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Sample records for river havana cuba

  1. Seasonal Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Gene Transport in the Almendares River, Havana, Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Charles W.; Lima, Lazaro; Olivares-Rieumont, Susana; Bowen, Emma; Werner, David; Graham, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have quantified antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in rivers and streams around the world, and significant relationships have been shown that relate different pollutant outputs and increased local ARG levels. However, most studies have not considered ambient flow conditions, which can vary dramatically especially in tropical countries. Here, ARG were quantified in water column and sediment samples during the dry- and wet-seasons to assess how seasonal and other factors influence ARG transport down the Almendares River (Havana, Cuba). Eight locations were sampled and stream flow estimated during both seasons; qPCR was used to quantify four tetracycline, two erythromycin, and three beta-lactam resistance genes. ARG concentrations were higher in wet-season versus dry-season samples, which combined with higher flows, indicated much greater ARG transport downstream during the wet-season. However, water column ARG levels were more spatially variable in the dry-season than the wet-season, with the proximity of waste outfalls strongly influencing local ARG levels. Results confirm that dry-season sampling provides a useful picture of the impact of individual waste inputs on local stream ARG levels, whereas the majority of ARGs in this tropical river were transported downstream during the wet-season, possibly due to re-entrainment of ARG from sediments. PMID:23189074

  2. Seasonal variations in antibiotic resistance gene transport in the almendares river, havana, cuba.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Charles W; Lima, Lazaro; Olivares-Rieumont, Susana; Bowen, Emma; Werner, David; Graham, David W

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have quantified antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in rivers and streams around the world, and significant relationships have been shown that relate different pollutant outputs and increased local ARG levels. However, most studies have not considered ambient flow conditions, which can vary dramatically especially in tropical countries. Here, ARG were quantified in water column and sediment samples during the dry- and wet-seasons to assess how seasonal and other factors influence ARG transport down the Almendares River (Havana, Cuba). Eight locations were sampled and stream flow estimated during both seasons; qPCR was used to quantify four tetracycline, two erythromycin, and three beta-lactam resistance genes. ARG concentrations were higher in wet-season versus dry-season samples, which combined with higher flows, indicated much greater ARG transport downstream during the wet-season. However, water column ARG levels were more spatially variable in the dry-season than the wet-season, with the proximity of waste outfalls strongly influencing local ARG levels. Results confirm that dry-season sampling provides a useful picture of the impact of individual waste inputs on local stream ARG levels, whereas the majority of ARGs in this tropical river were transported downstream during the wet-season, possibly due to re-entrainment of ARG from sediments.

  3. Antibiotic Resistance Gene Abundances Associated with Waste Discharges to the Almendares River near Havana, Cuba

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Considerable debate exists over the primary cause of increased antibiotic resistance (AR) worldwide. Evidence suggests increasing AR results from overuse of antibiotics in medicine and therapeutic and nontherapeutic applications in agriculture. However, pollution also can influence environmental AR, particularly associated with heavy metal, pharmaceutical, and other waste releases, although the relative scale of the “pollution” contribution is poorly defined, which restricts targeted mitigation efforts. The question is “where to study and quantify AR from pollution versus other causes to best understand the pollution effect”. One useful site is Cuba because industrial pollution broadly exists; antibiotics are used sparingly in medicine and agriculture; and multiresistant bacterial infections are increasing in clinical settings without explanation. Within this context, we quantified 13 antibiotic resistance genes (ARG; indicators of AR potential), 6 heavy metals, 3 antibiotics, and 17 other organic pollutants at 8 locations along the Almendares River in western Havana at sites bracketing known waste discharge points, including a large solid waste landfill and various pharmaceutical factories. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found between sediment ARG levels, especially for tetracyclines and β-lactams (e.g., tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), blaOXA), and sediment Cu and water column ampicillin levels in the river. Further, sediment ARG levels increased by up to 3 orders of magnitude downstream of the pharmaceutical factories and were highest where human population densities also were high. Although explicit links are not shown, results suggest that pollution has increased background AR levels in a setting where other causes of AR are less prevalent. PMID:21133405

  4. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) as indicators of heavy metal impact of a large landfill on the Almendares River near Havana, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Rieumont, S; Lima, L; De la Rosa, D; Graham, D W; Columbie, I; Santana, J L; Sánchez, M J

    2007-12-01

    The Almendares River is central to recreational and other activities in Havana, Cuba. However, monitoring indicated significant heavy metal contamination in river sediments, especially below Calle 100, the largest landfill in Havana. This work extended previous sediment studies by determining complementary Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd, and Zn levels in indigenous water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes; EC) above and below the landfill. Pb, Cu, and Zn were significantly elevated in EC roots below the landfill and also correlated with sediment data (p < 0.05), implying elevated levels likely result from landfill activity and might be useful biomonitors as river remediation proceeds.

  5. Thirty-four identifiable airborne fungal spores in Havana, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Almaguer, Michel; Aira, María-Jesús; Rodríguez-Rajo, F Javier; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Maria; Rojas-Flores, Teresa I

    2015-01-01

    The airborne fungal spore content in Havana, Cuba, collected by means a non-viable volumetric methodology, was studied from November 2010 - October 2011. The study, from a qualitative point of view, allowed the characterization of 29 genera and 5 fungal types, described following the Saccardo´s morphotypes, as well as their morphobiometrical characteristics. In the amerospores morphotype, the conidia of 7 genera (with ascospores, basidiospores and uredospores) and 5 fungal types were included. Among phragmospores morphotype, the ascospores and conidia of 12 different genera were identified. The dictyospores morphotype only included conidial forms from 6 genera. Finally, the less frequent morphotypes were staurospores, didymospores and distosepted spores. In general, the main worldwide spread mitosporic fungi also predominated in the Havana atmosphere, accompanied by some ascospores and basidiospores. Cladosporium cladosporioides type was the most abundant with a total of 148,717 spores, followed by Leptosphaeria, Coprinus and the Aspergillus-Penicillium type spores, all of them with total values ranging from 20,591 - 16,392 spores. The higher monthly concentrations were registered in January (31,663 spores) and the lowest in December (7,314 spores). Generally, the average quantity of spores recorded during the months of the dry season (20,599 spores) was higher compared with that observed during the rainy season (17,460 spores).

  6. Stroke incidence and risk factors in Havana and Matanzas, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Llibre-Guerra, J C; Valhuerdi Cepero, A; Fernández Concepción, O; Llibre-Guerra, J J; Gutiérrez, R F; Llibre-Rodriguez, J J

    2015-10-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is the third-leading cause of death and the second-leading cause of disability and dementia. Determine stroke incidence and risk factors in a population of adults aged 65 and over in Cuba (Havana and Matanzas). This prospective longitudinal study, completed between April 2008 and Abril 2011, re-evaluated 2916 elderly adults with an average follow-up time of 4 years. Cases included 2316 living subjects and 600 verbal autopsies. Study variables were age, sex, educational level, self-reported health, and description of chronic diseases and substance abuse. Laboratory tests included genotyping APOE. Stroke was diagnosed based on the World Health Organization definition. We calculated the global incidence rate for stroke, broken down by sex, age group, and risk factors for incident stroke. Stroke incidence was 786.2 in 100000 persons/year (95% CI: 672.3-906.4). History of alcohol consumption (HR: 3.5; 95% CI: 3.3-3.7), dementia (HR: 3.0; 95% CI, 1.6-5.5) and male sex (HR: 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8) were shown to be risk factors for incident stroke. Stroke incidence was similar to rates reported in developed countries and lower than that in low- to middle-income countries. Given that diabetes mellitus, heart disease, arterial hypertension, smoking, APOE4, etc. are associated with higher mortality rates, they will require separate analysis in a study of stroke risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Cognitive Functioning and the Probability of Falls among Seniors in Havana, Cuba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Antonio J.; Hyder, Adnan A.; Steinhardt, Laura C.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the connection between cognitive functioning and falls among seniors (greater than or equal to 60 years of age) in Havana, Cuba, after controlling for observable characteristics. Using the SABE (Salud, Bienestar, and Envejecimiento) cross-sectional database, we used an econometric strategy that takes advantage of available…

  8. Cognitive Functioning and the Probability of Falls among Seniors in Havana, Cuba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Antonio J.; Hyder, Adnan A.; Steinhardt, Laura C.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the connection between cognitive functioning and falls among seniors (greater than or equal to 60 years of age) in Havana, Cuba, after controlling for observable characteristics. Using the SABE (Salud, Bienestar, and Envejecimiento) cross-sectional database, we used an econometric strategy that takes advantage of available…

  9. HIV/AIDS among women in Havana, Cuba: 1986-2011.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Dinorah C; Viñas, Arturo L; Saavedra, Clarivel; Oliva, Maritza; González, Ciro; de la Torre, Caridad

    2013-10-01

    Women are being diagnosed with HIV infection in increasing numbers, and now account for 50% of cases worldwide. In Cuba, HIV is more frequent in men, but in recent years, a growing number of women have been diagnosed. Describe patterns of HIV among women in Havana, Cuba, 1986-2011. Descriptive study of women with HIV aged >14 years, residents of Havana, Cuba, who were diagnosed with HIV from 1 January 1986 through 31 December 2011. Information was obtained from the limited-access HIV/AIDS database of Cuba's Ministry of Public Health. Data were studied from all reported cases, a total of 1274 women. Variables selected were age at diagnosis, education, municipality of residence, screening group, year of HIV diagnosis, late presentation, AIDS-defining condition, year of diagnosis as AIDS case, vital status at the end of 2011, and year of death (if applicable). Incidence of HIV and AIDS, cumulative incidence by municipality of residence, and case fatality rates were calculated. Those aged 20-29 years were most affected by HIV. Almost half (46.7%) the women had completed middle school, and a further 35.4% had completed high school or middle-level technical studies. HIV incidence began to increase more steeply starting in 1998, as did AIDS incidence by year of diagnosis, though to a lesser extent. Central Havana and Old Havana municipalities had the highest cumulative incidence. Late presentation was seen in 7.4% of cases; mean age of those diagnosed late was 38.9 years. Wasting syndrome and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia were the most frequent AIDS-defining conditions. Case fatality rates started to decline in 1998. HIV infection in women is occurring in a predominantly young, relatively well-educated population. Increasing rates of HIV and AIDS in the past decade are a warning sign of the possible expansion of HIV infection in women, even though mortality is declining.

  10. Cognitive functioning and the probability of falls among seniors in Havana, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Antonio J; Hyder, Adnan A; Steinhardt, Laura C

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the connection between cognitive functioning and falls among seniors (> or = 60 years of age) in Havana, Cuba, after controlling for observable characteristics. Using the SABE (Salud, Bienestar, and Envejecimiento) cross-sectional database, we used an econometric strategy that takes advantage of available information to reduce the endogeneity problem of cognitive functioning and the individual probability of falling. Our findings suggest that memory scores and cognitive functioning impacts the probability of falling--even after controlling for demographics, socioeconomic status, existence of chronic non-communicable conditions, vision/ hearing capacity, and baseline health. Monitoring elderly with low cognitive functioning may be a cost-effective way to reduce the economic burden of falls.

  11. Detection of rotavirus and other enteropathogens in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Havana, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Ribas, María de Los Angeles; Tejero, Yahisel; Cordero, Yanislet; de Los Angeles León, María; Rodriguez, Misladys; Perez-Lastre, Jorge; Triana, Thelma; Guerra, Mabel; Ayllón, Lucía; Escalante, Gladys; Hadad, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to diagnose infections with rotavirus and other enteric pathogens in children under five years old with acute gastroenteritis and to identify the most common epidemiological and clinical characteristics of these pathogens. The study was conducted using 110 stool samples from the same number of children under five years old who were inpatients at three paediatric hospitals in Havana, Cuba, between October and December 2011. The samples were tested for rotavirus and other enteric pathogens using traditional and molecular microbiological methods. Pathogens were detected in 85 (77.3 %) of the children. Rotavirus was the most commonly found, appearing in 54.5 % of the children, followed by bacteria (29 %) and parasites (10.9 %). Other viral pathogens detected included adenovirus (6.4 %) and astrovirus (3.6 %). In rotavirus-positives cases, at least one other pathogen was detected, usually a bacterium (26.6 %). More than three episodes of watery diarrhea in 24 hours were observed in 78.3 % of the cases. Dehydration was found in 30 (50 %) rotavirus-positive children, of whom seven (11.6 %) were transferred to an intensive care unit due to complications of metabolic acidosis. Rotavirus was most commonly observed among children under 12 months old (65 %). The highest incidence of infection occurred in children who were under the care of a relative at home (78.3 %), had not been breastfed (65 %), or had been breastfed for less than six months (28.3 %). The genotype combinations most frequently found were G9P8 (28.3 %) and G1P8 (10 %). This study demonstrates the presence of rotavirus and other enteric pathogens as causes of gastroenteritis in hospitalized infants and young children in Cuba.

  12. Temephos resistance and esterase activity in the mosquito Aedes aegypti in Havana, Cuba increased dramatically between 2006 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Bisset, J A; Rodríguez, M M; Ricardo, Y; Ranson, H; Pérez, O; Moya, M; Vázquez, A

    2011-09-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) control programmes in Cuba rely on the application of the organophosphate temephos for larval control. Hence, the monitoring of resistance to this insecticide is an essential component of such programmes. Here, 15 field populations from different municipalities of Havana City were assayed for resistance to temephos. High levels of resistance were detected in all strains and resistance ratios were highly correlated with esterase activity (P = 0.00001). Populations from three municipalities were tested in both 2006 and 2008; resistance and esterase activities both significantly increased during this 2-year period. Synergist studies demonstrated that neither glutathione transferases nor monooxygenases were associated with the increase in resistance to temephos in this period. The duration of the efficacy of commercial formulations of temephos in controlling Ae. aegypti populations in Havana City was reduced by the high level of temephos resistance observed; hence these data are of clear operational significance for the dengue control programme in Cuba. New integrated strategies to avoid further increases in temephos resistance in Cuba are necessary.

  13. [Tuberculin reactivity among ninth-grade schoolchildren in the city of Havana, Cuba].

    PubMed

    Borroto Gutiérrez, Susana M; González Ochoa, Edilberto; Armas Pérez, Luisa; Urbino López-Chávez, Amelia; Martínez, Ana Maribel; Llanes, María Josefa; Sevy Court, José; Carreras Corzo, Libertad

    2003-09-01

    To determine the proportion of 14-year-old schoolchildren in the city of Havana, Cuba, with a positive tuberculin skin test, as an indicator of the prevalence of tuberculosis infection among them. Using single-stage cluster sampling, 1 936 Mantoux (tuberculin) tests were carried out with ninth-grade students (cohort born in 1985) during the 1999- 2000 school year in 20 basic high schools randomly selected in Havana. The tests were performed according to the standard technique recommended by the World Health Organization, and they were read after 72 hours. The percentage of skin tests that were positive and the average diameter of the indurations were calculated for the cohort overall and for the two genders. The means and the percentages were compared using the chi-square test, with 95% confidence intervals. The computer software used was Epi Info version 6.0. Of the tests read, 96% of them were negative (0-4 mm), 2.5% were doubtful (5-9 mm), and 1.5% were positive (>/=10 mm). The percentage of reactivity was 0.1% when a cutoff value of 15 mm was used. The mean diameter of the indurations was 0.41 mm. No statistically significant difference was found between the genders. In this study the proportion of schoolchildren with tuberculin reactivity, using an induration-diameter cutoff point of 10 mm, was very low (1.5%), and it was much lower (0.1%) when a cutoff point of 15 mm was used. The skin reactions with an induration diameter of >/=10 mm could be the expression of a natural infection if one takes into account the low frequency of bacillary tuberculosis in Cuba and that there is an inverse relationship between the time elapsed from the BCG vaccination and the intensity of the response to tuberculin. Therefore, that would mean that in this case (l)the point (.)prevalence of tuberculosis infection in this group of schoolchildren wou d be 1.5% ResumenObjetivos. Determinar la proporción de personas que reaccionan a la tuberculina como indicador de la prevalencia de

  14. Curriculum Development for Learning To Live Together: The Caribbean Sub-Region. The Final Report of the Sub-Regional Seminar (Havana, Cuba, May 15-18, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byron, Isabel, Ed.; Rozemeijer, Saskia, Ed.

    A sub-regional seminar based on the theme, "Curriculum Development for Learning to Live Together" (Havana, Cuba, May 15-18, 2001), brought together 20 member states of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's Caribbean Network of Educational Innovation for Development: Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, Aruba,…

  15. [Abundance variations of fishes from sites with different levels of pollution in the sublittoral sector of Havana City, Cuba].

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ivet Herández; Betancourt, Consuelo Aguilar; Sansón, Gaspar González

    2009-12-01

    The impact of human activity affects fish populations. We studied the abundance of three selected fish species (Stegastes partitus, Thalassoma bifasciatum and Halichoeres bivittatus) in four sites with different degrees of pollution in Havana City: 30th street and 16th street; Miramar; Red Boy of Havana Bay; and the ending ofAlmendares's River. The sites were divided into five zones depending on their bottom characteristics. The counts were made with the visual census technique with a 5m2 quadrat, from June-July 2003 to January 2004. Each time we made nine counts per zone. S. partitus and T. bifasciatum were more abundant in clean water areas, while Halichoeres bivittatus seems to resist the levels of pollution present in the area.

  16. Temporal dynamics of airborne fungi in Havana (Cuba) during dry and rainy seasons: influence of meteorological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaguer, Michel; Aira, María-Jesús; Rodríguez-Rajo, F. Javier; Rojas, Teresa I.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine for first time the influence of the main meteorological parameters on the atmospheric fungal spore concentration in Havana (Cuba). This city is characterized by a subtropical climate with two different marked annual rainfall seasons during the year: a "dry season" and a "rainy season". A nonviable volumetric methodology (Lanzoni VPPS-2000 sampler) was used to sample airborne spores. The total number of spores counted during the 2 years of study was 293,594, belonging to 30 different genera and five spore types. Relative humidity was the meteorological parameter most influencing the atmospheric concentration of the spores, mainly during the rainy season of the year. Winds coming from the SW direction also increased the spore concentration in the air. In terms of spore intradiurnal variation we found three different patterns: morning maximum values for Cladosporium, night peaks for Coprinus and Leptosphaeria, and uniform behavior throughout the whole day for Aspergillus/ Penicillium."

  17. Temporal dynamics of airborne fungi in Havana (Cuba) during dry and rainy seasons: influence of meteorological parameters.

    PubMed

    Almaguer, Michel; Aira, María-Jesús; Rodríguez-Rajo, F Javier; Rojas, Teresa I

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine for first time the influence of the main meteorological parameters on the atmospheric fungal spore concentration in Havana (Cuba). This city is characterized by a subtropical climate with two different marked annual rainfall seasons during the year: a "dry season" and a "rainy season". A nonviable volumetric methodology (Lanzoni VPPS-2000 sampler) was used to sample airborne spores. The total number of spores counted during the 2 years of study was 293,594, belonging to 30 different genera and five spore types. Relative humidity was the meteorological parameter most influencing the atmospheric concentration of the spores, mainly during the rainy season of the year. Winds coming from the SW direction also increased the spore concentration in the air. In terms of spore intradiurnal variation we found three different patterns: morning maximum values for Cladosporium, night peaks for Coprinus and Leptosphaeria, and uniform behavior throughout the whole day for Aspergillus/Penicillium."

  18. Assessment of Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb levels in beach and dune sands from Havana resorts, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Díaz Rizo, Oscar; Buzón González, Fran; Arado López, Juana O

    2015-11-15

    Concentrations of nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in beach and dune sands from thirteen Havana (Cuba) resorts were estimated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Determined mean metal contents (in mg·kg(-1)) in beach sand samples were 28±12 for Ni, 35±12 for Cu, 31±11 for Zn and 6.0±1.8 for Pb, while for dune sands were 30±15, 38±22, 37±15 and 6.8±2.9, respectively. Metal-to-iron normalization shows moderately severe and severe enrichment by Cu. The comparison with sediment quality guidelines shows that dune sands from various resorts must be considered as heavily polluted by Cu and Ni. Almost in every resort, the Ni and Cu contents exceed their corresponding TEL values and, in some resorts, the Ni PEL value. The comparison with a Havana topsoil study indicates the possible Ni and Cu natural origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in urban soils of Havana city, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Rizo, O Díaz; Castillo, F Echeverría; López, J O Arado; Merlo, M Hernández

    2011-10-01

    Concentrations of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe in the top-soils (0-10 cm) from urbanized and un-urbanized areas of Havana city were measured by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The mean Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb contents in the urban topsoil samples (13.9 ± 4.1, 66 ± 26, 101 ± 51, 240 ± 132 and 101 ± 161 mg kg(-1), respectively) were compared with mean concentrations for other cities around the world. The results revealed the highest concentrations of metals in topsoil samples from industrial sites. Lowest metal contents were determined in the un-urbanized areas. The comparison with Dutch soil quality guidelines showed a slight contamination with Co, Ni Cu and Zn in all studied sites and with Pb in industrial soils. On the other hand, the metal-to-iron normalisation using Earth crust contents as background showed that soils from urbanized areas in Havana city (industrial sites, parks and school grounds) are moderately enriched with zinc, moderately to severe enriched (city parks and school grounds) and severe enriched (industrial sites) with lead. The values of integrated pollution index (IPI) indicated that industrial soils are middle and high contaminated by heavy metals (1.19 ≤ IPI ≤ 7.54), but enrichment index values (EI) shows that metal concentrations on the studied locations are not above the permissible levels for urban agriculture, except soils from power and metallurgical plants surroundings.

  20. [Variations of the infracommuity during the ontogeny of Chromis cyanea (Perciformes: Pomcentride) in the North coast of Havana, Cuba].

    PubMed

    Fernández Osorio, Ramón Alexis; Corrada Wong, Raúl Igor; Armenteros, Maickel

    2015-09-01

    The infracommunty or parasites or unromis cyanea (Pisces: Pomacentridae) was studied along the ontogenetic development in the North coast of Havana, Cuba. The objectives were: a- to prove that the core species appears before the strange and stochastic species and they are responsible for the structure in the infracommunity, b- to determine if there is a relationship among the ecological describers of the parasitic infracommunity with the total length. A total of 278 specimens of C. cyanea were captured during the dry season (April) of 2010. The body size range was from 1.5 to 11.5 cm including juvenile and adults. We collected 2 861 parasite specimens belonging to 20 taxa: Crustacea (5), Nematoda (5), Trematoda (4), Cestoda (2), Monogenea (2), Turbellaria (1) and Ciliophora (1). The taxa Tetraphyllidea and Anilocra chromis constituted the core of the parasitic infracommunity. The sequence of appearance and persistence of these taxa during the ontogenetic development, supported the hypothesis of the core species. The changes in the infracommunity, from 6 cm body size, could be the result of an accumulative effect combined with changes of the diet that caused the ingestion of new parasite infective stages. We concluded that the ontogenetic development of C. cyanea constitutes an important variable in the formation of the parasitic infracommunity.

  1. Reproductive pattern of Cuban women living in the municipality of Plaza de la Revolución, Havana, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Vanessa; Camargo, Ana M; Acosta, Marlen; Alonso, Verónica; Luna, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    This paper assesses the reproductive and abortion patterns of women living in Plaza de la Revolución, a municipality of Havana, Cuba, by studying the factors influencing birth and abortion rates. Socio-demographic data and female reproductive histories were collected in a survey of 1200 post-menopausal women living in the municipality. Average ages at menarche and at menopause were 12.71 and 48.39 years, respectively, thus yielding a potential long reproductive period of 35.68 years, indicating high fertility. Although the mean pregnancy rate was 3.81 pregnancies per woman, the live birth rate at time of delivery was only 1.89 due to the high rate of abortions: 40% of all pregnancies were voluntarily interrupted. Among the biological and socio-cultural variables that were found to influence the rate of live births were those related marriage pattern, especially age at first union. Demographic variables such as pregnancy order, maternal age and marital status were the main determinants of the abortion pattern, with abortion being used as a method of birth control in order to obtain the desired family size, and most women (75.2%) using contraceptives.

  2. Parental Perceptions of Giardiasis: A Study in an Outpatient Paediatric Hospital Setting in Havana, Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Almirall, Pedro; Escobedo, Angel A.; Salazar, Yohana; Alfonso, Maydel; Ávila, Ivonne; Cimerman, Sergio; Dawkins, Isabel V.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Giardia lamblia is an important cause of diarrhoeal disease throughout the world. Giardiasis— a mild and self-limiting disease that this protozoan causes— is perceived as a harmful disease. Aim. To explore the general level of awareness about giardiasis, clinical features, mode of transmission, prevention, and consequences and describe the sources and channels of information caregivers would prefer using to be informed about this disease. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among caregivers attending to the outpatient paediatric hospital setting in Havana. Results. A total of 202 caregivers were interviewed. Nearly 73% considered giardiasis as a modern problem, and 39% considered that it could be a fatal disease. Although 76.7% were aware that small intestine is the organ affected, other localizations were cited. Abdominal pain and diarrhoea were recognized as the commonest symptoms. Around one-third could identify that giardiasis may spread through drinking unboiled water and unwashed vegetables other incorrect ways were mentioned; respondents with more than 12 years of formal education were more likely to have better knowledge. Discussion. Strategies to control giardiasis need to be through an integrated approach aiming at boosting caregivers' knowledge and encouraging healthcare workers to act as a readily available source for health information. PMID:24967134

  3. Parental perceptions of giardiasis: a study in an outpatient paediatric hospital setting in havana, cuba.

    PubMed

    Almirall, Pedro; Escobedo, Angel A; Salazar, Yohana; Alfonso, Maydel; Avila, Ivonne; Cimerman, Sergio; Dawkins, Isabel V

    2013-01-01

    Background. Giardia lamblia is an important cause of diarrhoeal disease throughout the world. Giardiasis- a mild and self-limiting disease that this protozoan causes- is perceived as a harmful disease. Aim. To explore the general level of awareness about giardiasis, clinical features, mode of transmission, prevention, and consequences and describe the sources and channels of information caregivers would prefer using to be informed about this disease. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among caregivers attending to the outpatient paediatric hospital setting in Havana. Results. A total of 202 caregivers were interviewed. Nearly 73% considered giardiasis as a modern problem, and 39% considered that it could be a fatal disease. Although 76.7% were aware that small intestine is the organ affected, other localizations were cited. Abdominal pain and diarrhoea were recognized as the commonest symptoms. Around one-third could identify that giardiasis may spread through drinking unboiled water and unwashed vegetables other incorrect ways were mentioned; respondents with more than 12 years of formal education were more likely to have better knowledge. Discussion. Strategies to control giardiasis need to be through an integrated approach aiming at boosting caregivers' knowledge and encouraging healthcare workers to act as a readily available source for health information.

  4. Compensatory lengthening in the Spanish of Havana, Cuba: Acoustic analyses of word-internal, post-nuclear /l/ and /r/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Kristin M.

    Given the geographic, demographic, and historical importance of Cuba vis-a-vis the dissemination of language and culture throughout the Hispanic Caribbean, one would naturally anticipate a larger corpus of scientifically-noteworthy linguistic publications on Cuban Spanish, which is far from the actual case. Moreover, the gemination of an onset positionally subsequent to the deletion of a syllable-final liquid (generally termed liquid gemination in the literature) has been repeatedly claimed yet remarkably unsubstantiated as a pervasive characteristic of Cuban Spanish, particularly of the western dialect region (cf. Alfaraz (2000, 2007, 2008), Casanellas and Alamo (1985), Choy Lopez (1985, 1988, 1989), Costa Sanchez (1987), Darias Concepcion (2001, 2005), Dohotaru (2002, 2007), Figueroa Esteva and Dohotaru (1994), Garcia Perez (2006), Garcia Riveron (1991), Haden and Matluck (1973, 1974, 1977), Isbǎsescu (1965, 1968), Lamb (1968), Levina (1970), Montero Bernal (1990, 2002, 2007a, b), Ringer Uber (1986), Ruiz Hernandez (1978), Sosa (1974), Terrell (1976), Trista and Valdes (1978), Valdes Acosta (1980), and Vera Riveron (2000)). As a result, in the interest of supplementing all antecedent work concerning the allophony of final liquids as well as affording a more descriptively-precise account of the allophony of word-internal, post-nuclear /l/ and /[Special character omitted]/ in Cuban Spanish in addition to expressly addressing the need for empirical data-collection and analysis processes, the present investigation was specifically designed and implemented to acoustically investigate the phenomenon of gemination as it is purported to occur in the Spanish of the region of Havana, Cuba: more specifically, (1) to acoustically examine the qualitative and quantitative patternings of post-nuclear /l/ and /[Special character omitted]/ within the word; and (2) to statistically evaluate the relationship between gemination and eight independent variables: gender, age group

  5. Infection with human herpesvirus type 8 and human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 among individuals participating in a case–control study in Havana City, Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, L; Serraino, D; Rezza, G; Lence, J; Ortiz, R M; Cruz, T; Vaccarella, S; Sarmati, L; Andreoni, M; Franceschi, S

    2002-01-01

    Infection with human herpesvirus type 8 and with human T-cell leukaemia virus type-1 shows strong geographic variations. We conducted this study to assess prevalence and risk factors for human herpesvirus type 8 infection in Havana City, Cuba. Information and residual serum samples already collected for a hospital based case–control study were used. A total of 379 individuals (267 males and 112 females; median age=63 years) were evaluated. Antibodies to the lytic antigen of human herpesvirus type 8 were detected by using an immunofluorescence assay, while human T-cell leukaemia virus type-1 serology was performed by means of an ELISA test (alpha Biotech). Overall, 64 subjects (16.9%, 95% confidence interval: 13.1–20.0) were positive for human herpesvirus type 8 antibodies. Human herpesvirus type 8 seroprevalence significantly increased with age (odds ratio=1.9 for ⩾65 vs <55 years), and was twice as frequent in blacks than in whites. No association emerged with gender, socio-economic indicators, family size, history of sexually transmitted disease, sexual behaviour. Overall, 16 persons had anti-human T-cell leukaemia virus type-1 antibodies (4.2%, 95% confidence interval: 2.2–6.4). No relationship emerged between human T-cell leukaemia virus type-1 and human herpesvirus type 8 serostatus. The study findings indicate that human herpesvirus type 8 infection is relatively common in Havana City, Cuba, suggesting that Cuba may represent an intermediate endemical area. Sexual transmission does not seem to play a major role in the spread human herpesvirus type 8 infection. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 1253–1256. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600613 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12439714

  6. Molecular Fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates Obtained in Havana, Cuba, by IS6110 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis and by the Double-Repetitive-Element PCR Method

    PubMed Central

    Montoro, Ernesto; Valdivia, José; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso

    1998-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis sputum isolates from 38 patients, obtained in the first 6 months of 1997 in Havana, Cuba, were characterized by IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and the double-repetitive-element PCR (DRE-PCR) method. Among 41 strains from 38 patients, 24 and 25 unique patterns, and 5 and 4 cluster patterns, were found by the RFLP and DRE-PCR methods, respectively. Patients within two of these clusters were found to be epidemiologically related, while no relation was observed in patients in the other clusters. The DRE-PCR method is rapid, and it was as discriminating as IS6110 RFLP analysis in identifying an epidemiological association. Its simplicity makes the technique accessible for subtyping of M. tuberculosis strains in laboratories not equipped to perform RFLP analysis. PMID:9738082

  7. Lead isotope ratios in lichen samples evaluated by ICP-ToF-MS to assess possible atmospheric pollution sources in Havana, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Alfredo Montero; Estévez Alvarez, Juan R; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; González, Iván Pupo; Rizo, Oscar Díaz; Carzola, Lázaro Lima; Torres, Roberto Ayllón; Pascual, Jorge Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Epiphytic lichens, collected from 119 sampling sites grown over "Roistonea Royal Palm" trees, were used to assess the spatial distribution pattern of lead (Pb) and identify possible pollution sources in Havana (Cuba). Lead concentrations in lichens and topsoils were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectrometry, respectively, while Pb in crude oils and gasoline samples were measured by ICP-time of flight mass spectrometry (ICP-ToF-MS). Lead isotopic ratios measurements for lichens, soils, and crude oils were obtained by ICP-ToF-MS. We found that enrichment factors (EF) reflected a moderate contamination for 71% of the samples (EF > 10). The (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio values for lichens ranged from 1.17 to 1.20 and were a mixture of natural radiogenic and industrial activities (e.g., crude oils and fire plants). The low concentration of Pb found in gasoline (<7.0 μg L(-1)) confirms the official statement that leaded gasoline is no longer used in Cuba.

  8. Approaches to substance abuse in Cuba: Ricardo A. González MD PhD DrSc. Psychiatrist and consulting professor, Eduardo B. Ordaz Psychiatric Hospital, Havana. Interviewed by Christina Mills.

    PubMed

    González, Ricardo

    2013-10-01

    For over 40 years, he has done one of the most difficult jobs in medicine; 4000 of his patients are among those many might write off as "lost causes." Yet he radiates optimism, his stories and experience reflecting a belief in the human potential to change and grow and a vocation to help his patients do so. Now an internationally recognized expert on addictions, in 1976 Dr González founded Cuba's first patient service for substance abuse at the Eduardo B. Ordaz Psychiatric Hospital in Havana, a program he directed until last year. It is now the national reference center for another 17 such programs, two more in Havana and one in every other Cuban province. In addition, it serves as a model for treatment centers catering to international patients (undoubtedly the most well known among them Diego Maradona, the Argentine soccer star): two in Holguin Province and one in Santiago Province, with another being developed at Las Praderas International Health Center in Havana. Dr González's 25 books on psychiatry, medical ethics and addictions attest to a prolific career in research and practice. Today, he continues to work "from retirement" as consulting professor and psychiatrist in the addiction service he founded, and also chairs Cuba's National Medical Ethics Commission. In this interview, Dr González shares insights from his years of experience addressing substance abuse, as well as on repercussions and management of such conditions in Cuba.

  9. Reconstruction of metal pollution and recent sedimentation processes in Havana Bay (Cuba): a tool for coastal ecosystem management.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Asencio, M; Alvarado, J A Corcho; Alonso-Hernández, C; Quejido-Cabezas, A; Ruiz-Fernández, A C; Sanchez-Sanchez, M; Gómez-Mancebo, M B; Froidevaux, P; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A

    2011-11-30

    Since 1998 the highly polluted Havana Bay ecosystem has been the subject of a mitigation program. In order to determine whether pollution-reduction strategies were effective, we have evaluated the historical trends of pollution recorded in sediments of the Bay. A sediment core was dated radiometrically using natural and artificial fallout radionuclides. An irregularity in the (210)Pb record was caused by an episode of accelerated sedimentation. This episode was dated to occur in 1982, a year coincident with the heaviest rains reported in Havana over the XX century. Peaks of mass accumulation rates (MAR) were associated with hurricanes and intensive rains. In the past 60 years, these maxima are related to strong El Niño periods, which are known to increase rainfall in the north Caribbean region. We observed a steady increase of pollution (mainly Pb, Zn, Sn, and Hg) since the beginning of the century to the mid 90 s, with enrichment factors as high as 6. MAR and pollution decreased rapidly after the mid 90 s, although some trace metal levels remain high. This reduction was due to the integrated coastal zone management program introduced in the late 90 s, which dismissed catchment erosion and pollution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Preservation Priorities in Latin America. A Report from the Annual IFLA Meeting (60th, Havana, Cuba, August 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Dan C.

    The information in this report is condensed from the presentations and conversations, both formal and informal, that occurred during the 60th meeting of the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA). About 1,500 librarians attended, representing Cuba, Venezuela, Mexico, Argentina, Peru, and Colombia. Training for preservation…

  11. Biological fitness and action opportunity of natural selection in an urban population of Cuba: Plaza de la Revolución, Havana.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Vanessa; Alonso, Verónica; Luna, Francisco

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the biological fitness of an urban population of Havana city, Plaza de la Revolución, which has the lowest fertility and the highest demographic ageing in Cuba. The aim is to assess the biological fitness of this community through the indexes of action opportunity of natural selection, to determine its evolutionary pattern and the influence of its socio-cultural peculiarity. Demographic data were obtained from the reproductive histories of 1200 women between the ages of 55 and 64. Data concerning mortality and surviving offspring from the first embryonic stages until age of reproduction were also collected. In order to measure the level of biological fitness two indexes were used: the Crow index of action opportunity of natural selection and the corrected index proposed by Johnston and Kensinger, which takes into account prenatal mortality. This corrected index was calculated including and excluding induced abortions in order to evaluate the contribution of these to biological fitness. When only postnatal mortality was considered, the results showed an evolutionary pattern similar to that of developed countries, based on low mortality and fertility. However, when prenatal mortality was taken into account, biological fitness decreased and the corrected index of natural selection was 4.5 times higher than when miscarriages and fetal deaths were not considered. Moreover, this corrected index was 2.65 times higher when induced miscarriages were considered, indicating the large decrease in biological fitness as a result of the current reproductive behaviour of frequent induced abortion.

  12. Dengue 3 Epidemic, Havana, 2001

    PubMed Central

    Peláez, Otto; Kourí, Gustavo; Pérez, Raúl; San Martín, José L.; Vázquez, Susana; Rosario, Delfina; Mora, Regla; Quintana, Ibrahim; Bisset, Juan; Cancio, Reynel; Masa, Ana M; Castro, Osvaldo; González, Daniel; Avila, Luis C.; Rodríguez, Rosmari; Alvarez, Mayling; Pelegrino, Jose L.; Bernardo, Lídice; Prado, Irina

    2004-01-01

    In June 2001, dengue transmission was detected in Havana, Cuba; 12,889 cases were reported. Dengue 3, the etiologic agent of the epidemic, caused the dengue hemorrhagic fever only in adults, with 78 cases and 3 deaths. After intensive vector control efforts, no new cases have been detected. PMID:15200868

  13. Caregiver perspectives for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of childhood giardiasis in Havana City, Cuba. A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, Angel A; Almirall, Pedro; Alfonso, Maydel; Avila, Ivonne; Cimerman, Sérgio; Salazar, Yohana; Dawkins, Isabel V; García, Rosa M

    2011-08-01

    Although long considered a non-pathogenic protozoan, Giardia lamblia is now a well recognized cause of abdominal discomfort, diarrhoea and failure-to-thrive in children. The overall prevalence of this infection in Cuban population is about 7.2%; however, higher prevalences have been found among young children attending day-care centres and primary school in the country. Anecdotally, clinical giardiasis is generally considered to place a large burden on both diagnostic and treatment services in Cuba. In order to gain insight into caregivers' perspectives with respect to this infection in children, a qualitative study was carried out in a paediatric hospital in Cuba. Focus group discussions were conducted to gather information about the awareness of the giardiasis, their mode of transmission and symptoms, diagnosis process, treatment seeking behaviour, possible ways of prevention, and barriers for not adopting preventive behaviours, the source and channels of information about this disease. Caregivers have knowledge of giardiasis, although there were myths and misconceptions regarding giardiasis. Manifestations like diarrhoea, abdominal pain and nausea were cited; however, asymptomatic forms of these infections are hardly accepted. Boiling water and washing hands before eating and after defecation and washing vegetables were mentioned among the principal ways of preventing this infection. The most commonly mentioned reasons for not adopting preventive behaviours included lack of time due to outdoor activities and limitation of combustible distribution. Treatment-seeking behaviour when giardiasis suspected mainly included visiting the nearby family doctor. The findings of this study reveal the need for a health education intervention in areas of misperceptions and confusion.

  14. Cuba.

    PubMed

    1985-08-01

    Cuba's population characteristics, geography, history, government, political conditions, and foreign relations were briefly described. Cuba, the largest island in the East Indies, has a tropical climate and is made up of a large area of rolling plains and a smaller mountainous region. Cuba's current population of 9.946 million (1983) is 70% urban and 30% rural. The annual population growth rate is 1.1%. The literacy rate among those aged 10-49 years is 96%, and school is compulsory for 6 years. The infant mortality rate is 21/1000 live births, and life expectancy is 74.7 years. 47% of the work force is engaged in industry and commerce, 28% in services and government, and 25% in agriculture. Since the revolution, Cuba has had a centrally planned, nonmarket economy. Large state enterprises run all segments of the economy, and economic policy is formulated by a central planning board. Farmers are allowed to privately market some of their produce. The government provide a wide range of social services. Most of the services are free, but some entail a minimal fee. Cuba's economy is depressed and overly dependent on the production of sugar. Since the revolution, Cuba's sugar production has increased by only 1.1% annually. In addition to sugar production, the country is engaged in some food processing and other light forms of industry. Cuba has a large reserve of nickle. Cuba's economic indicators are calculated differently than those used in market countries and are not comparable to those used in market countries. In 1983, disposable national income was US$15.8 billion, and per capita income was US$2,590. Cuba's imports exceed her exports. In 1983 exports totalled US$6.5 billion and imports amounted to US$7.2 billion. Cuba's foreign debt is increasing annually, and Cuba is highly dependent on economic assistance from Russia. Between 1961-83, the USSR provided Cuba with US$30 billion in economic aid and US$10 billion in military aid. The country's serious economic

  15. Increased mercury and body size and changes in trophic structure of Gambusia puncticulata (Poeciliidae) along the Almendares River, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Páez, Yureidy Cabrera; Betancourt, Consuelo Aguilar; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Kidd, Karen A; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Curry, R Allen

    2012-11-01

    The Almendares River is the largest river draining the area around Havana City, Cuba. The watershed is heavily populated and industrialized, which has had a significant impact on the flow and water quality of the river. The main goal of this study was to analyze the spatial variability in dietary habits, nutrient flow (using stable isotope ratios δ(15)N and δ(13)C), and mercury (Hg) levels along the Almendares River upstream and downstream of point-source discharges using localized fish Gambusia puncticulata. Stomach contents of G. puncticulata were similar among these sites. However, mean δ(15)N values ranged from 6 to 18 ‰ across sites and were lower in fish from downstream than upstream sites, suggesting localized influences of nutrient inputs along the river. δ(13)C values were between -22 and -25 ‰, except at a mid-basin site (-26 to -27‰), indicating that fish relied on similar carbon sources at most sites. Total mercury concentrations ranged from 0.04 to 0.49 μg/g wet weight whole body and were unrelated to the among-site differences in δ(15)N, but Hg exceeded the threshold considered to be protective of fish health (0.2 μg/g ww whole body) in the majority of fish from all sites but one. Results of this study indicate that although the dietary habits of this species do not vary across sites, tissue differences in δ(15)N, δ(13)C and Hg show little movement of this species among sites. Localized effects of human activities on nutrients and metals may be affecting the health of this species and posing a risk to other consumers in the ecosystem.

  16. Occurrence and Source Appraisal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Surface Waters of the Almendares River, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Santana, Jorge Luis; Massone, Carlos German; Valdés, Michel; Vazquez, Rene; Lima, Lázaro Antonio; Olivares-Rieumont, Susana

    2015-08-01

    In this work, 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) included in the United States Environmental Protection Agency pollutant priority list were analyzed in the surface water of the upper urbanized part of Almendares River, the most important water course in Havana, Cuba. Surface water from five sampling sites was collected at the end of dry season and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method after solid phase extraction procedure. Total PAHs concentrations varied from 836 to 15 811 ng L(-1) with a geometric mean value of 2512 ng L(-1). PAH typology was dominated by low molecular-weight PAHs (2- to 3-ring components). Pollutant source appraisal was determined by diagnostic ratios method in five sampling sites. Factor analysis of normalized samples was used to concentration identified two factors as the main significant pollutant sources and to cluster similar sampling sites corresponding to petrogenic and combustion inputs, respectively. Ecological risks were considered. For animal aquatic life, acute toxicity values exceed the permissible values in the more-polluted sampling sites.

  17. Cuba.

    PubMed

    1993-02-01

    Cuba is a country of 110,860 sq.km with 10.8 million inhabitants, of whom 99% are literate. Independence was gained on May 20, 1902. The terrain consists of flat or gently rolling plains, hills, and mountains up to 2000 meters in the Southeast, with a climate which is tropical, yet moderated by trade winds. Spanish is spoken by the Spanish-African mixed population. Life expectancy ranges over 74-77 years. Gross social product is $21 billion, declining at a rate of -20%. Per capita income is $1500. The country's natural resources include nickel, cobalt, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, and timber. Sugar, fruits, tobacco, coffee, rice, beans, meat, vegetables, food processing, oil refining, cement, electric power, light consumer, and industrial products are areas of economic production. Capital goods, industrial raw materials, food, petroleum, and consumer goods are imported, and sugar and its by-products, petroleum, nickel, seafood, citrus, tobacco products and rum are exported. Indepth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country.

  18. Faecal bacterial indicators removal in various wastewater treatment plants located in Almendares River watershed (Cuba).

    PubMed

    Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; Prats, Josué; Marrero, Yociel; Servais, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The Almendares River, located in Havana city, receives the wastewaters of more than 200,000 inhabitants. The high abundance of faecal bacterial indicators (FBIs) in the downstream stretch of the river reflects the very poor microbiological water quality. In this zone, the Almendares water is used for irrigation of urban agriculture and recreational activities although the microbiological standards for these uses are not met. Improvement of wastewater treatment is absolutely required to protect the population against health risk. This paper compares the removal of FBIs in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in this watershed: a conventional facility using trickling filters, a constructed wetland (CW) and a solar aquatic system (SAS). The results indicate better removal efficiency in the two natural systems (CW and SAS) for all the measured parameters (suspended matters, biological oxygen demand, total coliforms, E. coli and enterococci). Removals of the FBIs were around two log units higher in both natural systems than in the conventional one. A longitudinal profile of the microbiological quality of the river illustrates the negative impact of the large conventional WWTP. This case study confirms the usefulness of small and natural WWTPs for tropical developing countries, even in urban and periurban areas.

  19. Havana: aging in an aging city.

    PubMed

    Coyula, Miguel

    2010-10-01

    In Cuba, various factors have led to nearly zero population growth and a rapidly aging society. In a few years, the rush of baby-boomers reaching retirement will stand the population pyramid on its head, as the country's life expectancy already nears 80 years. Almost 20% of all Cubans live in Havana, demographically and structurally an aging city. Yet, the city is not prepared to offer its older inhabitants the spaces, services and housing options they require for a healthy quality of life. Studies must be undertaken to address this issue comprehensively, generating creative alternatives for wise use of limited resources to fulfill the material, social and spiritual needs of this growing population sector. KEYWORDS Aging, quality of life, social environment, urban health, housing for the elderly, Cuba.

  20. Effects-based assessment in a tropical coastal system: status of bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus) on the north shore of Cuba.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Consuelo; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Hernández, Ivet; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Munkittrick, Kelly R

    2007-07-01

    The research was carried out to determine whether there are individual-level differences in the bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus) within the altered fish communities located on the north coast of Havana, Cuba. There was strong evidence of changes in some morphological and physiological characteristics associated with the impact of land-based pollution in the coastal zone. A combination of impaired recruitment due to habitat degradation with increased food supply due to eutrophication seems to be the best explanation for fishes being heavier and longer at polluted sites. The change in the proportion of color patterns and a very high number of atretic oocytes in the ovaries of fish caught near the mouth of the Almendares River strongly support the idea that not only is the pollution of river waters affecting the marine life in the coastal zone, but also that this pollution has greater effects than the pollution coming from the discharge of Havana Harbor.

