Science.gov

Sample records for river tributaries 2001-2005

  1. Fecal-Indicator Bacteria in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers and Selected Tributaries, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckwalter, Theodore F.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Fulton, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were determined in 1,027 water-quality samples collected from July 2001 through August 2005 during dry- (72-hour dry antecedent period) and wet-weather (48-hour dry antecedent period and at least 0.3 inch of rain in a 24-hour period) conditions in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers (locally referred to as the Three Rivers) and selected tributaries in Allegheny County. Samples were collected at five sampling sites on the Three Rivers and at eight sites on four tributaries to the Three Rivers having combined sewer overflows. Water samples were analyzed for three fecal-indicator organisms fecal coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci bacteria. Left-bank and right-bank surface-water samples were collected in addition to a cross-section composite sample at each site. Concentrations of fecal coliform, E. coli, and enterococci were detected in 98.6, 98.5, and 87.7 percent of all samples, respectively. The maximum fecal-indicator bacteria concentrations were collected from Sawmill Run, a tributary to the Ohio River; Sawmill Run at Duquesne Heights had concentrations of fecal coliform, E. coli, and enterococci of 410,000, 510,000, and 180,000 col/100 mL, respectively, following a large storm. The samples collected in the Three Rivers and selected tributaries frequently exceeded established recreational standards and criteria for bacteria. Concentrations of fecal coliform exceeded the Pennsylvania water-quality standard (200 col/100 mL) in approximately 63 percent of the samples. Sample concentrations of E. coli and enterococci exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) water-quality criteria (235 and 61 col/100 mL, respectively) in about 53 and 47 percent, respectively, of the samples. Fecal-indicator bacteria were most strongly correlated with streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity. These correlations most frequently were observed in samples collected from tributary sites. Fecal

  2. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Klickitat River Tributaries, 2001-2005 Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zendt, Joe; Sharp, Bill

    2006-09-01

    This report describes the work completed by the Yakama Nation Fisheries Program (YNFP) in the Klickitat subbasin in south-central Washington under BPA innovative project No.200105500--Influences of stocking salmon carcass analogs on salmonids in Columbia River Tributaries. Salmon carcasses historically provided a significant source of marine-derived nutrients to many stream systems in the Columbia basin, and decreased run sizes have led to a loss of this nutrient source in many streams. Partners in this project developed a pathogen-free carcass analog and stocked the analogs in streams with the following objectives: restoring food availability to streams with reduced anadromous salmon returns; mimicking the natural pathways and timing of food acquisition by salmonids; minimizing unintended negative ecological effects; and increasing the growth and survival of salmonids. In the Klickitat subbasin, carcass analogs were stocked in two streams in 2002 and 2003; a third stream was used as a control. Salmonid fish abundance, growth, and stomach contents were monitored in all three streams before and after carcass analog placement. Fish, invertebrate, and periphyton samples were also collected for stable isotope analysis (to determine if nutrients from carcass analogs were incorporated into the stream food web). Water quality samples were also collected to determine if nutrient overloading occurred in streams. Significant differences in growth were found between fish in treated and untreated stream reaches. Fish in treatment reaches exhibited higher instantaneous growth rates approximately one month after the first carcass analog stocking. Stomach contents sampling indicated that salmonid fish routinely consumed the carcass analog material directly, and that stomach fullness of fish in treatment reaches was higher than in untreated reaches in the first few weeks following carcass analog stockings. No significant differences were detected in fish abundance between

  3. Carbon export and cycling by the Yukon, Tanana, and Porcupine rivers, Alaska, 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striegl, R.G.; Dornblaser, M.M.; Aiken, G.R.; Wickland, K.P.; Raymond, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Loads and yields of dissolved and particulate organic and inorganic carbon (DOC, POC, DIC, PIC) were measured and modeled at three locations on the Yukon River (YR) and on the Tanana and Porcupine rivers (TR, PR) in Alaska during 2001-2005. Total YR carbon export averaged 7.8 Tg C yr-1, 30% as OC and 70% as IC. Total C yields (0.39-1.03 mol C m-2 yr-1) were proportional to water yields (139-356 mm yr-1; r2 = 0.84) at all locations. Summer DOC had an aged component (fraction modern (FM) = 0.94-0.97), except in the permafrost wetland-dominated PR, where DOC was modern. POC had FM = 0.63-0.70. DOC had high concentration, high aromaticity, and high hydrophobic content in spring and low concentration, low aromaticity, and high hydrophilic content in winter. About half of annual DOC export occurred during spring. DIC concentration and isotopic composition were strongly affected by dissolution of suspended carbonates in glacial meltwater during summer.

  4. 33 CFR 117.591 - Charles River and its tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Charles River and its tributaries... BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.591 Charles River and its tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across the Charles River and...

  5. 33 CFR 117.591 - Charles River and its tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Charles River and its tributaries. 117.591 Section 117.591 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... its tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across the Charles River and...

  6. Pollution of the River Niger and its main tributaries

    SciTech Connect

    Nwokedi, G.I.C.; Obodo, G.A. )

    1993-08-01

    The River Niger system, with a length of about 4200 kilometers, and a discharge volume of 190 cubic kilometers, per year is the third largest river in Africa, and the largest in West Africa. It serves as an important waterway for the transportation of goods and provides rich agricultural flood basins for the cultivation of food and vegetables. Also it is a major source of animal proteins in form of fishes, snails and other aquatics. Above all the River and its tributaries represent the main source of domestic water supply for the rural communities, and water for irrigation. Therefore there is a need to establish the nature and present levels of pollutants in the river, and the contribution made by the tributaries to the gross pollution level. A number of studies have been reported. Martins reported on the geochemistry of the River Niger while Nriagu; Livingstone; and Imevbore provided some chemical data on the upper reaches around and above its confluence with River Benue at Lokoja. Ajayi and Osibanjo reported on the chemical properties of some tributaries above the confluence of the Niger and the Benue. So far no work has been reported on the lower reaches of the Niger where contributions of the Benue and other major tributaries are significant, and where there are large settlements on its banks and the banks of the tributaries. This work aims at establishing base-line levels of the various pollutants and their sources. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. 33 CFR 117.591 - Charles River and its tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vessels. (c) The draw of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA/Amtrak Bridge, mile 0.8, at... BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.591 Charles River and its tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across the Charles River and...

  8. Chemical analyses of surface water in Illinois, 1975-77, Volume 3, Ohio River tributaries and Mississippi River tributaries south of Illinois River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grason, David; Healy, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Samples of surface water were collected and analyzed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. The results from water years 1975 to 1977 are presented in three volumes. The history of sampling and analytical methods used during that period are summarized. Stream discharge data from records of the U.S. Geological Survey are included for all sites where samples were collected at gaging stations or near enough that reliable discharge estimates could be made. Volume III includes Ohio River tributaries and Mississippi River tributaries south of Illinois River basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Assessment of environmental variables in Cauvery River and its tributaries.

    PubMed

    Mahadev, J; Srikantswamy, S; Gholami, Siamak; Ahmed, Syed Akheel

    2010-10-01

    This research paper pertains to the variation in water quality with special reference to physicochemical and biological parameters in Cauvery River and its tributaries in India over a period of 1 year. The quality of water in four streams of Cauvery River in Mysore, Mandya and Chamaraja Nagar districts, where many small scale sugar, paper industries and agricultural lands are located were analyzed. Sampling was carried out from Cauvery and its tributaries which were designated as stations 1, 2, 3 & 4 (all towards down streams of Cauvery River). The river water composition is increasingly dominated by PO4, NO3 Cl at stations 3 & 4 compared to stations 1 & 2. Significant spatial variations were observed in water level, transparency, turbidity, colour, DO, BOD, NO3, NO2 and total hardness among the physico-chemical parameters at the study locations. The DO level at stations 3 & 4 was lower than 5.0 mg/L, which is the recommended minimum allowable limit for aquatic life. 30 species of phytoplanktons were identified under five classes: viz, Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Desmidaceae. About 20 algal species were recorded at station 1, 16 at station 2,13 species at station 3 and 14 species at station 4. The overall diversity and density of algae at four stations was significantly different. A posterior comparison revealed that stations 3 and 4 are the cause of significant difference. The chlorophyceae members, which dominated the algal community, were found to tolerate the effluent effect at stations land 2. Low algal diversity and negative impact on the biotic and abiotic environment were experienced at stations 3 and 4 throughout the duration of sampling, because of man made activities. PMID:22312799

  10. Tributaries as richness source for Oligochaeta assemblage (Annelida) of Neotropical dammed river.

    PubMed

    Ragonha, F H; Petsch, D K; Alves, G H Z; Santana, H S; Michelan, T S; Takeda, A M

    2014-11-01

    Tributaries may serve as richness source for the river main channel and the zoobenthos community is a good tool to verify this kind of pattern. In this study, we aimed to characterize the benthic invertebrate assemblage in three tributaries associated to the Paraná River main channel, focusing in Oligochaeta community. We hypothesized that (i) in tributaries, Oligochaeta are richer than the main river (Paraná River) and (ii) dammed tributary (Paranapanema River) is poorly diverse than the others. Samples were conducted in Paranapanema, Baía and Ivinhema tributaries using a modified Petersen grab along three transects (samples conducted inside the tributary, in the mouth of each tributary and inside Paraná River). To analyze (i) the difference between the richness and density among the tributaries and the Paraná River and (ii) effect of each tributary transect on the Oligochaeta richness we used a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Changes in environmental variables and in richness and composition of Oligochaeta were summarized by Canonic Correspondence Analysis. It was registered 21 different benthic invertebrates taxa, being Oligochaeta assemblage with the highest density. Within Oligochaeta, Narapa bonettoi was the most abundant species, followed by Haplotaxis aedochaeta and Paranadrilus descolei. In our results we refused both hypotheses, because we did not found significant differences for richness and density between the tributaries and the main river, and also no difference between the three transects of each tributary were found. However, the tributaries less influenced by damming, especially the Baía recorded high richness. This corroborates their importance to diversity in the floodplain and the species of Oligochaeta reflect the peculiar characteristics of habitats within each tributaries.

  11. Seasonal variations in methane emission from Amazon River and tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawakuchi, H. O.; Krusche, A. V.; Ballester, M. V.; Sawakuchi, A. O.; Richey, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Inland waters are known as important sources of methane to atmosphere. Methane is produced in anaerobic environments usually found in lake and floodplain bottom sediments, which is the main reason why most of the information regarding methane fluxes come from this environments. However, while floodplains dry during low water season, reducing methanogenesis, rivers keep the capacity to emit methane throughout the year. Here we present results of CH4 flux measurements from 4 large tropical rivers within the Amazon basin obtained with floating chambers in 10 sampling sites during low water (between September and November of 2011) and high water seasons (May, 2012). Sampling sites were located in three main tributaries of Amazon Rivers, Madeira, Xingu and Tapajós, and in the Amazon River mainstem. In the Madeira River high water fluxes ranged from 2.85 to 30.99 mmol m-2 yr-1 while during low water from 77.47 to 183.31 mmol m-2 yr-1. Fluxes for the Amazon and Tapajós were, respectively, 110.99 and 80.01 mmol m-2 yr-1 for the high water season and 169.71 and 193.18 mmol m-2 yr-1 for low water. In the Xingu River two sites had higher fluxes during low water, 314.90 and 571.49 mmol m-2 yr-1 (91.93 and 51.11 mmol m-2 yr-1 in the high water respectively). The two other sites had an opposite pattern with 296.56 and 60.80 mmol m-2 yr-1 in the low water and 846.95 and 360.93 mmol m-2 yr-1 during high water; one site showed equal fluxes for both seasons. Most of the fluxes were higher during low water, with the exception of the three sites at the Xingu River, where fluxes during high water were higher or equal than in low water. These results show a different pattern than described before for these riverine systems, in which higher methane fluxes during high water were expected due to inputs from surrounding anoxic floodplain environments. Instead, our data shows that methane in rivers can be produced within river channels. Lower fluxes during high water could be related to

  12. Geochemistry of yukon and copper river tributaries, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carney, M.; Ellis, A.; Bullen, T.; Langman, J.

    2009-01-01

    Alaska is already beginning to be affected by changes in global climate which make it a good location to study the feedback effects between climate, the water cycle and the carbon cycle. Using river dissolved elements and Sr isotopes we examine changes and/or differences in chemical weathering between watersheds in predominantly permafrost areas and glacial watersheds. Tributaries of the Tanana, Yukon, Nenana and Copper rivers were sampled during the early snow melt in late May and the late permafrost/glacial melt period in September of 2007. Waters are predominantly CaHCO3-/SO4 which is typical of glaciated terrains. 87Sr/86Sr isotopes indicate three potential end-members, young basalts, radiogenic silicates and marine carbonates. The results are consistent with weathering observed in glaciated regions with trace calcites and salts dominating the dissolved load; however we have evidence for silicate weathering. Results also indicate that permafrost watersheds experience more progressive silicate weathering than glacial watersheds. ??2009 ASCE.

  13. Contrasting biogeochemical characteristics of the Oubangui River and tributaries (Congo River basin)

    PubMed Central

    Bouillon, Steven; Yambélé, Athanase; Gillikin, David P.; Teodoru, Cristian; Darchambeau, François; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

    2014-01-01

    The Oubangui is a major tributary of the Congo River. We describe the biogeochemistry of contrasting tributaries within its central catchment, with watershed vegetation ranging from wooded savannahs to humid rainforest. Compared to a 2-year monitoring record on the mainstem Oubangui, these tributaries show a wide range of biogeochemical signatures, from highly diluted blackwaters (low turbidity, pH, conductivity, and total alkalinity) in rainforests to those more typical for savannah systems. Spectral analyses of chromophoric dissolved organic matter showed wide temporal variations in the Oubangui compared to spatio-temporal variations in the tributaries, and confirm that different pools of dissolved organic carbon are mobilized during different hydrological stages. δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon ranged between −28.1‰ and −5.8‰, and was strongly correlated to both partial pressure of CO2 and to the estimated contribution of carbonate weathering to total alkalinity, suggesting an important control of the weathering regime on CO2 fluxes. All tributaries were oversaturated in dissolved greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O, CO2), with highest levels in rivers draining rainforest. The high diversity observed underscores the importance of sampling that covers the variability in subcatchment characteristics, to improve our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in the Congo Basin. PMID:24954525

  14. Contrasting biogeochemical characteristics of the Oubangui River and tributaries (Congo River basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillon, Steven; Yambélé, Athanase; Gillikin, David P.; Teodoru, Cristian; Darchambeau, François; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

    2014-06-01

    The Oubangui is a major tributary of the Congo River. We describe the biogeochemistry of contrasting tributaries within its central catchment, with watershed vegetation ranging from wooded savannahs to humid rainforest. Compared to a 2-year monitoring record on the mainstem Oubangui, these tributaries show a wide range of biogeochemical signatures, from highly diluted blackwaters (low turbidity, pH, conductivity, and total alkalinity) in rainforests to those more typical for savannah systems. Spectral analyses of chromophoric dissolved organic matter showed wide temporal variations in the Oubangui compared to spatio-temporal variations in the tributaries, and confirm that different pools of dissolved organic carbon are mobilized during different hydrological stages. δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon ranged between -28.1‰ and -5.8‰, and was strongly correlated to both partial pressure of CO2 and to the estimated contribution of carbonate weathering to total alkalinity, suggesting an important control of the weathering regime on CO2 fluxes. All tributaries were oversaturated in dissolved greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O, CO2), with highest levels in rivers draining rainforest. The high diversity observed underscores the importance of sampling that covers the variability in subcatchment characteristics, to improve our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in the Congo Basin.

  15. Contrasting biogeochemical characteristics of the Oubangui River and tributaries (Congo River basin).

    PubMed

    Bouillon, Steven; Yambélé, Athanase; Gillikin, David P; Teodoru, Cristian; Darchambeau, François; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V

    2014-06-23

    The Oubangui is a major tributary of the Congo River. We describe the biogeochemistry of contrasting tributaries within its central catchment, with watershed vegetation ranging from wooded savannahs to humid rainforest. Compared to a 2-year monitoring record on the mainstem Oubangui, these tributaries show a wide range of biogeochemical signatures, from highly diluted blackwaters (low turbidity, pH, conductivity, and total alkalinity) in rainforests to those more typical for savannah systems. Spectral analyses of chromophoric dissolved organic matter showed wide temporal variations in the Oubangui compared to spatio-temporal variations in the tributaries, and confirm that different pools of dissolved organic carbon are mobilized during different hydrological stages. δ(13)C of dissolved inorganic carbon ranged between -28.1‰ and -5.8‰, and was strongly correlated to both partial pressure of CO2 and to the estimated contribution of carbonate weathering to total alkalinity, suggesting an important control of the weathering regime on CO2 fluxes. All tributaries were oversaturated in dissolved greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O, CO2), with highest levels in rivers draining rainforest. The high diversity observed underscores the importance of sampling that covers the variability in subcatchment characteristics, to improve our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in the Congo Basin.

  16. CNES Strategic Plan 2001-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janichewski, S.; Ben Aı̈m, H.

    2004-04-01

    CNES's latest strategic plan defines the French space agency's strategic focus and charts its course for the 2001-2005 timeframe. Based on a vision of how the space sector will evolve over the period up to 2010, the Strategic Plan sets out the agency's ambition for 2005: " CNES—space technology serving society". This ambition is structured around four challenges: Focusing actions on society's needs in three areas where space technology can make a major difference—environment, science and the information society and mobility. Building the foundation for success by ensuring competitive access to space and boosting basic research and technological innovation. Strengthening national and European synergies to ensure complementarity between: the ESA European framework, which is well adapted for major projects and the development of a European Space Strategy (ESS); and the national framework to support activities of national responsibility such as defence, science and technology development, and to improve competitiveness through direct international cooperation with other space agencies. Forging effective partnerships with its research and industry partners in Europe and France to enhance performance by: developing a service culture; building partnerships; concentrating on core competencies where it can most add value; improving skills and responsiveness in line with its strategic position; ensuring transparent and rigorous management of public funds. This Strategic Plan will be implemented in the 2001-2005 timeframe at all management levels. Implementation will be eased by the fact that the plan has been drawn up through a specific process designed to make internal management aware of the analysis underlying it. This will ensure that all stakeholders understand and appropriate the plan's orientations and thus play an active role in CNES' development. This process involved five successive steps: shared assessment of the space sector's evolution, providing a common

  17. Chemical analyses of surface water in Illinois, 1958-74; Volume III, Ohio River tributaries and Mississippi River tributaries south of the Illinois River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, R.W.; Toler, L.G.

    1978-01-01

    Samples of surface water were collected and analyzed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency and its predecessor, the Stream Pollution Control Bureau of the Illinois Department of Public Health. The results for the period 1958 to 1974 are presented in tabular form and the history of sampling and analytical methods are summarized. Stream discharge data from records of the U.S. Geological Survey are included for all sites where saples were collected at gaging stations or near enough that reliable discharge estimates could be made. The report is contained in three volumes. This volume (Volume III) includes Ohio River tributaries and Mississippi River tributaries south of Illinois River basin. (See also W78-10034 and W78-10035) (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Institutional Plan FY 2001-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Chartock, Michael; Hansen, Todd, editors

    2000-07-01

    The FY 2001-2005 Institutional Plan provides an overview of the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab, the Laboratory) mission, strategic plan, initiatives, and the resources required to fulfill its role in support of national needs in fundamental science and technology, energy resources, and environmental quality. To advance the Department of Energy's ongoing efforts to define the Integrated Laboratory System, the Berkeley Lab Institutional Plan reflects the strategic elements of our planning efforts. The Institutional Plan is a management report that supports the Department of Energy's mission and programs and is an element of the Department of Energy's strategic management planning activities, developed through an annual planning process. The Plan supports the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 and complements the performance-based contract between the Department of Energy and the Regents of the University of California. It identifies technical and administrative directions in the context of the national energy policy and research needs and the Department of Energy's program planning initiatives. Preparation of the Plan is coordinated by the Office of Planning and Communications from information contributed by Berkeley Lab's scientific and support divisions.

  19. Importance of reservoir tributaries to spawning of migratory fish in the upper Paraná River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    da Silva, P.S.; Makrakis, Maristela Cavicchioli; Miranda, Leandro E.; Makrakis, Sergio; Assumpcao, L.; Paula, S.; Dias, João Henrique Pinheiro; Marques, H.

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of rivers by dams transforms previously lotic reaches above the dam into lentic ones and limits or prevents longitudinal connectivity, which impairs access to suitable habitats for the reproduction of many migratory fish species. Frequently, unregulated tributaries can provide important habitat heterogeneity to a regulated river and may mitigate the influence of impoundments on the mainstem river. We evaluated the importance of tributaries to spawning of migratory fish species over three spawning seasons, by comparing several abiotic conditions and larval fish distributions in four rivers that are tributaries to an impounded reach of the Upper Parana River, Brazil. Our study confirmed reproduction of at least 8 long-distance migrators, likely nine, out of a total of 19 occurring in the Upper Parana River. Total larval densities and percentage species composition differed among tributaries, but the differences were not consistent among spawning seasons and unexpectedly were not strongly related to annual differences in temperature and hydrology. We hypothesize that under present conditions, densities of larvae of migratory species may be better related to efficiency of fish passage facilities than to temperature and hydrology. Our study indicates that adult fish are finding suitable habitat for spawning in tributaries, fish eggs are developing into larvae, and larvae are finding suitable rearing space in lagoons adjacent to the tributaries. Our findings also suggest the need for establishment of protected areas in unregulated and lightly regulated tributaries to preserve essential spawning and nursery habitats.

  20. Annual estimates of water and solute export from 42 tributaries to the Yukon River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick Zanden,; Suzanne P. Anderson,; Striegl, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Annual export of 11 major and trace solutes for the Yukon River is found to be accurately determined based on summing 42 tributary contributions. These findings provide the first published estimates of tributary specific distribution of solutes within the Yukon River basin. First, we show that annual discharge of the Yukon River can be computed by summing calculated annual discharges from 42 tributaries. Annual discharge for the tributaries is calculated from the basin area and average annual precipitation over that area using a previously published regional regression equation. Based on tributary inputs, we estimate an average annual discharge for the Yukon River of 210 km3 year–1. This value is within 1% of the average measured annual discharge at the U.S. Geological Survey gaging station near the river terminus at Pilot Station, AK, for water years 2001 through 2005. Next, annual loads for 11 solutes are determined by combining annual discharge with point measurements of solute concentrations in tributary river water. Based on the sum of solutes in tributary water, we find that the Yukon River discharges approximately 33 million metric tons of dissolved solids each year at Pilot Station. Discharged solutes are dominated by cations calcium and magnesium (5.65 × 109 and 1.42 × 109 g year–1) and anions bicarbonate and sulphate (17.3 × 109 and 5.40 × 109 g year–1). These loads compare well with loads calculated independently at the three continuous gaging stations along the Yukon River. These findings show how annual solute yields vary throughout a major subarctic river basin and that accurate estimates of total river export can be determined from calculated tributary contributions.

  1. Influence of methylmercury from tributary streams on mercury levels in Savannah River Asiatic clams.

    PubMed

    Paller, M H; Jagoe, C H; Bennett, H; Brant, H A; Bowers, J A

    2004-06-01

    Average methylmercury levels in five Savannah River tributary streams, sampled 11 times over 2 years (0.170 ng/l), were nearly twice as high as in the Savannah River (0.085 ng/l). Total mercury levels in the tributaries (2.98 ng/l) did not differ significantly from the river (2.59 ng/l). All of the tributaries drained extensive wetlands that would be expected to support comparatively high rates of methylation. Mercury concentrations in Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea) collected from the discharge plumes of Savannah River tributaries (average of 0.044 microg/g wet weight) were significantly (P<0.001) higher than in Asiatic clams collected from the Savannah River upstream from the tributary mouths (average of 0.017 microg/g wet weight). These results indicate that streams draining wetlands into coastal plain rivers can create localized areas of elevated methylmercury with resulting increases in the mercury levels of river biota.

  2. Estimates of average annual tributary inflow to the lower Colorado River, Hoover Dam to Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.

    1987-01-01

    Estimates of tributary inflow by basin or area and by surface water or groundwater are presented in this report and itemized by subreaches in tabular form. Total estimated average annual tributary inflow to the Colorado River between Hoover Dam and Mexico, excluding the measured tributaries, is 96,000 acre-ft or about 1% of the 7.5 million acre-ft/yr of Colorado River water apportioned to the States in the lower Colorado River basin. About 62% of the tributary inflow originates in Arizona, 30% in California, and 8% in Nevada. Tributary inflow is a small component in the water budget for the river. Most of the quantities of unmeasured tributary inflow were estimated in previous studies and were based on mean annual precipitation for 1931-60. Because mean annual precipitation for 1951-80 did not differ significantly from that of 1931-60, these tributary inflow estimates are assumed to be valid for use in 1984. Measured average annual runoff per unit drainage area on the Bill Williams River has remained the same. Surface water inflow from unmeasured tributaries is infrequent and is not captured in surface reservoirs in any of the States; it flows to the Colorado River gaging stations. Estimates of groundwater inflow to the Colorad River valley. Average annual runoff can be used in a water budget; although in wet years, runoff may be large enough to affect the calculation of consumptive use and to be estimated from hydrographs for the Colorado River valley are based on groundwater recharge estimates in the bordering areas, which have not significantly changed through time. In most areas adjacent to the Colorado River valley, groundwater pumpage is small and pumping has not significantly affected the quantity of groundwater discharged to the Colorado River valley. In some areas where groundwater pumpage exceeds the quantity of groundwater discharge and water levels have declined, the quantity of discharge probably has decreased and groundwater inflow to the Colorado

  3. 33 CFR 334.450 - Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cape Fear River and tributaries... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.450 Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of Cape Fear River due west of the...

  4. 33 CFR 334.450 - Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cape Fear River and tributaries... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.450 Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of Cape Fear River due west of the...

  5. 33 CFR 334.450 - Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cape Fear River and tributaries... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.450 Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of Cape Fear River due west of the...

  6. Mineralogical characteristics of the sediments of a Himalayan river: Yamuna River — a tributary of the Ganges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, P. K.; Vaithiyanathan, P.; Subramanian, V.

    1993-09-01

    Almost the entire suspended load of Yamuna River is transported during the monsoon period; quartz and illite are the dominant minerals of these suspended sediments. Basin lithology, tributary contributions, and sediment grain size seem to control mineral distribution in the sediments. Trace metal concentrations of Yamuna core sediments reflect their mineralogical composition. Illite is the chief clay mineral of the Himalayan river sediments. The mineralogical characteristics of the Himalayan river sediments differ significantly from the Peninsular Indian rivers, which chiefly carry montmorillonite.

  7. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 25. Summary of Results and Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Geochemistry, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Active and inactive mine sites are challenging to remediate because of their complexity and scale. Regulations meant to achieve environmental restoration at mine sites are equally challenging to apply for the same reasons. The goal of environmental restoration should be to restore contaminated mine sites, as closely as possible, to pre-mining conditions. Metalliferous mine sites in the Western United States are commonly located in hydrothermally altered and mineralized terrain in which pre-mining concentrations of metals were already anomalously high. Typically, those pre-mining concentrations were not measured, but sometimes they can be reconstructed using scientific inference. Molycorp?s Questa molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico, is located near the margin of the Questa caldera in a highly mineralized region. The State of New Mexico requires that ground-water quality standards be met on closure unless it can be shown that potential contaminant concentrations were higher than the standards before mining. No ground water at the mine site had been chemically analyzed before mining. The aim of this investigation, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality by an examination of the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical controls on ground-water quality in a nearby, or proximal, analog site in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Twenty-seven reports contain details of investigations on the geological, hydrological, and geochemical characteristics of the Red River Valley that are summarized in this report. These studies include mapping of surface mineralogy by Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometry (AVIRIS); compilations of historical surface- and ground- water quality data; synoptic/tracer studies with mass loading and temporal water-quality trends of the Red River; reaction-transport modeling of the Red River; environmental geology of the Red River Valley; lake

  8. Anthropogenic impacts on American eel demographics in Hudson River tributaries, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Machut, L.S.; Limburg, K.E.; Schmidt, R.E.; Dittman, D.

    2007-01-01

    Populations of American eel Anguilla rostrata along the eastern coast of North America have declined drastically for largely unknown reasons. We examined the population dynamics of American eels in six tributaries of the Hudson River, New York, to quantify their distribution and the impacts of anthropogenic stressors. With up to 155 American eels per 100 m2, tributary densities are greater than those within the main stem of the Hudson River and are among the highest reported anywhere. The predominance of small American eels (<200 mm) and wide range of ages (from young-of-year glass eels to 24-year-old yellow eels) suggest that tributaries are an important nursery area for immature American eels. However, upstream of natural and artificial barriers, American eel densities were reduced by at least a factor of 10 and condition, as measured by mass, was significantly lower. Significantly lower American eel condition was also found with increasing riparian urbanization. Density-dependent growth limitations below barriers are suggested by increased growth rates above the first tributary barrier. We suggest that (1) tributaries are important habitat for the conservation of American eels and (2) mitigation of anthropogenic stressors is vital for complete utilization of available habitat and conservation of the species. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  9. Low PCB concentrations observed in American eel (Anguilla rostrata) in six Hudson River tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Limburg, K.E.; Machut, L.S.; Jeffers, P.; Schmidt, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed 73 eels, collected in 2004 and 2005 above the head of tide in six Hudson River tributaries, for total PCBs, length, weight, age, and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (??15N). Mean total PCB concentration (wet weight basis) was 0.23 ppm ?? 0.08 (standard error), with a range of 0.008 to 5.4 ppm. A majority of eels (84) had concentrations below 0.25 ppm, and only seven eels (10%) had concentrations exceeding 0.5 ppm. Those eels with higher PCB concentrations were ???12 yr; there was a weak correlation of PCB concentration with ??15N and also with weight. Compared to recent (2003) data from the mainstem of the Hudson River estuary, these results indicate that tributaries are generally much less contaminated with PCBs. We hypothesize that those tributary eels with high PCB concentrations were relatively recent immigrants from the mainstem. Given concern over the possible adverse effects of PCBs on eel reproduction, these tributaries may serve as refugia. Therefore, providing improved access to upland tributaries may be critically important to this species. ?? 2008 Northeastern Naturalist.

  10. Organochlorine pesticide residues in bed sediments of the San Joaquin River and its tributary streams, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilliom, R.J.; Clifton, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution and concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues in bed sediments were assessed from samples collected at 24 sites in the San Joaquin River and its tributaries in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Sampling was designed to collect the finest grained bed sediments present in the vicinity of each site. One or more of the 14 pesticides analyzed were detected at every site. Pesticides detected at one or more sites were chlordane, DDD, DDE, DDT, dieldrin, endosulfan, mirex, and toxaphene. Pesticides not detected were endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, lindane, methoxychlor, and perthane. The most frequently detected pesticides were DDD (83% of sites), DDE (all sites), DDT (33% of sites), and dieldrin (58% of sites). Maximum concentrations of these pesticides, which were correlated with each other and with the amount of organic carbon in the sample, were DDD, 260 micrograms/kg; DDE, 430 micrograms/kg; DDT, 420 micrograms/kg; and dieldrin, 8.9 micrograms/kg. Six small tributary streams that drain agricultural areas west of the San Joaquin River had the highest concentrations. Water concentrations and loads were estimated for each pesticide from its concentration in bed sediments, the concentration of suspended sediment, and streamflow. Estimated loadings of DDD, DDE, DDT, and dieldrin from tributaries to the San Joaquin River indicate that most of the loading to the river at the time of the study was probably from the westside tributaries. Estimated water concentrations exceeded the aquatic life criterion for the sum of DDD, DDE, and DDt of 0.001 microgram/L at nine of the 24 sites sampled. Five of the nine sites are westside tributaries and one is the San Joaquin River near Vernalis. (Author 's abstract)

  11. Trace elements in bed sediments of the San Joaquin River and its tributary streams, California, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, D.G.; Gilliom, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Bed sediments were sampled at 24 sites on the San Joaquin River, California and its tributaries in October 1985 to assess the distribution of trace elements and factors affecting their concentrations. The proportion of less than 62-micrometer sediment was significantly (alpha = 0.05) correlated with organic-carbon concentrations. Bed sediments from tributaries originating in the Sierra Nevada were much coarser than sediments in streams draining the Coast Range and western valley. Selenium concentrations in water have been measured. Interrelations among trace elements were examined using principal component analysis. 57% of the variance was accounted for in the first two principal components, which together show a distinct separation between sites dominated by Coast Range sediments and sites dominated by Sierra Nevada sediments. The third and fourth components accounted for 21% of the variance and distinguished the mixed-source sediments of the intermittent upper San Joaquin River from other parts of the river system. Generally, elements in bed sediments of the San Joaquin River and its tributaries were similar in concentration to elements in San Joaquin Valley soils, and concentrations were far below hazardous waste criteria. Concentrations were lower than in sediments from some polluted urban rivers and water more comparable to other rural agricultural rivers. 35 refs., 3 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. Timing, frequency and environmental conditions associated with mainstem-tributary movement by a lowland river fish, golden perch (Macquaria ambigua).

    PubMed

    Koster, Wayne M; Dawson, David R; O'Mahony, Damien J; Moloney, Paul D; Crook, David A

    2014-01-01

    Tributary and mainstem connections represent important links for the movement of fish and other biota throughout river networks. We investigated the timing, frequency and environmental conditions associated with movements by adult golden perch (Macquaria ambigua) between the mainstem of the mid-Murray River and a tributary, the Goulburn River, in south-eastern Australia, using acoustic telemetry over four years (2007-2011). Fish were tagged and released in autumn 2007-2009 in the mid-Murray (n = 42) and lower Goulburn (n = 37) rivers within 3-6 km of the mid-Murray-lower Goulburn junction. 38% of tagged fish undertook mainstem-tributary movements, characterised mostly by temporary occupation followed by return of fish to the original capture river. Approximately 10% of tagged fish exhibited longer-term shifts between the mainstem and tributary. Movement of fish from the tributary into the mainstem occurred primarily during the spawning season and in some years coincided with the presence of golden perch eggs/larvae in drift samples in the mainstem. Many of the tributary-to-mainstem movements occurred during or soon after changes in flow. The movements of fish from the mainstem into the tributary were irregular and did not appear to be associated with spawning. The findings show that golden perch moved freely across the mainstem-tributary interface. This demonstrates the need to consider the spatial, behavioural and demographic interdependencies of aquatic fauna across geographic management units such as rivers.

  13. Timing, Frequency and Environmental Conditions Associated with Mainstem–Tributary Movement by a Lowland River Fish, Golden Perch (Macquaria ambigua)

    PubMed Central

    Koster, Wayne M.; Dawson, David R.; O’Mahony, Damien J.; Moloney, Paul D.; Crook, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Tributary and mainstem connections represent important links for the movement of fish and other biota throughout river networks. We investigated the timing, frequency and environmental conditions associated with movements by adult golden perch (Macquaria ambigua) between the mainstem of the mid-Murray River and a tributary, the Goulburn River, in south-eastern Australia, using acoustic telemetry over four years (2007–2011). Fish were tagged and released in autumn 2007–2009 in the mid-Murray (n = 42) and lower Goulburn (n = 37) rivers within 3–6 km of the mid-Murray-lower Goulburn junction. 38% of tagged fish undertook mainstem–tributary movements, characterised mostly by temporary occupation followed by return of fish to the original capture river. Approximately 10% of tagged fish exhibited longer-term shifts between the mainstem and tributary. Movement of fish from the tributary into the mainstem occurred primarily during the spawning season and in some years coincided with the presence of golden perch eggs/larvae in drift samples in the mainstem. Many of the tributary-to-mainstem movements occurred during or soon after changes in flow. The movements of fish from the mainstem into the tributary were irregular and did not appear to be associated with spawning. The findings show that golden perch moved freely across the mainstem–tributary interface. This demonstrates the need to consider the spatial, behavioural and demographic interdependencies of aquatic fauna across geographic management units such as rivers. PMID:24788137

  14. Timing, frequency and environmental conditions associated with mainstem-tributary movement by a lowland river fish, golden perch (Macquaria ambigua).

    PubMed

    Koster, Wayne M; Dawson, David R; O'Mahony, Damien J; Moloney, Paul D; Crook, David A

    2014-01-01

    Tributary and mainstem connections represent important links for the movement of fish and other biota throughout river networks. We investigated the timing, frequency and environmental conditions associated with movements by adult golden perch (Macquaria ambigua) between the mainstem of the mid-Murray River and a tributary, the Goulburn River, in south-eastern Australia, using acoustic telemetry over four years (2007-2011). Fish were tagged and released in autumn 2007-2009 in the mid-Murray (n = 42) and lower Goulburn (n = 37) rivers within 3-6 km of the mid-Murray-lower Goulburn junction. 38% of tagged fish undertook mainstem-tributary movements, characterised mostly by temporary occupation followed by return of fish to the original capture river. Approximately 10% of tagged fish exhibited longer-term shifts between the mainstem and tributary. Movement of fish from the tributary into the mainstem occurred primarily during the spawning season and in some years coincided with the presence of golden perch eggs/larvae in drift samples in the mainstem. Many of the tributary-to-mainstem movements occurred during or soon after changes in flow. The movements of fish from the mainstem into the tributary were irregular and did not appear to be associated with spawning. The findings show that golden perch moved freely across the mainstem-tributary interface. This demonstrates the need to consider the spatial, behavioural and demographic interdependencies of aquatic fauna across geographic management units such as rivers. PMID:24788137

  15. A preliminary investigation on the occurrence and distribution of antibiotics in the Yellow River and its tributaries, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weihai; Zhang, Gan; Zou, Shichun; Ling, Zhenhao; Wang, Guoliang; Yan, Wen

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the residues of antibiotics present in the Yellow River and its tributaries. Ofloxacin, norfloxacin, roxithromycin, erythromycin, and sulfamethoxazole, were found in the river with mean concentrations from 25 to 152 ng/L, and in certain tributaries from 44 to 240 ng/L. The other four analytes were all below the limits of quantification. The results indicated that the detected antibiotics in the middle and lower Yellow River were primarily from its tributaries and ambient wastewater discharge. The concentrations of the antibiotics detected in the river were greater than that in other rivers in Europe. The antibiotics in the river and its tributaries at ng/L concentrations found in this study are unlikely to induce lethal toxicity to aquatic organism but could cause chronic ecological effects.

  16. Nitrate in the Mississippi River and its tributaries, 1980 to 2008: Are we making progress?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sprague, Lori A.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Aulenbach, Brent T.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in nitrate concentration and flux between 1980 and 2008 at eight sites in the Mississippi River basin were determined using a new statistical method that accommodates evolving nitrate behavior over time and produces flow-normalized estimates of nitrate concentration and flux that are independent of random variations in streamflow. The results show that little consistent progress has been made in reducing riverine nitrate since 1980, and that flow-normalized concentration and flux are increasing in some areas. Flow-normalized nitrate concentration and flux increased between 9 and 76% at four sites on the Mississippi River and a tributary site on the Missouri River, but changed very little at tributary sites on the Ohio, Iowa, and Illinois Rivers. Increases in flow-normalized concentration and flux at the Mississippi River at Clinton and Missouri River at Hermann were more than three times larger than at any other site. The increases at these two sites contributed much of the 9% increase in flow-normalized nitrate flux leaving the Mississippi River basin. At most sites, concentrations increased more at low and moderate streamflows than at high streamflows, suggesting that increasing groundwater concentrations are having an effect on river concentrations.

  17. Translocation of Humpback Chub into tributary streams of the Colorado River: Implications for conservation of large-river fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spurgeon, Jonathan J.; Paukert, Craig P.; Healy, Brian D.; Trammell, Melissa; Speas, Dave; Smith, Emily Omana

    2015-01-01

    The Humpback Chub Gila cypha, a large-bodied, endangered cyprinid endemic to the Colorado River basin, is in decline throughout most of its range due largely to anthropogenic factors. Translocation of Humpback Chub into tributaries of the Colorado River is one conservation activity that may contribute to the expansion of the species’ current range and eventually provide population redundancy. We evaluated growth, survival, and dispersal following translocation of approximately 900 Humpback Chub over a period of 3 years (2009, 2010, and 2011) into Shinumo Creek, a tributary stream of the Colorado River within Grand Canyon National Park. Growth and condition of Humpback Chub in Shinumo Creek were consistent among year-classes and equaled or surpassed growth estimates from both the main-stem Colorado River and the Little Colorado River, where the largest (and most stable) Humpback Chub aggregation remains. Based on passive integrated tag recoveries, 53% ( = 483/902) of translocated Humpback Chub dispersed from Shinumo Creek into the main-stem Colorado River as of January 2013, 35% leaving within 25 d following translocation. Annual apparent survival estimates within Shinumo Creek ranged from 0.22 to 0.41, but were strongly influenced by emigration. Results indicate that Shinumo Creek provides favorable conditions for growth and survival of translocated Humpback Chub and could support a new population if reproduction and recruitment occur in the future. Adaptation of translocation strategies of Humpback Chub into tributary streams ultimately may refine the role translocation plays in recovery of the species.

  18. Sediment delivery by ungaged tributaries of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Griffiths, Peter G.; Melis, Theodre S.; Hartley, Daniel R.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment input to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, is a valuable resource required to sustain both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. A total of 768 ungaged tributaries deliver sediment to the river between Glen Canyon Dam and the Grand Wash Cliffs (river miles -15 to 276). The 32 tributaries between the dam and Lee's Ferry produce only streamflow floods, whereas 736 tributaries in Grand Canyon produce streamflow floods and debris flows. We used three techniques to estimate annual streamflow sediment yield from ungaged tributaries to the Colorado River. For the Glen Canyon and Marble Canyon reaches (river miles -15 to 61.5), respectively, these techniques indicate that 0.065.106 and 0.610.106 Mg/yr (0.68.106 Mg/yr of total sediment) enters the river. This amount is 20 percent of the sediment yield of the Paria River, the only gaged tributary in this reach and a major sediment contributor to the Colorado River. The amount of sand delivered ranges from 0.10.106 to 0.51.106 Mg/yr, depending on the sand content of streamflow sediment. Sand delivered in Glen Canyon is notably coarser (D50 = 0.24 mm) than sand in other reaches (D50 = 0.15 mm). A relation is given for possible variation of this sediment delivery with climate. Debris flows transport poorly-sorted sediment onto debris fans in the Colorado River. In the pre-dam era, debris fans were completely reworked during Colorado River floods, liberating all fine-grained sediment to the river; in the post-dam river on average only 25 percent of debris-fan volume is reworked, leading to storage of sand in the matrix of debris fans. We develop a sediment-yield model for debris flows that uses a logistic-regression model of debris-flow frequency in Grand Canyon, a regression model of debris-flow volumes, particle- size distributions of intact debris-flow deposits, and debris-fan reworking. On average, debris flows deliver between 0.14.106 and 0.30.106 Mg/yr of sediment to debris fans throughout Grand Canyon

  19. Nutrient and suspended-sediment concentrations and loads and benthic-invertebrate data for tributaries to the St. Croix River, Wisconsin and Minnesota, 1997-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lenz, Bernard N.; Robertson, Dale M.; Fallon, James D.; Ferrin, Randy

    2001-01-01

    Benthic invertebrates were sampled and indices of water quality were calculated at 16 tributaries in fall 1999. Benthic invertebrate indices indicated excellent to good water quality at all tributaries except Valley Creek, Willow River, and Kettle River. No relations were found between benthic invertebrate indices and the calculated and estimated 1999 annual tributary loads and yields.

  20. Movement and habitat use by radio-tagged paddlefish in the upper Mississippi River and tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zigler, S.J.; Dewey, M.R.; Knights, B.C.; Runstrom, A.L.; Steingraeber, M.T.

    2003-01-01

    We used radio telemetry to evaluate the movement and habitat use of paddlefish Polyodon spathula in the upper Mississippi River and two tributary rivers. Radio transmitters were surgically implanted into 71 paddlefish in Navigation Pools 5A and 8 of the upper Mississippi River, the Chippewa River, and the Wisconsin River during fall 1994 through fall 1996. Radiotagged paddlefish were located through summer 1997. The range of paddlefish movement was typically low during all seasons except spring, but some paddlefish moved throughout the 420-km extent of the study area. Paddlefish tagged in the Chippewa River were closely linked with the upper Mississippi River, as substantial portions of the population inhabited the adjacent Navigation Pool 4 each spring; paddlefish in the Wisconsin River, however, rarely ventured out of that tributary. The use of aquatic area types by paddlefish varied among the study reaches. A cartographic model of paddlefish habitat suitability was developed for Navigation Pool 8 based on geographic information systems (GIS) coverages of bathymetry and current velocity. The value of paddlefish habitat in the cartographic model increased with depth and decreased with current velocity. For example, areas modeled as excellent corresponded to regions classified as having both deep water (greater than or equal to6.0 m) and negligible (<5 cm/s) current velocities. Our study suggests that aquatic area types are an inadequate basis for making sound management decisions regarding the critical habitats of paddlefish in complex riverine systems because such strata rely on gross geomorpological features rather than on the physicochemical variables that fish use to choose habitats. The development of systemic GIS coverages of such variables could improve the understanding of fish habitat selection and management in the upper Mississippi River.

  1. Continuous Ship-borne Methane Measurements on the Upper Mississippi River and Selected Tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, J.; Loken, L. C.; Dornblaser, M.; Stanley, E. H.; Striegl, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    Despite evidence that streams and rivers contribute immensely to the atmospheric methane budget (~26 Tg CH4 yr-1), very little is known regarding the spatial patterns and controls of methane concentrations in river networks. We present a dataset of high-resolution methane concentrations along a nearly complete river flowpath starting with a small headwater stream (8 km), two larger tributaries (50 and 80 km reaches), as well as the complete length of the upper Mississippi River (1300 km). These systems span from 1st to 9th order and range in discharge from 5 cfs to > 400,000 cfs. Continuous measurements were collected from a moving boat using a flow-through sampling system with cavity ring-down spectroscopy of gas equilibrated water. River methane concentrations ranged from near saturation to > 5 uM with all samples being above atmospheric equilibrium. The extent of methane spatial autocorrelation generally increased with increasing river size (semivariance range = 800, 4000 and 12,000 m), although the largest tributary reach did not exhibit clear spatial autocorrelation structure. Further, all river sections exhibited significant spatial clustering of methane concentrations (Global Moran's I) and significant hotspots and coldspots of methane (local Moran's I) associated with changes in benthic geomorphology. Hotspot examples included high methane clusters in organic-rich stream sediments and productive backwaters in the mainstem of the Mississippi River. Incubated anoxic stream sediments illustrated similar patterns, where organic-rich sediments produced substantially greater methane over 24 hours relative to organic-poor substrates. Quantitative PCR analysis of the methanogen gene mcrA also supports the contention that methane is produced at greatest rates in organic-rich stream sediments. Together, our high resolution spatial data and ancillary ecosystem data suggest that river methane is mostly controlled by local sediment processes which become more spatially

  2. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2001-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-12-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2001-2005 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; managaement procatices and standards; and communications and trust.

  3. Evaluation of total phosphorus mass balance in the lower Boise River and selected tributaries, southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etheridge, Alexandra B.

    2013-01-01

    he U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, developed spreadsheet mass-balance models for total phosphorus using results from three synoptic sampling periods conducted in the lower Boise River watershed during August and October 2012, and March 2013. The modeling reach spanned 46.4 river miles (RM) along the Boise River from Veteran’s Memorial Parkway in Boise, Idaho (RM 50.2), to Parma, Idaho (RM 3.8). The USGS collected water-quality samples and measured streamflow at 14 main-stem Boise River sites, two Boise River north channel sites, two sites on the Snake River upstream and downstream of its confluence with the Boise River, and 17 tributary and return-flow sites. Additional samples were collected from treated effluent at six wastewater treatment plants and two fish hatcheries. The Idaho Department of Water Resources quantified diversion flows in the modeling reach. Total phosphorus mass-balance models were useful tools for evaluating sources of phosphorus in the Boise River during each sampling period. The timing of synoptic sampling allowed the USGS to evaluate phosphorus inputs to and outputs from the Boise River during irrigation season, shortly after irrigation ended, and soon before irrigation resumed. Results from the synoptic sampling periods showed important differences in surface-water and groundwater distribution and phosphorus loading. In late August 2012, substantial streamflow gains to the Boise River occurred from Middleton (RM 31.4) downstream to Parma (RM 3.8). Mass-balance model results indicated that point and nonpoint sources (including groundwater) contributed phosphorus loads to the Boise River during irrigation season. Groundwater exchange within the Boise River in October 2012 and March 2013 was not as considerable as that measured in August 2012. However, groundwater discharge to agricultural tributaries and drains during non-irrigation season was a large source of discharge and

  4. Nonpoint source contamination of the Mississippi river and its tributaries by herbicides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Hostettler, F.D.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the Mississippi River and its tributaries during July-August 1991, October-November 1991, and April-May 1992 has indicated that the entire navigable reach of the river is contaminated with a complex mixture of agrochemicals and their transformation products derived from nonpoint sources. Twenty-three compounds were identified, including triazine, chloroacetanilide, thiocarbamate, phenylurea, pyridazine, and organophosphorus pesticides. The upper and middle Mississippi River Basin farm lands are major sources of herbicides applied to corn, soybeans, and sorghum. Farm lands in the lower Mississippi River Basin are a major source of rice and cotton herbicides. Inputs of the five major herbicides atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, alachlor, and simazine to the Mississippi River are mainly from the Minnesota, Des Moines, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers. Ratios of desethylatrazine/atrazine potentially are useful indicators of groundwater and surface water interactions in the Mississippi River. These ratios suggested that during baseflow conditions, there is a significant groundwater contribution to the river. The Mississippi River thus serves as a drainage channel for pesticide-contaminated surface and groundwater from the midwestern United States. Conservative estimates of annual mass transport indicated that about 160 t of atrazine, 71 t of cyanazine, 56 t of metolachlor, and 18 t of alachlor were discharged into the Gulf of Mexico in 1991.

  5. Migratory Behavior of Adult Spring Chinook Salmon in the Willamette River and its Tributaries: Completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl B.

    1994-01-01

    Migration patterns of adult spring chinook salmon above Willamette Falls differed depending on when the fish passed the Falls, with considerable among-fish variability. Early-run fish often terminated their migration for extended periods of time, in association with increased flows and decreased temperatures. Mid-run fish tended to migrate steadily upstream at a rate of 30-40 km/day. Late-run fish frequently ceased migrating or fell back downstream after migrating 10-200 km up the Willamette River or its tributaries; this appeared to be associated with warming water during summer and resulted in considerable mortality. Up to 40% of the adult salmon entering the Willamette River System above Willamette Falls (i.e. counted at the ladder) may die before reaching upriver spawning areas. Up to 10% of the fish passing up over Willamette Falls may fall-back below the Falls; some migrate to the Columbia River or lower Willamette River tributaries. If rearing conditions at hatcheries affect timing of adult returns because of different juvenile development rates and improper timing of smolt releases, then differential mortality in the freshwater segment of the adult migrations may confound interpretation of studies evaluating rearing practices.

  6. A hydrological model application to the small tributary basin of the Yellow River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X.; Fukushima, Y.; Liu, C.; Wu, X.

    2003-04-01

    The Yellow River is one of the largest rivers in the world, which originates from the Qingzang Plateau and empties into the Bohai Sea. Its drainage area locates within 96^o E ˜119^o E and 32^o N ˜ 42^o N. The main river length is over 5,000 km and the basin area is about 750,000 km^2. The hydrological regime of the basin had changed along with the climate, irrigation area and water demand changes. In the past 27 years from 1972 to 1998, the event of zero-flow in the downstream occurred in 21years with a total duration of 1051 days. In order to understand the hydrological cycle processes of the Yellow River basin and to determine the water budget for the whole basin, a joint study for the Yellow River basin between the China’s national planned key project of basic sciences (973) and the project of Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Japan (RR2002) has been started. We will try to setup a model system. In the model system, main processes of water and energy transfer between atmosphere and land surface, water movement in land surface, and water use for irrigation will be considered in a 0.1^o-degree size resolution. In the paper, a preliminary result of existing model application to the Luohe river basin (4600 km^2), a small tributary river in the downstream of the Yellow River will be introduced to examine the model performance.

  7. Changes in channel characteristics, 1938-74, of the Homochitto River and tributaries, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.V.

    1979-01-01

    Channel characteristics in the lower reaches of the Homochitto River in southwest Mississippi and some of its tributaries changed following the completion of cutoffs and channelization projects between 1938 and 1940. Channel degradation and accelerated bank sloughing began during the early 1940's in the vicinity of Doloroso, a short distance upstream from the Abernathy Channel, a 9-mile cutoff emptying into the Mississippi River. By the late 1940's, channel degradation was apparent at Rosetta, 24 miles upstream. By 1974, channel degradation totaled 19 feet at Doloroso, 18.5 feet at Kingston, and 15 feet at Rosetta. Substantial channel degradation had also occurred in Second Creek, Crooked Creek, and Middle Fork Homochitto River. Little or no channel degradation had occurred at Bude by 1974.

  8. Streamflow trends in the Spokane River and tributaries, Spokane Valley/Rathdrum Prairie, Idaho and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hortness, Jon E.; Covert, John J.

    2005-01-01

    A clear understanding of the aquifer and river dynamics within the Spokane Valley/Rathdrum Prairie is essential in making proper management decisions concerning ground-water and surface-water appropriations. Management of the Spokane Valley/Rathdrum Prairie aquifer is complicated because of interstate, multi-jurisdictional responsibilities, and by the interaction between ground water and surface water. Kendall?s tau trend analyses were completed on monthly mean (July through December) and annual 7-day low streamflow data for the period 1968?2002 from gaging stations located within the Spokane Valley/Rathdrum Prairie. The analyses detected trends of decreasing monthly mean streamflow at the following gaging stations: Spokane River near Post Falls, Idaho (August and September); Spokane River at Spokane, Washington (September); and Little Spokane River at Dartford, Washington (September and October); and decreasing annual 7-day low streamflows at the following gaging stations: Spokane River near Post Falls, Idaho and Spokane River at Spokane, Washington. Limited analyses of lake-level, precipitation, tributary inflow, temperature, and water-use data provided little insight as to the reason for the decreasing trends in streamflow. A net gain in streamflow occurs between the gaging stations Spokane River near Post Falls, Idaho and Spokane River at Spokane, Washington. Significant streamflow losses occur between the gaging stations Spokane River near Post Falls, Idaho and Spokane River at Greenacres, Washington; most, if not all, of the gains occur downstream from the Greenacres gaging station. Trends of decreasing net streamflow gains in the Spokane River between the near Post Falls and at Spokane gaging stations were detected for the months of September, October, and November.

  9. Debris flows from tributaries of the Colorado River, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.H.; Pringle, P.T.; Rink, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    A reconnaissance of 36 tributaries of the Colorado River indicates that debris flows are a major process by which sediment is transported to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. Debris flows are slurries of sediment and water that have a water content < 40% by volume. Debris flows occur frequently in arid and semiarid regions. Slope failures commonly trigger debris flows, which can originate from any rock formation in the Grand Canyon. The largest and most frequent flows originate from the Permian Hermit Shale, the underlying Esplanade Sandstone of the Supai Group, and other formations of the Permian and Pennsylvanian Supai Group. Debris flows have reached the Colorado River on an average of once every 20 to 30 yr in the Lava-Chuar Creek drainage since about 1916. Two debris flows have reached the Colorado River in the last 25 yr in Monument Creek. The Crystal Creek drainage has had an average of one debris flow reaching the Colorado River every 50 yr, although the debris flow of 1966 has been the only flow that reached the Colorado River since 1900. Debris flows may actually reach the Colorado River more frequently in these drainages because evidence for all debris flows may not have been preserved in the channel-margin stratigraphy. Discharges were estimated for the peak flow of three debris flows that reached the Colorado River. The debris flow of 1966 in the Lava-Chuar Creek drainage had an estimated discharge of 4,000 cu ft/sec. The debris flow of 1984 in the Monument Creek drainage had a discharge estimated between 3,600 and 4,200 cu ft/sec. The debris flow of 1966 in the Crystal Creek drainage had a discharge estimated between 9,200 and 14,000 cu ft/sec. Debris flows in the Grand Canyon generally are composed of 10 to 40% sand by weight and may represent a significant source of beach-building sand along the Colorado River. The particle size distributions are very poorly sorted and the largest transported boulders were in the Crystal Creek

  10. Debris flows from tributaries of the Colorado River, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Pringle, Patrick T.; Rink, Glenn R.

    1989-01-01

    A reconnaissance of 36 tributaries of the Colorado River indicates that debris flows are a major process by which sediment is transported to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. Debris flows are slurries of sediment and water that have a water content of less than about 40 percent by volume. Debris flows occur frequently in arid and semiarid regions. Slope failures commonly trigger debris flows, which can originate from any rock formation in the Grand Canyon. The largest and most frequent flows originate from the Permian Hermit Shale, the underlying Esplanade Sandstone of the Supai Group, and other formations of the Permian and Pennsylvanian Supai Group. Debris flows also occur in the Cambrian Muav Limestone and underlying Bright Angel Shale and the Quaternary basalts in the western Grand Canyon. Debris-flow frequency and magnitude were studied in detail in the Lava-Chuar Creek drainage at Colorado River mile 65.5; in the Monument Creek drainage at mile 93.5; and in the Crystal Creek drainage at mile 98.2. Debris flows have reached the Colorado River on an average of once every 20 to 30 years in the Lava-Chuar Creek drainage since about 1916. Two debris flows have reached the Colorado River in the last 25 years in Monument Creek. The Crystal Creek drainage has had an average of one debris flow reaching the Colorado River every 50 years, although the debris flow of 1966 has been the only flow that reached the Colorado River since 1900. Debris flows may actually reach the Colorado River more frequently in these drainages because evidence for all debris flows may not have been preserved in the channel-margin stratigraphy. Discharges were estimated for the peak flow of three debris flows that reached the Colorado River. The debris flow of 1966 in the Lava-Chuar Creek drainage had an estimated discharge of 4,000 cubic feet per second. The debris flow of 1984 in the Monument Creek drainage had a discharge estimated between 3,600 and 4,200 cubic feet per

  11. Water quality in the Mahoning River and selected tributaries in Youngstown, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeckel, Donald M.; Covert, S. Alex

    2002-01-01

    The lower reaches of the Mahoning River in Youngstown, Ohio, have been characterized by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) as historically having poor water quality. Most wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) in the watershed did not provide secondary sewage treatment until the late 1980s. By the late 1990s, the Mahoning River still received sewer-overflow discharges from 101 locations within the city of Youngstown, Ohio. The Mahoning River in Youngstown and Mill Creek, a principal tributary to the Mahoning River in Youngstown, have not met biotic index criteria since the earliest published assessment by OEPA in 1980. Youngstown and the OEPA are working together toward the goal of meeting water-quality standards in the Mahoning River. The U.S. Geological Survey collected information to help both parties assess water quality in the area of Youngstown and to estimate bacteria and inorganic nitrogen contributions from sewer-overflow discharges to the Mahoning River. Two monitoring networks were established in the lower Mahoning River: the first to evaluate hydrology and microbiological and chemical water quality and the second to assess indices of fish and aquatic-macroinvertebrate-community health. Water samples and water-quality data were collected from May through October 1999 and 2000 to evaluate where, when, and for how long water quality was affected by sewer-overflow discharges. Water samples were collected during dry- and wet-weather flow, and biotic indices were assessed during the first year (1999). The second year of sample collection (2000) was directed toward evaluating changes in water quality during wet-weather flow, and specifically toward assessing the effect of sewer-overflow discharges on water quality in the monitoring network. Water-quality standards for Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration and draft criteria for nitrate plus nitrite and total phosphorus were the regulations most commonly exceeded in the Mahoning River and Mill

  12. Exportation of organic carbon from the Amazon River and its main tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Seyler, Patrick; Loup Guyot, Jean; Etcheber, Henri

    2003-05-01

    As part of a joint Brazilian-French project, entitled Hydrology and Geochemistry of the Amazon Basin, we carried out a seven-year study (1994-2000) on the distribution, behaviour and flux of particulate and dissolved organic carbon in the Amazon River and its main tributaries (the Negro, Solimões, Branco, Madeira, Tapajós, Xingú and Trombetas rivers).The concentrations of particulate and dissolved organic carbon varied from one river to another and according to the season, but dissolved organic carbon (DOC) always accounted for about 70% of the total organic carbon (TOC). The mean concentration of dissolved organic carbon was 6·1 mg l-1 in the Madeira River, 5·83 mg l-1 in the Solimões River and 12·7 mg l-1 in the Negro River. The percentage in weight of the particulate organic carbon decreased as the concentration of suspended matter increased. The Solimões River contributed the most carbon to the Amazon River: about 500 kg C s-1 during the high water period and about 300 kg C s-1 during the low water period. However, the temporal variations in organic carbon in the Amazon River (i.e. downstream of Manaus) are basically controlled by inputs from the Negro River and its variations. The Negro River does not produce a simple dilution effect. During the high water period (between March and August) the TOC flux, calculated as the sum of the Solimões, Negro and Madeira tributaries, was about 5·7 × 1013 g C yr-1, whereas during the low water period (between September and February) the TOC flux was about 2·6 × 1013 g C yr-1.The mean annual flux of TOC at Óbidos (the final gauging station upstream of the estuary) was about 3·27 × 10tributaries (Negro, Solim

  13. Fish community response to dam removal in a Maine coastal river tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Hogg, Robert S.; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.; Gardner, Cory

    2016-01-01

    Sedgeunkedunk Stream, a third-order tributary to the Penobscot River in Maine, historically has supported several anadromous fishes including Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, and Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Two small dams constructed in the 1800s reduced or eliminated spawning runs entirely. In 2009, efforts to restore marine–freshwater connectivity in the system culminated in removal of the lowermost dam (Mill Dam) providing access to 4.7 km of lotic habitat and unimpeded passage into the lentic habitat of Fields Pond. In anticipation of these barrier removals, we initiated a modified before-after-control-impact study, and monitored stream fish assemblages in fixed treatment and reference sites. Electrofishing surveys were conducted twice yearly since 2007. Results indicated that density, biomass, and diversity of the fish assemblage increased at all treatment sites upstream of the 2009 dam removal. No distinct changes in these metrics occurred at reference sites. We documented recolonization and successful reproduction of Atlantic Salmon, Alewife, and Sea Lamprey in previously inaccessible upstream reaches. These results clearly demonstrate that dam removal has enhanced the fish assemblage by providing an undisrupted stream gradient linking a small headwater lake and tributary with a large coastal river, its estuary, and the Atlantic Ocean.

