Guiping to Wuzhou in April 2014, 2015, and 2016. The average fish density in the survey area was 0.1215±0.4198 ind.m-3 in 2014, 0.0190±0.1232 ind.m-3 in 2015 and 0.0107±0.0186 ind.m-3 in 2016. According to the horizontal distribution data, fish density showed significant difference in different area and the density in the upper area was significantly higher than that in other areas. Moreover, fish density was negatively correlation with water depth. As a whole, the Target Strength (TS) decreased in the past three year, TS was significantly different among the three areas and showed a decreasing tendency from the dam area to the upper area. Fish resources decreased gradually, as indicated by the decreased fish density and miniaturized fish sizes in the past three years.

  11. Putting pharmaceuticals into the wider context of challenges to fish populations in rivers

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Andrew C.; Sumpter, John P.

    2014-01-01

    The natural range of fish species in our rivers is related to flow, elevation, temperature, local habitat and connectivity. For over 2000 years, humans have altered to varying degrees the river habitat. In the past 200 years, we added to the environmental disruption by discharging poorly treated sewage, nutrients and industrial waste into our rivers. For many rivers, the low point arrived during the period of 1950s–1970s, when rapid economic development overrode environmental concerns and dissolved oxygen concentrations dropped to zero. In these more enlightened times, gross river pollution is a thing of the past in the Developed World. However, persistent legacy chemical contaminants can be found in fish long after their discharge ceased. Changes in habitat quality and morphology caused and continue to cause the disappearance of fish species. The range of fish stressors has now increased as temperatures rise, and non-native fish introductions bring new diseases. The threat from pharmaceuticals to fish populations remains hypothetical, and no studies have yet linked change in fish populations to exposure. PMID:25405969

  12. Importance of floodplain connectivity to fish populations in the Apalachicola River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burgess, O.T.; Pine, William E.; Walsh, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Floodplain habitats provide critical spawning and rearing habitats for many large-river fishes. The paradigm that floodplains are essential habitats is often a key reason for restoring altered rivers to natural flow regimes. However, few studies have documented spatial and temporal utilization of floodplain habitats by adult fish of sport or commercial management interest or assessed obligatory access to floodplain habitats for species' persistence. In this study, we applied telemetry techniques to examine adult fish movements between floodplain and mainstem habitats, paired with intensive light trap sampling of larval fish in these same habitats, to assess the relationships between riverine flows and fish movement and spawning patterns in restored and unmodified floodplain distributaries of the Apalachicola River, Florida. Our intent is to inform resource managers on the relationships between the timing, magnitude and duration of flow events and fish spawning as part of river management actions. Our results demonstrate spawning by all study species in floodplain and mainstem river habitat types, apparent migratory movements of some species between these habitats, and distinct spawning events for each study species on the basis of fish movement patterns and light trap catches. Additionally, Micropterus spp., Lepomis spp. and, to a lesser degree, Minytrema melanops used floodplain channel habitat that was experimentally reconnected to the mainstem within a few weeks of completing the restoration. This result is of interest to managers assessing restoration activities to reconnect these habitats as part of riverine restoration programmes globally.

  13. Fish assemblage relationships with physical characteristics and presence of dams in three eastern Iowa rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, Clay; Nicholas L. Ahrens,; Anna K. Loan-Wilsey,; Gregory A. Simmons,; Gregory T. Gelwicks,

    2013-01-01

    Fish assemblages in rivers of the Midwestern United States are an important component of the region's natural resources and biodiversity. We characterized the physical environment and presence of dams in a series of reaches in three eastern Iowa rivers tributary to the Mississippi River and related these characteristics to the fish assemblages present. Some physical characteristics were similar among the 12 study reaches, whereas others differed substantially. We found a total of 68 species across the 12 study reaches; 56 in the Turkey River, 51 in the Maquoketa River and 50 in the Wapsipinicon River. Seventeen species could be described as ‘downstream-distributed’; 15 being found only in the lowest reach of one or more rivers and the other two being found only in the lowest reaches or two or more contiguous reaches including the lowest reach. Two species could be described as ‘upstream-distributed’, being found only in an uppermost reach. Non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination illustrated similarities among reaches, and five physical variables were significantly correlated with assemblage similarities. Catchment area and number of dams between reaches and the Mississippi River were strongly correlated with assemblage similarities, but the directions of their effects were opposite. Catchment area and number of dams were confounded. The collective evidence to date suggests that the pervasiveness of dams on rivers significantly alters fish assemblages, making underlying patterns of species change and relationships with naturally varying and human-influenced physical characteristics along a river's course difficult to discern.

  14. Comparisons of PBDE composition and concentration in fish collected from the Detroit River, MI and Des Plaines River, IL

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.P.; Chernyak, S.M.; Begnoche, L.; Quintal, R.; Hickey, J.

    2002-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were identified in fish collected from the Detroit River, MI and Des Plaines Rivers, IL. In the Detroit River fish, carp and large mouth bass, the congener patterns were dominated by the 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromo (BDE-47) congener; however, in Des Plaines River carp the dominant isomers were the heptabromo congeners BDE-181 and BDE-183 and lesser amounts of another heptabromo congener, BDE-190, and two hexabromo congeners, BDE-154 and BDE-153. Three possible sources exist for these less-commonly identified PBDE congeners: (a) waste discharge from manufacturing or discarded products near the river, (b) public owned treatment work (POTW) effluents which constitute more than 75% of the flow in the Des Plaines River, (c) or formation of these congeners by debromination of in-place deposits of decabromodiphenyl ether. Average concentration totals (sum of concentrations for seven of the dominant PBDE congeners) were similar on a wet weight bases for the carp (5.39 ng/g wet weight) and large mouth bass (5.25 ng/g) in the Detroit River samples; however, the bass were significantly higher, ρ=0.01, when compared on a lipid basis (bass-163 ng/g vs. carp-40.5 ng/g lipid weight). Some of the PBDE congeners were positively correlated with increasing lipid levels in both fish species. Average total PBDE concentrations in the carp from the Des Plaines River (12.48 ng/g wet weight) were significantly higher, ρ=0.01, than in carp from the Detroit River. The residues were isolated using standard organochlorine methods for fish and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-negative chemical ionization methods.

  15. Trading-off Fish Biodiversity, Food Security and Hydropower in the Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziv, G.; Baran, E.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Levin, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Mekong River Basin, site of the biggest inland fishery in the world, is undergoing massive hydropower development. These dams will block the intensive fish migration between downstream floodplains and upper reaches where fish breed. Here we estimate fish biomass and biodiversity losses in numerous damming scenarios using a novel ecological model of fish migration. Our framework allows detailing trade-offs between dam locations, power production, and impacts on fish resources. We show that the completion of 77 dams on tributaries, that have not been subject to strategic analysis so far, would have catastrophic impacts on fish productivity and biodiversity. Our results argue for reassessment of several dams planned, and call for a new regional agreement on tributary development of the Mekong River Basin.

  16. Freshwater Fish Assemblage Patterns in Rhode Island Streams and Rivers (ESA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Patterns in fish assemblages in streams and rivers can inform watershed and water management, yet these patterns are not well characterized for the U.S. state of Rhode Island. Here we relate freshwater fish data collected by the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Managemen...