  1. U.S. Embargo Against Cuba: Should it Be Continued

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-23

    relations , but I believe it to be necessary if the United States wants to have an influence on any future regime change in Cuba . Although Castro ... States severed its diplomatic relations with Cuba . This was in response to Castro’s insistence that the United States cut its embassy staff in Havana down...and tightening phases in its over 30 year history. During the early 1970’s, relations between the United States and Cuba

  2. Cuba Adrift in a Postcommunist World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    1989 when Castro changed Cuba’s traditional revolutionary slogan from "Patria o Muerte ." (Fatherland or Death!) to "Socialismo o Muerte !" (Socialism...8217 prestigious government-affiliated publishing house, Fondo de Cultura Economics (FCE), has just been allowed to open an office in Havana. pretigou goermen

  3. A Perspective on Physics in Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy, Carlos R.

    The author is Cuban by birth: the son of an Afro-Cuban mother and an Afro-American father. He spent the first 8 years of his life attending schools in Havana and New York City. He left Cuba in 1958 so as to gain a more uninterrupted educational experience. This led to his PhD in theoretical physics from Columbia University in 1978, followed by a post-doctoral appointment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. He returned to Cuba in 1980 as a member of an academic tour organized by the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque. This provided an introduction to various government-run scientific facilities in Havana and the easternmost city of "Santiago de Cuba" in the province of Oriente.

  4. Visiting the Republic of Cuba: An Experience to Remember.

    PubMed

    Brown, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    A few years ago, I was privileged to visit the Republic of Cuba as a summer vacation. Officially, this Spanish island is the largest island in the Caribbean, with more than 12 million people. It is only second as being most populous after Hispaniola with its people, culture and customs. Havana is the capital and Cuba's largest city. The United States lies to the immediate north only about 95 miles away, and the Bahamas and Mexico to the west, the Cayman Islands and Jamaica are on the southern end, and Haiti and the Dominion Republic are in the southeastern area. The history of this island is truly amazing. I was able to vist a hospital, and ride public transportation (bus). The trip was made at the time when Cuba was not open to travelers coming direct from the United States. I traveled to Montreal, Canada to board Cabana Arlines to Havana, Cuba.

  5. Characterization of municipal solid waste from the main landfills of Havana city

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C Lopez Torres, Matilde; Alvarez, Haydee Pellon Arrechea, Alexis; Garcia, Jorge Alejandro Diaz Aguirre, Susana; Fernandez, Alejandro

    2008-07-01

    The city of Havana, the political, administrative and cultural centre of Cuba, is also the centre of many of the economic activities of the nation: industries, services, scientific research and tourism. All of these activities contribute to the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW), which also impact other Cuban cities. Inadequate handling of waste and the lack of appropriate and efficient solutions for its final disposal and treatment increase the risk and possibility of contamination. The main difficulty in the development of a system of management of MSW lies in the lack of knowledge of the chemical composition of the waste that is generated in the country as a whole, and especially in Havana, where solid waste management decisions are made. The present study characterizes MSW in Havana city during 2004. The Calle 100, Guanabacoa and Ocho Vias landfills were selected for physical-chemical characterization of MSW, as they are the three biggest landfills in the city. A total of 16 indicators were measured, and weather conditions were recorded. As a result, the necessary information regarding the physical-chemical composition of the MSW became available for the first time in Cuba. The information is essential for making decisions regarding the management of waste and constitutes a valuable contribution to the Study on Integrated Management Plan of MSW in Havana.

  6. Characterization of municipal solid waste from the main landfills of Havana city.

    PubMed

    Espinosa Lloréns, Ma Del C; Torres, Matilde López; Alvarez, Haydee; Arrechea, Alexis Pellón; García, Jorge Alejandro; Aguirre, Susana Díaz; Fernández, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    The city of Havana, the political, administrative and cultural centre of Cuba, is also the centre of many of the economic activities of the nation: industries, services, scientific research and tourism. All of these activities contribute to the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW), which also impact other Cuban cities. Inadequate handling of waste and the lack of appropriate and efficient solutions for its final disposal and treatment increase the risk and possibility of contamination. The main difficulty in the development of a system of management of MSW lies in the lack of knowledge of the chemical composition of the waste that is generated in the country as a whole, and especially in Havana, where solid waste management decisions are made. The present study characterizes MSW in Havana city during 2004. The Calle 100, Guanabacoa and Ocho Vías landfills were selected for physical-chemical characterization of MSW, as they are the three biggest landfills in the city. A total of 16 indicators were measured, and weather conditions were recorded. As a result, the necessary information regarding the physical-chemical composition of the MSW became available for the first time in Cuba. The information is essential for making decisions regarding the management of waste and constitutes a valuable contribution to the Study on Integrated Management Plan of MSW in Havana.

  7. Mercury contamination of riverine sediments in the vicinity of a mercury cell chlor-alkali plant in Sagua River, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Bolaños-Álvarez, Yoelvis; Alonso-Hernández, Carlos Manuel; Morabito, Roberto; Díaz-Asencio, Misael; Pinto, Valentina; Gómez-Batista, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    Sediment is a great indicator for assessing coastal mercury contamination. The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of mercury pollution in the sediments of the Sagua River, Cuba, where a mercury-cell chlor-alkali plant has operated since the beginning of the 1980s. Surface sediments and a sediment core were collected in the Sagua River and analyzed for mercury using an Advanced Mercury Analyser (LECO AMA-254). Total mercury concentrations ranged from 0.165 to 97 μg g(-1) dry weight surface sediments. Enrichment Factor (EF), Index of Geoaccumulation (Igeo) and Sediment Quality Guidelines were applied to calculate the degrees of sediment contamination. The EF showed the significant role of anthropogenic mercury inputs in sediments of the Sagua River. The result also determined that in all stations downstream from the chlor-alkali plant effluents, the mercury concentrations in the sediments were higher than the Probable Effect Levels value, indicating a high potential for adverse biological effects. The Igeo index indicated that the sediments in the Sagua River are evaluated as heavily polluted to extremely contaminated and should be remediated as a hazardous material. This study could provide the latest benchmark of mercury pollution and prove beneficial to future pollution studies in relation to monitoring works in sediments from tropical rivers and estuaries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Technology transfer from havana hospitals to primary care: yamila de armas, MD. Deputy director, provincial health department, havana city province.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Dr Yamila de Armas has occupied an array of posts since finishing her residency in family medicine in her home province of Cienfuegos in 1992. She has served as a family doctor; polyclinic, municipal and provincial health director; medical school dean; and twice vice minister of public health. But few would doubt her toughest job is the one she has now: deputy director of the Havana City Provincial Health Department, in charge of medical services for the 2.2 million people living in Cuba's complex, sprawling capital. It was here in 2002-2003 that the program was launched to repair, refurbish and expand the country's nearly 500 community polyclinics. Key to the effort was equipping these facilities with a broader range of new and upgraded medical technology. Dr de Armas offers MEDICC Review her reflections on the results five years later.

  9. Chemistry of bottom sediments from the Cal-Sag channel and the Des Plaines and Illinois Rivers between Joliet and Havana, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.; Kucera, E.T.; Tome, C.; Van Loon, L.S.; Van Luik, A.

    1981-02-01

    Cores were taken in 28 actual or proposed maintenance-dredging areas. Sixty-one core samples were analyzed to provide a data base for subsequent studies of the suitability of the potential dredged material for reclamation of abandoned surface-mined land bordering the Illinois Waterway. Samples were composited over 2-ft depth increments, up to a maximum 8-ft depth where possible. Parameters determined for each sample were: volatile solids, flash point, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), base/neutral organic compounds, pH, total phosphorus, total phenols, oil and grease, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), cyanide, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, zinc, silver, nickel, selenium, and sulfide. Results showed PCBs to be higher in the Cal-Sag Channel sediments (..mu..=7.0 mg/kg) than in the Des Plaines River (..mu..=1.6 mg/kg), or Illinois River (..mu..=0.5 mg/kg) sediments. Concentrations of metals including arsenic, barium, cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and silver were higher in the Des Plaines River samples than in the Cal-Sag Channel or Illinois River samples. Illinois River sediments were, generally, the least contaminated in terms of the measured parameters. Leach tests for arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc indicated low leachate-metal concentrations relative to total metal concentrations; thus, these metals exist in relatively insoluble solid states in the sediments.

  10. United States - Cuba Relations: Does the War on Terrorism Change Our Stance?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-09

    embargo. The United States’ North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) partners, Canada and Mexico , are also two of Cuba’s largest trading partners...getting through the lean "Special Period" by way of subsistence farming. Dr. Fernando Funes-Aguilar of the Havana-based Grupo de Agricultura Organica...www.sustainabletimes.ca/articles/cubanfarms.htm>. Internet. Accessed 19 October 2001. Baklanoff, Eric N. Expropriation of U.S. Investments in Cuba, Mexico

  11. Lessons from Cuba: Using Sense of Place as a Tool to Connect Internationally and at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dear, Samantha; Sayle, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 2010, 16 Recreation and Leisure Studies students from Brock University in St. Catharines, Ontario, travelled to Cuba to complete a fourth-year field class titled International Field Experiences in Recreation and Leisure. After a week spent in Havana, Brock University students engaged in a unique outdoor education experience. With…

  12. An integrated ecosystem approach for sustainable prevention and control of dengue in Central Havana.

    PubMed

    Bonet, Mariano; Spiegel, Jerry M; Ibarra, Ana Maria; Kouri, Gustavo; Pintre, Alfredo; Yassi, Annalee

    2007-01-01

    The authors developed and evaluated a comprehensive participatory ecosystem health approach for preventing the transmission of dengue, the most prevalent vector-borne disease in Cuba and the Latin America-Caribbean region. The integrated surveillance system central to this initiative encompassed three main subsystems (environmental; entomological; clinical-epidemiologic), relying on extensive community involvement. The study was conducted in Central Havana, Cuba. Indicators from each subsystem were selected and mapped using a GIS procedure providing instant visualization by city block in the municipality. To elucidate the factors affecting control and prevention efforts, perceived needs and risks, as well as knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to dengue, were assessed. Specific factors associated with the presence of mosquito breeding sites and risks of dengue were examined in a case-control study.

  13. Becoming a Chemist in Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taft, Hessy L.

    2003-08-01

    Education in Cuba is a national priority. Overall, the population is skilled and motivated to use all available resources; furthermore teachers are dedicated and focused on their mission. This paper reports on information obtained as a result of visits to several secondary schools and three premier institutions of higher learning: the University of Havana, the Higher Polytechnic Institute "Jose Antonio Echevaria", and an Institute for Pedagogy. University tuition is free for all Cubans: students can not work for a salary during the typical five-year program of post-secondary study and instead serve as interns in government, industry, or schools. Experience working abroad is encouraged upon graduation. An overview of Cuban university admissions criteria, some specific programs of study, and placement of students in career jobs upon graduation is presented.

  14. Psychological the most common elder abuse in a Havana neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Ribot, Victoria C; Rousseaux, Elena; García, Teresita C; Arteaga, Emilio; Ramos, Marta; Alfonso, Maritza

    2015-04-01

    Globally, older adults are a population group that often suffers abuse by their caregivers. Along with women and children, they are among those most often reported as victims of abuse of any kind in Cuba. Characterize presence of domestic abuse of older adults in family doctor-and-nurse office No. 28 of the Carlos Manuel Portuondo University Polyclinic in Havana, Cuba, determining the main manifestations of abuse and help-seeking behavior by the older adults identified as victims. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of adults aged ≥ 60 years; all those not diagnosed with dementia and who agreed to participate were interviewed. In a universe of 268 older adults, 29 were living outside the area, 24 declined to participate, and 18 had a diagnosis of dementia, leaving a study population of 197 individuals. Variables included: personal experience of abuse, type of abuse, perpetrator, help sought, and reasons for not seeking help. Statistical analysis was based on percentages. Of 197 older adults interviewed, 88 (44.7%) reported that they were victims of domestic abuse; 50 of these were women. The most common types of abuse were psychological abuse and disrespect for personal space, reported by 69 (78.4%) and 54 (61.4%) individuals, respectively. Sons- and daughters-in-law were identified as the abusers by 68 participants and grandchildren by 65. Of the 88 victims, 67 (76.1%) stated that they did not seek help. The finding that substantial numbers of older adults are victims of domestic abuse brings to light a hitherto insufficiently addressed issue in the community studied. More research is needed to deepen understanding of the scope and causes of the problem to inform prevention and management strategies, not only at the level of the polyclinic catchment area, but in the health system in general.

  15. Huddling with the honchos in Havana

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, J.

    1993-09-01

    The economic collapse following the Soviet Union's disintegration has affected all aspects of life in Cuba. In this paper Cuban foreign policy and defense is discussed. This article evaluates the energy situation of Cuba (oil imports), food shortages, Cuba's position on the Treaty of Tlatelolco (formally, the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America), Cuba's nuclear power projects, and discussions concerning Cuban involvement in biological warfare. The effects of U.S. military activities on U.S.-Cuban relations are emphasized. 8 refs.

  16. Concurrent Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, T.

    2016-10-01

    The parallel version of the multidimensional numerical integration package Cuba is presented and achievable speed-ups discussed. The parallelization is based on the fork/wait POSIX functions, needs no extra software installed, imposes almost no constraints on the integrand function, and works largely automatically.

  17. Development of Astronomy at the Planetarium of Havana. Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Oscar

    2015-08-01

    In December 2009 to celebrate the International Year of Astronomy was inaugurated in Havana with a great constructive effort the only Planetarium in regular public service, currently serving in Cuba.After 5 years of operation open to the public is time to propose a series of activities that raise its level of activity as a Cultural Center of Science and Technology.The establishment of a cathedra of Astronomy and Astrophysics attached to a center of Higher Education once the staff acquire sufficient capacity and experience to conduct research programs is proposed, and also, to provide scientific expertise to educators in supporting the national system of education and outreach of the Cultural Center.In addition to becoming a member of the International Association of Planetariums, its active members will participate to international and national events, will increase our national membership in the International Astronomical Union and its commissions, an also to the Red Pop UNESCO and other related groups of IberoamericaIn order to ensure the scientific life of its main technical staff, efforts will be made to establish agreements with Higher Education related centers such as the Faculty of Physics at the University of Havana, the Higher Institute of Applied Science and Technology and other schools allowing professional activities of staff in these institutions to the Cultural Centre as university extension. This includes the maintenance of university students of all specialties covering fixed shifts as guides / aids in attention to visitors.The Cultural Center is designed as a modern concept embedded in a Colonial architecture and traditional external environment. Exhibitions, shows the space and other facilities - will provide visitors a set of tools to bring back home, concepts and information about the universe before it was too remote and too complex for the average citizen. It is undoubtedly a unique educational opportunity in the country to demystify the

  18. [Households and families in poor neighborhoods of Havana in the nineteenth century. An approximation according to the 1861 census].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Quinones, F; Perez-fuentes Hernandez, P; Valverde Lamsfus, L

    1998-01-01

    "This article analyzes...Havana's [Cuba] poor neighborhood households' structure [in the nineteenth century] by color, sex, and condition of the population. As a starting point, it presents two different levels of analysis: the households and coresident family groups.... The formation of family groups follows very different nuptiality patterns: marriage among...whites and cohabitation as the preferred option among...blacks, with [a] subsequent impact on illegitimacy levels. Nuptiality behavior by color, sex, age groups, and masculinity ratio reveals the complexity of [the] marriage market...influenced not only legally by color and condition but also because of important population imbalances." (EXCERPT)

  19. Physics Studies at the University of Havana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo Pereira, Osvaldo; Sánchez Colina, María

    The licenciatura en física degree course was created as part of the 1962 University Reform. It started at the Physics School within the Science Faculty of the University of Havana, also including the Schools of Mathematics, Chemistry, Biological Sciences, Geography and Psychology (Henriques Rodríguez, Daisy, R, Revista Cubana de Educación Superior XXI(8), 2001). The degree of licenciado had replaced that of baciller since 1880, but only the physico-mathematical sciences and physico-chemical sciences degree courses existed prior to the 1962 university reform. In this paper, we will analyze some data concerning the undergraduate and graduate studies during the 46 years elapsed since the creation of the physics degree course at the University of Havana. Several related issues, such as the development of scientific research and the influence of international collaboration, are dealt with in other contributions to this volume.

  20. First report of a Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Beck, Cathy A.; Powell, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Florida utilize intake and effluent canals of power plants as resting and thermoregulatory habitat. We report the use of a power plant canal in Cuba by a known Florida manatee, the first documented case of movement by a manatee between Florida and Cuba. In January, February, and April 2007, two manatees (mother and calf) were reported entering a power plant canal in north Havana, Cuba. The larger manatee had several distinctive scars which were photographed. Digital images were matched to a previously known Florida manatee (CR131) with a sighting history dating from December 1979 to July 2006. Exchanges of individuals between Florida and Cuba may have important genetic implications, particularly since there appears to be little genetic exchange between the Florida manatee subspecies with populations of the Antillean manatee subspecies (T. m. manatus) in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic.

  1. A study of the natural bitumen of the Mariel deposit (Republic of Cuba)

    SciTech Connect

    Platanov, V.V.; Ivleva, L.N.; Kalyavina, O.A.; Tabolenko, N.V.; Valdes, J.C.; Vol-Epsthein, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    The bitumen of the Mariel deposit, province of Havana, Republic of Cuba, and the products of its ozonolysis and thermal degradation have been studied by a group of physicochemical and chemical methods. It has been shown that the organic part of the bitumen has an aromatic polycondensed structure with mainly short alkyl substituents and ketone, ester, phenol, and quinoid functional groups together with organic sulfur and nitrogen.

  2. Cuba after Fidel Castro.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-07

    Cuba , however, after the resumption of friendly relations with the Soviets in 1968. Although Castro wanted to remain...elections, and signed a trade agreement with the U.S.S.R., the United States took actions to punish Cuba with * economic sanctions. Relations worsened when...presidency, increasing tensions between Cuba and the United States . President Jimmy Carter, in seekino to improve relations with Cuba , succeeded

  3. Cuba, Are Sanctions Working?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    1993), 870. 50 Ló pez, 4; quoted in Claudia Ma´rguez Linares, Encuesta informal sobre la atención mé dica primaria en Cuba, (CubaNet, 23 March...University Press, 2002. 4. Quoted in Claudia Ma´rguez Linares, Encuesta informal sobre la atencio´n me´dica primaria en Cuba. CubaNet, 23 March 2001

  4. Vietnamese women at solidarity meeting of world women in Cuba.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes experiences of a Vietnamese delegation at a solidarity meeting of world women during April 13-16, 1998, in Cuba. The President of the Viet Nam Women's Union headed the delegation. The advisor was the vice-chairperson of the Vietnamese National Assembly. The delegation participated in 6 forums: women and sustainable economic development; women, health, education, and social security; women, communication and the mass media; women in politics and decision-making; women, violence and discrimination; and national independence, sovereignty, peace, and women. The delegation also participated in sessions on women's issues; implementation issues; women parliamentarians; and migrant and displaced women. The delegation met with delegates from other countries and participated in a world meeting and an Asian-Pacific meeting to support Cuban women. The entire delegation presented a stage show of songs, which was well received by the 3000 participants. The delegation met with Cuban delegates to discuss the formation of women's groups and to build better relations between the women of both countries. The delegation visited a training center of women cadres and the center for gender education. Participants adopted the Havana Declaration, which states the intention of world women to eradicate poverty and war and to promote peace, progress, and happiness in all countries. The Havana Declaration condemned the US embargo against Cuba. Fidel Castro spoke and expressed gratitude for the strong support from world women, especially Vietnamese women.

  5. The Prevalence, Correlates and Impact of Dementia in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Llibre Rodríguez, J.; Valhuerdi, A.; Sanchez, l.l.; Reyna, C.; Guerra, M.A.; Copeland, J.R.M.; McKeigue, P.; Ferri, C.P.; Prince, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background We aimed to estimate the prevalence, correlates and impact of dementia in Havana and Matanzas, Cuba. Methods A 1-phase catchment area survey of all over 65-year-old residents of 7 catchment areas in Havana and 1 in Matanzas was conducted. Dementia diagnosis was established according to DSM-IV and our own, pre-validated10/66 criteria. The impact of dementia was assessed through associations with needs for care, cutting back on work to care and caregiver psychological morbidity. Results We interviewed 2,944 older people, a response proportion of 96.4%. The prevalence of DSM-IV dementia was 6.4% and that of 10/66 dementia 10.8%. Both dementia outcomes were associated with older age, less education, a family history of dementia, shorter leg length and smaller skull circumference. Dementia, rather than physical health problems or depression, was the main contributor to needs for care (population-attributable prevalence fraction = 64.6%) and caregiver cutting back on work (population-attributable prevalence fraction = 57.3%). Conclusion The prevalence of dementia in Cuba is similar to Europe. Among health conditions, dementia is the major contributor to dependency and caregiver economic and psychological strain. More attention needs to be given to it and other chronic diseases associated more with disability than premature mortality. PMID:18931519

  6. Cuba's Aging and Alzheimer Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Llibre-Rodríguez, Juan de Jesús; Valhuerdi-Cepero, Adolfo; López-Medina, Ana M; Noriega-Fernández, Lisseth; Porto-Álvarez, Rutbeskia; Guerra-Hernández, Milagros A; Bosch-Bayard, Rodolfo I; Zayas-Llerena, Tania; Hernandez-Ulloa, Elaine; Rodríguez-Blanco, Ana L; Salazar-Pérez, Enrique; Llibre-Guerra, Juan C; Llibre-Guerra, Jorge J; Marcheco-Teruel, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Aging and Alzheimer is a prospective, longitudinal cohort study involving 2944 adults aged ≥65 years from selected areas in Cuba's Havana and Matanzas Provinces. This door-to-door study, which began in 2003, includes periodic assessments of the cohort based on an interview; physical exam; anthropometric measurements; and diagnosis of dementia and its subtypes, other mental disorders, and other chronic non-communicable diseases and their risk factors. Information was gathered on sociodemographic characteristics; disability, dependency and frailty; use of health services; and characteristics of care and caregiver burden. The first assessment also included blood tests: complete blood count, blood glucose, kidney and liver function, lipid profile and ApoE4 genotype (a susceptibility marker). In 2007-2011, the second assessment was done of 2010 study subjects aged ≥65 years who were still alive. The study provides data on prevalence and incidence of dementia and its risk factors, and of related conditions that affect the health of older adults. It also contributes valuable experiences from field work and interactions with older adults and their families. Building on lessons learned, a third assessment to be done in 2016-2018 will incorporate a community intervention strategy to respond to diseases and conditions that predispose to dementia, frailty and dependency in older adults. KEYWORDS Dementia, Alzheimer disease, chronic disease, aging, chronic illness, frailty, dependency, cohort studies, Cuba.

  7. [Speech by Oscar Julian Bardeci, director of the Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia (CELADE), at the Latinamerican Regional Meeting prior to the International Conference on Population in recognition of the Second Meeting on Population by the Committee of Upper-Level Government Experts (CEGAN), Havana, Cuba, November 16-19, 1983].

    PubMed

    Bardeci, O J

    1983-12-01

    This work examines the relationship between population growth and economic development in Latin America and assesses progress in the 10 years since the Bucharest World Population Conference. The Latin American population increased from about 159 million in 1950 to 275 million in 1970 and around 325 million in 1980. The rate of growth reached a maximum of 2.8%/year in the early 1970s and has now declined to about 2.3%/year. The regional growth rate is a product of population dynamics that differ greatly in individual countries. Crude birth rates declined in every country of Latin America between 1975-80, but still exceeded 40/1000 in 1980-85 in Bolivia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Current fertility is the result of the different trajectories of the demographic transition in different countries. While fertility in Argentina, Cuba, and Uruguay underwent a slow but sustained decline that began prior to 1960, other countries including Colombia, Costa Rica, Chile, and Venezuela began an accelerated fertility decline in the 1960s that diffused rapidly through all age and social groups. Other countries have still not entered a definite phase of fertility decline. Mortality rates have declined appreciably in Latin America in the past few decades although they remain high in some countries. After the end of World War II and until the mid-1970s, most countries of the region experienced rapid economic growth coupled with profound changes in the productive structure. The industrial labor force grew in almost all countries along with urbanization, the decline of agricultural employment, and the increase of the tertiary sector. These and other important economic advances through the mid-1970s occurred despite rapid population growth, and the beginning of the fertility decline coincided with slowing economic growth that saw negative rates in 1981-82. Various studies have shown that not all population sectors were incorporated in the process of economic

  8. Influence of climate variability on acute myocardial infarction mortality in Havana, 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Alina; Bolufé, Javier; Ortiz, Paulo L; Rodríguez, Yunisleydi; Reyes, María C

    2015-04-01

    Death from acute myocardial infarction is due to many factors; influences on risk to the individual include habits, lifestyle and behavior, as well as weather, climate and other environmental components. Changing climate patterns make it especially important to understand how climatic variability may influence acute myocardial infarction mortality. Describe the relationship between climate variability and acute myocardial infarction mortality during the period 2001-2012 in Havana. An ecological time-series study was conducted. The universe comprised 23,744 deaths from acute myocardial infarction (ICD-10: I21-I22) in Havana residents from 2001 to 2012. Climate variability and seasonal anomalies were described using the Bultó-1 bioclimatic index (comprising variables of temperature, humidity, precipitation, and atmospheric pressure), along with series analysis to determine different seasonal-to-interannual climate variation signals. The role played by climate variables in acute myocardial infarction mortality was determined using factor analysis. The Mann-Kendall and Pettitt statistical tests were used for trend analysis with a significance level of 5%. The strong association between climate variability conditions described using the Bultó-1 bioclimatic index and acute myocardial infarctions accounts for the marked seasonal pattern in AMI mortality. The highest mortality rate occurred during the dry season, i.e., the winter months in Cuba (November-April), with peak numbers in January, December and March. The lowest mortality coincided with the rainy season, i.e., the summer months (May-October). A downward trend in total number of deaths can be seen starting with the change point in April 2009. Climate variability is inversely associated with an increase in acute myocardial infarction mortality as is shown by the Bultó-1 index. This inverse relationship accounts for acute myocardial infarction mortality's seasonal pattern.

  9. Nutritional and food protection against epidemic emerging neuropathy. Epidemiological findings in the unique disease-free urban area of Cuba.

    PubMed

    Barnouin, J; Verdura Barrios, T; Chassagne, M; Pérez Cristiá, R; Arnaud, J; Fleites Mestre, P; Montoya, M E; Favier, A

    2001-09-01

    A survey was conducted through the SECUBA (SEguridad alimentaria en CUba y Buena Alimentación) research program in Cuban healthy smokers living in Guantánamo and in Havana. The aim of the survey was to investigate biological and nutritional factors connected with the occurrence of zero epidemic neuropathy (EN) observed in Guantánamo urban area since the disease emerged in Cuba. Blood riboflavin status and carotenoid and selenium concentrations were higher in Guantánamo than in Havana smokers. Food dietary quantities of plantain banana, pepper (Capsicum spp.), bovine meat and milk products were higher in Guantánamo. Inversely, foods rich in cholesterol, especially eggs, were more consumed in Havana. Through riboflavin, carotenoid and selenium contents and specific antioxidants substances (indoleamines, capsaicin), the foods more consumed in Guantánamo could be considered as EN protective factors. Disease protective effects could be exerted via enhancement of defence mechanisms against free radical damage and related mechanisms focused on redox recycling of glutathione and local protection from carotenoids. Finally, the results of the present study should help Cuba, through a better EN control, to improve long-term food safety and define healthier dietary habits.

  10. Risk factors for wheezing in infants born in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Medina, R.; Mora-Faife, E. C.; García-García, G.; Valle-Infante, I.; Gómez-Marrero, L.; Abreu-Suárez, G.; González-Valdez, J.; Fabró-Ortiz, D. Dania; Fundora-Hernández, H.; Venn, A.; Britton, J.; Fogarty, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cuba is a unique country, and despite limited economic development, has an excellent health system. However, the prevalence of asthma symptoms in children in Havana, Cuba, is unusually high. Aim: As early life exposures are critical to the aetiology of asthma, we have studied environmental influences on the risk of wheezing in Cuban infants. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A random sample of 2032 children aged 12–15 months living in Havana was selected for inclusion in the cohort. Data were collected using questionnaires administered by researchers. Results: Of 2032 infants invited to participate, 1956 (96%) infants provided data. The prevalence of any wheeze was 45%, severe wheeze requiring use of emergency services was 30% and recurrent wheeze on three or more occasions was 20%. The largest adjusted risk factors for any wheeze were presence of eczema [odds ratio (OR) 2.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48–2.94], family history of asthma (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.60–2.62), poor ventilation in the house (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.48–2.67), attendance at nursery (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.24–2.57), male sex (OR1.52; 95% CI 1.19–1.96) and the number of smokers in the house (P < 0.03 for trend), OR 1.64 (95% CI 1.17–2.31) for three or more smokers in the house compared to no smokers in the household. Conclusion: We have identified several risk factors for any wheeze in young infants living in modern day Cuba. As the prevalence of smoking in the house is high (51%), intervention studies are required to determine effective strategies to improve infant health. PMID:23824939

  11. Risk factors for wheezing in infants born in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Venero-Fernández, S J; Suárez-Medina, R; Mora-Faife, E C; García-García, G; Valle-Infante, I; Gómez-Marrero, L; Abreu-Suárez, G; González-Valdez, J; Fabró-Ortiz, D Dania; Fundora-Hernández, H; Venn, A; Britton, J; Fogarty, A W

    2013-11-01

    Cuba is a unique country, and despite limited economic development, has an excellent health system. However, the prevalence of asthma symptoms in children in Havana, Cuba, is unusually high. As early life exposures are critical to the aetiology of asthma, we have studied environmental influences on the risk of wheezing in Cuban infants. Cross-sectional study. A random sample of 2032 children aged 12-15 months living in Havana was selected for inclusion in the cohort. Data were collected using questionnaires administered by researchers. Of 2032 infants invited to participate, 1956 (96%) infants provided data. The prevalence of any wheeze was 45%, severe wheeze requiring use of emergency services was 30% and recurrent wheeze on three or more occasions was 20%. The largest adjusted risk factors for any wheeze were presence of eczema [odds ratio (OR) 2.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-2.94], family history of asthma (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.60-2.62), poor ventilation in the house (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.48-2.67), attendance at nursery (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.24-2.57), male sex (OR1.52; 95% CI 1.19-1.96) and the number of smokers in the house (P < 0.03 for trend), OR 1.64 (95% CI 1.17-2.31) for three or more smokers in the house compared to no smokers in the household. We have identified several risk factors for any wheeze in young infants living in modern day Cuba. As the prevalence of smoking in the house is high (51%), intervention studies are required to determine effective strategies to improve infant health.

  12. Havana: A Bike-Friendly City?

    PubMed

    Coyula, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    The abrupt breakup of the USSR and socialist bloc in the early 1990s dealt a devastating blow to the island's economy. Almost overnight, beneficial aid and trade provided by the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance ground to a halt, including 80% of foreign trade previously conducted as barter and sales of 13 million tons of oil per year at preferential prices. When the Cuban economy bottomed out in 1993, oil imports had dropped from 13 to 4 million tons annually. At the time, Cuba depended almost entirely on imported oil and the dramatic decline in imports created massive blackouts, leaving most Cuban homes without electricity 12 hours a day.

  13. Acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba, 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Armas, Nurys B; Ortega, Yanela Y; de la Noval, Reinaldo; Suárez, Ramón; Llerena, Lorenzo; Dueñas, Alfredo F

    2012-10-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death in the world. This is also true in Cuba, where no national-level epidemiologic studies of related mortality have been published in recent years. Describe acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba from 1999 through 2008. A descriptive study was conducted of persons aged ≥25 years with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction from 1999 through 2008. Data were obtained from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database for variables: age; sex; site (out of hospital, in hospital or in hospital emergency room) and location (jurisdiction) of death. Proportions, age- and sex-specific rates and age-standardized overall rates per 100,000 population were calculated and compared over time, using the two five-year time frames within the study period. A total of 145,808 persons who had suffered acute myocardial infarction were recorded, 75,512 of whom died, for a case-fatality rate of 51.8% (55.1% in 1999-2003 and 49.7% in 2004-2008). In the first five-year period, mortality was 98.9 per 100,000 population, falling to 81.8 per 100,000 in the second; most affected were people aged ≥75 years and men. Of Cuba's 14 provinces and special municipality, Havana, Havana City and Camagüey provinces, and the Isle of Youth Special Municipality showed the highest mortality; Holguín, Ciego de Ávila and Granma provinces the lowest. Out-of-hospital deaths accounted for the greatest proportion of deaths in both five-year periods (54.8% and 59.2% in 1999-2003 and 2004-2008, respectively). Although risk of death from acute myocardial infarction decreased through the study period, it remains a major health problem in Cuba. A national acute myocardial infarction case registry is needed. Also required is further research to help elucidate possible causes of Cuba's high acute myocardial infarction mortality: cardiovascular risk studies, studies of out-of-hospital mortality and quality of care

  14. Mathematics and Physics in Cuba Before 1959: A Personal Recollection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, José

    On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the formal inauguration of the Republic of Cuba (May 20, 1902), the then Historian of the City of Havana, Emilio Roig de Leuchsenring, decided to publish a memorial volume which would include various special studies on the progress made in the country during the preceding half century with regard to specific aspects of national collective life. The volume, entitled Facetas de la vida de Cuba republicana, 1902-1952 (Facets of Life in Republican Cuba, 1902-1952) appeared in print in 1954. Its publication was delayed—as Roig explained in his prologue, somewhat cryptically—"due to causes beyond our control or of that of the Cuban writers to whom we entrusted the preparation of the said studies." Needless to say, the causes referred to were none other than those derived from the atmosphere of political unrest in the country after the military coup staged in March 1952 by former strongman, General Batista.

  15. [Survey on risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases among adolescent students from Havana City, 1996].

    PubMed

    Cortés Alfaro, A; García Roche, R G; Hernández Sánchez, M; Monterrey Gutiérrez, P; Fuentes Abreu, J

    1999-01-01

    The observed increase of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in Cuba aroused the interest of carrying out a study aimed at exploring risky sexual behaviours and attitudes, and histories of STD. A crosswise descriptive study was undertaken using a randomized sample taken from the universe of adolescent students in the City of Havana during 1995-96 school year. The sample was made up by 2,793 teenagers aged 11-19 years (1,370 females and 1,423 males). Previously trained experts linked to this field collected data by means of a structured interview which had been drawn up for this end. It was confirmed that more than half of adolescent students did not use condom in their sexual intercourse 57% had more than one sexual partner along the year, 40% believed it was difficult to keep only one partner whereas 35% had more than one sexual partner at the same time. Risk and protected sexual habits were noticed, with 39% for oral-genital and 21.4% for genital-anal. 22% for the interviewed adolescent said they had histories of STD.

  16. Dark tobacco and lung cancer in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Joly, O G; Lubin, J H; Caraballoso, M

    1983-06-01

    A retrospective epidemiologic study of 826 cytologically and/or histologically confirmed lung cancer cases (219 females and 607 males), 979 hospital controls, and 539 neighborhood controls was undertaken in Havana, Cuba, to investigate whether the high lung cancer mortality rates in this country could be explained by the cigarette and cigar consumption habits, including the smoking of dark-tobacco cigarettes. Relative risk(s)(RR) of lung cancer among cigarette smokers were 7.3 in women and 14.1 in men and increased consistently with various measures of exposure to smoke. The findings suggested that duration of smoking, daily number of cigarettes consumed, and inhalation practices have independent effects. Most Cubans smoked dark tobacco. RR were higher for dark-tobacco users than for light-tobacco users (RR = 8.6 vs. 4.6 for women and 14.3 vs. 11.3 for men), but the differences were reduced after adjustment for amount smoked. Cigarette smoking was associated with all histologic types of lung cancer, although the risk for adenocarcinoma was lower than that for the other types. Men who smoked exclusively cigars had a fourfold risk of lung cancer. Mixed smokers (i.e., cigar and cigarette smoker) had a greater RR than cigarette-only smokers (15.0 vs. 14.1), which was perhaps related to the unusually deep and frequent inhalation of cigar smoke. The data support the hypothesis that smoking patterns account for the higher lung cancer mortality in Cuba than in other Latin American countries.

  17. Science, Passion & Compassion vs. Cancer: Tania Crombet MD PhD, Director of Clinical Research. Molecular Immunology Center, Havana.

    PubMed

    Gory, Conner

    2016-10-01

    Soon after the Molecular Immunology Center (CIM) was established in 1994 (a founding institution of Havana's biotechnology and pharmaceutical campus known as the scientific pole), Dr Crombet completed her master's thesis there. She joined CIM's team in 1998 and in 2004 was designated Director of Clinical Research. She has participated in the research, development and clinical trials of some of Cuba's most innovative therapies and vaccines, including CIMAvax-EGF for non-small cell lung cancer patients. In 2015, this therapy completed Phase IV clinical trials in Cuba and is now used in primary health care services throughout the country's national health system. CIM and Roswell Park Cancer Institute (Buffalo, New York) received US Department of Treasury approval in 2015 to test CIMAvax-EGF and other CIM products in the United States, opening the way for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to consider joint ground-breaking Phase I and II clinical trials in the USA. Recent regulatory changes introduced by President Barack Obama may make applying for such licenses a thing of the past-at least that is what researchers hope. In any case, the work of Dr Crombet and the teams at CIM is making headway in cancer immunotherapy, within the broader goals of the institution's mandate…the subject of our interview.

  18. Women Physicists in Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fuentes, Olimpia Arias; Alvarez, Lilliam; Vigil, Elena

    2009-04-01

    Cuba is a special country in Latin America and the Caribbean Region. Over almost 50 years of opening opportunities to everybody, girls and women have particularly benefited from laws, agreements, and promotions to decision-making levels. In spite of representing only a small portion of the physicist community in Cuba, women have always been represented in important positions and involved in the development of this discipline in our country. To give an idea about the current situation of women physicists in Cuba, we report some approximate numbers, fundamentally related to the principal institutions in which we have a critical mass of physicists.

  19. Norway and Cuba Continue Collaborating to Build Capacity to Improve Weather Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antuña, Juan Carlos; Kalnay, Eugenia; Mesquita, Michel D. S.

    2014-06-01

    The Future of Climate Extremes in the Caribbean Extreme Cuban Climate (XCUBE) project, which is funded by the Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection as part of an assignment for the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs to support scientific cooperation between Norway and Cuba, carried out a training workshop on seasonal forecasting, reanalysis data, and weather research and forecasting (WRF). The workshop was a follow-up to the XCUBE workshop conducted in Havana in 2013 and provided Cuban scientists with access to expertise on seasonal forecasting, the WRF model developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the community, data assimilation, and reanalysis.

  20. Cuba and the Bahamas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This short video shows the cloudy island of Cuba and the Bahamas as the International Space Station flies from the Caribbean Sea northeast to the Atlantic Ocean. These shots were taken from onboard...

  1. Applied Science in Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jeffrey L.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various topics and issues related to the scientific enterprise in Cuba. Notes that Cuban science is emphasizing biotechnology and research on the island's chief crop (sugarcane), although hampered by limited personnel and lack of modern laboratory equipment. (JN)

  2. Applied Science in Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jeffrey L.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various topics and issues related to the scientific enterprise in Cuba. Notes that Cuban science is emphasizing biotechnology and research on the island's chief crop (sugarcane), although hampered by limited personnel and lack of modern laboratory equipment. (JN)

  3. Severe maternal morbidity in the intensive care unit of a havana teaching hospital,1998 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Albadio; Bacallao, Jorge; Alcina, Serafín; Gómez, Yamilka

    2008-07-01

    Introduction In recent years, several reports have appeared in the international literature concerning evolution and prognosis for obstetric patients whose illnesses have led to admission to intensive care units (ICUs). The term severe maternal morbidity has been proposed to refer to life-threatening complications that occur during pregnancy, delivery or postpartum. Objective Characterize severe maternal morbidity in obstetric patients admitted to the ICU of the Enrique Cabrera General Teaching Hospital in Havana from 1998 to 2004. Methods From 1998 to 2004, we conducted a prospective, descriptive, and observational study of 312 patients admitted to the ICU of the Enrique Cabrera General Teaching Hospital in Havana, Cuba. Patients were included whose length of stay was >24 hours, and whose family members provided written informed consent. A data collection form was developed to record general characteristics, personal and family medical history, cause of ICU admission, diagnosis, obstetric condition at the onset of illness and at admission, pregnancy outcome, surgeries performed and patient's ICU discharge status (survivor or non-survivor), the latter a dependent variable. An Excel database was compiled and processed using SPSS 13.0. Percentages were used to summarize qualitative variables. A Chi-square test was used for univariate analysis between these qualitative variables and patient discharge status; t-test was used for quantitative analyses. Results Overall mortality in the cohort was 7.4% (23 patients), greater among women aged <20 years, those with a history of previous illnesses, and those subjected to several surgical interventions. Obstetric hemorrhage, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, and postpartum sepsis were the most commonly diagnosed obstetric disorders. Non-obstetric disorders diagnosed included severe asthma, pneumonia and peritonitis. Amniotic fluid embolism, postpartum sepsis, early postpartum hemorrhage and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia were associated with

  4. [Trophic webs of reef fishes in northwestern Cuba. I. Stomach contents].

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ivet; Aguilar, Consuelo; González Sanón, Gaspar

    2008-06-01

    Trophic webs of reef fishes in northwestern Cuba. I. Stomach contents. Studies on the reef fishes of Cuba are not rare, but most have two basic limitations: small sample sizes and exclusion of small species. Our study sampled more species and larger samples in the sublitoral region of Havana city (23 degrees 7.587' N, 82 degrees 25.793' W), 2-18 m deep. We collected fish weekly from October 2004 through February 2006 with traps and harpoon. Overfishing has modified the fish communities. We used the relative importance index to describe the diets of carnivore and omnivore species, and a modification of the relative abundance method for the herbivores and sponge-eating species. The main food items are benthonic crustaceans (crabs, shrimp, copepods) and bony fish (mainly demersal species). Most species are eurifagous and thus, less affected by anthropic disturbance than specialist feeders.

  5. [Diet of the ascidian Ecteinascidia turbinata (Ascidiacea: Perophoridae) in two mangrove areas of Cuba].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Zanuy, Aida; García-Cagide, Alida; Borrero, Nilda; Carballo, José Luis

    2007-06-01

    Diet of the ascidian Ecteinascidia turbinata (Ascidiacea: Perophoridae) in two mangrove areas of Cuba. Stomach contents of 88 zooids ofEcteinascidia turbinata Herdman 1880 and the qualitative and quantitative composition of phytoplankton in the water column were studied in Santa Fe (North Coast of Havana) and Punta del Este (SW of Cuba). We identified 59 microalgal species and four tintinnids in the stomachs. Cell size was 75-165 microm in length and 2-105 microm in width. There were not significant differences in microalgal diversity in the water column in the two locations. In both locations, the diatoms had the largest number of species and individuals in stomachs and water. In Santa Fe, dinoflagellate biomass was larger in water and stomach contents, while in Punta del Este the contribution of each group to the stomach content was similar to that of the water column. This species filters in a constant and irregular way during the day, independently of food availability.

  6. English Language Education in Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irizar, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of English language education in Cuba. Discusses the historical role of English in Cuba, the introduction of English for specific purposes, and the current status of English instruction. (Author/VWL)

  7. U.S.-Cuba Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT U.S.- Cuba Relations by Colonel Mark Triplett United States Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel Harry V. Phillips Project...must determine when and how. The departure of Fidel Castro from Cuba poses several policy alternatives for the United States . Depending on who...needs on its borders. Stability in Cuba is in the best interest of the United States . This paper briefly examines the history of Cuba , the background of

  8. Neurodevelopment of very low birth weight infants in the first two years of life in a Havana tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Cejas, Gianny; Gómez, Yahima; Roca, María del Carmen; Domínguez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Improved survival rates of neonates with very low birth weight (<1500 g) have led to a higher incidence of neurodevelopmental sequelae. Examine neurodevelopment outcomes over the first two years of life of infants who weighed <1500 g at birth, in relation to birth weight, gestational age and 1-minute and 5-minute Apgar scores, in a Havana tertiary care hospital. A case-series study was conducted to assess neurodevelopment outcomes of very low birth weight infants over their first two years of life. The study population comprised 116 surviving neonates with very low birth weight (<1500 g), born in the Dr Ramón González Coro University Maternity Hospital in Havana, Cuba, 2006-2010. A longitudinal, multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary follow up of all infants' neurodevelopment was performed, from hospital discharge to age two years, corrected for gestational age at birth. Data on each infant's perinatal variables were collected: birth weight in grams, gestational age at birth, and 1-minute and 5-minute Apgar scores. Patients were classified as having normal neurodevelopment, mild abnormalities and moderate-to-severe abnormalities. Pearson's chi-square test was used to determine possible relationships between perinatal variables studied and neurodevelopment, with exact sampling distribution and 95% confidence level. Normal neurodevelopment was observed in 69% of very low birth weight infants, 25.9% had mild abnormalities, and 5.2% displayed moderate-to-severe abnormalities. The results demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between gestational age and neurodevelopmental outcomes; more neurodevelopmental abnormalities were found in infants born at earlier gestational age (<30 weeks). Surviving very low birth weight neonates with lower gestational age at birth face a higher risk of neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

  9. Cuba: Background to a Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Fuente, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on Cuba. Addresses early colonization, the advent of plantation agriculture, the role and presence of the United States in the Caribbean and Cuba, and the social and economic developments in Cuba after the revolution in 1959 led by Fidel Castro. (CMK)

  10. Cuba: Background to a Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Fuente, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on Cuba. Addresses early colonization, the advent of plantation agriculture, the role and presence of the United States in the Caribbean and Cuba, and the social and economic developments in Cuba after the revolution in 1959 led by Fidel Castro. (CMK)

  11. Oil prospects of Cuba

    SciTech Connect

    Marrero-Faz, M.; Hernandezperez, G.

    1996-08-01

    The Cuban Archipelago is an Early Tertiary thrust belt derived from the Collision of the Cretaceous volcanic arc from the South with the North American continental margin (Jurassic- Cretaceous). The main characteristics of the hydrocarbon potential of Cuba are: (1) Widespread existence of Jurassic-Cretaceous source rocks and active process of generation of different types of oils; (2) Hydrocarbons are reservoired in a wide range of rock types most commonly in thrusted, fractured carbonates of Jurassic to Cretaceous age. This kind of reservoir is the most important in Cuba; (3) High density in area of different types of traps, being the most important hinterland dipping thrust sheet play; and (4) Migration and trapping of hydrocarbons mainly in Eocene. Migration is supposed to be mostly lateral. Vertical migration is not excluded in the South and also in some part of the North Province. There still remains a significant number of untested, apparently valid exploration plays in both on- and offshore areas of Cuba.

  12. Virtual Tour Environment of Cuba's National School of Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napolitano, R. K.; Douglas, I. P.; Garlock, M. E.; Glisic, B.

    2017-08-01

    Innovative technologies have enabled new opportunities for collecting, analyzing, and sharing information about cultural heritage sites. Through a combination of two of these technologies, spherical imaging and virtual tour environment, we preliminarily documented one of Cuba's National Schools of Art, the National Ballet School.The Ballet School is one of the five National Art Schools built in Havana, Cuba after the revolution. Due to changes in the political climate, construction was halted on the schools before completion. The Ballet School in particular was partially completed but never used for the intended purpose. Over the years, the surrounding vegetation and environment have started to overtake the buildings; damages such as missing bricks, corroded rebar, and broken tie bars can be seen. We created a virtual tour through the Ballet School which highlights key satellite classrooms and the main domed performance spaces. Scenes of the virtual tour were captured utilizing the Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera and processed with Kolor Panotour virtual environment software. Different forms of data can be included in this environment in order to provide a user with pertinent information. Image galleries, hyperlinks to websites, videos, PDFs, and links to databases can be embedded within the scene and interacted with by a user. By including this information within the virtual tour, a user can better understand how the site was constructed as well as the existing types of damage. The results of this work are recommendations for how a site can be preliminarily documented and information can be initially organized and shared.