  14. Reconnaissance of mercury and methylmercury in the St. Croix River and selected tributaries, Minnesota and Wisconsin, July 2000 through October 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Payne, G.A.; Hansen, Donald S.

    2003-01-01

    A reconnaissance-level assessment to characterize total mercury and methylmercury concentrations during summer lowflow conditions was conducted in the St. Croix River Basin during July 2000 through October 2001. Samples were collected at 6 main stem and 16 tributary sites. Loads of total mercury and methylmercury increased in the St. Croix River main stem between Nevers Dam and Franconia. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations were greatest during July in the Namekagon River. Methylmercury yields in the Namekagon River and Rush Creek were greater than the yield for other tributary streams. Methylmercury concentrations and yields were greater in tributaries draining wetland/forest watersheds than in tributaries draining agricultural/forest watersheds.

  15. Low-flow profiles of the upper Savannah and Ogeechee Rivers and tributaries in Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, R.F.; Hopkins, E.H.; Perlman, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Low flow information is provided for use in an evaluation of the capacity of streams to permit withdrawals or to accept waste loads without exceeding the limits of State water quality standards. The purpose of this report is to present the results of a compilation of available low flow data in the form of tables and ' 7Q10 flow profiles ' (minimum average flow for 7 consecutive days with a 10-yr recurrence interval)(7Q10 flow plotted against distance along a stream channel) for all streams reaches of the Upper Savannah and Ogeechee Rivers and tributaries where sufficient data of acceptable accuracy are available. Drainage area profiles are included for all stream basins larger than 5 sq mi, except for those in a few remote areas. This report is the third in a series of reports that will cover all stream basins north of the Fall Line in Georgia. It includes the Georgia part of the Savannah River basin from its headwaters down to and including McBean Creek, and Brier Creek from its headwaters down to and including Boggy Gut Creek. It also includes the Ogeechee River from its headwaters down to and including Big Creek, and Rocky Comfort Creek (tributary to Ogeechee River) down to the Glascock-Jefferson County line. Flow records were not adjusted for diversions or other factors that cause measured flows to represent other than natural flow conditions. The 7-day minimum flow profile was omitted for stream reaches where natural flow was known to be altered significantly. (Lantz-PTT)

  16. Shovelnose sturgeon spawning in relation to varying discharge treatments in a Missouri River tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodman, B.J.; Guy, C.S.; Camp, S.L.; Gardner, W.M.; Kappenman, K.M.; Webb, M.A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Many lotic fish species use natural patterns of variation in discharge and temperature as spawning cues, and these natural patterns are often altered by river regulation. The effects of spring discharge and water temperature variation on the spawning of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus have not been well documented. From 2006 through 2009, we had the opportunity to study the effects of experimental discharge levels on shovelnose sturgeon spawning in the lower Marias River, a regulated tributary to the Missouri River in Montana. In 2006, shovelnose sturgeon spawned in the Marias River in conjunction with the ascending, peak (134 m3/s) and descending portions of the spring hydrograph and water temperatures from 16°C to 19°C. In 2008, shovelnose sturgeon spawned in conjunction with the peak (118 m3/s) and descending portions of the spring hydrograph and during a prolonged period of increased discharge (28–39 m3/s), coupled with water temperatures from 11°C to 23°C in the lower Marias River. No evidence of shovelnose sturgeon spawning was documented in the lower Marias River in 2007 or 2009 when discharge remained low (14 and 20 m3/s) despite water temperatures suitable and optimal (12°C-24°C) for shovelnose sturgeon embryo development. A similar relationship between shovelnose sturgeon spawning and discharge was observed in the Teton River. These data suggest that discharge must reach a threshold level (28 m3/s) and should be coupled with water temperatures suitable (12°C-24°C) or optimal (16°C-20°C) for shovelnose sturgeon embryo development to provide a spawning cue for shovelnose sturgeon in the lower Marias River.

  17. Concentrations and loads of suspended sediment-associated pesticides in the San Joaquin River, California and tributaries during storm events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, M.L.; Domagalski, J.L.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    Current-use pesticides associated with suspended sediments were measured in the San Joaquin River, California and its tributaries during two storm events in 2008. Nineteen pesticides were detected: eight herbicides, nine insecticides, one fungicide and one insecticide synergist. Concentrations for the herbicides (0.1 to 3000 ng/g; median of 6.1 ng/g) were generally greater than those for the insecticides (0.2 to 51 ng/g; median of 1.5 ng/g). Concentrations in the tributaries were usually greater than in the mainstem San Joaquin River and the west side tributaries were higher than the east side tributaries. Estimated instantaneous loads ranged from 1.3 to 320 g/day for herbicides and 0.03 to 53 g/day for insecticides. The greatest instantaneous loads came from the Merced River on the east side. Instantaneous loads were greater for the first storm of 2008 than the second storm in the tributaries while the instantaneous loads within the San Joaquin River were greater during the second storm. Pesticide detections generally reflected pesticide application, but other factors such as physical-chemical properties and timing of application were also important to pesticide loads.

  18. Concentrations and loads of suspended sediment-associated pesticides in the San Joaquin River, California and tributaries during storm events.

    PubMed

    Hladik, Michelle L; Domagalski, Joseph L; Kuivila, Kathryn M

    2009-12-20

    Current-use pesticides associated with suspended sediments were measured in the San Joaquin River, California and its tributaries during two storm events in 2008. Nineteen pesticides were detected: eight herbicides, nine insecticides, one fungicide and one insecticide synergist. Concentrations for the herbicides (0.1 to 3,000 ng/g; median of 6.1 ng/g) were generally greater than those for the insecticides (0.2 to 51 ng/g; median of 1.5 ng/g). Concentrations in the tributaries were usually greater than in the mainstem San Joaquin River and the west side tributaries were higher than the east side tributaries. Estimated instantaneous loads ranged from 1.3 to 320 g/day for herbicides and 0.03 to 53 g/day for insecticides. The greatest instantaneous loads came from the Merced River on the east side. Instantaneous loads were greater for the first storm of 2008 than the second storm in the tributaries while the instantaneous loads within the San Joaquin River were greater during the second storm. Pesticide detections generally reflected pesticide application, but other factors such as physical-chemical properties and timing of application were also important to pesticide loads.

  19. Nitrate in the Mississippi River and its tributaries, 1980-2010: an update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Jennifer C.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Sprague, Lori A.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate concentration and flux were estimated from 1980 through 2010 at eight sites in the Mississippi River Basin as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These estimates extend the results from a previous investigation that provided nitrate estimates from 1980 through 2008 at the same sites. From 1980 through 2010, annual flow-normalized (FN) nitrate concentration and flux in the Iowa and Illinois Rivers decreased by 11 to 15 percent. These two rivers had the highest FN nitrate concentration in 1980 (5.3 milligrams per liter [mg/L] and 3.9 mg/L, respectively) of any of the study sites. Nitrate increased in the Missouri River (79 and 45 percent increase in FN concentration and flux, respectively), and at the four sites on the Mississippi River (17 to 70 percent increase in FN concentration and 8 to 55 percent increase in FN flux) from 1980 through 2010. Nitrate in the Ohio River was generally stable during this time. Historically, nitrate was high and changed little in the Iowa and Illinois Rivers; however, nitrate concentrations began to decrease around 2000, and this decrease continued through 2010. Also during this time, near-flat nitrate trends in lower sections of the Mississippi River began increasing, likely reflecting the acceleration of already increasing nitrate trends in the upper Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, in addition to increases in inputs from other tributaries in the lower part of the Mississippi River Basin. Spring trends (April through June) generally parallel annual trends at all sites from 1980 through 2010, except in the Iowa River where decreasing nitrate during the spring was not observed. In general, most sites had increases in nitrate concentration at low streamflows, which suggests increases in legacy nitrate from groundwater or point source contributions. In aggregate, the decreases in nitrate concentrations from the Iowa and Illinois Rivers, which largely occurred during

  20. Influences of local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics on fish assemblages within impoundments of low-head dams in the tributaries of the Qingyi River, China

    PubMed Central

    LI, Xian; LI, Yu-Ru; CHU, Ling; ZHU, Ren; WANG, Li-Zhu; YAN, Yun-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Low-head dam impoundments modify local habitat and alter fish assemblages; however, to our knowledge, the pattern of how fish assemblages in the impoundments relate to local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics is still unclear. We used data collected in 62 impoundments created by low-head dams in headwater streams of the Qingyi River, China, to examine relationships between fish assemblages and local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics. We also assessed the relative importance of the three groups of factors in determining fish species richness and composition. Linear regression models showed that fish species richness was related to substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, and dam number upstream. Redundancy analysis showed that fish species compositions were influenced by substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, dam height, dam numbers upstream and downstream. Overall, dam characteristics were more important in affecting fish species richness but less important in determining fish species composition than local habitat (i.e., substrate heterogeneity) and tributary position. Our results suggest that low-head dam may affect fish species richness in impoundments by modifying local habitat and constraining fish movement, and the relative abundances of those fish species may depend more on species habitat presences and stream size than on impoundment size and number. PMID:27029863

  1. Influences of local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics on fish assemblages within impoundments of low-head dams in the tributaries of the Qingyi River, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Li, Yu-Ru; Chu, Ling; Zhu, Ren; Wang, Li-Zhu; Yan, Yun-Zhi

    2016-03-18

    Low-head dam impoundments modify local habitat and alter fish assemblages; however, to our knowledge, the pattern of how fish assemblages in the impoundments relate to local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics is still unclear. We used data collected in 62 impoundments created by low-head dams in headwater streams of the Qingyi River, China, to examine relationships between fish assemblages and local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics. We also assessed the relative importance of the three groups of factors in determining fish species richness and composition. Linear regression models showed that fish species richness was related to substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, and dam number upstream. Redundancy analysis showed that fish species compositions were influenced by substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, dam height, dam numbers upstream and downstream. Overall, dam characteristics were more important in affecting fish species richness but less important in determining fish species composition than local habitat (i.e., substrate heterogeneity) and tributary position. Our results suggest that low-head dam may affect fish species richness in impoundments by modifying local habitat and constraining fish movement, and the relative abundances of those fish species may depend more on species habitat presences and stream size than on impoundment size and number. PMID:27029863

  2. Influences of local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics on fish assemblages within impoundments of low-head dams in the tributaries of the Qingyi River, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Li, Yu-Ru; Chu, Ling; Zhu, Ren; Wang, Li-Zhu; Yan, Yun-Zhi

    2016-03-18

    Low-head dam impoundments modify local habitat and alter fish assemblages; however, to our knowledge, the pattern of how fish assemblages in the impoundments relate to local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics is still unclear. We used data collected in 62 impoundments created by low-head dams in headwater streams of the Qingyi River, China, to examine relationships between fish assemblages and local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics. We also assessed the relative importance of the three groups of factors in determining fish species richness and composition. Linear regression models showed that fish species richness was related to substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, and dam number upstream. Redundancy analysis showed that fish species compositions were influenced by substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, dam height, dam numbers upstream and downstream. Overall, dam characteristics were more important in affecting fish species richness but less important in determining fish species composition than local habitat (i.e., substrate heterogeneity) and tributary position. Our results suggest that low-head dam may affect fish species richness in impoundments by modifying local habitat and constraining fish movement, and the relative abundances of those fish species may depend more on species habitat presences and stream size than on impoundment size and number.

  3. Channel-morphology data for the Tongue River and selected tributaries, southeastern Montana, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chase, Katherine J.

    2004-01-01

    Coal-bed methane exploration and production have begun within the Tongue River watershed in southeastern Montana. The development of coal-bed methane requires production of large volumes of ground water, some of which may be discharged to streams, potentially increasing stream discharge and sediment load. Changes in stream discharge or sediment load may result in changes to channel morphology through changes in erosion and vegetation. These changes might be subtle and difficult to detect without baseline data that indicate stream-channel conditions before extensive coal-bed methane development began. In order to provide this baseline channel-morphology data, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, collected channel-morphology data in 2001-02 to document baseline conditions for several reaches along the Tongue River and selected tributaries. This report presents channel-morphology data for five sites on the mainstem Tongue River and four sites on its tributaries. Bankfull, water-surface, and thalweg elevations, channel sections, and streambed-particle sizes were measured along reaches near streamflow-gaging stations. At each site, the channel was classified using methods described by Rosgen. For six sites, bankfull discharge was determined from the stage- discharge relation at the gage for the stage corresponding to the bankfull elevation. For three sites, the step-backwater computer model HEC-RAS was used to estimate bankfull discharge. Recurrence intervals for the bankfull discharge also were estimated for eight of the nine sites. Channel-morphology data for each site are presented in maps, tables, graphs, and photographs.

  4. Chemical and sediment mass transfer in the Yamuna River — A tributary of the Ganges system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, P. K.; Subramanian, V.; Sitasawad, R.

    1988-12-01

    Maximum mass transfer, in the Yamuna River takes place during the monsoon season. The sediment load constitutes 58-86% of the total load carried by the river depending upon the sites. Tributaries are chemically more active than the mainstream. The total load of the river seems to be controlled by lithology. At Allahabad, the Yamuna carries 42 × 10 6t dissolved chemical load and 64 × 10 6t sediment load to the Ganges river. The TSM/TDS ratio shows that upstream physical weathering is more dominant than chemical weathering. The negative relation between basin area and total erosion rate and the positive relation between the chemical and sediment erosion in the Yamuna basin is in agreement with the global trend. The average chemical erosion rate (165 t km -2yr -1) of the Yamuna is much higher than that of the Ganges and the Indian average. The total erosion rate (973 t km -2yr -1) is 1.7 times greater than that of the Ganges. Upstream the Yamuna removes 1.04 mm yr -1 of the basin surface; the removal rate decreases downstream to 0.19 mm yr -1 at Allahabad, the point of confluence with the Ganges.

  5. Nitrate concentrations in river waters of the upper Thames and its tributaries.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen P; Neal, Margaret; Hill, Linda; Wickham, Heather

    2006-07-15

    The spatial and temporal patterns of in-stream nitrate concentrations for the upper Thames and selected tributaries are described in relation to point and diffuse sources for these rural catchments. The rivers associated with catchments dominated by permeable (Cretaceous Chalk) bedrock show a smaller range in nitrate concentrations than those associated with clay and mixed sedimentary bedrock of lower permeability. The differences reflect the contrasting nature of water storage within the catchments and the influence of point and diffuse sources of nitrate. Nitrate concentrations often increase in a gradual way as a function of flow for the rivers draining the permeable catchments, although there is usually a minor dip in nitrate concentrations at low to intermediate flow due to (1) within-river uptake of nitrate during the spring and the summer when biological activity is particularly high and (2) a seasonal fall in the water table and a change in preferential flow-pathway in the Chalk. There is also a decrease in the average nitrate concentration downstream for the Kennet where average concentrations decrease from around 35 to 25 mg NO(3) l(-1). For the lower permeability catchments, when point source inputs are not of major significance, nitrate concentrations in the rivers increase strongly with increasing flow and level off and in some cases then decline at higher flows. When point source inputs are important, the initial increase in nitrate concentrations do not always occur and there can even be an initial dilution, since the dilution of point sources of nitrate will be lowest under low-flow conditions. For the only two tributaries of the Thames which we have monitored for over 5 years (the Pang and the Kennet), nitrate concentrations have increased over time. For the main stem of the Thames, which was also monitored for over 5 years, there is no clear increase over time. As the Pang and the Kennet river water is mainly supplied from the Chalk, the

  6. Synthetic organic agrochemicals in the lower Mississippi River and its major tributaries: Distribution, transport and fate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Leiker, T.J.; ,

    1992-01-01

    The Mississippi River and its major tributaries transport herbicides and their degradation products from agricultural areas in the mid-western U.S.A. These compounds include atrazine and its degradation products (desethyl- and desisopropylatrazine), simazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and alachlor and its degradation products (2-chloro-2',6'-diethylacetanilide, 2-hydroxy-2',6'-diethylacetanilide and 2,6-diethylaniline). These compounds were identified and confirmed by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Loads of these compounds were determined during five sampling trips in 1987-1989. Stream loads of these compounds indicated that atrazine and metolachlor were relatively conservative in downstream transport. Alachlor and its degradation products were generated from point and non-point sources. Seasonal variations and hydrologic conditions controlled the loads of these compounds in the Mississippi River. Cross-channel mixing was slow downstream from major river confluences, possibly requiring several hundred kilometers of downriver transit for completion. The annual transport of these compounds into the Gulf of Mexico was estimated to be < 2% of the annual application of each herbicide in the Midwest.The Mississippi River and its major tributaries transport herbicides and their degradation products from agricultural areas in the mid-western U.S.A. These compounds include atrazine and its degradation products (desethyl- and desisopropylatrazine), simazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and alachlor and its degradation products (2-chloro-2???,6???-diethylacetanilide, 2-hydroxy-2???,6???-diethylacetanilide and 2,6-diethylaniline). These compounds were identified and confirmed by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Loads of these compounds were determined during five sampling trips in 1987-1989. Stream loads of these compounds indicated that atrazine and metolachlor were relatively conservative in downstream transport. Alachlor and its degradation products

  7. Peak-flow frequency for tributaries of the Colorado River downstream of Austin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, William H.

    1998-01-01

    Peak-flow frequency for 38 stations with at least 8 years of data in natural (unregulated and nonurbanized) basins was estimated on the basis of annual peak-streamflow data through water year 1995. Peak-flow frequency represents the peak discharges for recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 years. The peak-flow frequency and drainage basin characteristics for the stations were used to develop two sets of regression equations to estimate peak-flow frequency for tributaries of the Colorado River in the study area. One set of equations was developed for contributing drainage areas less than 32 square miles, and another set was developed for contributing drainage areas greater than 32 square miles. A procedure is presented to estimate the peak discharge at sites where both sets of equations are considered applicable. Additionally, procedures are presented to compute the 50-, 67-, and 90-percent prediction interval for any estimation from the equations.

  8. The occurrence and distribution of trace metals in the Mississippi River and its tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, H.E.; Garbarino, J.R.; Brinton, T.I.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative and semiquantitative analyses of dissolved trace metals are reported for designated sampling sites on the Mississippi River and its main tributaries utilizing depth-integrated and width-integrated sampling technology to collect statistically representative samples. Data are reported for three sampling periods, including: July-August 1987, November-December 1987, and May-June 1988. Concentrations of Al, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sr, Tl, U, V, and Zn are reported quantitatively, with the remainder of the stable metals in the periodic table reported semiquantitatively. Correlations between As and V, Ba and U, Cu and Zn, Li and Ba, and Li and U are significant at the 99% confidence level for each of the sampling trips. Comparison of the results of this study for selected metals with other published data show generally good agreement for Cr, Cu, Fe, and Zn, moderate agreement for Mo, and poor agreement for Cd and V.

  9. Anguillicola crassus infection in Anguilla rostrata from small tributaries of the Hudson River watershed, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Machut, L S; Limburg, K E

    2008-03-01

    We studied the invasion of the exotic nematode parasite Anguillicola crassus in the American eel Anguilla rostrata using tributaries of the Hudson River estuary. Yellow-phase American eels were sampled from 6 tributaries, and their swim bladders were examined for nematode infection. Prevalence averaged 39% with an intensity of 2.4 nematodes per eel. Parasite distribution was not significant along a latitudinal gradient; on the other hand, physical barriers (dams and natural waterfalls) significantly reduced infections upstream. Urbanization may increase the susceptibility of eels to infection; we found significantly elevated infection rates when urbanized lands exceeded 15% of the tributary catchment area. Yellow-phase eel condition was not affected by parasite infection. The invasion of the entire Hudson River watershed is ongoing and therefore will continue to be a management concern. Further analysis of the parasite-host interaction in North America is warranted. PMID:18429440

  10. Anguillicola crassus infection in Anguilla rostrata from small tributaries of the Hudson River watershed, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Machut, L S; Limburg, K E

    2008-03-01

    We studied the invasion of the exotic nematode parasite Anguillicola crassus in the American eel Anguilla rostrata using tributaries of the Hudson River estuary. Yellow-phase American eels were sampled from 6 tributaries, and their swim bladders were examined for nematode infection. Prevalence averaged 39% with an intensity of 2.4 nematodes per eel. Parasite distribution was not significant along a latitudinal gradient; on the other hand, physical barriers (dams and natural waterfalls) significantly reduced infections upstream. Urbanization may increase the susceptibility of eels to infection; we found significantly elevated infection rates when urbanized lands exceeded 15% of the tributary catchment area. Yellow-phase eel condition was not affected by parasite infection. The invasion of the entire Hudson River watershed is ongoing and therefore will continue to be a management concern. Further analysis of the parasite-host interaction in North America is warranted.

  11. Oil sands development contributes elements toxic at low concentrations to the Athabasca River and its tributaries.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Erin N; Schindler, David W; Hodson, Peter V; Short, Jeffrey W; Radmanovich, Roseanna; Nielsen, Charlene C

    2010-09-14

    We show that the oil sands industry releases the 13 elements considered priority pollutants (PPE) under the US Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Water Act, via air and water, to the Athabasca River and its watershed. In the 2008 snowpack, all PPE except selenium were greater near oil sands developments than at more remote sites. Bitumen upgraders and local oil sands development were sources of airborne emissions. Concentrations of mercury, nickel, and thallium in winter and all 13 PPE in summer were greater in tributaries with watersheds more disturbed by development than in less disturbed watersheds. In the Athabasca River during summer, concentrations of all PPE were greater near developed areas than upstream of development. At sites downstream of development and within the Athabasca Delta, concentrations of all PPE except beryllium and selenium remained greater than upstream of development. Concentrations of some PPE at one location in Lake Athabasca near Fort Chipewyan were also greater than concentration in the Athabasca River upstream of development. Canada's or Alberta's guidelines for the protection of aquatic life were exceeded for seven PPE-cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, and zinc-in melted snow and/or water collected near or downstream of development. PMID:20805486

  12. Methods for estimating tributary streamflow in the Chattahoochee River basin between Buford Dam and Franklin, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamey, Timothy C.

    1998-01-01

    Simple and reliable methods for estimating hourly streamflow are needed for the calibration and verification of a Chattahoochee River basin model between Buford Dam and Franklin, Ga. The river basin model is being developed by Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division, as part of their Chattahoochee River Modeling Project. Concurrent streamflow data collected at 19 continuous-record, and 31 partial-record streamflow stations, were used in ordinary least-squares linear regression analyses to define estimating equations, and in verifying drainage-area prorations. The resulting regression or drainage-area ratio estimating equations were used to compute hourly streamflow at the partial-record stations. The coefficients of determination (r-squared values) for the regression estimating equations ranged from 0.90 to 0.99. Observed and estimated hourly and daily streamflow data were computed for May 1, 1995, through October 31, 1995. Comparisons of observed and estimated daily streamflow data for 12 continuous-record tributary stations, that had available streamflow data for all or part of the period from May 1, 1995, to October 31, 1995, indicate that the mean error of estimate for the daily streamflow was about 25 percent.

  13. Floods on Beech River, Wolf and Owl Creeks, Brazil, Onemile and Town Branches; and an unnamed Tributary to Beech River in the vicinity of Lexington, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the extent and severity of the flood potential along selected reaches of the Beech River, Tributary to Beech River, Owl and Wolf Creeks, and Brazil, Onemile and Town Branches in the vicinity of Lexington, Tennessee. The study was requested by the city of Lexington to provided detailed information in order to better administer its floodplain management program.

  14. Chemical analyses of surface water in Illinois, 1958-74; Volume II, Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, R.W.; Toler, L.G.

    1978-01-01

    Samples of surface water were collected and analyzed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency and its predecessor, the Stream Pollution Control Bureau of the Illinois Department of Public Health. The results for the period 1958 to 1974 are presented in tabular form and the history of sampling and analytical methods are included for all sites where samples were collected at gaging stations or near enough that reliable discharge estimates could be made. The report is contained in three volumes. This volume (Volume II) includes Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin. (See also W78-10034 and W78-10036) (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Chemical analyses of surface water in Illinois, 1975-77; Volume 2, Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grason, David; Healy, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Samples of surface water were collected and analyzed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. The results from water years 1975 to 1977 are presented in three volumes. The history of sampling and analytical methods used during that period are summarized. Stream discharge data from records of the U.S. Geological Survey are included for all sites where samples were collected at gaging stations or near enough that reliable discharge estimates could be made. Volume II includes the Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Patterns of migration and residency in coastal cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii from two tributaries of the lower Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, G.B.; Zydlewski, J.; Johnson, J.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal cutthroat trout Onchorhynchus clarkii clarkii life-history variants, migration and freshwater residency were monitored using stationary passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag arrays in two tributaries of the Columbia River from 2001 to 2005 (Abernathy Creek, river kilometre, rkm 76) and from 2002 to 2005 (Chinook River, rkm 6). In 2001-2003 and 2002-2003 (Abernathy and Chinook, respectively), 300-500 coastal O. c. clarkii were captured in each tributary by electrofishing and implanted with 23 mm PIT tags. PIT arrays monitored movements from the initiation of tagging through the spring of 2005. Rotary screw traps were also operated on both tributaries. In Abernathy Creek, 28% of tagged individuals were observed through either active capture or passive interrogation. Of these, 32% were identified as migrants and 68% were identified as residents. In the Chinook River, 48% of tagged fish were observed subsequent to tagging; 92% of these fish were migrants and only 8% were resident. In both tributaries, a greater proportion of resident fish were in the upper reaches. The majority of migrants (78-93%) moved the spring following tagging. Migrants leaving at age 2+ years tended to grow faster than those that migrated at age 3+ years or residents. Patterns of growth or growth opportunities may influence both patterns of life-history expression and the timing of migration. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.430 Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted...

  18. 33 CFR 334.450 - Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC; restricted area. 334.450 Section 334.450 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.450 Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army...

  19. 75 FR 53264 - Restricted Area in Cape Fear River and Tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Restricted Area in Cape Fear River and Tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Army requested that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) revise...

  20. 75 FR 53197 - Restricted Area in Cape Fear River and Tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Restricted Area in Cape Fear River and Tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Army requested that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps)...

  1. Streamflow characteristics of small tributaries of Rock Creek, Milk River basin, Montana, base period water years 1983-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles; Hull, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Five streamflow-gaging stations were installed in the Rock Creek basin north of the Milk River near Hinsdale, Montana. Streamflow was monitored at these stations and at an existing gaging station upstream on Rock Creek from May 1983 through September 1987. The data collected were used to describe the flow characteristics of four small tributary streams. Annual mean streamflow ranges from 2.8 to 57 cu ft/sec in the mainstem and from 0 to 0.60 cu ft/sec in the tributaries. Monthly mean streamflow ranged from 0 to 528 cu ft/sec in Rock Creek and from zero to 5.3 cu ft/sec in the four tributaries. The six gaged sites show similar patterns of daily mean streamflow during periods of large runoff, but substantial individual variations during periods of lesser runoff. During periods of lesser runoff , the small tributaries may have small daily mean streamflows. At other times, daily mean streamflow at the two mainstem sites decreased downstream. Daily mean streamflow in the tributaries appears to be closely related to daily mean streamflow in the mainstem only during periods of substantial area-wide runoff. Thus, streamflow in the tributaries resulting from local storms or local snowmelt may not contribute to streamflow in the mainstem. (USGS)

  2. River basin organization around the main stem: Scale invariance in tributary branching and the incremental area function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangodagamage, Chandana; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Belmont, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    The incremental increase in contributing area along a main stem river, called here the incremental area function (IAF), has direct relevance to the spatial heterogeneity of environmental fluxes (water, sediment, nutrients, etc.) entering the stream from hillslopes and side tributaries. It also dictates, to a large extent, possible ecohydrologic discontinuities or transitions resulting from large tributary contributions. Mathematically, the IAF directly reflects the topological and geometrical structure of the river network and maps the two-dimensional landscape organization into a one-dimensional function. In this paper, we use two approaches to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the IAF. First, we implement a multithreshold decomposition on IAF to study the distribution of distances between tributaries as a function of the imposed threshold contributing area and verify the presence of a simple power law scaling relationship between the threshold and the average distance between tributaries. Second, we use a wavelet-based multiscale approach and document the presence of statistical self-affinity (multifractality) in the IAF with a high intermittency coefficient, reflecting the complex arrangement of extreme contributions of different size tributaries. We propose a multiplicative cascade model, parameterized in terms of basin-specific properties, to statistically simulate the IAF along the main stem. Finally, we point out the relation between the IAF and the widely used width function of a basin and show how the latter can be constructed from the former via a convolution on the self-similar structure of a tree.

  3. Heterotrophic free-living and particle-bound bacterial cell size in the river Cauvery and its downstream tributaries.

    PubMed

    Harsha, T S; Yamakanamardi, Sadanand M; Mahadevaswamy, M

    2007-03-01

    This is the first comprehensive study on planktonic heterotrophic bacterial cell size in the river Cauvery and its important tributaries in Karnataka State, India. The initial hypothesis that the mean cell size of planktonic heterotrophic bacteria in the four tributaries are markedly different from each other and also from that in the main river Cauvery was rejected, because all five watercourses showed similar planktonic heterotrophic bacterial cell size. Examination of the correlation between mean heterotrophic bacterial cell size and environmental variables showed four correlations in the river Arkavathy and two in the river Shimsha. Regression analysis revealed that 18%of the variation in mean heterotrophic free-living bacterial cell size was due to biological oxygen demand (BOD)in the river Arkavathy, 11% due to surface water velocity (SWV)in the river Cauvery and 11% due to temperature in the river Kapila. Heterotrophic particle-bound bacterial cell size variation was 28% due to chloride and BOD in the river Arkavathy, 11% due to conductivity in the river Kapila and 8% due to calcium in the river Cauvery. This type of relationship between heterotrophic bacterial cell size and environmental variables suggests that,though the mean heterotrophic bacterial cell size was similar in all the five water courses, different sets of environmental variables apparently control the heterotrophic bacterial cell size in the various water bodies studied in this investigation. The possible cause for this environmental (bottom -up) control is discussed. PMID:17435327

  4. Channel infiltration from floodflows along the Pawnee River and its tributaries, west-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillespie, James B.; Perry, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Most of the streams is west-central Kansas are ephemeral. Natural recharge to the alluvial aquifers underlying these streams occurs during periods of storm runoff in the ephemeral channels. Proposed flood-retarding structures within the basin will alter the downstream runoff characteristics in these channels by reducing the peak flow and increasing the flow duration. Information concerning channel-infiltration rate, unsaturated and saturated flow, and lithology of the unsaturated zone as related to stream stage and duration was collected along the Pawnee River and its tributaries to determine the effects of the flood-retarding structures. The infiltration rate on ephemeral streams was determined at five sites within the Pawnee River Basin. Tests were conducted in channel infiltrometers constructed by isolating a section of channel with two plastic-lined wooden cofferdams. At two of the sites, perched groundwater mounds intersected the bottom of the channel and reduced the infiltration rate. At two other sites where the perched groundwater mounds did not reach the bottom of the channel, the infiltration rate was directly proportional to the stage. Comparison of infiltration from simulated controlled and uncontrolled floodflows at the five sites indicated an average increase of about 2% with the controlled floodflow. Cumulative infiltration for these simulations ranged from 0.5 to 14.8 acre-ft/mi of channel. (USGS)

  5. Low-flow profiles of the upper Oconee River and tributaries in Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, R.F.; Hopkins, E.H.; Perlman, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Low flow information is provided for use in an evaluation of the capacity of streams to permit withdrawals or to accept waste loads without exceeding the limits of State water quality standards. The purpose of this report is to present the results of a compilation of available low flow data in the form of tables and ' 7Q10 flow profiles ' (minimum average flow for 7 consecutive days with a 10-yr recurrence interval)(7Q10 flow plotted against distance along a stream channel) for all streams reaches of the Upper Oconee River and tributaries in Georgia where sufficient data of acceptable accuracy are available. Drainage area profiles are included for all stream basins larger than 5 sq mi, except for those in a few remote areas. This report is the second in a series of reports that will cover all stream basins north of the Fall Line in Georgia. It includes the Oconee River basin down to and including Camp Creek at stream mile 134.53, Town Creek in Baldwin and Hancock Counties down to County Road 213-141, and Buffalo Creek in Hancock County down to the Hancock-Washington County line. Flow records were not adjusted for diversions or other factors that cause measured flows to represent other than natural flow conditions. The 7-day minimum flow profile was omitted for stream reaches where natural flow was known to be altered significantly. (Lantz-PTT)

  6. Parasites of fishes in the Colorado River and selected tributaries in Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Sterner, Mauritz C.; Linder, Chad; Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Persons, Bill; Choudhury, Anindo; Haro, Roger

    2012-01-01

    As part of the endangered humpback chub (HBC; Gila cypha) Adaptive Management Program, a parasite survey was conducted from 28 June to 17 July 2006 in 8 tributaries and 7 adjacent sections of the main stem of the Colorado River, U.S.A. In total, 717 fish were caught, including 24 HBC. Field necropsies yielded 19 parasite species, 5 of which (Achtheres sp., Kathlaniidae gen. sp., Caryophyllaidae gen. sp., Myxidium sp., and Octomacrum sp.) are new records for Grand Canyon, Arizona, U.S.A. Spearman's correlation coefficient analyses showed no correlations between parasite burden and fork length for various combinations of fish and parasite species. Regression analyses suggest that no parasite species had a strong effect on fish length. The most diverse parasite community (n=14) was at river kilometer (Rkm) 230, near the confluence of Kanab Creek. The most diverse parasite infracommunity (n=12) was found in the non-native channel catfish (CCF; Ictaluris punctatus). Overall parasite prevalence was highest in CCF (85%) followed by that in HBC (58%). The parasite fauna of humpback chub was mainly composed of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi and Ornithodiplostomum sp. metacercariae.

  7. Parasites of fishes in the Colorado River and selected tributaries in Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Linder, Chad M; Cole, Rebecca A; Hoffnagle, Timothy L; Persons, Bill; Choudhury, Anindo; Haro, Roger; Sterner, Mauritz

    2012-02-01

    As part of the endangered humpback chub (HBC; Gila cypha ) Adaptive Management Program, a parasite survey was conducted from 28 June to 17 July 2006 in 8 tributaries and 7 adjacent sections of the main stem of the Colorado River, U.S.A. In total, 717 fish were caught, including 24 HBC. Field necropsies yielded 19 parasite species, 5 of which (Achtheres sp., Kathlaniidae gen. sp., Caryophyllaidae gen. sp., Myxidium sp., and Octomacrum sp.) are new records for Grand Canyon, Arizona, U.S.A. Spearman's correlation coefficient analyses showed no correlations between parasite burden and fork length for various combinations of fish and parasite species. Regression analyses suggest that no parasite species had a strong effect on fish length. The most diverse parasite community (n = 14) was at river kilometer (Rkm) 230, near the confluence of Kanab Creek. The most diverse parasite infracommunity (n = 12) was found in the non-native channel catfish (CCF; Ictaluris punctatus). Overall parasite prevalence was highest in CCF (85%) followed by that in HBC (58%). The parasite fauna of humpback chub was mainly composed of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi and Ornithodiplostomum sp. metacercariae.

  8. Parasites of fishes in the Colorado River and selected tributaries in Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Linder, Chad M; Cole, Rebecca A; Hoffnagle, Timothy L; Persons, Bill; Choudhury, Anindo; Haro, Roger; Sterner, Mauritz

    2012-02-01

    As part of the endangered humpback chub (HBC; Gila cypha ) Adaptive Management Program, a parasite survey was conducted from 28 June to 17 July 2006 in 8 tributaries and 7 adjacent sections of the main stem of the Colorado River, U.S.A. In total, 717 fish were caught, including 24 HBC. Field necropsies yielded 19 parasite species, 5 of which (Achtheres sp., Kathlaniidae gen. sp., Caryophyllaidae gen. sp., Myxidium sp., and Octomacrum sp.) are new records for Grand Canyon, Arizona, U.S.A. Spearman's correlation coefficient analyses showed no correlations between parasite burden and fork length for various combinations of fish and parasite species. Regression analyses suggest that no parasite species had a strong effect on fish length. The most diverse parasite community (n = 14) was at river kilometer (Rkm) 230, near the confluence of Kanab Creek. The most diverse parasite infracommunity (n = 12) was found in the non-native channel catfish (CCF; Ictaluris punctatus). Overall parasite prevalence was highest in CCF (85%) followed by that in HBC (58%). The parasite fauna of humpback chub was mainly composed of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi and Ornithodiplostomum sp. metacercariae. PMID:21793700

  9. Oil sands development contributes polycyclic aromatic compounds to the Athabasca River and its tributaries

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Erin N.; Short, Jeffrey W.; Schindler, David W.; Hodson, Peter V.; Ma, Mingsheng; Kwan, Alvin K.; Fortin, Barbra L.

    2009-01-01

    For over a decade, the contribution of oil sands mining and processing to the pollution of the Athabasca River has been controversial. We show that the oil sands development is a greater source of contamination than previously realized. In 2008, within 50 km of oil sands upgrading facilities, the loading to the snowpack of airborne particulates was 11,400 T over 4 months and included 391 kg of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), equivalent to 600 T of bitumen, while 168 kg of dissolved PAC was also deposited. Dissolved PAC concentrations in tributaries to the Athabasca increased from 0.009 μg/L upstream of oil sands development to 0.023 μg/L in winter and to 0.202 μg/L in summer downstream. In the Athabasca, dissolved PAC concentrations were mostly <0.025 μg/L in winter and 0.030 μg/L in summer, except near oil sands upgrading facilities and tailings ponds in winter (0.031–0.083 μg/L) and downstream of new development in summer (0.063–0.135 μg/L). In the Athabasca and its tributaries, development within the past 2 years was related to elevated dissolved PAC concentrations that were likely toxic to fish embryos. In melted snow, dissolved PAC concentrations were up to 4.8 μg/L, thus, spring snowmelt and washout during rain events are important unknowns. These results indicate that major changes are needed to the way that environmental impacts of oil sands development are monitored and managed. PMID:19995964

  10. Water and sediment quality of the Yukon River and its tributaries, from Eagle to St. Marys, Alaska, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dornblaser, Mark M.; Halm, Douglas R.

    2006-01-01

    The Yukon River basin is a vast and diverse ecosystem covering more than 330,000 square miles, an area larger than Texas. Approximately 126,000 people live within the basin and depend on the Yukon River and its tributaries for drinking water, commerce, and recreational and subsistence fish and game resources. Much of the Yukon River basin is underlain by permafrost containing vast amounts of organic carbon and nutrients. Recent climatic warming of the basin has resulted in lengthening of the growing season, melting of permafrost, deepening of the soil active layer, drying of upland soils, and shrinking of wetlands. These mostly terrestrial effects also affect the hydrology of the basin, changing the timing, magnitude, and fate of water and dissolved and particulate materials delivery to the Yukon River and its tributaries. As permafrost melts, stored carbon and nutrients are expected to become available for decomposition by soil organisms or for export downstream and to the Bering Sea. Such changes can have numerous, far-reaching effects on the ecosystem, including increased emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane; changes in stream productivity, including salmon populations; changes in the productivity and chemistry of the Bering Sea; and increased fire frequency. One important question is whether organic carbon export to rivers will increase or decrease downstream from large wetland areas presently having substantial carbon storage, such as Yukon Flats. Because very few historical water-quality data are available for the Yukon River basin, scientists are unable to quantitatively assess potential effects of climate warming on aquatic ecosystems in the basin. In order to address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a comprehensive baseline water-quality characterization of the Yukon River and its major tributaries during 2000-05. The study included frequent water-quality sampling at a fixed-site network. In addition to the

  11. Distribution of Unionid Mussels in Tributaries of the Lower Flint River, Southwestern Georgia: An Examination of Current and Historical Trends.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golladay, S. W.

    2005-05-01

    The historically diverse assemblage of freshwater mussels in the Flint River Basin has shown declines in abundance and distribution. The mid-reaches of the major tributaries of the Flint River contained one of the richest assemblages of mussels in the southeastern Coastal Plain. Declines in mussel assemblages accelerated following a recent severe drought (1999-2001). Following the drought, we surveyed mussel populations at selected sites in the major tributaries of the Flint River to determine whether declines in abundance and distribution are continuing. Many populations of common, rare, and endangered species were stable in their distribution (# taxa per site) but exhibited declines in abundance. One survey site in particular, on Spring Creek, contains a rich assemblage of mussels unique to the basin, and surveys from this site also suggest diminishing populations. Possible explanations for declines include poor water quality, loss or degradation of instream habitat, competition from the exotic Asiatic clam, and inadequate instream flows.

  12. Presumptive Sources of Fecal Contamination in Four Tributaries to the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathes, Melvin V.; O'Brien, Tara L.; Strickler, Kriston M.; Hardy, Joshua J.; Schill, William B.; Lukasik, Jerzy; Scott, Troy M.; Bailey, David E.; Fenger, Terry L.

    2007-01-01

    Several methods were used to determine the sources of fecal contamination in water samples collected during September and October 2004 from four tributaries to the New River Gorge National River -- Arbuckle Creek, Dunloup Creek, Keeney Creek, and Wolf Creek. All four tributaries historically have had elevated levels of fecal coliform bacteria. The source-tracking methods used yielded various results, possibly because one or more methods failed. Sourcing methods used in this study included the detection of several human-specific and animal-specific biological or molecular markers, and library-dependent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis that attempted to associate Escherichia coli bacteria obtained from water samples with animal sources by matching DNA-fragment banding patterns. Evaluation of the results of quality-control analysis indicated that pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis was unable to identify known-source bacteria isolates. Increasing the size of the known-source library did not improve the results for quality-control samples. A number of emerging methods, using markers in Enterococcus, human urine, Bacteroidetes, and host mitochondrial DNA, demonstrated some potential in associating fecal contamination with human or animal sources in a limited analysis of quality-control samples. All four of the human-specific markers were detected in water samples from Keeney Creek, a watershed with no centralized municipal wastewater-treatment facilities, thus indicating human sources of fecal contamination. The human-specific Bacteroidetes and host mitochondrial DNA markers were detected in water samples from Dunloup Creek, Wolf Creek, and to a lesser degree Arbuckle Creek. Results of analysis for wastewater compounds indicate that the September 27 sample from Arbuckle Creek contained numerous human tracer compounds likely from sewage. Dog, horse, chicken, and pig host mitochondrial DNA were detected in some of the water samples with the exception of the

  13. Water Quality of the Snake River and Five Eastern Tributaries in the Upper Snake River Basin, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 1998-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Sadler, Wilfrid J.; O'Ney, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    To address water-resource management objectives of the National Park Service in Grand Teton National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service has conducted water-quality sampling in the upper Snake River Basin. Routine sampling of the Snake River was conducted during water years 1998-2002 to monitor the water quality of the Snake River through time. A synoptic study during 2002 was conducted to supplement the routine Snake River sampling and establish baseline water-quality conditions of five of its eastern tributaries?Pilgrim Creek, Pacific Creek, Buffalo Fork, Spread Creek, and Ditch Creek. Samples from the Snake River and the five tributaries were collected at 12 sites and analyzed for field measurements, major ions and dissolved solids, nutrients, selected trace metals, pesticides, and suspended sediment. In addition, the eastern tributaries were sampled for fecal-indicator bacteria by the National Park Service during the synoptic study. Major-ion chemistry of the Snake River varies between an upstream site above Jackson Lake near the northern boundary of Grand Teton National Park and a downstream site near the southern boundary of the Park, in part owing to the inputs from the eastern tributaries. Water type of the Snake River changes from sodium bicarbonate at the upstream site to calcium bicarbonate at the downstream site. The water type of the five eastern tributaries is calcium bicarbonate. Dissolved solids in samples collected from the Snake River were significantly higher at the upstream site (p-value<0.001), where concentrations in 43 samples ranged from 62 to 240 milligrams per liter, compared to the downstream site where concentrations in 33 samples ranged from 77 to 141 milligrams per liter. Major-ion chemistry of Pilgrim Creek, Pacific Creek, Buffalo Fork, Spread Creek, and Ditch Creek generally did not change substantially between the upstream sites near the National Park Service boundary with the National

  14. Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in aquatic food chains from the Upper Sacramento River (California) and selected tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Castleberry, D. T.; May, T. W.; Martin, B.A.; Bullard, F. N.

    1995-01-01

    Metals enter the Upper Sacramento River above Redding, California, primarily through Spring Creek, a tributary that receives acid-mine drainage from a US EPA Superfund site known locally as Iron Mountain Mine. Waterweed (Elodea canadensis) and aquatic insects (midge larvae, Chironomidae; and mayfly nymphs, Ephemeroptera) from the Sacramento River downstream from Spring Creek contained much higher concentrations of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) than did similar taxa from nearby reference tributaries not exposed to acid-mine drainage. Aquatic insects from the Sacramento River contained especially high maximum concentrations of Cu (200 mg/kg dry weight in midge larvae), Cd (23 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs), and Zn (1,700 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs). Although not always statistically significant, whole-body concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn in fishes (threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus; Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis; Sacramento squawfish, Ptychocheilus grandis; and chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytasch) from the Sacramento River were generally higher than in fishes from the reference tributaries.

  15. Widespread dieback of riparian trees on a dammed ephemeral river and evidence of local mitigation by tributary flows

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, Mark; Harrison, Xavier A.; Henschel, Joh R.; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Ephemeral rivers act as linear oases in drylands providing key resources to people and wildlife. However, not much is known about these rivers’ sensitivities to human activities. We investigated the landscape-level determinants of riparian tree dieback along the Swakop River, a dammed ephemeral river in Namibia, focusing on the native ana tree (Faidherbia albida) and the invasive mesquite (Prosopis spp.). We surveyed over 1,900 individual trees distributed across 24 sites along a 250 km stretch of the river. General linear mixed models were used to test five hypotheses relating to three anthropogenic threats: river flow disruption from damming, human settlement and invasive species. We found widespread dieback in both tree populations: 51% mortality in ana tree, with surviving trees exhibiting 18% canopy death (median); and 26% mortality in mesquite, with surviving trees exhibiting 10% canopy death. Dieback in the ana tree was most severe where trees grew on drier stretches of the river, where tributary flow was absent and where mesquite grew more abundantly. Dieback in the mesquite, a more drought-tolerant taxon, did not show any such patterns. Our findings suggest that dieback in the ana tree is primarily driven by changes in river flow resulting from upstream dam creation and that tributary flows provide a local buffer against this loss of main channel flow. The hypothesis that the invasive mesquite may contribute to ana tree dieback was also supported. Our findings suggest that large dams along the main channels of ephemeral rivers have the ability to cause widespread mortality in downstream riparian trees. To mitigate such impacts, management might focus on the maintenance of natural tributary flows to buffer local tree populations from the disruption to main channel flow. PMID:27812420

  16. Habitat use of American eel (Anguilla rostrata) in a tributary of the Hudson River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Nack, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    American eel Anguilla rostrata populations are declining over much of their native range. Since American eels spend extended periods in freshwater, understanding their habitat requirements while freshwater residents is important for the management and conservation of this species. As there is little information on American eel habitat use in streams, the ontogenetic, diel, and seasonal habitat use as well as habitat selectivity of three size groups (i.e. ≤199 mm total length, 200–399 mm, ≥400 mm) of eel were examined in a tributary of the Hudson River. American eels in Hannacroix Creek exhibited ontogenetic, diel, and seasonal variation in habitat use as well as habitat selection. During both summer and autumn all sizes of American eels used larger substrate and more cover during the day. American eels ≤199 mm exhibited the strongest habitat selection, whereas eels 200–399 mm exhibited the least. During the autumn all sizes of American eels occupied slower depositional areas where deciduous leaf litter accumulated and provided cover. This may have important implications for in-stream and riparian habitat management of lotic systems used by American eel.

  17. [Macrobenthos in Jinping reach of Yalongjiang River and its main tributaries].

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiao-dong; Cao, Ming; Shao, Mei-ling; Li, Dao-feng; Cai, Qing-hua

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an investigation was made on the macrobenthos at 25 sites in the Jinping reach of Yalongjiang River and its main tributaries in May and November 2004, aimed to study the relationships between macrobenthos distribution and environmental factors. The results showed that the dominant species of macrobenthos was Baetis sp. (Baetidae, Ephemeroptera), with a relative abundance being 14.9% and 27.0% in May and November, respectively. Based on the species composition and their relative abundance, and by using two-way indictor species analysis (TWINSPAN) and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), the macrobenthods was divided into four groups, according to the habitat types of the sites. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) on the relationships between macrobenthods community structure and environmental factors indicated that in May, elevation and water hardness and NH4+ -N content were the main environmental factors affecting macrobenthods distribution, while in November, elevation, water hardness, NH4+ -N and SiO2 contents were the main ones. PMID:17396517

  18. Anadromous sea lampreys recolonize a Maine coastal river tributary after dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogg, Robert; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Sedgeunkedunk Stream, a third-order tributary to the Penobscot River, Maine, historically supported several anadromous fishes, including the Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, AlewifeAlosa pseudoharengus, and Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus. However, two small dams constructed in the 1800s reduced or eliminated spawning runs entirely. In 2009, efforts to restore marine–freshwater connectivity in the system culminated with removal of the lowermost dam, thus providing access to an additional 4.6 km of lotic habitat. Because Sea Lampreys utilized accessible habitat prior to dam removal, they were chosen as a focal species with which to quantify recolonization. During spawning runs of 2008–2011 (before and after dam removal), individuals were marked with PIT tags and their activity was tracked with daily recapture surveys. Open-population mark–recapture models indicated a fourfold increase in the annual abundance of spawning-phase Sea Lampreys, with estimates rising from 59±4 () before dam removal (2008) to 223±18 and 242±16 after dam removal (2010 and 2011, respectively). Accompanying the marked increase in annual abundance was a greater than fourfold increase in nesting sites: the number of nests increased from 31 in 2008 to 128 and 131 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. During the initial recolonization event (i.e., in 2010), Sea Lampreys took 6 d to move past the former dam site and 9 d to expand into the furthest upstream reaches. Conversely, during the 2011 spawning run, Sea Lampreys took only 3 d to penetrate into the upstream reaches, thus suggesting a potential positive feedback in which larval recruitment into the system may have attracted adult spawners via conspecific pheromone cues. Although more research is needed to verify the migratory pheromone hypothesis, our study clearly demonstrates that small-stream dam removal in coastal river systems has the potential to enhance recovery of declining anadromous fish populations.

  19. 76 FR 45690 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Raritan River, Arthur Kill and Their Tributaries, Staten Island...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... tributaries, in the Federal Register (76 FR 16715). We received one comment in response to the proposed rule... Kill and Their Tributaries, Staten Island, NY and Elizabeth, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final... operation of the Arthur Kill (AK) Railroad Bridge at mile 11.6, across Arthur Kill between Staten...

  20. Predicting the occurrence of cold water patches at intermittent and ephemeral tributary confluences with warm rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small, cold tributary streams can provide important thermal refuge habitat for cold-water fishes such as Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) residing in warm, downstream receiving waters. We investigated the potential function of small perennial and non-perennial tributary stream...

  1. Flood-inundation mapping for the Blue River and selected tributaries in Kansas City, Missouri, and vicinity, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heimann, David C.; Weilert, Trina E.; Kelly, Brian P.; Studley, Seth E.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and City of Kansas City, Missouri, operate multiple streamgages along the Blue River and tributaries in and near the city. Knowledge of water level at a streamgage is difficult to translate into depth and areal extent of flooding at points distant from the streamgage. One way to address these informational gaps is to produce a library of flood-inundation maps that are referenced to the stages recorded at a streamgage. By referring to the appropriate map, emergency responders can discern the severity of flooding (depth of water and areal extent), identify roads that are or may be flooded, and make plans for notification or evacuation of residents in harm’s way for some distance upstream and downstream from the streamgage. The USGS, in cooperation with the city of Kansas City, Missouri, developed a library of flood-inundation maps for the Blue River and selected tributaries.

  2. Particle size of sediments collected from the bed of the Amazon River and its tributaries in May and June 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordin, Carl F.; Meade, R.H.; Curtis, W.F.; Bosio, N.J.; Delaney, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    One-hundred-eight samples of bed material were collected from the Amazon River and its major tributaries between Belem, Brazil , and Iquitos, Peru. Samples were taken with a standard BM-54 sampler or with pipe dredges from May 18 to June 5, 1977. Most of the samples have median diameters in the size range of fine to medium sand and contain small percentages of fine gravel. Complete size distributions are tabulated. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Particle size of sediments collected from the bed of the Amazon River and its tributaries in June and July 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordin, Carl F.; Meade, R.H.; Mahoney, H.A.; Delany, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    Sixty-five samples of bed material were collected from the Amazon River and its major tributaries between Belem, Brazil, and Iquitos, Peru. Samples were taken with a standard BM-54 sampler, a pipe dredge, or a Helley-Smith bedload sampler. Most of the samples have median diameters in the size range of fine to medium sand and contain small percentages of fine gravel. Complete size distributions are tabulated.

  4. Distribution of selected halogenated organic compounds among suspended particulate, colloid, and aqueous phases in the Mississippi River and major tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Daniel, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    Suspended particulate, colloid, and aqueous phases were separated and analyzed to determine spatial variation of specific organic compound transport associated with each phase in a dynamic river system. Sixteen sites along the Mississippi River and its major tributaries were sampled at low-flow conditions to maximize the possibility of equilibrium. Across the solubility range studied, the proportion transported by each phase depended on the compound solubility, with more water-soluble compounds (dacthal, trifluralin) transported predominantly in the aqueous phase and less-water soluble compounds (polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordane-related compounds) transported predominantly in the particulate and colloid phases. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  5. Assessing Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon Restoration in the Upper Clearwater River and Principal Tributaries, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnsberg, Billy D.; Statler, David P.

    1995-08-01

    This is the first annual report of a five year study to assess summer and fall chinook salmon restoration potential in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries, Salmon, Grande Ronde, and Imnaha Rivers. During 1994, the authors focused primarily on assessing water temperatures and spawning habitat in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Water temperature analysis indicated a colder temperature regime in the upper Clearwater River above the North Fork Clearwater River confluence during the winter as compared to the lower Clearwater. This was due to warm water releases from Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork moderating temperatures in the lower Clearwater River. Thermal temperature unit analysis and available literature suggest a 75% survival threshold level may be anticipated for chinook salmon egg incubation if spawning would occur by November 1 in the upper Clearwater River. Warm water upwelling in historic summer and fall chinook spawning areas may result in increased incubation survivals and will be tested in the future. The authors observed a total of 37 fall chinook salmon redds in the Clearwater River subbasin. They observed 30 redds in the mainstem Clearwater below the North Fork Clearwater River confluence and seven redds in the North Fork Clearwater River. No redds were observed in the South Fork Clearwater, Middle Fork Clearwater, or Selway Rivers. They observed one fall chinook salmon redd in the Salmon River. They recovered 10 fall chinook salmon carcasses in the Clearwater River to obtain biological measurements and to document hatchery contribution to spawning. Unseasonably high and cold Dworshak Dam releases coinciding with early juvenile fall chinook salmon rearing in the lower Clearwater River may be influencing selective life history traits including growth, smolt development, outmigration timing, behavior, and could be directly affecting survival. During July 1994, discharges from Dworshak Dam increased from a

  6. The characterization and distribution of inorganic chemicals in tributary waters of the lower Athabasca river, Oilsands region, Canada.

    PubMed

    Headley, J V; Crosley, B; Conly, F M; Quagraine, E K

    2005-01-01

    At present, there are two large industrial plants recovering oil from the lower Athabasca oil sands area and there are plans for several more mines in the area. There are environmental concerns for aquatic life in areas downstream of current and future oil sands activities. To assess and predict potential impacts of industrial activities, it is important to separate impacts from those produced by naturally occurring oil sands deposit. Studies were therefore conducted to determine whether the water quality of tributaries to the Athabasca River, which have not been impacted by anthropogenic activities, is affected by inorganic constituents resulting from flowing through reaches with natural oilsands deposit. Three tributaries, Steepbank River, Mackay River, and Ells River at upstream and downstream locations on each stream were investigated during four surveys from 1998 to 2000. In addition to some physical parameters such as pH, conductance and hardness and the major ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate, and silicates), seventeen trace metals were investigated. Some of these metals, especially iron and manganese, were of high concentrations and in some instances, particularly in a survey conducted during the spring freshets in April 1999, exceeded guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. The observed concentrations of metals seem to be of natural origin and can be used as base-line data for future assessment of anthropogenic activities in the oil sand region.

  7. Algal and Water-Quality Data for the Yellowstone River and Tributaries, Montana and Wyoming, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Streams of the Yellowstone River Basin in Montana and Wyoming were sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Algal communities were sampled in 1999 in conjunction with other ecological sampling and in 2000 during synoptic sampling. Water-quality measurements related to the algal sampling included light attenuation and dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Sites were sampled on the main-stem Yellowstone River, major tributaries such as the Clarks Fork Yellowstone River and the Bighorn River, and selected minor tributaries. Some of the data collected, such as the phytoplankton chlorophyll-a data, were referenced or summarized in previous U.S. Geological Survey reports but were not previously published in tabular form, and therefore are presented in this report, prepared in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality. Data presented in this report include chlorophyll-a concentrations in phytoplankton and periphyton samples, as well as light attenuation and dissolved-oxygen production data from 1999-2000.

  8. The characterization and distribution of inorganic chemicals in tributary waters of the lower Athabasca river, Oilsands region, Canada.

