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Sample records for river hydroelectric system

  1. Impacts of the Columbia River hydroelectric system on main-stem habitats of fall chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauble, D.D.; Hanrahan, T.P.; Geist, D.R.; Parsley, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Salmonid habitats in main-stem reaches of the Columbia and Snake rivers have changed dramatically during the past 60 years because of hydroelectric development and operation. Only about 13% and 58% of riverine habitats in the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, remain. Most riverine habitat is found in the upper Snake River; however, it is upstream of Hells Canyon Dam and not accessible to anadromous salmonids. We determined that approximately 661 and 805 km of the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, were once used by fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for spawning. Fall chinook salmon currently use only about 85 km of the main-stem Columbia River and 163 km of the main-stem Snake River for spawning. We used a geomorphic model to identify three river reaches downstream of present migration barriers with high potential for restoration of riverine processes: the Columbia River upstream of John Day Dam, the Columbia-Snake-Yakima River confluence, and the lower Snake River upstream of Little Goose Dam. Our analysis substantiated the assertion that historic spawning areas for fall chinook salmon occurred primarily within wide alluvial floodplains, which were once common in the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers. These areas possessed more unconsolidated sediment and more bars and islands and had lower water surface slopes than did less extensively used areas. Because flows in the main stem are now highly regulated, the predevelopment alluvial river ecosystem is not expected to be restored simply by operational modification of one or more dams. Establishing more normative flow regimes - specifically, sustained peak flows for scouring - is essential to restoring the functional characteristics of existing, altered habitats. Restoring production of fall chinook salmon to any of these reaches also requires that population genetics and viability of potential seed populations (i.e., from tributaries, tailrace spawning areas, and hatcheries) be considered.

  2. Impacts of the Columbia River Hydroelectric System on Mainstem Habitats of Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Parsley, Michael J.

    2003-08-01

    Salmonid habitats in mainstem reaches of the Columbia and Snake rivers have changed dramatically during the past 60 years because of hydroelectric development and operation. Only about 13 and 58% of riverine habitats in the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, remain. Most riverine habitat is found in the upper Snake River; however, it is upstream of Hells Canyon Dam and not accessible to anadromous salmonids. We determined that approximately 661 and 805 km of the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, were once used by fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for spawning. Fall chinook salmon currently use only about 85 km of the mainstem Columbia River and 163 km of the mainstem Snake River for spawning. We used a geomorphic model to identify three river reaches downstream of present migration barriers with high potential for restoration of riverine processes: the Columbia River upstream of John Day Dam, the Columbia-Snake-Yakima River confluence, and the lower Snake River upstream of Little Goose Dam. Our analysis substantiated the assertion that historic spawning areas for fall chinook salmon occurred primarily within wide alluvial floodplains once common in the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers. These areas possessed more unconsolidated sediment, more bars and islands, and had lower water surface slopes than areas not extensively used. Because flows in the mainstem are now highly regulated, the pre-development alluvial river ecosystem is not expected to be restored simply by operational modification of one or more dams. Establishing more normative flow regimes, specifically sustained peak flows for scouring, is essential to restoring the functional characteristics of existing, altered habitats. Restoring production of fall chinook salmon to any of these reaches also requires that population genetics and viability of potential seed populations (i.e., from tributaries and tailrace spawning areas, and hatcheries) be considered.

  3. 77 FR 24949 - Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Project; BOST4 Hydroelectric LLC; Notice of Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Project; BOST4 Hydroelectric LLC... affected by issuance of a license for the proposed Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Project No... Hydroelectric LLC, as applicant for the proposed Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Project No. 12757, is invited...

  4. Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gates ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gates & Gate-Lifting Mechanisms, Spokane River, approximately 0.5 mile northeast of intersection of Spokane Falls Boulevard & Post Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  5. Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gate House, Spokane River, approximately 0.5 mile northeast of intersection of Spokane Falls Boulevard & Post Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  6. Output improvement of Sg. Piah run-off river hydro-electric station with a new computed river flow-based control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jidin, Razali; Othman, Bahari

    2013-06-01

    The lower Sg. Piah hydro-electric station is a river run-off hydro scheme with generators capable of generating 55MW of electricity. It is located 30km away from Sg. Siput, a small town in the state of Perak, Malaysia. The station has two turbines (Pelton) to harness energy from water that flow through a 7km tunnel from a small intake dam. The trait of a run-off river hydro station is small-reservoir that cannot store water for a long duration; therefore potential energy carried by the spillage will be wasted if the dam level is not appropriately regulated. To improve the station annual energy output, a new controller based on the computed river flow has been installed. The controller regulates the dam level with an algorithm based on the river flow derived indirectly from the intake-dam water level and other plant parameters. The controller has been able to maintain the dam at optimum water level and regulate the turbines to maximize the total generation output.

  7. Big Creek Hydroelectric System, East & West Transmission Line, 241mile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Big Creek Hydroelectric System, East & West Transmission Line, 241-mile transmission corridor extending between the Big Creek Hydroelectric System in the Sierra National Forest in Fresno County and the Eagle Rock Substation in Los Angeles, California, Visalia, Tulare County, CA

  8. 77 FR 47058 - Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project Placer County Water Agency... comments on the draft environmental impact statement for the Middle Fork American River Project No. 2079... project. This meeting is posted on the Commission's calendar located at...

  9. 78 FR 45918 - Application for Presidential Permit; Soule River Hydroelectric Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... alternating current (HVAC) hydroelectric transmission line that is to originate on the Soule River, on... Project would be an 8-mile long, 138 kilovolt (kV) HVAC 3-phase submarine cable that would be laid on...

  10. What is the real price of hydroelectric production on the Senegal River?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raso, Luciano; Bader, Jean-Claude; Malaterre, Pierre-Olivier

    2014-05-01

    Manantali is an annual reservoir on the Senegal River, located in Mali and serving Senegal and Mauritania. The reservoir is used to regulate the flow for hydroelectric production, in the face of the extremely variable seasonal climate of the region. Manantali has been operative for about 10 years now, exceeding the planned production capacity. The economic benefit comes at a price. Before the dam's construction, the annual flood was the basis of flood recession agriculture, traditionally practiced by the local population. Hydroelectric production requires a more regular flow; therefore flow peaks that used to create the flood are now dumped in the reservoir. Floods are reduced because the current reservoir management privileges hydroelectric production to flood recession agriculture. Moreover, the local water authority is evaluating the construction of 6 more reservoirs, which will enhance even further the controllability of the river flow. This study assesses the externalities of energy production for the agricultural production, quantifying the reduction of flooded surface when energy production is maximized, or alternatively, the loss energy production to maintain a minimum sustainable flood. In addition, we examine the system reliability against extreme events, and how a better use of hydrological information can improve the present reservoir management, in order to find a win-win solution. In this study we employ Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) methodology. SDDP is a leaner version of Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP). SDDP does not suffer of the "curse of dimensionality", and therefore it can be applied to larger systems. In this application we include in the model: i) A semi-distributed hydrological model, ii) the reservoir, iii) the hydraulic routing process within the catchment and from the reservoir to the floodplain.

  11. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation, Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Columbia River Mainstem Facilities, 1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Howerton, Jack; Hwang, Diana

    1984-11-01

    This report reviews the status of past, present, and proposed future wildlife planning and mitigation programs at existing hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. The project evaluations will form the basis for determining any needed remedial measures or additional project analysis. Each hydropower facility report is abstracted separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  12. Dams in the Amazon: Belo Monte and Brazil's Hydroelectric Development of the Xingu River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fearnside, Phillip M.

    2006-07-01

    Hydroelectric dams represent major investments and major sources of environmental and social impacts. Powerful forces surround the decision-making process on public investments in the various options for the generation and conservation of electricity. Brazil’s proposed Belo Monte Dam (formerly Kararaô) and its upstream counterpart, the Altamira Dam (better known by its former name of Babaquara) are at the center of controversies on the decision-making process for major infrastructure projects in Amazonia. The Belo Monte Dam by itself would have a small reservoir area (440 km2) and large installed capacity (11, 181.3 MW), but the Altamira/Babaquara Dam that would regulate the flow of the Xingu River (thereby increasing power generation at Belo Monte) would flood a vast area (6140 km2). The great impact of dams provides a powerful reason for Brazil to reassess its current policies that allocate large amounts of energy in the country’s national grid to subsidized aluminum smelting for export. The case of Belo Monte and the five additional dams planned upstream (including the Altamira/Babaquara Dam) indicate the need for Brazil to reform its environmental assessment and licensing system to include the impacts of multiple interdependent projects.

  13. Dams in the Amazon: Belo Monte and Brazil's hydroelectric development of the Xingu River Basin.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Phillip M

    2006-07-01

    Hydroelectric dams represent major investments and major sources of environmental and social impacts. Powerful forces surround the decision-making process on public investments in the various options for the generation and conservation of electricity. Brazil's proposed Belo Monte Dam (formerly Kararaô) and its upstream counterpart, the Altamira Dam (better known by its former name of Babaquara) are at the center of controversies on the decision-making process for major infrastructure projects in Amazonia. The Belo Monte Dam by itself would have a small reservoir area (440 km2) and large installed capacity (11, 181.3 MW), but the Altamira/Babaquara Dam that would regulate the flow of the Xingu River (thereby increasing power generation at Belo Monte) would flood a vast area (6140 km2). The great impact of dams provides a powerful reason for Brazil to reassess its current policies that allocate large amounts of energy in the country's national grid to subsidized aluminum smelting for export. The case of Belo Monte and the five additional dams planned upstream (including the Altamira/Babaquara Dam) indicate the need for Brazil to reform its environmental assessment and licensing system to include the impacts of multiple interdependent projects.

  14. Case study analysis of legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of the hydroelectric potential at Goose River, Maine

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The case study is an analysis of the legal, institutional, and financial incentives and obstacles to the development of the hydroelectric potential on the Goose River in Maine. The Goose River project concerns development by a private developer, Maine Hydro-Electric Development Corporation. The project is comprised of a five-dam system, with the first dam located at Swan Lake and the fifth dam about one mile from the sea. It will utilize the 7500 acre-feet of storage capacity of Swan Lake to run the four downstream power stations. The system is designed to generate 430 kWs of total capacity which would be sold to Central Maine Power, the local investor-owned public utility.

  15. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment Summary at Federal Hydroelectric Facilities; Willamette River Basin, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, J.H.

    1986-02-01

    Habitat based assessments were conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin, Oregon, to determine losses or gains to wildlife and/or wildlife habitat resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric-related components of the facilities. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project sites were mapped based on aerial photographs. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected areas and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the projects. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each project for each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the projects. The Willamette projects extensively altered or affected 33,407 acres of land and river in the McKenzie, Middle Fork Willamette, and Santiam river drainages. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 5184 acres of old-growth conifer forest, and 2850 acres of riparian hardwood and shrub cover types. Impacts resulting from the Willamette projects included the loss of critical winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, upland game birds, furbearers, spotted owls, pileated woodpeckers, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagles and ospreys were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected areas to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Willamette projects. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the lives of the projects. Cumulative or system-wide impacts of the Willamette projects were not quantitatively assessed.

  16. Benchmarking of Advanced Control Strategies for a Simulated Hydroelectric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finotti, S.; Simani, S.; Alvisi, S.; Venturini, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses and develops the design of advanced control strategies for a typical hydroelectric plant during unsteady conditions, performed in the Matlab and Simulink environments. The hydraulic system consists of a high water head and a long penstock with upstream and downstream surge tanks, and is equipped with a Francis turbine. The nonlinear characteristics of hydraulic turbine and the inelastic water hammer effects were considered to calculate and simulate the hydraulic transients. With reference to the control solutions addressed in this work, the proposed methodologies rely on data-driven and model-based approaches applied to the system under monitoring. Extensive simulations and comparisons serve to determine the best solution for the development of the most effective, robust and reliable control tool when applied to the considered hydraulic system.

  17. Hydroelectric System Response to Part Load Vortex Rope Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alligné, S.; Nicolet, C.; Bégum, A.; Landry, C.; Gomes, J.; Avellan, F.

    2016-11-01

    The prediction of pressure and output power fluctuations amplitudes on Francis turbine prototype is a challenge for hydro-equipment industry since it is subjected to guarantees to ensure smooth and reliable operation of the hydro units. The European FP7 research project Hyperbole aims to setup a methodology to transpose the pressure fluctuations induced by the cavitation vortex rope on the reduced scale model to the prototype generating units. A Francis turbine unit of 444MW with a specific speed value of v = 0.29, is considered as case study. A SIMSEN model of the power station including electrical system, controllers, rotating train and hydraulic system with transposed draft tube excitation sources is setup. Based on this model, a frequency analysis of the hydroelectric system is performed to analyse potential interactions between hydraulic excitation sources and electrical components.

  18. Culinary and pressure irrigation water system hydroelectric generation

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, Cory

    2016-01-29

    Pleasant Grove City owns and operates a drinking water system that included pressure reducing stations (PRVs) in various locations and flow conditions. Several of these station are suitable for power generation. The City evaluated their system to identify opportunities for power generation that can be implemented based on the analysis of costs and prediction of power generation and associated revenue. The evaluation led to the selection of the Battle Creek site for development of a hydro-electric power generating system. The Battle Creek site includes a pipeline that carries spring water to storage tanks. The system utilizes a PRV to reduce pressure before the water is introduced into the tanks. The evaluation recommended that the PRV at this location be replaced with a turbine for the generation of electricity. The system will be connected to the utility power grid for use in the community. A pelton turbine was selected for the site, and a turbine building and piping system were constructed to complete a fully functional power generation system. It is anticipated that the system will generate approximately 440,000 kW-hr per year resulting in $40,000 of annual revenue.

  19. Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Improvement Project - Replacement of Current Mechanical Seal System with Rope Packing System

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Jessica D.

    2013-05-29

    On January 27, 2010 the City of North Little Rock, Arkansas received notification of the awarding of a Department of Energy (DOE) grant totaling $450,000 in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) under the Project Title: Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Improvement Project – Automated Intake Clearing Equipment and Materials Management. The purpose of the grant was for improvements to be made at the City’s hydroelectric generating facility located on the Arkansas River. Improvements were to be made through the installation of an intake maintenance device (IMD) and the purchase of a large capacity wood grinder. The wood grinder was purchased in order to receive the tree limbs, tree trunks, and other organic debris that collects at the intake of the plant during high flow. The wood grinder eliminates the periodic burning of the waste material that is cleared from the intake and reduces any additional air pollution to the area. The resulting organic mulch has been made available to the public at no charge. Design discussion and planning began immediately and the wood grinder was purchased in July of 2010 and immediately put to work mulching debris that was gathered regularly from the intake of the facility. The mulch is currently available to the public for free. A large majority of the design process was spent in discussion with the Corps of Engineers to obtain approval for drawings, documents, and permits that were required in order to make changes to the structure of the powerhouse. In April of 2011, the City’s Project Engineer, who had overseen the application, resigned and left the City’s employ. A new Systems Mechanical Engineer was hired and tasked with overseeing the project. The transfer of responsibility led to a re-examination of the original assumptions and research upon which the grant proposal was based. At that point, the project went under review and a trip was booked for July 2011 to visit facilities that currently

  20. The effects of run-of-river hydroelectric power schemes on invertebrate community composition in temperate streams and rivers

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Run-of-river (ROR) hydroelectric power (HEP) schemes are often presumed to be less ecologically damaging than large-scale storage HEP schemes. However, there is currently limited scientific evidence on their ecological impact. The aim of this article is to investigate the effects of ROR HEP schemes on communities of invertebrates in temperate streams and rivers, using a multi-site Before-After, Control-Impact (BACI) study design. The study makes use of routine environmental surveillance data collected as part of long-term national and international monitoring programmes at 22 systematically-selected ROR HEP schemes and 22 systematically-selected paired control sites. Five widely-used family-level invertebrate metrics (richness, evenness, LIFE, E-PSI, WHPT) were analysed using a linear mixed effects model. The analyses showed that there was a statistically significant effect (p<0.05) of ROR HEP construction and operation on the evenness of the invertebrate community. However, no statistically significant effects were detected on the four other metrics of community composition. The implications of these findings are discussed in this article and recommendations are made for best-practice study design for future invertebrate community impact studies. PMID:28158282

  1. The Effects of Run-of-River Hydroelectric Power Schemes on Fish Community Composition in Temperate Streams and Rivers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The potential environmental impacts of large-scale storage hydroelectric power (HEP) schemes have been well-documented in the literature. In Europe, awareness of these potential impacts and limited opportunities for politically-acceptable medium- to large-scale schemes, have caused attention to focus on smaller-scale HEP schemes, particularly run-of-river (ROR) schemes, to contribute to meeting renewable energy targets. Run-of-river HEP schemes are often presumed to be less environmentally damaging than large-scale storage HEP schemes. However, there is currently a lack of peer-reviewed studies on their physical and ecological impact. The aim of this article was to investigate the effects of ROR HEP schemes on communities of fish in temperate streams and rivers, using a Before-After, Control-Impact (BACI) study design. The study makes use of routine environmental surveillance data collected as part of long-term national and international monitoring programmes at 23 systematically-selected ROR HEP schemes and 23 systematically-selected paired control sites. Six area-normalised metrics of fish community composition were analysed using a linear mixed effects model (number of species, number of fish, number of Atlantic salmon—Salmo salar, number of >1 year old Atlantic salmon, number of brown trout—Salmo trutta, and number of >1 year old brown trout). The analyses showed that there was a statistically significant effect (p<0.05) of ROR HEP construction and operation on the number of species. However, no statistically significant effects were detected on the other five metrics of community composition. The implications of these findings are discussed in this article and recommendations are made for best-practice study design for future fish community impact studies. PMID:27191717

  2. Dynamic hydrologic economic modeling of tradeoffs in hydroelectric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Jordan D.

    Hydropower producers face a future beset by unprecedented changes in the electric power industry, including the rapid growth of installed wind power capacity and a vastly increased supply of natural gas due to horizontal hydraulic fracturing (or "fracking"). There is also increased concern surrounding the potential for climate change to impact the magnitude and frequency of droughts. These developments may significantly alter the financial landscape for hydropower producers and have important ramifications for the environmental impacts of dams. Incorporating wind energy into electric power systems has the potential to affect price dynamics in electricity markets and, in so doing, alter the short-term financial signals on which dam operators rely to schedule reservoir releases. Chapter 1 of this doctoral dissertation develops an integrated reservoir-power system model for assessing the impact of large scale wind power integration of hydropower resources. Chapter 2 explores how efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of electric power systems by using wind energy to displace fossil fuel-based generation may inadvertently yield further impacts to river ecosystems by disrupting downstream flow patterns. Increased concern about the potential for climate change to alter the frequency and magnitude of droughts has led to growing interest in "index insurance" that compensates hydropower producers when values of an environmental variable (or index), such as reservoir inflows, crosses an agreed upon threshold (e.g., low flow conditions). Chapter 3 demonstrates the need for such index insurance contracts to also account for changes in natural gas prices in order to be cost-effective. Chapter 4 of this dissertation analyzes how recent low natural gas prices (partly attributable to fracking) have reduced the cost of implementing ramp rate restrictions at dams, which help restore sub-daily variability in river flows by limiting the flexibility of dam operators in scheduling

  3. Hydroelectric power generation in an Alpine basin: future water-energy scenarios in a run-of-the-river plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongio, Marco; Avanzi, Francesco; De Michele, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    We investigate scenarios of hydroelectric power generation for an Alpine run-of-the-river plant in 2050. To this end, we include a conversion from streamflow to energy in a hydrological model of the basin, and we introduce a set of benchmark climate scenarios to evaluate expected future production. These are a "future-like-present" scenario assuming future precipitation and temperature inputs to be statistically equivalent to those observed during the recent past at the same location, a "warmer-future" scenario, which considers an additional increase in temperature, and a "liquid-only" scenario where only liquid precipitation is admitted. In addition, two IPCC-like climatic scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) are considered. Uncertainty in glaciers' volume is accounted by initializing the hydrological model with two different inventories of glaciers. Ensemble results reveal that 1) an average decrease between -40% and -19% of hydroelectric power generation in 2050 is predicted at the plant considered (with respect to present condition); 2) an average decrease between -20% and -38% of cumulative incoming streamflow volume at the plant is also predicted, again with respect to present condition; 3) these effects are associated with a strong average decrease of the volume of glaciers (between -76% and -96%, depending on the initial value considered). However, Monte Carlo simulations show that results are also prone to high uncertainties. Implications of these results for run-of-the-river plants are discussed.

  4. Case study analysis of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of the hydroelectric power of the Boardman River at Traverse City, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    An analytic description of one decision-making process concerning whether or not to develop the hydroelectric potential of the Boardman River is presented. The focus of the analysis is on the factor that the developers considered, or should consider in making a responsible commitment to small-scale hydroelectric development. Development of the Boardman River would occur at the five dam sites. Two existing dams, owned by the county, previously generated hydroelectricity, as did a third before being washed out. One dam has never been utilized. It is owned by the city which also owns the washed-out area. The study concludes that hydroelectric power is feasible at each. Grand Traverse County and Traverse City would engage in a joint venture in developing the resource. Chapter I presents a detailed description of the developers, the river resource, and the contemplated development. Chapter II is an analysis of the factors affecting the decision making process. Chapter III summarizes the impact of the more significant barriers and incentives and presents recommendations that, if implemented, will favorably affect decisions to develop small-scale hydroelectric generation capability.

  5. The impacts of wind power integration on sub-daily variation in river flows downstream of hydroelectric dams.

    PubMed

    Kern, Jordan D; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Characklis, Gregory W

    2014-08-19

    Due to their operational flexibility, hydroelectric dams are ideal candidates to compensate for the intermittency and unpredictability of wind energy production. However, more coordinated use of wind and hydropower resources may exacerbate the impacts dams have on downstream environmental flows, that is, the timing and magnitude of water flows needed to sustain river ecosystems. In this paper, we examine the effects of increased (i.e., 5%, 15%, and 25%) wind market penetration on prices for electricity and reserves, and assess the potential for altered price dynamics to disrupt reservoir release schedules at a hydroelectric dam and cause more variable and unpredictable hourly flow patterns (measured in terms of the Richards-Baker Flashiness (RBF) index). Results show that the greatest potential for wind energy to impact downstream flows occurs at high (∼25%) wind market penetration, when the dam sells more reserves in order to exploit spikes in real-time electricity prices caused by negative wind forecast errors. Nonetheless, compared to the initial impacts of dam construction (and the dam's subsequent operation as a peaking resource under baseline conditions) the marginal effects of any increased wind market penetration on downstream flows are found to be relatively minor.

  6. South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project : Adopted Portions of a 1987 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-07-01

    The South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project that world produce 6.55 average megawatts of firm energy per year and would be sited in the Snohomish River Basin, Washington, was evaluated by the Federal Energy Regulatory commission (FERC) along with six other proposed projects for environmental effects and economic feasibility Based on its economic analysis and environmental evaluation of the project, the FERC staff found that the South Fork Tolt River Project would be economically feasible and would result in insignificant Impacts if sedimentation issues could be resolved. Upon review, the BPA is adopting portions of the 1987 FERC FEIS that concern the South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project and updating specific sections in an Attachment.

  7. Potential Effects of Hydroelectric Dam Development in the Mekong River Basin on the Migration of Siamese Mud Carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus) Elucidated by Otolith Microchemistry

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Michio; Jutagate, Tuantong; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Phomikong, Pisit; Nohara, Seiichi

    2014-01-01

    The migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus), two of the most economically important fish species in the Mekong River, was studied using an otolith microchemistry technique. Fish and river water samples were collected in seven regions throughout the whole basin in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia over a 4 year study period. There was coherence between the elements in the ambient water and on the surface of the otoliths, with strontium (Sr) and barium (Ba) showing the strongest correlation. The partition coefficients were 0.409–0.496 for Sr and 0.055 for Ba. Otolith Sr-Ba profiles indicated extensive synchronized migrations with similar natal origins among individuals within the same region. H. siamensis movement has been severely suppressed in a tributary system where a series of irrigation dams has blocked their migration. H. lobatus collected both below and above the Khone Falls in the mainstream Mekong exhibited statistically different otolith surface elemental signatures but similar core elemental signatures. This result suggests a population originating from a single natal origin but bypassing the waterfalls through a passable side channel where a major hydroelectric dam is planned. The potential effects of damming in the Mekong River are discussed. PMID:25099147

  8. Potential effects of hydroelectric dam development in the Mekong River basin on the migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus) elucidated by otolith microchemistry.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Michio; Jutagate, Tuantong; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Phomikong, Pisit; Nohara, Seiichi

    2014-01-01

    The migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus), two of the most economically important fish species in the Mekong River, was studied using an otolith microchemistry technique. Fish and river water samples were collected in seven regions throughout the whole basin in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia over a 4 year study period. There was coherence between the elements in the ambient water and on the surface of the otoliths, with strontium (Sr) and barium (Ba) showing the strongest correlation. The partition coefficients were 0.409-0.496 for Sr and 0.055 for Ba. Otolith Sr-Ba profiles indicated extensive synchronized migrations with similar natal origins among individuals within the same region. H. siamensis movement has been severely suppressed in a tributary system where a series of irrigation dams has blocked their migration. H. lobatus collected both below and above the Khone Falls in the mainstream Mekong exhibited statistically different otolith surface elemental signatures but similar core elemental signatures. This result suggests a population originating from a single natal origin but bypassing the waterfalls through a passable side channel where a major hydroelectric dam is planned. The potential effects of damming in the Mekong River are discussed.

  9. A Wildlife Habitat Protection, Mitigation and Enhancement Plan for Eight Federal Hydroelectric Facilities in the Willamette River Basin: Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, S.K.

    1987-05-01

    The development and operation of eight federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin impacted 30,776 acres of prime wildlife habitat. This study proposes mitigative measures for the losses to wildlife and wildlife habitat resulting from these projects, under the direction of the Columbia River Basin (CRB) Fish and Wildlife Program. The CRB Fish and Wildlife Program was adopted in 1982 by the Northwest Power Planning Council, pursuant to the Northwest Power Planning Act of 1980. The proposed mitigation plan is based on the findings of loss assessments completed in 1985, that used a modified Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) to assess the extent of impact to wildlife and wildlife habitat, with 24 evaluation species. The vegetative structure of the impacted habitat was broken down into three components: big game winter range, riparian habitat and old-growth forest. The mitigation plan proposes implementation of the following, over a period of 20 years: (1) purchase of cut-over timber lands to mitigate, in the long-term, for big game winter range, and portions of the riparian habitat and old-growth forest (approx. 20,000 acres); (2) purchase approximately 4,400 acres of riparian habitat along the Willamette River Greenway; and (3) three options to mitigate for the outstanding old-growth forest losses. Monitoring would be required in the early stages of the 100-year plan. The timber lands would be actively managed for elk and timber revenue could provide O and M costs over the long-term.

  10. Reducing the Impacts of Hydroelectric Dams on Juvenile Anadromous Fishes: Bioengineering Evaluations Using Acoustic Imaging in the Columbia River, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hedgepeth, J.; Khan, Fenton; Mueller, Robert P.; Nagy, William T.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Weiland, Mark A.

    2008-07-29

    Dams impact the survival of juvenile anadromous fishes by obstructing migration corridors, lowering water quality, delaying migrations, and entraining fish in turbine discharge. To reduce these impacts, structural and operational modifications to dams— such as voluntary spill discharge, turbine intake guidance screens, and surface flow outlets—are instituted. Over the last six years, we have used acoustic imaging technology to evaluate the effects of these modifications on fish behavior, passage rates, entrainment zones, and fish/flow relationships at hydroelectric projects on the Columbia River. The imaging technique has evolved from studies documenting simple movement patterns to automated tracking of images to merging and analysis with concurrent hydraulic data. This chapter chronicles this evolution and shows how the information gleaned from the scientific evaluations has been applied to improve passage conditions for juvenile salmonids. We present data from Bonneville and The Dalles dams that document fish behavior and entrainment zones at sluiceway outlets (14 to 142 m3/s), fish passage rates through a gap at a turbine intake screen, and the relationship between fish swimming effort and hydraulic conditions. Dam operators and fisheries managers have applied these data to support decisions on operational and structural changes to the dams for the benefit of anadromous fish populations in the Columbia River basin.

  11. Reliability improvements of the Guri Hydroelectric Power Plant computer control system AGC and AVC

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, F.; Pescina, M. ); Llort, G. )

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes the computer control system of a large hydroelectric powerplant and the reliability improvements made to the automatic generation control (AGC) and automatic voltage control (AVC) programs. hardware and software modifications were required to improve the interface between the powerplant and the regional load dispatch office. These modifications, and their impact on the AGC and AVC reliability, are also discussed. The changes that have been implemented are recommended for inclusion in new powerplant computer control systems, and as an upgrade feature for existing control systems.

  12. Key Fish and Wildlife Species and Habitats in the Columbia River Basin Potentially Affected in a Cumulative Manner by Hydroelectric Development, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, Elizabeth Ann

    1985-09-30

    This final report summarizes the results of Task 1, which was the development of a list of key fish and wildlife species and habitat types that could potentially be impacted by hydroelectric development in a cumulative manner. Information developed in Task 1 is to be utilized in other tasks to identify specific pathways of cumulative effects, to assess current cumulative impact assessment methodologies, and to recommend alternative approaches for use in the Columbia River Basin. 58 refs., 17 tabs.

  13. Effects of Hydroelectric Dam Operations on the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Spawning Habitat Final Report, October 2005 - September 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Arntzen, Evan V.

    2007-11-13

    This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Fish and Wildlife Program directed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council. The study evaluated the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat within the impounded lower Snake River. The objective of the research was to determine if hydroelectric dam operations could be modified, within existing system constraints (e.g., minimum to normal pool levels; without partial removal of a dam structure), to increase the amount of available fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the lower Snake River. Empirical and modeled physical habitat data were used to compare potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Snake River, under current and modified dam operations, with the analogous physical characteristics of an existing fall Chinook salmon spawning area in the Columbia River. The two Snake River study areas included the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Highway 12 bridge and the Lower Granite Dam tailrace downstream approximately 12 river kilometers. These areas represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We used a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats was the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the Columbia River. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat use data, including water depth, velocity, substrate size and channelbed slope, from the Wanapum reference area were used to define spawning habitat suitability based on these variables. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat suitability of the Snake River study areas was estimated by applying the Wanapum reference reach habitat

  14. [Fishery resource protection by artificial propagation in hydroelectric development: Lixianjiang River drainage in Yunnan as an example].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Hong; Yang, Jun-Xing; Pan, Xiao-Fu; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Mei-Lin

    2011-04-01

    Hydroelectric developments can result in a number of negative environmental consequences. Conservation aquaculture is a branch of science derived from conservation and population recovery studies on endangered fishes. Here we discuss the impacts on fishes caused by hydropower projects in Lixianjiang, and evaluate effects and problems on the propagation of Parazacco spilurus, Hemibagrus pluriradiatus, Neolissochilus benasi and Semilabeo obscurus. A successful propagation project includes foraging ecology in fields, pond cultivation, juvenile fish raising, prevention and curing on fish disease, genetic management, artificial releasing and population monitoring. Artificial propagation is the practicable act on genetic intercommunication, preventing population deterioration for fishes in upper and lower reaches of the dam. For long-term planning, fish stocks are not suitable for many kind of fishes, but can prevent fishes from going extinct in the wild. Basic data collection on fish ecology, parent fish hunting, prevention on fish disease are the most important factors on artificial propagation. Strengthening the genetic management of stock population for keeping a higher genetic diversity can increase the success of stock enhancement. The works on Lixianjiang provide a new model for river fish protection. To make sure the complicated project works well, project plans, commission contracts, base line monitoring and techniques on artificial reproduction must be considered early. Last, fishery conservation should be considered alongside location development.

  15. Appraisal report, water resources appraisal for hydroelectric licensing: Pigeon River Basin, North Carolina, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    The water resources of the Pigeon River Basin which covers approximately 666 square mile in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina are evaluated. Data are presented on existing and potential water resource development, on water uses, e.g., for irrigation, municipal water supplies, or flood control and on the status of hydro plant licensing. Past and current planning studies are summarized. The information presented is current as of September 1981. (LCL)

  16. Effects of Artificial Flooding for Hydroelectric Development on the Population of Mansonia humeralis (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Paraná River, São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Marcia Bicudo; Gomes, Almério de Castro; Natal, Delsio; Duarte, Ana Maria Ribeiro de Castro; Mucci, Luís Filipe

    2012-01-01

    The closure of two phases of the dam at the Porto Primavera Hydroelectric Plant on the Paraná River flooded a flawed system located in the Municipality of Presidente Epitácio, São Paulo state, favoring the proliferation of aquatic weeds. This study aimed to observe the population of Mansonia humeralis in the area, monitoring the richness, diversity, and dominance of this species both before and during different phases of reservoir flooding as well as evaluate its possible consequences concerning human and animal contact. Adult mosquitoes were collected monthly in the following periods: at the original level, after the first flood, and after the maximum level had been reached between 1997 and 2002. Collection methods used were an aspirator, a Shannon trap, and the Human Attractive Technique. A total of 30,723 mosquitoes were collected, Ma. humeralis accounting for 3.1% in the preflood phase, 59.6% in the intermediate, and 53.8% at maximum level. This species is relevant to public health, since the prospect of continued contact between Ma. humeralis and the human population enhances the dam's importance in the production of nuisance mosquitoes, possibly facilitating the transmission of arboviruses. Local authorities should continue to monitor culicid activity through sustainable entomological surveillance. PMID:22529867

  17. A model for the data extrapolation of greenhouse gas emissions in the Brazilian hydroelectric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinguelli Rosa, Luiz; Aurélio dos Santos, Marco; Gesteira, Claudio; Elias Xavier, Adilson

    2016-06-01

    Hydropower reservoirs are artificial water systems and comprise a small proportion of the Earth’s continental territory. However, they play an important role in the aquatic biogeochemistry and may affect the environment negatively. Since the 90s, as a result of research on organic matter decay in manmade flooded areas, some reports have associated greenhouse gas emissions with dam construction. Pioneering work carried out in the early period challenged the view that hydroelectric plants generate completely clean energy. Those estimates suggested that GHG emissions into the atmosphere from some hydroelectric dams may be significant when measured per unit of energy generated and should be compared to GHG emissions from fossil fuels used for power generation. The contribution to global warming of greenhouse gases emitted by hydropower reservoirs is currently the subject of various international discussions and debates. One of the most controversial issues is the extrapolation of data from different sites. In this study, the extrapolation from a site sample where measurements were made to the complete set of 251 reservoirs in Brazil, comprising a total flooded area of 32 485 square kilometers, was derived from the theory of self-organized criticality. We employed a power law for its statistical representation. The present article reviews the data generated at that time in order to demonstrate how, with the help of mathematical tools, we can extrapolate values from one reservoir to another without compromising the reliability of the results.

  18. Oregon Trust Agreement Planning Project : Potential Mitigations to the Impacts on Oregon Wildlife Resources Associated with Relevant Mainstem Columbia River and Willamette River Hydroelectric Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-10-01

    A coalition of the Oregon wildlife agencies and tribes (the Oregon Wildlife Mitigation Coalition) have forged a cooperative effort to promote wildlife mitigation from losses to Oregon wildlife resources associated with the four mainstream Columbia River and the eight Willamette River Basin hydroelectric projects. This coalition formed a Joint Advisory Committee, made up of technical representatives from all of the tribes and agencies, to develop this report. The goal was to create a list of potential mitigation opportunities by priority, and to attempt to determine the costs of mitigating the wildlife losses. The information and analysis was completed for all projects in Oregon, but was gathered separately for the Lower Columbia and Willamette Basin projects. The coalition developed a procedure to gather information on potential mitigation projects and opportunities. All tribes, agencies and interested parties were contacted in an attempt to evaluate all proposed or potential mitigation. A database was developed and minimum criteria were established for opportunities to be considered. These criteria included the location of the mitigation site within a defined area, as well as other criteria established by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Costs were established for general habitats within the mitigation area, based on estimates from certified appraisers. An analysis of the cost effectiveness of various types of mitigation projects was completed. Estimates of operation and maintenance costs were also developed. The report outlines strategies for gathering mitigation potentials, evaluating them, determining their costs, and attempting to move towards their implementation.

  19. INTAKE AND DAM #3; FACING NORTHEAST Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTAKE AND DAM #3; FACING NORTHEAST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Reservoir and Dam Complex, North Bank of Snake River, extreme Eastern end of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  20. DETAIL OF SPILLWAY GATES; FACING NORTHEAST Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF SPILLWAY GATES; FACING NORTHEAST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Reservoir and Dam Complex, North Bank of Snake River, extreme Eastern end of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  1. INTAKE, VERTICAL VIEW; FACING EAST Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTAKE, VERTICAL VIEW; FACING EAST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Intake, North Bank of Snake River, immediately West/Northwest of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project Dam No. 1, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  2. Missouri River Reservoir System Analysis Model: Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    1984). "Efficient large-scale hydro system scheduling with forced spill conditions," IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, PAS-103(12...navigation, irrigation, power , water supply, water quality control, recreation, and fish and wildlife protection. Changes in supplies and changes in...But today, the Missouri is a blue-collar river: harnessed, dammed and channelized for flood control, hydroelectric power , barges, and irrigation. It can

  3. A holistic approach towards optimal planning of hybrid renewable energy systems: Combining hydroelectric and wind energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimas, Panagiotis; Bouziotas, Dimitris; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower with pumped storage is a proven technology with very high efficiency that offers a unique large-scale energy buffer. Energy storage is employed by pumping water upstream to take advantage of the excess of produced energy (e.g. during night) and next retrieving this water to generate hydro-power during demand peaks. Excess energy occurs due to other renewables (wind, solar) whose power fluctuates in an uncontrollable manner. By integrating these with hydroelectric plants with pumped storage facilities we can form autonomous hybrid renewable energy systems. The optimal planning and management thereof requires a holistic approach, where uncertainty is properly represented. In this context, a novel framework is proposed, based on stochastic simulation and optimization. This is tested in an existing hydrosystem of Greece, considering its combined operation with a hypothetical wind power system, for which we seek the optimal design to ensure the most beneficial performance of the overall scheme.

  4. Downstream passage and impact of turbine shutdowns on survival of silver American Eels at five hydroelectric dams on the Shenandoah River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eyler, Sheila; Welsh, Stuart; Smith, David; Rockey, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Hydroelectric dams impact the downstream migrations of silver American Eels Anguilla rostrata via migratory delays and turbine mortality. A radiotelemetry study of American Eels was conducted to determine the impacts of five run-of-the-river hydroelectric dams located over a 195-km stretch of the Shenandoah River, Virginia–West Virginia, during fall 2007–summer 2010. Overall, 96 radio-tagged individuals (mean TL = 85.4 cm) migrated downstream past at least one dam during the study. Most American Eels passed dams relatively quickly; over half (57.9%) of the dam passage events occurred within 1 h of reaching a dam, and most (81.3%) occurred within 24 h of reaching the dam. Two-thirds of the dam passage events occurred via spill, and the remaining passage events were through turbines. Migratory delays at dams were shorter and American Eels were more likely to pass via spill over the dam during periods of high river discharge than during low river discharge. The extent of delay in migration did not differ between the passage routes (spill versus turbine). Twenty-eight American Eels suffered turbine-related mortality, which occurred at all five dams. Mortality rates for eels passing through turbines ranged from 15.8% to 40.7% at individual dams. Overall project-specific mortality rates (with all passage routes combined) ranged from 3.0% to 14.3%. To protect downstream-migrating American Eels, nighttime turbine shutdowns (1800–0600 hours) were implemented during September 15–December 15. Fifty percent of all downstream passage events in the study occurred during the turbine shutdown period. Implementation of the seasonal turbine shutdown period reduced cumulative mortality from 63.3% to 37.3% for American Eels passing all five dams. Modifying the turbine shutdown period to encompass more dates in the spring and linking the shutdowns to environmental conditions could provide greater protection to downstream-migrating American Eels.

  5. WTS-4 system verification unit for wind/hydroelectric integration study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, A. W.

    The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) initiated a study to investigate the concept of integrating 100 MW of wind energy from megawatt-size wind turbines with the Federal hydroelectric system. As a part of the study, one large wind turbine was purchased through the competitive bid process and is now being installed to serve as a system verification unit (SVU). Reclamation negotiated an agreement with NASA to provide technical management of the project for the design, fabrication, installation, testing, and initial operation. Hamilton Standard was awarded a contract to furnish and install its WTS-4 wind turbine rated at 4 MW at a site near Medicine Bow, Wyoming. The purposes for installing the SVU are to fully evaluate the wind/hydro integration concept, make technical evaluation of the hardware design, train personnel in the technology, evaluate operation and maintenance aspects, and evaluate associated environmental impacts. The SVU will be operational in June 1982. Data from the WTS-4 and from a second SVU, Boeing's MOD-2, will be used to prepare a final design for a 100-MW farm if Congress authorizes the project.

  6. WTS-4 system verification unit for wind/hydroelectric integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, A. W.

    1982-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) initiated a study to investigate the concept of integrating 100 MW of wind energy from megawatt-size wind turbines with the Federal hydroelectric system. As a part of the study, one large wind turbine was purchased through the competitive bid process and is now being installed to serve as a system verification unit (SVU). Reclamation negotiated an agreement with NASA to provide technical management of the project for the design, fabrication, installation, testing, and initial operation. Hamilton Standard was awarded a contract to furnish and install its WTS-4 wind turbine rated at 4 MW at a site near Medicine Bow, Wyoming. The purposes for installing the SVU are to fully evaluate the wind/hydro integration concept, make technical evaluation of the hardware design, train personnel in the technology, evaluate operation and maintenance aspects, and evaluate associated environmental impacts. The SVU will be operational in June 1982. Data from the WTS-4 and from a second SVU, Boeing's MOD-2, will be used to prepare a final design for a 100-MW farm if Congress authorizes the project.

  7. Short-term cascaded hydroelectric system scheduling based on chaotic particle swarm optimization using improved logistic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yaoyao; Yang, Shanlin; Xu, Qifa

    2013-07-01

    In order to solve the model of short-term cascaded hydroelectric system scheduling, a novel chaotic particle swarm optimization (CPSO) algorithm using improved logistic map is introduced, which uses the water discharge as the decision variables combined with the death penalty function. According to the principle of maximum power generation, the proposed approach makes use of the ergodicity, symmetry and stochastic property of improved logistic chaotic map for enhancing the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The new hybrid method has been examined and tested on two test functions and a practical cascaded hydroelectric system. The experimental results show that the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed CPSO algorithm in comparison with other traditional algorithms.

  8. 53. NEW BCB AND LIGHTNING ARRESTER ARRANGEMENT, SANTA ANA RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. NEW BCB AND LIGHTNING ARRESTER ARRANGEMENT, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, JAN. 24, 1977. SCE drawing no. 455670-0. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. 53. SIPHON NO. 1, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2 PROJECT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. SIPHON NO. 1, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2 PROJECT, EXHIBIT L, PROJECT 1933, MAY 1973. SCE drawing no. 5110869 (sheet no. 11; for filing with Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. 34. ELEVATION OF RELAY AND CONTROL SWITCHBOARD, SANTA ANA RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. ELEVATION OF RELAY AND CONTROL SWITCHBOARD, SANTA ANA RIVER P.H. #3, JUNE 23, 1943. SCE drawing no. 413187-1. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. Methodologies for Assessing the Cumulative Environmental Effects of Hydroelectric Development on Fish and Wildlife in the Columbia River Basin, Volume 2, Example and Procedural Guidelines, 1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, Elizabeth Ann

    1987-07-01

    A hypothetical example of multiple hydroelectric development is used to demonstrate the applicability of the integrated tabular methodology (ITM) that was recommended for cumulative effects assessment in Volume 1. The example consists of an existing mainstem dam and four proposed small hydroelectric developments in a small river basin containing elk summer and winter range and chinook salmon spawning areas. Single-project impact assessments are used collectively in the methodology to estimate the cumulative effects of the projects on elk and salmon. The steps in cumulative assessment are (1) establishing a conceptual and schematic representation of each cumulative effect, (2) calculating interaction coefficients for each pair of projects, (3) developing interaction and impact matrices, (4) multiplying these matrices, (5) evaluating the contribution of shared project features to cumulative effects, and (6) incorporating the effects of already existing projects. The ITM is most effective when single-project assessments are accomplished in a detailed, quantitative manner. The methodology involves the use of impact response curves (such as fry emergence as a function of fine sediment or habitat suitability as a function of road density) for each impact being assessed. 14 refs., 15 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. The Influence of Changes in Lifestyle and Mercury Exposure in Riverine Populations of the Madeira River (Amazon Basin) near a Hydroelectric Project

    PubMed Central

    Hacon, Sandra S.; Dórea, José G.; Fonseca, Márlon de F.; Oliveira, Beatriz A.; Mourão, Dennys S.; Ruiz, Claudia M. V.; Gonçalves, Rodrigo A.; Mariani, Carolina F.; Bastos, Wanderley R.

    2014-01-01

    In the Amazon Basin, naturally occurring methylmercury bioaccumulates in fish, which is a key source of protein consumed by riverine populations. The hydroelectric power-plant project at Santo Antônio Falls allows us to compare the Hg exposure of riverine populations sparsely distributed on both sides of the Madeira river before the area is to be flooded. From 2009 to 2011, we concluded a population survey of the area (N = 2,008; representing circa 80% of community residents) that estimated fish consumption and mercury exposure of riverine populations with different degrees of lifestyle related to fish consumption. Fish samples from the Madeira river (N = 1,615) and 110 species were analyzed for Hg. Hair-Hg was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in less isolated communities near to the capital of Porto Velho (median 2.32 ppm) than in subsistence communities in the Cuniã Lake, 180 km from Porto Velho city (median 6.3 ppm). Fish Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 6.06 µg/g, depending on fish size and feeding behavior. Currently available fish in the Madeira river show a wide variability in Hg concentrations. Despite cultural similarities, riparians showed hair-Hg distribution patterns that reflect changes in fish-eating habits driven by subsistence characteristics. PMID:24577285

  13. 26. Original hydroelectric unit at Mormon Flat Dam. Unit is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Original hydroelectric unit at Mormon Flat Dam. Unit is still in operation. Photographer Mark Durben, 1988. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 27. Original Mormon Flat hydroelectric unit showing crane above. Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Original Mormon Flat hydroelectric unit showing crane above. Photographer Mark Durben, 1988. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. Evaluation of melioration area damage on the river Danube caused by the hydroelectric power plant 'Djerdap 1' backwater.

    PubMed

    Pajic, P; Andjelic, L; Urosevic, U; Polomcic, D

    2014-01-01

    Construction of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP) 'Djerdap 1' formed a backwater effect on the Danube and its tributaries, which had an inevitable influence on groundwater level, causing it to rise and thus creating additional threats to all melioration areas on more than 300 km of the Danube riversides, as well as on the riversides of its tributaries: the Sava (100 km) and the Tisa (60 km). In this paper, the HPP 'Djerdap 1' backwater effect on some characteristic melioration areas (34 in all) has been analyzed. In most of these areas intensive agricultural activity has always been present. An assessment of agricultural production damage was carried out by complex hydrodynamic calculations (60 calculation profiles) for different backwater regimes, with the aim to precisely quantify the HPP 'Djerdap 1' backwater effect on groundwater piezometric levels. Combining them with complex agroeconomic analyses, the aim is to quantify agricultural production damage and to consider the perspective of melioration area users. This method, which combines two different, but compatible, aspects of the melioration area threat assessment (hydrodynamic and agroeconomic), may present a quality base for further agricultural production threat assessment on all melioration areas on the Danube riversides, with the final aim to consider the economic effects and the importance of its further protection.

  16. Review of Pacific Northwest Laboratory research on aquatic effects of hydroelectric generation and assessment of research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Fickeisen, D.H.; Becker, C.D.; Neitzel, D.A.

    1981-05-01

    This report is an overview of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) research on how hydroelectric generation affects aquatic biota and environments. The major accomplishments of this research are described, and additional work needed to permit optimal use of available data is identified. The research goals are to: (1) identify impacts of hydroelectric generation, (2) provide guidance in allocating scarce water resources, and (3) develop techniques to avoid or reduce the impacts on aquatic communities or to compensate for unavoidable impacts. Through laboratory and field experiments, an understanding is being developed of the generic impacts of hydrogeneration. Because PNL is located near the Columbia River, which is extensively developed for hydroelectric generation, it is used as a natural laboratory for studying a large-scale operating system. Although the impacts studied result from a particular system of dams and operating procedures and occur within a specific ecosystem, the results of these studies have application at hydroelectric generating facilities throughout the United States.

  17. Phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Hydroelectric System Affected Area from Northern Amazonian Brazil: Further Insights into the Effects of Environmental Changes on Vector Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Furtado, Nercy Virginia Rabelo; Galardo, Allan Kardec Ribeiro; Galardo, Clicia Denis; Firmino, Viviane Caetano

    2016-01-01

    During 2012–2015, an entomological survey was conducted as part of a phlebotomine (Diptera: Psychodidae) monitoring program in an area influenced by the Santo Antônio do Jari hydroelectric system (Amapá State, Brazil). The purpose was to study aspects of Amazon/Guianan American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) vectors subjected to stresses by anthropogenic environmental changes. For sampling, CDC light traps were positioned 0.5, 1, and 20 m above ground at five capture locations along the Jari River Basin. Fluctuations in phlebotomine numbers were analyzed to determine any correlation with rainfall, dam waterlogging, and/or ACL cases, from May 2012 to March 2015. We captured 2,800 individuals, and among 45 species identified, Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Nyssomyia umbratilis, and Psychodopygus squamiventris s.l. were determined to be the main putative vectors, based on current knowledge of the Amazon/Guianan ACL scenario. Rainfall, but not complete flooding, was relatively correlated with phlebotomine fluctuation, mainly observed for Ps. squamiventris s.l., as were ACL cases with Ny. umbratilis. Behavioral changes were observed in the unexpected high frequency of Bi. flaviscutellata among CDC captures and the noncanopy dominance of Ny. umbratilis, possibly attributable to environmental stress in the sampled ecotopes. Continuous entomological surveillance is necessary to monitor the outcomes of these findings. PMID:28042300

  18. Reservoir stratification affects methylmercury levels in river water, plankton, and fish downstream from Balbina hydroelectric dam, Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Daniele; Forsberg, Bruce R; Amaral, João H F; Leitão, Rafael P; Py-Daniel, Sarah S; Bastos, Wanderley R; Malm, Olaf

    2014-01-21

    The river downstream from a dam can be more contaminated by mercury than the reservoir itself. However, it is not clear how far the contamination occurs downstream. We investigated the seasonal variation of methylmercury levels in the Balbina reservoir and how they correlated with the levels encountered downstream from the dam. Water, plankton, and fishes were collected upstream and at sites between 0.5 and 250 km downstream from the dam during four expeditions in 2011 and 2012. Variations in thermal stratification of the reservoir influenced the methylmercury levels in the reservoir and in the river downstream. Uniform depth distributions of methylmercury and oxygen encountered in the poorly stratified reservoir during the rainy season collections coincided with uniformly low methylmercury levels along the river downstream from the dam. During dry season collections, the reservoir was strongly stratified, and anoxic hypolimnion water with high methylmercury levels was exported downstream. Methylmercury levels declined gradually to 200 km downstream. In general, the methylmercury levels in plankton and fishes downstream from the dam were higher than those upstream. Higher methylmercury levels observed 200-250 km downstream from the dam during flooding season campaigns may reflect the greater inflow from tributaries and flooding of natural wetlands that occurred at this time.

  19. Optimal control of hydroelectric facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guangzhi

    challenging problem of optimizing a sequence of two hydro dams sharing the same river system. The complexity of this problem is magnified and we just scratch its surface here. The thesis concludes with suggestions for future work in this fertile area. Keywords: dynamic programming, hydroelectric facility, optimization, optimal control, switching cost, turbine efficiency.

  20. A Hydro System Modeling Hierarchy to Optimize the Operation of the BC Hydroelectric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawwash, Z.

    2012-12-01

    We present the Hydro System Modeling Hierarchy that we have developed to optimize the operation of the BC Hydro system in British Columbia, Canada. The Hierarchy consists of a number of simulation and optimization models that we have developed over the past twelve years in a research program under the Grant-in-Aid Agreement between BC Hydro and the Department of Civil Engineering at UBC. We first provide an overview of the BC Hydro system and then present our modeling framework and discuss a number of optimization modeling tools that we have developed and are currently in use at BC Hydro and we briefly outline ongoing research and model development work supported by BC Hydro and leveraged by a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council's (NSERC) Collaborative Research and Development (CRD) grants.he BC Hydro System Optimization Modeling Hierarchy

  1. Engineering and Design: Lifeline Report No. 1, Systems at Risk From Earthquakes, Hydroelectric Power Plant Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Allatoona 2A South Atlantic Mobile Georgia Etowah 110,000 Barkley 2A Ohio River Nashville Kentucky and Cumberland 130,000 Tennessee Beaver 1 Southwestern...Washington Broken Bow 1 Southwestern Tulsa Oklahoma Mt. Fork 100,000 Buford 2A South Atlantic Mobile Georgia Chattahoochee 86,000 Bull Shoals 1...Southwestern Little Rock Arkansas and White 340,000 Missouri Carters 2A South Atlantic Mobile Georgia Coosawattee 500,000 Center Hill 1 Ohio River Nashville

  2. 2. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Swimming Pool, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  3. 3. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Swimming Pool, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  4. 6. CLUBHOUSE. SOUTHWEST SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. Rainbow Hydroelectric ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. CLUBHOUSE. SOUTHWEST SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Clubhouse, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  5. 4. CLUBHOUSE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. Rainbow Hydroelectric ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CLUBHOUSE. NORTHEAST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Clubhouse, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  6. 1. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO WEST. Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Swimming Pool, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  7. National Hydroelectric Power Resources Study: Regional Assessment: Volume XXII: Western Systems Coordinating Council, (WSCC). Volume 22

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    I 5 _ BINGHAM -* - -• I05NPWOOgS * HAKER CREEK - I 5 _ BLAINE * * -• _ 43 24.0 - SNAKE RIVER _ 112 Q.o_ • • - - - NW . - Til _ * * EASLEY HUT...0 * 7~S. o. NNYUVUN * • I 5 • HAKER BURNT RIVER * 117 39.9 * IS • 8100 * 7bO • 303b. 245.33 • • * NW • • b50 * 100.0. 80:9. 7&0 * 303b...IS • 403500 * 7811 * 2585 * 1805.3 * * * NW * * 1021 * 180.0* 339.0 * 7811 * 2585 * * UYVUNNNUN * * * HAKER 11250000

  8. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. D.; Doherty, T. J.; Kannberg, L. D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-velocity requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more.