  13. Low birth weight outcomes: why better in Cuba than Alabama?

    PubMed

    Neggers, Yasmin; Crowe, Kristi

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the incidence of low birth weight (LBW), a major predictor of infant mortality and morbidity in developed and developing countries, is an important worldwide goal, yet interventions to reduce this incidence have been disappointingly unsuccessful. Despite its low per capita income, Cuba has managed to significantly reduce the prevalence of LBW in recent decades. To date, minimal research has been conducted to comparatively evaluate risk factors associated with birth weight outcomes between countries with significantly differing rates of LBW. For this reason, we traveled to Havana to study the Cuban model of prenatal care and compare risk factors associated with LBW in Cuba, the United States, and, in particular, Alabama. This article describes the community-based approaches to prenatal care provided within the Cuban healthcare system and their influence on rates of LBW. As a result of these successfully integrated health services, the Cuban healthcare model will be used to evaluate and compare Alabama's current prenatal care system, in particular the implementation of strategies such as community-based clinics and maternity homes for high-risk pregnancies.

  14. Storm Warnings for Cuba

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Chapter Three. ൓FBIS-LAT-93-249, December 30, 1993, p. 7. 12Ibid., pp. 4-5. i2 18 Storm Warnings for Cuba Corps General Abelardo Colom6, Cuba’s Minister...analysis of the grim state of the Cuban economy by the Assistant Director of CEA. See also the brief but illuminating article by another CEA economist, Pedro ...The principal difference between the current model and the fidelista system of the past lies in the regime’s economic policies. According to Pedro

  15. [Tuberculosis risk assessment in the staff of the National University Pneumologic Hospital of Havana].

    PubMed

    Borroto Gutiérrez, Susana; Sevy Court, José I; Fumero Leru, Merillelan; González Ochoa, Edilberto; Machado Molina, Delfina

    2012-01-01

    tuberculosis is traditionally considered as a professional disease in health care workers. to evaluate the individual and collective tuberculosis infection risk by areas or departments in the National University Pneumologiic Hospital of Havana, Cuba. the individual risk was assessed during 2008-2009 by means of a survey administered to the staff that includes personal data, labor location and exposition to M. tuberculosis, and a Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) was applied to 112 of them. A > or = 10 mm cut-off point was used for positivity. The collective risk was measured in each area or department by the prevalence of TB infection, the tuberculin conversion rate and the number of tuberculosis cases hospitalized per year. of the 183 surveyed workers, 60.7% had workers for more than 5 years in the institution. Of the 64 negative workers in the previous survey, 34.4% became positive in this survey. The latent TB infection prevalence was 50.8% (CI 95%: 43.36-58.23); higher prevalence found in nurses (64.7%-CI 95%: 38.6-84.7) and lower in health non-related technicians(30%-CI 95%: 8.1-64.6). Half of the departments or areas (17/34) were evaluated as high risk, 23.5% as intermediate risk, 11.8% as low risk and 14.7% as very low risk. the National Pneumologic Hospital, as it was expected, is a high risk facility for Micobacterium tuberculosis infection that may affect its workers, and most of its areas pose a potential risk potential for the staff working there.

  16. High proportion of mannosidosis and fucosidosis among lysosomal storage diseases in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Menéndez-Sainz, C; González-Quevedo, A; González-García, S; Peña-Sánchez, M; Giugliani, R

    2012-08-13

    Although lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are considered individually rare, as a group they present a non-negligible frequency. Few studies have been made of populational occurrence of LSDs; they have been conducted predominantly on Caucasian populations. We studied the occurrence of LSDs in Cuba. Data from individuals who had been referred to the Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery in Havana from hospitals all over the country between January 1990 and December 2005 were analyzed. This institute was the only laboratory to provide enzyme-based diagnostic testing for 19 LSDs in Cuba during this period. Occurrence rates were calculated by dividing the number of postnatal diagnoses by the number of births during the study period. The combined occurrence of LSDs in Cuba was 5.6 per 100,000, lower than that reported in other studies conducted on Caucasian populations. The most frequent individual LSDs were: mucopolysaccharidosis type I (1.01 per 100,000) and, surprisingly, alpha-mannosidosis (0.72 per 100,000) and fucosidosis (0.62 per 100,000). These findings may be related to specific genetic characteristics and admixture of the Cuban population. This is the first comprehensive study of the occurrence of LSDs in Cuba. We conclude that the epidemiology of these diseases can vary regionally, and we stress the need for similar surveys in other Latin American countries.

  17. [Characteristics of the ecology of the eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in the Republic of Cuba].

    PubMed

    Berezin, V V

    1977-01-01

    Virologic and serological surveys of wild vertebrates carried out in various provinces of Cuba demonstrated definitely that birds were the main hosts of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus in this territory. Fifteen strains of this virus were isolated from 8 species of birds belonging to 5 orders. Isolation of EEE virus from the blood of the endemic genus of iguanas indicates a certain role of cold-blooded animals in the ecology of this agent. Active EEE virus foci have been found in 4 provinces of the Republic of Cuba: Pinar del Rio, Havana, Matanzas and Las Villas. Isolation of a number of EEE virus strains from sick horses during an epizootic in the latter province confirmed the importance role of this agent in the infectious pathology of domestic animals in Cuba. The experimental results suggest that in Cuba there occur at least two types of foci of this infection: forest and water-littoral (fresh-water swamps and lakes, and sea coast with mangrove forests).

  18. The challenge for Cuba.

    PubMed Central

    Claudio, L

    1999-01-01

    The restrictions of a U.S. trade embargo and the collapse of the Soviet Union marked the beginning of a period of extreme economic hardship in Cuba. Economic adversity has had tremendous effects, both positive and negative, on all aspects of life on the Island, including environmental and public health. PMID:10210701

  19. The challenge for Cuba.

    PubMed

    Claudio, L

    1999-05-01

    The restrictions of a U.S. trade embargo and the collapse of the Soviet Union marked the beginning of a period of extreme economic hardship in Cuba. Economic adversity has had tremendous effects, both positive and negative, on all aspects of life on the Island, including environmental and public health.

  20. [Spanish immigration in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Suarez, D

    1988-01-01

    Trends in immigration to Cuba from Spain in the first three decades of the twentieth century are analyzed. The author notes that this immigration was responsible for more than 25 percent of the population growth that occurred during this period. The impact of changes in Spanish and Cuban law on migration flows is considered.

  1. Tuberculosis mortality trends in cuba, 1998 to 2007.

    PubMed

    González, Edilberto; Risco, Grisel E; Borroto, Susana; Perna, Abel; Armas, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of illness and death throughout the world. The World Health Organization's Global Plan to Stop TB 2006-2015 proposes that countries cut TB mortality by half compared to 1990 rates. In Cuba, TB mortality declined steadily throughout the 20th century, particularly after 1960. Objective Describe TB mortality distribution and trends in Cuba from January 1998 to December 2007 by infection site, sex, age and province, and determine progress towards the WHO's 2015 target for TB mortality reduction. Methods A time series ecological study was conducted. Death certificates stating TB as cause of death were obtained from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division, and population data by age group, sex, and province were obtained from the National Statistics Bureau. Crude and specific death rate trends and variation were analyzed. Results TB mortality declined from 0.4 per 100,000 population in 1998 to 0.2 (under half the 1990 rate) in 2007. Clinical forms of the disease, both pulmonary and extrapulmonary, also declined. The highest mortality rates were found in males and in the group aged ≥ 65 years. Rates were also highest in the capital, Havana, with extreme values of 0.73 and 0.39 per 100,000 population at the beginning and end of the period, respectively. Conclusions Deaths from TB declined steadily compared to total deaths and deaths caused by infectious diseases. The Global Plan to Stop TB target was met well ahead of 2015. If this trend continues, TB is likely to become an exceptional cause of death in Cuba.

  2. Dark tobacco and lung cancer in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Joly, O G; Lubin, J H; Caraballoso, M

    1984-01-01

    A retrospective case control study of lung cancer was conducted in Havana, Cuba to investigate whether Cuban high lung cancer mortality rates could be explained by cigarette and cigar consumption habits, including the smoking of dark tobacco cigarettes. The cases were drawn from patients admitted from 1978 to 1980 to the city's 12 main general hospitals with a tentative diagnosis of lung cancer. Only patients whose final diagnosis was confirmed by cytology and/ or histology according to the World Health Organization's Classification of Lung Cancer were included. A hospital control selected from patients with a current admission for a nonsmoking-related disease was matched to each case by sex, age, hospital of admission, and admission date. Data on 826 confirmed lung cancer cases (219 females and 607 males), 979 hospital controls, and 539 neighborhood controls were analyzed with procedures for matched and unmatched studies. Lung cancer patients ranged in age from 23 to 89 years; approximately 1/2 were females and 2/3 of the males were 60 years or older at diagnosis. Education level was similar in all groups. 167 of the 219 female cases (76.3%) and 595 of the 607 male cases (98%) ever smoked regularly, compared with 31% and 80.3%, respectively, of female and male controls. The corresponding proportions for female hospital and neighborhood controls were 30.5 and 31.8%, whereas for males they were 80.5% and 80.1%. The overall relative risk (RR) of lung cancer in cigarette smokers was 7.3 for females and 14.1 for males. Most smokers consumed the local dark tobacco ciagrettes exclusively. There were increased risks of lung cancer in both sexes associated with smoking both tobaccos, but the excess was greater for dark tobacco. The differences were reduced after adjustment for amount smoked. With either dark or light tobacco, the longer the duration of smoking or the greater the total number of cigarettes consumed, the higher the risk, all trends being highly significant

  3. Analysis of the Gulf of Mexico's Veracruz-Havana Route of La Flota de la Nueva España

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo-Fernández, A.; Ball, D. A.; Gravois, M.; Horrell, C.; Irion, J. B.

    2007-06-01

    During colonial times, an active maritime trade existed between Spain and the New World, with convoys sailing annually to and from Mexico and returning via Havana, Cuba, after wintering in America. A database constructed from secondary and open sources revealed that Spanish vessels were sailing over open waters along a northern path near Louisiana and a southern path across the central Gulf of Mexico. These routes were traversed in about one month and scheduling for the convoy was based on an understanding of the Americas’ meteorological and oceanographic climate. However, other factors may also have been involved in the directional layout of the routes. Today these ancient routes crisscross planning areas for oil and gas lease sales in the US Exclusive Economic Zone and the information presented in this article may aid in identifying areas where historic shipwrecks may lie. Maps and documents found during this study helped piece together the evolution of our understanding of the Gulf of Mexico surface circulation and how this knowledge influenced sailing during colonial times.

  4. Risk factors for Giardia infection among hospitalized children in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Bello, J; Núñez, F A; González, O M; Fernández, R; Almirall, P; Escobedo, A A

    2011-01-01

    The risk factors associated with Giardia infection, in children hospitalized in Havana, Cuba, were recently explored. Children aged ⩾5 years were more likely to be positive for Giardia infection than the younger children, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.41 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.36–9.69]. The risk factors found to be associated with Giardia infection in univariate analyses were rural residence (OR = 3.01; CI = 1.23–7.35), belonging to a household that did not receive water from an aqueduct (OR = 3.27; CI = 1.21–8.91), drinking unboiled water (OR = 3.64; CI = 2.14–6.26), nail biting (OR = 3.47; CI = 1.97–6.08), eating unwashed vegetables raw (OR = 4.84; CI = 2.33–10.14), and a personal (OR = 3.23; CI = 1.58–6.59) or family history (OR = 3.96; CI = 1.53–10.47) of previous parasitic infection. In multivariate analyses, however, only two (modifiable) risk factors were found to be independently and significantly associated with Giardia infection: nail biting and eating unwashed vegetables raw. It therefore seems that, at least at the individual level, giardiasis-prevention activities in Havana should be focussed on health education to improve personal hygiene and food-related practices. If appropriately managed, the surveillance of drinking water and foodstuffs, for Giardia and other parasites, might also help to reduce the hospitalization of Cuban children. PMID:21294949

  5. Risk factors for Giardia infection among hospitalized children in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Bello, J; Núñez, F A; González, O M; Fernández, R; Almirall, P; Escobedo, A A

    2011-01-01

    The risk factors associated with Giardia infection, in children hospitalized in Havana, Cuba, were recently explored. Children aged ≥5 years were more likely to be positive for Giardia infection than the younger children, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3·41 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1·36-9·69]. The risk factors found to be associated with Giardia infection in univariate analyses were rural residence (OR = 3·01; CI = 1·23-7·35), belonging to a household that did not receive water from an aqueduct (OR = 3·27; CI = 1·21-8·91), drinking unboiled water (OR = 3·64; CI = 2·14-6·26), nail biting (OR = 3·47; CI = 1·97-6·08), eating unwashed vegetables raw (OR = 4·84; CI = 2·33-10·14), and a personal (OR = 3·23; CI = 1·58-6·59) or family history (OR = 3·96; CI = 1·53-10·47) of previous parasitic infection. In multivariate analyses, however, only two (modifiable) risk factors were found to be independently and significantly associated with Giardia infection: nail biting and eating unwashed vegetables raw. It therefore seems that, at least at the individual level, giardiasis-prevention activities in Havana should be focussed on health education to improve personal hygiene and food-related practices. If appropriately managed, the surveillance of drinking water and foodstuffs, for Giardia and other parasites, might also help to reduce the hospitalization of Cuban children.

  6. Occupational health in Cuba.

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, M R

    1981-01-01

    Health and safety regulation, training, and research were practically non-existent in Cuba before the Revolution in 1959. Since that time important advances have been made. Specialized inspectors, occupational physicians, and other such personnel are now trained in Cuba. An Occupational Health Institute, founded in 1976, provides training and specialized technical services, and conducts research. In 1978, a far reaching "Work Safety and Health Law" was enacted which defines the rights and responsibility of government agencies, workplace administrators, unions, and workers. Comprehensive control of toxic substances in workplaces, still at an early stage, is likely to increase in light of the new law, the growing availability of qualified personnel, and the mounting concern of public health authorities with the increasingly "developed" health profile of the population. PMID:7212141

  7. Cuba confronts climate change.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Gisela; Clark, Ismael

    2015-04-01

    Among environmental problems, climate change presents the greatest challenges to developing countries, especially island nations. Changes in climate and the resulting effects on human health call for examination of the interactions between environmental and social factors. Important in Cuba's case are soil conditions, food availability, disease burden, ecological changes, extreme weather events, water quality and rising sea levels, all in conjunction with a range of social, cultural, economic and demographic conditions.

  8. Developing Astronomy in Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Taboada, R. E.

    2006-08-01

    Introduction Beginning from a brief historical introduction the up to day situation is presented and the topics relevant to Astronomy development analyzed from the view point of a person actually working in Astrophysics. Arising from national needs, Astronomical Calculations is the only "native-born" branch of astronomy in Cuba. Cuba was an observational platform capable to provide the Soviet Union with the 24 hours solar patrol needed by its Space Agency System to protect the men in orbit. This was the beginning of a very fruitful development of solar research in Cuba. Russia installed the instruments, trained the people to operate them, and gives the academic environment to develop the scientific work in solar physics, space weather, and related topics. What about Stellar Astronomy? The Cuban astro-climate is not good to develop an observational base. We are trying to develop stellar astronomy in collaboration with institutions capable to provide both, the academic and technical environment; but to continue developing Stellar Astronomy we need to influence the public opinion and convince people they need groups working in Astronomy. How to do that? Publishing. Giving conferences talking about OUR work, not only like spectators of the science. Showing science is culture in modern times. Showing projects in Astronomy can be cheap. ¡This is very important! Astronomy is not a luxury. Real possibilities I consider the Virtual Observatory concept the more appropriate in the near future, but it is necessary to have a connectivity level that is not commonly provided in Cuba, and to train the people. Concluding remarks From my experience "engagement" is the key word for Astronomy development in developing countries. Astronomy can not be developed without an appropriate academic environment, and we have not it. It is not "only" about financial resources, it is about "real collaboration" with a mature partner and common research goals.

  9. [Stony coral recruitment in coral reefs at different distances from pollution sources in Habana, Cuba].

    PubMed

    Alcolado-Prieto, Pedro; Caballero Aragón, Hansel; Alcolado, Pedro M; Lopeztegui Castillo, Alexander

    2012-09-01

    The effect of pollution on coral recruitment has been insufficiently studied. This research deals with coral recruitment in coastal areas and aimed to determine the variations of density and dominant species of corals recruits in sites at different distances from pollution sources. The composition and structure of stony coral (scleractinian and milleporids) recruit associations were characterized in the fringing reef of Western Havana, Cuba. This reef is influenced by urban pollution from the Almendares River and a sewage outlet located at its mouth. Four sites were sampled on the upper fore reef escarpment at 10m deep every three months between July 2007 and May 2008. A 25cm side quadrat was used to determine the density and taxonomic composition of recruits smaller than 3cm in diameter. Sampling units were placed following a random-systematic pattern. The mean density of recruits was determined both at assemble and species level. Bifactoral ANOVA tests were applied to compare mean densities at both sampling sites and dates. Student-Newman-Keuls test was applied to compare pairs of means. Cluster and nMDS analyses were applied to evaluate between site similarities. The predominant species was Siderastrea siderea followed by S. radians and Porites astreoides. Recruit densities were similar among La Puntilla, Calle 16 and Acuario sites. Lower densities were always found in Malec6n. Significant differences in mean stony recruit densities were found both between sites and sampling dates. The statistic analysis did not show significant spatial-temporal interactions. Malec6n, the most polluted site, showed the lowest recruit density and the greater presence of species considered as indicators of organic pollution, sedimentation and abrasion. The density of recruit species was higher in October 2007 and lower in May 2008, and it was apparently influenced by reproduction and cold front seasons, respectively. The higher dominance and abundance of S. siderea, S. radians and

  10. [Effects of a submarine discharge of urban waste on octocoral (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) communities in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Muñoz, Darlenys; Alcolado, Pedro M; Hernández-González, Miguel

    2008-03-01

    The composition and structure of octocoral communities on coral reefs close to a submarine outfall were studied at Reparto Flores, west of Havana City, Cuba. Octocoral community changes after the deployment of the submarine outfall in 2000 were monitored from June 2002 to September 2005, taking as baseline the data existing before its construction. The area also receives the influence of the polluted river Quibú that passes through a great part of the west side of the City. Sampling was done by means of SCUBA diving, counting and identifying colonies in situ within a 1 m2 frame that was randomly placed as many times as to warrant stabilized values of Shannon and Weaver's heterogeneity index H'. In agreement with the available hydrochemical information, changes in the diversity indexes (Shannon and Weaver's heterogeneity index H', Pielou's equitability index J', and Margalef's species richness index R1), the Herrera-Moreno's comparative pollution index (ICC), and density of some octocoral species at a depth of 10 m suggest a decrease in the influence of polluters from 1989 to 2005. Nevertheless, these indicators were affected in 2004 by a sudden intense but brief colonization of Briareum asbestinum, a species that is not typical of polluted places. At a depth of 20 m, a co-dominance of Plexaura kuekenthali and Eunicea clavigera (resistant and non resistant to pollution, respectively) and an increase of the comparative pollution index (ICC) was observed. The increase of P. kuekenthali, a pollution indicator, suggests a rise in the pollution effect 20 m in depth, because of the recent impact caused by the greater closeness of the outfall mouth 50 m deep. Results corroborate the hypothesis about the pollution indicator character of P. kuekenthali. However, this could not be explored for Eunicea flexuosa (also considered a pollution-indicator) due to an intensive illegal selective extraction for lucrative handicraft purposes, which led to a remarkable decrease in its

  11. El Habano and the world it has shaped: Cuba, Connecticut, and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Jean

    2010-01-01

    In the half century since the 1959 Cuban Revolution, El Habano remains the premium cigar the world over; but both before and since 1959, the seed, agricultural and industrial know-how, and human capital have been transplanted to replicate that cigar in a process accentuated by upheavals and out-migration. The focus here is on a little-known facet of the interconnected island and offshore Havana cigar history, linking Cuba with Connecticut and Indonesia: from when tobacco was taken from the Americas to Indonesia and gave rise to the famed Sumatra cigar wrapper leaf; through the rise and demise of its sister shade wrapper in Connecticut, with Cuban and Sumatra seed, ultimately overshadowed by Indonesia; and the resulting challenges facing Cuba today. The article highlights the role of Dutch, U.S., British, and Swedish capital to explain why in 2009 the two major global cigar corporations, British Imperial Tobacco and Swedish Match, were lobbying Washington, respectively, for and against the embargo on Cuba. As the antismoking, antitobacco lobby gains ground internationally, the intriguing final question is whether the future lies with El Habano or smokeless Swedish snus.

  12. Early Signs of Atherogenesis in Adolescents in a Havana Family Medicine Catchment Area.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Wendy; Díaz-Perera, Georgia; Espinosa, Tania M

    2015-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Atherosclerosis is the common underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases; the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. It is a major contributor to disability and poorer quality of life and is costly to health systems, individuals, families and society. Early signs of atherogenesis are manifestations of atherosclerosis and known atherogenic risk factors occurring at young ages and detectable by health professionals. Early detection of such signs in children and adolescents enables actions to prevent short- and long-term complications. OBJECTIVE Detect early signs of atherogenesis in adolescents in Family Doctor-and-Nurse Office No. 13 of the Raúl Gómez García Polyclinic in Havana's 10 de Octubre Municipality. METHODS An observational, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted: the universe consisted of 110 adolescents and, once exclusion criteria were applied, the sample was made up of 96 adolescents in the office's geographical catchment area. Variables included sociodemographic data; measurements from physical and anthropometric examinations (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, presence of acanthosis nigricans); maternal history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, smoking during pregnancy; birth weight and duration of exclusive breastfeeding; lifestyle (physical activity, dietary habits by frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables, salt intake, and smoking); and a history of atherogenic risk factors and atherosclerotic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease and chronic kidney disease) in adolescents and their families. The number of early signs of atherogenesis was determined. Descriptive statistics and a chi-square test, with significance threshold set at p = 0.05, were used to examine differences by sex and age. RESULTS A total of 62.5% of participating adolescents were female and the same percent of the total

  13. Cardiovascular Risk among Older Women in a Havana Health Area.

    PubMed

    Armas, Nurys Bárbara; Hernández, Yesenia de la Caridad; Dueñas, Alfredo F; García, Reynaldo de la Noval; Castillo, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality increase in women after menopause. Various scoring models assess qualitative risk of cardiovascular disease. The Framingham Heart Study global risk score is among the most widely used. Objective Determine level of coronary heart disease risk among women aged ≥60 years in a Havana health catchment area (geographic area whose residents are served by the M�rtires del Corynthia Polyclinic, in the Plaza de la Revoluci�n municipality of Havana). Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2006. Universe: all women (3,396) aged ≥60 years in the catchment area, attended at the primary care level by the Polyclinic and 42 neighborhood family doctor-and-nurse offices. Equal probability sample: 1,082 women meeting the inclusion criteria, chosen through single-stage cluster sampling considering a <10% error margin for estimates for this parameter, a 95% confidence interval (CI) and a design effect of 1.5. Absolute frequencies and percentages were calculated to summarize the qualitative data obtained. Results were presented as tables. Results The most common cardiovascular risk factors found in this study were: physical inactivity, 74.9%; hypertension (HTN), 70.6%; abdominal obesity, 53%; reported family history of coronary heart disease (CHD), 41.8%; diabetes mellitus (DM), 21.8%; and cigarette smoking, 17.2%. Scoring according to number of risk factors present in each individual, 79.3% of these women fell into the high- or moderate-risk categories. Conclusion The large number of women categorized as high- or moderate-risk for coronary heart disease in this population emphasizes the need for preventive actions aimed at reducing these figures. Cardiovascular diseases, vascular diseases, ischemic heart disease, coronary heart disease, postmenopause, woman, aged, risk factors, risk assessment, hypertension, high blood pressure, lifestyle, diabetes mellitus, obesity, abdominal adipose tissue, body mass

  14. Cuba's Urban Landscape Needs a Second Round of Innovation for Health.

    PubMed

    Peña, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    Cuba's economy spiraled downward in the 1990s, reeling from the collapse of European socialism and a tightened US embargo. To mitigate the crash's drastic effects, measures were adopted that transformed our urban landscape, especially in large cities such as Havana, paradoxically linking the period to nascent health-promoting options. One of the most important was the introduction of bicycle lanes on city streets, paths daily ridden by people on the over one million bicycles imported to offset the nearly nonexistent public transport caused by fuel shortages. Second, urban gardens began to sprout up, involving urban dwellers in production of their own food, particularly vegetables. Without minimizing the impact of the crisis, these two seemingly disparate phenomena meant people were getting more exercise, consuming fewer fats and carbohydrates and more fresh vegetables. People were even breathing fresher air, with fewer CO2-belching trucks, old cars and buses on the streets and less diesel used to transport produce in from afar.

  15. The pharmaceutical industry in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Tancer, R S

    1995-01-01

    Cuba has developed a relatively sophisticated pharmaceutical sector, originally to provide medicinal products for her own population and, more recently, to earn hard currency through exports. Cuba has achieved both of these goals despite the US trade embargo, which isolates Cuba from commercial relations with US firms. Cuba is opening its economy to firms from other countries through the use of joint ventures and other forms of cooperation. US firms are unable to avail themselves of these opportunities, and the opportunities are thus being lost. In the case of pharmaceuticals, the Cubans recognize that they need assistance, particularly in the areas of marketing and packaging. Allowing the participation of US firms in the Cuban pharmaceutical industry could enhance the possibility of improving worldwide health care.

  16. Cuba's kidney transplantation program.

    PubMed

    Mármol, Alexander; Pérez, Alexis; Pérez de Prado, Juan C; Fernández-Vega, Silvia; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Arce, Sergio

    2010-10-01

    The first kidney transplant in Cuba was performed on 24 February 1970, using a cadaveric donor. In 1979, living donor kidney transplantation began between first-degree relatives. A total of 2775 patients are enrolled in renal replacement therapy in 47 hospitals across the country, 1440 of whom are awaiting kidney transplantation. Organs for the kidney program are procured in 63 accredited hospitals equipped for multidisciplinary management of brain death. Accordingly, over 90% of transplanted kidneys are from cadaveric donors. Identification of potential recipients is carried out through a national, computerized program that affords all patients the same opportunity regardless of distance from a transplant center, and selection of the most suitable candidate is based primarily on HLA compatibility. KEYWORDS Chronic renal failure, kidney transplantation.

  17. [Biological properties of virus dengue-3 strains isolated during the epidemic ocurred in Havana, 2001-2002].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Roche, Rosmari; López Matilla, Liudmila; Alvarez Vera, Mayling; Morier Díaz, Luis; Guzmán Tirado, María G

    2012-01-01

    During dengue epidemics in Cuba, an increase in clinical severity with the epidemics progression in time, particularly in secondary infections, have been frequently observed. It is considered that this increase could be related with genetic changes in the circulating virus. To study some biological attributes related to strains isolated at different points of time during the dengue epidemic occurred in Havana city, 2001-2002. Nine DENV-3 strains were studied. Cytopathogenic effect, viral growth in C6/36 HT and Vero cell lines, viral plaque sizes, temperature sensitivity, neurovirulence in newborn mice and pH influence in the binding of the virus and the cell as well as in the multiplication medium were evaluated. DENV-3 strains were more cytopathogenic in Vero Cells. However, higher titres were obtained in C6/36 HT cells. All the strains showed reduction of viral titres and plaque size with temperature increasing and low neurovirulence. Basic pH favoured virus-cell binding whereas acid pH was only permissive for some strains isolated at the end of the epidemic. On the other hand, at pH 6.5-7, the viral multiplication medium favoured the growth of strains isolated at the beginning of the epidemic whereas the growth of those isolated at the endof the epidemic was noticeable at pH 7-8. This study proved the phenotypical changes among strains isolated at different points of time in the epidemic. They might be related to differences in viral fitness or in virulent potential. Nevertheless, some of the studied biological properties suggest that dengue virus-3 strains are less virulent than the Cuban dengue virus 2 strains isolated in 1997.

  18. Epidemic neuropathy in Cuba: a public health problem related to the Cuban Democracy Act of the United States.

    PubMed

    Román, G C

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, the USA embargo on Cuba was tightened through the passage of the Cuban Democracy Act (CDA) that explicitly restricts food and medical supplies. The embargo has contributed to cause a number of public health problems in Cuba including: (1) an epidemic of more than 50,000 cases of optic and peripheral neuropathies in 1992-1993, resulting from dietary deficiency; (2) an epidemic of esophageal stenoses in toddlers who inadvertently drank liquid lye as a result of a soap shortage for which liquid lye was substituted; (3) an outbreak of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Havana, in June and July 1994, resulting from water contamination due to lack of chemicals for water treatment to eliminate Campylobacter sp.; (4) outbreaks of self-inflicted disease and injuries caused by rioting among Cubans detained at the US Naval base at Guantánamo Bay, and (5) a decline in medical practice standards and public health indicators in Cuba resulting from the enactment of the CDA, documented by the American Public Health Association in 1993 and confirmed in March 1997 by the American Association for World Health. Despite this evidence, the Cuban embargo remains a politically sensitive subject in the USA, resistant to public health concerns, as evidenced by the recent passage of the Helms-Burton Act. The public health effects of the CDA need to be reviewed with possible revocation or at least modification.

  19. [Cyptococcus gattii isolated from a cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in the National Zoo of Cuba].

    PubMed

    Polo Leal, Jorge Luis; Fernández Andreu, Carlos Manuel; Martínez Machín, Gerardo; Illnait Zaragozi, María Teresa; Perurena Lancha, Mayda Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Cryptoccosis--systemic mycosis caused by Cryptococcus species--has considerably raised its incidence in the last years, mainly associated with the human immunodeficiency virus infection. It has also been described in animals, but rare cases. a case of a female cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) kept in the Nacional Zoo of Havana was presented. The animal came from South Africa. She began losing weight, and suffering asthenia, anorexia and breathing problems with abundant nasal secretion. mycological testing of these secretions disclosed the presence of serotype B Cryptococcus gattii. Because of the origin and captive condition of the animal, it was believed that the infection had been latent for 16 months at least. up to the present, in Cuba, all clinical Cryptococcus isolates were C. neoformans var. grubii, so it is considered that the infection was caught in the country of origin of the female cheetah. This is the first C. gattii isolate in Cuba from an animal coming from South Africa where this fungus is endemic.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in soils of Mayabeque, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Dayana; Hilber, Isabel; Faure, Roberto; Bartolomé, Nora; Fonseca, Osvaldo; Keller, Armin; Schwab, Peter; Escobar, Arturo; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2017-05-01

    Cuba is a country in transition with a considerable potential for economic growth. Soils are recipients and integrators of chemical pollution, a frequent negative side effect of increasing industrial activities. Therefore, we established a soil monitoring network to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soils of Mayabeque, a Cuban province southeast of Havana. Concentrations of the sum of the 16 US EPA PAHs and of the seven IRMM PCBs in soils from 39 locations ranged from 20 to 106 μg kg(-1) and from 1.1 to 7.6 μg kg(-1), respectively. While such concentrations can be considered as low overall, they were in several cases correlated with the distance of sampling sites to presumed major emission sources, with some of the concomitantly investigated source diagnostic PAH ratios, and with black carbon content. The presented data adds to the limited information on soil pollution in the Caribbean region and serves as a reference time point before the onset of a possible further industrial development in Cuba. It also forms the basis to set up and adapt national environmental standards.

  1. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  2. Implementing renewable energy in Cuba

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, W.; Stone, L.; Perez, V.B.H.; Madruga, E.

    1997-12-31

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union and the tightening of the US embargo, Cuba has found itself in an energy crisis of enormous magnitude. Faced with this energy crisis and its ensuing black-outs and productivity reductions, Cuba has developed a national energy plan which focuses on energy self-sufficiency and sustainability. Energy efficiency, solar energy, wind power, micro-hydro, and biomass are each included in the plan. Implementation of renewable energy projects in each of these areas has begun throughout the country with the enthusiastic support of Cubasolar, the Cuban renewable energy professional association.

  3. Our forgotten colleagues in Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Juan G.

    I visited the Republic of Cuba from October 30 to November 6, 1993, to attend the Third Latin American Conference on Space Geophysics, of which I was an organizer. A scientific report on the conference has been published separately [Valdes Galicia, 1994]. The main purpose of the present article is to focus on the present predicament of scientists in Cuba; it is not intended as an account of their scientific activities per se. Much of the information is based on candid conversations with Cuban scientists and officials from the Cuban Academy of Sciences (ACC).

  4. Thunderstorm, Florida, Bahamas and Cuba

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This decaying thunderstorm, seen as the trailing edge of a cloud mass over the Gulf of Mexico and approaching Florida, Bahamas and Cuba (24.0N, 81.0W) has lost much of its force but still dropped a considerable amount of rainfall over most of Cuba and Florida. The storm, remnants of the same front described in scene STS031-77-078, is seen as a thin front stretching northwest to southeast over the Gulf of Mexico just west of Florida.

  5. [The trends by province of tuberculosis in Cuba: 1979-1993].

    PubMed

    González Ochoa, E; Armas Pérez, L; Machín Gelaber, A

    1995-11-01

    This study was carried out in order to describe tuberculosis trends in Cuba and its provinces between 1979 and 1993. For this purpose, reports of new cases of all forms of tuberculosis were obtained from the National Statistics Bureau of the Ministry of Public Health. In addition, tuberculosis incidence rates and their trends between 1979 and 1992 were determined. The data were analyzed by means of simple linear and exponential regression models. Finally, the percentage reductions in incidence between 1979 and 1992 were calculated and the observed changes were described in reference to the expected values derived from the regression models. The number of new tuberculosis cases reported in Cuba decreased from 1133 (11.6 per 100,000 population) in 1979 to 633 (5.8 per 100,000) in 1992 (a 44% reduction). In 1993, 788 cases were reported (7.2 per 100,000). In almost all the provinces the incidence tended to decrease between 1979 and 1992, and the average annual number of new case notifications fell between 4.0 and 5.4%, although in some, less than 3%. In 1992, the number of new case notifications in the country was 25% higher than in 1991, and the incidence rates in all the provinces were higher than expected. The incidence in La Habana, the City of Havana, Villa Clara, Cienfuegos, Ciego de Avila, Santiago de Cuba, and Guantánamo exceeded the overall national incidence. In 1993, incidence in the country was 55.6% higher than it had been in 1991 and 24.5% higher than in 1992. Incidence rose in all provinces, and especially in the City of Havana, Matanzas, and Guantánamo. Although incidence remained below 8 cases per 100,000 population between 1992 and 1993, it rose during those years, as it did in other countries. The increase appears to be attributable to the economic crisis that affects the country and to have very little connection to human immunodeficiency virus infection.

  6. El Espanol de Cuba: Situacion bibliografica (Spanish in Cuba: Bibliographies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez Morales, Humberto

    1968-01-01

    Analytical and critical commentaries on books about the Spanish language in Cuba are presented here. Bibliographies, dictionaries, glossaries, readers, and linguistic studies are treated, and a selective bibliography of materials is presented. Most of the materials covered are also in M. W. Nichols'"A Bibliographical Guide to Materials on…

  7. Early Childhood Education in Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susan A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the four levels of the early childhood education system in Cuba. Includes information on home visit programs for new parents, child care programs, preschool programs, programs for 5-year-olds, and primary school programs. Emphasizes that parents, relatives, teachers, and the larger community share the responsibility of educating young…

  8. Early Childhood Education in Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susan A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the four levels of the early childhood education system in Cuba. Includes information on home visit programs for new parents, child care programs, preschool programs, programs for 5-year-olds, and primary school programs. Emphasizes that parents, relatives, teachers, and the larger community share the responsibility of educating young…

  9. [An inter-sector participatory strategy in Cuba using an ecosystem approach to prevent dengue transmission at the local level].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Cristina; Torres, Yisel; Cruz, Ana Margarita de la; Alvarez, Angel M; Piquero, María Eugenia; Valero, Aida; Fuentes, Omar

    2009-01-01

    Cuba is located among a group of countries with high dengue incidence. Following several epidemics in the last 10 years, the country designed, implemented, and evaluated a participatory strategy based on the Ecohealth approach. The aim was to promote inter-sector ecosystem management to decrease Aedes aegypti infestation and prevent dengue transmission in the municipality of Cotorro, in Havana city. The study adopted a participatory research methodology. The strategy ensured active participation by the community, diverse sectors, and government in the production of healthy ecosystems. Timely and integrated measures for prevention and control were developed, thereby decreasing the risk of vector proliferation and local dengue transmission. The approach allowed holistic problem analysis, priority setting, and administration of solutions. The strategy has been sustained two years after concluding the process.

  10. Viva La Ciencia: Cuba’s Creative Scientists Aim to Make Knowledge Their Country’s Sugar Substitute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Rosalind; Hayes, Brian

    At first, peas served as particles in Ernesto Altshuler's experiment. A mechanical dispenser would drop the chícharos one by one into the space between two glass plates, forming a tidy two-dimensional approximation of a sand pile. Lattice structure appeared, then vanished, as the pile self-organized and went critical—avalanche! But Havana's insects soon found the peas in Altshuler's physics lab. For a physicist working under harsh economic conditions of Cuba in the early 1990s, options were few. Yet Altshuler's solution came as a byproduct of the crisis: Because of fuel shortages, the country had begun importing Chinese bicycles, and ball bearings were available in abundance. Thus the peas have been replaced by steel beads, but Altshuler and his students still call their machine the chícharotron.

  11. Sowing City Schools: Teachers and Garden Education in Havana and Philadelphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Katie Ann

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines how pedagogies of sustainability are embedded in socio-cultural contexts and policy structures and driven by the localized actions of teachers. Through a comparative case study in two cities with extensive and varied school garden programs, Havana and Philadelphia, this dissertation analyzes the roles, understandings,…

  12. Sowing City Schools: Teachers and Garden Education in Havana and Philadelphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Katie Ann

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines how pedagogies of sustainability are embedded in socio-cultural contexts and policy structures and driven by the localized actions of teachers. Through a comparative case study in two cities with extensive and varied school garden programs, Havana and Philadelphia, this dissertation analyzes the roles, understandings,…

  13. [Implementation of the International Health Regulations in Cuba: evaluation of basic capacities of the health sector in selected provinces].

    PubMed

    Gala, Ángela; Toledo, María Eugenia; Arias, Yanisnubia; Díaz González, Manuel; Alvarez Valdez, Angel Manuel; Estévez, Gonzalo; Abreu, Rolando Miyar; Flores, Gustavo Kourí

    2012-09-01

    Obtain baseline information on the status of the basic capacities of the health sector at the local, municipal, and provincial levels in order to facilitate identification of priorities and guide public policies that aim to comply with the requirements and capacities established in Annex 1A of the International Health Regulations 2005 (IHR-2005). A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted by application of an instrument of evaluation of basic capacities referring to legal and institutional autonomy, the surveillance and research process, and the response to health emergencies in 36 entities involved in international sanitary control at the local, municipal, and provincial levels in the provinces of Havana, Cienfuegos, and Santiago de Cuba. The polyclinics and provincial centers of health and epidemiology in the three provinces had more than 75% of the basic capacities required. Twelve out of 36 units had implemented 50% of the legal and institutional framework. There was variable availability of routine surveillance and research, whereas the entities in Havana had more than 40% of the basic capacities in the area of events response. The provinces evaluated have integrated the basic capacities that will allow implementation of IHR-2005 within the period established by the World Health Organization. It is necessary to develop and establish effective action plans to consolidate surveillance as an essential activity of national and international security in terms of public health.

  14. Immunoscintigraphy and radioimmunotherapy in Cuba: experiences with labeled monoclonal antibodies for cancer diagnosis and treatment (1993-2013).

    PubMed

    Peña, Yamilé; Perera, Alejandro; Batista, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The availability of monoclonal antibodies in Cuba has facilitated development and application of innovative techniques (immunoscintigraphy and radioimmunotherapy) for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Objective Review immunoscintigraphy and radioimmunotherapy techniques and analyze their use in Cuba, based on the published literature. In this context, we describe the experience of Havana's Clinical Research Center with labeled monoclonal antibodies for cancer diagnosis and treatment during the period 1993-2013. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION Basic concepts concerning cancer and monoclonal antibodies were reviewed, as well as relevant international and Cuban data. Forty-nine documents were reviewed, among them 2 textbooks, 34 articles by Cuban authors and 13 by international authors. All works published by the Clinical Research Center from 1993 through 2013 were included. Bibliography was obtained from the library of the Clinical Research Center and Infomed, Cuba's national health telematics network, using the following keywords: monoclonal antibodies, immunoscintigraphy and radioimmunotherapy. RESULTS Labeling the antibodies (ior t3, ior t1, ior cea 1, ior egf/r3, ior c5, h-R3, 14F7 and rituximab) with radioactive isotopes was a basic line of research in Cuba and has fostered their use as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The studies conducted demonstrated the good sensitivity and diagnostic precision of immunoscintigraphy for detecting various types of tumors (head and neck, ovarian, colon, breast, lymphoma, brain). Obtaining different radioimmune conjugates with radioactive isotopes such as 99mTc and 188Re made it possible to administer radioimmunotherapy to patients with several types of cancer (brain, lymphoma, breast). The objective of 60% of the clinical trials was to determine pharmacokinetics, internal dosimetry and adverse effects of monoclonal antibodies, as well as tumor response; there were few adverse effects, no damage to vital organs, and a positive

  15. Etiology of Genital Ulcer Disease in Male Patients Attending a Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic: First Assessment in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Noda, Angel A; Blanco, Orestes; Correa, Consuelo; Pérez, Lissette; Kourí, Vivian; Rodríguez, Islay

    2016-08-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and in particular genital ulcer disease (GUD) have a major impact on morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The World Health Organization recommends the use of syndromic guidelines for the treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in resource-constrained countries. Surveillance of autochthonous etiologies provides epidemiological information contributing to the prevention and treatment of STIs. We investigated the etiology and factors associated with GUD among male patients attending a STD clinic in Havana, Cuba. Swabs from genital ulcers of 113 male patients, collected from May 2012 to June 2015, were analyzed using PCR for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, and Chlamydia trachomatis. We also investigated the clinical and epidemiological characteristics associated with the presence of these pathogens in GUD. At least one of the pathogens was detected in 70% of patients. The occurrence of the pathogens was herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (51.3%), T. pallidum (29.2%), and C. trachomatis (1.8%). Co-infections occurred as follows: T. pallidum-HSV-2 (10.6%), C. trachomatis-HSV-2 (0.9%) and C. trachomatis-T. pallidum (0.9%). Herpes simplex virus type 1 and H. ducreyi were not detected. Ages 15 to 40 years, HIV-positive serostatus, and no condom use were significant risk factors for the presence of HSV-2 in genital ulcers. Our preliminary results highlight the predominance of HSV-2 and T. pallidum as the leading GUD etiologies in the study population and identified risk factors associated with HSV-2. This information should help to inform guidelines for better management of GUD in Havana, Cuba.

  16. Cuba: Issues for the 111th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-25

    Spain’s Ortega y Gasset award for digital journalism, but the Cuban government did not provide her with an exit permit to accept the award. (Sánchez’s...contract from USAID to help support Cuban civil society organizations. Gross was arrested at Jose Martí International Airport in Havana when he was

  17. Cuba: Multidimensional numerical integration library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The Cuba library offers four independent routines for multidimensional numerical integration: Vegas, Suave, Divonne, and Cuhre. The four algorithms work by very different methods, and can integrate vector integrands and have very similar Fortran, C/C++, and Mathematica interfaces. Their invocation is very similar, making it easy to cross-check by substituting one method by another. For further safeguarding, the output is supplemented by a chi-square probability which quantifies the reliability of the error estimate.

  18. Time for a New Cuba Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-11

    government took over leadership of the island. The newly elected leader of Cuba, Estrada Palma , was forced by the United States Congress to rule under...providing oil on preferential terms, and it currently supplies about 100,000 barrels per day of petroleum products. Cuba has been paying for the oil

  19. Psychology and Health Care in Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Averasturi, Lourdes

    1980-01-01

    Describes the orientation and development of professional psychological services in Cuba since the 1959 revolution. Discusses the integration of psychological services with educational and primary health services. Also describes research trends and the relationship between psychology and psychiatry in Cuba. (GC)

  20. The human dimension of AIDS in Cuba: Jorge Pérez MD MS, Director, Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute. Interviewed by Gail Reed.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    Except for the people living with the disease, no others have so immersed themselves in Cuba's world of HIV/AIDS as Dr Jorge Pérez. It is a world of Cuban returnees from Angola's war against apartheid South Africa, gay and bisexual men, housewives, transactional sex workers, rebellious teenagers, and infected surgeons and scientists-a cultural kaleidoscope reflecting all the faces of AIDS. To more than one international author, he is simply "Cuba's AIDS doctor." Speaking to his patients at the Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute in Havana, it is easy to see why, but also to appreciate the courage, compassion, and persistent search for new knowledge that characterize the Institute's staff as a whole. Dr Pérez's story-now told in two books based on his diaries-is not his alone. MEDICC Review held two interview sessions with Jorge Pérez just days apart at the beginning of April: one before and one after his designation as the new Director of the Tropical Medicine Institute, where he previously served as Deputy Director and Chief of Hospital Services. More than strictly medical matters, the conversation turned to the human dimension of HIV/AIDS, the depth to which it has touched many directly and affected Cuban society as a whole, and the challenges ahead for Cuba's flagship institution for research and treatment of infectious diseases.

  1. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-30

    Wilfredo Cancio Isla, “Aprietan las restricciones para los viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald (Miami), April 28, 2006, and “Cierran en Miami otra agencia de... viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald, June 6, 2006. 16 White House, “Statement by President Bush on Cuba: Toward a Democratic Cuba,” July 13, 2001

  2. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-16

    agency, La Estrella de Cuba, from booking travel to Cuba. The agency reportedly was one of the largest licensed travel agencies, booking some 300 to 500...travel agency, La Estrella de Cuba, from booking travel to Cuba. The agency reportedly was one of the largest licensed travel agencies, booking some 300

  3. Potential impact of macroclimatic variability on the epidemiology of giardiasis in three provinces of Cuba, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, Angel A; Almirall, Pedro; Rumbaut, Raisa; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and variability are common phenomena affecting various infectious diseases. Many studies have been performed on vector-borne diseases; however, few studies have addressed such influences on intestinal parasitic diseases (e.g., giardiasis). In this study, using nonlinear Poisson regression models, we assessed the potential associations between macroclimatic variation and giardiasis cases in children and school workers from three provinces of Cuba in the context of large sampling and parasitological assessment. Between 2010 and 2012, 293,019 subjects were assessed, resulting in 6357 positive for Giardia (216.95 cases/10,000 pop.; 95%CI 211.7-222.2). The variation in time for those giardiasis rates ranged from 35.8 to 525.8 cases/10,000 pop. Nonlinear Poisson regression models between the ONI index and the giardiasis incidence indicated a significant association (p<0.01). With lower values of ONI, lower incidence of giardiasis was observed at Havana (pseudo r(2)=0.0576; p<0.001) and Guantánamo (pseudo r(2)=0.0376; p<0.001). Although these results are preliminary and the magnitude of association is not higher, the results were of statistical significance. This result indicates the need to assess in detail in further studies the impact of additional macroclimatic and microclimatic variables on the epidemiology of this still important intestinal parasitic disease, not only in Cuba but also in other countries of the Caribbean and Latin American region.