  17. Landscape-scale food webs of fish nursery habitat along a river-coast mixing zone

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis to study connections between allochthonous energy use and ecological connectivity of fish larvae in a complex coastal mosaic. We quantified fish larvae support by autochthonous and allochthonous material in three coastal river-w...

  18. Freshwater Fish Assemblage Patterns in Rhode Island Streams and Rivers (ESA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Patterns in fish assemblages in streams and rivers can inform watershed and water management, yet these patterns are not well characterized for the U.S. state of Rhode Island. Here we relate freshwater fish data collected by the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Managemen...

  19. Habitat use and trophic position effects on contaminant bioaccumulation in St. Louis River Estuary fishes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of our study was to determine the relationship between fish tissue stable isotope composition and total mercury or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in the St. Louis River estuary food web. We sampled two resident fishes, Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) ...

  20. Landscape-scale food webs of fish nursery habitat along a river-coast mixing zone

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis to study connections between allochthonous energy use and ecological connectivity of fish larvae in a complex coastal mosaic. We quantified fish larvae support by autochthonous and allochthonous material in three coastal river-w...

  1. OCCURRENCE OF TWO LEECH SPECIES (ANNELIDA: HIRUDINEA) ON FISHES IN THE KENTUCKY RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little is known specifically on the feeding relationships between parasitic leeches and fish in North America. During an electrofishing survey conducted on the main stem of the Kentucky River in the summer of 2000, the presence of leeches was documented on six species of fish. ...

  2. Assessment of the St. Louis River AOC fish tumors and other deformities beneficial use impairment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Fish Tumors and Other Deformities Beneficial Use Impairment (BUI) was listed as one of nine BUIs at the time the St. Louis River AOC was designated in 1987. At the time, no formal studies had been conducted to estimate the prevalence of either fish tumors or deformities. To a...

  3. Assessment of the St. Louis River AOC fish tumors and other deformities beneficial use impairment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Fish Tumors and Other Deformities Beneficial Use Impairment (BUI) was listed as one of nine BUIs at the time the St. Louis River AOC was designated in 1987. At the time, no formal studies had been conducted to estimate the prevalence of either fish tumors or deformities. To a...

  4. ELECTROFISHING DISTANCE NEEDED TO ESTIMATE FISH SPECIES RICHNESS IN RAFTABLE WESTERN USA RIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical issue in river monitoring is the minimum amount of sampling distance required to adequately represent the fish assemblage of a reach. Determining adequate sampling distance is important because it affects estimates of fish assemblage integrity and diversity at local a...

  5. Habitat use and trophic position effects on contaminant bioaccumulation in St. Louis River Estuary fishes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of our study was to determine the relationship between fish tissue stable isotope composition and total mercury or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in the St. Louis River estuary food web. We sampled two resident fishes, Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) ...

  6. Pathway-based Analysis of Fish Transcriptomics Data across Effluent Gradients in Minnesota Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a larger effort to assess the health of streams and rivers in Minnesota, a series of caged fish experiments were conducted in three locations: Ely, Hutchinson, and Rochester. The experimental design placed caged fish (fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas; FHM) across ...

  7. Influence of wood and forests on fish abundance and richness in a large floodplain river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, S.; Wildman, R. C.

    2005-05-01

    We investigated the influence of large wood and adjacent floodplain forests on fish assemblages along the 230-km mainstem of the Willamette River, Oregon. Fish were sampled in open reaches using boat electroshocking, beach seining, and backpack electroshocking in paired sites with intact forest and land converted to agriculture or urban use. Fish abundance and richness were statistically significantly greater in reaches with intact forest. We observed that wood abundance in the river was related to density of trees along the floodplain margin and developed an intensive sampling approach for determining fish abundance and richness in accumulations of large wood in the river. Fish were sampled from "wood corrals" and marked by fin clipping. These sites were sampled the following day to determine the abundances of each species by mark-recapture. Nets were placed around similar areas in adjacent habitats without wood. Fish numbers around wood accumulations were more than double those in areas without wood. The number of fish species was greater by an average of four species in sites with wood. These results were used to project the consequence of historical changes in fish abundance and richness in the Willamette River and forecast possible responses to future land use change.

  8. Pathway-based Analysis of Fish Transcriptomics Data across Effluent Gradients in Minnesota Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a larger effort to assess the health of streams and rivers in Minnesota, a series of caged fish experiments were conducted in three locations: Ely, Hutchinson, and Rochester. The experimental design placed caged fish (fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas; FHM) across ...

  9. OCCURRENCE OF TWO LEECH SPECIES (ANNELIDA: HIRUDINEA) ON FISHES IN THE KENTUCKY RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little is known specifically on the feeding relationships between parasitic leeches and fish in North America. During an electrofishing survey conducted on the main stem of the Kentucky River in the summer of 2000, the presence of leeches was documented on six species of fish. ...

  10. Fishes of the big muddy river drainage with emphasis on historical changes

    Treesearch

    Brooks M. Burr; Melvin L. Warren

    1999-01-01

    The Big Muddy River, a lowland stream located in southwestern Illinois and draining an area of about 6,182 km2, contains a moderately diverse fish fauna of 106 species. The river is properly named, as the mainstem carried historically and continues to transport great quantities of silt. Historically, a large portion of the watershed was wooded,...

  11. Metals in fish from the Upper Benue River and lakes Geriyo and Njuwa in northeastern Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Eromosele, C.O.; Eromosele, I.C.; Muktar, S.L.M.; Birdling, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Lakes Geriyo and Njuwa occupy natural depressions near the upper Benue River in northeastern Nigeria. The lakes are flooded by the river during the rainy season spanning the months of May to September. Fishing activities on the lakes and river provide fish for consumption by the local communities. Industrial activity around the upper Benue River and the lakes is low and there is no information on other activities with the potential for polluting the Benue River as it flows from neighboring Cameroon. However, an unconfirmed report indicated high levels of lead in the upper Benue River, generally speculated as arising from biogeometrical factors. Trace elements, some of which are toxic, may accumulate in edible marine organisms to levels which may be deleterious to human health. For the upper Benue River and its associate lakes, Geriyo and Njuwa, there is yet no report of a systematic study to assess the levels of metals in fish found in these waters. This paper presents the results of a study on metal levels in fish collected from Lakes Geriyo and Njuwa and upper Benue River in northeastern Nigeria. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Watershed processes, fish habitat, and salmonid distribution in the Tonsina River (Copper River watershed), Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, D. B.; Ligon, F. K.; Sloat, M. R.; Amerson, B.; Ralph, S. C.