    PubMed

    Headley, J V; Crosley, B; Conly, F M; Quagraine, E K

    2005-01-01

    At present, there are two large industrial plants recovering oil from the lower Athabasca oil sands area and there are plans for several more mines in the area. There are environmental concerns for aquatic life in areas downstream of current and future oil sands activities. To assess and predict potential impacts of industrial activities, it is important to separate impacts from those produced by naturally occurring oil sands deposit. Studies were therefore conducted to determine whether the water quality of tributaries to the Athabasca River, which have not been impacted by anthropogenic activities, is affected by inorganic constituents resulting from flowing through reaches with natural oilsands deposit. Three tributaries, Steepbank River, Mackay River, and Ells River at upstream and downstream locations on each stream were investigated during four surveys from 1998 to 2000. In addition to some physical parameters such as pH, conductance and hardness and the major ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate, and silicates), seventeen trace metals were investigated. Some of these metals, especially iron and manganese, were of high concentrations and in some instances, particularly in a survey conducted during the spring freshets in April 1999, exceeded guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. The observed concentrations of metals seem to be of natural origin and can be used as base-line data for future assessment of anthropogenic activities in the oil sand region. PMID:15663297

  9. Suspended-sediment loads from major tributaries to the Missouri River between Garrison Dam and Lake Oahe, North Dakota, 1954-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.

    2000-01-01

    Annual suspended-sediment loads for water years 1954 through 1998 were estimated for the major tributaries in the Missouri River Basin between Garrison Dam and Lake Oahe in North Dakota and for the Missouri River at Garrison Dam and the Missouri River at Bismarck, N. Dak. The major tributaries are the Knife River, Turtle Creek, Painted Woods Creek, Square Butte Creek, Burnt Creek, Heart River, and Apple Creek. Sediment and streamflow data used to estimate the suspended-sediment loads were from selected U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations located within each basin. Some of the stations had no sediment data available and limited continuous streamflow data for water years 1954 through 1998. Therefore, data from nearby streamflow-gaging stations were assumed for the calculations.The Heart River contributed the largest amount of suspended sediment to the Missouri River for 1954-98. Annual suspended-sediment loads in the Heart River near Mandan ranged from less than 1 to 40 percent of the annual suspended-sediment load in the Missouri River. The Knife River contributed the second largest amount of suspended sediment to the Missouri River. Annual suspended-sediment loads in the Knife River at Hazen ranged from less than 1 to 19 percent of the annual suspended-sediment load in the Missouri River. Apple Creek, Turtle Creek, Painted Woods Creek, Square Butte Creek, and Burnt Creek all contributed 2 percent or less of the annual suspended-sediment load in the Missouri River. The Knife River and the Heart River also had the largest average suspended-sediment yields for the seven tributaries. The yield for the Knife River was 91.1 tons per square mile, and the yield for the Heart River was 133 tons per square mile. The remaining five tributaries had yields of less than 24 tons per square mile based on total drainage area.

  10. Determination of the 100-year flood plain on Upper Three Runs and selected tributaries, and the Savannah River at the Savannah River site, South Carolina, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanier, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The 100-year flood plain was determined for Upper Three Runs, its tributaries, and the part of the Savannah River that borders the Savannah River Site. The results are provided in tabular and graphical formats. The 100-year flood-plain maps and flood profiles provide water-resource managers of the Savannah River Site with a technical basis for making flood-plain management decisions that could minimize future flood problems and provide a basis for designing and constructing drainage structures along roadways. A hydrologic analysis was made to estimate the 100-year recurrence- interval flow for Upper Three Runs and its tributaries. The analysis showed that the well-drained, sandy soils in the head waters of Upper Three Runs reduce the high flows in the stream; therefore, the South Carolina upper Coastal Plain regional-rural-regression equation does not apply for Upper Three Runs. Conse- quently, a relation was established for 100-year recurrence-interval flow and drainage area using streamflow data from U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations on Upper Three Runs. This relation was used to compute 100-year recurrence-interval flows at selected points along the stream. The regional regression equations were applicable for the tributaries to Upper Three Runs, because the soil types in the drainage basins of the tributaries resemble those normally occurring in upper Coastal Plain basins. This was verified by analysis of the flood-frequency data collected from U.S. Geological Survey gaging station 02197342 on Fourmile Branch. Cross sections were surveyed throughout each reach, and other pertinent data such as flow resistance and land-use were col- lected. The surveyed cross sections and computed 100-year recurrence-interval flows were used in a step-backwater model to compute the 100-year flood profile for Upper Three Runs and its tributaries. The profiles were used to delineate the 100-year flood plain on topographic maps. The Savannah River forms the southwestern border

  11. Mercury Contributions from Flint Creek and other Tributaries to the Upper Clark Fork River in Northwestern Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langner, H.; Young, M.; Staats, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    Methylmercury contamination in biota is a major factor diminishing the environmental quality of the Upper Clark Fork River (CFR), e.g. by triggering human consumption limits of fish. The CFR is subject to one of the largest Superfund cleanup projects in the US, but remediation and restoration is currently focused exclusively on other mining-related contaminants (As, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd), which may be counterproductive with respect to the bio-availability of mercury, for example by creation of wetlands along mercury-contaminated reaches of the river. The identification and elimination of Hg sources is an essential step toward reducing the methylmercury exposure in the biota of the CFR watershed because a strong correlation exists between total mercury levels in river sediment and methylmercury levels in aquatic life. We analyzed duplicate samples from the top sediment layer of the main stem and significant tributaries to the Clark Fork River along a 240 km reach between Butte, MT and downstream of the Missoula Valley. Mercury concentrations were 1.3 × 1.6 (mean × SD, n = 35) in the main stem. Concentrations in tributaries varied widely (0.02 to 85 mg/kg) and seemed only loosely related to the number of historic precious metal mines in the watershed. In the upper reach of the CFR, elevated Hg levels are likely caused by residual contaminated sediments in the flood plain. Levels tend to decrease downstream until Drummond, MT, where Flint Creek contributes a significant amount of mercury, causing Hg levels in the main stem CFR to increase from 0.7 to 4 mg/kg. Levels continue to decrease downstream. Flint Creek is the single largest contributor of Hg to the CFR. Detailed sampling of the main stem Flint Creek and tributaries (26 sites) showed extremely high levels in two tributaries (22 to 85 mg/kg) where historic milling operations were located. Elimination of these point sources may be accomplished comparatively economically and may significantly reduce mercury levels in

  12. A reconnaissance study of halogenated organic compounds in catfish from the lower Mississippi river and its major tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leiker, T.J.; Rostad, C.E.; Barnes, C.R.; Pereira, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Blue catfish, (Ictarurus furcatus), black bullhead catfish, (Ictalurus melas), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), and flathead catfish (Pylodictus olivaris), were collected along a 1200 mile river reach of the Mississippi River and its major tributaries. Tissue samples were extracted and analyzed by fused silica capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to determine the concentrations of hydrophobic organic halogenated contaminants that have bioconcentrated within the tissues. The compounds identified in the tissue include chlordane, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites along with several other chlorinated pesticides. The data indicates that the southern reach of the river system appears to be more contaminated than the middle and upper reaches of the study area.

  13. Characterization of water quality in selected tributaries of the Alamosa River, southwestern Colorado, including comparisons to instream water-quality standards and toxicological reference values, 1995-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, Roderick F.; Ferguson, Sheryl A.

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive water-quality sampling network was implemented by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1995 through 1997 at 12 tributary sites to the Alamosa River. The network was designed to address data gaps identified in the initial ecological risk assessment of the Summitville Superfund site. Tributaries draining hydrothermally altered areas had higher median values for nearly all measured properties and constituents than tributaries draining unaltered areas. Colorado instream standards for pH, copper, iron, and zinc were in attainment at most tributary sites. Instream standards for pH and chronic aquatic-life standards for iron were not attained in Jasper Creek. Toxicological reference values were most often exceeded at Iron Creek, Alum Creek, Bitter Creek, Wightman Fork, and Burnt Creek. These tributaries all drain hydrothermally altered areas.

  14. Viruses and bacteria in floodplain lakes along a major Amazon tributary respond to distance to the Amazon River.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Rafael M; Roland, Fábio; Cardoso, Simone J; Farjalla, Vinícius F; Bozelli, Reinaldo L; Barros, Nathan O

    2015-01-01

    In response to the massive volume of water along the Amazon River, the Amazon tributaries have their water backed up by 100s of kilometers upstream their mouth. This backwater effect is part of the complex hydrodynamics of Amazonian surface waters, which in turn drives the variation in concentrations of organic matter and nutrients, and also regulates planktonic communities such as viruses and bacteria. Viruses and bacteria are commonly tightly coupled to each other, and their ecological role in aquatic food webs has been increasingly recognized. Here, we surveyed viral and bacterial abundances (BAs) in 26 floodplain lakes along the Trombetas River, the largest clear-water tributary of the Amazon River's north margin. We correlated viral and BAs with temperature, pH, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), phosphorus, nitrogen, turbidity, water transparency, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), phytoplankton abundance, and distance from the lake mouth until the confluence of the Trombetas with the Amazon River. We hypothesized that both bacterial and viral abundances (VAs) would change along a latitudinal gradient, as the backwater effect becomes more intense with increased proximity to the Amazon River; different flood duration and intensity among lakes and waters with contrasting sources would cause spatial variation. Our measurements were performed during the low water period, when floodplain lakes are in their most lake-like conditions. Viral and BAs, DOC, pCO2, and water transparency increased as distance to the Amazon River increased. Most viruses were bacteriophages, as viruses were strongly linked to bacteria, but not to phytoplankton. We suggest that BAs increase in response to DOC quantity and possibly quality, consequently leading to increased VAs. Our results highlight that hydrodynamics plays a key role in the regulation of planktonic viral and bacterial communities in Amazonian floodplain lakes.

  15. Contrasting biogeochemical characteristics of right-bank tributaries of the Oubangui River, and a comparison with the mainstem river (Congo basin, Central African Republic).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillon, Steven; Yambélé, Athanase; Gillikin, David P.; Teodoru, Cristian; Darchambeau, François; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

    2014-05-01

    The Oubangui is a major right-bank tributary of the Congo River, draining an area of ~500,000 km² of mainly wooded savannahs. Here, we describe data on the physico-chemical characteristics and biogeochemistry of contrasting tributaries within the central Oubangui catchment collected during 3 field surveys between 2010 and 2012, with land use ranging from wooded savannahs to humid tropical rainforest. Compared to data from two years of sampling at high temporal resolution on the mainstem river in Bangui (Central African Republic), these tributaries show a remarkably wide range of biogeochemical signatures, from highly diluted blackwaters (low turbidity, pH, conductivity and total alkalinity (TA)) in rivers draining dense rainforests to those more typical for (sub)tropical savannah systems. Based on carbon stable isotope data (δ13C), the majority of sites show a corresponding dominance of C3-derived organic matter, with a tendency for increased C4 contributions the more turbid sites such as the Mpoko River. δ13C of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were generally similar to those of particulate organic carbon (POC) across the different tributaries. δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) ranged between -28.1 ‰ in low-TA rainforest (blackwater) rivers to -5.8 ‰ in the mainstem Oubangui. These variations were strongly correlated to both partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and to the estimated contribution of carbonate weathering to total alkalinity, suggesting an important control of the dominant weathering regime (silicate versus carbonate weathering) on DIC and CO2 fluxes. All tributaries were consistently oversaturated in dissolved greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O, and CO2) with respect to atmospheric equilibrium, with highest levels observed in rivers draining rainforest vegetation. The high diversity observed within this subcatchment of the Congo River basin is equivalent to that observed in much larger, heterogeneous catchments, and underscores the importance of

  16. Occurrence, distributions, and transport of herbicides and their degradation products in the lower Mississippi river and its tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Mississippi River and its tributaries drain extensive agricultural regions of the midcontinental United States, where large amounts of herbicides are applied as weed control agents on crops such as corn and soybeans. Studies being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey along the lower Mississippi River and its major tributaries, representing a 1930-km river reach, have confirmed that several triazine and chloroacetanilide herbicides and their degradation products are present in this riverine system. These herbicides include atrazine, and its degradation products, desethyl- and desisopropylatrazine; cyanazine; simazine; metolachlor; and alachlor and its degradation products, 2-chloro-2???,6???-diethylacetanilide, and 2-hydroxy-2???,6???-diethylacetanilide. Loads of these compounds were determined at 17 different sampling stations under various seasonal and hydrologic conditions, during five sampling trips from July 1987 to June 1989. Stream loads of herbicides were relatively small during the drought of 1987 and 1988. Stream loads were much greater during the relatively wet year of 1989. Trace levels of atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor also were associated with suspended sediments. Distribution coefficients (Koc) of these compounds varied considerably between sites and were much larger than Koc values reported in the literature. The annual transport of atrazine into the Gulf of Mexico was estimated to be less than 2% of the amount of atrazine applied each year in the midwest.

  17. 76 FR 16715 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Raritan River, Arthur Kill and Their Tributaries, Staten Island...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may submit a request... Kill and Their Tributaries, Staten Island, NY and Elizabeth, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... regulations governing the operation of the Arthur Kill (AK) Railroad Bridge at mile 11.6, across Arthur...

  18. Viruses and bacteria in floodplain lakes along a major Amazon tributary respond to distance to the Amazon River

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Rafael M.; Roland, Fábio; Cardoso, Simone J.; Farjalla, Vinícius F.; Bozelli, Reinaldo L.; Barros, Nathan O.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the massive volume of water along the Amazon River, the Amazon tributaries have their water backed up by 100s of kilometers upstream their mouth. This backwater effect is part of the complex hydrodynamics of Amazonian surface waters, which in turn drives the variation in concentrations of organic matter and nutrients, and also regulates planktonic communities such as viruses and bacteria. Viruses and bacteria are commonly tightly coupled to each other, and their ecological role in aquatic food webs has been increasingly recognized. Here, we surveyed viral and bacterial abundances (BAs) in 26 floodplain lakes along the Trombetas River, the largest clear-water tributary of the Amazon River’s north margin. We correlated viral and BAs with temperature, pH, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), phosphorus, nitrogen, turbidity, water transparency, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), phytoplankton abundance, and distance from the lake mouth until the confluence of the Trombetas with the Amazon River. We hypothesized that both bacterial and viral abundances (VAs) would change along a latitudinal gradient, as the backwater effect becomes more intense with increased proximity to the Amazon River; different flood duration and intensity among lakes and waters with contrasting sources would cause spatial variation. Our measurements were performed during the low water period, when floodplain lakes are in their most lake-like conditions. Viral and BAs, DOC, pCO2, and water transparency increased as distance to the Amazon River increased. Most viruses were bacteriophages, as viruses were strongly linked to bacteria, but not to phytoplankton. We suggest that BAs increase in response to DOC quantity and possibly quality, consequently leading to increased VAs. Our results highlight that hydrodynamics plays a key role in the regulation of planktonic viral and bacterial communities in Amazonian floodplain lakes. PMID:25788895

  19. The upside-down river: Reservoirs, algal blooms, and tributaries affect temporal and spatial patterns in nitrogen and phosphorus in the Klamath River, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Allison A.; Dahlgren, Randy A.; Deas, Michael L.

    2014-11-01

    The Klamath River, located in Oregon/California of the Northwestern U.S., is highly impounded and also experiences large seasonal algal blooms and impaired water quality. We investigated nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) constituents for one year (2010-2011) across 193 km of the Klamath River at sites above and below reservoirs and major tributaries to determine the influence of these features on longitudinal and temporal trends in concentrations, loads, and N:P ratios. In general, the headwater lake (Upper Klamath Lake) and reservoirs appeared to be the dominant influence on water quality and nutrient dynamics in the upper river, whereas tributaries appeared to exert stronger influence in the lower river. Overall, high nutrients and poor water quality at upstream sites were ameliorated downstream, however the downstream reductions in N were much greater relative to P. Seasonality appeared to play a major role in the overall appearance and magnitude of longitudinal trends. The greatest upstream-downstream differences occurred during periods of time following large algal blooms in the upper portion of the river. Overall, the amount and composition of N appeared to be strongly driven by algal blooms and biogeochemical conditions such as low oxygen, high pH and warm temperatures in the upper portion of the river, whereas P was more strongly driven by seasonal hydrology. The spatiotemporal influence of reservoirs and tributaries on nutrient flux and nutrient ratios may have significant implications for aquatic communities and ecosystem health. Nutrient objectives should be considered when designing restoration, management, and monitoring objectives for projects involving habitat suitability for anadromous fish and potential dam removal.

  20. Estimation of travel times for seven tributaries of the Mississippi River, St. Cloud to Minneapolis, Minnesota, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arntson, A.D.; Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Travel times for seven streams tributary to the Mississippi River from St. Cloud to Minneapolis, Minnesota, were estimated for three flow conditions; low, median, and high. Travel times were estimated for Sauk, Elk, Crow, and Rum Rivers, and Elm, Coon, and Rice Creeks. Regression equations based on watershed characteristics of drainage area, river slope, mean annual discharge, and instantaneous discharge at the time of measurement from more than 900 streams across the nation were used to estimate travel times. Travel times were estimated for the leading edge, peak concentration, and trailing edge of tracer-response curves. To test the validity of these equations, a time of travel study, using a luminescent dye, was conducted on the Sauk River, from Rockville, to the confluence with the Mississippi River on June 16, 2003, at a discharge of 457 ft3/s at Rockville. Dye was injected in the Sauk River at Rockville, and time and concentrations were measured at three sampling sections downstream; at County Road 121, Veterans Drive, and County Road 1 near the mouth. The estimated travel times for the leading edge, peak concentration, and trailing edge at County Road 1 were 10.6 hrs, 11.9 hrs, and 14.6 hrs, respectively. The measured travel times for the leading edge, peak concentration, and trailing edge were 13.4 hrs, 15.5 hrs, and 20.5 hrs, respectively for the 15.7 mile reach.

  1. Long-Term Water and Sediment Change Detection in a Small Mountainous Tributary of the Lower Pearl River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Lu, X. X.

    Hydrological regimes of river systems have been changing both qualitatively and quantitatively due to the profound human disturbances, such as river diversions, damming, and land use change. In this study, a mountainous tributary (the Luodingjiang River) of the lower Pearl River, China, was investigated to illustrate the impacts from human activities on river systems during the period 1959-2002. Mann-Kendall test and Spearman test for gradual trend and Pettitt test for abrupt change were employed to investigate the hydrological characteristics of the Luodingjiang River. Annual minimum water discharge and annual sediment yield series have significant increasing and decreasing trends, respectively, and also significant upward and downward shifts were detected by abrupt change tests, respectively, for these two data series. Neither statistically significant trends nor abrupt shift were found for annual maximum water discharge and annual mean water discharge series. The detected changes both in water and sediment point to the impacts of reservoir constructions, water diversion programs as well as land use change. However, the sediment-increasing impacts from other anthropogenic disturbances, such as road construction and mining, cannot be discerned from the recent hydrological responses.

  2. Water Quality of the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, and Their U.S. Tributaries, 1946-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Denis F.; Chambers, Douglas B.; Rachol, Cynthia M.; Jodoin, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    The St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair waterway forms an international boundary between the United States and Canada. The waters of the area are an important part of the cultural heritage of the area and serves as an important water-supply and power-generating resource; the waterway also supports an economy based largely on recreation, agriculture, and manufacturing. This report was undertaken as part of the Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project for the purpose of providing a comprehensive assessment of the hydrological, chemical, and physical state of the surface water of Lake St. Clair and its tributaries. The data varied in focus and density over the period of compilation which in many cases this variation prevented the completion of statistical analyses because data did not meet minimum comparability or quality requirements for those tests. Comparison of water quality of the Belle, Black, Clinton, and Pine River Basins, as well as basins of minor rivers in the study area, showed that water quality in many of the tributaries, particularly the Clinton River and some of the minor rivers, was degraded compared to the water quality of the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair waterway. Data analyses included comparison of nutrients, chloride, specific conductance, turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and pesticides among the basins and the St. Clair River. Median concentrations of total nitrate were well below the recommended USEPA total nitrogen ambient water-quality criterion of 0.54 mg/L as N for nutrient ecoregion VII for all study-area streams except the Clinton River. More than 93 percent of the phosphorus concentrations for the Belle, Black, Pine and minor river basins and 84 percent of the phosphorus concentrations for the Clinton River Basin are greater than the USEPA recommended ambient total phosphorus criterion of 0.033 mg/L for rivers and streams. Nine chloride concentrations exceeded the USEPA criterion maximum concentration (CMC) for chloride set at

  3. Water quality of the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, and their U.S. tributaries, 1946-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Denis F.; Chambers, Douglas B.; Rachol, Cynthia M.; Jodoin, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    The St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair waterway forms an international boundary between the United States and Canada. The waters of the area are an important part of the cultural heritage of the area and serves as an important water-supply and power-generating resource; the waterway also supports an economy based largely on recreation, agriculture, and manufacturing. This report was undertaken as part of the Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project for the purpose of providing a comprehensive assessment of the hydrological, chemical, and physical state of the surface water of Lake St. Clair and its tributaries. The data varied in focus and density over the period of compilation which in many cases this variation prevented the completion of statistical analyses because data did not meet minimum comparability or quality requirements for those tests. Comparison of water quality of the Belle, Black, Clinton, and Pine River Basins, as well as basins of minor rivers in the study area, showed that water quality in many of the tributaries, particularly the Clinton River and some of the minor rivers, was degraded compared to the water quality of the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair waterway. Data analyses included comparison of nutrients, chloride, specific conductance, turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and pesticides among the basins and the St. Clair River. Median concentrations of total nitrate were well below the recommended USEPA total nitrogen ambient water-quality criterion of 0.54 mg/L as N for nutrient ecoregion VII for all study-area streams except the Clinton River. More than 93 percent of the phosphorus concentrations for the Belle, Black, Pine and minor river basins and 84 percent of the phosphorus concentrations for the Clinton River Basin are greater than the USEPA recommended ambient total phosphorus criterion of 0.033 mg/L for rivers and streams. Nine chloride concentrations exceeded the USEPA criterion maximum concentration (CMC) for chloride set at

  4. Selected Outcomes Related to Tech Prep Implementation by Illinois Consortia, 2001-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D.; Kirby, Catherine; Zhu, Rongchun

    2006-01-01

    This report is the summary of key aspects of Tech Prep in Illinois over the five year period of 2001-2005 during which all Tech Prep consortia provided annual data based on federal legislative requirements and state-determined essential elements of successful programs. These annual Tech Prep reports enable local educators to monitor student…

  5. Characteristics of water-quality data for Lake Houston, selected tributary inflows to Lake Houston, and the Trinity River near Lake Houston (a potential source of interbasin transfer), August 1983-September 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liscum, Fred; Goss, R.L.; Rast, Walter

    1999-01-01

    In the tests comparing trace elements between the eastern and western tributaries during the same season at the same relative streamflow, five of the eight tests showed no significant differences; between the eastern tributaries and the Trinity River, all eight tests showed significant differences, with eastern tributary medians large

  6. Spawning ecology of flannelmouth sucker, Catostomus lattipinnis (Catostomidae), in two small tributaries of the lower Colorado river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiss, S.J.; Otis, E.O.; Maughan, O.E.

    1998-01-01

    We report the first published accounts of spawning behavior and spawning site selection of the flannelmouth sucker in two small tributaries of the lower Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Spawning was observed on 20 March 1992 and from 28 March to 10 April 1993 in the Paria River, and from 16 to 19 March 1993 in Bright Angel Creek. Flannelmouth suckers exhibited promiscuous spawning behavior-individual females were typically paired with two or more males for a given event and sometimes changed partners between events. Multiple egg deposits by different females sometimes occurred at one spawning site. Flannelmouth sucker selected substrates from 16 to 32 mm diameter in both streams. Spawning occurred at depths of 10 to 25 cm in the Paria River and 19 to 41 cm in Bright Angel Creek. Mean column water velocities at spawning locations ranged from 0.15 to 1.0 m sec-1 in the Paria River and from 0.23 to 0.89 m sec-1 in Bright Angel Creek. Water temperatures recorded during spawning ranged from 9 to 18??C in the Paria River and 13 to 15??C in Bright Angel Creek. Spawning flannelmouth sucker ascended 9.8 km upstream in the Paria River and 1.25 km in Bright Angel Creek. Spawning females (410-580 mm) were significantly larger than spawning males (385-530 mm) in the Paria River. The mean size of spawning fish in the Paria River was significantly smaller than the entire stock, averaged throughout the study period (380-620 mm). However, fish spawning in 1992-1993 averaged 53 mm larger than fish spawning in the same reach of the Paria River in 1981, indicating a shift in the size structure of this stock.

  7. Contrasting fish assemblages in free-flowing and impounded tributaries to the Upper Delaware River: Implications for conserving biodiversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Delucia, Mari-Beth; Keller, Walter D.; Schuler, George E.; Apse, Colin D.; Moberg, Tara

    2015-01-01

    The Neversink River and the Beaver Kill in southeastern New York are major tributaries to the Delaware River, the longest undammed river east of the Mississippi. While the Beaver Kill is free flowing for its entire length, the Neversink River is subdivided by the Neversink Reservoir, which likely affects the diversity of local fish assemblages and health of aquatic ecosystems. The reservoir is an important part of the New York City waster-supply system that provides drinking water to more than 9 million people. Fish population and community data from recent quantitative surveys at comparable sites in both basins were assessed to characterize the differences between free-flowing and impounded rivers and the extent of reservoir effects to improve our capacity to define ecosystems responses that two modified flow-release programs (implemented in 2007 and 2011) should produce in the Neversink River. In general, the continuum of changes in fish assemblages which normally occur between headwaters and mouth was relatively uninterrupted in the Beaver Kill, but disrupted by the mid-basin impoundment in the Neversink River. Fish assemblages were also adversely affected at several acidified sites in the upper Neversink River, but not at most sites assessed herein. The reservoir clearly excluded diadromous species from the upper sub-basin, but it also substantially reduced community richness, diversity, and biomass at several mid-basin sites immediately downstream from the impoundment. There results will aid future attempts to determine if fish assemblages respond to more natural, yet highly regulated, flow regimes in the Neversink River. More important, knowledge gained from this study can help optimize use of valuable water resources while promoting species of special concern, such as American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and conserving biodiversity in Catskill Mountain streams.

  8. Streamflow and sediment-transport data, Colorado River and three tributaries in Grand Canyon, Arizona, 1983 and 1985-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrett, W.B.; van de Vanter, E.K.; Graf, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected streamflow and sediment-transport data at 5 streamflow-gaging stations on the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and Lake Mead as a part of an interagency environmental study. The data were collected for about 6 mo in 1983 and about 4 mo in 1985-86; data also were collected at 3 sites on tributary streams in 1983. The data were used for development of unsteady flow-routing and sediment-transport models, sand-load rating curves, and evaluation of channel changes. For the 1983 sampling period, 1,076 composite cross-section suspended-sediment samples were analyzed; 809 of these samples were collected on the main stem of the Colorado River and 267 samples were from the tributaries. Bed-material samples were obtained at 1,988 verticals; 161 samples of material in transport near the bed (bedload) were collected to define the location of sand, gravel, and bed rock in the channel cross section; and 664 discharge measurements were made. For the 1985-86 sampling period, 765 composite cross-section suspended-sediment samples and 887 individual vertical samples from cross sections were analyzed. Bed-material samples were obtained at 531 verticals, 159 samples of bedload were collected, and 218 discharge measurements were made. All data are presented in tabular form. Some types of data also are presented in graphs to better show trends or variations. (USGS)

  9. Organic carbon and nitrogen content associated with colloids and suspended particulates from the Mississippi River and some of its tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Leenheer, J.A.; Daniel, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    Suspended material samples were collected at 16 sites along the Mississippi River and some of its tributaries during July-August 1991, October-November 1991, and April-May 1992, and separated into colloid and particulate fractions to determine the organic carbon content of these two fractions of suspended material. Sample collection involved centrifugation to isolate the suspended particulate fraction and ultrafiltration to isolate the colloid fraction. For the first time, particulate and colloid concentrations and organic carbon and nitrogen content were investigated along the entire reach of the Mississippi River from above Minneapolis, Minnesota, to below New Orleans, Louisiana. Organic carbon content of the colloid (15.2 percent) was much higher than organic carbon content of the particulate material (4.8 percent). Carbon/nitrogen ratios of colloid and particulate phases were more similar to ratios for microorganisms than to ratios for soils, humic materials, or plants.Suspended material samples were collected at 16 sites along the Mississippi River and some of its tributaries during July-August 1991, October-November 1991, and April-May 1992, and separated into colloid and particulate fractions to determine the organic carbon content of these two fractions of suspended material. Sample collection involved centrifugation to isolate the suspended particulate fraction and ultrafiltration to isolate the colloid fraction. For the first time, particulate and colloid concentrations and organic carbon and nitrogen content were investigated along the entire reach of the Mississippi River from above Minneapolis, Minnesota, to below New Orleans, Louisiana. Organic carbon content of the colloid (15.2 percent) was much higher than organic carbon content of the particulate material (4.8 percent). Carbon/nitrogen ratios of colloid and particulate phases were more similar to ratios for microorganisms than to ratios for soils, humic materials, or plants.

  10. Sediment loads in the Red River of the North and selected tributaries near Fargo, North Dakota, 2010--2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.; Nustad, Rochelle A.

    2012-01-01

    Natural-resource agencies are concerned about possible geomorphic effects of a proposed diversion project to reduce the flood risk in the Fargo-Moorhead metropolitan area. The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers collected data in the spring of 2010 and 2011, and from June to November 2011, during rainfall-runoff events and base-flow conditions to provide information on sediment transport. The data were used to examine sediment concentrations, loads, and particle-size distributions at nine selected sites in the Red River and its tributaries near the Fargo-Moorhead metropolitan area. Suspended-sediment concentration varied among sites in 2010 and 2011. The least suspended-sediment concentrations were measured at the Red River (site 1) and the Buffalo River (site 9), and the greatest concentrations were measured at the two Sheyenne River sites (sites 3 and 4). Estimated daily suspended-sediment loads were highly variable in 2010 and 2011 in the Red River and its tributaries, with the greatest loads occurring in the spring and the smallest loads occurring in the winter. For the Red River, daily suspended-sediment loads ranged from 26 to 3,500 tons per day at site 1 and from 30 to 9,010 tons per day at site 2. For the Sheyenne River, daily loads ranged from less than 10 to 10,200 tons per day at site 3 and from less than 10 to 4,530 tons per day at site 4. The mean daily load was 191 tons per day in 2010 and 377 tons per day in 2011 for the Maple River, and 610 tons per day in 2011 for the Wild Rice River (annual loads were not computed for 2010). For the three sites that were only sampled in 2011 (sites 7, 8 and 9), the mean daily suspended-sediment loads ranged from 40 tons per day at the Lower Branch Rush River (site 8) to 118 tons per day at the Buffalo River (site 9). For sites that had estimated loads in 2010 and 2011 (sites 1–5), estimated annual (March–November) suspended-sediment loads were greater in 2011 compared to

  11. Sediment Budgeting in Dam-Affected Rivers: Assessing the Influence of Damming, Tributaries, and Alluvial Valley Sediment Storage on Sediment Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, A. C.; Dekker, F. J.; Riebe, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Although sediment supply is recognized as a fundamental driver of fluvial processes, measuring how dams affect sediment regimes and incorporating such knowledge into management strategies remains challenging. To determine the influences of damming, tributary supply, and valley morphology and sediment storage on downstream sediment supply in a dryland river, the Bill Williams River (BWR) in western Arizona, we measured basin erosion rates using cosmogenic nuclide analysis of beryllium-10 (10Be) at sites upstream and downstream of a dam along the BWR, as well as from tributaries downstream of the dam. Riverbed sediment mixing calculations were used to test if the dam, which blocks sediment supply from the upper 85% of the basin's drainage area, increases the proportion of tributary sediment to residual upstream sediment in mainstem samples downstream of the dam. Erosion rates in the BWR watershed are more than twice as large in the upper catchment (136 t km-2 yr-1) than in tributaries downstream of Alamo Dam (61 t km-2 yr-1). Tributaries downstream of the dam have little influence on mainstem sediment dynamics. The effect of the dam on reducing sediment supply is limited, however, because of the presence of large alluvial valleys along the mainstem BWR downstream of the dam that store substantial sediment and mitigate supply reductions from the upper watershed. These inferences, from our 10Be derived erosion rates and mixing calculations, are consistent with field observations of downstream changes in bed material size, which suggest that sediment-deficit conditions are restricted to a 10 km reach downstream of the dam, and limited reservoir bathymetry data. Many studies have suggested that tributary sediment inputs downstream of dams play a key role in mitigating dam-induced sediment deficits, but here we show that in a dryland river with ephemeral tributaries, sediment stored in alluvial valleys can also play a key role and in some cases trumps the role of

  12. A Three-Year Study of Ichyoplankton in Coastal Plains Reaches of the Savannah River Site and its Tributaries

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.

    2007-03-05

    Altering flow regimes of rivers has large effects on native floras and faunas because native species are adapted to the natural flow regime, many species require lateral connectivity with floodplain habitat for feeding or spawning, and the change in regime often makes it possible for invasive species to replace natives (Bunn & Arthington 2002). Floodplain backwaters, both permanent and temporary, are nursery areas for age 0+ fish and stable isotope studies indicate that much of the productivity that supports fish larvae is autochthonous to these habitats (Herwig et al. 2004). Limiting access by fish to floodplain habitat for feeding, spawning and nursery habitat is one of the problems noted with dams that regulate flow in rivers and is considered to be important as an argument to remove dams and other flow regulating structures from rivers (Shuman 1995; Bednarek 2001). While there have been a number of studies in the literature about the use of floodplain habitat for fish reproduction (Copp 1989; Killgore & Baker 1996; Humphries, et al. 1999; Humphries and Lake 2000; Crain et al. 2004; King 2004) there have been only a few studies that examined this aspect of stream ecology in more than a cursory way. The study reported here was originally designed to determine whether the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site was having a negative effect on fish reproduction in the Savannah River but its experimental design allowed examination of the interactions between the river, the floodplain and the tributaries entering the Savannah River across this floodplain. This study is larger in length of river covered than most in the literature and because of its landscape scale may be in important indicator of areas where further study is required.

  13. Biodegradability of dissolved organic carbon in the Yukon River and its tributaries: Seasonality and importance of inorganic nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickland, Kimberly P.; Aiken, George R.; Butler, Kenna; Dornblaser, Mark M.; RGM Spencer,; Striegl, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Northern high-latitude rivers transport large amounts of terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) from boreal and arctic ecosystems to coastal areas and oceans. Current knowledge of the biodegradability of DOM in these rivers is limited, particularly for large rivers discharging to the Arctic Ocean. We conducted a seasonally comprehensive study of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) dynamics in the Yukon River and two of its tributaries in Alaska, USA. Distinct seasonal patterns of BDOC, consistent across a wide range of watershed size, indicate BDOC is transported year-round. Relative biodegradability (%BDOC) was greatest during winter, and decreased into spring and summer. Due to large seasonal differences in DOC concentration, the greatest concentrations of BDOC (mg C L−1) occurred during spring freshet, followed by winter and summer. While chemical composition of DOM was an important driver of BDOC, the overriding control of BDOC was mineral nutrient availability due to wide shifts in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stoichiometry across seasons. We calculated seasonal and annual loads of BDOC exported by the Yukon River by applying measured BDOC concentrations to daily water discharge values, and also by applying an empirical correlation between %BDOC and the ratio of DOC to dissolved inorganic N (DIN) to total DOC loads. The Yukon River exports ∼0.2 Tg C yr−1 as BDOC that is decomposable within 28 days. This corresponds to 12–18% of the total annual DOC export. Furthermore, we calculate that the six largest arctic rivers, including the Yukon River, collectively export ∼2.3 Tg C yr−1 as BDOC to the Arctic Ocean.

  14. Design of a sediment-monitoring gaging network on ephemeral tributaries of the Colorado River in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, Ronald E.; Topping, David J.; Anderson, Robert S.; Hancock, Gregory S.; Melis, Theodore S.

    2014-01-01

    Management of sediment in rivers downstream from dams requires knowledge of both the sediment supply and downstream sediment transport. In some dam-regulated rivers, the amount of sediment supplied by easily measured major tributaries may overwhelm the amount of sediment supplied by the more difficult to measure lesser tributaries. In this first class of rivers, managers need only know the amount of sediment supplied by these major tributaries. However, in other regulated rivers, the cumulative amount of sediment supplied by the lesser tributaries may approach the total supplied by the major tributaries. The Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon has been hypothesized to be one such river. If this is correct, then management of sediment in the Colorado River in the part of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area downstream from the dam and in Grand Canyon National Park may require knowledge of the sediment supply from all tributaries. Although two major tributaries, the Paria and Little Colorado Rivers, are well documented as the largest two suppliers of sediment to the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, the contributions of sediment supplied by the ephemeral lesser tributaries of the Colorado River in the lowermost Glen Canyon, and Marble and Grand Canyons are much less constrained. Previous studies have estimated amounts of sediment supplied by these tributaries ranging from very little to almost as much as the amount supplied by the Paria River. Because none of these previous studies relied on direct measurement of sediment transport in any of the ephemeral tributaries in Glen, Marble, or Grand Canyons, there may be significant errors in the magnitudes of sediment supplies estimated during these studies. To reduce the uncertainty in the sediment supply by better constraining the sediment yield of the ephemeral lesser tributaries, the U.S. Geological Survey Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center established eight sediment-monitoring gaging

  15. Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River and its Tributaries Between Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, and Eagle, Alaska, USA, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halm, Douglas R.; Dornblaser, Mark M.

    2007-01-01

    The Yukon River basin is the fourth largest watershed in North America at 831,400 square kilometers (km2). Approximately 126,000 people live within the basin and depend on the Yukon River and its tributaries for drinking water, commerce, subsistence, and recreational fish and game resources. Climate warming in the Arctic and Subarctic regions encompassing the Yukon basin has recently become a concern because of possible far-reaching effects on the ecosystem. Large amounts of carbon and nutrients are stored in permafrost and have potential for release in response to this warming. These changes in carbon and nutrient cycling may result in changes in stream chemistry and productivity, including salmon populations, and ultimately changes in the chemistry and productivity of the Bearing Sea. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a 5-year comprehensive water-quality study of the Yukon River and its major tributaries starting in 2000. The study included frequent water-quality sampling at a fixed site network as well as intensive sampling along the Yukon River and its major tributaries. This report contains observations of water and sediment quantity and quality of the Yukon River and its tributaries in Canada during 2004. Chemical, biological, physical, and discharge data are presented for the reach of river between Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, and Eagle, Alaska, USA.

  16. Bedrock River Incision Following Aggradation: Observations from the Waipaoa River Regarding Tributary Response to Mainstem Incision and the Role of Paleotopography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, B. T.; Whipple, K. X.

    2005-12-01

    Following a period of valley-filling aggradation, the form and extent of subsequent alluvial and bedrock incision is governed by the pre-aggradation topography and the position of the channel at the time of incision. We present findings from an extensive along-stream survey of the Waihuka Stream, a tributary to the Waipaoa River on the North Island of New Zealand. Never glaciated, this basin aggraded 5 to 25 m of coarse alluvial sediment during the last glacial period, creating an extensive and distinctive valley-fill surface. ~18 ka, aggradation ceased and a subsequent pulse of fluvial incision abandoned the aggradational surface. At present, the river gorge is incised 25 to 60 m into alluvial fill and mudstone bedrock beneath the top of the aggradational surface. Using a laser range-finder and GPS-enabled GIS surveying tool, we surveyed ~17 km of the Waihuka Stream (4.8×106 m2 to 6.3×107 m2). We collected a longitudinal profile and the relative elevations of fill and strath surfaces exposed in channel banks. We also surveyed a total of ~9 km in 14 tributaries to the Waihuka. Drainage areas of tributaries ranged between 5×105 m2 and 9.9×106 m2. In the Waihuka, we find that the amount of bedrock incision depends on whether the incising channel locally lowered through alluvial fill to reoccupy the preaggradation channel or whether it locally had to cut an entirely new valley into bedrock. Reaches dominated by bedrock incision were observed where alluvial fan deposits laterally shifted the mainstem channel out of the paleovalley and against the opposite bedrock hillslope. The along-stream variation in bed erodability forced by whether the re-incising channel encountered bedrock or alluvium had a significant effect on the propagation of the incision signal into tributaries. Where the channel dominantly re-incised alluvial fill, tributaries have stepped but not dramatically over-steepened longitudinal profiles that appear to be adjusting to the new base-level. In

  17. Evaluation of Water Quality for Two St. Johns River Tributaries Receiving Septic Tank Effluent, Duval County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wicklein, Shaun M.

    2004-01-01

    Tributary streamflow to the St. Johns River in Duval County is thought to be affected by septic tank leachate from residential areas adjacent to these tributaries. Water managers and the city of Jacksonville have committed to infrastructure improvements as part of a management plan to address the impairment of tributary water quality. In order to provide data to evaluate the effects of future remedial activities in selected tributaries, major ion and nutrient concentrations, fecal coliform concentrations, detection of wastewater compounds, and tracking of bacterial sources were used to document septic tank influences on the water quality of selected tributaries. The tributaries Fishing Creek and South Big Fishweir Creek were selected because they drain subdivisions identified as high priority locations for septic tank phase-out projects: the Pernecia and Murray Hill B subdivisions, respectively. Population, housing (number of residences), and septic tank densities for the Murray Hill B subdivision are greater than those for the Pernecia subdivision. Water-quality samples collected in the study basins indicate influences from ground water and septic tanks. Estimated concentrations of total nitrogen ranged from 0.33 to 2.86 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and ranged from less than laboratory reporting limit (0.02 mg/L) to 0.64 mg/L for total phosphorus. Major ion concentrations met the State of Florida Class III surface-water standards; total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Ecoregion XII nutrient criteria for rivers and streams 49 and 96 percent of the time, respectively. Organic wastewater compounds detected at study sites were categorized as detergents, antioxidants and flame retardants, manufactured polycarbonate resins, industrial solvents, and mosquito repellent. The most commonly detected compound was para-nonylphenol, a breakdown product of detergent. Results of wastewater sampling give evidence that

  18. Responses of phytoplankton functional groups to the hydrologic regime in the Daning River, a tributary of Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kongxian; Bi, Yonghong; Hu, Zhengyu

    2013-04-15

    Daning River is a deep tributary of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China, with water level fluctuations of 30 m annually. It was assumed that the hydrologic regime would be the main driving force in the self-assembling of the phytoplankton community in the river. In order to test this hypothesis, limnological study was performed monthly in the estuary, midstream and upstream of this tributary from May 2008 to April 2009. We identified 17 phytoplankton functional groups among 63 genera. These phytoplankton functional groups varied significantly, both seasonally and longitudinally. During the flood season (March-September), low water level and high inflows caused a marked increase in the turbidity, especially in the estuary and upstream, allowing functional group MP (the meroplanktonic diatoms) to dominate the phytoplankton community. Meanwhile, constant water level and high temperature led to the stability and thermal stratification in the midstream. These conditions resulted in a high phytoplankton biomass and the dominance of phytoplankton functional groups Y (Cryptomonas spp.) and Lo (motile Peridiniopsis niei and Peridinium) that were adapted to water stratification. During the dry season (October-February), although the inflows were low and water retention time was long, the thermal stratification was disrupted by the disturbance due to the impoundment of TGR, and the water column was deeply mixed. The phytoplankton biomass reduced and functional groups changed: group Lo declined, and group C (small diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana) increased in the estuary and midstream. Group Y replaced group MP to dominate the phytoplankton community in the upstream with the water becoming clear and stagnant. It could be deduced that the dynamics of phytoplankton in the Daning River were mainly influenced by hydrologic regime. PMID:23474263

  19. Biodegradability of dissolved and particulate organic matter in tributaries of contrasting land-use in the Upper Mississippi River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, B.; Wickland, K.; Stets, E.; Aiken, G.; Striegl, R. G.; Stackpoole, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent estimates of significant CO2 efflux from inland waters have spurred interest in respiration of organic matter (OM) as a contributor to regional carbon budgets. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been the focus of many investigations, with numerous studies targeting the structural and environmental controls on degradation rates. Very little is known about the reactivity of riverine particulate OC (POC), which can be composed of a range of materials from freshly fixed photosynthetic organic matter to ancient sedimentary OC. This study examines OC reactivity in two watersheds with contrasting land-use, the highly forested Chippewa River basin in Wisconsin (45% forested, 19% agricultural) and the heavily agricultural Minnesota River basin in Minnesota (3% forested, 72% agricultural). The Minnesota and Chippewa rivers are the largest tributary sources of suspended sediment to the Mississippi River upstream of Iowa, and their distinct land-use features lead to a diversity in carbon sources and loads across a small geographic range. Respiration incubations were conducted on the DOC and POC collected at different seasonal and flow conditions from these two rivers. Optical oxygen measurements were used for non-destructive monitoring of incubations at high temporal frequency. Coupled with traditional DOC loss and CO2 production approaches, these experiments allow for comparison of potential CO2 production from DOC and POC, determination of oxygen:carbon respiratory quotients, and compositional changes in OM (e.g. DOM fluorescence, POM elemental composition). We observed potential CO2 production from POC that was 1x and 3x greater than that of DOC at field concentrations in the Chippewa and Minnesota rivers, respectively, for incubation samples collected in spring of 2015. By linking OM respiration rates to metrics such as land use types and environmental variables, these results can help improve estimates of CO2 efflux from rivers across seasonal and spatial gradients.

  20. Biological and Physical Inventory of Clear Creek, Orofino Creek, and the Potlatch River, Tributary Streams of the Clearwater River, Idaho, 1984 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, David B.

    1985-05-01

    Clear Creek, Orofino Creek, and Potlatch Creek, three of the largest tributaries of the lower Clearwater River Basin, were inventoried during 1984. The purpose of the inventory was to identify where anadromous salmonid production occurs and to recommend enhancement alternatives to increase anadromous salmonid habitat in these streams. Anadromous and fluvial salmonids were found in all three drainages. The lower reach of Clear Creek supported a low population of rainbow-steelhead, while the middle reach supported a much greater population of rainbow-steelhead. Substantial populations of cutthroat trout were also found in the headwaters of Clear Creek. Rainbow-steelhead and brook trout were found throughout Orofino Creek. A predominant population of brook trout was found in the headwaters while a predominant population of rainbow-steelhead was found in the mainstem and lower tributaries of Orofino Creek. Rainbow-steelhead and brook trout were also found in the Potlatch River. Generally, the greatest anadromous salmonid populations in the Potlatch River were found within the middle reach of this system. Several problems were identified which would limit anadromous salmonid production within each drainage. Problems affecting Clear Creek were extreme flows, high summer water temperature, lack of riparian habitat, and high sediment load. Gradient barriers prevented anadromous salmonid passage into Orofino Creek and they are the main deterrent to salmonid production in this system. Potlatch River has extreme flows, high summer water temperature, a lack of riparian habitat and high sediment loads. Providing passage over Orofino Falls is recommended and should be considered a priority for improving salmonid production in the lower Clearwater River Basin. Augmenting flows in the Potlatch River is also recommended as an enhancement measure for increasing salmonid production in the lower Clearwater River Basin. 18 refs., 5 figs., 85 tabs.

  1. Impacts of urbanization on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in the Chaophraya River and its tributaries.

    PubMed

    Honda, Ryo; Watanabe, Toru; Sawaittayotin, Variga; Masago, Yoshifumi; Chulasak, Rungnapa; Tanong, Kulchaya; Chaminda, G Tushara; Wongsila, Krison; Sienglum, Chawala; Sunthonwatthanaphong, Varisara; Poonnotok, Anupong; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Furumai, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    River water samples were taken from 32 locations around the basin of Chaophraya River and its four major tributaries in Thailand to investigate resistance ratios of Escherichia coli isolates to eight antibiotic agents of amoxicillin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, tetracycline, doxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Principal component analysis was performed to characterize resistance patterns of the samples. Relevancy of the obtained principal components with urban land use and fecal contamination of the river were examined. The ratio of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is likely to increase when urban land use near the sampling site exceeds a certain ratio. The resistance ratio to fluoroquinolones tends to be high in a highly populated area. Meanwhile, no significant contribution of fecal contamination was found to increase the resistance ratio. These results suggest that an antibiotic-resistance ratio is dependent on conditions of local urbanization rather than the upstream conditions, and that the major sources of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the Chaophraya River basin are possibly point sources located in the urban area which contains a high ratio of resistant bacteria. PMID:26819392

  2. Impacts of urbanization on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in the Chaophraya River and its tributaries.

    PubMed

    Honda, Ryo; Watanabe, Toru; Sawaittayotin, Variga; Masago, Yoshifumi; Chulasak, Rungnapa; Tanong, Kulchaya; Chaminda, G Tushara; Wongsila, Krison; Sienglum, Chawala; Sunthonwatthanaphong, Varisara; Poonnotok, Anupong; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Furumai, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    River water samples were taken from 32 locations around the basin of Chaophraya River and its four major tributaries in Thailand to investigate resistance ratios of Escherichia coli isolates to eight antibiotic agents of amoxicillin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, tetracycline, doxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Principal component analysis was performed to characterize resistance patterns of the samples. Relevancy of the obtained principal components with urban land use and fecal contamination of the river were examined. The ratio of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is likely to increase when urban land use near the sampling site exceeds a certain ratio. The resistance ratio to fluoroquinolones tends to be high in a highly populated area. Meanwhile, no significant contribution of fecal contamination was found to increase the resistance ratio. These results suggest that an antibiotic-resistance ratio is dependent on conditions of local urbanization rather than the upstream conditions, and that the major sources of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the Chaophraya River basin are possibly point sources located in the urban area which contains a high ratio of resistant bacteria.

  3. Comparison of bacterial communities in the Solimões and Negro River tributaries of the Amazon River based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, J C C; Leomil, L; Souza, J V; Peixoto, F B S; Astolfi-Filho, S

    2011-01-01

    The microbiota of the Amazon River basin has been little studied. We compared the structure of bacterial communities of the Solimões and Negro Rivers, the main Amazon River tributaries, based on analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Water was sampled with a 3-L Van Dorn collection bottle; samples were collected at nine different points/depths totaling 27 L of water from each river. Total DNA was extracted from biomass retained by a 0.22-μm filter after sequential filtration of the water through 0.8- and 0.22-μm filters. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced, and the sequences were analyzed with the PHYLIP and DOTUR programs to obtain the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and to calculate the diversity and richness indices using the SPADE program. Taxonomic affiliation was determined using the naive Bayesian rRNA Classifier of the RDP II (Ribosomal Database Project). We recovered 158 sequences from the Solimões River grouped into 103 OTUs, and 197 sequences from the Negro River library grouped into 90 OTUs by the DOTUR program. The Solimões River was found to have a greater diversity of bacterial genera, and greater estimated richness of 446 OTUs, compared with 242 OTUs from the Negro River, as calculated by ACE estimator. The Negro River has less bacterial diversity, but more 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the bacterial genus Polynucleobacter were detected; 56 sequences from this genus were found (about 30% of the total sequences). We suggest that a more in-depth investigation be made to elucidate the role played by these bacteria in the river environment. These differences in bacterial diversity between Solimões and Negro Rivers could be explained by differences in organic matter content and pH of the rivers. PMID:22183948

  4. Occurrence and accumulation of pesticides and organic contaminants in river sediment, water and clam tissues from the San Joaquin River and tributaries, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Domagalski, J.L.; Hostettler, F.D.; Brown, L.R.; Rapp, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted in 1992 to assess the effects of anthropogenic activities and land use on the water quality of the San Joaquin River and its major tributaries. This study focused on pesticides and organic contaminants, looking at distributions of contaminants in water, bed and suspended sediment, and the bivalve Corbicula fluminea. Results indicated that this river system is affected by agricultural practices and urban runoff. Sediments from Dry Creek contained elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), possibly derived from urban runoff from the city of Modesto; suspended sediments contained elevated amounts of chlordane. Trace levels of triazine herbicides atrazine and simazine were present in water at most sites. Sediments, water, and bivalves from Orestimba Creek, a westside tributary draining agricultural areas, contained the greatest levels of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2-2-bis[p-chlorophenyl]ethane), and its degradates DDD (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis[p-chlorophenyl]ethane), and DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2- bis[p-chlorophenyl]ethylene). Sediment adsorption co efficients (K(oc)), and bioconcentration factors (BCF) in Corbicula of DDT, DDD, and DDE at Orestimba Creek were greater than predicted values. Streams of the western San Joaquin Valley can potentially transport significant amounts of chlorinated pesticides to the San Joaquin River, the delta, and San Francisco Bay. Organochlorine compounds accumulate in bivalves and sediment and may pose a problem to other biotic species in this watershed.

  5. Colloid particle sizes in the Mississippi River and some of its tributaries, from Minneapolis to below New Orleans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Rees, T.F.; Daniel, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    An on-board technique was developed that combined discharge-weighted pumping to a high-speed continuous-flow centrifuge for isolation of the particulate-sized material with ultrafiltration for isolation of colloid-sized material. In order to address whether these processes changed the particle sizes during isolation, samples of particles in suspension were collected at various steps in the isolation process to evaluate changes in particle size. Particle sizes were determined using laser light-scattering photon correlation spectroscopy and indicated no change in size during the colloid isolation process. Mississippi River colloid particle sizes from twelve sites from Minneapolis to below New Orleans were compared with sizes from four tributaries and three seasons, and from predominantly autochthonous sources upstream to more allochthonous sources downstream. ?? 1998 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.

  6. Dual nitrate isotopes in the Dutch and German Wadden Sea and its tributary rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Tina; Wiese, Philipp; Dähnke, Kirstin

    2016-04-01

    The Dutch and German Wadden Sea is threatened by the river-induced eutrophication due to riverine nitrate. Despite reduction of nutrient inputs to rivers in the past decades, nitrate inputs remain problematic, also because the estuary of one of the main contributing rivers, the Elbe River, has now developed from a net nitrate sink to a nitrate source. During a sampling campaign in August 2014 we measured nitrate concentration and dual isotope signatures in the Wadden Sea and in two contributing rivers, the Ems and the Elbe River. Our goal was to assess individual riverine contributions and turnover mechanisms of nitrate in the estuaries and the Wadden Sea itself using dual nitrate isotopes as fingerprint signatures. Nitrate concentration in the Ems River and Estuary twice exceeded that of the Elbe River. δ15N and δ18O of nitrate nevertheless showed that denitrification was active in the Ems estuary, removing nitrate, whereas nitrification produced new nitrate in the Elbe Estuary. Surprisingly, Wadden Sea samples appeared not to be entirely dominated by these two riverine source signatures. This suggests that additional turnover mechanisms in the Wadden Sea itself or inputs of nitrate from the open North Sea additionally affect the isotope composition of nitrate in the Dutch and German Wadden Sea.

  7. Faunal assemblages and multi-scale habitat patterns in headwater tributaries of the South Fork Trinity River - an unregulated river embedded within a multiple-use landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, H.H.; Hodgson, G.R.; Duda, J.J.; Emlen, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Headwaters can represent 80% of stream kilometers in a watershed, and they also have unique physical and biological properties that have only recently been recognized for their importance in sustaining healthy functioning stream networks and their ecological services. We sampled 60 headwater tributaries in the South Fork Trinity River, a 2,430 km2, mostly forested, multiple-use watershed in northwestern California. Our objectives were: (1) to differentiate unique headwater types using 69 abiotic and vegetation variables measured at three spatial scales, and then to reduce these to informative subsets; (2) determine if distinct biota occupied the different tributary types; (3) determine the environmental attributes associated with the presence and abundance of these biotic assemblages; and (4) using niche modeling, determine key attribute thresholds to illustrate how these biota could be employed as metrics of system integrity and ecological services. Several taxa were sufficiently abundant and widespread to use as bio-indicators: the presence and abundance of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), herpetofauna (reptile and amphibian) species richness, and signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) represented different trophic positions, value as commercial resources (steelhead), sensitivity to environmental stress (amphibians), and indicators of biodiversity (herpetofauna species richness). Herpetofauna species richness did not differ, but abundances of steelhead trout, signal crayfish, and amphibian richness all differed significantly among tributary types. Niche models indicated that distribution and abundance patterns in both riparian and aquatic environments were associated with physical and structural attributes at multiple spatial scales, both within and around reaches. The bio-indicators responded to unique sets of attributes, reflecting the high environmental heterogeneity in headwater tributaries across this large watershed. These niche attributes

  8. Measured and Estimated Sodium-Adsorption Ratios for Tongue River and its Tributaries, Montana and Wyoming, 2004-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, M.R.; Nimick, David A.; Cleasby, Thomas E.; Kinsey, Stacy M.; Lambing, John H.

    2007-01-01

    The Tongue River drains an area of about 5,400 square miles and flows northward from its headwaters in the Bighorn National Forest of northeastern Wyoming to join the Yellowstone River at Miles City, Montana. Water from the Tongue River and its tributaries is extensively used for irrigation in both Wyoming and Montana. The Tongue River watershed contains vast coal deposits that are extracted at several surface mines. In some areas of the watershed, the coal beds also contain methane gas (coal-bed methane or natural gas), which has become the focus of intense exploration and development. Production of coal-bed methane requires the pumping of large volumes of ground water from the coal beds to reduce water pressure within the formation and release the stored gas. Water from the coal beds typically is high in sodium and low in calcium and magnesium, resulting in a high sodium-adsorption ratio (SAR). Disposal of ground water with high sodium concentrations into the Tongue River has the potential to increase salinity and SAR of water in the river, and potentially reduce the quality of water for irrigation purposes. This report documents SAR values measured in water samples collected at 12 monitoring sites in the Tongue River watershed and presents regression relations between specific conductance (SC) and SAR at each site for the years 2004-06. SAR in water samples was determined from laboratory-measured concentrations of sodium, calcium, and magnesium. The results of regression analysis indicated that SC and SAR were significantly related (p-values < 0.05) at most sites. The regression relations developed for most monitoring sites in the Tongue River watershed were used with continuous SC data to estimate daily SAR during the 2004 and 2005 irrigation seasons and to estimate 2006 provisional SAR values, which were displayed on the Web in real-time. Water samples were collected and analyzed from seven sites on the main stem of the Tongue River located at: (1) Monarch

  9. Nature of distribution of mercury in the sediments of the river Yamuna (tributary of the Ganges), India.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, V; Madhavan, N; Saxena, Rajinder; Lundin, Lars-Christer

    2003-06-01

    Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), surface (bed sediments) and short length cores of sediments collected from the largest tributary of the river Ganges, namely the river Yamuna, were analysed for total mercury as well as its fractionation in various size and chemical sites in the sediments following standard procedures. Also, attempts were made to determine the vertical distribution in sediments in relation to the recent timescale of a few decades. Our observations indicate that the SPM in general showed higher levels of total mercury compared to the surface sediments while at places the enhancement could be by a factor of 10, say around 25 microg g(-1) in the downstream region that integrates the industrial midstream and agricultural downstream terrain near its confluence with the Ganges. Surface sediments in the upstream direction near the Himalayan foothills and SPM in the lower reaches showed significant high Index of Geoaccumulation (Igeo) as defined by Müller. Size fractionation studies indicate that the finer fraction preferentially showed higher levels of mercury while in the lower reaches of the river, the total mercury is equitably distributed among all size fractions. The proportion of the residual fraction of mercury in relation to mobile fractions, in general decreases downstream towards its confluence with the Ganges river. In sediment cores, the vertical distribution show systematic peaks of mercury indicating that addition of this toxic metal to the aquatic system is in direct proportion to the increase in various types of human activities such as thermal power plants, land use changes (urbanisation) in the midstream region and intensive fertiliser application in lower reaches of this vast river basin. PMID:12833986

  10. Angler harvest, hatchery return, and tributary stray rates of recycled adult summer steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Cowlitz River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Perry, Russell W.; Gleizes, Chris; Dammers, Wolf; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2016-01-01

    Hatchery ‘recycling’ programs have been used to increase angling opportunities by re-releasing fish into a river after they returned to a hatchery or fish trap. Recycling is intended to increase opportunities for fishermen, but this strategy could affect wild fish populations if some recycled fish remain in the river and interact with wild fish populations. To quantify hatchery return and angler harvest rates of recycled steelhead, we conducted a 2-year study on the Cowlitz River, Washington. A total of 1051 steelhead were recycled, including 218 fish that were radio-tagged. Fates of recycled steelhead were similar between years: 48.4% returned to the hatchery, 19.2% were reported captured by anglers, and 32.4% remained in the river. A multistate model quantified the effects of covariates on hatchery return and angler harvest rates, which were positively affected by river discharge and negatively affected by time since release. However, hatchery return rates increased and angler harvest rates decreased during periods of increasing discharge. A total of 21.1% (46 fish) of the radio-tagged steelhead failed to return to the hatchery or be reported by anglers, but nearly half of those fish (20 fish) appeared to be harvested and not reported. The remaining tagged fish (11.9% of the radio-tagged population) were monitored into the spawning period, but only five fish (2.3% of the radio-tagged population) entered tributaries where wild steelhead spawning occurs. Future research focused on straying behaviour, and spawning success of recycled steelhead may further advance the understanding of the effects of recycling as a management strategy.