  4. The Rise and Development of Physics in Cuba: An Interview with Hugo Pérez Rojas in May 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baracca, Angelo

    Hugo Celso Pérez Rojas was born in 1938, and works as a senior researcher at the Institute of Cybernetics, Mathematics and Physics, at the Ministry of Science and Technology, Cuba. Pérez Rojas is emeritus member of the Academy of Sciences of Cuba, member of the Latin American Academy of Sciences and Fellow TWAS since 1994. He was one of the founders of the School of Physics in the University of Havana in 1962, and moved in 1971 to the Cuban Academy of Sciences. His national awards include the Rafael Maria Mendive and Carlos J. Finlay Medals. He was awarded in 2011 the National Prize in Physics from the Cuban Physical Society. His interests include quantum field theory and its applications to finite temperature problems in high-energy physics and condensed matter. Among these, Pérez Rojas has devoted special attention to quantum electrodynamics in matter and in vacuum in the presence of external fields, phase transitions in electroweak theory, relativistic quantum Hall effect, Bose-Einstein condensation in magnetic fields, and applications of physics to social sciences. He is interviewed here by Angelo Baracca in May 2009.

  5. Tropical Storm Ernesto over Cuba

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-28

    This infrared image shows Tropical Storm Ernesto over Cuba, from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder AIRS on NASA Aqua satellite in August, 2006. Because infrared radiation does not penetrate through clouds, AIRS infrared images show either the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The lowest temperatures (in purple) are associated with high, cold cloud tops that make up the top of the storm. In cloud-free areas the AIRS instrument will receive the infrared radiation from the surface of the Earth, resulting in the warmest temperatures (orange/red). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00510

  6. Health Care in Modern Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Outcalt, Douglas; Janoff, Edward

    1980-01-01

    An extensively organized, centrally controlled system, aimed at equalizing and improving the distribution and quality of medical services according to population and geography, characterizes the modern Cuban health care complex. Facilities of increasing sophistication are located in urban areas while an expanding series of ambulatory, multipotential polyclinics attempts to provide most health services in both urban and rural settings. Maternal and child care, immunization programs and other forms of preventive medicine represent major priorities for expenditures. Occupational health is increasingly understood as a valuable resource, and medical professionals on all levels are being trained in significant numbers for Cuba and its allies. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:7376666

  7. Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1962-01-01

    Rivers are both the means and the routes by which the products of continental weathering are carried to the oceans of the world. Except in the most arid areas more water falls as precipitation than is lost by evaporation and transpiration from the land surface to the atmosphere. Thus there is an excess of water, which must flow to the ocean. Rivers, then, are the routes by which this excess water flows to the ultimate base level. The excess of precipitation over evaporation and transpiration provides the flow of rivers and springs, recharges ground-water storage, and is the supply from which man draws water for his needs.

  8. Cuba's national AIDS program. The first decade.

    PubMed Central

    Granich, R; Jacobs, B; Mermin, J; Pont, A

    1995-01-01

    There is a high incidence of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in many Caribbean nations. But by 1993 Cuba, with a population of greater than 10 million people, had fewer than 1,000 seropositive persons and less than 200 cases of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). To investigate Cuba's approach to the AIDS epidemic, we visited Cuba, reviewed published statistics, spoke with health care officials, interviewed HIV-positive patients, and toured medical facilities. Cuba established an extensive HIV surveillance program in 1983, and more than 15 million HIV antibody tests have been done. The sexual contacts of all infected persons are closely observed. A national education program is evolving. Since 1986, all known HIV-positive patients have been placed in sanitariums, which is the most controversial aspect of Cuba's program. We review available information on AIDS in Cuba and describe that nation's attempt to prevent the spread of disease. We discuss how the political system and Cuba's relative isolation have influenced this approach. Strategies have been developed that may be of limited efficacy and would not be acceptable in most Western nations. PMID:7571561

  9. Cuba's national AIDS program. The first decade.

    PubMed

    Granich, R; Jacobs, B; Mermin, J; Pont, A

    1995-08-01

    There is a high incidence of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in many Caribbean nations. But by 1993 Cuba, with a population of greater than 10 million people, had fewer than 1,000 seropositive persons and less than 200 cases of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). To investigate Cuba's approach to the AIDS epidemic, we visited Cuba, reviewed published statistics, spoke with health care officials, interviewed HIV-positive patients, and toured medical facilities. Cuba established an extensive HIV surveillance program in 1983, and more than 15 million HIV antibody tests have been done. The sexual contacts of all infected persons are closely observed. A national education program is evolving. Since 1986, all known HIV-positive patients have been placed in sanitariums, which is the most controversial aspect of Cuba's program. We review available information on AIDS in Cuba and describe that nation's attempt to prevent the spread of disease. We discuss how the political system and Cuba's relative isolation have influenced this approach. Strategies have been developed that may be of limited efficacy and would not be acceptable in most Western nations.

  10. Developing nursing capacity for health systems and services research in Cuba, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Nelcy

    2012-07-01

    Health systems and services research by nursing personnel could inform decision-making and nursing care, providing evidence concerning quality of and patient satisfaction. Such studies are rather uncommon in Cuban research institutes, where clinical research predominates. Assess the results of a strategy implemented between 2008 and 2011 to develop nursing capacity for health systems and services research in 14 national research institutes based in Havana. The study comprised four stages: description of approaches to health systems and services research by nurses worldwide and in Cuba; analysis of current capacities for such research in Cuba; intervention design and implementation; and evaluation. Various techniques were used including: literature review, bibliometric analysis, questionnaire survey, consultation with experts, focus groups, and workshops for participant orientation and design and followup of research projects. Qualitative information reduction and quantitative information summary methods were used. Initially, 32 nursing managers participated; a further 105 nurses from the institutes were involved in research teams formed during intervention implementation. Of all published nursing research articles retrieved, 8.9% (185 of 2081) concerned health systems and services research, of which 26.5% (49 of 185) dealt with quality assessment. At baseline, 75% of Cuban nurses surveyed had poor knowledge of health systems and services research. Orientation, design and followup workshops for all institute teams developed individual and institutional capacity for health systems and services research. Post-intervention, 84.7% (27) of nurses reached good knowledge and 14.3% (5) fair; institutional research teams were formed and maintained in 9 institutes, and 13 projects designed and implemented (11 institutional, 2 addressing ministerial-level priorities) to research nursing issues at selected centers. A systematic strategy to build nursing capacity for health

  11. Superconductivity in Cuba: Reaching the Frontline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arés Muzio, Oscar; Altshuler, Ernesto

    The start of experimental research in the field of superconductivity was a very special moment for Cuban physics: Cuban scientists at the Physics Faculty, University of Havana, synthesized the first Cuban superconductor (a 123-YBCO ceramic sample) just 2 months after the publication of the famous paper by Wu and co-workers that triggered the frantic race of High Tc superconductors all over the world. We timely joined the world's frontline in superconductor research.

  12. Learning together: a Canada-Cuba research collaboration to improve the sustainable management of environmental health risks.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Jerry; Garcia, Maricel; Bonet, Mariano; Yassi, Annalee

    2006-01-01

    To build a national Cuban capacity for training environmental health professionals directly linked to the needs of policy-makers and communities. The University of Manitoba and University of British Columbia collaborated with an established training centre in Cuba (the Instituto Nacional de Higiene y Epidemiologia--INHEM) and new centres in the Central (Santa Clara) and Eastern (Santiago) regions of the country. Cuba. In the mid-1990s, a comprehensive curriculum (masters and diploma programs) was collaboratively developed, applying interactive teaching methods, and was delivered through a series of workshops and other interactions in Cuba, and short-term visits to Canada by Cuban PhD students. The collaboration was successful in fulfilling capacity-building targets (over 50 Masters graduates, 467 Diploma graduates, over 30 trained core faculty in all regional centres as well as new curriculum and new accredited regional programs). Alongside this, a number of collaborative community-based research projects were undertaken in all three regions (drinking water in Santiago; housing and urban renewal, and dengue control in Havana; and tourism-related effects, and effective intersectoral management of population health determinants in Santa Clara). The collaboration led to adopting new strategies for challenges such as a dengue epidemic in 2002, and new research on the effectiveness of intersectoral management of risks of particular interest to both Cuban and Canadian policy-makers. It triggered an ambitious collaboration between the Canadian-Cuban team and colleagues in Ecuador in order to build a similar national network there, built on South-South and North-South links.

  13. [Childbirth in Cuba: analysis of the experience of medically supervised delivery from an anthropological perspective].

    PubMed

    García-Jordá, Dailys; Díaz-Bernal, Zoe; Acosta Álamo, Marlen

    2012-07-01

    Knowledge about pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum in Cuba is currently deficient. Childbirth has been fundamentally studied as a medical event from its clinical aspects. Analysis of the reproductive process from the Medical Anthropology perspective could contribute to healthcare services providing more humane treatment and empowerment for women and men as the persons primarily responsible for their reproductive processes. This study investigated the experience and perception of childbirth in three hospitals in Havana. The scope of this research was to understand the representation and practice of childbirth and to describe the experiences of women during this event. Qualitative investigation techniques were used, together with interviews and participant observation of 36 women in labor, ten family members and nine obstetricians. The qualitative data was analyzed using Grounded Theory methodology. All the childbirths occurred with numerous medical interventions and the maternity experience was very intense. The participation of men was limited. From the anthropological perspective the routine use of some medical interventions and the institutional regulations described are considered manifestations of physical and gender violence.

  14. [Treatment of renoureteral lithiasis using extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. Experience in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Larrea Masvidal, E; García Serrano, C; Hernández Silverio, D; Castillo Rodríguez, M; Casals Armada, J; Valdés Gómez, C; Báez Hernández, D

    1989-01-01

    Herein we present our experience in 5,000 cases of reno-ureteral lithiasis submitted to treatment at the Extracorporeal Lithotripsy Unit of Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital in Havana, Cuba, from April 1986 and during a period spanning 30 months. Treatment was exclusively by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in 85.5% of the patients and in combination with other procedures in 14.5% (endoscopic maneuvers in 5.9%, percutaneous nephrostomy 4.4%, open surgery 3.6%, and percutaneous nephrolithotripsy 0.6%). Complications were observed in 7% of the cases: ureteric obstruction (6.4%) with or without infection, perirenal hematoma (0.4%), and obstructive anuria (0.2%); acute urinary infection of different clinical types, some of which were very severe, were observed concomitantly in 2.6% of these patients. Two months following treatment, 86% of the cases were completely stone-free. At 6 months 96.2% were completely stone-free; the remaining 3.8% were classed as residual lithiasis. The pathologic conditions that put patients at high therapeutic risk and the possible complications that could arise were identified. The efficacy of the Dornier HM-3 lithotripter and the health care system that permits its extensive use are highlighted.

  15. Cuba's international cooperation in health: an overview.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Pol; De Ceukelaire, Wim; Bonet, Mariano; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    In the first years after Cuba's 1959 revolution, the island's new government provided international medical assistance to countries affected by natural disasters or armed conflicts. Step by step, a more structural complementary program for international collaboration was put in place. The relief operations after Hurricane Mitch, which struck Central America in 1998, were pivotal. From November 1998 onward, the "Integrated Health Program" was the cornerstone of Cuba's international cooperation. The intense cooperation with Hugo Chávez's Venezuela became another cornerstone. Complementary to the health programs abroad, Cuba also set up international programs at home, benefiting tens of thousands of foreign patients and disaster victims. In a parallel program, medical training is offered to international students in the Latin American Medical School in Cuba and, increasingly, also in their home countries. The importance and impact of these initiatives, however, cannot and should not be analyzed solely in public health terms.

  16. Cuba After Castro: Implications of Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-18

    Act, commonly known as the Libertad Act. The Libertad Act primarily targets foreign individuals who traffic in property confiscated by the Cuban...government. Some of the key provisions of the Libertad Act include setting forth the U.S. policy towards a transitional and democratically elected...government in Cuba. The Libertad Act further codifies the U.S. economic embargo against Cuba.24 The Cuban Democracy Act of 1992 permits the President of

  17. The Curious Case of Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    As health professionals in the United States consider how to focus health care and coverage to ensure better, more equitable patient and population health outcomes, the experience of Cuba’s National Health System over the last 5 decades may provide useful insights. Although mutual awareness has been limited by long-term political hostilities between the United States and Cuban governments, the history and details of the Cuban health system indicate that their health system merits attention as an example of a national integrated approach resulting in improved health status. More extensive analysis of the principles, practices, and outcomes in Cuba is warranted to inform health system transformation in the United States, despite differences in political-social systems and available resources. PMID:22698011

  18. [The health system of Cuba].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Alonso, Emma; Zacea, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health conditions in Cuba and the general characteristics of the Cuban health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, its health expenditure, its physical, material and human resources, and its stewardship functions. It also discusses the increasing importance of its research institutions and the role played by its users in the operation and evaluation of the system. Salient among the social actors involved in the health sector are the Cuban Women Federation and the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution. The paper concludes with the discussion of the most recent innovations implemented in the Cuban health system, including the cardiology networks, the Miracle Mission (Misión Milagro) and the Battle of Ideas (Batalla de Ideas).

  19. I. 'Street of twins': multiple births in Cuba II. The Cuban twin registry: an update / twin research reports: cord entanglement; heritability of clubfoot; school separation / twins and twin researchers in the news: reunited at seventy-eight; basketball duo dissolved; delivered holding hands; the better brew; award winners.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L; Marcheco-Teruel, Beatriz

    2014-08-01

    I was part of a people-to-people tour of Havana, Cuba during the first week in April 2014. Among the many highlights of that adventure were an informal meeting with Dr Beatriz Marcheco-Teruel, from Cuba's National Center for Medical Genetics, and a visit to the famous 'Street of Twins'. A fortuitous meeting with parents of twins in the fishing town of Jaimanitas was also an extraordinary event. The Cuban experience is followed by summaries of recent twin research, covering umbilical cord entanglement, the heritability of clubfoot and school separation policies for twins. Media reports include twins reunited at age 78, the future of UCLA's twin basketball players, MZ twins born holding hands, a twin conflict over beer and a pair of American Psychological Association honors for Drs Nancy L. Segal and Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr.

  20. Pediatric Gastroenterology in Cuba: Evolution and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Guillot, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    INTRODUCTION The professional practice of pediatric gastroenterology arose in Cuba as an expression of the specialty's development internationally and Cuba's new strategies in public health, and in response to national needs for health care expertise in digestive diseases of infants, older children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES Describe the history of pediatric gastroenterology's development in Cuba since its inception at the National Gastroenterology Institute in the early 1970s, its contributions, and efforts to extend it to pediatric hospitals throughout Cuba. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION This is a historical review based on document analysis. Institutional sources from the National Gastroenterology Institute and Ministry of Public Health were reviewed, as well as international and national literature on the history of pediatric gastroenterology and unpublished texts since its emergence in 1972. DEVELOPMENT Although pediatric gastroenterology has not been formally recognized as a medical specialty in Cuba, there have been important achievements in establishing a network of specialized health care services for digestive diseases of children and adolescents. Gastrointestinal endoscopy and other auxiliary diagnostic modalities have been introduced for children and play a major role in clinical trials and research. This article describes the international context that promoted the specialty's development in Cuba. Reference is made to specialized training from its initial stages in 1972, its consolidation as an emerging discipline in Cuban medicine, and its diffusion in Latin American and Caribbean countries. Professional development and specialized training to meet health human resource needs in pediatric hospitals are described, as well as Cuban participation in the Latin American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. National and international milestones, publications, awards and recognitions that indicate advances despite difficulties are also

  1. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an interest set forth in § 515.201(b)(1) includes a prohibition on the receipt of goods or services in Cuba...

  2. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an interest set forth in § 515.201(b)(1) includes a prohibition on the receipt of goods or services in Cuba...

  3. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an interest set forth in § 515.201(b)(1) includes a prohibition on the receipt of goods or services in Cuba...

  4. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an interest set forth in § 515.201(b)(1) includes a prohibition on the receipt of goods or services in Cuba...

  5. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an interest set forth in § 515.201(b)(1) includes a prohibition on the receipt of goods or services in Cuba...

  6. Waterfowl in Cuba: Current status and distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanco Rodríquez, Pedro; Vilella, Francisco; Sánchez Oria, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    Cuba and its satellite islands represent the largest landmass in the Caribbean archipelago and a major repository of the region’s biodiversity. Approximately 13.4% of the Cuban territory is covered by wetlands, encompassing approximately 1.48 million ha which includes mangroves, flooded savannas, peatlands, freshwater swamp forests and various types of managed wetlands. Here, we synthesise information on the distribution and abundance of waterfowl on the main island of Cuba, excluding the numerous surrounding cays and the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth), and report on band recoveries from wintering waterfowl harvested in Cuba by species and location. Twenty-nine species of waterfowl occur in Cuba, 24 of which are North American migrants. Of the five resident Anatid species, three are of conservation concern: the West Indian Whistling-duck Dendrocygna arborea (globally vulnerable), White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis (regional concern) and Masked Duck Nomonyx dominicus(regional concern). The most abundant species of waterfowl wintering in Cuba include Blue-winged Teal A. discors, Northern Pintail A. acuta, and Northern Shoveler A. clypeata. Waterfowl banded in Canada and the United States and recovered in Cuba included predominantly Blue-winged Teal, American Wigeon and Northern Pintail. Banding sites of recovered birds suggest that most of the waterfowl moving through and wintering in Cuba are from the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways. Threats to wetlands and waterfowl in Cuba include: 1) egg poaching of resident species, 2) illegal hunting of migratory and protected resident species, 3) mangrove deforestation, 4) reservoirs for irrigation, 5) periods of pronounced droughts, and 6) hurricanes. Wetland and waterfowl conservation efforts continue across Cuba’s extensive system of protected areas. Expanding collaborations with international conservation organisations, researchers and governments in North America will enhance protection

  7. 14 CFR 91.709 - Operations to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operations to Cuba. 91.709 Section 91.709... Board Such Aircraft § 91.709 Operations to Cuba. No person may operate a civil aircraft from the United States to Cuba unless— (a) Departure is from an international airport of entry designated in § 6.13 of...

  8. 31 CFR 515.566 - Religious activities in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Religious activities in Cuba. 515.566..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.566 Religious activities in Cuba. (a) General license... transactions as are directly incident to religious activities in Cuba under the auspices of the organization...

  9. 31 CFR 515.566 - Religious activities in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Religious activities in Cuba. 515.566..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.566 Religious activities in Cuba. (a) General license... transactions as are directly incident to religious activities in Cuba under the auspices of the organization...

  10. 31 CFR 515.566 - Religious activities in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Religious activities in Cuba. 515.566..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.566 Religious activities in Cuba. (a) General license... transactions as are directly incident to religious activities in Cuba under the auspices of the organization...

  11. 31 CFR 515.566 - Religious activities in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Religious activities in Cuba. 515.566..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.566 Religious activities in Cuba. (a) Specific license... involving transactions (including travel-related transactions) in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...

  12. 14 CFR 91.709 - Operations to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operations to Cuba. 91.709 Section 91.709... Board Such Aircraft § 91.709 Operations to Cuba. No person may operate a civil aircraft from the United States to Cuba unless— (a) Departure is from an international airport of entry designated in § 6.13 of...

  13. 31 CFR 515.563 - Journalistic activities in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Journalistic activities in Cuba. 515..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.563 Journalistic activities in Cuba. (a) General license... directly incident to journalistic activities in Cuba by persons regularly employed as journalists by a news...

  14. 31 CFR 515.566 - Religious activities in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Religious activities in Cuba. 515.566..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.566 Religious activities in Cuba. (a) General license... transactions as are directly incident to religious activities in Cuba under the auspices of the organization...

  15. 31 CFR 515.563 - Journalistic activities in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Journalistic activities in Cuba. 515..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.563 Journalistic activities in Cuba. (a) General license... directly incident to journalistic activities in Cuba by persons regularly employed as journalists by a news...

  16. 14 CFR 91.709 - Operations to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations to Cuba. 91.709 Section 91.709... Board Such Aircraft § 91.709 Operations to Cuba. No person may operate a civil aircraft from the United States to Cuba unless— (a) Departure is from an international airport of entry designated in § 6.13 of...

  17. 14 CFR 91.709 - Operations to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operations to Cuba. 91.709 Section 91.709... Board Such Aircraft § 91.709 Operations to Cuba. No person may operate a civil aircraft from the United States to Cuba unless— (a) Departure is from an international airport of entry designated in § 6.13 of...

  18. 14 CFR 91.709 - Operations to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Operations to Cuba. 91.709 Section 91.709... Board Such Aircraft § 91.709 Operations to Cuba. No person may operate a civil aircraft from the United States to Cuba unless— (a) Departure is from an international airport of entry designated in § 6.13 of...

  19. 31 CFR 515.563 - Journalistic activities in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Journalistic activities in Cuba. 515..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.563 Journalistic activities in Cuba. (a) General license... directly incident to journalistic activities in Cuba by persons regularly employed as journalists by a...

  20. Joint Ventures in Cuba: Opportunities for Direct Foreign Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tancer, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a brief history of direct foreign investment in Cuba since 1982. This investment currently plays an important role in Cuba as a replacement to Soviet aid and as a means to earn foreign exchange. Tourism and mining are the preferred area for foreign investment because both of these sectors offer hard currency returns for Cuba. (20…

  1. Joint Ventures in Cuba: Opportunities for Direct Foreign Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tancer, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a brief history of direct foreign investment in Cuba since 1982. This investment currently plays an important role in Cuba as a replacement to Soviet aid and as a means to earn foreign exchange. Tourism and mining are the preferred area for foreign investment because both of these sectors offer hard currency returns for Cuba. (20…

  2. Science and Technology Diplomacy with Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon, Frances

    President Obama's announcement of U. S. policy change toward Cuba and increased freedom of interaction with the Cuban people opens unprecedented and long-awaited opportunities for the scientific and engineering communities in the U. S. and in Cuba to establish and expand collaborative efforts that will greatly advance U.S. and Cuba science and technology agendas. New rules for export of donated-only items for scientific use will bring researchers closer to the level of their professional peers around the world. Increasing Cubans' access to information will result in greater interactions between scientific communities and enable the sharing of ideas and discoveries that can fuel entrepreneurship on the island. The scientific community has expressed an extraordinary level of interest in the wide range of scientific opportunities that the new policy presents, in collaborating with their Cuban counterparts, and in supporting the development of scientific capacity in Cuba. In response to numerous expressions of interest and inquiries from the scientific community, the Office of the Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary of State (STAS) has engaged in public outreach to inform the U.S. science and technology community of the implications of the new policy for collaborative research, emerging scientific opportunities, and the standing limitations for engagement with the people of Cuba.

  3. 76 FR 10028 - Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs 10,000 Havana Street Site, Commerce City...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs 10,000 Havana Street Site, Commerce City, Adams County, CO AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice and request for public...

  4. HBV Genotypic Variability in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Carmen L.; Aguilar, Julio C.; Aguiar, Jorge; Muzio, Verena; Pentón, Eduardo; Garcia, Daymir; Guillen, Gerardo; Pujol, Flor H.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%), mainly A2 (149, 60%) but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%), with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7). Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions. PMID:25742179

  5. Astronomy TV outreach, CUBA experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Oscar

    2015-08-01

    As professional astronomer and science communicator, I want to share my personal experience communicating Astronomy and general science principles in maybe, the most popular science outreach devoted TV program in Cuba. It is broadcasted nationwide in a prime time schedule every Sunday. The Science Popularization on TV, is in a Third World Country hard to do if you want to produce attractive materials for a broad audience. Budgets constraints in most of the cases and lack of the technical equipment required to produce first class visual materials conspire, against motivation and creativity of local scientists and media professionals. A way to show the advance of the national scientific community in Science fields and connecting them in a friendly relation with a broad majority of the people, is to combine the wisdom and knowledge of the local scientists together with the most spectacular TV production of the first world countries. Commenting, analyzing and conveying the hard science into the public debate of the common citizens. Here is shown a way to convey cutting edge science to the general public, using limited resources to produce imaginative television productions, highlighting the development, knowledge and wisdom of the local scientists.

  6. Cuba: healthcare and the revolution.

    PubMed

    Binns, L A

    2013-03-01

    This paper depicts Cuba as a relic of the Cold War Its coverage of healthcare demonstrates steadfastness and success in surmounting hurdles of complacency and disregard to socialized medicine - an extension of Soviet patronage and third world alliances. The literature relays a mission of inclusivity underpinned by political ideology and a conviction to humanity. With the aid ofendorsements, it speaks to contrasts and critiques in service and results by reflecting on the delivery offree healthcare for all Cuban citizens and its impression on the eradication of numerous diseases, reduced mortality rate and increased life expectancy. Punished by the longest trade embargo in modern history, the regime is in possession of limited resources to expedite remedy to its subjects. Such, much to the dislike of the authorities, elevates elements of distinction in association with the dispensation of service and drugs demonstrated by an evolving two-tier system for the disenfranchised and privileged clientele while simultaneously impacting the maintenance of facilities and equipment. Consequently, it recognizes harsh ramifications attributed to compliance with ideology and subtle adjustments to withstand external exertion. The Cuban replica is currently a tale of sorts awaiting a comprehensible definition for future generations.

  7. Colour-Blind Praxis in Havana: Interrogating Cuban Teacher Discourses of Race and Racelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempf, Arlo

    2013-01-01

    Despite massive gains in racial equality over the past 50 years, racism persists in twenty-first century Cuba. One of the key tools for the preservation and maintenance of racism is the discourse of racelessness through which the relevance of race is denied and silenced. Paradoxically, the racelessness frame has also been a guiding anti-racist…

  8. Colour-Blind Praxis in Havana: Interrogating Cuban Teacher Discourses of Race and Racelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempf, Arlo

    2013-01-01

    Despite massive gains in racial equality over the past 50 years, racism persists in twenty-first century Cuba. One of the key tools for the preservation and maintenance of racism is the discourse of racelessness through which the relevance of race is denied and silenced. Paradoxically, the racelessness frame has also been a guiding anti-racist…

  9. The prevention of health risks in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Guttmacher, S

    1987-01-01

    Cuba still has a double burden of health risks. It must contend with some risks to health that persist in underdeveloped rural areas, and it must also deal with the risk factors associated with modern, urban living conditions. The economic and social changes fostered in the postrevolutionary period have reduced the relative importance of the first set of factors, but the changes have also introduced or intensified a myriad of factors derived from their own successes. In this article, the risk factors of greatest concern in contemporary Cuba are described, and the strategies adopted to combat these risk factors, together with the ways in which such strategies are shaped by Cuba's social and economic development are discussed.

  10. Introduction of information and communication technologies in havana polyclinics: phase one evaluation.

    PubMed

    Llanusa, Susana B; Rojo, Nereida; Caraballoso, Magali; Pérez, Julia S

    2008-04-01

    Introduction Information and communication technologies were introduced in community-based polyclinics as a result of a Cuban health system policy to make information more readily accessible to health professionals and other health workers at the primary health care level. Objective Assess phase one of the Program to Introduce Information and Communication Technologies in Primary Health Care (PICT-PHC), as implemented in Havana, and in particular to determine the aspects of structure, process and outcomes with the greatest impact on this phase's effectiveness. Methods From May to October 2003, an assessment was carried out in all Havana community-based polyclinics where phase one of the Program was underway. Study dimensions, criteria, and standards were established through consultation with experts and considering the level of performance expected by program directors, thus providing timely analysis to the directors concerning problem areas in need of attention. This paper concentrates on the five dimensions which were thought to have the most bearing on effectiveness of information and communication technologies (ICTs) installed in the polyclinics' libraries: librarians' competencies in IT skills, training received by librarians, training received by users, Program monitoring and follow-up, and exploitation of the technologies. Six data collection instruments were devised. Participants in the study included 41 librarians and 544 users. Data were processed to obtain indicators corresponding to study criteria. Each indicator was then compared with the established standard. Validity of results was established through analysis and comparison. Results Overall, the first phase of the PICT-PHC in Havana succeeded in making online information resources more readily available to health professionals and technicians. Some librarians had insufficient basic IT competencies, which had an impact on the quality of their work. Moreover, it was found that monitoring and follow

  11. [Proportional abundance of culicidae in the urban ecosystem of Havana City].

    PubMed

    Marquetti, M C; González, D; Aguilera, L; Navarro, A

    1999-01-01

    Proportional abundance of the four most common mosquito species was determined in six types of breeding places located in Plaza de la Revolución municipality, City of Havana from 1993-1996. Culex quinquifasciatus exhibited values over 0.60 except in tyres and larval traps in 1993 and 1994 whereas Aedes mediovittatus showed similar values in low tanks and artificial reservoirs in 1994 (0.43 and 0.56 respectively). It was also observed that this species prefers larval traps. Aedes aegypti and Culex migripaplpus had the lowest abundance values (0.01). These results allowed us to state that there is a sort of shared use by these species of those reservoirs where they breed and that Culex quinquefasciatus is the predominant one.

  12. Human thermal comfort conditions and urban planning in hot-humid climates—The case of Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Coch, Helena; De la Paz Pérez, Guillermo; Chaos Yeras, Mabel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Climate regional characteristics, urban environmental conditions, and outdoors thermal comfort requirements of residents are important for urban planning. Basic studies of urban microclimate can provide information and useful resources to predict and improve thermal conditions in hot-humid climatic regions. The paper analyzes the thermal bioclimate and its influence as urban design factor in Cuba, using Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). Simulations of wind speed variations and shade conditions were performed to quantify changes in thermal bioclimate due to possible modifications in urban morphology. Climate data from Havana, Camagüey, and Santiago of Cuba for the period 2001 to 2012 were used to calculate PET with the RayMan model. The results show that changes in meteorological parameters influence the urban microclimate, and consequently modify the thermal conditions in outdoors spaces. Shade is the predominant strategy to improve urban microclimate with more significant benefits in terms of PET higher than 30 °C. For climatic regions such as the analyzed ones, human thermal comfort can be improved by a wind speed modification for thresholds of PET above 30 °C, and by a wind speed decreases in conditions below 26 °C. The improvement of human thermal conditions is crucial for urban sustainability. On this regards, our study is a contribution for urban designers, due to the possibility of taking advantage of results for improving microclimatic conditions based on urban forms. The results may enable urban planners to create spaces that people prefer to visit, and also are usable in the reconfiguration of cities.

  13. Human thermal comfort conditions and urban planning in hot-humid climates-The case of Cuba.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Coch, Helena; De la Paz Pérez, Guillermo; Chaos Yeras, Mabel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Climate regional characteristics, urban environmental conditions, and outdoors thermal comfort requirements of residents are important for urban planning. Basic studies of urban microclimate can provide information and useful resources to predict and improve thermal conditions in hot-humid climatic regions. The paper analyzes the thermal bioclimate and its influence as urban design factor in Cuba, using Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). Simulations of wind speed variations and shade conditions were performed to quantify changes in thermal bioclimate due to possible modifications in urban morphology. Climate data from Havana, Camagüey, and Santiago of Cuba for the period 2001 to 2012 were used to calculate PET with the RayMan model. The results show that changes in meteorological parameters influence the urban microclimate, and consequently modify the thermal conditions in outdoors spaces. Shade is the predominant strategy to improve urban microclimate with more significant benefits in terms of PET higher than 30 °C. For climatic regions such as the analyzed ones, human thermal comfort can be improved by a wind speed modification for thresholds of PET above 30 °C, and by a wind speed decreases in conditions below 26 °C. The improvement of human thermal conditions is crucial for urban sustainability. On this regards, our study is a contribution for urban designers, due to the possibility of taking advantage of results for improving microclimatic conditions based on urban forms. The results may enable urban planners to create spaces that people prefer to visit, and also are usable in the reconfiguration of cities.

  14. [Trends and predictions of tuberculosis, and challenges towards tuberculosis eradication in Havana City].

    PubMed

    González Díaz, Alexander; Sánchez Valdés, Lizet; Armas Pérez, Luisa; Rodríguez Vargas, Liana; Salgado Villavicencio, Armando; Borrero Pérez, Herminia; González-Ochoa, Edilberto

    2012-01-01

    To describe the variation and the trend of new tuberculosis case reports in Havana from 1995 to 2010, as well as their projection and occurrence for 2011-2013. A time series study was conducted, and the annual total and mean variation percentages of rates by clinical and bacteriological categories, age, municipal distribution and TB/HIV co-infection were analyzed. Estimation of projections by using two-parameter exponential smoothing techniques was made. The rate of new reported TB cases decreased from 16.8 in 1995 to 9.5 per 100 000 inhabitants in 2010 (43.5% and 2.9% of annual total variation and mean variation respectively). The rate declined by 80% in the municipalities and in 15-64 and > or = 65 years age groups. Habana Vieja and Centro Habana municipalities kept the highest rates throughout the whole period. TB/HIV coinfection notification increased from 3 out of 369 (0.8%) cases in 1995 to 37 out of 202 (18.3%) cases in 2010. A slight increase was estimated for the 2011-2013 period (9.5; 10.0; 10.5 per 100 000 population respectively) in addition to continuous rise of the number of cases with TB/HIV co-infection. The TB trend showed a steady decline in Havana from 1995 to 2010, with substantial reduction in the study period, except for TB/HIV co-infection in which the number of cases increases. The TB case report rates are within the expected values, although slightly above the predictions.

  15. Teaching American Diplomacy Using Primary Sources: Cuba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Michael; Anderson, David J.; Starbird, Caroline; Ertenberg, Samantha

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to allow high school students to examine the relationship between Cuba and the United States by studying a rich collection of primary materials and classroom-ready lessons which incorporate those materials. This book contains materials from 27 primary sources, including texts of speeches before the House and Senate,…

  16. Teaching American Diplomacy Using Primary Sources: Cuba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Michael; Anderson, David J.; Starbird, Caroline; Ertenberg, Samantha

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to allow high school students to examine the relationship between Cuba and the United States by studying a rich collection of primary materials and classroom-ready lessons which incorporate those materials. This book contains materials from 27 primary sources, including texts of speeches before the House and Senate,…

  17. Geology of the manganese deposits of Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simons, Frank S.; Straczek, John A.

    1958-01-01

    Deposits of manganese ore have been found in five of the six provinces of Cuba and have been reported from the sixth.  Only Oriente and Pinar del Rio provinces have more than a few known deposits and only the deposits of Oriente have yielded any appreciable amount of ore.

  18. An overview on the seismicity of Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Octavio Cotilla Rodriguez, Mario

    The seismicity of Cuba is briefly presented together with a few fundamental neotectonic elements of the adjacent Caribbean region. The Cuban seismicity catalogue has been extended back to 1528 and it shows that the largest earthquakes occurred in 1766 and 1852 (I = IX MSK). Two types of seismicity (intraplate and interplate) can be distinguished in Cuba. Western and Eastern Seismotectonic Units correspond to intraplate type and the Southeastern Seismotectonic Unit to interplate type. Western Cuba is characterized by a low frequency of earthquake occurrence. Distribution of epicenters is not regular and the most important events mainly concentrate along two regional active fault system (Nortecubana and Surcubana). Due to the lack of seismic stations in this region, the characterization of seismicity is frequently done on the grounds of historical data available from 1693. The main seismogenic source for Cuba is the Bartlett-Cayman fault system, but inland there are other active structures. Some issues about historical and present day Cuban seismological research are also showed.

  19. Cuba: Issues for 111th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-14

    Humanos y Reconciliacion Nacional, “Cuba en el año 2009: la situacíon de derechos civiles, políticos y económicos,” February 2, 2009. 13 Anita Snow...park. On April 21, 2008, ten members of the Ladies in White were 12 Comision Cubana de Derechos

  20. Cuba: Issues for the 111th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-18

    April 21, 2008, ten members of the Ladies in White were 12 Comision Cubana de Derechos Humanos y...Reconciliacion Nacional, “Cuba en el año 2009: la situacíon de derechos civiles, políticos y económicos,” February 2, 2009. 13 Anita Snow, “Cuban

  1. Cuba shows jump in HIV positives.

    PubMed

    Cuba experienced a substantial increase in the number of HIV cases in 1996 due primarily to a growth of foreign tourism and an increase in prostitution, health officials said. The Juventud Rebelde newspaper said that since HIV/AIDS testing began in 1985, government-run hospitals and clinics have detected 1609 HIV-positive cases. In 1995 the total was reported at 1196, meaning that 413 new cases were detected in 1996. This compared with only 97 new cases reported during 1995. HIV infection among the island's 11 million inhabitants has remained relatively low due to a massive testing program and a public health infrastructure that provides universal and free medical treatment. Cuba was a pioneer in the use of interferon on those testing HIV-positive. Cuba produces its own interferon, which prolongs the life expectancy of patients, and also reagents for AIDS testing. There are special sanitariums for AIDS patients in most of Cuba's 12 provinces. Cuban adults who test HIV-positive are required to enter the sanitarium in a policy reminiscent of the way tuberculosis patients were tested in the US earlier in this century. Officials said the isolation of patients in sanitariums has been somewhat relaxed over past years by introducing greater flexibility in allowing persons who are considered reliable to live at home or make prolonged visits.

  2. The Transformation of Political Culture in Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagen, Richard R.

    Cuba has experienced drastic social, economic, and political change since 1959. This book examines and analyses three important programs of Castro's regime which incorporate some of the distinctive features of the entire Cuban experience political socialization and cultural change; the literacy campaign of 1961, which was perhaps the most…

  3. Forest nursery pest management in Cuba

    Treesearch

    Rene Alberto Lopez Castilla; Angela Duarte Casanova; Celia Guerra Rivero; Haylett Cruz Escoto; Natividad Triguero Issasi

    2002-01-01

    A systematic survey of methods to detect pests in forest nurseries before they damage plants was done. These surveys recorded the most important forest nursery pests during 18 years (from 1980 to 1998) and their geographical and temporal distribution in the principal enterprises in Cuba. Approximately a dozen insect species and three fungi species responsible for the...

  4. Reflections on Educational Reform in Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Ronald A.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Cuban educational reforms, highlighting 1959, 1976, and 1980s initiatives. Compares Cuba's progress with John Kotter's eight-step process based on establishing a sense of urgency, creating a guiding coalition, developing and communicating the change vision, empowering broad-based action, generating short-term wins, consolidating gains, and…

  5. Historical Overview of Leprosy Control in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Beldarraín-Chaple, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Leprosy, an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, affects the nervous system, skin, internal organs, extremities and mucous membranes. Biological, social and environmental factors influence its occurrence and transmission. The first effective treatments appeared in 1930 with the development of dapsone, a sulfone. The main components of a control and elimination strategy are early case detection and timely administration of multidrug therapy. OBJECTIVES Review the history of leprosy control in Cuba, emphasizing particularly results of the National Leprosy Control Program, its modifications and influence on leprosy control. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION The historiological method was applied using document review, complemented by interviews with experts on leprosy and its control. Archived documents, medical records, disease prevalence censuses conducted since 1942, and incidence and prevalence statistics for 1960-2015 from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division were reviewed. Reports and scientific literature published on the Program and the history of leprosy in Cuba were also reviewed. DEVELOPMENT Leprosy has been documented in Cuba since 1613. In 1938, the Leprosy Foundation was created with ten dispensaries nationwide for diagnosis and treatment. The first National Leprosy Control Program was established in 1962, implemented in 1963 and revised five times. In 1972, leper colonies were closed and treatment became ambulatory. In 1977, rifampicin was introduced. In 1988, the Program instituted controlled, decentralized, community-based multidrug treatment and established the criteria for considering a patient cured. In 2003, it included actions aimed at early diagnosis and prophylactic treatment of contacts. Since 2008, it prioritizes actions directed toward the population at risk, maintaining five-year followup with dermatological and neurological examination. Primary health care carries out diagnostic and treatment

  6. Changes in physical and biological soil quality indicators in a tropical crop system (Havana, Cuba) in response to different agroecological management practices.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, I; Caravaca, F; Alguacil, M M; Roldán, A

    2003-11-01

    The objective of our study was to assess the response of physical (aggregate stability and bulk density) and biological (enzyme activities and microbial biomass) soil quality indicators to the adoption of agroecological management practices, such as the planting of forage species (forage area) and the rotation of local crops (polycrop area), carried out in a representative tropical pasture on an integrated livestock-crop farm. The pasture system was used as control (pasture area). In all three areas, the values of water-soluble C were higher in the rainy season compared to the dry season. Pasture and forage areas had the highest percentage of stable aggregates in the rainy season, while polycrops developed soils with less stable aggregates. Soil bulk density was lower in the pasture and forage areas than in the polycrop area. In the pasture area, the microbial biomass C values, dehydrogenase, urease, protease-BAA, acid phosphatase, and beta-glucosidase activities were higher than in the forage and polycrop areas, particularly in the dry season. The highest increase in the microbial biomass C in the rainy season, with respect to the dry season, was recorded in the pasture area (about 1.2-fold). In conclusion, the planting of forage species can be considered an effective practice for carrying out sustainable, integrated livestock-crop systems, due to its general maintenance of soil quality, while the adoption of polycrop rotations appears to be less favorable because it decreases soil quality.

  7. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Sánchez Noda, Eddy O; Rodríguez Cardona, Ramón Lorenzo; Otero, Isabel

    2009-05-01

    The first multi-tissue bank was founded at Havana in 1958. At that time, freeze-drying was used at the bank as a method of preserving, as well as Cobalt 60 irradiation to sterilise bone tissue, heart valves and others. The impact of the IAEA program in tissue banking activities in Cuba can be summarised as follows: (a) Increase in the production of sterilised tissues using ionising radiation (bone, pig skin and amnion) for medical treatment in the tissue bank of the Hospital Frank Pais; (b) increase of the quality of the productions of bone tissues, pig skin and amnion; (c) reduction in the import of tissues by increasing the local production of tissues; (d) sustainability in the number of donors through the implementation of a public and professional awareness campaign; (e) training of six persons in the Regional Training Centre of Buenos Aires; (f) qualification of one person in the administration of a tissue bank and in the implementation of a Quality System. The amount of tissues produced and sterilised using the ionising radiation techniques in the established banks was 25,510 units. The amount of patients treated with sterilised tissues produced by the established banks was 2,448.

  8. Mortality in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy at a tertiary center in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Machado, René; Benjumea-Cuartas, Vanessa; Santos-Santos, Aisel; Sosa-Dubón, Miguel Amilcar; García-Espinosa, Arlety; Andrade-Gutierrez, Greisys

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk of mortality in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. Eligible patients included all adults referred to the National Institute of Neurology (NIN) in Havana, Cuba. All patients were followed up for 9 years. All analyses were made with the data available at the last follow-up. The frequency of death related to refractory TLE was analyzed taking into account the total number of patients included in the study. We analyzed the causes of death for each case. Multivariate analysis was made to determine the specific variables related to the death. All values were statistically significant if p<0.05. Six out of 117 patients died during follow-up. Fifty percent of patients died because of suicide. Only the presence of aura, specifically experiential psychic auras, and prodromal depressive disorders were associated significantly with the deaths (p<0.05). Patients who died had a higher concern about their seizures than patients who were still alive at last follow-up (p<0.01); they also had a poor perception of the overall QOL (p<0.01); and they were more concerned about the possible medication side effects than patients who did not die (p<0.05). Logistic regression provided only one variable related to the deaths in our cohort in multivariate analysis: presence of prodromal depressive disorder. The causes of death in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy were similar to those documented in the general population of patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum generation in the North Cuba Basin is primarily the result of thrust loading of Jurassic and Cretaceous source rocks during formation of the North Cuba fold and thrust belt in the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene. The fold and thrust belt formed as Cuban arc-forearc rocks along the leading edge of the Caribbean plate translated northward during the opening of the Yucatan Basin and collided with the passive margin of southern North America in the Paleogene. Petroleum fluids generated during thrust loading migrated vertically into complex structures in the fold and thrust belt, into structures in the foreland basin, and possibly into carbonate reservoirs along the margins of the Yucatan and Bahama carbonate platforms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) and three assessment units (AU)-North Cuba Fold and Thrust Belt AU, North Cuba Foreland Basin AU, and the North Cuba Platform Margin Carbonate AU-within this TPS based mainly on structure and reservoir type (fig. 1). There is considerable geologic uncertainty as to the extent of petroleum migration that might have occurred within this TPS to form potential petroleum accumulations. Taking this geologic uncertainty into account, especially in the offshore area, the mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the composite TPS of the North Cuba Basin are estimated at (1) 4.6 billion barrels of oil (BBO), with means ranging from an F95 probability of 1 BBO to an F5 probability of 9 BBO; and (2) 8.6 trillion cubic feet of of gas (TCFG), of which 8.6 TCFG is associated with oil fields, and about 1.2 TCFG is in nonassociated gas fields in the North Cuba Foreland Basin AU.

  10. [The Royal Botanical Expedition to New Spain and the intention to start the Royal Botanical Garden in Havana].

    PubMed

    Valero, M

    1995-01-01

    The creation of a Botanical Garden in La Habana, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, was due to the efforts of the Real Sociedad Patriótica of La Havana and those of Martín de Sessé in 1795, member of the Botanical Expedition to Nueva España, who was commissioner for the recognition of natural productions and the organization of botanical studies and gardens at the colonies. The arrival of Sessé awakened the interest of some members of the Real Sociedad Patriótica with respect to the proposition made in 1793. A few years later, the Havana Garden was a reality.

  11. Primary care in Cuba: a public health approach.

    PubMed

    Swanson, K A; Swanson, J M; Gill, A E; Walter, C

    1995-01-01

    Cuba's primary health care model is presented. Unlike ambulatory care services, which are but one component of primary care, Cuba's model is a comprehensive public health approach that meets the World Health Organization's definition of primary care. The history of the development of Cuba's model is presented, including an update on the innovative neighborhood/home clinics. Achievements in health outcomes as a result of Cuba's model and the consequences for women's health care are discussed. Examples are presented of the effects on health care delivery of the economic hardship that Cuba has experienced since 1991 as a result of the loss of 85% of its trade with the former Soviet Union and the intensified U.S. embargo. A critique of Cuba's model concludes the article.

  12. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    Travel to Cuba?” Washington Post, July 14, 2003. 4 Laurie Goering, “Cuba Readies for Fall of U.S. ban on Visits; Relaxed Embargo Would Jolt Tourism ... Tourism ,” Chicago Tribune, August 14, p. 4. changing travel policy toward Cuba argue that their proposals would still allow the President to prohibit such...Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives Updated August 1, 2003 Mark P. Sullivan Specialist in Latin American Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense, and

  13. Policy Objective and Options under a Leverage Strategy Toward Cuba.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    Cuba and the United States , the reassessment of the U.S.-Cuban fishing treaty of 1977, and the resumption of a major anti- Castro ...example, what would It "cost" the United States for Castro to detach Cuba militarily from the USSR, and to cease its revolutionary activities In the...resolving Cuban related problems. Accordingly, Cuba -derived leverage might best be used by the United States to secure Soviet cooperation in minimizing

  14. Emergency medicine in Cuba: report from a country in isolation.

    PubMed

    Richards, J R

    1997-07-01

    Cuba is one of the poorest countries of the world. For the past 34 years the United States has maintained an economic embargo against Cuba. Because of this, Cuba has not been able to share in advances in American medical technology, pharmaceuticals, or research. The country has also been abandoned by the former Soviet Union. Recent political developments have assured continuation of the embargo. This report describes the current state of prehospital and emergency medical care in Cuba, how the embargo has affected emergency services, and possibilities for the future.