    2007-12-01

    The Copper River watershed is a critical resource for northeastern Pacific salmon, with annual escapements in the millions. The Tonsina River basin, a diverse 2100-km2 tributary to the Copper River that supports important salmonid populations, offers an opportunity to integrate watershed-scale channel network data with field reconnaissance of physical processes and observed distribution of salmonid species. Our long-term goals are to characterize habitats critical to different salmonid life stages, describe the geologic context and current geologic processes that support those habitats in key channel reaches, and predict their watershed-wide distribution. The overarching motivation for these goals is resource conservation, particularly in the face of increased human activity and long-term climate change. Channel geomorphology within the Tonsina River basin reflects inherited glacial topography. Combinations of drainage areas, slopes, channel confinement, and sediment-delivery processes are unique to this environment, giving rise to channel "types" that are recognizable but that do not occur in the same positions in the channel network as in nonglaciated landscapes. We also recognize certain channel forms providing fish habitat without analog in a nonglacial landscape, notably relict floodplain potholes from once-stranded and long-melted ice blocks. Salmonid species dominated different channel types within the watershed network. Sockeye salmon juveniles were abundant in the low-gradient, turbid mainstem; Chinook juveniles were also captured in the lower mainstem, with abundant evidence of spawning farther downstream. Coho juveniles were abundant in upper, relatively large tributaries, even those channels with cobble-boulder substrates and minimal woody debris that provide habitats more commonly utilized by Chinook in low-latitude systems. More detailed field sampling also revealed that patterns of species composition and abundance appeared related to small

  13. Longitudinal patterns of fish assemblages, aquatic habitat, and water temperature in the Lower Crooked River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torgersen, Christian E.; Hockman-Wert, David P.; Bateman, Douglas S.; Leer, David W.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this project was to examine longitudinal patterns in fish assemblages, aquatic habitat, and water temperature in the Lower Crooked River during summer conditions. Specific objectives were to (1) characterize the spatial distribution of native and non-native fishes, (2) describe variation in channel morphology, substrate composition, and water temperature, and (3) evaluate the associations between fishes, aquatic habitat, and water temperature.

  14. Evaluation of nature-like and technical fishways for the passage of alewives at two coastal streams in New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, Abigail E.; Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore; Noreika, John

    2012-01-01

    Nature-like fishways have been designed with the intent to reconnect river corridors and provide passage for all species occurring in a system. The approach is gaining popularity both in Europe and North America, but performance of these designs has not been quantitatively evaluated in a field setting for any North American species. Two nature-like fishways and three technical fishways in New England were evaluated for passage of anadromous adult alewives Alosa pseudoharengus by using passive integrated transponder (PIT) telemetry. A perturbation boulder rock ramp (32 m long; 4.2% slope) constructed in Town Brook (Plymouth, Massachusetts) passed 94% of the fish that made passage attempts, with most fish ascending the ramp in less than 22 min. In the East River (Guilford, Connecticut), a step-pool bypass design (48 m long; 7.1% slope) passed only 40% of attempting fish, with a median transit time of 75 min. In Town Brook, a technical pool-and-weir fishway (14 m long; 14.3% slope) exhibited poor entry and poor passage for the fish. In contrast, in the East River, two technical steeppass fishways (3 m long; 29.6% and 9.6% slopes) passed the majority of available fish, although one of these steeppass fishways may have lacked sufficient flow to attract fish to the entrance. In both Town Brook and the East River, tagged fish passed rapidly downstream through all fishways after spawning. In the East River, the amount of time fish spent in the spawning habitat before migrating downstream ranged from 1 to 41 d. These studies demonstrate that some nature-like and technical fishway designs can effectively facilitate passage of alewives, but a fishway's location in relation to a spillway is important, and further evaluations are required to more precisely identify the influence of the vertical drop per pool and the specific local hydraulics on alewife behaviors and passage performance.

  15. Fish assemblages in oxbow lakes relative to connectivity with the Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.

    2005-01-01

    The alluvial valley of the lower Mississippi River contains hundreds of fluvial lakes that are periodically connected to the river during high water, although the frequency, duration, and timing of the connections vary. To help design plans to restore and preserve fish assemblages in these alluvial lakes, this investigation tested whether predictable patterns in lake fish assemblages were linked to the level of connectivity with the river. Results suggested that connectivity played an important role in structuring fish assemblages and that it was correlated with variables such as lake size, depth, distance from the river, and age, which exhibit a continuum of predictable features as the river migrates away from abandoned channels. Annual floods homogenize the floodplain and promote connectivity to various degrees, allowing for fish exchanges between river and floodplain that directly affect fish assemblages. The major physical changes linked to reduced connectivity are loss of depth and area, which in turn affect a multiplicity of abiotic and biotic features that indirectly affect community structure. In advanced stages of disconnection, fish assemblages in oxbow lakes are expected to include largely species that thrive in turbid, shallow systems with few predators and low oxygen content. When the river flowed without artificial restraint, oxbow lakes were created at the rate of 13-15 per century. At present, no or few oxbow lakes are being formed, and as existing lakes age, they are becoming shallower, smaller, and progressively more disconnected from the river. Given that modifications to the Mississippi River appear to be irreversible, conservation of this resource requires maintenance of existing lakes at a wide range of aging phases that provide diverse habitats and harbor distinct species assemblages.

  16. Modeling possible cooling-water intake system impacts on Ohio River fish populations.

    PubMed

    Perry, Elgin; Seegert, Greg; Vondruska, Joe; Lohner, Timothy; Lewis, Randy

    2002-04-26

    To assess the possible impacts caused by cooling-water intake system entrainment and impingement losses, populations of six target fish species near power plants on the Ohio River were modeled. A Leslie matrix model was constructed to allow an evaluation of bluegill, freshwater drum, emerald shiner, gizzard shad, sauger, and white bass populations within five river pools. Site-specific information on fish abundance and length-frequency distribution was obtained from long-term Ohio River Ecological Research Program and Ohio River Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO) electrofishing monitoring programs. Entrainment and impingement data were obtained from 316(b) demonstrations previously completed at eight Ohio River power plants. The model was first run under a scenario representative of current conditions, which included fish losses due to entrainment and impingement. The model was then rerun with these losses added back into the populations, representative of what would happen if all entrainment and impingement losses were eliminated. The model was run to represent a 50-year time period, which is a typical life span for an Ohio River coal-fired power plant. Percent changes between populations modeled with and without entrainment and impingement losses in each pool were compared to the mean interannual coefficient of variation (CV), a measure of normal fish population variability. In 6 of the 22 scenarios of fish species and river pools that were evaluated (6 species x 5 river pools, minus 8 species/river pool combinations that could not be evaluated due to insufficient fish data), the projected fish population change was greater than the expected variability of the existing fish population, indicating a possible adverse environmental impact. Given the number of other variables affecting fish populations and the conservative modeling approach, which assumed 100% mortality for all entrained fish and eggs, it was concluded that the likelihood of impact was by no means

  17. Hypothesis of historical effects from selenium on endangered fish in the Colorado River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Anthropogenic selenium contamination of aquatic ecosystems was first associated with cooling reservoirs of coal-fired power plants in the late 1970s, and later with drainage water from agricultural irrigation activities in the 1980s. In the 1990s, selenium contamination has been raised as a concern in the recovery of currently endangered fish in the Colorado River system. Widespread contamination from seleniferous drain waters from agriculture has been documented in the upper and lower Colorado River basins. Historically, irrigation started in the upper Colorado River basin in the late 1880s. In the 1930s, selenium concentrations in various drains, tributaries, and major rivers in the upper and lower Colorado River basins were in the 100s and 1000s of ??g/L. Native fish inhabiting large rivers such as the Colorado pikeminnow and razorback sucker were abundant before 1890, but became rare after 1910 to 1920, before the influence of mainstem reservoirs in the upper and lower Colorado River. A hypothesis is presented that selenium contamination of the tributaries and major rivers of the Colorado River basin in the 1890 to 1910 period caused the decline of the endangered fish and continues to inhibit their recovery. ?? 1999 by ASP.

