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Sample records for river geoscience case

  1. Raft River geoscience case study

    SciTech Connect

    Dolenc, M.R.; Hull, L.C.; Mizell, S.A.; Russell, B.F.; Skiba, P.A.; Strawn, J.A.; Tullis, J.A.

    1981-11-01

    The Raft River Geothermal Site has been evaluated over the past eight years by the United States Geological Survey and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory as a moderate-temperature geothermal resource. The geoscience data gathered in the drilling and testing of seven geothermal wells suggest that the Raft River thermal reservoir is: (a) produced from fractures found at the contact metamorphic zone, apparently the base of detached normal faulting from the Bridge and Horse Well Fault zones of the Jim Sage Mountains; (b) anisotropic, with the major axis of hydraulic conductivity coincident to the Bridge Fault Zone; (c) hydraulically connected to the shallow thermal fluid of the Crook and BLM wells based upon both geochemistry and pressure response; (d) controlled by a mixture of diluted meteoric water recharging from the northwest and a saline sodium chloride water entering from the southwest. Although the hydrogeologic environment of the Raft River geothermal area is very complex and unique, it is typical of many Basin and Range systems.

  2. Raft River geoscience case study: appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Dolenc, M.R.; Hull, L.C.; Mizell, S.A.; Russell, B.F.; Skiba, P.A.; Strawn, J.A.; Tullis, J.A.

    1981-11-01

    The following are included in these appendices: lithology, x-ray analysis, and cores; well construction data; borehole geophysical logs; chemical analyses from wells at the Raft River geothermal site; and bibliography. (MHR)

  3. Geoscience interpretations of the Raft River Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Tullis, J.A.; Dolenc, M.R.

    1982-02-01

    A discussion of the geology and the wellfield development at Raft River is presented. The geothermal resource is located in a downdropped and downwarped basin bordered on east, west, and south by mountain ranges that vary in both stratigraphy and structure. It is inferred that the geothermal resource occurs where hydrothermal water rises at the intersection of and along the Narrows Zone and the Bridge Fault. Three exploration wells, two development wells, and two injection wells were drilled. The basic strategy of field development was to drill deep production wells on the faulted northwest side of the field and injection wells to an intermediate depth on the southeast side of the field. Four wells are employed as production wells. Two are used to inject the spent fluid. One has never been connected to the nearby three miles of interconnected production pipelines because of low artesian flow rates. (MJF)

  4. Enactment of a Geoscience Curriculum by Using Innovative Curriculum Materials: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Henning; Hlawatsch, Sylke; Lucken, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Trying to implement interdisciplinary geoscience curriculum materials in geography and science education we asked how they fit into teachers' existing practices, their needs for support and strategies to plan instruction. The focus of our case study has been the identification of the goals teachers pursue with the materials, of strategies for…

  5. Building Strong Geoscience Departments: Case Studies and Findings from Six Years of Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, E. A.; Lee, S.; Ormand, C. J.; Feiss, P. G.; Macdonald, H.; Manduca, C. A.; Richardson, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Begun in 2005, the Building Strong Geoscience Departments project sought to help geoscience departments respond to changes in geosciences research, academic pressures, and the changing face of the geosciences workforce by working as a team, planning strategically, and learning from the experiences of other geoscience departments. Key strategies included becoming more central to their institution's mission and goals; articulating the department's learning goals for students; designing coordinated curricula, co-curricular activities, and assessments to meet these goals; and recruiting students effectively. A series of topical workshops identified effective practices in use in the U.S. and Canada. These practices were documented on the project website and disseminated through a national workshop for teams of faculty, through activities at the AGU Heads and Chairs workshops, and in a visiting workshop program bringing leaders to campuses. The program has now involved over 450 participants from 185 departments. To understand the impact of the program, we engaged in ongoing discussion with five departments of various sizes and institutional types, and facing a variety of immediate challenges. In aggregate they made use of the full spectrum of project offerings. These departments all reported that the project brought an important new perspective to their ability to work as a department: they have a better understanding of how their departments' issues relate to the national scene, have more strategies for making the case for the entire department to college administrators, and are better poised to make use of campus resources including the external review process. These results were consistent with findings from end-of-workshop surveys. Further they developed the ability to work together as a team to address departmental challenges through collective problem solving. As a result of their workshop participation, two of the departments who considered their department to be

  6. The Special Place Project: Efficacy of a Place-Based Case Study Approach for Teaching Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosavi, Sadredin

    2014-05-01

    Achieving geoscience literacy of the general population has become increasingly important world wide as ever more connected and growing societies depend more and more on our planet's limited natural resource base. Building citizen understanding of their dependence on the local environment, and the geologic processes which created and continue to change it, has become a great challenge to educators at all levels of the education system. The Special Place Project described in this presentation explores use of a place-based case study approach combining instruction in geoscience content with development of observation, reasoning, writing and presentation skills. The approach allows students to select the locations for their individual case studies affording development of personal connections between the learner and his environment. The approach gives instructors at many grade levels the ability to develop core pedagogical content and skills while exploring the unique geologic environments relevant to the local population including such critical issues as land use, resource depletion, energy, climate change and the future of communities in a changing world. The geologic reasons for the location of communities and key events in their histories can be incorporated into the students' case studies as appropriate. The project is unique in placing all course instruction in the context of the quest to explore and gain understanding of the student's chosen location by using the inherently more generalized course content required by the curriculum. By modeling how scientists approach their research questions, this pedagogical technique not only integrates knowledge and skills from across the curriculum, it captures the excitement of scientific thinking on real world questions directly relevant to students' lives, increasing student engagement and depth of learning as demonstrated in the case study reports crafted by the students and exam results. Student learning of topics

  7. Exploratory qualitative case study of lab-type activity interactions in an online graduate geoscience course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciavarella, Veronica C.

    This exploratory qualitative case study investigated the use of lab-type activities in an online graduate geoscience course. Constructivism is the theoretical framework used to explain how learning happens in lab-type activity, and provided the goals to which successful learning in lab-type activity is compared. This study focused on the learner-instructor, learner-learner, and perceptions of the learner-content interactions that occurred related to lab-type activities in an online graduate geoscience course to determine: if the instructor appeared as a facilitator of the learning process in the interactions over the activities; if students engaged in discussion and reflection about the activities; if students perceived the activities as meaningful and authentic; and if students perceived using higher order thinking and prior knowledge while interacting with the content. Ten graduate students from three offerings of the course participated in this study, as well as the instructor and designer of the course content and lab-type activities. Data were collected through interviews, and observation and analysis of the lab-type activities, instructor feedback to students in their graded activities, and discussion that occurred between the instructor and students and among students about the lab-type activities in discussion forums. The nature of the instructor's interactions in discussion forums, in feedback to students on graded activities, and reported by students' in interviews supported that, in the learner-instructor interactions, the instructor of this course was a facilitator who guided and scaffolded the students towards successfully completing the activities. Students engaged in discussion and reflected on the activities, but most learner-learner interactions in discussion forums about the lab-type activities appeared to occur for the purpose of comparison of results, support, and empathy. Students' success at higher order thinking type questions in lab

  8. Sustaining a Global Geoscience Workforce-The Case for International Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, P. P.; Keane, C. M.

    2013-05-01

    Maintaining an adequate global supply of qualified geoscientists is a major challenge facing the profession. With global population expected to exceed 9 billion by midcentury, the demand for geoscience expertise is expected to dramatically increase if we are to provide to society the resource base, environmental quality, and resiliency to natural hazards that is required to meet future global demands. The American Geoscience Institute (AGI) has for the past 50 years tracked the supply of geoscientists and their various areas of specialty for the US. However, this is only part of the necessary workforce analysis, the demand side must also be determined. For the past several years, AGI has worked to acquire estimates for workforce demand in the United States. The analysis suggests that by 2021 there will be between 145,000 to 202,000 unfilled jobs in the US. This demand can be partially filled with an increase in graduates (which is occurring at an insufficient pace in the US to meet full demand), increased migration of geoscientists internationally to the US (a challenge since demands are increasing globally), and more career placement of bachelor degree recipients. To understand the global workforce dynamic, it is critical that accurate estimates of global geoscience supply, demand and retirement be available. Although, AGI has focused on the US situation, it has developed international collaborations to acquire workforce data. Among the organizations that have contributed are UNESCO, the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), the Young Earth-Scientists Network, and the Geological Society of Africa. Among the areas of international collaboration, the IUGS Task Group on Global Geoscience Workforce enables the IUGS to take a leadership role in raising the quality of understanding of workforce across the world. During the course of the taskforce's efforts, several key understandings have emerged. First, the general supply of geoscientists is quantifiable

  9. Geoscience instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, E. A. (Editor); Mercanti, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    Geoscience instrumentation systems are considered along with questions of geoscience environment, signal processing, data processing, and design problems. Instrument platforms are examined, taking into account ground platforms, airborne platforms, ocean platforms, and space platforms. In situ and laboratory sensors described include acoustic wave sensors, age sensors, atmospheric constituent sensors, biological sensors, cloud particle sensors, electric field sensors, electromagnetic field sensors, precision geodetic sensors, gravity sensors, ground constituent sensors, horizon sensors, humidity sensors, ion and electron sensors, magnetic field sensors, tide sensors, and wind sensors. Remote sensors are discussed, giving attention to sensing techniques, acoustic echo-sounders, gamma ray sensors, optical sensors, radar sensors, and microwave radiometric sensors.

  10. Understanding the Factors that Support the Use of Active Learning Teaching in STEM Undergraduate Courses: Case Studies in the Field of Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, Ellen A. Roscoe

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors that support the adoption of active learning teaching strategies in undergraduate courses by faculty members, specifically in the STEM disciplines related to geoscience. The focus of the study centered on the context of the department which was identified as a gap in evaluation and educational research studies of STEM faculty development. The study used a mixed-method case study methodology to investigate the influences of departmental context on faculty members' adoption of active-learning teaching practices. The study compared and contrasted the influence of two faculty development strategies initiated in the field of geoscience. Six university geoscience departments were selected that had participated in two national geoscience professional development programs. Data were generated from 19 faculty interviews, 5 key informant interviews, and documents related to departmental and institutional context. The study concluded that two main factors influenced the degree to which faculty who participated in geoscience faculty development reported adoption of active learning pedagogies. These conclusions are a) the opportunity to engage in informal, regular conversations with departmental colleagues about teaching promoted adoption of new teaching approaches and ideas and b) institutional practices regarding the ways in which teaching practices were typically measured, valued, and incentivized tended to inhibit risk taking in teaching. The conclusions have implications related to institutional policy, faculty development, and the role of evaluation.

  11. The Geoscience Alliance--A National Network for Broadening Participation of Native Americans in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbotten, D. M.; Berthelote, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Geoscience Alliance is a national alliance of individuals committed to broadening participation of Native Americans in the geosciences. Native Americans in this case include American Indians, Alaska Natives and people of Native Hawai'ian ancestry. Although they make up a large percentage of the resource managers in the country, they are underrepresented in degrees in the geosciences. The Geoscience Alliance (GA) members are faculty and staff from tribal colleges, universities, and research centers; native elders and community members; industry, agency, and corporate representatives; students (K12, undergraduate, and graduate); formal and informal educators; and other interested individuals. The goals of the Geoscience Alliance are to 1) create new collaborations in support of geoscience education for Native American students, 2) establish a new research agenda aimed at closing gaps in our knowledge on barriers and best practices related to Native American participation in the geosciences, 3) increase participation by Native Americans in setting the national research agenda on issues in the geosciences, and particularly those that impact Native lands, 4) provide a forum to communicate educational opportunities for Native American students in the geosciences, and 5) to understand and respect indigenous traditional knowledge. In this presentation, we look at the disparity between numbers of Native Americans involved in careers related to the geosciences and those who are receiving bachelors or graduate degrees in the geosciences. We address barriers towards degree completion in the geosciences, and look at innovative programs that are addressing those barriers.

  12. Discovering the Geosciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julia A.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on student awareness of careers in the geosciences. Provides an example of an instructional situation that motivated a student to pursue such a career. Includes a career-oriented poster and a list of geoscience careers. (DDR)

  13. The Geoscience Alliance--A National Network for Broadening Participation of Native Americans in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbotten, D. M.; Berthelote, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Geoscience Alliance is a national alliance of individuals committed to broadening participation of Native Americans in the geosciences. Native Americans in this case include American Indians, Alaska Natives and people of Native Hawai'ian ancestry. Although they make up a large percentage of the resource managers in the country, they are underrepresented in degrees in the geosciences. The Geoscience Alliance (GA) members are faculty and staff from tribal colleges, universities, and research centers; native elders and community members; industry, agency, and corporate representatives; students (K12, undergraduate, and graduate); formal and informal educators; and other interested individuals. The goals of the Geoscience Alliance are to 1) create new collaborations in support of geoscience education for Native American students, 2) establish a new research agenda aimed at closing gaps in our knowledge on barriers and best practices related to Native American participation in the geosciences, 3) increase participation by Native Americans in setting the national research agenda on issues in the geosciences, and particularly those that impact Native lands, 4) provide a forum to communicate educational opportunities for Native American students in the geosciences, and 5) to understand and respect indigenous traditional knowledge. In this presentation, we look at the disparity between numbers of Native Americans involved in careers related to the geosciences and those who are receiving bachelors or graduate degrees in the geosciences. We address barriers towards degree completion in the geosciences, and look at innovative programs that are addressing those barriers.

  14. Case Studies of Two American Towns That Have Recently Developed Geotourism Venues: A Comparison of Steps Taken in Geoscience Education Program Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandersee, J. H.; Clary, R. M.

    2005-12-01

    In June, 2003, CNN reported that there were three US public fossil parks (in OH, NY, and IA) that embraced educational missions and allowed the public to collect and actually keep the fossils they found. The new parks moved beyond exhibiting fossils to allowing the park visitor to have a direct, tangible, and authentic geobiological field experience, typically culminating in the visitor's identification and ownership of a small number of personally collected fossils. Our site-based, qualitative, comparative geoscience educational analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the first three parks was presented at the 2004 International Geological Congress. We subsequently developed a fossil park design model for others contemplating the establishment or instructional use of such parks. Today there are five specially developed, public fossil parks in the US. All are owned and operated by city or county governments, or by non-profit organizations. Each considers its primary mission to be advancing geoscience education. In the current investigation, we conducted on-site, multiple case study research on the two newest US fossil parks. Both are located in small towns: Trammel Fossil Park in Sharonville, Ohio (population 13,000), and Fossil Beds Park in Fossil, Oregon (population 430). The former site is Ordovician in age, with four fossiliferous marine formations. The latter is an Oligocene lake bed and contains approximately 35 species of identified plant fossils. Our focus in both case studies was on identifying the steps of successful fossil park development that lead to a sound informal geoscience education program, based on principles of active, meaningful, and mindful learning (Langer, 1998; Michael and Modell, 2003; Mintzes, Wandersee, and Novak, 2000). We found that each town had developed a collaborative, community-driven, pedagogically innovative, field-based geotourism venue. Each was noteworthy in specific ways for its geoscience education potential as an

  15. Integrating geoscience and Native American experiences through a multi-state geoscience field trip for high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, P. R.; Brown, L. M.; Spencer, M.; Sabatine, S.; Goetz, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    Lake Superior State University (LSSU) developed the GRANITE (Geological Reasoning And Natives Investigating The Earth) to engage high school students in the geosciences. The GRANITE program's target audience is Native American high school students and other populations underrepresented in the geosciences. Through the GRANITE program students undertake a variety of field and laboratory geosciences activities that culminates in a two week summer geoscience field experience during which they travel from Michigan to Wyoming. The sites students visit were selected because of their interesting and diverse geologic features and because in many cases they have special significance to Native American communities. Examples of the processes and localities studied by GRANITE students include igneous processes at Bear Butte, SD (Mato Paha) and Devil's Tower, WY (Mato Tipila); sedimentary processes in the Badlands, SD (Mako Sica) and Black Hills, SD (Paha Sapa); karst processes at Wind Cave, SD (Wasun Niye) and Vore Buffalo Jump; structural processes at Van Hise rock, WI and Dillon normal fault Badlands, SD; hydrologic and laucustrine processes along the Great Lakes and at the Fond du Lac Reservation, MN; fluvial processes along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers; geologic resources at the Homestake Mine, SD and Champion Mine, MI; and metamorphic processes at Pipestone, MN and Baraboo, WI. Through the GRANITE experience students develop an understanding of how geoscience is an important part of their lives, their communities and the world around them. The GRANITE program also promotes each student's growth and confidence to attend college and stresses the importance of taking challenging math and science courses in high school. Geoscience career opportunities are discussed at specific geologic localities and through general discussions. GRANITE students learn geosciences concepts and their application to Native communities and society in general through activities and

  16. Geoscience on television: a review of science communication literature in the context of geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, Rolf; Land-Zandstra, Anne; Smeets, Ionica; Stoof, Cathelijne

    2016-04-01

    Geoscience communication is becoming increasingly important as climate change increases the occurrence of natural hazards around the world. Few geoscientists are trained in effective science communication, and awareness of the formal science communication literature is also low. This can be challenging when interacting with journalists on a powerful medium like TV. To provide geoscience communicators with background knowledge on effective science communication on television, we reviewed relevant theory in the context of geosciences and discuss six major themes: scientist motivation, target audience, narratives and storytelling, jargon and information transfer, relationship between scientists and journalists, and stereotypes of scientists on TV. We illustrate each theme with a case study of geosciences on TV and discuss relevant science communication literature. We then highlight how this literature applies to the geosciences and identify knowledge gaps related to science communication in the geosciences. As TV offers a unique opportunity to reach many viewers, we hope this review can not only positively contribute to effective geoscience communication but also to the wider geoscience debate in society. This work is currently under review for publication in Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)

  17. Geoscience on television: a review of science communication literature in the context of geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, Rolf; Land-Zandstra, Anne M.; Smeets, Ionica; Stoof, Cathelijne R.

    2016-06-01

    Geoscience communication is becoming increasingly important as climate change increases the occurrence of natural hazards around the world. Few geoscientists are trained in effective science communication, and awareness of the formal science communication literature is also low. This can be challenging when interacting with journalists on a powerful medium like TV. To provide geoscience communicators with background knowledge on effective science communication on television, we reviewed relevant theory in the context of geosciences and discuss six major themes: scientist motivation, target audience, narratives and storytelling, jargon and information transfer, relationship between scientists and journalists, and stereotypes of scientists on TV. We illustrate each theme with a case study of geosciences on TV and discuss relevant science communication literature. We then highlight how this literature applies to the geosciences and identify knowledge gaps related to science communication in the geosciences. As TV offers a unique opportunity to reach many viewers, we hope this review can not only positively contribute to effective geoscience communication but also to the wider geoscience debate in society.

  18. Geoscience Education: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Geoscience educational publications are reviewed in seven areas to identify future directions for curriculum development, professional development and research. The review shows that: effective teaching methods encompassing broad geoscience study still need extensive research; whilst some valuable materials have been developed for the teaching of…

  19. Health evaluation indicator system for urban landscape rivers, case study of the Bailianjing River in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Yue; Yang, Haizhen; Lu, Zhibo; Xu, Xiaotian

    2010-11-01

    methodology and experience of the urban river health evaluation illustrated in the paper can be good case study materials for other cities with the similar situation.

  20. Planetary geosciences, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T. (Editor); Plescia, Jeff L. (Editor); James, Odette B. (Editor); Macpherson, Glenn (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Research topics within the NASA Planetary Geosciences Program are presented. Activity in the fields of planetary geology, geophysics, materials, and geochemistry is covered. The investigator's current research efforts, the importance of that work in understanding a particular planetary geoscience problem, the context of that research, and the broader planetary geoscience effort is described. As an example, theoretical modelling of the stability of water ice within the Martian regolith, the applicability of that work to understanding Martian volatiles in general, and the geologic history of Mars is discussed.

  1. Geosciences projects FY 1985 listing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    This report, which updates the previous working group publication issued in February 1982, contains independent sections: (A) Summary Outline of DOE Geoscience and Related Studies, and (B) Crosscut of DOE Geoscience and Geoscience Related Studies. The FY 1985 funding levels for geoscience and related activities in each of the 11 programs within DOE are presented. The 11 programs fall under six DOE organizations: Energy Research Conservation and Renewable Energy; Fossil Energy; Defense Programs; Environmental, Safety, and Health; and Civilian radioactive Waste. From time to time, there is particular need for special interprogrammatic coordination within certain topical areas. section B of the report is intended to fill this need for a topical categorization of the Department's geoscience and related activities. These topical areas in Solid Earth Geosciences, Atmospheric Geosciences, Ocean Geosciences, Space and Solar/Terrestrial Geosciences, and Hydrological Geosciences are presented in this report.

  2. Hydrocarbon geoscience research strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    This document outlines a strategy for oil and gas related research focused on optimizing the economic producibility of the Nation's resources. The Hydrocarbon Geoscience Strategy was developed by the Hydrocarbon Geoscience Research Coordinating Committee of the Department of Energy (DOE). This strategy forms the basis for the development of DOE Fossil Energy's Oil Research Program Implementation Plan and Natural Gas Program Implementation Plan. 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Primary Datasets for Case Studies of River-Water Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulder, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Level 6 (final-year BSc) students undertook case studies on between-site and temporal variation in river-water quality. They used professionally-collected datasets supplied by the Environment Agency. The exercise gave students the experience of working with large, real-world datasets and led to their understanding how the quality of river water is…

  4. Zooplankton Linkages between Rivers and Great Lakes: Case Study from the St. Louis River

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this case study, we characterized the spatial and seasonal distribution and abundance of zooplankton within the hydrologically complex drowned river mouth of the St. Louis River, the second largest tributary to Lake Superior and an important fish nursery. We hypothesize that z...

  5. Kissimmee River restoration: a case study.

    PubMed

    Whalen, P J; Toth, L A; Koebel, J W; Strayer, P K

    2002-01-01

    Channelization of the Kissimmee River transformed a 167 km meandering river into a 9 metre deep, 75 metre wide, 90 km drainage canal (C-38) that is compartmentalized with levees and water control structures into a series of five stagnant pools. Channelization dramatically changed water level and flow characteristics, drained 21,000 hectares of floodplain wetlands and severely impacted fish and wildlife populations. A $500 million dollar restoration project will restore the ecological integrity of the river-floodplain system by reconstructing the natural river channel and reestablishing hydrologic processes. Sixty expectations have been established to quantify the ecosystem's recovery. The first phase of reconstruction was completed in February 2001 and included movement of 9.2 million cubic metres of earth to backfill 12 km of C-38, the explosive demolition of one water control structure, construction of two sections (2.4 km) of new river channel, and reestablishment of 24 contiguous km of river. Numerous social, political, and technical challenges have been encountered during the project's evolution. Recommendations are provided for future restoration projects. PMID:12171366

  6. Geosciences after Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Knutti, Reto

    2016-03-01

    The adoption of the Paris Agreement is a historic milestone for the global response to the threat of climate change. Scientists are now being challenged to investigate a 1.5 °C world -- which will require an accelerated effort from the geoscience community.

  7. Future Careers in Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Vink, G. E.; van der Vink, G. E.

    2001-05-01

    A new generation of Geoscientists are abandoning the traditional pathways of oil exploration and academic research to pursue careers in public policy, international affairs, business, education and diplomacy. They are using their backgrounds in Geoscience to address challenging, multi-disciplinary problems of societal concern. To prepare for such careers, students are developing a broad understanding of science and a basic literacy in economics, international affairs, and policy-making.

  8. Creating Geoscience Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskop, J.; Buskop, W.

    2013-12-01

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization recognizes 21 World Heritage in the United States, ten of which have astounding geological features: Wrangell St. Elias National Park, Olympic National Park, Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Canyon, Glacier National Park, Carlsbad National Park, Mammoth Cave, Great Smokey Mountains National Park, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, and Everglades National Park. Created by a student frustrated with fellow students addicted to smart phones with an extreme lack of interest in the geosciences, one student visited each World Heritage site in the United States and created one e-book chapter per park. Each chapter was created with original photographs, and a geological discovery hunt to encourage teen involvement in preserving remarkable geological sites. Each chapter describes at least one way young adults can get involved with the geosciences, such a cave geology, glaciology, hydrology, and volcanology. The e-book describes one park per chapter, each chapter providing a geological discovery hunt, information on how to get involved with conservation of the parks, geological maps of the parks, parallels between archaeological and geological sites, and how to talk to a ranger. The young author is approaching UNESCO to publish the work as a free e-book to encourage involvement in UNESCO sites and to prove that the geosciences are fun.

  9. The use of geoscience methods for terrestrial forensic searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, J. K.; Ruffell, A.; Jervis, J. R.; Donnelly, L.; McKinley, J.; Hansen, J.; Morgan, R.; Pirrie, D.; Harrison, M.

    2012-08-01

    Geoscience methods are increasingly being utilised in criminal, environmental and humanitarian forensic investigations, and the use of such methods is supported by a growing body of experimental and theoretical research. Geoscience search techniques can complement traditional methodologies in the search for buried objects, including clandestine graves, weapons, explosives, drugs, illegal weapons, hazardous waste and vehicles. This paper details recent advances in search and detection methods, with case studies and reviews. Relevant examples are given, together with a generalised workflow for search and suggested detection technique(s) table. Forensic geoscience techniques are continuing to rapidly evolve to assist search investigators to detect hitherto difficult to locate forensic targets.

  10. A Compilation and Review of over 500 Geoscience Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper organizes and analyses over 500 geoscience misconceptions relating to earthquakes, earth structure, geologic resources, glaciers, historical geology, karst (limestone terrains), plate tectonics, rivers, rocks and minerals, soils, volcanoes, and weathering and erosion. Journal and reliable web resources were reviewed to discover (1) the…

  11. 13. The River Pump House pump room, in this case ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. The River Pump House pump room, in this case in the 100-F Area in January 1945. In the 100 Area, the pumps supplied water to the 100 Area and to the export water system that ran to D and F reactors and the 200 areas. D-8248 - B Reactor, Richland, Benton County, WA

  12. Writing fiction about geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, S.

    2013-12-01

    Employment in geology provides excellent preparation for writing mystery novels that teach geoscience. While doing pure research at the USGS under the mentorship of Edwin D. McKee, I learned that the rigors of the scientific method could be applied not only to scientific inquiry but to any search for what is true, including the art of storytelling (the oldest and still most potent form of communication), which in turn supports science. Geoscience constructs narratives of what has happened or what might happen; hence, to communicate my findings, I must present a story. Having developed my writing skills while preparing colleague-reviewed papers (which required that I learn to set my ego aside and survive brutal critiques), the many rounds of edits required to push a novel through a publishing house were a snap. My geoscience training for becoming a novelist continued through private industry, consultancy, and academia. Employment as a petroleum geologist added the pragmatism of bottom-line economics and working to deadlines to my skill set, and nothing could have prepared me for surviving publishers' rejections and mixed reviews better than having to pitch drilling projects to jaded oil patch managers, especially just before lunchtime, when I was all that stood between them and their first martinis of the day. Environmental consulting was an education in ignorant human tricks and the politics of resource consumption gone astray. When teaching at the college level and guest lecturing at primary and secondary schools, my students taught me that nothing was going to stick unless I related the story of geoscience to their lives. When choosing a story form for my novels, I found the mystery apropos because geoscientists are detectives. Like police detectives, we work with fragmentary and often hidden evidence using deductive logic, though our corpses tend to be much, much older or not dead yet. Throughout my career, I learned that negative stereotypes about scientists

  13. Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Suzanne P.; Whitney, David J.; Ambos, Elizabeth L.; Rodrigue, Christine M.; Lee, Christopher T.; Behl, Richard J.; Larson, Daniel O.; Francis, Robert D.; Hold, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    An innovative interdisciplinary project at California State University, Long Beach, was designed to increase the attractiveness of the geosciences (physical geography, geology, and archaeology) to underrepresented groups. The goal was to raise awareness of the geosciences by providing summer research opportunities for underrepresented high school…

  14. Human activities impact on mountain river channels (case study of Kamchatka peninsula rivers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakova, Aleksandra S.

    2010-05-01

    Human-induced driving factors along with natural environmental changes greatly impact on fluvial regime of rivers. On mountain and semi-mountain territories these processes are developed in the most complicated manner due to man-made activities diversity throughout river basins. Besides these processes are significantly enhanced because of the disastrous natural processes (like volcanic and mud-flow activity) frequent occurrences in mountainous regions. On of the most striking example on the matter is Kamchatka peninsula which is located at the North-West part of Russian Federation. This paper contributes to the study of human activities impact on fluvial systems in this volcanic mountain region. Human effects on rivers directly alter channel morphology and deformations, dynamics of water and sediment movement, aquatic communities or indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water and sediment into the channel. In case study of Kamchatka peninsula human activities affect fluvial systems through engineering works including construction of bridges, dams and channel diversions and placer mining. These processes are characterized by spatial heterogeneity because of irregular population distribution. Due to specific natural conditions of the peninsula the most populated areas are the valleys of big rivers (rivers Kamchatka, Avacha, Bistraya (Bolshaya), etc) within piedmont and plain regions. These rivers are characterized by very unstable channels. Both with man-made activities this determines wide range of fluvial system changes. Firstly bridges construction leads to island and logjam formation directly near their piers and intensification of channels patterns shifts. Furthermore rivers of the peninsula are distinguished for high water flow velocities and water rate. Incorrect bridge constructions both with significant channel deformations lead to the destructions of the bridges themselves due to intensive bank erosion. Secondly, intensive water flow

  15. Native Geosciences: Strengthening the Future Through Tribal Traditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolman, J. R.; Quigley, I.; Douville, V.; Hollow Horn Bear, D.

    2008-12-01

    Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways in our natural sacred homelands and environments. Tribal cultures are the expression of deep understandings of geosciences shared through oral histories, language and ceremonies. Today, Native people as all people are living in a definite time of change. The developing awareness of "change" brings forth an immense opportunity to expand and elevate Native geosciences knowledge, specifically in the areas of earth, wind, fire and water. At the center of "change" is the need to balance the needs of the people with the needs of the environment. Native tradition and our inherent understanding of what is "sacred above is sacred below" is the foundation for an emerging multi-faceted approach to increasing the representation of Natives in geosciences. The approach is also a pathway to assist in Tribal language revitalization, connection of oral histories and ceremonies as well as building an intergenerational teaching/learning community. Humboldt State University, Sinte Gleska University and South Dakota School of Mines and Technology in partnership with Northern California (Hoopa, Yurok, & Karuk) and Great Plains (Lakota) Tribes have nurtured Native geosciences learning communities connected to Tribal Sacred Sites and natural resources. These sites include the Black Hills (Mato Paha, Mato Tiplia, Hinhan Kaga Paha, Mako Sica etc.), Klamath River (Ishkêesh), and Hoopa Valley (Natinixwe). Native geosciences learning is centered on the themes of earth, wind, fire and water and Native application of remote sensing technologies. Tribal Elders and Native geoscientists work collaboratively providing Native families in-field experiential intergenerational learning opportunities which invite participants to immerse themselves spiritually, intellectually, physically and emotionally in the experiences. Through this immersion and experience Native students and families strengthen the circle of our future Tribal

  16. Teaching Geoethics Across the Geoscience Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogk, David; Bruckner, Monica; Kieffer, Susan; Geissman, John; Reidy, Michael; Taylor, Shaun; Vallero, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    values required to successfully prepare for and contribute to a career in the geosciences? 2) Geoethics and the geoscience profession: what are the ethical standards expected of geoscientists if they are to contribute responsibly to the community of practice expected of the profession? 3) Geoethics and society: what are the responsibilities of geoscientists to effectively and responsibly communicate the results of geoscience research to inform society about issues ranging from geohazards to natural resource utilization in order to protect the health, safety, and economic security of humanity? 4) Geoethics and Earth: what are the responsibilities of geoscientists to provide good stewardship of Earth based on their knowledge of Earth's composition, architecture, history, dynamic processes, and complex systems? Consideration of these components of geoethics will prepare students to recognize ethical dilemmas, and to master the skills needed for ethical decision-making in their professional lives. Collections of resources, case studies, presentations and working group summaries of the workshop can be accessed at: http://serc.carleton.edu/geoethics/index.html

  17. Geoscience and Public Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    Many current public policy issues have a geoscience component: climate change, natural hazards, energy, and mineral resources to name just a few. In addition, Congress makes decisions that directly affect scientists, such as funding allocations and visa and travel policy. Yet few geoscientists are engaged in the policy-making process. Members of Congress have called on scientists to become more active, including Ph.D. physicist and former-Representative Vernon Ehlers (R-MI). In an address at the 2010 AAAS Forum on Science and Technology Policy, he told scientists, "The gulf between the scientifically minded and those who are not scientifically minded is still tremendous. I think we are keeping far too quiet about what we know and how we would go about solving problems. We have so much to offer this country à solutions to various difficulties." This talk will provide information on avenues for geoscientists to more effectively engage in the public policy arena.

  18. A Compilation and Review of over 500 Geoscience Misconceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper organizes and analyses over 500 geoscience misconceptions relating to earthquakes, earth structure, geologic resources, glaciers, historical geology, karst (limestone terrains), plate tectonics, rivers, rocks and minerals, soils, volcanoes, and weathering and erosion. Journal and reliable web resources were reviewed to discover (1) the frequency of misconceptions by subject matter, group (primary, middle-school, high-school, middle-/high-school, college, pre-service teachers, in-service teachers, and undefined) and source (journal versus web); and (2) the pattern of misconceptions across age groups and (3) directions for future research. A total of 502 misconceptions were discovered, with over 40% targeting a middle- and high-school audience. Plate tectonics comprised 19% of all misconceptions, with another 14% and 13% associated with weathering/erosion and historical geology, respectively. Over 80% of all the misconceptions were derived from peer-reviewed journals or web sources, the rest originated from reliable sources on the World Wide Web. The supernatural origin for many of the geoscience phenomena listed here is abandoned by middle school, but in other cases, some misconceptions seem robust through adulthood. Examples of such misconceptions include the origin/pattern of earthquakes, thickness of the earth's crust, oil's origin, movement mechanisms for glaciers, co-existence of humans and dinosaurs, water movement within karst terrains, the nature of plate boundaries, the power of water as an agent of geomorphic change, what constitutes a mineral and a rock, thickness of the soil layer, the distribution of volcanoes, and the difference between weathering and erosion.

  19. Fostering Accessibility in Geoscience Training Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchison, Christopher L.; Libarkin, Julie C.

    2013-10-01

    New insight has emerged over the past decade into mechanisms for improving diversity across the geosciences. Publications and programs associated with the American Geosciences Institute, the U.S. National Science Foundation, and the International Association for Geoscience Diversity (IAGD), as well as technical sessions and diversity receptions at geoscience society meetings, are promoting geoscience diversity. While these efforts to diversify the geoscience workforce have improved awareness and generated programs aimed at increasing graduation rates across genders [Holmes et al., 2008] and ethnicities [O'Connell and Holmes, 2011], people with physical disabilities continue to be underrepresented in the geoscience workforce [Locke, 2005; Atchison and Martinez-Frias, 2012].

  20. River water quality modelling under drought situations - the Turia River case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Macián, Javier; Pedro-Monzonís, María; Belda, Edgar; Momblanch, Andrea; Andreu, Joaquín

    2016-10-01

    Drought and water shortage effects are normally exacerbated due to collateral impacts on water quality, since low streamflow affects water quality in rivers and water uses depend on it. One of the most common problems during drought conditions is maintaining a good water quality while securing the water supply to demands. This research analyses the case of the Turia River Water Resource System located in Eastern Spain. Its main water demand comes as urban demand from Valencia City, which intake is located in the final stretch of the river, where streamflow may become very low during droughts. As a result, during drought conditions concentrations of pathogens and other contaminants increase, compromising the water supply to Valencia City. In order to define possible solutions for the above-mentioned problem, we have developed an integrated model for simulating water management and water quality in the Turia River Basin to propose solutions for water quality problems under water scarcity. For this purpose, the Decision Support System Shell AQUATOOL has been used. The results demonstrate the importance of applying environmental flows as a measure of reducing pollutant's concentration depending on the evolution of a drought event and the state of the water resources system.

  1. The Role of Geoscience Departments in Preparing Future Geoscience Professionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormand, C. J.; MacDonald, H.; Manduca, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Building Strong Geoscience Departments program ran a workshop on the role of geoscience departments in preparing geoscience professionals. Workshop participants asserted that geoscience departments can help support the flow of geoscience graduates into the geoscience workforce by providing students with information about jobs and careers; providing experiences that develop career-oriented knowledge, attitudes and skills; encouraging exploration of options; and supporting students in their job searches. In conjunction with the workshop, we have developed a set of online resources designed to help geoscience departments support their students’ professional development in these ways. The first step toward sending geoscience graduates into related professions is making students aware of the wide variety of career options available in the geosciences and of geoscience employment trends. Successful means of achieving this include making presentations about careers (including job prospects and potential salaries) in geoscience classes, providing examples of practical applications of course content, talking to advisees about their career plans, inviting alumni to present at departmental seminars, participating in institutional career fairs, and publishing a departmental newsletter with information about alumni careers. Courses throughout the curriculum as well as co-curricular experiences can provide experiences that develop skills, knowledge, and attitudes that will be useful for a range of careers. Successful strategies include having an advisory board that offers suggestions about key knowledge and skills to incorporate into the curriculum, providing opportunities for students to do geoscience research, developing internship programs, incorporating professional skills training (such as HazMat training) into the curriculum, and teaching professionalism. Students may also benefit from involvement with the campus career center or from conducting informational

  2. Open Geoscience Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashev, A.

    2012-04-01

    Currently there is an enormous amount of various geoscience databases. Unfortunately the only users of the majority of the databases are their elaborators. There are several reasons for that: incompaitability, specificity of tasks and objects and so on. However the main obstacles for wide usage of geoscience databases are complexity for elaborators and complication for users. The complexity of architecture leads to high costs that block the public access. The complication prevents users from understanding when and how to use the database. Only databases, associated with GoogleMaps don't have these drawbacks, but they could be hardly named "geoscience" Nevertheless, open and simple geoscience database is necessary at least for educational purposes (see our abstract for ESSI20/EOS12). We developed a database and web interface to work with them and now it is accessible at maps.sch192.ru. In this database a result is a value of a parameter (no matter which) in a station with a certain position, associated with metadata: the date when the result was obtained; the type of a station (lake, soil etc); the contributor that sent the result. Each contributor has its own profile, that allows to estimate the reliability of the data. The results can be represented on GoogleMaps space image as a point in a certain position, coloured according to the value of the parameter. There are default colour scales and each registered user can create the own scale. The results can be also extracted in *.csv file. For both types of representation one could select the data by date, object type, parameter type, area and contributor. The data are uploaded in *.csv format: Name of the station; Lattitude(dd.dddddd); Longitude(ddd.dddddd); Station type; Parameter type; Parameter value; Date(yyyy-mm-dd). The contributor is recognised while entering. This is the minimal set of features that is required to connect a value of a parameter with a position and see the results. All the complicated data

  3. Integrative fuzzy hierarchical model for river health assessment: A case study of Yong River in Ningbo City, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y. W.; Yang, Z. F.

    2009-04-01

    Due to the increasingly serious ecological degradation of river systems, the river health research has attracted more and more attention of the researchers and decision-makers. This paper aims to integrate the fuzzy assessment method with analytic hierarchy process to establish the integrative fuzzy hierarchical assessment model, thus combing qualitative analysis and quantitative assessment and overcoming the disadvantages of subjectivity of the previous evaluation methods. The results show that the proposed assessment method is able to reveal how the river system is disturbed by human activities. Finally, the integrative fuzzy hierarchical method is validated and applied to the case study of Yong River in Ningbo City, China.

  4. The Geosciences Institute for Research and Education: Bringing awareness of the geosciences to minorities in Detroit MI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalepa, N. A.; Murray, K. S.; Napieralski, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    According to recent studies, more than 40% of students within the Detroit Public Schools (DPS) drop out and only 21% graduate within 4 years. In an attempt to improve these statistics, The Geosciences Institute for Research and Education was developed by the University of Michigan-Dearborn (UM-D) and funded by two grants from the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) OEDG Program. The Geosciences Institute, a collaboration between the UM-D, DPS, and local corporations, aims to generate awareness of the geosciences to middle school students, facilitate an enthusiastic learning environment, encourage underrepresented minorities to stay in school, and consider the geosciences as a viable career option. This is accomplished by involving their teachers, UM-D faculty and students, and local geoscience professionals in community-based research problems relevant to SE Michigan. Students use the geosciences as a tool in which they are actively participating in research that is in their backyards. Through a mixture of field trips, participation, and demonstrational activities the students become aware of local environmental and social problems and how a background in the geosciences can prepare them. As part of the Geosciences Institute, students participate in three ongoing research projects with UM-D faculty: (1) build, install, and monitor groundwater wells along the Lower Rouge River, (2) collect soil samples from and mapping brownfields in SW Detroit, and (3) learn basic GPS and GIS skills to map local natural resources. The students also work with faculty on creating video diaries that record ideas, experiences, and impressions throughout the Institute, including during fieldtrips, modules, research, and editing. Finally, small teams of students collaborate to design and print a poster that summarizes their experience in the Institute. The Geosciences Institute concludes with a ceremony that celebrates student efforts (posters and videos) and involves school

  5. Grid in Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitdidier, Monique; Schwichtenberg, Horst

    2010-05-01

    be presented to point out the potentiality of Grid for research and operation. Grid provides large amount of compute resources but is also an interesting e-collaboration platform, important for geosciences projects.

  6. New Resources on the Building Strong Geoscience Departments Website

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormand, C. J.; Manduca, C. A.; MacDonald, H.

    2009-12-01

    The Building Strong Geoscience Departments program aims to foster communication and sharing among geoscience departments in order to allow for rapid dissemination of strong ideas and approaches. Sponsored by NAGT, AGI, AGU, and GSA, the project has developed a rich set of web resources and offered workshops on high-interest topics, such as recruiting students, curriculum development, and program assessment. The Building Strong Geoscience Departments website has a growing collection of resources, drawn from workshop discussions and presentations, showcasing how geoscience departments approach curriculum revision, student recruitment, and program assessment. Recruitment resources consist of specific examples of a wide variety of successful approaches to student recruitment from departments at a wide array of institutions. Curricular feature pages framing the process of curriculum development or revision and a collection of dozens of geoscience curricula, searchable by degree program name. Each curriculum in the collection includes a diagram of the course sequence and structure. Program assessment resources include a collection of assessment instruments, ranging from alumni surveys and student exit interviews to course evaluations and rubrics for assessing student work, and a collection of assessment planning documents, ranging from mission and vision statements through student learning goals and outcomes statements to departmental assessment plans and guidelines for external reviews. These recruitment strategies, curricula, and assessment instruments and documents have been contributed by the geoscience community. In addition, we are developing a collection of case studies of individual departments, highlighting challenges they have faced and the strategies they have used to successfully overcome those challenges. We welcome additional contributions to all of these collections. These online resources support the Building Strong Geoscience Departments Visiting

  7. [Characteristics of absorption and fluorescence spectra of dissolved organic matter from confluence of rivers: case study of Qujiang River-Jialing River and Fujiang River-Jialing River].

    PubMed

    Yan, Jin-Long; Jiang, Tao; Gao, Jie; Wei, Shi-Qiang; Lu, Song; Liu, Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy combined with ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra was used to investigate the change characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in confluences water of Qujiang River-Jialing River and Fujiang River-Jialing River, respectively. The results suggested that DOM showed a significant terrestrial input signal in all the sampling sites, FI < 1.4, HIX > 0.8, possibly representing remarkable signals of humus resulted from humic-like component. Moreover, the mixing zone of this study showed a non-conservative mixed behavior, which had a limited contribution, and was not the dominant factor to interpret the change characteristics of DOM in confluences zones. Different land-use types along all the rivers had an obvious impact on DOM inputs. Results of cluster analysis showed that a higher degree of aromaticity and humification components was observed as the predominant contributor to DOM when the land-use type was forest and farmland ecosystem, for example the confluences of Qujiang River-Jialing River. On the other hand, high concentrations of DOM with relative simple structures were found in the water when the urban land-use type was predominant, for example the confluences of Fujiang River-Jialing River. Meanwhile, a new fluorescent signal of protein-like components (peak T) appeared, which manifested a significant effect on the water quality resulted from anthropogenic activities. PMID:25929053

  8. [Characteristics of absorption and fluorescence spectra of dissolved organic matter from confluence of rivers: case study of Qujiang River-Jialing River and Fujiang River-Jialing River].

    PubMed

    Yan, Jin-Long; Jiang, Tao; Gao, Jie; Wei, Shi-Qiang; Lu, Song; Liu, Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy combined with ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra was used to investigate the change characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in confluences water of Qujiang River-Jialing River and Fujiang River-Jialing River, respectively. The results suggested that DOM showed a significant terrestrial input signal in all the sampling sites, FI < 1.4, HIX > 0.8, possibly representing remarkable signals of humus resulted from humic-like component. Moreover, the mixing zone of this study showed a non-conservative mixed behavior, which had a limited contribution, and was not the dominant factor to interpret the change characteristics of DOM in confluences zones. Different land-use types along all the rivers had an obvious impact on DOM inputs. Results of cluster analysis showed that a higher degree of aromaticity and humification components was observed as the predominant contributor to DOM when the land-use type was forest and farmland ecosystem, for example the confluences of Qujiang River-Jialing River. On the other hand, high concentrations of DOM with relative simple structures were found in the water when the urban land-use type was predominant, for example the confluences of Fujiang River-Jialing River. Meanwhile, a new fluorescent signal of protein-like components (peak T) appeared, which manifested a significant effect on the water quality resulted from anthropogenic activities.

  9. Examining sexism in the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Do women geoscientists face worse obstacles because of their gender than women in other sciences? A recent survey by the Committee on Professionals in Science and Technology showed that women with geoscience bachelor's degrees start off at only 68% of their male colleagues' salaries, much lower than women in biology (92%), engineering (102%), chemistry (103%), and physics (111%).Women still lag behind men in geoscience degrees as well. In 1990, women received about one-third of geoscience bachelor's degrees, one-quarter of masters, and about one-fifth of Ph.D.'s, reports the American Geological Institute. In the sciences overall, women received about half of bachelor's degrees, 42% of masters, and about a third of Ph.D.'s in 1989, according to the National Research Council.

  10. Impacts of urbanization on river system structure: a case study on Qinhuai River Basin, Yangtze River Delta.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaomin; Xu, Youpeng; Han, Longfei; Yang, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Stream structure is usually dominated by various human activities over a short term. An analysis of variation in stream structure from 1979 to 2009 in the Qinhuai River Basin, China, was performed based on remote sensing images and topographic maps by using ArcGIS. A series of river parameters derived from river geomorphology are listed to describe the status of river structure in the past and present. Results showed that urbanization caused a huge increase in the impervious area. The number of rivers in the study area has decreased and length of rivers has shortened. Over the 30 years, there was a 41.03% decrease in river length. Complexity and stability of streams have also changed and consequently the storage capacities of river channels in intensively urbanized areas are much lower than in moderately urbanized areas, indicating a greater risk of floods. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the urban disturbance to rivers. PMID:25116497

  11. Impacts of urbanization on river system structure: a case study on Qinhuai River Basin, Yangtze River Delta.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaomin; Xu, Youpeng; Han, Longfei; Yang, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Stream structure is usually dominated by various human activities over a short term. An analysis of variation in stream structure from 1979 to 2009 in the Qinhuai River Basin, China, was performed based on remote sensing images and topographic maps by using ArcGIS. A series of river parameters derived from river geomorphology are listed to describe the status of river structure in the past and present. Results showed that urbanization caused a huge increase in the impervious area. The number of rivers in the study area has decreased and length of rivers has shortened. Over the 30 years, there was a 41.03% decrease in river length. Complexity and stability of streams have also changed and consequently the storage capacities of river channels in intensively urbanized areas are much lower than in moderately urbanized areas, indicating a greater risk of floods. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the urban disturbance to rivers.

  12. Transdimensional inference in the geosciences.

    PubMed

    Sambridge, M; Bodin, T; Gallagher, K; Tkalcic, H

    2013-02-13

    Seismologists construct images of the Earth's interior structure using observations, derived from seismograms, collected at the surface. A common approach to such inverse problems is to build a single 'best' Earth model, in some sense. This is despite the fact that the observations by themselves often do not require, or even allow, a single best-fit Earth model to exist. Interpretation of optimal models can be fraught with difficulties, particularly when formal uncertainty estimates become heavily dependent on the regularization imposed. Similar issues occur across the physical sciences with model construction in ill-posed problems. An alternative approach is to embrace the non-uniqueness directly and employ an inference process based on parameter space sampling. Instead of seeking a best model within an optimization framework, one seeks an ensemble of solutions and derives properties of that ensemble for inspection. While this idea has itself been employed for more than 30 years, it is now receiving increasing attention in the geosciences. Recently, it has been shown that transdimensional and hierarchical sampling methods have some considerable benefits for problems involving multiple parameter types, uncertain data errors and/or uncertain model parametrizations, as are common in seismology. Rather than being forced to make decisions on parametrization, the level of data noise and the weights between data types in advance, as is often the case in an optimization framework, the choice can be informed by the data themselves. Despite the relatively high computational burden involved, the number of areas where sampling methods are now feasible is growing rapidly. The intention of this article is to introduce concepts of transdimensional inference to a general readership and illustrate with particular seismological examples. A growing body of references provide necessary detail. PMID:23277604

  13. Tracking the Health of the Geoscience Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, L. M.; Keane, C. M.; Martinez, C. M.

    2008-12-01

    Increased demands for resources and environmental activities, relative declines in college students entering technical fields, and expectations of growth commensurate with society as a whole challenge the competitiveness of the U.S. geoscience workforce. Because of prior business cycles, more than 50% of the workforce needed in natural resource industries in 10 years is currently not in the workforce. This issue is even more acute in government at all levels and in academic institutions. Here, we present a snapshot of the current status of the geoscience profession that spans geoscientists in training to geoscience professionals in government, industry, and academia to understand the disparity between the supply of and demand for geoscientists. Since 1996, only 1% of high school SAT test takers plan to major in geosciences at college. Although the total number of geoscience degrees granted at community colleges have increased by 9% since 1996 , the number of geoscience undergraduate degrees has decreased by 7%. The number of geoscience master's and doctoral degrees have increased 4% and 14% respectively in the same time period. However, by 2005, 68 geoscience departments were consolidated or closed in U.S. universities. Students who graduate with geoscience degrees command competitive salaries. Recent bachelors geoscience graduates earned an average salary of 31,366, whereas recent master's recipients earned an average of 81,300. New geosciences doctorates commanded an average salary of 72,600. Also, fFederal funding for geoscience research has increase steadily from 485 million in 1970 to $3.5 billion in 2005. Economic indicators suggest continued growth in geoscience commodity output and in market capitalization of geoscience industries. Additionally, the Bureau of Labor Statistics projects a 19% increase in the number of geoscience jobs from 2006 to 2016. Despite the increased demand for geoscientists and increase in federal funding of geoscience research

  14. Advising and Curriculum Changes Improve Retention and Graduation of Geoscience Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viskupic, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    In the fall of 2008, the sophomore-level undergraduate geoscience curriculum at Boise State University was revised to introduce a "sophomore core" of three 200-level courses, one in each of the three major disciplines (geology, hydrology, geophysics) represented in our degree programs. The sophomore core is intended to give students an advanced introduction to each discipline to help their self-assessment of interests while teaching fundamental concepts and skills. An emphasis is placed on the integration of information and techniques from different geoscience fields related to the theme of each course (for example, the evolution of the western Snake River Plain in the geology core course). The sophomore core is also intended to help students transition between the university-serving 100-level introductory geoscience courses and the 300-level subdiscipline-specific courses. Prior to this curriculum change, students interested in the geosciences after taking a 100-level class would enroll in field methods, mineralogy, or geomorphology. Leading up to the introduction of the sophomore core, during the 2007-2008 school year, the department of geosciences established a central advising office. Prior to the establishment of this office, geoscience majors were assigned arbitrarily to faculty throughout the department for advising purposes, although students are not required to meet with an advisor. Having a single primary advisor for all geoscience majors has helped to ensure quality and consistency of advising and provide an easy to identify point-of-contact for students. Together, the changes in curriculum and advising structure were expected to improve the retention and graduation of undergraduate geoscience majors by providing engaging, thematic course work that would establish the importance and relevance of subdisciplines within the geosciences, and by proving resources to guide students through the necessary steps and decisions needed to complete their degrees. To

  15. Application of two quality indices as monitoring and management tools of rivers. Case study: the Imera Meridionale River, Italy.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Lo Giudice, Rosa

    2010-04-01

    On the basis of the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60), the water resources of the member states of the European Community should reach good quality standards by 2015. Although such regulations illustrate the basic points for a comprehensive and effective policy of water monitoring and management, no practical tools are provided to face and solve the issues concerning freshwater ecosystems such as rivers. The Italian government has developed a set of regulations as adoption of the European Directive but failed to indicate feasible procedures for river monitoring and management. On a local scale, Sicilian authorities have implemented monitoring networks of watersheds, aiming at describing the general conditions of rivers. However, such monitoring programs have provided a relatively fragmentary picture of the ecological conditions of the rivers. In this study, the integrated use of environmental quality indices is proposed as a methodology able to provide a practical approach to river monitoring and management. As a case study, the Imera Meridionale River, Sicily's largest river, was chosen. The water quality index developed by the U.S. National Sanitation Foundation and the floristic quality index based on the Wilhelm method were applied. The former enabled us to describe the water quality according to a spatial-temporal gradient, whereas the latter focused on the ecological quality of riparian vegetation. This study proposes a holistic view of river ecosystems by considering biotic and abiotic factors in agreement with the current European regulations. How the combined use of such indices can guide sustainable management efforts is also discussed.

  16. Temporal Ontologies for Geoscience: Alignment Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Time is a central concept in geoscience. Geologic histories are composed of sequences of geologic processes and events. Calibration of their timing ties a local history into a broader context, and enables correlation of events between locations. The geologic timescale is standardized in the International Chronostratigraphic Chart, which specifies interval names, and calibrations for the ages of the interval boundaries. Time is also a key concept in the world at large. A number of general purpose temporal ontologies have been developed, both stand-alone and as parts of general purpose or upper ontologies. A temporal ontology for geoscience should apply or extend a suitable general purpose temporal ontology. However, geologic time presents two challenges: Geology involves greater spans of time than in other temporal ontologies, inconsistent with the year-month-day/hour-minute-second formalization that is a basic assumption of most general purpose temporal schemes; The geologic timescale is a temporal topology. Its calibration in terms of an absolute (numeric) scale is a scientific issue in its own right supporting a significant community. In contrast, the general purpose temporal ontologies are premised on exact numeric values for temporal position, and do not allow for temporal topology as a primary structure. We have developed an ontology for the geologic timescale to account for these concerns. It uses the ISO 19108 distinctions between different types of temporal reference system, also linking to an explicit temporal topology model. Stratotypes used in the calibration process are modelled as sampling-features following the ISO 19156 Observations and Measurements model. A joint OGC-W3C harmonization project is underway, with standardization of the W3C OWL-Time ontology as one of its tasks. The insights gained from the geologic timescale ontology will assist in development of a general ontology capable of modelling a richer set of use-cases from geoscience.

  17. Developing Geoscience Students' Quantitative Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Hancock, G. S.

    2005-12-01

    Sophisticated quantitative skills are an essential tool for the professional geoscientist. While students learn many of these sophisticated skills in graduate school, it is increasingly important that they have a strong grounding in quantitative geoscience as undergraduates. Faculty have developed many strong approaches to teaching these skills in a wide variety of geoscience courses. A workshop in June 2005 brought together eight faculty teaching surface processes and climate change to discuss and refine activities they use and to publish them on the Teaching Quantitative Skills in the Geosciences website (serc.Carleton.edu/quantskills) for broader use. Workshop participants in consultation with two mathematics faculty who have expertise in math education developed six review criteria to guide discussion: 1) Are the quantitative and geologic goals central and important? (e.g. problem solving, mastery of important skill, modeling, relating theory to observation); 2) Does the activity lead to better problem solving? 3) Are the quantitative skills integrated with geoscience concepts in a way that makes sense for the learning environment and supports learning both quantitative skills and geoscience? 4) Does the methodology support learning? (e.g. motivate and engage students; use multiple representations, incorporate reflection, discussion and synthesis) 5) Are the materials complete and helpful to students? 6) How well has the activity worked when used? Workshop participants found that reviewing each others activities was very productive because they thought about new ways to teach and the experience of reviewing helped them think about their own activity from a different point of view. The review criteria focused their thinking about the activity and would be equally helpful in the design of a new activity. We invite a broad international discussion of the criteria(serc.Carleton.edu/quantskills/workshop05/review.html).The Teaching activities can be found on the

  18. Monitoring river morphological changes using high resolution multitemporal sar images: a case study on orco river, italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitidieri, Francesco; Nicolina Papa, Maria; Ruello, Giuseppe; Amitrano, Donato; Bizzi, Simone; Demarchi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Improving the knowledge about river processes by applying innovative monitoring techniques is extremely needed to face the challenge of a better river management. In this paper we test the capability of satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to enrich the monitoring of river geomorphological processes. Multitemporal SAR images provide observations and measurements at high spatial (3 m), and in particular temporal resolution (15 days). This information if properly processed and classified may significantly enrich our ability to monitor the evolution of river morphological phenomena (erosion/deposition, narrowing/widening, riparian vegetation's evolution and interferences with river flow). This is expected to lead to an enhancements in the river management capabilities, in particular as regards the assessment of hydro-morphological river quality, as strongly suggested by European Commission's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). A case study on the Italian River Orco is here presented. The case study has used a set of 100 COSMO-SkyMed stripmap images (from October 2008 to November 2014) from Italian Space Agency. All the data were acquired with medium look angle (almost 30°) and HH polarization, also for increasing the land-water contrast. Calibration, registration and despeckling procedures were applied on the acquired dataset. In particular, the optimal weighting multitemporal De Grandi filter was adopted in order to allow an effective extraction of the water surfaces contour. This method was applied to extract water contours over the entire historical series of SAR datasets available. Thanks to the generated information we were able to monitor the lateral dynamic of the water channels and infer on the evolutions of erosion/deposition phenomena. To this aim, an RGB representation of multitemporal SAR data was implemented. The series of detected river channel morphological changes was then analyzed in the light of the series of discharge measurements in

  19. A Model Collaborative Platform for Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, S.; Manduca, C. A.; Iverson, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last decade SERC at Carleton College has developed a collaborative platform for geoscience education that has served dozens of projects, thousands of community authors and millions of visitors. The platform combines a custom technical infrastructure: the SERC Content Management system (CMS), and a set of strategies for building web-resources that can be disseminated through a project site, reused by other projects (with attribution) or accessed via an integrated geoscience education resource drawing from all projects using the platform. The core tools of the CMS support geoscience education projects in building project-specific websites. Each project uses the CMS to engage their specific community in collecting, authoring and disseminating the materials of interest to them. At the same time the use of a shared central infrastructure allows cross-fertilization among these project websites. Projects are encouraged to use common templates and common controlled vocabularies for organizing and displaying their resources. This standardization is then leveraged through cross-project search indexing which allow projects to easily incorporate materials from other projects within their own collection in ways that are relevant and automated. A number of tools are also in place to help visitors move among project websites based on their personal interests. Related links help visitors discover content related topically to their current location that is in a 'separate' project. A 'best bets' feature in search helps guide visitors to pages that are good starting places to explore resources on a given topic across the entire range of hosted projects. In many cases these are 'site guide' pages created specifically to promote a cross-project view of the available resources. In addition to supporting the cross-project exploration of specific themes the CMS also allows visitors to view the combined suite of resources authored by any particular community member. Automatically

  20. Improved error estimates of a discharge algorithm for remotely sensed river measurements: Test cases on Sacramento and Garonne Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yeosang; Garambois, Pierre-André; Paiva, Rodrigo C. D.; Durand, Michael; Roux, Hélène; Beighley, Edward

    2016-01-01

    We present an improvement to a previously presented algorithm that used a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method for estimating river discharge from remotely sensed observations of river height, width, and slope. We also present an error budget for discharge calculations from the algorithm. The algorithm may be utilized by the upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. We present a detailed evaluation of the method using synthetic SWOT-like observations (i.e., SWOT and AirSWOT, an airborne version of SWOT). The algorithm is evaluated using simulated AirSWOT observations over the Sacramento and Garonne Rivers that have differing hydraulic characteristics. The algorithm is also explored using SWOT observations over the Sacramento River. SWOT and AirSWOT height, width, and slope observations are simulated by corrupting the "true" hydraulic modeling results with instrument error. Algorithm discharge root mean square error (RMSE) was 9% for the Sacramento River and 15% for the Garonne River for the AirSWOT case using expected observation error. The discharge uncertainty calculated from Manning's equation was 16.2% and 17.1%, respectively. For the SWOT scenario, the RMSE and uncertainty of the discharge estimate for the Sacramento River were 15% and 16.2%, respectively. A method based on the Kalman filter to correct errors of discharge estimates was shown to improve algorithm performance. From the error budget, the primary source of uncertainty was the a priori uncertainty of bathymetry and roughness parameters. Sensitivity to measurement errors was found to be a function of river characteristics. For example, Steeper Garonne River is less sensitive to slope errors than the flatter Sacramento River.

  1. Evaluation of river water quality variations using multivariate statistical techniques: Sava River (Croatia): a case study.

    PubMed

    Marinović Ruždjak, Andrea; Ruždjak, Domagoj

    2015-04-01

    For the evaluation of seasonal and spatial variations and the interpretation of a large and complex water quality dataset obtained during a 7-year monitoring program of the Sava River in Croatia, different multivariate statistical techniques were applied in this study. Basic statistical properties and correlations of 18 water quality parameters (variables) measured at 18 sampling sites (a total of 56,952 values) were examined. Correlations between air temperature and some water quality parameters were found in agreement with the previous studies of relationship between climatic and hydrological parameters. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to explore the most important factors determining the spatiotemporal dynamics of the Sava River. PCA has determined a reduced number of seven principal components that explain over 75 % of the data set variance. The results revealed that parameters related to temperature and organic pollutants (CODMn and TSS) were the most important parameters contributing to water quality variation. PCA analysis of seasonal subsets confirmed this result and showed that the importance of parameters is changing from season to season. PCA of the four seasonal data subsets yielded six PCs with eigenvalues greater than one explaining 73.6 % (spring), 71.4 % (summer), 70.3 % (autumn), and 71.3 % (winter) of the total variance. To check the influence of the outliers in the data set whose distribution strongly deviates from the normal one, in addition to standard principal component analysis algorithm, two robust estimates of covariance matrix were calculated and subjected to PCA. PCA in both cases yielded seven principal components explaining 75 % of the total variance, and the results do not differ significantly from the results obtained by the standard PCA algorithm. With the implementation of robust PCA algorithm, it is demonstrated that the usage of standard algorithm is justified for data sets with small numbers of missing data

  2. Summary outline of DOE geoscience and geoscience - related research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    The Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES) supports long-range, basic research in those areas of the geosciences which are relevant to the nation's energy needs. The objective of the Geoscience program is to develop a quantitative and predictive understanding of geological, geophysical and geochemical structures and processes in the solid earth and in solar-terrestrial relationships. This understanding is to assure an effective knowledge base for energy resource recognition, evaluation and utilization in an environmentally acceptable manner. The work is carried out primarily in DOE laboratories and in universities, although some is conducted by other federal agencies and by the National Academy of Sciences. Principal areas of interest include: Geology, Geophysics, and Earth Dynamics; Geochemistry; Energy Resource Recognition, Evaluation and Utilization; Hydrologic and Marine Sciences; and Solar-Terrestrial/Atmospheric Interactions.

  3. Environmental effects of river sand mining: a case from the river catchments of Vembanad lake, Southwest coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmalal, D.; Maya, K.; Sreebha, S.; Sreeja, R.

    2008-04-01

    Rivers in the southwest coast of India are under immense pressure due to various kinds of human activities among which indiscriminate extraction of construction grade sand is the most disastrous one. The situation is rather alarming in the rivers draining the Vembanad lake catchments as the area hosts one of the fast developing urban-cum-industrial centre, the Kochi city, otherwise called the Queen of Arabian Sea. The Vembanad lake catchments are drained by seven rivers whose length varies between 78 and 244 km and catchment area between 847 and 5,398 km2. On an average, 11.73 million ty-1 of sand and gravel are being extracted from the active channels and 0.414 million ty-1 of sand from the river floodplains. The quantity of instream mining is about 40 times the higher than the sand input estimated in the gauging stations. As a result of indiscriminate sand mining, the riverbed in the storage zone is getting lowered at a rate of 7-15 cm y-1 over the past two decades. This, in turn, imposes severe damages to the physical and biological environments of these river systems. The present paper deals with the environmental effects of indiscriminate sand mining from the small catchment rivers in the southwest coast of India, taking the case of the rivers draining the Vembanad lake catchments as an example.

  4. Research in geosciences policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byerly, Radford, Jr.; Mcvey, Sally

    1991-01-01

    Various topics related to cases of difficult adaptation to global change are discussed. Topics include patterns in the ratification of global environmental treaties, the effects of global climate change on Southeast Asia, and global change and biodiversity loss.

  5. Morphological Changes of River Due To Constructed Structures Case study : Sephidrood river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motiee, H.; Darakhani, J.

    2003-04-01

    Permanent rivers will reach to their steady equilibrium with the adjacent nature after long time. This stability will survive untill human being interfere it, which in turn may result in a chaos condition of the river. Severe changes in riverbed as well as riverbanks may occur due to different reasons such as economical development, population growth, need for more sand and construction materials and sediment removal from reservoirs. Main factors governing the river morphology are as follows: 1. Obtaining sand and clay from river 2. Construction of structures on the river 3. Intruding the river banks Sefid-Rud is one of the most important rivers, which flows in north of IRAN in Gilan province. It passes through the Gilan great watershed and reaches to the Caspian Sea in the North of the country. The catchment with an area of 59400 km2 is one of the most fertile basins in the world and the river plays an important role in economic improvement of the region. Its average annual discharge is 125 cms and the river length is 765 km, which extends from Zagross ranges to the Caspian Sea. During 1954 to 1960 a large dam was constructed some 125 km upstream of its enlet to the sea. It is a multipurpose, 106-m high buttress dam, which has significant impacts on the river morphology. Major purposes for construction of Sefid-Rud reservoir dam are: - Flood control in order to prevent the scouring of Sefid-Rud river banks - Full supply of irrigation water demands for downstream rice-cultivated lands - Hydropower energy production The Sefid-Rud River has reached to its stable condition due to different reasons such as geological and alluvial formations, hydrological characteristics of the basin as well as hydraulic conditions of the river. But variable conditions of some of these factors have resulted in a sudden change of river morphology, especially in some reaches. Normally, the river reactions to external natural variations and/or intrusion to river geometry, exhibit as

  6. Supporting Geoscience Students at Two-Year Colleges: Career Preparation and Academic Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaris, J. R.; Kirk, K. B.; Layou, K.; Macdonald, H.; Baer, E. M.; Blodgett, R. H.; Hodder, J.