  15. Socialist Consciousness Raising and Cuba's School to the Countryside Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Denise

    2008-01-01

    As a participant-observer, the author relates observations, interviews, and surveys from her experience in a Cuban Escuela al Campo ("School to the Countryside," or EAC) camp located on a collective farm outside of the city of Havana. The Pioneers, the youth section of the official Cuban Communist Party, organize the EAC program…

  16. Socialist Consciousness Raising and Cuba's School to the Countryside Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Denise

    2008-01-01

    As a participant-observer, the author relates observations, interviews, and surveys from her experience in a Cuban Escuela al Campo ("School to the Countryside," or EAC) camp located on a collective farm outside of the city of Havana. The Pioneers, the youth section of the official Cuban Communist Party, organize the EAC program…

  17. Castro’s Cuba: Quo Vadis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    social upheaval that might follow the end of Castro’s reign would have significant consequences for the United States. As Niels Bohr once said, however...work aggressively in the United States. Cuba’s Directorio General de Inteligencia (DGI) successfully has placed spies, sleeper cells, and illegal...Castro. Noriega stated that Washington had a blueprint of plans for providing social , economic, and other types of assistance to Cuba in the post

  18. Four decades of kidney transplantation in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alfonzo, Jorge P

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the background, beginnings, development, evolution and outcomes of kidney transplantation in Cuba. Nephrology as a medical specialty in Cuba began in 1962 and was formalized in 1966. Conditions were created to implement renal replacement therapy (including transplants), bring nephrology care to the entire country and train human resources who would assume this responsibility, making Cuba one of the first countries with a comprehensive program for renal patient care. After three unsuccessful cadaveric-donor kidney transplantations in 1968-69, the ensuing history of kidney transplantation can be summarized in the following three stages. 1970-1975: In January 1970, cadaveric-donor kidney transplantation began at the Nephrology Institute. That year, 17 kidney transplantations were performed; four of these patients lived with functional kidneys for 15-25 years; 10-year graft survival was 23.5% (Kaplan-Meier survival curve); HLA typing began in 1974. By December 1975, 170 grafts had been done in three hospitals. 1976-1985: Seven transplantation centers performed 893 grafts during this period. HLA-DR typing was introduced in 1976 and the National Histocompatibility Laboratory Network was founded in 1978. The first related living-donor kidney transplantation was done in 1979. 1986-2011: The National Kidney Transplantation Coordinating Center and the National Kidney Transplantation Program were created in 1986; the first combined kidney-pancreas transplantation was performed the same year. In 1990, cyclosporine and the Cuban monoclonal antibody IOR-T3 were introduced for immunosuppression to prevent rejection, as were other Cuban products (hepatitis B vaccine and recombinant human erythropoietin) for transplant patients. By December 2011, the cumulative number of transplants was 4636 (384 from related living donors). With over 40 years of experience, kidney transplantation is now well established in Cuba; it is free and universally accessible, on the

  19. Security Requirements for Post-Transition Cuba

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Solidarity or Libertad Act of 1995, also known as the Helms-Burton Act. The Libertad Act has two sections that deal with the Cuban military: Section...criminals will quickly dominate the area. Within the Western Hemisphere, Chile, Argentina , and Colombia have similar-sized coastlines. Chile has a...Navy of 19,000; Argentina , 17,000; and Colombia, 22,000.21 When compared to these countries, the 3,000 personnel and handful of watercraft that Cuba

  20. Hubble Space Telescope Deploy, Eastern Cuba, Haiti

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-04-29

    A close up deploy view of the Hubble Space Telescope on the end of the space shuttle remote manipulator system (RMS) with Eastern Cuba, (20.0N, 74.0W) seen on the left side of the telescope and northern Haiti seen on the right side of the telescope. The light colored blue feature in the water north of Haiti is the shallow waters of the Caicos Bank.

  1. Florida, Bahamas, Cuba and Gulf Stream, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-08-08

    This unique photo offers a view of the Florida peninsula, western Bahamas, north central Cuba and the deep blue waters of the Gulf Stream, that hugs the east coast of Florida (27.0N, 82.0W). In addition to being an excellent photograph for showing the geographical relationships between the variety of landforms in this scene, the typical effect of the land-sea breeze is very much in evidence as few clouds over water, cumulus build up over landmass.

  2. Toxocariasis in Cuba: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Sariego, Idalia; Kanobana, Kirezi; Rojas, Lázara; Speybroeck, Niko; Polman, Katja; Núñez, Fidel A

    2012-01-01

    Human toxocariasis (HT) is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies.

  3. Toxocariasis in Cuba: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sariego, Idalia; Kanobana, Kirezi; Rojas, Lázara; Speybroeck, Niko; Polman, Katja; Núñez, Fidel A.

    2012-01-01

    Human toxocariasis (HT) is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies. PMID:22389726

  4. Economy, politics, and health status in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Rojas Ochoa, F; López Pardo, C M

    1997-01-01

    An economic contraction occurred in Cuba at the beginning of the 1990s, of a magnitude greater than in any developed country in the last half century. This resulted primarily from the disappearance of the European socialist bloc and simultaneous tightening of the U.S. government's blockade at a time when Cuba was engaged in correcting its main economic problems. The economic crisis affected a number of areas of Cuban society. The state adopted a series of measures to cope with the socioeconomic situation, which have yielded positive results in the social and economic fields, as well as some undesirable results. In the health sector, the economic crisis has mainly reduced the availability of resources and has adversely affected some health determinants and some aspects of the population's health status. Despite the prevailing economic difficulties, the government is determined to preserve the country's achievements in health, and to develop them still further. The solution is not privatization or the introduction of health insurance systems or similar measures. Rather, Cuba will seek greater rationality and economic efficiency in the health sector. It has ratified the principles that the state should continue to finance the health system and maintain universal coverage and accessibility through free services.

  5. Hospitalization of Cuban children for giardiasis: a retrospective study in a paediatric hospital in Havana

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo, A A; Almirall, P; Alfonso, M; Salazar, Y; Ávila, I; Cimerman, S; Núñez, F A; Dawkins, I V

    2011-01-01

    The medical records of the 185 children who, in 2007, were admitted to the Academic Paediatric Hospital ‘Centro Habana’, in the Cuban capital of Havana, because of giardiasis were analysed retrospectively. A standardized form was used to collect data on the socio–demographic characteristics, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and length of stay of each child. Information on the 15 children who had incomplete medical records was excluded from the data analysis. Of the remaining 170 children, 85 (50.0%) were aged 1–4 years, 97 (57.1%) were male, and 106 (62.4%), 92 (54.1%) and 69 (40.6%) had presented with diarrhoea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain, respectively. Most (91.2%) of the cases had been diagnosed by the microscopical examination of a duodenal aspirate, and the drugs that had been most used frequently were quinacrine and tinidazole, which had been given to 72 (42.4%) and 62 (36.5%) of the cases, respectively. The mean length of hospital stay was 4.9 days. Such information on the clinical characteristics of giardiasis among children living in an endemic area may be valuable to paediatricians and public-health officials who wish to screen for the disease. PMID:21294948

  6. Hospitalization of Cuban children for giardiasis: a retrospective study in a paediatric hospital in Havana.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, A A; Almirall, P; Alfonso, M; Salazar, Y; Avila, I; Cimerman, S; Núñez, F A; Dawkins, I V

    2011-01-01

    The medical records of the 185 children who, in 2007, were admitted to the Academic Paediatric Hospital 'Centro Habana', in the Cuban capital of Havana, because of giardiasis were analysed retrospectively. A standardized form was used to collect data on the socio-demographic characteristics, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and length of stay of each child. Information on the 15 children who had incomplete medical records was excluded from the data analysis. Of the remaining 170 children, 85 (50·0%) were aged 1-4 years, 97 (57·1%) were male, and 106 (62·4%), 92 (54·1%) and 69 (40·6%) had presented with diarrhoea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain, respectively. Most (91·2%) of the cases had been diagnosed by the microscopical examination of a duodenal aspirate, and the drugs that had been most used frequently were quinacrine and tinidazole, which had been given to 72 (42·4%) and 62 (36·5%) of the cases, respectively. The mean length of hospital stay was 4·9 days. Such information on the clinical characteristics of giardiasis among children living in an endemic area may be valuable to paediatricians and public-health officials who wish to screen for the disease.

  7. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-28

    en Miami otra agencia de viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald, June 6, 2006; U.S. Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control, List of...January 27, 2006. 21 Wilfredo Cancio Isla, “Aprietan las restricciones para los viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald (Miami), April 28, 2006, and “Cierran

  8. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-30

    Miami), April 28, 2006, and “Cierran en Miami otra agencia de viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald, June 6, 2006; U.S. Department of the Treasury, Office...Fortuna Travel Services, Cubatur Express, La Perla CRS-16 21 Wilfredo Cancio Isla, “Aprietan las restricciones para los viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald

  9. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-27

    agencia de viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald, June 6, 2006; U.S. Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control, List of Authorized Providers of...16 Wilfredo Cancio Isla, “Aprietan las restricciones para los viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald (Miami), Apr. 28, 2006, and “Cierran en Miami otra

  10. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-21

    Herald (Miami), April 28, 2006, and “Cierran en Miami otra agencia de viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald, June 6, 2006; U.S. Department of the Treasury...23 Wilfredo Cancio Isla, “Aprietan las restricciones para los viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo

  11. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-31

    Cierran en Miami otra agencia de viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald, June 6, 2006; U.S. Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control, List...23 Wilfredo Cancio Isla, “Aprietan las restricciones para los viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald (Miami), April 28, 2006, and

  12. 31 CFR 515.570 - Remittances to Nationals of Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the purchase of airline tickets and payment of exit or third-country visa fees or other travel-related... Cuba, directly or indirectly, for transactions to facilitate non-immigrant travel by an individual in..., see Authorized Providers of Air, Travel and Remittance Forwarding Services to Cuba available from...

  13. USA300 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an increasing problem in the Caribbean. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of MRSA isolates on Cuba. Findings The predominant clone was of the spa type t149, followed by community-associated MRSA USA300. Conclusions We report the first molecular typing results of MRSA isolates from Cuba. PMID:22958408

  14. The United States and Cuba: Past, Present and Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    Cooperativas Independenties: Medio Ambiente, Ecologia, y Su Impacto al Campesino Cubano, CubaNet, [article on- line accessed 4 May 2000], available from http...Independientes: Medio Ambiente, Ecologia y Su Impacto al Campesino Cubano.” CubaNet News. Available at http://www.cubanet.org/cooperativa

  15. [Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (L.) strains from Havana to a Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis].

    PubMed

    Menéndez Díaz, Zulema; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Jinnay; Gato Armas, René; Companioni Ibañez, Ariamys; Díaz Pérez, Manuel; Bruzón Aguila, Rosa Yirian

    2012-01-01

    the integration of chemical and biological methods is one of the strategies for the vector control, due to the existing environmental problems and the concerns of the community as a result of the synthetic organic insecticide actions. The bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in liquid formulation has been widely used in the vector control programs in several countries and has shown high efficacy at lab in Cuba. to determine the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti collected in the municipalities of La Habana province to Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis. fifteen Aedes aegypti strains, one from each municipality, were used including larvae and pupas collected in 2010 and one reference strain known as Rockefeller. The aqueous formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bactivec, Labiofam, Cuba) was used. The bioassays complied with the World Health Organization guidelines for use of bacterial larvicides in the public health sector. The larval mortality was read after 24 hours and the results were processed by the statistical system SPSS (11.0) through Probit analysis. the evaluated mosquito strains showed high susceptibility to biolarvicide, there were no significant differences in LC50 values of Ae. aegypti strains, neither in the comparison of these values with those of the reference strain. the presented results indicate that the use of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis continues to be a choice for the control of Aedes aegypti larval populations in La Habana province.

  16. Antiretroviral drug resistance in HIV-1 therapy-naive patients in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Lissette; Kourí, Vivian; Alemán, Yoan; Abrahantes, Yeisel; Correa, Consuelo; Aragonés, Carlos; Martínez, Orlando; Pérez, Jorge; Fonseca, Carlos; Campos, Jorge; Álvarez, Delmis; Schrooten, Yoeri; Dekeersmaeker, Nathalie; Imbrechts, Stijn; Beheydt, Gertjan; Vinken, Lore; Soto, Yudira; Álvarez, Alina; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Van Laethem, Kristel

    2013-06-01

    In Cuba, antiretroviral therapy rollout started in 2001 and antiretroviral therapy coverage has reached almost 40% since then. The objectives of this study were therefore to analyze subtype distribution, and level and patterns of drug resistance in therapy-naive HIV-1 patients. Four hundred and one plasma samples were collected from HIV-1 therapy-naive patients in 2003 and in 2007-2011. HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping was performed in the pol gene and drug resistance was interpreted according to the WHO surveillance drug-resistance mutations list, version 2009. Potential impact on first-line therapy response was estimated using genotypic drug resistance interpretation systems HIVdb version 6.2.0 and Rega version 8.0.2. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using Neighbor-Joining. The majority of patients were male (84.5%), men who have sex with men (78.1%) and from Havana City (73.6%). Subtype B was the most prevalent subtype (39.3%), followed by CRF20-23-24_BG (19.5%), CRF19_cpx (18.0%) and CRF18_cpx (10.3%). Overall, 29 patients (7.2%) had evidence of drug resistance, with 4.0% (CI 1.6%-4.8%) in 2003 versus 12.5% (CI 7.2%-14.5%) in 2007-2011. A significant increase in drug resistance was observed in recently HIV-1 diagnosed patients, i.e. 14.8% (CI 8.0%-17.0%) in 2007-2011 versus 3.8% (CI 0.9%-4.7%) in 2003 (OR 3.9, CI 1.5-17.0, p=0.02). The majority of drug resistance was restricted to a single drug class (75.8%), with 55.2% patients displaying nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), 10.3% non-NRTI (NNRTI) and 10.3% protease inhibitor (PI) resistance mutations. Respectively, 20.7% and 3.4% patients carried viruses containing drug resistance mutations against NRTI+NNRTI and NRTI+NNRTI+PI. The first cases of resistance towards other drug classes than NRTI were only detected from 2008 onwards. The most frequent resistance mutations were T215Y/rev (44.8%), M41L (31.0%), M184V (17.2%) and K103N (13.8%). The median genotypic susceptibility score for the

  17. Physics in Cuba from the Perspective of Bibliometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Werner; Cardona, Manuel

    We present a bibliometric analysis of the development of the physical sciences in Cuba since the revolution of 1959. We analyze, using available databases (Web of Science, Essential Science Indicators, INSPEC), the development of the output (number of publications of authors based in Cuba) and of their impact (number of citations) from 1959 until now. We discuss the productivity of Cuba in comparison to the Latin American sister republics and the collaborative efforts between Cuba and highly developed countries. The most important areas of scientific activity within the field of physics, the preferred journals and the leading affiliations are identified. The most frequently cited Cuban physics publications are given. Finally, the overall scientific ranking of Cuba among the world nations is investigated.

  18. 31 CFR 515.548 - Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Services rendered by Cuba to United... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.548 Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft. Payment to Cuba of charges for services rendered by Cuba in connection...

  19. 31 CFR 515.548 - Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Services rendered by Cuba to United... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.548 Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft. Payment to Cuba of charges for services rendered by Cuba in connection...

  20. Theological Higher Education in Cuba. Part 4: The Historical Roots and Milestones of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary. The seminary was founded in the city of Santiago de Cuba, on October 10, 1949, by the Eastern Baptist Convention. The seminary exists to provide training for pastors in the Eastern Baptist Convention. The school offers a four-year program leading to a bachelor in…

  1. Theological Higher Education in Cuba. Part 4: The Historical Roots and Milestones of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary. The seminary was founded in the city of Santiago de Cuba, on October 10, 1949, by the Eastern Baptist Convention. The seminary exists to provide training for pastors in the Eastern Baptist Convention. The school offers a four-year program leading to a bachelor in…

  2. Cuba's exiles: portrait of a refugee migration.

    PubMed

    Pedraza-bailey, S

    1985-01-01

    "This article provides a portrait of Cuba's exiles [in the United States] that encompasses all their waves of migration, while utilizing the Cuban exodus to shed light on the broader phenomenon of refugee migration. It argues that to understand the changing social characteristics of the exiles over twenty years of migration, we need to understand the changing phases of the Cuban revolution. Utilizing the Cuban exodus as data, the article uses Egon F. Kunz's...theoretical framework for refugee migration to shed light on the refugees' varying experiences, while also using the actual Cuban refugee experience to react to Kunz's abstract model." excerpt

  3. [Microbiological quality of spices consumed in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M; Alvarez, M; Zayas, M

    1991-01-01

    The microbiological quality of some widely consumed spices in Cuba was evaluated by means of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms count, filamentous fungi, yeasts, coliforms, thermophilic and thermoresistant microorganisms. Salmonella spp was looked for too. Black pepper and cumin resulted the most contaminated spices with values of total count and thermoresistant microorganisms at levels of 10(6) per gram, and coliform values up to 10(5) per gram. Oregano and cinnamon showed satisfactory microbiological quality; the contamination detected in these spices was lower than 10(4) per gram. Salmonella spp and yeasts were not detected.

  4. Nanotechnologies in Cuba: Popularization and Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Castellanos, Carlos

    In Cuba, as in other countries, activities in the field of nanotechnology emerged from the converging development of research in materials physics and chemistry, microelectronics, supramolecular physics, microbiology and molecular biology. During the 1990s, theoretical and experimental work on semiconductor nanostructures gained in importance. Cuban physicists organized the Red CYTED (Network CYTED) to "study fabrication and characterization of semiconductor nanostructures for micro and optoelectronics" which functioned between 1998 and 2003 with the participation of eight Spanish-American countries. The network organized various courses and scientific meetings, edited a book and supported the scientific collaboration among the participant institutions.

  5. Tropical Storm Ernesto over Cuba

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Microwave Image

    These infrared, microwave, and visible images were created with data retrieved by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite.

    Infrared Image Because infrared radiation does not penetrate through clouds, AIRS infrared images show either the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The lowest temperatures (in purple) are associated with high, cold cloud tops that make up the top of the storm. In cloud-free areas the AIRS instrument will receive the infrared radiation from the surface of the Earth, resulting in the warmest temperatures (orange/red).

    Microwave Image In the AIRS microwave imagery, deep blue areas in storms show where the most precipitation occurs, or where ice crystals are present in the convective cloud tops. Outside of these storm regions, deep blue areas may also occur over the sea surface due to its low radiation emissivity. On the other hand, land appears much warmer due to its high radiation emissivity.

    Microwave radiation from Earth's surface and lower atmosphere penetrates most clouds to a greater or lesser extent depending upon their water vapor, liquid water and ice content. Precipitation, and ice crystals found at the cloud tops where strong convection is taking place, act as barriers to microwave radiation. Because of this barrier effect, the AIRS microwave sensor detects only the radiation arising at or above their location in the atmospheric column. Where these barriers are not present, the microwave sensor detects radiation arising throughout the air column and down to the surface. Liquid surfaces (oceans, lakes and rivers) have 'low emissivity' (the signal isn't as strong) and their radiation brightness temperature is therefore low. Thus the ocean also appears 'low temperature' in the AIRS microwave images and is assigned the color blue. Therefore deep blue areas in storms show where the most

  6. [Structure and injuries of octocoral communities (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) of Ecological Reserve Siboney-Juticí, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba].

    PubMed

    Olivera Espinosa, Yunier; Hernández-Fernández, Leslie; Jover Capote, Abdiel

    2010-12-01

    In the spur-and-groove reefs of the Ecological Reserve Siboney-Juticí (Southeast Cuba) octocorals are one of the predominant components of the sessile fauna. Main objectives of the present paper are characterizing the composition, structure and conservation status of the octocoral communities and assessing on the prevailing environmental conditions in the study area. For data collection, six sampling sites were located every 2-3 km ranging from 12 m to 17 m depth along the spur-and-groove reefs. In each site, 22-26 lm2 quadrants were zigzag arranged every 2 m. The density of colonies was determined per site. The severity degree and predictability of environmental conditions were inferred by using the Heterogeneity and Equitability indexes, respectively. Hydrodynamic stress and the Comparative Pollution Index were also assessed. Current affectations of the octocoral communities were also determined and classified into four main categories: mechanical damage, diseases, predation and invertebrate and macroalgae overgrowth. As a result, 25 species represented by 752 colonies were recorded and Eunicea flexuosa and Gorgonia ventalina were the most abundant. The occurrence of Eunicea succinea forma succinea constituted the first report for Eastern Cuba. Site densities ranged from 3.58 +/- 1.84 to 7.58 +/- 2.16 colonies/m2 and considered from moderate to low. The biggest densities were reported at both sides of the San Juan River mouth. Despite of the composition and structure of the octocoral communities, low to high hydrodynamic stress and low and moderate levels of contamination were inferred, it is likely that these indexes could have been overestimated due to the sensitivity of the indicator species to other factors such as sedimentation. The environmental conditions were mostly favorable and stable. In general, the number of dead colonies was low and mostly caused by the detachment of the substrate and overgrowth of Millepora alcicornis. Injuries were mainly brought

  7. Is peanut causing food allergy in Cuba? Preliminary assessment of allergic sensitization and IgE specificity profile to peanut allergens in Cuban allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Mateo-Morejón, Mayteé; Labrada-Rosado, Alexis; Torralba-Averoff, Damaris; Cruz-Jimenez, Rayza; Oliva-Díaz, Yunia; Álvarez-Castelló, Mirta; Ciria-Martín, Alexander; Jiménez-Frandín, Marlene; Reyes-Zamora, Mary Carmen; Castro-Almarales, Raúl Lázaro; Tamargo-García, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Peanut allergy is increasing at an alarming pace in developed countries. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is a common food in Cuba. Nevertheless, reported values of sensitization and symptom severity are usually low. As our objective, we carried out an evaluation of allergic sensitivity to perform an assessment of allergic sensitization and IgE specificity profile to peanut allergens in Cuban allergic patients. The Skin Prick Test (SPT) was performed for each patient, using two glycerinated allergenic extracts, prepared from raw or roasted peanuts. Overall, 316 food allergic patients (159 adults and 157 children) attending allergy services at four hospitals in Havana were included, as well as 303 adult non- allergic volunteers. The IgE binding profile of 26 selected SPT positive patients was further analyzed by immunoblotting. The prevalence of sensitization to peanut was 4.6% in general adult population, whereas in adult food-allergic patients it was 18.6%. Prevalence rates were even greater in food allergic children achieving 25.8%. Sensitization frequencies were apparently greater for roasted, as compared to raw peanuts, although the difference was not significant (p> 0.05, Mc Nemar's). IgE binding was shown mostly by the 15 and 17 kDa bands, tentatively identified as the major allergens Ara h 2 and Ara h 6. The IgG4 binding profile was similar to IgE, although with more prominence of the bands at 37 and 28 KDa, corresponding to an Ara h 3 fragment and Peanut Agglutinin. The study estimated a relatively high prevalence of peanut sensitization in population. Data reported here suggest that IgE sensitization in Cuban patients is focused mostly on MW bands corresponding to the major allergens Ara h 6 and Ara h 2. Sensitization to peanut allergen is indeed relatively frequent in Cuba. The IgE profile is congruent to a sensitization pattern by ingestion of roasted peanuts and is directed to well-known major allergens.

  8. The association of low birth weight with serum C reactive protein in 3‐year‐old children living in Cuba: A population‐based prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Fundora‐Hernández, Hermes; Batista‐Gutierrez, Lourdes; Suárez‐Medina, Ramón; de la C. Mora‐Faife, Esperanza; García‐García, Gladys; del Valle‐Infante, Ileana; Gómez‐Marrero, Liem; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective Low birthweight is associated with a decreased risk of childhood leukemia and an increased risk of both cardiovascular disease and all‐cause mortality in adult life. Possible biological mediators include systemic innate immunity and inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that birthweight was inversely associated with serum high sensitivity C reactive protein assay (hsCRP), a measure of both innate immunity and systemic inflammation. Methods Data on birthweight and current anthropometric measures along with a range of exposures were collected at 1 and 3 years of age in a population‐based cohort study of young children living in Havana, Cuba. A total of 986 children aged 3‐years‐old provided blood samples that were analyzed for serum hsCRP levels. Results Nearly 49% of children had detectable hsCRP levels in their serum. Lower birthweight was linearly associated with the natural log of hsCRP levels (beta coefficient −0.70 mg L−1 per kg increase in birthweight, 95% CI: −1.34 to −0.06). This was attenuated but still present after adjustment for the child's sex and municipality (−0.65 mg L−1 per kg birthweight; 95% CI: −1.38 to +0.08). There were no associations between growth from birth or anthropometric measures at 3 years and systemic inflammation. Conclusions Birthweight was inversely associated with serum hsCRP levels in children aged 3 years living in Cuba. These observations provide a potential mechanism that is present at the age of 3 years to explain the association between low birthweight and both decreased childhood leukemia and increased cardiovascular disease in adults. PMID:27859847

  9. The association of low birth weight with serum C reactive protein in 3-year-old children living in Cuba: A population-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Josefina Venero-Fernández, Silvia; Fundora-Hernández, Hermes; Batista-Gutierrez, Lourdes; Suárez-Medina, Ramón; de la C Mora-Faife, Esperanza; García-García, Gladys; Del Valle-Infante, Ileana; Gómez-Marrero, Liem; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew W

    2017-05-06

    Low birthweight is associated with a decreased risk of childhood leukemia and an increased risk of both cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in adult life. Possible biological mediators include systemic innate immunity and inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that birthweight was inversely associated with serum high sensitivity C reactive protein assay (hsCRP), a measure of both innate immunity and systemic inflammation. Data on birthweight and current anthropometric measures along with a range of exposures were collected at 1 and 3 years of age in a population-based cohort study of young children living in Havana, Cuba. A total of 986 children aged 3-years-old provided blood samples that were analyzed for serum hsCRP levels. Nearly 49% of children had detectable hsCRP levels in their serum. Lower birthweight was linearly associated with the natural log of hsCRP levels (beta coefficient -0.70 mg L(-1) per kg increase in birthweight, 95% CI: -1.34 to -0.06). This was attenuated but still present after adjustment for the child's sex and municipality (-0.65 mg L(-1) per kg birthweight; 95% CI: -1.38 to +0.08). There were no associations between growth from birth or anthropometric measures at 3 years and systemic inflammation. Birthweight was inversely associated with serum hsCRP levels in children aged 3 years living in Cuba. These observations provide a potential mechanism that is present at the age of 3 years to explain the association between low birthweight and both decreased childhood leukemia and increased cardiovascular disease in adults. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-12

    Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives Updated September 12, 2003 Mark P. Sullivan Specialist in Latin American Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense...REPORT DATE 12 SEP 2003 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives Summary Restrictions on travel to Cuba have been a key and

  11. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-24

    on Travel and Legislative Initiatives Updated February 24, 2003 Mark P. Sullivan Specialist in Latin American Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense, and...REPORT DATE 24 FEB 2003 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives Summary Restrictions on travel to Cuba have been a key and

  12. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-22

    on Travel and Legislative Initiatives Updated April 22, 2003 Mark P. Sullivan Specialist in Latin American Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense, and...REPORT DATE 22 APR 2003 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives Summary Restrictions on travel to Cuba have been a key and

  13. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-06

    on Travel and Legislative Initiatives Updated January 6, 2003 Mark P. Sullivan Specialist in Latin American Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense, and...REPORT DATE 06 JAN 2003 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives Summary Restrictions on travel to Cuba have been a key and

  14. Cuba a la Deriva en un Mundo Postcommunista (Cuba Adrift in a Postcommunist World)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    probable. Aunque loo poqueflos grupos do disidentes y defensores do los derecho . humenos ban proliferedo, otroo elementos do la sociedad civil cubena...y las fuorzas armadas do Cuba, asi como gran part. do Arn~rica Latina, so pasarfan a ou bando, asegur~ndole mu lugar en Is historia . Estados Unidos...movimientos disidentes y defensores do los derechos humanos on )a isla, Algo quo ha venido haciendo Espaila, no asi Mkxico. La conclusifn a la cual

  15. Health of the coral reefs at the US Navy Base, Guantánamo Bay, Cuba: a preliminary report based on isotopic records from gorgonians.

    PubMed

    Risk, Michael J; Burchell, Meghan; Brunton, Dalston A; McCord, Michael R

    2014-06-15

    Specimens of the gorgonian Plexaura homomalla were sampled from several areas along the fringing reefs fronting the United States Naval Base at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba. Sample coverage extended from apparently healthy reefs in oceanic waters to declining reefs located in the plume of the drainage from upper parts of Guantánamo Bay. Tentacle tips were excised, and trunk sections were cut and polished. Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (δ(15)N) and carbon indicate a strong correlation of reef health with proximity to the plume of the river. Of all the worldwide cases in which land-based sources of pollution have impacted reefs, this one may well be the most intractable. The US Navy has jurisdiction over the reefs, with the obligation to protect them, yet the threat comes down the river from Cuba.

  16. Risk factors for eczema in infants born in Cuba: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Medina, Ramón; Venero-Fernández, Silvia Josefina; de la Mora-Faife, Esperanza; García-García, Gladys; Del Valle-Infante, Ileana; Gómez-Marrero, Liem; Fabré-Ortiz, Dania; Fundora-Hernández, Hermes; Venn, Andrea; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew W

    2014-03-25

    There is a concern that allergic disease in childhood is higher than expected in Cuba. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for eczema of infants aged 12-15 months living in Havana. We used a cross-sectional epidemiological study design. Data on eczema symptoms and a wide range of lifestyle factors were collected by researcher administered questionnaires. Data were collected on 1956 children (96% response rate), of whom 672 (34%) were reported as having had eczema. Independent risk factors for eczema included young maternal age (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.98 per additional year of age; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-0.99), child's weight (OR 1.13 per additional kg; 95% CI: 1.03-1.25), insect sting allergy (OR 2.11; 95% CI: 1.33-3.35), rodents in the home (OR 1.39; 95% CI: 1.10-1.76), attendance at childcare facilities (OR 1.34: 95% CI: 1.05-1.70) and self-reported mould in the home (OR 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07-1.41). Infant exposure to paracetamol was associated with an increased risk of eczema even after adjustment for wheeze (OR 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03-1.46). Despite a very different culture and environment, the consistency of these findings with those from more economically developed countries suggests potential causal associations. The association with paracetamol, even after adjustment for wheeze, suggests that intervention studies are required in young infants, to ascertain if this commonly used anti-pyretic medication increases allergic disease.

  17. Risk factors for eczema in infants born in Cuba: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a concern that allergic disease in childhood is higher than expected in Cuba. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for eczema of infants aged 12–15 months living in Havana. Methods We used a cross-sectional epidemiological study design. Data on eczema symptoms and a wide range of lifestyle factors were collected by researcher administered questionnaires. Results Data were collected on 1956 children (96% response rate), of whom 672 (34%) were reported as having had eczema. Independent risk factors for eczema included young maternal age (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.98 per additional year of age; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-0.99), child’s weight (OR 1.13 per additional kg; 95% CI: 1.03-1.25), insect sting allergy (OR 2.11; 95% CI: 1.33-3.35), rodents in the home (OR 1.39; 95% CI: 1.10-1.76), attendance at childcare facilities (OR 1.34: 95% CI: 1.05-1.70) and self-reported mould in the home (OR 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07-1.41). Infant exposure to paracetamol was associated with an increased risk of eczema even after adjustment for wheeze (OR 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03-1.46). Conclusion Despite a very different culture and environment, the consistency of these findings with those from more economically developed countries suggests potential causal associations. The association with paracetamol, even after adjustment for wheeze, suggests that intervention studies are required in young infants, to ascertain if this commonly used anti-pyretic medication increases allergic disease. PMID:24666750

  18. Go West: A One Way Stepping-Stone Dispersion Model for the Cavefish Lucifuga dentata in Western Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier-Monteagudo, Pedro; Bernatchez, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Consistent with the limited dispersal capacity of most troglobitic animals, almost all Lucifuga cavefish species have very narrow geographic distribution in Cuba. However, one species, L. dentata, has a wide but disjointed distribution over 300 km in the west of the island. In order to estimate the relative role of vicariance and dispersal in the unexpected L. dentata distribution, we obtained partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (cytb) gene and control region (CR), and then applied Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC), based on the identification of five genetic and geographic congruent groups of populations. The process that best explains the distribution of genetic diversity in this species is sequential range expansion from east Matanzas to the western Pinar del Río provinces, followed by isolation of groups of populations. We found relative high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity in all but the Havana group, which has high values for both diversity parameters, suggesting that this group has been demographically stable over time. For two groups of populations (Cayuco and Bolondrón), the mismatch distribution analyses suggests past demographic expansion. In the case of the Cayuco region, the star like relationships of haplotypes in the network suggests a recent founding event, congruent with other evidence indicating that this is the most recently colonized region. Over all, the results suggest that a combination of habitat availability, temporal interconnections, and possibly the biological properties of this species, may have enabled its dispersal and range expansion compared to other species of the genus, which are more geographically restricted. PMID:27082117

  19. Go West: A One Way Stepping-Stone Dispersion Model for the Cavefish Lucifuga dentata in Western Cuba.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Damir; Casane, Didier; Chevalier-Monteagudo, Pedro; Bernatchez, Louis; García-Machado, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Consistent with the limited dispersal capacity of most troglobitic animals, almost all Lucifuga cavefish species have very narrow geographic distribution in Cuba. However, one species, L. dentata, has a wide but disjointed distribution over 300 km in the west of the island. In order to estimate the relative role of vicariance and dispersal in the unexpected L. dentata distribution, we obtained partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (cytb) gene and control region (CR), and then applied Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC), based on the identification of five genetic and geographic congruent groups of populations. The process that best explains the distribution of genetic diversity in this species is sequential range expansion from east Matanzas to the western Pinar del Río provinces, followed by isolation of groups of populations. We found relative high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity in all but the Havana group, which has high values for both diversity parameters, suggesting that this group has been demographically stable over time. For two groups of populations (Cayuco and Bolondrón), the mismatch distribution analyses suggests past demographic expansion. In the case of the Cayuco region, the star like relationships of haplotypes in the network suggests a recent founding event, congruent with other evidence indicating that this is the most recently colonized region. Over all, the results suggest that a combination of habitat availability, temporal interconnections, and possibly the biological properties of this species, may have enabled its dispersal and range expansion compared to other species of the genus, which are more geographically restricted.

  20. Florida, Bahama Islands, Cuba as seen from Gemini 12 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-13

    S66-63418 (13 Nov. 1966) --- Florida (south half), Bahamas Islands (Andros-Grand Bahamas-Bimini), and Cuba, looking south as seen from Gemini-12 spacecraft on its 15th revolution of Earth. Photo credit: NASA

  1. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-22

    if travel restrictions were lifted.17 CRS-11 18 Laurie Goering, “Cuba Readies for Fall of U.S. Ban on Visits; Relaxed Embargo Would Jolt Tourism ...on Travel and Legislative Initiatives Updated May 22, 2003 Mark P. Sullivan Specialist in Latin American Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade...DATE 22 MAY 2003 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and

  2. Physics and Women: A Challenge Being Successfully Met in Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias de Fuentes, Olimpia

    The history of physics in Cuba, like all the country's educational and scientific development, cannot be understood without taking into account its close relationship with the social changes that took place in Cuba during the five decades elapsed since 1959. This should include due consideration to the role played by women in this process, all the more since the link between science and gender is now generally regarded as a subject of growing special interest

  3. International Medical Collaboration: Lessons from Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Castelló González, Mauro; Pons Vásquez, Reinaldo; Rodriguez Bencomo, David; Choonara, Imti

    2016-01-01

    Over 50,000 Cuban health professionals are currently working overseas in 67 different countries. They work in conjunction with local health professionals. The majority work in primary care in deprived areas. The aim is to reduce morbidity and mortality but also improve health in the long term by training local health professionals, and building both institutions and a structure to deliver health care alongside educating the local population. Cuba is a small, middle-income country. It has, however, made a significant international contribution in relation to medical collaboration. Cuba’s international collaboration is based on the principles of social justice and equity for all. It has set an example for other countries to emulate. PMID:27763571

  4. Communicating astronomy with the public in Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, O.

    2008-06-01

    Communicating astronomy with the public to produce attractive materials for a broad audience on TV is a difficult job in a third world country. One way of developing effective communication in fields like astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology whilst connecting the professional astronomer with a majority of the people is to combine the knowledge of the scientist with the most spectacular TV production methods of first world countries: integrating, through commentary and analysis, astronomy and science into the public debate of lay citizens. Here I present my ten years of experience of presenting a TV programme devoted to general science outreach. I also comment on the progress of the construction of the new planetarium, a cultural centre for science and technology, to be opened as part of the commemoration activities for the 2009 International Year of Astronomy. It is hoped to guide the interest of the people of Cuba towards basic science and astronomy in the most populated and frequented area of the country.

  5. Sergey gen. n., a new doryctine genus from temperate forests of Mexico and Cuba (Hymenoptera, Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Martínez, Juan José; Lázaro, Rubi Nelsi Meza; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The new doryctine genus Sergey gen. n. is described with four new species (Sergey cubaensis Zaldívar-Riverón & Martínez, sp. n., Sergey coahuilensis Zaldívar-Riverón & Martínez, sp. n., Sergey tzeltal Martínez & Zalídivar-Riverón, sp. n., Sergey tzotzil Martínez & Zalídivar-Riverón, sp. n.) from temperate forests of Mexico and Cuba. Similar to many other doryctine taxa, the new genus has a considerably elongated, petiolate basal sternal plate of the first metasomal tergite, although it can be distinguished from these by having the mesoscutum sharply declivous anteriorly with sharp anterolateral edges. The described species have been characterised molecularly based on two mitochondrial (COI, cyt b) and one nuclear (28S) gene markers. Based on the mitochondrial gene genealogies reconstructed, the evidence suggests the existence of incomplete lineage sorting or hybridization in the populations from Chiapas and Oaxaca assigned to Sergey tzeltal sp. n.

  6. Sergey gen. n., a new doryctine genus from temperate forests of Mexico and Cuba (Hymenoptera, Braconidae)

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Juan José; Lázaro, Rubi Nelsi Meza; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The new doryctine genus Sergey gen. n. is described with four new species (Sergey cubaensis Zaldívar-Riverón & Martínez, sp. n., Sergey coahuilensis Zaldívar-Riverón & Martínez, sp. n., Sergey tzeltal Martínez & Zalídivar-Riverón, sp. n., Sergey tzotzil Martínez & Zalídivar-Riverón, sp. n.) from temperate forests of Mexico and Cuba. Similar to many other doryctine taxa, the new genus has a considerably elongated, petiolate basal sternal plate of the first metasomal tergite, although it can be distinguished from these by having the mesoscutum sharply declivous anteriorly with sharp anterolateral edges. The described species have been characterised molecularly based on two mitochondrial (COI, cyt b) and one nuclear (28S) gene markers. Based on the mitochondrial gene genealogies reconstructed, the evidence suggests the existence of incomplete lineage sorting or hybridization in the populations from Chiapas and Oaxaca assigned to Sergey tzeltal sp. n. PMID:27408539

  7. Reemergence of dengue in Cuba: a 1997 epidemic in Santiago de Cuba.

    PubMed

    Kourí, G; Guzmán, M G; Valdés, L; Carbonel, I; del Rosario, D; Vazquez, S; Laferté, J; Delgado, J; Cabrera, M V

    1998-01-01

    After 15 years of absence, dengue reemerged in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba because of increasing migration to the area by people from disease-endemic regions, a high level of vector infestation, and the breakdown of eradication measures. The 1997 epidemic was detected early through an active surveillance system. Of 2,946 laboratory-confirmed cases, 205 were dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 12 were fatal. No deaths were reported in persons under 16 years of age. Now the epidemic is fully controlled.

  8. Reemergence of dengue in Cuba: a 1997 epidemic in Santiago de Cuba.

    PubMed Central

    Kourí, G.; Guzmán, M. G.; Valdés, L.; Carbonel, I.; del Rosario, D.; Vazquez, S.; Laferté, J.; Delgado, J.; Cabrera, M. V.

    1998-01-01

    After 15 years of absence, dengue reemerged in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba because of increasing migration to the area by people from disease-endemic regions, a high level of vector infestation, and the breakdown of eradication measures. The 1997 epidemic was detected early through an active surveillance system. Of 2,946 laboratory-confirmed cases, 205 were dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 12 were fatal. No deaths were reported in persons under 16 years of age. Now the epidemic is fully controlled. PMID:9454563

  9. Preparing for Post-Embargo Cuba: Effects on Businesses and Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Nina M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a brief history of U.S. trade with Cuba, the current status of Cuba's role in world trade, and the effects the U.S. embargo has on American businesses and U.S. and Cuban citizens. The article presents suggestions on how U.S. businesses can prepare for an open Cuba and argues for the lifting of the U.S. embargo against Cuba. (84…

  10. Cholera with severe renal failure in an Italian tourist returning from Cuba, July 2013.

    PubMed

    Mascarello, M; Deiana, M L; Maurel, C; Lucarelli, C; Luzzi, I; Luzzati, R

    2013-08-29

    In July 2013, an Italian tourist returning from Cuba was hospitalised in Trieste, Italy, for cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa with severe renal failure. An outbreak of cholera was reported in Cuba in January 2013. Physicians should consider the diagnosis of cholera in travellers returning from Cuba presenting with acute watery diarrhoea.

  11. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of... the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation... aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation 7757, the national...

  12. 31 CFR 515.337 - Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Cuba. 515.337 Section 515.337 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.337 Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba. For purposes of this part, the term prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba means Ministers and Vice-ministers...

  13. 31 CFR 515.337 - Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of Cuba. 515.337 Section 515.337 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.337 Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba. For purposes of this part, the term prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba means Ministers and Vice-ministers...

  14. 31 CFR 515.415 - Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel to Cuba; transportation of... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.415 Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals... or a returning resident of the United States, from Cuba to the United States, unless otherwise...

  15. 31 CFR 515.415 - Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel to Cuba; transportation of... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.415 Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals... or a returning resident of the United States, from Cuba to the United States, unless otherwise...

  16. 31 CFR 515.207 - Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cuba. 515.207 Section 515.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Prohibitions § 515.207 Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba. Except as specifically authorized by the... regulations, rulings, instructions, licenses or otherwise, (a) No vessel that enters a port or place in Cuba...

  17. 31 CFR 515.553 - Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. 515.553 Section 515.553 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments for transactions...

  18. 31 CFR 515.415 - Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel to Cuba; transportation of... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.415 Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals... or a returning resident of the United States, from Cuba to the United States, unless otherwise...

  19. 31 CFR 515.207 - Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with Cuba. 515.207 Section 515.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 515.207 Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba. Except as specifically... place in Cuba to engage in the trade of goods or the purchase or provision of services, may enter a U.S...

  20. 31 CFR 515.548 - Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Services rendered by Cuba to United... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.548 Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft. Specific licenses are issued for payment to Cuba of charges for services...

  1. 31 CFR 515.553 - Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. 515.553 Section 515.553 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments for transactions...

  2. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of... the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation... aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation 7757, the national...

  3. 31 CFR 515.337 - Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Cuba. 515.337 Section 515.337 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.337 Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba. For purposes of this part, the term prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba means Ministers and Vice-ministers...

  4. 31 CFR 515.207 - Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Cuba. 515.207 Section 515.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Prohibitions § 515.207 Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba. Except as specifically authorized by the... regulations, rulings, instructions, licenses or otherwise, (a) No vessel that enters a port or place in Cuba...

  5. 31 CFR 515.207 - Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Cuba. 515.207 Section 515.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Prohibitions § 515.207 Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba. Except as specifically authorized by the... regulations, rulings, instructions, licenses or otherwise, (a) No vessel that enters a port or place in Cuba...

  6. 31 CFR 515.415 - Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba; transportation of... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.415 Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals... or a returning resident of the United States, from Cuba to the United States, unless otherwise...

  7. 77 FR 55183 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The... Cuba. BIS will include a description of these comments in its biennial report to the Congress, as... 772 of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated...

  8. 31 CFR 515.561 - Persons visiting close relatives in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Cuba. 515.561 Section 515.561 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Cuba. (a) General license. (1) Persons subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and persons... close relative, as defined in § 515.339 of this part, who is a national of Cuba, as defined in § 515.302...

  9. 31 CFR 515.561 - Persons visiting close relatives in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Cuba. 515.561 Section 515.561 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Cuba. (a) General license. (1) Persons subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and persons... close relative, as defined in § 515.339 of this part, who is a national of Cuba, as defined in § 515.302...

  10. 31 CFR 515.207 - Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Cuba. 515.207 Section 515.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Prohibitions § 515.207 Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba. Except as specifically authorized by the... regulations, rulings, instructions, licenses or otherwise, (a) No vessel that enters a port or place in Cuba...

  11. 31 CFR 515.337 - Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Government of Cuba. 515.337 Section 515.337 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.337 Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba. For purposes of this part, the term prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba means Ministers and Vice-ministers...

  12. 31 CFR 515.415 - Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel to Cuba; transportation of... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.415 Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals... or a returning resident of the United States, from Cuba to the United States, unless otherwise...

  13. 31 CFR 515.561 - Persons visiting close relatives in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Cuba. 515.561 Section 515.561 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Cuba. (a) General license. (1) Persons subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and persons... close relative, as defined in § 515.339 of this part, who is a national of Cuba, as defined in § 515.302...

  14. 31 CFR 515.337 - Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Cuba. 515.337 Section 515.337 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.337 Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba. For purposes of this part, the term prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba means Ministers and Vice-ministers...

  15. 31 CFR 515.553 - Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. 515.553 Section 515.553 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments for transactions...

  16. 31 CFR 515.561 - Persons visiting close relatives in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Cuba. 515.561 Section 515.561 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Cuba. (a) General license. (1) Persons subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and persons... close relative, as defined in § 515.339 of this part, who is a national of Cuba, as defined in § 515.302...

  17. 75 FR 54594 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The... Cuba. BIS will include a description of these comments in its biennial report to the Congress, as... of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated with...

  18. 31 CFR 515.553 - Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. 515.553 Section 515.553 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments for transactions...

  19. 31 CFR 515.561 - Persons visiting close relatives in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cuba. 515.561 Section 515.561 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Cuba. (a) General license. (1) Persons subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and persons... close relative, as defined in § 515.339 of this part, who is a national of Cuba, as defined in § 515.302...

  20. 31 CFR 515.548 - Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Services rendered by Cuba to United... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.548 Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft. Specific licenses are issued for payment to Cuba of charges for services...

  1. 31 CFR 515.548 - Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Services rendered by Cuba to United... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.548 Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft. Specific licenses are issued for payment to Cuba of charges for services...

  2. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of... the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation... aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation 7757, the national...

  3. 31 CFR 515.564 - Professional research and professional meetings in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... meetings in Cuba. 515.564 Section 515.564 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... professional meetings in Cuba. (a) General license—(1) Professional research. The travel-related transactions... research by full-time professionals who travel to Cuba to conduct professional research in their...

  4. 31 CFR 515.553 - Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. 515.553 Section 515.553 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments for transactions...

  5. 77 FR 23598 - Technical Amendment to Cuba Airport List: Addition of Recently Approved Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection 19 CFR Part 122 Technical Amendment to Cuba Airport List... from Cuba. DATES: Effective: April 20, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Arthur A.E. Pitts, Sr., U... to all aircraft (except public aircraft) entering or departing the United States to or from Cuba...

  6. Orienete Province, eastern end of Cuba as seen from Gemini 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Oriente Province, eastern end of Cuba is photographed by Astronaut Frank Borman and James A. Lovell during the 14th revolution of the Gemini 7 mission. Guantanamo Bay is in the center of picture on southern coast of Cuba. Santiago de Cuba is located about one inch from the bottom edge of the picture, or about three inches westward down the coast from Guantanamo.