  11. Nature of distribution of mercury in the sediments of the river Yamuna (tributary of the Ganges), India.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, V; Madhavan, N; Saxena, Rajinder; Lundin, Lars-Christer

    2003-06-01

    Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), surface (bed sediments) and short length cores of sediments collected from the largest tributary of the river Ganges, namely the river Yamuna, were analysed for total mercury as well as its fractionation in various size and chemical sites in the sediments following standard procedures. Also, attempts were made to determine the vertical distribution in sediments in relation to the recent timescale of a few decades. Our observations indicate that the SPM in general showed higher levels of total mercury compared to the surface sediments while at places the enhancement could be by a factor of 10, say around 25 microg g(-1) in the downstream region that integrates the industrial midstream and agricultural downstream terrain near its confluence with the Ganges. Surface sediments in the upstream direction near the Himalayan foothills and SPM in the lower reaches showed significant high Index of Geoaccumulation (Igeo) as defined by Müller. Size fractionation studies indicate that the finer fraction preferentially showed higher levels of mercury while in the lower reaches of the river, the total mercury is equitably distributed among all size fractions. The proportion of the residual fraction of mercury in relation to mobile fractions, in general decreases downstream towards its confluence with the Ganges river. In sediment cores, the vertical distribution show systematic peaks of mercury indicating that addition of this toxic metal to the aquatic system is in direct proportion to the increase in various types of human activities such as thermal power plants, land use changes (urbanisation) in the midstream region and intensive fertiliser application in lower reaches of this vast river basin.

  12. Effect of tributary inflows on the distribution of trace metals in fine- grained bed sediments and benthic insects of the Clark Fork River, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Axtmann, E.V.; Cain, D.J.; Luoma, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of tributary inflows on metal concentrations in <83-??m sediments and benthic insects was examined on two scales (380 km and <2 km) in a river impacted by mining. A dilution-mixing model effectively described large-scale dispersion of Cd, Cu, and Pb in the sediments of the river. Input of metal from contaminated flood plains may introduce additional contamination in the middle reaches of the river. Intensive sampling around the confluences of two tributaries showed that there were significant, localized decreases in some metal concentrations immediately downstream of the inflows. Sediment metal concentrations 1 km below the inflows returned to values within the range predicted by the dilution-mixing model. Metal concentrations in benthic insects exhibited spatial patterns similar to those of the sediments, indicating that biological exposures to metals are at least partially dependent on the physical processes controlling the dispersion of sediment-bound metals. Tributary inflows introduce variability in metal contamination on different spatial scales that must be considered when assessing ecological risks in contaminated rivers. In addition to large- scale dilution of contaminants, smaller areas of reduced metal exposure occur near tributary inflows. These may shelter metal-sensitive taxa from severe metal contamination in the mainstem.

  13. 33 CFR 334.450 - Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, N.C.; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, N.C.; restricted area. 334.450 Section 334.450 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.450 Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army...

  14. Macroinvertebrate diets reflect tributary inputs and turbidity-driven changes in food availability in the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wellard Kelly, Holly A.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Hall, Robert O.; Cross, Wyatt F.; Baxter, Colden V.

    2013-01-01

    Physical changes to rivers associated with large dams (e.g., water temperature) directly alter macroinvertebrate assemblages. Large dams also may indirectly alter these assemblages by changing the food resources available to support macroinvertebrate production. We examined the diets of the 4 most common macroinvertebrate taxa in the Colorado River through Glen and Grand Canyons, seasonally, at 6 sites for 2.5 y. We compared macroinvertebrate diet composition to the composition of epilithon (rock and cliff faces) communities and suspended organic seston to evaluate the degree to which macroinvertebrate diets tracked downstream changes in resource availability. Diets contained greater proportions of algal resources in the tailwater of Glen Canyon Dam and more terrestrial-based resources at sites downstream of the 1st major tributary. As predicted, macroinvertebrate diets tracked turbidity-driven changes in resource availability, and river turbidity partially explained variability in macroinvertebrate diets. The relative proportions of resources assimilated by macroinvertebrates ranged from dominance by algae to terrestrial-based resources, despite greater assimilation efficiencies for algal than terrestrial C. Terrestrial resources were most important during high turbidity conditions, which occurred during the late-summer monsoon season (July–October) when tributaries contributed large amounts of organic matter to the mainstem and suspended sediments reduced algal production. Macroinvertebrate diets were influenced by seasonal changes in tributary inputs and turbidity, a result suggesting macroinvertebrate diets in regulated rivers may be temporally dynamic and driven by tributary inputs.

  15. Water Quality of the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River and Tributary Streams, New York and Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siemion, Jason; Murdoch, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected from the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River (UPDE) and its tributaries during the period October 1, 2005, to September 30, 2007, to document existing water quality, determine relations between land use and water quality, and identify areas of water-quality concern. A tiered water-quality monitoring framework was used, with the tiers consisting of intensively sampled sites, gradient sites representing the range of land uses present in the basin, and regional stream-survey sites. Median nitrate and total phosphorous concentrations were 1.15 and 0.01 mg/L (milligrams per liter) for three sites on the mainstem Delaware River, 1.27 and 0.009 mg/L for the East Branch Delaware River, 2.04 and 0.01 mg/L for the West Branch Delaware River, and 0.68 and 0.006 mg/L for eight tributaries that represent the range of land uses resent in the basin, respectively. The percentage of agricultural land varied by basin from 0 to 30 percent and the percentage of suburbanization varied from 0 to 17 percent. There was a positive correlation between the percentage of agricultural land use in a basin and observed concentrations of acid neutralizing capacity, calcium, potassium, nitrate, and total dissolved nitrogen, whereas no correlation between the percentage of suburbanization and water quality was detected. Results of stream surveys showed that nitrate concentrations in 55 to 65 percent of the UPDE Basin exceeded the nitrate reference condition and a suggested water-quality guideline for ecological impairment in New York State (0.98 mg/L) during the spring. Many of the affected parts of the basin were more than 90 percent forested and showed signs of episodic acidification, indicating that the long-term effects of acid deposition play a role in the high nitrate levels. Nitrate concentrations in 75 percent of samples collected from agricultural sites exceeded the suggested nitrate water-quality guideline for ecological impairment

  16. Temporal variation in the specific growth rate of bacterioplankton in the River Cauvery and its four down stream tributaries in Karnataka State, India.

    PubMed

    Tondoti Sathyanarayana Rao, Harsha; Yamakanamardi, Sadanand Mallappa; Mallaiah, Mahadeveswamy

    2009-07-01

    The temporal variation in the Specific Growth Rate (SGR) of natural population of heterotrophic bacterioplankton of the river Cauvery and its four down stream tributaries in Karnataka State was monitored over a period of two years from February 2000 to January 2002. The SGR was calculated by taking into account only the abundance of bacterioplankton at the beginning (0 h) and at the end (48 h) incubation period, at room or river temperature. The mean SGR was less and significantly different in the surface waters of river Kapila, Shimsha, Suvarnavathy and Arkavathy. But it was more and significantly different in river Cauvery when compared to other tributaries. This suggests that the river Cauvery was more favorable habitat for SGR of bacterioplankton than the other four watercourses studied. Investigation of interrelationship between SGR and other bacterial variables showed presence of only one correlation with direct counts of particle bound bacteria in river Arkavathy. Further, the relationship between SGR of bacterioplankton and other environmental variables showed the presence of six correlations in river Shimsha, five in river Suvarnavathy, three in river Cauvery, and two each in river Kapila and river Arkavathy. Negative SGR were recorded on thirteen occasions in river Cauvery followed by eleven in river Shimsha, nine in river Suvarnavathy, seven in river Arkavathy and five in river Kapila, out of fifty SGR determinations. This negative SGR were a result of decrease in the observed bacterial cell counts after 48 h incubation from that of 0 h count. The probable reason for such negative growth rate and dependency of SGR of bacterioplankton and environmental variables has been discussed. PMID:18600464

  17. Evaluation of the chemical, physical, and biological conditions of the Alamosa River and associated tributaries

    SciTech Connect

    Willingham, W.T.; Parrish, L.P.; Schroeder, W.C.

    1995-12-31

    This study focused on the Summitville Mine Site, an abandoned cyanide heap-leach facility that discharges into the upper Alamosa River by way of the Wightman Fork, some five miles upstream from its confluence with the Alamosa River. Environmental data have been collected from the Alamosa River from its headwaters in the Rocky Mountains to its confluence with the Rio Grande River, Colorado. To date, environmental data have been collected in 1991, 1993, and July and September 1994. Water column and sediment chemistry, flow estimates and toxicity test data from more comprehensive environmental sampling events in July and September 1994 were used, in conjunction with other environmental data including in-stream biological data and physical habitat, to determine what impact, if any, the Summitville Superfund site was having on the aquatic life resources within the Alamosa River drainage, Comparisons of macroinvertebrate samples collected in July and September revealed difficulties relating impacts that occurred earlier in the summer, when heavy metal concentrations in the water column were high, to impacts that were noted in the fall, when heavy metal concentrations were lower. The macroinvertebrate community was reduced in numbers in the fall. However, water column chemistry and toxicity testing indicated improved conditions, when compared to the July sampling results. Possible reasons for the differences will be examined and suggestions will be made concerning additional sampling that might provide answers to the differences observed.

  18. Occurrence, distribution, and trends of volatile organic compounds in the Ohio River and its major tributaries, 1987-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lundgren, Robert F.; Lopes, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    The Ohio River is a source of drinking water for more than 3 million people. Thus, it is important to monitor the water quality of this river to determine if contaminants are present, their concentrations, and if water quality is changing with time. This report presents an analysis of the occurrence, distribution, and trends of 21 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) along the main stem of the Ohio River and its major tributaries from 1987 through 1996. The data were collected by the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission's Organics Detection System, which monitors daily for VOCs at 15 stations. Various statistical methods were applied to basinwide data from all monitoring stations and to data from individual monitoring stations. For the basinwide data, one or more VOCs were detected in 45 percent of the 44,837 river-water samples. Trichloromethane, detected in 26 percent of the samples, was the most frequently detected VOC followed by benzene (11 percent), methylbenzene (6.4 percent), and the other 18 VOCs, which were detected in less than 4 percent of the samples. In samples from 8 of the 15 monitoring stations, trichloromethane was also the most frequently detected VOC. These stations were generally near large cities along the Ohio River. The median trichloromethane concentration was 0.3 microgram per liter (μg/L), and concentrations ranged from less than 0.1 to 125.3 μg/L. Most of the VOCs had median detected concentrations that ranged from 0.1 to 0.4 μg/L for the basinwide data and for samples from individual stations. Samples from stations in the upstream part of the basin and from the Kanawha River had the highest median concentrations. Ninety-nine percent of the detected VOC concentrations were within U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water regulations. Of the 268 exceedances of drinking-water regulations, 188 were due to the detection of 1,2-dichloroethane prior to 1993 in samples from the monitoring station near Paducah, Ky. Time trend

  19. Status and reproduction of Gulf coast strain walleye in a Tombigbee River tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, H.L.; Hart, J.; Hanson, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    Walleye (Sander vitreus [Mitchill]) are native to rivers and streams in the Mobile River basin in Mississippi and Alabama. These populations comprise a genetically unique strain (Gulf coast walleye, GCW) and represent the southernmost distribution of walleye in the United States. Luxapallila Creek was considered an important spawning site for GCW prior to and shortly after impoundment of the Tombigbee River in 1980. Extensive sampling in Luxapallila Creek in 2001 and 2002 collected only one larval walleye. Microsatellite DNA analysis suggested 14 of 16 adult walleye from Luxapallila Creek were hatchery-produced fish or their progeny. Controlled angling catch rates of adult walleye have declined since 1997. The scarcity of wild-spawned walleye and the similarity of wild-caught and hatchery broodstock walleye indicates that the GCW population in, or spawning in, Luxapallila Creek is sustained by stocking and recruitment from these stocked fish may be diminishing.

  20. Fall diel diet composition of American eel (Anguilla rostrata) in a tributary of the Hudson River, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldt, Emily M.; Abbett, Ross; Johnson, James H.; Dittman, Dawn E.; McKenna, James E.

    2013-01-01

    American eel (Anguilla rostrata), a once common species, is now in decline throughout much of its native range in North America. There is little information on the role of American eel in river food webs. A better understanding of the diet and ecological role of American eel will help in the conservation of this important species. During autumn 2009, eel and aquatic invertebrate samples were collected from Hannacroix Creek, a tributary of the Hudson River, in Albany and Greene counties, New York, USA. Eel diet was analyzed by the eel size and time period (day or night). A high proportion of eel stomachs were empty (73%). Eel diets varied among size classes and day and night feeding periods (p = 0.001). Diet overlap was significant between small and medium eels caught both during the day (α = 0.71) and at night (α = 0.84). Nocturnal diet and nocturnal invertebrate samples were similar (α = 0.65), indicating a preference for bottom feeding during the night. Mayfly nymphs were the major prey consumed in each period by all size classes. Among eels that fed, night-feeding eels had the greatest stomach weight (as a percent of total body weight). The swim-bladder parasite, Anguillicoloides crassus, was also observed in eels of all size classes with nearly 50% afflicted.

  1. Effects of coal mining on the water quality and sedimentation of Lake Tuscaloosa and selected tributaries, North River basin, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    Lake Tuscaloosa, a reservoir on North River, is the primary source of water supply for the city of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and surrounding areas. Between October 1982 and September 1983, 14 sites in the North River basin were sampled to determine if surface coal mining has impacted the quality of water in the lake and selected tributaries. Water draining mined basins showed increases in specific conductance, sulfate concentrations , and dissolved and total recoverable iron and manganese concentrations after mining started in 1975. Although water in the reservoir has become more mineralized with only an estimated 5 percent of the basin mined, total dissolved solids concentrations are still very low, ranging from 28 to 35 milligrams per liter at the dam. The quality of water at most sites was, except for pH, iron, and manganese, within secondary drinking water standards. The pH of water from streams draining either mined or unmined basins was generally less than 6.5. Sedimentation has occurred at most measured lake cross sections since impoundment. However, natural factors such as steep overland and channel slopes, may cause more sedimentation in the lake from unmined basins than from coal mining in a different basin. (USGS)

  2. Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface water and sediments of the Danube River and its tributaries, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Andrea Szabó; Szabó, János; Vass, István

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified and quantified in surface water and sediments from 9 sites in the Hungarian upper section of the Danube River and its tributaries in autumn 2012. The total PAH concentrations (sum of the concentrations of 17 individual PAH compounds) in water samples ranged from 67 to 96 ng L(-1), which were predominated by two- and three-ring PAHs. The total PAH concentrations in sediments ranged from 35.2 to 288.3 ng g(-1) dw. Four-ring PAHs including fluoranthene and pyrene were the dominant species in sediment samples. The spatial distribution of PAHs in sediments was site-specific. The highest benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration was determined at the site located near a hazardous waste incinerator. However, the comparison of the total PAH concentrations determined with other sections of the Danube River and the environmental quality standards revealed that the PAH concentrations are relatively low in the Hungarian upper section. A selected number of concentration ratios of specific PAH compounds reflected a pattern of pyrogenic input as a major source of PAHs. PMID:24844894

  3. Spatio-temporal variations in water quality of Nullah Aik-tributary of the river Chenab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Abdul; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Husain, Syed Z

    2008-05-01

    This study reports the spatio-temporal changes in water quality of Nullah Aik, tributary of the Chenab River, Pakistan. Stream water samples were collected at seven sampling sites on seasonal basis from September 2004 to April 2006 and were analyzed for 24 water quality parameters. Most significant parameters which contributed in spatio-temporal variations were assessed by statistical techniques such as Hierarchical Agglomerative Cluster Analysis (HACA), Factor Analysis/Principal Components Analysis (FA/PCA), and Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA). HACA identified three different classes of sites: Relatively Unimpaired, Impaired and Less Impaired Regions on the basis of similarity among different physicochemical characteristics and pollutant level between the sampling sites. DFA produced the best results for identification of main variables for temporal and spatial analysis and separated eight parameters (DO, hardness, sulphides, K, Fe, Pb, Cr and Zn) that accounted 89.7% of total variations of spatial analysis. Temporal analysis using DFA separated six parameters (E.C., TDS, salinity, hardness, chlorides and Pb) that showed more than 84.6% of total temporal variation. FA/PCA identified six significant factors (sources) which were responsible for major variations in water quality dataset of Nullah Aik. The results signify that parameters identified by statistical analyses were responsible for water quality change and suggest the possibility of industrial, municipal and agricultural runoff, parent rock material contamination. The results suggest dire need for proper management measures to restore the water quality of this tributary for a healthy and promising aquatic ecosystem and also highlights its importance for objective ecological policy and decision making process.

  4. Trend of herbicide loads in the river Rhine and its tributaries.

    PubMed

    Bach, Martin; Frede, Hans-Georg

    2012-07-01

    Many policies have been established and actions have been taken to reduce pesticide pollution of surface waters. However, the effectiveness of these initiatives was rarely tested on an empirical basis. This study suggests that evidence on the policy effects can be evaluated by analyzing the temporal changes in the loads rather than the concentrations of active ingredients in rivers. It is shown that the long-term change of pesticide emissions into surface waters can be tested statistically by the number of upward versus downward trends in river load. To evaluate the situation in Germany, 57 concentration time series of 14 herbicide substances at 7 river monitoring stations with a minimum of 24 analyses per year were assembled and annual substance river loads were calculated. The longest time course was 17 years (1990-2006). The significance of trends of data rows was analyzed by an univariate Mann-Kendall test that evaluates 27 (47.4%) of the 57 time series as statistically significant downward trended. It took a period of 10 years and longer before the high annual atrazine and simazine loads measured in the years 1990-1991 had been diminished to a drastically lowered level after ban of the herbicides. Data are available on the yearly consumption of 8 substances used in German agriculture. A total of 36 time series for this subset were tested with a partial Mann-Kendall test with the consumption as covariance factor, which reduces the number of significant trends in river load noticeably. Based on this test, only 7 (19.4% of 36) declining time series remain. As a result, the intended effect of measures to reduce surface water contamination by the use of pesticides seems to be only partially successful, however, the database to justify this statement is small. For the water monitoring strategies in Germany, it is recommend to enhance the sampling frequency at river stations. A minimum of a semimonthly sampling interval would facilitate the calculation of valuable

  5. Long-term decreases in phosphorus and suspended solids, but not nitrogen, in six upper Mississippi River tributaries, 1991-2014.

    PubMed

    Kreiling, Rebecca M; Houser, Jeffrey N

    2016-08-01

    Long-term trends in tributaries provide valuable information about temporal changes in inputs of nutrients and sediments to large rivers. Data collected from 1991 to 2014 were used to investigate trends in total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), nitrate (NO3-N), soluble-reactive P (SRP), and total suspended solids (TSS) in the following six tributaries of the upper Mississippi River: Cannon (CaR; Minnesota (MN)), Maquoketa (MR; Iowa (IA)), Wapsipinicon (WR; IA), Cuivre (CuR; Missouri (MO)), Chippewa (ChR; Wisconsin (WI)), and Black (BR; WI) rivers. Weighted regression on time discharge and season was used to statistically remove effects of random variation in discharge from estimated trends in flow-normalized concentrations and flux. Concentration and flux of TSS declined in all six rivers. Concentration of P declined in four of the rivers, and P flux declined in five rivers. Concentration and flux of N exhibited small changes relative to TP. TN concentration and flux did not change substantially in four of the rivers and decreased in two (ChR, CuR). Nitrate concentration and flux increased in three rivers (ChR, BR, CaR) and remained relatively constant in the other three rivers. General declines in P and TSS suggest that improvements in agricultural land management, such as the adoption of conservation tillage and enrollment of vulnerable acreage into the Conservation Reserve Program, may have reduced surface runoff; similar reductions in N were not observed. PMID:27393194

  6. Long-term decreases in phosphorus and suspended solids, but not nitrogen, in six upper Mississippi River tributaries, 1991–2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreiling, Rebecca; Houser, Jeff N.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term trends in tributaries provide valuable information about temporal changes in inputs of nutrients and sediments to large rivers. Data collected from 1991 to 2014 were used to investigate trends in total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), nitrate (NO3–N), soluble-reactive P (SRP), and total suspended solids (TSS) in the following six tributaries of the upper Mississippi River: Cannon (CaR; Minnesota (MN)), Maquoketa (MR; Iowa (IA)), Wapsipinicon (WR; IA), Cuivre (CuR; Missouri (MO)), Chippewa (ChR; Wisconsin (WI)), and Black (BR; WI) rivers. Weighted regression on time discharge and season was used to statistically remove effects of random variation in discharge from estimated trends in flow-normalized concentrations and flux. Concentration and flux of TSS declined in all six rivers. Concentration of P declined in four of the rivers, and P flux declined in five rivers. Concentration and flux of N exhibited small changes relative to TP. TN concentration and flux did not change substantially in four of the rivers and decreased in two (ChR, CuR). Nitrate concentration and flux increased in three rivers (ChR, BR, CaR) and remained relatively constant in the other three rivers. General declines in P and TSS suggest that improvements in agricultural land management, such as the adoption of conservation tillage and enrollment of vulnerable acreage into the Conservation Reserve Program, may have reduced surface runoff; similar reductions in N were not observed.

  7. Long-term decreases in phosphorus and suspended solids, but not nitrogen, in six upper Mississippi River tributaries, 1991-2014.

    PubMed

    Kreiling, Rebecca M; Houser, Jeffrey N

    2016-08-01

    Long-term trends in tributaries provide valuable information about temporal changes in inputs of nutrients and sediments to large rivers. Data collected from 1991 to 2014 were used to investigate trends in total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), nitrate (NO3-N), soluble-reactive P (SRP), and total suspended solids (TSS) in the following six tributaries of the upper Mississippi River: Cannon (CaR; Minnesota (MN)), Maquoketa (MR; Iowa (IA)), Wapsipinicon (WR; IA), Cuivre (CuR; Missouri (MO)), Chippewa (ChR; Wisconsin (WI)), and Black (BR; WI) rivers. Weighted regression on time discharge and season was used to statistically remove effects of random variation in discharge from estimated trends in flow-normalized concentrations and flux. Concentration and flux of TSS declined in all six rivers. Concentration of P declined in four of the rivers, and P flux declined in five rivers. Concentration and flux of N exhibited small changes relative to TP. TN concentration and flux did not change substantially in four of the rivers and decreased in two (ChR, CuR). Nitrate concentration and flux increased in three rivers (ChR, BR, CaR) and remained relatively constant in the other three rivers. General declines in P and TSS suggest that improvements in agricultural land management, such as the adoption of conservation tillage and enrollment of vulnerable acreage into the Conservation Reserve Program, may have reduced surface runoff; similar reductions in N were not observed.

  8. Unionid habitat and assemblage composition in coastal plain tributaries of the Flint River (Georgia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gagnon, P.; Michener, W.; Freeman, M.; Brim-Box, J.

    2006-01-01

    Effective conservation of mussels in streams of the lower Flint River basin, southwest Georgia, requires more rigorous understanding of mussel-habitat associations and factors shaping assemblage composition in stream reaches. We surveyed mussels and habitat conditions at 46 locations, and used regression, correlation and multivariate direct gradient analysis (Canonical Correspondence Analyses) to identify species-habitat relationships and characteristic species-assemblage types in Flint basin streams. Riparian wetland and catchment forest cover, average mid-channel depth, and drainage network position accounted for 49% of the variability in mussel species richness, 36% of the variability in unionid abundance, and 32% of the variability observed in Shannon-Wiener diversity across survey sites. Species were grouped into four assemblage types based on their habitat associations: large-river-riffle associates, slackwater associates, habitat generalists, and stream-run associates. Results are broadly concordant with anecdotal reports of mussel-habitat relationships and provide insight into the habitat conservation needs of mussels.

  9. Surficial geologic maps along the riparian zone of the Animas River and its headwater tributaries, Silverton to Durango, Colorado, with upper Animas River watershed gradient profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blair, R.W.; Yager, D.B.; Church, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    This product consists of Adobe Acrobat .PDF format documents for 10 surficial geologic strip maps along the Animas River watershed from its major headwater tributaries, south to Durango, Colorado. The Animas River originates in the San Juan Mountains north of the historic mining town of Silverton, Colorado. The surficial geologic maps identify surficial deposits, such as flood-plain and terrace gravels, alluvial fans, glacial till, talus, colluvium, landslides, and bogs. Sixteen primary units were mapped that included human-related deposits and structures, eight alluvial, four colluvial, one glacial, travertine deposits, and undifferentiated bedrock. Each of the surficial geologic strip maps has .PDF links to surficial geology photographs, which enable the user to take a virtual tour of these deposits. Geochemical data collected from mapped surficial deposits that pre- and postdate mining activity have aided in determining the geochemical baseline in the watershed. Several photographs with their corresponding geochemical baseline profiles are accessible through .PDF links from several of the maps. A single coverage for all surficial deposits mapped is included as an ArcInfo shape file as an Arc Export format .e00 file. A gradient map for major headwater tributary streams to the Animas River is also included. The gradient map has stream segments that are color-coded based on relative variations in slope and .PDF format links to each stream gradient profile. Stream gradients were derived from U.S. Geological Survey 10-m digital elevation model data. This project was accomplished in support of the U.S. Geological Survey's Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado.

  10. Sources and concentrations of dissolved solids and selenium in the San Joaquin River and its tributaries, California, October 1985 to March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, D.G.; Gilliom, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Sources and concentrations of dissolved solids and selenium in the San Joaquin River and its tributaries, California, were assessed by a mass-balance approach to determine the effects of tile-drain water and irrigation-return flows on the river. The study included low-flow periods from October 1985 to mid-February 1986 and mid-May 1986 through March 1987, and a high-flow period from mid-February to mid-May 1985. During the combined low-flow period, the dissolved-solids load from eastside tributaries and the upper San Joaquin River accounted for only 18% of the total load at Vernalis, located farthest downstream, even though they accounted for 71% of the stream flow. Salt and Mud Sloughs contributed 40% of the dissolved-solids load but only 9% of stream flow. Unmeasured sources of dissolved solids contributed about 42% of the total load during low flow. In contrast, Salt and Mud Sloughs, which receive most of the tile-drain water that enters the river, contributed almost 80% of the total selenium load to the river, and loading of selenium concentrations were highest in Salt and Mud Sloughs and decreased downstream in the San Joaquin River with dilution from eastside tributaries. A State standard for dissolved solids of 500 mg/L was exceeded 11% of the time in the San Joaquin River at Vernalis. The US Environmental Protection Agency's 4-day average aquatic-life criterion of 5 micrograms/L of selenium was exceeded in more than 60% of the samples from the sloughs and in about 20% of the samples from the San Joaquin River, just downstream of the Merced River. 23 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Organic compounds and trace elements in the Pocomoke River and its tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Cherie V.; Foster, Gregory D.; Huff, Thomas B.; Garbarino, John R.

    1999-01-01

    In response to concern about recent blooms of the dinoflagellate, Pfiesteria piscicida, samples of sediment and water were collected from the lower Pocomoke River Basin and were screened for trace elements, pesticides, and other organic compounds. A large group of steroid and fatty acid methyl-ester compounds was detected in streamwater using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy in scan mode. Some of these steroid compounds have been identified and further quantified in bed-sediment extracts. Spatial patterns of the concentrations of cholesterol suggest that these compounds are linked to the runoff of animal wastes into the river. Many of the organic compounds found in the Pocomoke River sediments have not yet been identified, but at least several are in the class of hormone compounds related to estradiols and have the potential to promote endocrine-disrupting effects in aquatic life. Particulate forms of arsenic and zinc are slightly elevated above normal levels for streams, but the sources for these elements are still undetermined. Several pesticides were found in low, parts-per-trillion concentrations, but were within the ranges commonly found in streams of this region.

  12. Water quality of the Tlikakila River and five major tributaries to Lake Clark, Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, Alaska, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    2002-01-01

    The Tlikakila River Basin, located in Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, drains an area of 622 square miles. This watershed comprises about 21 percent of the Lake Clark Basin, making it one of the major tributaries to Lake Clark. Due to a sharp decline in sockeye salmon population and the lack of hydrologic data, the Tlikakila River and five other major tributaries to Lake Clark were studied during the summer runoff months (May through September) from 1999 through 2001 as part of a cooperative study with the National Park Service. Measurements of pH and dissolved oxygen concentrations of the Tlikakila River are within acceptable limits for fish survival. Water temperatures at the measurement site reach 0 ?C during the winter and this part of the Tlikakila River may not be suitable for fish. Water temperatures are within acceptable limits for fish during the summer months. The Tlikakila River is a calcium bicarbonate type water with a low buffering capacity. Concentrations of un-ionized ammonia are well below the recommended value of 0.02 mg/L for fish propagation. Annual transport of suspended sediment by the Tlikakila River into Lake Clark ranged from 0.4 to 1.5 million tons during 1999?2001. The fine sediment from the Tlikakila River disperses through the lake over the summer, affecting light transmissivity. Most runoff from the Tlikakila River occurs from mid-to-late May through September. Average discharge for these months during 1999?2001 was 6,600 ft?/s. Total annual inflow to Lake Clark from the Tlikakila River ranged from 32 to 45 percent of the total inflow. The relatively high proportion of inflow is due to the presence of glaciers, which comprise 36 percent of the watershed. Monthly measurements of flow, field water-quality parameters, alkalinity, and suspended sediment were collected on the remaining five tributaries to Lake Clark: the Chokotonk River, Currant Creek, the Kijik River, the Tanalian River and the Chulitna River. Similar to the

  13. Tributary debris fans and the late Holocene alluvial chronology of the Colorado River, eastern Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hereford, R.; Thompson, K.S.; Burke, K.J.; Fairley, H.C.

    1996-01-01

    Bouldery debris fans and sandy alluvial terraces of the Colorado River developed contemporaneously during the late Holocene at the mouths of nine major tributaries in eastern Grand Canyon. The age of the debris fans and alluvial terraces contributes to understanding river hydraulics and to the history of human activity along the river, which has been concentrated on these surfaces for at least two to three millennia. Poorly sorted, coarse-grained debris-flow deposits of several ages are interbedded with, overlie, or are overlapped by three terrace-forming alluviums. The alluvial deposits are of three age groups: the striped alluvium, deposited from before 770 B.C. to about A.D. 300; the alluvium of Pueblo II age deposited from about A.D. 700 to 1200; and the alluvium of the upper mesquite terrace, deposited from about A.D. 1400 to 1880. Two elements define the geomorphology of a typical debris fan: the large, inactive surface of the fan and a smaller, entrenched, active debris-flow channel and fan that is about one-sixth the area of the inactive fan. The inactive fan is segmented into at least three surfaces with distinctive weathering characteristics. These surfaces are conformable with underlying debris-flow deposits that date from before 770 B.C. to around A.D. 660, A.D. 660 to before A.D. 1200, and from A.D. 1200 to slightly before 1890, respectively, based on late-19th-century photographs, radiocarbon and archaeologic dating of the three stratigraphically related alluviums, and radiocarbon dating of fine-grained debris-flow deposits. These debris flows aggraded the fans in at least three stages beginning about 2.8 ka, if not earlier in the late Holocene. Several main-stem floods eroded the margin of the segmented fans, reducing fan symmetry. The entrenched, active debris-flow channels contain deposits <100 yr old, which form debris fans at the mouth of the channel adjacent to the river. Early and middle Holocene debris-flow and alluvial deposits have not been

  14. Field monitoring of toxic organic pollution in the sediments of Pearl River estuary and its tributaries.

    PubMed

    Fu, J; Wang, Z; Mai, B; Kang, Y

    2001-01-01

    Field monitoring of the toxic organic compounds (PCBs, PAHs, organochlorine pesticides) in the top sediments of Pearl River Estuary and its up-streams were made. It was found that the highest concentrations of these toxic organic compounds occurred in the sediment sampled at Macau inner harbor (ZB013), which is a sink of suspended fine particles transported from the upstream waterways. Because of the affinity of the hydrophobic organic compounds (PAHs, PCBs) for the solid phase, these fine particle depositions led to accumulation of these compounds in the sediment of Macau. The atmospheric dry deposition may be another source of the toxic organic pollution in the sediment.

  15. Sampling little fish in big rivers: larval fish detection probabilities in two Lake Erie tributaries and implications for sampling effort and abundance indices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritt, Jeremy J.; DuFour, Mark R.; Mayer, Christine M.; Roseman, Edward F.; DeBruyne, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Larval fish are frequently sampled in coastal tributaries to determine factors affecting recruitment, evaluate spawning success, and estimate production from spawning habitats. Imperfect detection of larvae is common, because larval fish are small and unevenly distributed in space and time, and coastal tributaries are often large and heterogeneous. We estimated detection probabilities of larval fish from several taxa in the Maumee and Detroit rivers, the two largest tributaries of Lake Erie. We then demonstrated how accounting for imperfect detection influenced (1) the probability of observing taxa as present relative to sampling effort and (2) abundance indices for larval fish of two Detroit River species. We found that detection probabilities ranged from 0.09 to 0.91 but were always less than 1.0, indicating that imperfect detection is common among taxa and between systems. In general, taxa with high fecundities, small larval length at hatching, and no nesting behaviors had the highest detection probabilities. Also, detection probabilities were higher in the Maumee River than in the Detroit River. Accounting for imperfect detection produced up to fourfold increases in abundance indices for Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis and Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum. The effect of accounting for imperfect detection in abundance indices was greatest during periods of low abundance for both species. Detection information can be used to determine the appropriate level of sampling effort for larval fishes and may improve management and conservation decisions based on larval fish data.

  16. Instream Flows Needed for Successful Migration and Rearing of Rainbow and Westslope Cutthroat Trout in Selected Tributaries of the Kootenai River: Final Report FY 1988.

    SciTech Connect

    Marotz, Brian

    1988-06-01

    This is the second phase of a two-part study that was conducted by Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks in contractual agreement with Bonneville Power Administration to address measures of the Northwest Power Planning Council's River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Objectives were to determine instream flow needs in Kootenai River tributaries to maintain successful fish migration, spawning and rearing habitat of game fish, evaluate existing resident and rearing fish populations, and compile hydrologic and fishery information required to secure legal reservation of water for the fishery source. The Kootenai River fishery is threatened by microhydro and other water use development which reduce tributary habitat critical for maintaining a healthy spawning and rearing environment. The wetted perimeter method was used to estimate flows required to maintain existing resident and migratory fish populations in 28 tributaries to the Kootenai River. Migrant passage flows were determined using the discharge-average depth relationship at four (usually five) riffle transects. This information will provide the basis to reserve water through application to the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation. 45 figs., 56 tabs.

  17. A data reconnaissance on the effect of suspended-sediment concentrations on dissolved-solids concentrations in rivers and tributaries in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred D; Anning, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Colorado River is one of the most important sources of water in the western United States, supplying water to over 35 million people in the U.S. and 3 million people in Mexico. High dissolved-solids loading to the River and tributaries are derived primarily from geologic material deposited in inland seas in the mid-to-late Cretaceous Period, but this loading may be increased by human activities. High dissolved solids in the River causes substantial damages to users, primarily in reduced agricultural crop yields and corrosion. The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program was created to manage dissolved-solids loading to the River and has focused primarily on reducing irrigation-related loading from agricultural areas. This work presents a reconnaissance of existing data from sites in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) in order to highlight areas where suspended-sediment control measures may be useful in reducing dissolved-solids concentrations. Multiple linear regression was used on data from 164 sites in the UCRB to develop dissolved-solids models that include combinations of explanatory variables of suspended sediment, flow, and time. Results from the partial t-test, overall likelihood ratio, and partial likelihood ratio on the models were used to group the sites into categories of strong, moderate, weak, and no-evidence of a relation between suspended-sediment and dissolved-solids concentrations. Results show 68 sites have strong or moderate evidence of a relation, with drainage areas for many of these sites composed of a large percentage of clastic sedimentary rocks. These results could assist water managers in the region in directing field-scale evaluation of suspended-sediment control measures to reduce UCRB dissolved-solids loading.

  18. A data reconnaissance on the effect of suspended-sediment concentrations on dissolved-solids concentrations in rivers and tributaries in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillman, Fred D.; Anning, David W.

    2014-11-01

    The Colorado River is one of the most important sources of water in the western United States, supplying water to over 35 million people in the U.S. and 3 million people in Mexico. High dissolved-solids loading to the River and tributaries are derived primarily from geologic material deposited in inland seas in the mid-to-late Cretaceous Period, but this loading may be increased by human activities. High dissolved solids in the River causes substantial damages to users, primarily in reduced agricultural crop yields and corrosion. The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program was created to manage dissolved-solids loading to the River and has focused primarily on reducing irrigation-related loading from agricultural areas. This work presents a reconnaissance of existing data from sites in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) in order to highlight areas where suspended-sediment control measures may be useful in reducing dissolved-solids concentrations. Multiple linear regression was used on data from 164 sites in the UCRB to develop dissolved-solids models that include combinations of explanatory variables of suspended sediment, flow, and time. Results from the partial t-test, overall likelihood ratio, and partial likelihood ratio on the models were used to group the sites into categories of strong, moderate, weak, and no-evidence of a relation between suspended-sediment and dissolved-solids concentrations. Results show 68 sites have strong or moderate evidence of a relation, with drainage areas for many of these sites composed of a large percentage of clastic sedimentary rocks. These results could assist water managers in the region in directing field-scale evaluation of suspended-sediment control measures to reduce UCRB dissolved-solids loading.

  19. Impact of land use on dissolved nutrient levels in four tributaries of the Fraser River, BC: Silverdale Creek, Willband Creek, Clayburn Creek and Nathan Creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luymes, R.; Bennett, M.; Epp, A.; DaSilva, J.; Marsh, S. J.; Gillies, S. L.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Voss, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Fraser River basin in British Columbia is a diverse ecosystem that comprises approximately 220,000 km2. The Fraser River flows 1,370 km beginning at its headwaters in the Rocky Mountains and then discharging into the Georgia Strait near Vancouver. The Fraser River basin is unique as it has diverse geological terrain, limited damming, and experiences a wide range of precipitation and climate. The Fraser River also plays a crucial role in salmon migration. The study and analysis of water quality is imperative for protecting aquatic ecosystems and human use of the Fraser River and its tributaries. The water quality of the Fraser River is at risk from point and non-point source pollution due to population pressures. This study will focus on four Fraser River tributaries found in areas of extensive agriculture and hobby farming, residential housing, and a diverse array of industries. Land uses will be categorized using a geographic information system to capture and analyze satellite data. Dissolved nutrients are key in analyzing water quality and changes in loads can impact ecosystem functions. Dissolved nutrients (silicate, phosphate, nitrate/nitrite, and ammonium) will be examined and related to land use.

  20. Reproduction and early life history of ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) on the St. Louis River, a Lake Superior tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, William P.; Selgeby, James H.; Collins, Hollie L.

    1998-01-01

    Reproduction and early life history of ruffe (Gymnocephalus ceriums) was investigated during April to July in 1993 and 1994 in the St. Louis River, a western Lake Superior tributary. This study was conducted to assist fishery managers in determining possible interactions among the early life stages of ruffe and other North American percids, and in obtaining information useful in developing control methods targeted at the early life stages of ruffe. Ruffe had a prolonged spawning period that extended from late April to late June with peak spawning in mid to late May when water temperatures were between 12 and 14°C. The majority of ruffe protolarva were captured 1 to 2 weeks after egg deposition between mid May and late June and most were captured in water 0.5-m deep. Onshore-offshore movements were not observed, but diel vertical movements of larval ruffe were observed on several occasions. The greatest chance of ballast water transport of pelagic larval ruffe is between mid May and July. Information on reproduction and early life history in this report will assist fishery mangers in development of ruffe control methods, and assist Great Lakes shipping in ballast water management to prevent the spread of ruffe.

  1. Parasites of native Cichlidae populations and invasive Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in tributary of Amazonas River (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Luana Silva; Pinheiro, Douglas Anadias; Cárdenas, Melissa Querido; Fernandes, Berenice Maria; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2014-03-01

    This study provides the first investigation on acquisition of parasites in invasive O. niloticus by parasite species of native Cichlidae from the Igarapé Fortaleza basin, Northern Brazil. There were examined 576 specimens of 16 species of native cichlids and invasive O. niloticus collected in the main channel and the floodplain area of this tributary of Amazon River. The invasive O. niloticus was poorly parasitized having only Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina centrostrigeata, Paratrichodina africana, Trichodina nobilis (Protozoa) and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae (Monogenoidea), and this host has not acquired any parasite species common to the native ichthyofauna region. In contrast, species of native cichlids showed rich fauna of parasites with predominance of Monogenoidea species, larvae and adults of Nematoda, Digenea, Cestoidea and Acanthocephala, besides four species of Protozoa and four Crustacea. However, only T. nobilis was acquired by native fish, the Aequidens tetramerus, which is a new host for this exotic Trichodinidae. In O. niloticus, well established in the region, the small number of helminth species may be associated with its rusticity, good adaptation in the new environment and also the presence of native parasites with relative specificity, but without ability to complete its life cycle in this invasive host of this ecosystem. PMID:24728360

  2. A basin-scale approach to estimating stream temperatures of tributaries to the lower Klamath River, California.

    PubMed

    Flint, Lorraine E; Flint, Alan L

    2008-01-01

    Stream temperature is an important component of salmonid habitat and is often above levels suitable for fish survival in the Lower Klamath River in northern California. The objective of this study was to provide boundary conditions for models that are assessing stream temperature on the main stem for the purpose of developing strategies to manage stream conditions using Total Maximum Daily Loads. For model input, hourly stream temperatures for 36 tributaries were estimated for 1 Jan. 2001 through 31 Oct. 2004. A basin-scale approach incorporating spatially distributed energy balance data was used to estimate the stream temperatures with measured air temperature and relative humidity data and simulated solar radiation, including topographic shading and corrections for cloudiness. Regression models were developed on the basis of available stream temperature data to predict temperatures for unmeasured periods of time and for unmeasured streams. The most significant factor in matching measured minimum and maximum stream temperatures was the seasonality of the estimate. Adding minimum and maximum air temperature to the regression model improved the estimate, and air temperature data over the region are available and easily distributed spatially. The addition of simulated solar radiation and vapor saturation deficit to the regression model significantly improved predictions of maximum stream temperature but was not required to predict minimum stream temperature. The average SE in estimated maximum daily stream temperature for the individual basins was 0.9 +/- 0.6 degrees C at the 95% confidence interval.

  3. Complex influences of low-head dams and artificial wetlands on fishes in a Colorado River tributary system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beatty, R.J.; Rahel, F.J.; Hubert, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Low-head dams in arid regions restrict fish movement and create novel habitats that have complex effects on fish assemblages. The influence of low-head dams and artificial wetlands on fishes in Muddy Creek, a tributary of the Colorado River system in the USA was examined. Upstream, fish assemblages were dominated by native species including two species of conservation concern, bluehead sucker, Catostomus discobolus Cope, and roundtail chub, Gila robusta Baird and Girard. The artificial wetlands contained almost exclusively non-native fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas Rafinesque, and white sucker, Catostomus commersonii (Lacep??de). Downstream, fish assemblages were dominated by non-native species. Upstream spawning migrations by non-native white suckers were blocked by dams associated with the wetlands. However, the wetlands do not provide habitat for native fishes and likely inhibit fish movement. The wetlands appear to be a source habitat for non-native fishes and a sink habitat for native fishes. Two non-native species, sand shiner, Notropis stramineus (Cope), and redside shiner, Richardsonius balteatus (Richardson), were present only downstream of the wetlands, suggesting a beneficial role of the wetlands in preventing upstream colonisation by non-native fishes. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Sediment contamination in Lyons Creek East, a tributary of the Niagara River: part I. Assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Milani, Danielle; Grapentine, Lee C; Fletcher, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    Sediments in Lyons Creek East (Welland, Ontario), a tributary of the Niagara River and part of the Niagara River Area of Concern, which exceed screening-level environmental-quality criteria for multiple contaminants, were assessed for biological impacts using information from multiple lines of evidence. An initial chemical survey indicated the primary contaminants of concern to be polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), zinc, and p,p'-DDE due to frequent exceedences of sediment guidelines. A subsequent study focused on the chemical composition of sediment, status of benthic invertebrate communities, contaminant bioaccumulation in resident benthos, and sediment toxicity to laboratory-exposed organisms. Chemical and biological conditions in the creek were compared with those in reference creeks using both multivariate (cluster analysis and ordination) and univariate (regression) techniques. Sediment PCBs (≤ 19 μg/g), PAHs (≤ 63 μg/g), and Zn (≤ 7969 μg/g) were increased above the sediment-quality guidelines along most of the creek; however, the upper 1.5 km portion of the creek was the most highly contaminated and therefore the main focus for biological study. Although severe toxicity was evident at several locations in the upper creek, resident benthic communities were minimally affected by sediment contamination. The cause of toxicity was likely related to a combination of stressors, including PCBs, PAHs, and metals. Due to its biomagnifiable nature, bioaccumulation focused on PCBs; concentrations in resident macroinvertebrates were ≤ 2 orders of magnitude greater than those found in reference creeks and were above tissue residue guidelines, indicating a potential risk for consumers of benthos. This risk was not limited to the upper 1.5 km where other effects were seen.

  5. Mineral resources of the Trinity River tributary area in Texas and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weissenborn, A. E.

    1946-01-01

    In March 1945 Colonel George R. Goethels, Chief of the Civil Works Division of the Corps of Engineers, requested the Director of the Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior, to prepare a report on the mineral resource of the area that, according to economic studies made by the Corps of Engineers, would be affected by the canalization of the Trinity River to Fort Worth. As a consequence, the staff of the Geological Survey's Regional Office in Rolla, Mo., was assigned the task of preparing the desired information. A. E. Weissenborn, acting Regional Geologist, called on Major H. R. Norman, Division Engineer of the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, and discussed with him the purpose, scope, and form of the proposed report. Following this discussion, Dr. John T. Lonsdale, Director of the Bureau of Economic Geology of the University of Texas, at Mr. Weissenborn's request, agreed that the Bureau of Economic Geology should participate in the preparation of the report. My. Weissenborn also called on Robert H. Dott, Director of the Oklahoma State Geological Survey at Norman, Oklahoma. The Oklahoma Geological Survey was unable to participate in writing the report, but was very helpful in supplying published and unpublished or out-of-print information on the mineral resources of Oklahoma.

  6. Low-flow profiles of the Tallapoosa River and tributaries in Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, R.F.; Hopkins, E.H.; Perlman, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Low flow information is provided for use in an evaluation of the capacity of streams to permit withdrawals or to accept waste loads without exceeding the limits of State water quality standards. The report is the fourth in a series of reports presenting the results of a low flow study of all stream basins north of the Fall Line in Georgia. This report covers the part of the Tallapoosa River basin in the Piedmont province of Georgia. The low flow characteristic presented is the minimum average flow for 7 consecutive days with a 10-year recurrence interval (7Q10). The data are presented in tables and shown graphically as ' low flow profiles ' (low flow plotted against distance along a stream channel), and as ' drainage area profiles ' (drainage area plotted against distance along a stream channel). Low flow profiles were constructed by interpolation or extrapolation from points of known low flow data. Low flow profiles are included for all stream reaches where low flow data of sufficient accuracy are available to justify computation of the profiles. Drainage area profiles are included for all stream basins > 5 sq mi, except for those in a few remote areas. Flow records were not adjusted for diversions or other factors that cause measured flows to represent conditions other than natural flow. (Author 's abstract)

  7. Drought responses of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in coastal plain tributaries of the Flint River basin, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gagnon, P.M.; Golladay, S.W.; Michener, W.K.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    During extreme drought conditions, mussel survival and habitat conditions were monitored weekly at nine locations representing a gradient in stream size in the lower Flint River basin, Georgia, USA. Cumulative unionid mortality ranged from 13 to 93% among sites, and was associated with low flow velocity (below 0.01 m/s) and dissolved oxygen concentrations below 5 mg/L. Species assemblages demonstrated differential mortality under declining dissolved oxygen conditions. Riffle and medium-large stream mussel assemblages had greater mortality than generalist assemblages under reduced dissoloved oxygen (DO < 5 mg/L). Mussel community composition at medium-sized sites shifted toward greater dominance of generalist species and lower proportions of riffle and medium-large stream species. At other sites, community structure changed little, likely due to the dominance of drought-resilient species in small streams and less detrimental changes in stream habitat conditions in large streams. Low flow conditions and severe drought adversely affected mussel distributions and assemblages, particularly in high diversity, medium-sized streams.

  8. 33 CFR 207.300 - Ohio River, Mississippi River above Cairo, Ill., and their tributaries; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... transferring cargo is prohibited. (ii) All hatches on barges used to transport flammable or hazardous materials... securely moored, the pilot shall not cause movement of the propellers except in emergency or unless... of their bow waves and propeller washes on river banks; submerged or partially submerged...

  9. 33 CFR 207.300 - Ohio River, Mississippi River above Cairo, Ill., and their tributaries; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transferring cargo is prohibited. (ii) All hatches on barges used to transport flammable or hazardous materials... securely moored, the pilot shall not cause movement of the propellers except in emergency or unless... of their bow waves and propeller washes on river banks; submerged or partially submerged...

  10. 33 CFR 207.300 - Ohio River, Mississippi River above Cairo, Ill., and their tributaries; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... transferring cargo is prohibited. (ii) All hatches on barges used to transport flammable or hazardous materials... securely moored, the pilot shall not cause movement of the propellers except in emergency or unless... of their bow waves and propeller washes on river banks; submerged or partially submerged...

  11. 33 CFR 207.300 - Ohio River, Mississippi River above Cairo, Ill., and their tributaries; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... transferring cargo is prohibited. (ii) All hatches on barges used to transport flammable or hazardous materials... securely moored, the pilot shall not cause movement of the propellers except in emergency or unless... of their bow waves and propeller washes on river banks; submerged or partially submerged...

  12. 33 CFR 207.300 - Ohio River, Mississippi River above Cairo, Ill., and their tributaries; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transferring cargo is prohibited. (ii) All hatches on barges used to transport flammable or hazardous materials... securely moored, the pilot shall not cause movement of the propellers except in emergency or unless... of their bow waves and propeller washes on river banks; submerged or partially submerged...

  13. Toxicity of bed sediments from the Niagara River Area of Concern and tributaries, New York, to Chironomus dilutus and Hyalella azteca, 2014-15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Scott D.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Duffy, Brian T.

    2016-09-20

    The Niagara River was designated as an Area of Concern in 1987 on both the United States and Canadian sides of the international boundary line because past industrial discharges and hazardous waste sites had caused extensive degradation of aquatic habitats. The degradation of the “benthos”, or the benthic macroinvertebrate community, was identified as one of seven beneficial use impairments caused by contaminated bed sediments. The U.S. Geological Survey and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted a study in 2014 and 2015 to gather more extensive data on (a) the toxicity of bed sediments and (b) the status of macroinvertebrate communities on the main stem and tributaries of the Niagara River. This report addresses the first component of that study (toxicity of bed sediments), and summarizes results from laboratory toxicity tests that compare the survival and growth of two macroinvertebrate species between bed sediments from study sites and laboratory controls. Sediment toxicity was negligible at most sites, however poor performance of one or both test species in bed sediments from several tributary sites suggests that the quality of sediments may be adversely affecting benthic macroinvertebrate communities in some tributaries to the Niagara River.

  14. Instream Flows Needed for Successful Migration Spawning and Rearing of Rainbow and Westslope Cutthroat Trout in Selected Tributaries of the Kootenai River: Final Report 1986.

    SciTech Connect

    Marotz, Brian

    1986-12-01

    This study was conducted by Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks in contractual agreement with Bonneville Power Administration and addresses measure 804(a)(9) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Objectives were to determine instream flow needs in Kootenai River tributaries to maintain successful fish migration, spawning and rearing habitat of game fish, evaluate existing resident and rearing fish populations, and compile hydrologic and fishery information required to secure legal reservation of water for the fishery resource.

  15. [Impacts of urbanization on the water quality and macrobenthos community structure of the tributaries in middle reach of Qiantang River, East China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong-Xiao; Yu, Hai-Yan; Liu, Shuo-Ru; Hu, Zun-Ying; Yu, Jian; Wang, Bei-Xin

    2012-05-01

    The 59 1st-3rd order tributaries in the middle reach of Qiantang River are negatively affected by different intensities of urbanization. In April 2010, an investigation was conducted on the water bodies' physical and chemical properties and macrobenthos communities of the tributaries, with the relationships between the tributaries' water quality and biological communities and the percentage of ground surface impervious area (PIA), an indicator of urbanization intensity. The Spearman correlation analysis showed that the water bodies' NH(4+)-N, PO4(3-)-P, TP, COD(Mn), conductivity, width, depth, and fine sand/silt ratio were positively correlated with PIA, and negatively correlated with forest land area. The fitted nonlinear regression equations revealed that all the test macro-benthic invertebrate's parameters had significant relationships with PIA, of which, the total number of taxa, Shannon diversity index, richness index, EPT (%), predators (%), shredders (%), filterers (%) and scrapers (%) were negatively correlated to PIA but positively correlated to forest land area, and the BI, collectors (%), tolerance taxa (%) and oligochaeta (%) were positively correlated to the PIA. Our study indicated that under the impact of urbanization, these tributaries presented the common features of degradation, i. e., high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, degradation of physical habitat, disappearance of pollution-sensitive macro-benthic invertebrate species, and dramatic increase of pollution-tolerant species individuals.

  16. A basin-scale approach to estimating stream temperatures of tributaries to the lower Klamath River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L.

    2008-01-01

    Stream temperature is an important component of salmonid habitat and is often above levels suitable for fish survival in the Lower Klamath River in northern California. The objective of this study was to provide boundary conditions for models that are assessing stream temperature on the main stem for the purpose of developing strategies to manage stream conditions using Total Maximum Daily Loads. For model input, hourly stream temperatures for 36 tributaries were estimated for 1 Jan. 2001 through 31 Oct. 2004. A basin-scale approach incorporating spatially distributed energy balance data was used to estimate the stream temperatures with measured air temperature and relative humidity data and simulated solar radiation, including topographic shading and corrections for cloudiness. Regression models were developed on the basis of available stream temperature data to predict temperatures for unmeasured periods of time and for unmeasured streams. The most significant factor in matching measured minimum and maximum stream temperatures was the seasonality of the estimate. Adding minimum and maximum air temperature to the regression model improved the estimate, and air temperature data over the region are available and easily distributed spatially. The addition of simulated solar radiation and vapor saturation deficit to the regression model significantly improved predictions of maximum stream temperature but was not required to predict minimum stream temperature. The average SE in estimated maximum daily stream temperature for the individual basins was 0.9 ?? 0.6??C at the 95% confidence interval. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  17. Inorganic chemistry of water and bed sediment in selected tributaries of the south Umpqua River, Oregon, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Stephen R.

    1999-01-01

    Ten sites on small South Umpqua River tributaries were sampled for inorganic constituents in water and streambed sediment. In aqueous samples, high concentrations (concentrations exceeding U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criterion continuous concentration for the protection of aquatic life) of zinc, copper, and cadmium were detected in Middle Creek at Silver Butte, and the concentration of zinc was high at Middle Creek near Riddle. Similar patterns of trace-element occurrence were observed in streambed-sediment samples.The dissolved aqueous load of zinc carried by Middle Creek along the stretch between the upper site (Middle Creek at Silver Butte) and the lower site (Middle Creek near Riddle) decreased by about 0.3 pounds per day. Removal of zinc from solution between the upper and lower sites on Middle Creek evidently was occurring at the time of sampling. However, zinc that leaves the aqueous phase is not necessarily permanently lost from solution. For example, zinc solubility is pH-dependent, and a shift between solid and aqueous phases towards release of zinc to solution in Middle Creek could occur with a perturbation in stream-water pH. Thus, at least two potentially significant sources of zinc may exist in Middle Creek: (1) the upstream source(s) producing the observed high aqueous zinc concentrations and (2) the streambed sediment itself (zinc-bearing solid phases and/or adsorbed zinc). Similar behavior may be exhibited by copper and cadmium because these trace elements also were present at high concentrations in streambed sediment in the Middle Creek Basin.

  18. Status of heavy metals in water and bed sediments of river Gomti--a tributary of the Ganga River, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vinod K; Singh, Kunwar P; Mohan, Dinesh

    2005-06-01

    The concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc in water and bed sediments of river Gomti have been studied in a fairly long stretch of 500 km from Neemsar to Jaunpur. Grab samples of water (October 2002-March 2003) and bed sediments (December 2002 and March 2003) were collected from 10 different locations following the standard methods. The river water and sediment samples were processed and analyzed for heavy metals viz., Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, and Zn, and using ICP-AES. The heavy metals found in the river water were in the range: Cd (0.0001-0.0005 mg/L); Cr (0.0015-0.0688 mg/L); Cu (0.0013-0.0.0043 mg/L); Fe (0.0791-0.3190 mg/L); Mn (0.0038-0.0.0973 mg/L); Ni (0.0066-0.011 mg/L); Pb (0.0158-0.0276 mg/L); and Zn (0.0144-0.0298 mg/L) respectively. In the sediments the same were found in the range: Cd (0.70-7.90 /microg/g); Cr (6.105-20.595 microg/g); Cu (3.735-35.68 microg/g); Fe (5051.485-8291.485 micorg/g); Mn (134.915-320.45 microg/g); Ni (13.905-37.370 microg/g); Pb (21.25-92.15 microg/g); and Zn (1 5.72-99.35 microg/g) of dry weight respectively. Some physico-chemical parameters viz., pH, total solids, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, hardness etc. were estimated as these have direct or indirect influence on the incidence, transport and speciation of the heavy metals. Based on the geoaccumulation indices, the Gomti river sediments from Neemsar to Jaunpur are considered to be unpolluted with respect to Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. It is unpolluted to moderately polluted with Pb. In case of Cd it varies from moderately polluted to highly polluted. As far as Ni is concerned the sediment is very highly polluted at Barabanki and Jaunpur D/s. No correlation was found between enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index.

  19. Status of heavy metals in water and bed sediments of river Gomti--a tributary of the Ganga River, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vinod K; Singh, Kunwar P; Mohan, Dinesh

    2005-06-01

    The concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc in water and bed sediments of river Gomti have been studied in a fairly long stretch of 500 km from Neemsar to Jaunpur. Grab samples of water (October 2002-March 2003) and bed sediments (December 2002 and March 2003) were collected from 10 different locations following the standard methods. The river water and sediment samples were processed and analyzed for heavy metals viz., Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, and Zn, and using ICP-AES. The heavy metals found in the river water were in the range: Cd (0.0001-0.0005 mg/L); Cr (0.0015-0.0688 mg/L); Cu (0.0013-0.0.0043 mg/L); Fe (0.0791-0.3190 mg/L); Mn (0.0038-0.0.0973 mg/L); Ni (0.0066-0.011 mg/L); Pb (0.0158-0.0276 mg/L); and Zn (0.0144-0.0298 mg/L) respectively. In the sediments the same were found in the range: Cd (0.70-7.90 /microg/g); Cr (6.105-20.595 microg/g); Cu (3.735-35.68 microg/g); Fe (5051.485-8291.485 micorg/g); Mn (134.915-320.45 microg/g); Ni (13.905-37.370 microg/g); Pb (21.25-92.15 microg/g); and Zn (1 5.72-99.35 microg/g) of dry weight respectively. Some physico-chemical parameters viz., pH, total solids, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, hardness etc. were estimated as these have direct or indirect influence on the incidence, transport and speciation of the heavy metals. Based on the geoaccumulation indices, the Gomti river sediments from Neemsar to Jaunpur are considered to be unpolluted with respect to Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. It is unpolluted to moderately polluted with Pb. In case of Cd it varies from moderately polluted to highly polluted. As far as Ni is concerned the sediment is very highly polluted at Barabanki and Jaunpur D/s. No correlation was found between enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index. PMID:15952511

  20. Effects of Jackson Lake dam and Tributaries on the Hydrology and Geomorphology of the Snake River, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, N. C.; Schmidt, J. C.