  18. Environmental stresses and skeletal deformities in fish from the Willamette River, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Daniel L; Curtis, Lawrence R; Jenkins, Jeffrey J; Warner, Kara E; Tilton, Fred; Kent, Michael L; Watral, Virginia G; Cunningham, Michael E; Markle, Douglas F; Sethajintanin, Doolalai; Krissanakriangkrai, Oraphin; Johnson, Eugene R; Grove, Robert; Anderson, Kim A

    2005-05-15

    The Willamette River, one of 14 American Heritage Rivers, flows through the most densely populated and agriculturally productive region of Oregon. Previous biological monitoring of the Willamette River detected elevated frequencies of skeletal deformities in fish from certain areas of the lower (Newberg pool [NP], rivermile [RM] 26 - 55) and middle (Wheatland Ferry [WF], RM 72 - 74) river, relative to those in the upper river (Corvallis [CV], RM 125-138). The objective of this study was to determine the likely cause of these skeletal deformities. In 2002 and 2003, deformity loads in Willamette River fishes were 2-3 times greater at the NP and WF locations than at the CV location. There were some differences in water quality parameters between the NP and CV sites, but they did not readily explain the difference in deformity loads. Concentrations of bioavailable metals were below detection limits (0.6 - 1 microg/ L). Concentrations of bioavailable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides were generally below 0.25 ng/L. Concentrations of bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were generally less than 5 ng/L. Concentrations of most persistent organic pollutants were below detection limits in ovary/oocyte tissue samples and sediments, and those that were detected were not significantly different among sites. Bioassay of Willamette River water extracts provided no evidence that unidentified compounds or the complex mixture of compounds present in the extracts could induce skeletal deformities in cyprinid fish. However, metacercariae of a digenean trematode were directly associated with a large percentage of deformities detected in two Willamette River fishes, and similar deformities were reproduced in laboratoryfathead minnows exposed to cercariae extracted from Willamette River snails. Thus, the weight of evidence suggests that parasitic infection, not chemical contaminants, was the primary cause of skeletal deformities observed in Willamette

  19. Do larval fishes exhibit diel drift patterns in a large, turbid river?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, K.S.; Galat, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggested larval fishes do not exhibit a diel drift cycle in turbid rivers (transparency <30 cm). We evaluated this hypothesis in the turbid, lower Missouri River, Missouri. We also reviewed diel patterns of larval drift over a range of transparencies in rivers worldwide. Larval fishes were collected from the Missouri River primary channel every 4 h per 24-h period during spring-summer 2002. Water transparency was measured during this period and summarized for previous years. Diel drift patterns were analyzed at the assemblage level and lower taxonomic levels for abundant groups. Day and night larval fish catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) was compared for the entire May through August sampling period and spring (May - June) and summer (July - August) seasons separately. There were no significant differences between day and night CPUE at the assemblage level for the entire sampling period or for the spring and summer seasons. However, Hiodon alosoides, Carpiodes/Ictiobus spp. and Macrhybopsis spp. exhibited a diel cycle of abundance within the drift. This pattern was evident although mean Secchi depth (transparency) ranged from 4 to 25 cm during the study and was <30 cm from May through August over the previous nine years. Larval diel drift studies from 48 rivers excluding the Missouri River indicated the primary drift period for larval fishes was at night in 38 rivers and during the day for five, with the remaining rivers showing no pattern. Water transparency was reported for 10 rivers with six being <30 cm or 'low'. Two of these six turbid rivers exhibited significant diel drift patterns. The effect of water transparency on diel drift of larval fishes appears taxa-specific and patterns of abundant taxa could mask patterns of rare taxa when analyzed only at the assemblage level. ?? 2010 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  20. Epidemiological investigation of Clonorchis sinensis infection in freshwater fishes in the Pearl River Delta.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daixiong; Chen, Jieyun; Huang, Ji; Chen, Xueying; Feng, Dana; Liang, Baofang; Che, Yuchuan; Liu, Xiaodan; Zhu, Cuihua; Li, Xiaomin; Shen, Haoxian

    2010-09-01

    Pearl River Delta region is a high clonorchiasis-endemic area in China. However, no complete epidemiological data exist regarding its infection in freshwater fishes, an important epidemic factor for Clonorchis sinensis. The present study collected freshwater fishes and shrimps from 32 sites of nine cities in the Pearl River Delta, and the encysted metacercariae of C. sinensis were detected by digesting these specimens with artificial gastric juice. The mean infection rate of freshwater fishes was 37.09% (2,160/5,824) with a mean number of 14.269 encysted metacercariae in every infected fish and 0.460 encysted metacercariae in every gram of fish meat. Of these freshwater fishes, 5,219 were domesticated, and the infection rate was 36.69% with a mean number of 10.743 encysted metacercariae in every infected fish and 0.312 encysted metacercariae in every gram of fish meat; the other 605 were wild, and the infection rate was 40.50% with a mean number of 41.829 encysted metacercariae in every infected fish and 8.812 encysted metacercariae in every gram of fish meat. A total of 228 shrimps were examined, and 3.07% of them were infected with a mean number of 1.00 encysted metacercariae in every infected shrimp. Pseudorasbora parva and Ctenopharyngodon idellus had the highest infection rate and degree of infection in the fishes studied. The results demonstrated a high incidence of C. sinensis infection in freshwater fishes and shrimps within Pearl River Delta region and a great difference in the infection rate among different collection sites and different fish species.

  1. Histologic, immunologic and endocrine biomarkers indicate contaminant effects in fishes of the Ashtabula River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.; Hitt, N.P.; McCormick, S.D.; Devault, D.S.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    The use of fish as sentinels of aquatic ecosystem health is a biologically relevant approach to environmental monitoring and assessment. We examined the health of the Ashtabula River using histologic, immunologic, and endocrine biomarkers in brown bullhead (BB; Ameiurus nebulosus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and compared fish collected from a reference site (Conneaut Creek). Seasonal analysis was necessary to distinguish differences in fish between the two rivers. Overall BB from the Ashtabula River had a lower condition factor and significantly more macrophage aggregates than those from the reference site. Reduced bactericidal and cytotoxic-cell activity was observed in anterior kidney leukocytes from both BB and largemouth bass from the Ashtabula River. Lower plasma thyroxine and triiodo-L-thyronine in both species in the Ashtabula River indicated disruption of the thyroid axis. Differences in physiological biomarker responses were supported by body burden chemical concentrations when data were analyzed on a seasonal basis. The use of two fish species added a level of rigor that demonstrated biological effects were not exclusive to a single species. The results provide strong evidence that contaminants have affected fish in the Ashtabula River, a Great Lakes Area of Concern, and provide a baseline by which to evaluate remediation activities.