  7. Ethnicity, education, and blood pressure in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Ordunez, Pedro; Munoz, Jose Luis Bernal; Espinosa-Brito, Alfredo; Silva, Luis Carlos; Cooper, Richard S

    2005-07-01

    The causes of variation in hypertension risk by ethnicity and educational level are not well understood. To gain further insight into this issue in a nonindustrialized country, a population-based sample of 1,667 persons aged 15-74 years was recruited in Cienfuegos, Cuba. In this 2001-2002 study, interviewers classified 29% of participants as Black or mulatto and 71% as White. Educational attainment was stratified at the median number of school years. Compared with White women, non-White women had higher blood pressures (3.0/1.7, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure) and a higher prevalence of hypertension (24%, 95% confidence interval: 20, 28 vs. 15%, 95% confidence interval: 12, 18). Among men, no differences in blood pressure were observed by ethnicity. Men with a lower level of education had a 14% lower risk of hypertension compared with men above the median. However, women with a lower level of education had a 24% increase in risk. The effect of education was equally strong among Whites alone and when occupation was used for stratification. No variation was observed for body mass index or self-reported health behaviors by ethnicity or education. The narrower ethnic gradient in hypertension prevalence than seen in North America and the gender-specific social status effect, in the context of relatively equal living conditions, suggest that the influence of psychosocial stressors may be specific to cultural contexts.

  8. 31 CFR 515.559 - Certain transactions by U.S.-owned or controlled foreign firms with Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... controlled foreign firms with Cuba. 515.559 Section 515.559 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... transactions by U.S.-owned or controlled foreign firms with Cuba. (a) Effective October 23, 1992, no specific... controlled firms in third countries and Cuba for the exportation to Cuba of commodities produced in the...

  9. The Debate in Cuba's Scientific Community on Sudden Cardiac Death.

    PubMed

    Vilches, Ernesto; Ochoa, Luis A; Ramos, Lianne

    2015-10-01

    Sudden cardiac death poses a challenge to modern medicine because of its high incidence, the unexpected and dramatic nature of the event, and years of potential life lost. What's more, despite modest decreases in global mortality attributed to cardiovascular diseases, incidence of sudden cardiac death has not declined. Cuba, like most of the Americas, suffers from knowledge gaps that hamper adequate strategies to address sudden cardiac death as a population health problem. We suggest that a generally accepted operational definition of sudden cardiac death be agreed upon, and a national registry developed that recognizes this cause of death on death certificates. These two actions will enable Cuba's public health authorities to assess the extent of the problem and to design intervention strategies for the population with intermediate and lower cardiovascular risk, the group in which most cases occur. KEYWORDS Sudden cardiac death, cardiovascular disease, sudden death, sudden cardiac arrest, risk reduction, prevention and control, Cuba.

  10. [Public health and intellectual property in Cuba: a conceptual map].

    PubMed

    García Delgado, Beatriz; Di Fabio, José Luis; Vidal Casanovas, Jaume; Fitzgerald, James; Silva, Ana Paula

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the legal framework for health and intellectual property in Cuba and its impact on people's access to health resources and on the roles of different social actors. The methods used were those developed by the Pan American Health Organization to implement the project of the Conceptual Map on Public Health and Intellectual Property. Information retrieved specifically on the legal framework for the National Health System, the Intellectual Property System and the strengthening of the country's biopharmaceutical industry-and on the framework's development over time-was processed and analyzed to generate Cuba's Conceptual Map on Public Health and Intellectual Property. Analysis of Cuba's adaptation of its legal framework and assessment of the interaction between the social actors involved show how the political will that has prevailed over several decades has had a positive impact on people's access to health resources.

  11. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of eastern Cuba.

    PubMed

    Cano, Juan Hernández; Volpato, Gabriele

    2004-02-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantánamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products are used in 199 formulas, galones being the more complex. Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae), Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), Cissus sicyoides L. (Vitaceae), Erythroxylum havanense Jacq. (Erythroxylaceae) and Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl. (Verbenaceae) are the species most frequently cited. The ecological distribution of the taxa and cultural and anthropological aspects of mixtures are highlighted; particularly American and African influences that have shaped local knowledge about plant combinations are discussed.

  12. Cuba & ICTs: Real Crisis Leads to Virtual Innovation.

    PubMed

    Urra, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The only sustainable way to avail ourselves of opportunities provided by information and communications technologies (ICTs) for health is when they're folded into a clear, specific political commitment to improve health systems; there are no magic recipes or technologies. Cuba's achievements in using ICTs for health are the result of a social and political process based on universal, equitable health services and education. Together these explain the paradox of how a country in severe economic crisis managed to create a nationwide network providing access to health information and medical knowledge, so that today, Cuba is making strategic use of the Internet and international networks.

  13. A New Approach to Health Services and Pharmacy in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Alina M

    2015-12-01

    In December 17, 2014, U.S. President Barack Obama surprised the world by announcing his intention to enter into negotiations aimed at reestablishing diplomatic relations with Cuba. Since then, expectations and interest regarding the health system of that country have increased. This report focuses on the Cuban health and pharmacy systems from a practical and educational standpoint. Pharmaceutical services, strengths, opportunities, and challenges are described. Cuba's new trends toward patient-centered care are analyzed to provide insights for developing pharmaceutical care practice and implementing policies suitable for practice in all health care settings.

  14. The US blockade and Cuba's AIDS sanatoria system.

    PubMed

    Landau, J G

    1998-01-01

    Cuba's low rate of HIV infection is due to several factors that include early HIV detection campaigns, the sanatoria system, and the U.S. embargo that has restricted sex tourism and drugs. People diagnosed with HIV are scheduled for entry into the sanatoria system within their province. Food and medical care are guaranteed in the sanatoria, as are educational opportunities and work for the unskilled, a powerful incentive in an impoverished nation. Ironically, while the U.S. embargo partly contributes to keeping the HIV infection rate low, it also is severely and adversely affecting public health in Cuba by creating widespread shortages in medical care resources.

  15. The devastating medical results of US embargo against Cuba.

    PubMed

    Graham, J

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. embargo on Cuba is reported to have severe adverse effects on the nation's medical care and is running afoul of international human rights agreements. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Cuba lost medical financial support; AIDS treatments suffered with other medical needs. While AIDS cases are low in comparison to the United States, signs that the country has lost control of the epidemic are appearing; as evidenced by the soaring increase in infections. This infection increase is being exacerbated by an embargo that is adversely affecting treatment availability and blocking scientific dialogue.

  16. [Eugenic abortion could explain the lower infant mortality in Cuba compared to that in Chile].

    PubMed

    Donoso S, Enrique; Carvajal C, Jorge A

    2012-08-01

    Cuba and Chile have the lower infant mortality rates of Latin America. Infant mortality rate in Cuba is similar to that of developed countries. Chilean infant mortality rate is slightly higher than that of Cuba. To investigate if the lower infant mortality rate in Cuba, compared to Chile, could be explained by eugenic abortion, considering that abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile. We compared total and congenital abnormalities related infant mortality in Cuba and Chile during 2008, based on vital statistics of both countries. In 2008, infant mortality rates in Chile were significantly higher than those of Cuba (7.8 vs. 4.7 per 1,000 live born respectively, odds ratio (OR) 1.67; 95% confidence intervals (Cl) 1.52-1.83). Congenital abnormalities accounted for 33.8 and 19.2% of infant deaths in Chile and Cuba, respectively. Discarding infant deaths related to congenital abnormalities, infant mortality rate continued to be higher in Chile than in Cuba (5.19 vs. 3.82 per 1000 live born respectively, OR 1.36; 95%CI 1.221.52). Considering that antenatal diagnosis is widely available in both countries, but abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile, we conclude that eugenic abortion may partially explain the lower infant mortality rate observed in Cuba compared to that observed in Chile.

  17. Fifty years of Cuba's medical diplomacy: from idealism to pragmatism.

    PubMed

    Feinsilver, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Medical diplomacy, the collaboration between countries to simultaneously produce health benefits and improve relations, has been a cornerstone of Cuban foreign policy since the outset of the revolution fifty years ago. It has helped Cuba garner symbolic capital (goodwill, influence, and prestige) well beyond what would have been possible for a small, developing country, and it has contributed to making Cuba a player on the world stage. In recent years, medical diplomacy has been instrumental in providing considerable material capital (aid, credit, and trade), as the oil-for-doctors deals with Venezuela demonstrates. This has helped keep the revolution afloat in trying economic times. What began as the implementation of the one of the core values of the revolution, namely health as a basic human right for all peoples, has continued as both an idealistic and a pragmatic pursuit. This article examines the factors that enabled Cuba to conduct medical diplomacy over the past fifty years, the rationale behind the conduct of this type of soft power politics, the results of that effort, and the mix of idealism and pragmatism that has characterized the experience. Moreover, it presents a typology of medical diplomacy that Cuba has used over the past fifty years.

  18. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  19. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  20. A Look at Cuban Schools: What Is Cuba Doing Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Barbara C.

    2003-01-01

    A retired elementary school principal, who first visited Cuba as an exchange student, returns 46 years later as an international consultant and finds that the Cubans have made health care and education the top priorities of their society with strong principals and a solid system of supervision and evaluation. (Author/MLF)

  1. Courting the future: cancer and genetics in Cuba.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Describing this double issue of MEDICC Review could be an exercise for a first-year philosophy course in logic. It's not about "cancer and genetics" in Cuba. It's about cancer in Cuba and about genetics in Cuba, not about exploring relationships between them. Nevertheless, while the marriage of the two themes was fortuitous, in that the two had long been scheduled for the journal in 2014, there is a certain felicity to their sharing an issue. To date, the outstanding accomplishments of genetics have been most helpful for conditions occurring at the beginning of life and cancer is largely (though not exclusively) a disease related to aging. But the two are intrinsically connected: Although only a few of the more than 100 different diseases grouped under the term cancer are known to be hereditary, every cancer begins with a mutation in one or more genes, whether the mutation is inherited, due to an exposure, or is simply a random error in the millions of cell divisions that are part and parcel of cellular reproduction. Our cover image, a stained-glass window by Cuban artist Rosa María de la Terga at Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center, illustrates the elegance of the DNA molecule, the intricate key to life.

  2. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 3--The Cuban Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Cuban Revolution and its implications and consequences for Christian higher education in Cuba. Christian institutions experienced the same oppression from the communist revolution as the rest of the evangelical denominations during the sixties and seventies. The worst period for Protestantism began in 1965…

  3. Political Uncertainty in Post-Fidel Castro Cuba

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-18

    and foremost, Raul is not a young man. At 75, like Fidel, Raul is in the twilight of his life and in potentially poor health. Should he die prior...socialism has wrought. Throughout the Cuban saga , the United States has “stayed the course” on Cuba policy despite failure. The strong political

  4. Offshore S. Cuba -- Quaternary lobsters and Eocene reefs

    SciTech Connect

    Rebora, M. )

    1994-09-19

    When Cuba is mentioned, the first image that comes to an explorationist's mind is one of complex imbricated thrust sheets, fractured carbonate reservoirs, volcanics and ophiolitic, and heavy and high sulfur oil. It is now known that this stimulating'' scenario does not apply to the whole of Cuba but only to the northern and central part where plate collisions and robust wrench tectonics exacted their toll on sediments and hydrocarbons alike. Seismic data recently acquired by Taurus Petroleum off the southern coast of Cuba reveal a rather different scenario: Mesozoic sediments several thousands of meters thick, deformed by moderate wrench tectonics into low-relief flower structures, and overlain by a variety of Paleogene shelf edge reefs, atolls, and banks that look as if reproduced from the pages of AAPG's Memoir 57. The whole is topped by Oligocene and Miocene evaporites, shales, and carbonates. The paper describes the southern shelf area, exploration in Cuba, reefs, oil and gas shows, source rocks, reservoir rocks, seals, and potential reserves.

  5. Cuba's Political Involvement in Sport Since the Socialist Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slack, Trevor

    This paper documents instances of Cuba's political use of sport internally and internationally. The linking of sport and politics is manifested in the number of times that pictures of Castro, involved in sport, appear in the Cuban media. This is pointed out as the two-fold desire of the politician to secure a virile media image and to mold the…

  6. Cuba: Moving Back to the Future with Tourism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Gerald R.

    1992-01-01

    Addresses Cuba's attempt to rebuild its tourism industry in an effort to combat its declining economy in the wake of reduced Russian aid. Provides a sketch of Cuban history and a discussion of the tourism highlighting contradictions between political rhetoric and economic policy. Reviews resource materials and ideas for classroom use. (DK)

  7. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 3--The Cuban Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Cuban Revolution and its implications and consequences for Christian higher education in Cuba. Christian institutions experienced the same oppression from the communist revolution as the rest of the evangelical denominations during the sixties and seventies. The worst period for Protestantism began in 1965…

  8. A Medical School in Cuba Trains Doctors for Poor Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Marion

    2001-01-01

    Describes how the Latin American Medical School in Cuba attracts foreign students, including Americans, with a free course of study. Supporters say it shows Castro's commitment to humanitarian ideals, while critics see it as an attempt to curry favor with Central and Latin America. (EV)

  9. Cuba: Moving Back to the Future with Tourism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Gerald R.

    1992-01-01

    Addresses Cuba's attempt to rebuild its tourism industry in an effort to combat its declining economy in the wake of reduced Russian aid. Provides a sketch of Cuban history and a discussion of the tourism highlighting contradictions between political rhetoric and economic policy. Reviews resource materials and ideas for classroom use. (DK)

  10. Christmas, Natal, Navidad in Cuba, Mexico, and Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Maria Joao, Ed.; Fontes, Manuel da Costa, Ed.

    This material is a compilation of junior high school student-developed stories and games about the way Christmas is celebrated in Portugal, Mexico, and Cuba. The material was developed in the classroom by Portuguese, Mexican, and Cuban immigrant students and by American students who do not have a recent immigrant background, all of whom were…

  11. Christmas, Natal, Navidad in Cuba, Mexico, and Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Maria Joao, Ed.; Fontes, Manuel da Costa, Ed.

    This material is a compilation of junior high school student-developed stories and games about the way Christmas is celebrated in Portugal, Mexico, and Cuba. The material was developed in the classroom by Portuguese, Mexican, and Cuban immigrant students and by American students who do not have a recent immigrant background, all of whom were…

  12. Cuba's Schools for the Mathematically and Scientifically Talented.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoghue, Eileen F.; Vogeli, Bruce R.

    1998-01-01

    Describes Cuba's special schools for children talented in mathematics and science with emphasis on Lenin school, a central boarding school that enrolls 2700 gifted students and 14 regional boarding schools that enroll a total of 5000 students. Curriculum and Cuban Olympiad problem examples are included. (DB)

  13. Poliomyelitis and its elimination in Cuba: an historical overview.

    PubMed

    Beldarraín, Enrique

    2013-04-01

    Polio was first detected in Cuba in the late 19th century among residents of the US community on the Isla de Pinos (Isle of Pines, now Isle of Youth), apparently introduced through migration from the USA. The first outbreak was reported in 1906 on the Isle, with the first epidemic reported in the former province of Las Villas in 1909. The epidemics subsequently intensified, by 1934 becoming periodic every four to five years, and accompanied by high morbidity, mortality and crippling sequelae, primarily among children. To review and analyze the history of polio and its control in Cuba, from the disease's first appearance in 1898 until WHO/PAHO certification of elimination in 1994. The historiological method was used; archival documents, medical records, and available polio morbidity and mortality statistics from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division before 1959 and from 1959 through 2000 were reviewed. Crude morbidity and mortality rates were calculated using population estimates at mid-period. Reports and scientific publications describing polio vaccination campaigns and their results were also reviewed, and key informants were interviewed. After initial introduction of polio in Cuba, five major epidemics occurred between 1932 and 1958: in 1934 (434 cases, 82 deaths); 1942 (494 cases, 58 deaths); 1946 (239 cases, 33 deaths), 1952 (492 cases, 15 deaths) and 1955 (267 cases, 8 deaths). Between 1957 and 1961 the disease's endemicity reached epidemic levels, with the last outbreak occurring in 1961, with 342 cases, 30% of them in children aged >4 years. In 1962, Cuba launched a nationwide polio vaccination campaign, the first of annual campaigns thereafter carried out in the framework of a coherent national program aimed at polio elimination. Using the Sabin oral vaccine and targeting the entire pediatric population in a single time period, five million doses were administered in the first campaign, reaching 87.5% of the target population aged 1

  14. [Risk factors of pupal infestation with community-based Aedes aegypti in a municipality of Havana City].

    PubMed

    del Carmen Marquetti, María; Bisset, Juan; Portillo, Reina; Magdalena, Rodríguez; Leyva, Maureen

    2007-01-01

    The risk factors of pupal infestation with community-based Aedes aegypti were identified in four areas of Playa municipality, located in the urban zone of Havana City The deposits with the highest positivity to the vector were the artificial ones and the low tanks. It was confirmed that 99.03% of the sites visited contained at least one deposit with water, and that 4 areas presented a very similar behaviour in ratio of tanks per site, since in all of them the water was supplied every other day. That is why the difference in the positivity was not due to factors related to the water supply. Of the positive deposits, 87.17% were located in backyards, and 91.3% of the positive low tanks had no cover, or were partially covered. It was found that in the positivity of the deposits to the dengue vector, only 8.7% were non-community dependent. If there had had an active participation of the community directed to cover the tanks, to change the water in the water troughs, and to clean the backyards, the pupal infestation due to Aedes aegypti would have drastically increased in the studied areas.

  15. Synthesis of glycolate from pyruvate via isocitrate lyase by tobacco leaves in light. [Nicotiana tabacum var Havana Seed

    SciTech Connect

    Zelitch, I. )

    1988-02-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var Havana Seed) leaf discs were supplied tracer quantities of (2-{sup 14}C)- and (3-{sup 14}C) pyruvate for 60 minutes in steady state photosynthesis with 21% or 1% O{sub 2}, and the glycolate oxidase inhibitor {alpha}-hydroxy-2-pyridinemethanesulfonic acid was then added for 5 or 10 minutes to cause glycolate to accumulate. The (3-{sup 14}C) pyruvate was converted directly to glycolate as shown by a 50% greater than equal-labeled {sup 14}C in C-2 of glycolate, and the fraction of {sup 14}C in C-2 increased in 1% O{sub 2} to 80% greater than equal-labeled. This suggests the pathway using pyruvate is less O{sub 2}-dependent than the oxygenase reaction producing glycolate from the Calvin cycle. The formation of glycolate from pyruvate in the leaf discs was time-dependent and with (2-{sup 14}C)- and (3-{sup 14}C) pyruvate supplied leaf discs the C-2 of glyoxylate derived from C-2 of isocitrate was labeled asymmetrically in a manner similar to the asymmetrical labeling of C-2 of glycolate under a number of conditions. Thus glycolate was probably formed by the reduction of glyoxylate. Isocitric lyase activity of tobacco leaves was associated with leaf mitochondria, through most of the activity was in the supernatant fraction after differential centrifugation of leaf homogenates.

  16. Pesticide use, alternatives and workers' health in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alexander, R; Anderson, P K

    1984-01-01

    Cuba provides a unique example of a country that is actively implementing a program to reduce its dependence on pesticides. This paper addresses Cuba's current efforts to develop and implement alternatives to pesticides and legislation to limit exposure and protect workers in the interim. In 1980 Cuba embarked on a national program to utilize alternatives to chemical pest control. This three-part program includes expansion of knowledge of Cuban agro-ecology in order to implement cultural control practices; research and implementation on biological control of pests; and research on plant resistance and development of resistant crop varieties. To date, the program has enabled Cuba to reduce pesticide usage in sugar cane, citrus, tobacco, corn, and vegetable crops, among others. While alternatives to chemical pest control are being developed, the Cubans are paying special attention to regulating pesticide use and the safety of workers and members of the public exposed to toxic chemicals. In addition to the Resolution on Health and Safety (1967) and the Safety and Health Law (1978) which cover all workers, including Cuba's 250,000 agricultural workers, the Ministry of Public Health promulgated Resolution 335 in 1967. This resolution addresses requirements and administration of structural pest control, production, importation, transport and storage of pesticides, as well as requirements for worker contact with pesticides, pesticides for domestic use, aerial application of pesticides, and violations of the regulations. The paper concludes with a description of how the system works on the provincial level, as exemplified by Villa Clara, and the steps that have been taken to eliminate worker exposure to pesticides, to utilize pesticides which pose less of a hazard to workers, and to assure early detection of ill effects.

  17. [Fur color gene profiles and length of hair of several cat populations in Cuba, Costa Rica, Colombia, Paraguay, Chile and Argentina, and possible genetic origins of these cat populations].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Garsia, M; Campos, H A; Alvaréz, D; Kajon, A; Diáz, S

    2002-02-01

    Until the present moment, only a scarce number of Latin American domestic cat populations have been studied from a population genetic standpoint. For this reason, the cat populations of La Havana (Cuba), San José (Costa Rica), Bogota and Ibagué (Colombia), Asuncion (Paraguay), Santiago (Chile) and Buenos Aires (Argentina) were sampled for several coat genes. The results obtained were as follows: (1) there was a strong genetic resemblance between several Hispanic American cat populations (especially, those of Buenos Aires, San José and the two Colombian populations studied) and those from South Western United States (California, Texas and Colorado), which adds support to the suspicion that these populations probably have a common origin; (2) The cat population of Santiago (Chile), contrarily to the other Hispanic American populations studied, showed a strong genetic resemblance with some Anglo North American populations; and (3) The l (long hair) and d (dilution) alleles showed systematic higher frequencies in the Hispanic American populations than those observed in Spain. Although the Hispanic American populations were not identical to the current Spanish populations (with the exception of Asuncion), this historic genetic experiment was very different to that found for the British populations and their overseas colonies.

  18. La Educacion de los Jesuitas en Cuba durante el Siglo XVI (1566-1574) (Jesuit Education in Cuba during the 16th Century (1566-1574).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes

    2000-01-01

    Explains the relationship between Spanish colonialism in Cuba, evangelization of the Indians, and the origins of Cuban culture, as well as the role the Jesuits played in this process of transculturation. Analyzes the first phase in the history of the educational work of the Jesuits in Cuba (1566-1574). (BT)

  19. La Educacion de los Jesuitas en Cuba durante el Siglo XVI (1566-1574) (Jesuit Education in Cuba during the 16th Century (1566-1574).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes

    2000-01-01

    Explains the relationship between Spanish colonialism in Cuba, evangelization of the Indians, and the origins of Cuban culture, as well as the role the Jesuits played in this process of transculturation. Analyzes the first phase in the history of the educational work of the Jesuits in Cuba (1566-1574). (BT)

  20. United States - Cuba Policy: Strategic Framework for Re-emergent Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT United States – Cuba Policy: Strategic Framework For Re-emergent Relations by Allen J. Jamerson United States Air...COVERED (FROM - TO) xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE United States - Cuba Policy: Strategic Framework for Re-emergent Relations ... UNITED STATES – CUBA POLICY: STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK FOR RE-EMERGENT RELATIONS .....1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

  1. Economic and Security Reasons Why the U.S. Should Normalize Relations with Cuba

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    chapter], a refusal to allow Castro to blackmail the United States with the threat of unleashing a wave of Cuban refugees to the U.S., the wrongful...9 Joaquín Roy, “ Cuba , the United States , and the Helms-Burton Doctrine,” Gainesville: The University...the U.S. current foreign policy toward Cuba will not achieve its stated objective of the end of the Castro regime and a democratic Cuba . Additionally

  2. Cuba and Economic Sanctions: A Cold War Strategy in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-19

    young lawyer by the name of Fidel Castro Ruz . 3 CASTRO’S REVOLUTION (1956-1959) Unemployment was widespread in Cuba during the late 1950s. Political...that neither Castro or his brother, Defense Minister Raul Castro Ruz could be in control. In order to be considered a transition government, Cuba had...Unclassified Fidel Castro came to power in Cuba in January 1959 culminating a three-year revolution against President Fulgencio Batista’s government. In

  3. Comparison of family planning in Cuba and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Suzie; Stronge, Shirley

    2015-08-26

    Family planning gives individuals and couples control and choice over the number of children they have and the timing of their births. Developments in reproductive health have resulted in major changes in the options for family planning, providing more choice and control over fertility. This article explores reproductive health in the Republic of Cuba and the Republic of Ireland, with a focus on contraceptive use and termination of pregnancy as methods of family planning. The predominant religion in both countries is Catholicism, which promotes the right to life of the unborn child. The two countries have adopted different approaches to the availability of both contraception and termination of pregnancy. Cuba has offered free access to contraception and termination of pregnancy since the 1960s to reduce maternal mortality. In Ireland, contraception was not widely available until 1995 and termination of pregnancy is available only in extremely limited circumstances.

  4. Origin of invasive Florida frogs traced to Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Heinicke, Matthew P.; Diaz, Luis M.; Hedges, S. Blair

    2011-01-01

    Two of the earliest examples of successful invasive amphibians are the greenhouse frog (Eleutherodactylus planirostris) and the Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) in Florida. Although both are generally assumed to be recent introductions, they are widespread on Caribbean islands and also have been proposed as natural colonizers. We obtained nucleotide sequence data for both species and their closest relatives in their native and introduced ranges. Phylogenetic analyses trace the origin of E. planirostris to a small area in western Cuba, while O. septentrionalis is derived from at least two Cuban sources, one probably a remote peninsula in western Cuba. The tropical-to-temperate invasion began with colonization of the Florida Keys followed by human-mediated dispersal within peninsular Florida. The subtropical Keys may have served as an adaptive stepping stone for the successful invasion of the North American continent. PMID:21270024

  5. [A battle won: the elimination of poliomyelitis in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Chaple, Enrique Beldarraín

    2015-01-01

    Poliomyelitis was introduced in Cuba in the late nineteenth century by American residents in Isla de Pinos. The first epidemics occurred in 1906 and 1909 and increased in intensity between 1930 and 1958. The scope of the paper is to reconstruct the history of the disease and its epidemics in Cuba prior to 1961, the first National Polio Vaccination Campaign (1962) and its results, as well as analyze the ongoing annual vaccination campaigns through to certified elimination of the disease (1994). The logical historical method was used and archival documents and statistics from the Ministry of Health on morbidity and mortality through 2000 were reviewed. Gross morbidity and mortality rates were calculated and interviews with key figures were conducted.

  6. Eradication of poliomyelitis in Cuba: a historical perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Más Lago, P.

    1999-01-01

    The eradication of poliomyelitis in Cuba, for which effective vaccines had to be acquired, is reviewed in this article. The strategy for eradication was based on mass immunization campaigns for the annual delivery of two doses of trivalent Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Except during the first campaign in 1962, the ages of the children for immunization were determined through national serological surveys of the entire country, including rural and urban areas. The interruption of wild virus transmission had been suspected since 1967 in Cuba, and since 1970 no studies have detected any wild virus. The important role of political and social organizations in the success of the programme and in the execution of the mass immunization campaigns is underscored. Countries that have successfully interrupted poliovirus circulation should maintain high immunization coverage for as long as there are other countries in the world where poliovirus still exists. PMID:10516790

  7. Relict Oceanic Lithosphere in Cuba: Types and Emplacement Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CobiellaReguera, J. L.

    2001-12-01

    According to their composition and tectonic position, three different types of relict oceanic lithosphere are present in Cuba: (1) the northern ophiolitic belt, a complex melange that extents more than 1000 km along the island, (2) the basement of the Cretaceous volcanic arc terrane: high temperature/low pressure amphibolites with some serpentinites and, (3) tectonic slices of serpentinite melanges (with eclogites and blueschists) and high pressure amphibolites, in the metamorphic Escambray massif (tectonostratigraphic terrane, microcontinent?) of southcentral Cuba. Available age constrains (paleontological and geochronological) indicate that relicts of oceanic lithosphere in Cuba are upper Mesozoic in age. Geochemical, petrological, and regional geology data suggest that such oceanic relicts probably originated in two different tectonic environments in the Proto-Caribbean basin; (1) a small oceanic basin of Upper Jurassic- Neocomian age, related to drift between North America and a southern continental mass and (2) a suprasubduction marginal basin, between the southeastern North American passive margin and an Aptian-Albian volcanic arc. Tectonic emplacement of the Cuban relict oceanic Proto-Caribbean lithosphere was likely related to several tectonic events and processes. Serpentinite melange slices and the high pressure amphibolites in the Jurassic and Cretaceous passive margin sequences of Escambray massif, characterized by low to moderate temperature and high pressure metamorphism, probably were emplaced from subduction and closure of the small oceanic depression located to the south (present geographic coordinates) of the volcanic arc in the Albian. The basement amphibolites of the volcanic arc terrane were derived from the Upper Jurassic-Neocomian oceanic crust, metamorphosed by the high temperatures and hot solutions related to the development on this crust of an Aptian-Albian volcanic arc with a north dipping subduction zone. These amphibolites were

  8. Cuba: plenty of care, few condoms, no corruption.

    PubMed Central

    Veeken, H.

    1995-01-01

    The health system in Cuba guarantees accessibility to the entire population, is free of charge, and covers the spectrum from vaccinations to sophisticated interventions. The results are impressive: Cuba's health figures are on a par with developed countries that have 20 times the budget. The country is experiencing a difficult period because of the collapse and loss of support from the Soviet Union; over 30 years' trade embargo by the United States; and the gradual change from a centrally planned economy towards more of a free market system. Shortages are experienced in every sector, and maintaining health care services at the current level is too expensive. Doctors and nurses continue to work towards the goal of health for all Cubans, even though their salaries are minimal. Signs of negligence or corruption, often seen in other socialist countries where incentives for output are lacking, are unknown. Topics such as family planning and AIDS deserve immediate attention. Images p936-a PMID:7580557

  9. Cuba: plenty of care, few condoms, no corruption.

    PubMed

    Veeken, H

    1995-10-07

    The health system in Cuba guarantees accessibility to the entire population, is free of charge, and covers the spectrum from vaccinations to sophisticated interventions. The results are impressive: Cuba's health figures are on a par with developed countries that have 20 times the budget. The country is experiencing a difficult period because of the collapse and loss of support from the Soviet Union; over 30 years' trade embargo by the United States; and the gradual change from a centrally planned economy towards more of a free market system. Shortages are experienced in every sector, and maintaining health care services at the current level is too expensive. Doctors and nurses continue to work towards the goal of health for all Cubans, even though their salaries are minimal. Signs of negligence or corruption, often seen in other socialist countries where incentives for output are lacking, are unknown. Topics such as family planning and AIDS deserve immediate attention.

  10. Origin of invasive Florida frogs traced to Cuba.

    PubMed

    Heinicke, Matthew P; Diaz, Luis M; Hedges, S Blair

    2011-06-23

    Two of the earliest examples of successful invasive amphibians are the greenhouse frog (Eleutherodactylus planirostris) and the Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) in Florida. Although both are generally assumed to be recent introductions, they are widespread on Caribbean islands and also have been proposed as natural colonizers. We obtained nucleotide sequence data for both species and their closest relatives in their native and introduced ranges. Phylogenetic analyses trace the origin of E. planirostris to a small area in western Cuba, while O. septentrionalis is derived from at least two Cuban sources, one probably a remote peninsula in western Cuba. The tropical-to-temperate invasion began with colonization of the Florida Keys followed by human-mediated dispersal within peninsular Florida. The subtropical Keys may have served as an adaptive stepping stone for the successful invasion of the North American continent.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope Deploy, Cuba, Bahamas and Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-04-29

    STS031-151-010 (25 April 1990) --- The Hubble Space Telescope (HST), still in the grasp of Discovery's Remote Manipulator System (RMS), is backdropped over Cuba and the Bahama Islands. In this scene, it has yet to have deployment of its solar array panels and its high gain antennae. This scene was captured with a large format Aero Linhof camera used by several previous flight crews to record Earth scenes.

  12. Phylodynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Delatorre, Edson; Bello, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba displayed a complex molecular epidemiologic profile with circulation of several subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF); but the evolutionary and population history of those viral variants remains unknown. HIV-1 pol sequences of the most prevalent Cuban lineages (subtypes B, C and G, CRF18_cpx, CRF19_cpx, and CRFs20/23/24_BG) isolated between 1999 and 2011 were analyzed. Maximum-likelihood analyses revealed multiple introductions of subtype B (n≥66), subtype C (n≥10), subtype G (n≥8) and CRF18_cpx (n≥2) viruses in Cuba. The bulk of HIV-1 infections in this country, however, was caused by dissemination of a few founder strains probably introduced from North America/Europe (clades B(CU-I) and B(CU-II)), east Africa (clade C(CU-I)) and central Africa (clades G(CU), CRF18(CU) and CRF19(CU)), or locally generated (clades CRFs20/23/24_BG). Bayesian-coalescent analyses show that the major HIV-1 founder strains were introduced into Cuba during 1985-1995; whereas the CRFs_BG strains emerged in the second half of the 1990s. Most HIV-1 Cuban clades appear to have experienced an initial period of fast exponential spread during the 1990s and early 2000s, followed by a more recent decline in growth rate. The median initial growth rate of HIV-1 Cuban clades ranged from 0.4 year⁻¹ to 1.6 year⁻¹. Thus, the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba has been a result of the successful introduction of a few viral strains that began to circulate at a rather late time of the AIDS pandemic, but then were rapidly disseminated through local transmission networks.

  13. Cuba: on the road to a family medicine nation.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, M

    1989-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of developments during the last 30 years, this article focuses on the current Cuban plan to convert the country into a family practice nation by creating a new primary care system. The new system is based on the training and placement of no less than 20,000 family physician and nurse teams by 1992. Cuba has come a long way in 30 years, as demonstrated by major health indicators.

  14. Raising HIV/AIDS awareness through Cuba's Memorias project.

    PubMed

    Aragonés, Carlos; Campos, Jorge R; Nogueira, Oscar; Pérez, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    As long as there is no cure for AIDS, the only effective means of containing its spread is prevention, primarily through public education. Cuba's AIDS Prevention Group is a community-based organization whose main purpose is to support the National HIV/AIDS Program's prevention and education efforts. The Group's Memorias Project uses the creation and display of memorial quilts to put a human face on AIDS statistics and stimulate public reflection on issues related to the disease and society.

  15. Recent trends in Cuba's mining and petroleum industries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wacaster, Susan; Baker, Michael S.; Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Textoris, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    The Report is Temporarily UnavailableIn response to recent diplomatic developments between Cuba and the United States, the National Minerals Information Center compiled available information on the mineral industries of Cuba. This fact sheet highlights a new map and table that identify mines, mineral processing facilities, and petroleum facilities as well as information on location, operational status, and ownership. It also addresses the current status of known mineral industry projects, historical developments, and trends of the Cuban economy with an emphasis on mineral industries, and the supply and demand for Cuba’s mineral resources.In 2013, Cuba was estimated to be among the world’s top ten producers of cobalt and nickel, which are the country’s leading exports. Cuba’s current crude oil and associated natural gas production from onshore and shallow water coastal reservoirs is approximately 50,000 barrels per day of liquids and about 20,000 barrels per day oil equivalent of natural gas. In 2013, the value of mining and quarrying activities accounted for 0.6 percent of Cuba’s gross domestic product (GDP), compared with 1.4 percent in 2000. The value of production from Cuba’s industrial manufacturing sector increased by 88 percent between 1993 and 2013 whereas the sector’s share in the GDP decreased by about 3 percent during the same time period reflecting economic growth in other sectors of the economy.

  16. In Defense of Clinical Autopsy and Its Practice in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Brito, Alfredo D; de Mendoza-Amat, José Hurtado

    2017-01-01

    There has been a notable decrease in the global practice of clinical autopsy; the rate has fallen to below 10%, even in high-income countries. This is attributed to several causes, including increased costs, overreliance on modern diagnostic techniques, cultural and religious factors, the emergence of new infectious diseases and negative attitudes on the part of doctors, even pathologists. Alternative methods to autopsy in postmortem studies have been developed based on imaging, endoscopy and biopsy (all quite expensive). These methods have been used in developed countries but never as effectively as the classic autopsy for identifying cause of death and potential medical errors. Although Cuba has also seen a decrease in its autopsy rates, they remain comparatively high. Between 1996 and 2015, there were 687,689 hospital deaths in Cuba and 381,193 autopsies, 55.4% of the total. These autopsies have positively affected medical care, training, research, innovation, management and society as a whole. Autopsies are an important tool in the National Health System's quest for safe, quality patient care based on the lessons learned from studying the deceased. KEYWORDS Autopsy, postmortem examination, postmortem diagnosis, quality of care, patient safety, medical error, Cuba.

  17. Climate reconstruction from subsurface temperatures demonstrated on example of Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čermák, Vladimir; Bodri, Louise

    2001-11-01

    Temperature-depth records from more than 30 boreholes from Cuba were inverted to assess the ground surface temperature (GST) history. A simple step-model of ground warming originally proposed [Global Planet. Change 97 (1992) 325] has been re-examined by applying a more complex inversion technique. A general climate-warming scenario of the past several centuries is proposed. Combining borehole temperature logs with meteorological surface air temperature (SAT) records the baseline temperature (pre-observational mean (POM)) was calculated. All obtained POM values are negative and they vary from -0.09 to -9.01 K with a clear preponderance values ranging between 0 and -2 K, relative to the 1950-1980 reference mean temperature. This indicates characteristic colder conditions before year 1880, the beginning of the long-term SAT recording. The observed warming can be related both to the widespread temperature changes in the tropical Atlantic region as well as to the environmental effects of extensive deforestation which accompanied the land-use development in Cuba. The average warming rate for Cuba for the last about 100 years amounts 2.2±0.5 K and is in good agreement with similar values reported for other Caribbean islands.

  18. Cuba in Transition: Communism vs Charisma "Who Will Emerge as Cuba’s Next Leader"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    thorn in the side of the United States and has boldly defied any attempts to overthrow his government. Has it been the Communist Institution that has...Furiol and Loser, (1990) p.51. 31 Fred C. Judson , Cuba and the Revolutionary Myth, (Boulder: Westview Press 1984), p. 3. 20 Chapter 3...1990’s. New York: Praeger. Johnson, John J., The Military and Society in Latin America. Stanford: Stanford University Press 1964 Judson , Fred C

  19. Comparing the Role of Education in Serving Socioeconomic and Political Development in Tanzania and Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtonga, Harry L.

    1993-01-01

    Compares Tanzania and Cuba to show how, in each case, the state has used education in political and socioeconomic development as a means of achieving socialism. In Cuba, the school system has contributed to creation of the new society, whereas Tanzania continues with piecemeal reconstruction of the educational system. (SLD)

  20. Higher Education in Cuba in the 2000s: Past and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabina, Elvira Martin

    This paper reviews the development of higher education in Cuba and its current status. Current educational development in Cuba is the result of more than four decades of sustained social and political endeavor. Three main features of this development have been identified. The first is the absolute commitment of the state to the educational…

  1. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 2--Origins and Ministry of Protestant Seminaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the main Protestant theological seminaries in Cuba: Western Cuba Baptist Seminary, Cedars of Lebanon Seminary, The New Pines Evangelical Seminary, Evangelical Theological Seminary, Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Center, Nazarene Theological Seminary and International School of Theology. The history and…

  2. 31 CFR 515.564 - Professional research and professional meetings in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... research by full-time professionals who travel to Cuba to conduct professional research in their... directly incident to travel to Cuba by full-time professionals to attend professional meetings or... provider; and (ii) The traveler's schedule of activities does not include free time, travel, or recreation...

  3. [Comparison of 2 populations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from Santiago de Cuba with different rest conduct].

    PubMed

    Bisset, Juan A; Rodríguez, Magdalena; De Armas, Yaxsier

    2005-01-01

    Two populations of Aedes aegypti that were collected in Santiago de Cuba during the epidemics of 1971 were separated for having different rest habits, some of them rested naturally on the walls up to 1 m high (Santiago de Cuba strain) and the others were found resting in the roofs of the houses (Santiago de Cuba Techo strain). These strains did not show significant differences as regards their morphological characteristics. The mosquitoes corresponding to Santiago de Cuba Techo strain presented the same patches that those of Santiago de Cuba. The resistance to organophosphate insecticides is very similar in both populations; however, the Santiago de Cuba Techo strain shows a higher resistance to pyrethroid deltamethrin than the Santiago de Cuba strain. From the biochemical point of view and by using the DEF synergist, it was proved that esterases are associated with the high resistance to clorpirifos in both strains. It was not so with the MFO, which was demonstrated by means of the piperomyl butoxide sinergist. Nevertheless, the GST enzyme seems to be responsible for the high resistance to deltamethrin detected in the Santiago de Cuba Techo strain due to the elevated frequency value of that gene in this strain. The random amplified polymorphic DNA technique was used to observe the genetic variability between the 2 populations. The results revealed that there was genetic polymorphism between the populations under study, which could have an impact on the ecology and epidemiology of the vector.

  4. American Delegation Is Blocked from Attending an Academic Conference in Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haworth, Karla

    1997-01-01

    American academics planning to attend an international conference on operations research in Cuba, including the keynote speaker, had to cancel plans when the Treasury Department did not approve licenses they needed to spend money in Cuba. They claim the lack of approval was for political reasons, but the government claims the application was…

  5. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 2--Origins and Ministry of Protestant Seminaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the main Protestant theological seminaries in Cuba: Western Cuba Baptist Seminary, Cedars of Lebanon Seminary, The New Pines Evangelical Seminary, Evangelical Theological Seminary, Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Center, Nazarene Theological Seminary and International School of Theology. The history and…

  6. Report of the Republic of Cuba to the 36th International Conference on Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Havana (Cuba).

    The Cuban Ministry of Education relates difficulty in presenting a valid report on education in Cuba from 1974-76 due to major changes instituted in 1975 in the first year of a five-year educational improvement plan. Information presented in the document is the most up to date available, however, and does reflect Cuba's objective to structure…

  7. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of Vessels Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of February 23, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of...

  8. [Distribution and ecological characteristics of freshwater snails of medical importance in Santiago de Cuba province].

    PubMed

    Vázquez Perera, Antonio Alejandro; González Coello, Carelia; Sánchez Noda, Jorge; Alba Menéndez, Annia

    2011-01-01

    The ability of freshwater snails to serve as intermediary host of parasites responsible for some tropical diseases is well known. A malacological study was carried out in the Santiago de Cuba province in order to determine the distribution of freshwater snails of medical importance and their relation with the main ecosystems. Nineteen sites were sampled in the province and the abundance of each of the species was compared to the type of habitat by means of the correspondence analysis. Each site was referred from the geographical viewpoint to determine the distribution patterns. A total amount of 12 freshwater snail species was found and the most abundant were Tarebia granifera, Physa acuta and Pyrgophorus parvulus. Rivers are the main types of ecosystems associated to these species followed by springs and ditches. Fossaria cubensis showed high density in flooded grounds whereas Biomphalaria pallida was the only planorbid species that could coexist with thiarid species. Due to the species found in this province, the likelihood of possible outbreaks of fasciolosis as well as the introduction of schistosomiasis is considered as high.

  9. Anatomic pathology in Cuba before 1959: a personal recollection.

    PubMed

    Buesa, René J

    2016-04-01

    Reminiscing when reaching life's twilight is a human condition and hopefully leads to an objective self-evaluation of the past years. I have just done that with this recollection and now I can conclude that, in spite of the outcome of my professional life in Cuba, I remain convinced that one should not complete a journey just because it was started, that everything we learn in life will be sued in due time, and that we should always pursue our dreams because we become our best in the process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Alternative interpretation for the active zones of Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Mario Octavio Cotilla

    2014-11-01

    An alternative explanation to the seismoactivity of Cuban faults is presented. The model is a consequence of the interaction between Caribbean and North American plates. It is made with 12 geodynamic cells form by a set of 13 active faults and their 14 areas of intersection. These cells are recognized morpho-structural blocks. The area between Eastern Matanzas and Western Cauto-Nipe is excluded because of the low level of seismic information. Cuba has two types of seismogenetic structures: faults and intersection of faults.

  11. Environmental Radioactivity Study in Surface Sediments of Guacanayabo Gulf (Cuba)

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, H.; Rizo, O. Diaz; Bernal, J. L.; D'Alessandro, K.; Padilla, F.; Corrales, Y.; Casanova, O. A.; Gelen, A.; Martinez, Y.; Aguilar, J.; Arado, J. O.; Lopez-Pino, N.; Maidana, N. L.

    2009-06-03

    Sediment samples have been collected in the Guacanayabo gulf located in the southeast Cuba, to determinate the radioactivity levels of {sup 210}Pb, {sup 234}Th, {sup 214}Pb, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K using Low-Background Gamma Spectrometry and to evaluate its impact in the habitat of important marine species for fishery industry. The obtained results show the lowest radioactivity levels determined in Cuban marine environments. The species capture declination in the last years is not originated by radioactive pollution of the zone.

  12. Epidemiology of Suicide in Cuba, 1987-2014.

    PubMed

    Corona-Miranda, Beatriz; Hernández-Sánchez, Mariela; Lomba-Acevedo, Paula

    2016-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Suicide is a health problem influenced by biological, genetic, psychological, social and economic factors. It is responsible for 50% of violent deaths in the male population, worldwide, and 71% in the female. In the Americas, 65,000 deaths by suicide occur every year. It is the ninth most frequent cause of death in Cuba, and third among people aged 10-19. OBJECTIVE Characterize the epidemiology of suicide in Cuba from 1987 to 2014. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was conducted. The information comprised all records of death by suicide from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 2014, in the Cuban Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database. The variables were sex, age, skin color, employment status/occupation, marital status, and method of suicide. Crude and age-standardized mortality rates and age-sex specific mortality rates were calculated, all per 100,000 population, as well as the sex ratio. Relative change over the series was calculated as a percentage. Distribution of suicides by variable was calculated and proportions expressed as percentages. RESULTS A total of 51,113 deaths by suicide were reported (annual average 1825), of which 34,671 (67.8%) were among men. The sex ratio was 2.1:1 for the entire study period, and 3.9:1 for 2011-2014. Over the course of the period studied, age-standardized suicide rates decreased from 23.9 to 10.8 per 100,000 population (54.8% reduction). The group aged ≥60 years had the highest average age-standardized rate, 44.6 per 100,000 population. The highest suicide burden by age was in the group aged 20-59 years (60.5%). By skin color, the highest burden was in those recorded as white, 68.9%. By marital status, the highest burden was in persons with a stable partner (46.7%), and by employment status/occupation, in retired (25.9%). The most commonly used method was hanging (59.4%). CONCLUSIONS Over the course of about three decades, suicide mortality rates have declined by almost half and

  13. Contribution to the knowledge of Galumnoidea (Acari, Oribatida) of Cuba.

    PubMed

    Ermilov, Sergey G; Tolstikov, Andrei V

    2015-01-01

    An annotated checklist of identified oribatid mites of the superfamily Galumnoidea collected from Cuba, including ten species from four genera and two families, is provided. Galumna flabellifera Hammer, 1958, Pergalumna bifissurata Hammer, 1972, Pergalumna bryani (Jacot, 1934), Pergalumna decorata Balogh & Mahunka, 1977 and Galumnopsis secunda Sellnick, 1923 are recorded for the first time in the Cuban fauna. A new species of Pergalumna, Pergalumna cubaensis sp. n., is described; it is morphologically similar to Pergalumna decorata Balogh & Mahunka, 1977, but differs from the latter by the larger body size, heavily granulated prodorsum and well-developed interlamellar setae. The adult of Allogalumna cubana Balogh & Mahunka, 1979 is redescribed.