    2013-12-01

    Two-year colleges play an important role in developing a competent and creative geoscience workforce, teaching science to pre-service K-12 teachers, producing earth-science literate citizens, and providing a foundation for broadening participation in the geosciences. The Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education in Two-Year Colleges (SAGE 2YC) project has developed web resources for geoscience faculty on the preparation and support of students in two-year colleges (2YCs). Online resources developed from two topical workshops and several national, regional, and local workshops around the country focus on two main categories: Career Preparation and Workforce Development, and Supporting Student Success in Geoscience at Two-year Colleges. The Career Preparation and Workforce Development resources were developed to help faculty make the case that careers in the geosciences provide a range of possibilities for students and to support preparation for the geoscience workforce and for transfer to four-year programs as geoscience majors. Many two-year college students are unaware of geoscience career opportunities and these materials help illuminate possible futures for them. Resources include an overview of what geoscientists do; profiles of possible careers along with the preparation necessary to qualify for them; geoscience employer perspectives about jobs and the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes they are looking for in their employees; employment trends in sectors of the economy that employ geoscience professionals; examples of geotechnician workforce programs (e.g. Advanced Technological Education Centers, environmental technology programs, marine technician programs); and career resources available from professional societies. The website also provides information to support student recruitment into the geosciences and facilitate student transfer to geoscience programs at four- year colleges and universities, including sections on advising support before

  7. Impact of dam construction on river banks evolution and sediment dynamics. A case study from the Po River (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maselli, V.; Pellegrini, C.; Crose, L.; Del Bianco, F.; Mercorella, A.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers draining densely populated landscapes are extremely impacted by modern human engineering: armored beds, artificial levees and dams modified natural fluvial dynamics, and consequently, the evolution of alluvial plains, deltas and coastal environments. Dams, in particular, segmented the longitudinal continuity of the river and reduced (or even interrupted) the export of sediment toward the sea. Here we investigate the impact of the Isola Serafini dam on the upstream portion of the Po River (Italy) influenced by backwater, by using an integrated approach of aerial and satellite images, longitudinal cross-sections, grain size analysis, backscatter data and multibeam bathymetry. The analysis of aerial photographs, acquired every 10 yr since the dam construction in 1960, and of longitudinal cross-sections, allows understanding how the river adjusts its profile in response to the backwater and quantifying areas of net river banks erosion and deposition in meanders. The drowning of the reaches influenced by backwater reduced the progradation of point bars and promoted the deposition of fine grained sediments, as highlighted by grain size analysis on surficial sediment sampled across and along the river course. Calibrated back-scatter data with grain-size distributions of two selected meanders, under the backwater effect and beyond, show how sands are progressively replaced by fine-grained sediments in the meander belt and in the river axis, mainly reflecting the reduction of flow velocity, inferred also by river bed roughness. The understanding of river and sediment dynamics under the influence of backwater due to dam construction is useful when studying pristine systems in which natural backwater affects their evolution, as in the case of the formation of standing water bodies during the drowning of an incised valley.

  8. Planetary geosciences, 1989-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T. (Editor); James, Odette B. (Editor); Lunine, Jonathan I. (Editor); Macpherson, Glenn J. (Editor); Phillips, Roger J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Planetary Geosciences Programs (the Planetary Geology and Geophysics and the Planetary Material and Geochemistry Programs) provide support and an organizational framework for scientific research on solid bodies of the solar system. These research and analysis programs support scientific research aimed at increasing our understanding of the physical, chemical, and dynamic nature of the solid bodies of the solar system: the Moon, the terrestrial planets, the satellites of the outer planets, the rings, the asteroids, and the comets. This research is conducted using a variety of methods: laboratory experiments, theoretical approaches, data analysis, and Earth analog techniques. Through research supported by these programs, we are expanding our understanding of the origin and evolution of the solar system. This document is intended to provide an overview of the more significant scientific findings and discoveries made this year by scientists supported by the Planetary Geosciences Program. To a large degree, these results and discoveries are the measure of success of the programs.

  9. Quantitative Literacy: Geosciences and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, R. M.; McCallum, W. G.

    2002-12-01

    Quantitative literacy seems like such a natural for the geosciences, right? The field has gone from its origin as a largely descriptive discipline to one where it is hard to imagine failing to bring a full range of mathematical tools to the solution of geological problems. Although there are many definitions of quantitative literacy, we have proposed one that is analogous to the UNESCO definition of conventional literacy: "A quantitatively literate person is one who, with understanding, can both read and represent quantitative information arising in his or her everyday life." Central to this definition is the concept that a curriculum for quantitative literacy must go beyond the basic ability to "read and write" mathematics and develop conceptual understanding. It is also critical that a curriculum for quantitative literacy be engaged with a context, be it everyday life, humanities, geoscience or other sciences, business, engineering, or technology. Thus, our definition works both within and outside the sciences. What role do geoscience faculty have in helping students become quantitatively literate? Is it our role, or that of the mathematicians? How does quantitative literacy vary between different scientific and engineering fields? Or between science and nonscience fields? We will argue that successful quantitative literacy curricula must be an across-the-curriculum responsibility. We will share examples of how quantitative literacy can be developed within a geoscience curriculum, beginning with introductory classes for nonmajors (using the Mauna Loa CO2 data set) through graduate courses in inverse theory (using singular value decomposition). We will highlight six approaches to across-the curriculum efforts from national models: collaboration between mathematics and other faculty; gateway testing; intensive instructional support; workshops for nonmathematics faculty; quantitative reasoning requirement; and individual initiative by nonmathematics faculty.

  10. Measured river leakages using conventional streamflow techniques: The case of Souhegan River, New Hampshire, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, P.T.; Kiah, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple streamflow measurements were made at coupled discharge measurement stations to quantify rates of aquifer recharge and discharge on two reaches of the Souhegan River, New Hampshire, USA, flowing within a glacial-drift river-valley aquifer. The reaches included a predominantly losing (aquifer recharge) reach and a variable (aquifer recharge and discharge) reach located downstream of the former reach. River leakage, the differential between coupled upstream and downstream streamflow measurements along a reach, varied by almost 30 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) (0.85 m3/s) along the two reaches. The upper reach averaged 3.94 ft3/s (0.11 m3/s) loss whereas the lower reach averaged 4.85 ft3/s (0.14 m3/s) gain. At the upper reach, 13 losses were measured out of 19 coupled measurements. At the lower reach, ten out of 13 coupled measurements indicated gains in flow and suggest that this reach is primarily a gaining river reach. An important factor in river leakage appears to be antecedent trends in river stage. At the upper reach, gains were measured only during periods of declining river stage. Conversely, at the lower reach, streamflow loss was measured primarily during periods of rising river stage. Although some tendencies exist, several factors complicate the analysis of river leakage, most notably the inaccuracies in computed stream discharge. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  11. Spatiotemporal Thinking in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, T. F.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Tikoff, B.

    2011-12-01

    Reasoning about spatial relations is a critical skill for geoscientists. Within the geosciences different disciplines may reason about different sorts of relationships. These relationships may span vastly different spatial and temporal scales (from the spatial alignment in atoms in crystals to the changes in the shape of plates). As part of work in a research center on spatial thinking in STEM education, we have been working to classify the spatial skills required in geology, develop tests for each spatial skill, and develop the cognitive science tools to promote the critical spatial reasoning skills. Research in psychology, neurology and linguistics supports a broad classification of spatial skills along two dimensions: one versus many objects (which roughly translates to object- focused and navigation focused skills) and static versus dynamic spatial relations. The talk will focus on the interaction of space and time in spatial cognition in the geosciences. We are working to develop measures of skill in visualizing spatiotemporal changes. A new test developed to measure visualization of brittle deformations will be presented. This is a skill that has not been clearly recognized in the cognitive science research domain and thus illustrates the value of interdisciplinary work that combines geosciences with cognitive sciences. Teaching spatiotemporal concepts can be challenging. Recent theoretical work suggests analogical reasoning can be a powerful tool to aid student learning to reason about temporal relations using spatial skills. Recent work in our lab has found that progressive alignment of spatial and temporal scales promotes accurate reasoning about temporal relations at geological time scales.

  12. Propagation of subtidal sea level oscillations in the river channel: A case study of the St. Johns River, Florida, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovsky, Alexander E.; Iyer, Suneil K.

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of water level and river discharge time series collected at three locations in the St. Johns River, FL reveals that subtidal variability with periods of several days is associated with long waves propagating from the ocean into the river channel. These dynamics are similar to tidal wave propagation: both tidal and subtidal frequency bands have the same ratio of free surface-to-discharge standard deviations, which is not the case on oceanic shelves. However, important differences also emerge: as waves pass through the river mouth, tidal oscillations exhibit much stronger attenuation, while subtidal oscillations propagate at a lower speed. Further upstream, where the channel cross-sectional area contracts (between Palatka and Buffalo Bluff), the waves in two frequency bands adjust differently: tidal waves are amplified and continue upstream, while a significant fraction of subtidal energy is reflected. The amplification of tidal waves occurs mostly through the generation of overtides. Also, tidal wave attenuation in the river relative to the mouth is nearly constant over the observation period, while the attenuation of subtidal waves exhibits strong changes. Variations in subtidal attenuation are linked to the influence of the river discharge: higher discharge (relative to the subtidal water level variability) causes stronger attenuation of subtidal waves.

  13. Designing a road map for geoscience workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Christopher; Gil, Yolanda; Deelman, Ewa; Marru, Suresh; Pierce, Marlon; Demir, Ibrahim; Wiener, Gerry

    2012-06-01

    Advances in geoscience research and discovery are fundamentally tied to data and computation, but formal strategies for managing the diversity of models and data resources in the Earth sciences have not yet been resolved or fully appreciated. The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) EarthCube initiative (http://earthcube.ning.com), which aims to support community-guided cyberinfrastructure to integrate data and information across the geosciences, recently funded four community development activities: Geoscience Workflows; Semantics and Ontologies; Data Discovery, Mining, and Integration; and Governance. The Geoscience Workflows working group, with broad participation from the geosciences, cyberinfrastructure, and other relevant communities, is formulating a workflows road map (http://sites.google.com/site/earthcubeworkflow/). The Geoscience Workflows team coordinates with each of the other community development groups given their direct relevance to workflows. Semantics and ontologies are mechanisms for describing workflows and the data they process.

  14. Mississippi State University’s Geoscience Education and Geocognition Research Program in the Department of Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeal, K.; Clary, R. M.; Sherman-Morris, K.; Kirkland, B.; Gillham, D.; Moe-Hoffman, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Department of Geosciences at Mississippi State University offers both a MS in Geosciences and a PhD in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, with the possibility of a concentration in geoscience education. The department offers broad research opportunities in the geoscience sub-disciplines of Geology, Meteorology, GIS, and Geography. Geoscience education research is one of the research themes emphasized in the department and focuses on geoscience learning in traditional, online, field-based, and informal educational environments. Approximately 20% of the faculty are actively conducting research in geoscience education and incorporate both qualitative and quantitative research approaches in areas including: the investigation of effective teaching strategies, the implementation and evaluation of geoscience teacher professional development programs and diversity enhancement programs, the study of the history and philosophy of science in geoscience teaching, the exploration of student cognition and understanding of complex and dynamic earth systems, and the investigation of using visualizations to enhance learning in the geosciences. The inception and continued support of an active geoscience education research program is derived from a variety of factors including: (1) the development of the on-line Teachers in Geosciences (TIG) Masters Degree Program which is the primary teaching appointment for the majority of the faculty conducting geoscience education research, (2) the securing of federal funds to support geoscience education research, (3) the publication of high-quality peer-reviewed research papers in both geoscience education and traditional research domains, (4) the active contribution of the geoscience education faculty in their traditional research domains, (5) a faculty that greatly values teaching and recognizes the research area of geoscience education as a sub-domain of the broader geoscience disciplines, (6) the involvement of university faculty, outside

  15. Geoscience terminology for data interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    Workgroups formed by the Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI), a Commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) have been developing vocabulary resources to promote geoscience information exchange. The Multilingual Thesaurus Working Group (MLT) was formed in 2003 to continue work of the Multhes working group of the 1990s. The Concept Definition Task Group was formed by the CGI Interoperability Working Group in 2007 to develop concept vocabularies for populating GeoSciML interchange documents. The CGI council has determined that it will be more efficient and effective to merge the efforts of these groups and has formed a new Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG, http://www.cgi-iugs.org/tech_collaboration/geoscience_terminology_working_group.html). Each GTWG member will be expected to shepherd one or more vocabularies. There are currently 31 vocabularies in the CGI portfolio, developed for GeoSciML interchange documents (e.g. see http://resource.geosciml.org/ 201202/). Vocabulary development in both groups has been conducted first by gathering candidate terms in Excel spreadsheets because these are easy for text editing and review. When the vocabulary is mature, it is migrated into SKOS, an RDF application for encoding concepts with identifiers, definitions, source information, standard thesaurus type relationships, and language-localized labels. Currently there are 30 vocabularies still required for GeoSciML v3, and 38 proposed vocabularies for use with EarthResourceML (https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/wiki/CGIModel/EarthResourceML). In addition, a project to develop a lithogenetic map unit vocabulary to use for regional geologic map integration using OGC web map services is underway. Considerable work remains to be done to integrate multilingual geoscience terms developed by the MLT Working Group with existing CGI vocabularies to provide multilingual support, and to make the thesaurus compiled by the

  16. Bioassessments to detect changes in Pacific Northwest river fish assemblages: A Malheur River case study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program large-river assessment protocol was applied to assess the ecological condition, major stressors, and likely human disturbances of the mainstem Malheur River, OR. We used inflatable rafts to allow launching and retrieving ...

  17. Morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration - the Thur River case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, M.; Luster, J.; Linde, N.; Perona, P.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; Hollender, J.; Cirpka, O. A.; Schneider, P.; Vogt, T.; Radny, D.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

    2014-06-01

    River restoration can enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity, but the underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals, and adverse effects are prevented. In particular, we need to comprehend how hydromorphological variability quantitatively relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity as well as ground- and surface water quality in restored river corridors. This involves (i) physical processes and structural properties, determining erosion and sedimentation, as well as solute and heat transport behavior in surface water and within the subsurface; (ii) biogeochemical processes and characteristics, including the turnover of nutrients and natural water constituents; and (iii) ecological processes and indicators related to biodiversity and ecological functioning. All these aspects are interlinked, requiring an interdisciplinary investigation approach. Here, we present an overview of the recently completed RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project in which we combined physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling at a restored river corridor of the perialpine Thur River in Switzerland. Our results show that river restoration, beyond inducing morphologic changes that reshape the river bed and banks, triggered complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, and affected habitat type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. We adopted an interdisciplinary approach of monitoring the continuing changes due to restoration measures to address the following questions: How stable is the morphological variability established by restoration? Does morphological variability guarantee an improvement in biodiversity? How does morphological variability affect biogeochemical transformations in the river corridor? What are some potential adverse effects of river restoration? How is river restoration influenced by catchment-scale hydraulics

  18. Effectiveness of Geosciences Exploration Summer Program (GeoX) for Increasing Awareness and Knowledge of Geosciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houser, Chris; Garcia, Sonia; Torres, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Summer research experiences are an increasingly popular means of increasing awareness of, and developing interest in, the geosciences and other science, technology, engineering, and math programs. We describe and report the preliminary results of a 1-wk Geosciences Exploration Summer Program in the College of Geosciences at Texas A&M…

  19. Hydrochemical evaluation of river water quality—a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qishlaqi, Afishin; Kordian, Sediqeh; Parsaie, Abbas

    2016-04-01

    Rivers are one of the most environmentally vulnerable sources for contamination. Since the rivers pass through the cities, industrial and agricultural centers, these have been considered as place to dispose the sewages. This issue is more important when the river is one of the main sources of water supplying for drinking, agricultural and industrial utilizations. The goal of the present study was assessing the physicochemical characteristics of the Tireh River water. The Tireh River is the main river in the Karkheh catchment in the Iran. To this end, 14 sampling stations for measuring the physicochemical properties of Tireh River along the two main cities (Borujerd and Dorud) were measured. The results showed that (except SO4) Mg, Ca and other anions and cations have concentrations under WHO standard limitation. Almost all samples have suitable conditions for drinking with regard to the WHO standard and in comparison with agricultural standard (FAO Standard), and the potential of water is suitable for irrigation purposes. According to Wilcox diagram, 78 % of samples were at the C3-S1 and 21.5 % were at C2-S1 classes. The piper diagram shows that most of samples are bicarbonate and calcic facies.

  20. Translational Geoscience: Converting Geoscience Innovation into Societal Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffries, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Translational geoscience — which involves the conversion of geoscience discovery into societal, economic, and environmental impacts — has significant potential to generate large benefits but has received little systematic attention or resources. In contrast, translational medicine — which focuses on the conversion of scientific discovery into health improvement — has grown enormously in the past decade and provides useful models for other fields. Elias Zerhouni [1] developed a "new vision" for translational science to "ensure that extraordinary scientific advances of the past decade will be rapidly captured, translated, and disseminated for the benefit of all Americans." According to Francis Collins, "Opportunities to advance the discipline of translational science have never been better. We must move forward now. Science and society cannot afford to do otherwise." On 9 July 2015, the White House issued a memorandum directing U.S. federal agencies to focus on translating research into broader impacts, including commercial products and decision-making frameworks [3]. Natural hazards mitigation is one of many geoscience topics that would benefit from advances in translational science. This paper demonstrates that natural hazards mitigation can benefit from advances in translational science that address such topics as improving emergency preparedness, communicating life-saving information to government officials and citizens, explaining false positives and false negatives, working with multiple stakeholders and organizations across all sectors of the economy and all levels of government, and collaborating across a broad range of disciplines. [1] Zerhouni, EA (2005) New England Journal of Medicine 353(15):1621-1623. [2] Collins, FS (2011) Science Translational Medicine 3(90):1-6. [3] Donovan, S and Holdren, JP (2015) Multi-agency science and technology priorities for the FY 2017 budget. Executive Office of the President of the United States, 5 pp.

  1. International Convergence on Geoscience Cyberinfrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. L.; Atkinson, R.; Arctur, D. K.; Cox, S.; Jackson, I.; Nativi, S.; Wyborn, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    There is growing international consensus on addressing the challenges to cyber(e)-infrastructure for the geosciences. These challenges include: Creating common standards and protocols; Engaging the vast number of distributed data resources; Establishing practices for recognition of and respect for intellectual property; Developing simple data and resource discovery and access systems; Building mechanisms to encourage development of web service tools and workflows for data analysis; Brokering the diverse disciplinary service buses; Creating sustainable business models for maintenance and evolution of information resources; Integrating the data management life-cycle into the practice of science. Efforts around the world are converging towards de facto creation of an integrated global digital data network for the geosciences based on common standards and protocols for data discovery and access, and a shared vision of distributed, web-based, open source interoperable data access and integration. Commonalities include use of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and ISO specifications and standardized data interchange mechanisms. For multidisciplinarity, mediation, adaptation, and profiling services have been successfully introduced to leverage the geosciences standards which are commonly used by the different geoscience communities -introducing a brokering approach which extends the basic SOA archetype. Principal challenges are less technical than cultural, social, and organizational. Before we can make data interoperable, we must make people interoperable. These challenges are being met by increased coordination of development activities (technical, organizational, social) among leaders and practitioners in national and international efforts across the geosciences to foster commonalities across disparate networks. In doing so, we will 1) leverage and share resources, and developments, 2) facilitate and enhance emerging technical and structural advances, 3) promote

  2. Application of the ELOHA Framework to Regulated Rivers in the Upper Tennessee River Basin: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A; Orth, Dr. Donald J; Dolloff, Dr. Charles A; Mathews, David C

    2013-01-01

    In order for habitat restoration in regulated rivers to be effective at large scales, broadly applicable frameworks are needed that provide measurable objectives and contexts for management. The Ecological Limits of Hydrologic Alteration (ELOHA) framework was created as a template to assess hydrologic alterations, develop relationships between altered streamflow and ecology, and establish environmental flow standards. We tested the utility of ELOHA in informing flow restoration applications for fish and riparian communities in regulated rivers in the Upper Tennessee River Basin (UTRB). We followed the steps of ELOHA to generate flow alteration-ecological response relationships and then determined whether those relationships could predict fish and riparian responses to flow restoration in the Cheoah River, a regulated system within the UTRB. Although ELOHA provided a robust template to construct hydrologic information and predict hydrology for ungaged locations, our results do not support the assertion that over-generalized univariate relationships between flow and ecology can produce results sufficient to guide management in regulated rivers. After constructing multivariate models, we successfully developed predictive relationships between flow alterations and fish/riparian responses. In accordance with model predictions, riparian encroachment displayed consistent decreases with increases in flow magnitude in the Cheoah River; however, fish richness did not increase as predicted four years post- restoration. Our results suggest that altered temperature and substrate and the current disturbance regime may have reduced opportunities for fish species colonization. Our case study highlights the need for interdisciplinary science in defining environmental flows for regulated rivers and the need for adaptive management approaches once flows are restored.

  3. Application of the ELOHA framework to regulated rivers in the Upper Tennessee River Basin: a case study.

    PubMed

    McManamay, Ryan A; Orth, Donald J; Dolloff, Charles A; Mathews, David C

    2013-06-01

    In order for habitat restoration in regulated rivers to be effective at large scales, broadly applicable frameworks are needed that provide measurable objectives and contexts for management. The Ecological Limits of Hydrologic Alteration (ELOHA) framework was created as a template to assess hydrologic alterations, develop relationships between altered streamflow and ecology, and establish environmental flow standards. We tested the utility of ELOHA in informing flow restoration applications for fish and riparian communities in regulated rivers in the Upper Tennessee River Basin (UTRB). We followed the steps of ELOHA to generate univariate relationships between altered flows and ecology within the UTRB. By comparison, we constructed multivariate models to determine improvements in predictive capacity with the addition of non-flow variables. We then determined whether those relationships could predict fish and riparian responses to flow restoration in the Cheoah River, a regulated system within the UTRB. Although ELOHA provided a robust template to construct hydrologic information and predict hydrology for ungaged locations, our results do not suggest that univariate relationships between flow and ecology (step 4, ELOHA process) can produce results sufficient to guide flow restoration in regulated rivers. After constructing multivariate models, we successfully developed predictive relationships between flow alterations and fish/riparian responses. In accordance with model predictions, riparian encroachment displayed consistent decreases with increases in flow magnitude in the Cheoah River; however, fish richness did not increase as predicted 4 years after restoration. Our results suggest that altered temperature and substrate and the current disturbance regime may have reduced opportunities for fish species colonization. Our case study highlights the need for interdisciplinary science in defining environmental flows for regulated rivers and the need for adaptive

  4. a Geoscience Accelerator Library - Design and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, C.; Richardson, A.

    2010-12-01

    Accelerator technologies such as GPUs are potentially powerful tools for geophysical problems, but programming them still involves somewhat idiosyncratic software practices. In our talk, we will describe a geoscience accelerated kernels library (GeAccKL) we have been developing to allow geoscience fluid algorithms to exploit CUDA and OpenCL based platforms. The GeAccKL library is a collection of tools for building, time-stepping, finite-volume based simulators. At its heart the library consists of functions evaluating discrete forms of key equation kernels that are common to many geoscience codes. We implement kernels for equations by making use of templating and simple compiler techniques to accommodate applications that use a range of data structures and discrete stencils. From these kernel templates we can create specific instances of library code suitable for a particular application scenario. For example we can accommodate different grid staggerings for dynamical variables and different indexing and array layout conventions. The design allows kernels to be chained together so that data structures can persist in device memory between kernel calls. In this way multiple timesteps can be evaluated on a GPU accelerator with minimal device memory to host memory transfer. Parallelism across multiple GPUs is supported through either transfers within multi-threaded process shared memory or through messaging between process address spaces. This allows parallel multi-GPU execution within a single system and across GPUs in a cluster. We will illustrate our library in action in three case studies. First we look at the use of the library to accelerate one part of a time-step in an atmospheric model simulation. Secondly we will look at the use of the library to perform all the intensive computations over several time steps in a time-stepping loop for an ocean transport model. Finally we will look at accelerating the computation of upstream routing calculations in a dynamic

  5. Teaching GeoEthics Across the Geoscience Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogk, D. W.; Geissman, J. W.; Kieffer, S. W.; Reidy, M.; Taylor, S.; Vallero, D. A.; Bruckner, M. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Ethics education is an increasingly important component of the pre-professional training of geoscientists. Funding agencies (NSF) require training of graduate students in the responsible conduct of research, employers are increasingly expecting their workers to have basic training in ethics, and the public demands that scientists abide by the highest standards of ethical conduct. Yet, few faculty have the requisite training to effectively teach about ethics in their classes, or even informally in mentoring their research students. To address this need, an NSF-funded workshop was convened to explore how ethics education can be incorporated into the geoscience curriculum. Workshop goals included: examining where and how geoethics topics can be taught from introductory courses for non-majors to modules embedded in "core" geoscience majors courses or dedicated courses in geoethics; sharing best pedagogic practices for "what works" in ethics education; developing a geoethics curriculum framework; creating a collection of online instructional resources, case studies, and related materials; applying lessons learned about ethics education from sister disciplines (biology, engineering, philosophy); and considering ways that geoethics instruction can contribute to public scientific literacy. Four major themes were explored in detail: (1) GeoEthics and self: examining the internal attributes of a geoscientist that establish the ethical values required to successfully prepare for and contribute to a career in the geosciences; (2) GeoEthics and the geoscience profession: identifying ethical standards expected of geoscientists if they are to contribute responsibly to the community of practice; (3) GeoEthics and society: exploring geoscientists' responsibilities to effectively and responsibly communicate the results of geoscience research to inform society about issues ranging from geohazards to natural resource utilization in order to protect public health, safety, and economic

  6. EarthCube Activities: Community Engagement Advancing Geoscience Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkade, D.

    2015-12-01

    Our ability to advance scientific research in order to better understand complex Earth systems, address emerging geoscience problems, and meet societal challenges is increasingly dependent upon the concept of Open Science and Data. Although these terms are relatively new to the world of research, Open Science and Data in this context may be described as transparency in the scientific process. This includes the discoverability, public accessibility and reusability of scientific data, as well as accessibility and transparency of scientific communication (www.openscience.org). Scientists and the US government alike are realizing the critical need for easy discovery and access to multidisciplinary data to advance research in the geosciences. The NSF-supported EarthCube project was created to meet this need. EarthCube is developing a community-driven common cyberinfrastructure for the purpose of accessing, integrating, analyzing, sharing and visualizing all forms of data and related resources through advanced technological and computational capabilities. Engaging the geoscience community in EarthCube's development is crucial to its success, and EarthCube is providing several opportunities for geoscience involvement. This presentation will provide an overview of the activities EarthCube is employing to entrain the community in the development process, from governance development and strategic planning, to technical needs gathering. Particular focus will be given to the collection of science-driven use cases as a means of capturing scientific and technical requirements. Such activities inform the development of key technical and computational components that collectively will form a cyberinfrastructure to meet the research needs of the geoscience community.

  7. North Carolina state revamps geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North Carolina State University's Department of Marine Sciences and Engineering and the Department of Geosciences have been combined to form the Department of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences, according to university chancellor Joab L. Thomas. The new department is headed by Jay Langfelder, former head of the marine sciences and engineering department.Langfelder said that the new department will be able to provide a stronger program for students. The marine science and engineering department has traditionally been graduate and research oriented, while undergraduate studies were emphasized in the other department, he said. ‘The combination should help both programs.’

  8. Closing the Geoscience Talent Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, C. M.

    2007-12-01

    The geosciences, like most technical professions, are facing a critical talent gap into the future, with too few new students entering the profession and too many opportunities for that supply. This situation has evolved as a result of multiple forces, including increased commodity prices, greater strain on water resources, development encroachment on hazardous terrain, and the attrition of Baby Boomers from the workforce. Demand is not the only issue at hand, the legacy of lagging supplies of new students and consequently new professionals has enhanced the problem. The supply issue is a result of the fallout from the 1986 oil bust and the unsubstantiated hopes for an environmental boom in the 1990"s, coupled by the lengthening of academic careers, indefinitely delaying the predicted exodus of faculty. All of these issues are evident in the data collected by AGI, its Member Societies, and the federal government. Two new factors are beginning to play an increased role in the success or failure of geosciences programs: namely student attitudes towards careers and the ability for departments to successfully bridge the demands of the incoming student with the requirements for an individual to succeed in the profession. An issue often lost for geosciences departments is that 95% of geoscientists in the United States work in the private sector or for government agencies, and that those employers drive the profession forward in the long term. Departments that manage to balance the student needs with an end source of gainful employment are witnessing great success and growth. Currently, programs with strong roots in mining, petroleum, and groundwater hydrology are booming, as are graduate programs with strong technology components. The challenge is recognizing the booms, busts, and long-term trends and positioning programs to weather the changes yet retain the core of their program. This level of planning coupled with a profession-wide effort to improve initial recruitment

  9. Managing River Resources: A Case Study Of The Damodar River, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, K.

    2008-12-01

    The Damodar River, a subsystem of the Ganga has always been a flood-prone river. Recorded flood history of the endemic flood prone river can be traced from 1730 onwards. People as well as governments through out the centuries have dealt with the caprices of this vital water resource using different strategies. At one level, the river has been controlled using structures such as embankments, weir, dams and barrage. In the post-independent period, a high powered organization known as the Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC), modeled on the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) came into existence on 7th July 1948. Since the completion of the reservoirs the Lower Damodar has become a 'reservoir channel' and is now identified by control structures or cultural features or man made indicators. Man-induced hydrographs below control points during post-dam period (1959-2007) show decreased monsoon discharge, and reduced peak discharge. In pre-dam period (1933-1956) return period of floods of bankfull stage of 7080 m3/s had a recurrence interval of 2 years. In post-dam period the return period for the bankfull stage has been increased to 14 years. The Damodar River peak discharge during pre-dam period for various return periods are much greater than the post-dam flows for the same return periods. Despite flood moderation by the DVC dams, floods visited the river demonstrating that the lower valley is still vulnerable to sudden floods. Contemporary riverbed consists of series of alluvial bars or islands, locally known as mana or char lands which are used as a resource base mostly by Bengali refugees. At another level, people have shown great resourcefulness in living with and adjusting to the floods and dams while living on the alluvial bars. People previously used river resources in the form of silt only but now the semi-fluid or flexible resource has been exploited into a permanent resource in the form of productive sandbars. Valuable long-term data from multiple sources has been

  10. Geoscience Diversity Enhancement Project: Student Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigue, Christine M.; Wechsler, Suzanne P.; Whitney, David J.; Ambos, Elizabeth L.; Ramirez-Herrera, Maria Teresa; Behl, Richard; Francis, Robert D.; Larson, Daniel O.; Hazen, Crisanne

    This paper describes an interdisciplinary project at California State University (Long Beach) designed to increase the attractiveness of the geosciences to underrepresented groups. The project is called the Geoscience Diversity Enhancement Project (GDEP). It is a 3-year program which began in the fall of 2001 with funding from the National Science…

  11. Increasing Diversity in Geoscience Through Research Internships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlevoix, Donna J.; Morris, Aisha R.

    2014-02-01

    Over the past 9 years, UNAVCO—a university-governed consortium fostering geoscience research and education focused on geodesy—supported 44 interns through the Research Experiences in Solid Earth Science for Students (RESESS) program. The primary goal of the program is to increase the number of historically underrepresented students entering the geosciences.

  12. An outline of planetary geoscience. [philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A philosophy for planetary geoscience is presented to aid in addressing a number of major scientific questions; answers to these questions should constitute the basic geoscientific knowledge of the solar system. However, any compilation of major questions or basic knowledge in planetary geoscience involves compromises and somewhat arbitrary boundaries that reflect the prevalent level of understanding at the time.

  13. Inquiring with Geoscience Datasets: Instruction and Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalles, D.; Quellmalz, E.; Gobert, J.

    2005-12-01

    This session will describe a new NSF-funded project in Geoscience education, Inquiring with Geoscience Data Sets. The goals of the project are to (1) Study the impacts on student learning of Web-based supplementary curriculum modules that engage secondary-level students in inquiry projects addressing important geoscience problems using an Earth System Science approach. Students will use technologies to access real data sets in the geosciences and to interpret, analyze, and communicate findings based on the data sets. The standards addressed will include geoscience concepts, inquiry abilities in NSES and Benchmarks for Science Literacy, data literacy, NCTM standards, and 21st-century skills and technology proficiencies (NETTS/ISTE). (2) Develop design principles, specification templates, and prototype exemplars for technology-based performance assessments that provide evidence of students' geoscientific knowledge and inquiry skills (including data literacy skills) and students' ability to access, use, analyze, and interpret technology-based geoscience data sets. (3) Develop scenarios based on the specification templates that describe curriculum modules and performance assessments that could be developed for other Earth Science standards and curriculum programs. Also to be described in the session are the project's efforts to differentiate among the dimensions of data literacy and scientific inquiry that are relevant for the geoscience discplines, and how recognition and awareness of the differences can be effectively channelled for the betterment of geoscience education.

  14. Summaries of physical research in the geosciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound foundation of fundamental knowledge in those areas of the geosciences which are germane to the Department of Energy's many missions. The Division of Engineering and Geosciences, part of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Office of Energy Research, supports the Geosciences Research Program. The participants in this program include Department of Energy laboratories, industry, universities, and other governmental agencies. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, briefly describe the scope of the individual programs. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, solar physics, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology, and natural resource modeling and analysis, including their various subdivisions and interdisciplinary areas. All such research is related either directly or indirectly to the Department of Energy's long-range technological needs.

  15. The role of river trajectories and channel recovery potential within sustainable river management: some case studies from southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosskopf, Carmen Maria; Scorpio, Vittoria; Patrizio Ciro Aucelli, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    Most of Italian and European rivers have undergone notable channel adjustments since the last 150-200 years. Major adjustments fall within the second half of the last century and consisted in overall channel narrowing and degradation, accompanied by important pattern changes. In the cases of the six investigated rivers located in southern Italy (namely Trigno, Biferno, Fortore, Volturno, Sinni and Crati), major adjustments occurred from the 1950s to the end of the 1990s. They consisted in channel narrowing up to 98%, bed level lowering from -2 to -10m and extensive changes from multi-thread to single thread pattern that led to the abandonment of extensive channel areas and consistent increase of floodplain and terraced areas. The integrated analysis of river trajectories and potential control factors, both of natural and anthropic origin, showed that human disturbances, especially gravel mining and river control works, are key driving factors of channel adjustments. Furthermore, the presence of major hydraulic structures along the rivers Biferno, Fortore, Sinni and Trigno significantly influenced the amounts of channel adjustments which are sharply higher within the reaches located downstream of such structures. Considering the last 15-20 years, most of the evolutionary trajectories of the investigated reaches highlight ongoing channel stabilization or even some appreciable channel recovery. Particularly, channel widening had occurred in those reaches that are not under the direct influence of major hydraulic structures (check-dams and dams) and in which in-channel interventions had pratically ceased and woody riparian vegetation developed only in a discontinuous manner. Conversely, the reaches that are located immediately downstream of major hydraulic structures, in which control works are placed very close to the actual riverbanks and/or a continuous riparian forest has developed, appear stable, only locally affected by very slight widening, or even affected by

  16. Transport and fate of river waters under flood conditions and rim current influence: the Mississippi River test case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourafalou, Villy; Androulidakis, Yannis

    2013-04-01

    Large river plumes are a major supplier of freshwater, sediments and nutrients in coastal and shelf seas. Novel processes controlling the transport and fate of riverine waters (and associated materials) will be presented, under flood conditions and in the presence of complex topography, ambient shelf circulation and slope processes, controlled by the interaction with rim currents. The Mississippi River (MR) freshwater outflow is chosen as a test case, as a major circulation forcing mechanism for the Northern Gulf of Mexico and a unique river plume for the intense interactions with a large scale ocean current, namely the Loop Current branch of the Gulf Stream, and associated eddy field. The largest MR outflow in history (45,000 m3/sec in 2011) is compared with the second largest outflow in the last 8 years (41,000 m3/sec in 2008). Realistically forced simulations, based on the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) with careful treatment of river plume dynamics and nested to a data assimilated, basin-wide model, reveal the synergistic effect of enhanced discharge, winds, stratification of ambient shelf waters and offshore circulation over the transport of plume waters. The investigation targets a broader understanding of the dynamics of large scale river plumes in general, and of the MR plume in particular. In addition, in situ observations from ship surveys and satellite chl-a data showed that the mathematical simulations with high temporal resolution river outflow input may reproduce adequately the buoyant waters spreading over the Northern Gulf of Mexico shelf and offshore areas. The fate of the river plume is strongly determined and affected by deep basin processes. The strong impacts of the Loop Current system (and its frontal eddies) on river plume evolution are of particular importance under conditions of increased offshore spreading, which is presumed under large discharge rates and can cause loss of riverine materials to the basin interior. Flood conditions

  17. Mussels: the forgotten fauna of regulated rivers: a case study of the Caney Fork River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layzer, James B.; Gordon, Mark E.; Anderson, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    During the past century freshwater mussel populations have declined precipitously throughout North America. Much of this loss has resulted from the construction of dams. In the Cumberland River system, 23% (22 species) of the historic mussel fauna is extinct or listed as endangered. Several additional species have either been extirpated from the Cumberland River or exist only in small, non-reproducing populations. Mussels of headwater streams have been severely affected by coal mining and poor land use practices. An intensive survey was conducted in the Caney Fork River, a major tributary to the Cumberland River, to determine the historic and extant mussel fauna. The results indicate that at least 37 species of mussels have been extirpated from the Caney Fork River, mainly as a result of the construction and operation of the Center Hill Dam. Among the species extirpated, two are now extinct, five are endangered and five are candidates for listing as threatened or endangered. Effects associated with this dam include the inundation of 102 km of riverine habitat, the discharge of hypolimnetic water (which limits mussel reproduction) and an alternating pattern of stream bed scouring and dewatering. The recognition of mussel life history requirements during preconstruction could have reduced many of these effects.

  18. Introducing Undergraduates to Environmental Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, R.

    2006-12-01

    We have developed an introductory course in environmental geoscience for undergraduates that draws on many years of experience in improving the teaching of geoscience. The course is recognized as an exemplary college course for Advanced Placement high-school courses in environmental science. To gain student's attention, we organized the course around local, regional, and global problems including global change, global warming, groundwater resources, land degradation, regional air quality, ozone depletion, and coastal issues. Homework assignments lead students to understand local problems, scientific data, and how personal actions influence the environment. Although science is the center of the course, we show students how science and public policy differ, and how they interact. All this was not easy. How can any one person learn the material? What to do when an extensive review of possible texts leads to a realization that none are very useful? Come watch over our shoulder as we show you how faculty from four departments developed a successful interdisciplinary course at a large public university.

  19. The Elizabeth River Story: A Case Study in Evolutionary Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Di Giulio, Richard T.; Clark, Bryan W.

    2015-01-01

    The Elizabeth River system is an estuary in southeastern Virginia, surrounded by the towns of Chesapeake, Norfolk, Portsmouth, and Virginia Beach. The river has played important roles in U.S. history and has been the location of various military and industrial activities. These activities have been the source of chemical contamination in this aquatic system. Important industries, until the 1990s, included wood treatment plants that used creosote, an oil-derived product that is rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). These plants left a legacy of PAH pollution in the river, and in particular Atlantic Wood Industries is a designated Superfund site now undergoing remediation. Numerous studies examined the distribution of PAH in the river and impacts on resident fauna. This review focuses on how a small estuarine fish with a limited home range, Fundulus heteroclitus (Atlantic killifish or mummichog), has responded to this pollution. While in certain areas of the river this species has clearly been impacted, as evidenced by elevated rates of liver cancer, some subpopulations, notably the one associated with the Atlantic Wood Industries site, displayed a remarkable ability to resist the marked effects PAH have on the embryonic development of fish. This review provides evidence of how pollutants have acted as evolutionary agents, causing changes in ecosystems potentially lasting longer than the pollutants themselves. Mechanisms underlying this evolved resistance, as well as mechanisms underlying the effects of PAH on embryonic development, are also described. The review concludes with a description of ongoing and promising efforts to restore this historic American river. PMID:26505693

  20. The Elizabeth River Story: A Case Study in Evolutionary Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Di Giulio, Richard T; Clark, Bryan W

    2015-01-01

    The Elizabeth River system is an estuary in southeastern Virginia, surrounded by the towns of Chesapeake, Norfolk, Portsmouth, and Virginia Beach. The river has played important roles in U.S. history and has been the location of various military and industrial activities. These activities have been the source of chemical contamination in this aquatic system. Important industries, until the 1990s, included wood treatment plants that used creosote, an oil-derived product that is rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). These plants left a legacy of PAH pollution in the river, and in particular Atlantic Wood Industries is a designated Superfund site now undergoing remediation. Numerous studies examined the distribution of PAH in the river and impacts on resident fauna. This review focuses on how a small estuarine fish with a limited home range, Fundulus heteroclitus (Atlantic killifish or mummichog), has responded to this pollution. While in certain areas of the river this species has clearly been impacted, as evidenced by elevated rates of liver cancer, some subpopulations, notably the one associated with the Atlantic Wood Industries site, displayed a remarkable ability to resist the marked effects PAH have on the embryonic development of fish. This review provides evidence of how pollutants have acted as evolutionary agents, causing changes in ecosystems potentially lasting longer than the pollutants themselves. Mechanisms underlying this evolved resistance, as well as mechanisms underlying the effects of PAH on embryonic development, are also described. The review concludes with a description of ongoing and promising efforts to restore this historic American river. PMID:26505693

  1. The Elizabeth River Story: A Case Study in Evolutionary Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Di Giulio, Richard T; Clark, Bryan W

    2015-01-01

    The Elizabeth River system is an estuary in southeastern Virginia, surrounded by the towns of Chesapeake, Norfolk, Portsmouth, and Virginia Beach. The river has played important roles in U.S. history and has been the location of various military and industrial activities. These activities have been the source of chemical contamination in this aquatic system. Important industries, until the 1990s, included wood treatment plants that used creosote, an oil-derived product that is rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). These plants left a legacy of PAH pollution in the river, and in particular Atlantic Wood Industries is a designated Superfund site now undergoing remediation. Numerous studies examined the distribution of PAH in the river and impacts on resident fauna. This review focuses on how a small estuarine fish with a limited home range, Fundulus heteroclitus (Atlantic killifish or mummichog), has responded to this pollution. While in certain areas of the river this species has clearly been impacted, as evidenced by elevated rates of liver cancer, some subpopulations, notably the one associated with the Atlantic Wood Industries site, displayed a remarkable ability to resist the marked effects PAH have on the embryonic development of fish. This review provides evidence of how pollutants have acted as evolutionary agents, causing changes in ecosystems potentially lasting longer than the pollutants themselves. Mechanisms underlying this evolved resistance, as well as mechanisms underlying the effects of PAH on embryonic development, are also described. The review concludes with a description of ongoing and promising efforts to restore this historic American river.

  2. THE OHIO RIVER OIL SPILL: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spill of diesel oil fuel from an Ashland Oil storage tank in January 1988 on the Monongahela River raised a number of technical, legislative, and administrative issues. These include as assessing long- and short-term environmental damage, evaluating regulations regarding oil ...

  3. Development of river ecosystem models for Flemish watercourses: case studies in the Zwalm river basin.

    PubMed

    Goethals, P; Dedecker, A; Raes, N; Adriaenssens, V; Gabriels, W; De Pauw, N

    2001-01-01

    Only recently, modelling has been accepted as an interesting and powerful tool to support river quality assessment and management. The 'River Invertebrate Prediction and Classification System' (RIVPACS), based on statistical modelling, was one of the first and best known systems in this context. RIVPACS was developed to classify macroinvertebrate community types and to predict the fauna expected to occur in different types of watercourses, based on a small number of environmental variables. The prediction is essentially a static 'target' of the fauna to be expected at a site with stated environmental features, in the absence of environmental stress. Therefore this system is rather limited to apply in river assessment and management. Models that offer a prediction of faunal responses to changes in environmental features (e.g. changes in discharge regime, dissolved oxygen level, ...) would be of considerable value for river management. In this context, models based on classification trees, artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic were developed and applied to predict macro-invertebrate communities in the Zwalm river basin located in Flanders, Belgium. Structural characteristics (meandering, substrate type, flow velocity, ...) and physical-chemical variables (dissolved oxygen, pH, ...) were used as inputs to predict the presence or absence of macroinvertebrate taxa in the headwaters and brooks of the Zwalm river basin. In total, data from 60 measurement sites were available. Reliability and particular strengths and weaknesses of these techniques were compared and evaluated. Classification trees performed in general well to predict the absence or presence of the different macroinvertebrate taxa and allowed also to deduct general relations from the dataset. Models based on artificial neural networks (ANNS) were also good in predicting the macroinvertebrate communities at the different sites. Sensitivity analyses related to ANNs allowed to study the impact of the input

  4. The Geoscience Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K.; Klump, J.

    2012-04-01

    Internet of Things is a term that refers to "uniquely identifiable objects (things) and their virtual representations in an Internet-like structure" (Wikipedia). We here use the term to describe new and innovative ways to integrate physical samples in the Earth Sciences into the emerging digital infrastructures that are developed to support research and education in the Geosciences. Many Earth Science data are acquired on solid earth samples through observations and experiments conducted in the field or in the lab. The application and long-term utility of sample-based data for science is critically dependent on (a) the availability of information (metadata) about the samples such as geographical location where the sample was collected, time of sampling, sampling method, etc. (b) links between the different data types available for individual samples that are dispersed in the literature and in digital data repositories, and (c) access to the samples themselves. Neither of these requirements could be achieved in the past due to incomplete documentation of samples in publications, use of ambiguous sample names, and the lack of a central catalog that allows researchers to find a sample's archiving location. New internet-based capabilities have been developed over the past few years for the registration and unique identification of samples that make it possible to overcome these problems. Services for the registration and unique identification of samples are provided by the System for Earth Sample Registration SESAR (www.geosamples.org). SESAR developed the International Geo Sample Number, or IGSN, as a unique identifier for samples and specimens collected from our natural environment. Since December 2011, the IGSN is governed by an international organization, the IGSN eV (www.igsn.org), which endorses and promotes an internationally unified approach for registration and discovery of physical specimens in the Geoscience community and is establishing a new modular and

  5. Integrated hydrological and water quality model for river management: a case study on Lena River.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, André; Botelho, Cidália; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2014-07-01

    The Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) model was used to assess the impact of wastewater discharges on the water quality of a Lis River tributary (Lena River), a 176 km(2) watershed in Leiria region, Portugal. The model parameters obtained in this study, could potentially serve as reference values for the calibration of other watersheds in the area or with similar climatic characteristics, which don't have enough data for calibration. Water quality constituents modeled in this study included temperature, fecal coliforms, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, nitrates, orthophosphates and pH. The results were found to be close to the average observed values for all parameters studied for both calibration and validation periods with percent bias values between -26% and 23% for calibration and -30% and 51% for validation for all parameters, with fecal coliforms showing the highest deviation. The model revealed a poor water quality in Lena River for the entire simulation period, according to the Council Directive concerning the surface water quality intended for drinking water abstraction in the Member States (75/440/EEC). Fecal coliforms, orthophosphates and nitrates were found to be 99, 82 and 46% above the limit established in the Directive. HSPF was used to predict the impact of point and nonpoint pollution sources on the water quality of Lena River. Winter and summer scenarios were also addressed to evaluate water quality in high and low flow conditions. A maximum daily load was calculated to determine the reduction needed to comply with the Council Directive 75/440/EEC. The study showed that Lena River is fairly polluted calling for awareness at behavioral change of waste management in order to prevent the escalation of these effects with especially attention to fecal coliforms.

  6. Integrated hydrological and water quality model for river management: a case study on Lena River.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, André; Botelho, Cidália; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2014-07-01

    The Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) model was used to assess the impact of wastewater discharges on the water quality of a Lis River tributary (Lena River), a 176 km(2) watershed in Leiria region, Portugal. The model parameters obtained in this study, could potentially serve as reference values for the calibration of other watersheds in the area or with similar climatic characteristics, which don't have enough data for calibration. Water quality constituents modeled in this study included temperature, fecal coliforms, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, nitrates, orthophosphates and pH. The results were found to be close to the average observed values for all parameters studied for both calibration and validation periods with percent bias values between -26% and 23% for calibration and -30% and 51% for validation for all parameters, with fecal coliforms showing the highest deviation. The model revealed a poor water quality in Lena River for the entire simulation period, according to the Council Directive concerning the surface water quality intended for drinking water abstraction in the Member States (75/440/EEC). Fecal coliforms, orthophosphates and nitrates were found to be 99, 82 and 46% above the limit established in the Directive. HSPF was used to predict the impact of point and nonpoint pollution sources on the water quality of Lena River. Winter and summer scenarios were also addressed to evaluate water quality in high and low flow conditions. A maximum daily load was calculated to determine the reduction needed to comply with the Council Directive 75/440/EEC. The study showed that Lena River is fairly polluted calling for awareness at behavioral change of waste management in order to prevent the escalation of these effects with especially attention to fecal coliforms. PMID:24742558

  7. Radar polarimetry for geoscience applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, Fawwaz T. (Editor); Elachi, Charles (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The present volume on radar polarimetry for geoscience applications discusses wave properties and polarization, scattering matrix representation for simple targets, scattering models for point and distributed targets, polarimetric scatterometer systems and measurements, polarimetric radar system design, and polarimetric SAR applications. Attention is given to plane waves in a lossless homogeneous medium-wave polarization, polarization synthesis and response, and coordinate system transformations. Topics addressed include high- and low-frequency scattering, rough-surface scattering models, radiative transfer theory and deficiencies thereof, solutions for the radiative transfer equation, and a radiative transfer model for a forest canopy. Also discussed are network analyzer-based polarimetric scatterometers, calibration of polarimetric scatterometers, synthesized polarization response of distributed targets, and measurement of the propagation parameters of a forest canopy.

  8. A micro case study of the legal and administrative arrangements for river health in the Kangaroo River (NSW).

    PubMed

    Mooney, C; Farrier, D

    2002-01-01

    Kangaroo Valley is a drinking water supply catchment for Kangaroo Valley village, parts of the Southern Highlands and Sydney. It is also a popular recreation area both for swimming and canoeing. Land use has traditionally been dominated by dairy farming but there has been significant and continuing development of land for hobby farms and rural residential subdivision. Dairy industry restructuring has affected the viability of some farms in the Valley and created additional pressure for subdivision. River health is a function of flows, water quality, riparian vegetation, geomorphology and aquatic habitat and riverine biota. River flows in the Kangaroo River are affected by water extraction and storage for urban water supply and extraction by commercial irrigators and riparian land holders which have a significant impact at low flows. Current water quality often does not meet ANZECC Guidelines for primary contact and recreation and the river is a poor source of raw drinking water. Key sources of contaminants are wastewater runoff from agriculture, and poorly performing on-site sewage management systems. Riparian vegetation, which is critical to the maintenance of in-stream ecosystems suffers from uncontrolled stock access and weed infestation. The management of land use and resulting diffuse pollution sources is critical to the long term health of the river. The Healthy Rivers Commission of New South Wales Independent Inquiry into the Shoalhaven River System Final Report July, 1999 found that the longer term protection of the health of the Kangaroo River is contingent upon achievement of patterns of land use that have regard to land capability and also to the capability of the river to withstand the impacts of inappropriate or poorly managed land uses. This micro case study of Kangaroo Valley examines the complex legal and administrative arrangements with particular reference to the management of diffuse pollution for river health. In the past, diffuse pollution has

  9. A micro case study of the legal and administrative arrangements for river health in the Kangaroo River (NSW).

    PubMed

    Mooney, C; Farrier, D

    2002-01-01

    Kangaroo Valley is a drinking water supply catchment for Kangaroo Valley village, parts of the Southern Highlands and Sydney. It is also a popular recreation area both for swimming and canoeing. Land use has traditionally been dominated by dairy farming but there has been significant and continuing development of land for hobby farms and rural residential subdivision. Dairy industry restructuring has affected the viability of some farms in the Valley and created additional pressure for subdivision. River health is a function of flows, water quality, riparian vegetation, geomorphology and aquatic habitat and riverine biota. River flows in the Kangaroo River are affected by water extraction and storage for urban water supply and extraction by commercial irrigators and riparian land holders which have a significant impact at low flows. Current water quality often does not meet ANZECC Guidelines for primary contact and recreation and the river is a poor source of raw drinking water. Key sources of contaminants are wastewater runoff from agriculture, and poorly performing on-site sewage management systems. Riparian vegetation, which is critical to the maintenance of in-stream ecosystems suffers from uncontrolled stock access and weed infestation. The management of land use and resulting diffuse pollution sources is critical to the long term health of the river. The Healthy Rivers Commission of New South Wales Independent Inquiry into the Shoalhaven River System Final Report July, 1999 found that the longer term protection of the health of the Kangaroo River is contingent upon achievement of patterns of land use that have regard to land capability and also to the capability of the river to withstand the impacts of inappropriate or poorly managed land uses. This micro case study of Kangaroo Valley examines the complex legal and administrative arrangements with particular reference to the management of diffuse pollution for river health. In the past, diffuse pollution has

  10. Long-term tritium monitoring to study river basin dynamics: case of the Danube River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Pradeep; Araguas, Luis; Groening, Manfred; Newman, Brent; Kurttas, Turker; Papesch, Wolfgang; Rank, Dieter; Suckow, Axel; Vitvar, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    During the last five decades, isotope concentrations (O-18, D, tritium) have been extensively measured in precipitation, surface- and ground-waters to derive information on residence times of water in aquifers and rivers, recharge processes, and groundwater dynamics. The unique properties of the isotopes of the water molecule as tracers are especially useful for understanding the retention of water in river basins, which is a key parameter for assessing water resources availability, addressing quality issues, investigating interconnections between surface- and ground-waters, and for predicting possible hydrological shifts related to human activities and climate change. Detailed information of the spatial and temporal changes of isotope contents in precipitation at a global scale was one of the initial aims of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), which has provided a detailed chronicle of tritium and stable isotope contents in precipitation since the 1960s. Accurate information of tritium contents resulting of the thermonuclear atmospheric tests in the 1950s and 1960s is available in GNIP for stations distributed world-wide. Use of this dataset for hydrological dating or as an indicator of recent recharge has been extensive in shallow groundwaters. However, its use has been more limited in surface waters, due to the absence of specific monitoring programmes of tritium and stable isotopes in rivers, lakes and other surface water bodies. The IAEA has recently been compiling new and archival isotope data measured in groundwaters, rivers, lakes and other water bodies as part of its web based Water Isotope System for Data Analysis, Visualization and Electronic Retrieval (WISER). Recent additions to the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR) contained within WISER now make detailed studies in rivers possible. For this study, we are re-examining residence time estimates for the Danube in central Europe. Tritium data are available in GNIR from 15

  11. Summaries of physical research in the geosciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound underlay of fundamental knowledge in those areas of the earth, atmospheric, and solar/terrestrial sciences that relate to the Department of Energy's many missions. The Division of Engineering, Mathematical and Geosciences, which is a part of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences and comes under the Director of Energy Research, supports under its Geosciences program major Department of Energy laboratories, industry, universities and other governmental agencies. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the overall scope of the individual programs and details of the research performed during 1979-1980. The Geoscience program includes research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology and natural resource analysis, including the various subdivisions and interdisciplinary areas. All such research is related to the Department's technological needs, either directly or indirectly.

  12. Summaries of FY 1993 geosciences research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound foundation of fundamental knowledge in those areas of the geosciences that are germane to the DOE`s many missions. The Geosciences Research Program is supported by the Office of Energy Research. The participants in this program include DOE laboratories, academic institutions, and other governmental agencies. These activities are formalized by a contract or grant between the DOE and the organization performing the work, providing funds for salaries, equipment, research materials, and overhead. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the scope of the individual programs. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geophysics, geochemistry, resource evaluation, solar-terrestrial interactions, and their subdivisions including earth dynamics, properties of earth materials, rock mechanics, underground imaging, rock-fluid interactions, continental scientific drilling, geochemical transport, solar-atmospheric physics, and modeling, with emphasis on the interdisciplinary areas.

  13. Striving to Diversify the Geosciences Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, Aaron A.; Jaurrieta de Velasco, Edith

    2010-08-01

    The geosciences continue to lag far behind other sciences in recruiting and retaining diverse populations [Czujko and Henley, 2003; Huntoon and Lane, 2007]. As a result, the U.S. capacity for preparedness in natural geohazards mitigation, natural resource management and development, national security, and geosciences education is being undermined and is losing its competitive edge in the global market. Two key populations must be considered as the United States looks to build the future geosciences workforce and optimize worker productivity: the nation's youth and its growing underrepresented minority (URM) community. By focusing on both of these demographics, the United States can address the identified shortage of high-quality candidates for knowledge-intensive jobs in the geosciences, helping to develop the innovative enterprises that lead to discovery and new technology [see National Research Council (NRCd), 2007].

  14. Voluntarism and Diversification of Undergraduate Geoscience Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jeffrey King

    1990-01-01

    Strategies that can be used to revitalize geoscience education are discussed. Stressed are the ideas of providing voluntary assistance to science and science teacher education and program diversification. (CW)

  15. Illuminate Knowledge Elements in Geoscience Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X.; Zheng, J. G.; Wang, H.; Fox, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    There are numerous dark data hidden in geoscience literature. Efficient retrieval and reuse of those data will greatly benefit geoscience researches of nowadays. Among the works of data rescue, a topic of interest is illuminating the knowledge framework, i.e. entities and relationships, embedded in documents. Entity recognition and linking have received extensive attention in news and social media analysis, as well as in bioinformatics. In the domain of geoscience, however, such works are limited. We will present our work on how to use knowledge bases on the Web, such as ontologies and vocabularies, to facilitate entity recognition and linking in geoscience literature. The work deploys an un-supervised collective inference approach [1] to link entity mentions in unstructured texts to a knowledge base, which leverages the meaningful information and structures in ontologies and vocabularies for similarity computation and entity ranking. Our work is still in the initial stage towards the detection of knowledge frameworks in literature, and we have been collecting geoscience ontologies and vocabularies in order to build a comprehensive geoscience knowledge base [2]. We hope the work will initiate new ideas and collaborations on dark data rescue, as well as on the synthesis of data and knowledge from geoscience literature. References: 1. Zheng, J., Howsmon, D., Zhang, B., Hahn, J., McGuinness, D.L., Hendler, J., and Ji, H. 2014. Entity linking for biomedical literature. In Proceedings of ACM 8th International Workshop on Data and Text Mining in Bioinformatics, Shanghai, China. 2. Ma, X. Zheng, J., 2015. Linking geoscience entity mentions to the Web of Data. ESIP 2015 Summer Meeting, Pacific Grove, CA.

  16. Geoinformatics: Transforming data to knowledge for geosciences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sinha, A.K.; Malik, Z.; Rezgui, A.; Barnes, C.G.; Lin, K.; Heiken, G.; Thomas, W.A.; Gundersen, L.C.; Raskin, R.; Jackson, I.; Fox, P.; McGuinness, D.; Seber, D.; Zimmerman, H.

    2010-01-01

    An integrative view of Earth as a system, based on multidisciplinary data, has become one of the most compelling reasons for research and education in the geosciences. It is now necessary to establish a modern infrastructure that can support the transformation of data to knowledge. Such an information infrastructure for geosciences is contained within the emerging science of geoinformatics, which seeks to promote the utilizetion and integration of complex, multidisciplinary data in seeking solutions to geosciencebased societal challenges.

  17. Building Strong Geoscience Departments: A Workshop Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; MacDonald, R. H.; Richardson, R.; Feiss, P. G.

    2005-12-01

    The strength of Geoscience departments and their programs lies at the heart of developing a strong geoscience workforce capable of meeting the wide variety of challenges facing our society. In February 2005, 28 geoscience faculty, department chairs, and senior administrators from Ph.D. granting institutions, comprehensive and regional institutions, liberal arts colleges, and community colleges met to share information on strategies that had strengthened their own departments and to brainstorm ideas for collective action that would strengthen departments across the United States. Participants in the NSF funded workshop recognized that these are challenging times for geoscience departments and that a number of departments have been closed or are facing reorganization. However, they concluded that departments across the full spectrum of institutional types have more in common than was previously realized and that there are many best practices and successful innovations for meeting challenges that departments can learn from one another. As a step toward promoting this sharing, workshop participants created a document describing characteristics of thriving geoscience departments. This document, as well as: essays describing the variety of ways in which participants' departments have met challenges and opportunities; a bibliography of papers, reports and websites of use to departmental leaders; and resources for departmental leadership and planning, can be found at the 'Building Strong Geoscience Departments' website (serc.carleton.edu/departments). The workshop agenda, powerpoint slides and posters presented at the workshop, discussion summaries, and participant list can also be found at the website. Workshop participants have invited all departments engaged in teaching geoscience to participate in further discussion and sharing beginning with sessions at professional society meetings this fall. An advisory board has been formed to move forward in implementing the

  18. Promoting research integrity in the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Tony

    2015-04-01

    Conducting research in a responsible manner in compliance with codes of research integrity is essential. The geosciences, as with all other areas of research endeavour, has its fair share of misconduct cases and causes celebres. As research becomes more global, more collaborative and more cross-disciplinary, the need for all concerned to work to the same high standards becomes imperative. Modern technology makes it far easier to 'cut and paste', to use Photoshop to manipulate imagery to falsify results at the same time as making research easier and more meaningful. So we need to promote the highest standards of research integrity and the responsible conduct of research. While ultimately, responsibility for misconduct rests with the individual, institutions and the academic research system have to take steps to alleviate the pressure on researchers and promote good practice through training programmes and mentoring. The role of the World Conferences on Research Integrity in promoting the importance of research integrity and statements about good practice will be presented and the need for training and mentoring programmes will be discussed

  19. Iron world and its astrobiological implications: The Tinto River case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, F.; Amils, A.

    2007-08-01

    Extreme ecosystems have recently attracted considerable interest, not only because they prove that life is robust and adaptable, but also because their existence increases the probability of finding life elsewhere in the universe. Most of the best characterized extreme habitats on Earth correspond to geophysical constraints to which opportunistic microorganisms have adapted. However, some extreme acidic environments are unique in that they are the product of biological activity (chemolithotrophy). The Tinto River (Huelva, Southwestern Spain) is an unusual acidic ecosystem (100 km long, mean pH of 2.3) containing a high concentration of heavy metals and an unexpected level of microbial diversity (1,2). In the past, the extreme conditions of the river were considered the result of intense mining activity. The geomicrobiological analysis of the Tinto ecosystem strongly suggests that these conditions are the result of the metabolic activity of chemolithotrophic prokaryotes, mainly iron-oxidizers (3). The system seems to be controlled by iron, which is not only used as an electron donor, but also as an electron acceptor, allowing a full iron cycle to operate. Furthermore, ferric iron is responsible for the maintenance of the constant pH of the ecosystem and can protect the different organisms thriving in its waters from radiation. Laminar, iron-rich stromatolitic formations are generated by the precipitation of different iron minerals on the surface of the biofilms that cover most of the rocks in the river and the riverbed. These structures are similar to ancient massive bioinduced laminated iron bioformations formed long before the first mining activities started in the area 5000 years ago. The existence of these ancient iron-rich deposits formed prior to any known mining activity, under hydrochemical conditions similar to modern deposits, is considered a strong argument in favor of a natural origin of the river (4,5). Recently, the source area of the Tinto ecosystem

  20. Defining the Geoscience Community through a Quantitative Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    The American Geosciences Institute's (AGI) Geoscience Workforce Program collects and analyzes data pertaining to the changes in the supply, demand, and training of the geoscience workforce. These data cover the areas of change in the education of future geoscientists from K-12 through graduate school, the transition of geoscience graduates into early-career geoscientists, the dynamics of the current geoscience workforce, and the future predictions of the changes in the availability of geoscience jobs. The Workforce Program also considers economic changes in the United States and globally that can affect the supply and demand of the geoscience workforce. In order to have an informed discussion defining the modern geoscience community, it is essential to understand the current dynamics within the geoscience community and workforce. This presentation will provide a data-driven outlook of the current status of the geosciences in the workforce and within higher education using data collected by AGI, federal agencies and other stakeholder organizations. The data presented will highlight the various industries, including those industries with non-traditional geoscience jobs, the skills development of geoscience majors, and the application of these skills within the various industries in the workforce. This quantitative overview lays the foundation for further discussions related to tracking and understanding the current geoscience community in the United States, as well as establishes a baseline for global geoscience workforce comparisons in the future.

  1. Proceedings of the geosciences workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    The manuscripts in these proceedings represent current understanding of geologic issues associated with the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is in St. Charles County, Missouri. The proceedings are the record of the information presented during the WSSRAP Geosciences Workshop conducted on February 21, 1991. The objective of the workshop and proceedings is to provide the public and scientific community with technical information that will facilitate a common understanding of the geology of the Weldon Spring site, of the studies that have been and will be conducted, and of the issues associated with current and planned activities at the site. This coverage of geologic topics is part of the US Department of Energy overall program to keep the public fully informed of the status of the project and to address public concerns as we clean up the site and work toward the eventual release of the property for use by this and future generations. Papers in these proceedings detail the geology and hydrology of the site. The mission of the WSSRAP derives from the US Department of Energy's Surplus Facilities Management Program. The WSSRAP will eliminate potential hazards to the public and the environment and make surplus real property available for other uses to the extent possible. This will be accomplished by conducting remedial actions which will place the quarry, the raffinate pits, the chemical plant, and the vicinity properties in a radiologically and chemically safe condition. The individual papers have been catalogued separately.

  2. Geoscience Academic Provenance: A Theoretical Framework for Understanding Geoscience Students' Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlton, H.; Keane, C.

    2012-04-01

    The demand and employment opportunities for geoscientists in the United States are projected to increase 23% from 2008 to 2018 (Gonzales, 2011). Despite this trend, there is a disconnect between undergraduate geoscience students and their desire to pursue geoscience careers. A theoretical framework was developed to understand the reasons why students decide to major in the geosciences and map those decisions to their career aspirations (Houlton, 2010). A modified critical incident study was conducted to develop the pathway model from 17, one-hour long semi-structured interviews of undergraduate geoscience majors from two Midwest Research Institutions (Houlton, 2010). Geoscience Academic Provenance maps geoscience students' initial interests, entry points into the major, critical incidents and future career goals as a pathway, which elucidates the relationships between each of these components. Analyses identified three geoscience student population groups that followed distinct pathways: Natives, Immigrants and Refugees. A follow up study was conducted in 2011 to ascertain whether these students continued on their predicted pathways, and if not, reasons for attrition. Geoscientists can use this framework as a guide to inform future recruitment and retention initiatives and target these geoscience population groups for specific employment sectors.

  3. Three cases of severe hyponatremia during a river run in Grand Canyon National Park.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Emily A; Myers, Thomas M; Hoffman, Martin D

    2015-06-01

    We present 3 cases of severe hyponatremia occurring on a commercially guided river rafting trip on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. All 3 women appeared to have been overhydrating because of concern about dehydration and required evacuation within 24 hours of each other after the staggered onset of symptoms, which included fatigue and emesis progressing to disorientation or seizure. Each was initially transferred to the nearest hospital and ultimately required intensive care. Imaging and laboratory data indicated all 3 patients had hypervolemic hyponatremia. Unlike the well-documented exercise-associated hyponatremia cases commonly occurring in prolonged endurance athletic events, these 3 unique cases of acute hyponatremia were not associated with significant exercise. The cases illustrate the diagnostic and treatment challenges related to acute hyponatremia in an austere setting, and underscore the importance of preventive measures focused on avoidance of overhydration out of concern for dehydration.