  2. Long-term changes in mercury concentrations in fish from the middle Savannah River.

    PubMed

    Paller, M H; Littrell, James W

    2007-09-01

    Total mercury levels were measured in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), "sunfish" (Lepomis spp.), and "catfish" (primarily Ameiurus spp. and Ictalurus punctatus) from 1971 to 2004 in the middle Savannah River (river km 191 to 302), which drains the coastal plain of the southeastern U.S. Total mercury concentrations were higher in largemouth bass (overall mean of 0.55 mg/kg from 1971 to 2004), a piscivorous (trophic level 4) species than in the other taxa (means of 0.22-0.26 mg/kg), but temporal trends were generally similar among taxa. Mercury levels were highest in 1971 but declined over the next 10 years due to the mitigation of point source industrial pollution. Mercury levels in fish began to increase in the 1980s as a likely consequence of mercury inputs from tributaries and associated wetlands where mercury concentrations were significantly elevated in water and fish. Mercury levels in Savannah River fish decreased sharply in 2001-2003 coincident with a severe drought in the Savannah River basin, but returned to previous levels in 2004 with the resumption of normal precipitation. Regression models showed that mercury levels in fish changed significantly over time and were affected by river discharge. Mercury levels in Savannah River fish were only slightly lower in 2004 (0.3 to 0.8 mg/kg) than in 1971 (0.4 to 1.0 mg/kg) despite temporal changes during the intervening years.

  3. Genotoxic effects of water pollution on two fish species living in Karasu River, Erzurum, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yazıcı, Zehra; Sişman, Turgay

    2014-11-01

    Karasu River, which is the only river in the Erzurum plain, is the source of the Euphrates River (Eastern Anatolia of Turkey). The river is in a serious environmental situation as a result of pollution by agricultural and industrial sewage and domestic discharges. The present study aims to evaluate genotoxic effects of toxic metals in chub, Leuciscus cephalus, and transcaucasian barb, Capoeta capoeta, collected from contaminated site of the Karasu River, in comparison with fish from an unpolluted reference site. Heavy metal concentrations in surface water of the river were determined. The condition factor (CF) was taken as a general biomarker of the health of the fish, and genotoxicity assays such as micronucleus (MN) and other nuclear abnormalities (NA) were carried out on the fish species studied. MN and NA such as kidney-shaped nucleus, notched nucleus, binucleated, lobed nucleus, and blebbed nucleus were assessed in peripheral blood erythrocytes, gill epithelial cells, and liver cells of the fish. A significant decrease in CF values associated with a significant elevation in MN and NA frequencies was observed in fish collected from the polluted sites compared with those from the reference site. Results of the current study show the significance of integrating a set of biomarkers to identify the effects of anthropogenic pollution. High concentrations of heavy metals have a potential genotoxic effects, and the toxicity is possibly related to industrial, agricultural, and domestic activities.

  4. Hood River Fish Habitat Project; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Vaivoda, Alexis

    2004-02-01

    sources on Evans Creek. Through this project, BPA funded the Middle Fork Irrigation District (MFID) a total of $194,000 in FY 03 for the Glacier Ditch- Evans Creek project. BPA funds accounted for approximately 30% of the project while the remaining 70% was cost-shared by the MFID, the US Forest Service, and the Oregon Watershed Enhancement Board. The MFID operated irrigation diversions on Evans Creek (Hutson pond RM 4.0 and the Evans Creek diversion RM 5.5), a tributary to the East Fork Hood River. Both diversions had inadequate upstream fish passage, and utilized Evans Creek to transport Eliot Branch water to distribute irrigation water lower in the basin. This project consisted of: piping a portion of the Glacier ditch to create a pressurized irrigation pipeline system, piping the Hutson extension, removing the culvert on Evans Creek near the Glacier ditch, removing the culvert above the Hutson pond, revegetating the disturbed areas, and providing adequate and approved fish passage on Evans Creek. Prior to any work, Brian Connors with MFID completed a NEPA checklist. Some of the key regulatory points of this project included wetland delineations, a cultural resources survey, and consultations with NOAA Fisheries, U.S. Fish and Wildlife, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. This project will eliminate the overflow of silty water into Evans Creek and West Fork Evans Creek. Upon completion of this project, access to 2.5 miles of winter steelhead, coho salmon, and resident trout habitat will be restored. Elimination of the interbasin transfer of water will discontinue the conveyance of silty Eliot Branch water into clear East Fork tributaries. Additionally, less water taken from Coe Branch, Eliot Branch, and Laurance Lake which will benefit listed steelhead and bull trout. The Glacier Ditch provided irrigation water from the Eliot Branch to upper valley orchards and agriculture for more than 100 years. The Glacier Ditch

  5. Effects of fish density and river fertilization on algal standing stocks, invertebrates communities, and fish production in an Arctic River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deegan, Linda A.; Peterson, B.J.; Golden, H.; McIvor, C.C.; Miller, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the relative importance of bottom-up and top-down controls of an arctic stream food web by simultaneous manipulation of the top predator and nutrient availability. We created a two-step trophic system (algae to insects) by removal of the top predator (Arctic grayling, Thymallus arcticus) in fertilized and control stream reaches. Fish abundance was also increased 10 times to examine the effect of high fish density on stream ecosystem dynamics and fish. We measured the response of epilithic algae, benthic and drifting insects, and fish to nutrient enrichment and to changes in fish density. Insect grazers had little effect on algae and fish had little effect on insects. In both the control and fertilized reaches, fish growth, energy storage, and reproductive response of females declined with increased fish density. Fish growth and energy storage were more closely correlated with per capita insect availability than with per capita algal standing stock

  6. Mercury Contamination in an Indicator Fish Species from Andean Amazonian Rivers Affected by Petroleum Extraction.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jena; Coomes, Oliver T; Mainville, Nicolas; Mergler, Donna

    2015-09-01

    Elevated mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish from Amazonia have been associated with gold-mining, hydroelectric dams and deforestation but few studies consider the role of petroleum extraction. Hg levels were determined in fish samples collected in three river basins in Ecuador and Peru with contrasting petroleum exploitation and land-use characteristics. The non-migratory, piscivorous species, Hoplias malabaricus, was used as a bioindicator. The rate of Hg increase with body weight for this species was significantly higher on the Corrientes River, near the site of a recent oil spill, than on the other two rivers. In the absence of substantial deforestation and other anthropogenic sources in the Corrientes River basin, this finding suggests that oil contamination in Andean Amazonia may have a significant impact on Hg levels in fish.

  7. Long-term fish monitoring in large rivers: Utility of “benchmarking” across basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.; Casper, Andrew F.; Counihan, Timothy D.; Bayer, Jennifer M.; Waite, Ian R.; Kosovich, John J.; Chapman, Colin; Irwin, Elise R.; Sauer, Jennifer S.; Ickes, Brian; McKerrow, Alexa

    2017-01-01

    In business, benchmarking is a widely used practice of comparing your own business processes to those of other comparable companies and incorporating identified best practices to improve performance. Biologists and resource managers designing and conducting monitoring programs for fish in large river systems tend to focus on single river basins or segments of large rivers, missing opportunities to learn from those conducting fish monitoring in other rivers. We briefly examine five long-term fish monitoring programs in large rivers in the United States (Colorado, Columbia, Mississippi, Illinois, and Tallapoosa rivers) and identify opportunities for learning across programs by detailing best monitoring practices and why these practices were chosen. Although monitoring objectives, methods, and program maturity differ between each river system, examples from these five case studies illustrate the important role that long-term monitoring programs play in interpreting temporal and spatial shifts in fish populations for both established objectives and newly emerging questions. We suggest that deliberate efforts to develop a broader collaborative network through benchmarking will facilitate sharing of ideas and development of more effective monitoring programs.