  14. Contribution to the knowledge of Galumnoidea (Acari, Oribatida) of Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.; Tolstikov, Andrei V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An annotated checklist of identified oribatid mites of the superfamily Galumnoidea collected from Cuba, including ten species from four genera and two families, is provided. Galumna flabellifera Hammer, 1958, Pergalumna bifissurata Hammer, 1972, Pergalumna bryani (Jacot, 1934), Pergalumna decorata Balogh & Mahunka, 1977 and Galumnopsis secunda Sellnick, 1923 are recorded for the first time in the Cuban fauna. A new species of Pergalumna, Pergalumna cubaensis sp. n., is described; it is morphologically similar to Pergalumna decorata Balogh & Mahunka, 1977, but differs from the latter by the larger body size, heavily granulated prodorsum and well-developed interlamellar setae. The adult of Allogalumna cubana Balogh & Mahunka, 1979 is redescribed. PMID:26798237

  15. Cuba's oil crisis spells trouble for Castro; Opportunity for foreign petroleum investment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports on Cuba's oil crisis which presents long term woes for the government of Fidel Castro but new opportunities for foreign petroleum investment. That's the main thesis of a study by East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu. Since the cutoff of subsidized oil supplies from the former Soviet Union at the first of the year, Cuba has endured a crippling loss of export revenues and draconian energy rationing measures at home. The Soviets had reduced oil supplies to Cuba since 1989 after decades of providing the Castro government with subsidized oil supplies. Former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev exempted Cuba from paying market prices for Soviet oil in 1991 while requiring that of Soviet trading partners in eastern Europe. With the collapse of Communism in the former U.S.S.R., however, oil supplies from that region are available to Cuba only at market prices and for hard currency. That has triggered a crisis in the Western Hemisphere's sole Communist regime as Cuba's gross special product - equivalent to GNP - fell by 5% in 1990 and a further 20% in 1991. The foreign exchange loss of $1.6 billion stemming from the loss of Soviet subsidized oil supplies exceeds that of total foreign exchange earnings from all other sources. If Cuba imports oil in 1989 volumes at current prices, its oil import tab alone will be $1.3 billion, EWC projects.

  16. Cuba: Time to Expand Health in All Policies.

    PubMed

    Castell-Florit Serrate, Pastor; Más-Bermejo, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    The Adelaide Statement on Health in All Policies (2010), lays out equity-based principles designed to guide policymakers on incorporating health and well-being components into the development, implementation and evaluation of policy and practice while moving towards shared governance at all levels-local, regional, national and international. Special emphasis is placed on cross-sector coordination to achieve policy goals, while improving health and well-being for all.[1] In Cuba's case, experience in disaster preparedness, particularly for hurricanes, has shown good cross-sector coordination.[2] Zika serves as another recent example. First identified in Uganda in 1947, Zika, an emerging disease with outbreaks in Africa, Asia, the Pacific and the Americas and linked to neurological disorders in newborns, was declared a global health emergency by WHO on February 1, 2016.[3] In response, Cuba further stepped up measures for surveillance, prevention and control it had already announced in December 2015. Building on decades of experience fighting dengue, intensified efforts to stamp out Aedes aegypti and albopictus, the mosquitoes that transmit Zika (as well as dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever), and issued a national 11-point Zika Action Plan to prevent, detect and respond to these arboviral infections.

  17. [Health in Cuba and the millennium development goals].

    PubMed

    Franco, Manuel; Kennelly, Joan F; Cooper, Richard S; Ordúñez-García, Pedro

    2007-04-01

    The first assessments of the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations have been completed, and deliberations about world health are increasing. Now is an appropriate time to consider the case of Cuba, which has functioned under difficult conditions for many years, and followed its own path. Cuba's health indicators are much better than might be expected considering its level of income; in many cases the indicators compare to those of industrialized countries. These results should be viewed as the product of a well-defined strategy and the use of essential public health principles rather than as the accumulation of better numbers. The Cuban experience demonstrates that a population's health can improve in even the most adverse economic conditions. This is attainable when sound public health practices are implemented under the principle that health is a basic right and therefore a national priority. An understanding of the Cuban public health system can help other low-income countries adapt these practices to their own conditions and meet the Millennium Development Goals. If this were to occur, there would be substantial improvement in the world's health.

  18. Trends in digestive cancer mortality, Cuba 1987-2008.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Maria R; Vilar, Eduardo; Arús, Enrique R; Mejia, Jose M; Martínez, Yadina; Yasells, Ali A

    2013-02-01

    Gastrointestinal malignancies are among the most common cancers suffered by Cubans. The purpose of our study is to analyse the evolution of digestive cancer mortality in Cuba. Mortality data for this study were obtained from the National Medical Records and Health Statistic Bureau. Trends (1987-2008) in age-standardized cancer mortality were described using joinpoint regression. In the data set of digestive cancer mortality, in the period 1987-2008, colorectal/anal cancer was the most frequent cause of cancer mortality in males and females. In men, a rise in mortality was observed for cancer of the oesophagus between 2001 and 2008, and pancreatic cancer showed a slight mortality rise for the period 1987-2008. In women, colorectal/anal cancer increased from 1989 to 2001. A mortality increase was observed for oesophageal cancer in the period 2005-08. The result of the joinpoint analysis for the age group of 35-64 years was consistent with those for overall mortality. The trend in mortality from digestive cancer in Cuba shows differences depending on sex, age and type of tumour. The Cuban health system has seen improvements in diagnostic systems, which has contributed even better diagnoses of digestive diseases.

  19. Innovative Tuberculosis Symposium held during Cuba Salud 2015.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Helena J; Armas Pérez, Luisa

    2016-12-01

    The fourth Tuberculosis (TB) Symposium, held during the Cuba Salud 2015 International Convention, highlighted advancements in research on TB and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) by interdisciplinary teams from academic and federal institutions in Cuba, Colombia, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. Delegates focused on the targets presented in the World Health Organization End TB Strategy for 2016-2035 and elaborated on four primary themes: 1) attention to vulnerable populations such as immunocompromised individuals, health care workers, and residents of long-term institutions such as prisons and nursing homes; 2) identification of active and latent TB cases through contact investigations; 3) spread and control of drug-resistant Mtb strains; and 4) advancements in the development of novel vaccines or "booster" immunizations. This international TB forum served as a platform for experts in diverse disciplines in these Latin American countries to discuss challenges faced by TB research and control programs, proposing novel research initiatives and promoting collaborative teamwork strategies for TB elimination. In solidarity, collaborative efforts in TB control require identification of symptomatic individuals, rapid diagnostic testing for TB, drug susceptibility assays on Mtb strains, and management that provide universal and gratuitous access to directly observed short-course therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. United Vietnam and Cuba will overcome all obstacles.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This article presents the speech of the President of the Viet Nam Women's Union, given on April 15, 1998, at a world women's solidarity meeting held in Cuba. The President gave the Cuban Women's Federation US$50,000 for women's and children's programs. The President indicated that the Vietnamese people wanted to help alleviate the hardships of the Cuban people and show solidarity with Cuba and Comrade Fidel Castro. The money was collected in a nationwide campaign in an effort to express Viet Nam's sympathy for Cubans who face difficult living conditions due to the US embargo. The President thanked the Cuban people for standing up to a superpower for all the world to see and for being confident and optimistic despite hardships. The Vietnamese are ready to defend revolutionary achievements, independence, and socialism. The Vietnamese will be celebrating the 35th year of the founding of the Cuban Committee for Solidarity with Viet Nam, Laos, and Cambodia. The Vietnamese delegation offered warm greetings to the Cuban Party and State and the Cuban women and children under the leadership of Comrade Fidel Castro.

  1. An unassuming revelation: Cuba's social policy toward the AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Binns, L A

    2013-01-01

    The thrust of this essay is nestled in Cuba's complimentary approach to the treatment of HIV/AIDS virus. In a comprehensive and comparative fashion, the contents herein give credence to a developing nation that demonstrates expedience and emphasizes a history of continuity with remarkable results. Underlying the report is a journey that enlightens the reader to a process rich in application and outcome during a period in which the plaque of HIV has transformed the Caribbean and Latin America community. Meanwhile, it also speaks to a collaborative effort inclusive of government , medical agencies, laboratories, international organizations and the public toward a common good. The country, nonetheless, is not without its shortcomings and therefore monetary constraints and matters of confidentiality and discrimination are pivotal to the presentation. In fact, an elaborate characterization accentuates a 50-year old commercial interdiction as a deterrent that contributes to the disruption of affordability and accessibility to the exchange of goods, services and information. Against all likelihood, a contrasting analysis of regional states inclusive of the United States of America documents Cuba's astonishing success in restricting HIV/AIDS. The Cuban model as described is an exemplary work in progress but likewise the fulfillment of the socialist philosophy toward humanity.

  2. Attitudes toward sexuality among straight and queer university students from Cuba, Norway and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Traeen, Bente; Martinussen, Monica

    2008-02-01

    This paper explores differences and similarities in sexual attitudes among university students 18 years or older of different sexual orientation in Havana, Tromsø, and Cape Town. In the period 2004-5, a questionnaire survey on sexuality, happiness and life satisfaction, was undertaken among 318 students from the University of Havana, 144 students from the University of Tromsø, and 182 students from the University of the Western Cape. The respondents in Cape Town generally expressed more restrictive attitudes toward sexuality than respondents in the other two samples. The dimensionality of attitudes was studied, and three interpretable dimensions were identified: Sexual novelty seeking; Individualization and equality; and Fidelity. Attitudes toward sexual novelty seeking were most efficient in separating straight men and women, and queer men and women in the three samples. The samples were also different in their acceptance of infidelity. More research is needed to further explore cultural differences in sexual attitudes.

  3. Informational Element of Power: The Role of Public Diplomacy in United States-Cuba Policy Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-18

    Democratic Solidarity ( Libertad ) Act (Helms-Burton Act). This Act has four titles. Title I strengthened sanctions against the current Cuban Government...battle/chp4.html>; Internet; accessed 8 October 2004. 8 Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity ( Libertad ) Act of 1996, P.L. 104-114, 104th Cong...1958-1998)," available from <http://usembassy.state.gov/havana/wwwh0017.html>; Internet; accessed 12 Dec 04. ൕ " Libertad Act," 1 May 2001

  4. Orienete Province, eastern end of Cuba as seen from Gemini 7 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-05

    S65-63826 (5 Dec. 1965) --- Oriente Province, eastern end of Cuba, as seen from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gemini-7 spacecraft during its 14th revolution of Earth. Guantanamo Bay is in the center of the picture on the southern coast of Cuba. Santiago de Cuba is located about one inch from the bottom edge of the picture, or about three inches westward down the coast from Guantanamo. This photograph was taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  5. The health of a nation: perspectives from Cuba's national health system.

    PubMed

    Offredy, Maxine

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the current healthcare system in Cuba and provides a description of an alternative healthcare provision. The information is based on a visit to the country in 2007 as a member of a health study tour. The purpose of the visit was to explore the functioning of a population-based health service and to interview key people. The data are compared with the literature on Cuba. The effects of the economic crisis, the US embargo and the absence of international debate about Cuba's health achievements are discussed.

  6. Burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Aguiar Prieto, Pablo; Finley, Rita L; Muchaal, P K; Guerin, Michele T; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Coutín Marie, Gisele; Perez, Enrique

    2009-06-01

    Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005-January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a list maintained by the medical offices in each site. One individual per household was selected to complete a questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. The case definition was three or more bouts of loose stools in a 24-hour period within the last 30 days. In total, 97.3% of 6,576 interviews were completed. The overall prevalence of acute gastrointestinal illness was 10.6%. The risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was higher during the rainy season (odds ratio [OR]=3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.18-4.66) in children (OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.24-4.36) and teens (OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.51-3.41) compared to people aged 25-54 years, in males (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47), and in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.61). Of 680 cases, 17.1-38.1% visited a physician, depending on sentinel site. Of the cases who visited a physician, 33.3-53.9% were requested to submit a stool sample, and of those, 72.7-100.0% complied. Of the cases who sought medical care, 16.7-61.5% and 0-31.6% were treated with antidiarrhoeals and antibiotics respectively. Acute gastrointestinal illness represented a substantial burden of health compared to developed countries. Targeting the identified risk factors when allocating resources for education, food safety, and infrastructure might lower the morbidity associated with acute gastrointestinal illness.

  7. [Second national survey of intestinal parasitic infections in Cuba, 2009].

    PubMed

    Rojas, C Lázara; Angel Núñez, C Fidel; Aguiar, Pablo Héctor; Silva Ayçaguer, C Luis Carlos; Alvarez, Delmis; Martínez, Raydel; Cabrera, Mateo; Cordoví, Raúl; Kourí, C Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    the intestinal parasitic infections are still endemic in Cuba, with a higher frequency in rural and mountain regions. Twenty five years after the last national survey, it deemed necessary to carry out a new national survey in order to know the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and to compare the obtained results between both studies. That knowledge would be valuable to work out strategies of health and to design a control program for intestinal parasitic infections in Cuba. to determine the current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Cuba and to compare these results with those obtained from the previous survey after a 25 year-period. a cross sectional study was conducted from May to August of 2009 in a sample of Cuban population. A stool sample was collected from each individual, which was analyzed by direct examination, Willis' brine flotation method and the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. Additionally, a questionnaire was administered. the comparison between 1984 and 2009 surveys showed a general decrease of frequencies of intestinal parasitic infections caused by both helminths and pathogenic protozoa; however, the percentage of infections with commensal protozoa increased in 2009. In this last survey, there was observed decline of frequencies of infections with soil transmitted species, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Strongyloides stercoralis and the pathogenic protozoa: Giardiau lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, and the commensals: Endolimax nana and Entamoeba coli. The intestinal parasite Enterobius vermicularis was the only parasitic species that increased the frequency of infections with respect to the 1984 survey. The frequencies of parasitic and commensal infections in both studies were higher in the 5-14 y age group (school age). the comparison between the intestinal parasitic infections surveys of 1984 and 2009 showed a reduction in the frequencies of intestinal parasitic infections in the

  8. Burden of Self-reported Acute Gastrointestinal Illness in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Pablo Aguiar; Finley, Rita L.; Guerin, Michele T.; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Marie, Gisele Coutín; Perez, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005–January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a list maintained by the medical offices in each site. One individual per household was selected to complete a questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. The case definition was three or more bouts of loose stools in a 24-hour period within the last 30 days. In total, 97.3% of 6,576 interviews were completed. The overall prevalence of acute gastrointestinal illness was 10.6%. The risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was higher during the rainy season (odds ratio [OR]=3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.18-4.66) in children (OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.24-4.36) and teens (OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.51-3.41) compared to people aged 25-54 years, in males (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47), and in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.61). Of 680 cases, 17.1-38.1% visited a physician, depending on sentinel site. Of the cases who visited a physician, 33.3-53.9% were requested to submit a stool sample, and of those, 72.7-100.0% complied. Of the cases who sought medical care, 16.7- 61.5% and 0-31.6% were treated with antidiarrhoeals and antibiotics respectively. Acute gastrointestinal illness represented a substantial burden of health compared to developed countries. Targeting the identified risk factors when allocating resources for education, food safety, and infrastructure might lower the morbidity associated with acute gastrointestinal illness. PMID:19507750

  9. Baseline research for action: adolescent alcohol consumption in Los Palacios Municipality, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Yolanda; Espinosa, Yairelis

    2013-04-01

    In Cuba, alcohol is an important contributor to morbidity, mortality and social problems. The foundation of Cuba's universal primary health care coverage, family doctor-and-nurse offices play a critical role in prevention, early detection and treatment of alcohol abuse. Los Palacios Municipality of the westernmost province of Pinar del Río, Cuba, is a socially complex, periurban area where alcohol abuse and alcoholism have been identified as important health problems. Adolescents constitute a population at high risk for alcohol abuse because of their receptivity to social influences, but the precise extent of the problem is unknown. This paper reports baseline findings from a survey and direct observation of alcohol consumption in the catchment area of a primary care center, conducted to inform planning for an educational intervention. KEYWORDS Alcohol, alcoholism, alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, adolescence, primary health care, Cuba.

  10. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... against U.S. vessels or aircraft that may engage in memorial activities or peaceful protest north of Cuba... to deny monetary and material support to the repressive Cuban government, which had taken a series of...

  11. The Cuba-United States Thaw: Building Bridges Through Science and Global Health.

    PubMed

    Bausch, Daniel G; Kouri, Vivian; Resik, Sonia; Acosta, Belsy; Guillen, Gerardo; Goraleski, Karen; Espinal, Marcos; Guzman, Maria G

    2017-06-01

    AbstractBeginning in 2014, there has been significant progress in normalization of relations between Cuba and the United States. Herein, we discuss the history and recent progress in scientific collaboration between the two countries as well as the continued challenges. Science and global health diplomacy can be key tools in reestablishing a trusting and productive relationship of mutual and global benefit, bringing about better and healthier lives for people in both Cuba and the United States.

  12. Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species (Teleostei: Rivulidae) from western Cuba.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rodet Rodriguez

    2015-04-24

    Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species, is described from a small stream in Sierra de Cajalbana, northwestern Cuba. It is readily distinguished from Rivulus cylindraceus Poey by the combination of an exclusive color pattern and meristic characters such as a d-type frontal scalation pattern (versus e-type pattern in Rivulus cylindraceus). The current diagnosis of Rivulus berovidesi based on chromatic, morphological and meristic characters is consistent with a recent molecular analysis of this genus in Cuba.

  13. United States Security Policy Implications of a Post-Fidel Cuba

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-10

    trigger a security crisis.62 U.S. Ambassador Vicki Huddleston frames the exodus problem in 2010’s Learning to Salsa : The scale of future migration...Sweig, U.S. Ambassador and co-author of Learning to Salsa , Vicki Huddleston, and Congressional Research Service (CRS) Cuba expert, Mark Sullivan to...name a notable few. 27 Huddleston, Vicki and Carlos Pascual, Learning to Salsa : New Steps in U.S.-Cuba Relations (Washington, DC: Brookings

  14. Strategic Considerations of the Sino-Cuban Relationship as the United States Renews Relations with Cuba

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    Western Hemisphere, possesses a shared ideology, strategic location, an emerging market , a deep water commercial port, regional influence, and natural...Cuba, the PRC’s oldest ally in the Western Hemisphere, possesses a shared ideology, strategic location, an emerging market , a deep water...Western Hemisphere is Cuba. Cuba’s attributes of strategic location, its status as an emerging market and potential regional commerce hub, regional

  15. Cuba after Fidel Castro: Issues and Strategic Considerations for the Employment of United States Armed Forces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    will be even more so when Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz , the President of Cuba and father of the Cuban Revolution, is no longer in power.2 Since he is 71...agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT mn CUBA AFTER CASTRO : ISSUES AND STRATEGIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE EMPLOYMENT OF UNITED STATES ARMED FORCES...After Castro : Issues and Strategic Considerations for the Employment of United States Armed Forces by LTC Michael R. Wood Dr. Gabriel Marcella

  16. Under the Shadow of the Big Stick: U.S. Intervention in Cuba, 1906-1909

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-21

    the American plan to pacify Cuba during the twenty-seven month occupation, which was shaped by political and civil leaders but largely implemented by...16 Meanwhile, Spain fought wars against Morocco, Chile , Mexico, Peru, and Cochin China throughout the nineteenth century. 17 The Creoles negotiated...within Cuba, General Faustino “Pino” Guerra , began an insurrection in the Pinar del Rio province on August 16, 1906. After unsuccessful attempts to quell

  17. First molecular evidence of Coxiella burnetii infecting ticks in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Noda, Angel A; Rodríguez, Islay; Miranda, Jorge; Contreras, Verónica; Mattar, Salim

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. In order to explore the occurrence of C. burnetii in ticks, samples were collected from horses, dogs and humans living in a Cuban occidental community. The species most commonly recovered were Amblyomma mixtum (67%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (27%) and Dermacentor nitens (6%). Specific IS1111 PCR and amplicon sequencing allowed the identification of C. burnetii DNA in A. mixtum collected from a domestic horse. These findings, for first time in Cuba, indicate the need for an in-depth assessment of the C. burnetii occurrence in hosts and humans at risk of infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Mycoplasmas hyorhinis in different regions of cuba. diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Evelyn; Poveda, Carlos; Gupta, Rakesh; Suarez, Alejandro; Hernández, Yenney; Ramírez, Ana; Poveda, José B.

    2011-01-01

    M. hyorhinis is considered one of the etiological agents of arthritis in sucking pigs, but recently as seen, some strains can produce pneumonia that could not be distinguished from the mycoplasmosis caused by M. hyopneumoniae. The study was conducted to research the presence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis ) in different regions of the country from exudates of pig lungs with typical EP lesions. Exudates from 280 pig lungs with typical EP lesions were studied using molecular techniques such as PCR, real time PCR and amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA. It was detected that the 66% of the samples studied resulted positive to M. hyorhinis, and the presence of this species was detected in all the provinces. Amplification and studies on the intergenic region 16S-23S of M. hyorhinis rRNA demonstrated the existing variability among strains of a same species. This study is the first report on M. hyorhinis detection in Cuba. PMID:24031686

  19. Current experience on calibration of radiators in Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, J. Fernandez

    This paper describes the experience acquired in calibration of three types of laboratory radiators installed in Cuba: the SINGLE-CELL-RAILSYSTEM, the GAMMA-CELL-500-001 and MRX-GAMMA-25M. The first two were made by Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd. (AECL) in 1957 and 1984, respectively, and the last in 1971 in the USSR. All three incorporate a cobalt-60 source with different nominal activities and technical characteristic. During the dosimetric calibrations, these characteristics were studied on the basis of parameters, such as dose rate, intercept, uniformity ratio and tolerance limits. Fricke and Ceric sulfate dosimeters were used to perform the measurements. Statistical aspects of dose evaluation and its distribution were also considered. The accuracy of the results enable us to increase the efficacy in utilization of these radiators in the applications for which they are currently used.

  20. The Training of Physics Teachers in Cuba: A Historical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesús Alamino Ortega, Diego

    The regular, systematic training of physics teachers in Cuba is quite recent when compared to the long history of physics itself. However, its development may serve to illustrate some interesting solutions to a long-standing question: How should a physics teacher be trained in agreement with a certain society at a given moment? In the Cuban context the answer to this question involves quite an original sequence of continuities and breaks, following perhaps the thoughts of Bolívar's teacher, Simón Rodríguez, who wrote in the nineteenth century: "Beware! The mania of slavishly imitating the enlightened nations may well make America in its infancy play the role of an old lady."

  1. Making Travel to Cuba Work for Health and Sustainable Development.

    PubMed

    Gorry, Conner

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, a record-breaking 3.5 million visitors-1 million from Canada alone-traveled to Cuba to explore its history, culture, natural splendor, and visit family. That same year, US President Barack Obama relaxed travel restrictions, giving general authorization for a dozen categories of legal travel by US citizens and residents. As a result, US visitors to the island ballooned by 80% between January 2015 and June 2016. And the numbers keep growing: the latest data show that foreign arrivals reached 4 million in 2016.[1] The surge in visitors highlights the potential negative impact of tourism on a developing country's infrastructure, environment, cultural patrimony and local economy-all considered important social determinants of health.

  2. River meanders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Langbein, Walter Basil

    1966-01-01

    The striking geometric regularity of a winding river is no accident. Meanders appear to be the form in which a river does the least work in turning; hence they are the most probable form a river can take

  3. On politics and health: an epidemic of neurologic disease in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Román, G C

    1995-04-01

    Political decisions may cause disease. During 1992 and 1993, an epidemic of neuropathy in Cuba--largely overlooked by U.S. physicians--affected more than 50,000 persons and caused optic neuropathy, deafness, myelopathy, and sensory neuropathy. Patients with the neurologic disease responded to B group vitamins, and oral vitamin supplementation of the population curbed the epidemic. Dietary restrictions and excessive carbohydrate intake were the immediated cause of the epidemic; however, the primary cause might have been political. Political changes in eastern Europe had major repercussions on Cuba's economy and food supply. In turn, these changes compounded the effects of internal political decisions in the island, leading toward isolationism and economic dependence on the former Soviet Union. Also, for more than 30 years, the United States has maintained an economic embargo against Cuba. In 1992, the U.S. embargo was tightened by the Torricelli amendment (or the Cuba Democracy Act), which prohibited third-country subsidiaries of U.S. companies from trading with Cuba and prevented food and medicines from reaching the island; this amendment produced a virtual economic blockade. Penuries resulting from all these political events resulted in the largest epidemic of neurologic disease in this century. Physicians may need to use their influence to modify political decisions when these decisions result in adverse health consequences. The American Academy of Neurology has issued a plea to encourage physicians and other health personnel to support efforts leading to lifting of the U.S. embargo against Cuba for humanitarian reasons.

  4. Increased sex ratio in Russia and Cuba after Chernobyl: a radiological hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ratio of male to female offspring at birth may be a simple and non-invasive way to monitor the reproductive health of a population. Except in societies where selective abortion skews the sex ratio, approximately 105 boys are born for every 100 girls. Generally, the human sex ratio at birth is remarkably constant in large populations. After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986, a long lasting significant elevation in the sex ratio has been found in Russia, i.e. more boys or fewer girls compared to expectation were born. Recently, also for Cuba an escalated sex ratio from 1987 onward has been documented and discussed in the scientific literature. Presentation of the hypothesis By the end of the eighties of the last century in Cuba as much as about 60% of the food imports were provided by the former Soviet Union. Due to its difficult economic situation, Cuba had neither the necessary insight nor the political strength to circumvent the detrimental genetic effects of imported radioactively contaminated foodstuffs after Chernobyl. We propose that the long term stable sex ratio increase in Cuba is essentially due to ionizing radiation. Testing of the hypothesis A synoptic trend analysis of Russian and Cuban annual sex ratios discloses upward jumps in 1987. The estimated jump height from 1986 to 1987 in Russia measures 0.51% with a 95% confidence interval (0.28, 0.75), p value < 0.0001. In Cuba the estimated jump height measures 2.99% (2.39, 3.60), p value < 0.0001. The hypothesis may be tested by reconstruction of imports from the world markets to Cuba and by radiological analyses of remains in Cuba for Cs-137 and Sr-90. Implications of the hypothesis If the evidence for the hypothesis is strengthened, there is potential to learn about genetic radiation risks and to prevent similar effects in present and future exposure situations. PMID:23947741

  5. Increased sex ratio in Russia and Cuba after Chernobyl: a radiological hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Scherb, Hagen; Kusmierz, Ralf; Voigt, Kristina

    2013-08-15

    The ratio of male to female offspring at birth may be a simple and non-invasive way to monitor the reproductive health of a population. Except in societies where selective abortion skews the sex ratio, approximately 105 boys are born for every 100 girls. Generally, the human sex ratio at birth is remarkably constant in large populations. After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986, a long lasting significant elevation in the sex ratio has been found in Russia, i.e. more boys or fewer girls compared to expectation were born. Recently, also for Cuba an escalated sex ratio from 1987 onward has been documented and discussed in the scientific literature. By the end of the eighties of the last century in Cuba as much as about 60% of the food imports were provided by the former Soviet Union. Due to its difficult economic situation, Cuba had neither the necessary insight nor the political strength to circumvent the detrimental genetic effects of imported radioactively contaminated foodstuffs after Chernobyl. We propose that the long term stable sex ratio increase in Cuba is essentially due to ionizing radiation. A synoptic trend analysis of Russian and Cuban annual sex ratios discloses upward jumps in 1987. The estimated jump height from 1986 to 1987 in Russia measures 0.51% with a 95% confidence interval (0.28, 0.75), p value < 0.0001. In Cuba the estimated jump height measures 2.99% (2.39, 3.60), p value < 0.0001. The hypothesis may be tested by reconstruction of imports from the world markets to Cuba and by radiological analyses of remains in Cuba for Cs-137 and Sr-90. If the evidence for the hypothesis is strengthened, there is potential to learn about genetic radiation risks and to prevent similar effects in present and future exposure situations.

  6. Evangelizacion Indigena en Cuba (1512-1550): Estrategia y Razones de su Fracaso (Evangelization of Indigenous People in Cuba (1512-1550): Strategies and Reasons for its Failure).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes; Reyes, Francisco Barroso

    2000-01-01

    Presents the different moments and contents of the strategies of the evangelization process practiced by the Spanish during the conquest and colonization of Cuba, as well as possible reasons for its failure. States that the Indians were enslaved and directed through evangelism toward acculturation. (BT)

  7. Evangelizacion Indigena en Cuba (1512-1550): Estrategia y Razones de su Fracaso (Evangelization of Indigenous People in Cuba (1512-1550): Strategies and Reasons for its Failure).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes; Reyes, Francisco Barroso

    2000-01-01

    Presents the different moments and contents of the strategies of the evangelization process practiced by the Spanish during the conquest and colonization of Cuba, as well as possible reasons for its failure. States that the Indians were enslaved and directed through evangelism toward acculturation. (BT)

  8. Sandpile formation and patterning by revolving rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, Ernesto; Ramos, Osvanny; Bassler, Kevin; Batista-Leyva, Alfo; Rivera, Aramis

    2002-03-01

    Here we report a remarkable new mechanism of pile formation, which eventually involves patterning. If sand from "Santa Teresa", Cuba, is poured into a cylindrical container with radious 4-6 cm, or smaller, the pile does not build through avalanches, but instead by a "revolving river" mechanism. This novel mechanism can be described as the deposition of a conical layer a few grains thick, which "wraps" the pile clockwise or counterclockwise, depending on the initial conditions. The "growing edge" of the layer consists of a continuous river of sand that flows from the apex of the pile to the base and is a few mm wide. The axial symmetry of the system is spontaneously broken as the direction of the river, clockwise or counterclockwise, is chosen. If the radius of the container is larger than 6-7 cm, the river becomes "intermittent". However, on average, it continues to revolve around the pile, as in the case of the continuous regime observed in smaller piles. The intermittent appearance of the rivers produces an undulating pattern on the pile surface resembling those recently observed for rapid granular flows on an inclined plane, but clearly caused by different mechanisms.

  9. Antenatal testing for cystic fibrosis in Cuba, 1988-2011.

    PubMed

    Collazo, Teresa; López, Ixchel; Clark, Yulia; Piloto, Yaixa; González, Laura; Gómez, Manuel; García, Marileivis; Reyes, Lidice; Rodríguez, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cystic fibrosis is a multisystem autosomal recessive disease with wide variability in clinical severity. It is incurable and characterized by elevated and premature mortality, as well as poor quality of life. Its frequency, lethality and devastating impact on both the physical and psychological wellbeing of patients and their families, make it a serious health problem. Its frequency in Cuba is 1 in 9862 live births, where marked molecular heterogeneity of the CFTR gene makes molecular diagnosis difficult. Six mutations have been identified that together enable molecular characterization of only 55.5% of cystic fibrosis chromosomes. This paper presents national results of antenatal diagnostic testing, using direct and indirect methods, for detection of cystic fibrosis. OBJECTIVE Characterize the Cuban public health system's experience with antenatal molecular testing for cystic fibrosis from 1988 through 2011. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was conducted with results of antenatal diagnostic testing of amniotic fluid, performed nationwide from 1988 through 2011, for 108 fetuses of couples with some risk of having children affected by cystic fibrosis, who requested testing. Polymerase chain reaction detected mutations p.F508del, p.G542X, p.R1162X, p.R334W, p.R553X and c.3120+1G>A, and markers XV2C and KM19. Data were analyzed using absolute frequencies and percentages, and presented in tables. RESULTS For 93 cases (86.1%), testing for cystic fibrosis was done using direct analysis of mutations p.F508del, p.G542X, p.R1162X, p.R334W, p.R553X and c.3120+1G>A; five cases (4.6%) were tested indirectly using markers XV2C/Taq I and KM19/Pst I; and 10 (9.3%) were tested using a combination of the two methods. A total of 72 diagnoses (66.7% of studies done) were concluded, of which there were 20 healthy fetuses, 16 affected, 27 carrier, and 9 who were either healthy or carriers of an unknown mutation. CONCLUSIONS Direct or indirect molecular study was

  10. [Resolution for the determination and certification of death in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Machado, C

    In this paper we report on Public Health Resolution 90, which regulates the determination and certification of death in Cuba. Public Health Resolution 90 is of great social importance in our country since it allows the determination and certification of death to be lawfully regulated throughout the whole territory. It is the fruit of over ten years work by a national commission which was set up for that purpose. This resolution includes a series of features that are unprecedented on an international level. By legalising all the aspects linked with the determination and certification of death by means of a ministerial resolution (Ministry of Public Health), and not through a law passed by Parliament, no obstacles are created to prevent it from being reassessed and changed in the future in order to keep up with scientific and technical progress. Unlike most legislation throughout the world, this resolution does not regulate the determination of death, or brain death, linked with organ transplants. In fact, the word transplants does not appear anywhere in the resolution. The clinical and instrumental criteria for determining death were grouped under the heading of the well known true signs of death , but included a true sign based on the irreversible loss of brain functions . Although the irreversible absence of respiratory and circulatory functions, together with the presence of post mortem changes, were included as true signs, the national commission concluded that the death of an individual can only be defined in terms of the irreversible loss of brain functions . The clinical and instrumental criteria for determining death are included in two annexes to the resolution, which must be reviewed from time to time by the National Commission for the Determination of Death, as and when scientific and technical progress makes it necessary to do so. Among the instrumental tests used as a diagnostic aid for the irreversible loss of brain functions and, for perhaps the first

  11. Impressions of the Republic of Cuba. A Report by a Delegation of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities to the Republic of Cuba, December 2-10, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Carol R., Ed.

    Impressions of the Republic of Cuba are presented based on a visit to Cuba in 1978 by a delegation of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities. The following topics are discussed: the Cuban educational system, Cuban postsecondary education, goals of postsecondary education, elementary education, vocational and technical…

  12. Impressions of the Republic of Cuba. A Report by a Delegation of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities to the Republic of Cuba, December 2-10, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Carol R., Ed.

    Impressions of the Republic of Cuba are presented based on a visit to Cuba in 1978 by a delegation of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities. The following topics are discussed: the Cuban educational system, Cuban postsecondary education, goals of postsecondary education, elementary education, vocational and technical…

  13. 31 CFR 515.549 - Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963. 515.549 Section 515.549 Money and... Licensing Policy § 515.549 Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or... accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who have left Cuba, provided that they submit evidence...

  14. 31 CFR 515.549 - Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963. 515.549 Section 515.549 Money and... Licensing Policy § 515.549 Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or... accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who have left Cuba, provided that they submit evidence...

  15. 31 CFR 515.549 - Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963. 515.549 Section 515.549 Money and... Licensing Policy § 515.549 Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or... accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who have left Cuba, provided that they submit evidence...

  16. 8 CFR 1245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 1245.13 Section 1245.13 Aliens and Nationality... nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. (a) Aliens eligible to apply for adjustment. An... Nicaragua or Cuba; (2) Except as provided in paragraph (o) of this section, has been physically present in...

  17. 8 CFR 245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 245.13 Section 245.13 Aliens and Nationality... PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 245.13 Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public... section 241(a)(5) of the Act, if the alien: (1) Is a national of Nicaragua or Cuba; (2) Except as provided...

  18. 31 CFR 515.549 - Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963. 515.549 Section 515.549 Money and... Licensing Policy § 515.549 Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or... accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who have left Cuba, provided that they submit evidence...

  19. 8 CFR 1245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 1245.13 Section 1245.13 Aliens and Nationality... nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. (a) Aliens eligible to apply for adjustment. An... Nicaragua or Cuba; (2) Except as provided in paragraph (o) of this section, has been physically present in...

  20. 31 CFR 515.549 - Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963. 515.549 Section 515.549 Money and... Licensing Policy § 515.549 Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or... accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who have left Cuba, provided that they submit evidence...

  1. 8 CFR 1245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 1245.13 Section 1245.13 Aliens and Nationality... nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. (a) Aliens eligible to apply for adjustment. An... Nicaragua or Cuba; (2) Except as provided in paragraph (o) of this section, has been physically present in...

  2. Flight Plight: An Examination of Contemporary Humanitarian Immigration from Honduras, Cuba, and Syria to the United States with Considerations for National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Obama in Cuba,” Politico, July 2, 2015, http://www.politico.com/. 256 La Republica de Cuba. “Gaceta Oficial,” October 16, 2012, http...Honduras Asks U.S.A for Renewal of TPS.” February 22, 2010. “La Republica de Cuba.” Gaceta Oficial. October 16, 2012. http://www.cubadebate.cu

  3. Temporal trends and regional variability of 2001-2002 multiwave DENV-3 epidemic in Havana City: did Hurricane Michelle contribute to its severity?

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ying-Hen; de Arazoza, Hector; Lounes, Rachid

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the temporal and regional variability of the 2001-2002 dengue outbreak in Havana City where 12 889 cases, mostly of DENV-3 type, were reported over a period of 7 months. A simple mathematical model, the Richards model, was used to fit the weekly reported dengue case data by municipality, in order to quantify the transmissibility and temporal changes in the epidemic in each municipality via the basic reproduction number R0 . Model fits indicate either a 2-wave or 3-wave outbreak in all municipalities. Estimates for R0 varied greatly, from 1.97 (95% CI: 1.94, 2.01), for Arroyo Naranjo, to 61.06 (60.44, 61.68), for Boyeros, most likely due to heterogeneity in community structure, geographical locations and social networking. Our results illustrate the potential impact of climatological events on disease spread, further highlighting the need to be well prepared for potentially worsening disease spread in the aftermath of natural disasters such as hurricanes/typhoons. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Petit Havana SR1) hairy roots for the production of geraniol, the first committed step in terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway.

    PubMed

    Ritala, Anneli; Dong, Lemeng; Imseng, Nicole; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Vasilev, Nikolay; van der Krol, Sander; Rischer, Heiko; Maaheimo, Hannu; Virkki, Arho; Brändli, Johanna; Schillberg, Stefan; Eibl, Regine; Bouwmeester, Harro; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja

    2014-04-20

    The terpenoid indole alkaloids are one of the major classes of plant-derived natural products and are well known for their many applications in the pharmaceutical, fragrance and cosmetics industries. Hairy root cultures are useful for the production of plant secondary metabolites because of their genetic and biochemical stability and their rapid growth in hormone-free media. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Petit Havana SR1) hairy roots, which do not produce geraniol naturally, were engineered to express a plastid-targeted geraniol synthase gene originally isolated from Valeriana officinalis L. (VoGES). A SPME-GC-MS screening tool was developed for the rapid evaluation of production clones. The GC-MS analysis revealed that the free geraniol content in 20 hairy root clones expressing VoGES was an average of 13.7 μg/g dry weight (DW) and a maximum of 31.3 μg/g DW. More detailed metabolic analysis revealed that geraniol derivatives were present in six major glycoside forms, namely the hexose and/or pentose conjugates of geraniol and hydroxygeraniol, resulting in total geraniol levels of up to 204.3 μg/g DW following deglycosylation. A benchtop-scale process was developed in a 20-L wave-mixed bioreactor eventually yielding hundreds of grams of biomass and milligram quantities of geraniol per cultivation bag.

  5. Studies in Neotropical paleobotany. XIV. A palynoflora from the Middle Eocene Saramaguacan Formation of Cuba.

    PubMed

    Graham, A; Cozadd, D; Areces-Mallea, A; Frederiksen, N O

    2000-10-01

    An assemblage of 46 fossil pollen and spore types is described from a core drilled through the middle Eocene Saramaguacán Formation, Camagüey Province, eastern Cuba. Many of the specimens represent unidentified or extinct taxa but several can be identified to family (Palmae, Bombacaceae, Gramineae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae) and some to genus (Pteris, Crudia, Lymingtonia?). The paleoclimate was warm-temperate to subtropical which is consistent with other floras in the region of comparable age and with the global paleotemperature curve. Older plate tectonic models show a variety of locations for proto-Cuba during Late Cretaceous and later times, including along the norther coast of South America. More recent models depict western and central Cuba as two separate parts until the Eocene, and eastern Cuba (joined to northern Hispaniola) docking to central Cuba also in the Eocene. All fragments are part of the North American Plate and none were directly connected with northern South America in late Mesozoic or Cenozoic time. The Saramaguacán flora supports this model because the assemblage is distinctly North American in affinities, with only one type (Retimonocolpites type 1) found elsewhere only in South America.

  6. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Sánchez, Félix Fernández; dos Santos, Arith Ramos; Amaral, Ana Claudia Fernandes; Ferreira, José Luiz Pinto; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected from Brazil and Cuba was tested to a chemical characterization and then was tested on the post-embryonic development of Musca domestica. The chemical composition analysis by GC-MS of the oils from Brazil/Cuba allowed the identification of 13 and 12 major constituents respectively; nine of them common to both. In the both oils, the main components were the isomers geranial and neral, which together form the compound citral. This corresponds to a total of 97.92%/Brazil and 97.69%/Cuba of the compounds identified. The monoterpene myrcene, observed only in the sample of Cuba, presented a large relative abundance (6.52%). The essential oil of C. citratus (Brazil/Cuba) was dissolved in DMSO and tested at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and citral was prepared by mixing 16.8 mg with 960 µL DMSO. Both essential oils and monoterpene citral were applied topically to newly-hatched larvae (1µL/larva). The results showed a lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.25 and 3.24% for the Brazilian and Cuban essential oils, respectively. Mortalities of larval and newly-hatched larvae to adult periods were dose-dependent for the two both oils as for monoterpene citral, reaching 90%. Both essential oils and citral caused morphological changes in adult specimens.

  7. Studies in neotropical paleobotany. XIV. A palynoflora from the middle Eocene Saramaguacan formation of Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, A.; Cozadd, D.; Areces-Mallea, A.; Frederiksen, N.O.

    2000-01-01

    An assemblage of 46 fossil pollen and spore types is described from a core drilled through the middle Eocene Saramaguacan Formation, Camaguey Province, eastern Cuba. Many of the specimens represent unidentified or extinct taxa but several can be identified to family (Palmae, Bombacaceae, Gramineae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae) and some to genus (Pteris, Crudia, Lymingtonia?). The paleo-climate was warm-temperate to subtropical which is consistent with other floras in the region of comparable age and with the global paleotemperature curve. Older plate tectonic models show a variety of locations for proto-Cuba during Late Cretaceous and later times, including along the norther coast of South America. More recent models depict western and central Cuba as two separate parts until the Eocene, and eastern Cuba (joined to northern Hispaniola) docking to central Cuba also in the Eocene. All fragments are part of the North American Plate and none were directly connected with northern South America in late Mesozoic or Cenozoic time. The Saramaguacan flora supports this model because the assemblage is distinctly North American in affinities, with only one type (Retimonocolpites type 1) found elsewhere only in South America.

  8. Diversidad haplotípica en el manatí Trichechus manatus en Cuba: resultados preliminares

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hernandez-Martinez, Damir; Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Garcia-Machado, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to obtain information regarding the mtDNA haplotype composition of the manatee (T. manatus) occupying the Cuban archipelago. A fragment of 410 bp of the non-coding region was analyzed for 12 individual manatees from Cuba and one from Florida, USA. Only two haplotypes were identified. Haplotype A1, found exclusively in Florida (including in the sample analyzed here) but also found in Mexico, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, was the most frequent haplotype (11 of the 12 samples from Cuba) and widely distributed. The second haplotype A3, previously referred to as endemic from Belize, was identified from an individual stranded in Isabela de Sagua, north of Cuba. These preliminary results provide information about three major aspects of manatee biology: (1) the mtDNA genetic diversity of T. manatus in Cuba seems low as compared to other regions of the Caribbean; (2) the Cuban population likely belongs to the group comprising Florida and the portions of the Greater Antilles; and (3) the territories of Belize and Cuba have exchanged individuals at present or in a relatively recent past.

  9. Sweat Equity: A Study of Housing Systems by and for the People in the United States and Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Johnetta B.

    1979-01-01

    Compares housing problems and their resolution in Cuba and the United States. States that U.S. urban homesteading programs such as "sweat equity" are oriented to middle-income people and do not address needs of most Blacks. Contrasts this with Cuba whose government has made a sustained effort to improve housing. (Author/WP)

  10. Miconia bullotricha and M. hirtistyla, two new species of Miconia sect. Lima (Miconieae, Melastomataceae) from eastern Cuba.

    PubMed

    Majure, Lucas C; Bécquer, Eldis R; Judd, Walter S

    2014-01-01

    We describe two new species in Miconia sect. Lima, Miconia bullotricha Bécquer & Majure and Miconia hirtistyla Majure & Judd, from eastern, Cuba. We also provide illustrations and distribution maps for the two species, as well as a key to members of the Lima clade on Cuba.

  11. Miconia bullotricha and M. hirtistyla, two new species of Miconia sect. Lima (Miconieae, Melastomataceae) from eastern Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Majure, Lucas C.; Bécquer, Eldis R.; Judd, Walter S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We describe two new species in Miconia sect. Lima, Miconia bullotricha Bécquer & Majure and Miconia hirtistyla Majure & Judd, from eastern, Cuba. We also provide illustrations and distribution maps for the two species, as well as a key to members of the Lima clade on Cuba. PMID:24526849

  12. Promoting health in response to global tourism expansion in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, J M; Gonzalez, M; Cabrera, G J; Catasus, S; Vidal, C; Yassi, A

    2008-03-01

    The ability of communities to respond to the pressures of globalization is an important determinant of community health. Tourism is a rapidly growing industry and there is an increasing concern about its health impact on local communities. Nonetheless, little research has been conducted to identify potential mitigating measures. We therefore took advantage of the 'natural experiment' provided by the expansion of tourism in Cuba, and conducted four focus groups and key informants interviews in each of two coastal communities. Participants expressed concerns about psycho-social impacts as well as occupational and environmental concerns, and both infectious and chronic diseases. A wide array of programs that had been developed to mitigate potential negative were described. Some of the programs were national in scope and others were locally developed. The programs particularly targeted youth as the most vulnerable population at risk of addictions and sexually transmitted infections. Occupational health concerns for workers in the tourism sector were also addressed, with many of the measures implemented protecting tourists as well. The health promotion and various other participatory action initiatives implemented showed a strong commitment to address the impacts of tourism and also contributed to building capacity in the two communities. Although longitudinal studies are needed to assess the sustainability of these programs and to evaluate their long-term impact in protecting health, other communities can learn from the initiatives taken.

  13. [Rapid serological diagnosis systems for human leptospirosis screening in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Obregón Fuentes, C Ana Margarita; Fernandez Molina, Carmen; Martínez Motas, C Isabel; Llop Hernández, C Alina; Rodríguez González, Islay; Rodríguez Silveira, José; Rodríguez, Yaindrys; Valdés, Yanais

    2011-01-01

    human leptospirosis requires rapid and early microbiological diagnosis since it is a common lethal disease worldwide. to increase the quality of microbiological diagnosis of this infection, to expand the knowledge on the circulation of groups of leptospiras in Cuba and to show the benefits of an agglutination assay using Cuban latex particles and of commercial immunochromatogenic systems LEPTO Dipstick, Lepto Tek Lateral Flow, Lepto Tek Dri Dot and SD Leptospira IgM-IgG. this descriptive research used sera from positive and negative control cases to evaluate and measure the diagnostic value of rapid serological diagnosis systems with respect to the microagglutination method of reference (MAT). All the techniques used in this report are described in the Manual of Operations and Procedures of the Leptospira Lab in "Pedro Kourí" Institute of Tropical Medicine. all the studied diagnosis systems exhibited acceptable values of sensitivity, specificity and agreement when compared to the international microagglutination method of reference with live microorganisms. The great selectivity (antigen reactivity) and the diagnostic reliability of the diagnostic systems were confirmed; particularly the mixed Cuban-made latex, the LEPTO Dipstick and the SD Leptospira IgM-IgG. the procedures used in this research work exceeded the traditional methods including the microagglutination method of reference in terms of easiness, rapidity, technical simplicity and level of performance, and all were useful for the screening of antibodies to leptospiras.