  4. Three cases of severe hyponatremia during a river run in Grand Canyon National Park.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Emily A; Myers, Thomas M; Hoffman, Martin D

    2015-06-01

    We present 3 cases of severe hyponatremia occurring on a commercially guided river rafting trip on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. All 3 women appeared to have been overhydrating because of concern about dehydration and required evacuation within 24 hours of each other after the staggered onset of symptoms, which included fatigue and emesis progressing to disorientation or seizure. Each was initially transferred to the nearest hospital and ultimately required intensive care. Imaging and laboratory data indicated all 3 patients had hypervolemic hyponatremia. Unlike the well-documented exercise-associated hyponatremia cases commonly occurring in prolonged endurance athletic events, these 3 unique cases of acute hyponatremia were not associated with significant exercise. The cases illustrate the diagnostic and treatment challenges related to acute hyponatremia in an austere setting, and underscore the importance of preventive measures focused on avoidance of overhydration out of concern for dehydration. PMID:25736400

  5. Career Paths for Geosciences Students (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, T. S.; Flewelling, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Current and future drivers of hiring in the geosciences include climate, environment, energy, georisk and litigation areas. Although climate is closely linked to the atmospheric sciences, hiring needs in the geosciences exist as well, in understanding potential impacts of climate change on coastal erosion and water resources. Where and how to consider carbon sequestration as a climate mitigation policy will also require geosciences expertise. The environmental sciences have long been a source of geosciences hiring, and have ongoing needs in the areas of investigation of contamination, and in fluid and chemical transport. The recent expansion of the energy sector in the U.S. is providing opportunities for the geosciences in oil and gas production, hydraulic fracturing, and in geothermal development. In georisk, expertise in earthquake and volcanic hazard prediction are increasingly important, particularly in population centers. Induced seismicity is a relatively new area of georisk that will also require geosciences skills. The skills needed in the future geosciences workforce are increasingly interdisciplinary, and include those that are both observational and quantitative. Field observations and their interpretation must be focused forward as well as backwards and include the ability to recognize change as it occurs. Areas of demand for quantitative skills include hydrological, geophysical, and geochemical modeling, math and statistics, with specialties such as rock mechanics becoming an increasingly important area. Characteristics that students should have to become successful employees in these sectors include strong communication skills, both oral and written, the ability to know when to stop "studying" and identify next steps, and the ability to turn research areas into solutions to problems.

  6. The Role of Cooperation and Information Exchange in Transnational River Basins: the Zambezi River case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of multiple, institutionally independent but physically interconnected decision-makers is a distinctive features of many water resources systems, especially of transnational river basins. The adoption of a centralized approach to study the optimal operation of these systems, as mostly done in the water resources literature, is conceptually interesting to quantify the best achievable performance, but of little practical impact given the real political and institutional setting. Centralized management indeed assumes a cooperative attitude and full information exchange by the involved parties. However, when decision-makers belong to different countries or institutions, it is very likely that they act considering only their local objectives, producing global externalities that negatively impact on other objectives. In this work we adopt a Multi-Agent Systems framework, which naturally allows to represent a set of self-interested agents (decision-makers and/or stakeholders) acting in a distributed decision-making process. According to this agent-based approach, each agent represents a decision-maker, whose decisions are defined by an explicit optimization problem considering only the agent's local interests. In particular, this work assesses the role of information exchange and increasing level of cooperation among originally non-cooperative agents. The Zambezi River basin is used to illustrate the methodology: the four largest reservoirs in the basin (Ithezhithezhi, Kafue-Gorge, Kariba and Cahora Bassa) are mainly operated for maximizing the economic revenue from hydropower energy production with considerably negative effects on the aquatic ecosystem in the Zambezi delta due to the alteration of the natural flow regime. We comparatively analyse the ideal centralized solution and the current situation where all the decision-makers act independently and non-cooperatively. Indeed, although a new basin-level institution called Zambezi Watercourse Commission

  7. Starting Point: Linking Methods and Materials for Introductory Geoscience Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; MacDonald, R. H.; Merritts, D.; Savina, M.

    2004-12-01

    Introductory courses are one of the most challenging teaching environments for geoscience faculty. Courses are often large, students have a wide variety of background and skills, and student motivation can include completing a geoscience major, preparing for a career as teacher, fulfilling a distribution requirement, and general interest. The Starting Point site (http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/index.html) provides help for faculty teaching introductory courses by linking together examples of different teaching methods that have been used in entry-level courses with information about how to use the methods and relevant references from the geoscience and education literature. Examples span the content of geoscience courses including the atmosphere, biosphere, climate, Earth surface, energy/material cycles, human dimensions/resources, hydrosphere/cryosphere, ocean, solar system, solid earth and geologic time/earth history. Methods include interactive lecture (e.g think-pair-share, concepTests, and in-class activities and problems), investigative cases, peer review, role playing, Socratic questioning, games, and field labs. A special section of the site devoted to using an Earth System approach provides resources with content information about the various aspects of the Earth system linked to examples of teaching this content. Examples of courses incorporating Earth systems content, and strategies for designing an Earth system course are also included. A similar section on Teaching with an Earth History approach explores geologic history as a vehicle for teaching geoscience concepts and as a framework for course design. The Starting Point site has been authored and reviewed by faculty around the country. Evaluation indicates that faculty find the examples particularly helpful both for direct implementation in their classes and for sparking ideas. The help provided for using different teaching methods makes the examples particularly useful. Examples are chosen from

  8. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical

  9. Connecting Geoscience and Decision Makers Through a Common Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, L. M.; Wood, C.; Boland, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscientists and decision makers often use different words to describe the same thing. The American Geosciences Institute has developed a consistent definition for the geosciences (Wilson, 2014); however this definition often varies from how decision maker groups at the national, state, local, and regional levels often categorize geoscience topics. Where geoscientists may to refer to "geoscience," decision makers may use terms like "energy," "environment," and "natural resources." How may the geoscience community provide geoscience information to decision makers in a context they understand while at the same time providing a simple, yet consistent representation of all that the geosciences include? The American Geoscience Institute's (AGI's) Critical Issues program's main goal is to connect decision makers at all levels with decision-relevant, impartial, expert information from across the geosciences. The program uses a multi-faceted approach to reach different decision maker groups, including policy makers and government employees at the federal, state and local level. We discuss the challenges the Critical Issues program has overcome in representing the geosciences to decision makers in a cohesive fashion such that decision makers can access the information they need, while at the same time becoming aware of the breadth of information the geosciences has to offer, and the value of including geoscience in the decision-making process. References: Wilson, C.E. (2014) Status of the Geoscience Workforce 2014. American Geological Institute. Alexandria, VA.

  10. Summaries of FY 91 geosciences research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound foundation of fundamental knowledge in those areas of the geosciences which are germane to the Department of Energy's many missions. The Division of Engineering and Geosciences, part of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Office of Energy Research supports the Geosciences Research Program. The participants in this program include Department of Energy laboratories, academic institutions, and other governmental agencies. Theses activities are formalized by a contract or grant between the Department of Energy and the organization performing the work, providing funds for salaries, equipment, research materials, and overhead. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the scope of the individual programs. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, solar physics, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology, and natural resource modeling and analysis, including their various subdivisions and interdisciplinary areas. All such research is related either directly or indirectly to the Department of Energy's long-range technological needs. 2 tabs.

  11. Summaries of FY 92 geosciences research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound foundation of fundamental knowledge in those areas of the geosciences that are germane to the Department of Energy's many missions. The Division of Engineering and Geosciences, part of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Office of Energy Research, supports the Geosciences Research Program. The participants in this program include Department of Energy laboratories, academic institutions, and other governmental agencies. These activities are formalized by a contract or grant between the Department of Energy and the organization performing the work, providing funds for salaries, equipment, research materials, and overhead. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the scope of the individual programs. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geophysics, geochemistry, resource evaluation, solar-terrestrial interactions and their subdivisions including Earth dynamics, properties of Earth materials, rock mechanics, underground imaging, rock-fluid interactions, continental scientific drilling, geochemical transport, solar/atmospheric physics, and modeling, with emphasis on the interdisciplinary areas. All such research is related either directly or indirectly to the Department of Energy's long-range technological needs.

  12. Ontology Reuse in Geoscience Semantic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayernik, M. S.; Gross, M. B.; Daniels, M. D.; Rowan, L. R.; Stott, D.; Maull, K. E.; Khan, H.; Corson-Rikert, J.

    2015-12-01

    The tension between local ontology development and wider ontology connections is fundamental to the Semantic web. It is often unclear, however, what the key decision points should be for new semantic web applications in deciding when to reuse existing ontologies and when to develop original ontologies. In addition, with the growth of semantic web ontologies and applications, new semantic web applications can struggle to efficiently and effectively identify and select ontologies to reuse. This presentation will describe the ontology comparison, selection, and consolidation effort within the EarthCollab project. UCAR, Cornell University, and UNAVCO are collaborating on the EarthCollab project to use semantic web technologies to enable the discovery of the research output from a diverse array of projects. The EarthCollab project is using the VIVO Semantic web software suite to increase discoverability of research information and data related to the following two geoscience-based communities: (1) the Bering Sea Project, an interdisciplinary field program whose data archive is hosted by NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL), and (2) diverse research projects informed by geodesy through the UNAVCO geodetic facility and consortium. This presentation will outline of EarthCollab use cases, and provide an overview of key ontologies being used, including the VIVO-Integrated Semantic Framework (VIVO-ISF), Global Change Information System (GCIS), and Data Catalog (DCAT) ontologies. We will discuss issues related to bringing these ontologies together to provide a robust ontological structure to support the EarthCollab use cases. It is rare that a single pre-existing ontology meets all of a new application's needs. New projects need to stitch ontologies together in ways that fit into the broader semantic web ecosystem.

  13. A new paradigm for geosciences information management

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, Stephen L.; Nasser, K.; Dorries, A. M.; Canepa, Julie Ann

    2002-01-01

    Over the past two decades, geoscientists have been increasingly engaged in providing answers to complex environmental problems with significant societal, political, and economic consequences. Today, these scientists have to perform under increasingly greater visibility to stakeholders and the general public. Their activities are much more scrutinized with regards to economic pressure, litigation support and regulatory compliance than in the past. Their current work is built on decades of past work and in many cases will continue for decades to come. Stakeholders are increasingly evaluating raw data rather than just examining summaries in final reports. They also need assurance that proper data control and data quality procedures were followed. Geoscientists are now faced with a new paradigm, i.e. with the challenge of cost effectively collecting, managing, analyzing, and synthesizing enormous volumes of multidisciplinary and complex information. In addition, these data must be processed and disseminated in a way that allows the public to make informed and rational assessments on decisions that are proposed or have been made. The new paradigm is clear - client and stakeholder needs must be better met, and the systems used to store and generate data must meet these needs. This paper addresses the challenges and the implications of this new paradigm on geosciences information management in the 21st Century. It concludes with a case study for a successful implementation of the new paradigm in an environmental restoration project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that is operated by the Department of Energy (DOE). LANL is upgrading and reengineering its data and business processes to better address client, user and stakeholder issues regarding data accessibility, control and quality.

  14. Developing Resources for Teaching Ethics in Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogk, David W.; Geissman, John W.

    2014-11-01

    Ethics education is an increasingly important component of the pre-professional training of geoscientists. Geoethics encompasses the values and professional standards required of geoscientists to work responsibly in any geoscience profession and in service to society. Funding agencies (e.g., the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health) require training of graduate students in the responsible conduct of research; employers are increasingly expecting their workers to have basic training in ethics; and the public demands the highest standards of ethical conduct by scientists. However, there is currently no formal course of instruction in ethics in the geoscience curriculum, and few faculty members have the experience, resources, and sometimes willingness required to teach ethics as a component of their geoscience courses.

  15. Social Technologies to Jump Start Geoscience Careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, Christopher; Martinez, Cynthia; Gonzales, Leila

    2010-05-01

    Collaborative and social technologies have been increasingly used to facilitate distributed data collection and observation in science. However, "Web 2.0" and basic social media are seeing limited coordinated use in building student and early-career geoscientists knowledge and understanding of the profession and career for which they have undertaken. The current generation of geology students and early career professionals are used to ready access to myriad of information and interaction opportunities, but they remain largely unaware about the geoscience profession, what the full scope of their opportunities are, and how to reach across institutional and subdisciplinary boundaries to build their own professional network. The American Geological Institute Workforce Program has tracked and supported the human resources of the geosciences since 1952. With the looming retirement of Baby Boomers, increasing demand for quality geoscientists, and a continued modest supply of students entering the geosciences, AGI is working to strengthen the human resource pipeline in the geosciences globally. One aspect of this effort is the GeoConnection Network, which is an integrated set of social networking, media sharing and communication Web 2.0 applications designed to engage students in thinking about careers in the geosciences and enabling them to build their own personal professional network. Developed by the American Geological Institute (AGI), GeoConnection links practicing and prospective geoscientists in an informal setting to share information about the geoscience profession, including student and career opportunities, current events, and future trends in the geosciences. The network includes a Facebook fan page, YouTube Channel, Twitter account and GeoSpectrum blog, with the goal of helping science organizations and departments recruit future talent to the geoscience workforce. On the social-networking platform, Facebook, the GeoConnection page is a forum for students and

  16. Joint probability of sea waves and river discharges: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Francesco; Besio, Giovanni; Mentaschi, Lorenzo

    2015-04-01

    The main drivers of physical processes acting in estuarine areas are river discharge and sea waves. The first is responsible for fresh water fluxes, sediment, nutrient and pollutants transport, the second for the diffusion and for littoral dynamics. The description of phenomena evolving between the end of a river and the proximal sea area is challenging because of the difference in water stage, salinity, direction of water fluxes and currents. Rarely coastal areas and proximal rivers mouths are studied in a coupled way, but indeed they should be seen as a continuum and not as two uncorrelated realities separated by a rigid edge. Indeed observations suggest how extreme events as wave storm and river floods are often simultaneous because they are generated by the same large perturbations. In this work we explore the bivariate distribution of daily river discharge and daily average of sea waves with reference to estuarine areas. We will consider three points on the Sicilian (Italy) shoreline as case studies: one on the North, one in the East and the latter in the South-West coast. Each considered point is an outlet of a basin where measured or reconstructed streamflow series are available from 1979 to 2010. The considered basins differ also in area, ranging from 100 up to 4000 km2. In the same time slot, wave series have been obtained taking advantage of a reanalysis database elaborated on a hourly basis with a model implemented at DICCA (www.dicca.unige.it/meteocean) on the whole Mediterranean basin. Results show large part of relative frequencies in the range of low discharge and small waves and an exponential decrease for increasing wave height and river flow. Extreme floods never occur in calm sea conditions as sea storms are often accompanied by high levels of river discharges.

  17. Using stable isotopes to resolve transit times and travel routes of river water: a case study from southern Finland.

    PubMed

    Niinikoski, Paula I A; Hendriksson, Nina M; Karhu, Juha A

    2016-01-01

    The stable isotopic composition of two rivers, the Vantaanjoki River and the Kokemäenjoki River, in southern and southwestern Finland was studied to resolve the transit times and travel routes of the river water in the two different catchments. The Kokemäenjoki River is dominated by great lake basins whereas the Vantaanjoki River has been reported having a significant groundwater component. The mean residence time of the young surface flow component could be resolved by sine function fitting onto the annual fluctuations of the isotopic signal, and the amount of base flow was estimated by using the isotopic composition of the river and groundwater. In this study, we found that the methods work for simple two component catchments. In more complex cases with three different components mixing, the solution becomes increasingly difficult and requires more study. PMID:26745444

  18. Evaluation of total nitrogen pollution reduction strategies in a river basin: a case study.

    PubMed

    Drolc, A; Kondan, J Z; Cotman, M

    2001-01-01

    The enrichment of groundwater and rivers by nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) and their consequences is one of the most severe problems across Europe as well in Slovenia. Transfer of nutrients from different sources into the environment causes eutrophication of surface waters, nitrate accumulation in groundwater, and others. In this paper, the methodology of the material flow analysis is presented and applied to develop a nitrogen balance in a river basin and to evaluate different scenarios for total nitrogen pollution reduction. Application of the methodology is illustrated by means of a case study on the Krka river, Slovenia. Different scenarios are to be considered: the present level of sewerage and treatment capacities, different stages of wastewater treatment and management of agricultural activities on land. The results show that beside effluents from wastewater treatment plants, agriculture contributes significantly to the total annual nitrogen load. Beside reduction of point sources by means of wastewater collection and implementation of nutrient removal technology, managing agricultural nitrogen in order to protect river water quality and drinking water supply should become a major challenge in the Krka river basin.

  19. Summaries of physical research in the geosciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound foundation of fundamental knowledge in those areas of earth, atmospheric, and solar-terrestrial sciences that are germane to the Department of Energy's many missions. The summaries in the document describe the scope of the individual programs and detail the research performed during 1982 to 1983. The Geoscience Research Program includes research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology, and natural resource analysis, including the various subdivisions and interdisciplinary areas. All such research is related either directly or indirectly to the Department of Energy's technological needs.

  20. Summaries of physical research in the geosciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound foundation of fundamental knowledge in those areas that are germane to the Department of Energy's many missions. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the scope of the individual programs. The Geoscience Research Program includes research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology, and natural resource analysis, including their various subdivisions and interdisciplinary areas. All such research is related either directly or indirectly to the Department of Energy's technological needs.

  1. Summaries of physical research in the geosciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound foundation of fundamental knowledge in those areas of earth, atmospheric, and solar-terrestrial sciences that are germane to the Department of Energy's many missions. The summaries describe the scope of the individual programs and detail the research performed during 1980 to 1981. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology, and natural resource analysis, including the various subdivisions and interdisciplinary areas.

  2. Sediment transport patterns and climate change: the downstream Tuul River case study, Northern Mongolia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietroń, Jan; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2014-05-01

    Ongoing changes in the Central Asian climate including increasing temperatures can influence the hydrological regimes of rivers and the waterborne transport of sediments. Changes in the latter, especially in combination with adverse human activities, may severely impact water quality and aquatic ecosystems. However, waterborne transport of sediments is a result of complex processes and varies considerably between, and even within, river systems. There is therefore a need to increase our general knowledge about sediment transport under changing climate conditions. The Tuul River, the case site of this study, is located in the upper part of the basin of the Selenga River that is the main tributary to Lake Baikal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Like many other rivers located in the steppes of Northern Mongolia, the Tuul River is characterized by a hydrological regime that is not disturbed by engineered structures such as reservoirs and dams. However, the water quality of the downstream Tuul River is increasingly affected by adverse human activities - including placer gold mining. The largest contribution to the annual river discharge occurs during the relatively warm period in May to August. Typically, there are numerous rainfall events during this period that cause considerable river flow peaks. Parallel work has furthermore shown that due to climate change, the daily variability of discharge and numbers of peak flow events in the Tuul River Basin has increased during the past 60 years. This trend is expected to continue. We here aim at increasing our understanding of future sediment transport patterns in the Tuul River, specifically considering the scenario that peak flow events may become more frequent due to climate change. We use a one-dimensional sediment transport model of the downstream reach of the river to simulate natural patterns of sediment transport for a recent hydrological year. In general, the results show that sediment transport varies considerably

  3. Researcher, Teacher, Education Researcher: The Evolution of a University Geoscience Instructor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Katharine D.; Steer, David; McConnell, David

    2006-01-01

    This case study describes a professor's evolution from geoscience researcher to effective teacher to education researcher. The article details his initial beliefs about teaching, looks at the factors that prompted him to seek a different teaching approach, and enumerates the supports and challenges that he had on his journey. Factors essential to…

  4. Ensemble streamflow forecasting experiments in a tropical basin: The São Francisco river case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Fernando Mainardi; Collischonn, Walter; Meller, Adalberto; Botelho, Luiz César Mendes

    2014-11-01

    The present study shows experiments of ensemble forecasting applied to a large tropical river basin, where such forecasting methodologies have many potential applications. The case study is the Três Marias hydroelectric power plant basin (Brazil), on the São Francisco river, where forecast results are particularly important for reservoir operation and downstream flood control. Results showed some benefits in the use of ensembles, particularly for the reservoir inflow on flooding events, and in comparison to the deterministic values given by the control member of the ensemble and by the ensemble mean. The study also discusses the improvements that must be tested and implemented in order to achieve better results, what is particularly important for the smaller basins within the study case. Despite the necessary improvements mentioned, the results suggest that benefits can result from the application of ensemble forecasts for hydropower plants with large basins within the Brazilian energy system.

  5. Geoscience Alliance--A National Alliance for Broadening Participation of Native Americans in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbotten, D. M.; Pellerin, H.; Greensky, L.; Burger, A.

    2009-12-01

    The continuing underrepresentation of Native Americans in the geosciences can only mean that native voices go unheard in setting research agendas and priorities. This is particularly significant where issues such as global climate change impact the land and livelihood of Native American communities. This talk will outline progress towards a Geoscience Alliance, with participation by faculty from tribal colleges, universities, and research centers; native elders and community members; students (K12, undergraduate, and graduate); formal and informal educators; and other interested individuals. Our focus will be on defining goals for this alliance, i.e., new research in Geoscience education, defining best practices, inclusion of Native voices in Geoscience research, the potential for new collaborations, and promotion of opportunities for Native students and communities.

  6. An Undergraduate Student's Perspective on Geoscience Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, A.; Feeley, T.; Michelfelder, G.

    2011-12-01

    Traditionally, the roles of field experiences in geoscience teaching have come from experienced instructors and researchers with a dedicated interest in how students learn. In this presentation we provide the opposite perspective; that of an undergraduate student at the beginning of her research career. We discuss the benefits and challenges associated with the initial field work and extend our discussion to include subsequent analytical-based laboratory studies. At Montana State University we are addressing key questions related to magma generation and differentiation at three volcanoes in the Central Andes. These are Volcan Uturuncu in southwest Bolivia and the Lazufre system consisting of Lastarria volcano and Cordon del Azufre in Chile and Argentina. To address these issues students collected rock samples and mapped lava flows in the field during the past two Spring Semesters. Upon return to campus the students prepared the samples for whole rock and mineral analyses, followed by travel to and work in external laboratories analyzing and collecting high precision geochemical data. The benefits these experiences provide include the following. First, due to the localities of the field sites, students become familiar with the difficult logistics associated with planning and performing field work in remote localities. Second, in performing the field work, students gain an appreciation of scale and exposure; topics not typically addressed in standard course work. Third, through close interaction with internal and external faculty, graduate students, and professional geologists, undergraduate students build strong relationships with scientists in the area of their interests. Fourth, by acquiring and interpreting high quality field and analytical data, they learn in-depth about modern philosophies, technologies, and data in the geosciences, providing them with skills and experiences that will be of value in their future careers or graduate work. They also learn how to

  7. Practical Software Sustainability Models for Geoscience Communities and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempler, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    There are many, active Geoscience-related efforts around data support infrastructures, with an eye towards enabling improved access, usability, and sharing cross scientific disciplines. Beyond that and even beyond consistent and compatible interfaces between those data infrastructures and the software that relies on them, lies the challenge of sustainable and compatible software systems. There is a need to establish guidelines and mechanisms for collaboration and coordination around software interoperability within and between software communities. These software communities include multiple parties developing a full software stack: from operating systems and foundation infrastructure, to off-the-shelf vendor-supplied applications, to partner and community-developed codes, all the way to the end-user tools, used once or repeatedly. Expanding the scope of the challenge is the reality that users of these software stacks are no longer solely from the geoscience community; more and more research and industry disciplines and the general public are accessing and using data and tools previously contained to the geoscience arena. Finally, the increased focus on research transparency and reproducibility creates additional requirements that developers of software must design to, whether for desktop, mobile, cloud-based, or even instrument- and hardware-based software systems.This talk will discuss the challenges involved in developing sustainable software within and across communities, including the various types of users and use cases that will need to be taken into account to build a successful model. In addition, the talk will outline requirements and potential solutions for addressing and achieving the level and consistency of coordination and quality required to support and sustain enduring software and effective software communities that use and support it.

  8. Status and Future of Lunar Geoscience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1986

    A review of the status, progress, and future direction of lunar research is presented in this report from the lunar geoscience working group of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Information is synthesized and presented in four major sections. These include: (1) an introduction (stating the reasons for lunar study and identifying…

  9. Types of Concepts in Geoscience Ontologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodaric, B.

    2006-05-01

    Ontologies are increasingly viewed as a key enabler of scientific research in cyber-infrastructures. They provide a way of digitally representing the meaning of concepts embedded in the theories and models of geoscience, enabling such representations to be compared and contrasted computationally. This facilitates the discovery, integration and communication of digitally accessible geoscience resources, and potentially helps geoscientists attain new knowledge. As ontologies are typically built to closely reflect some aspect or viewpoint of a domain, recognizing significant ontological patterns within the domain should thus lead to more useful and robust ontologies. A key idea then motivating this work is the notion that geoscience concepts possess an ontological pattern that helps not only structure them, but also aids ontology development in disciplines where concepts are similarly abstracted from geospatial regions, such as in ecology, soil science, etc. Proposed is an ontology structure in which six basic concept types are identified, defined, and organized in increasing levels of abstraction, including a level for general concepts (e.g. 'granite') and a level for concepts specific to a geospace-time region (e.g. 'granites of Ireland'). Discussed will be the six concept types, the proposed structure that organizes them, and several examples from geoscience. Also mentioned will be the significant implementation challenges faced but not addressed by the proposed structure. In general, the proposal prioritizes conceptual granularity over its engineering deficits, but this prioritization remains to be tested in serious applications.

  10. Geoscience Field Education: A Recent Resurgence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmeyer, Steven J.; Mogk, David W.

    2009-10-01

    Field education traditionally has been an integral component of undergraduate geoscience curricula. Students have learned the fundamentals of field techniques during core geology courses and have honed their field credentials during class-specific field trips, semester-long field courses, and capstone summer field camps. In many geoscience departments, field camp remains a graduation requirement, and more than 100 field camps currently are offered by U.S. universities and colleges (see http://geology.com/field-camp.shtml). During the past several decades, however, many geoscience departments have moved away from traditional geologic fieldwork and toward a broader theoretical and laboratory-intensive focus that encompasses a range of subdisciplines. Trends that have influenced these shifts include (1) the decline in the late twentieth century of the petroleum and mining industries, which have consistently championed the values of fieldwork; (2) a decrease in the number of professional jobs that incorporate field mapping; (3) a decline in the number of geoscience majors nationwide [American Geological Institute (AGI), 2009]; and (4) barriers to fieldwork, including time requirements, cost, liability, and decreasing access to field sites.

  11. Developing Effective K-16 Geoscience Research Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnik, Paul J.; Ross, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of research partnerships between scientists and K-16 students. Regards the partnerships as effective vehicles for teaching scientific logic, processes, and content by integrating inquiry-based educational approaches with innovative research questions. Reviews integrated research and education through geoscience partnerships.…

  12. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System Laser Transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afzal, R. S.; Dallas, J. L.; Yu, A. W.; Mamakos, W. A.; Lukemire, A.; Schroeder, B.; Malak, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), scheduled to launch in 2001, is a laser altimeter and lidar for tile Earth Observing System's (EOS) ICESat mission. The laser transmitter requirements, design and qualification test results for this space- based remote sensing instrument are presented.

  13. The Geoscience Laser Altimetry/Ranging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Steven C.; Degnan, John J., III; Bufton, Jack L.; Garvin, James B.; Abshire, James B.

    1987-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimetry/Ranging System (GLARS), a combined laser ranging and altimetry system capable of subcentimeter position determinations of retroflector targets and subdecimeter profiling of topography, is described. The system uses advanced but currently available state-of-the-art components. Laboratory, field, and numerical experiments have indicated the suitability of GLARS as an instrument for Eos and other space platforms.

  14. Summaries of physical research in the geosciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The summaries in this document describe the scope of the individual programs and detail the research performed during 1984-1985. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology, and natural resource analysis, including their various subdivisions and interdisciplinary areas.

  15. Mercury speciation in fish tissues from a Mediterranean River basin: the Tagus River (central Spain) as a case study.

    PubMed

    Nevado, J J Berzas; Martín-Doimeadios, R C Rodríguez; Bernardo, F J Guzmán; Moreno, M Jiménez; Ropero, M J Patiño; Serrano, A de Marcos

    2011-11-01

    An assessment of mercury (Hg) accumulation in fish from the Tagus River aquatic system (central Spain), which has been influenced by pollution from industrial and urban development, was performed. Total Hg (THg), inorganic Hg (IHg), and monomethylmercury (MMHg) were determined in muscle and liver of different fish species, including Cyprinus carpio, Ameiurus melas, and Chondrostoma miegii, sampled from three locations. Although concentrations of THg and Hg species showed wide variability among the fish species, they were also found to be considerably dependent on location and fish tissue. Relative contents of MMHg to THg in muscle varied from 60 to 88%, whereas those found in liver ranged from 7 to 59%. Mean THg concentrations ranged from 126 to 810 ng/g (dry weight [dw]) in liver and from 159 to 1057 ng/g dw in muscle. Therefore, the mean THg concentration in all fish muscle samples was far lower than the maximum residue level recommended by the European Union for fishery products. Nevertheless, the concentrations of Hg in fish muscle reported in this study were somewhat increased compared with other areas geographically distant from most major anthropogenic Hg sources and, in some cases, even greater than those previously reported elsewhere in more polluted areas. In contrast, Hg contents in liver were lower than those found in Hg-contaminated areas, but they were within the range found in other areas exposed to diffuse sources of pollution by Hg. Thus, this article provides an overview of the concentration and distribution of Hg species in fish muscle and liver tissues samples taken from a freshwater system in the Mediterranean River basin. PMID:21472454

  16. Geophysical logging case history of the Raft River geothermal system, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, J.K.; Moens, T.A.

    1980-04-01

    Drilling to evaluate the geothermal resource in the Raft River Valley began in 1974 and resulted in the discovery of a geothermal reservoir at a depth of approximately 1523 m (500 ft). Several organizations and companies have been involved in the geophysical logging program. There is no comprehensive report on the geophysical logging, nor has there been a complete interpretation. The objectives of this study are to make an integrated interpretation of the available data and compile a case history. Emphasis has been on developing a simple interpretation scheme from a minimum of data sets. The Raft River geothermal system occurs in the Raft River Valley, which is a portion of the Basin and Range geomorphic province located in south central Idaho, south of the Snake River Plain. The valley is a late Cenozoic structural downwarp bounded by faults on the west, south, and east. The downwarp is filled with Tertiary and Paleozoic sediments, metasediments, and volcanics that overlie Precambrian rocks. The variety of rock types, the presence of alteration products, and the variability of fracturing make reliable interpretations difficult. However, the cross plotting of various parameters has allowed a determination of rock types and an analysis of the degree of alteration and the density of fractures. Thus, one can determine the relevant data necessary to assess a geothermal reservoir in similar rock types and use cross plots to potentially define the producing zones.

  17. Civil society and sanitation hydropolitics: A case study of South Africa’s Vaal River Barrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempelhoff, Johann W. N.

    The Vaal River Barrage, situated on the south-eastern border of the Gauteng Province, has been part of the hydrological landscape of South Africa’s most populous and economically active region for more than eight decades. After its completion in 1923 the Barrage was compromised by the construction, upstream, of the Vaal Dam (1930-1933). Today the Vaal River Barrage is primarily a storage facility of sewage and industrial waste water. South Africa’s transition to a multi-racial democracy in 1994 saw a number of socio-economic and political transformations that affected the water infrastructure. In the field of sanitation infrastructure in particular, conditions have deteriorated to the extent that the health of people in many parts of the country is being compromised. Using the Vaal River Barrage as a case study, this article outlines the efforts by civil society to make the relevant government sectors aware of this hazardous state of affairs. particular attention is given to save our Vaal environment (SAVE), a non-governmental organisation, at the helm of an active campaign to reduce pollution in the Vaal River Barrage.

  18. Transforming Undergraduate Geoscience Education with an Innovative Google Earth-based Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Undergraduate curricula in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology have been developed over centuries and have reached a high level of national and international consistency. No matter where students study as school pupils or undergraduates, they are expected to have taken universally recognized units in electromagnetism or organic chemistry or evolution. In contrast, geoscience curricula vary widely with institution and region. Even the names of geoscience departments (geology, geological sciences, geology and geography, earth science, earth and planetary science, earth and environmental science, geology) reflect the diversity of geoscience curricula. In part, this may result from the relative youth of geoscience as a fundamental science discipline, and in part it may reflect the influence of local field areas and resources. Students in Kansas are likely to be exposed to more stratigraphy and sedimentology and less igneous and metamorphic petrology than students in, say, New Hampshire. Geoscience has been slow to catch on in community colleges and distance learning centers in large part because of the difficulty of teaching a field-based subject without the legacy of specimen and map collections that older geology departments accumulated over the decades. Google Earth has great potential to to "Level the Playing Field" by exposing students to universal geoscientific core concepts on scales from an astronaut's view of the planet down to outcrop details. We present case studies of Google Earth-based geoscience curricular units suited to introductory courses in diverse institutions. With the aid of virtual COLLADA models of structures, virtual specimens, and deep-zoom Gigapan images, students from diverse backgrounds can share almost real field experiences across the virtual globe.

  19. Value and Resilience in the Case of 'Invasive' Tamarix in the Colorado River Riparian Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loring, P. A.; Gerlach, S.; Zamora, F.

    2009-12-01

    A common premise of science for conservation and sustainability is an assumption that despite any human definitions of value, there are ecological first principles, e.g., resilience, which must be understood if sustainability is to be possible. As I show here, however, pursuits such as restoration, conservation, and sustainability remain tangled in (and sometimes at odds with one another regarding) many value-laden decisions regarding the equity, justice, and morality of human-environment interactions. These include such important decisions as: what should be restored or sustained and for whom, how and by whom, and at what cost. This paper uses examples from the lower Colorado River Riparian Corridor, in particular the issue of the so-called ‘invasive’ saltcedar (Tamarix spp.), to illustrate some of the implicit value judgments common to the practice of managing ecosystems. There are many possible perspectives to be taken on a matter like Tamarix, each implicitly or explicitly representing different worldviews and agendas for the ecosystems in question. Resilience theory provides one such perspective, but as I show here, it proves incapable of producing recommendations for managing the corridor that are free of subjective valuations. I end with a case study of habitat and Tamarix management practices in the Mexican portion of the Colorado River Delta, highlighting the proven potential when up-front values are explicitly coupled to the practice of sustainability science, rather than left as details for 'good governance,' a realm presently imagined as separate from science, to sort out. Map of the Colorado River Delta. The Sonoran Institute manages projects in the Mexican portion of the Colorado River Delta region, along the Rio Hardy, the mainstem of the Colorado River in Baja California, MX and in the Cienega de Santa Clara wetlands, Sonora, MX. Map courtesy of Water Education Foundation. www.watereducation.org

  20. Continental Sources, Sinks and the Human Factor in Large Tropical Rivers: the Case of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latrubesse, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of river basins sediment yield at a continental scale and accumulation in sedimentary basins (sinks) provides useful information for quantitative models of landscape evolution, geochemical and sediment mass balance studies for estimating continental and regional net erosion intensities, to assess the volume of solids and to provide understanding to a variety of environmental and engineering applications. Although several estimations exist on the flow of sediments by large rivers from the continent to the Ocean, the role of continental sedimentary basins and fluvial environments (large rivers, megafans) acting as major sedimentary sinks is still partially understood. This assessment is additionally complicated by the human activities that contributed to modify the original rates of production, trapping and transference of sediments at continental scales. South America is an ideal place to discuss these aspects because it contains a) the longest mountain chain of the planet, the Andes; b) the longest and more extensive foreland systems, c) huge lowlands/plains, d) the largest rivers, e) the largest megafans, f) major intracratonic, continental platform and aulacogen sedimentary basins. The analysis of some of the most active sedimentary basins of the continent can help to improve our perspective on what can be preserved and how much sediment is being stored by fluvial systems. In this presentation I assess the biggest source areas and the larges trapping systems at continental scale with focus on megarivers and megafans, as well us I discuss some study cases of sediment budgets in large rivers that were intensively modified by human disturbances in recent times (dams, deforestation, etc).

  1. Design for Scalability: A Case Study of the River City Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Jody; Dede, Chris

    2009-08-01

    One-size-fits-all educational innovations do not work because they ignore contextual factors that determine an intervention's efficacy in a particular local situation. This paper presents a framework on how to design educational innovations for scalability through enhancing their adaptability for effective usage in a wide variety of settings. The River City multi-user virtual environment (MUVE), a technology-based curriculum designed to enhance engagement and learning in middle school science, is presented as a case study. To date over 250 teachers and 15,000 students throughout the United States and Canada have participated in the River City curriculum. Designers creating and evolving interventions can use this scaling framework to help them increase effectiveness, sustainability, and spread.

  2. Building a Community for Art and Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Ellins, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    Several new avenues are in place for building and supporting a community of people interested in the art and geoscience connections. Although sessions advocating for art in teaching geoscience have been scattered through geoscience professional meetings for several decades, there is now a sustained presence of artists and geoscientists with their research and projects at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union. In 2011, 13 abstracts were submitted and, in 2013, 20 talks and posters were presented at the annual meeting. Participants have requested more ways to connect with each other as well as advocate for this movement of art and science to others. Several words can describe new initiatives to do this: Social, Collaborative, Connected, Informed, Networked, and Included. Social activities of informal dinners, lunches, and happy hour for interested people in the past year have provided opportunity for presenters at AGU to spend time getting to know one another. This has resulted in at least two new collaborative projects. The nascent Bella Roca and more established Geology in Art websites and their associated blogs at www.bellaroca.org and http://geologyinart.blogspot.com, respectively are dedicated to highlighting the work of artists inspired by the geosciences, connecting people and informing the community of exhibits and opportunities for collaboration. Bella Roca with its social media of Facebook (Bella Roca) and Twitter (@BellRocaGeo), is a direct outgrowth of the recent 2012 and 2013 AGU sessions and, hopefully, can be grown and sustained for this community. Articles in professional journals will also help inform the broader geoscience community of the benefit of engaging with artists and designers for both improved science knowledge and communication. Organizations such as Leonardo, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology, the Art Science Gallery in Austin, Texas also promote networking among artists and scientists with

  3. Visualizing Geoscience Concepts Through Textbook Art (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshak, S.

    2013-12-01

    Many, if not most, college students taking an introductory geoscience course purchase, borrow, download, or rent one of several commercial textbooks currently available. Art used in such books has evolved significantly over the past three decades. Concepts once conveyed only by black-and-white line drawings, drawn by hand in ink, have gradually been replaced by full-color images produced digitally. Multiple high-end graphics programs, when used in combination, can yield images with super-realistic textures and palettes so that, in effect, anything that a book author wants to be drawn can be drawn. Because of the time and skill level involved in producing the art, the process commonly involves professional artists. In order to produce high-quality geoscience art that can help students (who are, by definition, non-experts) understand concepts, develop geoscience intuition, and hone their spatial-visualization skills, an author must address two problems. First, design a figure which can convey complex concepts through visual elements that resonate with students. Second, communicate the concepts to a professional artist who does not necessarily have personal expertise in geoscience, so that the figure rendered is both technically correct and visually engaging. The ultimate goal of geoscience art in textbooks is to produce an image that avoids unnecessary complexity that could distract from the art's theme, includes sufficient realism for a non-expert to relate the image to the real world, provides a personal context in which to interpret the figure, and has a layout that conveys relationships among multiple components of the art so that the art tells a coherent story. To accomplish this goal, a chain of choices--about perspective, sizes, colors, texture, labeling, captioning, line widths, and fonts--must be made in collaboration between the author and artist. In the new world of computer-aided learning, figures must also be able to work both on the computer screen and

  4. Finding faults: analogical comparison supports spatial concept learning in geoscience.

    PubMed

    Jee, Benjamin D; Uttal, David H; Gentner, Dedre; Manduca, Cathy; Shipley, Thomas F; Sageman, Bradley

    2013-05-01

    A central issue in education is how to support the spatial thinking involved in learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We investigated whether and how the cognitive process of analogical comparison supports learning of a basic spatial concept in geoscience, fault. Because of the high variability in the appearance of faults, it may be difficult for students to learn the category-relevant spatial structure. There is abundant evidence that comparing analogous examples can help students gain insight into important category-defining features (Gentner in Cogn Sci 34(5):752-775, 2010). Further, comparing high-similarity pairs can be especially effective at revealing key differences (Sagi et al. 2012). Across three experiments, we tested whether comparison of visually similar contrasting examples would help students learn the fault concept. Our main findings were that participants performed better at identifying faults when they (1) compared contrasting (fault/no fault) cases versus viewing each case separately (Experiment 1), (2) compared similar as opposed to dissimilar contrasting cases early in learning (Experiment 2), and (3) viewed a contrasting pair of schematic block diagrams as opposed to a single block diagram of a fault as part of an instructional text (Experiment 3). These results suggest that comparison of visually similar contrasting cases helped distinguish category-relevant from category-irrelevant features for participants. When such comparisons occurred early in learning, participants were more likely to form an accurate conceptual representation. Thus, analogical comparison of images may provide one powerful way to enhance spatial learning in geoscience and other STEM disciplines. PMID:23436210

  5. Finding faults: analogical comparison supports spatial concept learning in geoscience.

    PubMed

    Jee, Benjamin D; Uttal, David H; Gentner, Dedre; Manduca, Cathy; Shipley, Thomas F; Sageman, Bradley

    2013-05-01

    A central issue in education is how to support the spatial thinking involved in learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We investigated whether and how the cognitive process of analogical comparison supports learning of a basic spatial concept in geoscience, fault. Because of the high variability in the appearance of faults, it may be difficult for students to learn the category-relevant spatial structure. There is abundant evidence that comparing analogous examples can help students gain insight into important category-defining features (Gentner in Cogn Sci 34(5):752-775, 2010). Further, comparing high-similarity pairs can be especially effective at revealing key differences (Sagi et al. 2012). Across three experiments, we tested whether comparison of visually similar contrasting examples would help students learn the fault concept. Our main findings were that participants performed better at identifying faults when they (1) compared contrasting (fault/no fault) cases versus viewing each case separately (Experiment 1), (2) compared similar as opposed to dissimilar contrasting cases early in learning (Experiment 2), and (3) viewed a contrasting pair of schematic block diagrams as opposed to a single block diagram of a fault as part of an instructional text (Experiment 3). These results suggest that comparison of visually similar contrasting cases helped distinguish category-relevant from category-irrelevant features for participants. When such comparisons occurred early in learning, participants were more likely to form an accurate conceptual representation. Thus, analogical comparison of images may provide one powerful way to enhance spatial learning in geoscience and other STEM disciplines.

  6. Community-based river management in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia: a case study of the Bau-Bau River.

    PubMed

    Manan, A; Ibrahim, M

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we explain the current condition of the Bau-Bau River, examine community participation for management of the river system, and consider options for improving the institutional capacity for a community-based approach. This assessment is based on a research project with the following objectives: (1) analyse the biophysical and socio-economic condition of the river as a basis for future planning; (2) identify current activities which contribute waste or pollution to the river; (3) assess the status and level of pollution in the river; (4) analyse community participation related to all stages of river management; and (5) identify future river management needs and opportunities. Due to the increasing population in Bau-Bau city, considerable new land is required for housing, roads, agriculture, social facilities, etc. Development in the city and elsewhere has increased run-off and erosion, as well as sedimentation in the river. In addition, household activities are generating more solid and domestic waste that causes organic pollution in the river. The research results show that the water quality in the upper river system is still good, whilst the quality of water in the vicinity of Bau-Bau city, from the mid-point of the watershed to the estuary, is not good, being contaminated with heavy metals (Cd and Pb) and organic pollutants. However, the levels of those pollutants are still below regulatory standards. The main reasons for pollution in the river are mainly lack of management for both liquid and solid wastes, as well as lack of community participation in river management. The government of Bau-Bau city and the community are developing a participatory approach for planning to restore and conserve the Bau-Bau River as well as the entire catchment. The activities of this project are: (1) forming institutional arrangements to support river conservation; (2) implementing extension initiatives to empower the community; (3) identifying a specific location to

  7. Trace metals in estuaries in the Russian Far East and China: case studies from the Amur River and the Changjiang.

    PubMed

    Shulkin, Vladimir; Zhang, Jing

    2014-11-15

    This paper compares the distributions of dissolved and particulate forms of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the estuaries of the largest rivers in East Asia: the Amur River and the Changjiang (Yangtze River). High suspended solid concentrations, elevated pH, and relatively low dissolved trace metal concentrations are characteristics of the Changjiang. Elevated dissolved Fe and Mn concentrations, neutral pH, and relatively low suspended solid concentrations are characteristics of the Amur River. The transfer of dissolved Fe to suspended forms is typical in the Amur River estuary, though Cd and Mn tend to mobilize to solution, and Cu and Ni are diluted in the estuarine system. Metal concentrations in suspended matter in the Amur River estuary are controlled by the ratio of terrigenous riverine material, enriched in Al and Fe, and marine biogenic particles, enriched in Cu, Mn, Cd, and in some cases Ni. The increase in dissolved forms of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb compared with river end-member is unique to the Changjiang estuary. Particle-solution interactions are not reflected in bulk suspended-solid metal concentrations in the Changjiang estuary due to the dominance of particulate forms of these metals. Cd is an exception in the Changjiang estuary, where the increase in dissolved Cd is of comparable magnitude to the decrease in particulate Cd. Despite runoff in the Amur River being lower than that in the Changjiang, the fluxes of dissolved Mn, Zn and Fe in the Amur River exceed those in the Changjiang. Dissolved Ni, and Cd fluxes are near equal in both estuaries, but dissolved Cu is lower in the Amur River estuary. The hydrological and physico-chemical river characteristics are dominated at the assessment of river influence on the adjoining coastal sea areas despite differences in estuarine processes.

  8. ESA's Earth Observation in Support of Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebig, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation Programme and its contribution to Geoscience. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and strategies. A special focus will be put on the Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme and focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. In addition the operational Sentinel satellites have a huge potential for Geoscience. Earth Explorers' emphasis is also on learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The process of Earth Explorer mission selection has given the Earth science community an efficient tool for advancing the understanding of Earth as a system.

  9. Summaries of FY 1994 geosciences research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The Geosciences Research Program is directed by the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Energy Research (OER) through its Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES). Activities in the Geosciences Research Program are directed toward the long-term fundamental knowledge of the processes that transport, modify, concentrate, and emplace (1) the energy and mineral resources of the earth and (2) the energy byproducts of man. The Program is divided into five broad categories: Geophysics and earth dynamics; Geochemistry; Energy resource recognition, evaluation, and utilization; Hydrogeology and exogeochemistry; and Solar-terrestrial interactions. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the scope of the individual programs in these main areas and their subdivisions including earth dynamics, properties of earth materials, rock mechanics, underground imaging, rock-fluid interactions, continental scientific drilling, geochemical transport, solar/atmospheric physics, and modeling, with emphasis on the interdisciplinary areas.

  10. The Canadian Geoscience Education Network: a collaborative grassroots effort to support geoscience education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bank, C.; Halfkenny, B.; Hymers, L.; Clinton, L.; Heenan, S.; Jackson, D.; Nowlan, G.; Haidl, F.; Vodden, C.

    2009-12-01

    The Canadian Geoscience Education Network (CGEN) numbers over 300 members who are active in promoting geoscience to the general public and especially in schools. Our membership spreads from coast to coast to coast in Canada and represents the wide range of geosciences. Most members work in education, government, industry, academia, or not-for-profit organizations. Our common goals are to (1) provide resources to teachers for the K-12 curriculum, (2) encourage students to pursue higher education and a rewarding career in geoscience, and (3) lobby to effect change to the school curriculum. Our strength is grounded in a grassroots approach (eg, regional chapters), flexible organization, and emphasis on a cost-effective style. Together we have created and maintain resources for teachers; for example, EdGEO (local workshops for teachers), Geoscape (community-based posters and lesson plans), and EarthNet (virtual resource centre). A new website showcases careers in the Earth sciences. CGEN members ensure that these resources remain current, promote them at individual outreach activities, and see to it that they are maintained. Although we have limited funding we draw strength from the networks of our members and capitalize on partnerships between seemingly disparate organizations and groups to get experts involved in the education of future geoscientists. (Details about CGEN may be found at http://www.geoscience.ca/cgen/principal.html.)

  11. Assessing ecological land use and water demand of river systems: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, D. H.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Qin, T. L.

    2012-08-01

    Economic and social development has greatly increased ecological water demand and modified land use of river systems worldwide, causing overall degradation of many of these systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks for regionalization on the eco-environmental function of river systems are formulated and applied to the Luanhe River system. Based on its eco-environmental functions, this river can be regionalized into four types of first-class functional areas: ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilization areas. Considering the overall eco-environmental functions, we assessed the ecological land use of the Luanhe River system. The total area of basic ecological land use is 876.98 km2; the restrictive ecological land use is 1745.52 km2; ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland is 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land is 17.35 km2. The average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River is 4.896 m3 s-1 based on the habitat method. And the recommended minimum and suitable annual ecological water demand of channels in the lower reaches are 391 million m3 and 819.5 million m3, respectively. The evaporation and seepage consumption and vegetation consumption in riparian zones of the Luanhe River system are approximately 132.6 million m3 and 145.3 million m3 per year, respectively. Our results suggest that is crucial to regulate the instream ecological water use of the Luanhe River's mainstream starting from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system. We recommend accelerating ecological land-use planning and strengthening the regulation of ecological water use on this river system focusing on important lower reaches under the condition of competitive water demand.

  12. We Can Recruit Minorities Into The Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, S.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the dismal numbers, efforts to recruit minorities into the geosciences are improving, thanks in part to NSF's "Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences" (OEDG) initiative. At Wesleyan University, a small liberal arts college in Connecticut, we have significantly increased our recruitment of minority students. Twenty percent (four students) of the class of 2013 are African American. Most of the recruitment is done on an individual basis and working in conjunction with the "Dean for Diversity and Student Engagement" and courting minority students in introductory classes. The Dean for Diversity and Student Engagement is aware of our interest in increasing diversity and that we are able to hire minority students during the academic year and through the summer with OEDG funds. When she identifies minority students who might be interested in the geosciences, she refers them to faculty in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Department. Our faculty can provide employment, mentoring and a variety of geo-related experiences. Courting students in introductory courses can include inviting them to lunch or other activity, and attending sports, theater or dance events in which they are participating. Not all efforts result in new majors. Courses in ancillary sciences may be stumbling blocks and higher grades in less demanding courses have lured some students into other majors. Nevertheless, we now have a large enough cohort of minority students so that minority students from other majors visit their friends in our labs. A critical mass? Even a student, who chooses another major, may continue an interest in geoscience and through outreach efforts and discussions with younger family members, may provide a bridge that becomes a conduit for future students.

  13. Smartphones: Powerful Tools for Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Zackary I.; Johnston, David W.

    2013-11-01

    Observation, formation of explanatory hypotheses, and testing of ideas together form the basic pillars of much science. Consequently, science education has often focused on the presentation of facts and theories to teach concepts. To a great degree, libraries and universities have been the historical repositories of scientific information, often restricting access to a small segment of society and severely limiting broad-scale geoscience education.

  14. Programming and Technology for Accessibility in Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevre, E.; Lee, S.

    2013-12-01

    Many people, students and professors alike, shy away from learning to program because it is often believed to be something scary or unattainable. However, integration of programming into geoscience education can be a valuable tool for increasing the accessibility of content for all who are interested. It is my goal to dispel these myths and convince people that: 1) Students with disabilities can use programming to increase their role in the classroom, 2) Everyone can learn to write programs to simplify daily tasks, 3) With a deep understanding of the task, anyone can write a program to do a complex task, 4) Technology can be combined with programming to create an inclusive environment for all students of geoscience, and 5) More advanced knowledge of programming and technology can lead geoscientists to create software to serve as assistive technology in the classroom. It is my goal to share my experiences using technology to enhance the classroom experience as a way of addressing the aforementioned issues. Through my experience, I have found that programming skills can be included and learned by all to enhance the content of courses without detracting from curriculum. I hope that, through this knowledge, geoscience courses can become more accessible for people with disabilities by including programming and technology to the benefit of all involved.

  15. Summaries of FY 1996 geosciences research

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The Geosciences Research Program is directed by the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Energy Research (OER) through its Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES). Activities in the Geosciences Research Program are directed toward building the long-term fundamental knowledge base necessary to provide for energy technologies of the future. Future energy technologies and their individual roles in satisfying the nations energy needs cannot be easily predicted. It is clear, however, that these future energy technologies will involve consumption of energy and mineral resources and generation of technological wastes. The earth is a source for energy and mineral resources and is also the host for wastes generated by technological enterprise. Viable energy technologies for the future must contribute to a national energy enterprise that is efficient, economical, and environmentally sound. The Geosciences Research Program emphasizes research leading to fundamental knowledge of the processes that transport, modify, concentrate, and emplace (1) the energy and mineral resources of the earth and (2) the energy by-products of man.

  16. The Public Communication of Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papatheodorou, Photini; Spathopoulos, Fivos

    2016-04-01

    Communication of scientific and technological developments to the public demands an in-depth understanding of relevant public perceptions and concerns and a resultant plan of action. Until recently, very little research and practice had been recorded on this front. The presentation wishes to promote the idea of dialogue as a tool for establishing public trust in scientific and technological development, in general. Different theoretical perspectives on public communication will be examined, as defined by current research. As a case study, the media coverage of shale gas and renewable energy sources projects around the world will be presented. The final proposition of the presentation will make the case of dialogue, as an effective form of engaging the public with scientific developments and will explore dialogic practices and their application in the fields of science and technology.

  17. Assessment of surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques: case study of the Nampong River and Songkhram River, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Muangthong, Somphinith; Shrestha, Sangam

    2015-09-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques such as cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA), and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied for the assessment of spatial and temporal variations of a large complex water quality data set of the Nampong River and Songkhram River, generated for more than 10 years (1996-2012) by monitoring of 16 parameters at different sites. According to the water quality characteristics, hierarchical CA grouped 13 sampling sites of the Nampong River into two clusters, i.e., upper stream (US) and lower stream (LS) sites, and five sampling sites of the Songkhram River into three clusters, i.e., upper stream (US), middle stream (MS) and lower stream (LS) sites. PCA/FA applied to the data sets thus obtained five latent factors explaining 69.80 and 69.32 % of the total variance in water quality data sets of LS and US areas, respectively, in the Nampong River and six latent factors explaining 80.80, 73.95, and 73.78 % of the total variance in water quality data sets of LS, MS, and US areas, respectively, in the Songkhram River. This study highlights the usefulness of multivariate statistical assessment of complex databases in the identification of pollution sources to better comprehend the spatial and temporal variations for effective river water quality management.

  18. Vulnerability assessment and risk perception: the case of the Arieş River Middle Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozunu, Al.; Botezan, C.

    2012-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment is influenced by a number of factors, including risk perception. This paper investigates the vulnerability of people living in the middle basin of the Aries river region, a former mining area, to natural and technologic hazards. The mining industry lead to significant environmental changes, which combined with the social problems caused by its decline (high unemployment rate, low income and old age) raised the level of the vulnerability in the area. This case study is unique, as it includes an evaluation of risk perception and its influence on the social vulnerability and resilience of local communities to disasters. Key words: vulnerability assessment, natural hazards, social vulnerability, risk perception

  19. Developing a Geoscience Literacy Exam: Pushing Geoscience Literacy Assessment to New Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, E. A.; Steer, D. N.; Manduca, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    InTeGrate is a community effort aimed at improving geoscience literacy and building a workforce that can use geoscience to solve societal issues. As part of this work we have developed a geoscience literacy assessment instrument to measure students' higher order thinking. This assessment is an important part of the development of curricula designed to increase geoscience literacy for all undergraduate students. To this end, we developed the Geoscience Literacy Exam (GLE) as one of the tools to quantify the effectiveness of these materials on students' understandings of geoscience literacy. The InTeGrate project is a 5-year, NSF-funded STEP Center grant in its first year of funding. Details concerning the project are found at http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/index.html. The GLE instrument addresses content and concepts in the Earth, Climate, and Ocean Science literacy documents. The testing schema is organized into three levels of increasing complexity. Level 1 questions are single answer, understanding- or application-level multiple choice questions. For example, selecting which type of energy transfer is most responsible for the movement of tectonic plates. They are designed such that most introductory level students should be able to correctly answer after taking an introductory geoscience course. Level 2 questions are more advanced multiple answer/matching questions, at the understanding- through analysis-level. Students might be asked to determine the types of earth-atmosphere interactions that could result in changes to global temperatures in the event of a major volcanic eruption. Because the answers are more complicated, some introductory students and most advanced students should be able to respond correctly. Level 3 questions are analyzing- to evaluating-level short essays, such as describe the ways in which the atmosphere sustains life on Earth. These questions are designed such that introductory students could probably formulate a rudimentary response

  20. Environmental Impact Assessment of Sand Mining from the Small Catchment Rivers in the Southwestern Coast of India: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreebha, Sreedharan; Padmalal, Damodaran

    2011-01-01

    In the past few decades, the demand for construction grade sand is increasing in many parts of the world due to rapid economic development and subsequent growth of building activities. This, in many of the occasions, has resulted in indiscriminate mining of sand from instream and floodplain areas leading to severe damages to the river basin environment. The case is rather alarming in the small catchment rivers like those draining the southwestern coast of India due to limited sand resources in their alluvial reaches. Moreover, lack of adequate information on the environmental impact of river sand mining is a major lacuna challenging regulatory efforts in many developing countries. Therefore, a scientific assessment is a pre-requisite in formulating management strategies in the sand mining-hit areas. In this context, a study has been made as a case to address the environmental impact of sand mining from the instream and floodplain areas of three important rivers in the southwestern coast of India namely the Chalakudy, Periyar and Muvattupuzha rivers, whose lowlands host one of the fast developing urban-cum-industrial centre, the Kochi city. The study reveals that an amount of 11.527 million ty-1 of sand (8.764 million ty-1 of instream sand and 2.763 million ty-1 of floodplain sand) is being mined from the midland and lowland reaches of these rivers for construction of buildings and other infrastructural facilities in Kochi city and its satellite townships. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) carried out as a part of this investigation shows that the activities associated with mining and processing of sands have not only affected the health of the river ecosystems but also degraded its overbank areas to a large extent. Considering the degree of degradation caused by sand mining from these rivers, no mining scenario may be opted in the deeper zones of the river channels. Also, a set of suggestions are made for the overall improvement of the rivers and its

  1. A Community Roadmap for Discovery of Geosciences Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baru, C.

    2012-12-01

    This talk will summarize on-going discussions and deliberations related to data discovery undertaken as part of the EarthCube initiative and in the context of current trends and technologies in search and discovery of scientific data and information. The goal of the EarthCube initiative is to transform the conduct of research by supporting the development of community-guided cyberinfrastructure to integrate data and information for knowledge management across the Geosciences. The vision of EarthCube is to provide a coherent framework for finding and using information about the Earth system across the entire research enterprise that will allow for substantial improved collaboration between specialties using each other's data (e.g. subdomains of geo- and biological sciences). Indeed, data discovery is an essential prerequisite to any action that an EarthCube user would undertake. The community roadmap activity addresses challenges in data discovery, beginning with an assessment of the state-of-the-art, and then identifying issues, challenges, and risks in reaching the data discovery vision. Many of the lessons learned are general and applicable not only to the geosciences but also to a variety of other science communities. The roadmap considers data discovery issues in Geoscience that include but are not limited to metadata-based discovery and the use of semantic information and ontologies; content-based discovery and integration with data mining activities; integration with data access services; and policy and governance issues. Furthermore, many geoscience use cases require access to heterogeneous data from multiple disciplinary sources in order to analyze and make intelligent connections between data to advance research frontiers. Examples include, say, assessing the rise of sea surface temperatures; modeling geodynamical earth systems from deep time to present; or, examining in detail the causes and consequences of global climate change. It has taken the past one

  2. Ethnic differences in geoscience attitudes of college students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, David J.; Behl, Richard J.; Ambos, Elizabeth L.; Francis, R. Daniel; Holk, Gregory; Larson, Daniel O.; Lee, Christopher T.; Rodrique, Christine M.; Wechsler, Suzanne P.

    While a gender balance remains elusive in the geosciences [de Wet et al., 2002], the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in these fields is at least as great a concern.A number of cultural and social factors have been proposed to explain the poor ethnic minority representation in the geosciences, including limited exposure to nature, deficient academic preparation, inadequate financial resources to pursue higher education, ignorance of career opportunities in the geosciences, insufficient family support, and misconceptions of the field.

  3. Geoscience Workforce Development at UNAVCO: Leveraging the NSF GAGE Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, A. R.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Miller, M.

    2013-12-01

    Global economic development demands that the United States remain competitive in the STEM fields, and developing a forward-looking and well-trained geoscience workforce is imperative. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the geosciences will experience a growth of 19% by 2016. Fifty percent of the current geoscience workforce is within 10-15 years of retirement, and as a result, the U.S. is facing a gap between the supply of prepared geoscientists and the demand for well-trained labor. Barring aggressive intervention, the imbalance in the geoscience workforce will continue to grow, leaving the increased demand unmet. UNAVCO, Inc. is well situated to prepare undergraduate students for placement in geoscience technical positions and advanced graduate study. UNAVCO is a university-governed consortium facilitating research and education in the geosciences and in addition UNAVCO manages the NSF Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope (GAGE) facility. The GAGE facility supports many facets of geoscience research including instrumentation and infrastructure, data analysis, cyberinfrastructure, and broader impacts. UNAVCO supports the Research Experiences in the Solid Earth Sciences for Students (RESESS), an NSF-funded multiyear geoscience research internship, community support, and professional development program. The primary goal of the RESESS program is to increase the number of historically underrepresented students entering graduate school in the geosciences. RESESS has met with high success in the first 9 years of the program, as more than 75% of RESESS alumni are currently in Master's and PhD programs across the U.S. Building upon the successes of RESESS, UNAVCO is launching a comprehensive workforce development program that will network underrepresented groups in the geosciences to research and opportunities throughout the geosciences. This presentation will focus on the successes of the RESESS program and plans to expand on this success with broader

  4. How to decide which oblique image has the highest mapping potential for monoplotting method: a case studies on river erosion and floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triglav-Čekada, M.; Bric, V.; Zorn, M.

    2014-05-01

    When studying the development of different geomorphic processes, floods, glaciers or even cultural heritage through time, one cannot rely only on regular photogrammetrical procedures and metrical images. In a majority of cases the only available images are the archive images with unknown parameters of interior orientation showing the object of interest in oblique view. With the help of modern high resolution digital elevation models derived from aerial or terrestrial laser scanning (lidar) or from photogrammetric stereo-images by automatic image-matching techniques even single nonmetric high or low oblique image from the past can be applied in the monoplotting procedure to enable 3D-data extraction of changes through time. The first step of the monoplotting procedure is the orientation of an image in the space by the help of digital elevation model (DEM). When using oblique images tie points between an image and DEM are usually too sparse to enable automatic exterior orientation, still the manual interactive orientation using common features can resolve such shortages. The manual interactive orientation can be very time consuming. Therefore, before the start of the manual interactive orientation one should be certain if one can expect useful results from the chosen image. But how to decide which image has the highest mapping potential before we introduce a certain oblique image in orientation procedure? The test examples presented in this paper enable guidance for the use of monoplotting method for different geoscience applications. The most important factors are the resolution of digital elevation model (the best are the lidar derived ones), the presence of appropriate common features and the incidence angle of the oblique images (low oblique images or almost vertical aerial images are better). First the very oblique example of riverbank erosion on Dragonja river, Slovenija, is presented. Than the test example of September 2010 floods on Ljubljana moor is

  5. Forensic geoscience: applications of geology, geomorphology and geophysics to criminal investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer

    2005-03-01

    One hundred years ago Georg Popp became the first scientist to present in court a case where the geological makeup of soils was used to secure a criminal conviction. Subsequently there have been significant advances in the theory and practice of forensic geoscience: many of them subsequent to the seminal publication of "Forensic Geology" by Murray and Tedrow [Murray, R., Tedrow, J.C.F. 1975 (republished 1986). Forensic Geology: Earth Sciences and Criminal Investigation. Rutgers University Press, New York, 240 pp.]. Our review places historical development in the modern context of how the allied disciplines of geology (mineralogy, sedimentology, microscopy), geophysics, soil science, microbiology, anthropology and geomorphology have been used as tool to aid forensic (domestic, serious, terrorist and international) crime investigations. The latter half of this paper uses the concept of scales of investigation, from large-scale landforms through to microscopic particles as a method of categorising the large number of geoscience applications to criminal investigation. Forensic geoscience has traditionally used established non-forensic techniques: 100 years after Popp's seminal work, research into forensic geoscience is beginning to lead, as opposed to follow other scientific disciplines.

  6. A Categorical Framework for Model Classification in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauhs, Michael; Trancón y Widemann, Baltasar; Lange, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Models have a mixed record of success in the geosciences. In meteorology, model development and implementation has been among the first and most successful examples of triggering computer technology in science. On the other hand, notorious problems such as the 'equifinality issue' in hydrology lead to a rather mixed reputation of models in other areas. The most successful models in geosciences are applications of dynamic systems theory to non-living systems or phenomena. Thus, we start from the hypothesis that the success of model applications relates to the influence of life on the phenomenon under study. We thus focus on the (formal) representation of life in models. The aim is to investigate whether disappointment in model performance is due to system properties such as heterogeneity and historicity of ecosystems, or rather reflects an abstraction and formalisation problem at a fundamental level. As a formal framework for this investigation, we use category theory as applied in computer science to specify behaviour at an interface. Its methods have been developed for translating and comparing formal structures among different application areas and seems highly suited for a classification of the current "model zoo" in the geosciences. The approach is rather abstract, with a high degree of generality but a low level of expressibility. Here, category theory will be employed to check the consistency of assumptions about life in different models. It will be shown that it is sufficient to distinguish just four logical cases to check for consistency of model content. All four cases can be formalised as variants of coalgebra-algebra homomorphisms. It can be demonstrated that transitions between the four variants affect the relevant observations (time series or spatial maps), the formalisms used (equations, decision trees) and the test criteria of success (prediction, classification) of the resulting model types. We will present examples from hydrology and ecology in

  7. The use of historical maps for reconstructing landforms before river damming. The case of the Swiss Rhone River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynard, E.; Laigre, L.; Baud, D.

    2012-04-01

    The Swiss Rhone River was systematically embanked during the period 1864-1893. The Swiss Rhone River valley is a glacial valley filled by glaciolacustrine, fluvioglacial and fluvial sediments. Torrential tributaries contribute to a large extent to the sedimentation in the valley and have built large alluvial fans in the main valley. The period before the river damming corresponds to the Little Ice Age, and it is supposed that the torrential behaviour of the river and its tributaries was very active during that period. In parallel to a large hydraulic project (Third Rhone River Correction), aiming at enlarging the river for security and environmental reasons, this project aims at reconstructing the palaeogeomorphology of the river floodplain before and also during the 30-year long embankment project developed during the last decades of the 19th century. The objective is to better know the geomorphological behaviour of the river, and also to localize palaolandforms (meanders, braided patterns, sandstone dunes, wetlands, etc.), present in the floodplain in the first part of the 19th century and that have now totally disappeared. The project is carried out in close collaboration with the Cantonal Archives of Valais and with a group of historians working on the relations between the river and the communities. It should contribute to a better knowledge of the Swiss Rhone River history (Reynard et al., 2009). Both published official maps (Dufour maps, Siegfried maps) and unpublished maps and plans are systematically collected, digitized, and organised in a database managed by a Geographical Information System. Other data are collected (place names, geomorphological, hydrological and hydraulic data, information about land-use and vegetation, paintings and photographs, etc.) and localised. A high-resolution digital terrain model and areal photographs are also used and allow us to map palaeolandforms (meanders, filled oxbow lakes, former channels, etc.). In a second step

  8. Effects of tropical cyclones on river chemistry: A case study of the lower Pearl River during Hurricanes Gustav and Ike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yihua; Guo, Laodong; Wang, Xuri; Lohrenz, Steven E.; Mojzis, Allison K.