  9. Climate Change Modeling Needs and Efforts for Hydroelectric System Operations in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pytlak, E.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation will outline ongoing, multi-year hydroclimate change research between the Columbia River Management Joint Operating Committee (RMJOC), The University of Washington, Portland State University, and their many regional research partners and stakeholders. Climate change in the Columbia River Basin is of particular concern to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and many Federal, Tribal and regional stakeholders. BPA, the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, which comprise the RMJOC, conducted an extensive study in 2009-11 using climate change streamflows produced by the University of Washington Climate Impacts Group (CIG). The study reconfirmed that as more winter precipitation in the Columbia Basin falls as rain rather than snow by mid-century, particularly on the U.S. portion of the basin, increased winter runoff is likely, followed by an earlier spring snowmelt peak, followed by less summer flows as seasonal snowmelt diminished earlier in the water year. Since that initial effort, both global and regional climate change modeling has advanced. To take advantage of the new outputs from the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP-5), the RMJOC, through BPA support, is sponsoring new hydroclimate research which considers not only the most recent information from the GCMs, but also the uncertainties introduced by the hydroclimate modeling process itself. Historical streamflows, which are used to calibrate hydrologic models and ascertain their reliability, are subject to both measurement and modeling uncertainties. Downscaling GCMs to a hydrologically useful spatial and temporal resolution introduces uncertainty, depending on the downscaling methods. Hydrologic modeling introduces uncertainties from calibration and geophysical states, some of which, like land surface characteristics, are likely to also change with time. In the upper Columbia Basin, glacier processes introduce yet another source of uncertainty. The

  10. Assessing fish predation on migrating juvenile steelhead and a retrospective comparison to steelhead survival through the Priest Rapids Hydroelectric Project, Columbia River, Washington, 2009-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardiman, Jill M.; Counihan, Timothy D.; Burgess, Dave S.; Simmons, Katrina E.; Holmberg, Glen S.; Rogala, Josh; Polacek, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) have been working with the Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington (Grant PUD), to increase their understanding of predator-prey interactions in the Priest Rapids Hydroelectric Project (PRP), Columbia River, Washington. For this study, the PRP is defined as the area approximately 6 kilometers upstream of Wanapum Dam to the Priest Rapids Dam tailrace, 397.1 miles from the mouth of the Columbia River. Past year’s low survival numbers of juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) through Wanapum and Priest Rapids Dams has prompted Grant PUD, on behalf of the Priest Rapids Coordinating Committee, to focus research efforts on steelhead migration and potential causal mechanisms for low survival. Steelhead passage survival in 2009 was estimated at 0.944 through the Wanapum Development (dam and reservoir) and 0.881 through the Priest Rapids Development and for 2010, steelhead survival was 0.855 for Wanapum Development and 0.904 for Priest Rapids Development. The USGS and WDFW implemented field collection efforts in 2011 for northern pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and walleye (Sander vitreus, formerly Stizostedion vitreum) and their diets in the PRP. For predator indexing, we collected 948 northern pikeminnow, 237 smallmouth bass, 18 walleye, and two largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The intent of this study was to provide standardized predation indices within individual reaches of the PRP to discern spatial variability in predation patterns. Furthermore, the results of the 2011 study were compared to results of a concurrent steelhead survival study. Our results do not indicate excessively high predation of Oncorhynchus spp. occurring by northern pikeminnow or smallmouth bass in any particular reach throughout the study area. Although we found Oncorhynchus spp. in the predator diets, the relative

  11. 16. EXTERIOR NORTH END OF TULE RIVER POWERHOUSE SHOWING POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. EXTERIOR NORTH END OF TULE RIVER POWERHOUSE SHOWING POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO CENTER, SUBSTATION AT PHOTO RIGHT FOREGROUND, OFFICE BEHIND SUBSTATION AT RIGHT OF POWERHOUSE, AND MACHINE SHOP AT LEFT OF POWERHOUSE. THIS PHOTOGRAPH DUPLICATES HISTORIC VIEW SHOWN IN PHOTO CA-216-17. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Tule River Hydroelectric Project, Water Conveyance System, Middle Fork Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  12. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-leveling requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more. The technical feasibility of UPHS depends upon excavation of a subterranean powerhouse cavern and reservoir caverns within a competent, impervious rock formation, and upon selection of reliable and efficient turbomachinery - pump-turbines and motor-generators - all remotely operable.

  13. Bonneville Project Act, Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act and Other Related Legislation.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Legislative texts are provided for: Bonneville Project Act which authorizes the completion, maintenance, and operation of Bonneville project for navigation, and for other purposes; Federal Columbia River Transmission system Act which enables the Secretary of the Interior to provide for operation, maintenance, and continued construction of the Federal transmission system in the Pacific Northwest by use of the revenues of the Federal Columbia River Power System and the proceeds of revenue bonds, and for other purposes; public law 88--552 which guarantees electric consumers of the Pacific Northwest first call on electric energy generated at Federal hydroelectric plants in that regions and reciprocal priority, and for other purposes; and public law 78--329 which provides for the partial construction of the Hungary Horse Dam on the South Fork of the Flathead River in the state of Montana, and for other purposes

  14. Hydrodynamic optimization of trust ring pump and lubricating oil system for large hydroelectric units thrust bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, X.; Lu, Z.; Zhang, X.; Yang, S.

    2014-03-01

    Thrust-ring-pump is a kind of extreme-low specific speed centrifugal pump with special structure as numerous restrictions form thrust bearing and operation conditions of hydro turbine generator unit. Because the oil circulating and cooling system with thrust-ring- pump has a lot of advantages in maintenance and compactness in structure, it has widely been used in large and medium-sized hydro-generator units. Since the diameter and the speed of the thrust ring is limited by the generator set, the matching relationship between the flow passage inside the thrust ring (equivalent to impeller) and oil bath (equivalent to volute) has great influence on hydrodynamic performance of thrust-ring-pump, additionally, the head and discharge are varying with the operation conditions of hydro-generator unit and characteristic of the oil circulating and cooling system. As so far, the empirical calculation method is employed during the actual engineering design, in order to guarantee the operating performance of the oil circulating and cooling system with thrust-ring-pump at different conditions, a collaborative hydrodynamic design and optimization of both the oil circulating and cooling system and thrust-ring-pump is purposed in this paper. Firstly, the head and discharge required at different conditions are decided by 1D flow numerical simulation of the oil circulating and cooling system. Secondly, the flow passages of thrust-ring-pump are empirically designed under the restrictions of diameter and the speed of the thrust ring according to the head and discharge from the simulation. Thirdly, the flow passage geometry matching optimization between holes inside the thrust ring and oil bath is implemented by means of 3D flow simulation and performance prediction. Then, the pumps and the oil circulating and cooling system are collaborative hydrodynamic optimized with predicted head- discharge curve and the efficiency-discharge curve of thrust-ring-pump. The presented methodology has

  15. 76 FR 21885 - BOST5 Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... With the Commission and Soliciting Additional Study Requests Take notice that the following...: BOST5 Hydroelectric Company, LLC (BOST5). e. Name of Project: Red River Lock & Dam No. 5 Hydroelectric... (Corps) Red River Lock & Dam No. 5 on the Red River, near the town of Ninock near the City of...

  16. Yacyreta hydroelectric project contract signed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    On June 26, 1987 the $270 million contract for the supply of 20 large hydraulic turbines for the Yacyreta Hydroelectric Project was signed by the Entidad Binacional Yacyreta, (a binational agency created by the governments of Argentina and Paraguay for the development of Yacyreta), and by Voith Hydro, Inc., of York, Pennsylvania, and Canadian General Electric of Montreal, Canada. Under the terms of the contract, 9 turbine units will be supplied by Voith Hydro, Inc. from its York, Pennsylvania plant, 4 units by Canadian General Electric of Montreal, and 7 units by Metanac, a consortium of Argentine manufacturers, who will utilize technology and technical assistance from Voith and CGE. The Yacyreta Project is being built on the Parana River on the border between Argentina and Paraguay. Construction at the site commenced in late 1983. Voith's portion of this contrast represents approximately $130 million dollars worth of business for its York, Pennsylvania facility.

  17. Non-intrusive measurement techniques for hydroelectric applicants

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, R.; Lemon, D.

    1995-12-31

    Non-intrusive acoustic methods for measuring flows, originally developed for oceanographic applications, are being used in and around hydroelectric dams. The acoustic methods can be categorized as either back-scattering or forward-scattering. The first, using the back-scattered signal, measures the Doppler shift of the returning echo to determine the along-beam component of flow. These instruments are generally called Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP). Three beam solutions allow computation of the velocity components. Time gating the return provides a velocity profile with bin segments as small as 0.25 in. In areas of strong magnetic deviation, often the case beside large dams, a gyrocompass can be used to provide directional orientation. The velocity data can also be used to quickly compute river or channel discharge. Typical applications and several case studies are presented. The second acoustic technique is based on a forward-scattering phenomenon known as scintillation. This technique has been used on the Fraser River to monitor flows, and properties of the signal have recently been correlated with the biomass of upstream-migrating salmon. Acoustic scintillation flow measurements are well suited to applications with limited space in the along-flow direction. Applications to hydroelectric dams include turbine intake flow measurements, and a system has been developed to measure flow along fish diversion screens.

  18. Hiilangaay Hydroelectric Project – Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Twitchell, Sara; Stimac, Michael; Lang, Lisa; Witwer, Doreen; Jameson, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    The Hiilangaay Hydroelectric Project (“Hiilangaay” or the “Project”) is a 5-megawatt hydroelectric resource currently under construction on Prince of Wales Island (POW), Alaska, approximately ten miles east of Hydaburg. The objective of the Project is to interconnect with the existing transmission grid on Prince of Wales Island, increasing the hydroelectric generation capability by 5 MW, eliminating the need for diesel generation, increasing the reliability of the electrical system, and allowing the interconnected portion of the island to have 100 percent renewable energy generation. Pre-construction activities including construction planning, permit coordination and compliance, and final design have made it possible to move forward with construction of the Hiilangaay Project. Despite repeated delays to the schedule, persistence and long-term planning will culminate in the construction of the Project, and make Prince of Wales Island independent of diesel-fueled energy

  19. Precipitation Estimates for Hydroelectricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapiador, Francisco J.; Hou, Arthur Y.; de Castro, Manuel; Checa, Ramiro; Cuartero, Fernando; Barros, Ana P.

    2011-01-01

    Hydroelectric plants require precise and timely estimates of rain, snow and other hydrometeors for operations. However, it is far from being a trivial task to measure and predict precipitation. This paper presents the linkages between precipitation science and hydroelectricity, and in doing so it provides insight into current research directions that are relevant for this renewable energy. Methods described include radars, disdrometers, satellites and numerical models. Two recent advances that have the potential of being highly beneficial for hydropower operations are featured: the Global Precipitation Measuring (GPM) mission, which represents an important leap forward in precipitation observations from space, and high performance computing (HPC) and grid technology, that allows building ensembles of numerical weather and climate models.

  20. Feasibility of Documenting and Estimating Adult Fish Passage at Large Hydroelectric Facilities in the Snake River Using Video Technology; 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Pederson, David R.; Schartzberg, Mathew

    1993-03-01

    A field study was conducted at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River in 1992 to evaluate the feasibility of using time-lapse video technology to document and estimate fish ladder passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, sockeye salmon 0. nerka, and steelhead 0. mykiss using time-lapse video technology. High quality video images were produced with a time-lapse video system operating in 72 h mode from 1 May through 31 December, 1992 and fish were counted from 1 June through 15 December. From the video record we counted 15 sockeye salmon, 3,283 summer chinook salmon, 1,022 fall chinook salmon, and 125,599 steelhead. The composite count of target species generated from the video record was similar (p = 0.617) to the estimate made by on-site counters during identical time periods indicating that the two methods were precise. Comparisons of 24 h video counts and on-site (10 and 16 h) counts showed that a significant (p < 0.001) proportion of target salmonids migrated during the nighttime when on-site counts are not typically made at Lower Granite Dam. The mean sockeye salmon fork length measured from video images was 453 mm. Mean fork-lengths reported for Snake River sockeye salmon between 1953 and 1965 were much greater ({female} = 546 mm {male} = 577 mm). Cost comparisons showed that video costs were less than half those of on-site counting methods. The video method also included the collection of additional data. A computer software demonstration program was developed that graphically illustrated the possibilities of a completely automated, computerized fish counting and identification system.

  1. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation at Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Oregon Facilities, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrossian, Karen L.

    1984-08-01

    The report presents a review and documentation of existing information on wildlife resources at Columbia River Basin hydroelectric facilities within Oregon. Effects of hydroelectric development and operation; existing agreements; and past, current and proposed wildlife mitigation, enhancement, and protection activities were considered. (ACR)

  2. 76 FR 26718 - Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of Draft... Energy Projects has reviewed the application for license for the Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Project, located at the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation's, Gibson dam on the Sun River...

  3. 75 FR 352 - Enloe Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Doc No: E9-31210] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12569-001] Enloe Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting... Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Similkameen River, in the Town of Oroville, Okanogan...

  4. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in Rhode Island

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. In Rhode Island, any private rights in the flowing waters of a river or stream depend upon ownership of the abutting land. It appears Rhode Island follows the reasonable use theory of riparian law. The Department of Environmental Management is the most significant administrative agency with regard to dam construction, alteration, and operation in the state of Rhode Island.

  5. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric potential in Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of the hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. The first obstacle which every developer in Illinois must confront is obtaining authority to utilize the river bed, banks, and flowing water at the proposed site. This involves determination of ownership of the stream banks and bed and the manner of obtaining either their title or use; and existing constraints with regard to the use of the water. Illinois follows the riparian theory of water law. Following the detailed discussion of the water law, direct and indirect regulations and financial considerations are discussed.

  6. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in Connecticut are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area and this dual system is examined from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Connecticut follows the riparian theory of water law. Under this theory of the water law, private rights in rivers and streams are confined to the use of flowing water. A riparian proprietor does not own the water that flows by his estate. Licensing, permitting, and review procedures are discussed followed by discussion on public utilities regulation and indirect considerations.

  7. 9. INTERIOR OF KERN RIVER No. 1 POWERHOUSE BUILDING SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF KERN RIVER No. 1 POWERHOUSE BUILDING SHOWING EXCITER No 2. Ca. 1930 GENERAL ELECTRIC ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTOR REPLACEMENT FOR ALLIS-CHALMERS IMPULSE WHEEL IS VISIBLE ON RIGHT ALONG WITH COUPLING TO EXCITER SHAFT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Kern County No. 1 Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse Exciters, Kern River Canyon, Bakersfield, Kern County, CA

  8. 48. MAP OF SANTA ANA RIVER POWER PLANT NO. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. MAP OF SANTA ANA RIVER POWER PLANT NO. 2 OF THE EDISON ELECTRIC CO. THROUGH UNSURVEYED LAND IN THE SAN BERNARDINO FOREST RESERVE, APPROVED MAY 26, 1904, F. C. FINKLE, CHIEF HYDRAULIC ENGINEER. SCE drawing no. 53988. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. 29. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. PLAN FOR POWER HOUSE, SANTA ANA RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. PLAN FOR POWER HOUSE, SANTA ANA RIVER P. H. NO. 3, JUNE 23, 1943; REVISIONS, MAR. 14, 1945 AND MAY 17, 1954. SCE drawing no. 523219-2. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. 4. NORTH EXTERIOR SIDE OF KERN RIVER No. 1 POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH EXTERIOR SIDE OF KERN RIVER No. 1 POWERHOUSE BUILDING SHOWING TAILRACES FOR (LEFT TO RIGHT IN PHOTO) GENERATOR UNITS Nos. 4 AND 3, EXCITER No. 1, AND GENERATOR UNITS Nos. 2 AND 1. POWERHOUSE BUILDING NORTH EXIT DOOR IS IN CENTER OF WALL. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Kern County No. 1 Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse Exciters, Kern River Canyon, Bakersfield, Kern County, CA

  11. 15. OVERVIEW OF TULE RIVER POWERHOUSE FROM FLUME SECTION JUST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. OVERVIEW OF TULE RIVER POWERHOUSE FROM FLUME SECTION JUST SOUTHEAST OF FOREBAY SHOWING BYPASSED SEGMENT OF OLD HIGHWAY 190 IN FRONT OF POWERHOUSE A PHOTO RIGHT CENTER. TAILRACE FROM POWERHOUSE DISCHARGES PROJECT WATER BACK INTO TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK JUST OUT OF VIEW AT EXTREME LEFT OF PHOTO. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Tule River Hydroelectric Project, Water Conveyance System, Middle Fork Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  12. Feasibility of Documenting and Estimating Adult Fish Passage at Large Hydroelectric Facilities in the Snake River Using Video Technology; 1993 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Pederson, David R.; Fryer, Jeffrey

    1994-07-01

    Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River to evaluate the feasibility of using video technology to document and estimate fish ladder passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, sockeye salmon O. nerka, and steelhead O. mykiss. A video system was to produced video images during salmon passage periods. A technician identified and counted fish images from the video record. Fish ladder passage estimates of target species made from the video record were similar to estimates made by on-site counters during daytime periods, indicating that the two methods were relatively precise. We also found that a significant percentage (6.4% and 8.3%) of target salmonids migrated during nighttime periods when on-site counts were not typically made during the two years of study. Analysis of the video record permitted verification of individual sockeye salmon identified and counted by on-site count personnel, and provided data useful to managers of this ESA-listed stock. Analysis of the video record also permitted collection of additional data such as length measurements of individual specimens, which was used to regulate a fishery located upstream.

  13. [Effects of the installation of the Rosal hydroelectric power station, Itabapoana River, States of Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, on anophelinae, planorbidae and phlebotominae].

    PubMed

    Rezende, Helder Ricas; Sessa, Paulo Augusto; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2009-01-01

    The construction of dams usually changes the composition of the fauna within their areas of influence. In the area where the Rosal hydroelectric power station has been installed, in the States of Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, changes to the abundance of anophelinae, planorbidae and phlebotominae were evaluated before (1998-2000) and after (2000-2005) the damming. Nine sample collection points were defined, each represented by a home and its outbuildings, shelters for domestic animals and water collection points within a radius of 150m. One hundred and three adult anophelinae were collected before the damming and 313 afterwards; 200 immature anophelinae before and 708 afterwards; 868 planorbidae before and 486 afterwards; and 2,979 phlebotominae before and 912 afterwards. The vector record, consisting of anophelinae, planorbidae and phlebotominae, shows the potential of this area for transmission of malaria, schistosomiasis and American cutaneous leishmaniasis. However, the environmental changes did not increase the risk of the occurrence of these diseases.

  14. The impacts of organic matter on the distribution and methylation of mercury in a hydroelectric reservoir in Wujiang River, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Bo; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Li, Zhonggen; Yao, Heng; Shang, Lihai; Yan, Haiyu

    2016-01-01

    To understand the impacts of organic matter on the geochemical processing of Hg in a hydroelectric reservoir, spatial and seasonal distributions of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in both solid and liquid phases of sediment cores were investigated in the Wujiangdu Reservoir in Guizhou Province, China. Four sampling sites with different intensities of cage aquaculture activities were chosen and were evenly distributed from upstream to downstream of the Wujiangdu Reservoir. Elevated MeHg concentrations and the high percentage of MeHg in solid and liquid phases of the surface sediment demonstrated that the active Hg methylation process occurred downstream of the Wujiangdu Reservoir. In contrast, the absence of obvious peaks for MeHg in sediment from the upper reaches of the Wujiangdu Reservoir, consistent with low levels of organic matter, suggested that production of MeHg was limited. In sediment with high organic matter content, reduction occurred closer to the sediment surface, resulting in maximum MeHg concentration in these layers. The correlation between MeHg and organic carbon implied that organic matter content in the sediment originating from cage aquaculture activities can help to predict MeHg production rates in reservoirs, which could be used to assess possible MeHg contamination in a reservoir ecosystem.

  15. OVERVIEW OF SPILLWAY FROM SOUTH BANK OF RIVER; FADING NORTHNORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF SPILLWAY FROM SOUTH BANK OF RIVER; FADING NORTH-NORTHEAST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Reservoir and Dam Complex, North Bank of Snake River, extreme Eastern end of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  16. OVERVIEW OF POWERHOUSES FROM SOUTH SIDE OF RIVER; FACING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF POWERHOUSES FROM SOUTH SIDE OF RIVER; FACING NORTH - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Reservoir and Dam Complex, North Bank of Snake River, extreme Eastern end of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  17. 76 FR 46793 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Hydroelectric Project located on the Pound River, at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' (Corps) John W. Flannagan... of paper. The Commission strongly encourages electronic filings. See 18 CFR 385.2001(a)(1)(iii)...

  18. Impacts of boreal hydroelectric reservoirs on seasonal climate and precipitation recycling as simulated by the CRCM5: a case study of the La Grande River watershed, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irambona, C.; Music, B.; Nadeau, D. F.; Mahdi, T. F.; Strachan, I. B.

    2016-12-01

    Located in northern Quebec, Canada, eight hydroelectric reservoirs of a 9782-km2 maximal area cover 6.4% of the La Grande watershed. This study investigates the changes brought by the impoundment of these reservoirs on seasonal climate and precipitation recycling. Two 30-year climate simulations, corresponding to pre- and post-impoundment conditions, were used. They were generated with the fifth-generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5), fully coupled to a 1D lake model (FLake). Seasonal temperatures and annual energy budget were generally well reproduced by the model, except in spring when a cold bias, probably related to the overestimation of snow cover, was seen. The difference in 2-m temperature shows that reservoirs induce localized warming in winter (+0.7 ± 0.02 °C) and cooling in the summer (-0.3 ± 0.02 °C). The available energy at the surface increases throughout the year, mostly due to a decrease in surface albedo. Fall latent and sensible heat fluxes are enhanced due to additional energy storage and availability in summer and spring. The changes in precipitation and runoff are within the model internal variability. At the watershed scale, reservoirs induce an additional evaporation of only 5.9 mm year-1 (2%). We use Brubaker's precipitation recycling model to estimate how much of the precipitation is recycled within the watershed. In both simulations, the maximal precipitation recycling occurs in July (less than 6%), indicating weak land-atmosphere coupling. Reservoirs do not seem to affect this coupling, as precipitation recycling only decreased by 0.6% in July.

  19. Small-scale hydroelectric demonstration project: Reactivation of the Elk Rapids Hydroelectric Facility: Final operation and maintenance report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.G.

    1987-03-01

    Information related to the reactivation of the Elk River Hydroelectric Power facility is reported. This report includes a history of the power plant, pertinent cost data, emergency action plans, inspections and testing, warranty work, operating problems, project data, monthly production data, and monthly operating and maintenance costs. 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. The Effect of Hydroelectric Power Plants (hpp) on Agro-Life at Rural Land Regulation in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onursal Denli, G.; Denli, H. H.; Seker, D. Z.; Bitik, E.; Cetin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Turkey is one of the self-sufficient in foodstuffs and globally ranks as 7th significant agricultural exporter in the world. Main trading partners are the European Union, the United States and the Middle East. As known, agricultural production is dependent on factors including efficient and effective use of all inputs ranging from those natural resources as in land and water to well-trained human resources as labour at the production. The socio-economic aspects of this sector take several forms ranging from the incomes of the primary producers. Rural land regulation is a necessity for rural areas and is regarded as a useful instrument for improving farmer's incomes and life standards. The irrigation system, established during the rural regulation/land consolidation period of large-scale farming, is insufficiently adjusted to the new land tenure structures. The government is especially in the process of water management with hydroelectric power plants. This process produces energy that is required but effects negatively the rivers and agricultural, environmental, climatic conditions. Rivers are vessels of the nature. Free flowing rivers give life to all nature. Most of the studies indicate that Hydroelectric Power Plants (HPP) affects the surface and ground-water management, natural life, agricultural productivity, socio-economic situation at agricultural regions and agro-life related with immigration. This study emphasizes the effect of Hydroelectric Power Plants which are used in transformation of water as a renewable natural resource into electricity power from the perspective of environmental policies and rural regulation.

  1. The Columbia River System : the Inside Story.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The Columbia Ricer is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Northwest-from providing the world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying the clean natural fuel for over 75 percent of the region's electrical generation. Since early in the century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system. And through cooperative efforts, the floods that periodically threaten developments near the river can be controlled. This publication presents a detailed explanation of the planning and operation of the multiple-use dams and reservoirs of the Columbia River system. It describes the river system, those who operate and use it, the agreements and policies that guide system operation, and annual planning for multiple-use operation.

  2. Methodologies for Assessing the Cumulative Environmental Effects of Hydroelectric Development of Fish and Wildlife in the Columbia River Basin, Volume 1, Recommendations, 1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, Elizabeth Ann

    1987-07-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part set addressing methods for assessing the cumulative effects of hydropower development on fish and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin. Species and habitats potentially affected by cumulative impacts are identified for the basin, and the most significant effects of hydropower development are presented. Then, current methods for measuring and assessing single-project effects are reviewed, followed by a review of methodologies with potential for use in assessing the cumulative effects associated with multiple projects. Finally, two new approaches for cumulative effects assessment are discussed in detail. Overall, this report identifies and reviews the concepts, factors, and methods necessary for understanding and conducting a cumulative effects assessment in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 will present a detailed procedural handbook for performing a cumulative assessment using the integrated tabular methodology introduced in this volume. 308 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric in West Virginia at the state level are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by FERC. The development of small-scale hydroelectric energy depends on the selection of a site which will produce sufficient water power capacity to make the project economically attractive to a developer. In West Virginia, the right to use the flowing waters of a stream, creek, or river is appurtenant to the ownership of the lands bordering the watercourse. The lands are known as riparian lands. The water rights are known as riparian rights. Thus, the first obstacle a developer faces involves the acquisition of riparian lands and the subsequent right to the use of the water. The water law in West Virginia is discussed in detail followed by discussions on direct and indirect regulations; continuing obligations; financial considerations; and interstate organizations.

  4. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix F: Irrigation, Municipal and Industrial/Water Supply.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operations Review; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. North Pacific Division; United States. Bureau of Reclamation. Pacific Northwest Region.

    1995-11-01

    Since the 1930`s, the Columbia River has been harnessed for the benefit of the Northwest and the nation. Federal agencies have built 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries. Dozens of non-Federal projects have been developed as well. The dams provide flood control, irrigation, navigation, hydro-electric power generation, recreation, fish and wildlife, and streamflows for wildlife, anadromous fish, resident fish, and water quality. This is Appendix F of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System, focusing on irrigation issues and concerns arrising from the Irrigation and Mitigation of impacts (M&I) working Group of the SOR process. Major subheadings include the following: Scope and process of irrigation/M&I studies; Irrigation/M&I in the Columbia Basin Today including overview, irrigated acreage and water rights, Irrigation and M&I issues basin-wide and at specific locations; and the analysis of impacts and alternative for the Environmental Impact Statement.

  5. Flood trends and river engineering on the Mississippi River system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinter, N.; Jemberie, A.A.; Remo, J.W.F.; Heine, R.A.; Ickes, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    Along >4000 km of the Mississippi River system, we document that climate, land-use change, and river engineering have contributed to statistically significant increases in flooding over the past 100-150 years. Trends were tested using a database of >8 million hydrological measurements. A geospatial database of historical engineering construction was used to quantify the response of flood levels to each unit of engineering infrastructure. Significant climate- and/or land use-driven increases in flow were detected, but the largest and most pervasive contributors to increased flooding on the Mississippi River system were wing dikes and related navigational structures, followed by progressive levee construction. In the area of the 2008 Upper Mississippi flood, for example, about 2 m of the flood crest is linked to navigational and flood-control engineering. Systemwide, large increases in flood levels were documented at locations and at times of wing-dike and levee construction. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in New Hampshire

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. The first step any developer must take is that of acquiring the real estate parcel. The step involves acquisition in some manner of both river banks, the river bed, and where necessary the land needed for the upstream impoundment area. The developer must acquire the river banks to be considered a riparian owner. Classification as a riparian is important for only a use of water by a riparian owner is deemed a reasonable use and hence legal. Apart from acquisition by sale, lease, or gift, New Hampshire law permits a number of other methods. In part use of these methods will depend on whether the developer is the state, a municipality, a private corporation, or a public utility. Provided the developer avails himself of the five (5) megawatts exemption, his main regulatory agency will be the Water Resources Board. However, the state is not free from the problems of legal uncertainty inherent in determinations of reasonableness.

  7. The Columbia River System Inside Story

    SciTech Connect

    2001-04-01

    The Columbia River is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Pacific Northwest—from fostering world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying clean natural fuel for 50 to 65 percent of the region’s electrical generation. Since early in the 20th century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system.

  8. Carbon emission from global hydroelectric reservoirs revisited.

    PubMed

    Li, Siyue; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-12-01

    Substantial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from hydropower reservoirs have been of great concerns recently, yet the significant carbon emitters of drawdown area and reservoir downstream (including spillways and turbines as well as river reaches below dams) have not been included in global carbon budget. Here, we revisit GHG emission from hydropower reservoirs by considering reservoir surface area, drawdown zone and reservoir downstream. Our estimates demonstrate around 301.3 Tg carbon dioxide (CO2)/year and 18.7 Tg methane (CH4)/year from global hydroelectric reservoirs, which are much higher than recent observations. The sum of drawdown and downstream emission, which is generally overlooked, represents 42 % CO2 and 67 % CH4 of the total emissions from hydropower reservoirs. Accordingly, the global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 92 g CO2/kWh and 5.7 g CH4/kWh. Nonetheless, global hydroelectricity could currently reduce approximate 2,351 Tg CO2eq/year with respect to fuel fossil plant alternative. The new findings show a substantial revision of carbon emission from the global hydropower reservoirs.

  9. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    CERTA PJ

    2008-07-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste

  10. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    CERTA PJ; KIRKBRIDE RA; HOHL TM; EMPEY PA; WELLS MN

    2009-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and disposal

  11. 78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Project, FERC No. 3730, originally issued August 10, 1981.\\1\\ The project is... Hydroelectric Project of 5 Megawatts or Less and Dismissing Application for Preliminary Permit. 2. Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC is now the exemptee of the Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Project, FERC No. 3730....

  12. Efforts to Reduce the Impacts of Hydroelectric Power Production on Reservoir Fisheries in the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G. F.

    1997-09-08

    Research into the environmental effects of hydroelectric power production in the United States has focused increasingly on resident and migratory fish populations. Hydropower dams and reservoirs can block fish movements in both upstream and downstream directions. These movements are essential for important stocks of anadromous and catadromous fish. In addition, some strictly freshwater fish may move long distances within a river during their life cycle.A dam can pose an impassable barrier for fish trying to move upstream unless mitigation measures in the form of ladders or lifts are provided. Fish moving downstream to the sea may become disoriented when they encounter static water within a reservoir. Both resident and migratory fish may be injured or killed by passing through the turbine or over the spillway. In the United States, a variety of organizations conduct applied research and development of measures to (1) enhance fish passage, (2) reduce the numbers of fish that are drawn into the turbine intakes, and (3) reduce the injury and mortality rates of fish that pass through the turbines. Examples of these efforts from a variety of river systems and hydroelectric power plants are described.

  13. The development of advanced hydroelectric turbines to improve fish passage survival

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, Glenn F.

    2001-09-01

    Recent efforts to improve the survival of hydroelectric turbine-passed juvenile fish have explored modifications to both operation and design of the turbines. Much of this research is being carried out by power producers in the Columbia River basin (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the public utility districts), while the development of low impact turbines is being pursued on a national scale by the U.S. Department of Energy. Fisheries managers are involved in all aspects of these efforts. Advanced versions of conventional Kaplan turbines are being installed and tested in the Columbia River basin, and a pilot scale version of a novel turbine concept is undergoing laboratory testing. Field studies in the last few years have shown that improvements in the design of conventional turbines have increased the survival of juvenile fish. There is still much to be learned about the causes and extent of injuries in the turbine system (including the draft tube and tailrace), as well as the significance of indirect mortality and the effects of turbine passage on adult fish. However, improvements in turbine design and operation, as well as new field, laboratory, and modeling techniques to assess turbine-passage survival, are contributing toward resolution of the downstream fish passage issue at hydroelectric power plants.

  14. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Delaware

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. In Delaware, a watercourse is not to be confused with surface water. Each gives rise to certain riparian rights, but the law makes certain distinctions between the two. The presence of both surface waters and watercourses give rise to private and public rights related to the presence of the water. Some of these rights are vested in riparian owners. Recent Delaware case law has described the riparian owner as one who owns land on the bank of a river, or who is owner of land along, bordering upon, bounded by, fronting upon, abutting, or adjacent and contiguous to and in contact with a river. But, ownership of the bank does not give the riparian ownership of the water. Some law cases are cited to discuss the laws in Delaware.

  15. 76 FR 61689 - Sutton Hydroelectric Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sutton Hydroelectric Company, LLC Notice of Site Visit On February 6, 2008, Sutton Hydroelectric Company, LLC (Sutton Hydroelectric) filed a notice of intent and...

  16. Hyperspectral Imaging of River Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    correction. The HyperPRO data together with other data collected on each station including HPLC pigments , productivity, CDOM, suspended sediments...derivatives, to target products --- sediment, chlorophyll, or sampled pixels know to contain pigments of interest, such as phycocyanin commonly found in...derivative at 540 nm is highly sensitive to the sediment in the river plume. 9 The method for our sediment and pigment products from HICO is similar

  17. Hyperspectral Imaging of River Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    plume. The 300 m MERIS pixels do a much better job of imaging the river mouth. 3 The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO; Corson et...radiances, L1B data is supplied by NRL’s HICOTM team [ Corson 2010]. (b) At-sensor radiance for black pixel in Fig. 1 (a). The raw data is indicated...that goal. RELATED PROJECTS I continue to collaborate regularly with colleagues at the NRL Remote Sensing Division (Code 7200; Mike Corson and

  18. Energy Perspective: Is Hydroelectricity Green?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2009-01-01

    The current worldwide concern over energy is primarily related to imported oil, oil drilling and refining capacity, and transportation capacity. However, this concern has bolstered interest in a broader range of "green" energy technologies. In this article, the author discusses the use of hydroelectricity as an alternative energy source…

  19. Flood Forecasting in River System Using ANFIS

    SciTech Connect

    Ullah, Nazrin; Choudhury, P.

    2010-10-26

    The aim of the present study is to investigate applicability of artificial intelligence techniques such as ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) in forecasting flood flow in a river system. The proposed technique combines the learning ability of neural network with the transparent linguistic representation of fuzzy system. The technique is applied to forecast discharge at a downstream station using flow information at various upstream stations. A total of three years data has been selected for the implementation of this model. ANFIS models with various input structures and membership functions are constructed, trained and tested to evaluate efficiency of the models. Statistical indices such as Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (CORR) and Coefficient of Efficiency (CE) are used to evaluate performance of the ANFIS models in forecasting river flood. The values of the indices show that ANFIS model can accurately and reliably be used to forecast flood in a river system.

  20. Flood Forecasting in River System Using ANFIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Nazrin; Choudhury, P.

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate applicability of artificial intelligence techniques such as ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) in forecasting flood flow in a river system. The proposed technique combines the learning ability of neural network with the transparent linguistic representation of fuzzy system. The technique is applied to forecast discharge at a downstream station using flow information at various upstream stations. A total of three years data has been selected for the implementation of this model. ANFIS models with various input structures and membership functions are constructed, trained and tested to evaluate efficiency of the models. Statistical indices such as Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (CORR) and Coefficient of Efficiency (CE) are used to evaluate performance of the ANFIS models in forecasting river flood. The values of the indices show that ANFIS model can accurately and reliably be used to forecast flood in a river system.

  1. Feasibility, Design and Construction of a Small Hydroelectric Power Generation Station as a Student Design Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, James N.; Hess, Herbert L.

    An undergraduate capstone engineering design project now provides hydroelectric power to a remote wilderness location. Students investigated the feasibility of designing, building, and installing a 4kW hydroelectric system to satisfy the need for electric power to support the research and teaching functions of Taylor Ranch, a university facility…

  2. Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture to Upgrade Wastewater System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO -Today, the Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture, located in Parker, Ariz. entered into an agreement with the EPA to upgrade their wastewater treatment system to meet stringent water quality standards. The cost of the upgrade is ap

  3. Taking the Pulse of a River System: Research on the Upper Mississippi River System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, Jennifer; Johnson, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Mark Twain raved about the Mississippi River basin as, 'the body of the Nation'. The 'upper body', upstream of the confluence with the Ohio River, includes commercially navigable reaches and branching tributaries that are recreationally and environmentally important. Together they feed and shelter an array of fish and wildlife in their flowing channels, floodplain lakes, backwaters, wetlands, and floodplain forests. Effective river management requires knowledge about factors controlling the dynamics and interactions of important ecosystem components. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) is the prized diagnostic tool in the Environmental Management Program for the Upper Mississippi River System that provides critical information about the status and trends of key environmental resources.

  4. The Paradox of Restoring Native River Landscapes and Restoring Native Ecosystems in the Colorado River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the Colorado River basin (CRb), scientists and river managers collaborate to improve native ecosystems. Native ecosystems have deteriorated due to construction of dams and diversions that alter natural flow, sediment supply, and temperature regimes, trans-basin diversions that extract large amounts of water from some segments of the channel network, and invasion of non-native animals and plants. These scientist/manager collaborations occur in large, multi-stakeholder, adaptive management programs that include the Lower Colorado River Multi-Species Conservation Program, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program, and the Upper Colorado River Endangered Species Recovery Program. Although a fundamental premise of native species recovery is that restoration of predam flow regimes inevitably leads to native species recovery, such is not the case in many parts of the CRb. For example, populations of the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) are largest in the sediment deficit, thermally altered conditions of the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, but these species occur in much smaller numbers in the upper CRb even though the flow regime, sediment supply, and sediment mass balance are less perturbed. Similar contrasts in the physical and biological response of restoration of predam flow regimes occurs in floodplains dominated by nonnative tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) where reestablishment of floods has the potential to exacerbate vertical accretion processes that disconnect the floodplain from the modern flow regime. A significant challenge in restoring segments of the CRb is to describe this paradox of physical and biological response to reestablishment of pre-dam flow regimes, and to clearly identify objectives of environmentally oriented river management. In many cases, understanding the nature of the perturbation to sediment mass balance caused by dams and diversions and understanding the constraints imposed by societal commitments to provide

  5. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. III. Water level fluctuation

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.G.

    1980-10-01

    Potential environmental impacts in reservoirs and downstream river reaches below dams that may be caused by the water level fluctuation resulting from development and operation of small scale (under 25MW) hydroelectric projects are identified. The impacts discussed will be of potential concern at only those small-scale hydroelectric projects that are operated in a store and release (peaking) mode. Potential impacts on physical and chemical characteristics in reservoirs resulting from water level fluctuation include resuspension and redistribution of bank and bed sediment; leaching of soluble organic matter from sediment in the littoral zone; and changes in water quality resulting from changes in sediment and nutrient trap efficiency. Potential impacts on reservoir biota as a result of water level fluctuation include habitat destruction and the resulting partial or total loss of aquatic species; changes in habitat quality, which result in reduced standing crop and production of aquatic biota; and possible shifts in species diversity. The potential physical effects of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams are streambed and bank erosion and water quality problems related to resuspension and redistribution of these materials. Potential biological impacts of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams result from changes in current velocity, habitat reduction, and alteration in food supply. These alterations, either singly or in combination, can adversely affect aquatic populations below dams. The nature and potential significance of adverse impacts resulting from water level fluctuation are discussed. Recommendations for site-specific evaluation of water level fluctuation at small-scale hydroelectric projects are presented.

  6. RiverHeath: Neighborhood Loop Geothermal Exchange System

    SciTech Connect

    Geall, Mark

    2016-07-11

    The goal of the RiverHeath project is to develop a geothermal exchange system at lower capital infrastructure cost than current geothermal exchange systems. The RiverHeath system features an innovative design that incorporates use of the adjacent river through river-based heat exchange plates. The flowing water provides a tremendous amount of heat transfer. As a result, the installation cost of this geothermal exchange system is lower than more traditional vertical bore systems. Many urban areas are located along rivers and other waterways. RiverHeath will serve as a template for other projects adjacent to the water.

  7. Quantifying production of salmon fry in an unscreened irrigation system: A case study on the Rangitata River, New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unwin, M.J.; Webb, M.; Barker, R.J.; Link, W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Diversion of out-imigrant juvenile salmon into unscreened irrigation and hydroelectric canals is thought to have contributed significantly to declining populations of anadromous salmonids in the Pacific Northwest but is seldom studied in detail. Here we describe a program to study the fate of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha fry diverted into the unscreened Rangitata Diversion Race (RDR) on the Rangitata River, New Zealand, by trapping fish in a random sample of on-farm canals in irrigation schemes (systems) served by the RDR. The catch rate at a site 9 km below the intake was strongly related to Rangitata River flow, but catches further downstream were unrelated to flow. Most fish entering the RDR were fry or early postfry ( 70 mm FL), suggesting that many such fish became resident in the RDR for up to 3 months. Consequently, our estimate of the total number of fish leaving the RDR via on-farm canals (204,200 fish; 95% confidence limits = 127, 100 and 326,700) is a conservative measure of the number lost from the Rangitata River because it does not allow for mortality within the RDR. We did not quantify the proportion of Rangitata River out-migrants that entered the RDR, but our results suggest that this figure was at least 5% and that it may have been as high as 25%, depending on mortality rates within the Rangitata River main stem and the RDR itself.

  8. North Carolina's Rivers/Trails System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kay

    1980-01-01

    Two recreation and conservation programs in North Carolina are discussed and qualifications for inclusion in the state's trail or river systems are listed. Available from: Center for Environmental, Camping and Outdoor Education; University of North Carolina at Greensboro; Pine Lake Field Campus; 4016 Blumenthal Road; Greensboro, NC, 27406. (AN)

  9. Health evaluation indicator system for urban landscape rivers, case study of the Bailianjing River in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Yue; Yang, Haizhen; Lu, Zhibo; Xu, Xiaotian

    2010-11-01

    The River Bailianjing is an iconic landscape feature known to all residents in Pudong area and running through the Shanghai Expo 2010 Park. The river and its basin was a complex living ecosystem which supports a unique variety of flora and fauna several decades ago. However, as a result of unsuccessful pollution source control, sewage and first flow of the storm water is directly coming into the river in some catchment. The water quality of the river is seriously organically polluted now. The typical organic pollutants are COD, NH3-N, TN and TP, which cause the extinction of the water plants and aquatic. Furthermore, the artificial hard river banks isolate the river course and the land, which damaged the whole ecological system totally. The nature of the River Bailianjing and its history has resulted in many government departments and authorities and non government organizations having jurisdiction and/or an interest in the river's management. As a new tool to improve river management, the river health assessment has become the major focus of ecological and environmental science. Consequently, research on river health evaluation and its development on river management are of great theoretical and practical significance. In order to evaluate the healthy status of the River Bailianjing and prepare comprehensive scientific background data for the integrated river ecological rehabilitation planning, the health evaluation indicator system for River Bailianjing is brought forward. The indicator system has three levels: the first is target layer; the second is criteria layer, including five fields: water quality characteristics, hydrology characteristics, river morphology, biological characteristics and river scenic beauty; the third is an index layer, a total of 15 specific indicators included. Fuzzy AHP method is used to evaluate the target river's health status, and five grades are set up to describe it: healthy, sub health, marginal, unhealthy and pathological. The

  10. Carbon pathways in the Seine river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marescaux, Audrey; Garnier, Josette; Thieu, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Many papers have recently suggested that the anthropogenic perturbations of the carbon cycle have led to a significant increase in carbon export from terrestrial ecosystems to inland waters. The quantification of the carbon cascade (including fate of CO2 emissions) in highly anthropized river systems is thus essential to understand the response of aquatic systems. The Seine Basin where Paris and its environs represent 2/3 of its population, and agriculture is particularly intensive, is a eutrophic system. The main aim of this research is to understand and quantify how an excess of anthropogenic nutrients entering the Seine River system may locally enhance primary production, C sequestration, C respiration and CO2 emissions. The development of a new CO2 module in the pre-existing biogeochemical Riverstrahler model (Billen et al., 2007) should enable a refined calculation of the carbon budget. Besides calculation of the Respiration and Production activities along the entire river continuum, it will directly associate CO2 emissions. The CO2 modelling results will be confronted to (i) direct (in-situ) measurements with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyzer and (ii) indirect measurements based on total alkalinity, carbonate and pH along the Seine river system during the last decades, and (iii) calculations of a C metabolism budget. Billen, G., Garnier, J., Némery, J., Sebilo, M., Sferratore, A., Barles, S., Benoit P., Benoît, M. (2007). A long-term view of nutrient transfers through the Seine river continuum. Science of the Total Environment, 375(1-3), 80-97. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.12.005

  11. Initial river test of a monostatic RiverSonde streamflow measurement system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teague, C.C.; Barrick, D.E.; Lilleboe, P.M.; Cheng, R.T.; ,

    2003-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on May 7-8, 2002 using a CODAR RiverSonde UHF radar system at Vernalis, California on the San Joaquin River. The monostatic radar configuration on one bank of the river, with the antennas looking both upriver and downriver, provided very high-quality data. Estimates of both along-river and cross-river surface current were generated using several models, including one based on normal-mode analysis. Along-river surface velocities ranged from about 0.6 m/s at the river banks to about 1.0 m/s near the middle of the river. Average cross-river surface velocities were 0.02 m/s or less.

  12. The Use of Advanced Hydroelectric Turbines to Improve Water Quality and Fish Populations

    SciTech Connect

    Brookshier, P A; Cada, G F; Flynn, J V; Rinehart, B N; Sale, M J; Sommers, G L

    1999-09-20

    Hydroelectric power contributes about 10 percent of the electrical energy generated in the United States, and nearly 20 percent of the world's electrical energy. It is a renewable energy source that can contribute significantly to reduction of greenhouse gases by offsetting conventional carbon-based electricity generation. However, rather than growing in importance, hydroelectric generation has actually declined in recent years, often as a consequence of environmental concerns centering around (1) restriction of upstream and downstream fish passage by the dam, and (2) alteration of water quality and river flows by the impoundment. The Advanced Hydropower Turbine System (AHTS) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy is developing turbine technology which would help to maximize global hydropower resources while minimizing adverse environmental effects. Major technical goals for the Program are (1) the reduction of mortality among turbine-passed fish to 2 percent or less, compared to current levels ranging up to 30 percent or greater; and (2) development of aerating turbines that would ensure that water discharged from reservoirs has a dissolved oxygen concentration of at least 6 mg/L. These advanced, "environmentally friendly" turbines would be suitable both for new hydropower installations and for retrofitting at existing dams. Several new turbine designs that have been developed in the initial phases of the AHTS program are described.

  13. Advanced, Environmentally Friendly Hydroelectric Turbines for the Restoration of Fish and Water Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Brookshier, P.A.; Cada, G.F.; Flynn, J.V.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sale, M.J.; Sommers, G.L.

    1999-09-06

    Hydroelectric power contributes about 10 percent of the electrical energy generated in the United States, and nearly 20 percent of the world�s electrical energy. The contribution of hydroelectric generation has declined in recent years, often as a consequence of environmental concerns centering around (1) restriction of upstream and downstream fish passage by the dam, and (2) alteration of water quality and river flows by the impoundment. The Advanced Hydropower Turbine System (AHTS) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy is developing turbine technology which would help to maximize global hydropower resources while minimizing adverse environmental effects. Major technical goals for the Program are (1) the reduction of mortality among turbine-passed fish to 2 percent or less, compared to current levels ranging up to 30 percent or greater; and (2) development of aerating turbines that would ensure that water discharged from reservoirs has a dissolved oxygen concentration of at least 6 mg/L. These advanced, �environmentally friendly� turbines would be suitable both for new hydropower installations and for retrofitting at existing dams. Several new turbine designs that have been he AHTS program are described.

  14. Status after 5 Years of Survival Compliance Testing in the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, John R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Ploskey, Gene R.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Colotelo, Alison H.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Eppard, M. Brad; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2016-06-27

    Survival studies of juvenile salmonids implanted with acoustic tags have been conducted at hydroelectric dams within the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in the Columbia and Snake rivers between 2010 and 2014 to assess compliance with dam passage survival standards stipulated in the 2008 Biological Opinion (BiOp). For juvenile salmonids migrating downstream in the spring, dam passage survival defined as survival from the upstream dam face to the tailrace mixing zone must be ≥96% and for summer migrants, ≥93%, and estimated with a standard error ≤1.5% (i.e., 95% confidence interval of ±3%). A total of 29 compliance tests have been conducted at 6 of 8 FCRPS main-stem dams, using over 109,000 acoustic-tagged salmonid smolts. Of these 29 compliance studies, 23 met the survival standards and 26 met the precision requirements. Of the 6 dams evaluated to date, individual survival estimates range from 0.9597 to 0.9868 for yearling Chinook Salmon, 0.9534 to 0.9952 for steelhead, and 0.9076 to 0.9789 for subyearling Chinook Salmon. These investigations suggest the large capital investment over the last 20 years to improve juvenile salmon passage through the FCRPS dams has been beneficial.

  15. Enhancement and management of eel fisheries affected by hydroelectric dams in New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boubee, J.; Chisnall, B.; Watene, E.; Williams, E.; Roper, D.; Haro, A.

    2003-01-01

    Two freshwater anguillid eel species, Anguilla australis and A. dieffenbachia, form the basis of important traditional, recreational, and commercial fisheries in New Zealand. These fisheries have been affected by the damming of many of the major waterways for hydroelectric generation. To create fisheries in reservoirs that would be otherwise inaccessible, elvers have been transferred from the base of dams into habitats upstream. Operations in three catchments: the Patea River (Lake Rotorangi), Waikato River (eight reservoirs notably the two lowermost, lakes Karapiro and Arapuni), and Rangitaiki River (lakes Matahina and Aniwhenua) are discussed. In all reservoirs, the transfers have successfully established fishable populations within six years of the first transfers and, in Lake Arapuni eels have reached the marketable size of 220 g in less than four years. In comparison, it typically takes from 13 to 17 years before eel populations are fishable in the lower Waikato River where direct access to the sea is available. Telemetry and monitoring at the screens and tailraces of several power stations have been used to determine migration timing, triggers, and pathways of mature eels. Successful downstream transfer of mature migrating adults has been achieved by spillway opening and netting in headraces during rain events in autumn, but means of preventing eels from impinging and entraining at the intakes are still required. An integrated, catchment-wide management system will be required to ensure sustainability of the fisheries. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2003.

  16. The watershed and river systems management program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markstrom, S.L.; Frevert, D.; Leavesley, G.H.; ,

    2005-01-01

    The Watershed and River System Management Program (WaRSMP), a joint effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is focused on research and development of decision support systems and their application to achieve an equitable balance among diverse water resource management demands. Considerations include: (1) legal and political constraints; (2) stake holder and consensus-building; (3) sound technical knowledge; (4) flood control, consumptive use, and hydropower; (5) water transfers; (6) irrigation return flows and water quality; (7) recreation; (8) habitat for endangered species; (9) water supply and proration; (10) near-surface groundwater; and (11) water ownership, accounting, and rights. To address the interdisciplinary and multi-stake holder needs of real-time watershed management, WaRSMP has developed a decision support system toolbox. The USGS Object User Interface facilitates the coupling of Reclamation's RiverWare reservoir operations model with the USGS Modular Modeling and Precipitation Runoff Modeling Systems through a central database. This integration is accomplished through the use of Model and Data Management Interfaces. WaRSMP applications include Colorado River Main stem and Gunnison Basin, the Yakima Basin, the Middle Rio Grande Basin, the Truckee-Carson Basin, and the Umatilla Basin.

  17. 4. PULLEY SYSTEM AND CABLE FOR GATELIFTING MECHANISM, MOUNTED ABOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PULLEY SYSTEM AND CABLE FOR GATE-LIFTING MECHANISM, MOUNTED ABOVE THE THREE GATE OPENINGS, LOOKING SOUTH/SOUTHEAST. - Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gates & Gate-Lifting Mechanisms, Spokane River, approximately 0.5 mile northeast of intersection of Spokane Falls Boulevard & Post Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  18. 19. Heat Pump, view to the southwest. This system provides ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Heat Pump, view to the southwest. This system provides ventilation air heating and cooling throughout the powerhouse. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  19. 7. Unit 3 Service Water System Valves, view to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Unit 3 Service Water System Valves, view to the east. These pipes and valves supply water from the draft chest for cooling the generator barrels. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  20. 18 CFR 420.51 - Hydroelectric power plant water use charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Use Charges § 420.51 Hydroelectric power plant water use charges. (a) Annual base charges. Owners of... plant water use charges. 420.51 Section 420.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER... partially owned by the Commission shall pay an annual base charge to the Commission. The amount of the...

  1. 18 CFR 420.51 - Hydroelectric power plant water use charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Use Charges § 420.51 Hydroelectric power plant water use charges. (a) Annual base charges. Owners of... plant water use charges. 420.51 Section 420.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER... partially owned by the Commission shall pay an annual base charge to the Commission. The amount of the...

  2. 18 CFR 420.51 - Hydroelectric power plant water use charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Use Charges § 420.51 Hydroelectric power plant water use charges. (a) Annual base charges. Owners of... plant water use charges. 420.51 Section 420.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER... partially owned by the Commission shall pay an annual base charge to the Commission. The amount of the...

  3. 18 CFR 420.51 - Hydroelectric power plant water use charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Use Charges § 420.51 Hydroelectric power plant water use charges. (a) Annual base charges. Owners of... plant water use charges. 420.51 Section 420.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER... partially owned by the Commission shall pay an annual base charge to the Commission. The amount of the...