    2006-05-01

    Geomorphic and hydrologic analyses of the Snake River in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) indicate that flow contributions of tributaries mitigate impacts of regulation. Since a flow regime change in 1958, regulation resulted in a 43 and 35% decrease in estimated unregulated flows immediately downstream of Jackson Lake Dam (JLD) and at Moose (43 km and 5 tributaries downstream of JLD), respectively. Geomorphic evidence indicates that some channel characteristics are more sensitive than others to this decreasing influence of flow regulation. First, entrainment of tracer rocks suggests that the ability of the Snake River to mobilize its bed increases downstream. A greater proportion of the bed became active, and the mobilized clasts moved further, in the two study reaches furthest downstream. Second, repeat mapping from aerial photographs suggest that some changes in channel form are the result of flow regulation and some are the result of climatically driven changes in runoff determined by tributaries. Initial decreases in flows due to regulation may have caused the observed channel narrowing between 1945 and 1969, and greater precipitation causing greater natural flows may have resulted in the subsequent channel widening between 1969 and 1990. Third, flow models were used to obtain the magnitudes of flows necessary to inundate two floodplain surfaces in 4 reaches from JLD to Moose. Recurrence intervals and inundation periods were similar for a narrow, inset floodplain in all 4 reaches, suggesting that this surface developed due to regulation. Recurrence intervals for a much broader and higher floodplain decreased downstream from 9 to 3.2 years and inundation periods increased downstream from 1.1 to 3 days immediately below JLD and at Moose, respectively. This suggests the upper floodplain was formed prior to regulation of the Snake River. Thus, the effects of flow regulation on bed mobility and connectivity between the channel and the upper floodplain decrease

  1. Use of Continuous Monitors and Autosamplers to Predict Unmeasured Water-Quality Constituents in Tributaries of the Tualatin River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Chauncey W.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2010-01-01

    Management of water quality in streams of the United States is becoming increasingly complex as regulators seek to control aquatic pollution and ecological problems through Total Maximum Daily Load programs that target reductions in the concentrations of certain constituents. Sediment, nutrients, and bacteria, for example, are constituents that regulators target for reduction nationally and in the Tualatin River basin, Oregon. These constituents require laboratory analysis of discrete samples for definitive determinations of concentrations in streams. Recent technological advances in the nearly continuous, in situ monitoring of related water-quality parameters has fostered the use of these parameters as surrogates for the labor intensive, laboratory-analyzed constituents. Although these correlative techniques have been successful in large rivers, it was unclear whether they could be applied successfully in tributaries of the Tualatin River, primarily because these streams tend to be small, have rapid hydrologic response to rainfall and high streamflow variability, and may contain unique sources of sediment, nutrients, and bacteria. This report evaluates the feasibility of developing correlative regression models for predicting dependent variables (concentrations of total suspended solids, total phosphorus, and Escherichia coli bacteria) in two Tualatin River basin streams: one draining highly urbanized land (Fanno Creek near Durham, Oregon) and one draining rural agricultural land (Dairy Creek at Highway 8 near Hillsboro, Oregon), during 2002-04. An important difference between these two streams is their response to storm runoff; Fanno Creek has a relatively rapid response due to extensive upstream impervious areas and Dairy Creek has a relatively slow response because of the large amount of undeveloped upstream land. Four other stream sites also were evaluated, but in less detail. Potential explanatory variables included continuously monitored streamflow

  2. Occurrence and Transport of Diazinon in the Sacramento River and Selected Tributaries, California, during Two Winter Storms, January?February 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dileanis, Peter D.; Brown, David L.; Knifong, Donna L.; Saleh, Dina

    2003-01-01

    Diazinon, an organophosphate insecticide, is applied as an orchard dormant spray in the Sacramento Valley during the winter months when the area receives most of its annual rainfall. During winter rainstorms that frequently follow dormant spray applications, some of the applied pesticide is transported in storm runoff to the Sacramento River and its tributaries. Diazinon is also used to control insect pests on residential and commercial properties in urban areas and is frequently detected in urban storm runoff draining into the Sacramento River system. Between January 24 and February 14, 2001, diazinon concentrations and loads were measured in the Sacramento River and selected tributaries during two winter storms that occurred after dormant spray applications were made to orchards in the Sacramento Valley. Water samples were collected at 21 sites that represented agricultural and urban inputs on a variety of scales, from small tributaries and drains representing local land use to main-stem river sites representing regional effects. Concentrations of diazinon ranged from below laboratory reporting levels to 1,380 nanograms per liter (ng/L), with a median of 55 ng/L during the first monitored storm and 26 ng/L during the second. The highest concentrations were observed in small channels draining predominantly agricultural land. About 26,000 pounds of diazinon were reported applied to agricultural land in the study area just before and during the monitoring period. About 0.2 percent of the applied insecticide appeared to be transported to the lower Sacramento River during that period. The source of about one third of the total load measured in the lower Sacramento River appears to be in the portion of the drainage basin upstream of the city of Colusa. About 12 percent of the diazinon load in the lower Sacramento River was transported from the Feather River Basin, which drains much of the mountainous eastern portions of the Sacramento River Basin. Diazinon use in the

  3. Effects of coal-mine discharges on the quality of the Stonycreek River and its tributaries, Somerset and Cambria counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Donald R.; Sams, James I.; Mulkerrin, Mary E.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the Somerset Conservation District, to locate and sample abandoned coal-mine discharges in the Stonycreek River Basin, to prioritize the mine discharges for remediation, and to determine the effects of the mine discharges on water quality of the Stonycreek River and its major tributaries. From October 1991 through November 1994, 270 abandoned coal-mine discharges were located and sampled. Discharges from 193 mines exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency effluent standards for pH, discharges from 122 mines exceeded effluent standards for total-iron concentration, and discharges from 141 mines exceeded effluent standards for total-manganese concentration. Discharges from 94 mines exceeded effluent standards for all three constituents. Only 40 mine discharges met effluent standards for pH and concentrations of total iron and total manganese. A prioritization index (PI) was developed to rank the mine discharges with respect to their loading capacity on the receiving stream. The PI lists the most severe mine discharges in a descending order for the Stonycreek River Basin and for subbasins that include the Shade Creek, Paint Creek, Wells Creek, Quemahoning Creek, Oven Run, and Pokeytown Run Basins. Passive-treatment systems that include aerobic wetlands, compost wetlands, and anoxic limestone drains (ALD's) are planned to remediate the abandoned mine discharges. The successive alkalinity-producing-system treatment combines ALD technology with the sulfate reduction mechanism of the compost wetland to effectively remediate mine discharge. The water quality and flow of each mine discharge will determine which treatment system or combination of treatment systems would be necessary for remediation. A network of 37 surface-water sampling sites was established to determine stream-water quality during base flow. A series of illustrations show how water quality in the

  4. Effects of coalbed natural gas development on fish assemblages in tributary streams of the Powder and Tongue rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, W.N.; Bramblett, R.G.; Zale, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    1. Extraction of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) often results in disposal of large quantities of CBNG product water, which may affect aquatic ecosystems. We evaluated the effects of CBNG development on fish assemblages in tributary streams of the Powder and Tongue rivers. We used treatment and control, impact versus reference sites comparisons, surveys of CBNG product-water streams and in situ fish survival approaches to determine if CBNG development affected fish assemblages.2. Several of our results suggested that CBNG development did not affect fish assemblages. Species richness and index of biotic integrity (IBI) scores were similar in streams with and streams without CBNG development, and overall biotic integrity was not related to the number or density of CBNG wells. Fish occurred in one stream that was composed largely or entirely of CBNG product water. Sentinel fish survived in cages at treatment sites where no or few fish were captured, suggesting that factors such as lack of stream connectivity rather than water quality limited fish abundance at these sites. Fish species richness did not differ significantly from 1994 to 2006 in comparisons of CBNG-developed and undeveloped streams. Biotic integrity declined from 1994 to 2006; however, declines occurred at both impact and reference sites, possibly because of long-term drought.3. Some evidence suggested that CBNG development negatively affected fish assemblages, or may do so over time. Specific conductivity was on average higher in treatment streams and was negatively related to biotic integrity. Four IBI species richness metrics were negatively correlated with the number or density of CBNG wells in the catchment above sampling sites. Bicarbonate, one of the primary ions in product water, was significantly higher in developed streams and may have limited abundance of longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae). Total dissolved solids, alkalinity, magnesium and sulphate were significantly higher in developed streams

  5. Base flow, water quality, and streamflow gain and loss of the Buffalo River, Arkansas, and selected tributaries, July and August 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moix, Matthew W.; Galloway, Joel M.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the Buffalo National River in north-central Arkansas was conducted between July 28-30 and August 13-15, 2003, to characterize the base-flow and water-quality characteristics and streamflow gain and loss in the Buffalo River. The study was separated into two time periods because of a precipitation event that occurred on the afternoon of July 30 causing appreciable storm runoff. Streamflow was separated to identify base-flow and surface-runoff components using the Base Flow Index hydrograph separation computer program. Base-flow separation analyses indicated annual variability in streamflow throughout the Buffalo River Basin. Based upon these analyses, total and base flow were below average for the mainstem of the river and Richland Creek during the 2003 water year. Waterquality samples were collected from 25 surface-water sites on the Buffalo River and selected tributaries. Most nutrient concentrations for the mainstem of the Buffalo River were near or below the minimum reporting level and were less than the median flow-weighted concentration for relatively undeveloped stream basins in the United States. Streamflow measurement data were collected at 44 locations along the mainstem of the Buffalo River and at points of inflow (prior to confluence with the mainstem) to identify gaining and losing reaches. Seven gaining and five losing reaches were identified for the Buffalo River. Additionally, surface flow on the mainstem of the Buffalo River was diverted to subsurface flow on the mainstem at two locations (river miles 73.6 and 131.6) where the mainstem was found to be dry. Reaches throughout the length of the river had calculated gains or losses that were less than the sum of measurement errors for the respective reaches of river.

  6. Nutrient concentrations and loads and Escherichia coli densities in tributaries of the Niantic River estuary, southeastern Connecticut, 2005 and 2008–2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullaney, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient concentrations and loads and Escherichia coli (E. coli) densities were studied in 2005 and from 2008 through 2011 in water-quality samples from tributaries of the Niantic River Estuary in southeastern Connecticut. Data from a water-quality survey of the base flow of subbasins in the watershed in June 2005 were used to determine the range of total nitrogen concentrations (0.09 to 2.4 milligrams per liter), instantaneous loads (less than 1 to 62 pounds per day) and the yields of total nitrogen ranging from 0.02 to 11.2 pounds per square mile per day (less than 1 to 7.2 kilograms per hectare per year) from basin segments. Nitrogen yields were positively correlated with the amount of developed land in each subbasin. Stable isotope measurements of nitrate (δ15N) and oxygen (δ18O) ranged from 3.9 to 9.4 per mil and 0.7 to 4.1 per mil, respectively, indicating that likely sources of nitrate in base flow are soil nitrate and ammonium fertilizers, sewage or animal waste, or a mixture of these sources. Continuous streamflow and monthly water-quality sampling, with additional storm event sampling, were conducted at the three major tributaries (Latimer Brook, Oil Mill Brook, and Stony Brook) of the Niantic River from October 2008 through September 2011. Samples were analyzed for nitrogen and phosphorus constituents and E. coli densities. Total freshwater discharge from these tributaries, which is reduced by upstream withdrawals, ranged from 25.9 to 37.8 million gallons per day. Total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations generally were low, with the mean values below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended nutrient concentration values of 0.71 milligram per liter and 0.031 milligram per liter, respectively. Total nitrogen was predominantly in the form of total ammonia plus organic nitrogen at the Oil Mill Brook and Stony Brook sites and in the form of nitrate at Latimer Brook. Annual total nitrogen loads that flowed into the Niantic River estuary from

  7. Effects of highway construction on sediment and benthic macroinvertebrates in two tributaries of the lost river, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, Lara B.; Welsh, S.A.; Anderson, James T.

    2007-01-01

    During a three-year study of two tributaries being crossed by a four-lane highway under construction in the eastern panhandle of West Virginia, we found little difference in the amount of fine sediment collected at upstream and downstream sites. The downstream site on one tributary collected significantly greater amounts of sediment in 2003, prior to installation of sediment fencing. Despite several episodic flow events that caused changes in the streambed, benthic macroinvertebrate metrics did not differ significantly annually or seasonally between sites or between streams. On-site controls effectively checked new sedimentation, and benthic macroinvertebrates were not significantly impacted.

  8. Interactions between invasive round gobies (Neogobius melanostomous) and fantail darters (Etheostoma flabellare) in a tributary of the St. Lawrence River, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbett, Ross; Waldt, Emily M.; Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2013-01-01

    The initial, rapid expansion of the invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) throughout the Great Lakes drainage was largely confined to lentic systems. We recently observed round gobies ascending two tributaries of the St. Lawrence River. The expansion of gobies into small lotic environments may place ecologically similar species at risk. Fantail darter (Etheostoma flabellare) is one of the several benthic species of the New York Great Lakes drainages that are threatened by round goby invasion. We examined the habitat use and diet composition of fantail darters and round gobies in Mullet Creek, a third-order tributary of the St. Lawrence River, NY, USA. The objectives of this study were to determine the degree of habitat and diet overlap between fantail darters and round gobies in a tributary of the St. Lawrence River. Gobies and darters co-occurred at 22% of capture sites. Of the four habitat variables examined (cover, depth, substrate and velocity), only depth use was significantly different with gobies using deeper habitats than darters. Among the two species and size classes sampled (large vs. small), large darters had the most restricted habitat use requirements. There was variation in round goby and darter diet composition, but only moderate diet overlap occurred between fantail darters and round gobies (Cλ = 0.43). Conditions in Mullet Creek were appropriate for the evaluation of possible spatial and dietary competition between round goby and native darters. Early detection and management of round goby invasions is critical to maintaining ecological integrity of lotic ecosystems in the St. Lawrence Valley.

  9. The spatiotemporal distribution of dissolved carbon in the main stems and their tributaries along the lower reaches of Heilongjiang River Basin, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Song, Changchun; Guo, Yuedong

    2016-01-01

    The Heilongjiang River Basin in the eastern Siberia, one of the largest river basins draining to the North Pacific Ocean, is a border river between China, Mongolia, and Russia. In this study, we examined the spatial and seasonal variability in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and dissolved total carbon (DTC) concentrations along lower reaches of Heilongjiang River Basin, China. Water samples were collected monthly along the mouths of main rivers (Heilongjiang River, Wusuli River, and Songhua River) and their ten tributary waters for 2 years. The DOC concentrations of waters ranged from 1.74 to 16.64 mg/L, with a mean value of 8.90 ± 0.27 mg/L (n = 165). Notably, mean DIC concentrations were 9.08 ± 0.31 mg/L, accounting for 13.26∼83.27% of DTC. DIC concentrations increased significantly after the Heilongjiang River passed through Northeast China, while DOC concentrations decreased. Over 50% of DIC concentrations were decreased during exports from groundwater to rice fields and from rice fields to ditches. Water dissolved carbon showed large spatial and temporal variations during the 2-year measurement, suggesting that more frequently samplings were required. Carbon (DIC + DOC) loads from the Heilongjiang River to the Sea of Okhotsk were estimated to be 3.26 Tg C/year in this study, accounting for 0.64% of the global water dissolved carbon flux. DIC export contributed an average of 51.84% of the estimated carbon load in the Heilongjiang River, acting as an important carbon component during riverine transport. Our study could provide some guides on agricultural water management and contribute to more accurately estimate global carbon budgets.

  10. Benthic-invertebrate and streambed-sediment data for the White River and its tributaries in and near Indianapolis, Indiana, 1994-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renn, Danny E.

    1998-01-01

    Data were collected in the White River and its tributaries in and near Indianapolis, Indiana, on the diversity and density of benthic invertebrates; concentrations of metals, insecticides, herbicides, and semivolatile organic compounds sorbed on streambed sediments; and particle-size distribution of streambed sediments. A total of 369 benthic-invertebrate samples were collected at 21 sites during late spring or summer and early fall 1994 through 1996; of these, 30 were quality-control samples. A total of 33 streambed-sediment samples were collected at 14 sites during August 1994, 1995, and 1996; of these, 10 were quality-control samples.

  11. Benthic invertebrates and quality of streambed sediments in the White River and selected tributaries in and near Indianapolis, Indiana, 1994-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voelker, David C.; Renn, Danny E.

    2000-01-01

    During this study, 369 benthic-invertebrate samples were collected at 21 sites and 33 streambed-sediment samples were collected at 14 sites to help develop and evaluate control strategies to mediate the impact of point and nonpoint sources of pollution on the White River and selected tributaries in and near Indianapolis, Indiana. Data analyses show that 124 taxa were identified and that most of the benthic invertebrates found belong to one of three taxa: the pollution-tolerant Diptera and the pollution-intolerant Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera. The Hilsenhoff Biotic Index, which was calculated from the number of arthropods and their tolerance to pollution, ranged from 4.4 (very good) to 9.4 (very poor) on the White River, and from 4.9 (good) to 9.1 (very poor) on the tributaries. The Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) Richness Index, which was calculated from the number of taxa in pollution-intolerant species, ranged from 0 to 9 for the White River and from 0 to 9 for the tributaries. A high EPT Richness Index value reflects a great diversity of pollution-intolerant invertebrates at a site and generally indicates good water quality. A comparison of data collected during the 1994 through 1996 study to data collected during a 1981 through 1987 study indicates that the proportion of pollution-tolerant taxa increased in the immediate vicinity of Indianapolis. This increase may be an indicator that the water quality in the immediate vicinity of Indianapolis has declined since the earlier study. Comparison of the Hilsenhoff Biotic Index values, however, indicates there has been no change since the previous study. In the analysis of streambed sediments, small amounts of 12 metals were detected. Of those, only lead exceeded sediment-quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life in three samples from two sites. Thirteen insecticides were detected in the streambed sediments, and of those only chlordane exceeded sediment-quality guidelines for the

  12. Water-quality and biological conditions in selected tributaries of the Lower Boise River, southwestern Idaho, water years 2009-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etheridge, Alexandra B.; MacCoy, Dorene E.; Weakland, Rhonda J.

    2014-01-01

    Water-quality conditions were studied in selected tributaries of the lower Boise River during water years 2009–12, including Fivemile and Tenmile Creeks in 2009, Indian Creek in 2010, and Mason Creek in 2011 and 2012. Biological samples, including periphyton biomass and chlorophyll-a, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish were collected in Mason Creek in October 2011. Synoptic water-quality sampling events were timed to coincide with the beginning and middle of the irrigation season as well as the non-irrigation season, and showed that land uses and irrigation practices affect water quality in the selected tributaries. Large increases in nutrient and sediment concentrations and loads occurred over relatively short stream reaches and affected nutrient and sediment concentrations downstream of those reaches. Escherichia coli (E. coli) values increased in study reaches adjacent to pastured lands or wastewater treatment plants, but increased E. coli values at upstream locations did not necessarily affect E. coli values at downstream locations. A spatial loading analysis identified source areas for nutrients, sediment, and E. coli, and might be useful in selecting locations for water-quality improvement projects. Effluent from wastewater treatment plants increased nutrient loads in specific reaches in Fivemile and Indian Creeks. Increased suspended-sediment loads were associated with increased discharge from irrigation returns in each of the studied tributaries. Samples collected during or shortly after storms showed that surface runoff, particularly during the winter, may be an important source of nutrients in tributary watersheds with substantial agricultural land use. Concentrations of total phosphorus, suspended sediment, and E. coli exceeded regulatory water-quality targets or trigger levels at one or more monitoring sites in each tributary studied, and exceedences occurred during irrigation season more often than during non-irrigation season. As with water

  13. Water-quality and biological conditions in selected tributaries of the Lower Boise River, southwestern Idaho, water years 2009-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etheridge, Alexandra B.; MacCoy, Dorene E.; Weakland, Rhonda J.

    2014-01-01

    Water-quality conditions were studied in selected tributaries of the lower Boise River during water years 2009–12, including Fivemile and Tenmile Creeks in 2009, Indian Creek in 2010, and Mason Creek in 2011 and 2012. Biological samples, including periphyton biomass and chlorophyll-a, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish were collected in Mason Creek in October 2011. Synoptic water-quality sampling events were timed to coincide with the beginning and middle of the irrigation season as well as the non-irrigation season, and showed that land uses and irrigation practices affect water quality in the selected tributaries. Large increases in nutrient and sediment concentrations and loads occurred over relatively short stream reaches and affected nutrient and sediment concentrations downstream of those reaches. Escherichia coli (E. coli) values increased in study reaches adjacent to pastured lands or wastewater treatment plants, but increased E. coli values at upstream locations did not necessarily affect E. coli values at downstream locations. A spatial loading analysis identified source areas for nutrients, sediment, and E. coli, and might be useful in selecting locations for water-quality improvement projects. Effluent from wastewater treatment plants increased nutrient loads in specific reaches in Fivemile and Indian Creeks. Increased suspended-sediment loads were associated with increased discharge from irrigation returns in each of the studied tributaries. Samples collected during or shortly after storms showed that surface runoff, particularly during the winter, may be an important source of nutrients in tributary watersheds with substantial agricultural land use. Concentrations of total phosphorus, suspended sediment, and E. coli exceeded regulatory water-quality targets or trigger levels at one or more monitoring sites in each tributary studied, and exceedences occurred during irrigation season more often than during non-irrigation season. As with water

  14. Occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the Spring River flood plain and tributary flood plains, Cherokee County, Kansas, 2009--11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2013-01-01

    Historical mining activity in the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD), located in parts of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma, has resulted in a substantial ongoing input of cadmium, lead, and zinc to the environment. To provide some of the information needed to support remediation efforts in the Cherokee County, Kansas, superfund site, a 4-year study was begun in 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey that was requested and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A combination of surficial-soil sampling and coring was used to investigate the occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the flood plains of the Spring River and several tributaries within the superfund site. Lead- and zinc-contaminated flood plains are a concern, in part, because they represent a long-term source of contamination to the fluvial environment. Lead and zinc contamination was assessed with reference to probable-effect concentrations (PECs), which represent the concentrations above which adverse aquatic biological effects are likely to occur. The general PECs for lead and zinc were 128 and 459 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. The TSMD-specific PECs for lead and zinc were 150 and 2,083 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. Typically, surficial soils in the Spring River flood plain had lead and zinc concentrations that were less than the general PECs. Lead and zinc concentrations in the surficial-soil samples were variable with distance downstream and with distance from the Spring River channel, and the largest lead and zinc concentrations usually were located near the channel. Lead and zinc concentrations larger than the general or TSMD-specific PECs, or both, were infrequent at depth in the Spring River flood plain. When present, such contamination typically was confined to the upper 2 feet of the core and frequently was confined to the upper 6 inches. Tributaries with few or no lead- and zinc-mined areas in the basin—Brush Creek

  15. Spatial variability and temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, N2O) concentrations and fluxes along the Zambezi River mainstem and major tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoru, C. R.; Nyoni, F. C.; Borges, A. V.; Darchambeau, F.; Nyambe, I.; Bouillon, S.

    2014-11-01

    Spanning over 3000 km in length and with a catchment of approximately 1.4 million km2, the Zambezi River is the fourth largest river in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from the African continent. As part of a~broader study on the riverine biogeochemistry in the Zambezi River basin, we present data on greenhouse gas (GHG, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)) concentrations and fluxes collected along the Zambezi River, reservoirs and several of its tributaries during 2012 and 2013 and over two climatic seasons (dry and wet) to constrain the interannual variability, seasonality and spatial heterogeneity along the aquatic continuum. All GHGs concentrations showed high spatial variability (coefficient of variation: 1.01 for CO2, 2.65 for CH4 and 0.21 for N2O). Overall, there was no unidirectional pattern along the river stretch (i.e. decrease or increase towards the ocean), as the spatial heterogeneity of GHGs appeared to be determined mainly by the connectivity with floodplains and wetlands, and the presence of man-made structures (reservoirs) and natural barriers (waterfalls, rapids). Highest CO2 and CH4 concentrations in the mainstream river were found downstream of extensive floodplains/wetlands. Undersaturated CO2 conditions, in contrast, were characteristic for the surface waters of the two large reservoirs along the Zambezi mainstem. N2O concentrations showed the opposite pattern, being lowest downstream of floodplains and highest in reservoirs. Among tributaries, highest concentrations of both CO2 and CH4 were measured in the Shire River whereas low values were characteristic for more turbid systems such as the Luangwa and Mazoe rivers. The interannual variability in the Zambezi River was relatively large for both CO2 and CH4, and significantly higher concentrations (up to two fold) were measured during wet seasons compared to the dry season. Interannual variability of N2O was less pronounced but generally higher

  16. The effect of permafrost, vegetation, and lithology on Mg and Si isotope composition of the Yenisey River and its tributaries at the end of the spring flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromatis, Vasileios; Rinder, Thomas; Prokushkin, Anatoly S.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Korets, Mikhail A.; Chmeleff, Jérôme; Oelkers, Eric H.

    2016-10-01

    This work focuses on the behavior of the stable Mg and Si isotope compositions of the largest Arctic river, the Yenisey River and 28 of its major and minor tributaries during the spring flood period. Samples were collected along a 1500 km latitudinal profile covering a wide range of permafrost, lithology, and vegetation. Despite significant contrasts in the main physico-geographical, climate, and lithological parameters of the watersheds, the isotope composition of both dissolved Mg and Si was found to be only weakly influenced by the degree of the permafrost coverage, type of vegetation (forest vs. tundra), and lithology (granites, basalts, carbonates or terrigenous rocks). This observation is generally consistent with the lack of chemical uptake of Mg and Si by soil mineral formation and vegetation during the early spring. The radiogenic Sr isotope composition of the Yenisey and its tributaries varied within a narrow range (0.708 ⩽ 87Sr/86Sr ⩽ 0.711) reflecting the dominance of Phanerozoic rock weathering and/or atmospheric deposition on these compositions. The Mg and Si isotopic compositions of riverine samples reflect two main processes with distinct isotopic signatures. First, isotopically heavier Mg (δ26Mg = -1.0 ± 0.2‰) and isotopically lighter Si (δ30Si = 1.0 ± 0.25‰) are added to the waters by river suspended matter dissolution and leaching from vegetation biomass/topsoil litter. Second, isotopically lighter Mg (δ26Mg = -1.5 to -1.75‰) and isotopically heavier Si (δ30Si = 1.75-2.0‰) are delivered to the Yenisey's tributaries from deep underground water feeding the rivers via taliks. This lighter Mg and heavier Si isotopic composition is interpreted to originate from Precambrian dolomite dissolution and aluminosilicate dissolution coupled with authigenic mineral precipitation, respectively, in deep underground water reservoirs. Taking account of the isotopic composition evolution over the course of the year established earlier on mono

  17. Water quality of the Upper West Branch Susquehanna River and tributary streams between Curwensville and Renovo, Pennsylvania, May and July 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hainly, R.A.; Barker, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The soils and rocks of the Upper West Branch Susquehanna River basin, from its headwaters downstream for 150 miles, are laden with pyritic materials that have the potential to produce acid mine drainage. The effects of mine drainage are severe, particularly in the reach between Curwensville and Renovo where present water quality cannot support viable populations of benthic macroinvertebrates or fish. During base-flow periods in May and July 1984, streamflow and water quality were measured at four sites on the West Branch Susquehanna River and near the mouths of 94 tributaries. Water-quality constituents determined were temperature, specific conductance, pH, acidity, alkalinity, and concentrations of dissolved sulfate and total and dissolved forms of iron, manganese, aluminum, and zinc. The data collected for the study indicate that the predominant influence on water quality of the tributaries is land use. An area where few or no coal deposits or disturbed area were present was found to have relatively good surface-water quality (median pH was nearly 5.5 units), whereas areas where coal mining was active in the basin, or where large areas of unreclaimed mines were present, were found to have poorest water quality (median pH was generally less than 4.0 units). In general, Moshannon, Sinnemahoning, Clearfield, and Kettle Creeks were found to be the largest tributary sources of acidity and total-recoverable iron to the river. During the May sampling, Moshannon, Sinnemahoning, and Clearfield Creeks contributed 63 percent of the 365 tons/day of acidity, and Moshannon and Clearfield Creeks contributed 76 percent of the 44.8 tons/day of total-recoverable iron that were discharged to the river. During the July sampling, Moshannon, Kettle, and Clearfield Creeks contributed 60 percent of the 131 tons/day of acidity, and Moshannon and Kettle Creeks contributed 51 percent of the 6.5 tons/day of total-recoverable iron discharged to the river . The West Branch Susquehanna River

  18. Genetic Structure of Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus Keta) Populations in the Lower Columbia River: Are Chum Salmon in Cascade Tributaries Remnant Populations?

    SciTech Connect

    Small, Maureen P.; Pichahchy, A.E.; Von Bargen, J.F.; Young, S.F.

    2004-09-01

    Prior to the 1950's, the lower Columbia River drainage supported a run of over a million chum salmon composed of at least 16 populations. By the late 1950's, over-fishing and habitat destruction had decreased the run to as little as a few hundred fish. With the exception of Grays River in the coastal region of the Columbia River and an aggregation of chum salmon spawning in creeks and the mainstem near Bonneville Dam in the Columbia Gorge region, most populations were considered extinct. However, over the years, WDFW biologists detected chum salmon spawning in tributaries originating in the Cascade Range: the Cowlitz, Lewis, and Washougal rivers. Further, chum salmon in the Cowlitz River appeared to have summer and fall run-timings. To assess whether Cascade spawners were strays from Grays River and Gorge regions or remnants of former populations, chum salmon from the Coastal, Cascade and Gorge regions were characterized genetically at 17 microsatellite loci. With the exception of Washougal River chum salmon, which grouped strongly with the Gorge genetic group, significant heterogeneity in genotype distributions were detected between regions and genotype distributions overlapped among collections within regions. In a neighbor-joining consensus tree, regional groups occupied branches with over 77% bootstrap support. In assignment tests, over 63% of individuals were correctly assigned back to region of origin although an average of 29% assigned to river of origin. Genetic distinction of Cascade region chum salmon was similar to distinction of Coastal and Gorge chum salmon and the Cascade region chum salmon had twice the number of private regional alleles. Further, the Cowlitz River supports the only summer chum salmon run in the Columbia River drainage. We propose that chum salmon in the Cascade region are remnants of original populations. We attribute the strong divergence between regional groups to diverse ecological conditions in each region, which promoted

  19. Tracking fluorescent dissolved organic matter in multistage rivers using EEM-PARAFAC analysis: implications of the secondary tributary remediation for watershed management.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zeyu; Wu, Xiaodong; Huang, Haomin; Fang, Xiaomin; Xu, Chen; Wu, Jianyu; Liang, Xinqiang; Shi, Jiyan

    2016-05-01

    Profound understanding of behaviors of organic matter from sources to multistage rivers assists watershed management for improving water quality of river networks in rural areas. Ninety-one water samples were collected from the three orders of receiving rivers in a typical combined polluted subcatchment (diffuse agricultural pollutants and domestic sewage) located in China. Then, the fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) information for these samples was determined by the excitation-emission matrix coupled with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC). Consequently, two typical humic-like (C1 and C2) and other two protein-like (C3 and C4) components were separated. Their fluorescence peaks were located at λ ex/em = 255(360)/455, <250(320)/395, 275/335, and <250/305 nm, which resembled the traditional peaks of A + C, A + M, T, and B, respectively. In addition, C1 and C2 accounted for the dominant contributions to FDOM (>60 %). Principal component analysis (PCA) further demonstrated that, except for the autochthonous produced C4, the allochthonous components (C1 and C2) had the same terrestrial origins, but C3 might possess the separate anthropogenic and biological sources. Moreover, the spatial heterogeneity of contamination levels was noticeable in multistage rivers, and the allochthonous FDOM was gradually homogenized along the migration directions. Interestingly, the average content of the first three PARAFAC components in secondary tributaries and source pollutants had significantly higher levels than that in subsequent receiving rivers, thus suggesting that the supervision and remediation for secondary tributaries would play a prominent role in watershed management works.

  20. Concentrations, loads, and yields of select constituents from major tributaries of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers in Iowa, water years 2004-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrett, Jessica D.

    2012-01-01

    Excess nutrients, suspended-sediment loads, and the presence of pesticides in Iowa rivers can have deleterious effects on water quality in State streams, downstream major rivers, and the Gulf of Mexico. Fertilizer and pesticides are used to support crop growth on Iowa's highly productive agricultural landscape and for household and commercial lawns and gardens. Water quality was characterized near the mouths of 10 major Iowa tributaries to the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers from March 2004 through September 2008. Stream loads were calculated for select ions, nutrients, and sediment using approximately monthly samples, and samples from storm and snowmelt events. Water-quality samples collected using standard streamflow-integrated protocols were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, carbon, pesticides, and suspended sediment. Statistical data summaries of sample data used parametric and nonparametric techniques to address potential bias related to censored data and multiple levels of censoring of data below analytical detection limits. Constituent stream loads were computed using standard pre-defined models in S-LOADEST that include streamflow and time terms plus additional terms for streamflow variability and streamflow anomalies. Streamflow variability terms describe the difference in streamflow from recent average conditions, whereas streamflow anomaly terms account for deviations from average conditions from long- to short-term sequentially. Streamflow variability or anomaly terms were included in 44 of 80 site/constituent individual models, demonstrating the usefulness of these terms in increasing accuracy of the load estimates. Constituent concentrations in Iowa streams exhibit streamflow, seasonal, and spatial patterns related to the landform and climate gradients across the studied basins. The streamflow-concentration relation indicated dilution for ions such as chloride and sulfate. Other constituent concentrations, such as dissolved organic carbon and

  1. Community-level response of fishes and aquatic macroinvertebrates to stream restoration in a third-order tributary of the Potomac River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selego, S.M.; Rose, C.L.; Merovich, G.T.; Welsh, S.A.; Anderson, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Natural stream channel design principles and riparian restoration practices were applied during spring 2010 to an agriculturally impaired reach of the Cacapon River, a tributary of the Potomac River which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled from the restoration reach, two degraded control, and two natural reference reaches prior to, concurrently with, and following restoration (2009 through 2010). Collector filterers and scrapers replaced collector gatherers as the dominant macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in the restoration reach. Before restoration, based on indices of biotic integrity (IBI), the restoration reach fish and macroinvertebrate communities closely resembled those sampled from the control reaches, and after restoration more closely resembled those from the reference reaches. Although the macroinvertebrate community responded more favorably than the fish community, both communities recovered quickly from the temporary impairment caused by the disturbance of restoration procedures and suggest rapid improvement in local ecological conditions. Copyright ?? 2012 Stephen M. Selego et al.

  2. Flood-inundation maps and wetland restoration suitability index for the Blue River and selected tributaries, Kansas City, Missouri, and vicinity, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heimann, David C.; Kelly, Brian P.; Studley, Seth E.

    2015-01-01

    Additional information in this report includes maps of simulated stream velocity for an 8.2-mile, two-dimensional modeled reach of the Blue River and a Wetland Restoration Suitability Index (WRSI) generated for the study area that was based on hydrologic, topographic, and land-use digital feature layers. The calculated WRSI for the selected flood-plain area ranged from 1 (least suitable for possible wetland mitigation efforts) to 10 (most suitable for possible wetland mitigation efforts). A WRSI of 5 to 10 is most closely associated with existing riparian wetlands in the study area. The WRSI allows for the identification of lands along the Blue River and selected tributaries that are most suitable for restoration or creation of wetlands. Alternatively, the index can be used to identify and avoid disturbances to areas with the highest potential to support healthy sustainable riparian wetlands.

  3. Changes in channel geometry of six eruption-affected tributaries of the Lewis River, 1980-82, Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martinson, H.A.; Finneran, S.D.; Topinka, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens generated a lateral blast, lahars and tephra deposits that altered tributary channels in the Lewis River drainage basin. In order to assess potential flood hazards, study channel adjustments, and construct a sediment budget for the perturbed drainages on the east and southeast flanks of the volcano, channel cross sections were monumented and surveyed on Pine Creek, Muddy River, and Smith Creek during September and October of 1980. Additional cross sections were monumented and surveyed on Swift Creek, Bean Creek, and Clearwater Creek during the summer of 1981. The network of 88 channel cross sections has been resurveyed annually. Selected cross sections have been surveyed more frequently, following periods of higher flow. The repetitive cross-section surveys provide measurements of bank erosion or accretion and of channel erosion or aggradation. The report presents channel cross-section profiles constructed from the survey data collected during water years 1980-82. (USGS)

  4. Community-level response of fishes and aquatic macroinvertebrates to stream restoration in a third-order tributary of the Potomac River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selego, Stephen M.; Rose, Charnee L.; Merovich, George T.; Welsh, Stuart; Anderson, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Natural stream channel design principles and riparian restoration practices were applied during spring 2010 to an agriculturally impaired reach of the Cacapon River, a tributary of the Potomac River which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled from the restoration reach, two degraded control, and two natural reference reaches prior to, concurrently with, and following restoration (2009 through 2010). Collector filterers and scrapers replaced collector gatherers as the dominant macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in the restoration reach. Before restoration, based on indices of biotic integrity (IBI), the restoration reach fish and macroinvertebrate communities closely resembled those sampled from the control reaches, and after restoration more closely resembled those from the reference reaches. Although the macroinvertebrate community responded more favorably than the fish community, both communities recovered quickly from the temporary impairment caused by the disturbance of restoration procedures and suggest rapid improvement in local ecological conditions.

  5. Managing water to protect fish: a review of California's Environmental Water Account, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Brown, Larry R; Kimmerer, Wim; Brown, Randall

    2009-02-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the landward reach of the San Francisco Estuary, provides habitat for threatened delta smelt, endangered winter-run Chinook salmon, and other species of concern. It is also the location of huge freshwater diversion facilities that entrain large numbers of fish. Reducing the entrainment of listed fishes into these facilities has required curtailment of pumping, reducing the reliability of water deliveries. We reviewed the first 5 years (2001-2005) of the Environmental Water Account (EWA), a program instituted to resolve conflicts between protecting listed fishes and providing a reliable water supply. The EWA provided fishery agencies with control over 0.2-0.4 km(3) of water to be used for fish protection at no cost to users of exported water, and fish agencies guaranteed no disruption of water supply for fish protection. The EWA was successful in reducing uncertainty in water supply; however, its contribution to the recovery of listed fishes was unclear. We estimated the effectiveness of the EWA to be modest, increasing the survival of winter-run Chinook salmon by 0-6% (dependent on prescreen mortality), adult delta smelt by 0-1%, and juvenile delta smelt by 2-4%. Allocating EWA water for a single life stage of one species could provide larger gains in survival. An optimally allocated EWA of equal size to the median of the first 5 years could increase abundance of juvenile delta smelt up to 7% in the springs of dry years. If the EWA is to become a long-term program, estimates of efficacy should be refined. If the program is to be held accountable for quantitative increases in fish populations, it will be necessary to integrate scientific, possibly experimental, approaches. PMID:18830738

  6. Managing Water to Protect Fish: A Review of California's Environmental Water Account, 2001-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Larry R.; Kimmerer, Wim; Brown, Randall

    2009-02-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the landward reach of the San Francisco Estuary, provides habitat for threatened delta smelt, endangered winter-run Chinook salmon, and other species of concern. It is also the location of huge freshwater diversion facilities that entrain large numbers of fish. Reducing the entrainment of listed fishes into these facilities has required curtailment of pumping, reducing the reliability of water deliveries. We reviewed the first 5 years (2001-2005) of the Environmental Water Account (EWA), a program instituted to resolve conflicts between protecting listed fishes and providing a reliable water supply. The EWA provided fishery agencies with control over 0.2-0.4 km3 of water to be used for fish protection at no cost to users of exported water, and fish agencies guaranteed no disruption of water supply for fish protection. The EWA was successful in reducing uncertainty in water supply; however, its contribution to the recovery of listed fishes was unclear. We estimated the effectiveness of the EWA to be modest, increasing the survival of winter-run Chinook salmon by 0-6% (dependent on prescreen mortality), adult delta smelt by 0-1%, and juvenile delta smelt by 2-4%. Allocating EWA water for a single life stage of one species could provide larger gains in survival. An optimally allocated EWA of equal size to the median of the first 5 years could increase abundance of juvenile delta smelt up to 7% in the springs of dry years. If the EWA is to become a long-term program, estimates of efficacy should be refined. If the program is to be held accountable for quantitative increases in fish populations, it will be necessary to integrate scientific, possibly experimental, approaches.

  7. Managing water to protect fish: A review of California's environmental water account, 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.R.; Kimmerer, W.; Brown, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the landward reach of the San Francisco Estuary, provides habitat for threatened delta smelt, endangered winter-run Chinook salmon, and other species of concern. It is also the location of huge freshwater diversion facilities that entrain large numbers of fish. Reducing the entrainment of listed fishes into these facilities has required curtailment of pumping, reducing the reliability of water deliveries. We reviewed the first 5 years (2001-2005) of the Environmental Water Account (EWA), a program instituted to resolve conflicts between protecting listed fishes and providing a reliable water supply. The EWA provided fishery agencies with control over 0.2-0.4 km3 of water to be used for fish protection at no cost to users of exported water, and fish agencies guaranteed no disruption of water supply for fish protection. The EWA was successful in reducing uncertainty in water supply; however, its contribution to the recovery of listed fishes was unclear. We estimated the effectiveness of the EWA to be modest, increasing the survival of winter-run Chinook salmon by 0-6% (dependent on prescreen mortality), adult delta smelt by 0-1%, and juvenile delta smelt by 2-4%. Allocating EWA water for a single life stage of one species could provide larger gains in survival. An optimally allocated EWA of equal size to the median of the first 5 years could increase abundance of juvenile delta smelt up to 7% in the springs of dry years. If the EWA is to become a long-term program, estimates of efficacy should be refined. If the program is to be held accountable for quantitative increases in fish populations, it will be necessary to integrate scientific, possibly experimental, approaches. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  8. Dynamics of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) along the Zambezi River and major tributaries, and their importance in the riverine carbon budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoru, C. R.; Nyoni, F. C.; Borges, A. V.; Darchambeau, F.; Nyambe, I.; Bouillon, S.

    2015-04-01

    Spanning over 3000 km in length and with a catchment of approximately 1.4 million km2, the Zambezi River is the fourth largest river in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from the African continent. We present data on greenhouse gas (GHG: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)) concentrations and fluxes, as well as data that allow for characterization of sources and dynamics of carbon pools collected along the Zambezi River, reservoirs and several of its tributaries during 2012 and 2013 and over two climatic seasons (dry and wet) to constrain the interannual variability, seasonality and spatial heterogeneity along the aquatic continuum. All GHG concentrations showed high spatial variability (coefficient of variation: 1.01 for CO2, 2.65 for CH4 and 0.21 for N2O). Overall, there was no unidirectional pattern along the river stretch (i.e., decrease or increase towards the ocean), as the spatial heterogeneity of GHGs appeared to be determined mainly by the connectivity with floodplains and wetlands as well as the presence of man-made structures (reservoirs) and natural barriers (waterfalls, rapids). Highest CO2 and CH4 concentrations in the main channel were found downstream of extensive floodplains/wetlands. Undersaturated CO2 conditions, in contrast, were characteristic of the surface waters of the two large reservoirs along the Zambezi mainstem. N2O concentrations showed the opposite pattern, being lowest downstream of the floodplains and highest in reservoirs. Among tributaries, highest concentrations of both CO2 and CH4 were measured in the Shire River, whereas low values were characteristic of more turbid systems such as the Luangwa and Mazoe rivers. The interannual variability in the Zambezi River was relatively large for both CO2 and CH4, and significantly higher concentrations (up to 2-fold) were measured during wet seasons compared to the dry season. Interannual variability of N2O was less pronounced, but higher values

  9. Organic contaminants associated with suspended sediment collected during five cruises of the Mississippi River and its principal tributaries, May 1988 to June 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, Colleen E.; Bishop, LaDonna M.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Monsterleet, Stephanie G.; Pereira, Wilfred E.

    2004-01-01

    Suspended-sediment samples were obtained from sites along the Mississippi River and its principal tributaries to determine the presence of halogenated hydrophobic organic compounds on the suspended sediment smaller than 63 micrometers. Sample collection involved pumping discharge-weighted volumes of river water along a cross section of the river into a continuous-flow centrifuge to isolate the suspended sediment. The suspended sediment was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, chlorothalonil, pentachlorophenol, dachthal, chlordane, nonachlor, and penta-, hexa-, hepta-, and octachlorobiphenyls. Samples collected during June 1989 and February-March 1990 also were analyzed for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalate esters, and triazines. Samples were collected at sites on the Mississippi River from above St. Louis, Missouri to below New Orleans, Louisiana, and on the Illinois, Missouri, Ohio, Wabash, Cumberland, Tennessee, White, Arkansas, and Yazoo Rivers. Masses of selected halogenated hydrophobic organic compounds associated with the suspended sediment at each site are presented in this report in tabular format, along with suspended-sediment concentration, water discharge, and organic-carbon content.

  10. Paleovalley fills: Trunk vs. tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvale, E.P.; Archer, A.W.

    2007-01-01

    A late Mississippian-early Pennsylvanian eustatic sea level drop resulted in a complex lowstand drainage network being eroded across the Illinois Basin in the eastern United States. This drainage system was filled during the early part of the Pennsylvanian. Distinct differences can be recognized between the trunk and tributary paleovalley fills. Fills preserved within the trunk systems tend to be fluvially dominated and consist of bed-load deposits of coarse- to medium-grained sandstone and conglomerate. Conversely, the incised valleys of tributary systems tend to be filled with dark mudstone, thinly interbedded sandstones, and mudstones and siltstones. These finer grained facies exhibit marine influences manifested by tidal rhythmites, certain traces fossils, and macro- and microfauna. Examples of tributary and trunk systems, separated by no more than 7 km (4.3 mi) along strike, exhibit these styles of highly contrasting fills. Useful analogs for understanding this Pennsylvanian system include the Quaternary glacial sluiceways present in the lower Ohio, White, and Wabash river valleys of Indiana (United States) and the modern Amazon River (Brazil). Both the Amazon River and the Quaternary rivers of Indiana have (or had) trunk rivers that are (were) dominated by large quantities of bed load relative to their tributaries. The trunk valley systems of these analogs aggraded much more rapidly than their tributary valleys, which evolved into lakes because depositional rates along the trunk are (were) so high that the mouths of the tributaries have been dammed by bed-load deposits. These Holocene systems illustrate that sediment yields can significantly influence the nature of fill successions within incised valleys independent of rates of sea level changes or proximity to highstand coastlines. Copyright ?? 2007. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrogeologic Framework, Groundwater Movement, and Water Budget in Tributary Subbasins and Vicinity, Lower Skagit River Basin, Skagit and Snohomish Counties, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savoca, Mark E.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Sumioka, Steven S.; Olsen, Theresa D.; Fasser, Elisabeth T.; Huffman, Raegan L.

    2009-01-01

    A study to characterize the groundwater-flow system in four tributary subbasins and vicinity of the lower Skagit River basin was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to assist Skagit County and the Washington State Department of Ecology in evaluating the effects of potential groundwater withdrawals and consumptive use on tributary streamflows. This report presents information used to characterize the groundwater and surface-water flow system in the subbasins, and includes descriptions of the geology and hydrogeologic framework of the subbasins; groundwater recharge and discharge; groundwater levels and flow directions; seasonal groundwater-level fluctuations; interactions between aquifers and the surface-water system; and a water budget for the subbasins. The study area covers about 247 mi2 along the Skagit River and its tributary subbasins (East Fork Nookachamps Creek, Nookachamps Creek, Carpenter Creek, and Fisher Creek) in southwestern Skagit County and northwestern Snohomish County, Washington. The geology of the area records a complex history of accretion along the continental margin, mountain building, deposition of terrestrial and marine sediments, igneous intrusion, and the repeated advance and retreat of continental glaciers. A simplified surficial geologic map was developed from previous mapping in the area, and geologic units were grouped into nine hydrogeologic units consisting of aquifers and confining units. A surficial hydrogeologic unit map was constructed and, with lithologic information from 296 drillers'logs, was used to produce unit extent and thickness maps and four hydrogeologic sections. Groundwater in unconsolidated aquifers generally flows towards the northwest and west in the direction of the Skagit River and Puget Sound. This generalized flow pattern is likely complicated by the presence of low-permeability confining units that separate discontinuous bodies of aquifer material and act as local groundwater-flow barriers. Groundwater

  12. Calibration of a streamflow-routing model for the Delaware River and its principal tributaries in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flippo, H.N.; Madden, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    The flow-routing module of the Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran watershed model was calibrated for 31 reaches on the Delaware River and 5 of it principal tributaries. These calibrations primarily involved the development of discharge-storage volume relations for the defined reaches. Daily discharge records for stream-gaging stations located at the upstream ends of the study reaches on the respective streams provided the primary hydrographic inputs for the routing models. Streamflow records for gaging stations at upstream locations and on other tributaries were used to estimate all other inflows for the 5-year calibration period, 1979-83. Root mean square errors of streamflows that were simulated for the downstream ends of gaged reaches ranged from 0.4 to 9.4 percent for the Delaware River, Lehigh River, Schuylkill River, and Brandywine Creek. Errors of 13 and 30 percent resulted from the streamflow simulations for the Lackawaxen and Neversink Rivers, respectively. Verification simulations for a 3-month period of extreme low flows on the Delaware River in 1966 resulted in overestimation of discharges for the Trenton, NJ, gaging station by approximately 50 percent on many days. Observed (recorded) streamflows at the Trenton gaging station during this time were exceptionally low, owing to comparatively large diversions of flow for public supplies, and into the Delaware and Raritan Canal. A flow-verification simulation for 3 months of the summer and fall of 1985, during which time minimum flows in the basin were comparable to those of 1966, resulted in a root mean square error of 3.3 percent for the Trenton gaging station. There was no diversion to the Delaware and Raritan Canal at the time. Simulated flows closely matched observed flows for upstream gaging stations on the Delaware River as well, thereby confirming the routing calibration for this stream. Information contained in this report can be used, with little modification, to develop routing modules for

  13. Maintaining population persistence in the face of an extremely altered hydrograph: implications for three sensitive fishes in a tributary of the Green River, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bottcher, Jared L.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of an organism to disperse to suitable habitats, especially in modified and fragmented systems, determines individual fitness and overall population viability. The bluehead sucker (Catostomus discobolus), flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis), and roundtail chub (Gila robusta) are three species native to the upper Colorado River Basin that now occupy only 50% of their historic range. Despite these distributional declines, populations of all three species are present in the San Rafael River, a highly regulated tributary of the Green River, Utah, providing an opportunity for research. Our goal was to determine the timing and extent of movement, habitat preferences, and limiting factors, ultimately to guide effective management and recovery of these three species. In 2007-2008, we sampled fish from 25 systematically selected, 300-m reaches in the lower 64 km of the San Rafael River, spaced to capture the range of species, life-stages, and habitat conditions present. We implanted all target species with a passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag, installed a passive PIT tag antennae, and measured key habitat parameters throughout each reach and at the site of native fish capture. We used random forest modeling to identify and rank the most important abiotic and biotic predictor variables, and reveal potential limiting factors in the San Rafael River. While flannelmouth sucker were relatively evenly distributed within our study area, highest densities of roundtail chub and bluehead sucker occurred in isolated, upstream reaches characterized by complex habitat. In addition, our movement and length-frequency data indicate downstream drift of age-0 roundtail chub, and active upstream movement of adult flannelmouth sucker, both from source populations, providing the lower San Rafael River with colonists. Our random forest analysis highlights the importance of pools, riffles, and distance-to-source populations, suggesting that bluehead sucker and roundtail

  14. Numerical simulation of the groundwater-flow system in tributary subbasins and vicinity, lower Skagit River basin, Skagit and Snohomish Counties, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Kenneth H.; Savoca, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    A groundwater-flow model was developed to evaluate the effects of potential groundwater withdrawals and consumptive use on streamflows in tributary subbasins of the lower portion of the Skagit River basin. The study area covers about 155 square miles along the Skagit River and its tributary subbasins (East Fork Nookachamps Creek, Nookachamps Creek, Carpenter Creek, Fisher Creek) in southwestern Skagit County and northwestern Snohomish County, Washington. The Skagit River occupies a large, relatively flat alluvial valley that extends across the northern and western margins of the study area, and is bounded to the south and east by upland and mountainous terrain. The alluvial valley and upland are underlain by unconsolidated deposits of glacial and inter- glacial origin. Bedrock underlies the alluvial valley and upland areas, and crops out throughout the mountainous terrain. Nine hydrogeologic units are recognized in the study area and form the basis of the groundwater-flow model. Groundwater flow in tributary subbasins of the lower Skagit River and vicinity was simulated using the groundwater-flow model, MODFLOW-2000. The finite-difference model grid consists of 174 rows, 156 columns, and 15 layers. Each model cell has a horizontal dimension of 500 by 500 feet. The thickness of model layers varies throughout the model area. Groundwater flow was simulated for both steady-state and transient conditions. The steady-state condition simulated average recharge, discharge, and water levels for the period, August 2006-September 2008. The transient simulation period, September 2006-September 2008, was divided into 24 monthly stress periods. Initial conditions for the transient model were developed from a 6-year ?lead-in? period that used recorded precipitation and Skagit River levels, and extrapolations of other boundary conditions. During model calibration, variables were adjusted within probable ranges to minimize differences between measured and simulated groundwater

  15. Occurrence and transport of diazinon in the Sacramento River, California, and selected tributaries during three winter storms, January-February 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dileanis, Peter D.; Bennett, Kevin P.; Domagalski, Joseph L.

    2002-01-01

    The organophosphate pesticide diazinon is applied as a dormant orchard spray in the Sacramento Valley, California, during the winter when the area receives a majority of its annual rainfall. Dormant spray pesticides, thus, have the potential to wash off the areas of application and migrate with storm runoff to streams in the Sacramento River Basin. Previous monitoring studies have shown that rain and associated runoff from winter storms plays an important role in the transport of diazinon from point of application to the Sacramento River and tributaries. Between January 30 and February 25, 2000, diazinon concentrations in the Sacramento River and selected tributaries were monitored on 5 consecutive days during each of three winter storms that moved through the Sacramento Valley after diazinon had been applied to orchards in the basin. Water samples were collected at 17 sites chosen to represent the effect of upstream land use at local and regional scales. Most samples were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Analysis by gas chromatography with electron capture detector and thermionic specific detector (GC/ECD/TSD) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was done on split replicates from over 30 percent of the samples to confirm ELISA results and to provide lower analytical reporting limits at selected sites [30 ng/L (nanogram per liter) for ELISA, 20 ng/L for GC/ECD/TSD, and 2 ng/L for GC/MS]. Concentrations determined from ELISA analyses were consistently higher than concentrations for split samples analyzed by gas chromatography methods. Because of bias between diazinon concentrations using ELISA and gas chromatography methods, results from ELISA analyses were not compared to water-quality criteria. Load calculations using the ELISA analyses are similarly biased. Because the bias was consistent, however, the ELISA data is useful in site-to-site comparisons used to rank the relative levels and contributions of diazinon from

  16. Relation of water quality to land use in the drainage basins of four tributaries to the Toms River, New Jersey, 1994--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hunchak-Kariouk, K.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study to determine the relation between land use and the water quality of four tributaries to the Toms River--Long Swamp Creek, Wrangel Brook, Davenport Branch, and Jakes Branch. The constituent concentrations and yield values presented in this report are based on water-quality and streamflow data collected at seven sites during base flow and stormflow conditions during May 1994 to October 1995. Concentrations and yields (area-normalized instantaneous load values) during periods of base flow and stormflow in the growing and nongrowing seasons are presented for sites on Long Swamp Creek, Wrangel Brook, and Davenport Branch. Only concentrations during base flow are presented for the site on Jakes Branch. Water-quality constituents for which concentrations and yield values are reported include total nitrogen, ammonia, nitrate, organic nitrogen, hydrolyzable phosphorus plus orthophosphorus, orthophosphorus, total suspended solids, and fecal-coliform bacteria. Concentrations of nitrite and Escherichia coliform bacteria also are listed. Distributions of constituent concentrations and yields during base flow and stormflow in the growing and nongrowing season are shown in boxplots. Specific conductance, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen in the four tributaries also are discussed, and their values are listed.

  17. Seasonal variation in biological oxygen demand levels in the main stem of the Fraser River, British Columbia and an agriculturally impacted tributary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, S. L.; Fraser, H.; Marsh, S. J.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Voss, B. M.; Marcotte, D.; Fanslau, J.; Epp, A.; Bennett, M.; Hanson-Carson, J.; Luymes, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Fraser River basin is one of British Columbia's most diverse and valuable ecosystems. Water levels and temperatures along the Fraser are seasonally variable, with high flow during the spring freshet and low flow during winter months. In the Fraser River, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations impact many aquatic species. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) measures the amount of oxygen consumed by bacteria during the decomposition of organic matter and is an indicator of water quality in freshwater environments. We compared BOD, DO, and pH during winter (November 2011) and summer (July 2012) in the main stem of the Fraser River at Fort Langley and a tributary in an agricultural area of the Fraser Valley, Nathan Creek. In November the BOD of the main stem of the Fraser River was 2.36 mg/L, pH 7.26, and DO 9.13 mg/L. BOD and DO of Nathan Creek was not significantly lower at 1.68 mg/L and DO 8.28 mg/L, however, the pH was significantly lower (p=0.001) at 6.75. In July, the Fraser River had significantly higher BOD levels than in winter at 4.43 mg/L, but no significant change in pH and DO. Nathan Creek BOD was significantly higher than it was in winter and higher than the main stem at 7.34 mg/L, with no significant change in pH and DO. There were strong seasonal differences in BOD in the Fraser River and Nathan Creek, with the highest levels seen in July. The higher BOD seen in Nathan Creek in July may be an indication of agricultural impact. Although all BOD values fell in the range of 1-8 mg/L and are considered to be relatively unpolluted.

  18. Concentrations and Loads of Selenium in Selected Tributaries to the Colorado River in the Grand Valley, Western Colorado, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leib, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    The reach of the Colorado River from the Gunnison River confluence to the Utah Border, and tributaries in the Grand Valley, are on the State of Colorado 303(d) list of impaired water bodies because the concentrations of dissolved selenium in these streams exceed the State of Colorado chronic standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter at the 85th percentile level. In response to concerns raised by a local watershed initiative about the issue of selenium in the Grand Valley, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Mesa County and the City of Grand Junction, developed a study to characterize and determine the sources of selenium and how these sources are related to changes in land use. This report describes the methods and results of a study of concentrations and loads of selenium in three tributaries to the Colorado River in the Grand Valley. The study area consists of three subbasins, Persigo Wash, Adobe Creek, and Lewis Wash, each representing transitional agricultural to residential, agricultural, and residential land-use types, respectively. These subbasins represent different land-use types and the tributaries that drain each subbasin contribute moderate to high concentrations and loads of selenium to the Colorado River. Two synoptic-sampling events were conducted in each tributary to characterize variations in water quality during the nonirrigation season. Water samples were collected for analysis of dissolved selenium, total nitrogen, and total dissolved solids (salinity). Streamflow was measured by either the tracer-dilution or standard current-meter method. In Persigo Wash selenium concentrations generally decreased or remained constant in a downstream direction whereas selenium loads increased. Effluent from the Persigo Wash wastewater treatment plant diluted selenium concentrations in Persigo Wash and increased the selenium load. The concentrations and loads of salinity and total nitrogen generally increased downstream in Persigo Wash. Concentrations and

  19. Application of the FluEgg model to predict transport of Asian carp eggs in the Saint Joseph River (Great Lakes tributary)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Tatiana; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, P. Ryan; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    The Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) is a three-dimensional Lagrangian model that simulates the movement and development of Asian carp eggs until hatching based on the physical characteristics of the flow field and the physical and biological characteristics of the eggs. This tool provides information concerning egg development and spawning habitat suitability including: egg plume location, egg vertical and travel time distribution, and egg-hatching risk. A case study of the simulation of Asian carp eggs in the Lower Saint Joseph River, a tributary of Lake Michigan, is presented. The river hydrodynamic input for FluEgg was generated in two ways — using hydroacoustic data and using HEC-RAS model data. The HEC-RAS model hydrodynamic input data were used to simulate 52 scenarios covering a broad range of flows and water temperatures with the eggs at risk of hatching ranging from 0 to 93% depending on river conditions. FluEgg simulations depict the highest percentage of eggs at risk of hatching occurs at the lowest discharge and at peak water temperatures. Analysis of these scenarios illustrates how the interactive relation among river length, hydrodynamics, and water temperature influence egg transport and hatching risk. An improved version of FluEgg, which more realistically simulates dispersion and egg development, is presented. Also presented is a graphical user interface that facilitates the use of FluEgg and provides a set of post-processing analysis tools to support management decision-making regarding the prevention and control of Asian carp reproduction in rivers with or without Asian carp populations.