  8. Life in the fast lane: fish and foodweb structure in the main channel of large rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettmers, J.M.; Wahl, David H.; Soluk, D.A.; Gutreuter, S.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the main channel of the lower Illinois River and of the Mississippi River just upstream and downstream of its confluence with the Illinois River to describe the abundance, composition, and/or seasonal appearance of components of the main-channel community. Abundance of fishes in the main channel was high, especially adults. Most adult fishes were present in the main channel for either 3 or 4 seasons/y, indicating that fishes regularly reside in the main channel. We documented abundant zooplankton and benthic invertebrates in the main channel, and the presence of these food types in the diets of channel catfish and freshwater drum. All trophic levels were well represented in the main channel, indicating that the main channel supports a unique food web. The main channel also serves as an important energetic link with other riverine habitats (e.g., floodplains, secondary channels, backwater lakes) because of the mobility of resident fishes and because of the varied energy sources supplying this food web. It may be more realistic to view energy flow in large-river systems as a combination of 3 existing concepts, the river continuum concept (downstream transport), the flood pulse concept (lateral transport to the floodplain), and the riverine productivity model (autochthonous production). We urge additional research to quantify the links between the main channel and other habitat types in large rivers because of the apparent importance of main-channel processes in the overall structure and function of large-river ecosystems.

  9. Metacercarial distribution of Centrocestus formosanus among fish hosts in the Guadalupe River drainage of Texas.

    PubMed

    Fleming, B Paul; Huffman, David G; Bonner, Timothy H; Brandt, Thomas M

    2011-09-01

    We examined the gills of wild fish collected from central Texas for Centrocestus formosanus metacercariae to determine whether this temperature-restricted parasite had invaded the thermally dynamic Guadalupe River via an introduced population in its thermally stable tributary, the Comal River. We collected fish from three sites in the Guadalupe River near its confluence with the Comal River (upstream, at, and downstream) and one site in the Comal River. Centrocestus formosanus infected 14 of the 25 species examined (56.0%) and 171 of the individual fish (27.1%). Several of the infected fish represent new host records for the parasite, and two are listed as species of special concern by the state of Texas. Mean metacercarial intensities varied from 8 to 616 among species, and the highest recorded intensity was greater than 800 in two Guadalupe roundnose minnow Dionda nigrotaeniata. Among the 24 species examined from the Guadalupe River, 11 (45.8%) were infected with C. formosanus. Thorough surveys at the study sites yielded no living specimens of the first obligate intermediate snail host (red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus), which must be present to perpetuate the parasite. Thus, the infections were probably due to drifting cercariae that had been shed into the water column upstream of the study area in the Comal River. We therefore investigated spatial patterns in cercarial acquisition using caged fish to determine whether drifting cercariae were present in the water column at the study sites. Of 57 uninfected blacktail shiners Cyprinella venusta exposed to Guadalupe River water downstream from and at the confluence, 52 (91.2%) became infected with C. Formosanus metacercariae at a mean rate of 4 metacercariae/d. This finding extends the known geographic range of this invasive exotic parasite and is the first report of the life cycle being advanced in the fish assemblage of a thermally variable temperate stream in the USA.

  10. Contaminants in fishes from Great Lakes-influenced sections and above dams of three Michigan rivers. II: Implications for health of mink

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giesy, J.P.; Verbrugge, D.A.; Othoudt, R. A.; Bowerman, W.W.; Mora, M.A.; Jones, P.D.; Newsted, J.L.; Vandervoort, C.; Heaton, S. N.; Aulerich, R.J.; Bursian, S.J.; Ludwig, J. P.; Dawson, G. A.; Kubiak, T.J.; Best, D. A.; Tillitt, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    Populations of mink (Mustela vison) have declined in many areas of the world. Such declines have been linked to exposures to synthetic, halogenated hydrocarbons. In the Great Lakes region, mink are fewer in areas along the shore of the Great Lakes and their tributaries where mink have access to fish from the Great Lakes. Recently, there has been discussion of the relative merits of passage of fishes around hydroelectric dams on rivers in Michigan. A hazard assessment was conducted to determine the potential for adverse effects on mink, which could consume such fishes from above or below dams on the rivers. Concentrations of organochlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 2,3,7,8-tetrachloridibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), and total mercury were measured in composite samples of fishes from above or below hydroelectric dams on the Manistee and Muskegon Rivers, which flow into Lake Michigan, and the Au Sable River, which flows into Lake Huron. Concentrations of organochlorine insecticides, PCBs, and TCDD-EQ were all greater in fishes from below the dams than those from above. Concentrations of neither organochlorine insecticides nor mercury in fishes are currently a risk to mink above or below the dams. All of the species of fishes collected from downstream of the dams contained concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ, which represent a hazard to mink. The hazard index for PCBs was less than one for the average of all species from the upstream reaches of the Manistee and Au Sable Rivers, but not the Muskegon. The hazard index (concentration in fish/NOAEC) was greater than 1 for all of the species collected from below the dams, in all three rivers. The greatest hazard index was observed for carp (Cyprinus carpio) downstream on the Muskegon River. Because the concentrations of PCBs used in the hazard assessment were corrected for relative toxic potencies, the hazard ratios based on PCBs should be similar to those based on TCDD-EQ. This was found to be

  11. Analysis of potential impacts to resident fish from Columbia River System Operation alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geist, David R.; Vail, Lance W.; Epstein, Daniel J.

    1996-03-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers, the US Bureau of Reclamation, and the Bonneville Power Administration initiated the Columbia River System Operation Review (SOR) in 1990. The SOR will assist agencies in comparing the benefits and risks to Columbia River uses and natural resources from alternative strategies for using Columbia River water. Focusing on 14 federal dams within the basin, the agencies are attempting to improve on the efficient and coordinated use of the Columbia River system. An initial screening of all potential strategies of reservoir operation was necessary to reduce the number of possibilities to a limited set for detailed analysis. To that end, the Resident Fish Work Group of the SOR developed spreadsheet models capable of assessing the impacts of different management strategies on resident fish at six storage reservoirs. The models include biological, physical, and hydrological relationships important to resident fish specific to each reservoir. Alternatives that kept the reservoirs near full pool and held stable during the growing season resulted in positive benefits to resident fish at all locations modeled. Conversely, alternatives designed to improve anadromous fish survival with increased instream flow generally had a negative impact on the resident fish in the reservoirs modeled. The models developed for resident fish in the screening analysis phase of the SOR were useful in assessing the relative impact to resident fish from a large number of alternatives. The screening analysis demonstrated that future analytical efforts must consider trade-offs among river uses/resource groups, among reservoirs throughout the basin, and among resident fish species within a reservoir.