  4. 18 CFR 420.51 - Hydroelectric power plant water use charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Use Charges § 420.51 Hydroelectric power plant water use charges. (a) Annual base charges. Owners of... plant water use charges. 420.51 Section 420.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER... partially owned by the Commission shall pay an annual base charge to the Commission. The amount of the...

  5. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  6. Building a hydroelectric project at a fishway

    SciTech Connect

    Bagnall, C.L. ); Haake, H.E. )

    1993-12-01

    It's not unusual to hear about a fishway being installed at a hydro facility. However, the reverse -- installing a hydro plant at an existing fish passage facility -- is unique. Northern Wasco County People's Utility District (PUD) in Oregon has proved the validity of the idea. For decades, the Pacific Northwest has relied upon hydropower as a reliable and economic means of generating electricity. In recent years, however, in the Columbia River Basin, efforts to protect diminishing salmon stocks have taken precedence over the development of new hydropower plants. With that in mind, the Northern Wasco County PUD in Oregon set out to develop a hydroelectric project that not only provided for fish passage, but also took advantage of an existing fishway. The Dalles Dam North Fishway Project began operating in 1991. The project site is a fishway at the US Army Corps of Engineers' The Dalles Lock and Dam. The 5-MW project received intense scrutiny from state and federal fishery agencies and Indian tribes. All of the parties worked together to settle differences and to develop a feasible project that meets multiple needs.

  7. Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few carbon emissions. Yet, reservoirs are not operated sustainably, which we define as meeting societal needs for water and power while protecting long-term health of the river ecosystem. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy reve

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta; Smith, Brennan T

    2008-02-01

    Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few carbon emissions. Yet, reservoirs are not operated sustainably, which we define as meeting societal needs for water and power while protecting long-term health of the river ecosystem. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy revenue, while meeting other legal water requirements. Reservoir optimization schemes used in practice do not seek flow regimes that maximize aquatic ecosystem health. Here, we review optimization studies that considered environmental goals in one of three approaches. The first approach seeks flow regimes that maximize hydropower generation, while satisfying legal requirements, including environmental (or minimum) flows. Solutions from this approach are often used in practice to operate hydropower projects. In the second approach, flow releases from a dam are timed to meet water quality constraints on dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature and nutrients. In the third approach, flow releases are timed to improve the health of fish populations. We conclude by suggesting three steps for bringing multi-objective reservoir operation closer to the goal of ecological sustainability: (1) conduct research to identify which features of flow variation are essential for river health and to quantify these relationships, (2) develop valuation methods to assess the total value of river health and (3) develop optimal control softwares that combine water balance modelling with models that predict ecosystem responses to flow.

  8. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in New Jersey are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is discussed. New Jersey follows the riparian theory of water law. Following an extensive discussion of the New Jersey water law, New Jersey regulatory law and financial considerations regarding hydroelectric power development are discussed.

  9. Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, P. M.; Duffy, C. J.; Dressler, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    In response to the NSF-CUAHSI initiative for a national network of Hydrologic Observatories, we propose to initiate the Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS), as the northeast node. The Susquehanna has a drainage area of 71, 410 km2. From the headwaters near Cooperstown, NY, the river is formed within the glaciated Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, crossing the Valley and Ridge, then the Piedmont, before finishing its' 444 mile journey in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay. The Susquehanna is the major source of water and nutrients to the Chesapeake. It has a rich history in resource development (logging, mining, coal, agriculture, urban and heavy industry), with an unusual resilience to environmental degradation, which continues today. The shallow Susquehanna is one of the most flood-ravaged rivers in the US with a decadal regularity of major damage from hurricane floods and rain-on-snow events. As a result of this history, it has an enormous infrastructure for climate, surface water and groundwater monitoring already in place, including the nations only regional groundwater monitoring system for drought detection. Thirty-six research institutions have formed the SRBHOS partnership to collaborate on a basin-wide network design for a new scientific observing system. Researchers at the partner universities have conducted major NSF research projects within the basin, setting the stage and showing the need for a new terrestrial hydrologic observing system. The ultimate goal of SRBHOS is to close water, energy and solute budgets from the boundary layer to the water table, extending across plot, hillslope, watershed, and river basin scales. SRBHOS is organized around an existing network of testbeds (legacy watershed sites) run by the partner universities, and research institutions. The design of the observing system, when complete, will address fundamental science questions within major physiographic regions of the basin. A nested

  10. Upper arun hydroelectric project feasibility study (phase 1). Volume 2. Appendix. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The report was prepared for Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA). The primary objective of the study was to compare several alternative development schemes to drive an optimum development plan for exploiting the hydroelectric potential of the Upper Arun River, to be further investigated in phase 2 of the feasibility study. The report presents the result of the phase I studies investigations recommends the alternatives to be pursued to develop the Upper Arun River. Volume 2 contains tables, figures and other supporting materials.

  11. Proliferation of Hydroelectric Dams in the Andean Amazon and Implications for Andes-Amazon Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2012-01-01

    Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics. PMID:22529979

  12. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    PubMed

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N

    2012-01-01

    Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  13. Taking the pulse of a river system: first 20 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, Linda; Johnson, Barry

    2006-01-01

    Your doctor would not base decisions for your health care today on one physical examination when you were age three! You would reasonably expect decisions to be based on records from over your lifetime. Likewise, those responsible for monitoring the health of the Upper Mississippi River System want a more comprehensive way to diagnose problems and find treatment options. To begin developing a comprehensive view of the river, the five neighboring states of the Upper Mississippi River System and several Federal agencies formed a partnership in 1986 to monitor river conditions and long-term trends in the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.

  14. River Protection Project information systems assessment

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, A.L.

    1999-07-28

    The Information Systems Assessment Report documents the results from assessing the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Hanford Data Integrator 2000 (HANDI 2000) system, Business Management System (BMS) and Work Management System phases (WMS), with respect to the System Engineering Capability Assessment Model (CAM). The assessment was performed in accordance with the expectations stated in the fiscal year (FY) 1999 Performance Agreement 7.1.1, item (2) which reads, ''Provide an assessment report on the selected Integrated Information System by July 31, 1999.'' This report assesses the BMS and WMS as implemented and planned for the River Protection Project (RPP). The systems implementation is being performed under the PHMC HANDI 2000 information system project. The project began in FY 1998 with the BMS, proceeded in FY 1999 with the Master Equipment List portion of the WMS, and will continue the WMS implementation as funding provides. This report constitutes an interim quality assessment providing information necessary for planning RPP's information systems activities. To avoid confusion, HANDI 2000 will be used when referring to the entire system, encompassing both the BMS and WMS. A graphical depiction of the system is shown in Figure 2-1 of this report.

  15. Mitigation and enhancement techniques for the Upper Mississippi River system and other large river systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnick, Rosalie A.; Morton, John M.; Mochalski, Jeffrey C.; Beall, Jonathan T.

    1982-01-01

    Extensive information is provided on techniques that can reduce or eliminate the negative impact of man's activities (particularly those related to navigation) on large river systems, with special reference to the Upper Mississippi River. These techniques should help resource managers who are concerned with such river systems to establish sound environmental programs. Discussion of each technique or group of techniques include (1) situation to be mitigated or enhanced; (2) description of technique; (3) impacts on the environment; (4) costs; and (5) evaluation for use on the Upper Mississippi River Systems. The techniques are divided into four primary categories: Bank Stabilization Techniques, Dredging and Disposal of Dredged Material, Fishery Management Techniques, and Wildlife Management Techniques. Because techniques have been grouped by function, rather than by structure, some structures are discussed in several contexts. For example, gabions are discussed for use in revetments, river training structures, and breakwaters. The measures covered under Bank Stabilization Techniques include the use of riprap revetments, other revetments, bulkheads, river training structures, breakwater structures, chemical soil stabilizers, erosion-control mattings, and filter fabrics; the planting of vegetation; the creation of islands; the creation of berms or enrichment of beaches; and the control of water level and boat traffic. The discussions of Dredging and the Disposal of Dredged Material consider dredges, dredging methods, and disposal of dredged material. The following subjects are considered under Fishery Management Techniques: fish attractors; spawning structures; nursery ponds, coves, and marshes; fish screens and barriers; fish passage; water control structures; management of water levels and flows; wing dam modification; side channel modification; aeration techniques; control of nuisance aquatic plants; and manipulated of fish populations. Wildlife Management

  16. National wild and scenic rivers system, January 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,; ,; ,; ,

    2000-01-01

    The National Wild and Scenic Rivers System was created by Congress in 1968 (Public Law 90-542; 16 U.S.C 1271 et seq.) to preserve certain rivers with outstanding natural cultural, or recreational features in a free flowing condition for enjoyment of present and future generations. As of January 2000, the National System has grown from its initial eight components to a 156-river system with representation in 37 states.

  17. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are examined. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Additional sections cover acquisition; liability; Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection; energy utilities; local regulations; incidental impacts; financial considerations; and sources of information. In Kentucky, many of the impacts have not been implemented with regard to small-scale hydroelectric energy, since in Kentucky most electricity is coal-generated and any hydroelectric power that does exist, is derived from TVA or the Army Corp of Engineer projects.

  18. Modeling the vulnerability of hydroelectricity generation under drought scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, E.; Tidwell, V. C.; Bizjack, M.; Espinoza, V.; Jared, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydroelectricity generation highly relies on in-stream and reservoir water availability. The western US has recently experienced increasingly sever, frequent, and prolonged droughts resulting in significant water availability issues. A large number of hydropower plants in Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) are located in California River Basin and Pacific Northwest River Basin. In supporting the WECC's long-term transmission planning, a drought impact analysis was performed with a series of data and modeling tools. This presentation will demonstrate a case study for California River Basin, which has recently experienced one of the worst droughts in its history. The purpose of this study is to evaluate potential risk for hydroelectricity generation due to projected drought scenarios in the medium-term (through the year of 2030). On the basis of historical droughts and the projected drought year for 2020-2030, three drought scenarios were identified. The hydrologic model was constructed and calibrated to simulate evapotranspiration, streamflow, soil moisture, irrigation as well as reservoir storage and discharge based on various dam operation rules and targets under three drought scenarios. The model also incorporates the projected future water demand in 2030 (e.g. municipal, agricultural, electricity generation). The projected monthly reservoir discharges were used to predict the monthly hydropower generation for hydropower plants with a capacity greater than 50 MW in California River Basin for each drought scenario. The results from this study identify spatial distribution of vulnerable hydropower plants and watersheds as well as the level of potential reduction of electricity generation under various drought scenarios and provide valuable insights into future mitigation strategies and long-term planning.

  19. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho: Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2002-12-01

    Recent decline of Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata adult migrants to the Snake River drainage has focused attention on the species. Adult Pacific lamprey counted passing Ice Harbor Dam fishway averaged 18,158 during 1962-69 and 361 during 1993-2000. Human resource manipulations in the Snake River and Clearwater River drainages have altered ecosystem habitat in the last 120 years, likely impacting the productive potential of Pacific lamprey habitat. Timber harvest, stream impoundment, road construction, grazing, mining, and community development have dominated habitat alteration in the Clearwater River system and Snake River corridor. Hydroelectric projects in the Snake River corridor impact juvenile/larval Pacific lamprey outmigrants and returning adults. Juvenile and larval lamprey outmigrants potentially pass through turbines, turbine bypass/collection systems, and over spillway structures at the four lower Snake River hydroelectric dams. Clearwater River drainage hydroelectric facilities have impacted Pacific lamprey populations to an unknown degree. The Pacific Power and Light Dam on the Clearwater River in Lewiston, Idaho, restricted chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha passage in the 1927-1940 period, altering the migration route of outmigrating Pacific lamprey juveniles/larvae and upstream adult migrants (1927-1972). Dworshak Dam, completed in 1972, eliminated Pacific lamprey spawning and rearing in the North Fork Clearwater River drainage. Construction of the Harpster hydroelectric dam on the South Fork of the Clearwater River resulted in obstructed fish passage 1949-1963. Through Bonneville Power Administration support, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage in 2001. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South Fork

  20. Summary of the New England conference on legal and institutional incentives to small-scale hydroelectric development (Boston Massachusetts, January 30-31, 1979)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The New England Conference on Legal and Institutional Incentives to Small Scale Hydroelectric Development examined the legal and institutional problems confronting small-scale hydroelectric potential of the northeast. Representatives from DOE, FERC, state legislatures, state public service commissions, private developers, and environmental groups attempted to evaluate the state of hydroelectric development in New England. The meeting began with an introductory panel followed by workshops addressing four topics: Federal regulatory systems, state regulatory systems, the economics of small-scale hydroelectric development, and systems dynamics and the systems dynamics model. Comments by the Honorable Georgiana H. Sheldon, FERC, are presented.

  1. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho : Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Recent decline of Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata adult migrants to the Snake River drainage has focused attention on the species. Adult returns in 1995-1999 were more than ten magnitudes less than returns in the early 1960's. Human activities in the Snake River and Clearwater River drainages have altered ecosystem habitat in the last 100 years and likely the productive potential of Pacific lamprey habitat. Logging, stream impoundment, road construction, grazing, mining, and community development have dominated habitat alteration in the Clearwater River system and Snake River corridor. Hydroelectric projects in the Snake River corridor impact juvenile Pacific lamprey outmigrants and returning adults. Juvenile lamprey outmigrants potentially pass through turbines, turbine bypass and collection systems, and spillway structures at lower Snake River hydroelectric dams. Clearwater River drainage hydroelectric facilities including the Pacific Power and Light Dam on the Clearwater River in Lewiston, Idaho, impacted Pacific lamprey populations, however, the degree of impact is unknown (1920's-early 1970's). Hydroelectric dam construction (Harpster Dam) on the South Fork of the Clearwater River resulted in obstructed salmonid passage in the mid-1900's. Habitat alterations in the Snake River basin and Clearwater River drainage have had numerous negative effects on salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead trout O. mykiss populations (wild fish), but the magnitude of impacts on lamprey productivity and survival is unknown. Thorough understanding of Pacific lamprey habitat use and life history processes is needed to facilitate management and restoration of the species. Through Bonneville Power Administration support, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game began investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage in 2000. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine where Pacific lamprey persist

  2. Wildlife Impact Assessment and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Phase 1, Volume Two (B), Clark Fork River Projects, Cabinet Gorge and Noxon Rapids Dams, Operator, Washington Water Power Company.

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Marilyn

    1984-06-01

    This report documents best available information concerning the wildlife species impacted and the degree of the impact. A target species list was developed to focus the impact assessment and to direct mitigation efforts. Many non-target species also incurred impacts but are not discussed in this report. All wildlife habitats inundated by the two reservoirs are represented by the target species. It was assumed the numerous non-target species also affected will be benefited by the mitigation measures adopted for the target species. Impacts addressed are limited to those directly attributable to the loss of habitat and displacement of wildlife populations due to the construction and operation of the two hydroelectric projects. Secondary impacts, such as the relocation of railroads and highways, and the increase of the human population, were not considered. In some cases, both positive and negative impacts were assessed; and the overall net effect was reported. The loss/gain estimates reported represent impacts considered to have occurred during one point in time except where otherwise noted. When possible, quantitative estimates were developed based on historical information from the area or on data from similar areas. Qualitative loss estimates of low, moderate, or high with supporting rationale were assessed for each species or species group.

  3. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation, Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Washington Facilities (Intrastate) Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Howerton, Jack

    1984-11-01

    This report was prepared for BPA in fulfillment of section 1004 (b)(1) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980, to review the status of past, present, and proposed future wildlife planning and mitigation program at existing hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. The project evaluations will form the basis for determining any needed remedial measures or additional project analysis. Projects addressed are: Merwin Dam; Swift Project; Yale Project; Cowlitz River; Boundary Dam; Box Canyon Dam; Lake Chelan; Condit Project; Enloe Project; Spokane River; Tumwater and Dryden Dam; Yakima; and Naches Project.

  4. Optimal water quality monitoring network design for river systems.

    PubMed

    Telci, Ilker T; Nam, Kijin; Guan, Jiabao; Aral, Mustafa M

    2009-07-01

    Typical tasks of a river monitoring network design include the selection of the water quality parameters, selection of sampling and measurement methods for these parameters, identification of the locations of sampling stations and determination of the sampling frequencies. These primary design considerations may require a variety of objectives, constraints and solutions. In this study we focus on the optimal river water quality monitoring network design aspect of the overall monitoring program and propose a novel methodology for the analysis of this problem. In the proposed analysis, the locations of sampling sites are determined such that the contaminant detection time is minimized for the river network while achieving maximum reliability for the monitoring system performance. Altamaha river system in the State of Georgia, USA is chosen as an example to demonstrate the proposed methodology. The results show that the proposed model can be effectively used for the optimal design of monitoring networks in river systems.

  5. Edisto River Basin, South Carolina Feasibility Report for Water Resources Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    BASINS (GEOGRAPHIC), DRAINAGE, FLOOD CONTROL, HYDROELECTRICITY, OUTDOOR, PLANNING, POWER, QUALITY CONTROL, RECREATION, RIVERS , SOUTH CAROLINA, STREAMS, WATER QUALITY, WATER RESOURCES, WATER SUPPLIES, WIDTH

  6. Fostering a regional vision on river systems by remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzi, S.; Piegay, H.; Demarchi, L.

    2015-12-01

    River classification and the derived knowledge about river systems have been relying until recently on discontinuous field campaigns and visual interpretation of aerial images. For this reason, building a regional vision on river systems based on a systematic and coherent set of hydromorphological indicators was, and still is, a research challenge. Remote sensing data, since some years, offer notable opportunities to shift this paradigm offering an unprecedented amount of spatially distributed data over large scales, such as regional. Here, we have implemented a river characterization framework based on color infrared orthophotos at 40 cm and a LIDAR derived DTM at 5 m acquired simultaneously in 2009-2010 for all Piedmont Region Italy (25400 kmq). 1500 km of river systems have been characterized in terms typology, geometry and topography of hydromorphological features. The framework delineates the valley bottom of each river course, and maps by a semi-automated procedure water channels, unvegetated and vegetated sediment bars, islands, and riparian corridors. Using a range of statistical techniques the river systems have been segmented and classified with an objective, quantitative, and then repeatable approach. Such regional database enhances our ability to address a number of research and management challenges, such as: i) quantify shape and topography of channel forms for different river functional types, and investigate their relationships with potential drivers like hydrology, geology, land use and historical contingency; ii) localize most degraded and better functioning river stretches so to prioritize finer scale monitoring and set quantifiable restoration targets; iii) provide indication for future RS acquisition campaigns so to start monitoring river processes at the regional scale. The Piedmont Region in Italy is here used as a laboratory of concrete examples and analyses to discuss our current ability to answer to these challenges in river science.

  7. 63. PANORAMIC VIEW OF HEADWORKS FROM WEST SIDE OF RIVER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. PANORAMIC VIEW OF HEADWORKS FROM WEST SIDE OF RIVER, LOOKING UPSTREAM, Prints No. 173, 174 and 175, November 1903 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  8. Documentation of input datasets for the soil-water balance groundwater recharge model of the Upper Colorado River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred D

    2015-01-01

    The Colorado River and its tributaries supply water to more than 35 million people in the United States and 3 million people in Mexico, irrigating more than 4.5 million acres of farmland, and generating about 12 billion kilowatt hours of hydroelectric power annually. The Upper Colorado River Basin, encompassing more than 110,000 square miles (mi2), contains the headwaters of the Colorado River (also known as the River) and is an important source of snowmelt runoff to the River. Groundwater discharge also is an important source of water in the River and its tributaries, with estimates ranging from 21 to 58 percent of streamflow in the upper basin. Planning for the sustainable management of the Colorado River in future climates requires an understanding of the Upper Colorado River Basin groundwater system. This report documents input datasets for a Soil-Water Balance groundwater recharge model that was developed for the Upper Colorado River Basin.

  9. Diazotrophy in alluvial meadows of subarctic river systems.

    PubMed

    DeLuca, Thomas H; Zackrisson, Olle; Bergman, Ingela; Díez, Beatriz; Bergman, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    There is currently limited understanding of the contribution of biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy) to the N budget of large river systems. This natural source of N in boreal river systems may partially explain the sustained productivity of river floodplains in Northern Europe where winter fodder was harvested for centuries without fertilizer amendments. In much of the world, anthropogenic pollution and river regulation have nearly eliminated opportunities to study natural processes that shaped early nutrient dynamics of large river systems; however, pristine conditions in northern Fennoscandia allow for the retrospective evaluation of key biochemical processes of historical significance. We investigated biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy) as a potential source of nitrogen fertility at 71 independent floodplain sites along 10 rivers and conducted seasonal and intensive analyses at a subset of these sites. Biological N2 fixation occurred in all floodplains, averaged 24.5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) and was down regulated from over 60 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) to 0 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) by river N pollution. A diversity of N2-fixing cyanobacteria was found to colonize surface detritus in the floodplains. The data provide evidence for N2 fixation to be a fundamental source of new N that may have sustained fertility at alluvial sites along subarctic rivers. Such data may have implications for the interpretation of ancient agricultural development and the design of contemporary low-input agroecosystems.

  10. ELECTRICAL SWITCHBOARD IN UPPER LEVEL OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELECTRICAL SWITCHBOARD IN UPPER LEVEL OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER HOUSE - St. Lucie Canal, Lock No. 1, Hydroelectric Power House, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  11. 1. WEST FRONT OF HYDROELECTRIC POWERHOUSE WITH INTAKE STRUCTURE, CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST FRONT OF HYDROELECTRIC POWERHOUSE WITH INTAKE STRUCTURE, CANAL SPILLWAY AT LEFT CENTER, VIEW EAST - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Powerhouse, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  12. 3. VIEW EAST, DETAIL WEST FRONT OF HYDROELECTRIC POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW EAST, DETAIL WEST FRONT OF HYDROELECTRIC POWERHOUSE - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Powerhouse, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  13. From eutrophic lake to river: phytoplankton composition changes in river-lake system (Tanglangchuan River, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qian; Chen, Yongcan; Liu, Zhaowei; Zhu, Dejun; van de Giesen, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Due to the fact that the Dianchi Lake is a hypereutrophic lake, we assume it is a potential source of cyanobacteria seed contributing to harmful algal blooms in the upper reach of the Tanglangchuan River (China). However, cyanobacteria, unlikely to survive in the short-retention-time river, are possibly replaced by other fast-growing algae along the river. To determine longitudinal changes of phytoplankton structures from Dianchi Lake to downstream Tanglangchuan River, samplings were carried out in June and September 2013 at 7 different stations. Among these stations, two of them are located in the mouth of Dianchi Lake (D1~D2) while the remaining five are along the main stream of the Tanglangchuan River (T1~T5). Then phytoplankton species were defined. We found that in June cyanobacteria dominated with more than 95% of the total cells in D1 and D2. The cyanobacteria sustained a long distance from T1 to T4 with a clear dominance of the total cells from 85.6% to 90.4%. However, in the last station (T5) which is located about 100km downstream the mouth of the Dianchi Lake, chlorophytes and bacillariophytes took the place of cyanobacteria and dominated (56.3% of the cells were chlorophytes and 27.1% were bacillariophytes). In autumn, the cyanobacteria dominated from D1 to T5 but the percentage and biomass of the cyanobacteria decreased along the river. The dominance of the cyanobacteria in the upper reach of the river indicates that the Dianchi Lake provides the cyanobacteria seed to the downstream river. Additionally, the transition of the algae dominance in the lower reach suggests that longitudinal changes in phytoplankton composition do exist. In view of the high concentration of total nitrogen and total phosphorus, changes of flow velocity and residence time should be key factors causing spatial succession.

  14. Hydroelectric structures studies using 3-dimensional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Harrell, T.R.; Jones, G.V.; Toner, C.K. )

    1989-01-01

    Deterioration and degradation of aged, hydroelectric project structures can significantly affect the operation and safety of a project. In many cases, hydroelectric headworks (in particular) have complicated geometrical configurations, loading patterns and hence, stress conditions. An accurate study of such structures can be performed using 3-dimensional computer models. 3-D computer models can be used for both stability evaluation and for finite element stress analysis. Computer aided engineering processes facilitate the use of 3-D methods in both pre-processing and post-processing of data. Two actual project examples are used to emphasize the authors' points.

  15. 76 FR 22143 - Notice of Intent To Accept Proposals, Select One Lessee, and Contract for Hydroelectric Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Notice of Intent To Accept Proposals, Select One Lessee, and Contract for Hydroelectric Power Development at the Pueblo Dam River Outlet, a feature of the Fryingpan-Arkansas Project...

  16. Formation of primary production in the reservoirs of the Volga chain of hydroelectric stations under present conditions: Phytoplankton pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Mineeva, N.M.

    1995-11-01

    Data of field observations of 1989-1991 on the content of photosynthetic pigments in the reservoirs of the Volga chain of hydroelectric stations are given. The effect of biogenic elements on the development of the Volga River phytoplankton is discussed. The present state of the water bodies is assessed in terms of chlorophyll content.

  17. Upper arun hydroelectric project feasibility study (phase 1). Volume 1. Report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The report was prepared for Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA). The primary objective of the study was to compare several alternative development schemes to drive an optimum development plan for exploiting the hydroelectric potential of the Upper Arun River, to be further investigated in phase 2 of the feasibility study. The scope of work included reviewing the original project concepts establishing development alternatives investigations in the following fields: Toposurvey Mapping; Geology Geotechnics; Hydrology; Power Market; and Plan formulations.

  18. Investigation of Pearl River data collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The reliability of employing NASA developed remote sensing for in situ near real time monitoring of water quality in the Pearl River is evaluated. The placement, operation and maintenance of a number of NASA developed data collection platforms (DCP's) on the Pearl River are described. The reception, processing, and retransmission of water quality data from an ERTS satellite to the Mississippi Air and Water Pollution Control Commission (MAWPCC) via computer linkup are assessed.

  19. Benchmarking wide swath altimetry-based river discharge estimation algorithms for the Ganges river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnema, Matthew G.; Sikder, Safat; Hossain, Faisal; Durand, Michael; Gleason, Colin J.; Bjerklie, David M.

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of three algorithms that estimate discharge from remotely sensed observables (river width, water surface height, and water surface slope) in anticipation of the forthcoming NASA/CNES Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. SWOT promises to provide these measurements simultaneously, and the river discharge algorithms included here are designed to work with these data. Two algorithms were built around Manning's equation, the Metropolis Manning (MetroMan) method, and the Mean Flow and Geomorphology (MFG) method, and one approach uses hydraulic geometry to estimate discharge, the at-many-stations hydraulic geometry (AMHG) method. A well-calibrated and ground-truthed hydrodynamic model of the Ganges river system (HEC-RAS) was used as reference for three rivers from the Ganges River Delta: the main stem of Ganges, the Arial-Khan, and the Mohananda Rivers. The high seasonal variability of these rivers due to the Monsoon presented a unique opportunity to thoroughly assess the discharge algorithms in light of typical monsoon regime rivers. It was found that the MFG method provides the most accurate discharge estimations in most cases, with an average relative root-mean-squared error (RRMSE) across all three reaches of 35.5%. It is followed closely by the Metropolis Manning algorithm, with an average RRMSE of 51.5%. However, the MFG method's reliance on knowledge of prior river discharge limits its application on ungauged rivers. In terms of input data requirement at ungauged regions with no prior records, the Metropolis Manning algorithm provides a more practical alternative over a region that is lacking in historical observations as the algorithm requires less ancillary data. The AMHG algorithm, while requiring the least prior river data, provided the least accurate discharge measurements with an average wet and dry season RRMSE of 79.8% and 119.1%, respectively, across all rivers studied. This poor

  20. Rock River Geographic Information System: ROCK-GIS (User Manual)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    Rock River GIS application was created using Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcGIS8.X software and Microsoft’s Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), which is included with ArcGIS8.X products.

  1. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation at 14 of 27 Major Hydroelectric Projects in Idaho, 1983-1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Robert C.; Mehrhoff, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act and wildlife and their habitats in the Columbia River Basin and to compliance with the Program, the wildlife mitigation status reports coordination with resource agencies and Indian Tribes. developed the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program development, operation, and maintenance of hydroelectric projects on existing agreements; and past, current, and proposed wildlife factual review and documentation of existing information on wildlife meet the requirements of Measure 1004(b)(l) of the Program. The mitigation, enhancement, and protection activities were considered. In mitigate for the losses to those resources resulting from the purpose of these wildlife mitigation status reports is to provide a resources at some of the Columbia River Basin hydroelectric projects the river and its tributaries. To accomplish this goal, the Council were written with the cooperation of project operators, and in within Idaho.

  2. Comparative morphometrics of two populations of giant river catfish (Mystus seenghala) from the Indus river system.

    PubMed

    Saini, Archana; Dua, Anish; Mohindra, Vindhya

    2008-09-01

    Giant river catfish (Mystus seenghala) from the Beas river were compared with a population in the Sutlej river of the Indus river system using 28 morphometric characters. Discriminant analyses and a univariate anova were used to explore these data. Allometric transformation of each measurement was done to eliminate correlations with size. The stepwise discriminant analysis retained nine variables that significantly discriminated the Beas samples from the Sutlej samples. Using these variables, 91.2% (original) and 89.0% (cross validated) of fish were classified into their correct samples. Misclassification was higher for the Sutlej samples (12.5%) than for the Beas samples (6.3%). The results of the discriminant analyses showed that variability in the Beas samples was more homogeneous and provided a more characteristic picture of the group than the Sutlej samples. The univariate ANOVA revealed significant differences between the means of the two populations for 12 of the 28 transformed morphometric measurements.

  3. Fragmentation and Flow Regulation of the World's Large River Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidy, C.; Nilsson, C.; Dynesius, M.; Revenga, C.

    2005-12-01

    Humans have extensively altered river systems through impoundments and diversions to meet their water, energy and transportation needs. Here we present a global overview of flow regulation and channel fragmentation by dams in the world's large river systems (LRSs), which comprise a total virgin mean annual discharge (the discharge before any significant human manipulations) of some 790,000 m3s-1, or 60% of the world's river runoff. Over half of the systems (172 out of 292) are impacted by dams, including the eight most biogeographically diverse. In terms of summed LRS discharge and catchment area, the proportions of impacted rivers are 84% and 88%, respectively. The greatest flow regulation (428%) is reported for the Volta river system in Africa, and regulation is beyond 250% in both the Manicougan and Colorado systems in North and Central America. Dam-impacted catchments experience higher irrigation pressure and about 25 times as much economic activity per unit of water as do unaffected catchments. In view of projected changes in climate, land use and water stress, these findings can be used to identify ecohydrological risks associated with further impacts on large river systems.

  4. Genetic variability analysis of Giant river catfish (Sperata seenghala) populations from Indus river system by RAPD-PCR.

    PubMed

    Saini, A; Dua, A; Mohindra, V

    2010-08-01

    The Giant river catfish, Sperata seenghala (Sykes) is commercially very important fish species of South Asia. Genetic variability between its populations collected from two rivers i.e. river Sutlej and river Beas of Indus river system in India were examined using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Total 38 fish samples were collected from river Sutlej whereas 46 fish samples were collected from river Beas. Total 40 primers were screened, out of these 7 were selected for studying polymorphism which produced a total of 64 RAPD loci in two populations. Percentage polymorphic loci calculated following 95% criterion was 89.06% for Beas population as compared to 95.31% for Sutlej population. Moderate level of genetic divergence (genetic distance of 0.0486) between both the populations suggests distinct population substructure of giant river catfish in both the rivers.

  5. Tazimina Hydroelectric Project, Iliamna, Alaska Final Technical and Construction Cost Report

    SciTech Connect

    HDR Alaska, Inc.

    1998-11-01

    The Iliamna-Newhalen-Nondalton Electric Cooperative (INNEC) provides electrical power to three communities of the same names. These communities are located near the north shore of Iliamna Lake in south-central Alaska approximately 175 miles southwest of Anchorage. These communities have a combined population of approximately 600 residents. There is no direct road connection from these villages to larger population centers. Electric power has been generated by INNEC since 1983 using diesel generators located in the community of Newhalen. Fuel for these generators was transported up the Kvichak River, an important salmon river, and across Iliamna Lake. In dry years the river is low and fuel is flown into Iliamna and then trucked five miles into Newhalen. The cost, difficult logistics and potential spill hazard of this fuel was a primary reason for development of hydroelectric power in this area. A hydroelectric project was constructed for these communities, starting in the spring of 1996 and ending in the spring of 1998. The project site is at Tazimina Falls about 9 miles upstream of the confluence of the Tazimina River and the Newhalen River. The project has an installed capacity of 824 kilowatts (kW) and is expandable to 1.5 megawatts (MW). The project is run-of-the-river (no storage) and uses the approximately 100 feet of natural head provided by the falls. The project features include a channel control sill, intake structure, penstock, underground powerhouse, tailrace, surface control building, buried transmission line and communication cable, and access road.

  6. Decomposing the Unsteady Flow Routing in River Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Cunya, L. A.; Leon, A.; Gibson, N. L.; Vasylkivska, V.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents an optimization-based domain decomposition strategy for unsteady flow routing in complex river systems. This strategy couples the domain decomposition technique with a Precomputed Channel Hydraulics Ensemble approach, known also as HydraulicPerformance Graph (HPG), which utilizes precomputed solutions along reaches on a river system. These solutions are stored in a database. While efficient and robust, HPGs requires extensive memory allocation, especially for high resolution simulations. Decomposing the river system into subdomains reduces computer memory constraints as each sub-domain is solved independently. Further, an optimization method is used to couple the sub-domains using the stored precomputed solution. In turn, the computational efficiency of the HPG approach allows the optimization-based scheme to be competitive with a whole domain methodology. The combined strategy is expected to reduce the overall computational time for large-scale problems. This work discusses the results of the application to the Columbia River (Northwest USA).

  7. 33 CFR 62.51 - Western Rivers Marking System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....51 Section 62.51 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.51 Western Rivers Marking System. (a) A variation of the standard U.S. aids to navigation system described above is...

  8. 33 CFR 62.51 - Western Rivers Marking System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....51 Section 62.51 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.51 Western Rivers Marking System. (a) A variation of the standard U.S. aids to navigation system described above is...

  9. 33 CFR 62.51 - Western Rivers Marking System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....51 Section 62.51 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.51 Western Rivers Marking System. (a) A variation of the standard U.S. aids to navigation system described above is...

  10. 33 CFR 62.51 - Western Rivers Marking System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....51 Section 62.51 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.51 Western Rivers Marking System. (a) A variation of the standard U.S. aids to navigation system described above is...

  11. 33 CFR 62.51 - Western Rivers Marking System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....51 Section 62.51 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.51 Western Rivers Marking System. (a) A variation of the standard U.S. aids to navigation system described above is...

  12. Integration of hydroelectric power and apiary management. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, C.

    1983-06-19

    Appropriate Technology Grant 3-80-342 is an attempt to integrate hydroelectric power with apiary management. The biggest challenge to the efficient completion of the project was connecting with the appropriate technology and associated personel to guide the project. Most of the so called ''experts'' in this field are at an early experimental stage in technology and knowledge. The existing system is capable of generating ample electricity six to seven months out of the year. The unit was operating consistantly near the end of winter. At present, it is not running due to lack of sufficient water.

  13. Use of Iqqm For Management of A Regulated River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, T.; Podger, G.; Harrold, T. I.

    The Integrated Quantity-Quality Model (IQQM) is a modelling tool for the planning and management of water-sharing issues within regulated and unregulated river sys- tems. IQQM represents the major river system processes, including inflows, rainfall and evaporation, infiltration, and flow routing down river channels and floodplains. It is a water balance model that operates on a daily timestep and can represent reser- voirs, wetlands, surface water/groundwater interaction, and soil moisture deficit for irrigation areas, along with many other features of both natural and regulated systems. IQQM can be customised for any river valley, and has proven to be a useful tool for the development, evaluation, and selection of operational rules for complex river systems. The Lachlan catchment lies within Australia's largest river system, the Murray- Darling Basin. Extensive development in the Murray-Darling Basin within the last 100 years has resulted in land degradation, increased salinity, poor water quality, damage to wetlands, and decline in native fish species. In response to these issues, in 1995 the Murray-Darling Basin Commission (MDBC) imposed restrictions on growth in diver- sions (the "MDBC Cap"), and the New South Wales government has more recently applied its own restrictions (the "River Flow Objectives"). To implement the MDBC Cap and the River Flow Objectives, new operational rules were required. This presen- tation describes how IQQM was used to develop and evaluate these rules for the Lach- lan system. In particular, rules for release of environmental flows were developed and evaluated. The model helped identify the flow window that would be most beneficial to the riverine environment, the critical time of year when environmental releases should be made, and resource constraint conditions when environmental releases should not be made. This process also involved intensive consultations with stakeholders. The role of IQQM within this process was to help the

  14. Bringing science into river systems cumulative effects assessment practice

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Nicole E.; Westbrook, Cherie J.; Noble, Bram F.

    2011-04-15

    Fast-paced watershed change, driven by anthropogenic development, is threatening the sustainability of freshwater resources across the globe. Developments within watersheds interact in a manner that is additive and synergistic over space and time. Such cumulative environmental effects are defined as the results of actions that are individually minor but collectively significant when added to other past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future actions. Cumulative effects assessment (CEA) then is broadly defined as the process of evaluating the potential impacts of such collective actions on the environment and is a requirement in many countries, including in Canada at the federal level under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. However, current approaches to CEA for river systems are proving to be ineffective, which is largely attributed to the disconnect between CEA science and practice. We highlight this gap herein by discussing contradictions in the CEA literature, challenges in quantifying cumulative interactions, including overcoming spatiotemporal scale issues, multiple hydrologic and ecological pathways, and lack of predictive analysis. Our analysis shows there is a need for improved CEA for river systems, and in responding to this need we propose a conceptual framework for better integrating science and practice for improved CEA for river systems using one of the most adversely affected rivers basins in Canada, the Athabasca River, as our model. We conclude by addressing the challenges inherent to CEA with the intent of providing scientists with ways to help improve CEA of river systems.

  15. Analysis of legal obstacles and incentives to the development of low-head hydroelectric power in Maine

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in Maine is discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system is examined. The first step any developer of small-scale hydropower must take is to acquire right, title, or interest in the real property. In Maine, that step requires acquisition in some form of both river banks, the river bed, and where necessary, the land needed for the upstream impoundment area. The developer must acquire the river banks to be considered a riparian owner. Classification as a riparian is important, for only a use of water by a riparian owner is deemed a reasonable use and hence a legal use. A non-riparian could not draw water from a stream to increase the water level of an impoundment area on another stream. Apart from the usual methods of land acquisition involving sale, lease, or perhaps gift, Maine has two somewhat unique methods a developer may use for property acquisition. These methods, authorized by statute, are use of the abandoned dams law and use of the Mill Dam Act for flowage of upstream impoundment areas.

  16. Hydroelectricity, sustainability, and the role of probabilistic inflow forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashish; Mehrotra, Raj

    2014-05-01

    Hydroelectricity is one of the oldest energy options known to mankind. While public perceptions of hydroelectricity have had their ups and downs, there is growing consensus that it offers one of the most sustainable options to energy reliability, as well as one of the most cost-effective one. This talk focusses on the factors leading to loss of efficiency due to uncertainty in energy demands and reservoir inflows. The talk formulates the need for probabilistic forecasts of demand and inflow, and presents the obstacles in formulating such forecasts due to the complexities of the climate system. A case is made for the use of ensemble forecasts, in this case formulated using statistical alternatives assuming global sea surface temperatures as a key source of information content. A newly formulated approach for identifying nonlinear dependence between variables (termed as the Partial information - Partial Weight, or PI-PW approach, see Sharma and Mehrotra (2014) for details), and subsequent use of these variables to formulate a probabilistic forecasting model is then presented, a key feature of this model being the lack of any major assumption in the nature of dependence (or variables) being modelled. The talk concludes with a list of challenges that still need overcoming, in ensuring hydroelectricity continues to be considered as a key sustainable energy alternative as we head into times of growing disparity between energy resource and consumption. Reference: Sharma, A., and R. Mehrotra (2014), An information theoretic alternative to model a natural system using observational information alone, Water Resources Research, 49, doi:10.1002/2013WR013845.

  17. 9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view to the south. The water purification system is visible in the right foreground of the photograph and the instrument air receiver tank is visible in the right background of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  18. Velocity Measurements at Six Fish Screening Facilities in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, Summer 1988 : Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Abernethy, C. Scott; Neitzel, Duane A.; Lusty, E. William

    1989-11-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (WDOE) are funding the construction and evaluation of fish passage facilities and fish protection facilities at irrigation and hydroelectric diversions in the Yakima River Basin, Washington State. The program provides offsite enhancement to compensate for fish and wildlife losses caused by hydroelectric development throughout the Columbia River Basin, and addresses natural propagation of salmon to help mitigate the impact of irrigation in the Yakima River Basin. This report evaluates the flow characteristics of the screening facilities. Studies consisted of velocity measurements taken in front of the rotary drum screens and within the fish bypass systems during peak flows. Measurements of approach velocity and sweep velocity were emphasized in these studies; however, vertical velocity was also measured. 5 refs., 18 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric projects in Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The discussion is designed to aid the developer in the determination of which permits, licenses, and laws of the state must be secured or complied with for the development of a project. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Specific sections that follow are: Massachusetts Water Law; Licensing, Permitting, and Review Procedures; Indirect Considerations (by departments); Department of Public Utilities Regulation of Privately Owned Electric Utilities; Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Company; Miscellaneous Legal Issues Relating to Low-Head Hydroelectric Power; and Financial Considerations.

  20. General classification handbook for floodplain vegetation in large river systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieck, Jennifer J.; Ruhser, Janis; Hoy, Erin E.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    This handbook describes the General Wetland Vegetation Classification System developed as part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program, Long Term Resource Monitoring (LTRM) element. The UMRR is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the states of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin. The classification system consists of 31 general map classes and has been used to create systemic vegetation data layers throughout the diverse Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS), which includes the commercially navigable reaches of the Mississippi River from Minneapolis, Minnesota, in the north to Cairo, Illinois, in the south, the Illinois River, and navigable portions of the Kaskaskia, Black, St. Croix, and Minnesota Rivers. In addition, this handbook describes the evolution of the General Wetland Vegetation Classification System, discusses the process of creating a vegetation data layer, and describes each of the 31 map classes in detail. The handbook also acts as a pictorial guide to each of the map classes as they may appear in the field, as well as on color-infrared imagery. This version is an update to the original handbook published in 2004.

  1. Quantifying habitat benefits of channel reconfigurations on a highly regulated river system, Lower Missouri River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, Susannah O.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of habitat availability in a highly regulated lowland river, comparing a restored reach with two reference reaches: an un-restored, channelized reach, and a least-altered reach. We evaluate the effects of channel modifications in terms of distributions of depth and velocity as well as distributions and availability of habitats thought to be supportive of an endangered fish, the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). It has been hypothesized that hydraulic conditions that support food production and foraging may limit growth and survival of juvenile pallid sturgeon. To evaluate conditions that support these habitats, we constructed two-dimensional hydrodynamic models for the three study reaches, two located in the Lower Missouri River (channelized and restored reaches) and one in the Yellowstone River (least-altered reach). Comparability among the reaches was improved by scaling by bankfull discharge and bankfull channel area. The analysis shows that construction of side-channel chutes and increased floodplain connectivity increase the availability of foraging habitat, resulting in a system that is more similar to the reference reach on the Yellowstone River. The availability of food-producing habitat is low in all reaches at flows less than bankfull, but the two reaches in the Lower Missouri River – channelized and restored – display a threshold-like response as flows overtop channel banks, reflecting the persistent effects of channelization on hydraulics in the main channel. These high lateral gradients result in punctuated ecological events corresponding to flows in excess of bankfull discharge. This threshold effect in the restored reach remains distinct from that of the least-altered reference reach, where hydraulic changes are less abrupt and overbank flows more gradually inundate the adjacent floodplain. The habitat curves observed in the reference reach on the Yellowstone River may not be attainable within the

  2. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. In Pennsylvania, there are 3 methods by which rights in water may be acquired: riparian ownership, prescription, and condemnation. These are discussed.

  3. Environmental requirements at hydroelectric power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.; Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    Hydroelectric power is the most mature and widely implemented of the renewable energy technologies. The energy of flowing water has been used to perform work directly since ancient times, and the use of hydropower turbines to generate electricity traces back to the 19th century. Two commonly used turbine types, the Francis and Kaplan turbines, are essentially refinements of the simple reaction turbine of Hero of Alexandria, dating from about 100 B.C. (NAS 1976). Hydroelectric power production provides over 10% of the net electrical generation in the US, more than petroleum or natural gas and far more than the other renewable energy technologies combined. On a regional basis, hydroelectric power represents 14% of the net electrical power generation in the Rocky Mountain states and nearly 63% along the Pacific Coast. Those states that have the largest percentages of their electricity generated by hydropower (e.g., Idaho, Oregon, Montana, and Washington) also tend to have the lowest average cost of electricity per kilowatt-hour.

  4. Deposition and simulation of sediment transport in the Lower Susquehanna River reservoir system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hainly, R.A.; Reed, L.A.; Flippo, H.N.; Barton, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Susquehanna River drains 27,510 square miles in New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland and is the largest tributary to the Chesapeake Bay. Three large hydroelectric dams are located on the river, Safe Harbor (Lake Clarke) and Holtwood (Lake Aldred) in southern Pennsylvania, and Conowingo (Conowingo Reservoir) in northern Maryland. About 259 million tons of sediment have been deposited in the three reservoirs. Lake Clarke contains about 90.7 million tons of sediment, Lake Aldred contains about 13.6 million tons, and Conowingo Reservoir contains about 155 million tons. An estimated 64.8 million tons of sand, 19.7 million tons of coal, 112 million tons of silt, and 63.3 million tons of clay are deposited in the three reservoirs. Deposition in the reservoirs is variable and ranges from 0 to 30 feet. Chemical analyses of sediment core samples indicate that the three reservoirs combined contain about 814,000 tons of organic nitrogen, 98,900 tons of ammonia as nitrogen, 226,000 tons of phosphorus, 5,610,000 1tons of iron, 2,250,000 tons of aluminum, and about 409,000 tons of manganese. Historical data indicate that Lake Clarke and Lake Aldred have reached equilibrium, and that they no longer store sediment. A comparison of cross-sectional data from Lake Clarke and Lake Aldred with data from Conowingo Reservoir indicates that Conowingo Reservoir will reach equilibrium within the next 20 to 30 years. As the Conowingo Reservoir fills with sediment and approaches equilibrium, the amount of sediment transported to the Chesapeake Bay will increase. The most notable increases will take place when very high flows scour the deposited sediment. Sediment transport through the reservoir system was simulated with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' HEC-6 computer model. The model was calibrated with monthly sediment loads for calendar year 1987. Calibration runs with options set for maximum trap efficiency and a "natural" particle-size distribution resulted in an overall computed trap

  5. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Activity Versus Daylight and Flow in the Tailrace of a Large Hydroelectric Dam

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Vucelick, Jessica A.; Lukas, Joe

    2005-05-01

    We deployed an acoustic system during the fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning season in 2001 to determine whether fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in a hydroelectric dam tailrace area was affected by daylight or river flow dynamics. The system was deployed following a randomized study design to record fall Chinook salmon spawning activity during day and night periods in two index areas downstream of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River in Washington, USA. One index area was a deepwater spawning area located (river kilometer (rkm) 663) in 9 to 11 m of water. The other index site was a moderate depth mid-channel bar, where water depths ranged from 2.5 to 6 m. The acoustic system was used to collect spawning activity data during free-drifts in a boat through the index areas. Spawning activity was defined as digs per minute from underwater sound recordings. Fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in the Wanapum Dam tailrace was influenced by daylight and river discharge. Results showed there was a substantial amount of spawning activity occurring during both daylight and darkness. However, there was significantly more spawning activity during daylight than at night in both index areas. Spawning activity was also affected by flow. Project discharge had a pronounced non-linear effect on spawning activity. Spawning activity was generally highest at project discharges between 1,700 and 2266 m3 sec-1 in both spawning areas, with reduced activity as discharge increased to between 3,400 and 4,250 m3 sec-1. We concluded that fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in highly variable environments was affected more by flow (and velocity) than by daylight.

  6. Mercury accumulation in bats near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Syaripuddin, Khairunnisa; Kumar, Anjali; Sing, Kong-Wah; Halim, Muhammad-Rasul Abdullah; Nursyereen, Muhammad-Nasir; Wilson, John-James

    2014-09-01

    In large man-made reservoirs such as those resulting from hydroelectric dam construction, bacteria transform the relatively harmless inorganic mercury naturally present in soil and the submerged plant matter into toxic methylmercury. Methylmercury then enters food webs and can accumulate in organisms at higher trophic levels. Bats feeding on insects emerging from aquatic systems can show accumulation of mercury consumed through their insect prey. In this study, we investigated whether the concentration of mercury in the fur of insectivorous bat species was significantly higher than that in the fur of frugivorous bat species, sampled near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia. Bats were sampled at Temenggor Lake and Kenyir Lake and fur samples from the most abundant genera of the two feeding guilds-insectivorous (Hipposideros and Rhinolophus) and frugivorous (Cynopterus and Megaerops) were collected for mercury analysis. We found significantly higher concentrations of total mercury in the fur of insectivorous bats. Mercury concentrations also differed significantly between insectivorous bats sampled at the two sites, with bats from Kenyir Lake, the younger reservoir, showing higher mercury concentrations, and between the insectivorous genera, with Hipposideros bats showing higher mercury concentrations. Ten bats (H. cf. larvatus) sampled at Kenyir Lake had mercury concentrations approaching or exceeding 10 mg/kg, which is the threshold at which detrimental effects occur in humans, bats and mice.

  7. Analysis of synchronous and induction generators used at hydroelectric power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniş, C. M.; Popa, G. N.; lagăr, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper is presented an analysis of the operating electric generators (synchronous and induction) within a small capacity hydroelectric power plant. Such is treated the problem of monitoring and control hydropower plant using SCADA systems. Have been carried an experimental measurements in small hydropower plant for different levels of water in the lake and various settings of the operating parameters.

  8. Middle Mississippi River decision support system: user's manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohweder, Jason J.; Zigler, Steven J.; Fox, Timothy J.; Hulse, Steven N.

    2005-01-01

    This user's manual describes the Middle Mississippi River Decision Support System (MMRDSS) and gives detailed examples on its use. The MMRDSS provides a framework to assist decision makers regarding natural resource issues in the Middle Mississippi River floodplain. The MMRDSS is designed to provide users with a spatially explicit tool for tasks, such as inventorying existing knowledge, developing models to investigate the potential effects of management decisions, generating hypotheses to advance scientific understanding, and developing scientifically defensible studies and monitoring. The MMRDSS also includes advanced tools to assist users in evaluating differences in complexity, connectivity, and structure of aquatic habitats among river reaches. The Environmental Systems Research Institute ArcView 3.x platform was used to create and package the data and tools of the MMRDSS.

  9. Documenting spatial diversity and complexity in a large tropical river system: implications for river health and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, R.; Mohanta, H.; Tandon, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The Ganga River system in India is a large, complex system consisting of several long tributaries, some >1000 km, from two distinct hinterlands - the Himalayas to the north and the cratons to the south. Traversing through a diverse climatic regime across the Plain and through precipitation zones ranging from 600 mm/year near Delhi to 1200 mm/year in the eastern plains, the Ganga River system has formed very diverse landform assemblages in its major domains that include a) hinterlands, b) northern Plain, c) southern Plain, d) main valley system, e) interfluve systems, and f) major tributaries. Using satellite images, mapping of the Ganga River channel belt and its active floodplain from Gangotri (source) to Farakka (upstream of its confluence with the Brahmaputra) has brought out extreme diversity in channel form, active floodplain and valley margin characteristics, and reach-scale fluvial processes. Following a modified River Style Framework, we have recognized a total of 10 different river styles for the trunk river from Gangotri to Farakka based on a) landscape setting, b) channel and active floodplain properties, and c) channel planform parameters. The mountainous stretch is characterized by steep valleys and bedrock channels, and is dominated by large-scale sediment production and transport through hill slope processes. The alluvial part of the river is characterized by 8 different styles of varying reach lengths (60-300 km) many of which show sharp transitions in landscape setting e.g. from piedmont to valley-interfluve and from alluvial to craton margin. Each river style in the alluvial reaches has a distinctive set of morphological parameters primarily driven by the dominant fluvial process operating in that stretch such as channel instability and river dynamics, channel incision or aggradation and frequent flooding. Our study has provided a physical template for characterizing the complexity of a large river system and for reach-scale geomorphic assessment

  10. Flood forecasting and alert system for Arda River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artinyan, Eram; Vincendon, Beatrice; Kroumova, Kamelia; Nedkov, Nikolai; Tsarev, Petko; Balabanova, Snezhanka; Koshinchanov, Georgy

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents the set-up and functioning of a flood alert system based on SURFEX-TOPODYN platform for the cross-border Arda River basin. The system was built within a Bulgarian-Greek project funded by the European Territorial Cooperation (ETC) Programme and is in operational use since April 2014. The basin is strongly influenced by Mediterranean cyclones during the autumn-winter period and experiences dangerous rapid floods, mainly after intensive rain, often combined with snow melt events. The steep mountainous terrain leads to floods with short concentration time and high river speed causing damage to settlements and infrastructure. The main challenge was to correctly simulate the riverflow in near-real time and to timely forecast peak floods for small drainage basins below 100 km2 but also for larger ones of about 1900 km2 using the same technology. To better account for that variability, a modification of the original hydrological model parameterisation is proposed. Here we present the first results of a new model variant which uses dynamically adjusted TOPODYN river velocity as function of the computed partial streamflow discharge. Based on historical flooding data, river sections along endangered settlements were included in the river flow forecasting. A continuous hydrological forecast for 5 days ahead was developed for 18 settlements in Bulgaria and for the border with Greece, thus giving enough reaction time in case of high floods. The paper discusses the practical implementation of models for the Arda basin, the method used to calibrate the models' parameters, the results of the calibration-validation procedure and the way the information system is organised. A real case of forecasted rapid floods that occurred after the system's finalisation is analysed. One of the important achievements of the project is the on-line presentation of the forecasts that takes into account their temporal variability and uncertainty. The web presentation includes a

  11. Deltaic responses to dam regulation on river system: Example of the Yellow River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Bi, N.; Saito, Y.; Wu, X.; Wang, A.