  20. Environmental contaminants and biomarker responses in fish from the Columbia River and its tributaries: spatial and temporal trends.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Schmitt, Christopher J; Blazer, Vicki S; Denslow, Nancy D; Bartish, Timothy M; Anderson, Patrick J; Coyle, James J; Dethloff, Gail M; Tillitt, Donald E

    2006-08-01

    Fish were collected from 16 sites on rivers in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) from September 1997 to April 1998 to document temporal and spatial trends in the concentrations of accumulative contaminants and to assess contaminant effects on the fish. Sites were located on the mainstem of the Columbia River and on the Snake, Willamette, Yakima, Salmon, and Flathead Rivers. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus sp.), and largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) were the targeted species. Fish were field-examined for external and internal lesions, selected organs were weighed to compute somatic indices, and tissue and fluid samples were preserved for fish health and reproductive biomarker analyses. Composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site were analyzed for organochlorine and elemental contaminants using instrumental methods and for 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) using the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Overall, pesticide concentrations were greatest in fish from lower CRB sites and elemental concentrations were greatest in fish from upper CRB sites. These patterns reflected land uses. Lead (Pb) concentrations in fish from the Columbia River at Northport and Grand Coulee, Washington (WA) exceeded fish and wildlife toxicity thresholds (>0.4 microg/g). Selenium (Se) concentrations in fish from the Salmon River at Riggins, Idaho (ID), the Columbia River at Vernita Bridge, WA, and the Yakima River at Granger, WA exceeded toxicity thresholds for piscivorous wildlife (>0.6 microg/g). Mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish were elevated throughout the basin but were greatest (>0.4 microg/g) in predatory fish from the Salmon River at Riggins, ID, the Yakima River at Granger, WA, and the Columbia River at Warrendale, Oregon (OR). Residues of p,p'-DDE were greatest (>0.8 microg/g) in fish from agricultural areas of the Snake, Yakima, and Columbia River basins but were not detected in upper CRB

  1. Chemical contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarker responses in fish from the Colorado River and its tributaries.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Blazer, Vicki S; Denslow, Nancy D; Echols, Kathy R; Gross, Timothy S; May, Tom W; Anderson, Patrick J; Coyle, James J; Tillitt, Donald E

    2007-06-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus spp.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from 14 sites in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) to document spatial trends in accumulative contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers. Organochlorine residues, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ), and elemental contaminants were measured in composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site. Selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish were elevated throughout the CRB, and pesticide concentrations were greatest in fish from agricultural areas in the Lower Colorado River and Gila River. Selenium concentrations exceeded toxicity thresholds for fish (>1.0 microg/g ww) at all CRB sites except the Gila River at Hayden, Arizona. Mercury concentrations were elevated (>0.1 microg/g ww) in fish from the Yampa River at Lay, Colorado; the Green River at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Utah and San Rafael, Utah; the San Juan River at Hogback Diversion, New Mexico; and the Colorado River at Gold Bar Canyon, Utah, Needles, California, and Imperial Dam, Arizona. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE were relatively high in fish from the Gila River at Arlington, Arizona (>1.0 microg/g ww) and Phoenix, Arizona (>0.5 microg/g ww). Concentrations of other formerly used pesticides including toxaphene, total chlordanes, and dieldrin were also greatest at these two sites but did not exceed toxicity thresholds. Currently used pesticides such as Dacthal, endosulfan, gamma-HCH, and methoxychlor were also greatest in fish from the Gila River downstream of Phoenix. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; >0.11 microg/g ww) and TCDD-EQs (>5 pg/g ww) exceeded wildlife guidelines in fish from the Gila River at Phoenix. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was also relatively high in carp from the Gila River at Phoenix and in bass from the Green River at Ouray NWR. Fish from some sites

  2. Environmental contaminants and biomarker responses in fish from the Columbia River and its tributaries: spatial and temporal trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Blazer, V.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Bartish, T.M.; Anderson, P.J.; Coyle, J.J.; Dethloff, G.M.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    Fish were collected from 16 sites on rivers in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) from September 1997 to April 1998 to document temporal and spatial trends in the concentrations of accumulative contaminants and to assess contaminant effects on the fish. Sites were located on the mainstem of the Columbia River and on the Snake, Willamette, Yakima, Salmon, and Flathead Rivers. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus sp.), and largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) were the targeted species. Fish were field-examined for external and internal lesions, selected organs were weighed to compute somatic indices, and tissue and fluid samples were preserved for fish health and reproductive biomarker analyses. Composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site were analyzed for organochlorine and elemental contaminants using instrumental methods and for 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) using the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Overall, pesticide concentrations were greatest in fish from lower CRB sites and elemental concentrations were greatest in fish from upper CRB sites. These patterns reflected land uses. Lead (Pb) concentrations in fish from the Columbia River at Northport and Grand Coulee, Washington (WA) exceeded fish and wildlife toxicity thresholds (> 0.4 ??g/g). Selenium (Se) concentrations in fish from the Salmon River at Riggins, Idaho (ID), the Columbia River at Vernita Bridge, WA, and the Yakima River at Granger, WA exceeded toxicity thresholds for piscivorous wildlife (> 0.6 ??g/g). Mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish were elevated throughout the basin but were greatest (> 0.4 ??g/g) in predatory fish from the Salmon River at Riggins, ID, the Yakima River at Granger, WA, and the Columbia River at Warrendale, Oregon (OR). Residues of p,p???-DDE were greatest (> 0.8 ??g/g) in fish from agricultural areas of the Snake, Yakima, and Columbia River basins but were not detected in upper CRB fish

  3. Chemical contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarker responses in fish from the Colorado River and its tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Echols, K.R.; Gross, T.S.; May, T.W.; Anderson, P.J.; Coyle, J.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus spp.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from 14 sites in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) to document spatial trends in accumulative contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers. Organochlorine residues, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ), and elemental contaminants were measured in composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site. Selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish were elevated throughout the CRB, and pesticide concentrations were greatest in fish from agricultural areas in the Lower Colorado River and Gila River. Selenium concentrations exceeded toxicity thresholds for fish (> 1.0????g/g ww) at all CRB sites except the Gila River at Hayden, Arizona. Mercury concentrations were elevated (> 0.1????g/g ww) in fish from the Yampa River at Lay, Colorado; the Green River at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Utah and San Rafael, Utah; the San Juan River at Hogback Diversion, New Mexico; and the Colorado River at Gold Bar Canyon, Utah, Needles, California, and Imperial Dam, Arizona. Concentrations of p,p???-DDE were relatively high in fish from the Gila River at Arlington, Arizona (> 1.0????g/g ww) and Phoenix, Arizona (> 0.5????g/g ww). Concentrations of other formerly used pesticides including toxaphene, total chlordanes, and dieldrin were also greatest at these two sites but did not exceed toxicity thresholds. Currently used pesticides such as Dacthal, endosulfan, ??-HCH, and methoxychlor were also greatest in fish from the Gila River downstream of Phoenix. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; > 0.11????g/g ww) and TCDD-EQs (> 5??pg/g ww) exceeded wildlife guidelines in fish from the Gila River at Phoenix. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was also relatively high in carp from the Gila River at Phoenix and in bass from the Green River at Ouray NWR. Fish from some sites showed

  4. Floods on Duck River and Flat, Big Spring, Bomar, and Little Hurricane Creeks and Pettus and Holland Branches and unnamed tributaries to Bomar and Little Hurricane Creeks and Holland Branch in the vicinity of Shelbyville, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    This flood hazard information report describes the extent and severity of the flood potential along selected reaches of the Duck River; Flat, Big Spring, Bomar, and Little Hurricane Creeks; Pettus and Holland Branches; and unnamed tributaries to Bomar and Little Hurricane Creeks and Holland Branch in the vicinity of Shelbyville, Tennessee.

  5. Concentrations, loads, and yields of select constituents from major tributaries of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers in Iowa, water years 2004-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrett, Jessica D.

    2012-01-01

    Excess nutrients, suspended-sediment loads, and the presence of pesticides in Iowa rivers can have deleterious effects on water quality in State streams, downstream major rivers, and the Gulf of Mexico. Fertilizer and pesticides are used to support crop growth on Iowa's highly productive agricultural landscape and for household and commercial lawns and gardens. Water quality was characterized near the mouths of 10 major Iowa tributaries to the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers from March 2004 through September 2008. Stream loads were calculated for select ions, nutrients, and sediment using approximately monthly samples, and samples from storm and snowmelt events. Water-quality samples collected using standard streamflow-integrated protocols were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, carbon, pesticides, and suspended sediment. Statistical data summaries of sample data used parametric and nonparametric techniques to address potential bias related to censored data and multiple levels of censoring of data below analytical detection limits. Constituent stream loads were computed using standard pre-defined models in S-LOADEST that include streamflow and time terms plus additional terms for streamflow variability and streamflow anomalies. Streamflow variability terms describe the difference in streamflow from recent average conditions, whereas streamflow anomaly terms account for deviations from average conditions from long- to short-term sequentially. Streamflow variability or anomaly terms were included in 44 of 80 site/constituent individual models, demonstrating the usefulness of these terms in increasing accuracy of the load estimates. Constituent concentrations in Iowa streams exhibit streamflow, seasonal, and spatial patterns related to the landform and climate gradients across the studied basins. The streamflow-concentration relation indicated dilution for ions such as chloride and sulfate. Other constituent concentrations, such as dissolved organic carbon and

  6. Headwater locations of U.S. streams tributary to St. Lawrence River basin between western Ohio and eastern New York, excluding Lake Champlain basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eissler, Benjamin B.

    1979-01-01

    The headwater locations of several thousand U.S. streams tributary to Lakes Ontario and Erie and the St. Lawrence and Niagara Rivers, from the Maumee River in Ohio to the western border of the Lake Champlain basin in New York, including parts of Pennsylvania, are listed by quadrangle. The location of the headwater of each is given with reference to cultural and topographic features. ' Headwater ' in this report is defined as the first site downstream from which the average streamflow is 5 cubic feet per second. The site locations were determined from drainage areas as indicated on topographic maps. The size of the drainage area required to produce an average flow of 5 cubic feet per second was determined from equations, developed separately for each State by regression techniques, that define the relation between streamflow and hydrologic factors of the region. Drainage area and precipitation were factors in the equations for all three States: forest cover was found to be significant in Ohio. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Genetic and morphological diversity of Moenkhausia oligolepis (Characiformes: Characidae) populations in the tributaries of the Araguaia River, Brazil: implications for taxonomy and conservation.

    PubMed

    Domingos, T J; Moraes, L N; Moresco, R M; Margarido, V P; Venere, P C

    2014-01-01

    Molecular genetic assessments that consider ecological information, in addition to endogamy levels, genetic diversity, and the genetic differentiation among species and populations, are particularly important for the conservation of biological diversity. Prime candidates for conservation genetic review are those subject to human use, including harvests for the ornamental fish trade. Colorful South American tetra, such as Moenkhausia oligolepis and M. forestii, are good examples of fish species that are widely collected and exported worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the population-specific characteristics of M. oligolepis and M. forestii by comparing morphometric and molecular analyses based on ISSR markers, to provide information that would facilitate the sustainable management of these 2 species. Seventy-two specimens were collected from the Araguaia-Tocantins and Paraguay River Basins in Brazil. All specimens were measured and analyzed using ISSR markers. Population-exclusive bands were found among the 86 detected bands, while morphometric clusters reflected the geographical distribution of individuals. Correlated genetic and morphological variation supported the presence of 3 distinct groups from tributaries of the Araguaia and Mortes Rivers. Using the same techniques, all M. oligolepis populations were isolated from M. forestii. This study on Moenkhausia presents an interesting example that could be used to construct a framework of South American ichthyodiversity, and reinforces the necessity of habitat conservation to prevent the loss of biological diversity. PMID:25299113

  8. Distributions, possible sources and biological risk of DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes in sediments of Beibu Gulf and its tributary rivers, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yiyin; Wang, Yinghui; Li, Jun; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Ruijie; Guo, Songjun; Huang, Wenyu; Zhang, Gan

    2013-11-15

    Thirty-five surface sediment samples collected from Beibu Gulf and its tributary rivers, China were analyzed for DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes. Total concentrations of DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes in sediments ranged from 0.59 to 126 ng g(-)(1), ND to 2.65 ng g(-)(1) and 0.27 to 3.41 ng g(-)(1) based on dry weight (dw), respectively. Concentrations of DDTs were higher than those reported in the sediments from other regions of the world, while concentrations of HCHs and chlordanes were relatively low. High concentrations of DDTs were observed in the harbor region and aquaculture bases and high concentrations of HCHs were found in the Qin River Estuary. The ratios of (DDE+DDD)/DDTs reflected a mixed input of weathered and fresh DDTs. The predominant β-HCH indicated that HCHs in the study area mainly originated from the historical usage of technical HCH. The residues of DDTs would pose adverse biological effects on the study area.

  9. Genetic and morphological diversity of Moenkhausia oligolepis (Characiformes: Characidae) populations in the tributaries of the Araguaia River, Brazil: implications for taxonomy and conservation.

    PubMed

    Domingos, T J; Moraes, L N; Moresco, R M; Margarido, V P; Venere, P C

    2014-09-29

    Molecular genetic assessments that consider ecological information, in addition to endogamy levels, genetic diversity, and the genetic differentiation among species and populations, are particularly important for the conservation of biological diversity. Prime candidates for conservation genetic review are those subject to human use, including harvests for the ornamental fish trade. Colorful South American tetra, such as Moenkhausia oligolepis and M. forestii, are good examples of fish species that are widely collected and exported worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the population-specific characteristics of M. oligolepis and M. forestii by comparing morphometric and molecular analyses based on ISSR markers, to provide information that would facilitate the sustainable management of these 2 species. Seventy-two specimens were collected from the Araguaia-Tocantins and Paraguay River Basins in Brazil. All specimens were measured and analyzed using ISSR markers. Population-exclusive bands were found among the 86 detected bands, while morphometric clusters reflected the geographical distribution of individuals. Correlated genetic and morphological variation supported the presence of 3 distinct groups from tributaries of the Araguaia and Mortes Rivers. Using the same techniques, all M. oligolepis populations were isolated from M. forestii. This study on Moenkhausia presents an interesting example that could be used to construct a framework of South American ichthyodiversity, and reinforces the necessity of habitat conservation to prevent the loss of biological diversity.

  10. Water-Quality Monitoring in Response to Young-of-the-Year Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu) Mortality in the Susquehanna River and Major Tributaries, Pennsylvania: 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaplin, Jeffrey J.; Crawford, J. Kent; Brightbill, Robin A.

    2009-01-01

    Mortalities of young-of-the-year (YOY) smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) recently have occurred in the Susquehanna River due to Flavobacterium columnare, a bacterium that typically infects stressed fish. Stress factors include but are not limited to elevated water temperature and low dissolved oxygen during times critical for survival and development of smallmouth bass (May 1 through July 31). The infections were first discovered in the Susquehanna River and major tributaries in the summer months of 2005 but also were prevalent in 2007. The U.S. Geological Survey, Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, and PPL Corporation worked together to monitor dissolved oxygen, water temperature, pH, and specific conductance on a continuous basis at seven locations from May through mid October 2008. In addition, nutrient concentrations, which may affect dissolved-oxygen concentrations, were measured once in water and streambed sediment at 25 locations. Data from water-quality meters (sondes) deployed as pairs showed daily minimum dissolved-oxygen concentration at YOY smallmouth-bass microhabitats in the Susquehanna River at Clemson Island and the Juniata River at Howe Township Park were significantly lower (p-value < 0.0001) than nearby main-channel habitats. The average daily minimum dissolved-oxygen concentration during the critical period (May 1-July 31) was 1.1 mg/L lower in the Susquehanna River microhabitat and 0.3 mg/L lower in the Juniata River. Daily minimum dissolved-oxygen concentrations were lower than the applicable national criterion (5.0 mg/L) in microhabitat in the Susquehanna River at Clemson Island on 31 days (of 92 days in the critical period) compared to no days in the corresponding main-channel habitat. In the Juniata River, daily minimum dissolved-oxygen concentration in the microhabitat was lower than 5.0 mg/L on 20 days compared to only 5 days in the main-channel habitat. The maximum time periods

  11. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L.

    2003-04-01

    The benefits that marine derived nutrients from adult salmon carcasses provide to juvenile salmonids are increasingly being recognized. Current estimates suggest that only 6-7% of marine-derived nitrogen and phosphorus that were historically available to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest are currently available. Food limitation may be a major constraint limiting the restoration of salmonids. A variety of methods have been proposed to offset this nutrient deficit including: allowing greater salmon spawning escapement, stocking hatchery salmon carcasses, and stocking inorganic nutrients. Unfortunately, each of these methods has some ecological or socio-economic shortcoming. We intend to overcome many of these shortcomings by making and evaluating a pathogen free product that simulates a salmon carcass (analog). Abundant sources of marine derived nutrients are available such as fish offal from commercial fishing and salmon carcasses from hatcheries. However, a method for recycling these nutrients into a pathogen free analog that degrades at a similar rate as a natural salmon carcass has never been developed. We endeavored to (1) develop a salmon carcass analog that will increase the food available to salmonids, (2) determine the pathways that salmonids use to acquire food from analogs, and (3) determine the benefits to salmonids and the potential for application to salmonid restoration. We used a before-after-control-impact-paired design in six tributaries of the upper Yakima basin to determine the utility of stocking carcass analogs. Our preliminary results suggest that the introduction of carcass analogs into food-limited streams can be used to restore food pathways previously provided by anadromous salmon. The analogs probably reproduced both of the major food pathways that salmon carcasses produce: direct consumption and food chain enhancement. Trout and salmon fed directly on the carcass analogs during the late summer and presumably benefited from the increased

  12. Yellow-billed Cuckoo Distribution, Abundance, and Habitat Use Along the Lower Colorado River and Its Tributaries, 2007 Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Matthew J.; Durst, Scott L.; Calvo, Christopher M.; Stewart, Laura; Sogge, Mark K.; Bland, Geoffrey; Arundel, Terry R.

    2008-01-01

    This 2007 annual report details the second season of a 2-year study documenting western yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus occidentalis) distribution, abundance, and habitat use throughout the Lower Colorado River Multi-Species Conservation Program boundary area. We conducted cuckoo surveys at 40 sites within 14 areas, between 11 June and 9 September 2007. The 169 surveys across all sites yielded 163 yellow-billed cuckoo detections. Cuckoos were detected at 25 of the 40 sites, primarily at the Bill Williams River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) study area (n = 139 detections; 85 percent of all detections). Detections declined slightly through the cuckoo breeding season, with most detections occurring in the first and second survey periods (n = 92; 54 percent). We detected breeding activity only at the Bill Williams River NWR, where we confirmed 27 breeding events, including two nesting observations. However, the breeding status of most detected birds was unknown. We used playback broadcast recordings to survey for yellow-billed cuckoos. Compared to simple point counts or surveys, this method increases the number of detections of this secretive, elusive species. It has long been suspected that cuckoos have a fairly low response rate, and that the standard survey method of using broadcast recordings might fail to detect all birds present in an area. In 2007, we found that the majority (84 percent) of cuckoo detections were solicited through broadcast at all study sites. The number of solicited detections was highest during the first survey period and declined as the breeding season progressed, while the number of unsolicited detections (cuckoos heard calling before broadcast was initiated) remained fairly constant through the first, second, and third survey periods. The majority (66 percent) of cuckoo detections, solicited or unsolicited, were aural, 23 percent were both heard and seen, and 11 percent were visual detections only. We also found that 50 percent

  13. Traveltime and dispersion in the Shenandoah River and its tributaries, Waynesboro, Virginia, to Harpers Ferry, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, K.R.; James, R.W.; Helinsky, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Two traveltime and dispersion measurements using rhodamin dye were conducted on a 178-mile reach of the Shenandoah River between Waynesboro, Virginia, and Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. The flows during the two measurements were at approximately the 85% and 45% flow durations. The two sets of data were used to develop a generalized procedure for predicting traveltimes and downstream concentrations resulting from spillage of water soluble substances at any point along the river reach studied. The procedure can be used to calculate traveltime and concentration data for almost any spillage that occurs during relatively steady flow between a 40% to 95% flow duration. Based on an analogy between the general shape of a time concentration curve and a scalene triangle, the procedures can be used on long river reaches to approximate the conservative time concentration curve for instantaneous spills of contaminants. The triangular approximation technique can be combined with a superposition technique to predict the approximate, conservative time concentration curve for constant rate and variable rate injections of contaminants. The procedure was applied to a hypothetical situation in which 5,000 pounds of contaminants is spilled instantaneously at Island Ford, Virginia. The times required for the leading edge, the peak concentration, and the trailing edge of the contaminant cloud to reach the water intake at Front Royal, Virginia (85 miles downstream), are 234,280, and 340 hrs, respectively, for a flow at an 80% flow duration. The conservative peak concentration would be approximately 940 micrograms/L at Front Royal. The procedures developed cannot be depended upon when a significant hydraulic wave or other unsteady flow condition exists in the flow system or when the spilled material floats or is immiscible in water. (Author 's abstract)

  14. The dynamics of fish populations in the Palancar stream,a small tributary of the river Guadalquivir, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, Ramón; Soriguer, Mila C.; Villar, Noelia; Hernando, José A.

    2001-02-01

    The relationship between flooding and changes in the size distribution of fish populations in the Palancar stream confirms observations in other rivers. On average, density decreased by 36.2 % and biomass increased by 14.5 %, passing from a period of severe drought to one of heavier than normal rains. Precipitation is the most important of the many factors affecting the populations of the Palancar stream; the most evident changes all occurred after the drought. During the drought period, the marked seasonal fluctuation in flow was the most important factor regulating the population dynamics. Fish density and biomass varied in proportion to the water volume. During the rainy period, the studied section of the river was found to be an important reproduction and nursery area, with juveniles and individuals of reproduction age dominating. The presence of Micropterus salmoides, an introduced piscivorous species, is another factor affecting the population dynamics in the Palancar stream. The observed absence of age 0+ individuals of the dominant populations is considered a direct effect of predation.

  15. From drought to flooding: understanding the abrupt 2010-11 hydrological annual cycle in the Amazonas River and tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlo Espinoza, Jhan; Ronchail, Josyane; Loup Guyot, Jean; Junquas, Clementine; Drapeau, Guillaume; Martinez, Jean Michel; Santini, William; Vauchel, Philippe; Lavado, Waldo; Ordoñez, Julio; Espinoza, Raúl

    2012-06-01

    In this work we document and analyze the hydrological annual cycles characterized by a rapid transition between low and high flows in the Amazonas River (Peruvian Amazon) and we show how these events, which may impact vulnerable riverside residents, are related to regional climate variability. Our analysis is based on comprehensive discharge, rainfall and average suspended sediment data sets. Particular attention is paid to the 2010-11 hydrological year, when an unprecedented abrupt transition from the extreme September 2010 drought (8300 m3 s-1) to one of the four highest discharges in April 2011 (49 500 m3 s-1) was recorded at Tamshiyacu (Amazonas River). This unusual transition is also observed in average suspended sediments. Years with a rapid increase in discharge are characterized by negative sea surface temperature anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific during austral summer, corresponding to a La Niña-like mode. It originates a geopotential height wave train over the subtropical South Pacific and southeastern South America, with a negative anomaly along the southern Amazon and the southeastern South Atlantic convergence zone region. As a consequence, the monsoon flux is retained over the Amazon and a strong convergence of humidity occurs in the Peruvian Amazon basin, favoring high rainfall and discharge. These features are also reported during the 2010-11 austral summer, when an intense La Niña event characterized the equatorial Pacific.

  16. Depth to water in the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys, southwestern Idaho and eastern Oregon, calculated using water levels from 1980 to 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1992-01-01

    The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in Idaho is being assessed by the IDHW/DEQ (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality), using a modified version of the Environmental Orotection Agency DRASTIC methods (Allers and others, 1985). The project was designed as a technique to: (1) Assign priorities for development of ground-water management and monitoring programs; (2) build support for, and public awareness of, vulnerability or ground water to contamination; (3) assist in the development of regulatory programs; and (4) provide access to technical data through the use of a GIS (geographic information system) (C. Grantha,, Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, written commun., 1989). A digital representation of first-encountered water below land surface is an important element in evaluating vulnerability of ground water to contamination. Depth-to-water values were developed using existing data and computer software to construct a GIS data set to be combined with a sols data set developed by the SCS (Soil Conservation Service) and IDHW/WQB (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare/Water Quality Bureau), and a recharge data set developed by the IDWR/RSF (Idaho Department of Water Resources/Remote Sensing Facility). The USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) developed digital depth-to-water values for eleven 1:100,000-scale quadrangles on the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys.

  17. Chemical-quality reconnaissance of the water and surficial bed material in the Delaware River estuary and adjacent New Jersey tributaries, 1980-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hochreiter, Joseph J.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents chemical-quality data collected from May 1980 to January 1981 at several locations within the Delaware River estuary and selected New Jersey tributaries. Samples of surface water were analyzed Environmental Protection Agency ' priority pollutants, ' including acid extractable, base/neutral extractable and volatile organic compounds, in addition to selected dissolved inorganic constituents. Surficial bed material at selected locations was examined for trace metals, insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and base/neutral extractable organic compounds. Trace levels (1-50 micrograms per liter) of purgeable organic compounds, particularly those associated with the occurrence of hydrocarbons, were found in about 60% of the water samples taken. DDT, DDD, DDE, PCB 's and chlordane are present in most surficial bed material samples. Diazinon was the only organophosphorous insecticide detected in the study (1.6 micrograms per kilogram at one location). High values for select trace metals in bed material were discovered at two locations. Of the 10 sites sampled, the surficial bed material containing the most contamination was found along one cross section of Raccoon Creek at Bridgeport. An additional analysis of Raccoon Creek revealed bed material containing toluene, oil and grease, and trace quantities of 15 base/neutral extractable organic compounds, including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalate esters, and chlorinated benzenes.

  18. Velocity, water-quality, and bathymetric surveys of the Grays Landing and Maxwell Navigation Pools, and Selected Tributaries to the Monongahela River, Pennsylvania, 2010–11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, Scott A.; Roland, Mark A.; Schalk, Luther F.; Fulton, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted velocity, water-quality, and bathymetric surveys from spring 2010 to summer 2011 in the Grays Landing and Maxwell navigation pools of the Monongahela River, Pennsylvania, and selected tributaries in response to elevated levels of total dissolved solids (TDS) recorded in early September 2009. Velocity data were collected using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler. Water-quality surveys included the in-situ collection of specific-conductance, water-temperature, and turbidity data using a water-quality sonde. Additionally, discrete water samples were collected and analyzed for TDS, chloride, and sulfate. Bathymetric data were collected using an echo sounder, and the shoreline was delineated using a laser range finder and electronic compass. The data were geo-referenced using a differential global positioning system and navigational software. Horizontal (x, y) coordinates were referenced to the North American Datum of 1983. Depth (z) elevations were referenced to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988. The data are provided in electronic format (appendix 1) and may be downloaded and can be used in a geographic information system for cartographic display and data analysis.

  19. Depth to water in the western Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys, southwestern Idaho and eastern Oregon, calculated using water levels from 1980 to 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1991-01-01

    The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in Idaho is being assessed by the ISHW/DEQ (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality), using a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency DRASTIC methods (Allers and others, 1985). The project was designed as a technique to: (1) Assign priorities for development of ground-water management and monitoring programs; (2) build support for, and public awareness of, vulnerability of ground water to contamination; (3) assist in the development of regulatory programs; and (4) provide access to technical data through the use of a GIS (geographic information system) (C. Grantham, Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, written commun., 1989). Digital representation of first-encountered water below land surface is an important element in evaluating vulnerability of ground water to contamination. Depth-to-water values were developed using existing data and computer software to construct a GIS data set to be combined with a soils data set developed by the SCS (Soul Conservation Service) and the IDHW/WQB (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare/Water Quality Bureau), and a recharge data set developed by the IDWR/RSF (idaho Department of Water Resources/Remote Sensing Facility). The USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) has developed digital depth-to-water values for eleven 1:100,00-scale quadrangles on the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys.

  20. Contribution of ammonia, metals, and nonpolar organic compounds to the toxicity of sediment interstitial water from an Illinois River tributary

    SciTech Connect

    Schubauer-Berigan, M.K.; Ankley, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    Toxicity of Illinois River bulk sediment, sediment interstitial (pore) water and elutriates to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the amphipod Hyalella azteca was compared to determine the most representative aqueous fraction for toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies. Toxicity of pore water corresponded better than elutriates to bulk sediment toxicity. Subsequent TIE procedures conducted with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia indicated that ammonia, metals and nonpolar organic compounds (nonylphenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzenes, long-chain hydrocarbons) were responsible for toxicity of the sediment pore water. Results of TIE manipulations also suggested that methods for recovering pore water that include filtration may eliminate, a priori, a major component of the sediment contaminants responsible for toxicity.

  1. Geochemical characterization in karst basin tributaries of the San Franciscan depression: The Corrente River, western Bahia, NE-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, Karina L.; Bicalho, Cristina C.; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.

    2016-08-01

    Karst aquifers are important freshwater resources for the growing population in Brazil. The sandstones of Urucuia plateau and the limestone of Bambui Group constitute important aquifer systems in the western part of Bahia state. The Corrente River provides ∼30% of the total water flow of the São Francisco River and crosses karstified structures. Surface and groundwater samples were collected during the dry period, the beginning of the wet season, and the wet season. The main objective was to define sources and distribution of dissolved elements and to describe the geochemical processes that govern their mobility within the system. Water samples are classified into three groups, depending on the dominant weathering process. When carbonate dissolution governs, waters are bicarbonate-calcium-type; whereas when the atmospheric precipitation signal is present, the samples in siliciclastic terrain are more Cl- - Na+. Groundwaters reflect bicarbonate-mixed-type, with the highest dissolved concentrations. In contrast to the major elements, trace elements, including Rare Earth Elements (REE), show seasonal behavior: their concentrations increase with the beginning of the wet season, due to re-mobilization and release into the solution of adsorbed elements from the system and the atmospheric dust. The total dissolved REE concentration (800-7500 ng L-1) is one order of magnitude more concentrated in karsts than in siliciclastic rocks. Principal component analysis was performed, explaining >77% of the variance. First factor extracted (REE, Y, Th, Al, Fe) explain the washout and enhancement of atmospheric dust weathering throughout the beginning of the wet seasons. The second component comprises variables related to karsts lithology, representing calcite and dolomite dissolution.

  2. [Fractions and adsorption characteristics of phosphorus on sediments and soils in water level fluctuating zone of the Pengxi River, a tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen-Bin; Du, Bin; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; He, Bing-Hui

    2013-03-01

    The sediment, one of the key factors leading to the eutrophication of water bodies, is an important ecological component of natural water body. In order to investigate the morphological characteristics and moving-transiting rule of phosphorus in the sediments of the Pengxi River, a tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the distributions of different phosphorus forms on the three cross-section in the sediments and three soil types of riparian zone were investigated using the sequential extraction method. The characteristics of phosphorus adsorption on the sediments were also investigated by batch experiments. The equilibrium phosphorus concentrations at zero adsorption (EPC0) on those sediments were estimated using the Henry linear models. The results show that the total phosphorus (TP) contents of these sediments and soils of riparian zone were 0.80-1.45 g x kg(-1) and 0.65-1.16 g x kg(-1), respectively. Phosphorus in sediments and soils were divided into inorganic phosphorus (IP) and organic phosphorus (Or-P), and the inorganic phosphorus was the dominant component of TP. Of the inorganic phosphorus fractions, the percentages of phosphorus bounded to calcium (Ca-P) and occluded phosphorus (O-P) from sediments were higher than 80%, implying that the contents of phosphorus were mainly influenced by their bedrocks and the sedimentary environmental conditions, not by the activities of human beings. The fractions of Ca-P and O-P were the dominant components of inorganic phosphorus in alluvial soil and purple soil, while the fraction of O-P was the highest in the paddy soil. The EPC0 values of the sediments from the sections of Huangshi, Shuangjiang and Gaoyang were 0.08, 0.13 and 0.11 mg x L(-1) respectively, but the EPC0 values of the alluvial soil, purple soil and paddy soil located in riparian zone were 0.08, 0.09 and 0.04 mg x L(-1), respectively. Correlation analysis shows that the values of EPC0 positively related to the contents of total phosphorus and clay

  3. Macrophyte and periphyton dynamics in a UK Cretaceous Chalk stream: the river Kennet, a tributary of the Thames.

    PubMed

    Flyn, N J; Snook, D L; Wade, A J; Jarvie, H P

    2002-01-23

    An initial study to observe the seasonal trends and to determine the factors influencing macrophyte and periphyton growth patterns was undertaken on a representative reach of the River Kennet (UK) over a 2-year period (1998-2000). Maximum average macrophyte and average periphyton dry matter biomass recorded during the growing season were 200 and 21 g m(-2), respectively. The relationships between macrophyte and periphyton percentage cover and biomass data with physico-chemical variables were investigated. Regression analysis indicated that of the parameters measured, flow, and in the case of the dominant Ranunculus spp., solar radiation, were best able to predict macrophyte biomass and cover. The periphytic biomass within the reach was low, possibly as a result of relatively high flows and low phosphorus concentrations following the introduction of effluent treatment at the sewage works immediately upstream of the reach. Periphytic biomass was poorly correlated with the physical variables measured. This indicates that biomass is regulated by complex interactions between the physical and chemical factors, such as flow, solar radiation and phosphorus concentration. These interrelationships require further investigation.

  4. Boron, molybdenum, and selenium in aquatic food chains from the lower San Joaquin River and its tributaries, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Jennings, Mark R.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    1993-01-01

    Boron (B), molybdenum (Mo), and selenium (Se) were measured in water, sediment, particulate organic detritus, and in various biota—filamentous algae, net plankton, macroinvertebrates, and fishes—to determine if concentrations were elevated from exposure to agricultural subsurface (tile) drainage during the spring and fall 1987, in the San Joaquin River, California. Concentrations of B and Se, but not Mo, were higher in most samples from reaches receiving tile drainage than in samples from reaches receiving no tile drainage. Maximum concentrations of Se in water (0.025 μg/mL), sediment (3.0 μg/g), invertebrates (14 μg/g), and fishes (17 μg/g) measured during this study exceeded concentrations that are detrimental to sensitive warmwater fishes. Toxic threshold concentrations of B and Mo in fishes and their foods have not been identified. Boron and Mo were not biomagnified in the aquatic food chain, because concentrations of these two elements were usually higher in filamentous algae and detritus than in invertebrates and fishes. Concentrations of Se were lower in filamentous algae than in invertebrates and fishes; however, concentrations of Se in or on detritus were similar to or higher than in invertebrates and fishes. These observations suggest that high concentrations of Se accumulated in invertebrates and fishes through food-chain transfer from Se-enriched detritus rather than from filamentous algae.

  5. Location and timing of river-aquifer exchanges in six tributaries to the Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, C.P.

    2006-01-01

    The flow of water between rivers and contiguous aquifers influences the quantity and quality of water resources, particularly in regions where precipitation and runoff are unevenly distributed through the year, such as the Columbia Basin (CB) in northwestern United States. Investigations of basin hydrogeology and gains and losses of streamflow for six rivers in the CB were reviewed to characterize general patterns in the timing and location of river-aquifer exchanges at a reach-scale (0.5-150 km) and to identify geologic and geomorphic features associated with the largest exchanges. Ground-water discharge to each river, or the gain in streamflow, was concentrated spatially: more than one-half of the total gains along each river segment were contributed from reaches that represented no more than 30% of the total segment length with the largest and most concentrated gains in rivers in volcanic terrains. Fluvial recharge of aquifers, or losses of streamflow, was largest in rivers in sedimentary basins where unconsolidated sediments form shallow aquifers. Three types of geologic or geomorphic features were associated with the largest exchanges: (1) changes in the thickness of unconsolidated aquifers; (2) contacts between lithologic units that represent contrasts in permeability; and (3) channel forms that increase the hydraulic gradient or cross-sectional area of flow paths between a river and shallow ground-water. The down-valley component of ground-water flow and its vertical convergence on or divergence from a riverbed account for large streamflow gains in some reaches and contrast with the common assumption of lateral ground-water discharge to a river that penetrates completely through the aquifer. Increased ground-water discharge was observed during high-flow periods in reaches of four rivers indicating that changes in ground-water levels can be more important than stage fluctuations in regulating the direction and magnitude of river-aquifer exchanges and that

  6. Spatial analysis of soil erosion and sediment fluxes: a paired watershed study of two Rappahannock River tributaries, Stafford County, Virginia.

    PubMed

    Ricker, Matthew C; Odhiambo, Ben K; Church, Joseph M

    2008-05-01

    Soil erosion is a serious problem in areas with expanding construction, agricultural production, and improper storm water management. It is important to understand the major processes affecting sediment delivery to surficial water bodies in order to tailor effective mitigation and outreach activities. This study analyzes how naturally occurring and anthropogenic influences, such as urbanization and soil disturbance on steep slopes, are reflected in the amount of soil erosion and sediment delivery within sub-watershed-sized areas. In this study, two sub-watersheds of the Rappahannock River, Horsepen Run and Little Falls Run, were analyzed using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and a sediment delivery ratio (SDR) to estimate annual sediment flux rates. The RUSLE/SDR analyses for Horsepen Run and Little Falls Run predicted 298 Mg/y and 234 Mg/y, respectively, but nearly identical per-unit-area sediment flux rates of 0.15 Mg/ha/y and 0.18 Mg/ha/y. Suspended sediment sampling indicated greater amounts of sediment in Little Falls Run, which is most likely due to anthropogenic influences. Field analyses also suggest that all-terrain vehicle crossings represent the majority of sediment flux derived from forested areas of Horsepen Run. The combined RUSLE/SDR and field sampling data indicate that small-scale anthropogenic disturbances (ATV trails and construction sites) play a major role in overall sediment flux rates for both basins and that these sites must be properly accounted for when evaluating sediment flux rates at a sub-watershed scale.

  7. Arsenic and fluoride in the upper madison river system: Firehole and gibbon rivers and their tributaries, yellowstone national park, wyoming, and southeast montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical analyses of 21 water samples from the Firehole and Gibbon Rivers, which combine to form the Madison River, gave arsenic and fluoride values above the Environmental Protection Agency Interim Primary Drinking Water maximum contaminant levels (0.05 mg/l arsenic and 2.0 mg/l fluoride). On 18 October, 1975, during a period of moderate flow (16,600 l/s), the Madison River at West Yellowstone contained 0.23 mg/l arsenic and 6.2 mg/l fluoride. Below Hebgen Lake the Madison River during periods of high flow (56,000 liter/s at West Yellowstone and 708,000 liter/s below Hebgen Lake) would contain 0.05 mg/l arsenic at both stations and 1.5 and 4.0 mg/l fluoride at West Yellowstone and below Hebgen Lake, respectively. The strong correlations of arsenic and fluoride with other chemical constituents of the river water at the sampling sites demonstrate the conservative nature of each element after it reaches the Madison River system. Calculations indicate that water from three sampling sites is above saturation with respect to fluorite. ?? 1979 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  8. Occurrence of Organic Wastewater Compounds in the Tinkers Creek Watershed and Two Other Tributaries to the Cuyahoga River, Northeast Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tertuliani, J.S.; Alvarez, D.A.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Koltun, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey - in cooperation with the Ohio Water Development Authority; National Park Service; Cities of Aurora, Bedford, Bedford Heights, Solon, and Twinsburg; and Portage and Summit Counties - and in collaboration with the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, did a study to determine the occurrence and distribution of organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) in the Tinkers Creek watershed in northeastern Ohio. In the context of this report, OWCs refer to a wide range of compounds such as antibiotics, prescription and nonprescription pharmaceuticals, personal-care products, household and industrial compounds (for example, antimicrobials, fragrances, surfactants, fire retardants, and so forth) and a variety of other chemicals. Canisters containing polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) media were deployed instream for a 28-day period in Mayand June 2006 at locations upstream and downstream from seven wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) outfalls in the Tinkers Creek watershed, at a site on Tinkers Creek downstream from all WWTP discharges, and at one reference site each in two nearby watersheds (Yellow Creek and Furnace Run) that drain to the Cuyahoga River. Streambed-sediment samples also were collected at each site when the canisters were retrieved. POCIS and SPMDs are referred to as 'passive samplers' because they sample compounds that they are exposed to without use of mechanical or moving parts. OWCs detected in POCIS and SPMD extracts are referred to in this report as 'detections in water' because both POCIS and SPMDs provided time-weighted measures of concentration in the stream over the exposure period. Streambed sediments also reflect exposure to OWCs in the stream over a long period of time and provide another OWC exposure pathway for aquatic organisms. Four separate laboratory methods were used to analyze for 32 antibiotic, 20 pharmaceutical, 57 to 66 wastewater, and 33 hydrophobic compounds. POCIS and

  9. Fractionation, distribution and transport of total mercury and Methylmercury in rivers and tributaries around Wanshan Hg mining district, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Zhang, H.; Larssen, T.; Vogt, R.; Rothenberg, S. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Wanshan mercury (Hg) mining area in Guizhou, China, was one of the world's largest Hg producing regions. Numerous tailings containing mine quarry or calcines still remain, leaching Hg to local rivers and streams and potentially impacting the local population. This study focuses on the regional distribution and temporal variation of aqueous Hg fractions in the 5 main watercourses draining the Wanshan Hg mining and smelting area, covering more than 700 square kilometers. Highly elevated concentrations of total Hg in water samples were found slightly downstream from the Hg mine and smelter tailings, while concentrations decreased sharply to a level well below 50 ng L-1 (US EPA Hg concentration standard for protection of fresh water), within 6-8 km. Total Hg concentrations ranged from extremely high (up to 12 492 ng L-1) just below the calcine tailings, to near the detection level (1.9 ng L-1) in tributary streams. Total Hg levels were correlated with particulate Hg (R2 = 0.996-0.999, P<0.001), and particulate Hg typically comprised more than 83% of total Hg in Hg-contaminated areas, although this value increased to 99% close to the mine tailings. During high flow, total Hg and particulate Hg concentrations were usually highest in the Hg- contaminated areas (i.e., total Hg ≥ 50 ng L-1), while Hg concentrations were usually low in the less-impacted downstream areas (i.e., total Hg<50 ng L-1) , which was likely due to the high correlation between total Hg and particulate Hg near the mine tailings. Like total Hg, concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg) were inversely related to distance from Hg mine tailings (mine waste calcines), suggesting that mine waste calcines were an important source of both inorganic and MeHg to the downstream environment.

  10. An Analysis of the Performance of Public Elementary Schools in New York City during 2001-2005 from a Geographical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellici, Ylli

    2009-01-01

    This study examines from a geographical perspective the factors that impact the performance of public elementary schools in New York City during 2001-2005, a period when its schools were undergoing major reforms at both the local and national level. Education reforms have focused their attention on schools by increasing their responsibility and…

  11. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport in the Tillamook Bay tributaries and Nehalem River basin, northwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Krista L.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Wallick, J. Rose

    2012-01-01

    valley confinement. * Natural and human-caused disturbances such as mass movements, logging, fire, channel modifications for navigation and flood control, and gravel mining also have varying effects on channel condition, bed-material transport, and distribution and area of bars throughout the study areas and over time. * Existing datasets include at least 16 and 18 sets of aerial and orthophotographs that were taken of the study areas in the Tillamook Bay tributary basins and Nehalem River basin, respectively, from 1939 to 2011. These photographs are available for future assessments of long-term changes in channel condition, bar area, and vegetation establishment patterns. High resolution Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) surveys acquired in 2007-2009 could support future quantitative analyses of channel morphology and bed-material transport in all study areas. * A review of deposited and mined gravel volumes reported for instream gravel mining sites shows that bed-material deposition tends to rebuild mined bar surfaces in most years. Mean annual deposition volumes on individual bars exceeded 3,000 cubic meters (m3) on Donaldson Bar on the Wilson River, Dill Bar on the Kilchis River, and Plant and Winslow Bars on the Nehalem River. Cumulative reported volumes of bed-material deposition were greatest at Donaldson and Dill Bars, totaling over 25,000 m3 per site from 2004 to 2011. Within this period, reported cumulative mined volumes were greatest for the Donaldson, Plant, and Winslow Bars, ranging from 24,470 to 33,940 m3. * Analysis of historical stage-streamflow data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Wilson River near Tillamook (14301500) and Nehalem River near Foss (14301000) shows that these rivers have episodically aggraded and incised, mostly following high flow events, but they do not exhibit systematic, long-term trends in bed elevation. * Multiple cross sections show that channels near bridge crossings in all six study areas are dynamic with many

  12. Determination of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in river sediments and corresponding surface and ground water in the Danube River and tributaries in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Radović, Tanja; Grujić, Svetlana; Petković, Anđelka; Dimkić, Milan; Laušević, Mila

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the development of analytical methods for the simultaneous determination of 25 selected pharmaceuticals, metabolites, and pesticides, belonging to the various chemical classes, in river sediments and their corresponding surface and ground water with the purpose of monitoring the contamination levels. The methods were based on the solid-phase extraction as the sample preparation method for water samples, and the ultrasonic solvent extraction for the sediment samples, followed by the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. High recoveries were achieved for extraction from both water and sediment samples for the majority of analytes. Low limits of detection were achieved for all investigated compounds in the water sample (1-5 ng L(-1)) as well as in the sediment (1-3 ng g(-1)). Applicability of the developed methods was demonstrated by determination of pharmaceutical and pesticide residues in 30 surface water, 44 groundwater, and 5 sediment samples from the Danube River Basin in Serbia. Sixty percent of target compounds were detected in environmental samples. The most frequently detected analytes in river sediments were the pesticides dimethoate and atrazine, while carbamazepine and metamizole metabolites 4-AAA and 4-FAA were the most frequently found in water samples.

  13. Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, Volume III, Fish and Habitat Inventory of Tributary Streams, 1983-1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leathe, Stephen A.

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes a study of the fisheries of the Swan River drainage in relation to potential small hydro development. This information was collected in order to obtain a reliable basin-wide database which was used to evaluate the potential cumulative effects of a number of proposed small hydro developments on the fisheries of the drainage. For each named tributary stream there is a reach-by-reach narrative summary of general habitat characteristics, outstanding features of the stream, and fish populations and spawning use. An attempt was made to rank many of the measured parameters relative to other surveyed stream reaches in the drainage. 3 refs.

  14. Relations of Water Quality to Streamflow, Season, and Land Use for Four Tributaries to the Toms River, Ocean County, New Jersey, 1994-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Ronald J.; Hunchak-Kariouk, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    The effects of nonpoint-source contamination on the water quality of four tributaries to the Toms River in Ocean County, New Jersey, have been investigated in a 5-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP). The purpose of the study was to relate the extent of land development to loads of nutrients and other contaminants to these streams, and ultimately to Barnegat Bay. Volumetric streamflow (discharge) was measured at 6 monitoring sites during 37 stormflow and base-flow sampling events over a 5-year period (May 1994-September 1999). Concentrations and yields (area-normalized instantaneous load values) of nitrogen and phosphorus species, total suspended solids, and fecal coliform bacteria were quantified, and pH, dissolved oxygen, and stream stage were monitored during base-flow conditions and storms. Sufficient data were collected to allow for a statistical evaluation of differences in water quality among streams in subbasins with high, medium, and low levels of land development. Long Swamp Creek, in a highly developed subbasin (64.2 percent developed); Wrangle Brook, in a moderately developed subbasin (34.5 percent); Davenport Branch, in a slightly developed subbasin (22.8 percent); and Jakes Branch, in an undeveloped subbasin (0 percent) are the subbasins selected for this study. No point-source discharges are known to be present on these streams. Water samples were collected and analyzed by the NJDEP, and discharge measurements and data analysis were conducted by the USGS. Total nitrogen concentrations were lower in Davenport Branch than in Long Swamp Creek and Wrangle Brook during base flow and stormflow. Concentrations of total nitrogen and nitrate were highest in Wrangle Brook (as high as 3.0 mg/L and 1.6 mg/L, respectively) as a result of high concentrations of nitrate in samples collected during base flow; nitrate loading from ground-water discharge is much higher in

  15. Relation of water quality to land use in the drainage basins of four tributaries to the Toms River, New Jersey, 1994-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunchak-Kariouk, Kathryn

    1999-01-01

    The influence of land use on the water quality of four tributaries to the Toms River, which drains nearly one-half of the Barnegat Bay wateshed, was studied during the initial phase of a multiyear investigation. Water samples were collected from and streamflows were measured in Long Swamp Creek, Wrangel Brook, Davenport Branch, and Jakes Creek during periods of base flow and stormflow in the growing and nongrowing seasons during May 1994 to October 1995. The drainage areas upstream from the seven measurement sites were characterized as highly developed, moderately developed, slightly developed, or undeveloped. Concentrations were determined and area-normalized instantaneous loads (yields) were estimated for total nitrogen, ammonia, nitrate, organic nitrogen, hydrolyzable phosphorus plus orthosphosphorus, orthophosphorus, total suspended solids, and fecal-coliform bacteria in the water samples. Specific conductance, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen were measured. Yields of total nitrogen, nitrate, and organic nitrogen at sites on Wrangel Brook, which drains moderately developed areas, were either larger than or similar to yields at the site on Long Swamp Creek, which drains a highly developed area. The magnitude of these yields probably was not related directly to the intensity of land development, but more likely was influenced by the type of development, the amount of base flow, and historical land use in the basin. The large concentrations of total nitrogen and nitrate in base flow in Wrangel Brook could have resulted from fertilizers that were applied to high-maintenance lawns and from agricultural runoff that has remained in the ground water since the 1950's and eventually was discharged to streams. Yields of ammonia appear to be partly related to the intensity of land development and storm runoff. Yields of ammonia at the site on Long Swamp Creek (a highly developed area) were either larger than or similar to yields at sites on Wrangel Brook (moderately

  16. PM2.5 source apportionment in the southeastern U.S.: Spatial and seasonal variations during 2001-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yingjun; Zheng, Mei; Edgerton, Eric S.; Ke, Lin; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2012-04-01

    The seasonal and spatial variations of source contributions of 112 composite fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples collected in the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization Study (SEARCH) monitoring network during 2001-2005 using molecular marker-based chemical mass balance (CMB-MM) model were determined. The lowest PM2.5 concentration occurs in January with higher values in warm months (maxima in July at four inland sites versus October at the coastal sites). Sulfate shows a similar pattern and plays a primary role in PM2.5 seasonality. Carbonaceous material (organic matter plus EC) exhibits less seasonality, but more spatial variations between the inland and coastal sites. Compared with the data at coastal sites, source attributions of diesel exhaust, gasoline exhaust, other organic matter (other OM), secondary sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium in PM2.5 mass at inland sites are higher. The difference in source attributions of wood combustion, meat cooking, vegetative detritus, and road dust among the eight sites is not significant. Contributions of eight primary sources to fine OC are wood burning (17 ± 19%), diesel exhaust (9 ± 4%), gasoline exhaust (5 ± 7%), meat cooking (5 ± 5%), road dust (2 ± 3%), vegetative detritus (2 ± 2%), cigarette smoke (2 ± 2% at four urban sites), and coke production (2 ± 1% only at BHM). Primary and secondary sources explain 82-100% of measured PM2.5 mass at the eight sites, including secondary ionic species (SO42-, NH4+, and NO3-; 41.4 ± 5.7%), identified OM (24.9 ± 11.3%), "other OM" (unexplained OM, 23.3 ± 10.3%), and "other mass" (11.4 ± 9.6%). Vehicle exhaust from both diesel and gasoline contributes the lowest fraction to PM2.5 mass in July and higher fractions at BHM and JST than other sites. Wood combustion, in contrast, contributes significantly to a larger fraction in winter than in summer. Road dust shows relatively high levels in July and April across the eight sites, while minor sources such as meat

  17. State and Regional Water-Quality Characteristics and Trophic Conditions of Michigan's Inland Lakes, 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, L.M.; Minnerick, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality are jointly monitoring selected water-quality constituents of inland lakes through 2015 as part of Michigan's Lake Water Quality Assessment program. During 2001-2005, 433 lake basins from 364 inland lakes were monitored for baseline water-quality conditions and trophic status. This report summarizes the water-quality characteristics and trophic conditions of those monitored lake basins throughout the State. Regional variation of water quality in lake basins was examined by grouping on the basis of the five Omernik level III ecoregions within Michigan. Concentrations of most constituents measured were significantly different between ecoregions. Less regional variation of phosphorus concentrations was noted between Northern Lakes and Forests (50) and North Central Hardwoods (51) ecoregions during summer possibly because water samples were collected when lake productivity was high; hence the utilization of the limited amount of phosphorus by algae and macrophytes may have resulted in the more uniform concentrations between these two ecoregions. Concentrations of common ions (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate) measured in the spring typically were higher in the Michigan southern Lower Peninsula in the Eastern Corn Belt Plains (55), Southern Michigan/Northern Indiana Drift Plains (56), and Huron/Erie Lake Plains (57) ecoregions. Most ions whose concentrations were less than the minimum reporting levels or were nondetectable were from lakes in the Michigan northern Lower Peninsula and the Upper Peninsula in the Northern Lakes and Forests (50) and North Central Hardwoods (51) ecoregions. Chlorophyll a concentrations followed a similar distribution pattern. Measured properties such as pH and specific conductance (indicative of dissolved solids) also showed a regional relation. The lakes with the lowest pH and specific conductance were generally in the western Upper

  18. Water-surface elevation and discharge measurement data for the Red River of the North and its tributaries near Fargo, North Dakota, water years 2014–15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Damschen, William C.; Galloway, Joel M.

    2016-08-25

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Fargo Diversion Board of Authority, collected water-surface elevations during a range of discharges needed for calibration of hydrologic and hydraulic models for specific reaches of interest in water years 2014–15. These water-surface elevation and discharge measurement data were collected for design planning of diversion structures on the Red River of the North and Wild Rice River and the aqueduct/diversion structures on the Sheyenne and Maple Rivers. The Red River of the North and Sheyenne River reaches were surveyed six times, and discharges ranged from 276 to 6,540 cubic feet per second and from 166 to 2,040 cubic feet per second, respectively. The Wild Rice River reach also was surveyed six times during 2014 and 2015, and discharges ranged from 13 to 1,550 cubic feet per second. The Maple River reach was surveyed four times, and discharges ranged from 16.4 to 633 cubic feet per second. Water-surface elevation differences from upstream to downstream in the reaches ranged from 0.33 feet in the Red River of the North reach to 9.4 feet in the Maple River reach.

  19. Fish communities and trophic metrics as measures of ecological degradation: a case study in the tributaries of the river Ganga basin, India.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Vineet Kumar; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Pandey, Ajay; Lakra, Wazir Singh

    2013-09-01

    In India, freshwater aquatic resources are suffering from increasing human population, urbanization and shortage of all kind of natural resources like water. To mitigate this, all the major rivers have been planned for a river-interlinking through an interlinking canal system under a huge scheme; yet, the baseline information on ecological conditions of those tropical rivers and their fish communities is lacking at present. In view of that, the present study was undertaken to assess the ecological condition by comparing the trophic metrics of the fish community, conservation status and water chemistry of the two tropical rivers of the Ganga basin, from October 2007 to November 2009. The analysis of trophic niches of the available fish species indicated dominancy of carnivorous (19 species) in river Ken and omnivorous (23 species) in Betwa. The trophic level score of carnivorous species was recorded similar (33.33%) in both rivers, whereas omnivorous species were mostly found in Betwa (36.51%) than Ken (28.07%). Relatively undisturbed sites of Betwa (B1, B2 and B3) and Ken (K2, K3 and K5) were characterized by diverse fish fauna and high richness of threatened species. The higher mean trophic level scores were recorded at B4 of Betwa and K4 of Ken. The Bray-Curtis index for trophic level identified the carnivorous species (> 0.32) as an indicator species for pollution. Anthropogenic exposure, reflected in water quality as well as in fish community structure, was found higher especially in the lower stretches of both rivers. Our results suggest the importance of trophic metrics on fish community, for ecological conditions evaluation, which enables predictions on the effect of future morphodynamic changes (in the post-interlinking phases), and provide a framework and reference condition to support restoration efforts of relatively altered fish habitats in tropical rivers of India.

  20. Fish communities and trophic metrics as measures of ecological degradation: a case study in the tributaries of the river Ganga basin, India.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Vineet Kumar; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Pandey, Ajay; Lakra, Wazir Singh

    2013-09-01

    In India, freshwater aquatic resources are suffering from increasing human population, urbanization and shortage of all kind of natural resources like water. To mitigate this, all the major rivers have been planned for a river-interlinking through an interlinking canal system under a huge scheme; yet, the baseline information on ecological conditions of those tropical rivers and their fish communities is lacking at present. In view of that, the present study was undertaken to assess the ecological condition by comparing the trophic metrics of the fish community, conservation status and water chemistry of the two tropical rivers of the Ganga basin, from October 2007 to November 2009. The analysis of trophic niches of the available fish species indicated dominancy of carnivorous (19 species) in river Ken and omnivorous (23 species) in Betwa. The trophic level score of carnivorous species was recorded similar (33.33%) in both rivers, whereas omnivorous species were mostly found in Betwa (36.51%) than Ken (28.07%). Relatively undisturbed sites of Betwa (B1, B2 and B3) and Ken (K2, K3 and K5) were characterized by diverse fish fauna and high richness of threatened species. The higher mean trophic level scores were recorded at B4 of Betwa and K4 of Ken. The Bray-Curtis index for trophic level identified the carnivorous species (> 0.32) as an indicator species for pollution. Anthropogenic exposure, reflected in water quality as well as in fish community structure, was found higher especially in the lower stretches of both rivers. Our results suggest the importance of trophic metrics on fish community, for ecological conditions evaluation, which enables predictions on the effect of future morphodynamic changes (in the post-interlinking phases), and provide a framework and reference condition to support restoration efforts of relatively altered fish habitats in tropical rivers of India. PMID:24027928

  1. Data on natural organic substances in dissolved, colloidal, suspended-silt and -clay, and bed-sediment phases in the Mississippi River and some of its tributaries, 1987-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Noyes, T.I.; Brown, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Mississippi River and some of its tributaries were sampled for natural organic substances dissolved in water and in suspended and bed sediments during seven sampling cruises from 1987-90. The sampling cruises were made during different seasons, in the free-flowing reaches of the river from St. Louis, Missouri, to New Orleans, Louisiana. The first three cruises were made during low-water conditions, and the last four cruises during high-water conditions. The purpose for sampling and characterizing natural organic substances in the various phases in the river was to provide an understanding of how these substances facilitate contaminant transport and transformations in the Mississippi River. Significant conclusions of this study were: (1) Natural organic substances appear to stabilize ' certain colloids against aggregation; therefore, these colloids remain in suspension and can act as transport agents that are not affected by sedimentation. Bacteria were found to be a significant fraction of organic colloids. (2) A new class of organic contaminants (polyethylene glycols) derived from nonionic surfactant residues was discovered dissolved with natural organic substances in water. These polyethylene glycols have the potential to affect both organic and inorganic contaminant transport in water. (3) The entire dissolved organic-matter component under varying hydrologic and seasonal conditions was characterized. (4) A method was developed to characterize organic matter in sediment by solid-state, 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. (5) The organic matter in suspended sediments was characterized by a variety of spectral and nonspectral methods. The protein component (significant in trace-metal binding) and lipid component (significant in organic-contaminant binding) were found to be major constituents in natural organic matter in suspended sediment. (6) Pools are reservoirs acting as traps of sedimentary organic matter of allochthonous origin and export

  2. Effects of a diversion hydropower facility on the hydrological regime of the Correntes River, a tributary to the Pantanal floodplain, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantin-Cruz, Ibraim; Pedrollo, Olavo; Girard, Pierre; Zeilhofer, Peter; Hamilton, Stephen K.