  12. Perfluorinated compounds in fish from U.S. urban rivers and the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Leanne L; Snyder, Blaine D; Olsen, Anthony R; Kincaid, Thomas M; Wathen, John B; McCarty, Harry B

    2014-11-15

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have recently received scientific and regulatory attention due to their broad environmental distribution, persistence, bioaccumulative potential, and toxicity. Studies suggest that fish consumption may be a source of human exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids. Most PFC fish tissue literature focuses on marine fish and waters outside of the United States (U.S.). To broaden assessments in U.S. fish, a characterization of PFCs in freshwater fish was initiated on a national scale using an unequal probability design during the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 2008-2009 National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA) and the Great Lakes Human Health Fish Tissue Study component of the 2010 EPA National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA/GL). Fish were collected from randomly selected locations--164 urban river sites and 157 nearshore Great Lake sites. The probability design allowed extrapolation to the sampled population of 17,059 km in urban rivers and a nearshore area of 11,091 km(2) in the Great Lakes. Fillets were analyzed for 13 PFCs using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed that PFOS dominated in frequency of occurrence, followed by three other longer-chain PFCs (perfluorodecanoic acid, perfluoroundecanoic acid, and perfluorododecanoic acid). Maximum PFOS concentrations were 127 and 80 ng/g in urban river samples and Great Lakes samples, respectively. The range of NRSA PFOS detections was similar to literature accounts from targeted riverine fish sampling. NCCA/GL PFOS levels were lower than those reported by other Great Lakes researchers, but generally higher than values in targeted inland lake studies. The probability design allowed development of cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) to quantify PFOS concentrations versus the sampled population, and the application of fish consumption advisory guidance to the CDFs resulted in

  13. Mercury and selenium in fish from the Savannah river: species, trophic level, and locational differences.

    PubMed

    Burger, J; Gaines, K F; Boring, C S; Stephens, W L; Snodgrass, J; Gochfeld, M

    2001-10-01

    Levels of contaminants in fish are of considerable interest because of potential effects on the fish themselves, as well as on other organisms that consume them. In this article we compare the mercury levels in muscle tissue of 11 fish species from the Savannah River, as well as selenium levels because of its known protective effect against mercury toxicity. We sampled fish from three stretches of the river: upstream, along, and downstream the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, a former nuclear material production facility. We test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in mercury and selenium levels in fish tissue as a function of species, trophic level, and location along the river. There were significant interspecific differences in mercury levels, with bowfin (Amia calva) having the highest levels, followed by largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and pickerel (Esox niger). Sunfish (Lepomis spp.) had the lowest levels of mercury. As expected, these differences generally reflected trophic levels. There were few significant locational differences in mercury levels, and existing differences were not great, presumably reflecting local movements of fish between the sites examined. Selenium and mercury concentrations were positively correlated only for bass, perch (Perca flavescens), and red-breasted sunfish (Lepomis auritus). Mercury levels were positively correlated with body mass of the fish for all species except American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and bluegill sunfish (L. macrochirus). The mercury and selenium levels in fish tissue from the Savannah River are similar to or lower than those reported in many other studies, and in most cases pose little risk to the fish themselves or to other aquatic consumers, although levels in bowfin and bass are sufficiently high to pose a potential threat to high-level consumers. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  14. Spatiotemporal patterns of fish assemblage structure in a river impounded by low-head dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillette, David P.; Tiemann, Jeremy S.; Edds, David R.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2005-01-01

    We studied spatiotemporal patterns of fish assemblage structure in the Neosho River, Kansas, a system impounded by low-head dams. Spatial variation in the fish assemblage was related to the location of dams that created alternating lotic and lentic stream reaches with differing fish assemblages. At upstream sites close to dams, assemblages were characterized by species associated with deeper, slower-flowing habitat. Assemblages at sites immediately downstream from dams had higher abundance of species common to shallow, swift-flowing habitat. Temporal variation in assemblage structure was stronger than spatial variation, and was associated with fish life history events such as spawning and recruitment, as well as seasonal changes in environmental conditions. Our results suggest that low-head dams can influence spatial patterns of fish assemblage structure in systems such as the Neosho River and that such assemblages also vary seasonally.

  15. Reproductive seasonality of fishes from a lotic stretch of the Grande River, high Paraná river basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andrade, P M; Braga, F M S

    2005-08-01

    We searched for correlations between water level, rainfall, temperature, and reproductive activity of fishes in a lotic stretch of the Grande River below the Volta Grande Dam. Gillnets were used to catch the fish on six field journeys made bimonthly between April 1998 and February 1999. Fish gonads were classified according to maturation grade and the amount of mature or spent gonads was correlated with rainfall and air temperature. Most fish species showed seasonal reproduction (between October and February). The relative frequency of fully mature and spent gonads significantly correlated with rainfall (Spearman r = 0.94, p = 0.005) and air temperature (r = 0.84, p = 0.036), showing the importance of these factors in regulating the reproductive cycle of fishes in this location. Nevertheless, dam operation resulted in minimal water level variation that did not significantly correlate with reproductive activity (r = -0.43, p = 0.396).

  16. Phase II Water Rental Pilot Project: Snake River Resident Fish and Wildlife Resources and Management Recommendations.

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, Stacey H.

    1994-08-01

    The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project was implemented in 1991 as part of the Non-Treaty Storage Fish and Wildlife Agreement between Bonneville Power Administration and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. The goal of the project is to quantify resident fish and wildlife impacts resulting from salmon flow augmentation releases made from the upper Snake River Basin. Phase I summarized existing resource information and provided management recommendations to protect and enhance resident fish and wildlife habitat resulting from storage releases for the I improvement of an adromous fish migration. Phase II includes the following: (1) a summary of recent biological, legal, and political developments within the basin as they relate to water management issues, (2) a biological appraisal of the Snake River between American Falls Reservoir and the city of Blackfoot to examine the effects of flow fluctuation on fish and wildlife habitat, and (3) a preliminary accounting of 1993--1994 flow augmentation releases out of the upper Snake, Boise, and Payette river systems. Phase III will include the development of a model in which annual flow requests and resident fish and wildlife suitability information are interfaced with habitat time series analysis to provide an estimate of resident fish and wildlife resources.

  17. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, US Fish and Wildlife Hatcheries, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighing 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs., 25 tabs.

  18. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Washington Department of Fish Hatcheries, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighing 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs., 25 figs.

  19. Historical and current perspectives on fish assemblages of the Snake River, Idaho and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, T.R.; Mebane, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Snake River is the tenth longest river in the United States, extending 1,667 km from its origin in Yellowstone National Park in western Wyoming to its union with the Columbia River at Pasco, Washington. Historically, the main-stem Snake River upstream from the Hells Canyon Complex supported at least 26 native fish species, including anadromous stocks of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead O. mykiss, Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata, and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. Of these anadromous species, only the white sturgeon remains in the Snake River between the Hells Canyon Complex and Shoshone Falls. Today, much of the Snake River has been transformed into a river with numerous impoundments and flow diversions, increased pollutant loads, and elevated water temperatures. Current (1993-2002) fish assemblage collections from 15 sites along the Snake River and Henrys Fork contained 35 fish species, including 16 alien species. Many of these alien species such as catfish (Ictaluridae), carp (Cyprinidae), and sunfish (Centrarchidae) are adapted for warmwater impounded habitats. Currently, the Snake River supports 19 native species. An index of biotic integrity (IBI), developed to evaluate large rivers in the Northwest, was used to evaluate recent (1993-2002) fish collections from the Snake River and Henrys Fork in southern Idaho and western Wyoming. Index of biotic integrity site scores and component metrics revealed a decline in biotic integrity from upstream to downstream in both the Snake River and Henrys Fork. Two distinct groups of sites were evident that correspond to a range of IBI scores-an upper Snake River and Henrys Fork group with relatively high biotic integrity (mean IBI scores of 46-84) and a lower Snake River group with low biotic integrity (mean IBI scores of 10-29). Sites located in the lower Snake River exhibited fish assemblages that reflect poor-quality habitat where coldwater and sensitive species are rare or absent, and

  20. Growth rate responses of Missouri and lower Yellowstone river fishes to a latitudinal gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pegg, M.A.; Pierce, C.L.