    2014-12-01

    Construction and operation of large dams in river basins have trapped large volumes of freshwater and sediment, which not only alters the natural seasonal rhythm of river hydrological cycles, but also creates a disconnection between rivers and their deltas. As a result, the water and sediment discharged to the coastal ocean have been greatly reduced, which triggers profound responses in coastal region including delta destruction, accelerated rise of relative sea level and changes in coastal primary production. The Yellow River has been a well documented system with significant impacts of dam regulation. Recent sediment load and freshwater (2002-2012) delivered to the sea have been reduced to 0.16 billion tones per year and 17.9 km3/yr, approximately 13% and 34% of those in 1950s-1960s, a period without significant dam impacts. Dam interception and dam-facilitated water regulation play a dominated role in reducing the flux of water and sediment to the sea, as well as in changing the grain-size composition of sediment. Consequently, the process of estuarine sediment dynamics has changed and the delta has recently been converted into a destructive phase with strong coastal erosion due to insufficient rive sediment supply although the accretion of the active delta lobe was evident because of rapid local deposition of coarsening river sediment around the river mouth. The delta coast erosion has thus become a major source for sediment transport in the Bohai Sea and even to those in the Yellow Sea given the critical role of monsoonal climate on coastal resuspension and coastal currents. Delta erosion and subsidence have therefore accelerated the rate of relative sea-level rise, considerably higher than the global mean, which has put the mega-delta to be at risk. In addition, recent works have identified two peaks of chlorophyll-a within annual cycle in the delta coastal region, one of which is closely associated with the river delivery of nutrients transferred with

  12. 2D THD and 3D TEHD analysis of large spindle supported thrust bearings with pins and double layer system used in the three gorges hydroelectric generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, B.; Wu, Z. D.; Wu, J. L.; Wang, L. Q.

    2012-11-01

    A 2D THD model and a 3DTEHD model for large spindle supported thrust bearings were set up and used to analyze the lubrication performance of the Three Gorges test thrust beating withpins and double layer system developed by Alstom Power. The finite difference method was employed to solve the THD model, and the thermal-elasticdeformations in the pad and runner were obtained by the finite element software ANSYS11.0. The data transfer between the THD model and ANSYS11.0 was carried out automatically by an interface program.A detailed comparison between the experimental results and numerical predictions by the two different modelsset up in this paper was carried out. Poor agreement has been found between the theoretical results obtained by 2D THD model and experimental data, while 3D TEHD provides fairly good agreement, confirming the importance of thermal effects and thermal-elastic deformations in both pad and runner.

  13. Understanding Socio-Hydrology System in the Kissimmee River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Wang, D.; Tian, F.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-12-01

    This study is to develop a conceptual socio-hydrology model for the Kissimmee River Basin. The Kissimmee River located in Florida was channelized in mid-20 century for flood protection. However, the environmental issues caused by channelization led Floridians to conduct a restoration project recently, focusing on wetland recovery. As a complex coupled human-water system, Kissimmee River Basin shows the typical socio-hydrology interactions. Hypothetically, the major reason to drive the system from channelization to restoration is that the community sensitivity towards the environment has changed from controlling to restoring. The model developed in this study includes 5 components: water balance, flood risk, wetland area, crop land area, and community sensitivity. Furthermore, urban population and rural population in the basin have different community sensitivities towards the hydrologic system. The urban population, who live further away from the river are more sensitive to wetland restoration; while the rural population, who live closer to the river are more sensitive to flood protection. The power dynamics between the two groups and its impact on management decision making is described in the model. The model is calibrated based on the observed watershed outflow, wetland area and crop land area. The results show that the overall focus of community sensitivity has changed from flood protection to wetland restoration in the past 60 years in Kissimmee River Basin, which confirms the study hypothesis. There are two main reasons for the community sensitivity change. Firstly, people's flood memory is fading because of the effective flood protection, while the continuously shrinking wetland and the decreasing bird and fish population draw more and more attention. Secondly, in the last 60 years, the urban population in Florida drastically increased compared with a much slower increase of rural population. As a result, the community sensitivity of urban population towards

  14. The Delaware River Basin Landsat-Data Collection System Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This experiment successfully demonstrated that standard U.S. Geological Survey field instrumentation could be easily interfaced with the LANDSAT-DCS and the data made to flow smoothly to water resources management agencies. The experiment was conducted in the Delaware River basin. A truly operational system could not be deployed.

  15. Large-scale flow experiments for managing river systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher P.; Olden, Julian D.; Lytle, David A.; Melis, Theodore S.; Schmidt, John C.; Bray, Erin N.; Freeman, Mary C.; Gido, Keith B.; Hemphill, Nina P.; Kennard, Mark J.; McMullen, Laura E.; Mims, Meryl C.; Pyron, Mark; Robinson, Christopher T.; Williams, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of streamflow have been used globally in recent decades to mitigate the impacts of dam operations on river systems. Rivers are challenging subjects for experimentation, because they are open systems that cannot be isolated from their social context. We identify principles to address the challenges of conducting effective large-scale flow experiments. Flow experiments have both scientific and social value when they help to resolve specific questions about the ecological action of flow with a clear nexus to water policies and decisions. Water managers must integrate new information into operating policies for large-scale experiments to be effective. Modeling and monitoring can be integrated with experiments to analyze long-term ecological responses. Experimental design should include spatially extensive observations and well-defined, repeated treatments. Large-scale flow manipulations are only a part of dam operations that affect river systems. Scientists can ensure that experimental manipulations continue to be a valuable approach for the scientifically based management of river systems.

  16. 77 FR 5502 - Stuyvesant Falls Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Stuyvesant Falls Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Application Ready..., New York. e. Name of Project: Stuyvesant Falls Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On Kinderhook Creek... environmental analysis. l. The existing Stuyvesant Falls Hydroelectric Project is currently being restored...

  17. 75 FR 54621 - Lockhart Power Company-South Carolina Pacolet Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lockhart Power Company--South Carolina Pacolet Hydroelectric Project; Notice... eligible for inclusion in, the National Register of Historic Places at the Pacolet Hydroelectric Project... ). The Commission's responsibilities pursuant to section 106 for the Pacolet Hydroelectric Project...

  18. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  19. Use of mediation to resolve the dispute over low-head hydroelectric development at Swan Lake

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, D.

    1980-08-01

    In 1978, the Maine Hydroelectric Development Corporation announced that the company planned to renovate five dams on the Goose River near Belfast, Maine to generate electricity. The most important part of the plan involved the use of the first of the dams, at the lower end of Swan Lake, to regulate the flow of water to the downstream dams. For Maine Hydro, management of the Swan Lake dam could make an otherwise marginal proposal lucrative. However, Swan Lake is vitally important to the residents of Swanville. The town was so concerned about the impact of this proposed hydroelectric project that it petitioned the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to deny Maine Hydro's application on the grounds that it would damage the environment, reduce property values and eliminate recreational opportunities for its citizens. This report was written by the mediator of the dispute and represents the views and behavior of the parties as the mediator understood them. It is intended to present the mediator's observations in a way which will inform and assist others who may someday face a difficult situation like the one the Town of Swanville and Maine Hydroelectric Development Corporation faced, and successfully resolved, in the spring and summer of 1979.

  20. Nonnative Fishes in the Upper Mississippi River System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irons, Kevin S.; DeLain, Steven A.; Gittinger, Eric; Ickes, Brian S.; Kolar, Cindy S.; Ostendort, David; Ratcliff, Eric N.; Benson, Amy J.; Irons, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction, spread, and establishment of nonnative species is widely regarded as a leading threat to aquatic biodiversity and consequently is ranked among the most serious environmental problems facing the United States today. This report presents information on nonnative fish species observed by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program on the Upper Mississippi River System a nexus of North American freshwater fish diversity for the Nation. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program, as part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Environmental Management Plan, is the Nation's largest river monitoring program and stands as the primary source of standardized ecological information on the Upper Mississippi River System. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program has been monitoring fish communities in six study areas on the Upper Mississippi River System since 1989. During this period, more than 3.5 million individual fish, consisting of 139 species, have been collected. Although fish monitoring activities of the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program focus principally on entire fish communities, data collected by the Program are useful for detecting and monitoring the establishment and spread of nonnative fish species within the Upper Mississippi River System Basin. Sixteen taxa of nonnative fishes, or hybrids thereof, have been observed by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program since 1989, and several species are presently expanding their distribution and increasing in abundance. For example, in one of the six study areas monitored by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program, the number of established nonnative species has increased from two to eight species in less than 10 years. Furthermore, contributions of those eight species can account for up to 60 percent of the total annual catch and greater than 80 percent of the observed biomass. These observations are critical because the Upper Mississippi River System stands as a nationally significant pathway for

  1. Automatic control of pollutant on a shallow river using surface water systems: application to the Ebro River.

    PubMed

    Puig, V; Romera, J; Quevedo, J; Sarrate, R; Morales-Hernandez, M; Gonzalez-Sanchis, M; Garcia-Navarro, P

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of automatic control of pollutant on a shallow river using surface water systems is addressed using a benchmark test case based in the Ebro River. The Ebro River presents flooding episodes in the city of Zaragoza in Spring when snow melts in the Pyrenees. To avoid flooding and high pollutant levels in living areas, some lands outside the city are prepared to be flooded. Going one step further, this paper is focused on the pollutant level control at a certain point downstream of the river under flooding episodes, and several control strategies for that purpose are presented and tested.

  2. Spiritual Care Education and Rural Systems in Swan River.

    PubMed

    Curry, Janel; McCallum, Margaret; Rodriguez V, Jorge Juan

    2016-03-01

    The provision of spiritual care, and the training of spiritual care providers, must be embedded within the larger systems (economic, social, generational, and environmental) and communities within which clients reside. This study analyzes the results of a systems approach to CPE training that focused on the rural context of Swan River, Manitoba. It addresses the need for new approaches to contextualizing CPE training and for understanding the uniqueness of rural contexts in particular.

  3. 78 FR 12344 - Wekiva River System Advisory Management Committee Meetings (FY2013)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Wekiva River System Advisory Management Committee Meetings (FY2013) AGENCY: National Park Service... upcoming meetings for the Wekiva River System Advisory Management Committee. DATES: The meetings are... addressed to the Wekiva River System Advisory Management Committee, National Park Service, 5342 Clark...

  4. 2. VIEW SOUTH, NORTH SIDE OF HYDROELECTRIC POWERHOUSE AT LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH, NORTH SIDE OF HYDROELECTRIC POWERHOUSE AT LEFT WITH BRIDGE OVER CANAL SPILLWAY IN FOREGROUND AND MILL COMPLEX IN BACKGROUND - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Powerhouse, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  5. Response of spawning lake sturgeons to change in hydroelectric facility operation

    SciTech Connect

    Auer, N.A.

    1996-01-01

    Spawning of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens was documented from 1987 to 1992 below the Prickett hydroelectric facility on the Sturgeon River, a tributary to Portage Lake, Michigan. Lake sturgeons were captured at the spawning site with dip nets during periods of reduced flow. A change in the spawning characteristics of the population was noted that corresponded to a changed in the operation of the hydroelectric facility. In 1987 and 1988 the facility operated in a peaking mode, which resulted in large daily fluctuations in river flows. The years 1989 and 1990 were years of transition, and in 1991 and 1992 the facility released near run-of-the-river (ROR) flows. Under near-ROR flows, which were more natural, adult lake sturgeons spent 4-6 weeks less at the spawning sites, 74% more fish were observed, weights were greater due to a 68% increase in number of females, and fish had increased reproductive readiness. The change in flow regime was the result of a Federal Energy Regulatory Commission relicensing action. The positive response observed in lake sturgeon spawning activity that resulted from the change of facility operation to near-ROR flows should be beneficial to the survival and perpetuation of this population. Similar results may be experienced in other lake sturgeon waters affected by manipulated flow regimes. 28 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric potential in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level is described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The first obstacle which any developer must confront in Michigan is obtaining the authority to utilize the river bed, banks, and flowing water at a proposed dam site. This involves a determination of ownership of the stream banks and bed, and the manner of obtaining either their title or use; and existing constraints with regard to the use of the water. Michigan follows the riparian theory of water law. The direct regulation; indirect regulation; public utilities regulation; financing; and taxation are discussed.

  7. Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1962-01-01

    Rivers are both the means and the routes by which the products of continental weathering are carried to the oceans of the world. Except in the most arid areas more water falls as precipitation than is lost by evaporation and transpiration from the land surface to the atmosphere. Thus there is an excess of water, which must flow to the ocean. Rivers, then, are the routes by which this excess water flows to the ultimate base level. The excess of precipitation over evaporation and transpiration provides the flow of rivers and springs, recharges ground-water storage, and is the supply from which man draws water for his needs.

  8. Susitna Hydroelectric Project: terrestrial environmental workshop and preliminary simulation model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Everitt, Robert R.; Sonntag, Nicholas C.; Auble, Gregory T.; Roelle, James E.; Gazey, William

    1982-01-01

    The technical feasibility, economic viability, and environmental impacts of a hydroelectric development project in the Susitna River Basin are being studied by Acres American, Inc. on behalf of the Alaska Power Authority. As part of these studies, Acres American recently contracted LGL Alaska Research Associates, Inc. to coordinate the terrestrial environmental studies being performed by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game and, as subcontractors to LGL, several University of Alaska research groups. LGL is responsible for further quantifying the potential impacts of the project on terrestrial wildlife and vegetation, and for developing a plan to mitigate adverse impacts on the terrestrial environment. The impact assessment and mitigation plan will be included as part of a license application to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) scheduled for the first quarter of 1983. The quantification of impacts, mitigation planning, and design of future research is being organized using a computer simulation modelling approach. Through a series of workshops attended by researchers, resource managers, and policy-makers, a computer model is being developed and refined for use in the quantification of impacts on terrestrial wildlife and vegetation, and for evaluating different mitigation measures such as habitat enhancement and the designation of replacement lands to be managed by wildlife habitat. This report describes the preliminary model developed at the first workshop held August 23 -27, 1982 in Anchorage.

  9. Organic carbon burial efficiency in a subtropical hydroelectric reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, Raquel; Kosten, Sarian; Sobek, Sebastian; Jaqueline Cardoso, Simone; Figueiredo-Barros, Marcos Paulo; Henrique Duque Estrada, Carlos; Roland, Fábio

    2016-06-01

    Hydroelectric reservoirs bury significant amounts of organic carbon (OC) in their sediments. Many reservoirs are characterized by high sedimentation rates, low oxygen concentrations in bottom water and a high share of terrestrially derived OC, and all of these factors have been linked to a high efficiency of OC burial. However, investigations of OC burial efficiency (OCBE, i.e., the ratio between buried and deposited OC) in reservoirs are limited to a few studies, none of which include spatially resolved analyses. In this study we determined the spatial variation in OCBE in a large subtropical reservoir and related it to sediment characteristics. Our results show that the sediment accumulation rate explains up to 92 % of the spatial variability in OCBE, outweighing the effect of other variables, such as OC source and oxygen exposure time. OCBE at the pelagic sites varied from 48 to 86 % (mean 67 %) and decreased towards the dam. At the margins, OCBE was lower (9-17 %) due to the low sediment accumulation in shallow areas. Our data show that the variability in OCBE both along the rivers-dam and the margin-pelagic axes must be considered in whole-reservoir assessments. Combining these results with a spatially resolved assessment of sediment accumulation and OC burial in the studied reservoir, we estimated a spatially resolved mean OC burial efficiency of 57 %. Being the first assessment of OCBE with such a high spatial resolution in a reservoir, these results suggest that reservoirs may bury OC more efficiently than natural lakes.

  10. [Spatiotemporal variation of epilithic algae in Xiangxi River system].

    PubMed

    Jia, Xing-huan; Wu, Nai-cheng; Tang, Tao; Cai, Qing-hua

    2008-04-01

    Xiangxi River system is the greatest branch in the Hubei reservoir area of the Three Gorges reservoir. In this paper, the epilithic algae in the River and its three major tributaries were investigated from July 2005 to June 2006. A total of 218 taxa were identified, including 183 species of Bacillariophyta, 24 species of Chlorophyta, 10 species of Cyanophyta, and one species of Xanthophyta. The diatom Achnanthes linearis was the most predominant species. The richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices varied significantly (or almost significantly) over time and space, and the total average values were 32 and 1.54, respectively. The total averages of annual epilithic algal density and chlorophyll a concentration were 8.75 x 10(9) cells x m(-2) and 14.62 mg x m(-2), respectively. There were significant differences in the algal density and chlorophyll a concentration among different sampling sites, and the maximum values were observed in Gufu River tributary, which were one order of magnitude higher than the minimum ones in Jiuchong River tributary. The algal density and chlorophyll a concentration tended to be higher in winter and spring than in summer and autumn, but no significant differences were observed in various seasons. Epilithic algal density and chlorophyll a concentration were significantly negatively correlated with elevation and water current, but positively correlated with the total nitrogen concentration in water.

  11. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 1991 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Scheeler, Carl A.

    1993-01-01

    The Umatilla habitat improvement program targets the improvement of water quality and restoration of riparian areas, holding, spawning,and rearing habitats of steelhead, spring and fall Chinook and coho salmon. This report covers work accomplished by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation from April 1991 through May 1992. This program is funded under the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Measure 704 (d)(1) 34.02) as partial mitigation for construction of hydroelectric dams and the subsequent losses of anadromous fish throughout the Columbia River system.

  12. Interactive Forecasting with the National Weather Service River Forecast System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, George F.; Page, Donna

    1993-01-01

    The National Weather Service River Forecast System (NWSRFS) consists of several major hydrometeorologic subcomponents to model the physics of the flow of water through the hydrologic cycle. The entire NWSRFS currently runs in both mainframe and minicomputer environments, using command oriented text input to control the system computations. As computationally powerful and graphically sophisticated scientific workstations became available, the National Weather Service (NWS) recognized that a graphically based, interactive environment would enhance the accuracy and timeliness of NWS river and flood forecasts. Consequently, the operational forecasting portion of the NWSRFS has been ported to run under a UNIX operating system, with X windows as the display environment on a system of networked scientific workstations. In addition, the NWSRFS Interactive Forecast Program was developed to provide a graphical user interface to allow the forecaster to control NWSRFS program flow and to make adjustments to forecasts as necessary. The potential market for water resources forecasting is immense and largely untapped. Any private company able to market the river forecasting technologies currently developed by the NWS Office of Hydrology could provide benefits to many information users and profit from providing these services.

  13. An intelligent agent for optimal river-reservoir system management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieker, Jeffrey D.; Labadie, John W.

    2012-09-01

    A generalized software package is presented for developing an intelligent agent for stochastic optimization of complex river-reservoir system management and operations. Reinforcement learning is an approach to artificial intelligence for developing a decision-making agent that learns the best operational policies without the need for explicit probabilistic models of hydrologic system behavior. The agent learns these strategies experientially in a Markov decision process through observational interaction with the environment and simulation of the river-reservoir system using well-calibrated models. The graphical user interface for the reinforcement learning process controller includes numerous learning method options and dynamic displays for visualizing the adaptive behavior of the agent. As a case study, the generalized reinforcement learning software is applied to developing an intelligent agent for optimal management of water stored in the Truckee river-reservoir system of California and Nevada for the purpose of streamflow augmentation for water quality enhancement. The intelligent agent successfully learns long-term reservoir operational policies that specifically focus on mitigating water temperature extremes during persistent drought periods that jeopardize the survival of threatened and endangered fish species.

  14. Missouri River System Analysis Model. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    has developed such an interface for AQUATOOL , his reservoir system model. This interface uses the graphical interface tools of MS-Windows 3.0. Prof...inferred from the graphical representation. Both also feature "fill in the blanks" forms for specification of pertinent data. Working copies of AQUATOOL and

  15. Summary of the Snake River plain Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in Idaho and eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindholm, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    -feet, and storage decreased from 1952 to 1964 and from 1976 to 1980 because of below-normal precipitation and increased withdrawals of ground water for irrigation. Annual ground-water discharge increased to about 7.1 million acre-feet in 1980, or about 80 percent since the start of irrigation. About 10 percent of the 1980 total discharge was ground-water pumpage. About 3.1 million acres, or almost one-third of the plain, was irrigated during 1980: 2.0 million acres with surface water, 1.0 million acres with ground water, and 0.1 million acres with combined surface and ground water. About 8.9 million acre-feet of Snake River water was diverted for irrigation during 1980 and 2.3 million acre-feet of ground water was pumped from 5,300 wells. Most irrigation wells on the eastern plain are open to basalt. About two-thirds of them yield more than 1,500 gallons per minute with a reported maximum of 7,240 gallons per minute; drawdown is less than 20 feet in two-thirds of the wells. Most irrigation wells on the western plain are open to sedimentary rocks. About one-third of them yield more than 1,00 gallons per minute with a reported maximum of 3,850 gallons per minute; drawndown is less than 20 feet in about one-fifth of the wells. The major instream use of water on the Snake River Plain is hydroelectric power generation. Fifty-two million acre-feet of water generated 2.6 million megawatthours of electricity during 1980. Digital computer ground-water flows models of the eastern and western plain reasonably simulated regional changes in water levels and ground-water discharges from 1880 (preirrigation) to 1980. Model results support the concept of three-dimensional flow and the hypotheses of no underflow between the eastern and western plain. Simulation of the regional aquifer system in the eastern plain indicates that is 1980 hydrologic conditions, including pumpage, were to remain the same for another 30 years, moderate declines in ground-water levels and decreases in spring

  16. Global analysis of river systems: from Earth system controls to Anthropocene syndromes.

    PubMed Central

    Meybeck, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Continental aquatic systems from rivers to the coastal zone are considered within two perspectives: (i) as a major link between the atmosphere, pedosphere, biosphere and oceans within the Earth system with its Holocene dynamics, and (ii) as water and aquatic biota resources progressively used and transformed by humans. Human pressures have now reached a state where the continental aquatic systems can no longer be considered as being controlled by only Earth system processes, thus defining a new era, the Anthropocene. Riverine changes, now observed at the global scale, are described through a first set of syndromes (flood regulation, fragmentation, sediment imbalance, neo-arheism, salinization, chemical contamination, acidification, eutrophication and microbial contamination) with their related causes and symptoms. These syndromes have direct influences on water uses, either positive or negative. They also modify some Earth system key functions such as sediment, water, nutrient and carbon balances, greenhouse gas emissions and aquatic biodiversity. Evolution of river syndromes over the past 2000 years is complex: it depends upon the stages of regional human development and on natural conditions, as illustrated here for the chemical contamination syndrome. River damming, eutrophication and generalized decrease of river flow due to irrigation are some of the other global features of river changes. Future management of river systems should also consider these long-term impacts on the Earth system. PMID:14728790

  17. Mount St. Helens Project. Cowlitz River Levee Systems, 2009 Level of Flood Protection Update Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-04

    mountainous region between Mount St. Helens and Mt. Rainier to the Columbia River at Longview, WA. The upstream-most levee is at Castle Rock where a... Mount St. Helens Project Cowlitz River Levee Systems 2009 Level of Flood Protection Update Summary Cowlitz River at Longview... Mount St. Helens Project. Cowlitz River Levee Systems, 2009 Level of Flood Protection Update Summary 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  18. Prescriptive Reservoir System Analysis Model - Missouri River System Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    identical to those used with the reservoir simulation model in use by the Corps Missouri River l)ivision (MRI)), applied to the same period. Composite...8217l’o test the reasonableness of’ the rusults, IIE(-PI{M results were compared with those ofthe MRI) reservoir simulation model. This comparison is...34Multi- reservoir simulation and optimization model SIM-V," UM-38, Texas Department of Water Resources, Austin, TX. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

  19. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan Dam, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Egypt's High Aswan Dam on the Nile River at the first cataracts, Nile River, (24.0N, 33.0E) was completed in 1971 to provide cheap hydroelectric power and to regulate the historically uneven flow of the Nile River. The contrast between the largely base rock desert east of the Nile versus the sand covered desert west of the river and the ancient irrigated floodplain downstream from the damsite is clearly shown.

  20. ALARA Overview System at Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Station.

    PubMed

    Kline, K B; Cope, W B

    1995-08-01

    During the Spring of 1994 the Health Physics Department at Florida Power Company used video and audio equipment to support remote health physics coverage for their Crystal River Unit 3 refueling outage (Refuel 9). The system consisted of eight cameras with audio interface linked to a control center located in a low-dose area. The system allowed health physics personnel to monitor steam generator and refueling activities with minimum exposure in high-dose areas, cutting by half the dose from the previous outage. B&W Nuclear Technologies provided complete setup, maintenance and tear-down, as well as assuming responsibilities for contaminated video and audio equipment.

  1. Monitoring marginal erosion in hydroelectric reservoirs with terrestrial mobile laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommaselli, A. M. G.; Moraes, M. V. A.; Silva, L. S. L.; Rubio, M. F.; Carvalho, G. J.; Tommaselli, J. T. G.

    2014-06-01

    Marginal erosions in reservoirs of hydroelectric plants have caused economic and environmental problems concerning hydroelectric power generation, reduction of productive areas and devaluing land parcels. The real extension and dynamics of these erosion processes are not well known for Brazilian reservoirs. To objectively assess these problems Unesp (Univ Estadual Paulista) and Duke Energy are developing a joint project which aims at the monitoring the progression of some erosive processes and understanding the causes and the dynamics of this phenomenon. Mobile LASER scanning was considered the most suitable alternative for the challenges established in the project requirements. A MDL DynaScan Mobile LASER M150 scanner was selected which uses RTK for real time positioning integrated to an IMU, enabling instantaneous generation of georeferenced point clouds. Two different reservoirs were choose for monitoring: Chavantes (storage plant) and Rosana (run-of-river plant), both in the Paranapanema River, border of São Paulo and Paraná States, Brazil. The monitoring areas are scanned quarterly and analysed with base on the point cloud, meshes, contours and cross sections. Cross sections are used to visualize and compute the rate and the dynamics of erosion. Some examples and quantitative results are presented along with an analysis of the proposed technique. Some recommendations to improve the field work and latter data processing are also introduced.

  2. Productivity and efficiency analysis of privatized hydroelectric generation with a sometimes free input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabi, Claudia Elizabeth

    2000-10-01

    In this paper I use a stochastic distance frontier approach to assess the performance of Chile's hydroelectric industry, which operates within a regulatory framework designed to achieve a competitive outcome. An occasionally free input, water, is the sole energy input. The econometric analysis indicates substantial technical and allocative inefficiencies as well as volatile productivity scores, due presumably to the volatility of the energy input. Some allocative inefficiencies have diminished dramatically as the time under deregulation has grown. The Lerner index suggests that firms in the industry enjoy some degree of market power, reflected by prices that exceed marginal costs. This market power is consistent with operation within a centralized dispatch center, as predicted by a strategic bidding model. I also find that run-of-river plants exhibit increasing returns to scale, while plants relying on dams show slightly diminishing returns. The shadow marginal cost for run-of-river plants is found to be close to zero. Substantial cost savings could be realized if firms in Chile's hydro-electric generation industry were to operate efficiently.

  3. The Mattole River Estuary: Restoration Efforts in a Dynamic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, D.; Liquori, M.

    2010-12-01

    Despite extensive scientific advancement integrating our understanding of hydrology, geomorphology, and ecology in recent decades, the application of restoration in the field has been slow to evolve. This presentation will highlight 20 years of restoration practices in the Mattole River Estuary and how these practices have informed our understanding of this complex system. The Mattole River Watershed is a 304 square-mile basin located near the Mendocino Triple Junction in a remote region of California known as the “The Lost Coast” for its rugged mountains and undeveloped coastline. In addition to numerous species of fish, mammals, and over 250 bird species, the Mattole Watershed is home to three Federally-listed Threatened salmonids: California Coastal Chinook salmon, Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts coho salmon, and Northern California steelhead trout. The 64 mile-long river meets the Pacific Ocean at the northern end of the 64,000 acre King Range National Conservation Area (KRNCA), managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The watershed is dynamic, with some of the nation’s highest annual rainfall (mean = 158 cm/yr), naturally occurring steep slopes, erosive sedimentary geology, and frequent earthquakes. All of these factors have amplified the negative effects of extensive logging and associated road building between 1945 and 1970, which left a legacy of increased sediment loads and high water temperatures that have yet to recover to pre-disturbance levels, severely impairing riparian and aquatic habitats. Prior to major land disturbances, the Mattole estuary/lagoon was notable for its deep, thermally-stratified pools and numerous functioning north and south bank slough channels that flushed sediments from the river and received marine water. As flows decline in late spring, a sandbar closes off surface flow from the river to the Pacific Ocean, forming a lagoon, which persists until flows increase in the fall. Today, the estuary is poor

  4. The further environmental development of Polyphyto Hydroelectric Project reservoir in Kozani prefecture and its contribution to the life quality improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saounatsou, Chara; Georgi, Julia

    2014-08-01

    The Polyphyto Hydroelectric Project was constructed in 1974 and it has been operating since on the Aliakmonas River, Kozani prefecture, by the Greek Public Power Corporation. The construction of the Ilarion Hydroelectric Project, upstream from the Polyphyto Reservoir, has been recently completed and will start operating in the near future. Apart from hydroelectric power production, the Polyphyto reservoir provides flood control to the areas below the Polyphyto dam. It is also used to manage water provision to the city of Thessaloniki and adjacent agricultural plain, providing at the same time cooling water to the Thermo Electric Projects in Ptolemaida. The Polyphyto reservoir has potential for further development as an economic fulcrum to the region in which is located. The Kozani and Servia-Velvendos Municipalities have proceeded to the construction of several touristic, nautical - athletic and fishing projects. In order to promote such developments, while preserving the artificial wetland, flora and fauna of the Polyphyto Reservoir, it is important to reduce the fluctuation of the reservoir elevation which according to its technical characteristics is 21m. The aim of this paper is to propose the combined operation of the two Hydroelectric Project reservoirs to satisfy all the present Polyphyto Hydroelectric Project functions and to reduce the annual fluctuation of the Polyphyto Reservoir. The HEC-5, Version 8 / 1998 computer model was used in our calculations, as developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) of the US Army Corps of Engineers for reservoir operation simulation. Five possible operation scenarios are tested in this paper to show that the present fluctuation of the Polyphyto Reservoir can be reduced, with some limitations, except during dry weather periods.

  5. A SEDIMENT TOXICITY EVALUATION OF THREE LARGE RIVER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment toxicity samples were collected from selected sites on the Ohio River, Missouri River and upper Mississippi River as part of the 2004 and 2005 Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program-Great Rivers Ecosystems Study (EMAP-GRE). Samples were collected by compositing...

  6. Columbia River flood basalts from a centralized crustal magmatic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, J. A.; Ramos, F. C.; Hart, G. L.; Patterson, J. D.; Brandon, A. D.

    2008-03-01

    The Columbia River Basalt Group in the northwestern United States, comprising about 230,000 cubic kilometres of rock, exhibits unusual patterns in lava distribution, geochemistry and its apparent relationship to regional tectonics. Consequently, there is little consensus on the origin of its magmas. Here, we examine the isotopic ratios of Sr, Nd, Pb and Os and trace-element abundances in Columbia River basalts. The results suggest that most of the lava was produced when magma derived from a mantle plume assimilated continental crust in a central magma chamber system located at the boundary between the North American craton and the accreted terranes of Idaho and Oregon. Other, related basalts are the product of mixing between the mantle plume and different types of regional upper mantle. Magma was then transported over a wide region by an extensive network of dykes, a process that has been identified in other flood basalt provinces as well. Interactions of the plume with surrounding upper mantle, and of mantle-derived magmas with regional crust, provide a relatively simple model to explain the more unusual features of the main-phase Columbia River Basalts.

  7. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy in Indiana are examined. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. An examination is made of the Federal-state relationships with the aim of creating a more orderly understanding of the vagaries of the system. The introductory chapter examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. The Indiana water law; direct and indirect regulations; the Public Service Commission of Indiana; and financial considerations are examined.

  8. Monitoring of Downstream Salmon and Steelhead at Federal Hydroelectric Facilities, 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, Rick D.; Graves, Richie J.; Langeslay, Michael J.

    1996-12-01

    The seaward migration of juvenile salmonids was monitored by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) at Bonneville and John Day Dams on the Columbia river in 1995. The NMFS Smolt Monitoring Project is part of a larger Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) coordinated by the Fish Passage Center (FPC) for the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. This program focuses on protecting, mitigating, and enhancing fish populations affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. The purpose of the SMP is to monitor the migration of the juvenile salmonid stocks in the Columbia basin and make flow and spill recommendations designed to facilitate fish passage. Data are also used for travel time, migration timing, and relative run size analysis. The purpose of the NMFS portion of the program is to provide FPC with species and project specific real time data from John Day and Bonneville Dams.

  9. Multi-Model Long-Range Ensemble Forecast for Decision Support in Hydroelectric Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, M. L.; Parkinson, S.; Blestrud, D.; Holbrook, V. P.

    2014-12-01

    Idaho Power Company (IPC) is a hydroelectric based utility serving over a million customers in southern Idaho and eastern Oregon. Hydropower makes up ~50% of our power generation and accurate predictions of streamflow and precipitation drive our long-term planning and decision support for operations. We investigate the use of a multi-model ensemble approach for mid and long-range streamflow and precipitation forecasts throughout the Snake River Basin. Forecast are prepared using an Idaho Power developed ensemble forecasting technique for 89 locations throughout the Snake River Basin for periods of 3 to 18 months in advance. A series of multivariable linear regression, multivariable non-linear regression and multivariable Kalman filter techniques are combined in an ensemble forecast based upon two data types, historical data (streamflow, precipitation, climate indices [i.e. PDO, ENSO, AO, etc…]) and single value decomposition derived values based upon atmospheric heights and sea surface temperatures.

  10. Low altitude aerial photogrammetry application to braided river systems. Example of the Buech River, Alps, France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jules Fleury, Thomas; Pothin, Virginie; Vella, Claude; Dussouillez, Philippe; Izem, Abdelkoddouss

    2015-04-01

    Low-altitude aerial photogrammetry offers new opportunities for geomorphology and other fields requiring very high-resolution topographic data. It combines the advantages of the reproducibility of GPS topographic surveys with the high accuracy of LIDAR, but at relatively low-cost, easy-to-deploy and with the synaptic advantage of remote sensing. In order to evaluate the potential of photogrammetry on river systems and to assess river-bed changes and erosion-accretion processes, we conducted several surveys over the period of one year on the Buech river, a gravel-bed braided river located in the French Southern Alps. The study area is located directly upstream of a gravel pit and there is an interest in evaluating its effects on the riverbed. Our field protocol was comprised of vertical aerial photographs taken from a microlight aircraft flying approximately 300 ft above the ground. The equipment used was a full-frame DSLR with a wide angle lense, synchronised with a DGPS onboard. Fourty 40cm wide targets were placed on the ground and georeferenced by RTK DGPS with an accuracy of 2cm. In addition, close to one thousand Ground Control Points (GCPs) were measured within the different types of ground surfaces (vegetated, water, gravels) in order to assess the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) accuracy. We operated the production of the 3D model and its derived products: Digital Surface Model (DSM) and orthophotography, with user-friendly Agisoft (c) Photoscan Professional software. The processing of several hundred pictures with 2.5 cm ground resolution resulted in a DSM with a resolution of 10 cm and a vertical accuracy within 5 cm. As is expected, accuracy was best on bare bars and decreased with increasing vegetation density. To complement the DSM in the wetted channels, we used the orthophotos to establish a relationship between water color and flow depth using statistical multivariate regressions. Merging the bathymetric model and the DSM produced a DTM with a vertical

  11. Nitrogen retention in a river system and the effects of river morphology and lakes.

    PubMed

    Venohr, M; Donohue, I; Fogelberg, S; Arheimer, B; Irvine, K; Behrendt, H

    2005-01-01

    The mean annual transfer (loss and retention) of nitrogen in a river system was estimated using a conceptual approach based on water surface area and runoff. Two different approaches for the calculation of water surface area were applied to determine riverine nitrogen retention in four European catchments, ranging between 860-14,000 km2 in area, and differing considerably in the proportion and distribution of surface waters, specific runoff and specific nutrient emissions. The transfer rate was estimated sequentially as either the mean value for the total catchment, on a sub-catchment scale, or considering the distribution of water surface area within a sub-catchment. For the latter measure, nitrogen retention in larger lakes was calculated separately. Nitrogen emissions modelled with MONERIS and HBV-N were used to calculate nitrogen river loads and compare those with observed loads. Inclusion of the proportion of water area within a sub-catchment improved modelled results in catchment with large lakes in sub-catchments, but not where there was a homogenous distribution of surface waters among sub-catchments.

  12. Large barchanoid dunes in the Amazon River and the rock record: Implications for interpreting large river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Renato Paes de; Galeazzi, Cristiano Padalino; Freitas, Bernardo Tavares; Janikian, Liliane; Ianniruberto, Marco; Marconato, André

    2016-11-01

    The interpretation of large river deposits from the rock record is hampered by the scarcity of direct observations of active large river systems. That is particularly true for deep-channel environments, where tens of meters deep flows dominate. These conditions are extremely different from what is found in smaller systems, from which current facies models were derived. MBES and shallow seismic surveys in a selected area of the Upper Amazonas River in Northern Brazil revealed the presence of large compound barchanoid dunes along the channel thalweg. The dunes are characterized by V-shaped, concave-downstream crest lines and convex-up longitudinal profiles, hundreds of meters wide, up to 300 m in wavelength and several meters high. Based on the morphology of compound dunes, expected preserved sedimentary structures are broad, large-scale, low-angle, concave up and downstream cross-strata, passing laterally and downstream to inclined cosets. Examples of such structures from large river deposits in the rock record are described in the Silurian Serra Grande Group and the Cretaceous São Sebastião and Marizal formations in Northeastern Brazil, as well as in Triassic Hawkesburry Sandstone in Southeastern Australia and the Plio-Pleistocene Içá Formation in the western Amazon. All these sedimentary structures are found near channel base surfaces and are somewhat coarser than the overlying fluvial deposits, favoring the interpretation of thalweg depositional settings. The recognition of large barchanoid dunes as bedforms restricted to river thalwegs and probably to large river systems brings the possibility of establishing new criteria for the interpretation of fluvial system scale in the rock record. Sedimentary structures compatible with the morphological characteristics of these bedforms seem to be relatively common in large river deposits, given their initial recognition in five different fluvial successions in Brazil and Australia, potentially enabling substantial

  13. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation Plan for Libby Hydroelectric Project, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mundinger, John

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the proposed mitigation plan for wildlife losses attributable to the construction of the Libby hydroelectric project. Mitigation objectives and alternatives, the recommended mitigation projects, and the crediting system for each project are described by each target species. The report describes mitigation that has already taken place and 8 recommended mitigation projects designed to complete total wildlife mitigation. 8 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation Plan for Hungry Horse Hydroelectric Project, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Gael

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the proposed mitigation plan for wildlife losses attributable to the construction of the Hungry Horse hydroelectric project. In this report, mitigation objectives and alternatives, the recommended mitigation projects, and the crediting system for each project are described by each target species. Mitigation objectives for each species (group) were established based on the loss estimates but tailored to the recommended projects. 13 refs., 3 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. 77 FR 40607 - Whitman River Dam, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Whitman River Dam, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment... Projects has reviewed the application for an original license for the Crocker Dam Hydroelectric Project, to... ``Crocker Dam Hydroelectric Project No. 13237-003'' to all comments. For further information, contact...

  16. An integrated multiscale river basin observing system in the Heihe River Basin, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Liu, S.; Xiao, Q.; Ma, M.; Jin, R.; Che, T.

    2015-12-01

    Using the watershed as the unit to establish an integrated watershed observing system has been an important trend in integrated eco-hydrologic studies in the past ten years. Thus far, a relatively comprehensive watershed observing system has been established in the Heihe River Basin, northwest China. In addition, two comprehensive remote sensing hydrology experiments have been conducted sequentially in the Heihe River Basin, including the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER) (2007-2010) and the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) (2012-2015). Among these two experiments, an important result of WATER has been the generation of some multi-scale, high-quality comprehensive datasets, which have greatly supported the development, improvement and validation of a series of ecological, hydrological and quantitative remote-sensing models. The goal of a breakthrough for solving the "data bottleneck" problem has been achieved. HiWATER was initiated in 2012. This project has established a world-class hydrological and meteorological observation network, a flux measurement matrix and an eco-hydrological wireless sensor network. A set of super high-resolution airborne remote-sensing data has also been obtained. In addition, there has been important progress with regard to the scaling research. Furthermore, the automatic acquisition, transmission, quality control and remote control of the observational data has been realized through the use of wireless sensor network technology. The observation and information systems have been highly integrated, which will provide a solid foundation for establishing a research platform that integrates observation, data management, model simulation, scenario analysis and decision-making support to foster 21st-century watershed science in China.

  17. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level is described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. A developer must obtain title or interest to a streambed from the proper riparian owners. Ohio provides assistance to an electric company in this undertaking by providing it with the power of eminent domain in the event it is unable to reach a purchase agreement with the riparian proprietors. The Ohio Water Law is discussed in detail, followed by discussions: Licensing, Permitting, and Review Procedures; Indirect Considerations; Ohio Public Utilities Commission; Ohio Department of Energy; Incidental Provision; and Financial Considerations.

  18. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric potential in Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. The initial obstacle that all developers confront in Wisconsin is obtaining the authority to utilize the bed, banks, and flowing water at a proposed dam site. This involves a determination of ownership of the stream banks and bed and the manner of obtaining either their title or use; and existing constraints with regard to the use of the water. Wisconsin follows the riparian theory of water law.

  19. 77 FR 55466 - Barren River Lake Hydro LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Barren River Lake Hydro LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments Take notice... filed: December 9, 2011 and amended on June 21, 2012. d. Applicant: Barren River Lake Hydro LLC (Barren River Hydro). e. Name of Project: Barren River Lake Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: At the...

  20. An extensive reef system at the Amazon River mouth

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Rodrigo L.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Moraes, Fernando C.; Brasileiro, Poliana S.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Bastos, Alex C.; Almeida, Marcelo G.; Silva, Jomar M.; Araujo, Beatriz F.; Brito, Frederico P.; Rangel, Thiago P.; Oliveira, Braulio C. V.; Bahia, Ricardo G.; Paranhos, Rodolfo P.; Dias, Rodolfo J. S.; Siegle, Eduardo; Figueiredo, Alberto G.; Pereira, Renato C.; Leal, Camille V.; Hajdu, Eduardo; Asp, Nils E.; Gregoracci, Gustavo B.; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Yager, Patricia L.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Fróes, Adriana; Campeão, Mariana; Silva, Bruno S.; Moreira, Ana P. B.; Oliveira, Louisi; Soares, Ana C.; Araujo, Lais; Oliveira, Nara L.; Teixeira, João B.; Valle, Rogerio A. B.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2016-01-01

    Large rivers create major gaps in reef distribution along tropical shelves. The Amazon River represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean, generating up to a 1.3 × 106–km2 plume, and extensive muddy bottoms in the equatorial margin of South America. As a result, a wide area of the tropical North Atlantic is heavily affected in terms of salinity, pH, light penetration, and sedimentation. Such unfavorable conditions were thought to imprint a major gap in Western Atlantic reefs. We present an extensive carbonate system off the Amazon mouth, underneath the river plume. Significant carbonate sedimentation occurred during lowstand sea level, and still occurs in the outer shelf, resulting in complex hard-bottom topography. A permanent near-bottom wedge of ocean water, together with the seasonal nature of the plume’s eastward retroflection, conditions the existence of this extensive (~9500 km2) hard-bottom mosaic. The Amazon reefs transition from accretive to erosional structures and encompass extensive rhodolith beds. Carbonate structures function as a connectivity corridor for wide depth–ranging reef-associated species, being heavily colonized by large sponges and other structure-forming filter feeders that dwell under low light and high levels of particulates. The oxycline between the plume and subplume is associated with chemoautotrophic and anaerobic microbial metabolisms. The system described here provides several insights about the responses of tropical reefs to suboptimal and marginal reef-building conditions, which are accelerating worldwide due to global changes. PMID:27152336

  1. Impacts of hydroelectric dams on alluvial riparian plant communities in Eastern Brazilian Amazonian.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Leandro Valle; Cunha, Denise A; Chaves, Priscilla P; Matos, Darley C L; Parolin, Pia

    2013-09-01

    The major rivers of the Amazon River basin and their biota are threatened by the planned construction of large hydroelectric dams that are expected to have strong impacts on floodplain plant communities. The present study presents forest inventories from three floodplain sites colonized by alluvial riparian vegetation in the Tapajós, Xingu and Tocantins River basins in eastern Amazonian. Results indicate that tree species of the highly specialized alluvial riparian vegetation are clearly distinct among the three river basins, although they are not very distinct from each other and environmental constraints are very similar. With only 6 of 74 species occurring in all three inventories, most tree and shrub species are restricted to only one of the rivers, indicating a high degree of local distribution. Different species occupy similar environmental niches, making these fragile riparian formations highly valuable. Conservation plans must consider species complementarily when decisions are made on where to place floodplain forest conservation units to avoid the irreversible loss of unique alluvial riparian vegetation biodiversity.

  2. Tazimina hydroelectric project, Iliamna, Alaska. Final technical and construction cost report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The Iliamna-Newhalen-Nondalton Electric Cooperative (INNEC) provides electrical power to three communities of the same names. These communities are located near the north shore of Iliamna Lake in south-central Alaska approximately 175 miles southwest of Anchorage. A hydroelectric project was constructed for these communities, starting in the spring of 1996 and ending in the spring of 1998. The project site is on the Tazimina River about 12 miles northeast of Iliamna Lake. The taximina River flows west from the Aleutian Range. The project site is at Tazimina Falls about 9 miles upstream of the confluence of the Tazimina River and the Newhalen River. The project has an installed capacity of 824 kilowatts (kW) and is expandable to 1.5 megawatts (MW). The project is run-of-the-river (no storage) and uses the approximately 100 feet of natural head provided by the falls. The project features include a channel control sill, intake structure, penstock, underground powerhouse, tailrace, surface control building, buried transmission line and communication cable, and access road.

  3. Critical and supercritical flows in two unstable, mountain rivers, Toutle river system, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, Andrew; Hardison, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Critical and supercritical flows are generally considered to be rare occurrences in natural river channels. This paper presents data and results pertaining to the existence of measured critical and supercritical flows at gaging stations on the North Fork Toutle River (NFT) and Toutle River main stem (TR). The data set includes 930 discharge measurements made by the staff of the U.S. Geological Survey, Cascades Volcano Observatory, between 1980 and 1989.

  4. Water consumption from hydroelectricity in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubert, Emily A.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the relationship between water and energy systems is important for effective management of both resources. Improved data availability has made more comprehensive modeling of hydropower and its water use possible, even as droughts and climate change have made questions about reservoir evaporation responsiveness more timely. This work makes three main contributions: first, it presents national and regional estimates of gross evaporation and evaporation net of evapotranspiration from local land cover ("net evaporation") for U.S. hydroelectricity, arguing that net evaporation is more consistent with other measures of energy-related water intensity; second, it introduces and validates a method for estimating system-wide evaporation based on primary purpose allocation that reduces data requirements by two orders of magnitude; and third, it makes available for public use a full Penman-Monteith model with multiple built-in sensitivity analyses. Based on this model, the U.S. hydropower system consumes an estimated average of 1.7 m3 of net freshwater per GJ electricity produced (11 m3/GJ gross).

  5. Principles of engineering geomorphology for managing channel erosion and bedload transport, examples from French rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravard, J.-P.; Landon, N.; Peiry, J.-L.; Piégay, H.

    1999-12-01

    French rivers have been transformed by centuries of development to satisfy various social demands such as navigation, hydro-electric power production, flood control, or checking erosion. These modifications have led to impacts that are detrimental to ecology, to resources, and to human interests. In recent years, increased public and management awareness of these problems has given way to new conceptions and objectives in the field of river engineering, among which the goal of establishing sustainable long-term management strategies is of the highest importance. Because many of these problems are directly or indirectly related to changes in the geomorphological functioning of fluvial systems, there is a need to integrate a geomorphological approach into river engineering practices. The principles of "engineering geomorphology" are developed here and are illustrated by examples taken from rivers that drain the French Alps and their piedmont.

  6. Hydrogeologic data for the Big River-Mishnock River stream-aquifer system, central Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craft, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogeology, ground-water development alternatives, and water quality in the BigMishnock stream-aquifer system in central Rhode Island are being investigated as part of a long-term cooperative program between the Rhode Island Water Resources Board and the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate the ground-water resources throughout Rhode Island. The study area includes the Big River drainage basin and that portion of the Mishnock River drainage basin upstream from the Mishnock River at State Route 3. This report presents geologic data and hydrologic and water-quality data for ground and surface water. Ground-water data were collected from July 1996 through September 1998 from a network of observation wells consisting of existing wells and wells installed for this study, which provided a broad distribution of data-collection sites throughout the study area. Streambed piezometers were used to obtain differences in head data between surface-water levels and ground-water levels to help evaluate stream-aquifer interactions throughout the study area. The types of data presented include monthly ground-water levels, average daily ground-water withdrawals, drawdown data from aquifer tests, and water-quality data. Historical water-level data from other wells within the study area also are presented in this report. Surface-water data were obtained from a network consisting of surface-water impoundments, such as ponds and reservoirs, existing and newly established partial-record stream-discharge sites, and synoptic surface-water-quality sites. Water levels were collected monthly from the surface-water impoundments. Stream-discharge measurements were made at partial-record sites to provide measurements of inflow, outflow, and internal flow throughout the study area. Specific conductance was measured monthly at partial-record sites during the study, and also during the fall and spring of 1997 and 1998 at 41 synoptic sites throughout the study area. General geologic data, such as

  7. Final Technical Report - Modernization of the Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project

    SciTech Connect

    Taddeucci, Joe

    2013-03-29

    double nozzle Pelton turbine with a 10-to-1 flow turndown and a maximum turbine/generator efficiency of 88%. This alone represents a 6% increase in overall efficiency. The old turbine operated at low efficiencies due to age and non-optimal sizing of the turbine for the water flow available to the unit. It was shut down whenever water flow dropped to less than 4-5 cfs, and at that flow, efficiency was 55 to 60%. The new turbine will operate in the range of 70 to 88% efficiency through a large portion of the existing flow range and would only have to be shut down at flow rates less than 3.7 cfs. Efficiency is expected to increase by 15-30%, depending on flow. In addition to the installation of new equipment, other goals for the project included: Increasing safety at Boulder Canyon Hydro Increasing protection of the Boulder Creek environment Modernizing and integrating control equipment into Boulder's municipal water supply system, and Preserving significant historical engineering information prior to power plant modernization. From January 1, 2010 through December 31, 2012, combined consultant and contractor personnel hours paid for by both the city and the federal government have totaled approximately 40,000. This equates roughly to seven people working full time on the project from January 2010 through December 2012. This project also involved considerable material expense (steel pipe, a variety of valves, electrical equipment, and the various components of the turbine and generator), which were not accounted for in terms of hours spent on the project. However, the material expense related to this project did help to create or preserve manufacturing/industrial jobs throughout the United States. As required by ARRA, the various components of the hydroelectric project were manufactured or substantially transformed in the U.S. BCH is eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places due in part to its unique engineering features and innovative construction

  8. Invasive Macroinvertebrates in the Upper Mississippi River system: Recent Findings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zoobenthos surveys of the great rivers of the Upper Mississippi River basin (Missouri, Upper Mississippi, and Ohio Rivers) in 2004-2006 revealed new invasions by marine and estuarine amphipods. The gammarid amphipods Echinogammarus ischnus and Gammarus tigrinus were discovered i...

  9. Invasion of the Upper Mississippi River System by Saltwater Amphipods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zoobenthos surveys of the Great Rivers of the Upper Mississippi River basin (Missouri, Mississippi, and Ohio Rivers) provided an opportunity for documenting a series of invasions by euryhaline amphipods. The corophiid amphipod Apocorophium lacustre was first found in the Ohio Ri...

  10. Fish assemblage shifts in the Powder River of Wyoming: an unregulated prairie river system previously considered to be relatively pristine.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senecal, Anna C.; Walters, Annika W.; Hubert, Wayne A.

    2016-01-01

    Wyoming’s Powder River is considered an example of a pristine prairie river system. While the river hosts a largely native fish assemblage and remains unimpounded over its 1,146-km course to the Yellowstone River confluence, the hydrologic regime has been altered through water diversion for agriculture and natural gas extraction and there has been limited study of fish assemblage structure. We analyzed fish data collected from the mainstem Powder River in Wyoming between 1896 and 2008. Shifts in presence/absence and relative abundance of fish species, as well as fish assemblage composition, were assessed among historical and recent samples. The recent Powder River fish assemblage was characterized by increased relative abundances of sand shiner Notropis stramineus and plains killifish Fundulus zebrinus, and decreases in sturgeon chub Macrhybopsis gelida. Shifts in fish species relative abundance are linked to their reproductive ecology with species with adhesive eggs generally increasing in relative abundance while those with buoyant drifting eggs are decreasing. Assemblage shifts could be the result of landscape level changes, such as the loss of extreme high and low flow events and changing land use practices.

  11. Montana Rivers Information System : Edit/Entry Program User's Manual.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks

    1992-07-01

    The Montana Rivers Information System (MRIS) was initiated to assess the state`s fish, wildlife, and recreation value; and natural cultural, and geologic features. The MRIS is now a set of data bases containing part of the information in the Natural Heritage Program natural features and threatened and endangered species data bases and comprises of the Montana Interagency Stream Fisheries Database; the MDFWP Recreation Database; and the MDFWP Wildlife Geographic Information System. The purpose of this User`s Manual is to describe to the user how to maintain the MRIS database of their choice by updating, changing, deleting, and adding records using the edit/entry programs; and to provide to the user all information and instructions necessary to complete data entry into the MRIS databases.