    2015-12-01

    Facilities that produce hydroelectricity by diversion of part of the river's flow, which are often considered to have lower environmental impact than conventional hydropower dams, are being built in large numbers on river systems throughout the world, yet their cumulative impacts are not well understood. This study evaluated the hydrological effects of operation of a diversion hydropower facility on the Correntes River in Brazil (mean discharge 73 m3 s-1), which is potentially important because of the ecological implications for the floodplains of the Pantanal into which it flows. Many similar dams are built or proposed on rivers feeding the Pantanal. The 210-MW facility known as Ponte de Pedra diverts part of the river flow into a diversion channel in a nearly "run-of-river" design. The natural (reconstructed) and regulated (observed) flow regimes were characterized using Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) and Flow Duration Curves (FDC). Seven parameters of IHA were significantly altered by the reservoir formation (magnitude of lowest monthly flow, minimum flows of 1, 3 and 7 days, maximum flow of 90 days and counts of high and low pulses). Among these, Principal Components Analysis identified the maximum flow of 90 days and the count of high flow pulses as integrators of hydrological alterations. The FDC showed that the reservoir also changed the seasonal regime of the flows, with greater changes in the lowest flow season. The reduction of river-floodplain connectivity and loss of associated ecosystem services are the major downstream ecological implications of this altered flow regime. To maintain the seasonal flooding regime while meeting the requirements for hydroelectric production, proposed limits for flow regime alterations are up to ±18% in low flow, ±24% in the rising limb and ±22% in high flow and the falling limb, relative to the natural flow. Operational changes to maintain flows with these limits could easily be implemented because the

  3. Effects of thermal discharges on the distribution and abundance of adult fishes in the Savannah River and selected tributaries: Annual report, November 1984-August 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Saul, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    A study of the juvenile and adult fish community in streams draining the SRP and in the Savannah River in the area of the SRP was conducted between September 1984 and September 1985. The major objectives were to examine the abundance and distribution of fishes near the Savannah River Plant in relation to thermal discharges into the river, creeks, and floodplain swamps and to determine the rate of impingement of adult and juvenile fishes on the intake screens at the SRP pumphouses. The most abundant fishes (excluding minnows) taken by electrofishing were the redbreast sunfish (41.6%), spotted sucker (8.8%), spotted sunfish (8.2%), largemouth bass (5.7%), bluegill (5.6%), and American eel (5.4%). The most abundant fishes taken by hoop netting were the flat bullhead (38.0%), channel catfish (11.9%), bluegill (9.4%), white catfish (7.9%), black crappie (6.5%), and redbreast sunfish (5.5%). Dominant species in the intake canals were the bluegill, redbreast sunfish, and black crappie. Dominant species in the nonthermal river were the redbreast sunfish, spotted sunfish, spotted sucker, largemouth bass, channel catfish, white catfish, and flat bullhead. Dominant species in the nonthermal creeks were fairly similar to river species except that the catfishes were not as well represented. The thermal river and creek habitats differed from the nonthermal habitats in having higher percentages (although often lower numbers) of channel catfish, white catfish, largemouth bass, and coastal shiner and a lower percentage of flat bullhead.

  4. Effects of changes in irrigation and land use on stream flow in the Revuelto Creek watershed, a tributary of the Canadian River in New Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive development in the Canadian River watershed in New Mexico and Texas occurred in the 20th century to supply water for irrigation, and municipal and industrial uses. In recent years (2000-2009), these infrastructures have not been able to supply sufficient water to meet demands. The objectiv...

  5. Water-Quality and Biological Assessment of the Iowa River and Tributaries Within and Contiguous to the Meskwaki Settlement of the Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littin, Gregory R.; McVay, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    In cooperation with the Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa (Meskwaki Nation), the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 2-year baseline assessment of the chemical and biological quality of streams within the Meskwaki Settlement in central Iowa. The Meskwaki Nation is a federally recognized tribe that wishes to establish water-quality standards to safeguard the integrity of surface waters and aquatic biota within the settlement for the health and welfare of the tribal community. The settlement is drained by the Iowa River and four tributaries (Onion, Cattail, Raven, and Bennett Creeks). Water-quality samples were collected at three sites on the Iowa River, two sites on Onion Creek, and one site each on Cattail, Raven, and Bennett Creeks from April 2006 through July 2007. Biological and habitat assessments were conducted at all three sites on the Iowa River and the downstream-most site on Onion Creek from June through August 2007. Analysis of physical properties, major ions, nutrients, trace compounds, bacteria, and total suspended solids in water, and trace metals and organic compounds in streambed sediment provided information about the effects of anthropogenic (human related) activities on the water quality of settlement streams. Analysis of biological samples collected during the summer of 2007, including fish community, benthic macroinvertebrates, and periphyton samples, as well as physical habitat characteristics, provided information on the effects of water quality on the condition of the aquatic environment. The majority of surface water sampled within the settlement was predominately a calcium bicarbonate type. Nitrates (nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) primary drinking-water Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 ug/L in 19 of 36 samples from sites on the Iowa River and Raven and Bennett Creeks but not in samples from Onion and Cattail Creeks. None of the samples analyzed for pesticides, trace

  6. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Site : Five-Year Habitat Management Plan, 2001-2005, 2000-2001 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beilke, Susan G.

    2001-09-01

    Historically the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins were ecologically rich in both the habitat types and the species diversity they supported. This was due in part to the pattern of floods and periodic inundation of bottomlands that occurred, which was an important factor in creating and maintaining a complex system of wetland, meadow, and riparian habitats. This landscape has been greatly altered in the past 150 years, primarily due to human development and agricultural activities including cattle grazing, logging and the building of hydroelectric facilities for hydropower, navigation, flood control and irrigation in the Columbia and Willamette River Basins. The Burlington Bottoms (BB) wetlands contains some of the last remaining bottomlands in the area, supporting a diverse array of native plant and wildlife species. Located approximately twelve miles northwest of Portland and situated between the Tualatin Mountains to the west and Multnomah Channel and Sauvie Island to the east, the current habitats are remnant of what was once common throughout the region. In order to preserve and enhance this important site, a five-year habitat management plan has been written that proposes a set of actions that will carry out the goals and objectives developed for the site, which includes protecting, maintaining and enhancing wildlife habitat for perpetuity.

  7. Exploration of the Colorado River of the West and its tributaries: Explored in 1869, 1870, 1871, and 1872, under the direction of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, John Wesley

    1875-01-01

    In the summer of 1867, with a small party of naturalists, students, and amateurs like myself, I visited the mountain region of Colorado Territory. While in Middle Park, I explored a little cañon, through which the Grand River runs, immediately below the well-known watering-place, "Middle Park Hot Springs." Later in the fall I passed through Cedar Cañon, the gorge by which the Grand leaves the park. The result of the summer's study was to kindle a desire to explore the cañons of the Grand, Green, and Colorado Rivers, and the next summer I organized an expedition with the intention of penetrating still farther into that cañon country.

  8. Occurrence of Organic Compounds and Trace Elements in the Upper Passaic and Elizabeth Rivers and Their Tributaries in New Jersey, July 2003 to February 2004: Phase II of the New Jersey Toxics Reduction Workplan for New York-New Jersey Harbor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Timothy P.; Bonin, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Samples of surface water and suspended sediment were collected from the Passaic and Elizabeth Rivers and their tributaries in New Jersey from July 2003 to February 2004 to determine the concentrations of selected chlorinated organic and inorganic constituents. This sampling and analysis was conducted as Phase II of the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary Workplan?Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Program (CARP), which is overseen by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Phase II of the New Jersey Workplan was conducted to define upstream tributary and point sources of contaminants in those rivers sampled during Phase I work, with special emphasis on the Passaic and Elizabeth Rivers. Samples were collected from three groups of tributaries: (1) the Second, Third, and Saddle Rivers; (2) the Pompton and upper Passaic Rivers; and (3) the West Branch and main stem of the Elizabeth River. The Second, Third, and Saddle Rivers were sampled near their confluence with the tidal Passaic River, but at locations not affected by tidal flooding. The Pompton and upper Passaic Rivers were sampled immediately upstream from their confluence at Two Bridges, N.J. The West Branch and the main stem of the Elizabeth River were sampled just upstream from their confluence at Hillside, N.J. All tributaries were sampled during low-flow discharge conditions using the protocols and analytical methods for organic constituents used in low-flow sampling in Phase I. Grab samples of streamflow also were collected at each site and were analyzed for trace elements (mercury, methylmercury, cadmium, and lead) and for suspended sediment, particulate organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. The measured concentrations and available historical suspended-sediment and stream-discharge data (where available) were used to estimate average annual loads of suspended sediment and organic compounds in these rivers. Total suspended-sediment loads for 1975?2000 were estimated using rating

  9. Reconnaissance of chemical and physical characteristics of selected bottom sediments of the Caloosahatchee River and estuary, tributaries, and contiguous bays, Lee County, Florida, July 20-30, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario; Marot, M.E.; Holmes, C.W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes a reconnaissance study, conducted July 20-30, 1998, of chemical and physical characteristics of recently deposited bottom sediments in the Caloosahatchee River and Estuary. Recently deposited sediments were identified using an isotopic chronometer, Beryllium-7 (7Be), a short-lived radioisotope. Fifty-nine sites were sampled in an area that encompasses the Caloosahatchee River (River) about three miles upstream from the Franklin Lock (S-79), the entire tidally affected length of the river (estuary), and the contiguous water bodies of Matlacha Pass, San Carlos Bay, Estero Bay, Tarpon Bay, and Pine Island Sound in Lee County, Florida. Bottom sediments were sampled for 7Be at 59 sites. From the results of the 7Be analysis, 30 sites were selected for physical and chemical analysis. Sediments were analyzed for particle size, total organic carbon (TOC), trace elements, and toxic organic compounds, using semiquantitative methods for trace elements and organic compounds. The semiquantitative scans of trace elements indicated that cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations, when normalized to aluminum, were above the natural background range at 24 of 30 sites. Particle size and TOC were used to characterize sediment deposition patterns and organic content. Pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CaPAHs) were determined at 30 sites using immunoassay analysis. The semiquantitative immunoassay analyses of toxic organic compounds indicated that all of the samples contained DDT, cyclodienes as chlordane (pesticides), and CaPAHs. PCBs were not detected. Based on analyses of the 30 sites, sediments at 10 of these sites were analyzed for selected trace elements and toxic organic compounds, including pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs, using quantitative laboratory procedures. No arsenic or cadmium was detected. Zinc was detected at two sites with concentrations greater than the lower limit of the range of

  10. Characteristics of sediment data and annual suspended-sediment loads and yields for selected lower Missouri River mainstem and tributary stations, 1976-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heimann, David C.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Cline, Teri L.; Pigue, Lori M.; Wagner, Holly R.

    2010-01-01

    Suspended-sediment data from 18 selected surface-water monitoring stations in the lower Missouri River Basin downstream from Gavins Point Dam were used in the computation of annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads for 1976 through 2008. Three methods of suspended-sediment load determination were utilized and these included the subdivision method, regression of instantaneous turbidity with suspended-sediment concentrations at selected stations, and regression techniques using the Load Estimator (LOADEST) software. Characteristics of the suspended-sediment and streamflow data collected at the 18 monitoring stations and the tabulated annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads and yields are presented.

  11. Channel geometry and hydrologic data for six eruption-affected tributaries of the Lewis River, Mount St. Helens, Washington, water years 1983-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martinson, H.A.; Hammond, H.E.; Mast, W.W.; Mango, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    The May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens generated a lateral blast, lahars, and tephra deposits that altered stream channels in the Lewis River drainage basin. In order to assess potential flood hazards, monitor channel adjustments, and construct a sediment budget for disturbed drainages on the east and southeast flanks of the volcano, channel cross sections were monumented and surveyed on Pine Creek, Muddy River, and Smith Creek during September and October of 1980. Additional cross sections were monumented and surveyed on Swift Creek, Bean Creek , and Clearwater Creek during 1981. This network of channel cross sections has been resurveyed annually. Selected cross sections have been surveyed more frequently, following periods of higher flow. Longitudinal stream profiles of the low-water thalweg and (or) water surfaces were surveyed periodically for selected short reaches of channel. Corresponding map views for these reaches were constructed using the survey data and aerial photographs. This report presents plots of channel cross-section profiles, longitudinal stream profiles, and channel maps constructed from survey data collected during water years 1983-84. (USGS)

  12. Ecological surveillance of small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Chul; Klein, Terry A; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Baek, Luck Ju; Chong, Sung Tae; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Song, Jin-Won

    2011-06-01

    A seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was established at Dagmar North Training Area located near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea, from 2001 through 2005. Selected habitats surveyed included earthen banks separating rice paddies, fighting positions along a 5 m rock-faced earthen berm, and extensive tall grasses with various degrees of herbaceous and scrub vegetation associated with dirt roads, rice paddies, ditches, ponds, or the Imjin River. Of the nine species of small mammals captured, the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus, was the most frequently collected, representing 92.5% of the 1,848 small mammals captured. Males were captured similarly to females during the spring and summer seasons but were captured less frequently during the fall and winter seasons. Gravid rates were highest in the fall (25.5-57.3%) with the lowest rates during the summer (0.0-2.2%). Capture rates were the lowest along earthen banks separating rice paddies (5.5%) and highest in unmanaged tall grasses and crawling vegetation (15.3-43.5%). An increased knowledge of ecological factors that impact the abundance and distribution of small mammals and the associated ectoparasites and pathogens they harbor is critical for developing accurate disease risk assessments and mitigation strategies for preventing vector- and rodent-borne diseases among soldiers training in field environments.

  13. Total Phosphorus Loads for Selected Tributaries to Sebago Lake, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.

    2001-01-01

    The streamflow and water-quality datacollection networks of the Portland Water District (PWD) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as of February 2000 were analyzed in terms of their applicability for estimating total phosphorus loads for selected tributaries to Sebago Lake in southern Maine. The long-term unit-area mean annual flows for the Songo River and for small, ungaged tributaries are similar to the long-term unit-area mean annual flows for the Crooked River and other gaged tributaries to Sebago Lake, based on a regression equation that estimates mean annual streamflows in Maine. Unit-area peak streamflows of Sebago Lake tributaries can be quite different, based on a regression equation that estimates peak streamflows for Maine. Crooked River had a statistically significant positive relation (Kendall's Tau test, p=0.0004) between streamflow and total phosphorus concentration. Panther Run had a statistically significant negative relation (p=0.0015). Significant positive relations may indicate contributions from nonpoint sources or sediment resuspension, whereas significant negative relations may indicate dilution of point sources. Total phosphorus concentrations were significantly larger in the Crooked River than in the Songo River (Wilcoxon rank-sum test, p<0.0001). Evidence was insufficient, however, to indicate that phosphorus concentrations from medium-sized drainage basins, at a significance level of 0.05, were different from each other or that concentrations in small-sized drainage basins were different from each other (Kruskal-Wallis test, p= 0.0980, 0.1265). All large- and medium-sized drainage basins were sampled for total phosphorus approximately monthly. Although not all small drainage basins were sampled, they may be well represented by the small drainage basins that were sampled. If the tributaries gaged by PWD had adequate streamflow data, the current PWD tributary monitoring program would probably produce total phosphorus loading data that

  14. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 20. Water chemistry of the Red River and selected seeps, tributaries, and precipitation, Taos County, New Mexico, 2000-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, P.L.; McCleskey, R.B.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a multi-year project to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality at Molycorp's Questa mine site, surface-water samples of the Red River, some of its tributaries, seeps, and snow samples were collected for analysis of inorganic solutes and of water and sulfate stable isotopes in selected samples. The primary aim of this study was to document diel, storm event, and seasonal variations in water chemistry for the Red River and similar variations in water chemistry for Straight Creek, a natural analog site similar in topography, hydrology, and geology to the mine site for inferring pre-mining water-quality conditions. Red River water samples collected between 2000 and 2004 show that the largest variations in water chemistry occur during late summer rainstorms, often monsoonal in nature. Within hours, discharge of the Red River increased from 8 to 102 cubic feet per second and pH decreased from 7.80 to 4.83. The highest concentrations of metals (iron, aluminum, zinc, manganese) and sulfate also occur during such events. Low-pH and high-solute concentrations during rainstorm runoff are derived primarily from alteration 'scar' areas of naturally high mineralization combined with steep topography that exposes continually altered rock because erosion is too rapid for vegetative growth. The year 2002 was one of the driest on record, and Red River discharge reflected the low seasonal snow pack. No snowmelt peak appeared in the hydrograph record, and a late summer storm produced the highest flow for the year. Snowmelt was closer to normal during 2003 and demonstrated the dilution effect of snowmelt on water chemistry. Two diel sampling events were conducted for the Red River, one during low flow and the other during high flow, at two locations, at the Red River gaging station and just upstream from Molycorp's mill site. No discernible diel trends were observed except for dissolved zinc and manganese at the upstream site during low flow. Straight Creek drainage water

  15. Relation of water quality to land use in the drainage basins of six tributaries to the lower Delaware River, New Jersey, 2002-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Ronald J.; Esralew, Rachel A.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations and loads of water-quality constituents in six streams in the lower Delaware River Basin of New Jersey were determined in a multi-year study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Two streams receive water from relatively undeveloped basins, two from largely agricultural basins, and two from heavily urbanized basins. Each stream was monitored during eight storms and at least eight times during base flow during 2002-07. Sampling was conducted during base flow before each storm, when stage was first observed to rise, and several times during the rising limb of the hydrographs. Agricultural and urban land use has resulted in statistically significant increases in loads of nitrogen and phosphorus species relative to loads in undeveloped basins. For example, during the growing season, median storm flow concentrations of total nitrogen in the two streams in agricultural areas were 6,290 and 1,760 mg/L, compared to 988 and 823 mg/L for streams in urban areas, and 719 and 333 mg/L in undeveloped areas. Although nutrient concentrations and loads were clearly related to land useurban, agricultural, and undeveloped within the drainage basins, other basin characteristics were found to be important. Residual nutrients entrapped in lake sediments from streams that received effluent from recently removed sewage-treatment plants are hypothesized to be the cause of extremely high levels of nutrient loads to one urban stream, whereas another urban stream with similar land-use percentages (but without the legacy of sewage-treatment plants) had much lower levels of nutrients. One of the two agricultural streams studied had higher nutrient loads than the other, especially for total phosphorous and organic nitrogen. This difference appears to be related to the presence (or absence) of livestock (cattle).

  16. Effects of environmental variables upon the spatial and temporal structure of a fish community in a small, freshwater tributary of the Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paperno, Richard; Brodie, Russell B.

    2004-10-01

    A survey to monitor the distribution and abundance of fishes and selected invertebrates in the St. Sebastian River, Florida, was conducted from March 1999 through June 2000. We recorded a total of 181,854 individuals (representing 77 taxa) in 128 seine samples, and a single species, bay anchovy ( Anchoa mitchilli), accounted for 84.4% of the animals collected. Seasonally, the species compositions of spring and fall samples were most similar (percent similarity index (PSI)=95.3%), whereas those of summer and winter samples were most dissimilar (PSI=54.0%). The spring samples contained the greatest mean number of taxa (N0=59 taxa), and the fall samples had the fewest (N0=38). In addition, spring samples had the highest index of abundant taxa (Hill's N1=10.6) and summer samples had the lowest (Hill's N1=6.4), suggesting that approximately four more taxa were caught in greater abundance during spring than during summer. Community composition determined via canonical correspondence analysis revealed four assemblages: two seasonal groupings and two spatial groupings. Seasonal species assemblages were composed of a spring-summer group characterized by recruits of Irish pompano ( Diapterus auratus), snook ( Centropomus undecimalis), and naked goby ( Gobiosoma bosc), and a fall-winter group characterized by recruits of mullet ( Mugil cephalus), spot ( Leiostomus xanthurus), and croaker ( Micropogonias undulatus). Spatial groupings were composed of a north prong group which included taxa with estuarine affinities, and a south prong group which included taxa with freshwater affinities. Community composition recorded during periods of controlled water releases and during periods of naturally high-water-flow differed, primarily because abundant estuarine taxa disappeared during the controlled release. The loss of these taxa suggests that when large amounts of fresh water enter the system during relatively short periods of time, the estuarine component of the community does not

  17. Organic compounds and cadmium in the tributaries to the Elizabeth River in New Jersey, October 2008 to November 2008: Phase II of the New Jersey Toxics Reduction Workplan for New York-New Jersey Harbor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonin, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Samples of surface water and suspended sediment were collected from the two branches that make up the Elizabeth River in New Jersey - the West Branch and the Main Stem - from October to November 2008 to determine the concentrations of selected chlorinated organic and inorganic constituents. The sampling and analyses were conducted as part of Phase II of the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary Plan-Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Program (CARP), which is overseen by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Phase II of the New Jersey Workplan was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to define upstream tributary and point sources of contaminants in those rivers sampled during Phase I work, with special emphasis on the Passaic and Elizabeth Rivers. This portion of the Phase II study was conducted on the two branches of the Elizabeth River, which were previously sampled during July and August of 2003 at low-flow conditions. Samples were collected during 2008 from the West Branch and Main Stem of the Elizabeth River just upstream from their confluence at Hillside, N.J. Both tributaries were sampled once during low-flow discharge conditions and once during high-flow discharge conditions using the protocols and analytical methods that were used in the initial part of Phase II of the Workplan. Grab samples of streamwater also were collected at each site and were analyzed for cadmium, suspended sediment, and particulate organic carbon. The measured concentrations, along with available historical suspended-sediment and stream-discharge data were used to estimate average annual loads of suspended sediment and organic compounds in the two branches of the Elizabeth River. Total suspended-sediment loads for 1975 to 2000 were estimated using rating curves developed from historical U.S. Geological Survey suspended-sediment and discharge data, where available. Concentrations of suspended-sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Main Stem and the

  18. Review of the success of the 2001-2005 Work Plan of the Global Network of Collaborating Centres in Occupational Health.

    PubMed

    Fingerhut, Marilyn; Kortum, Evelyn

    2006-01-01

    The first Work Plan of the Global Network of WHO Collaborating Centers (CCs) in Occupational Health was initiated in November 2001, following input of the CCs to choose the 15 priority areas of work for the period 2001-2005. This article reflects upon the successes and limitations of the Work Plan, describes some of the products, and points out some 'lessons learned' that were incorporated into the 2006-2010 Work Plan that was adopted by the CCs at the Seventh Network Meeting in Stresa, Italy, in June 2006. All 64 Collaborating Centers, three non-governmental organizations (International Commission on Occupational Health, International Occupational Hygiene Association and the International Ergonomics Association) and the International Labor Organization contributed 350 projects in the priority areas of the 2001-2006 Work Plan. An evaluation of the success of the Work Plan concluded that the working together of the CCs in a common Work Plan was successful and beneficial to nations and regions, and globally.

  19. Streambed Infiltration and Ground-Water Flow from the Trout Creek Drainage, an Intermittent Tributary to the Humboldt River, North-Central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Harrill, James R.; Wood, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water is abundant in many alluvial basins of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province of the western United States. Water enters these basins by infiltration along intermittent and ephemeral channels, which originate in the mountainous regions before crossing alluvial fans and piedmont alluvial plains. Water also enters the basins as subsurface ground-water flow directly from the mountains, where infiltrated precipitation recharges water-bearing rocks and sediments at these higher elevations. Trout Creek, a typical intermittent stream in the Middle Humboldt River Basin in north-central Nevada, was chosen to develop methods of estimating and characterizing streambed infiltration and ground-water recharge in mountainous terrains. Trout Creek has a drainage area of about 4.8 ? 107 square meters. Stream gradients range from more than 1 ? 10?1 meter per meter in the mountains to 5 ? 10?3 meter per meter at the foot of the piedmont alluvial plain. Trout Creek is perennial in short reaches upstream of a northeast-southwest trending normal fault, where perennial springs discharge to the channel. Downstream from the fault, the water table drops below the base of the channel and the stream becomes intermittent. Snowmelt generates streamflow during March and April, when streamflow extends onto the piedmont alluvial plain for several weeks in most years. Rates of streambed infiltration become highest in the lowest reaches, at the foot of the piedmont alluvial plain. The marked increases in infiltration are attributed to increases in streambed permeability together with decreases in channel-bed armoring, the latter which increases the effective area of the channel. Large quartzite cobbles cover the streambed in the upper reaches of the stream and are absent in the lowest reach. Such changes in channel deposits are common where alluvial fans join piedmont alluvial plains. Poorly sorted coarse and fine sediments are deposited near the head of the fan, while finer

  20. Streamflow and water-quality monitoring in response to young-of-year smallmouth bass (micropterus dolomieu) mortality in the Susquehanna River and major tributaries, with comparisons to the Delaware and Allegheny Rivers, Pennsylvania, 2008-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaplin, Jeffrey J.; Crawford, J. Kent

    2012-01-01

    For the critical period of each year, dissolved oxygen in the Susquehanna River at station C8 typically was 1.5 to 3.0 mg/L lower than in the Delaware River at station C1 and the Allegheny River at station C10. Median daily maximum water temperatures during the critical period of each year ranged from 1.6 to 2.7°C warmer at station C8 than at stations C1 and C10.

  1. Occurrence and trends in the concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria and the relation to field water-quality parameters in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers and selected tributaries, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 2001–09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulton, John W.; Koerkle, Edward H.; McCoy, Jamie L.; Zarr, Linda F.

    2016-01-21

    A total of 1,742 water samples were collected at 52 main-stem and tributary sites. Quantifiable concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) were reported in 1,667 samples, or 97.0 percent of 1,719 samples; concentrations in 853 samples (49.6 percent) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recreational water-quality criterion of 235 colonies per 100 milliliters (col/100 mL). Quantifiable concentrations of fecal coliform (FC) bacteria were reported in 1,693 samples, or 98.8 percent of 1,713 samples; concentrations in 780 samples (45.5 percent) exceeded the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania water contact criterion of 400 col/100 mL. Quantifiable concentrations of enterococci bacteria were reported in 912 samples, or 87.5 percent of 1,042 samples; concentrations in 483 samples (46.4 percent) exceeded the EPA recreational water-quality criterion of 61 col/100 mL. The median percentage of samples in which bacteria concentrations exceeded recreational water-quality standards across all sites with five or more samples was 48 for E. coli, 43 for FC, and 75 for enterococci. E. coli, FC, and enterococci concentrations at main-stem sites had significant positive correlations with streamflow under all weather conditions, with rho values ranging from 0.203 to 0.598. Seasonal Kendall and logistic regression were evaluated to determine whether statistically significant trends were present during the period 2001–09. In general, Seasonal Kendall tests for trends in E. coli and FC bacteria were inconclusive. Results of logistic regression showed no significant trends in dry-weather exceedance of the standards; however, significant decreases in the likelihood that wet-weather E. coli and FC bacteria concentrations will exceed EPA recreational standards were found at the USGS streamgaging station Allegheny River at 9th Street Bridge. Nonparametric correlation analysis, including Spearman’s rho and the paired Prentice-Wilcoxon test, was used to screen for associations

  2. Sediment concentrations, loads, and particle-size distributions in the Red River of the North and selected tributaries near Fargo, North Dakota, during the 2011 spring high-flow event

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.; Blanchard, Robert A.; Ellison, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the bedload samples had particle sizes in the 0.5 to 1 millimeter and 0.25 to 0.5 millimeter ranges from the Maple River, Wild Rice River, Rush River, Buffalo River, and Red River sites. The Rush and Lower Branch Rush Rivers also had a greater portion of larger particle sizes in the 1 to 2 millimeter range. The Sheyenne River sites had a greater portion of smaller particle sizes in the bedload in the 0.125 to 0.5 millimeter range compared to the other sites. The bed material in samples collected during the 2011 spring high-flow event demonstrated a wider distribution of particle sizes than were observed in the bedload; the coarsest material was found at the Red River near Christine and the Lower Branch Rush River and the finest material at the Sheyenne River sites.

  3. Ecological comparisons of Lake Erie tributaries with elevated incidence of fish tumors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stephen B.; Blouin, Marc A.; Mac, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    Ecological comparisons were made between two Lake Erie tributaries (Black and Cuyahoga rivers) with contaminated sediments and elevated rates of tumors in fish populations and a third, relatively unpolluted, reference tributary, the Huron River. Fish populations, benthic invertebrates, and sediments were evaluated in all three Ohio rivers. Community structure analyses indicated similar total densities but lower species diversity for fish and benthic invertebrates in the contaminated rivers when compared with the reference river. Growth rates in fish from the contaminated areas were either similar to or higher than those offish from the reference site. Brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) from the two contaminated tributaries exhibited 51% (Black River) and 45% (Cuyahoga River) incidence of liver lesions (neoplastic and preneoplastic) as compared with a 4% incidence of liver lesions in brown bullhead from the reference river (Huron River). Incidence of external abnormalities on brown bullhead was 54% (Black River) and 73% (Cuyahoga River) as compared with a 14% incidence on fish from the Huron River. On a regional basis, incidence of external abnormalities on particular benthic fish species may be an effective method to quickly indicate areas for more intensive contaminant studies.

  4. The fishermen were right: experimental evidence for tributary refuge hypothesis during floods.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Itsuro; Kanazawa, Yukiyo; Tanaka, Yuuki

    2013-05-01

    Fishermen often anecdotally report an unexpected increase of fish caught in small tributary streams during floods, presumably due to refuge-seeking behavior from the main stem. From a population perspective, this implies the significance of refuge habitats and connectivity for population viability against natural disturbances. Despite the plausibility, however, surprisingly few studies have examined the tributary refuge hypothesis, mainly due to the difficulty in field survey during floods. Here, we made use of a large-scale controlled flood to assess whether fishes move into tributaries during flooding in the main stem. A planned water release from the Satsunai River Dam located on Hokkaido Island in Japan rapidly increased the main stem discharge by more than 20-fold. Before, during, and after flooding censuses in four tributaries provided evidence of the refuge-seeking behavior of fishes from the main stem. For example, more than 10 Dolly Varden char, a salmonid fish, were caught in a tributary during the flood, even though almost no individuals were captured before or after the flood. The fish responded immediately to the flooding, suggesting the need for studies during disturbances. In addition, the likelihood of refuge movements varied among tributaries, suggesting the importance of local environmental differences between tributary and the main stem habitats. This is the first study to experimentally confirm the tributary refuge hypothesis, and underscores the roles of habitat diversity and connectivity during disturbances, even though some habitats are not used during normal conditions.

  5. BILIARY PAH METABOLITES AS A BIOLOGICAL INDICATOR OF FISH EXPOSURE IN TRIBUTARIES OF LAKE ERIE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biliary polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) metabolites have been studied as a biological indicator of fish exposure to PAHs since the mid 1980's. Brown bullheads were collected from the following Lake Erie tributaries: Buffalo River (BUF), Niagara River at Love Canal (NIA)...

  6. Climate effects on future runoff regimes of Pacific mountain tributaries

    SciTech Connect

    Rango, A.; Roberts, R.; Martinec, J.

    1995-12-31

    Because most Pacific mountain tributaries are situated in the Northern hemisphere, the runoff regime is characterized by high river flows in April-September and low river flows in October--March. With regard to global warming, a partial shift of inflows into the Pacific Ocean from the summer to the winter has to be expected. For quantitative evaluations, the SRM snowmelt runoff model is applied in several basins in the Pacific rim, ranging from 57{degree} North (west coast of Canada) to 45{degree} South (east coast of New Zealand). In the Kings River basin of California (4,000 km{sup 2}, 171--4,341 m a.s.l.) with the envisaged rise of temperature, runoff in October--March is significantly increased at the expense of snow accumulation in winter and summer runoff. Also, summer runoff peaks are shifted to earlier dates. Similar redistribution of runoff is evaluated for the Illecillewaet River basin of British Columbia (1,155 km{sup 2}, 509--3,150 m a.s.l.), a tributary to the Columbia River. However, an additional effect is observed: because nearly 10% of the surface is covered with permanent snowfields and glaciers, runoff would be temporarily increased from these frozen reserves. A quantitative analysis reveals that in the Illecillewaet basin, even a moderate increase of precipitation would not offset a gradual disappearance of glaciers due to increased melting.

  7. Seasonal changes in ruffe abundance in two Lake Superior tributaries: Implications for control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horns, William H.; Brown, William P.; Hulse, Scott R.; Bronte, Charles R.

    2000-01-01

    Since the discovery of ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus in the St. Louis River in 1987, state, federal, and tribal management agencies have sought to slow its spread to areas outside the western end of Lake Superior. A debate over control strategies highlighted uncertainties about seasonal movements of this species between Lake Superior and its western tributaries. One strategy called for eliminating reproducing populations in tributaries on the periphery of the range using chemical piscicides. That strategy rested on the assumption that ruffe congregate in tributaries during a predictable time of year. This study was designed to explore that assumption. Ruffe collections from the Iron and Sand rivers during 1995 indicated that ruffe were present in those tributaries throughout the summer but that abundance was not highest at the predicted time: June 19–22. Maximum abundance in the Iron River did not coincide with that in the Sand River and did not occur during June 19–22 in either river. The timing of peak abundance was not clearly related to changes in water temperature. Ruffe were present in substantial numbers in Lake Superior during June 19–22 when aggregations in the tributaries had been predicted. These findings do not support the assumption of the chemical control strategy.

  8. The silicon isotopic composition of the Ganges and its tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontorbe, Guillaume; De La Rocha, Christina L.; Chapman, Hazel J.; Bickle, Michael J.

    2013-11-01

    The silicon isotopic composition (δSi30) of the headwaters of the Ganges River, in the Himalaya, ranged from +0.49±0.01‰ to +2.17±0.04‰ at dissolved silicon (DSi) concentrations of 38 to 239 μM. Both the concentration and isotopic composition of DSi in the tributaries increased between the highest elevations to where the Ganges leaves the Himalayas at Rishikesh. The tributaries exhibit a linear correlation between δSi30 and DSi that may represent mixing between a low DSi, low δSi30 (e.g., 40 μM, +0.5‰) component potentially reflecting fractionation during adsorption of a small fraction of silicon onto iron oxides and a high DSi, high δSi30 component (e.g., 240 μM, +1.7‰) produced during higher intensity weathering with a greater proportional sequestration of weathered silicon into secondary minerals or biogenic silica. On the Ganges alluvial plain, in the Ganges and the Yamuna, Gomati, and their tributaries, DSi ranged from 122 to 218 μM while δSi30 ranged from +1.03±0.03‰ to +2.46±0.06‰. Highest values of δSi30 occurred in the Gomati and its tributaries. In general, the lower DSi and higher δSi30 of DSi in these rivers suggests control of both by removal of DSi by secondary mineral formation and/or biogenic silica production. A simple 1-dimensional model with flow through a porous medium is introduced and provides a useful framework for understanding these results.

  9. Controls on modern tributary-junction alluvial fan occurrence and morphology: High Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Martin; Mather, Anne E.

    2015-11-01

    Modern tributary-junction alluvial fans (cone-shaped depositional landforms formed in confined valley settings) were analysed from a 20-km-long reach of the Dades River in the distal part of the fold-thrust belt region in the south-central High Atlas Mountains of Morocco. Here, a deeply dissected network of ephemeral tributary streams and a perennial trunk drainage characterised by an arid mountain desert climate are configured onto a folded and thrust faulted Mesozoic sedimentary sequence. Out of 186 tributary streams, only 29 (16%) generated alluvial fans at their tributary junctions. The fan-generating catchments possess higher relief, longer lengths, lower gradients, and larger areas than nonfan-generating catchments. Whilst geologically, fan-generating catchments are underlain by folded/steeply dipping weak bedrock conducive to high sediment yield. Tributary-junction fans are built from debris flow or fluvial processes into open or confined canyon trunk valley settings. The proximity of the perennial trunk drainage combined with the valley morphology produces lobate or foreshortened trimmed fan forms. Analysis of fan (area, gradient, process), catchment (area, relief, length, gradient), and tributary valley (width) variables reveals weak morphometric relationships, highlighted by residual plots that show dominance of smaller and lower gradient than expected fan forms. These morphometric relationships can be explained by interplay between the catchment and trunk drainage geology, morphology, climate, and flood regime that are combined into a conceptual 'build and reset' model. Ephemeral tributary-junction fans develop progressively during annual localised winter-spring storm events, attempting to build towards a morphological equilibrium. However, the fans never reach an equilibrium morphological form as they are reset by rare (> 10 year) large floods along the River Dades that are linked to regional incursions of Atlantic low pressure troughs. The model

  10. Turbulence Investigation and Reproduction for Assisting Downstream Migrating Juvenile Salmonids, Part II of II; Effects of Induced Turbulence on Behavior of Juvenile Salmon, 2001-2005 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Russell W.; Farley, M. Jared; Hansen, Gabriel S.

    2005-07-01

    Passage through dams is a major source of mortality of anadromous juvenile salmonids because some populations must negotiate up to eight dams in Columbia and Snake rivers. Dams cause direct mortality when fish pass through turbines, but dams may also cause indirect mortality by altering migration conditions in rivers. Forebays immediately upstream of dams have decreased the water velocity of rivers and may contribute substantially to the total migration delay of juvenile salmonids. Recently, Coutant (2001a) suggested that in addition to low water velocities, lack of natural turbulence may contribute to migration delay by causing fish to lose directional cues. Coutant (2001a) further hypothesized that restoring turbulence in dam forebays may reduce migration delay by providing directional cues that allow fish to find passage routes more quickly (Coutant 2001a). Although field experiments have yielded proof of the concept of using induced turbulence to guide fish to safe passage routes, little is known about mechanisms actually causing behavioral changes. To test hypotheses about how turbulence influences movement and behavior of migrating juvenile salmonids, we conducted two types of controlled experiments at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington. A common measure of migration delay is the elapsed time between arrival at, and passage through, a dam. Therefore, for the first set of experiments, we tested the effect of induced turbulence on the elapsed time needed for fish to traverse through a raceway and pass over a weir at its downstream end (time trial experiment). If turbulence helps guide fish to passage routes, then fish should pass through the raceway quicker in the presence of appropriately scaled and directed turbulent cues. Second, little is known about how the physical properties of water movement provide directional cues to migrating juvenile salmonids. To examine the feasibility of guiding fish with turbulence, we tested whether directed turbulence could guide

  11. The Pearl River Estuary Pollution Project (PREPP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jay-Chung; Heinke, Gary W.; Jiang Zhou, Ming

    2004-10-01

    The Pearl River, or Zhujiang River system is China's third longest river, after the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers. The Pearl River has three principal tributaries, namely, the Xijiang River, Beijiang River and Dongjiang River. It also receives several other small tributaries developed within the Pearl River Delta. Its average annual flow rate approximately 10 , 000m3s-1 is exceeded only by the Yangtze River. Its length is 2 , 214 km and drains an area of 453 , 690km2, most of which is in Southern China and with a small part in Vietnam. Parts of the provinces of Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hunan and Jiangxi drain to the Pearl River system.

  12. 33 CFR 162.65 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of... All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to..., which are tributary to or connected by other waterways with the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake...

  13. 33 CFR 162.65 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of... All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to..., which are tributary to or connected by other waterways with the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake...

  14. 33 CFR 162.65 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of... All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to..., which are tributary to or connected by other waterways with the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake...

  15. 33 CFR 162.65 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of... All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to..., which are tributary to or connected by other waterways with the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake...

  16. A New Method for Identification of Tributary Sediment Sources using Hydroacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, S. A.; Topping, D. J.; Melis, T. S.

    2005-12-01

    Identification of tributary sediment sources is important in geomorphologic studies because different tributaries within the same basin may deliver sediment with widely varying properties. In particular, tributaries may deliver sediment with very different grain-size distributions due to differences in lithology between tributary drainages. These differences have important implications for understanding the link between tributary sediment supply and main channel morphology. Hydroacoustic instrumentation has become popular in recent years for the study of sediment-transport processes in both marine and fluvial environments. Because suspended material scatters and attenuates acoustic energy, transducers designed to record the backscattered energy can be used to infer the suspended sediment concentration. The transducer records the energy received from direct backscattering from the particles, which is reduced by transmission losses that occur as the wave travels through the medium. These transmission losses are composed of: 1) geometrical spreading, 2) attenuation of energy by the fluid, and 3) attenuation of energy by the suspended particles. The backscatter and particle attenuation are functions primarily of the wave frequency, concentration of particles, and size of particles. Thus, for a known frequency and particle size, it is possible to invert the acoustic signal to determine particle concentration. Here, we present a new method that takes advantage of the relationship between particle attenuation and particle size in order to identify tributary sediment sources. The study site is on the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam, where a sideward-looking acoustic instrument has been bank-deployed since August 2002. Suspended-sediment samples were collected and a relationship was developed between suspended fine material (silt and clay) and particle attenuation (R2=0.98). However, substantial deviations occur from this relationship during flooding events from

  17. Data on polychlorinated biphenyls, dieldrin, lead, and cadmium in Wisconsin and Upper Michigan tributaries to Green Bay, July 1987 through April 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    House, L.B.

    1990-01-01

    Neither dieldrin nor cadmium was detected in any of the sampled tributaries. Detectable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and lead were found at only three sites. Polychorinated biphenyls (0.10 microgram per gram) and lead (10 milligrams per kilogram) were found in the bottom sediment of Duck Creek, a western-shore tributary near the city of Green Bay. Lead (10 milligrams per kilogram) also was found in the bottom sediment of the Suamico River near the mouth, about 5 miles north of Duck Creek. Lead (4 micrograms per liter) was detected in a spring-runoff sample from the Fishdam River, a tributary from upper Michigan.

  18. Thermal and hydrologic suitability of Lake Erie and its major tributaries for spawning of Asian carps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Chapman, Duane C.; McKenna, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (hereafter Asian carps) have expanded throughout the Mississippi River basin and threaten to invade Lakes Michigan and Erie. Adult bighead carp and grass carp have been captured in Lake Erie, but self-sustaining populations probably do not exist. We examined thermal conditions within Lake Erie to determine if Asian carps would mature, and to estimate time of year when fish would reach spawning condition. We also examined whether thermal and hydrologic conditions in the largest tributaries to western and central Lake Erie were suitable for spawning of Asian carps. We used length of undammed river, predicted summer temperatures, and predicted water velocity during flood events to determine whether sufficient lengths of river are available for spawning of Asian carps. Most rivers we examined have at least 100 km of passable river and summer temperatures suitable (> 21 C) for rapid incubation of eggs of Asian carps. Predicted water velocity and temperature were sufficient to ensure that incubating eggs, which drift in the water column, would hatch before reaching Lake Erie for most flood events in most rivers if spawned far enough upstream. The Maumee, Sandusky, and Grand Rivers were predicted to be the most likely to support spawning of Asian carps. The Black, Huron, Portage, and Vermilion Rivers were predicted to be less suitable. The weight of the evidence suggests that the largest western and central Lake Erie tributaries are thermally and hydrologically suitable to support spawning of Asian carps.

  19. Workplan for tributary refinements to Chesapeake Bay eutrophication model package. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cerco, C.F.

    1994-05-01

    The Corps of Engineers, in partnership with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Chesapeake Bay Program Office, recently completed a three-dimensional model study of eutrophication in Chesapeake Bay and tributaries. The model package applied included an intratidal hydrodynamic model, an intertidal water-quality model, and a benthic sediment diagenesis model. This report comprises a workplan to improve model representation of Chesapeake Bay tributaries and to incorporate living resources directly into the model framework. Four tributaries have been selected for emphasis under this tributary refinements program. They are the James, York, and Rappahannock rivers, and Baltimore Harbor. The James, York, and Rappahannock were specified because tributary-specific models are required to address water-quality and living-resource benefits to be derived from nutrient reductions. Baltimore Harbor was specified because it presents unique management problems, coupled with long-term toxic impacts, which cannot be addressed in the current model framework. The time scale for the project is 4 years from initiation to completion. Anticipated commencement is April 1, 1994.

  20. Tributary loading of mercury to Lake Michigan: Importance of seasonal events and phase partitioning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurley, J.P.; Cowell, S.E.; Shafer, M.M.; Hughes, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    As a component of a lakewide mass balance study for Lake Michigan, we measured total mercury (Hg(T)) concentrations and fluxes in 11 selected tributaries. Unfiltered Hg(T) concentrations ranged from 0.56 ng l-61 at the Pete Marquette River to 182 ng l-1 at the Fox River. Highest mean Hg(T) concentrations were observed in the Fox R., Indiana Harbor Ship Canal, Grand R. and the Kalamazoo R. Mean particulate matter Hg(T) content ranged from about 0.1 to 1.5 ??g g-1, with highest levels from the industrialized basins of the Indiana Harbor and Fox River. Highest tributary loading rates (g day-1) were observed from the Fox, Grand, Kalamazoo and St. Joseph Rivers. Increased loading rates during spring melt and summer/fall storm events in these tributaries were generally associated with particulate loading from either sediment resuspension or erosional processes. In contrast, filtered Hg(T) represented 80% of the Hg(T) flux in the Manistique R., whose watershed is comprised almost entirely of wetlands and forest.

  1. Nutrient spatial pattern of the upstream, mainstream and tributaries of the Three Gorges Reservoir in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, YuLing; Zhang, Ping; Liu, DeFu; Yang, ZhengJian; Ji, DaoBin

    2014-10-01

    A comprehensive monitoring program was conducted to investigate the nutrient spatial pattern in the mainstream of the Yangtze River from the Baihetan Dam down to the Three Gorges Dam located at the upper region of the Yangtze River in China. Samples were taken from 33 different sites from July 30 to August 19, 2011. The nutrient patterns of the three representative tributaries of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR)--the Modao, the Daning, and the Xiangxi Rivers--were also investigated. The results show that the mainstream of the TGR has a higher concentration of nitrogen and a lower concentration of phosphorus than that of the upper mainstream before the TGR. Moreover, it was found that nitrate-nitrogen (NO₃-N) is the main nitrogen component, while particulate phosphorus predominates the total phosphorus (TP). It was found that the three representative tributaries of the TGR have lower total nitrogen (TN) concentrations compared to the corresponding sections of the mainstream TGR. Based on the nutrient spatial pattern, the nutrient flux was calculated. The total fluxes of TN, NO₃-N, TP, and orthophosphate (PO₄-P) from the upstream reach into the TGR are 2,155.06, 1,674.97, 212.98, and 83.42 t day(-1), respectively. The amount of nutrients imported from the TGR into its tributaries is more than the amount exported. It was determined that the Xiangxi River has the largest net rate of imported nitrogen at 7.66 t day(-1), whereas the Daning River has the largest net rate of imported phosphorus at 1.75 t day(-1). In addition, compared with the nutrients imported from the TGR into its tributaries, the nutrient flux from the upstream reach into the TGR contributes approximately less than 3 %.

  2. Nutrient spatial pattern of the upstream, mainstream and tributaries of the Three Gorges Reservoir in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, YuLing; Zhang, Ping; Liu, DeFu; Yang, ZhengJian; Ji, DaoBin

    2014-10-01

    A comprehensive monitoring program was conducted to investigate the nutrient spatial pattern in the mainstream of the Yangtze River from the Baihetan Dam down to the Three Gorges Dam located at the upper region of the Yangtze River in China. Samples were taken from 33 different sites from July 30 to August 19, 2011. The nutrient patterns of the three representative tributaries of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR)--the Modao, the Daning, and the Xiangxi Rivers--were also investigated. The results show that the mainstream of the TGR has a higher concentration of nitrogen and a lower concentration of phosphorus than that of the upper mainstream before the TGR. Moreover, it was found that nitrate-nitrogen (NO₃-N) is the main nitrogen component, while particulate phosphorus predominates the total phosphorus (TP). It was found that the three representative tributaries of the TGR have lower total nitrogen (TN) concentrations compared to the corresponding sections of the mainstream TGR. Based on the nutrient spatial pattern, the nutrient flux was calculated. The total fluxes of TN, NO₃-N, TP, and orthophosphate (PO₄-P) from the upstream reach into the TGR are 2,155.06, 1,674.97, 212.98, and 83.42 t day(-1), respectively. The amount of nutrients imported from the TGR into its tributaries is more than the amount exported. It was determined that the Xiangxi River has the largest net rate of imported nitrogen at 7.66 t day(-1), whereas the Daning River has the largest net rate of imported phosphorus at 1.75 t day(-1). In addition, compared with the nutrients imported from the TGR into its tributaries, the nutrient flux from the upstream reach into the TGR contributes approximately less than 3 %. PMID:24990348

  3. [Dynamic characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus in the representative input tributaries of Danjiangkou Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Lei, Pei; Zhang, Hong; Shan, Bao-Qing

    2012-09-01

    Three representative input tributaries of Danjiangkou Reservoir in the upper reach of Hanjiang River, the largest tributary of Yangtze River, were selected for annual water quality monitoring from April 2010 to April 2011, to analyze dynamic characteristics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the river mouth areas, and then to assess the states of nutrition by comprehensive trophic level index. The results showed that the annual average concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in Shendinghe River, receiving both industrial and domestic wastewater from Shiyan City, were 11.63 mg x L(-1) and 0.93 mg x L(-1), which were 3 times and 12 times higher respectively comparing to that of Wulongchi stream that received little agricultural non-point source pollution. While for Dabaihe River, polluted by moderate agricultural non-point source pollution combining with waster water from a small town, had slightly higher TN and TP concentrations than that of Wulongchi stream. In temporal scale, TN concentrations during the flooding season were higher than those during the dry season, while the situation was opposite for TP. The mean mass fraction of NH4(+) -N/TN was 69% in Shendinghe River, while 20% less than others. As for nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-) -N), it ranged from 1.3 to 2.7 mg x L(-1) and the mass fractions of SRP/TP varied from 30% to 45%. All of these three tributaries were in the state of eutrophication, and nutrition stoichiometry analysis revealed that Shendinghe River was in the state of nitrogen limitation, while the river mouth area stayed in phosphorus limitation.

  4. The fluvial geochemistry of the rivers of Eastern Siberia. 3: Tributaries of the Lena and Anabar draining the basement terrain of the Siberian Craton and the Trans-Baikal Highlands

    SciTech Connect

    Huh, Y.; Edmond, J.M.

    1999-04-01

    The conventional view of the climatic influence on weathering is that weathering rates are strongly temperature-dependent due to the near exponential relationship (Clausius-Clapeyron) between temperature and the saturation vapor pressure of water, and hence precipitation and runoff. This is a central theme in the Earth thermostat model, i.e., weathering of aluminosilicate rocks on continents acts through the greenhouse effect as a negative feedback on atmospheric CO{sub 2}. However, there is very little direct field evidence to support this hypothesis. To remedy the lack of systematic geochemical data for cold high latitude rivers as compared to the tropics, large, pristine drainages of Eastern Siberia have been studied. Here, data from basement terrains of the Siberian Craton are reported. The low Si to total cation ratios suggest a superficially weathered system. The total dissolved solids flux of 0.39 {times} 10{sup 6} mol/km{sup 2}/yr and the CO{sub 2} uptake flux of 149 {times} 10{sup 3} mol/km{sup 2}/yr are similar to those of the tropical cratonic systems and the collisional/accretionary zone of northeastern Siberia, but about a factor of 3 lower than for the orogenic zones of the western Americas at both low and high latitudes. The lack of systematic climatic effects on the solute and CO{sub 2} fluxes is ascribed to the unique non-glacial frost shattering processes which continuously expose fresh rock surfaces and, thus, overcome the effect of temperature inhibition on high-latitude shields and to the lateritic cover that seals in the weathering front away from the weathering agents on the tropical shields. No primary climatic effects on weathering rates on the present Earth were detected.

  5. 33 CFR 125.06 - Western rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Western rivers. 125.06 Section... VESSELS § 125.06 Western rivers. The term western rivers as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include only the Red River of the North, the Mississippi River and its tributaries above the...

  6. 33 CFR 125.06 - Western rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Western rivers. 125.06 Section... VESSELS § 125.06 Western rivers. The term western rivers as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include only the Red River of the North, the Mississippi River and its tributaries above the...

  7. 33 CFR 125.06 - Western rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Western rivers. 125.06 Section... VESSELS § 125.06 Western rivers. The term western rivers as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include only the Red River of the North, the Mississippi River and its tributaries above the...

  8. 33 CFR 125.06 - Western rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Western rivers. 125.06 Section... VESSELS § 125.06 Western rivers. The term western rivers as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include only the Red River of the North, the Mississippi River and its tributaries above the...

  9. The effect of contaminated sediments on fecundity of the brown bullhead in three Lake Erie tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesko, Lynn T.; Smith, Stephen B.; Blouin, Marc A.

    1996-01-01

    Female brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) were collected from three Lake Erie tributaries (Ohio) from 8 to 25 May 1989, to determine the effects of contaminated sediments on reproductive potentials. Fish obtained from the Black and Cuyahoga rivers, which contain sediments with elevated concentrations of metals, PCBs, and PAHs, were compared with fish collected in Mud Brook, a tributary of the Huron River, which was selected as our reference site. Fecundity, egg diameter, fish length and weight, and the presence of external abnormalities were recorded for each fish. Brown bullhead from the contaminated sites were larger then those from the reference site and fecundity was significantly (P < 0.05) different in all three river systems. Those from the most polluted river (Cuyahoga River) had the greatest number of eggs per individual female. The high frequency of external abnormalities observed on brown bullhead from the contaminated sites did not appear to have a detrimental influence on fecundity. These results suggest that fecundity of the brown bullhead was not adversely affected in ecosystems altered by the presence of contaminated sediments. Increased fecundity of the brown bullhead from impacted rivers may be the result of reduced competition for an abundant invertebrate food source and limited predation by other fish species whose numbers are largely depleted in these degraded systems.

  10. [Characteristics of Deposited Sediment and Assessment of Heavy Metals in Typical Tributaries Bay Riparian Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-yan; Wen, An-bang; Shi, Zhong-lin; Yan, Dong-chun; Zhu, Bo; Tang, Jia-liang

    2016-03-15

    In order to analyze the spatial variation characteristics of grain diameter, nutrient elements and heavy metal pollution with deposition sediment in tributaries bay of the Three Gorges Reservoir, we selected 9 typical tributaries bay, 54 deposited sediment samples were collected from the riparian zone for analyzing grain diameter distribution, capacity, organic matter, nutrient elements of TN, TP and K, heavy metal elements of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The results indicated that particle size distribution from Wujiang River in Fuling to the Modao stream in Yunyang presented a trend of fluctuation, deposited sediment at 160-165 m elevation was coarser than that at 165-175 m elevation,volume percent of sand and clay presented a moderate variation at both altitudes, while silt had small variation. Independent sample t test showed that characteristics difference between the upper and lower sediments in riparian zone was not significant. The geo-accumulation index of heavy metal pollutants in the sediment from riparian zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir tributaries bay indicated that, only Zn element in Zhenxi River, Longdong River and Long River, Pb element in the Modao Stream belonged to non-moderate pollution levels, whereas there were no pollution of all other elements in tributaries. PMID:27337884

  11. Geochemical insights to the formation of "sedimentary buffers": Considering the role of tributary-trunk stream interactions on catchment-scale sediment flux and drainage network dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryirs, Kirstie; Gore, Damian B.

    2014-08-01

    The concept of disconnectivity (or decoupling) of sediment movement in river systems is an important concept in analyses of sediment flux in catchments. At the catchment scale, various blockages-termed buffers, barriers and blankets-form along the sediment cascade, interrupting the conveyance of sediments downstream. Long-lived buffers can control aspects of catchment sediment flux for an extended period. The upper Hunter catchment has a highly disconnected sediment cascade. The most highly disconnected subcatchment (Dart Brook) contains a distinct type of buffer, a trapped tributary fill, in its downstream reaches, reducing the effective catchment area of the upper Hunter catchment by ~ 18%. We test the use of elemental analyses provided by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry of homogenous sediment profiles taken from floodplain bank exposures to determine that the geochemical composition of the sediments that make up this trapped-tributary fill system have been derived from two distinct source areas (the tributary system and the trunk stream). Over at least the Holocene, sedimentation along the axis of the Hunter River valley (the trunk stream) has formed an impediment to sediment conveyance along the lower tributary catchment, essentially "trapping" the tributary. We present an evolutionary model of how this type of "blockage" has formed and discuss implications of tributary-trunk stream (dis)connectivity in analysis of catchment-scale sediment flux and drainage network dynamics. In this case, a relatively large tributary network is having a "geomorphically insignificant" impact on trunk stream dynamics.

  12. 33 CFR 117.591 - Charles River and its tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vessels in distress shall be passed through the draw of each bridge as soon as possible without delay at... bridge is given, that train may continue across the bridge and must clear the bridge interlocks...

  13. 33 CFR 117.591 - Charles River and its tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vessels in distress shall be passed through the draw of each bridge as soon as possible without delay at... bridge is given, that train may continue across the bridge and must clear the bridge interlocks...

  14. Biliary PAH metabolites and the hepatosomatic index of brown bullheads from Lake Erie tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, X.; Baumann, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    In studies designed to investigate the environmental exposure of fish in Lake Erie tributaries, a benthic fish, the brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus), was collected from the industrially contaminated Detroit River, Ottawa River, Black River, Cuyahoga River-harbor and -upstream, Ashtabula River, Buffalo River, and Niagara River, and the non-industrialized Old Woman Creek during 1997-2000. Biliary benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)- and naphthalene (NAPH)-type metabolites and the hepatosomatic index (HSI) were measured in fish and compared between different sites. Fish from all of the contaminated sites except Niagara River had significantly higher concentrations of both types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites than fish from the Old Woman Creek. Concentrations of PAH metabolites in bile of fish were positively associated with concentrations of PAHs in sediments, supporting the use of bile metabolites as a measure of PAH exposure. Relatively low concentrations of PAHs detected in fish bile and sediments of the Niagara River, which had undergone extensive remediation, suggested a lowered PAH exposure for fish at this site. No apparent trend was observed in HSI between the industrialized and non-industrialized sites. This study demonstrates that biliary PAH metabolites are an effective indicator of exposure of fish to PAHs. However, because factors other than contamination could also affect the liver size of wild fish, HSI alone may be not a reliable biomarker for assessing contaminant stress. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improved classification of drainage networks using junction angles and secondary tributary lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kichul; Marpu, Prashanth R.; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2015-06-01

    River networks in different regions have distinct characteristics generated by geological processes. These differences enable classification of drainage networks using several measures with many features of the networks. In this study, we propose a new approach that only uses the junction angles with secondary tributary lengths to directly classify different network types. This methodology is based on observations on 50 predefined channel networks. The cumulative distributions of secondary tributary lengths for different ranges of junction angles are used to obtain the descriptive values that are defined using a power-law representation. The averages of the values for the known networks are used to represent the classes, and any unclassified network can be classified based on the similarity of the representative values to those of the known classes. The methodology is applied to 10 networks in the United Arab Emirates and Oman and five networks in the USA, and the results are validated using the classification obtained with other methods.