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the effects of tropical cyclones on the water chemistry of Gulf of Mexico coastal rivers, time series samples from the lower Pearl River at Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, were collected on August and September, 2008, during Hurricanes Gustav and Ike. Hurricane Gustav, which landed near the sampling site, caused intensive storm surge and strong seawater intrusion, resulting in an elevated salinity of 7.5 in the lower Pearl River and subsequent flooding induced by heavy rainfall. Hurricane Ike, which passed further away from the sampling site, caused only a mild seawater intrusion with a salinity of 1.2 at the sampling site. The river showed distinct variations in water chemistry corresponding to different hydrographic disturbance of hurricanes. Abrupt increase of suspended particulate matter and associated organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations coincided with the intensive storm surge due to coastal sediment resuspension. A remarkable drop in the concentrations of phosphate and dissolved organic matter was also observed during the intense seawater intrusion, a result of both dilution by seawater and resultant flocculation of dissolved organic matter. During hurricane-induced flooding, the river showed a mild increase in the concentrations of organic matter, reflecting a dominant contribution of terrestrial inputs from the watershed by surface runoffs while the concentrations of inorganic nutrient species in the river water decreased. In contrast, water chemistry in the Pearl River underwent little change in most carbon and nutrient species under the mild seawater intrusion. Overall, tropical cyclones could induce unique variations in coastal river water chemistry and variable material export which would further alter the coastal water quality.

  9. Change in Sahelian Rivers hydrograph: The case of recent red floods of the Niger River in the Niamey region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descroix, Luc; Genthon, Pierre; Amogu, Okechukwu; Rajot, Jean-Louis; Sighomnou, Daniel; Vauclin, Michel

    2012-12-01

    Changes in the hydrological regime of Sahelian Rivers are considered based upon the example of the Middle Niger River and its exceptional flood in 2010 near the city of Niamey. It is shown that rainfall in 2010 was only average with respect to the long term record, with neither the monthly rainfall distribution in terms of the amount of rainfall nor the distribution of rainy events changing significantly in the last few decades. Particularly, no increase in the number of extreme rainfall events is observed. In spite of this, the Niger River's right bank tributaries have shown a sharp increase in runoff since the 1970s, which is still ongoing, and has resulted in a modification of the Niger River's regime from a single hydrograph to a two flood hydrograph, the local flood, occurring during the rainy season being the more pronounced one. This modification is likely due to an increase of bare soils and crusted soil areas as a consequence of human pressure, resulting mostly from the spatial extension of crop areas and the shortening of fallow periods. Changes in connectivity of the river networks on both banks of the Niger such as endorheism bursting events also caused an increase in the contributing basin area. Policy makers should be alerted to the effects of intensive cropping, land clearing and overgrazing in some areas, on the hydrological regimes of Sahelian Rivers.

  10. Using place-based curricula to teach about restoring river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalles, D. R.; Collins, B. D.; Updegrave, C.; Montgomery, D. R.; Colonnese, T. G.; Sheikh, A. J.; Haynie, K.; Johnson, V.; Data Sets; Inquiry in Environmental Restoration Studies (Nsf Geo Project 0808076)

    2010-12-01

    of activity recommendations for the high school teacher to use in the classroom and on field trips in the river network that illustrate principles and issues and having cultural significance to the Native American community. The web site will support the teacher carrying out these activities by presenting background information on relevant geoscience topics. There is also reliance on Indian traditional ecological knowledge, stories, and place names that complement scientific data. Binding these materials are cases, short narratives that describe real challenges pertaining to the students’ Indian Tribe and to the Snohomish River system. These cases are the stimuli for student investigation of the curricular resources. The AGU presentation will also present examples from journal assignments in the undergraduate course of how student understanding about the dynamic and complex characteristics of river systems evolved during the course.

  11. River health assessment using macroinvertebrates and water quality parameters: A case of the Orange River in Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munyika, Shishani; Kongo, Victor; Kimwaga, Richard

    Land use activities that have an effect on water quality and river health are believed to have increased along the Orange River in Namibia. These are mainly agricultural activities, notably irrigation, with more than 2000 ha currently under irrigation and approximately 2000 ha planned for future expansion. Other anthropogenic activities include urban development and weir construction along the Orange River. Population increase along the river has resulted in proliferation of unplanned settlements with no proper sanitation facilities. This study was aimed at assessing the current water quality and overall health status of the Orange River in Namibia. The South African Scoring System 5(SASS5) was applied in eight sites where samples for macroinvertebrates, physical and chemical water quality parameters such as nutrients in the water, pH, turbidity and presence of bacteria were obtained. Satellite images i.e. Landsat images were also used to assess the land-uses over time in the study area with the view of linking such changes to variance in water quality over time. The SASS5 results indicated a fair water quality and river health condition in category C, indicating that the river is moderately modified. Water quality parameters at all sites varied moderately and were within acceptable limits, except for turbidity and chlorophyll a. There was a significant difference in the mean concentrations of nine water quality parameters among sampling periods, whereby F-value > F-critical at α = 0.05 among sites, F-value < F-critical at α = 0.05, except for turbidity and chlorophyll a. The Landsat images also showed minimal changes in land-use activities between 2002 and 2012, with a net increase of 38 ha in irrigated area. According to National Water Policy White Paper of Namibia of 2000, it was found that policies and legislation address water resources management from a broader spectrum and not specific to river health. Thus, it was concluded that the river health of Orange

  12. Enhancing learning in geosciences and water engineering via lab activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Cheng, Ming

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the utilisation of lab based activities to enhance the learning experience of engineering students studying Water Engineering and Geosciences. In particular, the use of modern highly visual and tangible presentation techniques within an appropriate laboratory based space are used to introduce undergraduate students to advanced engineering concepts. A specific lab activity, namely "Flood-City", is presented as a case study to enhance the active engagement rate, improve the learning experience of the students and better achieve the intended learning objectives of the course within a broad context of the engineering and geosciences curriculum. Such activities, have been used over the last few years from the Water Engineering group @ Glasgow, with success for outreach purposes (e.g. Glasgow Science Festival and demos at the Glasgow Science Centre and Kelvingrove museum). The activity involves a specific setup of the demonstration flume in a sand-box configuration, with elements and activities designed so as to gamely the overall learning activity. Social media platforms can also be used effectively to the same goals, particularly in cases were the students already engage in these online media. To assess the effectiveness of this activity a purpose designed questionnaire is offered to the students. Specifically, the questionnaire covers several aspects that may affect student learning, performance and satisfaction, such as students' motivation, factors to effective learning (also assessed by follow-up quizzes), and methods of communication and assessment. The results, analysed to assess the effectiveness of the learning activity as the students perceive it, offer a promising potential for the use of such activities in outreach and learning.

  13. The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for flood risk: the case of Sihl river in Zurich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronco, Paolo; Bullo, Martina; Gallina, Valentina; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Semenzin, Elena; Buchecker, Matthias; Marcomini, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, the frequency of catastrophes induced by natural hazard has increased and flood events in particular have been recognized as one of the most threatening water-related disasters. Severe floods have occurred in Europe over the last decade causing loss of life, displacement of people and heavy economic losses. Flood disasters are growing as a consequence of many factors both climatic and non-climatic. Indeed, the current increase of water-related disasters can be mainly attributed to the increase of exposure (elements potentially at risk in floodplains area) and vulnerability (i.e. economic, social, geographic, cultural, and physical/environmental characteristics of the exposure). Besides these factors, the strong effect of climate change is projected to radically modify the usual pattern of the hydrological cycle by intensifying the frequency and severity of flood events both at local, regional and global scale. Within this context, it is necessary to develop effective and pro-active strategies, tools and actions which allow to assess and (possibly) to reduce the risk of floods. In light of the recent European Flood Directive (FD), the KULTURisk-FP7 Project developed a state-of-the-art Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology for assessing the risk imposed by floods events. The KULTURisk RRA methodology is based on the concept of risk being function of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. It is a flexible that can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. large rivers, alpine/mountain catchments, urban areas and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from the large river to the urban scale) that integrates the outputs of various hydrodynamics models (hazard) with sito-specific geophysical and socio-economic indicators (exposure and vulnerability factors such as land cover, slope, soil permeability, population density, economic activities, etc.). The main outputs of the methodology are GIS-based risk maps that identify and prioritize relative hot

  14. A comparison of different hydrologic modeling approaches: the case study of Cerfone river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturi, Sara; Di Francesco, Silvia; Manciola, Piergiorgio

    2016-04-01

    The increasing occurrence of extreme meteorological events and the strong land exploitation, especially the overbuilding and urbanization of the flood prone areas, has led to a considerable increase of the hydraulic risk associated to these areas and, consequently, to an effort of institutions and researchers to find proper solutions. The analyzed case study deals with the Cerfone river, a tributary of the Tiber River, in the Tuscany region (Italy). The complex morphology of the floodplains and the presence of hydraulic structures (i.e. bridges) that block the river discharge cross section, cause the periodic flooding of the neighbouring small villages during extreme weather events. The flood hazard management and safety plan implementation is strictly connected to the hydrological modeling of river basin.The uncertainty in rain- run off evaluation can lead to different results in terms of discharge peak and hydrographs shape, affecting then all the next risk analysis. The choice of the hydrologic model to apply in the study of Hydraulic Risk delineation is therefore a critical issue. In this work three different approaches to model the basin hydrological response are used and discussed: i) lumped model built in accordance with the standards of methodological model of ALTo (ALluvioni Toscana, Tuscany Region), generally used in the region for hydrologic and hydraulic studies; ii) a semi-distributed model, performed using the hydrological software model HEC - HMS (Hydrologic Engineering Center, US Army Corps of Engineers), which is based on the evaluation of the value of critical duration storm at significant sections of the basin. It is based on models for estimated losses, inflows - outflows transformation method and meteorological model in accordance with the standards of ALTo; iii) lumped model based on the rational equation and the concentration time of Giandotti, in accordance with the methodology of the Tiber River Basin Authority. The critical analysis and

  15. Spatial analysis of plant detritus processing in a Mediterranean river type: the case of the River Tirso Basin, Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Maurizio; Sangiorgio, Franca; Fonnesu, Alessio; Basset, Alberto

    2003-03-01

    The river continuum concept represents the most general framework addressing the spatial variation of both structure and function in river ecosystems. In the Mediterranean ecoregion, summer drought events and dams constitute the main sources of local disturbance to the structure and functioning of river ecosystems occurring in the river basin. In this study, we analysed patterns of spatial variation of detritus processing in a 7th order river of the Mediterranean ecoregion (River Tirso, Sardinia-Italy) and in three 4th order sub-basins which were exposed to different summer drought pressures. The study was carried out on Phragmites australis and Alnus glutinosa leaf detritus at 31 field sites in seasonal field experiment. Detritus processing rates were higher for Alnus glutinosa than for Phragmites australis plant detritus. Processing rates of Alnus glutinosa leaves varied among seasons and study sites from 0.006 d(-1) to 0.189 d(-1) and those of Phragmites australis leaves ranged from 0.0008 d(-1) to 0.102 d(-1), with the lowest values occurring at sites exposed to summer drought. Seasons and sites accounted for a significant proportion of such variability. Alder detritus decay rates generally decreased with increasing stream order, while reed detritus decay rates generally increased on the same spatial gradient. Summer drought events affected these spatial patterns of variation by influencing significantly the decay rates of both plant detritus. The comparisons among and within sub-basins showed strong negative influence of summer drought on detritus processing rates. Similarly, in the entire River Tirso basin decay rates were always lower at disturbed than at undisturbed sites for each stream order; decay rates of reed detritus remained lower at those sites even after the end of the disturbance events, while alder decay rates recovered rapidly from the summer drought perturbations. The different recovery of the processing rates of the two leaves could also

  16. The effect of river damming on vegetation: is it always unfavourable? A case study from the River Tiber (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ceschin, Simona; Tombolini, Ilaria; Abati, Silverio; Zuccarello, Vincenzo

    2015-05-01

    River damming leads to strong hydromorphological alterations of the watercourse, consequently affecting river vegetation pattern. A multitemporal and spatial analysis of the dam effect on composition, structure and dynamic of the upstream vegetation was performed on Tiber River at Nazzano-dam (Rome). The main research questions were as follows: How does plant landscape vary over time and along the river? Where does the dam effect on vegetation end? How does naturalistic importance of the vegetation affected by damming change over time? Data collection was performed mapping the vegetation in aerial photos related to the period before (1944), during (1954) and after dam construction (1984, 2000). The plant landscape has significantly changed over time and along the river, particularly as a result of the dam construction (1953). The major vegetation changes have involved riparian forests and macrophytes. Dam effect on vegetation is evident up to 3 km, and gradually decreases along an attenuation zone for about another 3 km. Despite the fact that the damming has caused strong local hydromorphological modification of the river ecosystem transforming it into a sub-lacustrine habitat, it has also led to the formation of wetlands of considerable naturalistic importance. Indeed, in these man-made wetlands, optimal hydrological conditions have been created by favouring both the expansion of pre-existing riparian communities and the rooting of new aquatic communities, albeit typical of lacustrine ecosystems. Some of these plant communities have become an important food resource, refuge or nesting habitats for aquatic fauna, while others fall into category of Natura 2000 habitats. Therefore, river damming seems to have indirectly had a "favourable" effect for habitat conservation and local biodiversity.

  17. Trandimensional Inference in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    An inverse problem is the task often occurring in many branches of Earth sciences, where the values of some model parameters describing the Earth must be obtained given noisy observations made at the surface. In all applications of inversion, assumptions are made about the nature of the model parametrisation and data noise characteristics, and results can significantly depend on those assumptions. These quantities are often manually `tuned' by means of subjective trial-and-error procedures, and this prevents to accurately quantify uncertainties in the solution. A Bayesian approach allows these assumptions to be relaxed by incorporating relevant parameters as unknowns in the inference problem. Rather than being forced to make decisions on parametrisation, the level of data noise and the weights between data types in advance, as is often the case in an optimization framework, the choice can be informed by the data themselves. Probabilistic sampling techniques such as transdimensional Markov chain Monte Carlo, allow sampling over complex posterior probability density functions, thus providing information on constraint, trade-offs and uncertainty in the unknowns. This presentation will present a review of transdimensional inference, and its application to different problems, ranging from Geochemistry to Solid Earth Geophysics.

  18. Mesoscale Diffractive Photonics in Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minin, I. V.; Minin, O. V.

    2016-06-01

    The scattered light by various dielectric particles in atmosphere give information about the type of molecules and particles and their location, which are important to definition of propagation limitations through atmospheric and space weather variations, crisis communications, etc. Although these investigations explain far field properties of disturbed radiations, the solution of the physical problem requires simulations of the interactions in near-field. It has been shown that strongly localized EM field near the surface of single dielectric particle may be form by non-spherical and non-symmetrical mesoscale particles both as in transmitting as in reflection mode. It was also shown that the main lobe is narrower in case of 3 cube chain than single cube in far field, but there are many side-scattering lobes. It was mentioned that unique advantages provided by mesoscale dielectric photonic crystal based particles with three spatial dimensions of arbitrary shape allow developing a new types of micro/nano-probes with subwavelength resolution for ultra compact spectrometer-free sensor for on board a spacecraft or a plane.

  19. Impact of human activities on the quality of river water: The case of Evrotas River catchment basin, Greece.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, M O; Markantonatos, P G; Bacalis, N C

    1995-04-01

    The impact of point (domestic and industrial effluents) and non-point (agricultural land runoff) pollution sources on the quality of the receiving waters of the Evrotas River (Laconia, Greece) was investigated during a monitoring study from August 1991 to August 1992. The part of the river which was located near the city of Sparta was seasonally influenced by the discharge of effluents from orange juice plants (operating during winter) and by the discharge of septage for the emptying of cesspools which are serving part of the city. The low dilution of incoming pollutants (septage) during the low water flow in summer lead to the decreasing self-purification capacity of the river and the development of septicity conditions in some of its parts. In the vicinity of intensively cultivated areas, the high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus which were detected in the river water during winter and spring may be partly attributed to the leaching of the applied fertilizers because of nirogen mobilization and soil erosion, following the season's precipitations. The protection of the Evrotas River water Quality must therefore include adequate treatment of the septage produced in the area, as well as the construction of wastewater treatment plants for the major industries of the area. The non-point pollution could be controlled by the restoration of the Evrotas riparian vegetation, together with a more rational use of fertilizers in the area. PMID:24202273

  20. Depositional dynamics in a river diversion receiving basin: The case of the West Bay Mississippi River Diversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolker, Alexander S.; Miner, Michael D.; Weathers, H. Dallon

    2012-06-01

    River deltas are a globally distributed class of sedimentary environment that are highly productive, ecologically diverse and serve as centers for population and commerce. Many deltas are also in a state of environmental degradation, and the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) stands out as a particularly iconic example. Plans to restore the MRD call for partially diverting the Mississippi River, which should reinitiate natural deltaic land-building processes. While the basic physical underpinnings of river diversions are relatively straightforward, there exists a considerable controversy over whether diversions can and do deliver enough sediment to the coastal zone to build sub-aerial land on restoration-dependent time scales. This controversy was addressed through a study of crevasse-splay dynamics at the West Bay Mississippi River Diversion, the largest diversion in the MRD that was specifically constructed for coastal restoration. We found that most sediments were distributed over a 13.5 km area, with the maximum deposition occurring at the seaward end of this field. These results indicate substantial sediment deposition downstream of project boundaries and run counter to simple sedimentary models, which predict that maximum sediment deposition should occur closest to the riverbank. Despite this, most sediments appear to be retained in the nearshore zone, suggesting that the sediment retention efficiency was at the higher end of the 30-70% range suggested by some sediment budgets.

  1. Workshop Results: Teaching Geoscience to K-12 Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahm, A.; Villalobos, J. I.; White, J.; Smith-Konter, B. R.

    2012-12-01

    A workshop for high school and middle school Earth and Space Science (ESS) teachers was held this summer (2012) as part of an ongoing collaboration between the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) and El Paso Community College (EPCC) Departments of Geological Sciences. This collaborative effort aims to build local Earth science literacy and educational support for the geosciences. Sixteen teachers from three school districts from El Paso and southern New Mexico area participated in the workshop, consisting of middle school, high school, early college high school, and dual credit faculty. The majority of the teachers had little to no experience teaching geoscience, thus this workshop provided an introduction to basic geologic concepts to teachers with broad backgrounds, which will result in the introduction of geoscience to many new students each year. The workshop's goal was to provide hands-on activities illustrating basic geologic and scientific concepts currently used in introductory geology labs/lectures at both EPCC and UTEP to help engage pre-college students. Activities chosen for the workshop were an introduction to Google Earth for use in the classroom, relative age dating and stratigraphy using volcanoes, plate tectonics utilizing the jigsaw pedagogy, and the scientific method as a think-pair-share activity. All activities where designed to be low cost and materials were provided for instructors to take back to their institutions. A list of online resources for teaching materials was also distributed. Before each activity, a short pre-test was given to the participants to gauge their level of knowledge on the subjects. At the end of the workshop, participants were given a post-test, which tested the knowledge gain made by participating in the workshop. In all cases, more correct answers were chosen in the post-test than the individual activity pre-tests, indicating that knowledge of the subjects was gained. The participants enjoyed participating in these

  2. Linking Undergraduate Geoscience and Education Departments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireton, F. W.; McManus, D. A.

    2001-05-01

    In many colleges and universities students who have declared a major in one of the geosciences are often ineligible to take the education courses necessary for state certification. In order to enroll in education courses to meet the state's Department of Education course requirements for a teaching credential, these students must drop their geoscience major and declare an education major. Students in education programs in these universities may be limited in the science classes they take as part of their degree requirements. These students face the same problem as students who have declared a science major in that course work is not open to them. As a result, universities too often produce science majors with a weak pedagogy background or education majors with a weak Earth and space sciences background. The American Geophysical Union (AGU) formed a collaboration of four universities with strong, yet separate science and education departments, to provide the venue for a one week NSF sponsored retreat to allow the communication necessary for solutions to these problems to be worked out by faculty members. Each university was represented by a geoscience department faculty member, an education department faculty member, and a K-12 master teacher selected by the two faculty members. This retreat was followed by a second retreat that focused on community colleges in the Southwest United States. Change is never easy and Linkages has shown that success for a project of this nature requires the dedication of not only the faculty involved in the project, but colleagues in their respective schools as well as the administration when departmental cultural obstacles must be overcome. This paper will discuss some of the preliminary work accomplished by the schools involved in the project.

  3. Transforming Indigenous Geoscience Education and Research (TIGER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthelote, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    American Indian tribes and tribal confed­erations exert sovereignty over about 20% of all the freshwater resources in the United States. Yet only about 30 Native American (NA) students receive bachelor's degrees in the geosci­ences each year, and few of those degrees are in the field of hydrology. To help increase the ranks of NA geoscientists,TIGER builds upon the momentum of Salish Kootenai College's newly accredited Hydrology Degree Program. It allows for the development and implementation of the first Bachelor's degree in geosciences (hydrology) at a Tribal College and University (TCU). TIGER integrates a solid educational research-based framework for retention and educational preparation of underrepresented minorities with culturally relevant curriculum and socio-cultural supports, offering a new model for STEM education of NA students. Innovative hydrology curriculum is both academically rigorous and culturally relevant with concurrent theoretical, conceptual, and applied coursework in chemical, biological, physical and managerial aspects of water resources. Educational outcomes for the program include a unique combination of competencies based on industry recognized standards (e.g., National Institute of Hydrologists), input from an experienced External Advisory Board (EAB), and competencies required for geoscientists working in critical NA watersheds, which include unique competencies, such as American Indian Water Law and sovereignty issues. TIGER represents a unique opportunity to capitalize on the investments the geoscience community has already made into broadening the participation of underrepresented minorities and developing a diverse workforce, by allowing SKC to develop a sustainable and exportable program capable of significantly increasing (by 25 to 75%) the National rate of Native American geoscience graduates.

  4. Status and future of lunar geoscience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Moon is of special interest among the many and diverse bodies of the solar system because it serves as a scientific baseline for understanding the terrestrial planets, its origin is closely tied to the early history of the Earth, and its proximity permits a variety of space applications such as mining and establishment of bases and colonies. Data acquisition and analysis have enabled advances to be made and the remaining questions in many fields of lunar geoscience to be identified. The status and unresolved problems of lunar science are discussed. Immediate needs, new unmanned missions, and a return to the Moon (a lunar base) are examined.

  5. OERL: A Tool For Geoscience Education Evaluators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalles, D. R.

    2002-12-01

    The Online Evaluation Resource Library (OERL) is a Web-based set of resources for improving the evaluation of projects funded by the Directorate for Education and Human Resources (EHR) of the National Science Foundation (NSF). OERL provides prospective project developers and evaluators with material that they can use to design, conduct, document, and review evaluations. OERL helps evaluators tackle the challenges of seeing if a project is meeting its implementation and outcome-related goals. Within OERL is a collection of exemplary plans, instruments, and reports from evaluations of EHR-funded projects in the geosciences and in other areas of science and mathematics. In addition, OERL contains criteria about good evaluation practices, professional development modules about evaluation design and questionnaire development, a dictionary of key evaluation terms, and links to evaluation standards. Scenarios illustrate how the resources can be used or adapted. Currently housed in OERL are 137 instruments, and full or excerpted versions of 38 plans and 60 reports. 143 science and math projects have contributed to the collection so far. OERL's search tool permits the launching of precise searches based on key attributes of resources such as their subject area and the name of the sponsoring university or research institute. OERL's goals are to 1) meet the needs for continuous professional development of evaluators and principal investigators, 2) complement traditional vehicles of learning about evaluation, 3) utilize the affordances of current technologies (e.g., Web-based digital libraries, relational databases, and electronic performance support systems) for improving evaluation practice, 4) provide anytime/anyplace access to update-able resources that support evaluators' needs, and 5) provide a forum by which professionals can interact on evaluation issues and practices. Geoscientists can search the collection of resources from geoscience education projects that have

  6. Summaries of FY 1995 geosciences research

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the scope of the individual programs. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geophysics, geochemistry, resource evaluation, solar-terrestrial interactions, and their subdivisions including earth dynamics, properties of earth materials, rock mechanics, underground imaging, rock-fluid interactions, continental scientific drilling, geochemical transport, solar/atmospheric physics, and modeling, with emphasis on the interdisciplinary areas. All such research is related either direct or indirect to the Department of Energy`s long-range technological needs.

  7. Assessing societal impacts when planning restoration of large alluvial rivers: a case study of the Sacramento River project, California.

    PubMed

    Golet, Gregory H; Roberts, Michael D; Larsen, Eric W; Luster, Ryan A; Unger, Ron; Werner, Gregg; White, Gregory G

    2006-06-01

    Studies have shown that ecological restoration projects are more likely to gain public support if they simultaneously increase important human services that natural resources provide to people. River restoration projects have the potential to influence many of the societal functions (e.g., flood control, water quality) that rivers provide, yet most projects fail to consider this in a comprehensive manner. Most river restoration projects also fail to take into account opportunities for revitalization of large-scale river processes, focusing instead on opportunities presented at individual parcels. In an effort to avoid these pitfalls while planning restoration of the Sacramento River, we conducted a set of coordinated studies to evaluate societal impacts of alternative restoration actions over a large geographic area. Our studies were designed to identify restoration actions that offer benefits to both society and the ecosystem and to meet the information needs of agency planning teams focusing on the area. We worked with local partners and public stakeholders to design and implement studies that assessed the effects of alternative restoration actions on flooding and erosion patterns, socioeconomics, cultural resources, and public access and recreation. We found that by explicitly and scientifically melding societal and ecosystem perspectives, it was possible to identify restoration actions that simultaneously improve both ecosystem health and the services (e.g., flood protection and recreation) that the Sacramento River and its floodplain provide to people. Further, we found that by directly engaging with local stakeholders to formulate, implement, and interpret the studies, we were able to develop a high level of trust that ultimately translated into widespread support for the project.

  8. Influence of deposition of fine plant debris in river floodplain shrubs on flood flow conditions - The Warta River case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, Robert; Kałuża, Tomasz; Chmist, Joanna; Walczak, Natalia; Laks, Ireneusz; Strzeliński, Paweł

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents problems caused by organic material transported by flowing water. This material is usually referred to as plant debris or organic debris. Its composition depends on the characteristic of the watercourse. For lowland rivers, the share of the so-called small organic matter in plant debris is considerable. This includes both various parts of water plants and floodplain vegetation (leaves, stems, blades of grass, twigs, etc.). During floods, larger woody debris poses a significant risk to bridges or other water engineering structures. It may cause river jams and may lead to damming of the flowing water. This, in turn, affects flood safety and increases flood risk in river valleys, both directly and indirectly. The importance of fine plant debris for the phenomenon being studied comes down to the hydrodynamic aspect (plant elements carried by water end up on trees and shrubs, increase hydraulic flow resistance and contribute to the nature of flow through vegetated areas changed from micro-to macro-structural). The key part of the research problem under analysis was to determine qualitative and quantitative debris parameters and to establish the relationship between the type of debris and the type of land use of river valleys (crop fields, meadows and forested river sections). Another problem was to identify parameters of plant debris for various flow conditions (e.g. for low, medium and flood flows). The research also included an analysis of the materials deposited on the structure of shrubs under flood flow conditions during the 2010 flood on the Warta River.

  9. Promoting undergraduate education through involvement in research in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isiorho, S. A.

    2003-12-01

    The push to involve undergraduates in research is gaining ground in most universities and colleges. Within our geosciences department at Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne (IPFW), undergraduate education is promoted as the faculty in the department involves students in their research projects. All faculty members involve students in their research works. Dating of monazite using energy dispersive x-ray, size-frequency distributions of leopard frogs, structural organization and growth of Silurian chain corals, seepage meters, and wetlands are some of the recent students' projects facilitated by our faculty. Students are involved in either the professor's research project or projects are specifically designed for students using local sites and materials. Physical geology, environmental geology, environmental conservation, wetlands and hydrogeology are some of the courses that I teach. One common thread in all the courses that I explore is water. I involve my upper-level students to observe some aspect of water as it relates to the environment. My students' projects involve the use of local materials (wetlands, sand dunes, river, wells) or sites within a thirty minute drive off campus. Most students appreciate the chance to be involved in research projects. Students have presented the results of their projects at local, regional and national conferences. Also, some students' works have resulted in peer review articles. Involving undergraduates in research projects introduces them to scientific methods, real world learning, being published, and, it also provides the instructor with materials for effective teaching and getting published too. Sample student projects would be presented.

  10. Assessment of Hydrologic Response to Variable Precipitation Forcing: Russian River Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifelli, R.; Hsu, C.; Johnson, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    NOAA Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) activities in California have involved deployment of advanced sensor networks to better track atmospheric river (AR) dynamics and inland penetration of high water vapor air masses. Numerical weather prediction models and decision support tools have been developed to provide forecasters a better basis for forecasting heavy precipitation and consequent flooding. The HMT also involves a joint project with California Department of Water Resources (CA-DWR) and the Scripps Institute for Oceanography (SIO) as part of CA-DWR's Enhanced Flood Response and Emergency Preparedness (EFREP) program. The HMT activities have included development and calibration of a distributed hydrologic model, the NWS Office of Hydrologic Development's (OHD) Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (RDHM), to prototype the distributed approach for flood and other water resources applications. HMT has applied RDHM to the Russian-Napa watersheds for research assessment of gap-filling weather radars for precipitation and hydrologic forecasting and for establishing a prototype to inform both the NWS Monterey Forecast Office and the California Nevada River Forecast Center (CNRFC) of RDHM capabilities. In this presentation, a variety of precipitation forcings generated with and without gap filling radar and rain gauge data are used as input to RDHM to assess the hydrologic response for selected case study events. Both the precipitation forcing and hydrologic model are run at different spatial and temporal resolution in order to examine the sensitivity of runoff to the precipitation inputs. Based on the timing of the events and the variations of spatial and temporal resolution, the parameters which dominate the hydrologic response are identified. The assessment is implemented at two USGS stations (Ukiah near Russian River and Austin Creek near Cazadero) that are minimally influenced by managed flows and objective evaluation can thus be derived. The results are assessed

  11. Effectiveness of Geosciences Exploration Summer Program (GeoX) for increasing awareness and Broadening Participation in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, S. J.; Houser, C.

    2013-12-01

    Summer research experiences are an increasingly popular means to increase awareness of and develop interest in the Geosciences and other STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) programs. Here we describe and report the preliminary results of a new one-week program at Texas A&M University to introduce first generation, women, and underrepresented high school students to opportunities and careers in the Geosciences. Short-term indicators in the form of pre- and post-program surveys of participants and their parents suggest that there is an increase in participant understanding of geosciences and interest in pursuing a degree in the geosciences. At the start of the program, the participants and their parents had relatively limited knowledge of the geosciences and very few had a friend or acquaintance employed in the geosciences. Post-survey results suggest that the students had an improved and nuanced understanding of the geosciences and the career opportunities within the field. A survey of the parents several months after the program had ended suggests that the participants had effectively communicated their newfound understanding and that the parents now recognized the geosciences as a potentially rewarding career. With the support of their parents 42% of the participants are planning to pursue an undergraduate degree in the geosciences compared to 62% of participants who were planning to pursue a geosciences degree before the program. It is concluded that future offerings of this and similar programs should also engage the parents to ensure that the geosciences are recognized as a potential academic and career path.

  12. The National Science Teachers Association and Geoscience Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunkhorst, Bonnie J.

    1991-01-01

    Sections in this article discuss (1) Science Literacy Needs; (2) Science Education Goals; (3) National Science Teachers Association; (4) Science, Sequence, and Coordination of Secondary School Science (SS&C); (5) Philosophy of SS&C; (6) Geosciences and SS&C; and (7) Geoscience Organization Contributions. (PR)

  13. A Concept of an Information System for the Geosciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Geological Inst., Washington, DC.

    The American Geological Institute's Committee on Geoscience Information prepared this report as the terminal point to the first phase of its long-term goal, to develop a system for facilitating information transfer in the geosciences. The Concept report was presented by Dr. William Hambleton, chairman of the AGI Committee on Geoscience…

  14. Bridging the Geoscientist Workforce Gap: Advanced High School Geoscience Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Richard William

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this participatory action research was to create a comprehensive evaluation of advanced geoscience education in Pennsylvania public high schools and to ascertain the possible impact of this trend on student perceptions and attitudes towards the geosciences as a legitimate academic subject and possible career option. The study builds…

  15. Professional Development Strategies to Enhance Diversity in the Geosciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman-Morris, Kathleen; Rodgers, John C., III; McNeal, Karen S.; Brown, Michael E.; Dyer, Jamie L.

    2012-01-01

    Because of the historically low numbers of minorities in geoscience careers and college majors, an area of growing attention is how teacher professional development may be utilized to increase diversity in the geosciences (Pecore et al., 2007; Sedlock & Metzger, 2007). This paper examines teacher preferences for the timing, location and content of…

  16. Building an Outdoor Classroom for Field Geology: The Geoscience Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, John W. F.; Locock, Andrew J.; Pujadas-Botey, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Many geoscience educators have noted the difficulty that students experience in transferring their classroom knowledge to the field environment. The Geoscience Garden, on the University of Alberta North Campus, provides a simulated field environment in which Earth Science students can develop field observation skills, interpret features of Earth's…

  17. The influence of scale preferences on the design of a water innovation: a case in Dutch river management.

    PubMed

    Vreugdenhil, Heleen; Vreudenhil, Heleen; Slinger, Jill; Kater, Emiel; Thissen, Wil

    2010-07-01

    The debate on scale use in river management focuses primarily on the (lack of) fit between the bio-geophysical and institutional systems. However, in this article we focus on the 'subjective' aspect of scale preferences in water governance. We apply an adapted version of the Integrated Scale Hierarchy for Rivers to determine the degree of fit between the scale preferences of the actors involved in a Dutch case study and the scale requirements of the innovative river management concept. This allows us to understand which riverine processes and characteristics are regarded as important by the different actors and to identify mismatches in scale perspectives as they manifest themselves in water management practice. We discover that inflexibility in scale use on the part of the involved actors places bounds on the design and quality of interventions and demonstrate that a more flexible use of scales in the design phase of a river management intervention has the potential to lead to more effective solutions.

  18. Integrating skills, content, and the process of science in introductory geoscience courses using a group research project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannula, K. A.

    2008-12-01

    Introductory geoscience courses serve many purposes. A good introductory course needs to teach students how scientists think, correct mistaken ideas about the age of the Earth or climate change, provide the background to allow students to judge energy and environmental policies, prepare students for future geoscience classes, and convince students to explore geoscience further. Teaching these courses effectively is a great challenge. My department's solution has been to use an extended group project in lab to advance many of these goals simultaneously. All sections of our Earth Systems Science courses (100 to 150 students per semester) participate in a project monitoring the Florida River, a small tributary of the Colorado River system which is locally used for drinking water and irrigation, which traverses units from Precambrian granite to Paleocene sediments, and which goes through land used for wilderness, mining, rapid ex-urban development, ranching, and natural gas production. Each lab section is responsible for measuring discharge, sediment load, and water chemistry on one or two reaches of the river. The lab groups compare data with other sites along the river and from past semesters in order to draw broader conclusions than possible from their own limited experience. In order to put the sampling and data interpretation into context, we have incorporated many of our other assignments into the project. The topographic maps lab uses the Florida River maps and sample sites, a field trip introducing rocks and minerals shows students the variety of bedrock across which the river flows, and a series of graphing exercises introduce students to previously collected data while giving them practice plotting and interpreting data. The exercises and labs are designed to build on one another, using skills and information from previous weeks to understand new aspects of the local geology. Not every place has the diverse geology of southwestern Colorado. However, this

  19. New Tools in Understanding Geoscience Research: WEB-Based Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, M.

    2008-05-01

    In teaching geosciences classes it is essential to provide students with the possibility of having hands-on experiences, even if sometimes they happen to be only in the virtual world. In the portal created for the Computational Geodynamics Laboratory, we present several web-based applications, which will help students to manipulate and visualize not only data but also to understand concepts like mantle convection, plate reconstruction or plate deformation. The TOOLBOX option provides a set of state-of-the-art applications (WebPlates, WebFlexure, and WebConvec), in which logged-in users can run on-line various codes, without previous knowledge of advanced programming. WebPlates is used in Plate Tectonics classes, helping students to identify and familiarize themselves with various tectonic plates, different tectonic limits, hotspots, etc. WebFlexure is used to study the mechanical behavior of oceanic plates at trenches. WebConvec comes with four cases, analyzing the thermal and thermo-chemical convection in different conditions and geometries. In this way the students can understand how the variation of various physical parameters can affect the modeling results. The MODELS section presents a collection of dynamic numerical models generated within the Computational Geodynamics Laboratory. In this section, the logged-in user can visualize sophisticated convection and deformation models, tectonic plate reconstructions, or geophysical field data, like geoid, gravity and the magnetic. All these applications are actively used in the Geodynamics course that we currently teach and it seems that all this interactive sessions generated a good dynamics and a great interest in geosciences.

  20. Geoscience Education Research: A Brief History, Context and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogk, D. W.; Manduca, C. A.; Kastens, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    DBER combines knowledge of teaching and learning with deep knowledge of discipline-specific science content. It describes the discipline-specific difficulties learners face and the specialized intellectual and instructional resources that can facilitate student understanding (NRC, 2011). In the geosciences, content knowledge derives from all the "spheres, the complex interactions of components of the Earth system, applications of first principles from allied sciences, an understanding of "deep time", and approaches that emphasize the interpretive and historical nature of geoscience. Insights gained from the theory and practice of the cognitive and learning sciences that demonstrate how people learn, as well as research on learning from other STEM disciplines, have helped inform the development of geoscience curricular initiatives. The Earth Science Curriculum Project (1963) was strongly influenced by Piaget and emphasized hands-on, experiential learning. Recognizing that education research was thriving in related STEM disciplines a NSF report (NSF 97-171) recommended "... that GEO and EHR both support research in geoscience education, helping geoscientists to work with colleagues in fields such as educational and cognitive psychology, in order to facilitate development of a new generation of geoscience educators." An NSF sponsored workshop, Bringing Research on Learning to the Geosciences (2002) brought together geoscience educators and cognitive scientists to explore areas of mutual interest, and identified a research agenda that included study of spatial learning, temporal learning, learning about complex systems, use of visualizations in geoscience learning, characterization of expert learning, and learning environments. Subsequent events have focused on building new communities of scholars, such as the On the Cutting Edge faculty professional development workshops, extensive collections of online resources, and networks of scholars that have addressed teaching

  1. Pollution from animal husbandry in China: a case study of the Han River Basin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chen; Wu, Hongjuan

    2012-01-01

    Animal husbandry is one of the major agricultural pollution sources in China. The Xiangyang Reach of the Han River Basin was used as a case study to identify pollutants from animal rearing. The gross amount of pollutants from livestock and poultry rearing in the Xiangyang Reach was estimated using two empirical models with different data sets. The pig, cattle, sheep, and poultry population in 2009 amounted to 2.6, 0.6, 0.5, and 39.2 million head, respectively. The total annual pollutant loads generated from the feces and urine of livestock and poultry were 270,400 t of chemical oxygen demand; 228,900 t of biochemical oxygen demand; 26,500 t of ammonia nitrogen; 16,500 t of total phosphorus; and 63,900 t of total nitrogen. Approximately 12% of these pollutant loads were estimated to enter the Han River through the watershed outlet. Animal breeding has been one of the main pollution sources in this area, followed by domestic sewage and industrial wastewater. Cattle produced the most pollution, with the heaviest pollution load in downtown Xiangyang City. Several recommendations are presented to control the pollution caused by livestock and poultry breeding.

  2. An integrated numerical framework for water quality modelling in cold-region rivers: A case of the lower Athabasca River.

    PubMed

    Shakibaeinia, Ahmad; Kashyap, Shalini; Dibike, Yonas B; Prowse, Terry D

    2016-11-01

    There is a great deal of interest to determine the state and variations of water quality parameters in the lower Athabasca River (LAR) ecosystem, northern Alberta, Canada, due to industrial developments in the region. As a cold region river, the annual cycle of ice cover formation and breakup play a key role in water quality transformation and transportation processes. An integrated deterministic numerical modelling framework is developed and applied for long-term and detailed simulation of the state and variation (spatial and temporal) of major water quality constituents both in open-water and ice covered conditions in the lower Athabasca River (LAR). The framework is based on the a 1D and a 2D hydrodynamic and water quality models externally coupled with the 1D river ice process models to account for the cold season effects. The models are calibrated/validated using available measured data and applied for simulation of dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus). The results show the effect of winter ice cover on reducing the DO concentration, and a fluctuating temporal trend for DO and nutrients during summer periods with substantial differences in concentration between the main channel and flood plains. This numerical frame work can be the basis for future water quality scenario-based studies in the LAR.

  3. Genetic analysis of five sedentary fish species in middle Laranjinha River (upper Paraná River basin): A case study.

    PubMed

    Frantine-Silva, W; Ferreira, D G; Nascimento, R H C; Fracasso, J F; Conte, J E; Ramos, F P; Carvalho, S; Galindo, B A

    2015-01-01

    Most studies of diversity and genetic structure in neotropical fish have focused on commercial species from large rivers or their reservoirs. However, smaller tributaries have been identified as an important alternative migratory route, with independent pools of genetic diversity. In this context, the present study aimed to evaluate genetic diversity and structure in five neotropical fish species from a region of Laranjinha River in the upper Paraná River basin. PCR-RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers were used to characterize around 40 individuals of each species distributed upstream and downstream of Corredeira Dam that interrupts the river. The descriptive index of genetic diversity (P = 30.5-82%; HE 0.122-0.312) showed that the populations have acceptable levels of genetic diversity. The values for Nei's genetic distance (DN min 0.0110 and max 0.0306) as well as the genetic structure index and the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, ϕST min 0.0132 and max 0.0385) demonstrated low, but significant levels of genetic structure. Bayesian analysis of assignment found two k clusters, including several individuals with mixed ancestry for all populations from the five species analyzed. These findings along with historical data on rainfall and the low dimensions of the dam studied here support the hypothesis that periodic floods enable the transit of individuals between different localities mitigating the differentiation process between populations. PMID:26782514

  4. An integrated numerical framework for water quality modelling in cold-region rivers: A case of the lower Athabasca River.

    PubMed

    Shakibaeinia, Ahmad; Kashyap, Shalini; Dibike, Yonas B; Prowse, Terry D

    2016-11-01

    There is a great deal of interest to determine the state and variations of water quality parameters in the lower Athabasca River (LAR) ecosystem, northern Alberta, Canada, due to industrial developments in the region. As a cold region river, the annual cycle of ice cover formation and breakup play a key role in water quality transformation and transportation processes. An integrated deterministic numerical modelling framework is developed and applied for long-term and detailed simulation of the state and variation (spatial and temporal) of major water quality constituents both in open-water and ice covered conditions in the lower Athabasca River (LAR). The framework is based on the a 1D and a 2D hydrodynamic and water quality models externally coupled with the 1D river ice process models to account for the cold season effects. The models are calibrated/validated using available measured data and applied for simulation of dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus). The results show the effect of winter ice cover on reducing the DO concentration, and a fluctuating temporal trend for DO and nutrients during summer periods with substantial differences in concentration between the main channel and flood plains. This numerical frame work can be the basis for future water quality scenario-based studies in the LAR. PMID:27376919

  5. River sinuosity changes as indicators of the possible neotectonic activity - a case study on the Danube River between Paks (Hungary) and Beograd (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovszki, Judit

    2010-05-01

    . However, another possible explanation is based on the significant sediment load of the tributary, that is naturally decreases the river sinuosity. Horváth, F., Bada, G., Windhoffer, G., Csontos, L., Dombrádi, E., Dövényi, P., Fodor, L., Grenerczy, Gy., Síkhegyi, F., Szafián, P., Székely, B., Timár, G., Tóth, L., Tóth, T. (2006): A Pannon-medence jelenkori geodinamikájának atlasza: Euro-konform térképsorozat és magyarázó. Magyar Geofizika 47(4), 133-137. Ouchi, S. (1985): Response of alluvial rivers to slow active tectonic movement. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 96, 504-515. Timár, G. (2003): Controls on channel sinuosity changes: a case study of the Tisza River, the Great Hungarian Plain. Quaternary Sci. Rev. 22, 2199-2207. Timár, G., Molnár, G., Székely, B., Biszak, S., Varga, J., Jankó, A. (2006): Digitized maps of the Habsburg Empire - The map sheets of the second military survey and their georeferenced version. Arcanum, Budapest, 59 p. van Balen, R. T., Kasse, C., Moor, J. (2008): Impact of groundwater flow on meandering; example from the Geul river, the Netherlands. Earth Surf. Process. and Landf. 33(13), 2010-2028. Zámolyi, A., Székely, B., Draganits, E., Timár, G. (2010): Neotectonic control on river sinuosity at the western margin of the Little Hungarian Plain. Geomorph., in press, DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.06.028

  6. Geosciences Information for Teachers (GIFT) in Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, Angelo; Cacho, Isabel; Calvo, Eva; Demol, Ben; Sureda, Catalina; Artigas, Carme; Vilaplana, Miquel; Porbellini, Danilo; Rubio, Eduard

    2010-05-01

    CATAGIFT is the acronym of the project supported by the Catalan Government (trough the AGAUR agency) to support the activities of the EGU Committee on Education in Catalonia. The objective of this project is two-fold: 1) To establish a coordinated action to support the participation of three Catalan science teachers of primary and secondary schools in the GIFT Symposium, held each year during the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union (EGU). 2) To produce a video documentary each year on hot topics in geosciences. The documentary is produced in Catalan, Spanish and English and is distributed to the Catalan science teachers attending the annual meeting organized by the Institute of Education Sciences and the Faculty of Geology of the University together with the CosmoCaixa Museum of Barcelona, to the international teachers attending the EGU GIFT Workshop, and to other schools in the Spanish territory. In the present-day context of science dissemination through documentaries and television programs there is a dominance of products of high technical quality and very high costs sold and broadcasted world wide. The wide spread of such products tends to standardize scientific information, not only in its content, but also in the format used for communicating science to the general public. In the field of geosciences in particular, there is a scarcity of products that combine high scientific quality and accessible costs to illustrate aspects of the natural life of our planet Earth through the results of the work of individual researchers and / or research groups. The scientific documentaries produced by CATAGIFT pursue the objective to support primary and secondary school teachers to critically interpret scientific information coming from the different media (television, newspapers, magazines, audiovisual products), in a way that they can transmit to their students. CataGIFT has created a series of documentaries called MARENOSTRUM TERRANOSTRA designed and

  7. Restoration in the Anacostia river watershed: An ecosystem management case study

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, L.R.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses various aspects of an ecosystem approach to watershed restoration as illustrated by the Anacostia River Watershed Restoration initiative. This information was derived from a case study conducted as part of the Interagency Ecosystem Management Initiative (IEMI), an outgrowth of a recommendation in the National Performance Review. The purpose of this study was to identify components of the ecosystem approach used in the Anacostia initiative that may be useful to other ecosystem restoration and management initiatives in the future. Water quality and ecological conditions within the Anacostia River watershed have become degraded due to urban and suburban development and other activities in the watershed over the last two centuries. An intergovernmental partnership has been formed to cooperatively assess the specific problems in the basin and to direct and implement restoration efforts. The Anacostia initiative includes a number of cooperative efforts that cross political boundaries, and involves numerous states, local agencies, civic groups, and private individuals in addition to the Federal players. In contrast with some of the other case studies in the IEMI, the Anacostia restoration effort is primarily driven by state and local governments. There has, however, been Federal involvement in the restoration and use of Federal grants. In addition, the establishment of a forum for setting goals, priorities and resolving differences was viewed as essential. Closer relationships between planning and regulatory functions can help advance the restoration goals. Public participation, including education, outreach and involvement, is essential to viable ecosystem initiatives. Comprehensive planning and modeling must be balanced with continuous visible results in order to sustain administrative and public support for the initiative.

  8. Landslide hazard analysis for pipelines: The case of the Simonette river crossing

    SciTech Connect

    Grivas, D.A.; Schultz, B.C.; O`Neil, G.; Rizkalla, M.; McGuffey, V.C.

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this study is to develop a probabilistic methodology to analyze landslide hazards and their effects on the safety of buried pipelines. The methodology incorporates a range of models that can accommodate differences in the ground movement modes and the amount and type of information available at various site locations. Two movement modes are considered, namely (a) instantaneous (catastrophic) slides, and (b) gradual ground movement which may result in cumulative displacements over the pipeline design life (30--40 years) that are in excess of allowable values. Probabilistic analysis is applied in each case to address the uncertainties associated with important factors that control slope stability. Availability of information ranges from relatively well studied, instrumented installations to cases where data is limited to what can be derived from topographic and geologic maps. The methodology distinguishes between procedures applied where there is little information and those that can be used when relatively extensive data is available. important aspects of the methodology are illustrated in a case study involving a pipeline located in Northern Alberta, Canada, in the Simonette river valley.

  9. Geoscience terminology for data interchange: the CGI Geoscience Terminology Work Group (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, S. M.; Gtwg, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI), a Commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) has formed the Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG, http://www.cgi-iugs.org/tech_collaboration/ geoscience_terminology_ working_group.html) to unify vocabulary development efforts of the Multhes working group of the 1990s, the Multilingual Thesaurus Working Group (MLT) formed in 2003, and the Concept Definition Task Group formed in 2007. The workgroup charge is to develop, review, adopt, publish, and steward vocabularies and associated documentation for use in geoscience information systems. The group will develop liaisons with other semantic interoperability groups to ensure cross-domain interoperability. The objective is to create vocabularies that bind URIs to geoscience concepts, and allow linking between concepts in the CGI vocabularies and other vocabularies such as SWEET, GEMET, and the GCMD. Representations of the concepts use SKOS RDF/XML and a standardized vocabulary service that to enable navigating links to concepts, accessing definitions, and obtaining language-localized labels for concepts. The SISSvoc service developed by CSIRO Australia has been deployed for CGI vocabulary services. Vocabularies are currently constructed by gathering candidate terms in spreadsheet tables because these are easy for text editing and review. When the vocabulary is mature, it is migrated into SKOS, an RDF application for encoding concepts with identifiers, definitions, source information, standard thesaurus type relationships, and language-localized labels. Each vocabulary is 'shepherded' by a GTWG member, who is responsible for organizing a team to compile a draft vocabulary, present it for review by appropriate authorities, respond to review comments, and determine when the vocabulary is ready for adoption by a vote of the workgroup. The first meeting of the work group took place, hosted by VSEGEI in St

  10. Optimal Band Ratio Analysis of WORLDVIEW-3 Imagery for Bathymetry of Shallow Rivers (case Study: Sarca River, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niroumand-Jadidi, M.; Vitti, A.

    2016-06-01

    The Optimal Band Ratio Analysis (OBRA) could be considered as an efficient technique for bathymetry from optical imagery due to its robustness on substrate variability. This point receives more attention for very shallow rivers where different substrate types can contribute remarkably into total at-sensor radiance. The OBRA examines the total possible pairs of spectral bands in order to identify the optimal two-band ratio that its log transformation yields a strong linear relation with field measured water depths. This paper aims at investigating the effectiveness of additional spectral bands of newly launched WorldView-3 (WV-3) imagery in the visible and NIR spectrum through OBRA for retrieving water depths in shallow rivers. In this regard, the OBRA is performed on a WV-3 image as well as a GeoEye image of a small Alpine river in Italy. In-situ depths are gathered in two river reaches using a precise GPS device. In each testing scenario, 50% of the field data is used for calibration of the model and the remained as independent check points for accuracy assessment. In general, the effect of changes in water depth is highly pronounced in longer wavelengths (i.e. NIR) due to high and rapid absorption of light in this spectrum as long as it is not saturated. As the studied river is shallow, NIR portion of the spectrum has not been reduced so much not to reach the riverbed; making use of the observed radiance over this spectral range as denominator has shown a strong correlation through OBRA. More specifically, tightly focused channels of red-edge, NIR-1 and NIR-2 provide a wealth of choices for OBRA rather than a single NIR band of conventional 4-band images (e.g. GeoEye). This advantage of WV-3 images is outstanding as well for choosing the optimal numerator of the ratio model. Coastal-blue and yellow bands of WV-3 are identified as proper numerators while only green band of the GeoEye image contributed to a reliable correlation of image derived values and field

  11. Challenges for bathing in rivers in terms of compliance with coliform standards. Case study in a large urbanized basin (das Velhas River, Brazil).

    PubMed

    von Sperling, Marcos; von Sperling, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case study on the prospects of bathing in a large water course (das Velhas River, Brazil), which crosses the important metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (25 municipalities), receiving several point and diffuse discharges. The studies were carried out based on a mathematical simulation of thermotolerant coliforms over 227 km of the river, using an adaptation of the Qual2E model (model Qual-UFMG). Simulations of intervention scenarios were made for the current conditions, with three reference flows for the das Velhas River, tributaries and direct contribution: Q7,10 (representative of low-flow conditions), Q50 (average conditions) and Q10 (rainy season). The intervention scenarios simulated were: (a) current conditions without intervention; (b) scenario with effluent disinfection in the two largest wastewater treatment plants in the basin (around 2.4 million inhabitants); (c) scenario with 95% sewage collection and treatment, with disinfection in all municipalities of the study area; (d) scenario with the calculation of values required for the coverage of sewage treatment and coliform removal efficiencies based on a mathematical optimization process. The monitoring data and results of all simulations indicated improvement in coliform concentration as the river flows downstream. However, results suggested that disinfection per se is not enough. Even under hypothetical conditions of excellent sanitary infrastructure for a developing country, coverage of collection and treatment of 95% of the generated sewage, and treatment with disinfection at all wastewater treatment plants, concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms in das Velhas River are likely to be above the maximum allowable of 1,000 MPN/100 mL for bathing purposes. The mathematical optimization indicated the need for very high percentages of sewage treatment coverage (near 100%, i.e. universality of collection and treatment) and implementation of disinfection in most treatment plants

  12. Challenges for bathing in rivers in terms of compliance with coliform standards. Case study in a large urbanized basin (das Velhas River, Brazil).

    PubMed

    von Sperling, Marcos; von Sperling, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case study on the prospects of bathing in a large water course (das Velhas River, Brazil), which crosses the important metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (25 municipalities), receiving several point and diffuse discharges. The studies were carried out based on a mathematical simulation of thermotolerant coliforms over 227 km of the river, using an adaptation of the Qual2E model (model Qual-UFMG). Simulations of intervention scenarios were made for the current conditions, with three reference flows for the das Velhas River, tributaries and direct contribution: Q7,10 (representative of low-flow conditions), Q50 (average conditions) and Q10 (rainy season). The intervention scenarios simulated were: (a) current conditions without intervention; (b) scenario with effluent disinfection in the two largest wastewater treatment plants in the basin (around 2.4 million inhabitants); (c) scenario with 95% sewage collection and treatment, with disinfection in all municipalities of the study area; (d) scenario with the calculation of values required for the coverage of sewage treatment and coliform removal efficiencies based on a mathematical optimization process. The monitoring data and results of all simulations indicated improvement in coliform concentration as the river flows downstream. However, results suggested that disinfection per se is not enough. Even under hypothetical conditions of excellent sanitary infrastructure for a developing country, coverage of collection and treatment of 95% of the generated sewage, and treatment with disinfection at all wastewater treatment plants, concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms in das Velhas River are likely to be above the maximum allowable of 1,000 MPN/100 mL for bathing purposes. The mathematical optimization indicated the need for very high percentages of sewage treatment coverage (near 100%, i.e. universality of collection and treatment) and implementation of disinfection in most treatment plants

  13. Bridging the Geoscientist Workforce Gap: Advanced High School Geoscience Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Richard William

    The purpose of this participatory action research was to create a comprehensive evaluation of advanced geoscience education in Pennsylvania public high schools and to ascertain the possible impact of this trend on student perceptions and attitudes towards the geosciences as a legitimate academic subject and possible career option. The study builds on an earlier examination of student perceptions conducted at Northern Arizona University in 2008 and 2009 but shifts the focus to high school students, a demographic not explored before in this context. The study consisted of three phases each examining a different facet of the advanced geoscience education issue. Phase 1 examined 572 public high schools in 500 school districts across Pennsylvania and evaluated the health of the state's advanced geoscience education through the use of an online survey instrument where districts identified the nature of their geoscience programs (if any). Phase 2 targeted two groups of students at one suburban Philadelphia high school with an established advanced geoscience courses and compared the attitudes and perceptions of those who had been exposed to the curricula to a similar group of students who had not. Descriptive and statistically significant trends were then identified in order to assess the impact of an advanced geoscience education. Phase 3 of the study qualitatively explored the particular attitudes and perceptions of a random sampling of the advanced geoscience study group through the use of one-on-one interviews that looked for more in-depth patterns of priorities and values when students considered such topics as course enrollment, career selection and educational priorities. The results of the study revealed that advanced geoscience coursework was available to only 8% of the state's 548,000 students, a percentage significantly below that of the other typical K-12 science fields. It also exposed several statistically significant differences between the perceptions and

  14. Community Efforts Bringing Research on Learning to the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Kastens, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    Individual, departmental and community efforts have all played a major role in developing a thriving research effort addressing thinking and learning in the geosciences. Community efforts have been effective in elevating the importance of the field, defining a research agenda, fostering collaborations with cognitive science and education communities, building capacity within the geosciences, and developing reviewer awareness of the importance and opportunities within geoscience education research. Important community efforts include a call for geoscience education research in the 1997 NSF report Geoscience Education: A Recommended Strategy and in the subsequent 2000 NSF report ‘Bridges: Connecting Research and Education in the Earth System Sciences’. A research agenda and supporting recommendations for collaboration and capacity building were jointly developed by geoscience educators, cognitive scientists and education researchers at the 2002 NSF/Johnson Foundation funded workshop Bringing Research on Learning to the Geosciences. This research agenda emphasized studies of geoscience expertise, learning pathways (and their challenges) that are critical to the development of that expertise, and materials and environments that support this learning, with a focus on learning in the field and from large data sets, complex systems and deep time, spatial skills, and the synthesis of understanding from multiple sources of incomplete data. Collaboration and capacity building have been further supported by the NAGT sponsored professional development program “On the Cutting Edge” with workshops bringing together cognitive scientists, educators and geoscientists on topics including developing on-line learning resources, teaching with visualizations, the role of the affective domain in geoscience learning, teaching metacognition, and teaching with data. 40 successful educational research proposals are attributed to participation in On the Cutting Edge. An NSF funded

  15. Taking Geoscience to Public Schools: Attitude and Knowledge Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silliman, J. E.; Hansen, A.; McDonald, J.; Martinez, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program is an ongoing project that is designed to strengthen geoscience education in South Texas public schools. It began in June 2003 and is funded by the National Science Foundation. This outreach program involves collaboration between Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and four independent school districts in South Texas with support from the South Texas Rural Systemic Initiative, another NSF-funded project. Additional curriculum support has been provided by various local and state organizations. Across Texas, fifth grade students are demonstrating a weakness in geoscience concepts as evidenced by their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. As a result, fifth and sixth grade public school students from low-income school districts were selected to participate in this program. At this age students are already making decisions that will affect their high school and college years. The main purpose of this project is to encourage these students, many of whom are Hispanic, to become geoscientists. This purpose is accomplished by enhancing their geoscience knowledge, nurturing their interest in geoscience and showing them what careers are available in the geosciences. Educators and scientists collaborate to engage students in scientific discovery through hands-on laboratory exercises and exposure to state-of-the-art technology (laptop computers, weather stations, telescopes, etc.). Students' family members become involved in the geoscience learning process as they participate in Family Science Night activities. Family Science Nights constitute an effective venue to reach the public. During the course of the Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program, investigators have measured success in two ways: improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience concepts and change in students' attitudes towards geoscience. Findings include significant improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience. Students also report more positive

  16. On the applicability of Benford's Law in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambridge, M.; Tkalcic, H.; Jackson, A.

    2009-12-01

    Benford's Law is a curious property of numerous datasets whereby the frequency distribution of the first digit (i.e. first non zero number from the left) follows a well defined logarithmic function, namely P_D = log_b(1+1/D), where D is the first digit and b is the base of the data. This was initially observed by Newcomb (1881) and later quantified and expanded by Benford (1938). The latter author first put forward a set of 20 distinct data sets with differing physical dimension and character which collectively obeyed this 1st digit law. The nature of each data is the most startling feature of all in that they range from physical properties of matter such as molecular weight and specific heat capacity through river areas and drainage rates to population numbers in the USA as well as American baseball league averages of 1936. A universal law of digits was proposed by Benford and in recent times has been widely accepted. Investigations into the nature and use of Benford's Law have continued in multiple fields. Mathematicians have more recently proven the correctness of this universal law of digits under general conditions and Nigrini (1992) has made use of it for uncovering anomalous data errors and fraud in accountancy practices. To date Benford's Law appears to have received no attention within the Geosciences. Here we demonstrate its widespread applicability for geophysical data sets as well as models derived from data of varying type and physical dimension. Specifically we verify Benford's Law holds for a geomagnetic Field model of the Earth (gufm1), Seismic models obtained from tomography (including mantle shear wave and regional body wave P and S models for various parts of the globe), and the GRACE gravity model up to degree 160. It would appear that Benford's Law has widespread applicability to geoscience data. Departures from Benford's Law are of interest as they seem to indicate changes in the local character of data, possibly due to fraud, error, or

  17. Revealing the relationship between microbial community structure in natural biofilms and the pollution level in urban rivers: a case study in the Qinhuai River basin, Yangtze River Delta.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wei; Li, Yi; Wang, Peifang; Niu, Lihua; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    River pollution is one of the most challenging environmental issues, but the effect of river pollution levels on the biofilm communities has not been well-studied. Spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of environmental parameters and the biofilm communities were investigated in the Qinhuai River basin, Nanjing, China. Water samples were grouped into three clusters reflecting their varying pollution levels of relatively slight pollution, moderated pollution, and high pollution by hierarchical cluster analysis. In different clusters, the biofilm communities mainly differed in the proportion of Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. As the dominant classes of Proteobacteria, Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria seemed to show an upward trend followed by a small fluctuation in the abundance with the escalation of water pollution level. Results of redundancy analysis demonstrated that temperature, total nitrogen to total phosphorus ratios (TN/TP) and concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and TN were mainly responsible for the variation in bacterial community structure. The occurrences of Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were closely associated with higher temperature, higher concentrations of NH3-N and TN and a lower TN/TP ratio. This study may provide a theoretical basis for the water pollution control and ecological restoration in urban rivers under different pollution levels.

  18. Revealing the relationship between microbial community structure in natural biofilms and the pollution level in urban rivers: a case study in the Qinhuai River basin, Yangtze River Delta.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wei; Li, Yi; Wang, Peifang; Niu, Lihua; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    River pollution is one of the most challenging environmental issues, but the effect of river pollution levels on the biofilm communities has not been well-studied. Spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of environmental parameters and the biofilm communities were investigated in the Qinhuai River basin, Nanjing, China. Water samples were grouped into three clusters reflecting their varying pollution levels of relatively slight pollution, moderated pollution, and high pollution by hierarchical cluster analysis. In different clusters, the biofilm communities mainly differed in the proportion of Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. As the dominant classes of Proteobacteria, Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria seemed to show an upward trend followed by a small fluctuation in the abundance with the escalation of water pollution level. Results of redundancy analysis demonstrated that temperature, total nitrogen to total phosphorus ratios (TN/TP) and concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and TN were mainly responsible for the variation in bacterial community structure. The occurrences of Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were closely associated with higher temperature, higher concentrations of NH3-N and TN and a lower TN/TP ratio. This study may provide a theoretical basis for the water pollution control and ecological restoration in urban rivers under different pollution levels. PMID:27642836

  19. Unidata: A cyberinfrastrucuture for the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthy, Mohan

    2016-04-01

    Data are the lifeblood of the geosciences. Rapid advances in computing, communications, and observational technologies - along with concomitant advances in high-resolution modeling, ensemble and coupled-systems predictions of the Earth system - are revolutionizing nearly every aspect of our field. The result is a dramatic proliferation of data from diverse sources; data that are consumed by an evolving and ever-broadening community of users and that are becoming the principal engine for driving scientific advances. Data-enabled research has emerged as a Fourth Paradigm of science, alongside experiments, theoretical studies, and computer simulations Unidata is a data facility, sponsored by the NSF, and our mission is to provide the data services, tools, and cyberinfrastructure leadership that advance Earth system science, enhance educational opportunities, and broaden participation in the geosciences. For more nearly thirty years, Unidata has worked in concert with the atmospheric science education and research community to develop and provide innovative data systems, tools, techniques, and resources to support data-enabled science to understand the Earth system. In doing so, Unidata has maintained a close, synergistic relationship with the universities, engaging them in collaborative efforts to exploit data and technologies, and removing roadblocks to data discovery, access, analysis, and effective use. As a community-governed program, Unidata depends on guidance and feedback from educators, researchers, and students in the atmospheric and related sciences. The Unidata Program helps researchers and educators acquire and use earth-related data. Most of the data are provided in "real time" or "near-real time" - that is, the data are sent to participants almost as soon as the observations are made. Unidata also develops, maintains, and supports a variety of software packages. Most of these packages are developed at the Unidata Program Center (UPC), while a few others

  20. Satellite Applications for K-12 Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, M.; Ackerman, S.; Lettvin, E.; Emerson, N.; Whittaker, T. M.

    2007-12-01

    This presentation will highlight interactive on-line curriculum developed at the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. CIMSS has been on the forefront of educational software design for over two decades, routinely integrating on-line activities into courses on satellite remote sensing. In 2006, CIMSS began collaborating with education experts and researchers from the University of Washington to create an NSF-funded distance learning course for science teachers called Satellite Applications for Geoscience Education. This course includes numerous web-based learning activities, including a distance education tool called VISITview which allows instructors to connect with multiple students simultaneously to conduct a lesson. Developed at CIMSS to facilitate training of National Weather Service forecasters economically and remotely, VISITview is especially effective for groups of people discussing and analyzing maps or images interactively from many locations. Along with an on-line chat function, VISITview participants can use a speaker phone or a networked voice-enabled application to create a learning environment similar to a traditional classroom. VISITview will be used in two capacities: first, instructors will convey topics of current relevance in geoscience disciplines via VISITview. Second, the content experts will participate in "virtual visits" to the classrooms of the educators who take the course for full credit. This will enable scientists to interact with both teachers and students to answer questions and discuss exciting or inspiring examples that link satellite data to their areas of research. As long as a school has Internet access, an LCD projector and a speakerphone, VISITview sessions can be shared with an entire classroom. The geoscientists who developed material for the course and conducting VISITview lectures include a geologist from the University of Wisconsin-Richland, an

  1. Environmental impact assessment of sand mining from the small catchment rivers in the southwestern coast of India: a case study.