    2001-01-01

    Growth rate coefficients estimated for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, emerald shiners Notropis atherinoides, freshwater drums Aplodinotus grunniens, river carpsuckers Carpiodes carpio and saugers Stizostedion canadense collected in 1996-1998 from nine river sections of the Missouri and lower Yellowstone rivers at two life-stages (young-of-the-year and age 1 + years) were significantly different among sections. However, they showed no river-wide latitudinal trend except for age 1 + years emerald shiners that did show a weak negative relation between growth and both latitude and length of growing season. The results suggest growth rates of fishes along the Missouri River system are complex and could be of significance in the management and conservation of fish communities in this altered system. ?? 2001 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development IV: fish mortality resulting from turbine passage

    SciTech Connect

    Turbak, S. C.; Reichle, D. R.; Shriner, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    This document presents a state-of-the-art review of literature concerning turbine-related fish mortality. The review discusses conventional and, to a lesser degree, pumped-storage (reversible) hydroelectric facilities. Much of the research on conventional facilities discussed in this report deals with studies performed in the Pacific Northwest and covers both prototype and model studies. Research conducted on Kaplan and Francis turbines during the 1950s and 1960s has been extensively reviewed and is discussed. Very little work on turbine-related fish mortality has been undertaken with newer turbine designs developed for more modern small-scale hydropower facilities; however, one study on a bulb unit (Kaplan runner) has recently been released. In discussing turbine-related fish mortality at pumped-storage facilities, much of the literature relates to the Ludington Pumped Storage Power Plant. As such, it is used as the principal facility in discussing research concerning pumped storage.

  2. Fish assemblages and environmental correlates in least-disturbed streams of the upper Snake River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, T.R.; Robinson, C.T.; Minshall, G.W.

    1997-01-01

    Fish assemblages and environmental variables were evaluated from 37 least-disturbed, 1st- through 6th-order streams and springs in the upper Snake River basin, western USA. Data were collected as part of the efforts by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program and the Idaho State University Stream Ecology Center to characterize aquatic biota and associated habitats in least-disturbed coldwater streams. Geographically, the basin comprises four ecoregions. Environmental variables constituting various spatial scales, from watershed characteristics to in stream habitat measures, were used to examine distribution patterns in fish assemblages. Nineteen fish species in the families Salmonidae, Cottidae, Cyprinidae, and Catostemidae were collected. Multivariate analyses showed high overlap in stream fish assemblages among the ecoregions. Major environmental factors determining species distributions in the basin were stream gradient, watershed size, conductivity, and percentage of the watershed covered by forest. Lowland streams (below 1,600 m in elevation), located mostly in the Snake River Basin/High Desert ecoregion, displayed different fish assemblages than upland streams (above 2,000 m elevation) in the Northern Rockies, Middle Rockies, and Northern Basin and Range ecoregions. For example, cotrids were not found in streams above 2,000 m in elevation. In addition, distinct fish assemblages were found in tributaries upstream and downstream from the large waterfall, Shoshone Falls, on the Snake River. Fish metrics explaining most of the variation among sites included the total number of species, number of native species, number of salmonid species, percent introduced species, percent cottids, and percent salmonids. Springs also exhibited different habitat conditions and fish assemblages than streams. The data suggest that the evolutionary consequences of geographic features and fish species introductions transcend the importance of ecoregion

  3. Selenium: Mercury Molar Ratios in Freshwater Fish in the Columbia River Basin: Potential Applications for Specific Fish Consumption Advisories.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Leanne K; Eagles-Smith, Collin; Harding, Anna K; Kile, Molly; Stone, Dave

    2016-12-08

    Fish provide a valuable source of beneficial nutrients and are an excellent source of low fat protein. However, fish are also the primary source of methylmercury exposure in humans. Selenium often co-occurs with mercury and there is some evidence that selenium can protect against mercury toxicity yet States issue fish consumption advisories based solely on the risks that methylmercury pose to human health. Recently, it has been suggested the selenium: mercury molar ratio be considered in risk management. In order for agencies to utilize the ratio to set consumption guidelines, it is important to evaluate the variability in selenium and mercury in different fish species. We examined 10 different freshwater fish species found within the Columbia River Basin in order to determine the inter- and intra-specific variability in the selenium: mercury molar ratios and the selenium health benefit values. We found significant variation in selenium: mercury molar ratios. The mean molar ratios for each species were all above 1:1, ranging from 3.42:1 in Walleye to 27.2:1 in Chinook salmon. There was a positive correlation between both mercury and selenium with length for each fish species apart from yellow perch and rainbow trout. All species had health benefit values greater than 2. We observed considerable variability in selenium: mercury molar ratios within fish species collected in the Columbia River Basin. Although incorporating selenium: mercury molar ratios into fish consumption holds the potential for refining advisories and assessing the risk of methylmercury exposure, the current understanding of how these ratios apply is insufficient, and further understanding of drivers of variability in the ratios is needed.

  4. Selenium: Mercury molar ratios in freshwater fish in the Columbia River Basin: Potential applications for specific fish consumption advisories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cusack, Leanne K.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Harding, Anna K.; Kile, Molly; Stone, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Fish provide a valuable source of beneficial nutrients and are an excellent source of low fat protein. However, fish are also the primary source of methylmercury exposure in humans. Selenium often co-occurs with mercury and there is some evidence that selenium can protect against mercury toxicity yet States issue fish consumption advisories based solely on the risks that methylmercury pose to human health. Recently, it has been suggested the selenium: mercury molar ratio be considered in risk management. In order for agencies to utilize the ratio to set consumption guidelines, it is important to evaluate the variability in selenium and mercury in different fish species. We examined 10 different freshwater fish species found within the Columbia River Basin in order to determine the inter- and intra-specific variability in the selenium: mercury molar ratios and the selenium health benefit values. We found significant variation in selenium: mercury molar ratios. The mean molar ratios for each species were all above 1:1, ranging from 3.42:1 in Walleye to 27.2:1 in Chinook salmon. There was a positive correlation between both mercury and selenium with length for each fish species apart from yellow perch and rainbow trout. All species had health benefit values greater than 2. We observed considerable variability in selenium: mercury molar ratios within fish species collected in the Columbia River Basin. Although incorporating selenium: mercury molar ratios into fish consumption holds the potential for refining advisories and assessing the risk of methylmercury exposure, the current understanding of how these ratios apply is insufficient, and further understanding of drivers of variability in the ratios is needed.

  5. EROD induction and PCDD/F levels in fish liver from the Biobio River in Chile.

    PubMed

    Orrego, Rodrigo; Jiménez, Begoña; Bordajandi, Luisa R; Gavilán, Juan Francisco; Inzunza, Bárbara; Abad, Esteban; González, María José; Rivera, Josep; Barra, Ricardo

    2005-08-01

    The Biobio River basin, located in central Chile, is one of the most important freshwater resources for a population of 1 million inhabitants. The river receives discha