  12. Spatial variation of sediment mineralization supports differential CO2 emissions from a tropical hydroelectric reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Simone J.; Vidal, Luciana O.; Mendonça, Raquel F.; Tranvik, Lars J.; Sobek, Sebastian; Fábio, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Substantial amounts of organic matter (OM) from terrestrial ecosystems are buried as sediments in inland waters. It is still unclear to what extent this OM constitutes a sink of carbon, and how much of it is returned to the atmosphere upon mineralization to carbon dioxide (CO2). The construction of reservoirs affects the carbon cycle by increasing OM sedimentation at the regional scale. In this study we determine the OM mineralization in the sediment of three zones (river, transition, and dam) of a tropical hydroelectric reservoir in Brazil as well as identify the composition of the carbon pool available for mineralization. We measured sediment organic carbon mineralization rates and related them to the composition of the OM, bacterial abundance and pCO2 of the surface water of the reservoir. Terrestrial OM was an important substrate for the mineralization. In the river and transition zones most of the OM was allochthonous (56 and 48%, respectively) while the dam zone had the lowest allochthonous contribution (7%). The highest mineralization rates were found in the transition zone (154.80 ± 33.50 mg C m-2 d-1) and the lowest in the dam (51.60 ± 26.80 mg C m-2 d-1). Moreover, mineralization rates were significantly related to bacterial abundance (r2 = 0.50, p < 0.001) and pCO2 in the surface water of the reservoir (r2 = 0.73, p < 0.001). The results indicate that allochthonous OM has different contributions to sediment mineralization in the three zones of the reservoir. Further, the sediment mineralization, mediated by heterotrophic bacteria metabolism, significantly contributes to CO2 supersaturation in the water column, resulting in higher pCO2 in the river and transition zones in comparison with the dam zone, affecting greenhouse gas emission estimations from hydroelectric reservoirs. PMID:23641239

  13. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in New York

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. The first step the small scale hydroelectric developer must take is that of acquiring title to the real property comprising the development site. The real estate parcel must include the requisite interest in the land adjacent to the watercourse, access to the underlying streambed and where needed, the land necessary for an upstream impoundment area. Land acquisition may be effectuated by purchase, lease, or grant by the state. In addition to these methods, New York permits the use of the eminent domain power of the state for public utilities under certain circumstances.

  14. Simulation of the transient processes of load rejection under different accident conditions in a hydroelectric generating set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, W. C.; Yang, J. D.; Chen, J. P.; Peng, Z. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, C. C.

    2016-11-01

    Load rejection test is one of the essential tests that carried out before the hydroelectric generating set is put into operation formally. The test aims at inspecting the rationality of the design of the water diversion and power generation system of hydropower station, reliability of the equipment of generating set and the dynamic characteristics of hydroturbine governing system. Proceeding from different accident conditions of hydroelectric generating set, this paper presents the transient processes of load rejection corresponding to different accident conditions, and elaborates the characteristics of different types of load rejection. Then the numerical simulation method of different types of load rejection is established. An engineering project is calculated to verify the validity of the method. Finally, based on the numerical simulation results, the relationship among the different types of load rejection and their functions on the design of hydropower station and the operation of load rejection test are pointed out. The results indicate that: The load rejection caused by the accident within the hydroelectric generating set is realized by emergency distributing valve, and it is the basis of the optimization for the closing law of guide vane and the calculation of regulation and guarantee. The load rejection caused by the accident outside the hydroelectric generating set is realized by the governor. It is the most efficient measure to inspect the dynamic characteristics of hydro-turbine governing system, and its closure rate of guide vane set in the governor depends on the optimization result in the former type load rejection.

  15. A brief history and summary of the effects of river engineering and dams on the Mississippi River system and delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Jason S.; Wilson, Richard C.; Green, W. Reed

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Forecast Mekong project is providing technical assistance and information to aid management decisions and build science capacity of institutions in the Mekong River Basin. A component of this effort is to produce a synthesis of the effects of dams and other engineering structures on large-river hydrology, sediment transport, geomorphology, ecology, water quality, and deltaic systems. The Mississippi River Basin (MRB) of the United States was used as the backdrop and context for this synthesis because it is a continental scale river system with a total annual water discharge proportional to the Mekong River, has been highly engineered over the past two centuries, and the effects of engineering have been widely studied and documented by scientists and engineers. The MRB is controlled and regulated by dams and river-engineering structures. These modifications have resulted in multiple benefits including navigation, flood control, hydropower, bank stabilization, and recreation. Dams and other river-engineering structures in the MRB have afforded the United States substantial socioeconomic benefits; however, these benefits also have transformed the hydrologic, sediment transport, geomorphic, water-quality, and ecologic characteristics of the river and its delta. Large dams on the middle Missouri River have substantially reduced the magnitude of peak floods, increased base discharges, and reduced the overall variability of intraannual discharges. The extensive system of levees and wing dikes throughout the MRB, although providing protection from intermediate magnitude floods, have reduced overall channel capacity and increased flood stage by up to 4 meters for higher magnitude floods. Prior to major river engineering, the estimated average annual sediment yield of the Mississippi River Basin was approximately 400 million metric tons. The construction of large main-channel reservoirs on the Missouri and Arkansas Rivers, sedimentation in dike

  16. River Maintenance Management System Using Three-Dimensional UAV Data in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, S.; Kawai, Y.

    2016-10-01

    River administration facilities such as levees and river walls play a major role in preventing flooding due to heavy rain. The forms of such facilities must be constantly monitored for alteration due to rain and running water, and limited human resources and budgets make it necessary to efficiently maintain river administration facilities. During maintenance, inspection results are commonly recorded on paper documents. Continuous inspection and repair using information systems are an on-going challenge. This study proposes a maintenance management system for river facilities that uses three-dimensional data to solve these problems and make operation and maintenance more efficient. The system uses three-dimensional data to visualize river facility deformation and its process, and it has functions that visualize information about river management at any point in the three-dimensional data. The threedimensional data is generated by photogrammetry using a camera on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.

  17. Advancement of Global-scale River Hydrodynamics Modelling and Its Potential Applications to Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, D.

    2015-12-01

    Global river routine models have been developed for representing freshwater discharge from land to ocean in Earth System Models. At the beginning, global river models had simulated river discharge along a prescribed river network map by using a linear-reservoir assumption. Recently, in parallel with advancement of remote sensing and computational powers, many advanced global river models have started to represent floodplain inundation assuming sub-grid floodplain topography. Some of them further pursue physically-appropriate representation of river and floodplain dynamics, and succeeded to utilize "hydrodynamic flow equations" to realistically simulate channel/floodplain and upstream/downstream interactions. State-of-the-art global river hydrodynamic models can well reproduce flood stage (e.g. inundated areas and water levels) in addition to river discharge. Flood stage simulation by global river models can be potentially coupled with land surface processes in Earth System Models. For example, evaporation from inundated water area is not negligible for land-atmosphere interactions in arid areas (such as the Niger River). Surface water level and ground water level are correlated each other in flat topography, and this interaction could dominate wetting and drying of many small lakes in flatland and could also affect biogeochemical processes in these lakes. These land/surface water interactions had not been implemented in Earth System Models but they have potential impact on the global climate and carbon cycle. In the AGU presentation, recent advancements of global river hydrodynamic modelling, including super-high resolution river topography datasets, will be introduces. The potential applications of river and surface water modules within Earth System Models will be also discussed.

  18. Fish mercury increase in Lago Manso, a new hydroelectric reservoir in tropical Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Lars D; Gröhn, Janina; Tropp, Magdalena; Vikström, Anna; Wolpher, Henriette; de Castro E Silva, Edinaldo; Meili, Markus; Oliveira, Lázaro J

    2006-10-01

    It has been frequently demonstrated that mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish rise in newly constructed hydroelectric reservoirs in the Northern Hemisphere. In the present work, we studied whether similar effects take place also in a tropical upland reservoir during impoundment and discuss possible causes and implications. Total Hg concentrations in fish and several soil and water parameters were determined before and after flooding at Rio Manso hydroelectric power plant in western Brazil. The Hg concentrations in soil and sediment were within the background levels in the region (22-35 ng g(-1) dry weight). There was a strong positive correlation between Hg and carbon and sulphur in sediment. Predatory fish had total Hg concentrations ranging between 70 and 210 ng g(-1) f.w. 7 years before flooding and between 72 and 755 ng g(-1) f.w. during flooding, but increased to between 216 and 938 ng g(-1) f.w. in the piscivorous and carnivorous species Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, cachara, and Salminus brasiliensis, dourado, 3 years after flooding. At the same time, concentrations of organic carbon in the water increased and oxygen concentrations decreased, indicating increased decomposition and anoxia as contributing to the increased Hg concentrations in fish. The present fish Hg concentrations in commonly consumed piscivorous species are a threat to the health of the population dependent on fishing in the dam and downstream river for sustenance. Mercury exposure can be reduced by following fish consumption recommendations until fish Hg concentrations decrease to a safe level.

  19. Future Impacts of Hydroelectric Power Development on Methylmercury Exposures of Canadian Indigenous Communities.

    PubMed

    Calder, Ryan S D; Schartup, Amina T; Li, Miling; Valberg, Amelia P; Balcom, Prentiss H; Sunderland, Elsie M

    2016-12-06

    Developing Canadian hydroelectric resources is a key component of North American plans for meeting future energy demands. Microbial production of the bioaccumulative neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg) is stimulated in newly flooded soils by degradation of labile organic carbon and associated changes in geochemical conditions. We find all 22 Canadian hydroelectric facilities being considered for near-term development are located within 100 km of indigenous communities. For a facility in Labrador, Canada (Muskrat Falls) with planned completion in 2017, we probabilistically modeled peak MeHg enrichment relative to measured baseline conditions in the river to be impounded, downstream estuary, locally harvested fish, birds and seals, and three Inuit communities. Results show a projected 10-fold increase in riverine MeHg levels and a 2.6-fold increase in estuarine surface waters. MeHg concentrations in locally caught species increase 1.3 to 10-fold depending on time spent foraging in different environments. Mean Inuit MeHg exposure is forecasted to double following flooding and over half of the women of childbearing age and young children in the most northern community are projected to exceed the U.S. EPA's reference dose. Equal or greater aqueous MeHg concentrations relative to Muskrat Falls are forecasted for 11 sites across Canada, suggesting the need for mitigation measures prior to flooding.

  20. Modelling eutrophication and microbial risks in peri-urban river systems using discriminant function analysis.

    PubMed

    Pinto, U; Maheshwari, B; Shrestha, S; Morris, C

    2012-12-01

    The methodology currently available to river managers for assessment of river conditions for eutrophication and microbial risks is often time consuming and costly. There is a need for efficient predictive tools based on easily measured variables for implementing appropriate management strategies and providing advice to local river users on river health and associated risks. Using the Hawkesbury-Nepean River system in New South Wales, Australia as case study, a stepwise discriminant function analysis was employed to develop two predictive models, one for river eutrophication risk and the other for microbial risk. The models are intended for a preliminary assessment of a river reach, particularly to assess the level of risk (high or low) for algal bloom and whether the river water is suitable for primary contact activities such as swimming. The input variables for both models included saturated dissolved oxygen and turbidity, while the eutrophication risk model included temperature as an additional variable. When validated with an independent data set, both models predicted the observed risk category accurately in two out of three instances. Since the models developed in this study use only two or three easy-to-measure variables, their application can help in rapid assessment of river conditions, result in potential cost saving in river monitoring programs and assist in providing timely advice to community and other users for a particular aspect of river use.

  1. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Iwamoto, Robert N.; Sandford, Benjamin P.; McIntyre, Kenneth W.

    1994-04-01

    A pilot study was conducted to estimate survival of hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. The goals of the study were to: (1) field test and evaluate the Single-Release, Modified-Single-Release, and Paired-Release Models for the estimation of survival probabilities through sections of a river and hydroelectric projects; (2) identify operational and logistical constraints to the execution of these models; and (3) determine the usefulness of the models in providing estimates of survival probabilities. Field testing indicated that the numbers of hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon needed for accurate survival estimates could be collected at different areas with available gear and methods. For the primary evaluation, seven replicates of 830 to 1,442 hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon were purse-seined from Lower Granite Reservoir, PIT tagged, and released near Nisqually John boat landing (River Kilometer 726). Secondary releases of PIT-tagged smolts were made at Lower Granite Dam to estimate survival of fish passing through turbines and after detection in the bypass system. Similar secondary releases were made at Little Goose Dam, but with additional releases through the spillway. Based on the success of the 1993 pilot study, the authors believe that the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models will provide accurate estimates of juvenile salmonid passage survival for individual river sections, reservoirs, and hydroelectric projects in the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

  2. Boise geothermal system, western Snake River plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, S.H.; Burnham, W.L.

    1984-07-01

    The Boise geothermal system lies in an area of high heat flow along the northern margin of the western Snake River plain. Exploratory drilling for petroleum and geothermal water, seismic reflection profiling, and regional gravity data permit construction of a detailed structure section across the western plain. A faulted acoustic basement of volcanic rocks lies at depths of 2400 to 6000 ft (730-1830 m) beneath late Cenozoic lacustrine and fluvial deposits in the center of the plain. Volcanic rocks of the acoustic basement are typically basalt out in the plain, but the acoustic basement along the north margin in the vicinity of Boise is largely silicic volcanic rock. Geologic mapping and geothermal well data have provided information on the late Cenozoic geologic units and structures important to the understanding of the Boise geothermal system. The main geothermal aquifer is a sequence of rhyolite layers and minor arkosic and tuffaceous sediment of the Miocene Idavada Volcanics. The aquifer is confined by a sequence of impermeable basaltic tuffs. The aquifer has sufficient fracture permeability to yield 150/sup 0/-170/sup 0/F (65/sup 0/-76.6/sup 0/C) hot water for space heating at a rate of 600 to 1200 gpm from wells drilled in the metropolitan area, north of the Boise River. In this area the rhyolite lies at a depth of 900-2000 ft (274-610 m). Artesian pressure typically lifts water to an elevation of about 2760 ft (840 m). A conceptual model of recharge assumes percolation driven by the topographic head to a depth of more than 7000 ft (2135 m) beneath the granitic highlands northeast of the city. Heated water convects upward through northwest-trending range-front faults.

  3. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Dan

    2009-04-16

    Puget Sound/Coastal Washington hatchery programs, followed by the development in 2005 of a suite of analytical tools to support application of the principles (all reports and tools are available at www.hatcheryreform.us). In 2005, Congress directed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) to replicate the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project in the Columbia River Basin. The HSRG was expanded to 14 members to include individuals with specific knowledge about the Columbia River salmon and steelhead populations. This second phase was initially envisioned as a one-year review, with emphasis on the Lower Columbia River hatchery programs. It became clear however, that the Columbia River Basin needed to be viewed as an inter-connected ecosystem in order for the review to be useful. The project scope was subsequently expanded to include the entire Basin, with funding for a second year provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) Fish and Wildlife Program. The objective of the HSRG's Columbia River Basin review was to change the focus of the Columbia River hatchery system. In the past, these hatchery programs have been aimed at supplying adequate numbers of fish for harvest as mitigation primarily for hydropower development in the Basin. A new, ecosystem-based approach is founded on the idea that harvest goals are sustainable only if they are compatible with conservation goals. The challenge before the HSRG was to determine whether or not conservation and harvest goals could be met by fishery managers and, if so, how. The HSRG determined that in order to address these twin goals, both hatchery and harvest reforms are necessary. The HSRG approach represents an important change of direction in managing hatcheries in the region. It provides a clear demonstration that current hatchery programs can indeed be redirected to better meet both

  4. River-quality assessment of the Truckee and Carson River system, California and Nevada; hydrologic characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, W. M.; Nowlin, J.O.; Smith, L.H.; Flint, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    A study of the Truckee and Carson Rivers was begun in October 1978 to assess the cause and effect relations between human and natural actions, and the quality of water at different times and places along the rivers. This report deals with the compilation of basic hydrologic data and the presentation of some of the new data collected during the study. Topographic, flow, and chemical data, data from recent time-of-travel studies, and new data on river mileages and drainage areas that were determined using new , high-resolution maps, are included. The report is a guide to locating maps, aerial photographs, computer files, and reports that relate to the rivers and their basins. It describes methods for compiling and expressing hydrologic information for ease of reading and understanding by the many users of water-related data. Text, tabular data, and colored plates with detailed maps and hydrographs are extensively cross referenced. (USGS)

  5. New notch weir system designed to pass shad through Potomac Dam

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This article discusses the design and functional characteristics of a notch and three-weir labyrinth fish passage facility at Little Falls Dam. Most effective at low-head hydroelectric power plants, the weir system will reduce flow velocities to a value thought to be low enough for healthy shad to swim against. It is felt that this system will re-establish the shad population in a 10-mile stretch of the Patomac River near Washington.

  6. 76 FR 22393 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Cancellation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy... and Wildlife Service for the proposed Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project....

  7. 77 FR 47628 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric...

  8. 76 FR 76153 - Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit... Coulee Project Hydropower Authority (Grand Coulee Authority) filed an application for a preliminary... the Scooteney Inlet Drop Hydroelectric Project (Scooteney Inlet Project or project) to be located...

  9. Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations in the WWSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, B.-M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2011-07-01

    This report examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating patterns are examined both for an aggregation of all hydro generators and for select individual plants.

  10. Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating unit patterns are examined for an aggregation of all hydro generators.

  11. 75 FR 41856 - East Texas Electric Cooperative, Inc.: Lake Livingston Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission East Texas Electric Cooperative, Inc.: Lake Livingston Hydroelectric Project... inclusion in, the National Register of Historic Places at the proposed Lake Livingston Hydroelectric Project... Commission's responsibilities pursuant to section 106 for the project would be fulfilled through...

  12. Pluri-annual sediment budget in a navigated river system: the Seine River (France).

    PubMed

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Flipo, Nicolas; de Fouquet, Chantal; Poulin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at quantifying pluri-annual Total Suspended Matter (TSM) budgets, and notably the share of river navigation in total re-suspension at a long-term scale, in the Seine River along a 225 km stretch including the Paris area. Erosion is calculated based on the transport capacity concept with an additional term for the energy dissipated by river navigation. Erosion processes are fitted for the 2007-2011 period based on i) a hydrological typology of sedimentary processes and ii) a simultaneous calibration and retrospective validation procedure. The correlation between observed and simulated TSM concentrations is higher than 0.91 at all monitoring stations. A variographic analysis points out the possible sources of discrepancies between the variabilities of observed and simulated TSM concentrations at three time scales: sub-weekly, monthly and seasonally. Most of the error on the variability of simulated concentrations concerns sub-weekly variations and may be caused by boundary condition estimates rather than modeling of in-river processes. Once fitted, the model permits to quantify that only a small fraction of the TSM flux sediments onto the river bed (<0.3‰). The river navigation contributes significantly to TSM re-suspension in average (about 20%) and during low flow periods (over 50%). Given the significant impact that sedimentary processes can have on the water quality of rivers, these results highlight the importance of taking into account river navigation as a source of re-suspension, especially during low flow periods when biogeochemical processes are the most intense.

  13. 77 FR 73636 - Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ...] Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting... No.: P-14345-001. c. Date filed: November 23, 2012. d. Applicant: Rock River Beach, Inc. e. Name of Project: Rock River Beach Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Rock River, in the Town of...

  14. Contaminant impacts to the endocrine system in largemouth bass in northeast U.S. rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.B.; Sorenson, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    The National Biological Service (NBS) in cooperation with the USGS-National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program conducted a reconnaissance investigation of potential disruption of the endocrine system in carp and largemouth bass (LMB) from streams and rivers across the US. Chemical analysis of sediment and fish tissue, from agricultural and industrial sites in NAWQA study units, indicated the potential for impacts to the endocrine system of fish. Collections of 39 male and 28 female LMB were made in fall 1994 from contaminated and reference sites in three major river systems in the Northeast US (Potomac, Hudson, and Connecticut rivers). Additional fish collections will be made at these same sites in Spring 1995. Blood and gonadal tissue samples will give a triad of bioindicators (17B-estradiol/11-ketotestosterone ratios, vitellogenin, and gonad histopathology) of potential endocrine disruption. Chemical residue for tissue will also be made from selected LMB to compare with the bioindicators. Comparisons of contaminated sites and reference site indicated a significantly lower E/T ratio in female LMB from two contaminated sites (Housatonic River in the Connecticut River system and the Anacostia River in the Potomac River system). Additionally, significantly higher E/T ratios in male LMB were found from each of the three river systems. These E/T ratios indicate that endocrine disruption is both estrogenic to male LMB (feminization) and potentially androgenic to the female LMB (masculinization).

  15. Climate Change Impacts on Stream Temperatures in the Columbia River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yearsley, J. R.; Crozier, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Columbia River system, a drainage basin of 668,000 sq. km that includes the Columbia and Snake River rivers, supports a large population of anadromous, cold-water fishes. 13 species of these fishes are listed under the Endangered Species Act and are vulnerable to impacts of climate change. Bioenergetics models for these species have been developed by the federal agencies that operate the Federal Columbia River Power System. These models simulate the impacts on anadromous fishes as they move through the power system both upstream as adults and downstream as juveniles. Water temperature simulations required for input to the bioenergetics models were made for two different segments of the Columbia River system; one being the portions from the Canadian border to Bonneville Dam and the Snake River from Brownlee Dam in Idaho to its confluence and the other, the Salmon River basin in Idaho. Simulations were performed for the period 1928-1998 with the semi-Lagrangian stream temperature model, RBM, for existing conditions and for a two 2040 climate scenarios, a cool, dry condition (ECHO_g model) and a warm, wet condition (MIROC_3.2 model). Natural flows were simulated with the variable infiltration capacity model, VIC, and modified for Columbia River project operations using HYDSIM, a hydro system regulation model that simulates month-to-month operation of the Pacific Northwest hydropower system.

  16. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix N: Wildlife.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System is a vast and complex combination of Federal and non-Federal facilities used for many purposes including power production, irrigation, navigation, flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat and municipal and industrial water supply. Each river use competes for the limited water resources in the Columbia River Basin. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR. This document is the product of the Wildlife Work Group, focusing on wildlife impacts but not including fishes. Topics covered include the following: scope and process; existing and affected environment, including specific discussion of 18 projects in the Columbia river basin. Analysis, evaluation, and alternatives are presented for all projects. System wide impacts to wildlife are also included.

  17. Experience in the operation of hydraulic structures and equipment of hydroelectric stations

    SciTech Connect

    Gurbanov, I.S.

    1984-01-01

    The guide bearing fixing the position of the turbine shaft at the Bratsk hydroelectric station is made with eight water lubricated rubberized bushings. Specifications are offered for the bearings, turbine shaft, the end seal of the turbine shaft, the rubber ring assembly in the end seal, and the bonding of the joints. For conditions of the Angara and other rivers with clean water it is advised that turbine bearings with water lubricated rubberized bushings be used. The end seals eliminate shaft wear and with correct manufacture and installation will operate reliably for a long time. A shortcoming of the turbine bearings is the absence of devices for adjusting the clearance, which complicates repair and operations. 2 figures.

  18. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; de Paula, Cátia D; Lima, Thiago F; Sana, Dênis A

    2002-12-01

    From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paran river, between the states of S o Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species), Boophilus (1) and Anocentor (1). A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages) collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  19. 75 FR 22122 - Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for... Application: Major Project--Existing Dam. b. Project No.: P-12478-003. c. Date filed: August 28, 2009. d. Applicant: Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC. e. Name of Project: Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Project....

  20. 78 FR 62361 - Green Mountain Power Corporation; Vermont; Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Power Corporation; Vermont; Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project... that could be affected by issuance of a new license for the Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project No. 2558..., as applicant for the Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project, has expressed an interest in this...

  1. 75 FR 6371 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Application: Major Original License b. Project No.: P-12740-003 c. Date filed: July 13, 2009 d. Applicant: Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership e. Name of Project: Flannagan Hydroelectric Project f. Location... Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Accepted...

  2. 78 FR 39725 - Grenada Lake Hydroelectric Project; Notice Of Proposed Restricted Service List for a Programmatic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grenada Lake Hydroelectric Project; Notice Of Proposed Restricted Service... by issuance of a license for the proposed Grenada Lake Hydroelectric Project No. 13702. The... applicant for the proposed Grenada Lake Hydroelectric Project, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the...

  3. 78 FR 35630 - Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project and Intention To Hold Public Meetings In... reviewed the application for license for the Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project (FERC No. 349), located...

  4. 77 FR 38796 - Alabama Power Company; Holt Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Revised Restricted Service List for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Alabama Power Company; Holt Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Revised... new license for the Holt Hydroelectric Project No. 2203. The programmatic agreement, when executed by... a ] restricted service list for the Holt Hydroelectric Project. On June 21, 2012, the Choctaw...

  5. 75 FR 37790 - Mahoning Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Issue a Supplemental Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mahoning Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Issue a Supplemental Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Mahoning Creek Hydroelectric Project June 23, 2010. On... Hydroelectric Project. On April 22, 2010, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Pittsburgh District (Corps)...

  6. 78 FR 25434 - Henwood Associates, Inc.; Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Hydroelectric Project, FERC No. 3730, originally issued August 10, 1981,\\1\\ has been transferred to Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company. The project is located on Salmon and Sardine Creeks in Sierra County, California. The... Exemption from Licensing of a Small Hydroelectric Project of 5 Megawatts or Less and Dismissing...

  7. 75 FR 30021 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company; Saluda Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Teleconference...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission South Carolina Electric and Gas Company; Saluda Hydroelectric Project... sturgeon for the Saluda Hydroelectric Project. The South Carolina Electric and Gas Company will also... parties are invited to listen by telephone. The FERC contact for the Saluda Hydroelectric Project is...

  8. 77 FR 38796 - Georgia Power Company; Bartletts Ferry Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Revised Restricted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Georgia Power Company; Bartletts Ferry Hydroelectric Project; Notice of... that could be affected by issuance of a new license for the Bartletts Ferry Hydroelectric Project No... list for the Bartletts Ferry Hydroelectric Project. On June 14, 2012, the Kialegee Tribal...

  9. 33 CFR 209.141 - Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hydroelectric power projects and providing information affecting cost and availability of power to the power... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coordination of hydroelectric... Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies. (a) Purpose. This...

  10. 75 FR 30021 - South Carolina Electric & Gas Company Saluda Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Proposed Restricted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission South Carolina Electric & Gas Company Saluda Hydroelectric Project; Notice... eligible for inclusion in, the National Register of Historic Places at the Saluda Hydroelectric Project No... Electric & Gas Company, as licensee for Saluda Hydroelectric Project No. 516, the Catawba Indian...

  11. 33 CFR 209.141 - Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hydroelectric power projects and providing information affecting cost and availability of power to the power... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coordination of hydroelectric... Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies. (a) Purpose. This...

  12. 33 CFR 209.141 - Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydroelectric power projects and providing information affecting cost and availability of power to the power... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coordination of hydroelectric... Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies. (a) Purpose. This...

  13. 78 FR 69663 - Jonathan and Jayne Chase Troy Mills Hydroelectric Inc.; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... exemption from licensing for the Troy Hydroelectric Project, FERC No. 13381, originally issued December 2, 2011,\\1\\ has been transferred to Troy Mills Hydroelectric Inc. The project is located on the Missisquoi... Inc. is now the exemptee of the Troy Hydroelectric Project, FERC No. 13381. All correspondence...

  14. 33 CFR 209.141 - Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hydroelectric power projects and providing information affecting cost and availability of power to the power... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coordination of hydroelectric... Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies. (a) Purpose. This...

  15. 76 FR 57729 - Boundary Hydroelectric Project; Sullivan Creek Project; Notice of Availability of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Boundary Hydroelectric Project; Sullivan Creek Project; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Relicensing of the Boundary Hydroelectric... reviewed the applications for license for the Boundary Hydroelectric Project (FERC No. 2144-38), and...

  16. Geologic factors pertinent to the proposed A. J. Wiley Hydroelectric Project No. 2845, Bliss, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malde, Harold E.

    1981-01-01

    The A.J. Wiley Hydroelectric Project is a proposal by the Idaho Power Company to develop hydroelectricity near Bliss, Idaho, by building a dam on the Snake River (fig. 1). The proposed dam would impound a narrow reservoir as deep as 85 feet in a free-flowing reach of the river that extends from the upper reach of water impounded by the Bliss Dam to the foot of the Lower Salmon Falls Dam, nearly 8 miles farther upstream. The proposed dam would be built in three sections: a spillway section and a powerhouse (intake) section to be constructed of concrete in the right-handed part, and an embankment section to be constructed as a zoned-fill of selected earth materials in the left-hand part. (Right and left are to be understood in the sense of looking downstream.) In August, 1979, the Idaho Power Company was granted a 3-year permit (Project No. 2845) by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to make site investigations and environmental studies in the project area. A year later, on August 26, 1980, the company applied to FERC for a license to construct the project. On October 8, 1980, as explained in a letter by William W. Lindsay, Director of the Office of Electric Power Regulation, the company was given 90 days to correct certain deficiencies in the application. Because several of the deficiencies identified by Mr. Lindsay pertain to geologic aspects of the project, his letter is attached to this report as Appendix A. Hereafter in this report, the deficiencies listed by Mr. Lindsay are identified by the numerical entries in his letter. The Idaho Power Company is referred to as the applicant.

  17. Detection of Water Quality Changes along a River System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esterby, S. R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Physical and chemical indicators of water quality monitored by Environmental Canada between 1977 and 1987 in the Niagara River at Niagara-on-the-Lake and in the Saint Lawrence River at Wolfe Island are analyzed for seasonal and annual variations. Results indicate that specific conductivity, sodium, and chloride have decreased significantly over…

  18. 77 FR 27078 - Cancellation of May 8, 2012, Meeting of the Wekiva River System Advisory Management Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... National Park Service Cancellation of May 8, 2012, Meeting of the Wekiva River System Advisory Management... Wekiva River System Advisory Management Committee previously announced in the Federal Register, April 18... decisions and steps that advance the Wekiva River System Advisory Management Committee towards its...

  19. Analysis of the ancient river system in Loulan period in Lop Nur region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianfeng; Jia, Peng; Nie, Yueping

    2010-09-01

    The Lop Nur region is located in the east of the Tarim Basin. It has served as the strategic passage and communication hub of the Silk Road since Han Dynasty. During Wei-Jin period, the river system there was well developed and the ancient city of Loulan was bred there. In this study, GIS is used to accomplish automatic extraction of the river course in the Lop Nur region at first using ArcGIS. Then the RCI index is constituted to extract ancient river course from Landsat ETM image with band 3 and band 4. It is concluded that the north river course of Peacock River conformed before the end of the 4th century AD according to the distribution of the entire river course of the Lop Nur region. Later, the Peacock River changed its way to south to Tarim River, and flowed into Lop Nur along the direction paralleling Altun Mountain from west to east. It was the change of the river system that mainly caused the decrease in water supply around ancient city of Loulan before the end of 4th century. The ancient city of Loulan has been gradually ruined in the sand because of the absence of water supply since then.

  20. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  1. Heavy metal transport in large river systems: heavy metal emissions and loads in the Rhine and Elbe river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vink, Rona; Behrendt, Horst

    2002-11-01

    Pollutant transport and management in the Rhine and Elbe basins is still of international concern, since certain target levels set by the international committees for protection of both rivers have not been reached. The analysis of the chain of emissions of point and diffuse sources to river loads will provide policy makers with a tool for effective management of river basins. The analysis of large river basins such as the Elbe and Rhine requires information on the spatial and temporal characteristics of both emissions and physical information of the entire river basin. In this paper, an analysis has been made of heavy metal emissions from various point and diffuse sources in the Rhine and Elbe drainage areas. Different point and diffuse pathways are considered in the model, such as inputs from industry, wastewater treatment plants, urban areas, erosion, groundwater, atmospheric deposition, tile drainage, and runoff. In most cases the measured heavy metal loads at monitoring stations are lower than the sum of the heavy metal emissions. This behaviour in large river systems can largely be explained by retention processes (e.g. sedimentation) and is dependent on the specific runoff of a catchment. Independent of the method used to estimate emissions, the source apportionment analysis of observed loads was used to determine the share of point and diffuse sources in the heavy metal load at a monitoring station by establishing a discharge dependency. The results from both the emission analysis and the source apportionment analysis of observed loads were compared and gave similar results. Between 51% (for Hg) and 74% (for Pb) of the total transport in the Elbe basin is supplied by inputs from diffuse sources. In the Rhine basin diffuse source inputs dominate the total transport and deliver more than 70% of the total transport. The diffuse hydrological pathways with the highest share are erosion and urban areas.

  2. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix J: Recreation.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts.

  3. 78 FR 38311 - Broad River Electric Cooperative and Cherokee Falls Associates; Aquenergy Systems, Inc.; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Broad River Electric Cooperative and Cherokee Falls Associates; Aquenergy Systems, Inc.; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On June 18, 2013, Broad River Electric Cooperative and Cherokee Falls Associates (transferors)...

  4. Modeling Late Quaternary discharge of the Mississippi River system

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, R.G.; Orndorff, R. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The authors estimate discharge in the Mississippi River system during various stages of Lake Agassiz and configurations of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, using a numerical representation of elements defining the hydrologic system. Ice sheet margins and isostatic depression due to ice sheet load are digitized from published maps. Terrain is represented with a digital elevation model (DEM) at 10 km spacing. Drainage, and the positions of ice marginal lakes are computed from the DEM after superposing the ice sheet configuration and isostatic depression. Meltwater supply is computed using the method of Teller (1990). Non-glacial runoff is computed as a constant change (nominally 2x) from published modern values of unit area runoff. Computations are limited to average annual values; short term floods and seasonal variations are not represented. They test the model by comparisons of discharge estimates--using modern drainage configurations and runoff values--to those available from gauging stations. They also compare their estimate of glacial discharge, without increasing modern non-glacial runoff, to that of Teller (1990). Using Laurentide runoff and incremented non-glacial discharge estimates based on paleoclimatic evidence, they compute significantly larger discharges than those reported by Teller (1990). This is primarily due to increased non-glacial runoff. This model provides a basis for pointwise comparisons to field evidence at critical sites.

  5. 60. Aerial view looking southeast; Dundee Dam and Passaic River ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Aerial view looking southeast; Dundee Dam and Passaic River at center, Dundee Canal and headgates, guardlock, and former hydroelectric facility at right, Dundee Textile Mill between river and canal - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  6. Status and conservation of the fish fauna of the Alabama River system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, Mary C.; Irwin, E.R.; Burkhead, N.M.; Freeman, B.J.; Bart, H.L.; Rinne, John N.; Hughes, Robert M.; Calamusso, Bob

    2005-01-01

    The Alabama River system, comprising the Alabama, Coosa, and Tallapoosa subsystems, forms the eastern portion of the Mobile River drainage. Physiographic diversity and geologic history have fostered development in the Alabama River system of globally significant levels of aquatic faunal diversity and endemism. At least 184 fishes are native to the system, including at least 33 endemic species. During the past century, dam construction for hydropower generation and navigation resulted in 16 reservoirs that inundate 44% of the length of the Alabama River system main stems. This extensive physical and hydrologic alteration has affected the fish fauna in three major ways. Diadromous and migratory species have declined precipitously. Fish assemblages persisting downstream from large main-stem dams have been simplified by loss of species unable to cope with altered flow and water quality regimes. Fish populations persisting in the headwaters and in tributaries to the mainstem reservoirs are now isolated and subjected to effects of physical and chemical habitat degradation. Ten fishes in the Alabama River system (including seven endemic species) are federally listed as threatened or endangered. Regional experts consider at least 28 additional species to be vulnerable, threatened, or endangered with extinction. Conserving the Alabama River system fish fauna will require innovative dam management, protection of streams from effects of urbanization and water supply development, and control of alien species dispersal. Failure to manage aggressively for integrity of remaining unimpounded portions of the Alabama River system will result in reduced quality of natural resources for future generations, continued assemblage simplification, and species extinction.

  7. System-Wide Calibration of River System Models: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. S. H.; Hughes, J. D.; Dutta, D.; Vaze, J.

    2014-12-01

    Semi-distributed river system models are traditionally calibrated using a reach-by-reach calibration approach from that starts from headwater gauges and moves downstream toward the end of the system. Such a calibration method poses a unique problem since errors related to over-fitting, poor gauging data and uncertain physical connection are passed downstream. Reach-by-reach calibration, while efficient, cannot compensate for limited/poor calibration data of some gauges. To overcome the limitations of reach-by-reach calibration, a system calibration approach is proposed in which all the river reaches within a river basin are calibrated together using a global objective function for all stream flow gauges. In this approach, relative weights can be assigned in the global objective function for different gauges based on the magnitude and quality of available data. The system calibration approach was implemented in a river network covering 11 stream flow gauges within Murrumbidgee catchment (Australia). This study optimises flow at the selected gauges within the river network simultaneously (36 calibrated parameters) utilising a process-based semi-distributed river system model. The model includes processes such as routing, localised runoff, irrigation diversion, overbank flow and losses to groundwater. Goodness of fit is evaluated at the 11 gauges and a flow based weighting scheme is employed to find posterior distributions of parameters using an Approximate Bayesian Computation. The method is evaluated against a reach-by-reach calibration scheme. The comparison shows that the system calibration approach provides an overall improved goodness-of-fit by systematically de-valuing poor quality gauges providing an overall improved basin-wide performance. Clusters of viable parameter sets are determined from the posterior distributions and each examined to assess the effects of parameter uncertainty on internal model states. Such a method of calibration provides a lot more

  8. Oblique view of southwest and southeast sides of hydroelectric power ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of southwest and southeast sides of hydro-electric power house with upstream side of dam to left and concrete pylon at upper entrance to lock on right, view towards north - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  9. PLANAR VIEW OF NORTHEAST SIDE OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER HOUSE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLANAR VIEW OF NORTHEAST SIDE OF HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER HOUSE AND SOUTHWEST END OF DREDGE BYPASS IN FOREGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHWEST. - St. Lucie Canal, Lock No. 2, Dredge Bypass, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  10. Planar view of interior northwest side of lock wall, hydroelectric ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Planar view of interior northwest side of lock wall, hydro-electric power house and dam in background, westernmost section of lock, view towards northwest - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  11. 78 FR 79434 - Sabine River Authority of Texas and Sabine River Authority, State of Louisiana; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine River Authority of Texas and Sabine River Authority, State of Louisiana; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Toledo Bend Hydroelectric Project In accordance with the...

  12. An Integrated Risk Approach for Assessing the Use of Ensemble Streamflow Forecasts in Hydroelectric Reservoir Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, T. S.; Wigmosta, M.; Barco, J.; Voisin, N.; Bier, A.; Coleman, A.; Skaggs, R.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents an integrated risk approach using ensemble streamflow forecasts for optimizing hydro-electric power generation. Uncertainty in the streamflow forecasts are translated into integrated risk by calculating the deviation of an optimized release schedule that simultaneously maximizes power generation and environmental performance from release schedules that maximize the two objectives individually. The deviations from each target are multiplied by the probability of occurrence and then summed across all probabilities to get the integrated risk. The integrated risk is used to determine which operational scheme exposes the operator to the least amount of risk or conversely, what are the consequences of basing future operations on a particular prediction. Decisions can be made with regards to the tradeoff between power generation, environmental performance, and exposure to risk. The Hydropower Seasonal Concurrent Optimization for Power and Environment (HydroSCOPE) model developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is used to model the flow, temperature, and power generation and is coupled with the DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) optimization package to identify the maximum potential power generation, the maximum environmental performance, and the optimal operational scheme that maximizes both for each instance of the ensemble forecasts. The ensemble forecasts were developed in a collaborative effort between the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington to develop an Enhanced Hydrologic Forecasting System (EHFS) that incorporates advanced ensemble forecasting approaches and algorithms, spatiotemporal datasets, and automated data acquisition and processing. Both the HydroSCOPE model and the EHFS forecast tool are being developed as part of a larger, multi-laboratory water-use optimization project funded through the US Department of Energy. The simulations were based on the

  13. 78 FR 38313 - Kings River Conservation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Kings River Conservation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On June 3, 2013, the Kings River... study the feasibility of the Gould Weir Hydroelectric Project, to be located on the Kings River,...

  14. 76 FR 7835 - Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental... River Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Upper Mississippi River Lock & Dam No. 21 Hydroelectric... hydropower structure consisting of 30 turbine bays, located about 100 feet downstream of the existing dam;...

  15. "Interior Views of the Tule River Power HouseUpper Left, Switchboard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Interior Views of the Tule River Power House--Upper Left, Switchboard and Gallery; Upper Right, One of the Governors; Lower, Generator Set No. 1." San Joaquin Light and Power Magazine, Vol. II, No. 3, March 1914, p. 120 - Tule River Hydroelectric Complex, CA Highway 190 at North Fork of Middle Fork of Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  16. 77 FR 58820 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing.... Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Pensacola Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The.... Jahnke, Assistant General Counsel, Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box 409, Vinita, Oklahoma......

  17. "Interior Views of the Tule River Power HouseUpper, Main Gate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Interior Views of the Tule River Power House--Upper, Main Gate Valve, Governor, Waterwheel and Generator of No. 1 Set; Lower, View Looking Down upon Generator Set." San Joaquin Light and Power Magazine, Vol. II, No. 3, March 1914, p. 122 - Tule River Hydroelectric Complex, CA Highway 190 at North Fork of Middle Fork of Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  18. Using place-based curricula to teach about restoring river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalles, D. R.; Collins, B. D.; Updegrave, C.; Montgomery, D. R.; Colonnese, T. G.; Sheikh, A. J.; Haynie, K.; Johnson, V.; Data Sets; Inquiry in Environmental Restoration Studies (Nsf Geo Project 0808076)

    2010-12-01

    Zalles, Daniel R. (Center for Technology in Learning, SRI International) Collins, Brian D., Updegrave, Cynthia, Montgomery, David R., Colonnese, Thomas G., Sheikh, Amir J., (University of Washington) Haynie, Kathleen., Johnson, Vonda. (Haynie Research and Evaluation) A collaborative team from the University of Washington and SRI International is developing place based curricula about complex river systems. This NSF-funded project, known as Data Sets and Inquiry in Environmental Restoration Studies (DIGERS), is producing and piloting curricula on river systems of the Puget Sound over a two-year period at the University of Washington and at a public high school on an Indian reservation. At the high school, DIGERS is developing for a population of Native American students a geoscience curriculum that is embedded in their culture and bio-physical environment. At the UW, the goal is to teach about rivers as integrated physical, biological, and human systems that are products of their unique geological and human histories. The curriculum addresses the challenge of teaching general principles about rivers in a way that develops students’ capability to develop a more sophisticated understanding of the interplay of attributes that characterize a particular river at a point in time. Undergraduate students also learn about the challenges of trying to "restore" local river environments to some past condition, including the pitfall of over-generalizing the efficacy of human interventions from one river system to another. For the high school curriculum, a web site is being produced that integrates modules of general information about the focal scientific phenomena (e.g., rivers and floodplains; how human activities influence rivers; salmon habitat) and data and inquiry-related skills (e.g., how to reconstruct historical change) with place based historical and contemporary information about a specific river environment: the Snohomish River watershed. This information consists

  19. Historical and Contemporary Patterns of Mercury in a Hydroelectric Reservoir and Downstream Fishery: Concentration Decline in Water and Fishes.

    PubMed

    Green, Derek J; Duffy, Mark; Janz, David M; McCullum, Kevin; Carrière, Gary; Jardine, Timothy D

    2016-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination can pose risks to human and animal health as well as commercial fisheries. Reservoir construction in riverine systems produces flooded conditions amenable to Hg(II)-methylating bacteria, which can transform this relatively benign environmental contaminant into the bioaccumulative, environmentally relevant, and neurotoxic methyl-Hg (MeHg). Hg concentrations ([Hg]) in fishes from reservoirs can take decades to decrease to pre-dam levels, but less is known about Hg exported downstream and its dynamics within downstream fish populations. We examined and compared the multidecadal rates of biotic [Hg] decrease and contemporary factors affecting [Hg] in fish collected from a hydroelectric reservoir (Tobin Lake) and a related downstream fishery (Cumberland Lake) along the Saskatchewan River, Canada. Rates of [Hg] decrease were considered in four species-northern pike (Esox lucius), sauger (Sander canadensis), goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), and walleye (S. vitreus)-all of which showed a significant decrease over time (p < 0.001) and are now lower than Health Canada consumption guidelines (0.5 μg/g). Rates of decrease ranged from 0.5 to 3.9 %/year and were similar between sites in the cases of northern pike and sauger. Contemporary factors affecting [Hg] in walleye collected downstream include fish length (p < 0.001), fish age (p < 0.001), and trophic magnification through the food web (p < 0.001), and relationships between [Hg] and trophic level in predatory and prey fish are now similar to those found in non-Hg-inundated systems at a similar latitude. Together, these results suggest connected contamination between the two sites and delineate the timeline during which [Hg] in a variety of fish species decreased to nontoxic levels in both locations.

  20. Hydrologic and geomorphic considerations in restoration of river-floodplain connectivity in a highly altered river system, Lower Missouri River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Janke, Tyler P.; Skold, Jason J.

    2011-01-01

    Planning for restoration of river-floodplain systems requires understanding how often and how much of a floodplain may be inundated, and how likely the floodplain is to retain the water once flooded. These factors depend fundamentally on hydrology and geomorphology of the channel and floodplain. We discuss application of an index of river-floodplain connectivity, the Land Capability Potential Index (LCPI), to regional-scale restoration planning along 600 km of the Lower Missouri River. The LCPI integrates modeled water-surface elevations, floodplain topography, and soils to index relative wetness of floodplain patches. Geomorphic adjustment of the Lower Missouri River to impoundment and channel engineering has altered the natural relations among hydrology, geomorphology, and floodplain soils, and has resulted in a regional upstream to downstream gradient in connectivity potential. As a result, flow-regime management is limited in its capacity to restore floodplain ecosystems. The LCPI provides a tool for identifying and mapping floodplain restoration potential, accounting for the geomorphic adjustment. Using simple criteria, we illustrate the utility of LCPI-like approaches in regional planning for restoration of plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides) communities, hydrologically connected floodplain wetlands, and seasonal floodplain wetlands.

  1. Impacts of land use on phosphorus transport in a river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Pant, H. K.

    2010-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a primary limiting nutrient in freshwater systems, however, excessive P load in the systems cause eutriphication, resulting in algal blooms and oxygen depletion. This study estimated potential exchange of P between water column and sediments by P sorption, and identified P compounds in sediments by 31Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the samples collected from the Bronx River, New York City, NY. Similarly, mineralization, as well as enzymatic hydrolysis using native phosphoatases (NPase) and phosphodiesterase (PDEase) showed that land use changes and other anthropogenic factors had effects on the P availability in the river. Distinguished characteristics of P bioavailability appeared at major tributaries of Sprain Brook and Troublesome Brook, boundary between fresh and saline water at East Tremont Ave, and estuary close to Hunts Point Wastewater Treatment Plant. Incidental sewer overflows at Yonkers, oil spill at East Tremont Avenue Bridge, fertilizer application at Westchester’s lawns, and gardens, animal manure from the zoo, combined sewer overflows (CSOs), storm water runoff from Bronx River Parkway, and inputs from East River influenced spatial and temporal variations on P transport in the river. This study provides an overview of impacts of land use on nutrient transport in a river system, which may help to make effective policies to regulate P application in the river watersheds, in turn, improve water quality and ecological restoration of a river.

  2. Building an Intelligent Water Information System - American River Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, S. D.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2013-12-01

    recorded by sensors into information in the form that is useful for decision-making. In a sense it 'monetizes' the data. It is the cyber infrastructure that links measurements, data processing, models and users. System software must provide flexibility for multiple types of access from user queries to automated and direct links with analysis tools and decision-support systems. We are currently installing a basin-scale ground-based sensor network focusing on measurements of snowpack, solar radiation, temperature, rH and soil moisture across the American River basin. Although this is a research network, it also provides core elements of a full ground-based operational system.

  3. Scale effect in nutrient transport along a rural river system: the River Eden, Cumbria, northwest, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladapo Tijani, Fatai; Bathurst, James; Quinn, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Only a limited amount of information derived from studies conducted at small catchment scales can be transferred to large scales because of the non-linear scale effects, thus necessitating studies (including nutrient concentrations and yields) across a range of scales. Here we present results from an investigation of spatial scale pattern and temporal variability of nutrient concentration in the River Eden in northwest England, a nested catchment stretching from Gais Gill (1.1 km2) to Great Corby (1373 km2). The monitoring involved seasonal campaigns and spot sampling of river water quality, using two United Kingdom national catchment study platforms. These are the Catchment Hydrology And Sustainable Management (CHASM) project, that provides a large spatial scale study platform along the Eden, and the Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) project that provides high resolution data for contrasting land uses that could help to explain, in detail, the mechanisms for transport of nutrients to the river. Nitrate concentration shows a clear increasing trend with the catchment area and there is highly significant difference (P<0.001) among the catchments. Compared with the headwater areas, phosphorus (P) and suspended sediment (SS) concentrations are significantly higher (P<0.05) downstream but do not show a very clear spatial pattern. An alternative explanation was therefore sought for their distribution along the river. Generally, intensity of agricultural activities appears to influence the concentrations of these water quality parameters. The field data show that the amount of nutrients and suspended sediment is higher in catchments with higher farming activities. This underscores the importance of the distribution of agricultural land use as a driving force in nutrient transport in River Eden. Agricultural production generally increases downstream and may therefore appear to support a spatial scale dependency in nutrient yield. Higher nitrate concentration is associated

  4. Development of a 1 D hydrodynamic habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibious as basis for sustainable exploitation of hydroelectric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manful, D. Y.; Kaule, G.; Wieprecht, S.; Rees, J.; Hu, W.

    2009-12-01

    Hydroelectric Power (HEP) is proving to be a good alternative to carbon based energy. In the past hydropower especially large scale hydro attracted significant criticism as a result of its impact on the environment. A new breed of hydroelectric dam is in the offing. The aim is to have as little a footprint as possible on the environment in both pre and post construction phases and thus minimize impact on biodiversity whilst producing clean renewable energy. The Bui dam is 400 MW scheme currently under development on the Black Volta River in the Bui national park in Ghana. The reservoir created by the Bui barrage is expected to impact (through inundation) the habitat of two species of hippos know to exist in the park, the Hippopotamus amphibius and the Choeropsis liberiensis. Computer-based models present a unique opportunity to assess quantitatively the impact of the new reservoir on the habitat of the target species in this case the H. amphibious. Until this undertaking, there were very few studies documenting the habitat of the H. amphibious let alone model it. The work and subsequent presentation will show the development of a habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The Habitat Information retrieval Program based on Streamflow Analysis, in short HIPStrA, is a one dimensional (1D) in-stream, spatially explicit hybrid construct that combines physico-chemical evidence and expert knowledge to forecast river habitat suitability (Hs) for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The version of the model presented is specifically developed to assess the impact of a reservoir created by a hydroelectric dam on potential dwelling areas in the Bui gorge for hippos. Accordingly, this version of HIPStrA simulates a special reservoir suitability index (Rsi), a metric that captures the”hippo friendliness” of any lake or reservoir. The impact of measured and simulated flood events as well as low flows, representing extreme events is also assessed. Recommendations are made for the

  5. Upper and Middle Tiete River Basin dam-hydraulic system, travel time and temperature modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devkota, Bishnu; Imberger, Jörg

    2012-12-01

    SummaryTiete River System in the State of Sao Paolo, Brazil is characterized by complex hydraulics and operational problems due to series of dams and point and diffuse inflows along the river. A one dimension Lagrangian river model was developed and applied to the 313 km reach of the Upper and Middle Tiete River Basin from the Penha Dam to the head water of Bara Bonita Reservoir, a stretch of river that includes six small to medium size dams (3.4-22 m high) including the Pirapora Reservoir and 26 inflows into the river (11 tributaries, 9 diffuse source areas, and discharges of 4 cities stormwater and 2 wastewater treatment plants. The conservative tracer transport and temperature model that accounts for the short and long wave radiation and heat transfers at the free surface was included and solved using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. The time variable catchment input to the model was the simulated output of the external hydrological model called Runoff Load Model which results were provided by CETESB. The numerical treatment of series of dams and spillway (that included uncontrolled overflow spillway, gate-controlled ogee spillway; and underflow gates and tunnels) and parameterisation of hydraulic jumps are described. Special attention was focused on the high spatial and temporal variation of flows in Tiete River Basin, a result of the large variation in catchment inflows and channel geometry due to dams and reservoirs along the river. Predicted and measured spatial and seasonal variation of flow and temperature profiles along the river show good agreement. The simulated travel time of conservative tracer is compared against the CETESB's 1982 and 1984 field study data in a 254 km reach of the Middle Tiete River that again shows good agreement. Being Lagrangian in construction, this new model is computationally efficient making it an ideal tool for long term simulation for water resource planning, management and operation decision making in a large and complex river

  6. Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from the Yukon River system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striegl, Robert G.; Dornblaser, Mark M.; McDonald, Cory P.; Rover, Jennifer R.; Stets, Edward G.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions are important, but poorly quantified, components of riverine carbon (C) budgets. This is largely because the data needed for gas flux calculations are sparse and are spatially and temporally variable. Additionally, the importance of C gas emissions relative to lateral C exports is not well known because gaseous and aqueous fluxes are not commonly measured on the same rivers. We couple measurements of aqueous CO2 and CH4 partial pressures (pCO2, pCH4) and flux across the water-air interface with gas transfer models to calculate subbasin distributions of gas flux density. We then combine those flux densities with remote and direct observations of stream and river water surface area and ice duration, to calculate C gas emissions from flowing waters throughout the Yukon River basin. CO2emissions were 7.68 Tg C yr−1 (95% CI: 5.84 −10.46), averaging 750 g C m−2 yr−1 normalized to water surface area, and 9.0 g C m−2 yr−1 normalized to river basin area. River CH4 emissions totaled 55 Gg C yr−1 or 0.7% of the total mass of C emitted as CO2 plus CH4 and ∼6.4% of their combined radiative forcing. When combined with lateral inorganic plus organic C exports to below head of tide, C gas emissions comprised 50% of total C exported by the Yukon River and its tributaries. River CO2 and CH4 derive from multiple sources, including groundwater, surface water runoff, carbonate equilibrium reactions, and benthic and water column microbial processing of organic C. The exact role of each of these processes is not yet quantified in the overall river C budget.