    PubMed

    Sreebha, Sreedharan; Padmalal, Damodaran

    2011-01-01

    In the past few decades, the demand for construction grade sand is increasing in many parts of the world due to rapid economic development and subsequent growth of building activities. This, in many of the occasions, has resulted in indiscriminate mining of sand from in-stream and floodplain areas leading to severe damages to the river basin environment. The case is rather alarming in the small catchment rivers like those draining the southwestern coast of India due to limited sand resources in their alluvial reaches. Moreover, lack of adequate information on the environmental impact of river sand mining is a major lacuna challenging regulatory efforts in many developing countries. Therefore, a scientific assessment is a pre-requisite in formulating management strategies in the sand mining-hit areas. In this context, a study has been made as a case to address the environmental impact of sand mining from the in-stream and floodplain areas of three important rivers in the southwestern coast of India namely the Chalakudy, Periyar and Muvattupuzha rivers, whose lowlands host one of the fast developing urban-cum-industrial centre, the Kochi city. The study reveals that an amount of 11.527 million ty(-1) of sand (8.764 million ty(-1) of in-stream sand and 2.763 million ty(-1) of floodplain sand) is being mined from the midland and lowland reaches of these rivers for construction of buildings and other infrastructural facilities in Kochi city and its satellite townships. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) carried out as a part of this investigation shows that the activities associated with mining and processing of sands have not only affected the health of the river ecosystems but also degraded its overbank areas to a large extent. Considering the degree of degradation caused by sand mining from these rivers, no mining scenario may be opted in the deeper zones of the river channels. Also, a set of suggestions are made for the overall improvement of the rivers and its

  2. River Water Quality Model no. 1 (RWQM1): case study. I. Compartmentalisation approach applied to oxygen balances in the River Lahn (Germany).

    PubMed

    Borchardt, D; Reichert, P

    2001-01-01

    A case study on the application of the River Water Quality Model No. 1 (RWQM1) is presented in order to illustrate the importance of modelling a sediment compartment for an ecologically meaningful assessment of the impact of wastewater effluents and combined sewer overflows. The focus of this case study is on the compartmentalisation approach of the RWQM1 that makes such a description possible. In contrast to this, a strongly simplified biochemical submodel is used that considers only oxygen and dissolved substrate. The object of the case study is the River Lahn, a moderately polluted 5th order stream in Germany, for which the connectivity of surface/subsurface flows and mass fluxes within river sediments have been intensively investigated. The hyporheic flow between a downwelling and upwelling zone of a riffle-pool sequence has been studied with the aid of tracer experiments and continuous records of water constituents. High diurnal fluctuations of oxygen travelled to considerable depth of the sediment and oxygen in the interstitial water decreased considerably while travelling through the riffle. Starting with the implementation of a strongly simplified version of the biochemical part of the RWQM1, but with the consideration of a sediment pore water compartment in addition to the water column compartment, a calibration procedure is performed using tracer data from the water column and the sediment. The calibrated model is then used to study the system response to wastewater treatment plant effluent and combined sewer overflow emissions. The modelling approach makes it possible to quantify the sediment oxygen demand and the spatial and temporal extent of sediment zones with oxygen depletion. However, the spatially averaged approach does not account for inhomogeneities in the sediment. It is shown that for this river with its alluvial coarse sediments even moderate emissions from sewerage systems may be high enough to drop sediment oxygen concentrations to low

  3. Mentored undergraduate research in the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, Shelley; Pollock, Meagen; Wiles, Greg; Wilson, Mark

    2012-09-01

    There is little argument about the merits of undergraduate research, but it can seem like a complex, resource-intensive endeavor [e.g., Laursen et al., 2010; Lopatto, 2009; Hunter et al., 2006]. Although mentored undergraduate research can be challenging, the authors of this feature have found that research programs are strengthened when students and faculty collaborate to build new knowledge. Faculty members in the geology department at The College of Wooster have conducted mentored undergraduate research with their students for more than 60 years and have developed a highly effective program that enhances the teaching, scholarship, and research of our faculty and provides life-changing experiences for our students. Other colleges and universities have also implemented successful mentored undergraduate research programs in the geosciences. For instance, the 18 Keck Geology Consortium schools (http://keckgeology.org/), Princeton University, and other institutions have been recognized for their senior capstone experiences by U.S. News & World Report.

  4. GeoMod 2014 - Modelling in geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leever, Karen; Oncken, Onno

    2016-08-01

    GeoMod is a biennial conference to review and discuss latest developments in analogue and numerical modelling of lithospheric and mantle deformation. GeoMod2014 took place at the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences in Potsdam, Germany. Its focus was on rheology and deformation at a wide range of temporal and spatial scales: from earthquakes to long-term deformation, from micro-structures to orogens and subduction systems. It also addressed volcanotectonics and the interaction between tectonics and surface processes (Elger et al., 2014). The conference was followed by a 2-day short course on "Constitutive Laws: from Observation to Implementation in Models" and a 1-day hands-on tutorial on the ASPECT numerical modelling software.

  5. The Role of Virtual Globes in Geoscience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, John E.; Chen, Aijun

    2011-01-01

    One of the difficulties faced by Earth scientists of all disciplines is how to effectively communicate their research to both other scientists and the general public. With increased attention paid to the health of the planet, the activities of geoscientists in particular are falling under the spotlight of public interest. In age where the internet availability has brought an expectation of information being instantly visible in a graphically rich format, the development of Virtual Globes --computer-based representations of the real-world--has become a natural progression for how best to view these data. In this special issue we bring together a cross-selection of the many examples of how Virtual Globe technologies are being used for geoscience.

  6. Negotiating river ecosystems: Impact assessment and conflict mediation in the cases of hydro-power construction

    SciTech Connect

    Karjalainen, Timo P.; Jaervikoski, Timo

    2010-09-15

    In this paper we discuss how the legitimacy of the impact assessment process is a key issue in conflict mediation in environmental impact assessment. We contrast two EIA cases in hydro-power generation plans made for the Ii River, Finland in different decades, and evaluate how impact assessment in these cases has contributed to the creation, mediation and resolution of conflicts. We focus on the elements of distributional and procedural justice that made the former EIA process more legitimate and consensual and the latter more conflictual. The results indicate that it is crucial for conflict mediation to include all the values and interests of the parties in the goal-setting process and in the definition and assessment of alternatives. The analysis also indicates that procedural justice is the most important to help the people and groups involved to accept the legitimacy of the impact assessment process: how different parties and their values and interests are recognized, and how participation and distribution of power are organized in an impact assessment process. It is confirmed in this article that SIA may act as a mediator or a forum providing a process through which competing knowledge claims, various values and interests can be discussed and linked to the proposed alternatives and interventions.

  7. Hydraulic modelling for flood mapping and prevention: the case study of Cerfone River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francesco, Silvia; Venturi, Sara; Manciola, Piergiorgio

    2016-04-01

    The research focuses on the hydraulic risk evaluation and danger estimation for different extreme flood events, in order to correctly implement mitigation measures in an anthropized basin. The Cerfone River (Tuscany, Italy), due to the several floods that have affected the neighbouring villages in recent years, is selected as case of study. A finite volume numerical model that solves the shallow water equations all over the computational domain, was used to simulate the unsteady evolution of the maximum extent of flooded areas for different scenarios. The one - dimensional approach (still widespread in engineering projects) can be inaccurate in complex flows, which are often two or three dimensional and sometimes does not manage to capture the flood spatial extents in terms of flow depth and velocity. The use of a two-dimensional numerical model seems to be the suitable instrument in terms of computational efficiency and adequacy of results. In fact it overcomes the limits of a one-dimensional modeling in terms of prediction of hydraulic variables with a less computational effort respect to a full 3d model. An accurate modeling of the river basin leads to the evaluation of the present hydraulic risk. Structural and non- structural measures are then studied, simulated and compared in order to define the optimal risk reduction plan for the area of study. At this aim, different flooding scenarios were simulated through the 2D mathematical model: i) existing state of the river and floodplain areas; ii) design of a levee to protect the most vulnerable populated areas against the flooding risk; iii) use of off - stream detention basins that strongly amplify the lamination capacity of floodplains. All these scenarios were simulated for different return periods: 50, 100, 200 and 500 years. The inputs of the hydraulic models are obtained in accordance with the legislative requirement of Tuscany Region; in particular discharge hydrographs are evaluate through the ALTo

  8. Satellite-supported flood forecasting in river networks: A real case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pintado, Javier; Mason, David C.; Dance, Sarah L.; Cloke, Hannah L.; Neal, Jeff C.; Freer, Jim; Bates, Paul D.

    2015-04-01

    Satellite-based (e.g., Synthetic Aperture Radar [SAR]) water level observations (WLOs) of the floodplain can be sequentially assimilated into a hydrodynamic model to decrease forecast uncertainty. This has the potential to keep the forecast on track, so providing an Earth Observation (EO) based flood forecast system. However, the operational applicability of such a system for floods developed over river networks requires further testing. One of the promising techniques for assimilation in this field is the family of ensemble Kalman (EnKF) filters. These filters use a limited-size ensemble representation of the forecast error covariance matrix. This representation tends to develop spurious correlations as the forecast-assimilation cycle proceeds, which is a further complication for dealing with floods in either urban areas or river junctions in rural environments. Here we evaluate the assimilation of WLOs obtained from a sequence of real SAR overpasses (the X-band COSMO-Skymed constellation) in a case study. We show that a direct application of a global Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (ETKF) suffers from filter divergence caused by spurious correlations. However, a spatially-based filter localization provides a substantial moderation in the development of the forecast error covariance matrix, directly improving the forecast and also making it possible to further benefit from a simultaneous online inflow error estimation and correction. Additionally, we propose and evaluate a novel along-network metric for filter localization, which is physically-meaningful for the flood over a network problem. Using this metric, we further evaluate the simultaneous estimation of channel friction and spatially-variable channel bathymetry, for which the filter seems able to converge simultaneously to sensible values. Results also indicate that friction is a second order effect in flood inundation models applied to gradually varied flow in large rivers. The study is not conclusive

  9. Implementing Successful Geoscience Education and Outreach Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braile, L. W.

    2004-12-01

    Successful geoscience Education and Outreach (E&O) efforts associated with a research program benefit from effective planning and a commitment by scientists/researchers to become more knowledgeable about and involved in education. Several suggested strategies have evolved based on experience in Earth science E&O with K-16 educators and students during the past 10 years. E&O programs and materials should be developed at appropriate levels ("start from where they're at") and utilize information, skills and topics that are most relevant to students and teachers. Hands-on and inquiry-based activities that teach or reinforce fundamental science understanding and skills, while introducing new topics, results and discoveries, are particularly effective. It is useful to design materials that can provide for a range of time commitment, level of technical skills, and effort, so that introductory to in-depth curriculum units can be implemented. Use of the Internet and working with teachers can be effective methods for dissemination and taking advantage of a "multiplying factor". Obtaining feedback and evaluation of the programs and developed materials, and connecting the materials to national or state education standards are also highly recommended. Most importantly, scientists should become more involved in the science education community. Attending and presenting papers at appropriate science education sessions or workshops, or state or national science teacher meetings (the annual National Science Teachers Association convention is an excellent place to start) can be a significant educational experience for the scientist/researcher. Effective geoscience E&O programs have significant potential for enhancing K-16 education and scientific literacy, and can help attract students to the sciences. Perhaps surprisingly, these efforts have substantial positive impact on the scientist/researcher as well.

  10. Utilizing Windows Azure to Support Geo-science Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, J.

    2014-12-01

    Windows Azure is a cloud computing platform and infrastructure, created by Microsoft for developing, deploying and managing applications through global networks. It provides Platform as a service (PaaS) which have been widely used in different domains to support scientific studies. This paper experiences the feasibility of utilizing Windows Azure to support different type of geo-science applications. Specially, the load balancing feature of Azure is used to address intensive concurrent access for geo-science data; cloud-based database is utilized for support Big Spatial data management; and the global deployment feature is used to improve the evaluation accuracy for geo-science services.

  11. Predicting river water temperatures using stochastic models: case study of the Moisie River (Québec, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi-Nedushan, Behrouz; St-Hilaire, André; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Bilodeau, Laurent; Robichaud, Élaine; Thiémonge, Nathalie; Bobée, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Successful applications of stochastic models for simulating and predicting daily stream temperature have been reported in the literature. These stochastic models have been generally tested on small rivers and have used only air temperature as an exogenous variable. This study investigates the stochastic modelling of daily mean stream water temperatures on the Moisie River, a relatively large unregulated river located in Québec, Canada. The objective of the study is to compare different stochastic approaches previously used on small streams to relate mean daily water temperatures to air temperatures and streamflow indices. Various stochastic approaches are used to model the water temperature residuals, representing short-term variations, which were obtained by subtracting the seasonal components from water temperature time-series. The first three models, a multiple regression, a second-order autoregressive model, and a Box and Jenkins model, used only lagged air temperature residuals as exogenous variables. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) for these models varied between 0.53 and 1.70 °C and the second-order autoregressive model provided the best results.A statistical methodology using best subsets regression is proposed to model the combined effect of discharge and air temperature on stream temperatures. Various streamflow indices were considered as additional independent variables, and models with different number of variables were tested. The results indicated that the best model included relative change in flow as the most important streamflow index. The RMSE for this model was of the order of 0.51 °C, which shows a small improvement over the first three models that did not include streamflow indices. The ridge regression was applied to this model to alleviate the potential statistical inadequacies associated with multicollinearity. The amplitude and sign of the ridge regression coefficients seem to be more in agreement with prior expectations (e.g. positive

  12. Geospatial Modelling Approach for Interlinking of Rivers: A Case Study of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swathi Lakshmi, A.; Saran, S.; Srivastav, S. K.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-11-01

    India is prone to several natural disasters such as floods, droughts, cyclones, landslides and earthquakes on account of its geoclimatic conditions. But the most frequent and prominent disasters are floods and droughts. So to reduce the impact of floods and droughts in India, interlinking of rivers is one of the best solutions to transfer the surplus flood waters to deficit/drought prone areas. Geospatial modelling provides a holistic approach to generate probable interlinking routes of rivers based on existing geoinformatics tools and technologies. In the present study, SRTM DEM and AWiFS datasets coupled with land-use/land -cover, geomorphology, soil and interpolated rainfall surface maps have been used to identify the potential routes in geospatial domain for interlinking of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. The first order derivatives are derived from DEM and road, railway and drainage networks have been delineated using the satellite data. The inundation map has been prepared using AWiFS derived Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The Drought prone areas were delineated on the satellite image as per the records declared by Revenue Department, Srikakulam. Majority Rule Based (MRB) aggregation technique is performed to optimize the resolution of obtained data in order to retain the spatial variability of the classes. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is implemented to obtain the prioritization of parameters like geomorphology, soil, DEM, slope, and land use/land-cover. A likelihood grid has been generated and all the thematic layers are overlaid to identify the potential grids for routing optimization. To give a better routing map, impedance map has been generated and several other constraints are considered. The implementation of canal construction needs extra cost in some areas. The developed routing map is published into OGC WMS services using open source Geo

  13. Dredging for dilution: A simulation based case study in a Tidal River.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, Ata; Proehl, Jeffrey A; Swift, M Robinson

    2016-02-01

    A 2-D hydrodynamic finite element model with a Lagrangian particle module is used to investigate the effects of dredging on the hydrodynamics and the horizontal dilution of pollutant particles originating from a wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) in tidal Oyster River in New Hampshire, USA. The model is driven by the semi-diurnal (M2) tidal component and includes the effect of flooding and drying of riverine mud flats. The particle tracking method consists of tidal advection plus a horizontal random walk model of sub-grid scale turbulent processes. Our approach is to perform continuous pollutant particle releases from the outfall, simulating three different scenarios: a base-case representing the present conditions and two different dredged channel/outfall location configurations. Hydrodynamics are investigated in an Eulerian framework and Lagrangian particle dilution improvement ratios are calculated for all cases. Results show that the simulated hydrodynamics are consistent with observed conditions. Eulerian and Lagrangian residuals predict an outward path suggesting flushing of pollutants on longer (>M2) time scales. Simulated dilution maps show that, in addition to dredging, the relocation of the WWTF outfall into the dredged main channel is required for increased dilution performance. The methodology presented here can be applied to similar managerial problems in all similar systems worldwide with relatively little effort, with the combination of Lagrangian and Eulerian methods working together towards a better solution. The statistical significance brought into methodology, by using a large number of particles (16000 in this case), is to be emphasized, especially with the growing number of networked parallel computer clusters worldwide. This paper improves on the study presented in Bilgili et al., 2006b, by adding an Eulerian analysis.

  14. Dredging for dilution: A simulation based case study in a Tidal River.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, Ata; Proehl, Jeffrey A; Swift, M Robinson

    2016-02-01

    A 2-D hydrodynamic finite element model with a Lagrangian particle module is used to investigate the effects of dredging on the hydrodynamics and the horizontal dilution of pollutant particles originating from a wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) in tidal Oyster River in New Hampshire, USA. The model is driven by the semi-diurnal (M2) tidal component and includes the effect of flooding and drying of riverine mud flats. The particle tracking method consists of tidal advection plus a horizontal random walk model of sub-grid scale turbulent processes. Our approach is to perform continuous pollutant particle releases from the outfall, simulating three different scenarios: a base-case representing the present conditions and two different dredged channel/outfall location configurations. Hydrodynamics are investigated in an Eulerian framework and Lagrangian particle dilution improvement ratios are calculated for all cases. Results show that the simulated hydrodynamics are consistent with observed conditions. Eulerian and Lagrangian residuals predict an outward path suggesting flushing of pollutants on longer (>M2) time scales. Simulated dilution maps show that, in addition to dredging, the relocation of the WWTF outfall into the dredged main channel is required for increased dilution performance. The methodology presented here can be applied to similar managerial problems in all similar systems worldwide with relatively little effort, with the combination of Lagrangian and Eulerian methods working together towards a better solution. The statistical significance brought into methodology, by using a large number of particles (16000 in this case), is to be emphasized, especially with the growing number of networked parallel computer clusters worldwide. This paper improves on the study presented in Bilgili et al., 2006b, by adding an Eulerian analysis. PMID:26613354

  15. A multiple case study for calibrating acoustic backscatter to total suspended material in a large river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunkel, Brittany Lynne

    Sediment transport measurements are determined using techniques such as bed-material and suspended-sediment sampling, and more recently the conversion of acoustic backscatter (ABS). Acoustic waves scatter and attenuate while passing through a water-sediment mixture and the backscatter is converted to sediment concentration, size, and shape. A multiple case study performed using data from West Bay, Old River, and Mississippi River at Vicksburg show the variability of a large river system TSM flux during assorted hydrographs and two methods (CHL and moving boat) capture the events. After processing and applying the two methods the results showed that the methods are typically within 8% to 41% of each other when computing sediment flux. The conversion of total suspended material (TSM) from ABS was an average of 0.2% to 69% from the sample TSM. Peak part of the hydrograph had the highest average suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and descending had the lowest average SSC.

  16. Global Crises Could Renew Interest in Geoscience Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennisi, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    The predicted increase in geoscience careers and research opportunities is discussed. A growing environmental concern and the need to search for oil outside the Persian Gulf has led to an educational revitalization in this area. (KR)

  17. Professionalism Among Women and Men in the Geosciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Judith B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Presented are summaries of four presentations to the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America, Salt Lake City, October 20, 1975, pertaining to the problems particular to women in the geoscience fields. (SL)

  18. Data assimilation techniques and modelling uncertainty in geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvishi, M.; Ahmadi, G.

    2014-10-01

    "You cannot step into the same river twice". Perhaps this ancient quote is the best phrase to describe the dynamic nature of the earth system. If we regard the earth as a several mixed systems, we want to know the state of the system at any time. The state could be time-evolving, complex (such as atmosphere) or simple and finding the current state requires complete knowledge of all aspects of the system. On one hand, the Measurements (in situ and satellite data) are often with errors and incomplete. On the other hand, the modelling cannot be exact; therefore, the optimal combination of the measurements with the model information is the best choice to estimate the true state of the system. Data assimilation (DA) methods are powerful tools to combine observations and a numerical model. Actually, DA is an interaction between uncertainty analysis, physical modelling and mathematical algorithms. DA improves knowledge of the past, present or future system states. DA provides a forecast the state of complex systems and better scientific understanding of calibration, validation, data errors and their probability distributions. Nowadays, the high performance and capabilities of DA have led to extensive use of it in different sciences such as meteorology, oceanography, hydrology and nuclear cores. In this paper, after a brief overview of the DA history and a comparison with conventional statistical methods, investigated the accuracy and computational efficiency of two main classical algorithms of DA involving stochastic DA (BLUE and Kalman filter) and variational DA (3D and 4D-Var), then evaluated quantification and modelling of the errors. Finally, some of DA applications in geosciences and the challenges facing the DA are discussed.

  19. Quantifying and identifying the sources of fine sediment input in a typical Mongolian river basin, the Kharaa River case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuring, Phillip

    2013-04-01

    Mongolia is facing a tremendous change of land-use intensification due to expansions in the agricultural sector, an increase of cattle and livestock and a growth of urban settlements by migration of the rural population to the cities. With most of its area located in a semiarid to arid environment, Mongolia is vulnerable to climatic changes that are expected to lead to higher temperatures and increased evapotranspiration. It is expected that this may lead to unfavorable changes in surface water quality caused by increased nutrients and sediment bound pollutants emissions. Increased fine sediment load is associated with nutrient, heavy metal and pollutant input and therefore affects water quality. Previous studies using radionuclide fallout isotope sediment source fingerprinting investigations identified riverbank erosion as the main source of suspended sediment in the Kharaa River. Erosion susceptibility calculations in combination with suspended sediment observations showed strong seasonal and annual variabilities of sediment input and in-stream transport, and a strong connection of erosional behaviour with land-use.The objective of this study is to quantify the current water quality threats by fine sediment inputs in the 15,000 km2 Kharaa River basin in Northern Mongolia by delineating the sources of the fine sediments and estimating the sediment budget.To identify the spatial distribution of sediment sources within the catchment, more than 1000 samples from the river confluences at the outlet of each sub basin into the main tributary were collected during 5 intensive grab sediment sampling campaigns in 2009-11. The fine sediment fraction (<10μm) has been analysed using geochemical tracer techniques for spatial source identification, based on major elements (e.g. Si, Al, Mg, Fe, Na, K, P) and trace elements (e.g. Ba, Pb, Sr, Zn). The contribution of suspended sediment of each sub basin in the main tributary has been evaluated with help of a mixing model. To

  20. Intersex tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) from a contaminated river in Taiwan: A case study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peter Lin; Tsai, Shinn-Shoung

    2009-09-01

    River pollution in Taiwan is rather serious, but so far there have been no reports of fish intersex problems. This report reveals that 50% male tilapia in the Era-Jiin River of southern Taiwan were found to be feminized in an October 8, 1994 collection from station EJ-2 of this river. After discounting all other possible causative factors, and correlating with endocrine disrupting chemicals found in this river, we suggest that there is a great possibility that the occurrence of intersex tilapia was caused by these chemicals. The above finding suggests that greater attention needs to be given to endocrine disrupting chemicals problems. PMID:22069529

  1. Preparing Future Geoscience Professionals: Needs, Strategies, Programs, and Online Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, H.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Dunbar, R. W.; Beane, R. J.; Bruckner, M.; Bralower, T. J.; Feiss, P. G.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Wiese, K.

    2011-12-01

    Geoscience faculty, departments, and programs play an important role in preparing future geoscience professionals. One challenge is supporting the diversity of student goals for future employment and the needs of a wide range of potential employers. Students in geoscience degree programs pursue careers in traditional geoscience industries; in geoscience education and research (including K-12 teaching); and opportunities at the intersection of geoscience and other fields (e.g., policy, law, business). The Building Strong Geoscience Departments project has documented a range of approaches that departments use to support the development of geoscience majors as professionals (serc.carleton.edu/departments). On the Cutting Edge, a professional development program, supports graduate students and post-doctoral fellows interested in pursuing an academic career through workshops, webinars, and online resources (serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/careerprep). Geoscience departments work at the intersection of student interests and employer needs. Commonly cited program goals that align with employer needs include mastery of geoscience content; field experience; skill in problem solving, quantitative reasoning, communication, and collaboration; and the ability to learn independently and take a project from start to finish. Departments and faculty can address workforce issues by 1) implementing of degree programs that develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that students need, while recognizing that students have a diversity of career goals; 2) introducing career options to majors and potential majors and encouraging exploration of options; 3) advising students on how to prepare for specific career paths; 4) helping students develop into professionals, and 5) supporting students in the job search. It is valuable to build connections with geoscience employers, work with alumni and foster connections between students and alumni with similar career interests, collaborate with

  2. Invited contributions of 2013 geoscience laureates of the French Academy of Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtillot, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    Each year, the French Academy of Sciences gives out a number of prizes and medals to recognize the contributions and achievements of outstanding colleagues in all fields of Science. In 2013, for the first time, laureates have been invited to make short presentations at the Academy. This resulted in a special session that generated enthusiasm from participants, including many members of the Academy. The editorial team of Comptes rendus Geoscience has felt that it could be of interest to the scientific community to have access to presentations by these scientists in the geoscience series of the Comptes rendus. Six laureates of the 2013 Academy Awards responded positively to the invitation. Because these were invited papers, an Associate Editor and the Chief Editor played the role normally attributed to reviewers, in addition to their normal editorial duties. In some cases, external reviewers were also involved upon invitation by the Editors. We are thankful to the authors and happy to present readers of Comptes rendus Geoscience with this first series that, if successful, could be followed by others in the coming years.

  3. [Photobleaching of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from confluence of two rivers under natural solar radiation: a case study of Fujiang River-Jialingjiang River].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Jiang, Tao; Yan, Jin-long; Wei, Shi-qiang; Wang, Ding-yong; Lu, Song; Li, Lu-lu

    2014-09-01

    Three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy combined with ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra was used to investigate the photobleaching process of dissolved organic matter (DOM) sampled from Fujiang River (FJ), Jialingjiang River (JLJ) and the confluence (FJ-JLJ) under natural solar radiation. The results indicated that obvious photochemical degradation of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) concentration [ α(280) ] and all fluorescence peaks intensity (A, C, M and T) occurred under natural solar radiation, and the degradation degree was in order of JLJ > FJ-JLJ > FJ. Photobleaching properties of DOM samples from different locations showed significant differences, which could be partially explained by the sampling sites surroundings including various landuse types, and dilution effect of river confluence. Light-induced bleaching activity of JLJ samples, which was mainly terrestrial input from forest system, was the highest as compared to the lowest activity of FJ samples, which was predominated by urban inputs. Samples from confluence were in the middle. Additionally, the spectrum slope(S) and absorbance ratio (A250/A350) were increased, while the humification index(HIX) was decreased with increasing irradiation time, which can be used as important indicators for photobleaching properties changes during the process. More importantly, the predominantly allochthonous (terrigenous) characteristics of DOM almost showed a tendency of transferring to autochthonous (authigenic) characteristics due to photobleaching. Especially, IT/Ic firstly decreased and then increased significantly in the process. Thus the photodegradation process may exaggerate DOM autochthonous contribution, and further interfere with the assessment of anthropogenic impacted-water quality by using IT/Ic. In addition, mechanisms of light-induced DOM degradation process consistently showed by absorption and fluorescence spectrum parameters suggested the validation of analyzing DOM geochemical

  4. Encouraging Involvement of Alaska Natives in Geoscience Careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanks, C. L.; Fowell, S. J.; Kowalsky, J.; Solie, D.

    2003-12-01

    Geologically, Alaska is a dynamic state, rich in mineral and energy resources. The impact of natural geologic hazards and mineral resource development can be especially critical in rural areas. While Alaska Natives comprise a large percentage of Alaska's rural population, few have the training to be leaders in the decision-making processes regarding natural hazard mitigation or mineral resource evaluation and exploitation. UAF, with funding from the National Science Foundation, has embarked on a three year integrated program aimed at encouraging young Alaska Natives to pursue geosciences as a career. The program combines the geologic expertise at UAF with established Alaska Native educational outreach programs. The Rural Alaska Honors Institute (RAHI) is a bridging program specifically designed to prepare rural high school students for college. To attract college-bound Alaska Native students into the geosciences, geoscience faculty have developed a college-level, field-intensive, introductory RAHI geoscience course that will fulfill geoscience degree requirements at UAF. In years two and three, this class will be supplemented by a one week field course that will focus on geologic issues encountered in most Alaskan rural communities, such as natural hazards, ground water, mineral and energy resources. In order to retain Alaska Native undergraduate students as geoscience majors, the program is providing scholarships and internship opportunities in cooperation with the Alaska Native Science and Engineering Program (ANSEP). Undergraduate geoscience majors participating in ANSEP can intern as teaching assistants for both the classroom and field courses. Besides being mentors for the RAHI students, the Alaska Native undergraduate geoscience majors have the opportunity to interact with faculty on an individual basis, examine the geologic issues facing Alaska Natives, and explore geology as a profession.

  5. The pre-college teaching of geosciences in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, R.

    2003-04-01

    Most students in the USA learn about the earth in elementary and middle school, with most of the learning in middle schools (students who are 12 to 15 years old). A few students study geosciences in high school (ages 15 to 19). In some states, for example Texas, the high-school courses are being de-emphasized, and very few students take geoscience courses after they are 15 years old. As a result, most high-school graduates know little about such important issues as global warming, air pollution, or water quality. In the USA, the geoscience curriculum is guided by national and state standards for teaching mathematics and science. But the guidance is weak. Curricula are determined essentially by local school boards and teachers with some overview by state governments. For example, the State of Texas requires all students to pass standardized examinations in science at grades 5,10, and 11. The tests are based on the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills, the state's version of the national standards. The teaching of the geosciences, especially oceanography, is hindered by the weak guidance provided by the national standards. Because of the lack of strong guidance, textbooks include far too much material with very weak ties between the geosciences. As a result, students learn many disconnected facts, not earth system science. Improvements in the teaching of the geosciences requires a clear statement of the important in the geosciences. Why must they be taught? What must be taught? What are the major themes of geoscience research? What is important for all to know?

  6. Influence of bottom topography on dynamics of river plumes in semi-enclosed domains: Case study in Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavialov, Peter; Korotenko, Konstantin; Osadchiev, Alexander; Kao, Ruei-Chi; Ding, Chung-Feng

    2014-05-01

    explained through the bottom topography: while near the Zhuoshui mouth the bottom is very flat and shallow, the terrain adjacent to the Wu mouth is much steeper and deeper. Bottom topography and tidal inundation also play an important role in the plume dissipation: due to enhanced mixing in shallow areas subject to tidal drying/flooding of the bottom, such as the area north of the Zhoushui mouth, the salinity anomaly is generally smaller and the plume is narrower and dissipates faster than in the deeper near-mouth areas like that of Wu River. Under the NE wind conditions, the Wu and Zhuoshui plume almost merge and form a unified low salinity belt. In contrast, action of SW wind causes effective separation of river plumes. In the case of NW winds, the plumes are pressed towards the shore and trapped at the mouths, while in the case of SE wind they stretch towards the ocean. The daily mean area of the plumes under the SE wind conditions is about 6 times larger than that under the NW wind.

  7. Voluntarism, public engagement and the role of geoscience in radioactive waste management policy-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilham, Nic

    2014-05-01

    In the UK, as elsewhere in Europe, there has been a move away from previous 'technocratic' approaches to radioactive waste management (RWM). Policy-makers have recognised that for any RWM programme to succeed, sustained engagement with stakeholders and the public is necessary, and any geological repository must be constructed and operated with the willing support of the community which hosts it. This has opened up RWM policy-making and implementation to a wider range of (often contested) expert inputs, ranging across natural and social sciences, engineering and even ethics. Geoscientists and other technical specialists have found themselves drawn into debates about how various types of expertise should be prioritised, and how they should be integrated with diverse public and stakeholder perspectives. They also have a vital role to play in communicating to the public the need for geological disposal of radioactive waste, and the various aspects of geoscience which will inform the process of implementing this, from identifying potential volunteer host communities, to finding a suitable site, developing the safety case, construction of a repository, emplacement of waste, closure and subsequent monitoring. High-quality geoscience, effectively communicated, will be essential to building and maintaining public confidence throughout the many decades such projects will take. Failure to communicate effectively the relevant geoscience and its central role in the UK's radioactive waste management programme arguably contributed to West Cumbria's January 2013 decision to withdraw from the site selection process, and may discourage other communities from coming forward in future. Across countries needing to deal with their radioactive waste, this unique challenge gives an unprecedented urgency to finding ways to engage and communicate effectively with the public about geoscience.

  8. Environmental Impact of Townships On River Bodies ­a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaraju, H. K.; Yellappa Reddy, A. N.; Subramanya, D.; Ranganna, G.

    Bangalore-09 4Visiting Professor of Civil Engg., UVCE, K.R.Circle, Bangalore University, Bangalore-560001 *ppmubng@blr.vsnl.net.in Construction of the river environment by various natural and anthropogenic sources is mainly due to the industrial effluents, leaching of agricultural chemicals from soils and waste water discharges through sewage outfalls as billions of gallons of waste water effluents are disposed of daily by the ever increasing population along the river belts around the world, often not far away from public bathing beaches. In Karnataka State the rivers Bhadra, Kabini and Cauvery have been the lifelines of towns that have grown along the banks. But today the very existence of these rivers is threatened, an account of the domestic and industrial wastes being discharged into them. The preliminary study was carried out to evaluate the impact of townships/urbanization on the nearby river basins and the deterioration of surface/ground water quality and soil fertility. It is found from the analysis that Bhadra river is highly polluted with foul smell along the township. River Kabini is marginally contaminated and river Cauvery is prone to contamination. Faecal contamination was observed along the course of river channels of all the three places. The sedimental/soil analyses reveal the deterioration of fertility/quality of soil for further use. This research paper strongly recommends the reduction of pollution load on the rivers to improve the quality of water and to conserve the bio- diversity of the rivers. Long-term monitoring is essential to quantify the changes in water quality.

  9. Developing Strong Geoscience Programs and Departments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, R.; Manduca, C. A.

    2002-12-01

    Strong geoscience programs are essential for preparing future geoscientists and developing a broad public understanding of our science. Faculty working as a department team can create stronger programs than individual faculty working alone. Workshops sponsored by Project Kaleidoscope (www.pkal.org) on departmental planning in the geosciences have emphasized the importance of designing programs in the context of both departmental and student goals. Well-articulated goals form a foundation for designing curriculum, courses, and other departmental activities. Course/skill matrices have emerged as particularly valuable tools for analyzing how individual courses combine in a curriculum to meet learning goals. Integrated programs where students have opportunities to learn and use skills in multiple contexts have been developed at several institutions. Departments are leveraging synergies between courses to more effectively reach departmental goals and capitalize on opportunities in the larger campus environment. A full departmental program extends beyond courses and curriculum. Studies in physics (National Task Force on Undergraduate Physics, Hilborne, 2002) indicate the importance of activities such as recruiting able students, mentoring students, providing courses appropriate for pre-service K-12 teachers, assisting with professional development for a diversity of careers, providing opportunities for undergraduates to participate in research, and making connections with the local industries and businesses that employ graduates. PKAL workshop participants have articulated a wide variety of approaches to undergraduate research opportunities within and outside of class based on their departmental goals, faculty goals, and resources. Similarly, departments have a wide variety of strategies for developing productive synergies with campus-wide programs including those emphasizing writing skills, quantitative skills, and environmental studies. Mentoring and advising

  10. Sediment Transport Dynamic in a Meandering Fluvial System: Case Study of Chini River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazir, M. H. M.; Awang, S.; Shaaban, A. J.; Yahaya, N. K. E. M.; Jusoh, A. M.; Arumugam, M. A. R. M. A.; Ghani, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    Sedimentation in river reduces the flood carrying capacity which lead to the increasing of inundation area in the river basin. Basic sediment transport can predict the fluvial processes in natural rivers and stream through modeling approaches. However, the sediment transport dynamic in a small meandering and low-lying fluvial system is considered scarce in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to analyze the current riverbed erosion and sedimentation scenarios along the Chini River, Pekan, Pahang. The present study revealed that silt and clay has potentially been eroded several parts of the river. Sinuosity index (1.98) indicates that Chini River is very unstable and continuous erosion process in waterways has increase the riverbank instability due to the meandering factors. The riverbed erosional and depositional process in the Chini River is a sluggish process since the lake reduces the flow velocity and causes the deposited particles into the silt and clay soil at the bed of the lake. Besides, the bed layer of the lake comprised of cohesive silt and clayey composition that tend to attach the larger grain size of sediment. The present study estimated the total sediment accumulated along the Chini River is 1.72 ton. The HEC-RAS was employed in the simulations and in general the model performed well, once all parameters were set within their effective ranges.

  11. Luminescence dating of river terrace formation - methodological challenges and complexity of result interpretation: a case study from the headwaters of the River Main, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Thomas; Fuchs, Markus; Zöller, Ludwig

    2015-04-01

    overcoming these problems and for determining correct sedimentation ages. The presented results are based on a case study, located in the headwaters of the River Main, the longest right bank tributary of the Rhine drainage system. Here, within an oversized dry valley in Northern Bavaria (Germany), five Pleistocene terraces are distinguished. The terraces are interpreted as the result of a complex landscape evolution, which is characterized by multiple river deflections. The need for a careful interpretation of luminescence results is illustrated by some optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages calculated for the youngest of these five Pleistocene terraces. These results show different sedimentation ages of samples originating from the same morphological unit. Thus, these ages may be interpreted as evidence for a diachronic character of river incision and, hence, point to the complexity of fluvial systems' response to climatically and/or tectonically forced changes in local and regional paleoenvironmental conditions.

  12. Regulated flushing in a gravel-bed river for channel habitat maintenance: A Trinity River fisheries case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. Wayne; Dwyer, John R.; Greenberg, Wendy E.

    1987-08-01

    The operation of Trinity and Lewiston Dams on the Trinity River in northern California in the United States, combined with severe watershed erosion, has jeopardized the existence of prime salmonid fisheries. Extreme streamflow depletion and stream sedimentation below Lewiston have resulted in heavy accumulation of coarse sediment on riffle gravel and filling of streambed pools, causing the destruction of spawning, nursery, and overwintering habitat for prized chinook salmon ( Salmo gairdnerii) and steelhead trout ( Oncorhynchus tschawytscha). Proposals to restore and maintain the degraded habitat include controlled one-time remedial peak flows or annual maintenance peak flows designed to flush the spawning gravel and scour the banks, deltas, and pools. The criteria for effective channel restoration or maintenance by streambed flushing and scouring are examined here, as well as the mechanics involved. The liabilities of releasing mammoth scouring-flushing flows approximating the magnitude that preceded reservoir construction make this option unviable. The resulting damage to fish habitat established under the postproject streamflow regime, as well as damage to human settlements in the floodplain, would be unacceptable, as would the opportunity costs to hydroelectric and irrigation water users. The technical feasibility of annual maintenance flushing flows depends upon associated mechanical and structural measures, particularly instream maintenance dredging of deep pools and construction of a sediment control dam on a tributary where watershed erosion is extreme. The cost effectiveness of a sediment dam with a limited useful economic life, combined with perpetual maintenance dredging, is questionable.

  13. Effective geoscience pedagogy at the undergraduate level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warden, Kelsey

    This investigation used constructivist pedagogical methods within the framework of an introductory level undergraduate geoscience course to gauge both the changes in attitude and cognition of students. Pedagogy was modified in the laboratory setting, but maintained in the lecture setting and homework. Curriculum was also maintained in the lecture, but was changed in the laboratory to emphasize the large concepts and systems stressed in Earth Science Literacy Principles. Student understanding of these concepts and systems was strengthened by factual knowledge, but recall and memorization were not the goal of the laboratory instruction. The overall goal of the study was to build student understanding more effectively than in previous semesters such that the students would become Earth Science literate adults. We hypothesized that a healthy comprehension of the connections between the human population and Earth's systems would lead to improved cognition and attitude toward Earth Science. This was tested using pre- and post-testing of attitudes via an anonymous survey on the first and last days of the laboratory, student responses to the end-of-course evaluations, and student performance on early-semester and late-semester content testing. The results support the hypotheses.

  14. Developing Short Films of Geoscience Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.; Harrild, M.; Kienenberger, D.; Salganek, M.

    2015-12-01

    In today's prevalence of social media and networking, video products are becoming increasingly more useful to communicate research quickly and effectively to a diverse audience, including outreach activities as well as within the research community and to funding agencies. Due to the observational nature of geoscience, researchers often take photos and video footage to document fieldwork or to record laboratory experiments. Here we present how researchers can become more effective storytellers by collaborating with filmmakers to produce short documentary films of their research. We will focus on the use of traditional high-definition (HD) camcorders and HD DSLR cameras to record the scientific story while our research topic focuses on the use of remote sensing techniques, specifically thermal infrared imaging that is often used to analyze time varying natural processes such as volcanic hazards. By capturing the story in the thermal infrared wavelength range, in addition to traditional red-green-blue (RGB) color space, the audience is able to experience the world differently. We will develop a short film specifically designed using thermal infrared cameras that illustrates how visual storytellers can use these new tools to capture unique and important aspects of their research, convey their passion for earth systems science, as well as engage and captive the viewer.

  15. Recruiting Minority Students to the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchese, P.; Cotten, D. E.; Cheung, T. D.; Johnson, L. P.; Austin, S.; Tremberger, G.; Bluestone, C.

    2007-05-01

    Queensborough Community College (QCC) and Medgar Evers College (MEC) of the City University of New York have been actively involved in recruiting primarily minority students to the Geosciences by involving students in research and by incorporating innovative and proven pedagogical methods into the classroom. Students at both colleges have been actively involved in doing research in Space and Earth Science. Students work during the summer under the mentorship of CUNY faculty conducting experiments and analyzing data. At the end of the summer students present findings at various science meetings. In the lecture room, the method of instruction was modified to emphasize active learning. Educational materials and pedagogical methods developed at QCC and other 4 year colleges was introduced to the predominantly minority student body at QCC and MEC. Many of these students did poorly at pre-college schools where lecture based learning is the chief method of instruction. It is not unexpected that many of them are having difficulty if the method of instruction has not changed at the postsecondary level. The intent of introducing active learning was to have students develop an appreciation of science, and have an increased understanding of relevant scientific principles. As a result of these activities student scores increased as compared to student scores in a more affluent college. Students also demonstrated increased conceptual understanding of the material, had higher self- efficacy scores, and seemed to enjoy the class better. Lower scoring students demonstrated the greatest benefit, while the better students had little (or no) changes.

  16. GNSS Antenna Calibration Facility at Geoscience Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, A. R.; Moore, M. J.; Dawson, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    A GNSS antenna calibration facility has recently been established at Geoscience Australia. The facility includes a GEO++ robotic antenna calibration system, and an industrial robot (';KUKA'). Previous studies have highlighted the importance of accounting for the variation in antenna calibration due to the electromagnetic coupling between the antenna and monument. The reactive near-field effect has been reported to have the potential to produce a combination of a mean bias and change in periodic noise characteristics which then result in a velocity bias as well as a decrease in precision of coordinate estimates. Initially the priority of the calibration system will be to perform individual antenna calibrations for over 100 antennas purchased for high accuracy deformation surveys carried out in Western Australia, South Australia and south-east Australia. The principal aim of these deformation surveys is to detect intra-plate crustal deformation, where the magnitude of the signal is expected to be less than 1 mm/yr. The main role of the industrial robot is for research and development into GNSS algorithms and to further developments into antenna calibration. The industrial robot has a much higher payload capability of up to 60 kg. This makes it feasible to perform calibrations with a section of the monument still attached to the antenna, potentially providing a calibration which will better reflect the environment the signals are observed in. We will detail various experiments to be carried out on the industrial robot, and provide an update on the status and performance of the calibration facility.

  17. BCube: Building a Geoscience Brokering Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jodha Khalsa, Siri; Nativi, Stefano; Duerr, Ruth; Pearlman, Jay

    2014-05-01

    BCube is addressing the need for effective and efficient multi-disciplinary collaboration and interoperability through the advancement of brokering technologies. As a prototype "building block" for NSF's EarthCube cyberinfrastructure initiative, BCube is demonstrating how a broker can serve as an intermediary between information systems that implement well-defined interfaces, thereby providing a bridge between communities that employ different specifications. Building on the GEOSS Discover and Access Broker (DAB), BCube will develop new modules and services including: • Expanded semantic brokering capabilities • Business Model support for work flows • Automated metadata generation • Automated linking to services discovered via web crawling • Credential passing for seamless access to data • Ranking of search results from brokered catalogs Because facilitating cross-discipline research involves cultural and well as technical challenges, BCube is also addressing the sociological and educational components of infrastructure development. We are working, initially, with four geoscience disciplines: hydrology, oceans, polar and weather, with an emphasis on connecting existing domain infrastructure elements to facilitate cross-domain communications.

  18. Geoscience in the news - sharing stories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfern, Simon

    2015-04-01

    Schemes such as the British Science Association media fellowships and the AGU mass media fellowships offer an opportunity for active researchers to sit side by side with journalists at the news desk. Each can learn from the other, and the mutual benefits are often unexpected. Here, I reflect on my own experiences as a media fellow at the BBC, and consider how this opportunity has altered my own views on communicated my, and others', science. Geosciences have a particular advantage in such translation to a general audience. Interest in the natural environment, the origins of life, the planetary science of the Solar System as a whole, as well as topics in resource, energy, climate and geohazards is high among the public. There are advantages in being willing to act as a "translator" of discovery and an "interpreter" of natural events that, it could be argued, should be grasped to keep the relevance of our science high in the perceptions of tax payers and policy makers. By exercising these types of communications skills, new perspectives on one's own research may be attained.

  19. GEOScan: A Geoscience Facility from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrud, L. P.; Fentzke, J. T.; Bust, G. S.; Cahoy, K.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Gunter, B.; Carlson, H. C.; Bishop, R. L.; Fish, C. S.; Murphy, S. D.; Smith, H. T.; Paxton, L. J.; Anderson, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    Geoscience is at the dawn of a new era, and the past decade has seen a confluence of events supporting this statement. Many geoscientists believe that future discovery and understanding of our Earth environment requires taking a view of the Earth-atmosphere-geospace as a complete system. Motivated by this revelation is the growing view that as researchers we cannot tackle many open questions without global coverage of key measurements. Fortunately, many measurements of interest support the deployment of global and dense arrays of instrumentation on both the ground and space based platforms. Due to technological advancements in commercial of the shelf (COTS) instrumentation these global measurements are now achievable at a fraction of the historic cost. This cost reduction results from using commercially developed instruments that are repurposed from their original consumer and industrial uses, such as GPS, inertial measurement, and magnetometers, and new low cost access to space via commercially available hosted payloads, sub-orbital flights, and CubeSats. We will present recent research on this topic in general, and focus specifically on the GEOScan initiative to place instruments on the Iridium NEXT constellation of satellite. GEOScan science addresses open questions in gravity, space physics, and climate that require a global constellation for progress.

  20. Exploring Student-to-Workforce Transitions with the National Geoscience Exit Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, L. M.; Keane, C. M.; Houlton, H. R.

    2011-12-01

    In 2011, the American Geological Institute (AGI) launched the first pilot of a National Geoscience Exit Survey in collaboration with 32 geoscience university departments. The survey collects data about demographics, high school and community college coursework, university degrees, financial aid, field and research experiences, internships, and when and why the student chose to pursue a geosciences degree. Additionally, the survey collects information about students' future academic and career plans, and gives participants the option to take part in a longitudinal survey to track long-term career trajectories of geosciences graduates. The survey also provides geoscience departments with the ability to add customized questions to collect data about important departmental-level topics. The National Geoscience Exit Survey will be available to all U.S. geoscience programs at two- and four-year colleges and universities by the end of the 2011-2012 academic year. We use the results of the National Geoscience Exit Survey to examine student preparation and transition into geosciences and non-geoscience careers. Preliminary results from the pilot survey indicated future academic and career trajectories for geoscience Bachelor's degree recipients included graduate school (53%) and pursuit of a geoscience career (45%), with some undergraduates keeping their options open for either trajectory. Twelve percent of Bachelor's degree recipients already accepted job offers with geoscience employers. For geoscience Master's degree recipients, 17% planned to continue in graduate school, 35% were seeking a geoscience job, and 42% had already accepted job offers with geoscience employers. Furthermore, the majority of those geoscience graduates who already accepted geoscience job offers had also interned previously with the employer.

  1. On the investigation of the performances of a DEM-based hydrogeomorphic floodplain identification method in a large urbanized river basin: the Tiber river case study in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardi, Fernando; Biscarini, Chiara; Di Francesco, Silvia; Manciola, Piergiorgio

    2013-04-01

    Floodplains are critical landscape features for their importance in both ecohydrological and socio-economic terms. River valleys are, in fact, the domain where the interdependence of the complex human-environmental interface is more significant. Riparian zones, along perennial channels, where the frequency of saturation is high and most flooding occurs, are also the areas where urban areas and infrastructures (e.g. highways, bridges, railways, etc) are more present. This is mainly due to geomorphologic conditions since those areas are predominantly flat and easier to develop. One of the more challenging issues under changing climatic, environmental and human drivers for implementing efficient current and future urban plans is to accurately and timely identify, map and characterize the potential flooding scenarios of floodplains. This is currently achieved by implementing detailed topographic, hydrologic and hydraulic studies for flood modeling and mapping for different frequencies (i.e. return time), but those activities are rarely implemented at the large (river basin) scale for their economic cost and time of implementation. In addition to that, flood map updating is not as frequent as needed for following the rapid changing land use conditions. As a result, it is very often the case that urban plans are based on heterogeneous and discontinuous flood map information. Nevertheless, several recent researches demonstrated the potential for the use of high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to define the floodplain feature by means of automated hydrogeomorphic methods. This means identifying the flood prone area by filtering potentially inundated cells by implementing proper morphological and hydrological analyses. In this work we implemented the flooplain identification model proposed by Nardi et al. (WRR, 2006) which automatically extract the river network and estimate flood water levels according to a predefined scaling Leopold law. Inundated areas are

  2. GIRAF 2009 - Taking action on geoscience information across Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asch, Kristine

    2010-05-01

    A workshop in Windhoek Between 16 and 20 March 2009 97 participants from 26 African nations, plus four European countries, and representatives from UNESCO, ICSU and IUGS-CGI, held a workshop at the Namibian Geological Survey in Windhoek. The workshop - GIRAF 2009 - Geoscience InfoRmation In Africa - was organised by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) and the Geological Survey of Namibia (GSN) at the Namibian Ministry for Mines and Energy and was mainly financed by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), supported by the IUGS Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI). The participants came to Namibia to discuss one of the most topical issues in the geological domain - geoscience information and informatics. A prime objective was to set up a pan-African network for exchanging knowledge about geoscience information. GIRAF 2009 builds on the results of a preparatory workshop organised by the CGI and funded by the IUGS, which was held in June 2006 in Maputo at the 21st Colloquium on African Geology - CAG21. This preparatory workshop concentrated on identifying general problems and needs of African geological institutions in discussion with representatives of African geological surveys, universities, private companies and non-governmental organisations. The GIRAF 2009 workshop used the results of this discussion to plan and design its programme Aims In detail the five aims of the GIRAF2009 workshop were: to bring together relevant African authorities, national experts and stakeholders in geoscience information; to initiate the building of a pan-African geoscience information knowledge network to exchange and share geoscience information knowledge and best practice; to integrate the authorities, national experts and experts across Africa into global geoinformation initiatives; to develop a strategic plan for Africa's future in geoscience information; to make Africa a

  3. River flow forecasting with artificial neural networks using satellite observed precipitation pre-processed with flow length and travel time information: case study of the Ganges river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, M. K.; Corzo, G. A.; van Andel, S. J.; Jonoski, A.

    2009-09-01

    This paper explores the use of flow length and travel time as a pre-processing step for incorporating spatial precipitation information into Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models used for river flow forecasting. Spatially distributed precipitation is commonly required when modelling large basins, and it is usually incorporated in distributed physically-based hydrological modelling approaches. However, these modelling approaches are recognised to be quite complex and expensive, especially due to the data collection of multiple inputs and parameters, which vary in space and time. On the other hand, ANN models for flow forecasting are frequently developed only with precipitation and discharge as inputs, usually without taking into consideration the spatial variability of precipitation. Full inclusion of spatially distributed inputs into ANN models still leads to a complex computational process that may not give acceptable results. Therefore, here we present an analysis of the flow length and travel time as a basis for pre-processing remotely sensed (satellite) rainfall data. This pre-processed rainfall is used together with local stream flow measurements of previous days as input to ANN models. The case study for this modelling approach is the Ganges river basin. A comparative analysis of multiple ANN models with different hydrological pre-processing is presented. The ANN showed its ability to forecast discharges 3-days ahead with an acceptable accuracy. Within this forecast horizon, the influence of the pre-processed rainfall is marginal, because of dominant influence of strongly auto-correlated discharge inputs. For forecast horizons of 7 to 10 days, the influence of the pre-processed rainfall is noticeable, although the overall model performance deteriorates. The incorporation of remote sensing data of spatially distributed precipitation information as pre-processing step showed to be a promising alternative for the setting-up of ANN models for river flow

  4. River flow forecasting with Artificial Neural Networks using satellite observed precipitation pre-processed with flow length and travel time information: case study of the Ganges river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, M. K.; Corzo, G. A.; van Andel, S. J.; Jonoski, A.

    2009-04-01

    This paper explores the use of flow length and travel time as a pre-processing step for incorporating spatial precipitation information into Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models used for river flow forecasting. Spatially distributed precipitation is commonly required when modelling large basins, and it is usually incorporated in distributed physically-based hydrological modelling approaches. However, these modelling approaches are recognised to be quite complex and expensive, especially due to the data collection of multiple inputs and parameters, which vary in space and time. On the other hand, ANN models for flow forecasting are frequently developed only with precipitation and discharge as inputs, usually without taking into consideration the spatial variability of precipitation. Full inclusion of spatially distributed inputs into ANN models still leads to a complex computational process that may not give acceptable results. Therefore, here we present an analysis of the flow length and travel time as a basis for pre-processing remotely sensed (satellite) rainfall data. This pre-processed rainfall is used together with local stream flow measurements of previous days as input to ANN models. The case study for this modelling approach is the Ganges river basin. A comparative analysis of multiple ANN models with different hydrological pre-processing is presented. The ANN showed its ability to forecast discharges 3-days ahead with an acceptable accuracy. Within this forecast horizon, the influence of the pre-processed rainfall is marginal, because of dominant influence of strongly auto-correlated discharge inputs. For forecast horizons of 7 to 10 days, the influence of the pre-processed rainfall is noticeable, although the overall model performance deteriorates. The incorporation of remote sensing data of spatially distributed precipitation information as pre-processing step showed to be a promising alternative for the setting-up of ANN models for river flow

  5. Heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risks in rivers: a case study from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Protano, Carmela; Zinnà, Loredana; Giampaoli, Saverio; Romano Spica, Vincenzo; Chiavarini, Salvatore; Vitali, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    We monitored heavy metal (As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) concentrations in surface water, sediments, and oligochaetes in four major rivers in Calabria (southern Italy) over the course of 1 year. As, Cd, and Pb showed accumulation factors of 10(3)-10(5) for water to sediment and 1-10 for sediment to oligochaetes. Hg showed a water to sediment accumulation factor of 10-100. Finally, Hg concentrations exceeded the Italian quality standard for freshwater in all of the rivers, and As concentrations in sediments exceeded the respective Canadian standard. However, the application of an ecological risk assessment method indicated low risks for all monitored rivers.

  6. Teaching Geosciences With Visualizations: Challenges for Spatial Thinking and Abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montello, D. R.

    2004-12-01

    It is widely recognized that the geosciences are very spatial disciplines. Their subject matter includes phenomena on, under, and above the Earth surface whose spatial properties are critical to understanding them. Important spatial properties of geoscience structures and processes include location (both absolute and relative), size, shape, and pattern; temporal changes in spatial properties are also of interest. Information visualizations that depict spatiality are thus critically important to teaching in the geosciences, at all levels from K-12 to Ph.D. work; verbal and mathematical descriptions are quite insufficient by themselves. Such visualizations range from traditional maps and diagrams to digital animations and virtual environments. These visualizations are typically rich and complex because they are attempts to communicate rich and complex realities. Thus, understanding geoscience visualizations accurately and efficiently involves complex spatial thinking. Over a century of psychometric and experimental research reveals some of the cognitive components of spatial thinking, and provides insight into differences among individuals and groups of people in their abilities to think spatially. Some research has specifically examined these issues within the context of geoscience education, and recent research is expanding these investigations into the realm of new digital visualizations that offer the hope of using visualizations to teach complex geoscience concepts with unprecedented effectiveness. In this talk, I will briefly highlight some of the spatial cognitive challenges to understanding geoscience visualizations, including the pervasive and profound individual and group differences in spatial abilities. I will also consider some visualization design issues that arise because of the cognitive and ability challenges. I illustrate some of these research issues with examples from research being conducted by my colleagues and me, research informed by

  7. Teaching Geoscience with Visualizations: Using Images, Animations and Models Effectively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Hall-Wallace, M.; Mogk, D.; Tversky, B.; Slotta, J.; Crabaugh, J.

    2004-05-01

    Visualizing the Earth, its processes, and its evolution through time is a fundamental aspect of geoscience. Geoscientists use a wide variety of tools to assist them in creating their own mental images. For example, we now use multilayered visualizations of geographically referenced data to analyze the relationships between different variables and we create animations to look at changes in data or model output through time. An NAGT On the Cutting Edge emerging theme workshop focused on the use of visualization tools in teaching geoscience by addressing the question "How do we teach geoscience with visualizations effectively?" The workshop held February 26-29 at Carleton College brought together geoscientists who are leaders in using visualizations in their teaching, learning scientists who study how we perceive and learn from visualizations, and creators of visualizations and visualization tools. Participants considered what we know about using visualizations effectively to teach geoscience, what important questions need to be answered to improve our ability to teach effectively, and what resources are needed to increase the capability of teaching with visualizations in the geosciences. Discussion focused on how we use visualizations in our teaching to describe and explain geoscience concepts and to explore and understand data. In addition, a section of the workshop focused on powerful emerging tools and technologies for visualization and their use in geoscience education. Workshop leaders and participants have created a web-site that includes visualizations useful in teaching, an annotated bibliography of research about teaching and learning with visualizations, essays by workshop participants about their work with visualizations, and information for visualization creators. Further information can be found at serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/visualize04.

  8. YES Africa: Geoscience Projects for Development (GPD) (Strategy and Process)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barich, A.; Nkhonjera, E.; Venus, J.; Gonzales, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    For various reasons, Earth Science in Africa has been acareer path that has not been promoted or a preferred option. In January 2011, the YES Network in Africa launched the Network in Africa through a symposium. This took place at the University of Johannesburg, in conjunction with the Colloquium of Africa Geology in January 2011. The Symposium brought together young geoscientists from all regions of Africa to talk about their geoscience research that focused on geohazards and professional development within the African continent. The YES Africa Symposium also aimed to improve the participation of students in African geosciences issues and to also discuss how geoscience education in Africa can be promoted to attract more students to choose a career in the profession. The YES Africa Symposium resulted in ambitious short/long term projects. Symposium participants agreed unanimously that spreading awareness throughout the society about geological hazards, climate change, water management strategies and sustainable development remains a priority. As a direct result local projects are being developed by the YES Network's African National Chapters to develop a long-term geoscience taskforce within the continent. These projects will be developed by implementing student chapters in universities and strengthening the ties with local geoscience organizations and governments. Many YES Network African National Chapters have already taken the lead in developing their local projects, and some have been very successful in their efforts. Collaboration with the various YES Network National Chapters will be critical in developing a geo-hazard portal which links regional organizations and institutions together. This will help to disseminate geo-information more efficiently, and also to develop the next generation of young African geoscience students and early-career professionals. This presentation will detail a variety of innovative outreach methods used to connect with the public

  9. Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards: Impacts on Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysession, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    This is a critical time for the geoscience community. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) have been released and are now being adopted by states (a dozen states and Washington, DC, at the time of writing this), with dramatic implications for national K-12 science education. Curriculum developers and textbook companies are working hard to construct educational materials that match the new standards, which emphasize a hands-on practice-based approach that focuses on working directly with primary data and other forms of evidence. While the set of 8 science and engineering practices of the NGSS lend themselves well to the observation-oriented approach of much of the geosciences, there is currently not a sufficient number of geoscience educational modules and activities geared toward the K-12 levels, and geoscience research organizations need to be mobilizing their education & outreach programs to meet this need. It is a rare opportunity that will not come again in this generation. There are other significant issues surrounding the implementation of the NGSS. The NGSS involves a year of Earth and space science at the high school level, but there does not exist a sufficient workforce is geoscience teachers to meet this need. The form and content of the geoscience standards are also very different from past standards, moving away from a memorization and categorization approach and toward a complex Earth Systems Science approach. Combined with the shift toward practice-based teaching, this means that significant professional development will therefore be required for the existing K-12 geoscience education workforce. How the NGSS are to be assessed is another significant question, with an NRC report providing some guidance but leaving many questions unanswered. There is also an uneasy relationship between the NGSS and the Common Core of math and English, and the recent push-back against the Common Core in many states may impact the implementation of the NGSS.

  10. Broadening Participation in the Geosciences through Participatory Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R. E.; Hodgson, A.; Wagner, R.; Bennett, B.

    2009-12-01

    In spite of many efforts, the geosciences remain less diverse than the overall population of the United States and even other sciences. This lack of diversity threatens the quality of the science, the long-term viability of our workforce, and the ability to leverage scientific insight in service of societal needs. Drawing on new research into diversity specific to geosciences, this talk will explore underlying causes for the lack of diversity in the atmospheric and related sciences. Causes include the few geoscience majors available at institutions with large minority enrollment; a historic association of the geosciences with extractive industries which are negatively perceived by many minority communities, and the perception that science offers less opportunity for service than other fields. This presentation suggests a new approach - community-based participatory research (CBPR). In CBPR, which was first applied in the field of rural development and has been used for many years in biomedical fields, scientists and community leaders work together to design a research agenda that simultaneously advances basic understanding and addresses community priorities. Good CBPR integrates research, education and capacity-building. A CBRP approach to geoscience can address the perceived lack of relevance and may start to ameliorate a history of negative experiences of geosciences. Since CBPR works best when it is community-initiated, it can provide an ideal place for Minority-Serving Institutions to launch their own locally-relevant programs in the geosciences. The presentation will conclude by describing three new examples of CBPR. The first is NCAR’s partnerships to explore climate change and its impact on Tribal lands. The second approach a Denver-area listening conference that will identify and articulate climate-change related priorities in the rapidly-growing Denver-area Latino community. Finally, we will describe a Google-funded project that brings together

  11. Hydro-economic performances of streamflow withdrawal strategies: the case of small run-of-river power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Stefano; Lazzaro, Gianluca; Schirmer, Mario; Botter, Gianluca

    2014-05-01

    setups and management strategies. Benefits connected to ecosystem services provided by unimpaired riverine environments can be also included in the analysis, possibly accounting for the disruptive effect of multiple run-of-river power plants built in cascade along the same river. The application to case studies in the Alpine region shows the potential of the tool to assess different management strategies and design solution, and to evaluate local and catchment scale impacts of small run-of-river hydropower development.

  12. The Influence of Scale Preferences on the Design of a Water Innovation: A Case in Dutch River Management

    PubMed Central

    Slinger, Jill; Kater, Emiel; Thissen, Wil

    2010-01-01

    The debate on scale use in river management focuses primarily on the (lack of) fit between the bio-geophysical and institutional systems. However, in this article we focus on the ‘subjective’ aspect of scale preferences in water governance. We apply an adapted version of the Integrated Scale Hierarchy for Rivers to determine the degree of fit between the scale preferences of the actors involved in a Dutch case study and the scale requirements of the innovative river management concept. This allows us to understand which riverine processes and characteristics are regarded as important by the different actors and to identify mismatches in scale perspectives as they manifest themselves in water management practice. We discover that inflexibility in scale use on the part of the involved actors places bounds on the design and quality of interventions and demonstrate that a more flexible use of scales in the design phase of a river management intervention has the potential to lead to more effective solutions. PMID:20640852

  13. The Influence of Scale Preferences on the Design of a Water Innovation: A Case in Dutch River Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vreudenhil, Heleen; Slinger, Jill; Kater, Emiel; Thissen, Wil

    2010-07-01

    The debate on scale use in river management focuses primarily on the (lack of) fit between the bio-geophysical and institutional systems. However, in this article we focus on the ‘subjective’ aspect of scale preferences in water governance. We apply an adapted version of the Integrated Scale Hierarchy for Rivers to determine the degree of fit between the scale preferences of the actors involved in a Dutch case study and the scale requirements of the innovative river management concept. This allows us to understand which riverine processes and characteristics are regarded as important by the different actors and to identify mismatches in scale perspectives as they manifest themselves in water management practice. We discover that inflexibility in scale use on the part of the involved actors places bounds on the design and quality of interventions and demonstrate that a more flexible use of scales in the design phase of a river management intervention has the potential to lead to more effective solutions.

  14. Climate Change and Adaptation in Irrigated Agriculture-A Case Study of the Yakima River

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J; Vail, Lance W; Stockle, Claudio O; Kemanian, Armen

    2004-07-22

    Using a case study of the Yakima River Valley in Washington State, we show that relatively simple tools originally developed to forecast the impact of the El Nino phenomenon on water supplies to irrigated agriculture also can be used to estimate the significantly shifted probability distribution of water shortages in irrigated agriculture during climate change, and that these shifted probabilities can be used to estimate the impact on agriculture in a region. The more permanent nature of changes in the temperature and precipitation regime associated with climate change means that risk management options also take a more permanent form (such as changes in crops and cultivars, and adding storage). A number of storage options have been proposed to deal with El Nino-associated drought, and would be more valuable under climate change. The most ambitious of the proposed storage projects is Black Rock, which would add about 500,00 acre-feet of water to supplement the Yakima's current 1.1 million acre-feet, at a cost currently estimated at $1.9 billion. For perspective, economic losses in the Yakima Valley reportedly have been about $100 million in a drought year such as 2001. Under current circumstances, the expected annual fisheries and periodic drought relief benefits may be large enough to justify the expenditure, but since drought has been occasional, environmental consequences of new projects uncertain, and the price tag beyond the reach of all but the Federal government, no projects have been built. The benefits become more certain with warming. Analysis shows that adding 500,000 acre-feet to TWSA would offset El Nino and the effects of 2 C warming.

  15. Mineral Physicochemistry based Geoscience Products for Mapping the Earth's Surface and Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laukamp, C.; Cudahy, T.; Caccetta, M.; Haest, M.; Rodger, A.; Western Australian Centre of Excellence3D Mineral Mapping

    2011-12-01

    available. The multispectral satellite data can be integrated with hyperspectral airborne and drill core data (e.g. HyLogging), which is demonstrated by various case studies ranging from Channel Iron Deposits in the Hamersley Basin (WA) to various Australian orogenic Au deposits. Comparison with airborne and field hyperspectral or lab-based VIRS, as well as independent analyses such as XRD and geochemistry, enables us to deliver cross-calibrated geoscience products derived from the whole suite of geoscience tuned multi- and hyperspectral technologies. Kaolin crystallinity and hematite-goethite ratio for characterization of regolith, and Tschermak substitution in white micas for mapping of chemical gradients associated with hydrothermal ore deposits are a few of the multiple examples where 3D mineral maps can help to resolve geological questions.

  16. Empirical Recommendations to Help Broaden Native American Participation in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semken, S.