  14. Arsenic bioaccessibility in gold mine tailings of Delita, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Toujaguez, R; Ono, F B; Martins, V; Cabrera, P P; Blanco, A V; Bundschuh, J; Guilherme, L R G

    2013-11-15

    A bioaccessibility test was carried out in four tailings collected at a former mining area in Delita, Cuba. A previous risk assessment study identified arsenic (As) as the main critical contaminant in this area and showed that the tailings had high As concentrations (up to 3.5%). This study aimed at: (i) evaluating As bioaccessibility in four tailings (R1, R2, R3 and R4) from a gold mining area to obtain a better health risk estimate; and, (ii) identifying the mineral phases responsible for most of the bioaccessible As using XRD, SEM-EDS, and XAS. The results showed that bioaccessible As in the tailings ranged from 0.65 to 40.5%. The main factors influencing As bioaccessibility were a high occurrence of amorphous iron arsenate; occurrence, even at low content, of iron oxyhydroxides and stability of mineral phases in the environment of the gastrointestinal tract. Although arsenopyrite, arsenates and goethite were confirmed by mineralogical methods such as optical microscopy, XRD, and SEM-EDS, XAS showed that scorodite-oxidation state As(+V)-was dominant in most of the tailings. This confirms that the low bioaccessibility of As in most of the tailings is due to the slow kinetics of As release from scorodite.

  15. Potential for electricity generation from biomass residues in Cuba

    SciTech Connect

    Lora, E.S.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is the study of the availability of major biomass residues in Cuba and the analysis of the electricity generation potential by using different technologies. An analysis of the changes in the country`s energy balance from 1988 up to date is presented, as well as a table with the availability study results and the energy equivalent for the following biomass residues: sugar cane bagasse and trash, rice and coffee husk, corn an cassava stalks and firewood. A total equivalent of 4.42 10{sup 6} tons/year of fuel-oil was obtained. Possible scenarios for the electricity production increase in the sugar industry are presented too. The analysis is carried out for a high stream parameter CEST and two BIG/GT system configurations. Limitations are introduced about the minimal milling capacity of the sugar mills for each technology. The calculated {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} electricity generation potential for BIG/GT systems, based on GE LM5000 CC gas turbines, an actual cane harvest of 58.0 10{sup 6} tons/year, half the available trash utilization and an specific steam consumption of 210 kg/tc, was 18601,0 GWh/year. Finally different alternatives are presented for low-scale electricity generation based on the other available agricultural residues.

  16. One century sedimentary record of Hg and Pb pollution in the Sagua estuary (Cuba) derived from 210Pb and 137Cs chronology.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Asencio, M; Alonso-Hernández, C M; Bolanos-Alvarez, Y; Gómez-Batista, M; Pinto, V; Morabito, R; Hernández-Albernas, J I; Eriksson, M; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A

    2009-01-01

    The vertical distribution of Hg and Pb were determined in a sediment core collected from the Sagua estuary (North Cuba) that receives input from the Sagua river, one of the most polluted rivers discharging into the Cuban coastal environment. Depth profiles of metal concentrations were converted to time-based profiles using the (210)Pb dating method and confirmed with the (137)Cs fallout peak. The mean mass accumulation rate was estimated to be 0.17+/-0.04 g cm(-2)y(-1) (mean sediment accumulation rate 0.52+/-0.13 cm y(-1)) and the core bottom was estimated to date back about 130 years. The historical sedimentary record showed a strong enrichment of mercury concentrations in the past decades, caused by the incomplete treatment of industrial wastes from a chlor-alkali plant with mercury-cell technology in the Sagua river basin. Lead fluxes to sediments showed a gradual increase from the 1920s to present, which agrees with a population increase in Sagua la Grande City. Fluxes of both metals have increased the past 25 years, with values reaching a maximum of 0.5 and 3.9 microg cm(-2)y(-1) for Hg and Pb, respectively.

  17. A review of the genus Berosus Leach of Cuba (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Deler-Hernández, Albert; Fikáček, Martin; Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Cuban fauna of the genus Berosus Leach, 1817 is reviewed based on newly collected material as well as historical and type specimens. Nine species are recognized, including three recorded from Cuba for the first time: Berosus infuscatus LeConte, 1855, Berosus interstitialis Knisch, 1924 (= Berosus stribalus Orchymont, 1946 syn. n.) and Berosus metalliceps Sharp, 1882. Only one of the nine Cuban species, Berosus chevrolati, remains endemic to Cuba, as two other species previously considered as endemic to Cuba are recorded from elsewhere: Berosus quadridens from Mexico and Central America and Berosus trilobus from the Dominican Republic. Notes on biology and Cuban distribution are provided for all nine species. Berosus quadridens Chevrolat, 1863, stat. restit. is removed from synonym with Berosus truncatipennis and considered a valid species. PMID:23794806

  18. [Distribution and abundance of the ascidian Ecteinascidia turbinata (Ascidiacea: Perophoridae) in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Zanuy, Aida; Carballo, José Luis; García-Cagide, Alida; Naranjo, Santiago; Esquivel, Macario

    2007-03-01

    Permanently submerged mangrove roots (Rhizophora mangle) are the main habitat of the ascidian Ecteinascidia turbinata in Cuba. It was occasionally found on black coral (Antiphates caribeana) between 22 and 38 meters deep. This species exhibits a wide distribution in all the mangrove keys surrounding the Island of Cuba but does not occur in riparian or fringing mangroves. Populations of this species are abundant in Cuba: in 75% of the 58 localities sampled the species was present and in 57% more than 50% of the roots held at least one colony. The highest colony densities were found in the northern coast of Pinar del Rio province with values near one colony per lineal meter of mangrove root. We found the highest density (1.46 col/m) and greatest biomass at Jutías Key, with values between 25 and 660 g/m. The average of wet biomass in the studied mangroves was 73.63 g/m.

  19. A review of the genus Berosus Leach of Cuba (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae).

    PubMed

    Deler-Hernández, Albert; Fikáček, Martin; Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn

    2013-01-01

    The Cuban fauna of the genus Berosus Leach, 1817 is reviewed based on newly collected material as well as historical and type specimens. Nine species are recognized, including three recorded from Cuba for the first time: Berosus infuscatus LeConte, 1855, Berosus interstitialis Knisch, 1924 (= Berosus stribalus Orchymont, 1946 syn. n.) and Berosus metalliceps Sharp, 1882. Only one of the nine Cuban species, Berosus chevrolati, remains endemic to Cuba, as two other species previously considered as endemic to Cuba are recorded from elsewhere: Berosus quadridens from Mexico and Central America and Berosus trilobus from the Dominican Republic. Notes on biology and Cuban distribution are provided for all nine species. Berosus quadridens Chevrolat, 1863, stat. restit. is removed from synonym with Berosus truncatipennis and considered a valid species.

  20. First license round in 30 years sheds light on Cuba's geology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-26

    Cuba's first licensing round in 30 years is part of a privatization program aimed at reviving an economy that has been struggling since 1989 to make up for lost assistance from the former Soviet Union. Much of that help came in the form of subsidized crude oil and petroleum products. In February, state owned Cubapetroleo SA (Cupet) described oil and gas licensing terms during promotion presentations held in London and Calgary. US companies can't invest in Cuba due to a trade embargo. The country is offering production sharing contracts for 11 blocks - three offshore, seven onshore, and one onshore and off. Block sizes range from 1,400 sq km to 6,000 sq km. Contracts will have maximum terms of 25 years with exploration periods of 4 years. The state will take 11% of production and tax net profits at the rate of 30%. The paper also describes Cuba's oil production.

  1. Charles River

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Charles River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Charles River.

  2. The genus Loxosceles Heineken & Lowe (Araneae: Sicariidae) in Cuba and Hispaniola, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Alexander Sánchez; Brescovit, Antonio D

    2013-10-30

    The three known species of the genus Loxosceles Heineken & Lowe from Cuba and Hispaniola are revised and two new species, Loxosceles maisi sp. nov. and Loxosceles mogote sp. nov., are described from the eastern region of Cuba. These new species are included in the reclusa group, and are considered close to Loxosceles taino Gertsch & Ennik as they have a greatly thickened male palpal tibia, a projecting cymbium, and large receptacles in the female genitalia. The distribution ranges of the known Cuban and Hispaniolan species are extended.

  3. The time has come to lift the economic embargo against Cuba.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, A F; Garfield, R; Smith, W

    1994-10-01

    The United States embargo against Cuba, which makes trade illegal, contributes to that country's death and disease. The policy is obsolete, counterproductive and should be changed to bring peace between the two nations and help restore the health of the Cuban people. Along with the ban on trade is the ban on traveling. The United States' controls contradict the most fundamental values upon which this country stands. Despite current restrictions, physicians can travel to Cuba and they should in order to observe the island's system for themselves.

  4. [Relationship between antophyte foliar morphology and abiotic factors in the main rainforests of Eastern Cuba].

    PubMed

    Quesada, Eddy Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Relationship between antophyte foliar morphology and abiotic factors in the main rainforests of Eastern Cuba. The foliar morphology of representative antophytes in four rainforest types of Eastern Cuba was studied in relation to the main abiotic factors. Although there are several leaf types in these forests, the microphyll type is the most important among endemic species in the ophiolites complex and the Montane rainforest. At the Lowland rainforest (metamorphic complex) the mesophyll leaf was the most important. Most foliar epidermis had structures normally found in mesomorphic plants, but xeromorphic and higromorphic morphologies were also present.

  5. Assessment of human health vulnerability to climate variability and change in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Bultó, Paulo Lázaro Ortíz; Rodríguez, Antonio Pérez; Valencia, Alina Rivero; Vega, Nicolás León; Gonzalez, Manuel Díaz; Carrera, Alina Pérez

    2006-12-01

    In this study we assessed the potential effects of climate variability and change on population health in Cuba. We describe the climate of Cuba as well as the patterns of climate-sensitive diseases of primary concern, particularly dengue fever. Analyses of the associations between climatic anomalies and disease patterns highlight current vulnerability to climate variability. We describe current adaptations, including the application of climate predictions to prevent disease outbreaks. Finally, we present the potential economic costs associated with future impacts due to climate change. The tools used in this study can be useful in the development of appropriate and effective adaptation options to address the increased climate variability associated with climate change.

  6. [Fluoride in drinking water in Cuba and its association with geological and geographical variables].

    PubMed

    Luna, Liliam Cuéllar; Melián, Maricel García

    2003-11-01

    To determine the association between different concentrations of the fluoride ion in drinking water and some geological and geographical variables in Cuba, by using a geographic information system. From November 1998 to October 1999 we studied the fluoride concentration in the sources of drinking water for 753 Cuban localities that had at least 1 000 inhabitants. For the information analysis we utilized the MapInfo Professional version 5.5 geographic information system, using the overlaying method. The study variables were the concentration of the fluoride ion in the water sources, the geological characteristics of the area, the alignments (geological characteristics that were found together), the types of water sources, and whether an area was a plain or mountainous. The results were grouped by locality and municipality. In 83.1% of the localities, the water samples were collected from wells and springs, and the remaining 16.9% came from dams and rivers. Of the 753 localities studied, 675 of them (89.6%) had low or medium fluoride concentrations (under 0.7 mg/L). The eastern region of the country was the one most affected by high fluoride concentrations in the waters, followed by the central region of the country. The majority of the localities with high natural fluoride concentrations were in areas located on Cretaceous volcanic arc rocks. The presence of fluoride in the drinking waters was related to the alignments with the earth's crust, in rock complexes of volcanic-sedimentary origin and of intrusive origin and also in carbonate rocks. However, the highest fluoride concentrations generally coincided with rock complexes of volcanic-sedimentary origin and of intrusive origin. All the localities with high fluoride concentrations in the water were associated with wells. The fluoride concentration is low or medium in the drinking water sources for 89.6% of the Cuban localities with at least 1 000 inhabitants. Geological and geographical characteristics can help

  7. Amazon River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mouth of the Amazon River     View ... of the world's mightiest rivers. This image of the Amazon's mouth was captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ... available at JPL September 8, 2000 - Mouth of the mighty Amazon River. project:  MISR ...

  8. Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the world. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the North Cuba Basin. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of the total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including petroleum source rocks (source-rock maturation, generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and petroleum traps (Trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Total Petroleum System in the North Cuba Basin Province. Within this TPS, three assessment units were defined and assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  9. Cuba: An Historical Appraisal of Its Foreign Debt and Soviet Economic Assistance and Cuba: An Evaluation of Its Military Relations with the Soviet Union.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    4 3 A number of sources however, indicate that this may not be entirely true. Cuba’s foreign debt on January 1, 1959 was, in fact, small. It stood at...Estatal de Estadisticas , Compendio de Estadisticas de Americana Latina, Febrero de 1982. Comparative Politics, Revolutions and the Restructuring of National...arrive. This was a valid indicator of the Soviets’ real intent and the extent of the growing Cuban accommodation. On 24 October, according to CIA

  10. Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in the Republic of Cuba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brice, Alejandro E.

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that 3.2% of Cuba's population of 11.4 million persons has a severe disability of some kind. Recent economic difficulties have, it may be assumed, had a negative impact on health service provision--which is free to all--and thus, on population health outcomes and nutritional levels. There is a traditional culture of family care for…

  11. [Occurrence of Amrineus cocofolius Flechtmann (Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) in coconut fruits (Cocos nucifera L.) in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Reinaldo I; Cao, Josefina; Navia, Denise; González, Caridad; Cueto, Jorge R; Torres, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The presence of the eriophyid mite, Amrineus cocofolius Flechtmann, was confirmed in association with equatorial necrotic bands on the coconut fruit epidermis, in different growth areas in the Provinces of La Habana, Granma y Guantánamo, Cuba, from February 2003 to March 2004.

  12. Composition of mixed-species flocks of migrant and resident birds in Cuba

    Treesearch

    Paul B. Hamel; Arturo Kirkconnell

    2005-01-01

    Mixed-species flocks are common and obvious in Neotropical habitats. In the Caribbean islands flocks have been noted on Puerto Rico2,5,24,29, Jamaica4, Haiti20, in Dominican Republic18, the virgin Islands7 and on Cuba6,16. Unlike...

  13. The University for Older Adults: On Cuba's Universalization of the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangel, Clara Lig Long; Proenza, Antonia Zenaida Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    In this study we focus on a new program in Cuba, university studies for older adults or seniors. Specifically, we look at the Special Municipality of the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth) in the context of the larger policy of "universalization of higher education." We provide information about Cuban perspectives on adult education,…

  14. Education in Cuba--An Alternative Educational Discourse: Lessons to Be Learned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidlid, Anders

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the Cuban education system, which is well known for its focus on inclusion and equality of opportunity, but also for its focus on political and ideological conformity. The economic crisis in Cuba has led to an educational crisis as well, both in terms of teacher shortages and a decrease in quality and in…

  15. Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in the Republic of Cuba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brice, Alejandro E.

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that 3.2% of Cuba's population of 11.4 million persons has a severe disability of some kind. Recent economic difficulties have, it may be assumed, had a negative impact on health service provision--which is free to all--and thus, on population health outcomes and nutritional levels. There is a traditional culture of family care for…

  16. Chemical composition of asphaltenes of crude oil from Baradero field in Cuba

    SciTech Connect

    Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Klyavina, O.A.; Kolyabina, N.A.

    1994-09-10

    Asphaltenes of crude oil from Baradero field in Cuba have been studied by physical and physicochemical methods. Dynamics of distribution of nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen and also various functional groups in asphaltenes has been described. These data can be used for the proper deasphalting of crude oil and further treatment of asphaltenes.

  17. Emerging Interaction of Political Processes: The Effect on a Study Abroad Program in Cuba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    The emerging interaction of political processes sets the stage for the level of macro uncertainty and specific risk events that may occur in an international relationship. Strongly defined social control in Cuba, formal and informal, dominates the dynamics of the relationship, while simultaneously government, formal, action in the U.S. dominates…

  18. Developing Strategies for Waste Reduction by Means of Tailored Interventions in Santiago De Cuba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert; Brugger, Adrian; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces an approach to tailoring behavior-change campaigns to target populations using the example of solid waste reduction in Santiago de Cuba. Tailoring is performed in the following steps: (1) Psychological constructs are selected to detect problems in performing the target behavior, and data are gathered on these constructs.…

  19. The Flowering of Identity: Tracing the History of Cuba through the Visual Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Noel

    2007-01-01

    Teaching history through the visual arts is one way of bringing the past into the present. In Cuba, the visual arts and architecture have reflected the country's "flowering of identity" through time, as a multi-ethnic population has grown to recognize its own distinct history, values and attributes, and Cuban artists have portrayed the…

  20. Collaborative efforts for managing Melaleuca in the Ciénega de Zapata, Cuba

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Ciénega de Zapata Biosphere Reserve is the largest protected area not only in Cuba but also throughout the Caribbean. This swamp ecosystem is characterized by a high biodiversity that comprises several endemic birds, reptiles and invertebrates and is visited by 65 species of birds during their a...

  1. ALONE, UNARMED, AND UNAFRAID OVER CUBA: THE STORY OF MAJOR RUDY ANDERSON

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    Crisis. The thesis also examines the development of strategic reconnaissance in the Cold War, focusing on the first dedicated reconnaissance aircraft...ultimately in the larger context of the Cold War. vii CONTENTS Chapter Page...Anderson into a man who would fly missions alone, unarmed, and unafraid over Cuba at the height of the Cold War

  2. Cuba's Latin American Medical School: can socially-accountable medical education make a difference?

    PubMed

    Gorry, Conner

    2012-07-01

    After graduating more than 12,000 doctors since its founding in 1999, Cuba's Latin American Medical School (ELAM, the Spanish acronym) is tackling one of its greatest challenges to date: how to track graduates from over 65 countries and measure their impact on health outcomes and policy in their local contexts?

  3. The Flowering of Identity: Tracing the History of Cuba through the Visual Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Noel

    2007-01-01

    Teaching history through the visual arts is one way of bringing the past into the present. In Cuba, the visual arts and architecture have reflected the country's "flowering of identity" through time, as a multi-ethnic population has grown to recognize its own distinct history, values and attributes, and Cuban artists have portrayed the…

  4. 76 FR 5058 - Airports of Entry or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ...Under Department of Homeland Security (DHS) regulations, direct flights between the United States and Cuba must arrive at or depart from one of three named U.S. airports: John F. Kennedy International Airport, Los Angeles International Airport, or Miami International Airport. This document amends current DHS regulations to allow additional U.S. airports that are able to process international......

  5. Developing Strategies for Waste Reduction by Means of Tailored Interventions in Santiago De Cuba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert; Brugger, Adrian; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces an approach to tailoring behavior-change campaigns to target populations using the example of solid waste reduction in Santiago de Cuba. Tailoring is performed in the following steps: (1) Psychological constructs are selected to detect problems in performing the target behavior, and data are gathered on these constructs.…

  6. 31 CFR 515.564 - Professional research and professional meetings in Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Example 1 to paragraph (d): A musicologist travels to Cuba to do research on Cuban music pursuant to the... simply interested in music but who do not research music as part of their careers may not engage in... researcher of Cuban music for purposes of this general license. Example 2 to paragraph (d): A specific...

  7. A Historical Analysis of the Educational Modalities of Inequalities Management in Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulot, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a historical and comparative study of the role that management of inequalities has played in the formation and evolution of educational institutions in three countries: Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala. This particular focus shows that this function has played a determining role, even if its organization has varied deeply in…

  8. Education in Cuba--An Alternative Educational Discourse: Lessons to Be Learned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidlid, Anders

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the Cuban education system, which is well known for its focus on inclusion and equality of opportunity, but also for its focus on political and ideological conformity. The economic crisis in Cuba has led to an educational crisis as well, both in terms of teacher shortages and a decrease in quality and in…

  9. A Historical Analysis of the Educational Modalities of Inequalities Management in Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulot, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a historical and comparative study of the role that management of inequalities has played in the formation and evolution of educational institutions in three countries: Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala. This particular focus shows that this function has played a determining role, even if its organization has varied deeply in…

  10. The University for Older Adults: On Cuba's Universalization of the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangel, Clara Lig Long; Proenza, Antonia Zenaida Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    In this study we focus on a new program in Cuba, university studies for older adults or seniors. Specifically, we look at the Special Municipality of the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth) in the context of the larger policy of "universalization of higher education." We provide information about Cuban perspectives on adult education,…

  11. The State, Nonformal Education, and Socialism in Cuba, Nicaragua, and Grenada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    1991-01-01

    Many Latin American states, characterized by "colonization" of the state by dominant families or individuals, are unable to carry out proper state functions. In attempting to address such states' shortcomings, nonformal adult education has been prominent in new educational policies of revolutionary governments in Cuba, Nicaragua, and…

  12. The malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum in the endemic avifauna of eastern Cuba.

    PubMed

    Soares, Letícia; Marra, Peter; Gray, Lindsey; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2017-08-02

    Island populations are vulnerable to introduced pathogens, as evidenced by extinction or population decline of several endemic Hawaiian birds caused by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium relictum (order Haemosporida). We analyzed blood samples from 363 birds caught near Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, for the presence of haemosporidian infections. We characterized parasite lineages by determining nucleotide variation of the parasite's mitochondrial cyt b gene. Fifty-nine individuals were infected, and we identified 7 lineages of haemosporidian parasites. Fifty individuals were infected by 6 Haemoproteus sp. lineages, including a newly characterized lineage of Haem. (Parahaemoproteus) sp. CUH01. Nine individuals carried the P. relictum lineage GRW4, including 5 endemic Cuban Grassquits (Tiaris canorus) and 1 migratory Cape May Warbler (Setophaga tigrina). A sequence of the merozoite surface protein gene from one Cuban Grassquit infected with GRW4 matched that of the Hawaiian haplotype Pr9. Our results indicate that resident and migratory Cuban birds are infected with a malaria lineage that has severely affected populations of several endemic Hawaiian birds. We suggest GRW4 may be associated with the lack of several bird species on Cuba that are ubiquitous elsewhere in the West Indies. From the standpoint of avian conservation in the Caribbean Basin, it will be important to determine the distribution of haemosporidian parasites, especially P. relictum GRW4, in Cuba as well as the pathogenicity of this lineage in species that occur and are absent from Cuba. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates producing KPC-2 carbapenemase in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Quiñones, D; Hart, M; Espinosa, F; Garcia, S; Carmona, Y; Ghosh, S; Urushibara, N; Kawaguchiya, M; Kobayashi, N

    2014-07-01

    The emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing carbapenemase (KPC) has now become a global concern. As a part of a nationwide multicentre surveillance study in Cuba, three K. pneumoniae clinical isolates resistant to carbapenems were detected for a 1-month period (September to October 2011). PCR and sequence analysis revealed that the three strains harboured bla KPC-2. They showed resistance or intermediate susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, other β-lactams, a β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combination, and gentamicin. Two strains were susceptible only to colistin, whereas the other strain showing colistin resistance was susceptible to fluoroquinolones. These bla KPC -2-positive K. pneumoniae strains were classified into ST1271 (CC29), a novel clone harbouring bla KPC -2, and were revealed to be genetically identical by PCR-based DNA fingerprinting. The three patients infected with the KPC-producing K. pneumoniae had common risk factors, and had no overseas travel experience outside Cuba, suggesting local acquisition of the resistant pathogen. This is the first report of a KPC-producing K. pneumoniae in Cuba. Although detection of KPC in Enterobacteriaceae is still rare in Cuba, our finding indicated that KPC-producing bacteria are a global concern and highlighted the need to identify these microorganisms in clinical laboratories.

  14. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates producing KPC-2 carbapenemase in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Quiñones, D; Hart, M; Espinosa, F; Garcia, S; Carmona, Y; Ghosh, S; Urushibara, N; Kawaguchiya, M; Kobayashi, N

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing carbapenemase (KPC) has now become a global concern. As a part of a nationwide multicentre surveillance study in Cuba, three K. pneumoniae clinical isolates resistant to carbapenems were detected for a 1-month period (September to October 2011). PCR and sequence analysis revealed that the three strains harboured blaKPC-2. They showed resistance or intermediate susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, other β-lactams, a β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combination, and gentamicin. Two strains were susceptible only to colistin, whereas the other strain showing colistin resistance was susceptible to fluoroquinolones. These blaKPC-2-positive K. pneumoniae strains were classified into ST1271 (CC29), a novel clone harbouring blaKPC-2, and were revealed to be genetically identical by PCR-based DNA fingerprinting. The three patients infected with the KPC-producing K. pneumoniae had common risk factors, and had no overseas travel experience outside Cuba, suggesting local acquisition of the resistant pathogen. This is the first report of a KPC-producing K. pneumoniae in Cuba. Although detection of KPC in Enterobacteriaceae is still rare in Cuba, our finding indicated that KPC-producing bacteria are a global concern and highlighted the need to identify these microorganisms in clinical laboratories. PMID:25356357

  15. Solenoptera Audinet-Serville, 1832 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Prioninae, Solenopterini) in Cuba, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Devesa, Sergio; Fonseca, Elier; Barro, Alejandro

    2016-11-02

    The genus Solenoptera Audinet-Serville in Cuba is reviewed and S. zayasi sp. nov. is described from Cuba. The following nomenclatural changes are proposed: 1) S. fraudulenta Galileo & Martins, 1993 is synonymized with S. dominicensis Gahan, 1890; 2) S. cubana (Zayas, 1975) is transferred from Prosternodes cubanus Zayas, 1975. Furthermore, S. dominicensis is removed from the Cuban fauna and new localities for S. cubana are recorded. A key to all three Solenoptera species known from Cuba, both for males and females, is included.

  16. HIV-1 Genetic Variability in Cuba and Implications for Transmission and Clinical Progression.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Madeline; Machado, Liuber Y; Díaz, Héctor; Ruiz, Nancy; Romay, Dania; Silva, Eladio

    2015-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Serological and molecular HIV-1 studies in Cuba have shown very low prevalence of seropositivity, but an increasing genetic diversity attributable to introduction of many HIV-1 variants from different areas, exchange of such variants among HIV-positive people with several coinciding routes of infection and other epidemiologic risk factors in the seropositive population. The high HIV-1 genetic variability observed in Cuba has possible implications for transmission and clinical progression. OBJECTIVE Study genetic variability for the HIV-1 env, gag and pol structural genes in Cuba; determine the prevalence of B and non-B subtypes according to epidemiologic and behavioral variables and determine whether a relationship exists between genetic variability and transmissibility, and between genetic variability and clinical disease progression in people living with HIV/AIDS. METHODS Using two molecular assays (heteroduplex mobility assay and nucleic acid sequencing), structural genes were characterized in 590 people with HIV-1 (480 men and 110 women), accounting for 3.4% of seropositive individuals in Cuba as of December 31, 2013. Nonrandom sampling, proportional to HIV prevalence by province, was conducted. Relationships between molecular results and viral factors, host characteristics, and patients' clinical, epidemiologic and behavioral variables were studied for molecular epidemiology, transmission, and progression analyses. RESULTS Molecular analysis of the three HIV-1 structural genes classified 297 samples as subtype B (50.3%), 269 as non-B subtypes (45.6%) and 24 were not typeable. Subtype B prevailed overall and in men, mainly in those who have sex with men. Non-B subtypes were prevalent in women and heterosexual men, showing multiple circulating variants and recombinant forms. Sexual transmission was the predominant form of infection for all. B and non-B subtypes were encountered throughout Cuba. No association was found between subtypes and

  17. Arc-continent collision on the southern Margin of North America: Cuba and Hispaniola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, G.; Pindell, J.

    2004-12-01

    Comparison of the geology of Cuba and Hispaniola demonstrates how different tectonic styles can be produced in closely adjacent parts of the accretion arc. Cuba is a laterally extensive fold-and-thrust belt that includes a narrow belt of Early Cretaceous to Campanian arc rocks, ocean crust, sub-oceanic mantle and metamorphosed continental crust. Hispaniola represents a broader and more complete (although deformed) Early Cretaceous to Eocene arc structure with a single accreted, metamorphosed continental terrane. We suggest that Cuba's preset arc terrane is essentially a fore-arc that was underplated by continental crust in the Campanian collision of the Greater Antilles arc with southern Yucatan. Following this collision, the proto Caribbean lithosphere detached from the eastern margin of Yucatan resulting in rapid, north directed rollback. This, in turn, developed extension of the over-riding Cuban lithosphere and exhumed the underplated continental crust as extensional metamorphic core complexes. The present Cuban fold belt was formed as a result of collision with the southern margin of North America in the mid-Eocene. In contrast, Hispaniola was to the east of Cuba and was not detectably involved in the Campanian collisional event. At present, it is not clear if the extensional rollback event that affected Cuba had any significant effect on Hispaniola. Hispaniola's collision with North America began in the late Eocene(?) and culminated in the Oligocene and was highly oblique. This event resulted in highly oblique, south-verging thrusting that telescoped the back arc basin. It also produced a pop-up structure that reveals evidence of an earlier, mid-Cretaceous collisional event within the arc. This oblique collision persists until the present.

  18. Cancer mortality in Cuba and among the Cuban-born in the United States: 1979-81.

    PubMed Central

    Shai, D

    1991-01-01

    The Cuban-born population of the United States, enumerated at 608,000 in the 1980 census, has been little studied with regard to cancer mortality. Being older and rarely migrating back to Cuba, Cuban Americans present a good subject for comparative cancer mortality. Age-adjusted death rates for selected causes of cancer are compared in this paper for Cubans in Cuba, the Cuban-born in the United States, and all whites in the United States. Two forms of cancer have been of particular concern in Cuba, cancer of the lung and cancer of the prostate, because of their relatively high death rates. The age-adjusted death rates for both of these cancers are lower among the Cuban-born in the United States than they are among Cubans in Cuba and whites in the United States. Death rates for cancer of the cervix and cancer of the rectum among the Cuban-born in this country are also low relative to Cubans in Cuba and whites in the United States. Stomach cancer mortality among Cuban-born men in the United States is lower than for men in Cuba or for white men in the United States, but Cuban-born women in this country have rates that are slightly higher than those of U.S white women. Mortality rates from colon cancer in both sexes and breast cancer among women are intermediate between the lower rates in Cuba and the higher rates among U.S. whites. Finally, the Cuban-born in the United States have higher death rates from cancer of the liver than do Cubans in Cuba or whites in the United States.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1899942

  19. Social status, race, and the timing of marriage in Cuba's first constitutional era, 1902-1940.

    PubMed

    Logan, Enid Lynette

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the practice of marriage among whites, "mestizos," blacks, Cubans, and Spaniards during the first constitutional era, focusing upon the reported ages of brides and grooms. The study consists of a quantitative examination of trends found in the records of 900 Catholic marriages celebrated in Havana during the opening decades of independence. The first major finding of the research is that according to most major indicators of status, age was negatively correlated with rank. Thus, contrary to the conclusions of studies conducted in many other contexts, those in the highest strata of society married young. Furthermore, very significant differences were detected in the marital patterns of those identified as mixed-race and those labeled as black. This finding offers empirical weight to the notion that the early-mid twentieth-century Cuban racial structure would best be characterized as tripartite, rather than binary in nature.

  20. [Trophie webs of reef fishes at Cuba's NW area. II. Functional groups].

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ivet; Aguilar, Consuelo; González Sansón, Gaspar

    2008-09-01

    A conceptual model of the food webs, mainly with fish, was built in a rocky shore of Havana City with data covering from October 2004 to February 2006. The stomach contents of the most abundant fish was complemented with the literature. We used the Relative Importance Index method to describe diets of carnivorous and omnivorous fish; and a modification of the Relative Abundance method for sponge eaters and herbivorous fish. Agglomerative numeric classification techniques were used to determine the diet's similarity. The matrix was made using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index. Ten functional trophic groups were formed on the basis of diet similarity. The cascade effect is evidenced in this area by the big top predator shortage and the dominance of a few low trophic level species. The regulator role of top predators is low because of over-fishing: the trophic web of this area is highly altered.

  1. [Ecologic indexes in the surveillance system of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Marquetti, M C; González, D; Aguilera, L; Navarro, A

    1999-01-01

    The ecological indexes called diversity (H') and equitability (J') of the mosquito species were determined in six of the most common reservoirs of the urban ecosystem in the Plaza de la Revolución municipality, City of Havana. Data analysis showed that according to the values of these indexes, the most dangerous reservoirs were tyres, larvitraps and artificial reservoirs in general. Reference is also made on the use of larvitraps in the surveillance system of Aedes aegypti and the detection and stabilization of mosquitoes such as Aedes mediovittatus and Culex migripalpus in the urban ecosystem. The variety of species ranged from 2 to 7 in the studied reservoirs which showed differences in the patterns of use of the resources in the urban ecosystem.

  2. [Drunk driving in professional drivers in the Vía Blanca highway in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Guanche Garcell, Humberto; Suárez Enríquez, Tomás; Gutiérrez García, Francisco; Martínez Quesada, Carlos; Mendoza Pérez, Ramón

    2006-01-01

    To determine the frequency of drunk driving in professional drivers (Via Blanca, Havana City), we carried out a descriptive study of 832 drivers selected by multistage stratified sampling. A structured interview with each driver was carried out to record the variables under study, and a breath alcohol test was subsequently performed. The frequency of drunk driving was 8.18% (95% CI, 5.94%-10.42%), with a predominance of drivers with alcohol levels

  3. Historical trends of organochlorine pesticides in a sediment core from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Hernández, C M; Tolosa, I; Mesa-Albernas, M; Díaz-Asencio, M; Corcho-Alvarado, J A; Sánchez-Cabeza, J A

    2015-10-01

    Sediments can be natural archives to reconstruct the history of pollutant inputs into coastal areas. This is important to improve management strategies and evaluate the success of pollution control measurements. In this work, the vertical distribution of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, Lindane, HCB, Heptachlor, Aldrin and Mirex) was determined in a sediment core collected from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba, which was dated by using the (210)Pb dating method and validated with the (239,240)Pu fallout peak. Results showed significant changes in sediment accumulation during the last 40 years: recent mass accumulation rates (0.321 g cm(-2) yr(-1)) double those estimated before 1970 (0.15 g cm(-2) yr(-1)). This change matches closely land use change in the region (intense deforestation and regulation of the Colon River in the late 1970s). Among pesticides, only DDTs isomers, Lindane and HCB were detected, and ranged from 0.029 to 0.374 ng g(-1) dw for DDTs, from<0.006 to 0.05 ng g(-1) dw for Lindane and from<0.04 to 0.134 ng g(-1) dw for HCB. Heptachlor, Aldrin and Mirex were below the detection limits (∼0.003 ng g(-1)), indicating that these compounds had a limited application in the Coloma watershed. Pesticide contamination was evident since the 1970s. DDTs and HCB records showed that management strategies, namely the banning the use of organochlorine contaminants, led to a concentration decline. However, Lindane, which was restricted in 1990, can still be found in the watershed. According to NOAA guidelines, pesticides concentrations encountered in these sediments are low and probably not having an adverse effect on sediment dwelling organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Translations on Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development, No. 59.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-14

    Terminals (0 ESTADO DE SAO PAULO, 29 Sep 78) 22 CUBA Telephone Service Expansion in Holguin ( JUVENTUD REBELDE, 22 Sep 78) 23 Briefs Direct...type. 4 n 12,116 CSO: 5500 22 CUBA TELEPHONE SERVICE EXPANSION IN HOLGUIN Havana JUVENTUD REBELDE in Spanish 22 Sep 78 p 2 [Text...Santiago de Cuba, and Bayamo. [Text] [Havana JUVENTUD REBELDE in Spanish 18 Sep 78 p 1] 9189 FIRST HOLGUIN TV PROGRAM—Holguin (AIN)—Studio Two of

  5. River restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen; Angermeier, Paul L.; Bledsoe, Brian; Kondolf, G. Mathias; Macdonnell, Larry; Merritt, David M.; Palmer, Margaret A.; Poff, N. Leroy; Tarboton, David

    2005-10-01

    River restoration is at the forefront of applied hydrologic science. However, many river restoration projects are conducted with minimal scientific context. We propose two themes around which a research agenda to advance the scientific basis for river restoration can be built. First, because natural variability is an inherent feature of all river systems, we hypothesize that restoration of process is more likely to succeed than restoration aimed at a fixed end point. Second, because physical, chemical, and biological processes are interconnected in complex ways across watersheds and across timescales, we hypothesize that restoration projects are more likely to be successful in achieving goals if undertaken in the context of entire watersheds. To achieve restoration objectives, the science of river restoration must include (1) an explicit recognition of the known complexities and uncertainties, (2) continued development of a theoretical framework that enables us to identify generalities among river systems and to ask relevant questions, (3) enhancing the science and use of restoration monitoring by measuring the most effective set of variables at the correct scales of measurement, (4) linking science and implementation, and (5) developing methods of restoration that are effective within existing constraints. Key limitations to river restoration include a lack of scientific knowledge of watershed-scale process dynamics, institutional structures that are poorly suited to large-scale adaptive management, and a lack of political support to reestablish delivery of the ecosystem amenities lost through river degradation. This paper outlines an approach for addressing these shortcomings.

  6. Amazon River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... the Rio Solimoes and the Rio Negro converge to form the Amazon River. This image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ... date:  Jul 23, 2000 Images:  Amazon River location:  South America thumbnail:  ...

  7. Mississippi River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Mississippi River Flooding during Spring 2001   ... 794 x 390 South TIFF: 1024 x 724 The Mississippi River, from its source at Lake Itasca Minnesota to the Gulf of ... lower valley occurred in 1927 and the largest in the upper Mississippi in 1993. In April 2001 another flooding event in the upper ...

  8. U.S. Policy Towards Cuba as a Two Level Game or: Defending Executive Policy Discretion in the Face of Domestic Pressure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    organizations; calling for the resumption of direct mail service to and from Cuba ; and establishing scholarships in the United States for Cuban students... Castro : A Threat to the Security of the United States ,” 1999 from Global Security website at, http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/ cuba /bw.htm...their possible intent against the U.S. in terms of biological warfare as early as 1997 when Castro , “compared the United States to a dragon and Cuba to

  9. The Chemical Diversity of Lantana camara: Analyses of Essential Oil Samples from Cuba, Nepal, and Yemen.

    PubMed

    Satyal, Prabodh; Crouch, Rebecca A; Monzote, Lianet; Cos, Paul; Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Alhaj, Mehdi A; Setzer, William N

    2016-03-01

    The aerial parts of Lantana camara L. were collected from three different geographical locations: Artemisa (Cuba), Biratnagar (Nepal), and Sana'a (Yemen). The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A cluster analysis of 39 L. camara essential oil compositions revealed eight major chemotypes: β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, ar-curcumene/zingiberene, γ-curcumen-15-al/epi-β-bisabolol, (E)-nerolidol, davanone, eugenol/alloaromadendrene, and carvone. The sample from Cuba falls into the group dominated by (E)-nerolidol, the sample from Nepal is a davanone chemotype, and the sample from Yemen belongs to the β-caryophyllene chemotype. The chemical composition of L. camara oil plays a role in the biological activity; the β-caryophyllene and (E)-nerolidol chemotypes showed antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  10. Discordant mid-Cretaceous paleomagnetic pole from the Zaza Terrane of central Cuba

    SciTech Connect

    Renne, P.R.; Doppelhammer, S.K.; Hargraves, R.B. ); Scott, G.; Cala, E.L.

    1991-03-01

    Thermal demagnetization of samples from five sites in mid-Cretaceous volcaniclastic and carbonate rocks of south-central Cuba reveals two or more components of magnetization. A pre-folding magnetite borne component is recognized in all, but was difficult to isolate from secondary components in many specimens. Remagnetization circle analysis, using data for 42 specimens from all five sites, yields a pole at 30.7{degree}N Lat., 193.3{degree}E Long. This pole is discordant with respect to the North American APWP, indicating 43{degree} {plus minus} 16{degree} of anticlockwise rotation and 8{degree} {plus minus} 6{degree} of northward displacement since the mid-Cretaceous. This result suggests that part or all of Cuba was transported on the Caribbean plate before accretion to North America in the Eocene.

  11. Assessment of Human Health Vulnerability to Climate Variability and Change in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Bultó, Paulo Lázaro Ortíz; Rodríguez, Antonio Pérez; Valencia, Alina Rivero; Vega, Nicolás León; Gonzalez, Manuel Díaz; Carrera, Alina Pérez

    2006-01-01

    In this study we assessed the potential effects of climate variability and change on population health in Cuba. We describe the climate of Cuba as well as the patterns of climate-sensitive diseases of primary concern, particularly dengue fever. Analyses of the associations between climatic anomalies and disease patterns highlight current vulnerability to climate variability. We describe current adaptations, including the application of climate predictions to prevent disease outbreaks. Finally, we present the potential economic costs associated with future impacts due to climate change. The tools used in this study can be useful in the development of appropriate and effective adaptation options to address the increased climate variability associated with climate change. PMID:17185289

  12. First record of natural vertical transmission of dengue virus in Aedes aegypti from Cuba.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Bugallo, Gladys; Rodriguez-Roche, Rosmari; Díaz, Gisell; Vázquez, Antonio A; Alvarez, Mayling; Rodríguez, Magdalena; Bisset, Juan A; Guzman, Maria G

    2017-10-01

    While horizontal transmission (human-mosquito-human) of dengue viruses largely determines the epidemiology of the disease, vertical transmission (infected female mosquito- infected offspring) has been suggested as a mechanism that ensures maintenance of the virus during adverse conditions for horizontal transmission to occur. The purpose of this study was to analyze the natural infection of larval stages of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) with the dengue virus (DENV) in Cuba. Here, we report vertical transmission of DENV-3 genotype III in natural populations of Ae. aegypti through RT-PCR detection and serotyping plus sequencing. Our report constitutes the first record of vertical transmission of DENV in Ae. aegypti from Cuba with details of its serotype and genotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of the USA in shortage of food and medicine in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, A F

    1996-11-30

    For over 30 years an embargo by the USA has restricted Cuba's ability to purchase foods and medicines. In 1992, the USA enacted the Cuban Democracy Act (CDA), which "exempted" the sale of medicines from the embargo. However, the implementation of the CDA's requirements and the intensification of the embargo as a result of the passage of the Helms-Burton Act in March, 1996, have undermined the purpose of the medicine exemption. The resultant lack of food and medicine to Cuba contributed to the worst epidemic of neurological disease this century. The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights of the Organization of American States has informed the US Government that such activities violate international law and has requested that the US take immediate steps to exempt food and medicine from the embargo.

  14. The discipline of ergonomics in Cuba within the occupational health framework: background and trends.

    PubMed

    Torres, Yaniel; Rodríguez, Yordán; Viña, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    The concept of ergonomics was introduced in Cuba at the beginning of the 1970s. More than 40 years later, the prevailing approach to workers' health is still generally reactive rather than proactive, despite the commitment of the government to the subject. A factor influencing this issue is, generally, lack of recognition of the benefits of establishing ergonomic principles within most occupational activities. Recent progress to move occupational health practice toward a more preventive approach has been conducted, frequently with international support. The introduction of a set of Cuban standards proposing the necessity of ergonomic evaluations is an example of this progress. The main challenge for Cuban ergonomists is to transfer knowledge to occupational health practitioners in order to be in concordance with basic standards and regulations regarding ergonomics. The article offers a short description of the history of ergonomics and an overview of ergonomics practice in Cuba.

  15. Assessment of human health vulnerability to climate variability and change in cuba.

    PubMed

    Ortíz, Paulo Lázaro; Pérez, Antonio; Rivero, Alina; León, Nicolás; Díaz, Manuel; Pérez, Alina

    2008-04-01

    Reprinted with permission from Environmental Health Perspectives. Dec 2006;114:1942-1949. In this study we assessed the potential effects of climate variability and change on population health in Cuba. We describe the climate of Cuba as well as the patterns of climate-sensitive diseases of primary concern, particularly dengue fever. Analyses of the associations between climatic anomalies and disease patterns highlight current vulnerability to climate variability. We describe current adaptations, including the application of climate predictions to prevent disease outbreaks. Finally, we present the potential economic costs associated with future impacts due to climate change. The tools used in this study can be useful in the development of appropriate and effective adaptation options to address the increased climate variability associated with climate change.

  16. Medium- and Short-Term Interventions with Ma-Pi 2 Macrobiotic Diet in Type 2 Diabetic Adults of Bauta, Havana

    PubMed Central

    Porrata-Maury, Carmen; Hernández-Triana, Manuel; Rodríguez-Sotero, Eduardo; Vilá-Dacosta-Calheiros, Raúl; Hernández-Hernández, Héctor; Mirabal-Sosa, Mayelín; Campa-Huergo, Concepción; Pianesi, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Background. In Cuba, the Ma-Pi 2 macrobiotic diet has shown positive results in 6-month assays with type 2 diabetic patients. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of this diet at short and medium terms. Methods. Sixty-five type 2 diabetic volunteers were included for dietary intervention, institutionally based for 21 days and followed later at home, until completing 3 months. 54 of them stayed until assay end. Before intervention, and after both assay periods, they were submitted to anthropometric records, body composition analyses and measurements of serum biochemical indicators, glycemic profile in capillary blood, blood pressure, and medication consumption; food intake was evaluated by the 3-day dietary recall. Results. During the intervention, the energy intake was 200 kcal higher at instance of more complex carbohydrates and dietary fiber and despite less fat and protein. Blood pressure and serum biochemical indicators decreased significantly in both periods; the safety nutritional indicators (hemoglobin, serum total proteins, and albumin) showed no variations. The global cardiovascular risk decreased and insulin consumption dropped by 46% and 64%, in both periods, respectively. Conclusions. The Ma-Pi 2 macrobiotic diet was a successful therapy at short term and after 3-month home-based intervention, for type 2 diabetics. PMID:23097695

  17. Simulation of hybrid wind/solar systems for typical areas of Brazil and Cuba

    SciTech Connect

    Villar Ale, J.A.; Garcia, F.H.

    1999-07-01

    Brazil and Cuba share a common history of serious problems related to the electrification of their isolated communities. Both countries have renewable resources of energy that allow, for instance, the use of photovoltaic and wind systems. These systems can be used in an integrated way, known as hybrid systems, achieving better reliability and economy. This work presents a simplified methodology for the design of such systems to be applied to the electrification of rural areas in both countries.

  18. Ecology of the Scorpion, Microtityus jaumei in Sierra de Canasta, Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn; Colombo, Marco

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of the population dynamics of Microtityus jaumei Armas (Scorpiones: Buthidae) on the slopes south of Sierra de Canasta, Guantánamo Province, Cuba show an increase in activity over the year (≤ 0.05). The activity peak is related to the reproductive period from June to November. The abundance of scorpions was significantly related to density of the canopy and thickness of the substrate. PMID:21870972

  19. Ecology of the scorpion, Microtityus jaumei in Sierra de Canasta, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn; Colombo, Marco

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of the population dynamics of Microtityus jaumei Armas (Scorpiones: Buthidae) on the slopes south of Sierra de Canasta, Guantánamo Province, Cuba show an increase in activity over the year (≤ 0.05). The activity peak is related to the reproductive period from June to November. The abundance of scorpions was significantly related to density of the canopy and thickness of the substrate.

  20. Jurassic Teredolites from Cuba: New trace fossil evidence of early wood-boring behavior in bivalves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas-Martín, Jorge; de Gibert, Jordi M.; Rojas-Consuegra, Reinaldo; Belaústegui, Zain

    2012-10-01

    Teredolites clavatus is described from log fragments preserved in carbonate concretions in the Oxfordian (Upper Jurassic) Jagua Formation in western Cuba. The trace fossils are interpreted as borings produced by marine bivalves inhabiting floating wood substrates, probably pholadids belonging to the subfamily Martesiinae. This report constitutes one of the few known occurrences of the ichnogenus in the Jurassic and contributes to a better knowledge of the early history and evolution of wood-boring behavior in bivalves.