  7. Hydroelectric power in Hawaii. A report on the statewide survey of potential hydroelectric sites

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, C. A.

    1981-02-01

    An assessment was made of the hydropower potential in Hawaii. The major conclusion of this study is that hydropower resources in the State of Hawaii are substantial, and they offer the potential for major increases in hydropower generating capacity. Hydropower resources on all islands total about 50 MW of potential generating capacity. Combined with the 18 MW of existing hydropower capacity, hydropower resources potentially could generate about 307 million kWh of electric energy annually. This represents about 28% of the present combined electricity needs of the Neighbor Islands, Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and the Big Island. Hydropower resources on Kauai equal 72% of that island's electricity needs; on Molokai, 40%, on the Big Island, 20%; and on Maui, 18%. The island of Oahu, however, has only small hydropower resources, and could only generate a negligible portion of its electricity needs from this energy source. A summary of existing and future (potential) hydropower capacities and estimated annual outputs for each island is presented. How much of the potential capacity is being actively considered for development and how much is only tentatively proposed at the time is indicated. The economics of hydropower at specific sites were analyzed. The major conclusion of this analysis is that hydropower development costs vary widely among the different sites, but that generally the cost of hydroelectric power is either less than or comparable to the cost of oil-fired power.

  8. Where Can You Buy a River?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon-Come, Matthew

    1991-01-01

    Since 1975, Quebec hydroelectric projects have had negative impacts on the Cree hunting way of life and sacred sites, caused mercury contamination, and disrupted natural cycles of water and wildlife. Supported by contracts with New York State, new massive projects will destroy the six largest rivers in northwestern Quebec. (SV)

  9. Scale Effect in Nutrient Transport along a Rural River System: THE River Eden, Cumbria, Northwest, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijani, F. O.; Bathurst, J. C.; Quinn, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    Only a limited amount of information derived from studies conducted at small catchment scales can be transferred to large scales because of the non-linear scale effects, thus necessitating studies (including nutrient concentrations and yields) across a range of scales. Here we present results from an investigation of spatial scale pattern and temporal variability of nutrient concentration in the River Eden in northwest England, a nested catchment stretching from Gais Gill (1.1 km2) to Great Corby (1373 km2). The monitoring involved seasonal campaigns and spot sampling of river water quality, using two United Kingdom national catchment study platforms. Nitrate concentration shows a clear increasing trend with the catchment area and there is highly significant difference (P<0.001) among the catchments. Compared with the headwater areas, phosphorus (P) and suspended sediment (SS) concentrations are significantly higher (P<0.05) downstream but do not show a very clear spatial pattern. An alternative explanation was therefore sought for their distribution along the river. Generally, intensity of agricultural activities appears to influence the concentrations of these water quality parameters. The field data show that the amount of nutrients and suspended sediment is higher in catchments with higher farming activities and this increase downstream. This underscores the importance of the distribution of agricultural land use as a driving force in nutrient transport in River Eden. Higher nitrate concentration is associated with the period of low flow (strongest negative relationship, R2 = 0.97, was recorded in autumn sampling campaign at a gauging station). In contrast, phosphorus and suspended sediment are positively associated with discharge (strongest relationship (R2= 0.97) for total P were recorded in spring campaign at a gauging station). Similarly the dryness or wetness of a season affects the nutrient concentrations. Thus, it appears that hydrology and land use

  10. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, on the Eklutna Hydroelectric Project, Anchorage, Alaska, with a section on television examination of earthquake damage to underground communication and electrical systems in Anchorage: Chapter A in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on transportation, communications, and utilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Logan, Malcolm H.; with a section on Television Examination of Earthquake Damage to Underground Communication and Electrical Systems in Anchorage by Burton, Lynn R.

    1967-01-01

    The March 27, 1964, Alaska earthquake and its associated aftershocks caused damage requiring several million dollars worth of repair to the Eklwtna Hydroelectric Project, 34 miles northeast of Anchorage. Electric service from the Eklutna powerplant was interrupted during the early phase of the March 27 earthquake, built was restored (intermittently) until May 9,1964, when the plant was closed for inspection and repair. Water for Eklutna project is transported from Eklutna Lake to the powerplant at tidewater on Knik Arm of Cook Inlet by an underwater intake connected to a 4.46-mile tunnel penstock. The primary damage caused by the earthquake was 1at the intake structure in Eklutna Lake. No damage to the power tunnel was observed. The piles-supported powerplant and appurtenant structures, Anchorage and Palmer substations, and the transmission lines suffered minor dammage. Most damage occurred to facilities constructed on un-consolidated sediments and overburden which densified and subsided during the earthquake. Structures built on bedrock experienced little or no damage. Underground communication and electrical systems in Anchorage were examined with a small-diameter television camera to locate damaged areas requiring repair. Most of the damage was concentrated at or near valley slopes. Those parts of the systems within the major slide areas of the city were destroyed.

  11. Multi-element study of sediments from the river Khai River - Nha Trang Bay estuarine system, South China Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukina, Sofia; Lobus, Nikolai; Peresypkin, Valery; Baturin, Gleb; Smurov, Andrey

    2013-04-01

    Major (Al, Fe, Ti, Mg, Ca, Na, K), minor (Mn) and trace (Cr, Ni, Cd, V, Zn, Cu, Pb, Sb, Bi, Sn, Ag, Li, Co, As, Zr, Mo, Hg) elements along with nutrients (TOC, TS, TP) and TIC were first determined in ten surface sediment samples from the Khai River - Nha Trang Bay estuarine system, South China Sea. According to the sediment quality guidelines and reference background values, most of the element contents that were studied were below the threshold levels, while the content of Ag exceeded significantly the hazardous levels in the most of the samples along the river - sea transect. The local anthropogenic and/or environmental sources of Ag within the region need special study. Aluminum and lithium normalization indicated some specific features in the abundance and distribution of the elements along the salinity gradient. The mean grain size of the sediments decreased from the river part to the bay part of the transect. Sedimentary TOC was relatively low (1-2 %) and showed independent distribution along the river - sea transect in relation to the other elements that were studied. Ca, Ba and Sr distribution showed some sporadic enrichment and were largely controlled by the TIC content in sediments. Sedimentary TP, Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Na, K, Li, Co, Cs, Zn and V varied within the narrow range and tended to increase seaward. These elements are most likely controlled by the accumulation of their fine grained aluminosilicate host minerals and materials at sites determined by hydrodynamic conditions, i. e., in the sea floor depression. TS, As, Sn, Bi, U, Cd and Mo were relatively low in the sediments studied and tended to decrease seaward with the slight elevation in the intermediate part of the transect. These elements can be scavenged by and/or co-precipitated with the dissolved and particulate materials of the river discharge and further deposited on the river - sea geochemical barrier in the course of estuarine sedimentation. The distribution of Ni, Cr, Zr Cu, Pb, Sb, Hg and

  12. Decision Support Systems to Optimize the Operational Efficiency of Dams and Maintain Regulatory Compliance Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, S.; Morehead, M. D.; Conner, J. T.; Frye, C.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing demand for water and electricity, increasing variability in weather and climate and stricter requirements for riverine ecosystem health has put ever more stringent demands on hydropower operations. Dam operators are being impacted by these constraints and are looking for methods to meet these requirements while retaining the benefits hydropower offers. Idaho Power owns and operates 17 hydroelectric plants in Idaho and Oregon which have both Federal and State compliance requirements. Idaho Power has started building Decision Support Systems (DSS) to aid the hydroelectric plant operators in maximizing hydropower operational efficiency, while meeting regulatory compliance constraints. Regulatory constraints on dam operations include: minimum in-stream flows, maximum ramp rate of river stage, reservoir volumes, and reservoir ramp rate for draft and fill. From the hydroelectric standpoint, the desire is to vary the plant discharge (ramping) such that generation matches electricity demand (load-following), but ramping is limited by the regulatory requirements. Idaho Power desires DSS that integrate real time and historic data, simulates the rivers behavior from the hydroelectric plants downstream to the compliance measurement point and presents the information in an easily understandable display that allows the operators to make informed decisions. Creating DSS like these has a number of scientific and technical challenges. Real-time data are inherently noisy and automated data cleaning routines are required to filter the data. The DSS must inform the operators when incoming data are outside of predefined bounds. Complex river morphologies can make the timing and shape of a discharge change traveling downstream from a power plant nearly impossible to represent with a predefined lookup table. These complexities require very fast hydrodynamic models of the river system that simulate river characteristics (ex. Stage, discharge) at the downstream compliance point

  13. A new species of redfin (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Pseudobarbus) from the Verlorenvlei River system, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chakona, Albert; Swartz, Ernst R.; Skelton, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pseudobarbus verloreni, a new species, is described from material collected in the Verlorenvlei River system on the west coast of South Africa. It differs from its congeners (except Pseudobarbus skeltoni, Pseudobarbus burchelli, and Pseudobarbus burgi) by the presence of two pairs of oral barbels. Pseudobarbus verloreni sp. n. can be distinguished from the three currently described double barbeled Pseudobarbus species by the following combination of characters: pigment pattern, generally deeper body relative to standard length, a longer intestine associated with the deeper body form, shorter snout relative to head length, and much shorter anterior barbels relative to head length. The new species is distinguished from Pseudobarbus burgi in the neighbouring Berg River system by its longer head and longer pre-dorsal length. It seems as if Pseudobarbus verloreni sp. n. has been extirpated from the Langvlei River system and face several threats to its survival in the Verlorenvlei River system. PMID:25493062

  14. 77 FR 23277 - Wekiva River System Advisory Management Committee Meetings (FY2012)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... meetings are scheduled for: May 8, 2012 (Dining Hall), August 8, 2012 (Recreation Hall), October 10, 2012... plan for the Wekiva River System and provide advice to the Secretary in carrying out...

  15. Game theory and risk-based leveed river system planning with noncooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Rui; Lund, Jay R.; Madani, Kaveh

    2016-01-01

    Optimal risk-based levee designs are usually developed for economic efficiency. However, in river systems with multiple levees, the planning and maintenance of different levees are controlled by different agencies or groups. For example, along many rivers, levees on opposite riverbanks constitute a simple leveed river system with each levee designed and controlled separately. Collaborative planning of the two levees can be economically optimal for the whole system. Independent and self-interested landholders on opposite riversides often are willing to separately determine their individual optimal levee plans, resulting in a less efficient leveed river system from an overall society-wide perspective (the tragedy of commons). We apply game theory to simple leveed river system planning where landholders on each riverside independently determine their optimal risk-based levee plans. Outcomes from noncooperative games are analyzed and compared with the overall economically optimal outcome, which minimizes net flood cost system-wide. The system-wide economically optimal solution generally transfers residual flood risk to the lower-valued side of the river, but is often impractical without compensating for flood risk transfer to improve outcomes for all individuals involved. Such compensation can be determined and implemented with landholders' agreements on collaboration to develop an economically optimal plan. By examining iterative multiple-shot noncooperative games with reversible and irreversible decisions, the costs of myopia for the future in making levee planning decisions show the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems to improve decision-making.

  16. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy in Virginia are described. The state regulatory system does not comprise final authority; the Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. This dual system is a function of the federalist nature of our government. The introductory section examines the dual system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and inquires into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. The use of a natural-surface watercourse in Virginia is governed generally by the doctrine of riparian rights. Riparian rights is a system of water rights based on ownership of land bordering on a natural stream or watercourse. For land to be considered riparian to a stream, that land must be located on the watershed of that portion of the stream. The theory of riparian rights followed in Virginia is one of reasonable use. Under the reasonable-use doctrine, each riparian owner has an equal right to the reasonable use of the water running naturally through or by his land for any useful purpose. The water must continue to run after such use without material diminution or alteration and without pollution.

  17. Hydrological, morphometrical, and biological characteristics of the connecting rivers of the International Great Lakes: a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Clayton J.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Duffy, Walter G.; Nepszy, Stephen J.; McNabb, Clarence D.; Haas, Robert C.; Liston, Charles R.; Manny, Bruce; Busch, Wolf-Dieter N.; Dodge, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The connecting channels of the Great Lakes are large rivers (1, 200-9, 900 m3 • s-1) with limited tributary drainage systems and relatively stable hydrology (about 2:1 ration of maximum to minimum flow). The rivers, from headwaters to outlet, are the St. Marys, St. Clair, Detroit, Niagara, and St. Lawrence. They share several characteristics with certain other large rivers: the fish stocks that historically congregated for spawning or feeding have been overfished, extensive channel modification have been made, and they have been used as a repository for domestic and industrial wastes and for hydroelectric energy generation. Levels of phosphorus, chlorophyll a, and particulate organic matter increase 3- to 5-fold from the St. Marys River to the St. Lawrence River. Biological communities dependent on nutrients in the water column, such as phytoplankton, periphyton, and zooplankton similarly increase progressively downstream through the system. The standing crop of emergent macrophytes is similar in all of the rivers, reflecting the relatively large nutrient pools in the sediments and atmosphere. Consequently, emergent macrophytes are an important source of organic matter (67% of total primary production) in the nutrient poor waters of the St. Marys River, whereas phytoplankton production dominates (76%) in the enriched St. Lawrence River. Submersed and emergent macrophytes and the associated periphyton are major producers of organic matter in the connecting channels. Another major source of organic matter (measured as ash free dry weight, AFDW) in the Detroit River is sewage, introduced at a rate of 26, 000 t per year. The production of benthos ranges from a low 5.4 g AFDW•m-2 in the Detroit River to a high of 15.5 g AFDW•m-2 in the St. Marys River. The rivers lack the organic transport from riparian sources upstream but receive large amounts of high quality phytoplankton and zooplankton from the Great Lakes.

  18. New synchronous compensators for the Nelson River HVDC system; Planning requirements and specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Thio, C.V.; Davies, J.B. )

    1991-04-01

    The first units of Limestone Generating Station, the third plant on the Lower Nelson River in northern Manitoba, will come into service in the fall of 1990. Additional var compensation equipment is required at the inverter end of the Nelson River HVdc system to accommodate power from Limestone. This paper describes the system requirements of and the overall specification for the synchronous compensators selected to supply the reactive power and voltage support.

  19. Carbon fate in a large temperate human-impacted river system: Focus on benthic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Flipo, Nicolas; Escoffier, Nicolas; Rocher, Vincent; Groleau, Alexis

    2016-07-01

    Fluvial networks play an important role in regional and global carbon (C) budgets. The Seine River, from the Paris urban area to the entrance of its estuary (220 km), is studied here as an example of a large human-impacted river system subject to temperate climatic conditions. We assess organic C (OC) budgets upstream and downstream from one of the world's largest wastewater treatment plants and for different hydrological conditions using a hydrobiogeochemical model. The fine representation of sediment accumulation on the river bed allows for the quantification of pelagic and benthic effects on OC export toward the estuary and on river metabolism (i.e., net CO2 production). OC export is significantly affected by benthic dynamics during the driest periods, when 25% of the inputs to the system is transformed or stored in the sediment layer. Benthic processes also substantially affect river metabolism under any hydrological condition. On average, benthic respiration accounts for one third of the total river respiration along the studied stretch (0.27 out of 0.86 g C m-2 d-1). Even though the importance of benthic processes was already acknowledged by the scientific community for headwater streams, these results stress the major influence of benthic dynamics, and thus of physical processes such as sedimentation and resuspension, on C cycling in downstream river systems. It opens the door to new developments in the quantification of C emissions by global models, whereby biogeochemical processing and benthic dynamics should be taken into account.

  20. Optimization of the weekly operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric development, including a pumped storage plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, R.; Popa, F.; Popa, B.; Zachia-Zlatea, D.

    2010-08-01

    It is presented an optimization model based on genetic algorithms for the operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric power development consisting in a pumped storage plant (PSP) with weekly operation cycle. The lower reservoir of the PSP is supplied upstream from a peak hydropower plant (HPP) with a large reservoir and supplies the own HPP which provides the required discharges towards downstream. Under these conditions, the optimum operation of the assembly consisting in 3 reservoirs and hydropower plants becomes a difficult problem if there are considered the restrictions as regards: the gradients allowed for the reservoirs filling/emptying, compliance with of a long-term policy of the upper reservoir from the hydroelectric development and of the weekly cycle for the PSP upper reservoir, correspondence between the power output/consumption in the weekly load schedule, turning to account of the water resource at maximum overall efficiencies, etc. Maximization of the net energy value (generated minus consumed) was selected as performance function of the model, considering the differentiated price of the electric energy over the week (working or weekend days, peak, half-peak or base hours). The analysis time step was required to be of 3 hours, resulting a weekly horizon of 56 steps and 168 decision variables, respectively, for the 3 HPPs of the system. These were allowed to be the flows turbined at the HPP and the number of working hydrounits at PSP, on each time step. The numerical application has considered the guiding data of Fantanele-Tarnita-Lapustesti hydroelectric development. Results of various simulations carried out proved the qualities of the proposed optimization model, which will allow its use within a decisional support program for such a development.

  1. A critical analysis of the environment impact assessment report of the 2000 MW lower subansiri hydroelectric project with special reference to the down stream ecology and people's livelihood.

    PubMed

    Baruah, Debojit; Dutta, Ranjit; Hazarika, Lakhi Prasad; Sarmah, Sarada Kanta

    2011-10-01

    The Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) report of the 2000 MW Lower Subansiri Hydroelectric Project prepared by the WAPCOS (Water and Power Consultancy Service, 2003) indicates that downstream survey was done only up to 7 km from the dam site without giving much importance to the actual scenario and avoiding some most crucial ecological aspects. In the report, insufficient records of terrestrial flora, phytoplanktons and fish diversity are given. No records of aquatic macrophytes, riparian flora, zooplanktons, avian fauna, floodplain crops, besides peoples' livelihood and diverse habitat provided by the river in its downstream are presented in the report. Especially the wetlands, associated and influenced by the unregulated Subansiri River did not find any place in the EIA report. Interestingly, no mention of the Ganges Dolphin--Platanista gangetica gangetica Roxb. could be found in the report, whereas the river provides a healthy habitat for a good number of this critically endangered fresh water dolphin. From our pre-impact study, it is clear that rich downstream ecology of the river with its present and existing environmental scenario will be adversely affected due to the construction and operation of the proposed project, and there will be distinct possibilities of elimination of other native species. In addition, people's livelihood will be affected largely through alteration of the flow regime of the river. In-depth study with comprehensive documentation of all biotic and abiotic parameters is obligatory before taking any decision about the operation of the 2000 MW Lower Subansiri Hydroelectric Project.

  2. Atrazine, alachlor, and cyanazine in a large agricultural river system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schottler, S.P.; Eisenreich, Steven J.; Capel, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    Atrazine, alachlor, and cyanazine exhibited maximum concentrations of about 1000-6000 ng/L in the Minnesota River in 1990 and 1991, resulting from precipitation and runoff following the application period. Transport of these herbicides to the river occurs via overland flow or by infiltration to tile drainage networks. Suspended sediment, SO42-, and Cl- concentrations were used as indicators of transport mechanisms. The atrazine metabolite, DEA, was present in the river throughout the year. The ratio of DEA to atrazine concentration was used to calculate an apparent first-order soil conversion rate of atrazine to DEA. Half lives of 21-58 d were calculated for 1990 and 1991, respectively. The longer conversion rate in 1991 results from rapid flushing from the soil and minimum exposure to soil microorganisms. Total flux of herbicide to the river was 1-6.5 t, with over 60% of this loading occurring during the month of June. Loading to the river accounts for less than 1.5% of applied herbicide. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  3. Surface-geophysical characterization of ground-water systems of the Caloosahatchee River basin, southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Locker, Stanley D.; Hine, Albert C.; Bukry, David; Barron, John A.; Guertin, Laura A.

    2001-01-01

    The Caloosahatchee River Basin, located in southwestern Florida, includes about 1,200 square miles of land. The Caloosahatchee River receives water from Lake Okeechobee, runoff from the watershed, and seepage from the underlying ground-water systems; the river loses water through drainage to the Gulf of Mexico and withdrawals for public-water supply and agricultural and natural needs. Water-use demands in the Caloosahatchee River Basin have increased dramatically, and the Caloosahatchee could be further stressed if river water is used to accommodate restoration of the Everglades. Water managers and planners need to know how much water will be used within the river basin and how much water is contributed by Lake Okeechobee, runoff, and ground water. In this study, marine seismic-reflection and ground-penetrating radar techniques were used as a means to evaluate the potential for flow between the river and ground-water systems. Seven test coreholes were drilled to calibrate lithostratigraphic units, their stratal geometries, and estimated hydraulic conductivities to surface-geophysical profiles. A continuous marine seismic-reflection survey was conducted over the entire length of the Caloosahatchee River and extending into San Carlos Bay. Lithostratigraphic units that intersect the river bottom and their characteristic stratal geometries were identified. Results show that subhorizontal reflections assigned to the Tamiami Formation intersect the river bottom between Moore Haven and about 9 miles westward. Oblique and sigmoidal progradational reflections assigned to the upper Peace River Formation probably crop out at the floor of the river in the Ortona area between the western side of Lake Hicpochee and La Belle. These reflections image a regional-scale progradational deltaic depositional system containing quartz sands with low to moderate estimated hydraulic conductivities. In an approximate 6-mile length of the river between La Belle and Franklin Lock, deeper

  4. Denitrification, leaching, and river nitrogen export in the Community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevison, Cynthia; Hess, Peter; Riddick, Stuart; Ward, Dan

    2016-03-01

    River nitrogen export is simulated within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) by coupling nitrogen leaching and runoff fluxes from the Community Land Model (CLM) to the River Transport Model (RTM). The coupled CLM-RTM prognostically simulates the downstream impact of human N cycle perturbation on coastal areas. It also provides a framework for estimating denitrification fluxes of N2 and associated trace gases like N2O in soils and river sediments. An important limitation of the current model is that it only simulates dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) river export, due to the lack of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and particulate nitrogen (PN) leaching fluxes in CLM. In addition, the partitioning of soil N loss in CLM between the primary loss pathways of denitrification and N leaching/runoff appears heavily skewed toward denitrification compared to other literature estimates, especially in nonagricultural regions, and also varies considerably among the four model configurations presented here. River N export is generally well predicted in the model configurations that include midlatitude crops, but tends to be underpredicted in rivers that are less perturbed by human agriculture. This is especially true in the tropics, where CLM likely underestimates leaching and runoff of all forms of nitrogen. River export of DIN is overpredicted in some relatively unperturbed Arctic rivers, which may result from excessive N inputs to those regions in CLM. Better representation of N loss in CLM can improve confidence in model results with respect to the core model objective of simulating nitrogen limitation of the carbon cycle.

  5. Flow and Transport in the Hanford 300 Area Vadose Zone-Aquifer-River System

    SciTech Connect

    Waichler, Scott R.; Yabusaki, Steven B.

    2005-07-13

    Contaminant migration in the 300 Area unconfined aquifer is strongly coupled to fluctuations in the Columbia River stage. To better understand the interaction between the river, aquifer, and vadose zone, a 2-D saturated-unsaturated flow and transport model was developed for a vertical cross-section aligned west-east across the Hanford Site 300 Area, nearly perpendicular to the river. The model was used to investigate water flow and tracer transport in the vadose zone-aquifer-river flow system, in support of the ongoing study of the 300 Area uranium plume. The STOMP simulator was used to model 1-year from 3/1/92 to 2/28/93, a period when hourly data were available for both groundwater and river levels. Net water flow to the river (per 1-meter width of shoreline) was 182 m3/y in the base case, but the cumulative exchange or total flow back and forth across the riverbed was 30 times greater. The low river case had approximately double the net water and Groundwater tracer flux into the river as compared to the base case.

  6. Executive summary: legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric potential in the seven mid-western states

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The relationship of Federal law and regulation to state law and regulation of small-scale hydroelectric facilities is described. Important features of the constitutional law, statutory law, case law, and regulations of each of the 7 mid-western states (Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wisconsin) are highlighted. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, i.e., the law of pre-emption, and the application of this law to the case of hydroelectric development and regulation of water resources. A state-by-state synopsis of these important provisions of the laws of the states that have a bearing on small-scale hydroelectric development is presented.

  7. Monitoring the resilience of rivers as social-ecological systems: a paradigm shift for river assessment in the 21st Century

    EPA Science Inventory

    First, we briefly describe the development of the major, biophysically-focused river assessment and monitoring approaches over the last 50 years. We then assess the utility of biophysical parameters for assessing rivers as social-ecological systems. We then develop a framework de...

  8. Reach-scale characterization of large woody debris in a low-gradient, Midwestern U.S.A. river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Derek J.; Pavlowsky, Robert T.; Harden, Carol P.

    2016-06-01

    Addition of large woody debris (LWD) to rivers has increasingly become a popular stream restoration strategy, particularly in river systems of the Midwestern United States. However, our knowledge of LWD dynamics is mostly limited to high gradient montane river systems, or coastal river systems. The LWD-related management of low-gradient, Midwestern river systems is thus largely based on higher gradient analogs of LWD dynamics. This research characterizes fluvial wood loads and investigates the relationships between fluvial wood, channel morphology, and sediment deposition in a relatively low-gradient, semiconfined, alluvial river. The LWD and channel morphology were surveyed at nine reaches along the Big River in southeastern Missouri to investigate those relationships in comparison to other regions. Wood loads in the Big River are low (3-114 m3/100 m) relative to those of higher gradient river systems of the Pacific Northwest, but high relative to lower-gradient river systems of the Eastern United States. Wood characteristics such as size and orientation suggest that the dominant LWD recruitment mechanism in the Big River is bank erosion. Also, ratios of wood geometry to channel geometry show that the Big River maintains a relatively high wood transport capacity for most of its length. Although LWD creates sites for sediment storage, the overall impact on reach-scale sediment storage in the Big River is low (< 4.2% of total in-channel storage). However, wood loads, and thus opportunities for sediment storage, have the potential to grow in the future as Midwestern riparian forests mature. This study represents the first of its kind within this particular type of river system and within this region and thus serves as a basis for understanding fluvial wood dynamics in low-gradient river systems of the Midwestern United States.

  9. Turbulence at Hydroelectric Power Plants and its Potential Effects on Fish.

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, Glenn F.; Odeh, Mufeed

    2001-01-01

    The fundamental influence of fluid dynamics on aquatic organisms is receiving increasing attention among aquatic ecologists. For example, the importance of turbulence to ocean plankton has long been a subject of investigation (Peters and Redondo 1997). More recently, studies have begun to emerge that explicitly consider the effects of shear and turbulence on freshwater invertebrates (Statzner et al. 1988; Hart et al. 1996) and fishes (Pavlov et al. 1994, 1995). Hydraulic shear stress and turbulence are interdependent natural fluid phenomena that are important to fish, and consequently it is important to develop an understanding of how fish sense, react to, and perhaps utilize these phenomena under normal river flows. The appropriate reaction to turbulence may promote movement of migratory fish or prevent displacement of resident fish. It has been suggested that one of the adverse effects of flow regulation by hydroelectric projects is the reduction of normal turbulence, particularly in the headwaters of reservoirs, which can lead to disorientation and slowing of migration (Williams et al. 1996; Coutant et al. 1997; Coutant 1998). On the other hand, greatly elevated levels of shear and turbulence may be injurious to fish; injuries can range from removal of the mucous layer on the body surface to descaling to torn opercula, popped eyes, and decapitation (Neitzel et al. 2000a,b). Damaging levels of fluid stress can occur in a variety of circumstances in both natural and man-made environments. This paper discusses the effects of shear stress and turbulence on fish, with an emphasis on potentially damaging levels in man-made environments. It defines these phenomena, describes studies that have been conducted to understand their effects, and identifies gaps in our knowledge. In particular, this report reviews the available information on the levels of turbulence that can occur within hydroelectric power plants, and the associated biological effects. The final section

  10. Influence of environmental variables on diffusive greenhouse gas fluxes at hydroelectric reservoirs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rogério, J P; Santos, M A; Santos, E O

    2013-11-01

    For almost two decades, studies have been under way in Brazil, showing how hydroelectric reservoirs produce biogenic gases, mainly methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), through the organic decomposition of flooded biomass. This somewhat complex phenomenon is due to a set of variables with differing levels of interdependence that directly or indirectly affect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of this paper is to determine, through a statistical data analysis, the relation between CO2, CH4 diffusive fluxes and environmental variables at the Furnas, Itumbiara and Serra da Mesa hydroelectric reservoirs, located in the Cerrado biome on Brazil's high central plateau. The choice of this region was prompted by its importance in the national context, covering an area of some two million square kilometers, encompassing two major river basins (Paraná and Tocantins-Araguaia), with the largest installed power generation capacity in Brazil, together accounting for around 23% of Brazilian territory. This study shows that CH4 presented a moderate negative correlation between CO2 and depth. Additionally, a moderate positive correlation was noted for pH, water temperature and wind. The CO2 presented a moderate negative correlation for pH, wind speed, water temperature and air temperature. Additionally, a moderate positive correlation was noted for CO2 and water temperature. The complexity of the emission phenomenon is unlikely to occur through a simultaneous understanding of all the factors, due to difficulties in accessing and analyzing all the variables that have real, direct effects on GHG production and emission.

  11. Chemical speciation of inorganic pollutants in river-estuary-sea water systems.

    PubMed

    Tepavitcharova, Stefka; Todorov, Tihomir; Rabadjieva, Diana; Dassenakis, Manos; Paraskevopoulou, Vasiliki

    2009-02-01

    Monitoring studies and thermodynamic modeling were used to reveal the changes of inorganic chemical species of some water pollutants (nutrients and trace metals such as Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb) inthe river-estuary-sea water system. The case studies were two rivers, Kamchiya and Ropotamo, representing part of the Bulgarian Black Sea water catchment area, and having different flow characteristics. There were no major differences in inorganic chemical species of the two river systems. NO3(-) and NO2(-) chemical species showed no changes along the river-estuary-sea water system. Concerning phosphates six different species were calculated and differences between the three parts of the systems were established. The HPO4(2-) and H2PO4(-) species were found to be dominant in river waters. The H2PO4(-) species quickly decreased at the expense of HPO4(2-) and Ca, Mg and Na phosphate complexes in estuary and seawater. Trace metals showed a great variety of chemical species. Fe(OH)2(+) species prevailed in river waters, and Fe(OH)3(0) species--in sea waters. Me2+ and MeCO3(0) (Me = Cu, Pb) and PbHCO3(+) were dominant in river waters, while Cu(CO3)2(2-) and PbCl(-) species appear also in sea waters. Cd2+ species prevailed in river and estuary waters, and CdCln(2-n) (n = 1-3) species, in seawater. Free Zn2+ species predominated in all systems but downstream their percentage decreased at the expense of Zn phosphates, carbonates,sulfates and chlorides complexes. Only free Mn2+ species were dominant along the systems.

  12. Model documentation report: Short-Term Hydroelectric Generation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Short- Term Hydroelectric Generation Model (STHGM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on the model structure. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with the Energy Information Administration`s (AYE) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). The STHGM performs a short-term (18 to 27- month) forecast of hydroelectric generation in the United States using an autoregressive integrated moving average (UREMIA) time series model with precipitation as an explanatory variable. The model results are used as input for the short-term Energy Outlook.

  13. A Study of United States Hydroelectric Plant Ownership

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G Hall

    2006-06-01

    Ownership of United States hydroelectric plants is reviewed from several perspectives. Plant owners are grouped into six owner classes as defined by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The numbers of plants and the corresponding total capacity associated with each owner class are enumerated. The plant owner population is also evaluated based on the number of owners in each owner class, the number of plants owned by a single owner, and the size of plants based on capacity ranges associated with each owner class. Plant numbers and corresponding total capacity associated with owner classes in each state are evaluated. Ownership by federal agencies in terms of the number of plants owned by each agency and the corresponding total capacity is enumerated. A GIS application that is publicly available on the Internet that displays hydroelectric plants on maps and provides basic information about them is described.

  14. Landscape ecology of the Upper Mississippi River System: Lessons learned, challenges and opportunities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeJager, Nathan R.

    2016-03-22

    The Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) is a mosaic of river channels, backwater lakes, floodplain forests, and emergent marshes. This complex mosaic supports diverse aquatic and terrestrial plant communities, over 150 fish species; 40 freshwater mussel species; 50 amphibian and reptile species; and over 360 bird species, many of which use the UMRS as a critical migratory route. The river and floodplain are also hotspots for biogeochemical activity as the river-floodplain collects and processes nutrients derived from the UMR basin. These features qualify the UMRS as a Ramsar wetland of international significance.Two centuries of land-use change, including construction for navigation and conversion of large areas to agriculture, has altered the broad-scale structure of the river and changed local environmental conditions in many areas. Such changes have affected rates of nutrient processing and transport, as well as the abundance of various fish, mussel, plant, and bird species. However, the magnitude and spatial scale of these effects are not well quantified, especially in regards to the best methods and locations for restoring various aspects of the river ecosystem.The U.S. Congress declared the navigable portions of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) a “nationally significant ecosystem and nationally significant commercial navigation system” in the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) and launched the Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program, the first comprehensive program for ecosystem restoration, monitoring, and research on a large river system. This fact sheet focuses on landscape ecological studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to support decision making by the UMRR with respect to ecosystem restoration.

  15. Seasonal movements of non-native lake trout in a connected lake and river system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Giersch, J. Joseph; Marotz, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Non-native lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum), threaten native salmonid populations in the western United States. Effective management of lake trout requires understanding movements within connected lake and river systems. This study determined the seasonal movements of subadult lake trout in the Flathead River upstream of Flathead Lake, Montana, USA using radio telemetry. The spatiotemporal distribution of lake trout in the river was related to water temperature. Lake trout were detected in the river primarily during autumn, winter and spring, when water temperatures were cool. By contrast, fewer were detected when temperatures were warmest during summer and during high spring flows. Downriver movements to Flathead Lake occurred throughout autumn and winter when water temperature decreased below 5 °C, and in late spring as water temperature rose towards 15 °C and river discharge declined following spring runoff. Upriver movements occurred primarily in October, which coincided with migrations of prey fishes. These results suggest that lake trout are capable of moving throughout connected river and lake systems (up to 230 km) and that warm water temperatures function as an impediment to occupancy of the river during summer. Controlling source populations and maintaining natural water temperatures may be effective management strategies for reducing the spread of non-native lake trout.

  16. Hydrogeologic Framework of the Yakima River Basin Aquifer System, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaccaro, J.J.; Jones, M.A.; Ely, D.M.; Keys, M.E.; Olsen, T.D.; Welch, W.B.; Cox, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Yakima River basin aquifer system underlies about 6,200 square miles in south-central Washington. The aquifer system consists of basin-fill deposits occurring in six structural-sedimentary basins, the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), and generally older bedrock. The basin-fill deposits were divided into 19 hydrogeologic units, the CRBG was divided into three units separated by two interbed units, and the bedrock was divided into four units (the Paleozoic, the Mesozoic, the Tertiary, and the Quaternary bedrock units). The thickness of the basin-fill units and the depth to the top of each unit and interbed of the CRBG were mapped. Only the surficial extent of the bedrock units was mapped due to insufficient data. Average mapped thickness of the different units ranged from 10 to 600 feet. Lateral hydraulic conductivity (Kh) of the units varies widely indicating the heterogeneity of the aquifer system. Average or effective Kh values of the water-producing zones of the basin-fill units are on the order of 1 to 800 ft/d and are about 1 to 10 ft/d for the CRBG units as a whole. Effective or average Kh values for the different rock types of the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary units appear to be about 0.0001 to 3 ft/d. The more permeable Quaternary bedrock unit may have Kh values that range from 1 to 7,000 ft/d. Vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) of the units is largely unknown. Kv values have been estimated to range from about 0.009 to 2 ft/d for the basin-fill units and Kv values for the clay-to-shale parts of the units may be as small as 10-10 to 10-7 ft/d. Reported Kv values for the CRBG units ranged from 4x10-7 to 4 ft/d. Variations in the concentrations of geochemical solutes and the concentrations and ratios of the isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon in groundwater provided information on the hydrogeologic framework and groundwater movement. Stable isotope ratios of water (deuterium and oxygen-18) indicated dispersed sources of groundwater recharge to

  17. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproduction Success of Kokanee in the Flathead River System, 1986 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, Will; Clancey, Patrick

    1987-03-01

    The 1985 kokanee spawning run in the Flathead system was the strongest in five years. Escapement to the Flathead River system was 147,000 fish, including 123,000 in McDonald Creek and an estimated 20,000 in the main stem. Enumeration of spawners and redds in the Flathead River was hindered by high fall flows and early freezing in November. The upstream spawning migration from Flathead Lake began in late August. Schools of kokanee were seen six miles above the lake on September 4. We counted 1,156 redds in Flathead Lake, distributed primarily along the southeastern shore. An unusually high proportion (90 percent) of lakeshore spawning occurred in the zone above minimum pool, where egg mortality is very high because of exposure from drawdown. Escapement to the Swan River was 1,350 fish. Four year old (III+) fish comprised 95 percent of the spawning run in the Flathead system. This continues a five-year trend toward dominance of the III+ year class. The age composition of spawners has varied considerably for the past 15 years. The average size of spawning fish was 365 mm, which is identical to the average size of the parent year class in 1981. One of the goals of managing Flathead kokanee is to produce mature fish 300-330 mm in length. In the main stem Flathead River, pre-emergent survival was 80 percent. Survival in McDonald Creek, unaffected by hydroelectric operations, was 83 percent. Sampling showed few hatched alevins, probably due to unusually cold winter temperatures. Egg survival at Blue Bay, a spawning area on Flathead Lake where redds are concentrated below minimum pool, varied in relation to depth and dissolved oxygen concentration in the substrate. Eggs survived 78 days at 2,880 feet where dissolved oxygen was 5.7 mg/l. Eggs survived 35 days at 2,870 feet where dissolved oxygen concentration averaged 2.9 mg/l. Low dissolved oxygen contributed to poor survival to emergence at all elevations in Blue Ray. Experiments in Skidoo Bay confirmed that survival of

  18. Defining biophysical reference conditions for dynamics river systems: an Alaskan example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pess, G. R.

    2008-12-01

    Defining reference conditions for dynamic river ecosystems is difficult for two reasons. First long-term, persistent anthropogenic influences such as land development, harvest of biological resources, and invasive species have resulted in degraded, reduced, and simplified ecological communities and associated habitats. Second, river systems that have not been altered through human disturbance rarely have a long-term dataset on ecological conditions. However there are exceptions which can help us define the dynamic nature of river ecosystems. One large-scale exception is the Wood River system in Bristol Bay, Alaska, where habitat and salmon populations have not been altered by anthropogenic influences such as land development, hatchery production, and invasive species. In addition, the one major anthropogenic disturbance, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) harvest, has been quantified and regulated since its inception. First, we examined the variation in watershed and stream habitat characteristics across the Wood River system. We then compared these stream habitat characteristics with data that was collected in the 1950s. Lastly, we examined the correlation between pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), chum (O. keta), and Chinook (O. tshawytscha), and sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and habitat characteristics in the Wood River system using four decades of data on salmon. We found that specific habitat attributes such as stream channel wetted width, depth, cover type, and the proportion of spawnable area were similar to data collected in the 1950s. Greater stream habitat variation occurred among streams than over time. Salmon occurrence and abundance, however was more temporal and spatially variable. The occurrence of pink and chum salmon increased from the 1970's to the present in the Wood River system, while sockeye abundance has fluctuated with changes in ocean conditions. Pink, Chinook and chum salmon ranged from non-existent to episodic to abundantly perennial, while sockeye

  19. Short-term hydroelectric generation model. Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Short-Term Hydroelectric Generation Model (STHGM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on the model structure. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with the EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models.

  20. Storage-based approaches to build floodplain inundation modelling capability in river system models for water resources planning and accounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Dushmanta; Teng, Jin; Vaze, Jai; Lerat, Julien; Hughes, Justin; Marvanek, Steve

    2013-11-01

    We develop two innovate approaches for floodplain modelling in river system models.The two approaches can estimate floodplain fluxes and stores model at river reach.Performance of the second approach is equivalent to a hydrodynamic model.The second approach is suitable for rapid inundation estimate at high spatial scale.New developments enable river models to improve environmental flow modelling.

  1. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in Maryland are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system is examined with the aim of creating a more orderly understanding of the vagaries of the system, focusing on the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. In Maryland, by common law rule, title to all navigable waters and to the soil below the high-water mark of those waters is vested in the state as successor to the Lord Proprietary who had received it by grant from the Crown. Rights to non-navigable water, public trust doctrine, and eminent domain are also discussed. Direct and indirect regulations, continuing obligations, loan programs, and regional organizations are described in additional sections.

  2. 77 FR 2966 - Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the...: Exemption from Licensing. b. Project No.: 14345-000. c. Filing Date: January 5, 2012. d. Applicant: Rock River Beach, Inc. e. Name of Project: Rock River Beach Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the...

  3. 77 FR 75628 - STS Hydropower, Ltd., Dan River, Inc., and City of Danville, VA; Notice of Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission STS Hydropower, Ltd., Dan River, Inc., and City of Danville, VA; Notice of..., 2012, Jeoffrey L. Burtch, as Chapter 7 Bankruptcy Trustee for Dan River, Inc. and STS Hydropower, Ltd... the license for the Schoolfield Hydroelectric Project from Dan River, Inc. and STS Hydropower, Ltd....

  4. 75 FR 45106 - Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With...: Great River Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Upper Mississippi River Lock & Dam No. 21 Hydroelectric...' Lock & Dam No. 21, and would consist of the following facilities: (1) A new hydropower...

  5. 76 FR 2359 - Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for...: Great River Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Upper Mississippi River Lock & Dam No. 21 Hydroelectric... following facilities: (1) A new 796-foot-long by 46-foot-wide by 25-foot-high concrete hydropower...

  6. 75 FR 4363 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License..., 2009. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Markham Ferry Hydroelectric Project... Contact: D. Casey Davis, Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box 409, 226 West Dwain Willis Avenue,......

  7. 77 FR 41783 - American River Power VII, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Hydroelectric Water Power Project No. 14389, to be located at the existing Lower Appleton Dam on the Fox River... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power VII, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, American River Power VII, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit under section 4(f)...

  8. 77 FR 41782 - American River Power VIII, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Hydroelectric Water Power Project No. 14391, to be located at the existing Upper Appleton Dam on the Fox River... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power VIII, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, American River Power VIII, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit under section...

  9. Active tectonics and Holocene versus modern catchment erosion rates at 300 MW Baspa II hydroelectric power plant (NW Himalaya, India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganits, Erich; Grasemann, Bernhard; Gier, Susanne; Hofmann, Christa-Charlotte; Janda, Christoph; Bookhagen, Bodo; Preh, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The Baspa River is one of the most important tributaries to the Sutlej River in the NW Himalaya (India). Its catchment is 1116 km2 in size, ranges from c. 6400 m asl to 1770 m asl and contains India's largest private hydroelectric facility, the 300 MW Baspa II. Geologically, the hydroelectric installation is located in the Higher Himalayan Crystalline, just above the active Karcham Normal Fault, which is reactivating the Early Miocene Main Central Thrust, one of the principal Himalayan faults. The area is seismically active and mass-movements are common. Around 8200 yrs BP the Baspa was dammed by a rock-avalanche dam, leading to the formation of the originally c. 260 m deep palaeo-lake Sangla palaeo-lake. Detailed sedimentological investigations and radiocarbon dating indicate that the palaeo-lake was completely filled with sediments until c. 5100 yrs BP. This makes the Sangla palaeo-lake to a very rare example of a mass-movement dam with very long duration and its lacustrine sediments represent a valuable archive for geological processes and environmental proxies within the Baspa catchment during the c. 3100 years of its existence - which are the aim of our study. At least 5 levels of soft-sediment deformation have been recorded in the exposed part of the lacustrine sediments of Sangla palaeo-lake, including brecciated laminae, overturned laminae, folds, faults and deformation bands, separated by undeformed deposits. They are interpreted as seismites, indicating at least 5 earthquakes within 2500 years strong enough to cause liquefaction. The 300 MW Baspa II hydro-electric power plant has been built exactly on top of this palaeo-lake. This special location represents a very rare possibility to evaluate the short-term, river load and hydrological parameters measured during the planning and operational stages of Baspa II with the long-term parameters gained from the palaeo-lake sediments from the catchment. This data show that the Mid-Holocene erosion rates of the

  10. Heavy Metals and Biogenic Elements in Aquatic Systems of the Don River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, Anna; Tkachenko, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    River deltas are located in the lower parts of the cascade landscape-geochemical systems of the river basins, so their geochemical conditions often characterize the anthropogenic impact on whole river system. The Don River runs through the one of the most agriculturally developed and densely populated area of Russia, and flows into the Azov Sea - the smallest and shallowest sea in the world. These factors determine the geochemical features of aquatic systems of the Don River mouth area and the specificity of the "river-sea" geochemical barrier zone. The paper presents results of the field studies of the geochemical structure of the Don River mouth area, which were conducted in frames of the RFBR project in 2012-2013. Major types of the deltaic water streams and bodies were studied in different hydrological seasons: spring floods, summer, autumn and winter low water periods. About 50 samples of water, suspended matter and 60 samples of bottom sediments have been collected and analyzed for heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Cr, Cd etc.) and biogenic elements (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphates, silica, total nitrogen and phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll) content. To assess the toxicity degree and nutrient potential of water, bioassay test conducted by growing daphnia in water samples were held. The study shows that the Don River delta water is characterized by the relatively low values of dissolved heavy metal content. Significantly higher values of heavy metals were determined in the vicinity of settlements only. Metal accumulation in bottom sediments can be associated mainly with the rate of water flow. Higher values were found in sediments of small channels with weak flow velocity and prevailing processes of the suspended matter deposition. The data on the seasonal dynamics of nutrients and spatial variability of their forms have been obtained. The maximum concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon, and other biogenic elements are

  11. Carbon fate in a large temperate human-impacted river system: focus on benthic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Flipo, Nicolas; Escoffier, Nicolas; Rocher, Vincent; Groleau, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade, several studies highlighted the important role of fluvial networks in regional and global carbon (C) budgets. Therefore, for sustainable C management, in-river C processing needs to be well understood. The Seine River from the Paris urban area to the entrance of its estuary (220 km) is studied here as a pertinent example of a large human impacted river system subject to temperate climatic conditions. We assess organic C (OC) budgets up- and downstream one of the world's largest waste water treatment plants and for different hydrological conditions through hydro-biogeochemical distributed modelling. The fine representation of sediment accumulation on the river bed allows the quantification of the effect of pelagic and benthic processes on OC export towards the estuary and on river metabolism (i.e. net CO2 emission). OC export is significantly affected by benthic dynamics during the driest periods, when 25 % of the inputs to the system is transformed or stored in the sediment layer. River metabolism is also significantly affected by benthic processes, whatever the hydrological conditions. On average, benthic respiration accounts for one third of the total ecosystem respiration along the studied stretch (0.23 out of 0.86 gC.m-2.d-1). These results stress the major influence of benthic dynamics, and thus of physical processes such as sedimentation and re-suspension on C cycling, in large human-impacted temperate river systems and on C export to the estuaries. Even though the importance of benthos processes was already acknowledged by the scientific community for headwater streams, this work highlights its importance for downstream river systems and opens the door to new developments in the quantification of C emissions by global models, in which biogeochemical processing and benthic dynamics must be taken into account.

  12. Shark River Inlet, New Jersey, Entrance Shoaling: Report 2, Analysis With Coastal Modeling System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    benefits and possible solutions Advance dredging is a possible interim solution that can be implemented at modest cost and examined for performance...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 0- 4 Coastal Inlets Research Program Shark River Inlet, New Jersey, Entrance Shoaling: Report 2, Analysis with...Program ERDC/CHL TR-10-4 July 2010 Shark River Inlet, New Jersey, Entrance Shoaling: Report 2, Analysis with Coastal Modeling System Tanya M. Beck

  13. Occurrence and risks of triclosan and triclocarban in the Pearl River system, South China: from source to the receiving environment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Liang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, You-Sheng; Chen, Feng; Yang, Ji-Feng; Wang, Li

    2010-07-15

    We investigated two commonly used antimicrobial agents triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) in the Pearl River system in China (i.e., Liuxi, Zhujiang and Shijing Rivers) and four sewage effluents during dry and wet seasons. The median values for TCS and TCC were the highest in the surface water and sediments of the Shijing River, followed by the Zhujiang River and Liuxi River. Screening level risk assessment using the risk quotient (RQ) method showed that TCS and TCC in surface water posed median risks in the Zhujiang and Liuxi Rivers (RQs: 0.28-0.62 for TCS, and 0.15-0.80 for TCC) and high risks in the Shijing River (RQs: 5.15-9.55 for TCS, and 3.32-5.83 for TCC). Higher risks (RQs: 3.63-28.47 for TCS, and 3.13-24.54 for TCC) were found in the sediments than in surface water of the Pearl River system. The four sewage effluents and Shijing River as well as other urban streams in Guangzhou metropolitan area were identified as the sources of the two compounds in the main river Zhujiang River. The mass inventories of TCS and TCC in the Pearl River system indicate that the sediments are not only an important sink but also a potential source for the two compounds in surface water.

  14. Status and conservation of the fish fauna of the Alabama River system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, Mary C.; Irwin, E.R.; Burkhead, N.M.; Freeman, B.J.; Bart, H.L.

    2005-01-01

    The Alabama River system, comprising the Alabama, Coosa, and Tallapoosa subsystems, forms the eastern portion of the Mobile River drainage. Physiographic diversity and geologic history have fostered development in the Alabama River system of globally significant levels of aquatic faunal diversity and endemism. At least 184 fishes are native to the system, including at least 33 endemic species. During the past century, dam construction for hydropower generation and navigation resulted in 16 reservoirs that inundate 44% of the length of the Alabama River system main stems. This extensive physical and hydrologic alteration has affected the fish fauna in three major ways. Diadromous and migratory species have declined precipitously. Fish assemblages persisting downstream from large main-stem dams have been simplified by loss of species unable to cope with altered flow and water quality regimes. Fish populations persisting in the headwaters and in tributaries to the mainstem reservoirs are now isolated and subjected to effects of physical and chemical habitat degradation. Ten fishes in the Alabama River system (including seven endemic species) are federally listed as threatened or endangered. Regional experts consider at least 28 additional species to be vulnerable, threatened, or endangered with extinction. Conserving the Alabama River system fish fauna will require innovative dam management, protection of streams from effects of urbanization and water supply development, and control of alien species dispersal. Failure to manage aggressively for integrity of remaining unimpounded portions of the Alabama River system will result in reduced quality of natural resources for future generations, continued assemblage simplification, and species extinctions. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  15. Organic and inorganic carbon fluxes in a tropical river system (Tana River, Kenya) during contrasting wet seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geeraert, Naomi; Omengo, Fred O.; Bouillon, Steven; Borges, Alberto V.; Govers, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Tropical river systems are often subjected to strong seasonality; in the Tana River (Kenya), for example, ~60% of the annual discharge takes place during a 4-month period. As different carbon pools are transported by the river, seasonal differences in carbon fluxes will also occur. This can furthermore be enhanced or attenuated due to changes in the intensity of carbon transformation processes, such as microbial respiration and primary production, during the wet season. Besides that, seasonal flooding of flood plains or flooded forest is known to be a major driver of the biogeochemical and ecological functioning of tropical rivers ("flood pulse concept") and has been shown to be one of the major drivers of the CO2 emissions from the Amazon River. We monitored the fluxes of different carbon pools at two sites spaced 385 km apart along the lower Tana River (Kenya), which is characterized by a highly seasonal flow regime. Water samples were taken at daily resolution during three wet seasons. During one of those seasons (May-June 2013), considerable flooding took place between both stations, while the other two wet seasons (Oct-Nov 2012 and April-May 2014) were characterised by several distinct discharge peaks, without leading to substantial overbank flooding. The flux of particulate organic carbon (POC) was observed to decrease in the downstream direction by 8 to 33% during all measurement periods. Fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) also decreased in the downstream direction during the wet seasons without flooding (by 10-38%) but increased drastically (increase of 231%) during the wet season with flooding. The dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) flux increased downstream (by 6% to 62%) during all measurement periods. The total carbon flux (POC+DOC+DIC) increased by 33% in the wet season with flooding (2013), but decreased by 23% and 3%, respectively, during the 2012 and 2014 wet seasons. Flooding thus affected the relative contribution of different C pools to the

  16. Fish assemblage structure and habitat associations in a large western river system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, C.D.; Quist, Michael; Hardy, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal gradients of fish assemblage and habitat structure were investigated in the Kootenai River of northern Idaho. A total of 43 500-m river reaches was sampled repeatedly with several techniques (boat-mounted electrofishing, hoop nets and benthic trawls) in the summers of 2012 and 2013. Differences in habitat and fish assemblage structure were apparent along the longitudinal gradient of the Kootenai River. Habitat characteristics (e.g. depth, substrate composition and water velocity) were related to fish assemblage structure in three different geomorphic river sections. Upper river sections were characterized by native salmonids (e.g. mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni), whereas native cyprinids (peamouth Mylocheilus caurinus, northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and non-native fishes (pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, yellow perch Perca flavescens) were common in the downstream section. Overall, a general pattern of species addition from upstream to downstream sections was discovered and is likely related to increased habitat complexity and additions of non-native species in downstream sections. Assemblage structure of the upper sections were similar, but were both dissimilar to the lower section of the Kootenai River. Species-specific hurdle regressions indicated the relationships among habitat characteristics and the predicted probability of occurrence and relative abundance varied by species. Understanding fish assemblage structure in relation to habitat could improve conservation efforts of rare fishes and improve management of coldwater river systems.