    2008-12-01

    Participation of Native Americans in the geoscience community remains limited in spite of the oft-cited environmentally based nature of Indigenous cultures and lifeways, and the potential contribution of Indigenous ways of knowing to the global scientific enterprise. Multiple sociocultural and socioeconomic forces are at play here; some are now better understood through research, and not all are amenable to interventions by geoscientists. After two decades of professional and familial ties to the largest Native American nation, this geoscientist recommends these approaches to the problem: (1) Mitigate cultural discontinuity between worldviews with meaningful integration of relevant content and pedagogy into geoscience curricula for Native American students. This is best done by peer collaboration among Indigenous and mainstream scholars, ideally within or in close association with Tribal Colleges. The nature and level of possible incorporation range from the use of place-based and locally relevant geological examples and environmental case studies to socioculturally appropriate use of Indigenous pedagogy and traditional knowledge. Our 16-year experiment with Tsé na alkaah (Diné/Navajo ethnogeology) in formal and informal learning is cautiously offered as a template for this approach. It has drawn approval from cultural experts and interest from Diné teachers, but has yet to be widely disseminated or expanded upon by practitioners. (2) Nurture research infrastructure and expertise in situ, through partnerships that bring funding and collaborators to Native American students and educators on their lands and address Earth system problems of local significance and interest. Again, Tribal Colleges are particularly appropriate venues for such interaction. Research questions in Earth surface and climate change, hydrogeology, and energy are appropriate and timely for Native nations and funding agencies. Investigators should propose more projects that bring universities

  17. Temporal water quality response in an urban river: a case study in peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VishnuRadhan, Renjith; Zainudin, Zaki; Sreekanth, G. B.; Dhiman, Ravinder; Salleh, Mohd. Noor; Vethamony, P.

    2015-07-01

    Ambient water quality is a prerequisite for the health and self-purification capacity of riverine ecosystems. To understand the general water quality situation, the time series data of selected water quality parameters were analyzed in an urban river in Peninsular Malaysia. In this regard, the stations were selected from the main stem of the river as well as from the side channel. The stations located at the main stem of the river are less polluted than that in the side channel. Water Quality Index scores indicated that the side channel station is the most polluted, breaching the Class IV water quality criteria threshold during the monitoring period, followed by stations at the river mouth and the main channel. The effect of immediate anthropogenic waste input is also evident at the side channel station. The Organic Pollution Index of side channel station is (14.99) ~3 times higher than at stations at river mouth (4.11) and ~6 times higher than at the main channel (2.57). The two-way ANOVA showed significant difference among different stations. Further, the factor analysis on water quality parameters yielded two significant factors. They discriminated the stations into two groups. The land-use land cover classification of the study area shows that the region near the sampling sites is dominated by urban settlements (33.23 %) and this can contribute significantly to the deterioration of ambient river water quality. The present study estimated the water quality condition and response in the river and the study can be an immediate yardstick for base lining river water quality, and a basis for future water quality modeling studies in the region.

  18. Effects of urbanization on agricultural lands and river basins: case study of Mersin (South of Turkey).

    PubMed

    Duran, Celalettin; Gunek, Halil; Sandal, Ersin Kaya

    2012-04-01

    Largely, Turkey is a hilly and mountainous country. Many rivers rise from the mountains and flow into the seas surrounding the country. Mean while along fertile plains around the rivers and coastal floodplains of Turkey were densely populated than the other parts of the country. These characteristics show that there is a significant relationship between river basins and population or settlements. It is understood from this point of view, Mersin city and its vicinity (coastal floodplain and nearby river basins) show similar relationship. The city of Mersin was built on the southwest comer of Cukurova where Delicay and Efrenk creeks create narrow coastal floodplain. The plain has rich potential for agricultural practices with fertile alluvial soils and suitable climate. However, establishment of the port at the shore have increased commercial activity. Agricultural and commercial potential have attracted people to the area, and eventually has caused rapid spatial expansion of the city, and the urban sprawls over fertile agricultural lands along coastal floodplain and nearby river basins of the city. But unplanned, uncontrolled and illegal urbanization process has been causing degradation of agricultural areas and river basins, and also causing flooding in the city of Mersin and its vicinity. Especially in the basins, urbanization increases impervious surfaces throughout watersheds that increase erosion and runoff of surface water. In this study, the city of Mersin and its vicinity are examined in different ways, such as land use, urbanization, morphology and flows of the streams and given some directions for suitable urbanization.

  19. Managing water resources for sustainable development: the case of integrated river basin management in China.

    PubMed

    Song, X; Ravesteijn, W; Frostell, B; Wennersten, R

    2010-01-01

    The emerging water crisis in China shows that the current institutional frameworks and policies with regard to water resources management are incapable of achieving an effective and satisfactory situation that includes Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM). This paper analyses this framework and related policies, examines their deficiencies in relation to all water stress problems and explores alternatives focusing on river basins. Water resources management reforms in modern China are reviewed and the main problems involved in transforming the current river management system into an IRBM-based system are analysed. The Huai River basin is used as an example of current river basin management, with quantitative data serving to show the scale and scope of the problems in the country as a whole. The institutional reforms required are discussed and a conceptual institutional framework is proposed to facilitate the implementation of IRBM in China. In particular, the roles, power and responsibilities of River Basin Commissions (RBCs) should be legally strengthened; the functions of supervising, decision-making and execution should be separated; and cross-sectoral legislation, institutional coordination and public participation at all levels should be promoted.

  20. Global dynamic topography: geoscience communities requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewez, T.; Costeraste, J.

    2012-04-01

    The advent of free-of-charge global topographic data sets SRTM and Aster GDEM have enabled testing a host of geoscience hypotheses. This is because they first revealed the relief of previously unavailable earth landscapes, enabled quantitative geomorphometric analyses across entire landscapes and improved the resolution of measurements. Availability of such data is now considered standard, and though resolved at 30-m to 90-m pixel, which is amazing seeing where we come from, they are now regarded as mostly obsolete given the sub-meter imagery coming through web services like Google Earth. Geoscientists now appear to desire two additional features: field-scale-compatible elevation datasets (i.e. meter-scale digital models and sub-meter elevation precision) and dispose of regularly updated topography to retrieve earth surface changes, while retaining the key for success: data availability at no charge. A new satellite instrument is currently under phase 0 study at CNES, the French space agency, to fulfil these aims. The scientific community backing this demand is that of natural hazards, glaciology and to a lesser extent the biomass community. The system under study combines a native stereo imager and a lidar profiler. This combination provides spatially resolved elevation swaths together with absolute along-track elevation control point profiles. Data generated through this system, designed for revisit time better than a year, is intended to produce not only single acquisition digital surface models, colour orthoimages and small footprint full-wave-form lidar profiles to update existing topographic coverages, but also time series of them. This enables 3D change detection with centimetre-scale planimetric precision and metric vertical precision, in complement of classical spectral change appoaches. The purpose of this contribution, on behalf of the science team, is to present the mission concepts and philosophy and the scientific needs for such instrument including

  1. Implementing virtual reality interfaces for the geosciences

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, W.; Jacobsen, J.; Austin, A.; Lederer, M.; Little, T.

    1996-06-01

    For the past few years, a multidisciplinary team of computer and earth scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been exploring the use of advanced user interfaces, commonly called {open_quotes}Virtual Reality{close_quotes} (VR), coupled with visualization and scientific computing software. Working closely with industry, these efforts have resulted in an environment in which VR technology is coupled with existing visualization and computational tools. VR technology may be thought of as a user interface. It is useful to think of a spectrum, ranging the gamut from command-line interfaces to completely immersive environments. In the former, one uses the keyboard to enter three or six-dimensional parameters. In the latter, three or six-dimensional information is provided by trackers contained either in hand-held devices or attached to the user in some fashion, e.g. attached to a head-mounted display. Rich, extensible and often complex languages are a vehicle whereby the user controls parameters to manipulate object position and location in a virtual world, but the keyboard is the obstacle in that typing is cumbersome, error-prone and typically slow. In the latter, the user can interact with these parameters by means of motor skills which are highly developed. Two specific geoscience application areas will be highlighted. In the first, we have used VR technology to manipulate three-dimensional input parameters, such as the spatial location of injection or production wells in a reservoir simulator. In the second, we demonstrate how VR technology has been used to manipulate visualization tools, such as a tool for computing streamlines via manipulation of a {open_quotes}rake.{close_quotes} The rake is presented to the user in the form of a {open_quotes}virtual well{close_quotes} icon, and provides parameters used by the streamlines algorithm.

  2. GEOScan: A GEOScience Facility From Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrud, L. P.; Fentzke, J. T.; Anderson, B. J.; Bishop, R. L.; Bust, G. S.; Cahoy, K.; Erlandson, R. E.; Fish, C. S.; Gunter, B. C.; Hall, F. G.; Hilker, T.; Lorentz, S. R.; Mazur, J. E.; Murphy, S. D.; Mustard, J. F.; O'Brien, P. P.; Slagowski, S.; Trenberth, K. E.; Wiscombe, W. J.

    2012-12-01

    GEOScan is a proposed globally networked orbiting facility that will provide revolutionary, massively dense global geosciences observations. Major scientific research projects are typically conducted using two approaches: community facilities, or investigator led focused missions. GEOScan is a new concept in space science, blending the PI mission and community facility models: it is PI-led, but it carries sensors that are the result of a grass-roots competition, and, uniquely, it preserves open slots for sensors which are purposely not yet decided. The goal is threefold: first, to select sensors that maximize science value for the greatest number of scientific disciplines, second, to target science questions that cannot be answered without simultaneous global space-based measurements, and third to reap the cost advantages of scale manufacturing for space instrumentation. The relatively small size, mass, and power requirements of the GEOScan sensor suite would make it an ideal hosted payload aboard a global constellation of communication satellites, such as Iridium NEXT's 66-satellite constellation or as hosted small-sat payload. Each GEOScan sensor suite consists of 6 instruments: a Radiometer to measure Earth's total outgoing radiation; a GPS Compact Total Electron Content Sensor to image Earth's plasma environment and gravity field; a MicroCam Multispectral Imager to provide the first uniform, instantaneous image of Earth and measure global cloud cover, vegetation, land use, and bright aurora; a Radiation Belt Mapping System (dosimeter) to measure energetic electron and proton distributions; a Compact Earth Observing Spectrometer to measure aerosol-atmospheric composition and vegetation; and MEMS Accelerometers to deduce non-conservative forces aiding gravity and neutral drag studies. These instruments, employed in a constellation, can provide major breakthroughs in Earth and Geospace science, as well as offering a low-cost technology demonstration for

  3. Research Reproducibility in Geosciences: Current Landscape, Practices and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, An

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility of research can gauge the validity of its findings. Yet currently we lack understanding of how much of a problem research reproducibility is in geosciences. We developed an online survey on faculty and graduate students in geosciences, and received 136 responses from research institutions and universities in Americas, Asia, Europe and other parts of the world. This survey examined (1) the current state of research reproducibility in geosciences by asking researchers' experiences with unsuccessful replication work, and what obstacles that lead to their replication failures; (2) the current reproducibility practices in community by asking what efforts researchers made to try to reproduce other's work and make their own work reproducible, and what the underlying factors that contribute to irreproducibility are; (3) the perspectives on reproducibility by collecting researcher's thoughts and opinions on this issue. The survey result indicated that nearly 80% of respondents who had ever reproduced a published study had failed at least one time in reproducing. Only one third of the respondents received helpful feedbacks when they contacted the authors of a published study for data, code, or other information. The primary factors that lead to unsuccessful replication attempts are insufficient details of instructions in published literature, and inaccessibility of data, code and tools needed in the study. Our findings suggest a remarkable lack of research reproducibility in geoscience. Changing the incentive mechanism in academia, as well as developing policies and tools that facilitate open data and code sharing are the promising ways for geosciences community to alleviate this reproducibility problem.

  4. Former NSF assistant director Killeen reflects on geosciences and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-12-01

    “This is prime time for the geosciences,” Tim Killeen, former assistant director for geosciences at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF GEO), told Eos during a recent exclusive interview. Killeen, who served at NSF from July 2008 until his term expired in June 2012, oversaw a number of new initiatives and an expansion of the geoscience directorate's annual funding portfolio from $752 million to about $880 million. NSF announced on 7 November that Roger Wakimoto, director of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, will start as the new geosciences assistant director in February 2013 (see related article, this page, and Eos, 93(47), 475, doi:10.1029/ 2012EO470004). During the broad-ranging interview, Killeen reflected on the importance of the geosciences and their relationship to society. Killeen has been president of the Research Foundation for the State University of New York (RFSUNY) and SUNY vice chancellor for research since 9 July. He took the helm of RFSUNY after some personnel there “took advantage of lax oversight to cheat taxpayers,” according to New York State comptroller Thomas DiNapoli. Killeen, who was AGU president from 2006 to 2008, is responsible for the supervision and operation of RFSUNY, which supports about $1 billion in research at SUNY, an institution with 64 campuses and nearly 470,000 students.

  5. Engaging teachers & students in geosciences by exploring local geoheritage sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochis, E. E.; Gierke, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding geoscience concepts and the interactions of Earth system processes in one's own community has the potential to foster sound decision making for environmental, economic and social wellbeing. School-age children are an appropriate target audience for improving Earth Science literacy and attitudes towards scientific practices. However, many teachers charged with geoscience instruction lack awareness of local geological significant examples or the pedagogical ability to integrate place-based examples into their classroom practice. This situation is further complicated because many teachers of Earth science lack a firm background in geoscience course work. Strategies for effective K-12 teacher professional development programs that promote Earth Science literacy by integrating inquiry-based investigations of local and regional geoheritage sites into standards based curriculum were developed and tested with teachers at a rural school on the Hannahville Indian Reservation located in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The workshops initiated long-term partnerships between classroom teachers and geoscience experts. We hypothesize that this model of professional development, where teachers of school-age children are prepared to teach local examples of earth system science, will lead to increased engagement in Earth Science content and increased awareness of local geoscience examples by K-12 students and the public.

  6. A new instructional tool paradigm to teach geoscience at the intermediate (age 12 - 14) school level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, C.; Landsfeld, M.; Schweizer, D.

    2003-04-01

    A new pedagogically sound tool, based on accurate and up-to-date science, has been developed that allows students to practice science using real-time and archived data sets. Based on the process of scientific inquiry around a series of selected topics in geoscience (e.g., El Nino, the ozone hole, global warming, the Amazon river) this multi-media tool is graphically rich and user friendly and engages students in the practices of geoscientists. Under the guidance of a scientific leader, students embark on a virtual research vessel for an exploratory research expedition and navigate from instruction provided with quicktime movies, to data sets through a rich and accessible data center and information through a web-based information center. A comprehensive teacher’s guide helps the teacher with the software and classroom management as well as grading through a rubric approach. Some elements of this software will be demonstrated in this presentation.

  7. The role of mega dams in reducing sediment fluxes: A case study of large Asian rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Harish; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Dai, Minhan

    2012-09-01

    SummaryIn order to sustain the ever growing population and to meet water and energy requirements of the rapidly growing economies, most of the large rivers draining through East, Southern and Southeast (ESSE) Asian region have been regulated all along their courses, over the past few decades. For instance, ESSE Asian countries (China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Myanmar, Thailand, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) host about 250 mega dams and several tens of thousands of large and small reservoirs. The present study provides a revised estimate on annual suspended sediment fluxes of the large rivers draining through ESSE region, including the latest data of the Indian peninsula rivers. In the last 50 years, the combined annual sediment flux of the large Chinese rivers has been reduced from 1800 million tons (Mt) to about 370 Mt. We estimate that at present the Indian peninsular rivers collectively transport about 83 Mt of sediment annually. The Ganga-Brahmaputra and the Indus, contribute 850 and 13 Mt of sediments, respectively to the oceans. Our revised estimates suggest that at present the large rivers of ESSE region, collectively delivering ∼2150 Mt of sediment annually to the oceans. We show that at decadal scale, decline in sediment fluxes of the large Asian rivers are proportional to the number of mega dams present in the respective catchments. We also demonstrate that storage of sediment-laden water of major flood events (major-event), led to huge sediment trapping behind mega dams. Thus, ongoing and planned dam constructions activities across ESSE Asia may further reduce the annual sediment fluxes.

  8. Modelling Suspended Sediment Transport in Monsoon Season: A Case Study of Pahang River Estuary, Pahang, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariya, Razak; Ahmad, Zuhairi; Saad, Shahbudin; Yaakop, Rosnan

    2013-04-01

    Sediment transport based on 2-dimensional real time model was applied to Pahang River estuary, Pahang, Malaysia and has been evaluated and verified with time series of tidal elevation, flow and suspended sediment load. Period of modelling was during highest high tide and lowest low tide in Northeast Monsoon (NE) which happened in December 2010 and Southwest Monsoon (SW) in July 2011. Simulated model outputs has been verify using Pearson's coefficient and has showed high accuracy. The validated model was used to simulate hydrodynamic and sediment transport of extreme conditions during both monsoon seasons. Based on field measurement and model simulation, tidal elevation and flow velocity, freshwater discharge of Pahang River were found to be higher during NE Monsoon. Based on the fluxes, the estuary also showed 'ebb-dominant' characteristic during highest high tide and lowest low tide in NE monsoon and normal ebbing-flooding characteristics during SW monsoon. In the Pahang River estuary, inflow and outflow patterns were perpendicular to the open boundary with circular flow formed at the shallow area in the middle of estuary during both monsoons. Referring to sea water intrusion from the river mouth, both seasons show penetration of more than 9 km (upstream input boundary) during higher high water tide. During higher lower water tide, the water intrusion stated varies which 5.6km during NE monsoon and 7.8km during SW monsoon. Regarding to the times lap during high tide, the sea water takes 2.8 hours to reach 9km upstream during NE monsoon compared to 1.9 hour during SW monsoon. The averages of suspended sediment concentration and suspended sediment load were higher during Northeast monsoon which increased the sedimentation potentials.Total of suspended sediment load discharged to the South China Sea yearly from Pahang River is approximately 96727.5 tonnes/day or 3.33 tonnes/km2/day which 442.6 tonnes/day during Northeast Monsoon and 25.3 tonnes/day during Southwest

  9. National Geoscience Data Repository System -- Phase III: Implementation and Operation of the Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, Christopher M.

    2002-05-28

    The National Geoscience Data Repository System, Phase III was an operational project focused on coordinating and facilitating transfers of at-risk geoscience data from the private sector to the public domain.

  10. The role of digital cartographic data in the geosciences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guptill, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    The increasing demand of the Nation's natural resource developers for the manipulation, analysis, and display of large quantities of earth-science data has necessitated the use of computers and the building of geoscience information systems. These systems require, in digital form, the spatial data on map products. The basic cartographic data shown on quadrangle maps provide a foundation for the addition of geological and geophysical data. If geoscience information systems are to realize their full potential, large amounts of digital cartographic base data must be available. A major goal of the U.S. Geological Survey is to create, maintain, manage, and distribute a national cartographic and geographic digital database. This unified database will contain numerous categories (hydrography, hypsography, land use, etc.) that, through the use of standardized data-element definitions and formats, can be used easily and flexibly to prepare cartographic products and perform geoscience analysis. ?? 1983.

  11. Global geosciences to be new focus at NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    With the start of the 1987 fiscal year (FY) on October 1, 1986, the National Science Foundation (NSF) officially began conducting—with the explicit blessings of Congress—the United States' first large-scale funded program for multidisciplinary cooperative global studies, an effort NSF calls “Global Geosciences.” The agency's budget commits about $35 million to global geosciences, which is the full amount that NSF originally requested from Congress in February 1986 (Eos, February 25, 1986, p.95). The $35 million represents an impressive increase of $18 million over the $17 million in the FY 1986 budget that NSF considers itself to have spent for global studies. “To propose an increase for global geosciences within an environment of shrinking budgets illustrates the level of commitment NSF attaches to this effort,” the agency's director, Erich Bloch, said earlier this year.

  12. National Geoscience Data Repository System: Phase 2 final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The American Geological Institute (AGI) has completed Phase 2 of a project to establish a National Geoscience Data Repository System (NGDRS). The project`s primary objectives are to preserve geoscience data in jeopardy of being destroyed and to make that data available to those who have a need to use it in future investigations. These data are available for donation to the public as a result of the downsizing that has occurred in the major petroleum and mining companies in the US for the past decade. In recent years, these companies have consolidated domestic operations, sold many of their domestic properties and relinquished many of their leases. The scientific data associated with those properties are no longer considered to be useful assets and are consequently in danger of being lost forever. The national repository project will make many of these data available to the geoscience community for the first time. Phase 2 encompasses the establishment of standards for indexing and cataloging of geoscience data and determination of the costs of transferring data from the private sector to public-sector data repositories. Pilot projects evaluated the feasibility of the project for transfer of different data types and creation of a Web-based metadata supercatalog and browser. Also as part of the project, a national directory of geoscience data repositories was compiled to assess what data are currently available in existing facilities. The next step, Phase 3, will focus on the initiation of transfer of geoscience data from the private sector to the public domain and development of the web-based Geotrek metadata supercatalog.

  13. A framework for high-school teacher support in Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookhagen, B.; Mair, A.; Schaller, G.; Koeberl, C.

    2012-04-01

    To attract future geoscientists in the classroom and share the passion for science, successful geoscience education needs to combine modern educational tools with applied science. Previous outreach efforts suggest that classroom-geoscience teaching tremendously benefits from structured, prepared lesson plans in combination with hands-on material. Building on our past experience, we have developed a classroom-teaching kit that implements interdisciplinary exercises and modern geoscientific application to attract high-school students. This "Mobile Phone Teaching Kit" analyzes the components of mobile phones, emphasizing the mineral compositions and geologic background of raw materials. Also, as geoscience is not an obligatory classroom topic in Austria, and university training for upcoming science teachers barely covers geoscience, teacher training is necessary to enhance understanding of the interdisciplinary geosciences in the classroom. During the past year, we have held teacher workshops to help implementing the topic in the classroom, and to provide professional training for non-geoscientists and demonstrate proper usage of the teaching kit. The material kit is designed for classroom teaching and comes with a lesson plan that covers background knowledge and provides worksheets and can easily be adapted to school curricula. The project was funded by kulturkontakt Austria; expenses covered 540 material kits, and we reached out to approximately 90 schools throughout Austria and held a workshop in each of the nine federal states in Austria. Teachers received the training, a set of the material kit, and the lesson plan free of charge. Feedback from teachers was highly appreciative. The request for further material kits is high and we plan to expand the project. Ultimately, we hope to enlighten teachers and students for the highly interdisciplinary variety of geosciences and a link to everyday life.

  14. Decadal flood frequency analyses: Case study of station Litija on the Sava river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezak, Nejc; Brilly, Mitja; Sraj, Mojca

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was (1) to perform decadal flood frequency analyses for the nine 30 years long data series, (2) to compare some commonly used distribution functions, (3) to compare the method of moments and the method of L-moments, and (4) to evaluate changes in the Q-T curves for the different hydrological periods. Decadal flood frequency analyses can be useful in climate changes or climate variability assessment. Investigation of the influence of the selected period for flood frequency analyses is important for the observation of changes in the discharge data. To reach the optimal flood frequency analyses results one should choose the best fitting distribution function and appropriate parameter estimation technique. The hydrological station Litija on the river Sava is one of the oldest gauging stations in Slovenia. 116 years of the daily discharge data were used for decadal flood frequency analyses. Data was separated in nine parts, each part contained 30 years of annual maximums. The normal, log-normal, Pearson 3, log-Pearson 3, Gumbel, generalized extreme value (GEV) and generalized logistic (GL) distributions were used for flood frequency analyses. The method of moments and the method of L-moments were used for parameters estimation. The root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), Probability plot correlation coefficient (PPCC), Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S), Anderson-Darling (A-D) and AIC (Akaike information criterion) tests were used to compare distribution functions and different data samples. The L-moments ratio diagram was also used to assess differences between distribution functions. The GEV, Pearson 3 and log-Pearson 3 distributions gave better results as the normal, log-normal, Gumbel and GL distributions. The Gumbel and log-normal distributions had larger dispersion of tests results as other considered distributions. When distribution parameters were estimated with the method of L-moments test results were better as in case of the

  15. Promoting the Geosciences for Minority Students in the Urban Coastal Environment of New York City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.

    2013-12-01

    The 'Creating and Sustaining Diversity in the Geo-Sciences among Students and Teachers in the Urban Coastal Environment of New York City' project was awarded to New York City College of Technology (City Tech) by the National Science Foundation to promote the geosciences for students in middle and high schools and for undergraduates, especially for those who are underrepresented minorities in STEM. For the undergraduate students at City Tech, this project: 1) created and introduced geoscience knowledge and opportunities to its diverse undergraduate student population where geoscience is not currently taught at City Tech; and 2) created geoscience articulation agreements. For the middle and high schools, this project: 1) provided inquiry-oriented geoscience experiences (pedagogical and research) for students; 2) provided standards-based professional development (pedagogical and research) in Earth Science for teachers; 3) developed teachers' inquiry-oriented instructional techniques through the GLOBE program; 4) increased teacher content knowledge and confidence in the geosciences; 5) engaged and intrigued students in the application of geoscience activities in a virtual environment; 6) provided students and teachers exposure in the geosciences through trip visitations and seminars; and 7) created community-based geoscience outreach activities. Results from this program have shown significant increases in the students (grades 6-16) understanding, participation, appreciation, and awareness of the geosciences. Geoscience modules have been created and new geosciences courses have been offered. Additionally, students and teachers were engaged in state-of-the-art geoscience research projects, and they were involved in many geoscience events and initiatives. In summary, the activities combined geoscience research experiences with a robust learning community that have produced holistic and engaging stimuli for the scientific and academic growth and development of grades 6

  16. Water stress, energy security and adaptation under changing climate: case study of Zeravshan river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khujanazarov, T.; Namura, R.; Touge, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Toderich, K.

    2014-12-01

    Zeravshan a transboundary river in Central Asia is a snow-glacier fed river originating in Tajikistan that use only 4% of its resources, further flows to Uzbekistan who fully utilize river resources for irrigation. Such disparity in river usage causes Tajikistan to consider heavy investments in hydropower dams that will increase social and political tension between counterparts. Traditional irrigation under arid climate causes high rates of water losses in infiltration and evapotranspiration leading to land. Water stress analysis and water resources distribution under climate change and possible adaptation measures were investigated. The framework includes model to analyze available water resources and assessment of the basin efficiency including dam operation and irrigation demand, based on it adaptation measures were suggested. Comparison of the increasing irrigation efficiency in downstream to the 10% rate can decrease water requirements on early stages, however there are still large deficiency of the water resources in the peak irrigation season. Dam operation to benefit irrigation has positive impact while can't compensate the needs of energy in winter months. Cooperation of the both sides are required to address such changes in river flow as interest lies on opposite side. Increasing irrigation efficiency through using return marginal waters and salt tolerant crops under water stress were suggested. The plants were tested on several sites in the downstream of the river using mineralized return waters. The results suggest that using such plants can provide additional outcome for the local community while decreasing demand of the water resources and improving soil conditions. Combination of dam operation for energy production and increasing irrigation efficiency additionally by using return waters can provide a beneficial scenario for the region under future climate change. However, it will require strong political will to address energy swap to achieve nexus

  17. Alliances for Undergraduate Research in the Geosciences Through Collaborative Recruitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R.; Eriksson, S.; Haacker-Santos, R.; Calhoun, A.

    2006-12-01

    Undergraduate research is a key strategy for encouraging students to pursue graduate school and careers in science end engineering. In the geosciences, where participation by members of underrepresented groups is among the lowest of any science field, these programs must continue and strengthen their efforts to engage students from historically underrepresented groups. A significant limitation on our ability to engage students from historically underrepresented groups comes from the expense, in terms of time and resources, of promoting these career options to talented undergraduates considering a host of STEM careers. Another hurdle is our ability to match students with research projects tailored to their interests. Further complicating this is the challenge of matching students who have culturally motivated geographic constraints—for example, Native students who seek to serve their local community—to relevant opportunities. As a result, we believe that a number of highly qualified students never fully consider careers in the geosciences. To address these obstacles, we propose an alliance of undergraduate research programs in the geosciences. In this model, all members of the alliance would share recruiting, and students would submit a single application forwarded to all alliance members. The Alliance could offer applicants multiple research opportunities, from across the alliance, tailored to fit the applicant's needs and interests. This strategy has proven very effective in other fields; for example, the Leadership Alliance allows 32 member institutions to offer internships and fellowships through one central application process. SOARS and RESESS, programs in atmospheric science and geophysics, respectively, have done this co-recruiting for two years. There are many benefits to this type of alliance. First, it would allow programs to leverage and coordinate their recruiting investments. From our experience with SOARS and RESESS, much of the effort in

  18. Preparing Teachers to Teach Earth Science: Resources for Geoscience Faculty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Bezanson, C.; Moosavi, S. C.; Reynolds, D.; Manduca, C. A.

    2005-12-01

    Currently in the United States, there is a major push toward improving science education throughout all levels of education. While physics, biology, and chemistry are the three common sciences taught in high school, how, when and if Earth science is taught in our nation's schools varies greatly from region to region. Earth science topics are commonly incorporated into physics, chemistry, and biology classrooms and taught by teachers who may have never taken more than an introductory geoscience course. These teachers are often highly motivated to increase their understanding of the Earth sciences and need appropriate professional development opportunities in order to do so. In addition, many future elementary and middle school Earth science teachers take introductory geoscience courses in college. For these reasons, geoscience faculty play an active role in helping to educate future Earth science teachers. As part of the Digital Library for Earth System Education, the Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton College has developed a "Preparing Teachers to Teach Earth Science" website (http://serc.carleton.edu/teacherprep/). At this site geoscience faculty can learn more about supporting Earth science teachers both during their pre-service training in college, and as their careers progress through professional development opportunities. The website contains background materials and information about the necessity for geoscience faculty to get involved in supporting Earth science teachers, as well as recent science education reform initiatives. In addition, the site contains examples of geoscience courses serving pre-service teachers and Earth science professional development programs throughout the country linked to descriptions of their design and implementation. The website content draws heavily on material presented at the 2003 AGU/NAGT workshop "Developing the Earth Science Teacher Workforce: The Role of Geoscience Departments and Introductory Courses

  19. Recruiting and Supporting Diverse Geoscience and Environmental Science Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doser, Diane I.; Manduca, Cathy; Rhodes, Dallas

    2014-08-01

    Producing a workforce that will be successful in meeting global environmental and resource challenges requires that we attract diverse students into the geosciences, support them fully in our programs, and assist them as they move into the profession. However, geoscience has the lowest ethnic and racial diversity of any of the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines (National Science Foundation (NSF), "Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering," http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/wmpd/2013/start.cfm) and is often viewed as a difficult choice for students with physical disabilities.

  20. CHRONOS: Geoinformatics Platform for Global Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervato, C.; Fils, D.; Bohling, G.; Diver, P.; Greer, D.; Lambi, B.; Reed, J. A.; Tang, X.

    2005-12-01

    Layered sedimentary rocks are a vast, globally distributed, information repository for the history of Earth processes, spanning billions of years, holding the answers to many scientific and societal questions. Traditionally, we have tried to capture this information in the printed literature where the data sets, by the nature of the medium, are incomplete. Furthermore, it is an expensive and time-consuming process for subsequent researchers to extract this information from the literature. The answer to this "information bottleneck" is geoinformatics, a revolution that is migrating information to more readily retrievable electronic formats. CHRONOS (www.chronos.org) is a community facility that addresses the geoinformatics needs of sedimentary geology and paleobiology, emphasizes global correlation and time-series analysis, and directly supports cutting-edge research on topics that include the evolution and diversity of life, climate change, geochemical cycles, paleoceanography, and many other aspects of the Earth system. CHRONOS is providing an open, community-based geoinformatics platform for storing, accessing, and analyzing sedimentary geological, geochemical, and paleobiological data. By augmenting and connecting community databases and giving them an unprecedented level of interoperability, CHRONOS will realize a virtual, on-line, electronic stratigraphic record - a means to boost the pace and enlarge the scope of integrative geoscience. The full CHRONOS system includes a core Information Technology (IT) facility and databases, a global network of federated databases, tools, targeted development projects, and education/outreach activities. CHRONOS and its partners cooperate to: 1) link existing databases and other geoinformatics components into a single interoperable network, 2) provide primary databases to capture relevant data types, 3) offer tool sets for data analysis, and 4) create working groups and organize workshops to ensure that the needs of the

  1. Communicating contentious geoscience issues and maintaining impartiality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nice, S. E.; Mitchell, C.

    2013-12-01

    Shale Gas exploration in the UK has been major and often controversial news in the British media over the last 2 years. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been an integral part of this story as the UK Governments independent and impartial advisor on geosciences. BGS has been involved in writing policy on fracking and induced earthquakes as well as researching potential quantities of shale gas in the UK and also researching natural methane levels in groundwater before large scale fracking activities begin. Shale Gas in the UK, as in the US and Europe has caused much controversy and as a result has many pro and anti fracking campaigns. The challenge for BGS has been to deliver front line science, whilst maintaining complete impartiality on the subject. The BGS communications team developed a strategy over this period to ensure that our message was clear and strong. This involved working closely with the scientists involved to formulate key messages that could delivered through controlled statements on the BGS webpages, press releases, at press conferences as well as on broadcast and print media. Our scientists were media trained during this time to ensure that they stayed en message and wouldn't be caught by the press or opponents of fracking into making statements that could have been used to either scare up the position or give the antagonist room to cast doubt on our impartiality. This strategy proved highly successful and BGS managed to communicate the facts, remain impartial whilst avoiding attempts to undermine the potential for Shale gas exploitation in the UK. The success of this communication strategy was due to the cooperation of the scientists, a clear strategy from the communications team and the unequivocal support of the senior executive at BGS. This abstract will conclude how the BGS has developed its communication strategy to be more streamlined and open. BGS must allow it's scientists to talk to the media about the science that they do. Much of

  2. Avulsion threshold in a large Himalayan river: the case of the Kosi, India and Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, R.; Kommula, S.

    2010-12-01

    Avulsion, the relatively rapid shift of a river to a new course on a lower part of a floodplain, is considered as a major fluvial hazard in large population centers such as the north Bihar plains, eastern India and the adjoining areas of Nepal. This region witnessed one of the most recent avulsions of the Kosi River on 18 August, 2008 when the river shifted by ~120 km eastward. This was perhaps one of the greatest avulsions in a large river in recent years triggered by the breach of the eastern afflux bund at Kusaha in Nepal at a location 12 km upstream of the Kosi barrage and affecting more than 3 million people in Nepal and north Bihar. The trigger for an avulsion largely depends upon the regional channel-floodplain slope relationships and the lowest elevation available in the region. Most of the available assessments of avulsion threshold have therefore been based on the examination of channel slopes- longitudinal and cross-sectional. However, planform dynamics in a sediment-charged river such as the Kosi also plays an important role in pushing the river towards threshold for avulsion. The present study has made use of SRTM DEM, temporal satellite images and maps to compute the avulsion threshold for a ~50 km long reach of the Kosi river after incorporating planform dynamics in a GIS environment. Flow accumulation paths generated from the SRTM data match closely with the zones of high avulsion threshold. Not just that the Kusaha plots in a high avulsion threshold zone, we also identify several critical points where breach (avulsion) can occur in near future. This study assumes global significance keeping in view the most recent flooding in the Indus River in Pakistan. Like the Kusaha breach in Kosi in August 2008, the Indus flood trauma started with the breach of the eastern marginal embankment in the upstream of Taunsa barrage and was apparently triggered by rise of bed level due to excessive sediment load. The mega avulsion of the Kosi on 18th August 2008

  3. The Need for an International Geoscience School Syllabus: Its Development and Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, C.

    2015-01-01

    International comparisons of school-level geoscience education across the world had shown great variability in the amount and content of the geoscience materials and in the ways in which it was taught. When this situation was discussed at meetings of organisations concerned with international school-level geoscience education in 2012, the decision…

  4. NAGT-GER: A Community of Practice to Support the Emerging Field of Geoscience Education Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukes, L.; LaDue, N.; Cheek, K.; Ryker, K.

    2014-12-01

    As the National Research Council noted in its 2012 report on discipline-based education research (DBER) in undergraduate science and engineering, in order to advance DBER as a field of inquiry, "a robust infrastructure is required to recognize and support [DBER] within professional societies." One way to develop such an infrastructure around geoscience education research is to create a community of practice within the broader geoscience education community. In recent years, the members of the National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) have created two divisions to support the geoscience education needs of specific subpopulations of the geoscience community: the 2YC division, focusing on community college issues, and TED, focusing on teacher education. This year marks the first year of a new division within the National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) focused on geoscience education research. The Geoscience Education Research division (GER) is committed to the promotion of high quality, scholarly research in geoscience education that improves teaching and learning in K-12, higher education, and informal learning environments. High quality DBER in geoscience requires the ability to connect current theories of teaching and learning with deep content-specific conceptual understanding. A community of practice like NAGT GER, has the potential to improve the quality of scholarly efforts in geoscience education by providing a forum for improving the collective knowledge and expertise of the geoscience education research community. Current division initiatives and efforts will be highlighted and time for dialogue on future directions will be included.

  5. Online Experiential Learning: Effective Applications for Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matias, A.; Eriksson, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Students today are rarely satisfied with a one-size-fits-all educational experience. The rapid changing landscape of the web and other technologies are breaking down communicationand geographic barries. More students are increasingly turning to the web for quality education that fits into their lives. As a result, higher education institutions are expanding their offerings through online courses. Nonetheless, online learning brings challenges as well as a fresh opportunityfor exploring practices not present in traditional higher education programs, particularly in the sciences. We are in a unique position to empower students to make strategic academic and professional decisions in global terms. Online learning, supportedwith hands-on and minds-on activities, actively engages student with critical thinking skills and higher level learning. This presentation will showcase examples from a series of geoscience and environmental science courses currently offered fully online at SUNY Empire State College (ESC). Taking advantage of the proliferation of tools currently available for online learning management systems, we will explore how we approach course developent to create an interactive learning environment. Students learn through case studies, group projects and understanding real-world issues while learning concepts. Particular focus will be given to an international collaboration with the Tecnologico de Monterrey, Chihuahua Campus. This collaboration took place during the Spring of 2015 with students from the fully-online, lower-level Geology and the Environment course at ESC and the upper-level, face-to-face Mobile Programming course in Mexico. Ultimately, the goal of this presentation is to show faculty members and afministrators the pedagogical principles and approach used with the expectation that it could help support development of online learning opportunities at their institutions.

  6. Geoethics and the Role of Professional Geoscience Societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieffer, S. W.; Palka, J. M.; Geissman, J. W.; Mogk, D. W.

    2014-12-01

    Codes of Ethics (Conduct) for geoscientists are formulated primarily by professional societies and the codes must be viewed in the context of the Goals (Missions, Values) of the societies. Our survey of the codes of approximately twenty-five societies reveals that most codes enumerate principles centered on practical issues regarding professional conduct of individuals such as plagiarism, fabrication, and falsification, and the obligation of individuals to the profession and society at large. With the exception of statements regarding the ethics of peer review, there is relatively little regarding the ethical obligations of the societies themselves. In essence, the codes call for traditionally honorable behavior of individual members. It is striking, given that the geosciences are largely relevant to the future of Earth, most current codes of societies fail to address our immediate obligations to the environment and Earth itself. We challenge professional organizations to consider the ethical obligations to Earth in both their statements of goals and in their codes of ethics. Actions by societies could enhance the efforts of individual geoscientists to serve society, especially in matters related to hazards, resources and planetary stewardship. Actions we suggest to be considered include: (1) Issue timely position statements on topics in which there is expertise and consensus (some professional societies such as AGU, GSA, AAAS, and the AMS, do this regularly, yet others not at all.); (2) Build databases of case studies regarding geoethics that can be used in university classes; (3) Hold interdisciplinary panel discussions with ethicists, scientists, and policy makers at annual meetings; (4) Foster publication in society journals of contributions relating to ethical questions; and (5) Aggressively pursue the incorporation of geoethical issues in undergraduate and graduate curricula and in continuing professional development.

  7. A geoscience perspective on immersive 3D gridded data visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billen, Magali I.; Kreylos, Oliver; Hamann, Bernd; Jadamec, Margarete A.; Kellogg, Louise H.; Staadt, Oliver; Sumner, Dawn Y.

    2008-09-01

    We describe visualization software, Visualizer, that was developed specifically for interactive, visual exploration in immersive virtual reality (VR) environments. Visualizer uses carefully optimized algorithms and data structures to support the high frame rates required for immersion and the real-time feedback required for interactivity. As an application developed for VR from the ground up, Visualizer realizes benefits that usually cannot be achieved by software initially developed for the desktop and later ported to VR. However, Visualizer can also be used on desktop systems (unix/linux-based operating systems including Mac OS X) with a similar level of real-time interactivity, bridging the "software gap" between desktop and VR that has been an obstacle for the adoption of VR methods in the Geosciences. While many of the capabilities of Visualizer are already available in other software packages used in a desktop environment, the features that distinguish Visualizer are: (1) Visualizer can be used in any VR environment including the desktop, GeoWall, or CAVE, (2) in non-desktop environments the user interacts with the data set directly using a wand or other input devices instead of working indirectly via dialog boxes or text input, (3) on the desktop, Visualizer provides real-time interaction with very large data sets that cannot easily be viewed or manipulated in other software packages. Three case studies are presented that illustrate the direct scientific benefits realized by analyzing data or simulation results with Visualizer in a VR environment. We also address some of the main obstacles to widespread use of VR environments in scientific research with a user study that shows Visualizer is easy to learn and to use in a VR environment and can be as effective on desktop systems as native desktop applications.

  8. Combined assessment and regulation on ecological land use and water demand of the river system: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, D. H.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Qin, T. L.

    2011-10-01

    With economic and social development, ecological water and land use of the river system were seriously misappropriated, which resulted in overall degradation of the river systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks of regionalisation on the eco-environmental function of the river systems were preliminarily formulated. According to the river eco-environmental functions, Luanhe River was regionalised into four types of first-class functional areas, i.e., ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilisation areas. Combined with the main functions of all functional areas, ecological land use of the river system in Luanhe River was assessed and planned. The total area of basic ecological land use was 876.98 km2; that of restrictive ecological land use was 1745.52 km2; that of ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland was 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land was 17.35 km2. Combined with prototype observation experiments, the average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River was 4.896 m3 s-1 with the habitat method. The evaporation and seepage consumption of the river system in Luanhe River and vegetation consumption in riparian zones were about 133 million m3 and 145 million m3 per year, respectively. Downwards from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system, the mainstream of the Luanhe River was the crucial reach for regulation on instream ecological water use. It was required to speed up ecological land use planning of the river system and strengthen the regulation of ecological water use in important lower reaches of the Luanhe River under the condition of competitive water demand.

  9. Developing A Large-Scale, Collaborative, Productive Geoscience Education Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Egger, A. E.; Fox, S.; Ledley, T. S.; Macdonald, H.; Mcconnell, D. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Tewksbury, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 15 years, the geoscience education community has grown substantially and developed broad and deep capacity for collaboration and dissemination of ideas. While this community is best viewed as emergent from complex interactions among changing educational needs and opportunities, we highlight the role of several large projects in the development of a network within this community. In the 1990s, three NSF projects came together to build a robust web infrastructure to support the production and dissemination of on-line resources: On The Cutting Edge (OTCE), Earth Exploration Toolbook, and Starting Point: Teaching Introductory Geoscience. Along with the contemporaneous Digital Library for Earth System Education, these projects engaged geoscience educators nationwide in exploring professional development experiences that produced lasting on-line resources, collaborative authoring of resources, and models for web-based support for geoscience teaching. As a result, a culture developed in the 2000s in which geoscience educators anticipated that resources for geoscience teaching would be shared broadly and that collaborative authoring would be productive and engaging. By this time, a diverse set of examples demonstrated the power of the web infrastructure in supporting collaboration, dissemination and professional development . Building on this foundation, more recent work has expanded both the size of the network and the scope of its work. Many large research projects initiated collaborations to disseminate resources supporting educational use of their data. Research results from the rapidly expanding geoscience education research community were integrated into the Pedagogies in Action website and OTCE. Projects engaged faculty across the nation in large-scale data collection and educational research. The Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network and OTCE engaged community members in reviewing the expanding body of on-line resources. Building Strong

  10. Probabilistic scenario-based water resource planning and management:A case study in the Yellow River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, C.; Schoups, G.; van de Giesen, N.

    2012-04-01

    Water resource planning and management is subject to large uncertainties with respect to the impact of climate change and socio-economic development on water systems. In order to deal with these uncertainties, probabilistic climate and socio-economic scenarios were developed based on the Principle of Maximum Entropy, as defined within information theory, and as inputs to hydrological models to construct probabilistic water scenarios using Monte Carlo simulation. Probabilistic scenarios provide more explicit information than equally-likely scenarios for decision-making in water resource management. A case was developed for the Yellow River Basin, China, where future water availability and water demand are affected by both climate change and socio-economic development. Climate scenarios of future precipitation and temperature were developed based on the results of multiple Global climate models; and socio-economic scenarios were downscaled from existing large-scale scenarios. Probability distributions were assigned to these scenarios to explicitly represent a full set of future possibilities. Probabilistic climate scenarios were used as input to a rainfall-runoff model to simulate future river discharge and socio-economic scenarios for calculating water demand. A full set of possible future water supply-demand scenarios and their associated probability distributions were generated. This set can feed the further analysis of the future water balance, which can be used as a basis to plan and manage water resources in the Yellow River Basin. Key words: Probabilistic scenarios, climate change, socio-economic development, water management

  11. Quantifying Knick Point Migration Rates Related to the Messinian Crisis. The Case of the Nile River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüwe, Kurt; Pucher, Christoph; Robl, Jörg; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The Messinian crisis is a temporally well-constrained period between 5.3 my and 5.9 my, when the strait of Gibraltar was tectonically closed and the Mediterranean Sea had consequently desiccated. This dramatic base level drop by about 1500 vertical meters had a profound influence on the geomorphic evolution of the major drainages surrounding the Mediterranean basin. In particular, it caused substantial knickpoints in the major rivers including the Rhone, the Ebro, the Po and the Nile. While the knickpoints of the Rhone and Ebro have been studied previously and the knickpoints created by the Po may lie today underneath the Po plains, the knickpoint and its migration along the Nile has not been studied and would have migrated along its current river channel. In this contribution we focus on numerical modelling of the knickpoint migration in the Nile and use our modelling results in comparison with the present day morphological analyses of the river to constrain absolute migration rates. We suspect that the first Nile cataract near Assuan, some 1000 km upstream of today's river mouth may be the relict of the Messinian salinity crisis making it to one of the fastest migrating knickpoints in the world.

  12. Logging the Great Lakes Indian Reservations: The Case of the Bad River Band of Ojibwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen-Adams, Michelle M.; Langston, Nancy E.; Mladenoff, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The harvest of the Great Lakes primary forest stands (ca. 1860-1925) transformed the region's ecological, cultural, and political landscapes. Although logging affected both Indian and white communities, the Ojibwe experienced the lumber era in ways that differed from many of their white neighbors. When the 125,000-acre Bad River Reservation was…

  13. Assessing ecological water quality with macroinvertebrates and fish: a case study from a small Mediterranean river.

    PubMed

    Cheimonopoulou, Maria Th; Bobori, Dimitra C; Theocharopoulos, Ioannis; Lazaridou, Maria

    2011-02-01

    Biological elements, such as benthic macroinvertebrates and fish, have been used in assessing the ecological quality of rivers according to the requirements of the Water Framework Directive. However, the concurrent use of multiple organism groups provides a broader perspective for such evaluations, since each biological element may respond differently to certain environmental variables. In the present study, we assessed the ecological quality of a Greek river (RM4 type), during autumn 2003 and spring 2004 at 10 sites, with benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. Hydromorphological and physicochemical parameters, habitat structure, and riparian vegetation were also considered. Pollution sensitive macroinvertebrate taxa were more abundant at headwaters, which had good/excellent water quality according to the Hellenic Evaluation System (HES). The main river reaches possessed moderate water quality, while downstream sites were mainly characterised as having bad or poor water quality, dominated by pollution-tolerant macroinvertebrate taxa. Macroinvertebrates related strongly to local stressors as chemical degradation (ordination analysis CCA) and riparian quality impairment (bivariate analysis) while fish did not. Fish were absent from the severely impacted lower river reaches. Furthermore, external pathological signs were observed in fish caught at certain sites. A combined use of both macroinvertebrates and fish in biomonitoring programs is proposed for providing a safer assessment of local and regional habitat impairment.

  14. PLUS: 'Planning Land Use with Students' is a Local Land Use Policy That Showcase the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrin, M.

    2014-12-01

    Land Use decisions in the local community are well represented in geoscience topics and issues, and provide an excellent opportunity to showcase a wide range of geoscience careers to high school students. In PLUS (Planning Land Use with Students) we work with youth corps, volunteer agencies and the County Departments of Planning, Transportation, Public Health, Water Resources to run a program for high school seniors to engage the students in the complex layers of decision making connected with land use as we showcase geoscience careers (http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/edu/plus/index.html). How development occurs, what resources are in use and who makes these decisions is both interesting and relevant for students. We develop case studies around current, active, local land use issues large enough in scale to have a formal environmental review at the County and/or the State level. Sections of each case study are dedicated to addressing the range of environmental issues that are central to each land use decision. Water, its availability, planned use and treatment on the site, brings in both a review of local hydrology and a discussion of storm water management. Air quality and the impact of the proposed project's density, transportation plans, and commercial and industrial uses brings in air quality issues like air quality ratings, existing pollution, and local air monitoring. A review of the site plans brings in grading plans for the project area, which highlights issues of drainage, soil stability, and exposure to toxins or pollutants depending on the historic use of the site. Brownfield redevelopments are especially challenging with various monitoring, clean up and usage restrictions that are extremely interesting to the students. Students' work with mentors from the community who represent various roles in the planning process including a range of geosciences, community business members and other players in the planning process. This interplay of individuals provides

  15. Modelling long term morphological changes with XBeach: case study of Kizilirmak River mouth, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baykal, Cüneyt; Ergin, Aysen; Güler, Işıkhan; Özyurt Tarakcıoğlu, Gülizar; Söğüt, Erdinç; Gökhan Güler, Hasan; Güney Doğan, Gözde

    2015-04-01

    The Bafra alluvial plain, where the Kızılırmak River discharges into the Black Sea, is one of the most critical examples of severe coastal erosion problems in Turkey. The amount of sediment carried by the Kızılırmak River has decreased from approximately 23 million ton per year to 0.46 million tons/year starting from 1960s as a result of construction of flow regulatory structures in the following years. This drastic decrease in the amount of sediment carried by the river resulted in a severe shoreline retreat up to 1 km in the cross-shore direction since 1988 according to the Regional Directorate of State Hydraulic Works and local residents (Kökpınar et al., 2007). The first remedial measure against this severe coastal erosion problem at the river mouth was constructed in 2000 by State Hydraulic Works (DSİ). It was composed of two Y-type and one I-type groins constructed at the eastern shoreline of the river mouth. After construction of the first remedial system, the shoreline retreat slowed down between the groins and trapping of sediment initiated. Today, the gaps between the groins are almost completely filled with sediment. In this study, the shoreline changes between the groins of the first remedial system for the years 1999, 2003 and 2007 are studied using the open source numerical model called XBeach (Roelvink et al.2010) focusing on the hydrodynamics and tombolo formation around the groins. The numerical model has been developed mainly to model short term morphological changes such as nearshore responses under storm and hurricane conditions. Herein, the preparation of the wave data input to minimize the computational demand of the model and the effect of the sequence of the input wave directions are discussed in detail in this study. Finally, the shoreline changes obtained from numerical model simulations are compared with the field data. Keywords: Numerical modeling of shoreline changes, tombolo formation

  16. Floodplain Modulation of Solute Fluxes from Mountainous Regions: the Amazonian Madre de Dios River Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, M. A.; West, A. J.; Baronas, J. J.; Ponton, C.; Clark, K. E.; Feakins, S. J.; Galy, V.

    2015-12-01

    In many large river systems, solutes released by chemical weathering in mountainous regions are transported through floodplains before being discharged into the ocean. Chemical reactions within floodplains can both add and remove solutes, significantly modulating fluxes. Despite their importance in the relationship between tectonic uplift and solute fluxes to the ocean, many aspects of floodplain processes are poorly constrained since the chemistry of large rivers is also significantly affected by the mixing between multiple tributaries, which makes the separation and quantification of floodplain processes challenging. Here we explore how floodplain processes affect a suite of major and trace elements in the Madre de Dios River system in Peru. To separate floodplain processes from conservative mixing, we developed a tributary mixing model that uses water isotopic ratios and chloride concentrations measured in each tributary and upstream and downstream of each tributary confluence for all major tributaries along a floodplain reach. The results of the tributary mixing model allow for the chemical composition of the mainstem of the Madre de Dios River to be modeled assuming completely conservative mixing. Differences between the modeled and measured chemical composition of the mainstem are then used to identify and quantify the effects of floodplain processes on different solutes. Our results show that during both the wet and dry seasons, Li is removed and Ca, Mg, and Sr are added to the dissolved load during floodplain transit. Other solutes, like Na and SO4, appear to behave conservatively during floodplain transit. Likely, the removal of Li from the dissolved load reflects the precipitation of secondary silicate minerals in the floodplain. The release of Ca, Mg, and Sr likely reflects the dissolution of detrital carbonate minerals. Our analyses also show that tributaries with Andean headwaters contribute disproportionately to solute budgets while the water budget

  17. Water Quality Measurements from Hyperspectral Remote Sensing: The Case of the River Ganga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruch, A.; Carbonneau, P.; Sinha, R.; Scott, S.

    2014-12-01

    Water pollution is a major challenge in large river systems such as the Ganga (i.e. Ganges). With a population of 400 million, widespread agriculture and a heavy industrial base, this river basin is facing multiple stressors and as a result, is now notorious for poor water quality. One of the key issues in addressing this problem remains basic water quality monitoring with systematic and reliable methods. Currently, water quality datasets in the River Ganga are highly fragmented and inadequate for most investigations. Given the sub-continental scale of the system, remote sensing could offer a plausible solution if capable of producing holistic assessments of water quality with a standardised methodology. Specifically, the development of hyperspectral remote sensing, capable of detecting very small changes in incident radiation, offers the potential to mimic laboratory spectroscopy and thus identify the chemicals polluting a body of water, and perhaps, even measure their concentration. However, the use of hyperspectral remote sensing in order to measure water quality is not yet established and remains a very challenging problem. In this study, laboratory experiments, ancillary field data and hyperspectral imagery from the Hyperion sensor were used to explore the feasibility of using remote sensing to detect chromium pollution in the River Ganga. The laboratory experiments demonstrated that field spectroscopy was indeed capable of detecting chromium in concentrations that can currently be found in the Ganga. Furthermore, the analysis of the Hyperion images of the River Ganga shows some promising results which suggest that chromium compounds can be detected using hyperspectral satellite imagery. However, the results confirm that measuring water quality from spaceborne hyperspectral imagery is extremely challenging and further research is required to improve the confidence of these results and refine this methodology.

  18. Characterizing student navigation in educational multiuser virtual environments: A case study using data from the River City project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukas, Georg

    Though research in emerging technologies is vital to fulfilling their incredible potential for educational applications, it is often fraught with analytic challenges related to large datasets. This thesis explores these challenges in researching multiuser virtual environments (MUVEs). In a MUVE, users assume a persona and traverse a virtual space often depicted as a physical world, interacting with other users and digital artifacts. As students participate in MUVE-based curricula, detailed records of their paths through the virtual world are typically collected in event logs. Although many studies have demonstrated the instructional power of MUVEs (e.g., Barab, Hay, Barnett, & Squire, 2001; Ketelhut, Dede, Clarke, Nelson, & Bowman, 2008), none have successfully quantified these student paths for analysis in the aggregate. This thesis constructs several frameworks for conducting research involving student navigational choices in MUVEs based on a case study of data generated from the River City project. After providing a context for the research and an introduction to the River City dataset, the first part of this thesis explores the issues associated with data compression and presents a grounded theory approach (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) to the cleaning, compacting, and coding or MUVE datasets. In summary of this section, I discuss the implication of preparation choices for further analysis. Second, two conceptually different approaches to analyzing behavioral sequences are investigated. For each approach, a theoretical context, description of possible exploratory and confirmatory methods, and illustrative examples from River City are provided. The thesis then situates these specific analytic approaches within the constellation of possible research utilizing MUVE event log data. Finally, based on the lessons of River City and the investigation of a spectrum of possible event logs, a set of design heuristics for data collection in MUVEs is constructed and a possible

  19. Global Geoscience Initiatives From Windows to the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, R. M.; Johnson, R.; Gardiner, L.; Lagrave, M.; Genyuk, J.; Bergman, J.; Foster, S. Q.

    2006-12-01

    The Windows to the Universe (www.windows.ucar.edu) Earth and space science educational program and web site has an extensive international presence. The web site reaches a vast user audience, having served more than 124 million page views across approximately 14 million user sessions in the past year. About 44% of these user sessions originated from domains outside of the United States. The site, which contains roughly 7,000 pages originally offered in English, is being translated into Spanish. This effort, begun in 2003, is now approximately 80% complete. Availability in a second major language has dramatically increased use of the site both in the U.S.A. and abroad; about 29% (4.1 million) of the annual user sessions visit Spanish-language portions of the site. In September 2005 we began distributing a monthly electronic newsletter for teachers that highlights features on the web site as well as other geoscience programs and events of relevance to educators. We currently have more than 4,400 subscribers, 33.6% of whom are outside of the United States. We are actively seeking news and information about other programs of relevance to this audience to distribute via our newsletter. We have also begun to solicit information (tips, anecdotes, lesson plans, etc.) from geoscience teachers around the world to share via this newsletter. Finally, Windows to the Universe participated in the Education and Outreach efforts of the MILAGRO scientific field campaign in Mexico in March of 2006. MILAGRO was a collaborative, multi-agency, international campaign to conduct a coordinated study of the extent and effects of pollutants emitted by a "mega-city" (in this case Mexico City) in order to understand the impacts of vast urban environments on global climate modeling. We enlisted several scientists involved with MILAGRO to write "Postcards from the Field" about their ongoing research during the project; these electronic "postcards" were distributed, in English and Spanish, via

  20. EarthCube - A Community-led, Interdisciplinary Collaboration for Geoscience Cyberinfrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. L.; Keane, C. M.; Robinson, E.

    2015-12-01

    The EarthCube Test Enterprise Governance Project completed its initial two-year long process to engage the community and test a demonstration governing organization with the goal of facilitating a community-led process on designing and developing a geoscience cyberinfrastructure. Conclusions are that EarthCube is viable, has engaged a broad spectrum of end-users and contributors, and has begun to foster a sense of urgency around the importance of open and shared data. Levels of trust among participants are growing. At the same time, the active participants in EarthCube represent a very small sub-set of the larger population of geoscientists. Results from Stage I of this project have impacted NSF decisions on the direction of the EarthCube program. The overall tone of EarthCube events has had a constructive, problem-solving orientation. The technical and organizational elements of EarthCube are poised to support a functional infrastructure for the geosciences community. The process for establishing shared technological standards has notable progress but there is a continuing need to expand technological and cultural alignment. Increasing emphasis is being given to the interdependencies among EarthCube funded projects. The newly developed EarthCube Technology Plan highlights important progress in this area by five working groups focusing on: 1. Use cases; 2. Funded project gap analysis; 3. Testbed development; 4. Standards; and 5. Architecture. There is ample justification to continue running a community-led governance framework that facilitates agreement on a system architecture, guides EarthCube activities, and plays an increasing role in making the EarthCube vision of cyberinfrastructure for the geosciences operational. There is widespread community expectation for support of a multiyear EarthCube governing effort to put into practice the science, technical, and organizational plans that have and are continuing to emerge.

  1. Cloud-Hosted Real-time Data Services for the Geosciences (CHORDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, M. D.; Graves, S. J.; Kerkez, B.; Chandrasekar, V.; Vernon, F.; Martin, C. L.; Maskey, M.; Keiser, K.; Dye, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Cloud-Hosted Real-time Data Services for the Geosciences (CHORDS) project, funded as part of NSF's EarthCube initiative, addresses the ever-increasing importance of real-time scientific data, particularly in mission critical scenarios, where informed decisions must be made rapidly. Advances in the distribution of real-time data are leading many new transient phenomena in space-time to be observed, however, real-time decision-making is infeasible in many cases as these streaming data are either completely inaccessible or only available to proprietary in-house tools or displays. This lack of accessibility prohibits advanced algorithm and workflow development that could be initiated or enhanced by these data streams. Small research teams do not have resources to develop tools for the broad dissemination of their valuable real-time data and could benefit from an easy to use, scalable, cloud-based solution to facilitate access. CHORDS proposes to make a very diverse suite of real-time data available to the broader geosciences community in order to allow innovative new science in these areas to thrive. This presentation will highlight recently developed CHORDS portal tools and processing systems aimed at addressing some of the gaps in handling real-time data, particularly in the provisioning of data from the "long-tail" scientific community through a simple interface deployed in the cloud. The CHORDS system will connect these real-time streams via standard services from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and does so in a way that is simple and transparent to the data provider. Broad use of the CHORDS framework will expand the role of real-time data within the geosciences, and enhance the potential of streaming data sources to enable adaptive experimentation and real-time hypothesis testing. Adherence to community data and metadata standards will promote the integration of CHORDS real-time data with existing standards-compliant analysis, visualization and modeling

  2. Toward an automated parallel computing environment for geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huai; Liu, Mian; Shi, Yaolin; Yuen, David A.; Yan, Zhenzhen; Liang, Guoping

    2007-08-01

    Software for geodynamic modeling has not kept up with the fast growing computing hardware and network resources. In the past decade supercomputing power has become available to most researchers in the form of affordable Beowulf clusters and other parallel computer platforms. However, to take full advantage of such computing power requires developing parallel algorithms and associated software, a task that is often too daunting for geoscience modelers whose main expertise is in geosciences. We introduce here an automated parallel computing environment built on open-source algorithms and libraries. Users interact with this computing environment by specifying the partial differential equations, solvers, and model-specific properties using an English-like modeling language in the input files. The system then automatically generates the finite element codes that can be run on distributed or shared memory parallel machines. This system is dynamic and flexible, allowing users to address different problems in geosciences. It is capable of providing web-based services, enabling users to generate source codes online. This unique feature will facilitate high-performance computing to be integrated with distributed data grids in the emerging cyber-infrastructures for geosciences. In this paper we discuss the principles of this automated modeling environment and provide examples to demonstrate its versatility.

  3. Developing a Program to Increase Diversity in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prendeville, J. C.

    2001-05-01

    The Geosciences have a history of poor participation by minorities- African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and persons with disabilities. Demographic data concerning population trends over the next decades make it clear that, without intervention, underrepresentation of these groups in the geosciences will only worsen. The Directorate for Geosciences of the National Science Foundation has acknowledged the problem of underrepresentation and the loss of intellectual resources that it represents. The Directorate has established a program to create a pool of students from underrepresented groups who will take their place in the future as both scientific researchers and educators, as well as scientifically knowledgeable citizens. The strategy employed in developing the Geosciences Diversity program emphasizes community direction and inclusion. Steps in developing the program included examining data that demonstrate where the "leaks" in the educational pipeline occur; reviewing the programs that are offered by the NSF, by other federal agencies and by professional societies; and gaining insights from individuals who have developed or managed programs that have similar goals.

  4. Sustainable Agriculture as a Recruitment Tool for Geoscience Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enright, K. P.; Gilbert, L. A.; McGillis, A.

    2014-12-01

    Small-scale agriculture has exploded with popularity in recent years, as teenagers and college students gain interest in local food sources. Outdoor experiences, including gardening and farming, are often among the motivations for students to take their first geoscience courses in college. The methods and theories of small agriculture translate well into geologic research questions, especially in the unique setting of college campus farms and gardens. We propose an activity or assignment to engage student-farmers in thinking about geosciences, and connect them with geoscience departments as a gateway to the major and career field. Furthermore, the activity will encourage a new generation of passionate young farmers to integrate the principles of earth science into their design and implementation of more sustainable food systems. The activity includes mapping, soil sampling, and interviewing professionals in agriculture and geology, and results in the students writing a series of recommendations for their campus or other farm. The activity includes assessment tools for instructors and can be used to give credit for a summer farming internship or as part of a regular course. We believe reaching out to students interested in farming could be an important recruitment tool for geosciences and helps build interdisciplinary and community partnerships.

  5. State of the art of geoscience libraries and information services

    SciTech Connect

    Pruett, N.J.

    1986-01-01

    Geoscience libraries and geoscience information services are closely related. Both are trying to meet the needs of the geoscientists for information and data. Both are also being affected by many trends: increased availability of personal computers; decreased costs of machine readable storage; increased availability of maps in digital format (Pallatto, 1986); progress in graphic displays and in developing Geographic Information System, (GIS) (Kelly and Phillips, 1986); development in artificial intelligence; and the availability of new formats (e.g. CD-ROM). Some additional factors are at work at changing the role of libraries: libraries are coming to recognize the impossibility of collecting everything and the validity of Bradford's Law unobtrustive studies of library reference services have pointed out that only 50% of the questions are answered correctly it is clear that the number of databases is increasing although good figures for specifically geoscience databases are not available; lists of numeric database are beginning to appear; evaluative (as opposed to purely descriptive) reviews of available bibliographic databases are beginning to appear; more and more libraries are getting online catalogs and results of studies of users of online catalog are being used to improve catalog design; and research is raising consciousness about the value of; and research is raising consciousness about the value of information. All these trends are having or will have an effect on geoscience information.

  6. A Call for a New Geoscience Education Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Elizabeth B.; Baker, Dale R.

    2010-01-01

    A lack of qualified teachers and low enrollment in the geosciences exist at both secondary and tertiary levels in the United States. Consequently, it is unlikely that students will be able to achieve scientific literacy without an increase in both of these populations. To address these problems, we pose research questions, highlight sociocultural…

  7. Students' Interest in Geoscience Topics, Contexts and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmer, Ingrid; Bayrhuber, Horst; Haubler, Peter; Hemmer, Michael; Hlawatsch, Sylke; Hoffmann, Lore; Raffelsiefer, Marion

    2007-01-01

    Geoscience topics are playing an increasingly important role with regard to the future of our planet. Consequently, they have been moving into the educational foreground because of their societal relevance. The question is, however: Are pupils interested in these topics? This is important didactically, for interest is both a prerequisite and a…

  8. Geoscience meets the four horsemen?: Tracking the rise of neocatastrophism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Skrimshire, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    Although it is acknowledged that there has been an exponential growth in neocatastrophist geoscience inquiry, the extent, chronology and origin of this mode have not been precisely scrutinized. In this study, we use the bibliographic research tool Scopus to explore 'catastrophic' words replete in the earth and planetary science literature between 1950 and 2009, assessing when, where and why catastrophism has gained new currency amongst the geoscience community. First, we elucidate an exponential rise in neocatastrophist research from the 1980s onwards. We then argue that the neocatastrophist mode came to prominence in North America during the 1960s and 1970s before being more widely espoused in Europe, essentially after 1980. We compare these trends with the EM-DAT disaster database, a worldwide catalogue that compiles more than 11,000 natural disasters stretching back to 1900. The findings imply a clear link between anthropogenically forced global change and an increase in disaster research (r 2 = 0.73). Finally, we attempt to explain the rise of neocatastrophism by highlighting seven non-exhaustive factors: (1) the rise of applied geoscience; (2) inherited geological epistemology; (3) disciplinary interaction and the diffusion of ideas from the planetary to earth sciences; (4) the advent of radiometric dating techniques; (5) the communications revolution; (6) webometry and the quest for high-impact geoscience; and (7) popular cultural frameworks.

  9. Student Enrollment in Geoscience Departments. 1982-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Geological Inst., Washington, DC.

    Presented in table format are student enrollment data for geoscience disciplines at colleges and universities in the United States and Canada. Subfields for both countries include: geology; geophysics; oceanography; marine science; geological engineering; geophysical engineering; geochemistry; hydrology; mineralogy; paleontology; soil science;…

  10. Embedding Data Stewardship in Geoscience Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastrakova, I.; Fyfe, S.

    2013-12-01

    Ten years of technological innovation now enable vast amounts of data to be collected, managed, processed and shared. At the same time, organisations have witnessed government legislative and policy requirements for open access to public sector data, and a demand for flexibility in access to data by both machine-to-machine and human consumption. Geoscience Australia (GA) has adopted Data Stewardship as an organisation-wide initiative to improve the way we manage and share our data. The benefits to GA including: - Consolidated understanding of GA's data assets and their value to the Agency; - Recognition of the significant role of data custodianship and data management; - Well-defined governance, policies, standards, practices and accountabilities that promote the accessibility, quality and interoperability of GA's data; - Integration of disparate data sets into cohesive information products available online in real time and equally accessible to researchers, government, industry and the public. Although the theory behind data stewardship is well-defined and accepted and the benefits are generally well-understood, practical implementation requires an organisation to prepare for a long-term commitment of resources, both financial and human. Fundamentally this involves: 1. Raising awareness in the organisation of the need for data stewardship and the challenges this entails; 2. Establishing a data stewardship framework including a data governance office to set policy and drive organisational change; and 3. Embedding the functions and a culture of data stewardship into business as usual operations. GA holds a vast amount of data ranging from petabytes of Big Data to significant quantities of relatively small ';long tail' geoscientific observations and measurements. Over the past four years, GA has undertaken strategic activities that prepare us for Data Stewardship: - Organisation-wide audits of GA's data holdings and identification of custodians for each dataset

  11. Making a Difference: a Global Geoscience Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickless, E.

    2013-05-01

    Since 2009, an informal group, comprising four former board members of the International Year of Planet Earth, has been promoting the concept of a so-called Global Geoscientific Initiative. The GGI should: i.Be inclusive, involve a geoscience community, which is broad both in terms of discipline and nationality, and involve the social sciences; ii.Have a clear socio-economic context and global societal relevance; iii.Focus on a globally significant science theme and preferably involve global processes; iv.Attract the support of geoscientific communities, funding agencies, governments and other institutions in many countries, under the umbrella of UNESCO, ICSU and its geoscientific unions. A series of five town hall meetings have been held at which usually three invited, well-respected figures from the geoscientific community gave presentations. Those presentations were followed by discussion about the importance or otherwise of particular areas of science, and the need to engage better with legislators, policy makers, the media and the lay public. No one challenged the desirability of a large-scale programme that would attract researchers from many geoscientific disciplines and potentially involve the geo-unions. The discussions can be summarised under three broad themes: i.Mineral and hydrocarbon resources and their waste products; ii.Living with natural hazards; iii.Strategic Earth science in Africa through the Africa Alive corridors. During the course of development of the GGI, ICSU has issued a number of papers, most recently a strategic plan, covering the period 2012-2017, working parties have been undertaking foresight analysis and there have also been discussions concerning regional environmental change: human action and adaptation with the question "what does it take to meet the Belmont challenge?". The Belmont Forum brings together a number of funding agencies and could provide the resource to enable some initiative to go forward. More recently a programme

  12. On-line updating of a distributed flow routing model - River Vistula case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamuz, Emilia; Romanowicz, Renata; Napiorkowski, Jaroslaw

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an application of methods of on-line updating in the River Vistula flow forecasting system. All flow-routing codes make simplifying assumptions and consider only a reduced set of the processes known to occur during a flood. Hence, all models are subject to a degree of structural error that is typically compensated for by calibration of the friction parameters. Calibrated parameter values are not, therefore, physically realistic, as in estimating them we also make allowance for a number of distinctly non-physical effects, such as model structural error and any energy losses or flow processes which occur at sub-grid scales. Calibrated model parameters are therefore area-effective, scale-dependent values which are not drawn from the same underlying statistical distribution as the equivalent at-a-point parameter of the same name. The aim of this paper is the derivation of real-time updated, on-line flow forecasts at certain strategic locations along the river, over a specified time horizon into the future, based on information on the behaviour of the flood wave upstream and available on-line measurements at a site. Depending on the length of the river reach and the slope of the river bed, a realistic forecast lead time, obtained in this manner, may range from hours to days. The information upstream can include observations of river levels and/or rainfall measurements. The proposed forecasting system will integrate distributed modelling, acting as a spatial interpolator with lumped parameter Stochastic Transfer Function models. Daily stage data from gauging stations are typically available at sites 10-60 km apart and test only the average routing performance of hydraulic models and not their ability to produce spatial predictions. Application of a distributed flow routing model makes it possible to interpolate forecasts both in time and space. This work was partly supported by the project "Stochastic flood forecasting system (The River Vistula reach

  13. A fuzzy inference system for modelling streamflow: Case of Letaba River, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katambara, Zacharia; Ndiritu, John

    Streamflow modelling of Letaba River in South Africa is complicated by several factors including the existence of dams and other storage structures whose releases are intermittent and based on rules of thumb depending on the irrigation demands and the need to maintain the flow required in the Kruger National park (KNP). The KNP is located about a hundred kilometres downstream of the main storage and water flows through an alluvial aquifer where complex surface-groundwater interactions occur. Farmers abstract water intermittently along the route directly from the river or indirectly from the alluvial aquifer complicating the flow patterns even more. Consequently, the streamflow series in the river shows very little similarity to what would be considered as natural. The actual abstractions are not measured and only monthly estimates of the abstractions currently exist. Like in many other basins in South Africa, streamflow, groundwater level, rainfall and evaporation data in Letaba is sparse and not very reliable. The Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy inference system using subtractive clustering, an approach which are capable of dealing with vague and inadequate information and data has therefore been used to develop a daily streamflow model for Letaba River. In order to take into account the spatial variability and to maximize the use of the available data, the model is applied in a semi-distributed manner consisting of three river reaches. The shuffled complex evolution (SCE-UA) optimizer has been used to calibrate the model. Six years of data from March 2002 to April 2008 has been used for model calibration and verification. To maximize the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, the minimum number of clusters required was found to be 10 for 1000 data points in calibration. An analysis of the location of the cluster centers, the coefficients relating the inputs with the simulated streamflow, and the degrees of membership indicates that no single cluster can be associated to the simulation

  14. Invisible geomorphosites. A case study in the Rhone River valley (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clivaz, Mélanie; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    During the last two decades, numerous inventories of geosites have been carried out at various scales. As all kinds of inventory, they aim at documenting the state of the geological heritage, which is the basis for management strategies (geoconservation, geoeducation, geotourism, etc.). In very humanized regions, where the original geomorphology has been highly modified by human infrastructures, agriculture, urban sprawling, and various modifications of the landforms, it is interesting to inventory not only the landforms visible today but also former landforms that have been destroyed or hidden by human activities. To address the issue of the inventory of invisible geomorphosites, two approaches have been tested in the Rhone River valley, in Switzerland. For centuries the river was flowing quite freely on the floodplain and alternated - both in time and space - braided and meandering sectors. Tributaries fed by glaciers and snow-melting as well as torrential systems were building alluvial fans at their confluence with the Rhone River, and more or less extensive wetlands were isolated by these alluvial fans and the braided sectors of the main river. Floods were frequent and temporary lakes were formed during the snow-melting season and during intensive rainfall events, especially in autumn. Even sand dunes were visible in several places due to the remobilisation of fine fluvial deposits by wind processes. During the second half of the 19th century, the Rhone River and the majority of its tributaries was channelized, the sand dunes were completely destroyed - partly for filling the depressions -, and most wetlands were drained during the first half of the 20th century and replaced by intensive agricultural crops. The first study consisted to inventory the geomorphosites of the research area. Not only the visible landforms but also the landforms that had completely disappeared were evaluated using the assessment method of Reynard et al. (2015). A total of 28

  15. Geomorphic impacts of active tectonics on a river course, the case of Klissoura gorge, central Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsanakas, Konstantinos; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Karymbalis, Efthimios

    2014-05-01

    The delicate balance of the natural processes within the river systems can be easily tipped making them very sensitive to changes occurring on the earth surface. Fluvial systems are therefore profoundly influenced by endogenic processes such as active tectonics as well as global sea level fluctuations following the climatic variations during the Quaternary. This study deals with the geomorphological evolution of the broader area of the abandoned gorge of Klissoura which is located in central Greece. This 130 m deep and roughly 3 km long gorge is a characteristic example of an old drainage course preserved on the footwall blocks of two normal faults which confine both outlets of the deeply incised valley. The gorge has formed by a river that once had a N-S flow direction discharging into the Gulf of Patras. Acheloos River and the much smaller Ermitza Remma Stream are the two recent primary watercourses which drain the area close to the abandoned gorge. Both the dimensions and morphological characteristics of the abandoned deep valley indicate that the gorge has formed by a large river with high discharge in order to incise into the limestone bedrock. In order to investigate the tectonic constrains and determine the geomorphic and climatic processes that compelled the lower reaches of Acheloos River to abandon the gorge and find an outlet following its present course a GIS based analysis at a scale of 1:50.000 was applied in the drainage basin of Acheloos River. Additionally, to reconstruct the palaeolandscape and the earth surface processes, a detailed morphometric and geomorphic analysis of the abandoned gorge was also performed at a scale of 1:5.000 coupled with field observations and stratigraphic analysis of the deposits outcropping on the valley sides within the gorge as well as on both outlets. The geomorphic analysis led to the conclusion that the primary course of the gorge abandonment and diversion and reverse of the drainage is the uplift of the footwall

  16. The Non-traditional Student, a new Geoscience Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrell, R.; Anderson, L.; Bart, P.; Lorenzo, J. M.; Tomkin, J.

    2004-12-01

    The LSU GAEMP (Geoscience Alliance to Enhance Minority Participation) program targets non-traditional students, those without an undergraduate degree in geoscience, in its efforts to attract African American and Hispanic students from minority serving institutions (MSIs) to pursue careers in geology and geophysics. Faculty collaborators at nine MSIs (seven HBCUs and two HSIs) work closely with LSU faculty to advertise the program and to select student participants. The enthusiastic cooperation of the MSI Professors is crucial to success. The ideal student is a junior-level, high academic achiever with a major in one of the basic sciences, mathematics, engineering or computer science. A special summer course uses a focus on research to introduce basic geoscience concepts. Students are encouraged to design a cooperative research project to complete during their last year at their home institution and to apply for GAEMP graduate fellowships leading directly to an M.S. or Ph.D. in Geoscience. There are several reasons for the emphasis on these students 1. They have special knowledge and skills to use in graduate programs in geophysics, geochemistry, geobiology, etc. 2. Third-year students have demonstrated their ability to succeed in the academic world and are ready to select a graduate program that will enhance their employment prospects. 3. The MSIs, especially some of the physics programs at the collaborating HBCUs, provide well-trained, highly motivated graduates who have compiled excellent records in highly ranked graduate programs. This pool of talent is not available in the geosciences because most MSIs do not have geoscience degree programs. 4. This group provides a unique niche for focus as there are many programs concentrating on K-12 students and the recruitment of traditional majors. In the first year of GAEMP, 12 students participated in the summer program, six elected to pursue research projects and expressed interest in applying for the fellowships, and

  17. AMIDST: Attracting Minorities to Geosciences Through Involved Digital Story Telling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, A.; Ohler, J.; Cooper, C.; McDermott, M.; Heinrich, J.; Johnson, R.; Leeper, L.; Polk, N.; Wimer, T.

    2009-12-01

    Attracting Minorities to Geosciences Through Involved Digital Story Telling (AMIDST) is a project funded by the Geoscience Directorate of the National Science Foundation through their program entitled Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in Geosciences. This project centers around the idea of integrating place-based geoscience education with culturally sensitive digital story telling, to engage and attract Alaska’s native and rural children from grades 3 through 5 to geosciences. In Spring 2008 we brought together a team 2 native elders, a group of scientists and technicians, an evaluator, 2 teachers and their 24 third grade students from Fairbanks (interior Alaska) to create computer-based digital stories around the geoscience themes of permafrost, and forest fires. These two to four minutes digital narratives consisted of a series of images accompanied by music and a voice-over narration by the children. In Fall 2008 we worked with a similar group from Nome (coastal town in western Alaska). The geoscience themes were climate change, and gold in Alaska. This time the students used the same kind of “green screen” editing so prevalent in science fiction movies. Students enacted and recorded their stories in front of a green screen and in post-production replaced the green background with photos, drawings and scientific illustrations related to their stories. Evaluation involved pre and post project tests for all participants, mid-term individual interviews and exit-interviews of selected participants. Project final assessment results from an independent education evaluator showed that both students and teachers improved their geo science content knowledge about permafrost, forest fires, gold mining, and sea ice changes. Teachers and students went through a very steep learning curve and gained experience and new understanding in digital storytelling in the context of geologic phenomena of local interest. Children took pride in being creators, directors and

  18. The Quantitative Preparation of Future Geoscience Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Hancock, G. S.

    2006-12-01

    Modern geoscience is a highly quantitative science. In February, a small group of faculty and graduate students from across the country met to discuss the quantitative preparation of geoscience majors for graduate school. The group included ten faculty supervising graduate students in quantitative areas spanning the earth, atmosphere, and ocean sciences; five current graduate students in these areas; and five faculty teaching undergraduate students in the spectrum of institutions preparing students for graduate work. Discussion focused in four key ares: Are incoming graduate students adequately prepared for the quantitative aspects of graduate geoscience programs? What are the essential quantitative skills are that are required for success in graduate school? What are perceived as the important courses to prepare students for the quantitative aspects of graduate school? What programs/resources would be valuable in helping faculty/departments improve the quantitative preparation of students? The participants concluded that strengthening the quantitative preparation of undergraduate geoscience majors would increase their opportunities in graduate school. While specifics differed amongst disciplines, a special importance was placed on developing the ability to use quantitative skills to solve geoscience problems. This requires the ability to pose problems so they can be addressed quantitatively, understand the relationship between quantitative concepts and physical representations, visualize mathematics, test the reasonableness of quantitative results, creatively move forward from existing models/techniques/approaches, and move between quantitative and verbal descriptions. A list of important quantitative competencies desirable in incoming graduate students includes mechanical skills in basic mathematics, functions, multi-variate analysis, statistics and calculus, as well as skills in logical analysis and the ability to learn independently in quantitative ways

  19. Building Strong Geoscience Departments Through the Visiting Workshop Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormand, C. J.; Manduca, C. A.; Macdonald, H.; Bralower, T. J.; Clemens-Knott, D.; Doser, D. I.; Feiss, P. G.; Rhodes, D. D.; Richardson, R. M.; Savina, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Building Strong Geoscience Departments project focuses on helping geoscience departments adapt and prosper in a changing and challenging environment. From 2005-2009, the project offered workshop programs on topics such as student recruitment, program assessment, preparing students for the workforce, and strengthening geoscience programs. Participants shared their departments' challenges and successes. Building on best practices and most promising strategies from these workshops and on workshop leaders' experiences, from 2009-2011 the project ran a visiting workshop program, bringing workshops to 18 individual departments. Two major strengths of the visiting workshop format are that it engages the entire department in the program, fostering a sense of shared ownership and vision, and that it focuses on each department's unique situation. Departments applied to have a visiting workshop, and the process was highly competitive. Selected departments chose from a list of topics developed through the prior workshops: curriculum and program design, program elements beyond the curriculum, recruiting students, preparing students for the workforce, and program assessment. Two of our workshop leaders worked with each department to customize and deliver the 1-2 day programs on campus. Each workshop incorporated exercises to facilitate active departmental discussions, presentations incorporating concrete examples drawn from the leaders' experience and from the collective experiences of the geoscience community, and action planning to scaffold implementation. All workshops also incorporated information on building departmental consensus and assessing departmental efforts. The Building Strong Geoscience Departments website complements the workshops with extensive examples from the geoscience community. Of the 201 participants in the visiting workshop program, 140 completed an end of workshop evaluation survey with an overall satisfaction rating of 8.8 out of a possible 10

  20. Sustainability of massively anthropic deltas via dispersal of sediment to manage land building: results from two unique case studies, the Mississippi River (U.S.A.) and the Yellow River (China) deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittrouer, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    Owing to their extraordinary natural resources and ecosystem services, deltaic coastlines host hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Societal sustainability on these coastal landscapes is far from certain, however, due to anthropogenic influences including sediment-supply reduction, accelerated subsidence from sub-surface fluid extraction, and leveeing of rivers. The crucial resource in building stable deltaic coastlines is sediment, and the key control on sediment delivery, whether natural or engineered, is by way river channel diversions. Two case studies, based on previous and ongoing research efforts, are presented here to describe the effects of engineered diversions for the removal of river water and associated sediment: the Mississippi River (U.S.A) and the Yellow River (China). Comparatively speaking, these two systems are end-members: Mississippi River water discharge is five times greater than the Yellow River, and yet historically, the Yellow River sediment discharges five times more sediment than the Mississippi system. As such, diversions for the two systems have contrasting goals. During flood events, the Mississippi water stage threatens major metropolitan regions with levee overtopping; spillways are therefore utilized to reduce water flux through the main channel. For the Yellow River, extremely high sediment loads result in significant sedimentation within the main channel, and so there is a concerted effort to divert and shorten the main channel, in order to enhance the water surface slope and increase sediment transport capacity. Interestingly, the net effect of these two projects has been to deposit a significant amount of sediment into the respective receiving basins, which in turn has led to the development of subaerial land. In essence, this represents two compelling case studies documenting how managed (engineered) land building practices can be implemented for other large fluvial-deltaic systems. Observational data collected from field

  1. Assessment of impacts from various hydro-ecological factors on oxygen budgets of a regulated river: a case study of the Petchburi River, western Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sangmek, Pichasit; Meksumpun, Charumas

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of dissolved oxygen (DO) levels and related water quality in the Petchburi River, a regulated river system in western Thailand, were conducted at 3-month intervals from May 2010 to February 2012. The results indicated generally good water quality with DO levels >4 mg L(-1). Variations in water quality, particularly the DO and ammonium nitrogen levels along the river, occurred due to discharge regulation and the natural characteristics of the river. The processes which contribute to DO levels include natural saturation (ca 57-78% in the upper river section and ca 44-76% in the lower river section) and aquatic plant DO production (ca 20-36% in the upper river section and ca 24-50% in the lower river section) which is also significant, while re-aeration would be less effective. The DO contribution from pondweed (family Potamogetonaceae) was of interest because of its successional capacity. Future control of river quality will require suitable management of aquatic plant species for conservation purposes. PMID:24718352

  2. Effects of a major municipal effluent on the St. Lawrence River: A case study.

    PubMed

    Marcogliese, David J; Blaise, Christian; Cyr, Daniel; de Lafontaine, Yves; Fournier, Michel; Gagné, François; Gagnon, Christian; Hudon, Christiane

    2015-05-01

    The St. Lawrence River (SLR) is the second largest waterway in North America. The discharge of the City of Montreal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) represents the largest volume of treated wastewaters being released into the river. It also ranks as the largest sewage treatment plant of its kind in North America. Over the last decade, intensive multidisciplinary research has focused on assessing the impacts of Montreal wastewater effluents on the SLR. We describe the major findings of these investigations, including the determination of the fate of contaminants, bioaccumulation in fish and invertebrates, ecotoxicological measurements of aquatic animal health, evaluation of endocrine disruption, parasitism in fish, and combined effects of multiple stressors on the SLR. Impacts of the effluents from the WWTP on aquatic organisms from the SLR are both toxicological and ecological, demonstrating the need for an integrated view of the impacts of municipal effluents on aquatic ecosystems.

  3. Incentive compatibility and conflict resolution in international river basins: A case study of the Nile Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xun; Whittington, Dale

    2006-02-01

    Nation-states rarely go to war over water, but it is equally rare that water conflicts in an international river basin are resolved through cooperation among the riparian countries that use the shared resources. Gains from cooperation will mean little to individual riparians unless the required cooperative behaviors are incentive compatible. Cooperative game theory offers useful insights for assessing cooperative solutions for water conflicts in international river basins. Applying cooperative game theory concepts such as core, nucleolus, and Shapley value to Nile water conflicts, we examine the incentive structure of both cooperative and noncooperative strategies for different riparian countries and establish some baseline conditions for incentive-compatible cooperation in the Nile basin.

  4. Hydrodynamic simulation of river Yamuna for riverbed assessment: a case study of Delhi region.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Sargoankar, Aabha; Gupta, Apurba

    2007-07-01

    A well known river hydrodynamic model RiverCAD has been used to simulate and visualize flood scenarios for different designated flood flows under complex riverbed geometry with several man made structures like bridges and barrages. The model applied successfully for the stretch of 23 km in the Yamuna floodplain of Delhi region from Wazirabad barrage in the upstream to Okhla barrage. Flood flows for various return periods namely once in 10, 25, 50 and 100 years were estimated based on recorded flow data for the period of 1963 to 2003 using standard flood frequency analysis techniques. The simulation results were compared and the model was calibrated with water surface elevation records of the previous floods at various barrage and bridge locations. Simulation results enabled prediction of maximum water levels, submergence scenarios and land availability under different designated flood flows for riverbed assessment, development and management. PMID:17131082

  5. Estimating the value of improved wastewater treatment: the case of River Ganga, India.

    PubMed

    Birol, Ekin; Das, Sukanya

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we employ a stated preference environmental valuation technique, namely the choice experiment method, to estimate local public's willingness to pay (WTP) for improvements in the capacity and technology of a sewage treatment plant (STP) in Chandernagore municipality, located on the banks of the River Ganga in India. A pilot choice experiment study is administered to 150 randomly selected Chandernagore residents and the data are analysed using the conditional logit model with interactions. The results reveal that residents of this municipality are willing to pay significant amounts in terms of higher monthly municipality taxes to ensure the full capacity of the STP is used for primary treatment and the technology is upgraded to enable secondary treatment. Overall, the results reported in this paper support increased investments to improve the capacity and technology of STPs to reduce water pollution, and hence environmental and health risks that are currently threatening the sustainability of the economic, cultural and religious values this sacred river generates.

  6. Natural equilibria and anthropic effects on sediment transport in big river systems: The Nile case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Padoan, Marta; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Villa, Igor

    2014-05-01

    The Nile River flows for ~ 6700 km, from Burundi and Rwanda highlands south of the Equator to the Mediterranean Sea at northern subtropical latitudes. It is thus the longest natural laboratory on Earth, a unique setting in which we are carrying out a continuing research project to investigate changes in sediment composition associated with a variety of chemical and physical processes, including weathering in equatorial climate and hydraulic sorting during transport and deposition. Petrographic, mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic fingerprints of sand and mud have been monitored along all Nile branches, from the Kagera and White Nile draining Archean, Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic basements uplifted along the western branch of the East African rift, to the Blue Nile and Atbara Rivers sourced in Ethiopian volcanic highlands made of Oligocene basalt. Downstream of the Atbara confluence, the Nile receives no significant tributary water and hardly any rainfall across the Sahara. After construction of the Aswan High Dam in 1964, the Nile ceased to be an active conveyor-belt in Egypt, where the mighty river has been tamed to a water canal; transported sediments are thus chiefly reworked from older bed and levee deposits, with minor contributions from widyan sourced in the Red Sea Hills and wind-blown desert sand and dust. Extensive dam construction has determined a dramatic sediment deficit at the mouth, where deltaic cusps are undergoing ravaging erosion. Nile delta sediments are thus recycled under the effect of dominant waves from the northwest, the longest Mediterranean fetch direction. Nile sands, progressively enriched in more stable minerals such as quartz and amphiboles relative to volcanic rock fragments and pyroxene, thus undergo multistep transport by E- and NE-directed longshore currents all along the coast of Egypt and Palestine, and are carried as far as Akko Bay in northern Israel. Nile mud reaches the Iskenderun Gulf in southern Turkey. A full

  7. Persistent pollution of Warta river catchment with chromium: case study from central Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanski, S.; Lukaczynski, I.; Nikiel, G.; Mizera, J.; Dulinski, M.; Kania, J.; Rozanski, K.; Szklarczyk, T.; Wachniew, P.; Witczak, S.; Zurek, A.

    2012-04-01

    Upper reaches of the Warta river, the third largest river in Poland, are located in a densely populated and industrialized area, with presence of heavy industry going back to the second half of the XIX century. Industrial activities include iron smelters in towns of Częstochowa and Zawiercie, large chemical plants (Rudniki and Aniolow) producing predominantly chromium compounds, paper and textile industry, as well as large number of small enterprises specialized in metal coatings (nickel and chromium). Until the 1960s all the industrial and municipal effluents in the region were discharged into the Warta river and its tributaries. Solid wastes were dumped on the surface, mostly without appropriate cover and isolation. This resulted in progressive contamination of surface waters and groundwater with heavy metals, mostly chromium. The upper reaches of the Warta river are located on top of upper Jurassic Major Groundwater Basin (MGWB 326 which is one of four most important groundwater reservoirs in Poland. Almost all potable water demands in the area (ca. 340,000 inhabitants, 800 factories and enterprises) are covered by MGWB 326 (50 deep wells with the average extraction rate of 57,000 m3/d). As the MGWB 326 is mostly phreatic, it has been recognized since long time that persistent pollution of the upper catchment of the Warta river with heavy metals may pose serious thread to quality of this important groundwater resource. In this presentation we summarize the work carried out to date, focused on characterization of the extent and understanding of the mechanisms of pollution of surface water, sediments and groundwater in MGWB 326 with chromium. Historical monitoring data of the levels of chromium in the Warta river and its tributaries are presented, supplemented by the results of measurements of Cr loads in Warta over-bank deposits and Cr levels in groundwater production wells in the area. Three conceptual models of spreading of chromium in the catchment of Warta

  8. Methodology to incorporate EIA in land-use ordering -- case study: The Cataniapo River basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastiani, M.; Llambi, L.D.; Marquez, E.

    1998-07-01

    In Venezuela, the idea of tiering information between land-use ordering instruments and impact assessment is absent. In this article the authors explore a methodological alternative to bridge the information presented in land-use ordering instruments with the information requirements for impact assessment. The methodology is based on the steps carried out for an environmental impact assessment as well as on those considered to develop land-use ordering instruments. The methodology is applied to the territorial ordering plan and its proposal for the protection zone of the Cataniapo River basin. The purpose of the protection zone is to preserve the water quality and quantity of the river basin for human consumption.

  9. Natural equilibria and anthropic effects on sediment transport in big river systems: The Nile case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Padoan, Marta; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Villa, Igor

    2014-05-01

    The Nile River flows for ~ 6700 km, from Burundi and Rwanda highlands south of the Equator to the Mediterranean Sea at northern subtropical latitudes. It is thus the longest natural laboratory on Earth, a unique setting in which we are carrying out a continuing research project to investigate changes in sediment composition associated with a variety of chemical and physical processes, including weathering in equatorial climate and hydraulic sorting during transport and deposition. Petrographic, mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic fingerprints of sand and mud have been monitored along all Nile branches, from the Kagera and White Nile draining Archean, Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic basements uplifted along the western branch of the East African rift, to the Blue Nile and Atbara Rivers sourced in Ethiopian volcanic highlands made of Oligocene basalt. Downstream of the Atbara confluence, the Nile receives no significant tributary water and hardly any rainfall across the Sahara. After construction of the Aswan High Dam in 1964, the Nile ceased to be an active conveyor-belt in Egypt, where the mighty river has been tamed to a water canal; transported sediments are thus chiefly reworked from older bed and levee deposits, with minor contributions from widyan sourced in the Red Sea Hills and wind-blown desert sand and dust. Extensive dam construction has determined a dramatic sediment deficit at the mouth, where deltaic cusps are undergoing ravaging erosion. Nile delta sediments are thus recycled under the effect of dominant waves from the northwest, the longest Mediterranean fetch direction. Nile sands, progressively enriched in more stable minerals such as quartz and amphiboles relative to volcanic rock fragments and pyroxene, thus undergo multistep transport by E- and NE-directed longshore currents all along the coast of Egypt and Palestine, and are carried as far as Akko Bay in northern Israel. Nile mud reaches the Iskenderun Gulf in southern Turkey. A full

  10. Fitting sediment rating curves using regression analysis: a case study of Russian Arctic rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tananaev, N. I.

    2015-03-01

    Published suspended sediment data for Arctic rivers is scarce. Suspended sediment rating curves for three medium to large rivers of the Russian Arctic were obtained using various curve-fitting techniques. Due to the biased sampling strategy, the raw datasets do not exhibit log-normal distribution, which restricts the applicability of a log-transformed linear fit. Non-linear (power) model coefficients were estimated using the Levenberg-Marquardt, Nelder-Mead and Hooke-Jeeves algorithms, all of which generally showed close agreement. A non-linear power model employing the Levenberg-Marquardt parameter evaluation algorithm was identified as an optimal statistical solution of the problem. Long-term annual suspended sediment loads estimated using the non-linear power model are, in general, consistent with previously published results.

  11. Hydrodynamic simulation of river Yamuna for riverbed assessment: a case study of Delhi region.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Sargoankar, Aabha; Gupta, Apurba

    2007-07-01

    A well known river hydrodynamic model RiverCAD has been used to simulate and visualize flood scenarios for different designated flood flows under complex riverbed geometry with several man made structures like bridges and barrages. The model applied successfully for the stretch of 23 km in the Yamuna floodplain of Delhi region from Wazirabad barrage in the upstream to Okhla barrage. Flood flows for various return periods namely once in 10, 25, 50 and 100 years were estimated based on recorded flow data for the period of 1963 to 2003 using standard flood frequency analysis techniques. The simulation results were compared and the model was calibrated with water surface elevation records of the previous floods at various barrage and bridge locations. Simulation results enabled prediction of maximum water levels, submergence scenarios and land availability under different designated flood flows for riverbed assessment, development and management.

  12. Benefits of increased streamflow: The case of the John Day River Steelhead Fishery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Neal S.; Adams, Richard M.

    1988-11-01

    Conflicts between instream water uses such as fish production and traditional out-of-stream uses are an important water resource issue. One criterion for evaluating the merits of alternative water allocations is economic efficiency. This study uses an integrated approach to measure the recreational steelhead fishery benefits of incremental streamflow changes in the John Day River in Oregon. The analysis combines a steelhead fishery production model with a contingent valuation assessment of changes in fishing quality to obtain estimates of the marginal value of water in producing fishing quality. The results suggest that increased summer flows to enhance fishing have a marginal value of about $2.40 acre-foot. When expressed in terms of water actually consumed, the value may be up to 10 times higher. These values are sensitive to the location of flow alterations in the river, potential for downstream uses and number of anglers in the fishery.

  13. Geosciences Information Network (GIN): A modular, distributed, interoperable data network for the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M.; Gundersen, L. C.; Richard, S. M.; Dickinson, T. L.

    2008-12-01

    A coalition of the state geological surveys (AASG), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and partners will receive NSF funding over 3 years under the INTEROP solicitation to start building the Geoscience Information Network (www.geoinformatics.info/gin) a distributed, interoperable data network. The GIN project will develop standardized services to link existing and in-progress components using a few standards and protocols, and work with data providers to implement these services. The key components of this network are 1) catalog system(s) for data discovery; 2) service definitions for interfaces for searching catalogs and accessing resources; 3) shared interchange formats to encode information for transmission (e.g. various XML markup languages); 4) data providers that publish information using standardized services defined by the network; and 5) client applications adapted to use information resources provided by the network. The GIN will integrate and use catalog resources that currently exist or are in development. We are working with the USGS National Geologic Map Database's existing map catalog, with the USGS National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program, which is developing a metadata catalog (National Digital Catalog) for geoscience information resource discovery, and with the GEON catalog. Existing interchange formats will be used, such as GeoSciML, ChemML, and Open Geospatial Consortium sensor, observation and measurement MLs. Client application development will be fostered by collaboration with industry and academic partners. The GIN project will focus on the remaining aspects of the system -- service definitions and assistance to data providers to implement the services and bring content online - and on system integration of the modules. Initial formal collaborators include the OneGeology-Europe consortium of 27 nations that is building a comparable network under the EU INSPIRE initiative, GEON, Earthchem, and GIS software company ESRI

  14. They had me in stitches: a Grand Canyon river guide's case report and a review of wilderness wound management literature.

    PubMed

    Spano, Susanne J; Dimock, Brad

    2014-06-01

    We present a case of failed conservative management of a traumatic wound sustained in a wilderness setting. The patient was initially treated with a povidone-iodine scrub, suture closure, and expectant management by 2 physicians who were paying clients on a multiday river rafting expedition. Empiric antibiotic coverage and irrigation of the dehisced wound were initiated several days after initial treatment. The patient arranged his own evacuation 8 days after injury. Hospitalization, intravenous (IV) antibiotics, and surgical debridement with wound vacuum placement led to a full recovery. This case presents several common wound care pitfalls. The sequelae to these pitfalls are more dramatic in a wilderness setting and underscore the importance of early aggressive management and considering prompt evacuation when treating wounds sustained in the wilderness.

  15. They had me in stitches: a Grand Canyon river guide's case report and a review of wilderness wound management literature.

    PubMed

    Spano, Susanne J; Dimock, Brad

    2014-06-01

    We present a case of failed conservative management of a traumatic wound sustained in a wilderness setting. The patient was initially treated with a povidone-iodine scrub, suture closure, and expectant management by 2 physicians who were paying clients on a multiday river rafting expedition. Empiric antibiotic coverage and irrigation of the dehisced wound were initiated several days after initial treatment. The patient arranged his own evacuation 8 days after injury. Hospitalization, intravenous (IV) antibiotics, and surgical debridement with wound vacuum placement led to a full recovery. This case presents several common wound care pitfalls. The sequelae to these pitfalls are more dramatic in a wilderness setting and underscore the importance of early aggressive management and considering prompt evacuation when treating wounds sustained in the wilderness. PMID:24418453

  16. Tuffaceous sediments as source rocks for uranium: A case study of the White River Formation, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Fine-grained tuffaceous sediments of the White River Formation (Oligocene) are evaluated as a possible source of uranium for the sedimentary uranium deposits of Wyoming. The evaluation is based upon a model in which volcanic glass is considered to be a major host of uranium and thorium and in which uranium and silica are released during alteration of glass to montmorillonite. The evaluation scheme is applicable to other tuffaceous sediments in similar geologic settings. The average uranium and thorium contents of glass separates and glassy air-fall ashes of the White River Formation are 8 ppm and 22.4 ppm respectively, and these values approximate the average composition of glass deposited in Wyoming basins in Oligocene time. Comparison of these values with the uranium and thorium concentrations in montmorillonite separates indicates little change in thorium concentrations but reductions in uranium concentrations which average 3.3 ppm. In spite of the apparent major removal of uranium during alteration of glass to montmorillonite, whole-rock samples of tuffaceous siltstones show an average uranium loss of only 0.4 ?? 0.4 ppm, because of generally small amounts of clay alteration. This conclusion is generated by comparisons between glassy ash and partially altered vitric siltstones, the latter corrected for dilution of glass and clay-altered glass with uranium- and thorium-poor primary and detrital materials. The original volume of the White River Formation is adequate to generate economically significant quantities of mobile uranium, even with such modest losses. Uranium and silica which are mobilized during glass alteration can coprecipitate as uraniferous secondary silica in areas where solutions become silica saturated. These precipitates indicate pathways of ancient, uranium-rich solutions in tuffaceous rocks. Exploration efforts in the White River Formation and underlying units should concentrate on areas where such pathways intercept reducing environments

  17. Evaluating the metallic pollution of riverine water and sediments: a case study of Aras River.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, F; Hassani, A H; Monavvari, M; Karbassi, A R; Khorasani, N

    2013-01-01

    Metallic pollution caused by elements Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Cd, and Hg in water and sediments of Aras River within a specific area in Ardabil province of Iran is considered. Water and sediment samples were collected seasonally and once respectively from the five selected stations. Regarding WHO published permissible values, only Ni concentration in spring and summer water samples has exceeded the acceptable limit up to four times greater than the limit. The concentration of metals Ni, Pb, and Fe in river water shows a direct relationship with river water discharge and the amount of precipitation. Enhanced soil erosion, bed load dissolution, and runoffs may play a key role in remarkable augmentation of metallic ions concentration. Furthermore, excessive use of pesticides which contain a variety of metallic ions (mainly Cu) in spring and summer may also result in an increase in the metals' concentration. The potential risk of Ni exposure to the water environment of the study area is assigned to juice, dairy products, edible oil, and sugar cane factories as well as soybean crop lands which are located within the sub-basin of Aras River in the study area. Regarding the sediment samples, the bioavailable metal concentrations indicate an ascending order from the first station towards the last one. In comparison with earth crust, sedimental and igneous rocks the reported metallic concentration values, except for Cd, lie within the low-risk status. Regarding Cd, the reported values in some stations (S2, S4, and S5) are up to ten times greater than that of shale which may be considered as a remarkable risk potential. The industrial and municipal wastewater generated by Parsabad moqan industrial complex and residential areas, in addition to the discharges of animal husbandry centers, may be addressed as the key factors in the sharp increase of metallic pollution potential in stations 4 and 5. PMID:22318740

  18. Evaluating the metallic pollution of riverine water and sediments: a case study of Aras River.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, F; Hassani, A H; Monavvari, M; Karbassi, A R; Khorasani, N

    2013-01-01

    Metallic pollution caused by elements Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Cd, and Hg in water and sediments of Aras River within a specific area in Ardabil province of Iran is considered. Water and sediment samples were collected seasonally and once respectively from the five selected stations. Regarding WHO published permissible values, only Ni concentration in spring and summer water samples has exceeded the acceptable limit up to four times greater than the limit. The concentration of metals Ni, Pb, and Fe in river water shows a direct relationship with river water discharge and the amount of precipitation. Enhanced soil erosion, bed load dissolution, and runoffs may play a key role in remarkable augmentation of metallic ions concentration. Furthermore, excessive use of pesticides which contain a variety of metallic ions (mainly Cu) in spring and summer may also result in an increase in the metals' concentration. The potential risk of Ni exposure to the water environment of the study area is assigned to juice, dairy products, edible oil, and sugar cane factories as well as soybean crop lands which are located within the sub-basin of Aras River in the study area. Regarding the sediment samples, the bioavailable metal concentrations indicate an ascending order from the first station towards the last one. In comparison with earth crust, sedimental and igneous rocks the reported metallic concentration values, except for Cd, lie within the low-risk status. Regarding Cd, the reported values in some stations (S2, S4, and S5) are up to ten times greater than that of shale which may be considered as a remarkable risk potential. The industrial and municipal wastewater generated by Parsabad moqan industrial complex and residential areas, in addition to the discharges of animal husbandry centers, may be addressed as the key factors in the sharp increase of metallic pollution potential in stations 4 and 5.

  19. Bed Shear Stress under Complex Flow Conditions - The Case of Megech River, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehari, Michael; Dessie, Mekete; Abate, Mengiste

    2014-05-01

    Bed shear stress is a fundamental variable in river studies to link flow conditions to sediment transport. It is, however, difficult to estimate this variable accurately, particularly in complex flow conditions. This study compares shear stress estimated from the log profile, the depth-slope product and outputs from a two-dimensional hydraulic model. Vertical velocity profile observations from Megech River (one of the main rivers flowing into Lake Tana, upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia) using SEBA Mini current meter M1attached with signal counter Z6-SEBA HAD under typical field conditions are used to evaluate the precision of different methods for estimating local boundary shear stress from velocity measurements. Results show that the velocity profile approach gives consistently lesser shear stress estimates. A comparison of the shear stress distributions derived using the two-dimensional hydraulic model and those estimated using the 1D reach-averaged equation (i.e. the depth-slope product) shows a close correspondence. Mean shear stresses determined using local depth and mean channel slope are only 14% greater than those values determined for the same data using local predictions of both depth and energy slope. As the overall mean shear stress provides a useful index of flow strength, this comparison suggests a good level of confidence in using the reach averaged one-dimensional equation, for which data can easily be collected from cross sectional surveys. However, the variance of the modelled shear stress distribution shows some differences by a factor of 3 to that calculated using the mean channel slope because of the larger uncertainity associated with point depth measurements. Although such models using 1D reach averaged equations are limited to different channel characteristics adhering to diverse model assumptions, they can still provide a useful tool for river-rehabilitation design and assessment, including sediment transport studies.

  20. Towards generalised reference condition models for environmental assessment: a case study on rivers in Atlantic Canada.

    PubMed

    Armanini, D G; Monk, W A; Carter, L; Cote, D; Baird, D J

    2013-08-01

    Evaluation of the ecological status of river sites in Canada is supported by building models using the reference condition approach. However, geography, data scarcity and inter-operability constraints have frustrated attempts to monitor national-scale status and trends. This issue is particularly true in Atlantic Canada, where no ecological assessment system is currently available. Here, we present a reference condition model based on the River Invertebrate Prediction and Classification System approach with regional-scale applicability. To achieve this, we used biological monitoring data collected from wadeable streams across Atlantic Canada together with freely available, nationally consistent geographic information system (GIS) environmental data layers. For the first time, we demonstrated that it is possible to use data generated from different studies, even when collected using different sampling methods, to generate a robust predictive model. This model was successfully generated and tested using GIS-based rather than local habitat variables and showed improved performance when compared to a null model. In addition, ecological quality ratio data derived from the model responded to observed stressors in a test dataset. Implications for future large-scale implementation of river biomonitoring using a standardised approach with global application are presented. PMID:23250724

  1. Developing new scenarios for water allocation negotiations: a case study of the Euphrates River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarkeh, Mohammad Reza; Mianabadi, Ameneh; Mianabadi, Hojjat

    2016-10-01

    Mismanagement and uneven distribution of water may lead to or increase conflict among countries. Allocation of water among trans-boundary river neighbours is a key issue in utilization of shared water resources. The bankruptcy theory is a cooperative Game Theory method which is used when the amount of demand of riparian states is larger than total available water. In this study, we survey the application of seven methods of Classical Bankruptcy Rules (CBRs) including Proportional (CBR-PRO), Adjusted Proportional (CBR-AP), Constrained Equal Awards (CBR-CEA), Constrained Equal Losses (CBR-CEL), Piniles (CBR-Piniles), Minimal Overlap (CBR-MO), Talmud (CBR-Talmud) and four Sequential Sharing Rules (SSRs) including Proportional (SSR-PRO), Constrained Equal Awards (SSR-CEA), Constrained Equal Losses (SSR-CEL) and Talmud (SSR-Talmud) methods in allocation of the Euphrates River among three riparian countries: Turkey, Syria and Iraq. However, there is not a certain documented method to find more equitable allocation rule. Therefore, in this paper, a new method is established for choosing the most appropriate allocating rule which seems to be more equitable than other allocation rules to satisfy the stakeholders. The results reveal that, based on the new propose model, the CBR-AP seems to be more equitable to allocate the Euphrates River water among Turkey, Syria and Iraq.

  2. Paleoclimate of the Southern San Joaquin Valley, CA: Research Participation Opportunities for Improving Minority Participation and Achievement in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, D.; Negrini, R.; Palacios-Fest, M. R.

    2004-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown that one of the best ways to draw students into geoscience programs is to expose them and their teachers to research projects designed to investigate issues relevant to their lives and communities. To be most effective, involvement in these projects should begin at the pre-college level and continue throughout their college career. Recognizing the importance of genuine research experiences, the Department of Geology at California State University, Bakersfield (CSUB), with support from the National Science Foundation's Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences program, provides research participation opportunities for teachers and students from the Bakersfield City School District and the Kern High School District. Both districts have a high percentage of low-income and minority students that normally would not consider a degree or career in the geosciences. The project centers around a four-week summer research program and follow-up activities during the school year. The research investigates the climate history of the southern San Joaquin Valley as well as the frequency of flooding in the valley. Many teachers and students are familiar with periodic flooding from personal experience and are aware of the larger issue of climate change in the past and present from news reports. Thus, they can directly relate to the relevance of the research. The project draws on the faculty's expertise in paleoclimatology and geochemistry and takes advantage of CSUB's existing research facilities. Sediments in the dry lake basins of Buena Vista Lake and Kern Lake preserve a record of the regional climate history and flooding of the Kern River and its tributaries. In the first year of the project, 6 teachers and 10 high school students worked with CSUB faculty and students. Three cores from the lake basins were collected. The cores were analyzed using established geophysical, geochemical, lithological, and micropaleontological techniques

  3. [Temporal stability of river ecological restoration based on the assessment of contingent valuation method: a case study of Shanghai urban river].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Fei; Wang, Dan

    2013-04-01

    Whether the assessment results of Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) have temporal stability is an important issue in examining the reliability of CVM findings, and also, is critical to decide whether CVM can be applied to evaluate the ecosystem services value in China. Taking the ecological restoration along the Caohejing River in Shanghai as a case, three CVM survey schemes with one month apart and two years apart were designed. Then, 426, 498, and 200 questionnaires in these surveys were comparatively analyzed, respectively. The mean values of the willingness to pay (WTP) from the three surveys were 14. 2, 14. 1, and 18. 0 RMB, and the median values were 5, 5, and 10 RMB, respectively. With the comparison of the WTP distribution and the main statistics, the analysis of the factors affecting the WTP, and the test of the significances of temporal variables, it was found that the CVM results from the surveys with one-month apart had temporal stability, while those from the surveys with two years apart presented definite difference.

  4. Developing and testing temperature models for regulated systems: a case study on the Upper Delaware River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Jeffrey C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Schmid, Matthias; McKenna, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature is an important driver of many processes in riverine ecosystems. If reservoirs are present, their releases can greatly influence downstream water temperatures. Models are important tools in understanding the influence these releases may have on the thermal regimes of downstream rivers. In this study, we developed and tested a suite of models to predict river temperature at a location downstream of two reservoirs in the Upper Delaware River (USA), a section of river that is managed to support a world-class coldwater fishery. Three empirical models were tested, including a Generalized Least Squares Model with a cosine trend (GLScos), AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). We also tested one mechanistic Heat Flux Model (HFM) that was based on energy gain and loss. Predictor variables used in model development included climate data (e.g., solar radiation, wind speed, etc.) collected from a nearby weather station and temperature and hydrologic data from upstream U.S. Geological Survey gages. Models were developed with a training dataset that consisted of data from 2008 to 2011; they were then independently validated with a test dataset from 2012. Model accuracy was evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE), Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), percent bias (PBIAS), and index of agreement (d) statistics. Model forecast success was evaluated using baseline-modified prime index of agreement (md) at the one, three, and five day predictions. All five models accurately predicted daily mean river temperature across the entire training dataset (RMSE = 0.58–1.311, NSE = 0.99–0.97, d = 0.98–0.99); ARIMA was most accurate (RMSE = 0.57, NSE = 0.99), but each model, other than ARIMA, showed short periods of under- or over-predicting observed warmer temperatures. For the training dataset, all models besides ARIMA had overestimation bias (PBIAS = −0.10 to −1.30). Validation analyses showed all models performed

  5. Developing and testing temperature models for regulated systems: A case study on the Upper Delaware River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Jeffrey C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Schmid, Matthias; McKenna, James E.

    2014-11-01

    Water temperature is an important driver of many processes in riverine ecosystems. If reservoirs are present, their releases can greatly influence downstream water temperatures. Models are important tools in understanding the influence these releases may have on the thermal regimes of downstream rivers. In this study, we developed and tested a suite of models to predict river temperature at a location downstream of two reservoirs in the Upper Delaware River (USA), a section of river that is managed to support a world-class coldwater fishery. Three empirical models were tested, including a Generalized Least Squares Model with a cosine trend (GLScos), AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). We also tested one mechanistic Heat Flux Model (HFM) that was based on energy gain and loss. Predictor variables used in model development included climate data (e.g., solar radiation, wind speed, etc.) collected from a nearby weather station and temperature and hydrologic data from upstream U.S. Geological Survey gages. Models were developed with a training dataset that consisted of data from 2008 to 2011; they were then independently validated with a test dataset from 2012. Model accuracy was evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE), Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), percent bias (PBIAS), and index of agreement (d) statistics. Model forecast success was evaluated using baseline-modified prime index of agreement (md) at the one, three, and five day predictions. All five models accurately predicted daily mean river temperature across the entire training dataset (RMSE = 0.58-1.311, NSE = 0.99-0.97, d = 0.98-0.99); ARIMA was most accurate (RMSE = 0.57, NSE = 0.99), but each model, other than ARIMA, showed short periods of under- or over-predicting observed warmer temperatures. For the training dataset, all models besides ARIMA had overestimation bias (PBIAS = -0.10 to -1.30). Validation analyses showed all models performed well; the

  6. Calculating erosion rates of river bank sediment by combining field measurements of erodibility parameters and small-scale topographic features – A case study at the Danube River

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper examines the application of a method for calculating fluvial erosion on river banks. In the investigated area the determination of potential erosion rates are essential to estimating the initiated river widening processes and their effect on navigation. A mini-jet device was employed, for...

  7. Contiguous urban rivers should not be necessarily submitted to the same management plan: the case of Tietê and Pinheiros Rivers (São Paulo-Brazil).

    PubMed

    Cunha, Davi G F; Grull, Doron; Damato, Murilo; Blum, José R C; Eiger, Sergio; Lutti, José E I; Mancuso, Pedro C S

    2011-12-01

    The management of urban water resources plays an important role for developing countries. The Tietê and Pinheiros Rivers (São Paulo, Brazil) are affected by domestic and industrial effluents and by the diffuse pollution. This research aimed to quantify 134 variables in the water of Tietê and Pinheiros Rivers (approximately 7,200 and 6,600 analyses, respectively) from August 2007 to December 2008. The idea was to verify if the fact that both rivers are located in the same basin is enough to consider the application of a single management plan for both. Data showed that the rivers presented significant anthropogenic interference. The results suggested that such rivers must be subjected to individual management plans since there were exclusive occurrences (variables that were only detected in one of the rivers). Moreover, there was a statistically significant difference between rainy and dry periods for eleven variables (p*<0.05, ANOVA), reinforcing the special importance of the temporal component within the monitoring program. It is expected that this study subsidize environmental recovery programs in the Tietê River, to which is recommendable to focus on prosecution of illegal wastewater releases, and in the Pinheiros River, to which special attention is suggested to the pollution derived from the pesticides load to the water body. PMID:22146967

  8. How Accessible Are the Geosciences? a Study of Professionally Held Perceptions and What They Mean for the Future of Geoscience Workforce Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchison, C.; Libarkin, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with disabilities are not entering pathways leading to the geoscience workforce; the reasons for which continue to elude access-focused geoscience educators. While research has focused on barriers individuals face entering into STEM disciplines, very little research has considered the role that practitioner perceptions play in limiting access and accommodation to scientific disciplines. The authors argue that changing the perceptions within the geoscience community is an important step to removing barriers to entry into the myriad fields that make up the geosciences. This paper reports on an investigation of the perceptions that geoscientist practitioners hold about opportunities for engagement in geoscience careers for people with disabilities. These perspectives were collected through three separate iterations of surveys at three professional geoscience meetings in the US and Australia between 2011 and 2012. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which individuals with specific types of disabilities would be able to perform various geoscientific tasks. The information obtained from these surveys provides an initial step in engaging the larger geoscience community in a necessary discussion of minimizing the barriers of access to include students and professionals with disabilities. The results imply that a majority of the geoscience community believes that accessible opportunities exist for inclusion regardless of disability. This and other findings suggest that people with disabilities are viewed as viable professionals once in the geosciences, but the pathways into the discipline are prohibitive. Perceptions of how individuals gain entry into the field are at odds with perceptions of accessibility. This presentation will discuss the common geoscientist perspectives of access and inclusion in the geoscience discipline and how these results might impact the future of the geoscience workforce pathway for individuals with disabilities.

  9. Potential compensation of hydrological extremes in headwaters: case study of upper Vltava River basin, Šumava Mts., Czechia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocum, Jan; Janský, Bohumír.; Česák, Julius

    2010-05-01

    reaction to causal amount of precipitation in the case of highly peaty areas, therefore more distinct runoff variability of streams draining peat land localities. These findings were affirmed by geochemical approach laboratory outcomes within the meaning of significant contribution of runoff from peat lands to the total runoff during extreme flood situations. An important component of rainfall-runoff process in source areas of czech rivers represented by snow conditions was analyses very in detail by means of monitoring of snow cover height and its water equivalent in chosen experimental catchments. Outcomes of this study should markedly help with significant precising of estimation of water storage retained in a snow cover. Consecutive runoff simulations using mathematical techniques would then improve a hydrological forecast. In terms of present dyking of former channels draining peat land represented by so called peat bog revitalization partial findings refer to positive effect during mean runoff situations but their considerably negative influence on runoff process in cases of extremely high discharges. In order to achieve retention potential enhancement in source areas of czech rivers an evaluation of possible former accumulative reservoirs (used for wood floating in former times) restoration which could function for example as dry (green) polders should be considered. The system of such small storage bins could function as an alternative and supplement to greater dam reservoirs. Possible spaces for water retention are measured by geodetic total station and modelled by suitable methods in GIS software. Existing outcomes advert to the fact that the effectiveness of such reservoir system would not have to be neglecting. By implementation of these unforceable measures realized in river headstream areas it could be contributed to reduction of peak flows and to increase of water resources during extreme droughts in future.

  10. A new framework to evaluate ecosystem health: a case study in the Wei River basin, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Zongxue; Zhan, Chesheng; Yin, Xuwang; Yu, Songyan

    2015-07-01

    Due to the rapid growth of the population and the development of economies in the Guanzhong district, central China, the river ecosystem is gradually deteriorating, which makes it important to assess the aquatic ecosystem health and take measures to restore the damaged ecosystem. An index of catchment ecosystem health has been developed to assist large-scale management of watersheds by providing an integrated measure of ecosystem health, including aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem. Most researches focus on aquatic ecosystem or terrestrial ecosystem, but little research integrates both of them to assess the catchment ecosystem health. In this paper, we combine these two aspects into catchment ecosystem health. Ecosystem indicators derived from field samples and modeling are identified to integrate into ecosystem health. These included indicators of ecological landscape pattern (based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), vegetation cover, dominance index, Shannon's diversity index, Shannon's evenness index, and fragmentation index), hydrology regime (based on 33 hydrological parameters), physical form condition (based on substrate, habitat complexity, velocity/depth regimes, bank stability, channel alteration), water quality (based on electrical conductivity (Cond), dissolved oxygen (DO), NH3_N, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand-permanganate (CODMn)), and biological quality (based on fish abundance). The index of ecosystem health is applied in the Guanzhong district, and the ecosystem health was fair. The ecosystem health in the upstream to Linjiacun (U-L) and Linjiacun to Weijiabao (L-W) reaches was in good situation, while that in Weijiabao to Xianyang (W-X), Xianyang-Weijiabao (X-W), and Weijiabao to Tongguan (W-T) reaches was in fair situation. There is a trend that the ecosystem health in the upstream was better than that in the downstream. The ecosystem health assessment is expected to play a key role in future

  11. Options for Managing Hypoxic Blackwater in River Systems: Case Studies and Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitworth, Kerry L.; Kerr, Janice L.; Mosley, Luke M.; Conallin, John; Hardwick, Lorraine; Baldwin, Darren S.

    2013-10-01

    Hypoxic blackwater events occur when large amounts of organic material are leached into a water body (e.g., during floodplain inundation) and rapid metabolism of this carbon depletes oxygen from the water column, often with catastrophic effects on the aquatic environment. River regulation may have increased the frequency and severity of hypoxic blackwater events in lowland river systems, necessitating management intervention to mitigate the impacts of these events on aquatic biota. We examine the effectiveness of a range of mitigation interventions that have been used during large-scale hypoxic blackwater events in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia and that may be applicable in other environments at risk from hypoxic blackwater. Strategies for hypoxia mitigation include: delivery of dilution flows; enhancement of physical re-aeration rates by increasing surface turbulence; and diversion of blackwater into shallow off-channel storages. We show that the impact of dilution water delivery is determined by relative volumes and water quality and can be predicted using simple models. At the dilution water inflow point, localized oxygenated plumes may also act as refuges. Physical re-aeration strategies generally result in only a small increase in dissolved oxygen but may be beneficial for local refuge protection. Dilution and natural re-aeration processes in large, shallow lake systems can be sufficient to compensate for hypoxic inflows and water processed in off-channel lakes may be able to be returned to the river channel as dilution flows. We provide a set of predictive models (as electronic supplementary material) for estimation of the re-aeration potential of intervention activities and a framework to guide the adaptive management of future hypoxic blackwater events.

  12. A new framework to evaluate ecosystem health: a case study in the Wei River basin, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Zongxue; Zhan, Chesheng; Yin, Xuwang; Yu, Songyan

    2015-07-01

    Due to the rapid growth of the population and the development of economies in the Guanzhong district, central China, the river ecosystem is gradually deteriorating, which makes it important to assess the aquatic ecosystem health and take measures to restore the damaged ecosystem. An index of catchment ecosystem health has been developed to assist large-scale management of watersheds by providing an integrated measure of ecosystem health, including aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem. Most researches focus on aquatic ecosystem or terrestrial ecosystem, but little research integrates both of them to assess the catchment ecosystem health. In this paper, we combine these two aspects into catchment ecosystem health. Ecosystem indicators derived from field samples and modeling are identified to integrate into ecosystem health. These included indicators of ecological landscape pattern (based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), vegetation cover, dominance index, Shannon's diversity index, Shannon's evenness index, and fragmentation index), hydrology regime (based on 33 hydrological parameters), physical form condition (based on substrate, habitat complexity, velocity/depth regimes, bank stability, channel alteration), water quality (based on electrical conductivity (Cond), dissolved oxygen (DO), NH3_N, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand-permanganate (CODMn)), and biological quality (based on fish abundance). The index of ecosystem health is applied in the Guanzhong district, and the ecosystem health was fair. The ecosystem health in the upstream to Linjiacun (U-L) and Linjiacun to Weijiabao (L-W) reaches was in good situation, while that in Weijiabao to Xianyang (W-X), Xianyang-Weijiabao (X-W), and Weijiabao to Tongguan (W-T) reaches was in fair situation. There is a trend that the ecosystem health in the upstream was better than that in the downstream. The ecosystem health assessment is expected to play a key role in future

  13. The value of long-term environmental monitoring programs: an Ohio River case study.

    PubMed

    Lohner, Timothy W; Dixon, Douglas A

    2013-11-01

    As a subset of environmental monitoring, fish sampling programs have been an important part of assessing the potential impacts of water withdrawals and effluent discharges on fish populations for many years. New environmental regulations often require that adverse environmental impacts to fish populations be minimized. Without long-term field data, population evaluations may incorrectly indicate adverse impacts where none exist or no impact where one is likely to occur. Several electric utility companies have funded the Ohio River Ecological Research Program, which has been in existence for over 40 years and consists of fish, habitat, and water quality studies at multiple power plant sites on the mainstem Ohio River. Sampling includes seasonal night-time electrofishing and daytime beach seining at three upstream and three downstream locations near each plant. The long-term nature of the program allows for the establishment of aquatic community indices to support evaluations of technology performance, the collaborative development of compliance metrics, and the assessment of fish population trends. Studies have concluded that the Ohio River fish community has improved in response to better water quality and that power plant fish entrainment and impingement and thermal discharges have had little or no measureable impact. Through collaboration and the use of long-term data, $6.3 million in monitoring costs have been saved during recent fish impingement studies. The ability to access a multiyear fish abundance database, with its associated data on age, growth, and fecundity, improves the quality of such evaluations and reduces the need for extensive field sampling at individual locations. PMID:23715733

  14. EVENT TREE ANALYSIS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE: A CASE HISTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R

    2009-05-25

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), a Department of Energy (DOE) installation in west-central South Carolina there is a unique geologic stratum that exists at depth that has the potential to cause surface settlement resulting from a seismic event. In the past the particular stratum in question has been remediated via pressure grouting, however the benefits of remediation have always been debatable. Recently the SRS has attempted to frame the issue in terms of risk via an event tree or logic tree analysis. This paper describes that analysis, including the input data required.

  15. Water Induced Hazard Mapping in Nepal: A Case Study of East Rapti River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, N.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents illustration on typical water induced hazard mapping of East Rapti River Basin under the DWIDP, GON. The basin covers an area of 2398 sq km. The methodology includes making of base map of water induced disaster in the basin. Landslide hazard maps were prepared by SINMAP approach. Debris flow hazard maps were prepared by considering geology, slope, and saturation. Flood hazard maps were prepared by using two approaches: HEC-RAS and Satellite Imagery Interpretation. The composite water-induced hazard maps were produced by compiling the hazards rendered by landslide, debris flow, and flood. The monsoon average rainfall in the basin is 1907 mm whereas maximum 24 hours precipitation is 456.8 mm. The peak discharge of the Rapati River in the year of 1993 at station was 1220 cu m/sec. This discharge nearly corresponds to the discharge of 100-year return period. The landslides, floods, and debris flows triggered by the heavy rain of July 1993 claimed 265 lives, affected 148516 people, and damaged 1500 houses in the basin. The field investigation and integrated GIS interpretation showed that the very high and high landslide hazard zones collectively cover 38.38% and debris flow hazard zone constitutes 6.58%. High flood hazard zone occupies 4.28% area of the watershed. Mitigation measures are recommendated according to Integrated Watershed Management Approach under which the non-structural and structural measures are proposed. The non-structural measures includes: disaster management training, formulation of evacuation system (arrangement of information plan about disaster), agriculture management practices, protection of water sources, slope protections and removal of excessive bed load from the river channel. Similarly, structural measures such as dike, spur, rehabilitation of existing preventive measures and river training at some locations are recommendated. The major factors that have contributed to induce high incidences of various types of mass

  16. Reservoir-flooded river mouth areas as sediment traps revealing erosion from peat mining areas - Jukajoki case study in eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahvanainen, Teemu; Meriläinen, Henna-Kaisa; Haraguchi, Akira; Simola, Heikki

    2016-04-01

    Many types of soil-disturbing land use have caused excess sedimentation in Finnish lakes. Identification and quantification of catchment sources of sediment material is crucial in cases where demands for remediation measures are considered. We studied recent (50 yr) sediments of four small rivers, all draining to a reservoir impounded in 1971. Catchments of two of the rivers had had peat mining activities from early 1980s until recently, exposing large areas of peat surfaces to erosion. The water level of the reservoir had risen to the river mouth areas of all rivers, while in each case, the river mouth areas still form riverine narrows separable from the main reservoir, hence collecting sedimentation from their own catchments. The original soils under the reservoir water level could readily be observed in core samples, providing a dated horizon under recent sediments. In addition, we used 137Cs-stratigraphies for dating of samples from original river bed locations. As expected, recent sediments of rivers with peat mining influence differed from others e.g. by high organic content and C:N ratios. Stable isotopes 13C and 15N both correlated with C:N (r = 0.799 and r = -0.717, respectively) and they also differentiated the peat-mining influenced samples from other river sediments. Principal components of the physical-chemical variables revealed clearer distinction than any variables separately. Light-microscopy revealed abundance of leafs of Sphagnum mosses in peat-mining influenced river sediments that were nearly absent from other rivers. Spores of Sphagnum were, however, abundant in all river sediments indicating their predominantly airborne origin. We find that combination of several physical-chemical characters rather than any single variable and microscopy of plant remains can result in reliable recognition of peatland-origin of sediment material when non-impacted sites are available for comparison. Dating of disturbed recent sediments is challenging. River

  17. An ecological economic assessment of flow regimes in a hydropower dominated river basin: the case of the lower Zambezi River, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Fanaian, Safa; Graas, Susan; Jiang, Yong; van der Zaag, Pieter

    2015-02-01

    The flow regime of rivers, being an integral part of aquatic ecosystems, provides many important services benefiting humans in catchments. Past water resource developments characterized by river embankments and dams, however, were often dominated by one (or few) economic use(s) of water. This results in a dramatically changed flow regime negatively affecting the provision of other ecosystem services sustained by the river flow. This study is intended to demonstrate the value of alternative flow regimes in a river that is highly modified by the presence of large hydropower dams and reservoirs, explicitly accounting for a broad range of flow-dependent ecosystem services. In this study, we propose a holistic approach for conducting an ecological economic assessment of a river's flow regime. This integrates recent advances in the conceptualization and classification of ecosystem services (UK NEA, 2011) with the flow regime evaluation technique developed by Korsgaard (2006). This integrated approach allows for a systematic comparison of the economic values of alternative flow regimes, including those that are considered beneficial for aquatic ecosystems. As an illustration, we applied this combined approach to the Lower Zambezi Basin, Mozambique. Empirical analysis shows that even though re-operating dams to create environmentally friendly flow regimes reduces hydropower benefits, the gains to goods derived from the aquatic ecosystem may offset the forgone hydropower benefits, thereby increasing the total economic value of river flow to society. The proposed integrated flow assessment approach can be a useful tool for welfare-improving decision-making in managing river basins.

  18. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50%" (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  19. River Sediment Monitoring Using Remote Sensing and GIS (case Study Karaj Watershed)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafaie, M.; Ghodosi, H.; Mostofi, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Whereas the tank volume and dehydrating digits from kinds of tanks are depended on repository sludge, so calculating the sediments is so important in tank planning and hydraulic structures. We are worry a lot about soil erosion in the basin area leading to deposit in rivers and lakes. It holds two reasons: firstly, because the surface soil of drainage would lose its fertility and secondly, the capacity of the tank decreases also it causes the decrease of water quality in downstream. Several studies have shown that we can estimate the rate of suspension sediments through remote sensing techniques. Whereas using remote sensing methods in contrast to the traditional and current techniques is faster and more accurate then they can be used as the effective techniques. The intent of this study has already been to estimate the rate of sediments in Karaj watershed through remote sensing and satellite images then comparing the gained results to the sediments data to use them in gauge-hydraulic station. We mean to recognize the remote sensing methods in calculating sediment and use them to determine the rate of river sediments so that identifying their accuracies. According to the results gained of the shown relations at this article, the amount of annual suspended sedimentary in KARAJ watershed have been 320490 Tones and in hydrologic method is about 350764 Tones .

  20. Science, law, and Hudson River power plants: A case study in environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Klauda, R.J.; Vaughan, D.S.; Kendall, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Between 1963 and 1980, the Hudson River estuary was the focus of one of the most ambitious environmental research and assessment programs ever performed. The studies supported a series of US federal proceedings involving licenses and discharge permits for two controversial electric power generating facilities: the Cornwall pumped storage facility, and units 2 and 3 of the Indian Point nuclear generating station. Both facilities were to draw large volumes of water from a region of the Hudson used as spawning and nursery habitat by several fish species, including the striped bass. Fishermen and conservationists feared that a major fraction of the striped bass eggs and larvae in the Hudson would be entrained with the pumped water and killed. Additional fish would be killed on trash screens at the intakes. Scientists were asked to aid the utility companies and regulatory agencies in determining the biological importance of entrainment and impingement. This monograph contains both technical papers that present research results and synthesis papers that summarize and interpret the results. The intent was to: (1) summarize the scientific issues and approaches; (2) present the significant results of the Hudson River biological studies; (3) describe the role of the studies in the decision-making process; (4) evaluate the successes and failures of the studies; and (5) present recommendations for future estuarine impact assessments. Separate abstracts are processed for 22 papers for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  1. In situ tests for water quality assessment: a case study in Pampean rivers.