  17. Application of the target fish community model to an urban river system.

    PubMed

    Meixler, Marcia S

    2011-04-01

    Several models have been developed to assess the biological integrity of aquatic systems using fish community data. One of these, the target fish community (TFC) model, has been used primarily to assess the biological integrity of larger, mainstem rivers in southern New England with basins characterized by dispersed human activities. We tested the efficacy of the TFC approach to specify the fish community in the highly urbanized Charles River watershed in eastern Massachusetts. To create a TFC for the Charles River we assembled a list of fish species that historically inhabited the Charles River watershed, identified geomorphically and zoogeographically similar reference rivers regarded as being in high quality condition, amassed fish survey data for the reference rivers, and extracted from the collections the information needed to define a TFC. We used a similarity measurement method to assess the extent to which the study river community complies with the TFC and an inference approach to summarize the manner in which the existing fish community differed from target conditions. The five most abundant species in the TFC were common shiners (34%), fallfish (17%) redbreast sunfish (11%), white suckers (8%), and American eel (7%). Three of the five species predicted to be most abundant in the TFC were scarce or absent in the existing river community. Further, the river was dominated by macrohabitat generalists (99%) while the TFC was predicted to contain 19% fluvial specialist species, 43% fluvial dependent species, and 38% macrohabitat generalist species. In addition, while the target community was dominated by fish intolerant (37%) and moderately tolerant (39%) of water quality degradation, the existing community was dominated by tolerant individuals (59%) and lacked intolerant species expected in the TFC. Similarity scores for species, habitat use specialization, and water quality degradation tolerance categories were 28%, 35% and 66%, respectively. The clear

  18. The Watershed and River Systems Management Program: Decision Support for Water- and Environmental-Resource Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leavesley, G.; Markstrom, S.; Frevert, D.; Fulp, T.; Zagona, E.; Viger, R.

    2004-12-01

    Increasing demands for limited fresh-water supplies, and increasing complexity of water-management issues, present the water-resource manager with the difficult task of achieving an equitable balance of water allocation among a diverse group of water users. The Watershed and River System Management Program (WARSMP) is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) to develop and deploy a database-centered, decision-support system (DSS) to address these multi-objective, resource-management problems. The decision-support system couples the USGS Modular Modeling System (MMS) with the BOR RiverWare tools using a shared relational database. MMS is an integrated system of computer software that provides a research and operational framework to support the development and integration of a wide variety of hydrologic and ecosystem models, and their application to water- and ecosystem-resource management. RiverWare is an object-oriented reservoir and river-system modeling framework developed to provide tools for evaluating and applying water-allocation and management strategies. The modeling capabilities of MMS and Riverware include simulating watershed runoff, reservoir inflows, and the impacts of resource-management decisions on municipal, agricultural, and industrial water users, environmental concerns, power generation, and recreational interests. Forecasts of future climatic conditions are a key component in the application of MMS models to resource-management decisions. Forecast methods applied in MMS include a modified version of the National Weather Service's Extended Streamflow Prediction Program (ESP) and statistical downscaling from atmospheric models. The WARSMP DSS is currently operational in the Gunnison River Basin, Colorado; Yakima River Basin, Washington; Rio Grande Basin in Colorado and New Mexico; and Truckee River Basin in California and Nevada.

  19. Mines as lower reservoir of an UPSH (Underground Pumping Storage Hydroelectricity): groundwater impacts and feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodeux, Sarah; Pujades, Estanislao; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The energy framework is currently characterized by an expanding use of renewable sources. However, their intermittence could not afford a stable production according to the energy demand. Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is an efficient possibility to store and release electricity according to the demand needs. Because of the topographic and environmental constraints of classical PSH, new potential suitable sites are rare in countries whose topography is weak or with a high population density. Nevertheless, an innovative alternative is to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants by using old underground mine works as lower reservoir. In that configuration, large amount of pumped or injected water in the underground cavities would impact the groundwater system. A representative UPSH facility is used to numerically determine the interactions with surrounding aquifers Different scenarios with varying parameters (hydrogeological and lower reservoir characteristics, boundaries conditions and pumping/injection time-sequence) are computed. Analysis of the computed piezometric heads around the reservoir allows assessing the magnitude of aquifer response and the required time to achieve a mean pseudo-steady state under cyclic solicitations. The efficiency of the plant is also evaluated taking the leakage into the cavity into account. Combining these two outcomes, some criterions are identified to assess the feasibility of this type of projects within potential old mine sites from a hydrogeological point of view.

  20. Estimation of Stratification and Mixing of a Closed River System Using FLOW-3D®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, G. B.; Bombardelli, F.; Behrens, D.; Largier, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    The growing concern about the environmental management of riverine systems has led to an increasing reliance on results of numerical simulations to support prediction, design and decision-making regarding a wide variety of flow scenarios. Currently, the traditional focus on a single management objective is being replaced by multi-objective management that emphasizes the importance of environmental quality, potential stratification effects, and the need to evaluate general interrelations among hydraulic and ecological components of river systems. Further, these interrelations are analyzed over a range of spatial and temporal scales. High-resolution computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) codes are increasingly being used by river engineers, fluvial geomorphologists and river biologists to explore the complexity of river dynamics and to predict fluvial behavior. The Russian River estuary closes its mouth several times each summer due to tidal sediment deposition at the river mouth when the flow is relatively low. During closure conditions, the estuary resembles a narrow, long lake rather than a continuous flowing river, and its circulation patterns change dramatically. The river estuary strongly stratifies due to water of high salt content trapped below the approximately 1-m fresh water surface layer. Measured data shows that the salinity contours changed over time due to mixing and circulation. Seiches and river flow generate water circulation and seiches occur due to metrological variations such as wind and atmospheric pressure and pressure gradient. The strong stratification shuts down the flow of dissolved oxygen (DO) from the surface to the water below the thermocline. Because of bio-chemical process (biological oxygen demand, nitrification, DO requirements of the aquatic biota, etc.) in the water column, DO concentrations depletes near the river bed resulting in quite severe environmental problems. In this study we used CFD codes FLOW-3D®, developed by Flow Science

  1. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix D: Exhibits.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries are the primary water system in the Pacific Northwest, draining some 219,000 square miles in seven states and another 39,500 square miles in British Columbia. Beginning in the 1930`s, the Columbia River has been significantly modified by construction of 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries, along with dozens of non-Federal projects. Construction and subsequent operation of these water development projects have contributed to eight primary uses of the river system, including navigation, flood control, irrigation, electric power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water supply and quality considerations. Increasing stress on the water development of the Columbia River and its tributaries has led primary Federal agencies to undertake intensive analysis and evaluation of the operation of these projects. These agencies are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, who operate the large Federal dams on the river, and the Bonneville Power Administration who sells the power generated at the dams. This review, termed the System Operation Review (SOR), has as its ultimate goal to define a strategy for future operation of the major Columbia River projects which effectively considers the needs of all river uses. This volume, Appendix D: Cultural resources appendix, Technical imput includes the following: Development of geomorphology based framework for cultural resources management, Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho; Impact profiles for SOR reservoirs; comments from the following Native American tribes: Burns Paiute Tribe; Coville Confederated Tribes; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation; Confederated Tribes and bands of the Yakama Indian Nation (comments); Nez Perce Tribe; Coeur D`Alene Tribe; Spokane Tribe of Indians; The confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  2. A decision support system for water quality issues in the Manzanares River (Madrid, Spain).

    PubMed

    Paredes, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín; Solera, Abel

    2010-05-15

    The Manzanares River, located in Madrid (Spain), is the main water supplier of a highly populated region, and it also receives wastewater from the same area. The effluents of eight Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) downstream of the river, which represent 90% of the flow in the middle and lower parts of the river, are the primary sources of water pollution. Although the situation has improved slightly in the last two years, the water in the river is highly polluted, making it uninhabitable for aquatic life. Water quality modelling is typically used to assess the effect of treatment improvements in water bodies. In this work, the GESCAL module of the Aquatool Decision Support System Shell was used to simulate water quality in the Manzanares River. GESCAL is appropriate for modelling in an integrated way water quality for whole water resources systems, including reservoirs and rivers. A model was built that simulates conductivity, phosphorous, carbonaceous organic matter, dissolved oxygen, organic nitrogen, ammonia, and nitrates. The period from October 2006 to September 2008 was selected for calibration due to the many treatment modifications that occurred during this time. An earlier and longer period, from October 2000 to September 2006, was used for validation. In addition, a daily model was used to analyse the robustness of the GESCAL model. Once the GESCAL model was validated, different scenarios were considered and simulated. First, different combinations of nutrient elimination among the different WWTPs were simulated, leading to the conclusion that investments have to focus on three of the proposed WWTPs. Moreover, these treatments will not be sufficient to maintain fish habitat conditions at all times. Additional measures, such as the increment of the flow in the river or oxygen injection, were simulated. Incrementing the flow of the Manzanares River has been shown to be an efficient means of increasing water quality, but this implies an increment in the

  3. [Tritium in the Water System of the Techa River].

    PubMed

    Chebotina, M Ja; Nikolin, O A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study modern tritium levels in various sources of the drinking water supply in the settlements situated in the riverside zone of the Techa. Almost everywhere the water entering water-conduit wells from deep slits (100-180 m) contains averagely 2-3 times higher tritium concentrations than the water from less deep personal wells, slits and springs. Tritium levels in the drinking water supply decrease with the distance from the dam; while in wells, springs and personal wells they are constant all along the river. The observed phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the river bed of the Techa is situated at a break zone of the earth crust, where the contaminated deep water penetrates from the reservoirs of the "Mayak" enterprise situated in the upper part of the regulated river bed. Less deep water sources (personal wells, slits and springs) receive predominantly flood, atmospheric and subsoil waters and are not connected with the reservoirs.

  4. The Seine system: introduction to a multidisciplinary approach of the functioning of a regional river system.

    PubMed

    Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Mouchel, Jean-Marie; Silvestre, Marie

    2007-04-01

    The Seine basin (France) is dominated by the megalopolis of Paris (10 millions inhabitants), surrounded by intensive agricultural areas: it represents an important example of regional territory strongly affected by anthropogenic activity. In the scope of the PIREN-Seine program, an interdisciplinary study of this basin was conducted. This paper introduces a special issue of the Science of the Total Environment devoted to the results of this program. It summarizes the main features of the Seine river system, the physical characteristics of its drainage network and its watershed, and the nature and spatial distribution of human activities. The scientific approaches used for the study of the system are described, emphasizing the role of material budgeting, mathematical modeling and historical reconstruction. Some functional characteristics of the Seine watershed and drainage network are summarized, showing that the system is now essentially controlled by anthropogenic constraints.

  5. Monitoring of streamflow in the Verde River by ERTS-1 Data Collection System (DCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, H. H.

    1973-01-01

    The Verde River watershed in central Arizona furnishes municipal, industrial, and agricultural water to the Salt River Valley --an area that contains more than half of Arizona's population and about one-fourth of the State's irrigated land. Water-management decisions related to the operation of large multiple-use reservoirs require accurate and continuous monitoring of moisture conditions over large remote areas. The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Salt River Valley Water Users' Association installed a specially designed gaging station on the Verde River near the town of Camp Verde to evaluate near-real time streamflow data furnished by the ERTS-1 Data Collection System (DCS). On Nov. 3, 1972, the installation was equipped with a Stevens digital water-level recorder, modified for telemetry, and an ERTS-1 data collection platform operating in the digital-parallel mode.

  6. Carbon Transport in Small Mountainous Rivers in Southwest Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paine, J.; Markowitz, M.; McGillis, W. R.

    2014-12-01

    Since the earthquake hit Haiti in 2010, hydroclimatology measurements have been performed in southwestern Haiti. This area is coated with small mountainous rivers (SMRs) and has been susceptible to significant deforestation. Both anthropogenic activities and natural forces have altered the abundances and transformations of carbon as it is transported from land to the coastal ocean. This investigation of carbon transport and air-sea gas exchange in Haiti will address the current deficiency of scientific knowledge regarding biogeochemical cycles and tropical SMR systems. Vertical and horizontal flux of dissolved inorganic carbon is calculated primarily using carbon system data, including pCO2 and DIC, and salinity discharge curves. SF6, an inert gas, was mixed into a solution of salt and rhodamine to find air-sea gas exchange of these SMRs. Integration of both vertical and horizontal fluxes over a year aids in the identification of the movement of inorganic carbon be it weathering, respiration, or photosynthesis. Research will be continued throughout the season, but only dry season data is represented here so discharge values are expected to increase. As rivers fork and bifurcate, it is difficult to address all branches of southwestern Haiti's rivers. Thus, concentration lies on both the largest rivers and those most prudent to current hydroelectric power prospects.

  7. Options for managing hypoxic blackwater events in river systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Janice L; Baldwin, Darren S; Whitworth, Kerry L

    2013-01-15

    Blackwater events are characterised by a high concentration of dissolved organic carbon in the water column. They occur naturally in lowland rivers with forested floodplains and bring a variety of benefits to both aquatic and floodplain biota. However, particularly when accompanied by high temperatures, respiration of the organic carbon may cause blackwater to become hypoxic. This may lead to a range of lethal and sub-lethal effects on the aquatic biota. We review the current scientific knowledge concerning the management of blackwater and hypoxia, and examine how this knowledge may be applied to the management of hypoxic blackwater events in lowland river systems. A range of management options, which aim to either prevent the development of hypoxic blackwater or to reintroduce oxygen into deoxygenated waters, are reported. Mitigation options that may be applicable to lowland river systems include manipulating the season and magnitude of floods in regulated rivers, increasing roughness in flow paths, establishing oxygenated refugia for aquatic biota and introducing hydraulic structures that promote turbulence and re-aeration. With climatic changes trending towards a scenario where extreme events leading to the development of hypoxic blackwater are more probable, it is now vital to validate and optimise management options on local and regional scales and work towards closing knowledge gaps. With judicious management of regulated rivers, it is possible to minimise the impacts of hypoxic flows while preserving the benefits brought to floodplain and river ecosystems by seasonal flooding and carbon exchange.

  8. Fluvial responses to late Quaternary climate change in the Shiyang River drainage system, western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hongshan; Li, Zongmeng; Pan, Baotian; Liu, Fenliang; Liu, Xiaopeng

    2016-04-01

    As a drainage system located in arid western China, the Shiyang River, combined with considerable fluvial strata and landform information, provides an environmental context within which to investigate fluvial responses to late Quaternary climate change. Sedimentological analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating enabled us to reconstruct the processes and fluvial styles of three sedimentary sequences of the Shagou and Hongshui rivers in the Shiyang drainage system. Our results present a variety of river behaviors during the late Quaternary in these areas. In the upstream Shiyang River, Zhangjiadazhuang (ZJDZ) profile of the Shagou was dominated by aggradation and a meandering channel pattern at 10.6-4.2 ka, while a noticeable channel incision occurred at ~ 4.2 ka followed by lateral channel migration. In the downstream Shiyang River, Datugou (DTG) profile of the Hongshui was an aggrading meandering river from 39.7 to 7.2 ka while channel incision occurred at 7.2 ka. Another downstream profile, Wudunwan (WDW) of the Hongshui was also characterized by aggradation from 22.4 to 4.8 ka; however, its channel pattern shifted from braided to meandering at ~ 13 ka. A discernable downcutting event occurred at ~ 4.8 ka, followed by three channel aggradation and incision episodes prior to 1.8 ka. The last 1.8 ka has been characterized by modern channel and floodplain development. The fluvial processes and styles investigated have a close correlation with late Quaternary climate change in the Shiyang River drainage. During cold phases, the WDW reach was dominated by aggradation with a braided channel pattern. During warm phases, the rivers that we investigated were also characterized by aggradation but with meandering channel patterns. Channel incision events and changes of fluvial style occurred mainly during climate transitions.

  9. Tracking suspended particle transport via radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) through the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River system.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Richard N; Burnett, William C; Opsahl, Stephen P; Santos, Isaac R; Misra, Sambuddha; Froelich, Philip N

    2013-02-01

    Suspended particles in rivers can carry metals, nutrients, and pollutants downstream which can become bioactive in estuaries and coastal marine waters. In river systems with multiple sources of both suspended particles and contamination sources, it is important to assess the hydrologic conditions under which contaminated particles can be delivered to downstream ecosystems. The Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River system in the southeastern United States represents an ideal system to study these hydrologic impacts on particle transport through a heavily-impacted river (the Chattahoochee River) and one much less impacted by anthropogenic activities (the Flint River). We demonstrate here the utility of natural radioisotopes as tracers of suspended particles through the ACF system, where particles contaminated with arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) have been shown to be contributed from coal-fired power plants along the Chattahoochee River, and have elevated concentrations in the surficial sediments of the Apalachicola Bay Delta. Radium isotopes ((228)Ra and (226)Ra) on suspended particles should vary throughout the different geologic provinces of this river system, allowing differentiation of the relative contributions of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers to the suspended load delivered to Lake Seminole, the Apalachicola River, and ultimately to Apalachicola Bay. We also use various geochemical proxies ((40)K, organic carbon, and calcium) to assess the relative composition of suspended particles (lithogenic, organic, and carbonate fractions, respectively) under a range of hydrologic conditions. During low (base) flow conditions, the Flint River contributed 70% of the suspended particle load to both the Apalachicola River and the bay, whereas the Chattahoochee River became the dominant source during higher discharge, contributing 80% of the suspended load to the Apalachicola River and 62% of the particles entering the estuary. Neither of these hydrologic

  10. Ground-based radar reflectivity mosaic of mei-yu precipitation systems over the Yangtze River-Huaihe River basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yali; Qian, Weimiao; Gong, Yu; Wang, Hongyan; Zhang, Da-Lin

    2016-11-01

    The 3D radar reflectivity produced by a mosaic software system, with measurements from 29 operational weather radars in the Yangtze River-Huaihe River Basins (YRHRB) during the mei-yu season of 2007, is compared to coincident TRMM PR observations in order to evaluate the value of the ground-based radar reflectivity mosaic in characterizing the 3D structures of mei-yu precipitation. Results show reasonable agreement in the composite radar reflectivity between the two datasets, with a correlation coefficient of 0.8 and a mean bias of -1 dB. The radar mosaic data at constant altitudes are reasonably consistent with the TRMM PR observations in the height range of 2-5 km, revealing essentially the same spatial distribution of radar echo and nearly identical histograms of reflectivity. However, at altitudes above 5 km, the mosaic data overestimate reflectivity and have slower decreasing rates with height compared to the TRMM PR observations. The areas of convective and stratiform precipitation, based on the mosaic reflectivity distribution at 3-km altitude, are highly correlated with the corresponding regions in the TRMM products, with correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.97 and mean relative differences of -7.9% and -2.5%, respectively. Finally, the usefulness of the mosaic reflectivity at 3-km altitude at 6-min intervals is illustrated using a mesoscale convective system that occurred over the YRHRB.

  11. Geospatial Modelling Approach for Interlinking of Rivers: A Case Study of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swathi Lakshmi, A.; Saran, S.; Srivastav, S. K.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-11-01

    India is prone to several natural disasters such as floods, droughts, cyclones, landslides and earthquakes on account of its geoclimatic conditions. But the most frequent and prominent disasters are floods and droughts. So to reduce the impact of floods and droughts in India, interlinking of rivers is one of the best solutions to transfer the surplus flood waters to deficit/drought prone areas. Geospatial modelling provides a holistic approach to generate probable interlinking routes of rivers based on existing geoinformatics tools and technologies. In the present study, SRTM DEM and AWiFS datasets coupled with land-use/land -cover, geomorphology, soil and interpolated rainfall surface maps have been used to identify the potential routes in geospatial domain for interlinking of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. The first order derivatives are derived from DEM and road, railway and drainage networks have been delineated using the satellite data. The inundation map has been prepared using AWiFS derived Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The Drought prone areas were delineated on the satellite image as per the records declared by Revenue Department, Srikakulam. Majority Rule Based (MRB) aggregation technique is performed to optimize the resolution of obtained data in order to retain the spatial variability of the classes. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is implemented to obtain the prioritization of parameters like geomorphology, soil, DEM, slope, and land use/land-cover. A likelihood grid has been generated and all the thematic layers are overlaid to identify the potential grids for routing optimization. To give a better routing map, impedance map has been generated and several other constraints are considered. The implementation of canal construction needs extra cost in some areas. The developed routing map is published into OGC WMS services using open source Geo

  12. Modeling the System: How Computers are Used in Columbia River Planning.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Army Corps of Engineers; United States. Bureau of Reclamation

    1992-10-01

    This publication describes the three computer models Federal agencies and the Northwest Power Pool use regularly to help plan hydro operations in the Columbia River Basin: HYSSR, HYDROSIM, and HYDREG. It is one of a series of booklets written for participants in the System Operation Review (SOR) being conducted jointly by the US Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), the US Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), and theBonneville Power Administration (BPA). A list of the other publications appears on the inside front cover. The SOR is the environmental analysis required to consider changes in Columbia River system operations related contract arrangements. Over the next few years, the agencies will develop a new multiple-use operation for the Columbia River. At the time, the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) and other contracts related to the Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada will be renegotiated and renewed. Many alternative ways of operating individual projects and the river system as a whole will be considered in the SOR. To analyze how these changes would affect the system's ability to meet its multiple-use goals, various operating scenarios will be thoroughly evaluated. The three computer models, HYSSR, HYDROSIM, and HYDREG, will play an important role in this evaluation.

  13. Optimization of Multiple and Multipurpose Reservoir System Operations by Using Matrix Structure (Case Study: Karun and Dez Reservoir Dams)

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Faridah; Taghieh, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Optimal operation of water resources in multiple and multipurpose reservoirs is very complicated. This is because of the number of dams, each dam’s location (Series and parallel), conflict in objectives and the stochastic nature of the inflow of water in the system. In this paper, performance optimization of the system of Karun and Dez reservoir dams have been studied and investigated with the purposes of hydroelectric energy generation and providing water demand in 6 dams. On the Karun River, 5 dams have been built in the series arrangements, and the Dez dam has been built parallel to those 5 dams. One of the main achievements in this research is the implementation of the structure of production of hydroelectric energy as a function of matrix in MATLAB software. The results show that the role of objective function structure for generating hydroelectric energy in weighting method algorithm is more important than water supply. Nonetheless by implementing ε- constraint method algorithm, we can both increase hydroelectric power generation and supply around 85% of agricultural and industrial demands. PMID:27248152

  14. Optimization of Multiple and Multipurpose Reservoir System Operations by Using Matrix Structure (Case Study: Karun and Dez Reservoir Dams).

    PubMed

    Heydari, Mohammad; Othman, Faridah; Taghieh, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Optimal operation of water resources in multiple and multipurpose reservoirs is very complicated. This is because of the number of dams, each dam's location (Series and parallel), conflict in objectives and the stochastic nature of the inflow of water in the system. In this paper, performance optimization of the system of Karun and Dez reservoir dams have been studied and investigated with the purposes of hydroelectric energy generation and providing water demand in 6 dams. On the Karun River, 5 dams have been built in the series arrangements, and the Dez dam has been built parallel to those 5 dams. One of the main achievements in this research is the implementation of the structure of production of hydroelectric energy as a function of matrix in MATLAB software. The results show that the role of objective function structure for generating hydroelectric energy in weighting method algorithm is more important than water supply. Nonetheless by implementing ε- constraint method algorithm, we can both increase hydroelectric power generation and supply around 85% of agricultural and industrial demands.

  15. Mississippi River Navigation System. Environmental Evaluations of Proposed Mooring Facilities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    In the eastern half of the basin the stream gradients are steep; there are flash floods during the rainy season , and low flows during the dry seasons ...important fur bearing animals, with oppossum, raccoon and fox also being trapped in signficant numbers . 2.6.3 Cultural Features The population of the basin...ndesear and Idefy~f 61P 6(ek number ) 2L. AWRACr (C101w m revere o N mewem MA ideUt& by Week nmbod 2As Part of the Mississippi River Mooring Study, an

  16. Status and trends of selected resources in the Upper Mississippi River System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Barry L.; Hagerty, Karen H.

    2010-01-01

    Like other large rivers, the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) serves a diversity of roles. The UMRS provides commercial and recreational fishing, floodplain agriculture, drinking water for many communities, an important bird migration pathway, a variety of recreational activities, and a navigation system that transports much of the country's agricultural exports. These multiple roles present significant management challenges. Regular assessment of the condition of the river is needed to improve management plans and evaluate their effectiveness. This report provides a summary of the recent status (mean and range of conditions) and trends (change in direction over time) for 24 indicators of the ecological condition of the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers using data collected through the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP). The 24 indicators were grouped into seven categories: hydrology, sedimentation, water quality, land cover, aquatic vegetation, invertebrates, and fish. Most of the data used in the report were collected between about 1993 and 2004, although some older data were also used to compare to recent conditions.Historical observations and current LTRMP data clearly indicate that the UMRS has been changed by human activity in ways that have diminished the ecological health of the river. The data indicate that status and trends differ among regions, and we expect that regional responses to various ecological rehabilitation techniques will differ as well. The continuing role of the LTRMP will be to provide the data needed to assess changes in river conditions and to determine how those changes relate to management actions, natural variation, and the overall ecological integrity of the river system.

  17. Biogeochemistry of mercury in a river-reservoir system: impact of an inactive chloralkali plant on the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir, Virginia and Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S. G.; Lindberg, S. E.; Turner, R. R.; Huckabee, J. W.; Strand, R. H.; Lund, J. R.; Andren, A. W.

    1980-08-01

    Elevated mercury concentrations in fish species from the North Fork of the Holston River were observed in the early 1970's. The source of the mercury was a chloralkali plant which had ceased operation in 1972. Mercury continues to be released to the river from two large (approx. 40-ha) waste disposal ponds at the plant site. This report presents results of a study of the emission of mercury to the environment from the abandoned waste ponds and of the distribution of mercury in water, sediment, and biota of the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir System in Virginia and eastern Tennessee.

  18. Patterns in abundance of fishes in main channels of the upper Mississippi River system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettmers, J.M.; Gutreuter, S.; Wahl, David H.; Soluk, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Abundance of fishes of the main channels of the upper Mississippi River system and of other large North American rivers is largely unknown because historic sampling methods have been inadequate. We used a bottom trawl to estimate spatial and temporal patterns in abundance in the navigation channels of Pool 26 of the Mississippi River and the lower Illinois River. Total biomass density averaged 21 and 29 kg·ha-1 in the navigation channels of Pool 26 and the lower Illinois River, respectively. We identified spatial and temporal patterns in catches of key species using a generalized linear model based on the negative binomial distribution. Some species, including shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), are persistent residents of the main channel. Multiple-season residents, including freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens), rely heavily on the main channel during most of the year but leave it briefly, for example to seek thermal refugia in backwaters during winters. We suggest revision of the prevailing notion that main channels of large temperate rivers serve mainly as corridors for movement among other habitat types.

  19. Hydrochemical data for the Truckee River drainage system, California and Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, L.V.

    1984-01-01

    Surface-water samples were collected from the Truckee River drainage system during 1975, 1976, and 1981. Data resulting from chemical analyses of these samples, as well as certain other previously unpublished data, are tabulated in this report. The report contains the following hydrochemical data: (1) chemical composition of 21 tributaries to Lake Tahoe and the Truckee River upstream from Farad, California (May and October 1971, and June 1972); (2) chemical composition of the Truckee River at Tahoe City (January 1968 to January 1975) and at Farad, California (January 1968 to June 1980), and of the Little Truckee River upstream from Stampede Reservoir, California (January 1968 to April 1980); (3) chemical composition of the Truckee River at 11 sites from Tahoe City, California, to Nixon, Nevada (June 4 and September 3, 1975); (4) historical chemical analyses of water from Pyramid Lake, Nevada (1882 to 1973); (5) chemical composition (November 1975 to December 1976), water temperature (January 1976 to November 1977), and dissolved oxygen (January 1976 to November 1977) at various depths in Pyramid Lake, Nevada; (6) chemical composition of pore fluids from and carbonate mineralogy of sediment greater than 2 micrometers in five cores, Pyramid Lake, Nevada; (7) chemical composition of the Truckee River at Farad, California (January to July 1981); and (8) chemical composition of tufa from the Pyramid Lake basin. 9 references, 3 figures, 14 tables.

  20. Surface Hydrology in Global River Basins in the Off-Line Land-Surface GEOS Assimilation (OLGA) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Yang, Runhua; Houser, Paul R.

    1998-01-01

    Land surface hydrology for the Off-line Land-surface GEOS Analysis (OLGA) system and Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-1) Data Assimilation System (DAS) has been examined using a river routing model. The GEOS-1 DAS land-surface parameterization is very simple, using an energy balance prediction of surface temperature and prescribed soil water. OLGA uses near-surface atmospheric data from the GEOS-1 DAS to drive a more comprehensive parameterization of the land-surface physics. The two global systems are evaluated using a global river routing model. The river routing model uses climatologic surface runoff from each system to simulate the river discharge from global river basins, which can be compared to climatologic river discharge. Due to the soil hydrology, the OLGA system shows a general improvement in the simulation of river discharge compared to the GEOS-1 DAS. Snowmelt processes included in OLGA also have a positive effect on the annual cycle of river discharge and source runoff. Preliminary tests of a coupled land-atmosphere model indicate improvements to the hydrologic cycle compared to the uncoupled system. The river routing model has provided a useful tool in the evaluation of the GCM hydrologic cycle, and has helped quantify the influence of the more advanced land surface model.

  1. Iron Isotopes in the Amazon River System: Weathering and Transport Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergquist, B. A.; Boyle, E. A.

    2004-12-01

    Fractionation of iron isotopes will be an effective tool to investigate and quantify the environmental geochemistry of iron. Initial studies of stable iron isotopes show measurable fractionation in both field samples and laboratory studies spanning over 4‰ in the 56/54 ratio. In this study, trace metal clean plankton tows, river samples, aerosol leachates, and porewater samples were measured for their iron isotopic composition using a GV Instruments IsoProbe Multi-collector ICPMS. This system uses a hexapole collision cell to reduce molecular interferences and improve transmission. A plankton tow collected in a low salinity Amazon River plume in the open ocean had a δ 56Fe value of -0.34‰ relative to igneous rocks and a Fe:C ratio of ˜ 600 μ mol/mol. It was inferred from the high Fe:C ratio that a majority of the Fe collected in the plankton tow was extracellular Fe and that the δ 56Fe might reflect the composition of particles and Fe attached to the surface of the plankton. In order to investigate the source of Fe to the Amazon plume water, samples were collected from the Amazon River and region including filtered river water, suspended sediment, and a shelf porewater. River water-seawater mixing experiments were also performed to assess whether Fe flocculation in estuaries affects isotopic composition of the dissolved flux to the ocean. The overall Fe isotopic variation observed in the Amazon River system was 1.5‰ . The Fe from the dissolved and suspended loads of two main channel river sites was isotopically similar ( ˜ -0.2 to -0.45‰ ). The most depleted sample was the Amazon shelf porewater (-1.4‰ ). The isotopically heaviest sample collected was the dissolved Fe from an organic rich tributary, the Negro River, in the Amazon River system (+0.16‰ ). Although the Negro River dissolved phase was isotopically heavy relative to igneous rock, its suspended sediment Fe was isotopically light (-1‰ ). The signature of the Negro was not observed

  2. Holocene versus modern catchment erosion rates at 300 MW Baspa II hydroelectric power plant (India, NW Himalaya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganits, Erich; Gier, Susanne; Hofmann, Christa-Ch.; Janda, Christoph; Bookhagen, Bodo; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2014-08-01

    300 MW Baspa II is India's largest private hydroelectric facility, located at the Baspa River which is an important left-hand tributary to the Sutlej River in the NW Himalaya (India). In this valley the Sangla palaeo-lake has been dammed around 8200 yr BP behind a rock-avalanche dam and Baspa II is located exactly on top of this palaeo-lake. This special location represents a very rare possibility to evaluate the short-term, river load and hydrological parameters measured during the planning and operational stages of Baspa II with the long-term parameters gained from the palaeo-lake sediments from the catchment. Sedimentological and geomorphological investigations of the lacustrine sediments have been used to reconstruct environmental changes during >2500 years of its existence. The Mid-Holocene erosion rates of the Baspa catchment estimated from the volume and duration of deposition of the exposed lake sediments are at 0.7-1.0 mm yr-1, almost identical with the modern erosion rates calculated from river gauge data from Baspa II. Several charcoal layers and charcoal pieces from the uppermost palaeo-lake levels around 5000 cal yr BP might be related to woodland clearance and they possibly represent one of the oldest evidences for human presence in the Baspa Valley during Neolithic time.

  3. A Novel Hydro-information System for Improving National Weather Service River Forecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Z.; Wang, S.; Liang, X.; Adams, T. E.; Teng, W. L.; Liang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    A novel hydro-information system has been developed to improve the forecast accuracy of the NOAA National Weather Service River Forecast System (NWSRFS). An MKF-based (Multiscale Kalman Filter) spatial data assimilation framework, together with the NOAH land surface model, is employed in our system to assimilate satellite surface soil moisture data to yield improved evapotranspiration. The latter are then integrated into the distributed version of the NWSRFS to improve its forecasting skills, especially for droughts, but also for disaster management in general. Our system supports an automated flow into the NWSRFS of daily satellite surface soil moisture data, derived from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), and the forcing information of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). All data are custom processed, archived, and supported by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information and Services Center (GES DISC). An optional data fusing component is available in our system, which fuses NEXRAD Stage III precipitation data with the NLDAS precipitation data, using the MKF-based framework, to provide improved precipitation inputs. Our system employs a plug-in, structured framework and has a user-friendly, graphical interface, which can display, in real-time, the spatial distributions of assimilated state variables and other model-simulated information, as well as their behaviors in time series. The interface can also display watershed maps, as a result of the integration of the QGIS library into our system. Extendibility and flexibility of our system are achieved through the plug-in design and by an extensive use of XML-based configuration files. Furthermore, our system can be extended to support multiple land surface models and multiple data assimilation schemes, which would further increase its capabilities. Testing of the integration of the current system into the NWSRFS is

  4. Pattern of injuries in a hydro-electric project.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, P; Dhar, S; Dogra, S; Kaul, S; Raina, R K

    1995-05-01

    A study of work-related injuries at a hydro-electric project site (May 1991-April 1992) was undertaken to determine the incidence and pattern of the injuries out of a total number of 119 injuries in the year. A significant proportion of these were orthopaedic in nature and the commonest site of injury was limbs (both upper and lower limbs) like auto-amputations and head injuries. A large proportion of these accidents (24.37%) resulted in permanent disability likely to interfere in the normal activities or locomotion of those injured.

  5. Reservoir-system model for the Willamette River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shearman, James O.

    1976-01-01

    For nearly half a century the Willamette River in Oregon experienced severe dissolved-oxygen problems related to large loads of organically rich waste waters from industries and municipalities. Since the mid-1950 's dissolved oxygen quality has gradually improved owing to low-flow augmentation, the achievement of basinwide secondary treatment, and the use of other waste-management practices. As a result, summer dissolved-oxygen levels have increased, salmon runs have returned, and the overall effort is widely regarded as a singular water-quality success. To document the improved dissolved-oxygen regimen, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted intensive studies of the Willamette during the summer low-flow seasons of 1973 and 1974. During each summer the mean daily dissolved-oxygen levels were found to be higher than 5 milligrams per liter throughout the river. Because of the basinwide secondary treatment, carbonaceous deoxygenation rates were low. In addition, almost half of the biochemical oxygen demand entering the Willamette was from diffuse (nonpoint) sources rather than outfalls. These results indicated that point-source biochemical oxygen demand was no longer the primary cause of dissolved-oxygen depletion. Instead, the major causes of deoxygenation were nitrification in a shallow ' surface active ' reach below Salem and an anomalous oxygen demand (believed to be primarily of benthal origin) in Portland Harbor. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Grid-connected in-stream hydroelectric generation based on the doubly fed induction machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenberg, Timothy J.

    Within the United States, there is a growing demand for new environmentally friendly power generation. This has led to a surge in wind turbine development. Unfortunately, wind is not a stable prime mover, but water is. Why not apply the advances made for wind to in-stream hydroelectric generation? One important advancement is the creation of the Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM). This thesis covers the application of a gearless DFIM topology for hydrokinetic generation. After providing background, this thesis presents many of the options available for the mechanical portion of the design. A mechanical turbine is then specified. Next, a method is presented for designing a DFIM including the actual design for this application. In Chapter 4, a simulation model of the system is presented, complete with a control system that maximizes power generation based on water speed. This section then goes on to present simulation results demonstrating proper operation.

  7. Projecting cumulative benefits of multiple river restoration projects: an example from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kondolf, G. Mathias; Angermeier, Paul L.; Cummins, Kenneth; Dunne, Thomas; Healey, Michael; Kimmerer, Wim; Moyle, Peter B.; Murphy, Dennis; Patten, Duncan; Railsback, Steve F.; Reed, Denise J.; Spies, Robert; Twiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Despite increasingly large investments, the potential ecological effects of river restoration programs are still small compared to the degree of human alterations to physical and ecological function. Thus, it is rarely possible to “restore” pre-disturbance conditions; rather restoration programs (even large, well-funded ones) will nearly always involve multiple small projects, each of which can make some modest change to selected ecosystem processes and habitats. At present, such projects are typically selected based on their attributes as individual projects (e.g., consistency with programmatic goals of the funders, scientific soundness, and acceptance by local communities), and ease of implementation. Projects are rarely prioritized (at least explicitly) based on how they will cumulatively affect ecosystem function over coming decades. Such projections require an understanding of the form of the restoration response curve, or at least that we assume some plausible relations and estimate cumulative effects based thereon. Drawing on our experience with the CALFED Bay-Delta Ecosystem Restoration Program in California, we consider potential cumulative system-wide benefits of a restoration activity extensively implemented in the region: isolating/filling abandoned floodplain gravel pits captured by rivers to reduce predation of outmigrating juvenile salmon by exotic warmwater species inhabiting the pits. We present a simple spreadsheet model to show how different assumptions about gravel pit bathymetry and predator behavior would affect the cumulative benefits of multiple pit-filling and isolation projects, and how these insights could help managers prioritize which pits to fill.

  8. Projecting Cumulative Benefits of Multiple River Restoration Projects: An Example from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River System in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondolf, G. Mathias; Angermeier, Paul L.; Cummins, Kenneth; Dunne, Thomas; Healey, Michael; Kimmerer, Wim; Moyle, Peter B.; Murphy, Dennis; Patten, Duncan; Railsback, Steve; Reed, Denise J.; Spies, Robert; Twiss, Robert

    2008-12-01

    Despite increasingly large investments, the potential ecological effects of river restoration programs are still small compared to the degree of human alterations to physical and ecological function. Thus, it is rarely possible to “restore” pre-disturbance conditions; rather restoration programs (even large, well-funded ones) will nearly always involve multiple small projects, each of which can make some modest change to selected ecosystem processes and habitats. At present, such projects are typically selected based on their attributes as individual projects (e.g., consistency with programmatic goals of the funders, scientific soundness, and acceptance by local communities), and ease of implementation. Projects are rarely prioritized (at least explicitly) based on how they will cumulatively affect ecosystem function over coming decades. Such projections require an understanding of the form of the restoration response curve, or at least that we assume some plausible relations and estimate cumulative effects based thereon. Drawing on our experience with the CALFED Bay-Delta Ecosystem Restoration Program in California, we consider potential cumulative system-wide benefits of a restoration activity extensively implemented in the region: isolating/filling abandoned floodplain gravel pits captured by rivers to reduce predation of outmigrating juvenile salmon by exotic warmwater species inhabiting the pits. We present a simple spreadsheet model to show how different assumptions about gravel pit bathymetry and predator behavior would affect the cumulative benefits of multiple pit-filling and isolation projects, and how these insights could help managers prioritize which pits to fill.

  9. Modelling phosphorus dynamics in multi-branch river systems: a study of the Black River, Lake Simcoe, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, P G; Jin, L; Baulch, H M; Butterfield, D A; Oni, S K; Dillon, P J; Futter, M; Wade, A J; North, R; O'Connor, E M; Jarvie, H P

    2011-12-15

    High rates of nutrient loading from agricultural and urban development have resulted in surface water eutrophication and groundwater contamination in regions of Ontario. In Lake Simcoe (Ontario, Canada), anthropogenic nutrient contributions have contributed to increased algal growth, low hypolimnetic oxygen concentrations, and impaired fish reproduction. An ambitious programme has been initiated to reduce phosphorus loads to the lake, aiming to achieve at least a 40% reduction in phosphorus loads by 2045. Achievement of this target necessitates effective remediation strategies, which will rely upon an improved understanding of controls on nutrient export from tributaries of Lake Simcoe as well as improved understanding of the importance of phosphorus cycling within the lake. In this paper, we describe a new model structure for the integrated dynamic and process-based model INCA-P, which allows fully-distributed applications, suited to branched river networks. We demonstrate application of this model to the Black River, a tributary of Lake Simcoe, and use INCA-P to simulate the fluxes of P entering the lake system, apportion phosphorus among different sources in the catchment, and explore future scenarios of land-use change and nutrient management to identify high priority sites for implementation of watershed best management practises.

  10. Projecting cumulative benefits of multiple river restoration projects: an example from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system in California.

    PubMed

    Kondolf, G Mathias; Angermeier, Paul L; Cummins, Kenneth; Dunne, Thomas; Healey, Michael; Kimmerer, Wim; Moyle, Peter B; Murphy, Dennis; Patten, Duncan; Railsback, Steve; Reed, Denise J; Spies, Robert; Twiss, Robert

    2008-12-01

    Despite increasingly large investments, the potential ecological effects of river restoration programs are still small compared to the degree of human alterations to physical and ecological function. Thus, it is rarely possible to "restore" pre-disturbance conditions; rather restoration programs (even large, well-funded ones) will nearly always involve multiple small projects, each of which can make some modest change to selected ecosystem processes and habitats. At present, such projects are typically selected based on their attributes as individual projects (e.g., consistency with programmatic goals of the funders, scientific soundness, and acceptance by local communities), and ease of implementation. Projects are rarely prioritized (at least explicitly) based on how they will cumulatively affect ecosystem function over coming decades. Such projections require an understanding of the form of the restoration response curve, or at least that we assume some plausible relations and estimate cumulative effects based thereon. Drawing on our experience with the CALFED Bay-Delta Ecosystem Restoration Program in California, we consider potential cumulative system-wide benefits of a restoration activity extensively implemented in the region: isolating/filling abandoned floodplain gravel pits captured by rivers to reduce predation of outmigrating juvenile salmon by exotic warmwater species inhabiting the pits. We present a simple spreadsheet model to show how different assumptions about gravel pit bathymetry and predator behavior would affect the cumulative benefits of multiple pit-filling and isolation projects, and how these insights could help managers prioritize which pits to fill.

  11. Proximal storage and controls on sediment flux in large Himalayan river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Densmore, Alexander; Sinha, Rajiv; Barnes, Jason; Jain, Vikrant; Tandon, S. K.

    2010-05-01

    The central and eastern Himalaya are drained by the Ganga River and its tributaries, which flow southeastward across the Gangetic Plain in the northern Indian . Rivers in the eastern Gangetic Plain are generally characterized by high sediment fluxes and frequent avulsions in the foreland, leading to the deposition of very large, low-gradient alluvial fans. Rivers in the western Plain, in contrast, are typically confined to narrow meander belts and show a complex Quaternary history of incision and deposition. To first order, this contrast has been explained by spatial gradients in rock uplift and precipitation, leading to large-scale variations in sediment supply across the Ganga basin. Here, we explore an additional mechanism that may control river development - sediment storage and release in intermontane basins, known locally as ‘duns', that occur along the Himalayan mountain front. Duns are present along several, but not all, segments of the mountain front and are formed by active anticlinal folds associated with the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) system. Where duns coincide with the outlets of major transverse river systems, they can act as proximal sediment traps, although their capacity is typically limited by the dimensions of the dun and the ability of the rivers to incise through the folds. Estimates of fold erosion and deeply incised Quaternary sediments in several duns indicate that the duns also serve as intermittent sediment sources. Thus, the duns act as a ‘filter' that is superposed between the sediment source in the Greater and Lesser Himalaya and the routing systems of the Gangetic Plain, and that amplifies climate-related fluctuations in sediment supply. We contrast the behaviour of the Yamuna and Ganga rivers in the western Gangetic Plain with the Kosi River in the east. Sediment in the Yamuna and Ganga must pass through the Dehra Dun, which records a complex history of aggradation and erosion during the Quaternary. Hinterland sediment

  12. Gravel-bed river floodplains are the ecological nexus of glaciated mountain landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Hauer, F. Richard; Locke, Harvey; Dreitz, Victoria J.; Hebblewhite, Mark; Lowe, Winsor H.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Nelson, Cara R.; Proctor, Michael F.; Rood, Stewart B.

    2016-01-01

    Gravel-bed river floodplains in mountain landscapes disproportionately concentrate diverse habitats, nutrient cycling, productivity of biota, and species interactions. Although stream ecologists know that river channel and floodplain habitats used by aquatic organisms are maintained by hydrologic regimes that mobilize gravel-bed sediments, terrestrial ecologists have largely been unaware of the importance of floodplain structures and processes to the life requirements of a wide variety of species. We provide insight into gravel-bed rivers as the ecological nexus of glaciated mountain landscapes. We show why gravel-bed river floodplains are the primary arena where interactions take place among aquatic, avian, and terrestrial species from microbes to grizzly bears and provide essential connectivity as corridors for movement for both aquatic and terrestrial species. Paradoxically, gravel-bed river floodplains are also disproportionately unprotected where human developments are concentrated. Structural modifications to floodplains such as roads, railways, and housing and hydrologic-altering hydroelectric or water storage dams have severe impacts to floodplain habitat diversity and productivity, restrict local and regional connectivity, and reduce the resilience of both aquatic and terrestrial species, including adaptation to climate change. To be effective, conservation efforts in glaciated mountain landscapes intended to benefit the widest variety of organisms need a paradigm shift that has gravel-bed rivers and their floodplains as the central focus and that prioritizes the maintenance or restoration of the intact structure and processes of these critically important systems throughout their length and breadth. PMID:27386570

  13. Gravel-bed river floodplains are the ecological nexus of glaciated mountain landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hauer, F. Richard; Locke, Harvey; Dreitz, Victoria; Hebblewhite, Mark; Lowe, Winsor; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Nelson, Cara; Proctor, Michael F; Rood, Stewart B.

    2016-01-01

    Gravel-bed river floodplains in mountain landscapes disproportionately concentrate diverse habitats, nutrient cycling, productivity of biota, and species interactions. Although stream ecologists know that river channel and floodplain habitats used by aquatic organisms are maintained by hydrologic regimes that mobilize gravel-bed sediments, terrestrial ecologists have largely been unaware of the importance of floodplain structures and processes to the life requirements of a wide variety of species. We provide insight into gravel-bed rivers as the ecological nexus of glaciated mountain landscapes. We show why gravel-bed river floodplains are the primary arena where interactions take place among aquatic, avian, and terrestrial species from microbes to grizzly bears and provide essential connectivity as corridors for movement for both aquatic and terrestrial species. Paradoxically, gravel-bed river floodplains are also disproportionately unprotected where human developments are concentrated. Structural modifications to floodplains such as roads, railways, and housing and hydrologicaltering hydroelectric or water storage dams have severe impacts to floodplain habitat diversity and productivity, restrict local and regional connectivity, and reduce the resilience of both aquatic and terrestrial species, including adaptation to climate change. To be effective, conservation efforts in glaciated mountain landscapes intended to benefit the widest variety of organisms need a paradigm shift that has gravel-bed rivers and their floodplains as the central focus and that prioritizes the maintenance or restoration of the intact structure and processes of these critically important systems throughout their length and breadth.

  14. Gravel-bed river floodplains are the ecological nexus of glaciated mountain landscapes.

    PubMed

    Hauer, F Richard; Locke, Harvey; Dreitz, Victoria J; Hebblewhite, Mark; Lowe, Winsor H; Muhlfeld, Clint C; Nelson, Cara R; Proctor, Michael F; Rood, Stewart B

    2016-06-01

    Gravel-bed river floodplains in mountain landscapes disproportionately concentrate diverse habitats, nutrient cycling, productivity of biota, and species interactions. Although stream ecologists know that river channel and floodplain habitats used by aquatic organisms are maintained by hydrologic regimes that mobilize gravel-bed sediments, terrestrial ecologists have largely been unaware of the importance of floodplain structures and processes to the life requirements of a wide variety of species. We provide insight into gravel-bed rivers as the ecological nexus of glaciated mountain landscapes. We show why gravel-bed river floodplains are the primary arena where interactions take place among aquatic, avian, and terrestrial species from microbes to grizzly bears and provide essential connectivity as corridors for movement for both aquatic and terrestrial species. Paradoxically, gravel-bed river floodplains are also disproportionately unprotected where human developments are concentrated. Structural modifications to floodplains such as roads, railways, and housing and hydrologic-altering hydroelectric or water storage dams have severe impacts to floodplain habitat diversity and productivity, restrict local and regional connectivity, and reduce the resilience of both aquatic and terrestrial species, including adaptation to climate change. To be effective, conservation efforts in glaciated mountain landscapes intended to benefit the widest variety of organisms need a paradigm shift that has gravel-bed rivers and their floodplains as the central focus and that prioritizes the maintenance or restoration of the intact structure and processes of these critically important systems throughout their length and breadth.

  15. Pike Esox Lucius Distribution and Feeding Comparisons in Natural and Historically Channelized River Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanovs, Kaspars

    2016-12-01

    During the last century a large portion of small and medium-sized rivers in Latvia were channelized, hydroelectric power stations were also built, which led to changes in the hydrodynamic conditions, geomorphological structure, as well as a change in the fish fauna. Fish are an integral part of any community in natural or man-made bodies of water. They actively participate in maintaining the system, balancing/equilibrium, energy, substance transformation and biomass production. They are able to influence other organisms in the ecosystem in which they live. The aim of the paper "Pike distribution and feeding comparisons in natural and historically channelized river sections" is to find out what pike feed on in different environments in Latvian rivers, such as natural and straightened river sections, as well as what main factors determine the composition of their food. Several points were assessed during the course of the study: the impact of environmental conditions on the feeding habits and the distribution of pike; the general feeding habits of predators in Latvian rivers; the feeding differences of predators in natural and straightened river sections; and lastly, rhithral and pothamal habitats were compared. The study was based on data from 2014 and 2015 on fish fauna monitoring. During the study, 347 pike were collected from 136 plots using electrofishing method.

  16. Drought early warning based on optimal risk forecasts in regulated river systems: Application to the Jucar River Basin (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haro-Monteagudo, David; Solera, Abel; Andreu, Joaquín

    2017-01-01

    Droughts are a major threat to water resources systems management. Timely anticipation results crucial to defining strategies and measures to minimise their effects. Water managers make use of monitoring systems in order to characterise and assess drought risk by means of indices and indicators. However, there are few systems currently in operation that are capable of providing early warning with regard to the occurrence of a drought episode. This paper proposes a novel methodology to support and complement drought monitoring and early warning in regulated water resources systems. It is based in the combined use of two models, a water resources optimization model and a stochastic streamflow generation model, to generate a series of results that allow evaluating the future state of the system. The results for the period 1998-2009 in the Jucar River Basin (Spain) show that accounting for scenario change risk can be beneficial for basin managers by providing them with information on the current and future drought situation at any given moment. Our results show that the combination of scenario change probabilities with the current drought monitoring system can represent a major advance towards improved drought management in the future, and add a significant value to the existing national State Index (SI) approach for early warning purposes.

  17. Heavy metal anomalies in the Tinto and Odiel river and estuary system, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.H.; Lamothe, P.J. )

    1993-12-01

    The Tinto and Odiel river drain 100 km from the Rio Tinto sulphide mining district and join at a 20-km estuary entering the Atlantic Ocean. A reconnaissance study of heavy metal anomalies in channel sand and overbank mud of the river and estuary shows the following upstream to downstream ranges in ppm ([mu]g g[sup [minus]1]): As 3,000 to <200, Cd 30 to <0.1, Cu 1,500 to 10, Pb 2,000 to <10, Sb 300 to <150, and Zn 3,000 to <200. Organic-rich sandy-silty overbank clay has been analyzed to represent suspended load materials. The high content of heavy metals in the overbank clay throughout the river and estuary systems indicates the importance of suspended sediment transport for dispersing heavy metals from natural erosion and anthropogenic mining activities of the sulfide deposit. The organic-poor river bed sand has been analyzed to represent bedload transport of naturally-occurring sulfide minerals. The sand has high concentrations of metals upstream, decreasing by an order of magnitude in the lower estuary. Although heavy metal contamination of estuary mouth beach sand has been diluted to background levels, estuary mud exhibits increased contamination apparently related to finer grain size, higher organic carbon content, precipitation of river-borne dissolved solids, and input of anthropogenic heavy metals from industrial sources. The contaminated estuary mud disperses to the inner shelf mud belt and offshore suspended sediment, which exhibit metal anomalies from natural erosion and mining of upstream Rio Tinto sulphide lode sources (Pb, Cu, Zn) and industrial activities within the estuary (Fe, Cr, Ti). Because heavy metal contamination of Tinto-Odiel river sediment reaches or exceeds the highest levels encountered in other river sediments of Spain and Europe, a detailed analysis of metals in water and suspended sediment throughout the system, and epidemiological analysis of heavy metal effects in humans is appropriate. 36 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Remote sensing of rivers: an emerging tool to facilitate management and restoration of fluvial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legleiter, C. J.; Overstreet, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    All phases of river restoration, from design to implementation to assessment, require spatially distributed, high-resolution data on channels and floodplains. Conventional field methods are cost prohibitive for large areas, but remote sensing presents an increasingly viable alternative for characterizing fluvial systems. For example, bathymetric maps useful for habitat assessment can be derived from readily available, free or low cost image data, provided depth measurements are available for calibration. In combination with LiDAR, spectrally-based bathymetry can be used to determine bed elevations for estimating scour and fill and/or to obtain topographic input data for morphodynamic modeling. New, water-penetrating green LiDAR systems that measure sub-aerial and submerged elevations could provide a single-sensor solution for mapping riparian environments. Our current research on the Snake River focuses on comparing optical- and LiDAR-based methods for retrieving depths and bed elevations. Multi-sensor surveys from 2012 and 2013 will allow us to evaluate each instrument's capabilities for measuring volumes of erosion and deposition in a dynamic gravel-bed river. Ongoing studies also suggest that additional river attributes, such as substrate composition and flow velocity, could be inferred from hyperspectral image data. In general, remote sensing has considerable potential to facilitate various aspects of river restoration, from site evaluation to post-project assessment. Moreover, by providing more extensive coverage, this approach favors an integrated, watershed perspective for planning, execution, and monitoring of sustainable restoration programs. To stimulate progress toward these objectives, our research group is now working to advance the remote sensing of rivers through tool development and sensor deployment. Bathymetric map of the Snake River, WY, derived from hyperspectral image data via optimal band ratio analysis. Flow direction is from right to left.

  19. A digital underwater video camera system for aquatic research in regulated rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Benjamin M.; Irwin, Elise R.

    2010-01-01

    We designed a digital underwater video camera system to monitor nesting centrarchid behavior in the Tallapoosa River, Alabama, 20 km below a peaking hydropower dam with a highly variable flow regime. Major components of the system included a digital video recorder, multiple underwater cameras, and specially fabricated substrate stakes. The innovative design of the substrate stakes allowed us to effectively observe nesting redbreast sunfish Lepomis auritus in a highly regulated river. Substrate stakes, which were constructed for the specific substratum complex (i.e., sand, gravel, and cobble) identified at our study site, were able to withstand a discharge level of approximately 300 m3/s and allowed us to simultaneously record 10 active nests before and during water releases from the dam. We believe our technique will be valuable for other researchers that work in regulated rivers to quantify behavior of aquatic fauna in response to a discharge disturbance.

  20. Modeling fecal coliform contamination in a tidal Danshuei River estuarine system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chan, Wen-Ting; Young, Chih-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional fecal coliform transport model was developed and incorporated into a hydrodynamic model to obtain a better understanding of local microbiological water quality in the tidal Danshuei River estuarine system of northern Taiwan. The model was firstly validated with the salinity and fecal coliform data measured in 2010. The concentration comparison showed quantitatively good agreement between the simulation and measurement results. Further, the model was applied to investigate the effects of upstream freshwater discharge variation and fecal coliform loading reduction on the contamination distributions in the tidal estuarine system. The qualitative and quantitative analyses clearly revealed that low freshwater discharge resulted in higher fecal coliform concentration. The fecal coliform loading reduction considerably decreased the contamination along the Danshuei River-Tahan Stream, the Hsintien Stream, and the Keelung River.

  1. Organic fuels for respiration in tropical river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, N.; Keil, R. G.; Richey, J. E.; Krusche, A. V.; Medeiros, P. M.

    2011-12-01

    Watershed-derived organic matter is thought to provide anywhere from 30-90% of the organic matter in rivers (e.g. Hernes et al 2008; Spencer et al 2010). The most abundant biochemicals on land are cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. Combined, they represent as much as 80% of the biomass in a typical forest and as much as 60% of the biomass in a typical field (natural or crop)(Bose et al 2009; Bridgeman et al., 2007; Hu and Zu 2006; Martens et al 2004). They are often assumed to be refractory and hard to degrade, but this assumption is at odds with virtually all observations: soils and marine sediments are not accumulating vast amounts of these compounds (Hedges and Oades, 1997), and degradation experiments suggest that cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin are reactive and likely to be important fuels for respiration (Benner, 1991; Haddad et al, 1992; Dittmar et al, 2001; Otto and Simpson, 2006). During several trips to the lower Amazon River, incubation experiments were performed in which the biological degradation of lignin phenols was observed in order to assess the contribution of microbial respiration of terrestrially-derived macromolecules to gross respiration and CO2 gas evasion rates. Both particulate and dissolved lignin concentrations decreased by ~40% after being incubated in the dark for 5-7 days, indicating a turnover time of the entire lignin pool of 12-18 days. These results shift the paradigm that lignocellulose derived OM is highly recalcitrant, and indicate that microbial respiration of lignocellulose may play a larger role in total respiration rates/CO2 outgassing than previously thought. A simple mass balance calculation was done to test whether microbial degradation alone could explain the lignin data observed in the field. First, a theoretical particulate lignin concentration for Macapa was calculated based on the observed data at Obidos. The measured rate of particulate lignin degradation was multiplied by the transit time of water from

  2. Geomorphic assessment of habitat suitability in large rivers from satellite remote sensing: a case study from the Ganga river system, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozumder, C.; Sinha, R.; Carbonneau, P.

    2010-12-01

    The ecological condition and biotic associations in a river are significantly influenced by geomorphic condition of the river, and therefore, any efforts towards river rehabilitation must address these issues to derive a long-term benefit. Such geomorphic diversity may be generated in various ways - discharge regimes and vegetation cover (driven by climatic setting), channel slope and bankline (driven by catchment morphology), sediment flux and accommodation (driven by geological settings). A pilot study in parts of the Ganga river in India using satellite remote sensing data involved analysis of (a) longitudinal form, (b) cross sectional form and (c) planform of the channel at these sites and derivation of various morphometric parameters. Twelve geomorphic parameters were been identified which influence the aquatic life along with the Land Use/ Land cover in the floodplain, planform dynamics, and channel-floodplain connectivity. For each parameter, four classes are defined as Excellent (A), Good (B), Degraded (C) and Poor (D). Both traditional GIS and the newly developed Fluvial Information System (FIS) were used to analyse the present geomorphic condition of the river for habitat suitability. An attempt was also made to suggest the desired future condition of the river from a geomorphic perspective and the necessary changes/adjustments in river form. These results when integrated with the hydraulic analysis can provide estimates of flow depth and flow volumes necessary for channel maintenance from ecological perspective.

  3. Effects of Extreme Monsoon Precipitation on River Systems Form And Function, an Early Eocene Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plink-Bjorklund, P.; Birgenheier, L.

    2013-12-01

    Here we document effects of extreme monsoon precipitation on river systems with mountainous drainage basin. We discuss the effects of individual extreme monsoon seasons, as well as long-term changes in Earth surface system's form and function. The dataset spans across 1000 m of stratigraphy across ca 200 km of Paleocene and Early Eocene river deposits. The excessive 3-dimensional outcrops, combined with our new Carbon isotope, ichnological and paleosols record allow reconstruction of long-term river system's evolution during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) ca 56 million years ago, the transient global warming events during Early Eocene Climate Optimum (EECO) ca 53 to 51.5 million years ago, as well as the effects of highly peaked precipitation events during single monsoon seasons. On the single season scale, the increase in precipitation peakedness causes high discharge flooding events that remove large quantities of sediment from the drainage basin, due to stream erosion and landslide initiation. The initiation of landslides is especially significant, as the drainage basin is of high gradient, the monsoon intensification is accompanied by significant vegetation decline, as the monsoon cycle changes to multi-year droughts interrupted by extreme monsoon precipitation. These large discharge floods laden with sediment cause rapid deposition from high-velocity currents that resemble megaflood deposits in that they are dominated by high-velocity and high deposition rate sedimentary structures and thick simple depositional packages (unit bars). Such high deposition rates cause locally rapid channel bed aggradation and thus increase frequency of channel avulsions and cause catastrophic high-discharge terrestrial flooding events across the river basin. On long time scales, fluvial megafan systems, similar to those, e.g. in the Himalayan foreland, developed across the ca 200 km wide river basin, causing significant sediment aggradation and a landscape with high

  4. 77 FR 43280 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All... Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With the Bureau of Land Management a. Date and Time of Meeting: Wednesday, August...

  5. 75 FR 19989 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for Drought Management Planning at the Kerr Hydroelectric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Management Planning at the Kerr Hydroelectric Project, Flathead Lake, Montana, is now available for public... Bureau of Indian Affairs Final Environmental Impact Statement for Drought Management Planning at the Kerr Hydroelectric Project, Flathead Lake, MT AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  6. 78 FR 38027 - Wilkesboro Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Wilkesboro Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Wilkesboro Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Wilkesboro Hydropower, LLC; Notice of..., Wilkesboro Hydroelectric Company, LLC (transferor) and Wilkesboro Hydropower, LLC (transferee) filed an application for the transfer of license for the W. Kerr Scott Hydropower Project, FERC No. 12642, located...

  7. 77 FR 7574 - Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit... Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority (GCPHA) filed an application, pursuant to section 4(f) of... Project, to be located on the P.E. 46A Wasteway, which is part of the Federal Columbia Basin Project,...

  8. 76 FR 76156 - Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit... Coulee Project Hydropower Authority (Grand Coulee Authority) filed an application for a preliminary... the PEC 1973 Drop Hydroelectric Project (PEC 1973 Project or project) to be located on the...

  9. 77 FR 7574 - Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit... Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority (GCPHA) filed an application, pursuant to section 4(f) of... Project, to be located on the P.E. 16.4 Wasteway, which is part of the Federal Columbia Basin Project,...

  10. 77 FR 7143 - Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit... Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority (GCPHA) filed an application, pursuant to section 4(f) of... Project, to be located on the P.E. 46A Wasteway, which is part of the Federal Columbia Basin Project,...

  11. 76 FR 20657 - Wells Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Wells Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Wells Hydrolectric Project and Intention To Hold Public Meetings In... Office of Energy Projects has reviewed the application for license for the Wells Hydroelectric...

  12. 76 FR 81929 - South Carolina Public Service Authority; Notice of Workshop for Santee Cooper Hydroelectric Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Cooper Hydroelectric Project On May 26 and November 8, 2011, Commission staff met with representatives of...), licensee for the Santee-Cooper Hydroelectric Project No. 199, to discuss what is needed to complete formal... understand the project, its operations, and the technical feasibility of implementing measures at the...

  13. 76 FR 75543 - Castle Creek Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Castle Creek Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... Creek Hydroelectric Project to be located on Castle Creek, near the town of Aspen, Pitkin County, Colorado. The project would affect federal lands administered by the Forest Service. The sole purpose of...

  14. 77 FR 790 - Grant Lake Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grant Lake Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... Hydroelectric Project to be located on Grant Lake and Grant Creek, near the town of Moose Pass, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. The project affects federal lands administered by the ] U.S. Forest Service within the...

  15. 76 FR 67178 - Wells Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Wells Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Wells Hydrolectric Project In accordance with the National Environmental... reviewed the application for license for the Wells Hydroelectric Project (FERC No. 2149), located on...

  16. Application of Science-Based Restoration Planning to a Desert River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laub, Brian G.; Jimenez, Justin; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-06-01

    Persistence of many desert river species is threatened by a suite of impacts linked to water infrastructure projects that provide human water security where water is scarce. Many desert rivers have undergone regime shifts from spatially and temporally dynamic ecosystems to more stable systems dominated by homogenous physical habitat. Restoration of desert river systems could aid in biodiversity conservation, but poses formidable challenges due to multiple threats and the infeasibility of recovery to pre-development conditions. The challenges faced in restoring desert rivers can be addressed by incorporating scientific recommendations into restoration planning efforts at multiple stages, as demonstrated here through an example restoration project. In particular, use of a watershed-scale planning process can identify data gaps and irreversible constraints, which aid in developing achievable restoration goals and objectives. Site-prioritization focuses limited the resources for restoration on areas with the greatest potential to improve populations of target organisms. Investment in research to understand causes of degradation, coupled with adoption of a guiding vision is critical for identifying feasible restoration actions that can enhance river processes. Setting monitoring as a project goal, developing hypotheses for expected outcomes, and implementing restoration as an experimental design will facilitate adaptive management and learning from project implementation. Involvement of scientists and managers during all planning stages is critical for developing process-based restoration actions and an implementation plan to maximize learning. The planning process developed here provides a roadmap for use of scientific recommendations in future efforts to recover dynamic processes in imperiled riverine ecosystems.

  17. Application of science-based restoration planning to a desert river system.

    PubMed

    Laub, Brian G; Jimenez, Justin; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-06-01

    Persistence of many desert river species is threatened by a suite of impacts linked to water infrastructure projects that provide human water security where water is scarce. Many desert rivers have undergone regime shifts from spatially and temporally dynamic ecosystems to more stable systems dominated by homogenous physical habitat. Restoration of desert river systems could aid in biodiversity conservation, but poses formidable challenges due to multiple threats and the infeasibility of recovery to pre-development conditions. The challenges faced in restoring desert rivers can be addressed by incorporating scientific recommendations into restoration planning efforts at multiple stages, as demonstrated here through an example restoration project. In particular, use of a watershed-scale planning process can identify data gaps and irreversible constraints, which aid in developing achievable restoration goals and objectives. Site-prioritization focuses limited the resources for restoration on areas with the greatest potential to improve populations of target organisms. Investment in research to understand causes of degradation, coupled with adoption of a guiding vision is critical for identifying feasible restoration actions that can enhance river processes. Setting monitoring as a project goal, developing hypotheses for expected outcomes, and implementing restoration as an experimental design will facilitate adaptive management and learning from project implementation. Involvement of scientists and managers during all planning stages is critical for developing process-based restoration actions and an implementation plan to maximize learning. The planning process developed here provides a roadmap for use of scientific recommendations in future efforts to recover dynamic processes in imperiled riverine ecosystems.

  18. Developing an Approach to Prioritize River Restoration using Data Extracted from Flood Risk Information System Databases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vimal, S.; Tarboton, D. G.; Band, L. E.; Duncan, J. M.; Lovette, J. P.; Corzo, G.; Miles, B.

    2015-12-01

    Prioritizing river restoration requires information on river geometry. In many states in the US detailed river geometry has been collected for floodplain mapping and is available in Flood Risk Information Systems (FRIS). In particular, North Carolina has, for its 100 Counties, developed a database of numerous HEC-RAS models which are available through its Flood Risk Information System (FRIS). These models that include over 260 variables were developed and updated by numerous contractors. They contain detailed surveyed or LiDAR derived cross-sections and modeled flood extents for different extreme event return periods. In this work, over 4700 HEC-RAS models' data was integrated and upscaled to utilize detailed cross-section information and 100-year modelled flood extent information to enable river restoration prioritization for the entire state of North Carolina. We developed procedures to extract geomorphic properties such as entrenchment ratio, incision ratio, etc. from these models. Entrenchment ratio quantifies the vertical containment of rivers and thereby their vulnerability to flooding and incision ratio quantifies the depth per unit width. A map of entrenchment ratio for the whole state was derived by linking these model results to a geodatabase. A ranking of highly entrenched counties enabling prioritization for flood allowance and mitigation was obtained. The results were shared through HydroShare and web maps developed for their visualization using Google Maps Engine API.

  19. CRevolution 2—Origin and evolution of the Colorado River system, workshop abstracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    : Beard, L. Sue; Karlstrom, Karl E.; Young, Richard A.; Billingsley, George H.

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 Colorado River symposium, held in Flagstaff, Arizona, involved 70 participants who engaged in intense debate about the origin and evolution of the Colorado River system. This symposium, built upon two previous decadal scientific meetings, focused on forging scientific consensus, where possible, while articulating continued controversies regarding the Cenozoic evolution of the Colorado River System and the landscapes of the Colorado Plateau-Rocky Mountain region that it drains. New developments involved hypotheses that Neogene mantle flow is driving plateau tilting and differential uplift and new and controversial hypotheses for the pre-6 Ma presence and evolution of ancestral rivers that may be important in the history and birth of the present Colorado River. There is a consensus that plateau tilt and uplift models must be tested with multidisciplinary studies involving differential incision studies and additional geochronology and thermochronology to determine the relative importance of tectonic and geomorphic forces that shape the spectacular landscapes of the Colorado Plateau, Arizona and region. In addition to the scientific goals, the meeting participants emphasized the iconic status of Grand Canyon for geosciences and the importance of good communication between the research community, the geoscience education/interpretation community, the public, and the media. Building on a century-long tradition, this region still provides a globally important natural laboratory for studies of the interactions of erosion and tectonism in shaping the landscape of elevated plateaus.

  20. Classification of nutrient emission sources in the Vistula River system.

    PubMed

    Kowalkowski, Tomasz

    2009-06-01

    Eutrophication of the Baltic sea still remains one of the biggest problems in the north-eastern area of Europe. Recognizing the sources of nutrient emission, classification of their importance and finding the way towards reduction of pollution are the most important tasks for scientists researching this area. This article presents the chemometric approach to the classification of nutrient emission with respect to the regionalisation of emission sources within the Vistula River basin (Poland). Modelled data for mean yearly emission of nitrogen and phosphorus in 1991-2000 has been used for the classification. Seventeen subcatchements in the Vistula basin have been classified according to cluster and factor analyses. The results of this analysis allowed determination of groups of areas with similar pollution characteristics and indicate the need for spatial differentiation of policies and strategies. Three major factors indicating urban, erosion and agricultural sources have been identified as major discriminants of the groups.

  1. Tracing suspended sediment sources in catchments and river systems.

    PubMed

    Walling, D E

    2005-05-15

    Recent years have seen a growing awareness of the wider environmental significance of the suspended sediment loads transported by rivers and streams. This includes the importance of fine sediment in the transport of nutrients and contaminants, including phosphorus (P). Sediment source exerts a key control on the physical and geochemical properties of suspended sediment, including its P content, and will also influence the potential for implementing effective sediment and diffuse source pollution control strategies. Information on suspended sediment source, defined in terms of both source type and spatial origin, is therefore increasingly needed. Such information is difficult to obtain using traditional monitoring techniques, but source tracing or fingerprinting techniques afford a valuable and effective alternative approach to establish the relative importance of potential sediment sources. This contribution reviews the development of source fingerprinting techniques, presents several examples of their application in UK catchments and discusses the need for future development of the approach and the potential for extending its application.

  2. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project. Pennsylvania Hydroelectric Development Corporation Flat Rock Dam: Project summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  3. Benefits of fish passage and protection measures at hydroelectric projects

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.; Jones, D.W.

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hydropower Program is engaged in a multi-year study of the costs and benefits of environmental mitigation measures at nonfederal hydroelectric power plants. An initial report (Volume 1) reviewed and surveyed the status of mitigation methods for fish passage, instream flows, and water quality; this paper focuses on the fish passage/protection aspects of the study. Fish ladders were found to be the most common means of passing fish upstream; elevators/lifts were less common, but their use appears to be increasing. A variety of mitigative measures is employed to prevent fish from being drawn into turbine intakes, including spill flows, narrow-mesh intake screens, angled bar racks, and lightor sound-based guidance measures. Performance monitoring and detailed, quantifiable performance criteria were frequently lacking at non-federal hydroelectric projects. Volume 2 considers the benefits and costs of fish passage and protection measures, as illustrated by case studies for which performance monitoring has been conducted. The report estimates the effectiveness of particular measures, the consequent impacts on the fish populations that are being maintained or restored, and the resulting use and non-use values of the maintained or restored fish populations.

  4. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation Plan for the Noxon Rapids and Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Projects, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Gael

    1985-04-01

    Mitigation projects for wildlife species impacted by the Noxon Rapids and Cabinet Gorge hydroelectric projects are recommended. First priority projects encompass the development of long-term wildlife management plans for WWP lands adjacent to the two reservoirs. General objectives for all WWP lands include alternatives designed to protect or enhance existing wildlife habitat. It is also suggested that WWP evaluate the current status of beaver and river otter populations occupying the reservoirs and implement indicated management. Second priority projects include the protection/enhancement of wildlife habitat on state owned or privately owned lands. Long-term wildlife management agreements would be developed with Montana School Trust lands and may involve reimbursement of revenues lost to the state. Third priority projects include the enhancement of big game winter ranges located on Kootenai National Forest lands. 1 ref., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  5. Behavior and passage of silver-phase American eels, Anguilla rostrata (LeSueur), at a small hydroelectric facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Ted; Boubée, Jacques

    2000-01-01

    Downstream migrant eels were monitored near a small (51 MW) hydroelectric facility on the Connecticut River (Massachusetts, USA) for two seasons using acoustic and radio telemetry. Eels frequently made several attempts over periods of one to several days to pass the station. Did activity of eels was variable, although most movements occurred at night. Eels occupied a variety of depths in the forebay area, but spent the greater proportion of time at or near the bottom (10 m), occasionally venturing to the surface. Horizontal movements usually spanned across the entire width of the forebay. There was no significant relationship between duration of forebay presence and either flow or light intensity. Although all telemetered eels passed via the turbines, some migrant eels did use a surface bypass.

  6. Distribution of Major and Trace Elements in a Tropical Hydroelectric Reservoir in Sarawak, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Nyanti, Lee; Ean Lee, Terri Zhuan; Mohd Irwan Lu, Nurul Aida Lu

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the metals content in water, sediment, macroalgae, aquatic plant, and fish of Batang Ai Hydroelectric Reservoir in Sarawak, Malaysia. The samples were acid digested and subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry analysis for Na, K, Mn, Cr, Ni, Zn, Mg, Fe, Sn, Al, Ca, As, Se, and Hg. The total Hg content was analysed on the mercury analyser. Results showed that metals in water, sediment, macroalgae, aquatic plant, and fish are distinguishable, with sediment and biota samples more susceptible to metal accumulation. The distributions of heavy metals in water specifically Se, Sn, and As could have associated with the input of fish feed, boating, and construction activities. The accumulation of heavy metals in sediment, macroalgae, and aquatic plant on the other hand might be largely influenced by the redox conditions in the aquatic environment. According to the contamination factor and the geoaccumulation index, sediment in Batang Ai Reservoir possesses low risk of contamination. The average metal contents in sediment and river water are consistently lower than the literature values reported and well below the limit of various guidelines. For fishes, trace element Hg was detected; however, the concentration was below the permissible level suggested by the Food and Agriculture Organization. PMID:27437493

  7. The development of airborne video system for monitoring of river environments

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Shigeya; Mizutani, Nobuyuki; Mizukami, Masumi; Koyano, Toshirou

    1996-11-01

    Recently, airborne videography is widely used by many monitoring for environmental resources, such as rivers, forests, ocean, and so on. Although airborne videography has a low resolution than aerial photographs, it can effectively reduce the cost of continuous monitoring of wide area. Furthermore video images can easily be processed with personal computer. This paper introduces an airborne video system for monitoring of Class A river environment. This system consists of two sub-systems. One is the data collection system that is composed of a video camera, a Global Positioning System(GPS) and a personal computer. This sub-system records information of rivers by video images and their corresponding location data. A GPS system is used for calculating location data and navigating the airplane to the destination of monitoring site. Other is a simplified digital video editing system. This system runs on a personal computer with Microsoft Windows 3.1. This system can also be used for management and planning of road environment, marine resources, forest resources and for prevention of disasters. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Hydrogeology, groundwater levels, and generalized potentiometric-surface map of the Green River Basin lower Tertiary aquifer system, 2010–14, in the northern Green River structural basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Hallberg, Laura L.; Miller, Cheryl E.

    2015-07-14

    The groundwater-level measurements were used to construct a generalized potentiometric-surface map of the Green River Basin lower Tertiary aquifer system. Groundwater-level altitudes measured in nonflowing and flowing wells used to construct the potentiometric-surface map ranged from 6,451 to 7,307 feet (excluding four unmeasured flowing wells used for contour construction purposes). The potentiometric-surface map indicates that groundwater in the study area generally moves from north to south, but this pattern of flow is altered locally by groundwater divides, groundwater discharge to the Green River, and possibly to a tributary river (Big Sandy River) and two reservoirs (Fontenelle and Big Sandy Reservoirs).

  9. How do long-term development and periodical changes of river-floodplain systems affect the fate of contaminants? Results from European rivers.

    PubMed

    Lair, G J; Zehetner, F; Fiebig, M; Gerzabek, M H; van Gestel, C A M; Hein, T; Hohensinner, S; Hsu, P; Jones, K C; Jordan, G; Koelmans, A A; Poot, A; Slijkerman, D M E; Totsche, K U; Bondar-Kunze, E; Barth, J A C

    2009-12-01

    In many densely populated areas, riverine floodplains have been strongly impacted and degraded by river channelization and flood protection dikes. Floodplains act as buffers for flood water and as filters for nutrients and pollutants carried with river water and sediment from upstream source areas. Based on results of the EU-funded "AquaTerra" project (2004-2009), we analyze changes in the dynamics of European river-floodplain systems over different temporal scales and assess their effects on contaminant behaviour and ecosystem functioning. We find that human-induced changes in the hydrologic regime of rivers have direct and severe consequences on nutrient cycling and contaminant retention in adjacent floodplains. We point out the complex interactions of contaminants with nutrient availability and other physico-chemical characteristics (pH, organic matter) in determining ecotoxicity and habitat quality, and draw conclusions for improved floodplain management.

  10. Navigability Potential of Washington Rivers and Streams Determined with Hydraulic Geometry and a Geographic Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2009-01-01

    Using discharge and channel geometry measurements from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations and data from a geographic information system, regression relations were derived to predict river depth, top width, and bottom width as a function of mean annual discharge for rivers in the State of Washington. A new technique also was proposed to determine bottom width in channels, a parameter that has received relatively little attention in the geomorphology literature. These regression equations, when combined with estimates of mean annual discharge available in the National Hydrography Dataset, enabled the prediction of hydraulic geometry for any stream or river in the State of Washington. Predictions of hydraulic geometry can then be compared to thresholds established by the Washington State Department of Natural Resources to determine navigability potential of rivers. Rivers with a mean annual discharge of 1,660 cubic feet per second or greater are 'probably navigable' and rivers with a mean annual discharge of 360 cubic feet per second or less are 'probably not navigable'. Variance in the dataset, however, leads to a relatively wide range of prediction intervals. For example, although the predicted hydraulic depth at a mean annual discharge of 1,660 cubic feet per second is 3.5 feet, 90-percent prediction intervals indicate that the actual hydraulic depth may range from 1.8 to 7.0 feet. This methodology does not determine navigability - a legal concept determined by federal common law - instead, this methodology is a tool for predicting channel depth, top width, and bottom width for rivers and streams in Washington.

  11. Tectonic and climatic forcing on the Panj river system during the Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Margret C.; Gloaguen, Richard; Pohl, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Surface processes involve complex feedback effects between tectonic and climatic influences in the high mountains of Pamir. The ongoing India-Asia collision provokes the development of east-west-trending mountain ranges that impose structural control on flow directions of the Pamir rivers. The evolving relief is further controlled by strong moisture gradients. The decreasing precipitations from the southern and western margins of the Pamir Plateau to its center, in their turn, control the emplacement of glaciers. Chronologies of glacial records from the Pamir Plateau attest for strong climatic variability during the Quaternary. Corresponding remnants of glacial advances suggest glacial morphodynamic restricted to >4,000 m a.s.l. since marine isotope stage 4. The Panj, the trunk river of Pamir, deflects from the predominant westward drainage, connecting its main tributaries at the western margin of the drainage basin. The geometry of the river network and the pattern of incision characterize the Panj as a composite river. River reaches of indicated low incision coincide with west-trending valleys, parallel to domes and their bounding faults. Valley shape ratios reflect increased incision in north-trending sections, but do not match with changes in the catchment geometry or erodibility of rock types. Modelled riverbed profiles distinguish three Panj reaches. The upstream increase in convexity suggests successive river captures in response to local base-level changes. The northward-deflected river reaches link the local base levels, which coincide with the southern boundaries of the Shakhdara and Yazgulom Dome and Darvaz Range. We argue that tectonics plays a large role controlling the drainage system of the Panj and hence surface processes in the Pamir mountains.

  12. 18 CFR 292.208 - Special requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... attributes which would be adversely affected by hydroelectric development; and (3) The project meets the... hydroelectric development. (d) If the project is located on any segment of a natural watercourse that meets any... for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.208...

  13. 18 CFR 292.208 - Special requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... attributes which would be adversely affected by hydroelectric development; and (3) The project meets the... hydroelectric development. (d) If the project is located on any segment of a natural watercourse that meets any... for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.208...

  14. 18 CFR 292.208 - Special requirements for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... attributes which would be adversely affected by hydroelectric development; and (3) The project meets the... hydroelectric development. (d) If the project is located on any segment of a natural watercourse that meets any... for hydroelectric small power production facilities located at a new dam or diversion. 292.208...

  15. The natural and human structuring of rivers and other geomorphological systems: A tribute to William L. Graf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoads, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    This special issue honors the contributions of William L. Graf to geomorphology and river science. A hallmark of Will's work over the course of his career has been a focus on the natural and human structuring of river systems. More broadly, Will has been an innovator and leader who has shaped the way in which geomorphologists conduct research. Through his work, he has made fundamental contributions to basic fluvial theory, to the understanding of human impacts on river systems, and to policy-relevant science. He has demonstrated by example how to pursue policy-relevant science and to participate in science-based policy formulation. His contributions to river science can be classified into several themes: (1) the hydrology and geomorphology of suburban drainage systems, (2) riparian vegetation and river systems, (3) the spatial structure and dynamics of incised channels, (4) the dynamics of dryland river systems, (5) heavy metals in river systems, (6) dams and dam removal, and (7) water and public policy. The papers in this special issue reflect many aspects of these themes and address topics related to (1) the understanding of rivers and other geomorphic systems in the midst of dynamic physical change, (2) human influences on geomorphic processes, (3) the intersection of geomorphology and public policy, and (4) the fusion of geomorphic analysis and GIScience.

  16. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Vermont

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in Vermont are discussed. The dual regulatory system involving state and Federal governments is discussed followed by discussions on property interests; direct regulation by the Public Service Board; indirect regulation; and financial considerations. An initial step required of any developer is that of real property acquisition. Ordinarily this involves acquiring the stream bed, land along the stream banks, and land needed for the impoundment reservoir. Ownership of land along the stream banks places the developer in the position of a riparian owner. This status is important in that only riparian owners are entitled to a reasonable use of the flowing water. In addition to acquisition by sale, lease, or gift, Vermont law allows certain developers to acquire property via eminent domain. Some general rules which have evolved as riparian law and applied in Vermont are discussed.

  17. Prioritizing removal of dams for passage of diadromous fishes on a major river system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, P.M.; Ross, R.M.; Dropkin, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Native diadromous fishes have been extirpated from much of the Susquehanna River system for nearly a century. Recent restoration efforts have focused on removal of dams, but there are hundreds of dams and presently there is no biologically based system to assist in prioritizing their removal. We present a new method that uses existing habitat suitability index models (HSI) for American shad Alosa sapidissima, alewife A. pseudoharengus, blueback herring A. aestivalis, and American eel Anguilla rostrata to prioritize the removal of non-hydropower dams within the Susquehanna River system. We ranked HSI scores for each of the four species, association between a landscape-scale factor and HSIs, length of river opened by removing a dam, and distance from the mouth at Chesapeake Bay for each dam and then calculated a mean rank prioritization for dam removal by averaging the ranks for the seven criteria. This prioritization method is resistant to outliers, is not strongly affected by somewhat arbitrary decisions on metrics included in the analysis, and provides a biologically based prioritization for dam removal that can be easily amended to include other metrics or adapted to other river systems and that complements other social and economic considerations that must be included in decisions to remove dams.

  18. Evaluation of VICAR software capability for land information support system needs. [Elk River quadrangle, Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, S. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the processing capability of the VICAR software for land information support system needs is presented. The geometric and radiometric properties of four sets of LANDSAT data taken over the Elk River, Idaho quadrangle were compared. Storage of data sets, the means of location, pixel resolution, and radiometric and geometric characteristics are described. Recommended modifications of VICAR programs are presented.

  19. Water Quality Conditions in the Missouri River Mainstem System: 2006 Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    YANKTON 7.3.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION 7.3.1.1 Lake Description Lake Yankton is an “ oxbow ” lake of the Missouri River that straddles the Nebraska...19 3.4 Mainstem System Ancillary Lakes – Lake Yankton, Lake Pocasse, and Lake Audubon ............. 19 4 WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT...95 7 MAINSTEM ANCILLARY LAKES

  20. Water Quality Conditions in the Missouri River Mainstem System 2007 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    103 7.3 LAKE YANKTON 7.3.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION 7.3.1.1 Lake Description Lake Yankton is an “ oxbow ” lake of the Missouri River...3.4 Mainstem System Ancillary Lakes – Lake Yankton, Lake Pocasse, and Lake Audubon ............. 19 4 WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHODS...96 7 MAINSTEM ANCILLARY LAKES

  1. Water Quality Conditions in the Missouri River Mainstem System. 2010 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND INFORMATION 7.3.1.1 Lake Description Lake Yankton is an “ oxbow ” lake of the Missouri River that straddles the Nebraska and South...17 3.4 Mainstem System Ancillary Lakes – Lake Yankton, Lake Pocasse...and Lake Audubon ............................. 17 4 WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHODS

  2. Water Quality Conditions in the Missouri River Mainstem System: 2008 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    7.3.1.1 Lake Description Lake Yankton is an “ oxbow ” lake of the Missouri River that straddles the Nebraska and South Dakota border, just below...18 3.4 Mainstem System Ancillary Lakes – Lake Yankton, Lake Pocasse, and Lake Audubon .............................18 4...115 7 MAINSTEM ANCILLARY LAKES ..........................................................................................................118 7.1 Lake

  3. Water Quality Conditions in the Missouri River Mainstem System. 2009 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Description Lake Yankton is an “ oxbow ” lake of the Missouri River that straddles the Nebraska and South Dakota border, just downstream of Gavins...Fort Randall Dam to Rulo, Ne .................................................................... 17  3.4  Mainstem System Ancillary Lakes – Lake ...Yankton, Lake Pocasse, and Lake Audubon ............. 17  4  WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHODS

  4. Understanding Arctic River Systems: An Effort to Train Undergraduate and Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gens, R.; Toniolo, H.; McCarthy, P.; Prakash, A.

    2004-12-01

    Undergraduate and graduate student training is integral to the research and education efforts at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. A multidisciplinary group of four scientists got together to study the Colville River flowing across the Alaska North Slope. The idea was to understand the river as a system, rather than tackling it from the single perspective of knowing more about sedimentology, geology, geomorphology, hydrology, etc. The importance of using remote sensing data, together with field observations in an integrated Geographic Information System (GIS) environment was realized and taken as the central theme to proceed. In the last two years three undergraduate students have been trained in this multidisciplinary project and one graduate student has recently started her studies. Results from the study have also been incorporated in undergraduate courses in sedimentology and remote sensing, and are being used widely in public relations materials developed by the organization to reach out to a wider audience. From the research perspective, the use of satellite imagery to monitor temporal and spatial evolution in fluvial geomorphologic studies in temperate and tropical streams is well established in the literature. However, little work has been published on river studies conducted in cold settings, where the influences of river ice and permafrost on sediment transport processes are not clearly understood. The Colville River is the largest river draining the Brooks Range in Arctic Alaska. The stream pattern changes from braided to meandering as the river crosses the Arctic coastal plain. The reaches are highly unstable, with lateral changes in the order of a few to tens of meters per year in some river bends. The research was conducted using multisensor remote sensing images. Optical and microwave remote sensing data from 1995 to 2001 were used by students to carry out their projects, and these results are presented here. Future work will include the coupling

  5. Solute geochemistry of the Snake River plain regional aquifer system, Idaho and eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, W.W.; Low, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Three geochemical methods were used to determine chemical reactions that control solute concentrations in the Snake River Plain regional aquifer system: (1) calculation of a regional solute balance within the aquifer and of mineralogy in the aquifer framework to identify solute reactions, (2) comparison of thermodynamic mineral saturation indices with plausible solute reactions, and (3) comparison of stable isotope ratios of the groundwater with those in the aquifer framework. The geothermal groundwater system underlying the main aquifer system was examined by calculating thermodynamic mineral saturation indices, stable isotope ratios of geothermal water, geothermometry, and radiocarbon dating. Water budgets, hydrologic arguments, and isotopic analyses for the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer system demonstrate that most, if not all, water is of local meteoric and not juvenile or formation origin. Solute balance, isotopic, mineralogic, and thermodynamic arguments suggest that about 20% of the solutes are derived from reactions with rocks forming the aquifer framework. Solute reactions indicate that calcite and silica are precipitated in the aquifer. Large amounts of sodium and chloride, relative to their concentration in the igneous rock, are being removed from the aquifer. Release of fluids from inclusions in the igneous rocks, and initial flushing of grain boundaries and pores of detrital marine sediments in interbeds are believed to be the source of the sodium chloride. Identification and quantification of reactions controlling solute concentrations in groundwater in the eastern plain indicate that the aquifer is not a large mixing vessel that simply stores and transmits water and solutes but is undergoing diagenesis and is both a source and sink for solutes. Reactions controlling solutes in the western Snake River basin are believed to be similar to those in the eastern basin but the regional geothermal system that underlies the Snake River Plain contains

  6. The acoustic streamflow-measuring system on the Columbia River at The Dalles, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Winchell; Hubbard, Larry L.; Laenen, Antonius

    1971-01-01

    Installation of this sytem, which is the first application of an AVM (acoustic velocity meter) in a large natural channel, was completed in April 1969. It has been in continuous operation since that date. Performance has been satisfactory, and similar installations at other key points in the Columbia River basin are now under consideration. This paper covers the general theory behind acoustic velocity meters, tracing development from earlier concepts to the present commercially available system. Conclusions are that the AVM can now be considered as an operational instrument which permits accurate gaging of river discharge at many sites where conventional stream-gaging procedures have proved to be unreliable.

  7. Gulf sturgeon spawning migration and habitat in the Choctawhatchee River system, Alabama-Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, D.A.; Hightower, J.E.; Parauka, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Information about spawning migration and spawning habitat is essential to maintain and ultimately restore populations of endangered and threatened species of anadromous fish. We used ultrasonic and radiotelemetry to monitor the movements of 35 adult Gulf sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi (a subspecies of the Atlantic sturgeon A. oxyrinchus) as they moved between Choctawhatchee Bay and the Choctawhatchee River system during the spring of 1996 and 1997. Histological analysis of gonadal biopsies was used to determine the sex and reproductive status of individuals. Telemetry results and egg sampling were used to identify Gulf sturgeon spawning sites and to examine the roles that sex and reproductive status play in migratory behavior. Fertilized Gulf sturgeon eggs were collected in six locations in both the upper Choctawhatchee and Pea rivers. Hard bottom substrate, steep banks, and relatively high flows characterized collection sites. Ripe Gulf sturgeon occupied these spawning areas from late March through early May, which included the interval when Gulf sturgeon eggs were collected. For both sexes, ripe fish entered the Choctawhatchee River significantly earlier and at a lower water temperature and migrated further upstream than did nonripe fish. Males entered the Choctawhatchee River at a lower water temperature than females. Results from histology and telemetry support the hypothesis that male Gulf sturgeon may spawn annually, whereas females require more than 1 year between spawning events. Upper river hard bottom areas appear important for the successful spawning of Gulf sturgeon, and care should be taken to protect against habitat loss or degradation of known spawning habitat.

  8. Complexity of bacterial communities in a river-floodplain system (Danube, Austria).

    PubMed

    Besemer, Katharina; Moeseneder, Markus M; Arrieta, Jesus M; Herndl, Gerhard J; Peduzzi, Peter

    2005-02-01

    Natural floodplains play an essential role in the processing and decomposition of organic matter and in the self-purification ability of rivers, largely due to the activity of bacteria. Knowledge about the composition of bacterial communities and its impact on organic-matter cycling is crucial for the understanding of ecological processes in river-floodplain systems. Particle-associated and free-living bacterial assemblages from the Danube River and various floodplain pools with different hydrological characteristics were investigated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The particle-associated bacterial community exhibited a higher number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and was more heterogeneous in time and space than the free-living community. The temporal dynamics of the community structure were generally higher in isolated floodplain pools. The community structures of the river and the various floodplain pools, as well as those of the particle-associated and free-living bacteria, differed significantly. The compositional dynamics of the planktonic bacterial communities were related to changes in the algal biomass, temperature, and concentrations of organic and inorganic nutrients. The OTU richness of the free-living community was correlated with the concentration and origin of organic matter and the concentration of inorganic nutrients, while no correlation with the OTU richness of the particle-associated assemblage was found. Our results demonstrate the importance of the river-floodplain interactions and the influence of damming and regulation on the bacterial-community composition.

  9. Investigating the Performance of One- and Two-dimensional Flood Models in a Channelized River Network: A Case Study of the Obion River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyanapu, A. J.; Dullo, T. T.; Thornton, J. C.; Auld, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Obion River, is located in the northwestern Tennessee region, and discharges into the Mississippi River. In the past, the river system was largely channelized for agricultural purposes that resulted in increased erosion, loss of wildlife habitat and downstream flood risks. These impacts are now being slowly reversed mainly due to wetland restoration. The river system is characterized by a large network of "loops" around the main channels that hold water either from excess flows or due to flow diversions. Without data on each individual channel, levee, canal, or pond it is not known where the water flows from or to. In some segments along the river, the natural channel has been altered and rerouted by the farmers for their irrigation purposes. Satellite imagery can aid in identifying these features, but its spatial coverage is temporally sparse. All the alterations that have been done to the watershed make it difficult to develop hydraulic models, which could predict flooding and droughts. This is especially true when building one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic models compared to two-dimensional (2D) models, as the former cannot adequately simulate lateral flows in the floodplain and in complex terrains. The objective of this study therefore is to study the performance of 1D and 2D flood models in this complex river system, evaluate the limitations of 1D models and highlight the advantages of 2D models. The study presents the application of HEC-RAS and HEC-2D models developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC), a division of the US Army Corps of Engineers. The broader impacts of this study is the development of best practices for developing flood models in channelized river systems and in agricultural watersheds.

  10. A Systems Approach to Water Resource Allocation in International River Basin Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Paula J.

    1980-02-01

    A methodology is presented to assist the water resource systems analyst in providing and interpreting technical information to promote coordinated water resource use in international river basin development. The international river basin planning environment is examined to identify the analytical information which can address and satisfy comprehensive decision-making requirements. This information is organized within a multilevel decomposition framework that permits an analysis of the implications of alternative resource development patterns in terms of nations both achieving their objectives and pursuing development strategies that will lead to feasible basin-wide resource use. The proposed methodology is applied to an example of international river basin planning with the generation of resource transformation curves, and results are examined for their appropriateness as bases for coordinated development.

  11. Salinized rivers: degraded systems or new habitats for salt-tolerant faunas?

    PubMed Central

    Buchwalter, David; Davis, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic salinization of rivers is an emerging issue of global concern, with significant adverse effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Impacts of freshwater salinization on biota are strongly mediated by evolutionary history, as this is a major factor determining species physiological salinity tolerance. Freshwater insects dominate most flowing waters, and the common lotic insect orders Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies) and Trichoptera (caddisflies) are particularly salt-sensitive. Tolerances of existing taxa, rapid adaption, colonization by novel taxa (from naturally saline environments) and interactions between species will be key drivers of assemblages in saline lotic systems. Here we outline a conceptual framework predicting how communities may change in salinizing rivers. We envision that a relatively small number of taxa will be saline-tolerant and able to colonize salinized rivers (e.g. most naturally saline habitats are lentic; thus potential colonizers would need to adapt to lotic environments), leading to depauperate communities in these environments. PMID:26932680

  12. Salinized rivers: degraded systems or new habitats for salt-tolerant faunas?

    PubMed

    Kefford, Ben J; Buchwalter, David; Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Davis, Jenny; Duncan, Richard P; Hoffmann, Ary; Thompson, Ross

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic salinization of rivers is an emerging issue of global concern, with significant adverse effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Impacts of freshwater salinization on biota are strongly mediated by evolutionary history, as this is a major factor determining species physiological salinity tolerance. Freshwater insects dominate most flowing waters, and the common lotic insect orders Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies) and Trichoptera (caddisflies) are particularly salt-sensitive. Tolerances of existing taxa, rapid adaption, colonization by novel taxa (from naturally saline environments) and interactions between species will be key drivers of assemblages in saline lotic systems. Here we outline a conceptual framework predicting how communities may change in salinizing rivers. We envision that a relatively small number of taxa will be saline-tolerant and able to colonize salinized rivers (e.g. most naturally saline habitats are lentic; thus potential colonizers would need to adapt to lotic environments), leading to depauperate communities in these environments.

  13. The Platte River Hydrologic Observatory (PRIVHO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, F.; Ramirez, J. A.; Thurow, T. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Platte River Hydrologic Observatory (PRIVHO), located within the Platte River Basin, of the U.S. central Great Plains, affords excellent interdisciplinary and multi-disciplinary research opportunities for scientists to examine the impacts of scaling, to investigate forcing feedbacks and coupling of various interconnected hydrological, geological, climatological and biological systems, and to test the applicability and limits of prediction in keeping with all five of CUAHSI's priority science criteria; linking hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, sustainability of water resources, hydrologic and ecosystem interactions, hydrologic extremes, and fate and transport of contaminants. In addition, PRIVHO is uniquely positioned to investigate many human dimension questions such as those related to interstate and intrastate conflicts over water use, evolution of water policy and law in the wake of advancing science, societal and economic changes that are driven by water use, availability and management, and human impacts on climate and land use changes. The Platte River traverses several important environmental gradients, including temperature and precipitation-to-evaporation ratio, is underlain by the High Plains Aquifer under much of its reach, crosses a number of terrestrial ecoregions, and in central Nebraska, serves as a vital link in the Central Flyway, providing habitat for 300 species of migratory birds and many threatened or endangered species. The Platte River flows through metropolitan, urban and agricultural settings and is impacted by both point and non-point pollution. The Platte River is one of the most over-appropriated rivers in the country with 15 major dams, hundreds of small reservoirs, and thousands of irrigation wells. The river provides municipal and industrial water supplies for about 3.5 million people, irrigation water for millions of acres of farmland, and generates millions of dollars of hydroelectric power. PRIVHO will allow researchers to

  14. Daily/Hourly Hydrosystem Operation : How the Columbia River System Responds to Short-Term Needs.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1994-02-01

    The System Operation Review, being conducted by the Bonneville Power Administration, the US Army Corps of Engineers, and the US Bureau of Reclamation, is analyzing current and potential future operations of the Columbia River System. One goal of the System Operations Review is to develop a new System Operation Strategy. The strategy will be designed to balance the many regionally and nationally important uses of the Columbia River system. Short-term operations address the dynamics that affect the Northwest hydro system and its multiple uses. Demands for electrical power and natural streamflows change constantly and thus are not precisely predictable. Other uses of the hydro system have constantly changing needs, too, many of which can interfere with other uses. Project operators must address various river needs, physical limitations, weather, and streamflow conditions while maintaining the stability of the electric system and keeping your lights on. It takes staffing around the clock to manage the hour-to-hour changes that occur and the challenges that face project operators all the time.

  15. Salt fluxes in a complex river mouth system of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Nuno; Lencart E Silva, João D; Dias, João Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of velocity and salinity near the mouth and head of the Espinheiro channel (Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal) are used to study the local variation of physical water properties and to assess the balance, under steady conditions, between the seaward salt transport induced by river discharge and the landward dispersion induced by various mixing mechanisms. This assessment is made using data sampled during complete tidal cycles. Under the assumption that the estuarine tidal channel is laterally homogeneous and during moderate tidal periods (except for one survey), currents and salinity data were decomposed into various spatial and temporal means and their deviations. Near the channel's mouth, the main contributions to the salt transport are the terms due to freshwater discharge and the tidal correlation. Near the channel's head, this last term is less important than the density driven circulation, which is enhanced by the increase in freshwater discharge. The remaining terms, which are dependent on the deviations from the mean depth have a smaller role in the results of salt transport. The computed salt transport per unit width of a section perpendicular to the mean flow is in close agreement to the sum of the advective and dispersive terms (within or very close to 12%). An imbalance of the salt budget across the sections is observed for all the surveys. Considerations are made on how this approach can inform the management of hazardous contamination and how to use these results to best time the release of environmental flows during dry months.

  16. Public health systems analysis - where the River Kabul meets the River Indus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we review two recent paradigmatic shifts and consider how a two-way flow in innovation has been critical to the emergence of new thinking and new practices. The first area relates to our understanding of the nature of public health systems and the shift from a medical paradigm to a more holistic paradigm which emphasises the social, economic and environmental origins of ill-health and looks to these as key arenas in which to tackle persistent inequalities in populations’ health experiences. In respect of this paradigmatic shift, it is argued, developing countries were in advance of their more developed counterparts. Specifically, the Alma Ata Declaration and the Primary Health Care Approach which was central to its implementation pre-figured elements of what was to be called in developed countries The New Public Health such as the need for greater community involvement and recognition of the importance of other sectors in determining health outcomes. But this paradigmatic shift added a new complexity to our understanding which made the identification of appropriate policy responses increasingly difficult. However, a parallel shift was taking place in the cognate field of operational research/systems analysis (OR/SA) which was adding greatly to our ability to analyse and to identify key points of intervention in complex systems. This led to the emergence of new techniques for problem structuring which overcame many of the limitations of formal mathematical models which characterised the old paradigm. In this paradigmatic shift developed countries have led the way, specifically in the new fields of Community Operational Research and Operational Research for Development, but only by drawing strongly on the experience and philosophies to be found in developing countries. PMID:24119439

  17. Public health systems analysis--where the River Kabul meets the River Indus.

    PubMed

    Thunhurst, Colin P

    2013-08-30

    In this paper we review two recent paradigmatic shifts and consider how a two-way flow in innovation has been critical to the emergence of new thinking and new practices. The first area relates to our understanding of the nature of public health systems and the shift from a medical paradigm to a more holistic paradigm which emphasises the social, economic and environmental origins of ill-health and looks to these as key arenas in which to tackle persistent inequalities in populations' health experiences. In respect of this paradigmatic shift, it is argued, developing countries were in advance of their more developed counterparts. Specifically, the Alma Ata Declaration and the Primary Health Care Approach which was central to its implementation pre-figured elements of what was to be called in developed countries The New Public Health such as the need for greater community involvement and recognition of the importance of other sectors in determining health outcomes. But this paradigmatic shift added a new complexity to our understanding which made the identification of appropriate policy responses increasingly difficult. However, a parallel shift was taking place in the cognate field of operational research/systems analysis (OR/SA) which was adding greatly to our ability to analyse and to identify key points of intervention in complex systems. This led to the emergence of new techniques for problem structuring which overcame many of the limitations of formal mathematical models which characterised the old paradigm. In this paradigmatic shift developed countries have led the way, specifically in the new fields of Community Operational Research and Operational Research for Development, but only by drawing strongly on the experience and philosophies to be found in developing countries.

  18. Connectivity of the Tisza River System: trace element and isotopic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, W.; Forray, F. L.; Lefticariu, L.

    2013-12-01

    At the watershed scale, a number of complex biogeochemical processes govern riverine geochemistry, and the use of multiple isotopic and trace element analyses has the potential to elucidate these dynamic processes. Such a study was undertaken within the Tisza River Basin (TRB) which is the largest river basin within the Carpathian Basin of Central Europe. The TRB stretches 157,186 km2 and encompasses Romania, Hungary, Serbia, Slovakia, and Ukraine. Geologically, the TRB covers the Pannonian Basin, the Eastern, Western and Southern Carpathians and the Apuseni Mountains. These units have a very complex geology and lithology. The formations range from igneous and metamorphic rocks to sediments, covering a time span from Paleozoic to Quaternary. Our study aimed to determine the influence of various bedrock lithologies on the water chemistry of tributaries and the impact of the biogeochemical and anthropogenic factors on the downstream chemical evolution of the rivers. Twenty-three sampling locations were chosen within the TRB based on the dominant bedrock lithology of the drainage area. In June of 2013, water and rock samples were collected from the Apuseni Mountains and the Southern Carpathians, sampling two main tributary systems - the Cris (Körös) and Mure (Maros) Rivers - and the Lower Tisa (Tisza) River. At each sampling location, field parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductivity) were measured and water samples were retrieved. Water samples were analyzed for alkalinity, major and minor cations (Fe, Al, Si, Mn, Cu, Sr, Cd, Ni, Zn, Ca, Mg, Na, Se, Pb, As, K) and anions (SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, F-, PO43-), as well as 87Sr/86Sr ratios, and δ2D and δ18O values. Tributaries drained primarily by carbonates tended to exhibit more of an effect on the downstream water chemistry compared to areas drained by silicate rocks, which had little effect on mainstem rivers. Additionally, δ2D and δ18O values (ranging from -80.53 to -41.97‰ for δ2D and

  19. Mapping of a major paleodrainage system in eastern Libya using orbital imaging radar: The Kufrah River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillou, Philippe; Schuster, Mathieu; Tooth, Stephen; Farr, Tom; Rosenqvist, Ake; Lopez, Sylvia; Malezieux, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Over the last few decades, remote sensing has revealed buried river channels in a number of regions worldwide, in many cases providing evidence of dramatic paleoenvironmental changes over Cenozoic time scales. Using orbital radar satellite imagery, we mapped a major paleodrainage system in eastern Libya, that could have linked the Kufrah Basin to the Mediterranean coast through the Sirt Basin, possibly as far back as the middle Miocene. Synthetic Aperture Radar images from the PALSAR sensor clearly reveal a 900 km-long river system, which starts with three main tributaries (north-eastern Tibesti, northern Uweinat and western Gilf Kebir/Abu Ras) that connect in the Kufrah oasis region. The river system then flows north through the Jebel Dalmah, and forms a large alluvial fan in the Sarir Dalmah. The sand dunes of the Calanscio Sand Sea prevent deep orbital radar penetration and preclude detailed reconstruction of any possible connection to the Mediterranean Sea, but a 300 km-long link to the Gulf of Sirt through the Wadi Sahabi paleochannel is likely. If this connection is confirmed, and its Miocene antiquity is established, then the Kufrah River, comparable in length to the Egyptian Nile, will have important implications for the understanding of the past environments and climates of northern Africa from the middle Miocene to the Holocene.

  20. Arsenic and fluoride in the upper madison river system: Firehole and gibbon rivers and their tributaries, yellowstone national park, wyoming, and southeast montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical analyses of 21 water samples from the Firehole and Gibbon Rivers, which combine to form the Madison River, gave arsenic and fluoride values above the Environmental Protection Agency Interim Primary Drinking Water maximum contaminant levels (0.05 mg/l arsenic and 2.0 mg/l fluoride). On 18 October, 1975, during a period of moderate flow (16,600 l/s), the Madison River at West Yellowstone contained 0.23 mg/l arsenic and 6.2 mg/l fluoride. Below Hebgen Lake the Madison River during periods of high flow (56,000 liter/s at West Yellowstone and 708,000 liter/s below Hebgen Lake) would contain 0.05 mg/l arsenic at both stations and 1.5 and 4.0 mg/l fluoride at West Yellowstone and below Hebgen Lake, respectively. The strong correlations of arsenic and fluoride with other chemical constituents of the river water at the sampling sites demonstrate the conservative nature of each element after it reaches the Madison River system. Calculations indicate that water from three sampling sites is above saturation with respect to fluorite. ?? 1979 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.