    PubMed

    Graça, Manuel A S; Rodrígues-Capítulo, Alberto; Ocón, Carolina; Gómez, Nora

    2002-09-01

    Two invertebrate species (Hyalella curvispina and Palaemonetes argentinus) and one macrophyte (Egeria densa) from a naturally high nutrient content system (Pampean rivers of La Plata, Argentina) were evaluated for their potential use in situ assays aiming to assess changes in water quality. Invertebrates were individually placed in cylindrical chambers in polluted sections of rivers and in reference upstream sites. Mortality after 48 h was high in polluted and reduced in control sites. Mortality was also higher in situ assays than in laboratory static tests. Standard sections of the macrophyte were also deployed at the reference and control sites. Growth (7 days) in terms of mass increment (but not in length) was consistently reduced in polluted sites. Results of benthic invertebrate and periphitic algae surveys were consistent with the in situ tests: pollution resulted in a decrease in the number of taxa, taxa replacement and in changes in the value of the biotic indices Indice Biótico PAMPeano and Indice de Diatomeas Pampeano, indicating deterioration of water quality. In situ assays have a high potential as environmental tools in integrated approaches of bioassessment programs. PMID:12405412

  2. Estimating the value of improved wastewater treatment: the case of River Ganga, India.

    PubMed

    Birol, Ekin; Das, Sukanya

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we employ a stated preference environmental valuation technique, namely the choice experiment method, to estimate local public's willingness to pay (WTP) for improvements in the capacity and technology of a sewage treatment plant (STP) in Chandernagore municipality, located on the banks of the River Ganga in India. A pilot choice experiment study is administered to 150 randomly selected Chandernagore residents and the data are analysed using the conditional logit model with interactions. The results reveal that residents of this municipality are willing to pay significant amounts in terms of higher monthly municipality taxes to ensure the full capacity of the STP is used for primary treatment and the technology is upgraded to enable secondary treatment. Overall, the results reported in this paper support increased investments to improve the capacity and technology of STPs to reduce water pollution, and hence environmental and health risks that are currently threatening the sustainability of the economic, cultural and religious values this sacred river generates. PMID:20547438

  3. Assessment of water quality: a case study of the Seybouse River (North East of Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guettaf, M.; Maoui, A.; Ihdene, Z.

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of water quality has been carried out to determine the concentrations of different ions present in the surface waters. The Seybouse River constitutes a dump of industrial and domestic rejections which contribute to the degradation of water quality. A total of 48 surface water samples were collected from different stations. The first objective of this study is the use of water quality index (WQI) to evaluate the state of the water in this river. The second aim is to calculate the parameters of the quality of water destined for irrigation such as sodium adsorption ratio , sodium percentage, and residual sodium carbonate. A high mineralization and high concentration of major chemical elements and nutrients indicate inevitably a high value of WQI index. The mean value of electrical conductivity is about 945.25 µs/cm in the station 2 (Bouhamdane) and exceeds 1,400 µs/cm in station 12 of Nador. The concentration of sulfates is above 250 mg/l in the stations 8 (Zimba) and 11 (Helia). A concentration of orthophosphate over 2 mg/l was observed in the station 11. The comparison of the obtained and the WHO standards indicates a before using it use in agricultural purposes.

  4. Antecedent rivers and early rifting: a case study from the Plio-Pleistocene Corinth rift, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemelsdaël, Romain; Ford, Mary; Malartre, Fabrice

    2016-04-01

    Models of early rifting present syn-rift sedimentation as the direct response to the development of normal fault systems where footwall-derived drainage supplies alluvial to lacustrine sediments into hangingwall depocentres. These models often include antecedent rivers, diverted into active depocentres and with little impact on facies distributions. However, antecedent rivers can supply a high volume of sediment from the onset of rifting. What are the interactions between major antecedent rivers and a growing normal fault system? What are the implications for alluvial stratigraphy and facies distributions in early rifts? These questions are investigated by studying a Plio-Pleistocene fluvial succession on the southern margin of the Corinth rift (Greece). In the northern Peloponnese, early syn-rift deposits are preserved in a series of uplifted E-W normal fault blocks (10-15 km long, 3-7 km wide). Detailed sedimentary logging and high resolution mapping of the syn-rift succession (400 to 1300 m thick) define the architecture of the early rift alluvial system. Magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphic markers are used to date and correlate the fluvial succession within and between fault blocks. The age of the succession is between 4.0 and 1.8 Ma. We present a new tectonostratigraphic model for early rift basins based on our reconstructions. The early rift depositional system was established across a series of narrow normal fault blocks. Palaeocurrent data show that the alluvial basin was supplied by one major sediment entry point. A low sinuosity braided river system flowed over 15 to 30 km to the NE. Facies evolved downstream from coarse conglomerates to fined-grained fluvial deposits. Other minor sediment entry points supply linked and isolated depocentres. The main river system terminated eastward where it built stacked small deltas into a shallow lake (5 to 15 m deep) that occupied the central Corinth rift. The main fluvial axis remained constant and controlled

  5. Regional and Household Adaptation Strategies to Climate Extremes: the Case Study of the Beava River Basin, the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duží, Barbora; Stojanov, Robert; Vikhrov, Dmytro

    2013-04-01

    We investigate regional and household adaptation strategies in the region affected by climate extremes, focusing on floods occurrence during past 15 years period. The main research question is: What is the overall state of adaptation measurements to climate extremes on the Bečva river basin? Target area is located along upper and middle part of the Bečva river basin in the east of the Czech Republic. The main theoretical concepts draw from differentiations between coping/adaptation strategies to climate extremes and theory of focusing event as a starter of changes in attention and agenda of problem solution. We apply mixed empirical research and case study approach. First we use qualitative research to serve as an initial entrance to the issue, to find out the perception of adaptation progress and preparedness to climate extremes on regional level. We conducted deep interviews (N=20) with relevant stakeholders. We proceed with quantitative research through the conducting face-to face questionnaires with household residents (N=305) in no, low and no risk area in relation to flood occurrence. We designed set of questions to find out relation among experiences with flood, the level of damages and applied emergency and adaptation measurements.

  6. Distributed hydrological modeling with GIS and remote sensing datasets: a case study in Qingjiang River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Feng; Zhang, Qiu-wen; Wang, Cheng

    2006-10-01

    A distributed hydrological model incorporating the catchment's spatial information including topography, land cover and soil, was developed in this paper. The proposed model splits the concerned catchment into a series of sub-catchments linked with stream networks derived from digital elevation model. A revised TOPMODEL, which includes a forest canopy sub-module to descript the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of forest cover, was used to simulate runoff processes of each sub-catchment. The model was implemented to fully integrate with Arc/Info and input parameters derived from remote sensing images could be generated effectively through the geographic information system. The model was applied to a case study in the QingJiang river basin, which is one of the largest catchments in the middle reach of the Yangtze River. The voids-filled SRTM DEM was used to derive stream networks and topographic information including area, topographic index distribution of each sub-catchment. Land cover and LAI products of MODIS incorporated with the FAO global soil map were used to derive other relative model parameters. The model was calibrated and validated with observed hydrological datasets and the result indicates that the model can simulate reasonably well the runoff hydrograph and a distributed hydrological modeling system integrated with GIS and remote sensing has a great potential for both research and application.

  7. The dissolved chemical and isotopic signature downflow the confluence of two large rivers: The case of the Parana and Paraguay rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campodonico, Verena Agustina; García, María Gabriela; Pasquini, Andrea Inés

    2015-09-01

    The Paraná River basin is one of the largest hydrological systems in South America (∼2.6 × 106 km2). Downflow the confluence of tributaries, most large rivers exhibit transverse and longitudinal inhomogeneities that can be detected for tens or even hundreds of kilometers. Concordantly, a noticeable cross-sectional chemical asymmetry in the dissolved load was distinguished in the Middle Paraná River, after the confluence of its main tributaries (i.e., the Paraguay and Upper Paraná rivers). Water chemistry and isotopic signature in three cross-sections along the Middle Paraná River, as well as from main and minor tributaries, and some deep (∼105 m bs) and shallow boreholes (∼15 m bs) located near both river banks, were analyzed in order to define the extent of mixing and identify possible contributions from groundwater discharges. Downflow the confluence of the Upper Paraná and Paraguay rivers a chemical and isotopic asymmetry was observed, mainly through the values of EC, major ions (Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, Cl- and SO42-), some trace elements (Fe, U, Th, Ba, Sr, As and REE) and stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H). Toward its western margin, higher elemental concentrations which resembled that of the Paraguay River were measured, whereas at the eastern border, waters were more diluted and preserved the chemical signature of the Upper Paraná River. This variability remained detectable at least until ∼225 km downflow the confluence, where differences between western and eastern margins were less evident. At ∼580 km downflow the confluence, a slight inversion in the transverse chemical asymmetry was observed. This trend switch can be the result of the input of solutes from minor tributaries that reach the main channel from the East and/or may be due to higher groundwater discharges from the East bank. A mass balance model was applied, as a first approach, to estimate the groundwater inflow using the geochemical tracer 222Rn. The results indicate that groundwater

  8. The ethical implications of geosciences in the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solarino, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    One major goal of Geoscientists is to educate people to natural hazards. This requires a constant action to disseminate scientific topics based on a simplified language able to foster and promote the participation of the Society to the educative activities. The issue has been debated many times since the establishment of the unprecedented interest of citizens and media towards major catastrophes that took place at the beginning of the 90'. In the last 25 years many efforts have been made by the scientific community to shift the increased demand of the public in search for information about the next big earthquake or volcanic eruption to a wider communication landscape that also includes the scientific aspects of the phenomenon and the risk preparedness. In this attempts scientists developed a language alternative to pure scientific communication, based on short, simple and figurative statements. However the enhanced interest of the society towards scientific topics also attracted non experts, as the number of web blogs dealing with Geosciences matters currently show. Moreover, it spanned to non scientific fields including arts, in particular the visual ones. Their impact on the society was and is way too high compared to the traditional ways of communicating science, but seldom the scientific content of this powerful communication form is rigorous and correct. In movies, for example, due to the need of a more astonishing show and thanks to the numerous facilities offered by the studios, the reaction of the characters to natural dangers is often exaggerated, oversimplified or not safe (like walking inside the Earth's core or riding a big car on magma) and leads the spectator to inexact information or, even worse, to imitate the actor in an emergency. A well educated society would understand the fictive nature of the show, but in most cases the effects of wrong messages or inaccurate information reflect on the preparedness towards natural hazards. In this poster I

  9. Post-Secondary Education and Diversity in the Geosciences: The Need for Innovative Courses and Curricula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntoon, J. E.; Lane, M.

    2004-12-01

    Enrollments in bachelor's-level degree programs in the geosciences are decreasing nationwide. It seems clear that it will be difficult to reverse this falling trend by teaching the `same old' content in the `same old' way. Innovative geoscience instructors are already revising both content and pedagogy, particularly for introductory-level courses that reach large audiences of potential geoscience majors. As these courses are updated, it is critical that practices contributing to increased diversity in the geosciences are incorporated. The geosciences currently have the lowest diversity of any of the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. In 2001, the most recent year for which data are available, ethnic and racial groups that are underrepresented in STEM disciplines made up approximately 25 percent of the population of the United States. In contrast, only 7 percent of the bachelor's, 5 percent of the master's, and 2 percent of the doctoral degrees awarded in the geosciences in 2001 went to members of underrepresented groups. The fact that diversity decreases less rapidly with increasing degree level (e.g. from B.S. to M.S.) in the geosciences than in other STEM disciplines indicates that the geosciences are of interest to members of underrepresented groups. Mechanisms that have been shown to be effective at increasing diversity in the geosciences (as well as total enrollment in bachelor's-level geoscience programs) are to: 1) demonstrate that the geosciences are relevant to technologically savvy, increasingly urban students; 2) engage students in research; 3) build partnerships between universities, community colleges, K-12 teachers, and guidance counselors, families, and communities to address pipeline issues; 4) promote mentoring relationships among scientists, educators, and students; 5) provide financial support to facilitate participation in the geosciences among all members of the diverse U.S. population; and 6) publicize traditional

  10. Recently Identified Changes to the Demographics of the Current and Future Geoscience Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C. M.; Houlton, H. R.

    2014-12-01

    The American Geosciences Institute's (AGI) Geoscience Workforce Program collects and analyzes data pertaining to the changes in the supply, demand, and training of the geoscience workforce. Much of these trends are displayed in detail in AGI's Status of the Geoscience Workforce reports. In May, AGI released the Status of the Geoscience Workforce 2014, which updates these trends since the 2011 edition of this report. These updates highlight areas of change in the education of future geoscientists from K-12 through graduate school, the transition of geoscience graduates into early-career geoscientists, the dynamics of the current geoscience workforce, and the future predictions of the changes in the availability of geoscience jobs. Some examples of these changes include the increase in the number of states that will allow a high school course of earth sciences as a credit for graduation and the increasing importance of two-year college students as a talent pool for the geosciences, with over 25% of geoscience bachelor's graduates attending a two-year college for at least a semester. The continued increase in field camp hinted that these programs are at or reaching capacity. The overall number of faculty and research staff at four-year institutions increased slightly, but the percentages of academics in tenure-track positions continued to slowly decrease since 2009. However, the percentage of female faculty rose in 2013 for all tenure-track positions. Major geoscience industries, such as petroleum and mining, have seen an influx of early-career geoscientists. Demographic trends in the various industries in the geoscience workforce forecasted a shortage of approximately 135,000 geoscientists in the next decade—a decrease from the previously predicted shortage of 150,000 geoscientists. These changes and other changes identified in the Status of the Geoscience Workforce will be addressed in this talk.

  11. The silent buzz of geosciences: the challenge of geosciences communication in the Italian framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapisardi, Elena; Di Franco, Sabina; Giardino, Marco

    2015-04-01

    environmental dynamics and their interaction with human activity (preparedness). We suspect, that in the Italian framework, this raises from a sort of original sin: a "resistance" to science, that, for people with little or poor scientific knowledge, swings between pseudoscientific simplifications (which, unfortunately, web is variously "dotted" [Quattrociocchi et al. 2014]) and, as the sociologist Franco Ferrarotti would say, pre-scientific traditions [Peppoloni, 2011]. The "logos" of geology and the geological "narrative" are of fundamental importance in the Anthropocene, allowing to shift the focus back on the human/environment interaction. Geologists are often ignored, as bearers of uncomfortable messages, especially in a country where there is no longer a National Geological Survey, but it is unquestionable the importance of Earth Sciences and the social role of the geologist (geoethics) for Disaster Resilience. This is the next challenge of Geosciences, and of the whole community of geoscientists. Develop a coordinated communication approach for geosciences as an ethical imperative, and also as a pre-requisite to risk and emergency communication: geologists and geology are the authoritative interpreters of natural processes and risk, holders of scientific knowledge that if explained and shared allow people and decision makers to better cope with risks, and to enable Disaster Resilience.

  12. Carleton College: Geoscience Education for the Liberal Arts and the Geoscience Profession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Carleton College is a small (current enrollment ~1950), four-year, residential liberal arts college that has graduated more than 900 geology majors since the inception of the geology department inception in 1933. Since 1974, an average of more than 20 geology students have graduated each year. The department curriculum aims to educate at least six overlapping groups of students, who, however, may not place themselves into one of these groups until well after graduating. These groups include students in non- science majors who take geology for breadth or because of interest; science majors; geology majors who end up in other professions; and geology majors who pursue careers related to geology, most of whom ultimately earn a higher, professional degree. Goals for these groups of students differ and the department focuses its curriculum on developing skills and providing student experiences that will serve all groups well. The department has a strong focus on field geology and communication skills, solving complex problems in many project-based courses (culminating in a senior independent project for each student), and much group work. These characteristics correlate well with Carleton institutional goals. The senior independent projects (all reported in written, visual and oral forms) form the basis for outcomes assessment. We also regularly survey alumni who are in graduate programs of all kinds (not just geoscience), asking them about how well their undergraduate education has prepared them. Finally, the staff meet at least annually to discuss the curriculum, its goals, values, skills and content, and do a formal self-study with external and internal reviewers at least once a decade. The success of Carleton geology alumni in government, research, industry, education, consulting and other professions is the ultimate assessment tool.

  13. Making the Transition from Geoscience Geek to Policy Wonk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan, L.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscientists are often drawn into policymaking, willingly or otherwise, because mapping a course of action for a specific outcome benefits from geoscientific expertise. Policy development, such as legislation or regulation regarding energy, water, minerals, soils, hazards, land use, and other Earth-based processes, is informed by the geosciences. Some geoscientists have moved fully into policymaking as full time policymakers for congressional offices, government agencies, think tanks, non-profits, foundations, industry, and other places. Geoscientists turned policymakers need good communication skills, patience, persistence, strategic forethought, agility, timing, an understanding of competing interests, and the courage to advance geoscientifically sound policy with the right people at the right time. Transitioning from the geeky world of geoscience to the wonky world of policy for a brief time or full time is possible, can be fulfilling as well as frustrating, and ultimately can have a profound impact on how society adapts to living with a dynamic Earth.

  14. Effects of anthropogenic land-subsidence on river flood hazard: a case study in Ravenna, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carisi, Francesca; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio

    2015-04-01

    Can differential land-subsidence significantly alter the river flooding dynamics, and thus flood risk in flood prone areas? Many studies show how the lowering of the coastal areas is closely related to an increase in the flood-hazard due to more important tidal flooding and see level rise. On the contrary, the literature on the relationship between differential land-subsidence and possible alterations to riverine flood-hazard of inland areas is still sparse, while several areas characterized by significant land-subsidence rates during the second half of the 20th century experienced an intensification in both inundation magnitude and frequency. This study investigates the possible impact of a significant differential ground lowering on flood hazard in proximity of Ravenna, which is one of the oldest Italian cities, former capital of the Western Roman Empire, located a few kilometers from the Adriatic coast and about 60 km south of the Po River delta. The rate of land-subsidence in the area, naturally in the order of a few mm/year, dramatically increased up to 110 mm/year after World War II, primarily due to groundwater pumping and a number of deep onshore and offshore gas production platforms. The subsidence caused in the last century a cumulative drop larger than 1.5 m in the historical center of the city. Starting from these evidences and taking advantage of a recent digital elevation model of 10m resolution, we reconstructed the ground elevation in 1897 for an area of about 65 km2 around the city of Ravenna. We referred to these two digital elevation models (i.e. current topography and topographic reconstruction) and a 2D finite-element numerical model for the simulation of the inundation dynamics associated with several levee failure scenarios along embankment system of the river Montone. For each scenario and digital elevation model, the flood hazard is quantified in terms of water depth, speed and dynamics of the flooding front. The comparison enabled us to

  15. Impact of AIRS Thermodynamic Profiles on Precipitation Forecasts for Atmospheric River Cases Affecting the Western United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Blakenship, Clay B.; Wick, Gary A.; Neiman, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    This project is a collaborative activity between the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center and the NOAA Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) to evaluate a SPoRT Advanced Infrared Sounding Radiometer (AIRS: Aumann et al. 2003) enhanced moisture analysis product. We test the impact of assimilating AIRS temperature and humidity profiles above clouds and in partly cloudy regions, using the three-dimensional variational Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation (DA) system (Developmental Testbed Center 2012) to produce a new analysis. Forecasts of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model initialized from the new analysis are compared to control forecasts without the additional AIRS data. We focus on some cases where atmospheric rivers caused heavy precipitation on the US West Coast. We verify the forecasts by comparison with dropsondes and the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) Blended Total Precipitable Water product.

  16. Basin-scale characterization of river hydromorphology by map derived information: A case study on the Red River (Sông Hông), Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, R. J.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.

    2012-12-01

    The understanding of river hydromorphological processes has been recognized in the last decades as a priority of modern catchment management, since fluvial geomorphic processes shape physical habitat, affect river infrastructures and influence freshwater ecological processes. Characterization of river hydromorphological features is commonly location specific and highly demanding in terms of field-works, resource and expertise required. Therefore, its routine application at regional or national scales, although an urgent need of catchment management, is infeasible at present. Recently available high-resolution data, such as DEM or LIDAR, opens up novel potential for basin-wide analysis of fluvial processes at limited effort and cost. Specifically, in this study we assess the feasibility of characterizing river hydromorphology from specific map derived geomorphic controls namely: channel gradient, bankfull flow, specific stream power, and degree of channel confinement. The river network, extracted from a digital elevation model and validated with available network shape-files and optical satellite imagery, available flow gauging stations and GIS processing allow producing continuous values of geomorphic drivers defined over given length segments at catchment or regional scales. This generic framework was applied to the Red River (Sông Hông) basin, the second largest basin (87,800 km2) in Vietnam. Besides its economic importance, the river since few years is experiencing severe river bed incisions due to the building of new dams in the upstream part of the catchment and sand mining in the surrounding of the capital city Hanoi. In this context, characterized by an high developing rate, current efforts to increase water productivity by infrastructure and management measures require a thorough understanding of fluvial system and, in particular, of the basin-wide river hydromorphology. The framework proposed has allowed producing high-dimensional samples of spatially

  17. Preparing for a Professional Career in the Geosciences with AEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, T.; Troost, K. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Association of Environmental and Engineering Geologists offers multiple resources to students and faculty about careers in the geosciences, such as description of what employers are looking for, career options, mentoring, and building your professional network. Our website provides easy access to these and other resources. Most of AEG's 3000 members found their first job through association with another AEG member and more than 75% of our membership is working in applied geoscience jobs. We know that employers are looking for the following qualities: passion for your career and the geosciences, an enthusiastic personality, flexibility, responsibility, ability to communicate well in oral and written modes, and the ability to work well in teams or independently. Employers want candidates with a strong well-rounded geoscience education and the following skills/experience: attendance at field camp, working knowledge of field methodologies, strong oral and written communication skills, basic to advanced computer skills, and the ability to conduct research. In addition, skill with GIS applications, computer modeling, and 40-hour OSHA training are desired. The most successful technique for finding a job is to have and use a network. Students can start building their network by attending regular AEG or other professional society monthly meetings, volunteering with the society, attending annual meetings, going on fieldtrips and participating in other events. Students should research what kind of job they want and build a list of potential preferred employers, then market themselves to people within those companies using networking opportunities. Word-of-mouth sharing of job openings is the most powerful tool for getting hired, and if students have name recognition established within their group of preferred employers, job interviews will occur at a faster rate than otherwise.

  18. Characterizing Strong Geoscience Departments: Results of a National Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, R. M.

    2005-12-01

    In a follow up to a survey of geoscience departments drawn primarily from American Association of Universities (AAU) institutions, we have expanded the number and type of departments to include a much broader range of institutions and to address key issues about factors that department heads and chairs feel are indicative of strong departments. The previous survey, completed at a very high rate of return, indicated that the biggest opportunities at AAU institutions included large, community-wide initiatives, while the biggest threats included declining resources and associated issues such as faculty retention. The new survey follows on a workshop, Building Strong Geoscience Departments, held in February 2005 at which 25 participants discussed the state of geoscience departments and developed ideas for strengthening departments. The new survey addresses departmental demographics of a much broader range of departments and institutions, including two year, primarily undergraduate, and graduate degree-granting departments/institutions. In addition to perceived threats and opportunities, the survey includes aspects and characteristics of strong departments. For example, department heads and chairs respond to a variety of possible attributes of strong departments, including: 1) Defining the mission of the department in such a way that it is aligned with the institutional vision; 2) Taking a proactive stance in building modern and dynamic geoscience curricula and, as appropriate, research agendas; 3) Working effectively as a department team; 4) Acknowledging that recruitment, development, and retention of students, faculty, and staff are key elements of departmental success and working effectively in these areas; 5) Developing strong departmental leaders now and for the future; 6) Communicating success, using effective metrics, to colleagues, senior administrators, students, donors, and friends; and 7) Forging strategic partnerships within the university (e.g., with

  19. Laser Transmitter Design for the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afzal, R. S.; Yu, A. W.; Mamakos, W.; Lukemire, A.; Dallas, J. L.; Schroeder, B.; Green, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    NASA is embarking on a new era of laser remote sensing instruments from space. This paper focuses specifically on the laser technology involved in one of the present NASA missions. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) scheduled to launch in 2001 is a laser altimeter and lidar for the Earth Observing System's (EOS) ICESat mission. The laser transmitter for this space-based remote sensing instrument is discussed in the context of the mission requirements.

  20. Tube Maps for Effective Geoscience Career Planning and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, C. M.; Wilson, C. E.; Houlton, H. R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the greatest challenges faced by students and new graduates is the advice that they must take charge of their own career planning. This is ironic as new graduates are least prepared to understand the full spectrum of options and the potential pathways to meeting their personal goals. We will examine the rationale, tools, and utility of an approach aimed at assisting individuals in career planning nicknamed a "tube map." In particular, this approach has been used in support of geoscientist recruitment and career planning in major European energy companies. By utilizing information on the occupational sequences of geoscience professionals within an organization or a community, a student or new hire can quickly understand the proven pathways towards their eventual career goals. The tube map visualizes the career pathways of individuals in the form of a subway map, with specific occupations represented as "stations" and pathway interconnections represented as "transfers." The major application of this approach in the energy sector was to demonstrate both the logical career pathways to either senior management or senior technical positions, as well as present the reality that time must be invested in "lower level" jobs, thereby nullifying a persistent overinflated sense of the speed of upward mobility. To this end, we have run a similar occupational analysis on several geoscience employers, including one with somewhat non-traditional geoscience positions and another that would be considered a very traditional employer. We will examine the similarities and differences between the resulting 'tube maps,' critique the tools used to create the maps, and assess the utility of the product in career development planning for geoscience students and new hires.

  1. Modern X-ray Diffraction Methods in Mineralogy and Geosciences

    SciTech Connect

    Lavina, Barbara; Dera, Przemyslaw; Downs, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This section is not intended to be comprehensive or detailed, because diffraction is such a vast subject. The principles of diffraction theory, however, are summarized under the assumption that the reader is familiar with basic concepts of the crystalline state. We will briefly review the basics of diffraction techniques, using laboratory and synchrotron X-ray sources and highlight some of their applications in geoscience.

  2. OneGeology- A Global Geoscience Data Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, M.; Komac, M.; Duffy, T.; Robida, F.; Allison, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    OneGeology (1G) is an initiative of Geological Survey Organisations (GSOs) around the globe that dates back to 2007. Since then, OneGeology has been a leader in developing geological online map data using GeoSciML- an international interoperability standard for the exchange of geological data. Increased use of this new standard allows geological data to be shared and integrated across the planet among organisations. One of the goals of OneGeology is an exchange of know-how with the developing world, shortening the digital learning curve. In autumn 2013 OneGeology was transformed into a Consortium with a clearly defined governance structure, making it more transparent, its operation more sustainable and its membership more open where in addition to GSOs, other types of organisations that create and use geoscience data can join and contribute. The next stage of the OneGeology initiative is focused on increasing the openness and richness of that data from individual countries to create a multi-thematic global geological data resource about the rocks beneath our feet. Authoritative geoscience information will help to mitigate natural disasters, explore for resources (water, minerals and energy) and identify risks to human health on a planetary scale with the aim of 1G to increase awareness of the geosciences and their relevance among professionals and general public- to be part of the solution. We live in a digital world that enables prompt access to vast amounts of open access data. Understanding our world, the geology beneath our feet and environmental challenges related to geology calls for accessibility of geoscience data and the OneGeology Portal (portal.onegeology.org) is the place to find them.

  3. Recursive cross-entropy downscaling model for spatially explicit future land uses: A case study of the Heihe River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Ermolieva, Tatiana; Balkovic, Juraj; Mosnier, Aline; Kraxner, Florian; Liu, Junguo

    Downscaling methods assist decision makers in coping with the uncertainty regarding sustainable local area developments. In particular, they allow investigating local heterogeneities regarding water, food, energy, and environment consistently with global, national, and sub-national drivers and trends. In this paper, we develop a conceptual framework that integrates a partial equilibrium Global Biosphere Management Model (GLOBIOM) with a dynamic cross-entropy downscaling model to derive spatially explicit projections of land uses at 1-km spatial resolution from 2010 to 2050 relying on aggregate land demand projections. The fusion of the two models is applied in a case study in Heihe River Basin to analyze the extent of potential cropland, grassland, and unused land transformations, which may exacerbate already extensive water consumption caused by rapid expansion of irrigated agriculture in the case study region. The outcomes are illustrated for two Shared Socioeconomic Pathway scenarios. The kappa coefficients show that the downscaling results are in agreement with the land use and land cover map of the Heihe River Basin, which indicates that the proposed approach produces realistic local land use projections. The downscaling results show that under both SSP scenarios the cropland area is expected to increase from 2010 to 2050, while the grassland area is projected to increase sharply from 2010 to 2030 and then gradually come to a standstill after 2030. The results can be used as an input for planning sustainable land and water management in the study area, and the conceptual framework provides a general approach to creating high-resolution land-use datasets.

  4. The case for vaccine development in the strategy to eradicate river blindness (onchocerciasis) from Africa.

    PubMed

    Makepeace, Benjamin L; Babayan, Simon A; Lustigman, Sara; Taylor, David W

    2015-01-01

    Onchocerciasis or river blindness is a neglected parasitic disease causing severe dermatitis and visual impairment, predominantly in Africa. Historically, onchocerciasis control targeted vector breeding sites, but the current strategy relies on mass administration of a single drug, ivermectin. As programmatic goals shift from reducing public health impact to active elimination, sole reliance on ivermectin is threatened by contraindications in areas coendemic for loiasis, an inability to break transmission in some foci, and the emergence of drug resistance. Here, we argue that prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines would accelerate elimination efforts and safeguard the enormous strides made in onchocerciasis control. These vaccines could be based on one or more of three lead candidates identified by a newly formed transatlantic partnership, The Onchocerciasis Vaccine for Africa Initiative. PMID:26091691

  5. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study, Weiss Building & Development, LLC., System Home, River Forest, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    The Passive House Challenge Home located in River Forest, Illinois, is a 5-bedroom, 4.5-bath, 3,600 ft2 two-story home (plus basement) that costs about $237 less per month to operate than a similar sized home built to the 2009 IECC. For a home with no solar photovoltaic panels installed, it scored an amazingly low 27 on the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) score.An ENERGY STAR-rated dishwasher, clothes washer, and refrigerator; an induction cooktop, condensing clothes dryer, and LED lighting are among the energy-saving devices inside the home. All plumbing fixtures comply with EPA WaterSense criteria. The home was awarded a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the "systems builder" category.

  6. Do eel parasites reflect the local crustacean community? A case study from the Rhine River system.

    PubMed

    Thielen, Frankie; Münderle, Marcel; Taraschewski, Horst; Sures, Bernd

    2007-06-01

    In 2003, the parasite fauna of 197 European eels Anguilla anguilla, captured at three different locations (Laufenburg, Karlsruhe and Beneeden Leeuwen) in the River Rhine, was analysed. The eels harboured a total of 18 species, among them the protozoa (Myxidium giardi, Myxobolus kotlani and Trypanosoma granulosum), acanthocephalans (Acanthocephalus anguillae, Acanthocephalus lucii, Echinorhynchus truttae, Pomphorhynchus laevis), nematodes (Paraquimperia tenerrima, Pseudocapillaria tomentosa, Camallanus lacustris, Raphidascaris acus, Spinitectus inermis and Anguillicola crassus), cestodes (Bothriocephalus claviceps and Proteocephalus macrocephalus) and monogeneans (Pseudodactylogyrus sp.). The parasite fauna at the different locations is discussed with respect to the crustacean fauna present at these locations. The investigation shows that changes in the composition of the crustacean fauna, due to the anthropogenic breakdown of a biogeographic barrier, are reflected in the composition of the intestinal eel parasite fauna. PMID:17578598

  7. The case for vaccine development in the strategy to eradicate river blindness (onchocerciasis) from Africa.

    PubMed

    Makepeace, Benjamin L; Babayan, Simon A; Lustigman, Sara; Taylor, David W

    2015-01-01

    Onchocerciasis or river blindness is a neglected parasitic disease causing severe dermatitis and visual impairment, predominantly in Africa. Historically, onchocerciasis control targeted vector breeding sites, but the current strategy relies on mass administration of a single drug, ivermectin. As programmatic goals shift from reducing public health impact to active elimination, sole reliance on ivermectin is threatened by contraindications in areas coendemic for loiasis, an inability to break transmission in some foci, and the emergence of drug resistance. Here, we argue that prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines would accelerate elimination efforts and safeguard the enormous strides made in onchocerciasis control. These vaccines could be based on one or more of three lead candidates identified by a newly formed transatlantic partnership, The Onchocerciasis Vaccine for Africa Initiative.

  8. The Ratu River Expedition - A Case Study in Successful Outreach Using Film and Social Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerlow, Isaac

    2016-04-01

    The Ratu River Expedition is a 25-minute film about earthquakes in Nepal made for a general audience and for a Nepalese audience in particular. The movie explains basic facts about seismic activity in the Himalaya region and also basic preparedness concepts. It showcases the scientific research of the Structural Geology group at the Earth Observatory of Singapore in collaboration with the Department of Mines and Geology, Nepal. A social media campaign was developed to bring the movie to a large Nepalese audience, and the Nepali-subtitled version of the movie yielded over 79,000 post Likes in a Facebook outreach campaign. This presentation reviews the development, production, and distribution of this highly successful natural hazards documentary with scientific depth but designed for a mainstream audience. The full movie is being shown at EGU's Geo-Cinema 2016. http://raturiver.com/

  9. The nitrogen cycle in highly urbanized tropical regions and the effect of river-aquifer interactions: The case of Jakarta and the Ciliwung River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Diogo; Burlando, Paolo; Priadi, Cindy; Shie-Yui, Liong

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater is extensively used in Jakarta to compensate for the limited public water supply network. Recent observations show a rise in nitrate (NO3-) levels in the shallow aquifer, thus pointing at a potential risk for public health. The detected levels are still below national and international regulatory limits for drinking water but a strategy is necessary to contain the growing problem. We combine 3 years of available data in the Ciliwung River, the major river flowing through Jakarta, with a distributed river-aquifer interaction model to characterise the impact of urbanisation on the N-cycle of both surface and groundwater systems. Results show that the N-cycle in the river-aquifer system is heterogeneous in space, seasonal dependent (i.e. flow regime) and strongly affected by urban pollution. Results suggest also that although the main sources of N related groundwater pollution are leaking septic tanks, the aquifer interaction with the Ciliwung River may locally have a strong effect on the concentrations. In the general context of pollution control in urban areas, this study demonstrates how advanced process-based models can be efficiently used in combination with field measurements to bring new insights into complex contamination problems. These are essential for more effective and integrated management of water quality in river-aquifer systems.

  10. The nitrogen cycle in highly urbanized tropical regions and the effect of river-aquifer interactions: The case of Jakarta and the Ciliwung River.

    PubMed

    Costa, Diogo; Burlando, Paolo; Priadi, Cindy; Shie-Yui, Liong

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater is extensively used in Jakarta to compensate for the limited public water supply network. Recent observations show a rise in nitrate (NO3(-)) levels in the shallow aquifer, thus pointing at a potential risk for public health. The detected levels are still below national and international regulatory limits for drinking water but a strategy is necessary to contain the growing problem. We combine 3years of available data in the Ciliwung River, the major river flowing through Jakarta, with a distributed river-aquifer interaction model to characterise the impact of urbanisation on the N-cycle of both surface and groundwater systems. Results show that the N-cycle in the river-aquifer system is heterogeneous in space, seasonal dependent (i.e. flow regime) and strongly affected by urban pollution. Results suggest also that although the main sources of N related groundwater pollution are leaking septic tanks, the aquifer interaction with the Ciliwung River may locally have a strong effect on the concentrations. In the general context of pollution control in urban areas, this study demonstrates how advanced process-based models can be efficiently used in combination with field measurements to bring new insights into complex contamination problems. These are essential for more effective and integrated management of water quality in river-aquifer systems.

  11. Transport and bottom accumulation of fine river sediments under typhoon conditions and associated submarine landslides: case study of the Peinan River, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osadchiev, Alexander; Korotenko, Konstantin; Zavialov, Peter; Chiang, Wen-Son; Liu, Cheng-Chi

    2016-04-01

    A combination of a three-dimensional Eulerian ocean circulation model (POM) and a Lagrangian particle-tracking model (STRiPE) is used to study the fate of fine river sediments discharged by the Peinan River at the south-eastern coast of the Taiwan Island. The composite model is verified against in situ measurements and applied to simulate primary sediment deposition under freshet and typhoon discharge conditions of the Peinan River. It is shown that local wind plays a crucial role in sediment transport and settling at the coastal area through its influence on the river plume dynamics and turbulent mixing in the upper layer. Wind forcing conditions generally determine the location of the sediment deposit area, while its final pattern is defined by coastal circulation as modulated by the geometry of the coast and local bathymetry. In the study, region river-born sediments are deposited to the sea floor mainly in the shallow shelf areas. A significant portion of discharged fine sediments is moved offshore to the deeper ocean where it is further advected and dispersed by strong coastal circulation mainly governed by the Kuroshio Current. The performed numerical experiments showed that sediment accumulation rate under typhoon conditions is about two orders of magnitude greater comparing to freshet condition. Basing on the simulation results, we identified areas of continental shelf and continental slope adjacent to the Peinan River estuary which exhibit high risk of formation of submarine landslides during and shortly after the typhoon events.

  12. The nitrogen cycle in highly urbanized tropical regions and the effect of river-aquifer interactions: The case of Jakarta and the Ciliwung River.

    PubMed

    Costa, Diogo; Burlando, Paolo; Priadi, Cindy; Shie-Yui, Liong

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater is extensively used in Jakarta to compensate for the limited public water supply network. Recent observations show a rise in nitrate (NO3(-)) levels in the shallow aquifer, thus pointing at a potential risk for public health. The detected levels are still below national and international regulatory limits for drinking water but a strategy is necessary to contain the growing problem. We combine 3years of available data in the Ciliwung River, the major river flowing through Jakarta, with a distributed river-aquifer interaction model to characterise the impact of urbanisation on the N-cycle of both surface and groundwater systems. Results show that the N-cycle in the river-aquifer system is heterogeneous in space, seasonal dependent (i.e. flow regime) and strongly affected by urban pollution. Results suggest also that although the main sources of N related groundwater pollution are leaking septic tanks, the aquifer interaction with the Ciliwung River may locally have a strong effect on the concentrations. In the general context of pollution control in urban areas, this study demonstrates how advanced process-based models can be efficiently used in combination with field measurements to bring new insights into complex contamination problems. These are essential for more effective and integrated management of water quality in river-aquifer systems. PMID:27398641

  13. Assessment the performance of classification methods in water quality studies, A case study in Karaj River.

    PubMed

    Sakizadeh, Mohamad

    2015-09-01

    To show the performance of classification methods in water quality studies, linear discriminant, and Naïve Bayesian classification methods were applied at nine sampling stations with respect to four parameters including COD, nitrite, nitrate, and total coliforms (selected from ten water quality variables) in Karaj River, Iran. To fulfill the goals of this study, the sampling stations were first separated into two groups using cluster analysis. Rural wastewater was the main source of pollution in the first group, whereas the quality of water in the second group has been degraded mainly by organic and agricultural pollution. In order to have an independent group against which the performance of other classification methods is considered, three cross-validation methods including twofold, leave-one-out, and holdout methods were utilized to retain an independent test set. The results of cross-validation for the linear discriminant analysis show that, except for the leave-one-out method with 11.1 % misclassification error, the overall performance has been the same as that of the training data set. Therefore, it has outperformed compared with that of Naïve Bayesian classification method. However, even though in situations where the correlation coefficient among the parameters is low, the latest method can offer the same performance as that of linear discriminant analysis as well. A sensitivity analysis was implemented using ten water quality variables (pH, COD, EC, TDA, turbidity, nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, TC, and FC) to find the most important variables in the classification of Karaj River showing that turbidity, next to COD, pH, nitrate, and sulfate, have had the most contribution in this field. PMID:26275762

  14. U.S.-Russian Geoscience Student Exchange Program

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-04

    The objective was to support administration and operation of the US-Russian Geoscience Student Exchange Program. During the grant period, thirty Russian geoscience students have completed the program. The students selected to participate in the program were recent graduates in geoscience from the leading Russian universities. On the students arrival in the US, the DOE grant provided funds for a one-week cultural orientation program through the facility of the Meridian House International, Washington DC. The students then traveled to Houston where they participated in a technical orientation in the offices of the petroleum company sponsors. Students spent two-semesters in US universities and a ten-week internship at the offices of the sponsoring oil companies or at the DOE facility in Bartlesville, Oklahoma. At the end of the program students returned to Russia where they are currently employed by the ministry and/or one of the US international oil companies. Some decided to continue their education and enrolled in US universities in Russian and the US. The list of participating students and their present status is attached.

  15. Reaching Beyond the Geoscience Stigma: Strategies for Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, P.; Metzger, E. P.

    2004-12-01

    The geosciences have traditionally been viewed with less "academic prestige" than other science curricula. Among the effects of this perception are depressed K-16 enrollments; state standards' relegation of Earth and space science concepts to earlier grades; Earth Science assignments to lower-performing students, and sometimes even to under-qualified teachers: all of which simply confirm the misconceptions. Restructuring pre-college science curricula so that Earth Science is placed as a capstone course is one way to enhance student understanding of the geosciences. Research demonstrates that reversing the traditional science course sequence (by offering Physics in the ninth grade) improves student success in subsequent science courses. The "Physics First" movement continues to gain momentum offering a possible niche for the Earth and space sciences beyond middle school. It is also critical to bridge the information gap for those with little or no prior exposure to the Earth sciences, particularly K-12 educators. An Earth systems course developed at San José State University is aligned to our state's standards; it is approved to satisfy geoscience subject matter competency by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing, making it a popular offering for pre- and in-service teachers. Expanding our audience beyond the Bay Area, the Earth Systems Science Education Alliance courses infuse real-world and hands-on learning in a cohesive online curriculum. Through these courses teachers gain knowledge, share effective pedagogies, and build geography-independent communities.

  16. Geoscience Education Research Methods: Thinking About Sample Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.; CenterAstronomy; Physics Education Research

    2011-12-01

    Geoscience education research is at a critical point in which conditions are sufficient to propel our field forward toward meaningful improvements in geosciences education practices. Our field has now reached a point where the outcomes of our research is deemed important to endusers and funding agencies, and where we now have a large number of scientists who are either formally trained in geosciences education research, or who have dedicated themselves to excellence in this domain. At this point we now must collectively work through our epistemology, our rules of what methodologies will be considered sufficiently rigorous, and what data and analysis techniques will be acceptable for constructing evidence. In particular, we have to work out our answer to that most difficult of research questions: "How big should my 'N' be??" This paper presents a very brief answer to that question, addressing both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Research question/methodology alignment, effect size and statistical power will be discussed, in addition to a defense of the notion that bigger is not always better.

  17. The Arecibo Geoscience Diversity Program: A Research Experience for Hispanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, J.; Ramos, M.; Gonzalez, S.

    2004-12-01

    In an effort to increase the number of Hispanics that pursue a career in the geosciences, the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center and the University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo (UPRA), have established a collaboration that provides a research experience to group of high school students, teachers, and undergraduates in the region. The program exploits the natural setting of the Arecibo Observatory and the UPRA campus by providing participants with research opportunities to study the atmosphere, and the Caño Tiburones wetland. The atmospheric research is conducted at the Arecibo Observatory. Here, altitude, density and temperature variations in the ionosphere are monitored using data collected with the 305 m radio telescope. The study of the Caño Tiburones tropical wetland, is conducted at UPRA. Participants are engaged in the design and the execution of an environmental monitoring program that assess the physical and biological profile of the wetland. This three-year effort will provide a hands-on research experience in the geosciences to 60 high school students, 12 teachers, and 24 undergraduate students. The participation of teachers will broaden the impact beyond the group trained, by incorporating the geoscience field experience in their curriculum. All participants undergo pre and post-test summative evaluation, and are surveyed in order to measure the impact of the program in respect of their academic or professional careers.

  18. A coupled hydrodynamic and breach formation model to simulate floodplain inundations: the case study of the Bacchiglione River (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viero, D.; D'Alpaos, A.; Carniello, L.; Defina, A.; Genevois, R.

    2011-12-01

    We present a numerical hydrodynamic model which couples a previously described model solving the two-dimensional shallow water equations modified in order to deal with partially wet and very irregular domains with a conceptual model simulating the process of breach formation and development in fluvial levees. The coupled model allows us to simulate flood propagation over unchanneled areas adjacent to the river segment thus providing a quantitative estimate of the consequent inundations of such areas. The two dimensional depth integrated momentum and continuity equations are modified to take into account the bottom irregularities that strongly affect the hydrodynamics in partially dry areas, as for example, in the first stages of an inundation process. The breach formation module allows one to simulate the formation of failures either by piping or by overtopping of existing levees. Because in general a river has a limited inner capacity with respect to reservoirs, the coupling of the above models makes it possible to account for the highly variable hydraulic conditions, both in space and time, which occur close to the breach. This is deemed to be a necessary feature of this type of models because the evolution of the breach itself, and therefore the extension of the flooded areas, strongly depend on the altered driving hydrodynamic conditions which characterize the flow field both within the channel and over the adjacent areas. The model therefore provides a better description of the process of breach formation compared to classical models which assume static driving hydraulic conditions in proximity of the breach. Moreover, the use of a conceptual model for breach formation, either by piping or by overtopping, reduces the computational effort therefore allowing for the extensive application of the coupled model to actual case studies. We have applied the model to a case study in which the effects of breach formation across the Bacchiglione River (North

  19. National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) support for the Next Generation Science Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhr Sullivan, S. M.; Awad, A. A.; Manduca, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) represents the best opportunity for geosciences education since 1996, describing a vision of teaching excellence and placing Earth and space science on a par with other disciplines. However, significant, sustained support and relationship-building between disciplinary communities must be forthcoming in order to realize the potential. To realize the vision, teacher education, curricula, assessments, administrative support and workforce/college readiness expectations must be developed. The National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT), a geoscience education professional society founded in 1938, is comprised of members across all educational contexts, including undergraduate faculty, pre-college teachers, informal educators, geoscience education researchers and teacher educators. NAGT support for NGSS includes an upcoming workshop in collaboration with the American Geosciences Institute, deep collections of relevant digital learning resources, pertinent interest groups within the membership, professional development workshops, and more. This presentation will describe implications of NGSS for the geoscience education community and highlight some opportunities for the path forward.

  20. Role of hydrological events in sediment and sediment-associated heavy metals transport within a continental transboundary river system - Tuul River case study (Mongolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietroń, Jan; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2013-04-01

    The concentration of heavy metals in rivers is often greater in the sediment load than in the water solution. Overall, heavy metal conveyance with sediment transport is a significant contributor to the global transport of heavy metals. Heavy metals once released to a river system may remain in the deposits of the river from short to very long times, for instance depending on to which extent erosion and deposition can influence the sediment mass stored in the river bed. In general, the mobility of contaminated sediments to downstream water recipients may to large extent be governed by natural sediment transport dynamics during hydrological events, such as flow peaks following heavy rainfalls. The Tuul River (Northern Mongolia) belongs to a Tuul River-Orkhon River-Selenga River- transboundary river system that discharges into Lake Baikal. The river system is largely characterized by its natural hydrological regime with numerous rapid peak flow events of the spring-summer periods. However, recent studies indicate contamination of fine sediment with heavy metals coming from placer gold mining area (Zaamar Goldfield) located along the downstream Tuul River. In this work, the general idea is to create a one-dimensional sediment transport model of the downstream Tuul River, and use field-data supported modeling to investigate natural erosion-deposition rates and the role of peak flows in natural sediment transport at 14 km reach just downstream the gold mining area. The model results show that the sediment load of the finest investigated grain size has a great potential to be eroded from the bed of the studied reach, especially during the main peak flow events. However, the same events are associated with a significant deposition of the finest material. The model results also show different hysteresis behavior of the sediment load rating curves (clockwise and counter-clockwise) during the main peak flow events. These are interpreted as effects of changing in

  1. Attitude of Academic Staff in Nigerian Tertiary Educational Institutions to Student Evaluation of Instruction (SEI): A Case Study of Cross River State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaka, Idaka I.; Joshua, Monday T.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the attitude of academic staff in Nigerian tertiary educational institutions to student evaluation of instruction (SEI) and to find out the variable factors that influenced the expressed attitude of members of the academic staff, using Cross River State University as a case study. The study was a survey and so a…

  2. The Politics of Place: Official, Intermediate and Community Discourses in Depopulated Rural Areas of Central Spain. The Case of the Riaza River Valley (Segovia, Spain)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paniagua, Angel

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides theoretical and methodological arguments to study the politics of space in small marginal and depopulated areas of Spain. The case for research is the Riaza river valley in the province of Segovia. Usually the analysis of rural space (and the geographical space in general) provides opposing presentations: vertical, between…

  3. Investigating the Performance of One- and Two-dimensional Flood Models in a Channelized River Network: A Case Study of the Obion River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyanapu, A. J.; Dullo, T. T.; Thornton, J. C.; Auld, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Obion River, is located in the northwestern Tennessee region, and discharges into the Mississippi River. In the past, the river system was largely channelized for agricultural purposes that resulted in increased erosion, loss of wildlife habitat and downstream flood risks. These impacts are now being slowly reversed mainly due to wetland restoration. The river system is characterized by a large network of "loops" around the main channels that hold water either from excess flows or due to flow diversions. Without data on each individual channel, levee, canal, or pond it is not known where the water flows from or to. In some segments along the river, the natural channel has been altered and rerouted by the farmers for their irrigation purposes. Satellite imagery can aid in identifying these features, but its spatial coverage is temporally sparse. All the alterations that have been done to the watershed make it difficult to develop hydraulic models, which could predict flooding and droughts. This is especially true when building one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic models compared to two-dimensional (2D) models, as the former cannot adequately simulate lateral flows in the floodplain and in complex terrains. The objective of this study therefore is to study the performance of 1D and 2D flood models in this complex river system, evaluate the limitations of 1D models and highlight the advantages of 2D models. The study presents the application of HEC-RAS and HEC-2D models developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC), a division of the US Army Corps of Engineers. The broader impacts of this study is the development of best practices for developing flood models in channelized river systems and in agricultural watersheds.

  4. An ecological economic assessment of flow regimes in a hydropower dominated river basin: the case of the lower Zambezi River, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Fanaian, Safa; Graas, Susan; Jiang, Yong; van der Zaag, Pieter

    2015-02-01

    The flow regime of rivers, being an integral part of aquatic ecosystems, provides many important services benefiting humans in catchments. Past water resource developments characterized by river embankments and dams, however, were often dominated by one (or few) economic use(s) of water. This results in a dramatically changed flow regime negatively affecting the provision of other ecosystem services sustained by the river flow. This study is intended to demonstrate the value of alternative flow regimes in a river that is highly modified by the presence of large hydropower dams and reservoirs, explicitly accounting for a broad range of flow-dependent ecosystem services. In this study, we propose a holistic approach for conducting an ecological economic assessment of a river's flow regime. This integrates recent advances in the conceptualization and classification of ecosystem services (UK NEA, 2011) with the flow regime evaluation technique developed by Korsgaard (2006). This integrated approach allows for a systematic comparison of the economic values of alternative flow regimes, including those that are considered beneficial for aquatic ecosystems. As an illustration, we applied this combined approach to the Lower Zambezi Basin, Mozambique. Empirical analysis shows that even though re-operating dams to create environmentally friendly flow regimes reduces hydropower benefits, the gains to goods derived from the aquatic ecosystem may offset the forgone hydropower benefits, thereby increasing the total economic value of river flow to society. The proposed integrated flow assessment approach can be a useful tool for welfare-improving decision-making in managing river basins. PMID:25461048

  5. Transport and bottom accumulation of fine river sediments under typhoon conditions and associated submarine landslides: case study of the Peinan River, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osadchiev, A. A.; Korotenko, K. A.; Zavialov, P. O.; Chiang, W.-S.; Liu, C.-C.

    2016-01-01

    A combination of a three-dimensional Eulerian ocean circulation model (Princeton ocean model, POM) and a Lagrangian particle-tracking model (Surface-Trapped River Plume Evolution, STRiPE) is used to study the fate of fine river sediments discharged by the Peinan River at the southeastern coast of the island of Taiwan. The composite model is verified against in situ measurements and applied to simulate primary sediment deposition under freshet and typhoon discharge conditions of the Peinan River. It is shown that local wind plays a crucial role in sediment transport and settling in the coastal area through its influence on the river plume dynamics and turbulent mixing in the upper layer. Wind forcing conditions generally determine the location of the sediment deposit area, while its final pattern is defined by coastal circulation as modulated by the geometry of the coast and local bathymetry. In the study, region river-borne sediments are deposited to the sea floor, mainly in the shallow shelf areas. A significant portion of discharged fine sediments is moved offshore to the deeper ocean where it is further advected and dispersed by strong coastal circulation, mainly governed by the Kuroshio Current.The performed numerical experiments showed that sediment accumulation rate under typhoon conditions is about 2 orders of magnitude greater compared to freshet conditions. Based on the simulation results, we identified areas of continental shelf and continental slope adjacent to the Peinan River estuary which exhibit a high risk of formation of submarine landslides during and shortly after the typhoon events.

  6. Web-based Academic Roadmaps for Careers in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, D. P.; Veeger, A. I.; Grossman-Garber, D.

    2007-12-01

    To a greater extent than most science programs, geology is underrepresented in K-12 curricula and the media. Thus potential majors have scant knowledge of academic requirements and career trajectories, and their idea of what geologists do--if they have one at all--is outdated. We have addressed these concerns by developing a dynamic, web-based academic roadmap for current and prospective students, their families, and others who are contemplating careers in the geosciences. The goals of this visually attractive "educational pathway" are to not only improve student recruitment and retention, but to empower student learning by creating better communication and advising tools that can render our undergraduate program transparent for learners and their families. Although we have developed academic roadmaps for four environmental and life science programs at the University of Rhode Island, we focus here on the roadmap for the geosciences, which illustrates educational pathways along the academic and early-career continuum for current and potential (i.e., high school) students who are considering the earth sciences. In essence, the Geosciences Academic Roadmap is a "one-stop'" portal to the discipline. It includes user- friendly information about our curriculum, outcomes (which at URI are tightly linked to performance in courses and the major), extracurricular activities (e.g., field camp, internships), careers, graduate programs, and training. In the presentation of this material extensive use is made of streaming video, interviews with students and earth scientists, and links to other relevant sites. Moreover, through the use of "Hot Topics", particular attention is made to insure that examples of geoscience activities are not only of relevance to today's students, but show geologists using the modern methods of the discipline in exciting ways. Although this is a "work-in-progress", evaluation of the sites, by high school through graduate students, has been strongly

  7. Meeting the Challenges for Gender Diversity in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Cane, M. A.; Kastens, K. A.; Miller, R. B.; Mutter, J. C.; Pfirman, S. L.

    2003-12-01

    Women are now routinely chief scientists on major cruises, lead field parties to all continents, and have risen to leadership positions in professional organizations, academic departments and government agencies including major funding agencies. They teach at all levels, advise research students, make research discoveries and receive honors in recognition of their achievements. Despite these advances, women continue to be under-represented in the earth, ocean, and atmospheric sciences. As of 1997 women received only 29% of the doctorates in the earth, atmospheric, and oceanographic sciences and accounted for only 13% of employed Ph.D.s in these fields. Women's salaries also lag: the median annual salary for all Ph.D. geoscientists was \\60,000; for women the figure is \\47,000. Solving the problem of gender imbalance in the geosciences requires understanding of the particular obstacles women face in our field. The problem of under-representation of women requires that earth science departments, universities and research centers, funding agencies, and professional organizations like AGU take constructive action to recognize the root causes of the evident imbalance, and enact corrective policies. We have identified opportunities and challenges for each of these groups. A systematic study of the flux of women at Columbia University enabled a targeted strategy towards improving gender diversity based on the observed trends. The challenge for academic institutions is to document the flux of scientists and develop an appropriate strategy to balance the geoscience demographics. Based on the MIT study, an additional challenge faces universities and research centers. To enhance gender diversity these institutions need to develop transparency in promotion processes and open distribution of institutional resources. The challenge for granting agencies is to implement policies that ease the burden of extensive fieldwork on parents. Many fields of science require long work hours

  8. Teaching All Geoscience Students: Lessons Learned From Two-Year Colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Eric; Blodgett, Robert H.; Macdonald, R. Heather

    2013-11-01

    Geoscience faculty at 2-year colleges (2YCs) are at the forefront of efforts to improve student learning and success while at the same time broadening participation in the geosciences. Faculty of 2YCs instruct large numbers of students from underrepresented minority groups and many students who are the first in their families to pursue higher education. Geoscience classes at 2YCs also typically have large enrollments of nontraditional students, English language learners, and students with learning disabilities.

  9. The impact of climate change on water provision under a low flow regime: a case study of the ecosystems services in the Francoli river basin.

    PubMed

    Marquès, Montse; Bangash, Rubab Fatima; Kumar, Vikas; Sharp, Richard; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2013-12-15

    Mediterranean basin is considered one of the most vulnerable regions of the world to climate change and with high probability to face acute water scarcity problem in the coming years. Francolí River basin (NE Spain), located in this vulnerable region is selected as a case study to evaluate the impact of climate change on the delivery of water considering the IPCC scenarios A2 and B1 for the time spans 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100. InVEST model is applied in a low flow river as a new case study, which reported successful results after its model validation. The studied hydrological ecosystem services will be highly impacted by climate change at Francolí River basin. Water yield is expected to be reduced between 11.5 and 44% while total drinking water provisioning will decrease between 13 and 50% having adverse consequences on the water quality of the river. Focusing at regional scale, Prades Mountains and Brugent Tributary provide most of the provision of water and also considered highly vulnerable areas to climate change. However, the most vulnerable part is the northern area which has the lowest provision of water. Francolí River basin is likely to experience desertification at this area drying Anguera and Vallverd tributaries.

  10. Daily rainfall statistics of TRMM and CMORPH: A case for trans-boundary Gandak River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Brijesh; Patra, Kanhu Charan; Lakshmi, Venkat

    2016-07-01

    Satellite precipitation products offer an opportunity to evaluate extreme events (flood and drought) for areas where rainfall data are not available or rain gauge stations are sparse. In this study, daily precipitation amount and frequency of TRMM 3B42V.7 and CMORPH products have been validated against daily rain gauge precipitation for the monsoon months (June-September or JJAS) from 2005-2010 in the trans-boundary Gandak River basin. The analysis shows that the both TRMM and CMORPH can detect rain and no-rain events, but they fail to capture the intensity of rainfall. The detection of precipitation amount is strongly dependent on the topography. In the plains areas, TRMM product is capable of capturing high-intensity rain events but in the hilly regions, it underestimates the amount of high-intensity rain events. On the other hand, CMORPH entirely fails to capture the high-intensity rain events but does well with low-intensity rain events in both hilly regions as well as the plain region. The continuous variable verification method shows better agreement of TRMM rainfall products with rain gauge data. TRMM fares better in the prediction of probability of occurrence of high-intensity rainfall events, but it underestimates intensity at high altitudes. This implies that TRMM precipitation estimates can be used for flood-related studies only after bias adjustment for the topography.

  11. Reconstruction assessment of historical land use: A case study in the Kamo River basin, Kyoto, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Pingping; Takara, Kaoru; Apip; He, Bin; Nover, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Reconstruction assessment of historical land use can be useful for understanding historical conditions and the impact of long-term land-use change. This study establishes a new method to estimate historical land use based on a set of basic rules generated from the comparison of present land-use and historical documents. This method has been formalized in the paleo-land-use reconstruction (PLUR) program, allowing users to quickly reconstruct historical land use using historical information. The 1843, 1902 and 1927 historical land use conditions were generated using the PLUR model for the Kamo River basin (KRB). Our results show that between 1902 and 1976, three golf courses (Ohara Public course, Kamigamo course and Funayama course) replaced forest land in the KRB. As a result of agricultural development, the area occupied by paddy fields in 1843 was 2.48 km2 less than that in 1902. Urban areas increased from 1843 to 1976, mainly reflecting declining coverage of paddy fields after 1902. The approach presented in this study can be used to support land-use change analyses and reconstruction of paleo-hydrology. This study also provides a discussion of the major drivers of land use change.

  12. Flow monitoring with a camera: a case study on a flood event in the Tiber River.

    PubMed

    Tauro, F; Olivieri, G; Petroselli, A; Porfiri, M; Grimaldi, S

    2016-02-01

    Monitoring surface water velocity during flood events is a challenging task. Techniques based on deploying instruments in the flow are often unfeasible due to high velocity and abundant sediment transport. A low-cost and versatile technology that provides continuous and automatic observations is still not available. Among remote methods, large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) is an optical method that computes surface water velocity maps from videos recorded with a camera. Here, we implement and critically analyze findings obtained from a recently introduced LSPIV experimental configuration during a flood event in the Tiber River at a cross section located in the center of Rome, Italy. We discuss the potential of LSPIV observations in challenging environmental conditions by presenting results from three tests performed during the hydrograph flood peak and recession limb of the event for different illumination and weather conditions. The obtained surface velocity maps are compared to the rating curve velocity and to benchmark velocity values. Experimental findings show that optical methods should be preferred in extreme conditions. However, their practical implementation may be associated with further hurdles and uncertainties.

  13. Comparing Landslide Maps: A Case Study in the Upper Tiber River Basin, Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Guzzetti; Cardinali; Reichenbach; Carrara

    2000-03-01

    / The preparation of landslide maps is an important step in any landslide hazard assessment. Landslides maps are prepared around the world, but little effort is made to assess their reliability, outline their main characteristics, and pinpoint their limitations. In order to redress this imbalance, the results of a long-term research project in the Upper Tiber River basin in central Italy are used to compare reconnaissance and detailed landslide inventory maps, statistical and geomorphologically based density maps, and landslide hazard maps obtained by multivariate statistical modeling. An attempt is made to discuss advantages and limitations of the available maps, outlining possible applications for decision-makers, land developers, and environmental and civil defence agencies. The Tiber experiment has confirmed that landslides can be cost-effectively mapped by interpreting aerial photographs coupled with field surveys and that errors and uncertainties associated with the inventory can be quantified. The experiment has shown that GIS makes it easy to prepare landslide density maps and facilitates the production of statistically based landslide hazard models. The former supply an overview of the distribution of landslides that is easily comprehended but do not provide insight on the causes of instability. The latter, giving insight into the causes of instability, are diagnostically powerful, but are difficult to prepare and exploit.

  14. A review of multivariate social vulnerability methodologies: a case study of the River Parrett catchment, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, I.; Fitton, J.

    2016-06-01

    In the field of disaster risk reduction (DRR), there exists a proliferation of research into different ways to measure, represent, and ultimately quantify a population's differential social vulnerability to natural hazards. Empirical decisions such as the choice of source data, variable selection, and weighting methodology can lead to large differences in the classification and understanding of the "at risk" population. This study demonstrates how three different quantitative methodologies (based on Cutter et al., 2003; Rygel et al., 2006; Willis et al., 2010) applied to the same England and Wales 2011 census data variables in the geographical setting of the 2013/2014 floods of the River Parrett catchment, UK, lead to notable differences in vulnerability classification. Both the quantification of multivariate census data and resultant spatial patterns of vulnerability are shown to be highly sensitive to the weighting techniques employed in each method. The findings of such research highlight the complexity of quantifying social vulnerability to natural hazards as well as the large uncertainty around communicating such findings to stakeholders in flood risk management and DRR practitioners.

  15. The Need for a National Alliance for Broadening Participation of Native Americans in the Geosciences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbotten, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    The continuing underrepresentation of Native Americans in the Geosciences can only mean that Native voices go unheard in setting research agendas and priorities. This is particularly significant where issues such as global climate change impact the land and livelihood of Native American communities. This talk will outline the need for a national alliance for broadening participation of Native Americans in the Geosciences. Our focus will be on defining goals for this alliance, i.e., new research in Geoscience education, defining best practices, inclusion of Native voices in Geoscience research, the potential for new collaborations, and promotion of opportunities for Native students and communities.

  16. Sediment capture in flood plains of the Mississippi River: A case study in Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M.; Bentley, S. J., Sr.

    2015-03-01

    To plan restoration of the Mississippi River Delta, it is imperative to know how much sediment the Mississippi River currently provides. Recent research has demonstrated that between Tarbert Landing and St Francisville on the Mississippi, as much as 67 million metric tons (Mt) per year is lost from river transport, of which ~16 Mt is muddy suspended sediment. So where does this sediment go? Two pathways for loss have been proposed: riverbed storage, and overbank deposition in regions that lack manmade levées. Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge, on the unleveed Mississippi River east bank near St Francisville, Louisiana, consists of undisturbed bottomland forest that is inundated most years by river flooding. To determine fluvial sediment accumulation rates (SAR) from flooding, pushcores 40-50 cm long were collected then dated by Pb-210 and Cs-137 geochronology. Preliminary data suggests that muddy sediment accumulation is 10-13% of muddy suspended sediment lost from river transport along this river reach.

  17. [The first case report of Ross River virus disease in a Japanese patient who returned from Australia].

    PubMed

    Tochitani, Kentaro; Shimizu, Tsunehiro; Shinohara, Koh; Tsuchido, Yasuhiro; Moi, Meng Ling; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2014-03-01

    A 31-year-old Japanese female had stayed in Australia from January to May 2013. She presented with a sudden onset of left ankle and right knee arthralgia in March but neither fever nor rash was present. As her arthralgia persisted, she visited our hospital upon her return to Japan in May. When she came to our hospital, she complained of left ankle and right knee pain, but no arthritis findings. Laboratory findings were also within normal ranges. Ross River virus (RRV) antibody levels were examined as she was suspected of having contracted the disease in Australia. RRV IgG antibody and IgM antibody were positive, and the patient was confirmed as a case of acute RRV disease. RRV disease is endemic in Australia, but there are no prior reports of the disease in Japan. This is the first case of RRV disease confirmed in Japan. Typical symptoms of RRV disease include arthralgia, fever, and rash. Our patient had only arthralgia. With the increase in the number of travelers and length of stay in RRV endemic regions, health care providers need to consider the disease in their differential diagnosis, among returning travelers with arthralgia, fever, rash and a travel history to RRV-endemic regions.

  18. Distributions, Early Diagenesis, and Spatial Characteristics of Amino Acids in Sediments of Multi-Polluted Rivers: A Case Study in the Haihe River Basin, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu; Shan, Baoqing; Tang, Wenzhong; Zhang, Hong; Rong, Nan; Ding, Yuekui

    2016-01-01

    The Haihe River Basin, which is one of the most water-scarce and polluted river basins in China, has abnormally high nitrogen levels. In this study, total hydrolyzable amino acids (THAAs) were measured in surface sediment and sediment core samples in the Haihe River Basin to determine if amino acids were potential sources of ammonium, organic nitrogen, and organic carbon. The rivers were found to be in a state of hypoxia and contain abnormally high levels of ammonium and organic nitrogen. Additionally, NH3-N was the predominant form of inorganic nitrogen in the surface sediments, while organic nitrogen accounted for 92.53% of sedimentary nitrogen. THAAs-C accounted for 14.92% of the total organic carbon, while THAAs-N accounted for more than 49.59% of organic nitrogen and 45.68% of total nitrogen. The major fraction of THAAs were protein amino acids. Three sediment cores of the most heavily polluted rivers also showed high levels of THAAs. Evaluation of the degradation index (DI) of sedimentary organic matter in sediments evaluated based on the THAAs revealed that most positive DI values were found in the downstream portion of the Ziya River Watershed. Additionally, the DI of surface sediment was correlated with THAAs (r2 = 0.763, p < 0.001), as was the DI of sediment cores (r2 = 0.773, p < 0.001