  16. First direct confirmation of grass carp spawning in a Great Lakes tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Embke, Holly S.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Richter, Catherine A.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Christine M. Mayer,; Qian, Song

    2016-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an invasive species of Asian carp, has been stocked for many decades in the United States for vegetation control. Adult individuals have been found in all of the Great Lakes except Lake Superior, but no self-sustaining populations have yet been identified in Great Lakes tributaries. In 2012, a commercial fisherman caught four juvenile diploid grass carp in the Sandusky River, a major tributary to Lake Erie. Otolith microchemistry and the capture location of these fish permitted the conclusion that they were most likely produced in the Sandusky River. Due to this finding, we sampled ichthyoplankton using paired bongo net tows and larval light traps during June–August of 2014 and 2015 to determine if grass carp are spawning in the Sandusky River. From the samples collected in 2015, we identified and staged eight eggs that were morphologically consistent with grass carp. Five eggs were confirmed as grass carp using quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for a grass carp-specific marker, while the remaining three were retained for future analysis. Our finding confirms that grass carp are naturally spawning in this Great Lakes tributary. All eggs were collected during high-flow events, either on the day of peak flow or 1–2 days following peak flow, supporting an earlier suggestion that high flow conditions favor grass carp spawning. The next principal goal is to identify the spawning and hatch location(s) for the Sandusky River. Predicting locations and conditions where grass carp spawning is most probable may aid targeted management efforts.

  17. Statistical characteristics of stream discharge in tributaries of selected estuaries in southern New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickman, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, done in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, to analyze the characteristics of stream discharge for tributaries of the estuaries of the Metedeconk, Toms, Great Egg Harbor, Tuckahoe, and Maurice Rivers. The following statistics were calculated for selected streamflow-gaging stations: (1) mean annual and mean monthly discharge, and (2) lowest annual 7-day mean discharge for selected recurrence intervals.Values of lowest annual 7-day mean discharge were calculated for the entire year and for the 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-month periods of greatest tributary discharge. The monthly variation in discharge was examined. Values of discharge at different stations were converted to runoff and compared; runoff is expressed as discharge per unit area of drainage for a given period. Tests for trend were conducted on values of monthly discharge and lowest annual discharges at continuous-record stations. Statistics were determined from discharge records of the U.S. Geological Survey. The monthly variation in discharge is similar for most streams in the study area; discharge is greatest during March and April and least during August, September, and October. The 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-month periods of greatest discharge are February through April, January through April, January through May, and December through May, respectively. Mean annual runoff is greater in the tributaries of the Metedeconk and Toms River estuaries than in the tributaries of the other estuaries. Runoff in tributaries of these two basins ranges from 24 to 29 inches per year; the corresponding range for tributaries of the other estuaries is 16 to 23 inches per year. Trend analysis showed that values of lowest annual discharges at continuous-record stations on tributaries of all five estuaries decreased during water years 1970-89. For four stations, values of 183-day lowest annual discharge during the complete year decreased; for three of lowest

  18. Correlation of measures of ambient toxicity and fish community diversity in Chesapeake Bay, USA, tributaries -- urbanizing watersheds

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, S.I.; Dawson, C.E.; Durell, E.Q.

    1997-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate ambient toxicity conditions in Chesapeake Bay tidal tributaries whose watersheds are impacted by urban development and to further evaluate an existing toxicological risk ranking model. A battery of water-column and sediment bioassays were employed with animals and plants. Tests were conducted at five sample sites in each of four tidal tributaries. Mortality, reproduction, and growth rates in the water-column assays did not consistently indicate chemical contamination in any system. Chemical analyses did not indicate elevated levels of contaminants in the water column. Sediment bioassays demonstrated greater responses than water-column assays. Sediment in the upstream reaches of the South River demonstrated significant toxicity. Toxicity was also observed at the uppermost Severn River station and the middle Patuxent River station. Chemical analyses of composite sediment samples indicated elevated metals levels in the South River. Some metals were above threshold values in the Patuxent and Wicomico rivers. Organic analyses demonstrated low level polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbon contamination in all four systems. The toxicological risk ranking model ranked the South River as the most contaminated-impacted site. The ranking model identified specific locations in the Severn and Patuxent rivers that indicate sediment contamination. The Wicomico River had the lowest overall risk score. The toxicological risk ranking results for sediment were significantly correlated with species diversity for fish communities sampled by bottom trawl. Results were consistent with data from previous years. Regression analysis of 2 years of data indicate that fish community impairment can be predicted with ambient toxicity results.

  19. Water-quality monitoring of three major tributaries to the Chesapeake Bay : interim data report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, David J.; Grason, David

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is monitoring the water quality of three major tributaries to the Chesapeake Bay at their fall lines in order to obtain estimates of constituent inputs potentially available to the Bay. The monitoring sites are: Susquehanna River at Conowingo, MD.; Potomac River at Washington , DC.; and James River at Cartersville, VA. Water-quality data collected from October 1978 to April 1980 are presented in tabular format. Concentrations of major ions, nutrient and carbon species, metals, pesticides, suspended sediment, and other selected constituents are presented for a range of flows. The mean, standard deviation, minimum, maximum, and median values for each constituent were determined by standard methods and are presented for each sampling station. Bivariate linear regressions were run for all constituents versus streamflow, specific conductance, and suspended sediment. Those relationships exhibiting coefficients of determination greater than 0.50 are tabulated. (USGS)

  20. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in drinking water sources impacted by multiple tributaries.

    PubMed

    Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L; Snyder, Shane A; Suffet, I H

    2007-10-01

    The characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in drinking water sources is important as this material contributes to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) and affects how water treatment unit operations are optimized. Drinking water utilities often draw water from sources impacted by multiple tributaries, with possible shifts in DOM concentrations and reactivity over time, depending on specific environmental conditions. In this study, results are presented on the characterization of DOM under varying ambient conditions from the four main tributaries of Lake Mead, a large reservoir in the southwest United States. The tributaries include the Las Vegas Wash (LVW), Muddy River (MR), Virgin River (VR) and the upper Colorado River (UCR). One additional sample was collected at the outflow of the reservoir (lower Colorado River (LCR)). The DOM was characterized by both bulk parameters (specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA)) and specific physicochemical properties, i.e. size, polarity and fluorescence. The analyses were performed emphasizing limited changes in its natural configuration by eliminating analytical preparation steps, excluding sample filtration (0.45 microm filter). Results indicate that each tributary had a different molecular weight distribution, as well as fluorescence properties, which helped in the identification of the relative source of DOM (allochthonous versus autochthonous). The largest apparent molecular weight distribution was observed for DOM samples collected at the MR site, which is fed mostly by groundwater seepage. The smallest apparent molecular weight was observed for DOM collected at the LCR site, suggesting that retention in the reservoir resulted in a decrease in molecular weight as a probable result of photo oxidation and microbial processes. Fluorescence analysis aided the differentiation of DOM by clearly identifying waters that were affected by microbial activity (LVW, UCR, and LCR), either by wastewater influence

  1. Reproductive health of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in Chesapeake Bay Tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazer, Vicki; Pinkney, A.E.; Uphoff, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Yellow perch live in creeks, rivers, ponds, lakes, and estuaries across the central and eastern United States and Canada. In Chesapeake Bay, they tolerate salinities up to one-third that of seawater. The adults reside in the brackish waters of the bay’s tributaries and migrate upstream to spawn. Yellow perch are eagerly sought by recreational fishermen for their excellent taste and, because their late winter spawning runs are the earliest of the year, they are regarded as a harbinger of spring. Yellow perch also support a small but valuable, tightly regulated commercial fishery in the part of Chesapeake Bay that lies in Maryland.

  2. Evaluating the Potential of Tributary Restoration to Increase the Overall Survival of Salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budy, P.; Schaller, H.

    2006-12-01

    Stream restoration has become a major focus of conservation efforts with millions of dollars spent each year on efforts aimed at recovering imperiled species; however, for animals with complex life-history strategies, this reliance on stream restoration for increasing overall survival requires that several key assumptions be met. We addressed fundamental uncertainties of the current focus on tributary restoration for recovery of endangered Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): 1) is there potential for improving habitat in tributary streams, 2) what magnitude of early survival improvement can be expected based on stream restoration, and 3) will incremental increases in early survival be sufficient to ensure viability of the populations that compose the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU)? We combined simple mechanistic habitat models, population viability measures, and categorical filters to quantify the potential for increasing total life-cycle survival (TLCS) across all 32 populations (ESU), based on increases to early freshwater survival, predicted to occur in response to restored tributary condition. A wide gap remains between how much survival improvement is needed, versus what is likely to occur under tributary restoration; tributary restoration has the potential to increase survival to the necessary minimum for only four populations in the ESU while the remaining populations (84%) still fall far below the survival needed for future viability. In addition, across the ESU; on average, a 171% increase in TLCS is necessary, whereas only ~106% appears possible. A recovery strategy for these salmon that relies largely on tributary restoration, to mitigate for known mortality imposed at other life stages (e.g., migration through hydropower dams) is risky and has a low probability of success. For animals with complex life cycles and exhibiting long migrations, stream restoration efforts may be ineffective and misplaced, if the

  3. [Distribution and Content of Transferable Nitrogen in the Soil of Water Level Fluctuating Zones of Mainstream and Its Tributary of Three Gorges Reservoir Areas During the Dry Period].

    PubMed

    2016-03-15

    In order to find the intrinsic correlation between water eutrophication and transformation of nitrogen in soil of water level fluctuating zone (WLFZ) of Three Gorges Reservoir Areas (TGRA), the method of sequential extraction process was applied to analyze the content and distribution characteristics of total transferable nitrogen (TF-N) in the mainstream of Yangtze River (Wanzhou section) and its tributaries of Mixi and Zhuxi River. The results showed that, compared with the main stream, the contents of soil organic matter (SOM) and total nitrogen (TN) were higher, while cation exchange capacity( CEC) and pH value were lower in the tributaries during the dry period. The main species of TF-N in soil was organic matter-sulfide form of nitrogen (OSF-N) in the WLFZ and the content of different TF-N species was in the order of OSF-N > iron-manganese oxide form of nitrogen (IMOF-N) > ion extractable form of nitrogen (IEF-N) > carbonate form of nitrogen (CF-N). The spatial distribution pattern of total TF-N was in the order of Zhuxi River > Mixi Valley > the main stem of Yangtze River. There were no significant differences between IEF-N and OSF-N contents both in the main and tributaries of Yangtze River. The distribution of CF-N and IMOF-N had similar patterns, whereas the TF-N showed a reverse pattern in comparison with the former two species in the main and tributary of Yangtze River, which was a main factor of TF-N differences between the main steam and tributaries of the Yangtze River.

  4. [Distribution and Content of Transferable Nitrogen in the Soil of Water Level Fluctuating Zones of Mainstream and Its Tributary of Three Gorges Reservoir Areas During the Dry Period].

    PubMed

    2016-03-15

    In order to find the intrinsic correlation between water eutrophication and transformation of nitrogen in soil of water level fluctuating zone (WLFZ) of Three Gorges Reservoir Areas (TGRA), the method of sequential extraction process was applied to analyze the content and distribution characteristics of total transferable nitrogen (TF-N) in the mainstream of Yangtze River (Wanzhou section) and its tributaries of Mixi and Zhuxi River. The results showed that, compared with the main stream, the contents of soil organic matter (SOM) and total nitrogen (TN) were higher, while cation exchange capacity( CEC) and pH value were lower in the tributaries during the dry period. The main species of TF-N in soil was organic matter-sulfide form of nitrogen (OSF-N) in the WLFZ and the content of different TF-N species was in the order of OSF-N > iron-manganese oxide form of nitrogen (IMOF-N) > ion extractable form of nitrogen (IEF-N) > carbonate form of nitrogen (CF-N). The spatial distribution pattern of total TF-N was in the order of Zhuxi River > Mixi Valley > the main stem of Yangtze River. There were no significant differences between IEF-N and OSF-N contents both in the main and tributaries of Yangtze River. The distribution of CF-N and IMOF-N had similar patterns, whereas the TF-N showed a reverse pattern in comparison with the former two species in the main and tributary of Yangtze River, which was a main factor of TF-N differences between the main steam and tributaries of the Yangtze River. PMID:27337886

  5. Environmental water body characteristics in a major tributary backwater of the unique and strongly seasonal Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Holbach, A; Bi, Y; Yuan, Y; Wang, L; Zheng, B; Norra, S

    2015-09-01

    Ecological consequences of large dams, particularly regarding the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) on the Yangtze River in China, have been controversially and internationally discussed. Water quality within the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has been deteriorated by highly underestimated eutrophication and algal blooms. Globally, the TGR is delineated from other comparable reservoirs by its low mean water residence time and its 30 m annual water level fluctuation. We used an in situ and online multi-sensor system 'MINIBAT' to analyse eight indicative physico-chemical parameters across depth and time within the Xiangxi River backwater, a representative major tributary of the TGR. The results revealed considerably changing environmental water body characteristics within the tributary backwater related to the TGR's typical seasonal hydrology. The Yangtze River main stream appeared to be the major contributor of dissolved and particulate water constituents within the Xiangxi River backwater. Eutrophication problems in spring and summer seasons are likely a consequence of extensive water mass exchange and pollutant transport processes in autumn and winter. In particular, the backwater's permanently stratified water column shows varying layered impacts of the Yangtze River main stream and Xiangxi River headwaters. This is a clear indication of a complex stratified flow pattern within this TGR tributary backwater. In our study, a major driver for the Yangtze River main stream impact was the rising TGR water level. The TGR's globally unique characteristics have thus become a central part of the recent eutrophication and pollution problem within the TGR. Thereof, we deduced a proposal for an adapted dam management strategy.

  6. Environmental water body characteristics in a major tributary backwater of the unique and strongly seasonal Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Holbach, A; Bi, Y; Yuan, Y; Wang, L; Zheng, B; Norra, S

    2015-09-01

    Ecological consequences of large dams, particularly regarding the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) on the Yangtze River in China, have been controversially and internationally discussed. Water quality within the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has been deteriorated by highly underestimated eutrophication and algal blooms. Globally, the TGR is delineated from other comparable reservoirs by its low mean water residence time and its 30 m annual water level fluctuation. We used an in situ and online multi-sensor system 'MINIBAT' to analyse eight indicative physico-chemical parameters across depth and time within the Xiangxi River backwater, a representative major tributary of the TGR. The results revealed considerably changing environmental water body characteristics within the tributary backwater related to the TGR's typical seasonal hydrology. The Yangtze River main stream appeared to be the major contributor of dissolved and particulate water constituents within the Xiangxi River backwater. Eutrophication problems in spring and summer seasons are likely a consequence of extensive water mass exchange and pollutant transport processes in autumn and winter. In particular, the backwater's permanently stratified water column shows varying layered impacts of the Yangtze River main stream and Xiangxi River headwaters. This is a clear indication of a complex stratified flow pattern within this TGR tributary backwater. In our study, a major driver for the Yangtze River main stream impact was the rising TGR water level. The TGR's globally unique characteristics have thus become a central part of the recent eutrophication and pollution problem within the TGR. Thereof, we deduced a proposal for an adapted dam management strategy. PMID:26201244

  7. 46 CFR 7.50 - Chesapeake Bay and tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chesapeake Bay and tributaries. 7.50 Section 7.50... Atlantic Coast § 7.50 Chesapeake Bay and tributaries. A line drawn from Cape Charles Light to latitude 36... latitude 36°54.8′ N. longitude 75°55.6′ W. (Chesapeake Bay Entrance Lighted Bell Buoy “CBC”); thence...

  8. 46 CFR 7.50 - Chesapeake Bay and tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chesapeake Bay and tributaries. 7.50 Section 7.50... Atlantic Coast § 7.50 Chesapeake Bay and tributaries. A line drawn from Cape Charles Light to latitude 36... latitude 36°54.8′ N. longitude 75°55.6′ W. (Chesapeake Bay Entrance Lighted Bell Buoy “CBC”); thence...

  9. 46 CFR 7.50 - Chesapeake Bay and tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chesapeake Bay and tributaries. 7.50 Section 7.50... Atlantic Coast § 7.50 Chesapeake Bay and tributaries. A line drawn from Cape Charles Light to latitude 36... latitude 36°54.8′ N. longitude 75°55.6′ W. (Chesapeake Bay Entrance Lighted Bell Buoy “CBC”); thence...

  10. Tumor prevalence and biomarkers of genotoxicity in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) in Chesapeake Bay tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinkney, Alfred E.; Harshbarger, John C.; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Jenko, Kathryn; Balk, Lennart; Skarphéðinsdóttir, Halldora; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Rutter, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed four Chesapeake Bay tributaries for skin and liver tumors in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). We focused on the South River, where the highest skin tumor prevalence (53%) in the Bay watershed had been reported. The objectives were to 1) compare tumor prevalence with nearby rivers (Severn and Rhode) and a more remote river (Choptank); 2) investigate associations between tumor prevalence and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylating agents; and 3) statistically analyze Chesapeake Bay bullhead tumor data from 1992 through 2008. All four South River collections exhibited high skin tumor prevalence (19% to 58%), whereas skin tumor prevalence was 2%, 10%, and 52% in the three Severn collections; 0% and 2% in the Choptank collections; and 5.6% in the Rhode collection. Liver tumor prevalence was 0% to 6% in all but one South River collection (20%) and 0% to 6% in the three other rivers. In a subset of samples, PAH-like biliary metabolites and 32P-DNA adducts were used as biomarkers of exposure and response to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Adducts from alkylating agents were detected as O6-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (O6Me-dG) and O6-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (O6Et-dG) modified DNA. Bullheads from the contaminated Anacostia River were used as a positive control for DNA adducts. 32P-DNA adduct concentrations were significantly higher in Anacostia bullhead livers compared with the other rivers. We identified alkyl DNA adducts in bullhead livers from the South and Anacostia, but not the Choptank. Neither the PAH-like bile metabolite data, sediment PAH data, nor the DNA adduct data suggest an association between liver or skin tumor prevalence and exposure to PACs or alkylating agents in the South, Choptank, Severn, or Rhode rivers. Logistic regression analysis of the Chesapeake Bay database revealed that sex and length were significant covariates for liver tumors and length was a significant covariate for skin tumors.

  11. Tumor prevalence and biomarkers of genotoxicity in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) in Chesapeake Bay tributaries.

    PubMed

    Pinkney, Alfred E; Harshbarger, John C; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Jenko, Kathryn; Balk, Lennart; Skarphéðinsdóttir, Halldóra; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Rutter, Michael A

    2011-12-01

    We surveyed four Chesapeake Bay tributaries for skin and liver tumors in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). We focused on the South River, where the highest skin tumor prevalence (53%) in the Bay watershed had been reported. The objectives were to 1) compare tumor prevalence with nearby rivers (Severn and Rhode) and a more remote river (Choptank); 2) investigate associations between tumor prevalence and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylating agents; and 3) statistically analyze Chesapeake Bay bullhead tumor data from 1992 through 2008. All four South River collections exhibited high skin tumor prevalence (19% to 58%), whereas skin tumor prevalence was 2%, 10%, and 52% in the three Severn collections; 0% and 2% in the Choptank collections; and 5.6% in the Rhode collection. Liver tumor prevalence was 0% to 6% in all but one South River collection (20%) and 0% to 6% in the three other rivers. In a subset of samples, PAH-like biliary metabolites and (32)P-DNA adducts were used as biomarkers of exposure and response to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Adducts from alkylating agents were detected as O6-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (O6Me-dG) and O6-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (O6Et-dG) modified DNA. Bullheads from the contaminated Anacostia River were used as a positive control for DNA adducts. (32)P-DNA adduct concentrations were significantly higher in Anacostia bullhead livers compared with the other rivers. We identified alkyl DNA adducts in bullhead livers from the South and Anacostia, but not the Choptank. Neither the PAH-like bile metabolite data, sediment PAH data, nor the DNA adduct data suggest an association between liver or skin tumor prevalence and exposure to PACs or alkylating agents in the South, Choptank, Severn, or Rhode rivers. Logistic regression analysis of the Chesapeake Bay database revealed that sex and length were significant covariates for liver tumors and length was a significant covariate for skin tumors.

  12. Preferred and observed conditions for sockeye salmon in Ozette Lake and its tributaries, Clallam County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bortleson, Gilbert C.; Dion, N.P.

    1978-01-01

    Ozette River and Ozette Lake and its tributaries in Washington have many of the water-quality and stream-hydraulic characteristics that are generally supportive of good sockeye salmon production. Ozette Lake is a large, deep lake and a natural rearing area and for young sockeye. In the summer of 1976 water temperatures preferred for the growth of young sockeye (45-68 degrees Fahrenheit) occurred between about 200 feet of depth and the water surface, or generally in the zone of steep temperature gradient. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in excess of 8.0 milligrams per liter at all depths throughout the year provided an adequate supply of oxygen for sockeye production. In comparison with eight other sockeye-producing lakes in Washington and Alaska, the concentrations of zooplankton in Ozette Lake appear adequate to support the rearing of sockeye salmon. In Big River and Umbrella Creek, tributaries to Ozette Lake, the streambed areas with gravels suitable for spawning were calculated to be about 39,000 and 31 ,000 square yards, respectively. If those areas were completely utilized they would accomodate about 13,000 and 10,000 spawning sockeye females, respectively. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Plastic debris in 29 Great Lakes tributaries: Relations to watershed attributes and hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven; Mason, Sherri A.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris is a growing contaminant of concern in freshwater environments, yet sources, transport, and fate remain unclear. This study characterized the quantity and morphology of floating micro- and macroplastics in 29 Great Lakes tributaries in six states under different land covers, wastewater effluent contributions, population densities, and hydrologic conditions. Tributaries were sampled three or four times each using a 333 μm mesh neuston net. Plastic particles were sorted by size, counted, and categorized as fibers/lines, pellets/beads, foams, films, and fragments. Plastics were found in all 107 samples, with a maximum concentration of 32 particles/m3 and a median of 1.9 particles/m3. Ninety-eight percent of sampled plastic particles were less than 4.75 mm in diameter and therefore considered microplastics. Fragments, films, foams, and pellets/beads were positively correlated with urban-related watershed attributes and were found at greater concentrations during runoff-event conditions. Fibers, the most frequently detected particle type, were not associated with urban-related watershed attributes, wastewater effluent contribution, or hydrologic condition. Results from this study add to the body of information currently available on microplastics in different environmental compartments, including unique contributions to quantify their occurrence and variability in rivers with a wide variety of different land-use characteristics while highlighting differences between surface samples from rivers compared with lakes.

  14. A Relationship Between Phosphate Levels in Lake Champlain Tributaries and Soil Type and Particulate Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larose, R.; Lee, S.; Lane, T.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Champlain is a large natural fresh water lake. It forms the western boundary of Vermont and drains over half of the state. It is bordered by the state of New York on its western side and drains to the north into Quebec, Canada. Lake Champlain is the source of fresh drinking water for over quarter of a million people and provides for the livelihoods and recreational opportunities of many well beyond its borders. The health of this lake is important. During the summermonth's algae blooms plague the lake. These unsightlygrowths, which affect other aquatic organisms, are the result of excess phosphate flowing into the lake from major tributaries.Exploring the relationship between soil type and particulate size to phosphate levels in tributaries to the Lake Champlain basin sheds insight on potential sources of phosphate from the Lake Champlain watershed into the lake and may point topossible mitigation efforts. Total Phosphate levels and Total Suspended Solids were measured in second and third order streams in the Lake Champlain Basin over a three-year period. These streamsfeed into the Missisquoi River and Winooski Rivers, whichflow into Lake Champlain. Soil was sampled along transects from uplands areas through the riparian corridor to the edge of the streams. These samples were then classified using the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) and an analysis of particle size was conducted.In general there is a correlation between higher levels of phosphate and smaller particulate size.

  15. 33 CFR 207.160 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Dismal Swamp Canal including Great Bridge Lock, Chesapeake, Virginia; Deep Creek Lock, Chesapeake... along the tributary. Such storage spaces must be protected by booms and, if necessary to maintain...

  16. 33 CFR 207.160 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Dismal Swamp Canal including Great Bridge Lock, Chesapeake, Virginia; Deep Creek Lock, Chesapeake... along the tributary. Such storage spaces must be protected by booms and, if necessary to maintain...

  17. 33 CFR 207.160 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Dismal Swamp Canal including Great Bridge Lock, Chesapeake, Virginia; Deep Creek Lock, Chesapeake... along the tributary. Such storage spaces must be protected by booms and, if necessary to maintain...

  18. Ius Chasma Tributary Valleys and Adjacent Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image covers valley tributaries of Ius Chasma, as well as the plains adjacent to the valleys. Ius Chasma is one of several canyons that make up the Valles Marineris canyon system. Valles Marineris likely formed by extension associated with the growth of the large volcanoes and topographic high of Tharsis to the northwest. As the ground was pulled apart, large and deep gaps resulted in the valleys seen in the top and bottom of this HiRISE image. Ice that was once in the ground could have also melted to create additional removal of material in the formation of the valleys. HiRISE is able to see the rocks along the walls of both these valleys and also impact craters in the image. Rock layers that appear lower down in elevation appear rougher and are shedding boulders. Near the top of the walls and also seen in patches along the smooth plains are brighter layers. These brighter layers are not shedding boulders so they must represent a different kind of rock formed in a different kind of environment than those further down the walls. Because they are highest in elevation, the bright layers are youngest in age. HiRISE is able to see dozens of the bright layers, which are perhaps only a meter in thickness. Darker sand dunes and ripples cover most of the plains and fill the floors of impact craters.

    Image PSP_001351_1715 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 9, 2006. The complete image is centered at -8.3 degrees latitude, 275.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 254.3 km (158.9 miles). At this distance the image scale ranges from 25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 101.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning). The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:32 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59 degrees, thus the sun was about

  19. Seepage Investigation for Selected River Reaches in the Chehalis River Basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, D. Matthew; Frasl, Kenneth E.; Marshall, Cameron A.; Reed, Fred

    2008-01-01

    A study was completed in September 2007 in the Chehalis River basin to determine gain or loss of streamflow by measuring discharge at selected intervals within various reaches along the Chehalis River and its tributaries. Discharge was measured at 68 new and existing streamflow sites, where gains and losses were determined for 36 stream reaches. Streamflow gains were measured for 22 reaches and losses were measured for 13 reaches. No gain or loss was measured at the Chehalis River between the Newaukum and Skookumchuck Rivers. The Chehalis River exhibited a pattern of alternating gains and losses as it entered the area of wide, gentle relief known as the Grand Mound Prairie. The general pattern of tributary ground- and surface-water interaction was discharge to streams (gaining reaches) in the upper reaches and discharge to the ground-water system (losing reaches) as the tributaries entered the broad, flat Chehalis River valley.

  20. Savannah River aquatic ecology program. Annual report, September 1982-August 1983. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.; Kania, H.J.; Painter, W.

    1985-04-01

    This report presents the results of macroinvertebrate colonization on Hester Dendy artificial substrate samplers, macroinvertebrate drift studies, periphyton studies, and water quality analyses conducted from September 1982 through August 1983. The objectives were to: (1) determine the taxonomic composition, biomass and density of macroinvertebrates in the Savannah River and tributary creeks in the vicinity of the SRP; (2) determine the taxonomic composition and densities of macroinvertebrates inthe drift communities of the Savannah River and five tributary creeks in the vicinity of the SRP; (3) determine the biomass and chlorophyll a content of periphyton communities in the Savannah River and tributary creeks in the vicinity of the SRP; (4) evaluate water quality data for selected parameters in the Savannah River and major tributary creeks upstream, downstream and in the vicinity of the SRP; and (5) evaluate the possible impacts of the existing and proposed SRP thermal discharges to the periphyton and macroinvertebrate communities of the Savannah River and tributary creeks. 3 figs., 23 tabs.

  1. New Techniques for Real-Time Stage Forecasting for Tributaries in the Nashville Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charley, W.; Moran, B.; LaRosa, J.

    2011-12-01

    On Saturday, May 1, 2010, heavy rain began falling in the Cumberland River Valley, Tennessee, and continued through the following day. 13.5 inches was measured at Nashville, an unprecedented amount that doubled the previous 2-day record, and exceeded the May monthly total record of 11 inches. Elsewhere in the valley, amounts of over 19 inches were measured. This intensity of rainfall quickly overwhelmed tributaries to the Cumberland in the Nashville area, causing wide-spread and serious flooding. Tractor-trailers and houses were seen floating down Mill Creek, a primary tributary in the south eastern area of Nashville. Twenty-six people died and over 2 billion dollars in damage occurred as a result of the flood. Since that time, several other significant rainfall events have occurred in the area. As a result of the flood, agencies in the Nashville area want better capabilities to forecast stages for the local tributaries. Better stage forecasting will help local agencies close roads, evacuate homes and businesses and similar actions. An interagency group, consisting of Metro Nashville Water Services and Office of Emergency Management, the National Weather Service, the US Geological Survey and the US Army Corps of Engineers, has been established to seek ways to better forecast short-term events in the region. It should be noted that the National Weather Service has the official responsibility of forecasting stages. This paper examines techniques and algorithms that are being developed to meet this need and the practical aspects of integrating them into a usable product that can quickly and accurately forecast stages in the short-time frame of the tributaries. This includes not only the forecasting procedure, but also the procedure to acquire the latest precipitation and stage data to make the forecasts. These procedures are integrated into the program HEC-RTS, the US Army Corps of Engineers Real-Time Simulation program. HEC-RTS is a Java-based integration tool that

  2. Water quality of streams tributary to Lakes Superior and Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Jerome W.

    1968-01-01

    Water quality of streams tributary to Lakes Superior and Michigan was analyzed for 142 stations on 99 streams tributary to Lake Superior and 83 stations on 56 streams tributary to Lake Michigan during 1962-65. Concentrations of aluminum, copper, and iron were not affected greatly by flow or season. Magnesium, calcium, chlorides, total alkalinity, total hardness, and conductivity varied with the flow, temperature, and season; the lowest values were during the spring runoff and heavy rains, and the highest were during low water in late summer and the colder periods of winter. Concentrations of nitrate, silica, and sulfates were lowest in the spring and summer. Concentrations of tanninlike and ligninlike compounds were highest during the spring runoff and other high-water periods, and were lowest during freezeup when surface runoff was minimal. The pH values were highest from June to September and lowest during the spring runoff. Phenolphthalein alkalinity was detected primarily in the summer and coincided occasionally with low flows just before the spring thaw. Total hardness usually was lower in streams tributary to Lake Superior than in streams tributary to Lake Michigan. The total hardness was higher in the streams in Wisconsin than in the streams in Michigan along the west shore of Lake Michigan. It was lowest in the northernmost streams. The water quality of the streams in an area was related to the geological characteristics of the land.

  3. Dynamic Nutrient Limitation in a Major Tributary to Eastern Lake Erie: The Role of Groundwater Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slowinski, S.; Maavara, T.; Rezanezhad, F.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient silicon (Si) limited systems tend to promote more harmful algal blooms, compared with phosphorus (P) or nitrogen (N) limited systems. In this project, we studied the biogeochemical sources and sinks of Si in the Grand River watershed (GRW), a 7000 km2 basin located inthe largely agricultural region of southwestern Ontario, Canada. The river, its major tributaries, and eastern Lake Erie, into which the GRW drains, have historically been considered P limited. We collected groundwater and surface water samples at 11 locations in the lower half of the GRW at monthly to weekly intervals for one year. Samples were analyzed for dissolved and reactive particulate Si (DSi and PRSi), total dissolved P, soluble reactive P, and a suite of other macro and micronutrients including nitrate, nitrite, sulfur and iron. Results indicate that groundwater discharge to surface water provides a year-round source of DSi to surface water, with concentrations roughly equal to winter surface water concentrations. For the majority of the year, this groundwater DSi flux results in Si excess in the GRW. However, during extreme high flow events such as the spring snowmelt and long-term heavy rain events, P is flushed in high concentrations into the river, while DSi concentrations, which experience seasonal drawdown due to biological uptake, are diluted. These dynamics can lead to periods of Si limitation, which persists throughout the river and into Lake Erie.

  4. 33 CFR 207.180 - All waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico (except the Mississippi River, its tributaries...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... person in the lock area, whether navigating the lock or not; and no one shall cause any movement of any... displayed at all locks as follows: (i) From sunset to sunrise. One green light shall indicate the lock is... through with commercial craft (other than vessels carrying dangerous cargoes, as described in 46 CFR...

  5. 33 CFR 207.180 - All waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico (except the Mississippi River, its tributaries...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... person in the lock area, whether navigating the lock or not; and no one shall cause any movement of any... displayed at all locks as follows: (i) From sunset to sunrise. One green light shall indicate the lock is... through with commercial craft (other than vessels carrying dangerous cargoes, as described in 46 CFR...

  6. 33 CFR 207.180 - All waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico (except the Mississippi River, its tributaries...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... person in the lock area, whether navigating the lock or not; and no one shall cause any movement of any... displayed at all locks as follows: (i) From sunset to sunrise. One green light shall indicate the lock is... through with commercial craft (other than vessels carrying dangerous cargoes, as described in 46 CFR...

  7. 33 CFR 162.75 - All waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico (except the Mississippi River, its tributaries...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... open water, the towlines and fastenings between barges may be lengthened so as to accommodate the wave... provided that adequate power is employed to keep the tows under full control at all times. No tow shall be drawn by a vessel that has insufficient power or crew to permit ready maneuverability and safe...

  8. 33 CFR 162.75 - All waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico (except the Mississippi River, its tributaries...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... open water, the towlines and fastenings between barges may be lengthened so as to accommodate the wave... provided that adequate power is employed to keep the tows under full control at all times. No tow shall be drawn by a vessel that has insufficient power or crew to permit ready maneuverability and safe...

  9. 33 CFR 162.75 - All waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico (except the Mississippi River, its tributaries...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... open water, the towlines and fastenings between barges may be lengthened so as to accommodate the wave... provided that adequate power is employed to keep the tows under full control at all times. No tow shall be drawn by a vessel that has insufficient power or crew to permit ready maneuverability and safe...

  10. 33 CFR 162.75 - All waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico (except the Mississippi River, its tributaries...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... open water, the towlines and fastenings between barges may be lengthened so as to accommodate the wave... provided that adequate power is employed to keep the tows under full control at all times. No tow shall be drawn by a vessel that has insufficient power or crew to permit ready maneuverability and safe...

  11. 33 CFR 162.75 - All waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico (except the Mississippi River, its tributaries...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... open water, the towlines and fastenings between barges may be lengthened so as to accommodate the wave... provided that adequate power is employed to keep the tows under full control at all times. No tow shall be drawn by a vessel that has insufficient power or crew to permit ready maneuverability and safe...

  12. 33 CFR 207.180 - All waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico (except the Mississippi River, its tributaries...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... indicated by the lockmaster by one long blast. (4) Visual signals. Signal lights and discs shall be displayed at all locks as follows: (i) From sunset to sunrise. One green light shall indicate the lock is open to approaching navigation; one red light shall indicate the lock is closed to...

  13. 33 CFR 207.180 - All waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico (except the Mississippi River, its tributaries...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... indicated by the lockmaster by one long blast. (4) Visual signals. Signal lights and discs shall be displayed at all locks as follows: (i) From sunset to sunrise. One green light shall indicate the lock is open to approaching navigation; one red light shall indicate the lock is closed to...

  14. Concentrations and loads of polychlorinated biphenyls in major tributaries entering Green Bay, Lake Michigan, 1989-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    House, L.B.; Hughes, P.E.; Waschbusch, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected water samples from the five major tributaries to Green Bay, Lake Michigan, to determine the load of total polychlorinated biphenyls (RGB's) entering the bay. These samples were collected from January 1989 through early May 1990 from the Escanaba, Menominee, Peshtigo, Oconto, and Fox Rivers. Sampling sites were located near the mouth of each river and also just upstream of De Pere dam on the Fox River. Water samples were collected for analysis of total, dissolved, and particulate concentrations of PCB's at the nanogram-per-liter level. Loads of PCB's entering Green Bay were computed using a total-integration method. The methods used to collect water samples and compute the loads of total PCB's entering the bay are described in this report. Graphs showing total PCB's concentrations and loads are presented for each site, along with the corresponding data tables. These data indicate that the amount of total PCB's entering the bay from the Fox River is greater than from all other major tributaries combined.

  15. Concentrations and estimated loads of nutrients, mercury, and polychlorinated biphenyls in selected tributaries to Lake Michigan, 2005-6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westenbroek, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    The Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project (LMMBP) measured and modeled the concentrations of environmentally persistent contaminants in air, river and lake water, sediment, and fish and bird tissues in and around Lake Michigan for an 18-month period spanning 1994-95. Tributary loads were calculated as part of the LMMBP. The work described in this report was designed to provide updated concentration data and load estimates for 5 nutrients, total mercury, and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) at 5 of the original 11 LMMBP sampling sites. Samples were collected at five Lake Michigan tributary monitoring sites during 2005 and 2006. Annual loads calculated for the 2005-6 sampling period are as much as 50 percent lower relative to the 1994-95 time period. Differences between the loads calculated for the two time periods are likely related to a combination of (1) biases introduced by a reduced level of sampling effort, (2) differences in hydrological characteristics, and (3) actual environmental change. Estimated annual total mercury loads during 2005-6 ranged from 51 kilograms per year (kg/yr) in the Fox River to 2.2 kg/yr in the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal. Estimated annual total PCB loads during 2005-6 ranged from 132 kg/yr in the Fox River to 6.2 kg/yr in the Grand River.

  16. The evolution of the Shiwanghe River valley in response to the Yellow River incision in the Hukou area, Shaanxi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Wei-Li; Zhang, Jia-Fu; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Guo, Yu-Jie; Zhuang, Mao-Guo; Fu, Xiao; Zhou, Li-Ping

    2014-06-01

    Tributary response to mainstream incision is an important landscape evolution process. The objective of this study is to examine tributary valley evolution in response to mainstream incision. The Shiwanghe River, a tributary of the Yellow River in the Hukou area, was chosen for a case study. The terraces and knickpoints of the Shiwanghe River were investigated and correlated to those of the mainstream. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) was applied to date fluvial terraces. Longitudinal profiles of river and terraces were used to analyze valley evolution. The terrace sequence of the Shiwanghe River near their confluence is almost identical to the Yellow River terraces at the Hukou area. This suggests that terrace formations of the tributary and the mainstream are synchronous, and influenced by similar factors. But the formation age of the same tributary terrace varies from downstream to the upper reaches of the river valley. For such terraces, their formation should be controlled by knickpoint migration. A sudden drop in base-level caused by the Yellow River incision would trigger the formation of a knickpoint in the tributary. A new terrace would be formed as the knickpoint propagated upstream throughout the tributary valley. Due to the different erodibility of bedrock, a set of interbedded sandstone and shale, the major knickpoint would disassemble into a cluster of small ones during its propagation. The age of terrace formation with various valley segments depends on knickpoint migration rate and distance from the confluence. Vertical incision of the Yellow River results in knickpoint recession of its tributaries. The migration rate of knickpoints was affected by climate, lithologic variation, and, to some extent, structural control.

  17. Floods in the Raccoon River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, Albert J.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluation of flood hazards, and the planning, design, and operation of various facilities on flood plains requires information on floods. This report provides information on flood stages and discharges, flood magnitude and frequency, bench mark data, and flood profiles for the Raccoon River and some of its tributaries. Ir covers the Raccoon River, the North Raccoon River to the northern boundary of Sac County and the lower reaches of the Middle and South Raccoon Rivers.

  18. Fisheries Habitat Evaluation in Tributaries of the Coeur d`Alene Indian Reservation : Annual Report 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward-Lillengreen, Kelly L.; Skillingstad, Tami; Scholz, Allan T.

    1993-10-01

    In 1987 the Northwest Power Planning Council amended the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, directing the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to fund, ``a baseline stream survey of tributaries located on the Coeur d`Alene Indian Reservation to compile information on improving spawning habitat, rearing habitat, and access to spawning tributaries for bull trout, cutthroat trout, and to evaluate the existing fish stocks. ff justified by the results of the survey, fund the design, construction and operation of a cutthroat and bull trout hatchery on the Coeur d`Alene Indian Reservation; necessary habitat improvement projects; and a three year monitoring program to evaluate the effectiveness of the hatchery and habitat improvement projects. If the baseline survey indicates a better alternative than construction of a fish hatchery, the Coeur d`Alene Tribe will submit an alternative plan for consideration in program amendment proceeding.`` This report contains the results of the third year of the study and the Coeur d`Alene Indian Tribes` preliminary recommendations for enhancing the cutthroat and bull trout fishery on the Coeur d`Alene Indian Reservation. These recommendations are based on study results from year three data and information obtained in the first two years of the study.

  19. Using side-scan sonar to characterize and map physical habitat and anthropogenic underwater features in the St. Louis River

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterizing underwater habitat and other features is difficult and costly, especially in large river systems. The St. Louis River is the largest US tributary to Lake Superior and the lower portion consists of a 48.5 km2 complex of wetlands, tributaries, and bays. We surveyed 8...

  20. Hydrologic data from Nation, Kandik, and Yukon rivers, Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    2001-01-01

    Flow data were collected from two adjacent rivers in Yukon?Charley Rivers National Preserve, Alaska?the Nation River (during 1991?2000) and the Kandik River (1994?2000)?and from the Yukon River (1950?2000) at Eagle, Alaska, upstream from the boundary of the preserve. These flow records indicate that most of the runoff from these rivers occurs from May through September and that the average monthly discharge during this period ranges from 1,172 to 2,210 cubic feet per second for the Nation River, from 1,203 to 2,633 cubic feet per second for the Kandik River, and from 112,000 to 224,000 cubic feet per second for the Yukon River. Water-quality data were collected for the Nation River and several of its tributaries from 1991 to 1992 and for the Yukon River at Eagle from 1950 to 1994. Three tributaries to the Nation River (Waterfall Creek, Cathedral Creek, and Hard Luck Creek) have relatively high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and sulfate. These three watersheds are underlain predominantly by Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks. The Yukon River transports 33,000,000 tons of suspended sediment past Eagle each year. Reflecting the inputs from its major tributaries, the water of the Yukon River at Eagle is dominated by calcium?magnesium bicarbonate.

  1. Debris-flow hazards on tributary junction fans, Chitral, Hindu Kush Range, northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Asif; Haneef, M.; Khan, Anwar S.; Tahirkheli, Tazeem

    2013-01-01

    The Chitral district of northern Pakistan lies in the eastern Hindu Kush Range. The population in this high-relief mountainous terrain is restricted to tributary-junction fans in the Chitral valley. Proximity to steep valley slopes renders these fans prone to hydrogeomorphic hazards, including landslides, floods and debris flows. This paper focuses on debris-flow hazards on tributary-junction fans in Chitral. Using field observations, satellite-image analyses and a preliminary morphometry, the tributary-junction fans in the Chitral valley are classified into (1) discrete and (2) composite. The discrete fans are modern-day active landforms and include debris cones associated with ephemeral gullies, debris fans associated with ephemeral channels and alluvial fans formed by perennial streams. The composite fans are a collage of sediment deposits of widely different ages and formed by diverse alluvial-fan forming processes. These include fans formed predominantly during MIS-2/Holocene interglacial stages superimposed by modern-day alluvial and debris fans. Composite fans are turned into relict fans when entrenched by modern-day perennial streams. These deeply incised channels discharge their sediment load directly into the trunk river without significant spread on fan surface. In comparison, when associated with ephemeral streams, active debris fans develop directly at composite-fan surfaces. Major settlements in Chitral are located on composite fans, as they provide large tracts of leveled land with easy accesses to water from the tributary streams. These fan surfaces are relatively more stable, especially when they are entrenched by perennial streams (e.g., Chitral, Ayun, and Reshun). When associated with ephemeral streams (e.g., Snowghar) or a combination of ephemeral and perennial streams (e.g., Drosh), these fans are subject to frequent debris-flow hazards. Fans associated with ephemeral streams are prone to high-frequency (˜10 years return period) debris

  2. Floods in the Skunk River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, Albert J.; Wiitala, Sulo Werner

    1978-01-01

    Evaluation of flood hazards, and the planning, design, and operation of various facilities on flood plains require information on floods. This report provides information on flood stages and discharges, flood magnitudes and frequency, and flood profiles for the Skunk River and some of its tributaries. It covers the Skunk -- South Skunk Rivers to Ames, and the lower reaches of tributaries as flows: Squaw Creek, 8.2 miles; Indian Creek, 11.6 miles; North Skunk River, 83.2 miles; Cedar Creek, 55.8 miles; and Big Creek, 21.7 miles.

  3. Influence of riparian and watershed alterations on sandbars in a Great Plains river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Paukert, Craig P.; Daniels, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic alterations have caused sandbar habitats in rivers and the biota dependent on them to decline. Restoring large river sandbars may be needed as these habitats are important components of river ecosystems and provide essential habitat to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. We quantified factors within the riparian zone of the Kansas River, USA, and within its tributaries that influenced sandbar size and density using aerial photographs and land use/land cover (LULC) data. We developed, a priori, 16 linear regression models focused on LULC at the local, adjacent upstream river bend, and the segment (18–44 km upstream) scales and used an information theoretic approach to determine what alterations best predicted the size and density of sandbars. Variation in sandbar density was best explained by the LULC within contributing tributaries at the segment scale, which indicated reduced sandbar density with increased forest cover within tributary watersheds. Similarly, LULC within contributing tributary watersheds at the segment scale best explained variation in sandbar size. These models indicated that sandbar size increased with agriculture and forest and decreased with urban cover within tributary watersheds. Our findings suggest that sediment supply and delivery from upstream tributary watersheds may be influential on sandbars within the Kansas River and that preserving natural grassland and reducing woody encroachment within tributary watersheds in Great Plains rivers may help improve sediment delivery to help restore natural river function.

  4. Diel diet of fantail darter in a tributary to Lake Ontario, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Johnson, James H.

    2016-01-01

    The foraging behavior of benthic fishes in streams is seldom examined but is vital to the health of the aquatic community. We examined the feeding ecology of the fantail darter (Etheostoma flaballere) in Trout Brook, a tributary of the Salmon River in central New York, USA. Of the six time periods examined, fantail darters fed most intensely from 1600–2000 h, with ephemeropterans the major prey consumed during all time periods except for 2000 where chironomid larvae were consumed the most. Fantail darter diet composition was similar across all time periods except during the night which appeared to be uniquely different. According to the prey selection analysis, fantail darters appear to prefer dipterans and ephemeropterans but also demonstrated an opportunistic behavior feeding on what was available in the brook.

  5. Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meade, R.H.; Rayol, J.M.; Da Conceicao, S.C.; Natividade, J.R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  6. The Savannah River Aquatic Ecology Program: Macroinvertebrates, periphyton, and water quality: Final report, October 1984-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hop, J.R.; Tilly, L.J.; Chimney, M.J.

    1986-06-01

    This report presents data on: (1) the taxonomic composition, biomass, and density of macroinvertebrates that colonize artificial substrate samplers placed at designated locations in the Savannah River and tributary creeks on the SRP; (2) the taxonomic composition and densities of macroinvertebrates in the drift communities of the Savannah River and five tributary creeks that drain the SRP; (3) the biomass and chlorophyll a content of periphyton communities that colonize artificial substrates in the Savannah River and tributary creeks on the SRP; (4) water-quality data for selected parameters in the Savannah River and major tributary creeks upstream, downstream, and in the vicinity of the SRP; and (5) the possible impacts of the existing and proposed SRP thermal discharges on the macroinvertebrate and periphyton communities of the Savannah River and tributary creeks.

  7. Estimating Nitrogen Loading in the Wabash River Subwatershed Using a GIS Schematic Processing Network in Support of Sustainable Watershed Management Planning

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Wabash River is a tributary of the Ohio River. This river system consists of headwaters and small streams, medium river reaches in the upper Wabash watershed, and large river reaches in the lower Wabash watershed. A large part of the river system is situated in agricultural a...

  8. Effects of repeated TFM applications on riffle macroinvertebrate communities in four Great Lakes tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weisser, John W.; Adams, Jean V.; Schuldt, Richard J.; Baldwin, Gregg A.; Lavis, Dennis S.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Heinrich, John W.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the sea lamprey control program in the Great Lakes, a suite of about 150 sea lamprey producing streams have been regularly treated with the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) every 3 to 5 years since 1958. State, provincial, and tribal agencies in the basin supported the use of TFM and urged that the risk to nontarget organisms be minimized. To determine the response of riffle macroinvertebrate communities to repeated TFM treatments over several years, paired samples were taken at control and treatment sites during 1986 to 1995 on four Great Lakes tributaries: the Bois Brule, West Branch Whitefish, Boardman, and Sturgeon (tributary to Cheboygan River system) rivers. Macroinvertebrates were collected in spring and fall by a standard traveling kick method. The communities were described with several metrics, and general linear models were used to test for different patterns of response in the paired control and treatment sites. Relative abundance of the class Oligochaeta, relative abundance of the genus Ephemerella, the Bray-Curtis similarity index (at the taxonomic level of order), EPT genus richness (the number of genera in the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera), and total genus richness all increased more at the treatment sites than at the control sites after TFM application. The greater increase in abundance, similarity, and richness at the treatment sites was an indication of recovery in the treatment sites, where a short-term response to TFM was followed by a several-year rebound. TFM treatments in this study during the 1980s and 1990s had no long-lasting effects on riffle macroinvertebrate communities.

  9. Inter-Tributary Movements by Resident Salmonids across a Boreal Riverscape.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Kale T; Schindler, Daniel E; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Cline, Timothy J; Brooks, Gabriel T

    2015-01-01

    Stream-dwelling fishes inhabit river networks where resources are distributed heterogeneously across space and time. Current theory emphasizes that fishes often perform large-scale movements among habitat patches for reproduction and seeking refugia, but assumes that fish are relatively sedentary during growth phases of their life cycle. Using stationary passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tag antennas and snorkel surveys, we assessed the individual and population level movement patterns of two species of fish across a network of tributaries within the Wood River basin in southwestern Alaska where summer foraging opportunities vary substantially among streams, seasons, and years. Across two years, Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exhibited kilometer-scale movements among streams during the summer growing season. Although we monitored movements at a small fraction of all tributaries used by grayling and rainbow trout, approximately 50% of individuals moved among two or more streams separated by at least 7 km within a single summer. Movements were concentrated in June and July, and subsided by early August. The decline in movements coincided with spawning by anadromous sockeye salmon, which offer a high-quality resource pulse of food to resident species. Inter-stream movements may represent prospecting behavior as individuals seek out the most profitable foraging opportunities that are patchily distributed across space and time. Our results highlight that large-scale movements may not only be necessary for individuals to fulfill their life-cycle, but also to exploit heterogeneously spaced trophic resources. Therefore, habitat fragmentation and homogenization may have strong, but currently undescribed, ecological effects on the access to critical food resources in stream-dwelling fish populations. PMID:26379237

  10. Inter-Tributary Movements by Resident Salmonids across a Boreal Riverscape

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Kale T.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Armstrong, Jonathan B.; Cline, Timothy J.; Brooks, Gabriel T.

    2015-01-01

    Stream-dwelling fishes inhabit river networks where resources are distributed heterogeneously across space and time. Current theory emphasizes that fishes often perform large-scale movements among habitat patches for reproduction and seeking refugia, but assumes that fish are relatively sedentary during growth phases of their life cycle. Using stationary passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tag antennas and snorkel surveys, we assessed the individual and population level movement patterns of two species of fish across a network of tributaries within the Wood River basin in southwestern Alaska where summer foraging opportunities vary substantially among streams, seasons, and years. Across two years, Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exhibited kilometer-scale movements among streams during the summer growing season. Although we monitored movements at a small fraction of all tributaries used by grayling and rainbow trout, approximately 50% of individuals moved among two or more streams separated by at least 7 km within a single summer. Movements were concentrated in June and July, and subsided by early August. The decline in movements coincided with spawning by anadromous sockeye salmon, which offer a high-quality resource pulse of food to resident species. Inter-stream movements may represent prospecting behavior as individuals seek out the most profitable foraging opportunities that are patchily distributed across space and time. Our results highlight that large-scale movements may not only be necessary for individuals to fulfill their life-cycle, but also to exploit heterogeneously spaced trophic resources. Therefore, habitat fragmentation and homogenization may have strong, but currently undescribed, ecological effects on the access to critical food resources in stream-dwelling fish populations. PMID:26379237

  11. Inter-Tributary Movements by Resident Salmonids across a Boreal Riverscape.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Kale T; Schindler, Daniel E; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Cline, Timothy J; Brooks, Gabriel T

    2015-01-01

    Stream-dwelling fishes inhabit river networks where resources are distributed heterogeneously across space and time. Current theory emphasizes that fishes often perform large-scale movements among habitat patches for reproduction and seeking refugia, but assumes that fish are relatively sedentary during growth phases of their life cycle. Using stationary passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tag antennas and snorkel surveys, we assessed the individual and population level movement patterns of two species of fish across a network of tributaries within the Wood River basin in southwestern Alaska where summer foraging opportunities vary substantially among streams, seasons, and years. Across two years, Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exhibited kilometer-scale movements among streams during the summer growing season. Although we monitored movements at a small fraction of all tributaries used by grayling and rainbow trout, approximately 50% of individuals moved among two or more streams separated by at least 7 km within a single summer. Movements were concentrated in June and July, and subsided by early August. The decline in movements coincided with spawning by anadromous sockeye salmon, which offer a high-quality resource pulse of food to resident species. Inter-stream movements may represent prospecting behavior as individuals seek out the most profitable foraging opportunities that are patchily distributed across space and time. Our results highlight that large-scale movements may not only be necessary for individuals to fulfill their life-cycle, but also to exploit heterogeneously spaced trophic resources. Therefore, habitat fragmentation and homogenization may have strong, but currently undescribed, ecological effects on the access to critical food resources in stream-dwelling fish populations.

  12. Development of a regional macroinvertebrate index for large river bioassessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large river bioassessment protocols lag far behind those of wadeable streams and often rely on fish assemblages of individual rivers. We developed a regional macroinvertebrate index and assessed relative condition of six large river tributaries to the upper Mississippi and Ohio r...

  13. Evaluating agricultural nonpoint-source pollution programs in two Lake Erie tributaries.

    PubMed

    Forster, D Lynn; Rausch, Jonathan N

    2002-01-01

    During the past three decades, numerous government programs have encouraged Lake Erie basin farmers to adopt practices that reduce water pollution. The first section of this paper summarizes these state and federal government agricultural pollution abatement programs in watersheds of two prominent Lake Erie tributaries, the Maumee River and Sandusky River. Expenditures are summarized for each program, total expenditures in each county are estimated, and cost effectiveness of program expenditures (i.e., cost per metric ton of soil saved) are analyzed. Farmers received nearly $143 million as incentive payments to implement agricultural nonpoint source pollution abatement programs in the Maumee and Sandusky River watersheds from 1987 to 1997. About 95% of these funds was from federal sources. On average, these payments totaled about $7000 per farm or about $30 per farm acre (annualized equivalent of $2 per acre) within the watersheds. Our analysis raises questions about how efficiently these incentive payments were allocated. The majority of Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) funds appear to have been spent on less cost-effective practices. Also, geographic areas with relatively low (high) soil erosion rates received relatively large (small) funding.

  14. Mercury distribution, speciation and flux in the Sepetiba Bay tributaries, SE Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paraquetti, Heloisa Helena M; Ayres, Gisele A; Dominguez de Almeida, Marcelo; Molisani, Mauricio M; de Lacerda, Luiz Drude

    2004-03-01

    Dissolved gaseous Hg, reactive Hg, total dissolved Hg and particulate Hg concentrations were measured in samples of majors tributaries of the Sepetiba Bay, SE Brazil (Itimirim, Itinguçu, Guarda, Guandu, São Francisco and Ita rivers), in dry and rainy seasons. The average Hg concentrations found varied from 0.02 to 0.18 ng L(-1) for dissolved gaseous Hg, from 0.1 to 18.1 ng L(-1) for reactive Hg, from 0.1 to 66.6 ng L(-1) for total dissolved Hg and from 0.3 to 250 ng L(-1) for particulate Hg. During the rainy season, a decrease in the dissolved Hg concentrations and an increase in the particulate Hg concentrations was observed. Positive correlations were found between the reactive Hg and the total dissolved Hg concentrations (r = 0.99), between the particulate Hg and TSS concentrations (r = 0.82) and between total Hg and particulate Hg concentrations (r = 0.95). The instantaneous Hg fluxes varied among rivers from 0.02 to 412 microgs(-1) for total dissolved Hg and from 0.03 to 12,572 microgs(-1) for particulate Hg. The log Kd varied from 3.76 to 6.43 and showed a significant increase in rainy season following an increase in particulate Hg and a decrease in dissolved Hg concentrations. These results suggest that erosion and runoff are the major pathways of Hg transport to rivers and eventually to Sepetiba Bay.

  15. [Comparative study on water-air CO2, CH4 flux in two tributaries in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Bai, Lei; Guo, Jin-Song; Fang, Fang; Jiang, Tao

    2013-03-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is a huge reservoir under the subtropical climate condition. It shows great spatio-temporal heterogeneity on biogeochemical cycling of carbon in the TGR's aquatic ecosystem. 1 a field monitoring on water-air CO2 and CH4 fluxes was conducted from June, 2010 to May, 2011 in Longxi River and Pengxi River, the 2 typical tributaries in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Comparative study showed that annual CO2 diffusive fluxes in the Longxi River and Pengxi River were (7.30 +/- 1.89) mmol x (m2 x h)(-1) and (0.71 +/- 0.46) mmol x (m2 x h)(-1), respectively, and the CH4 diffusive fluxes were (0.11 +/- 0.095) mmol x (m2 x h)(-1) and (0.007 4 +/- 0.001 7) mmol x (m2 x h)(-1). Higher intensities and seasonal variance of CO2 and CH4 fluxes were observed in Longxi River compared to those in Pengxi River. Through a comparative analysis of the environmental and watershed parameters in both rivers, it was found that the unstable hydraulic conditions and habitat of Longxi River prohibited the growth of phytoplankton, reducing its capability of carbon assimilation. The higher pollution load in the basin and the higher organic matters and total nitrogen in the impounding soil of Longxi River also resulted in the higher level of greenhouse gas fluxes compared to those in the Pengxi River. More studies shall be conducted to elucidate the variance of CH4 flux and its controlling factors in both rivers.

  16. Yakima Tributary Access and Habitat Program : Action Plan Final Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Myra, David; Ready, Carol A.

    2003-04-01

    This report covers activities conducted by the Yakima Tributary Access and Habitat Program under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) grant project No. 2002-025-00 for fiscal year 2002. The Yakima Tributary Access and Habitat Program (YTAHP, Program) was organized to restore salmonid passage to Yakima tributaries that historically supported salmonids and improve habitat in areas where access is restored. Specifically, this program is designed to (a) screen unscreened diversion structures to prevent fish entrainment into artificial waterways; (b) provide for fish passage at man-made barriers, such as diversion dams, culverts, siphons and bridges; and (c) provide information and assistance to landowners interested in to contributing to the improvement of water quality, water reliability and stream habitat. The YTAHP developed from a number of groups actively engaged in watershed management, and/or habitat restoration within the Yakima River Basin. These groups include the Washington State Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), Kittitas County Conservation District (KCCD), North Yakima Conservation District (NYCD), Kittitas County Water Purveyors (KCWP), and Ahtanum Irrigation District (AID). The US Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and Yakama Nation (YN) both participated in the development of the objectives of YTAHP. Other entities that will be involved during permitting or project review may include the YN, the federal Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and US Army Corps of Engineers (COE). Achievements of YTAHP with BPA Action Plan funding during FY 2002 were to: (1) Establish contracts with RC&D and YTAHP participants. (2) Determine contract mechanism for MWH engineering services. (3) Provide engineering designs and services for 11 early action projects, including inverted siphons, pump and gravity diversion screening, diversion metering, rock weirs for improved fish passage

  17. Evaluating tributary restoration potential for Pacific salmon recovery.

    PubMed

    Budy, Phaedra; Schaller, Howard

    2007-06-01

    Although habitat restoration can play a key role in the conservation of imperiled species, for animals that demonstrate long migrations and complex life histories, reliance on physical restoration of isolated habitat patches comes with considerable uncertainty. Nevertheless, within freshwater ecosystems, stream restoration has become a major conservation focus, with millions of dollars spent annually on efforts aimed at recovering degraded habitat and imperiled riverine species. Within this context, we addressed fundamental uncertainties of the focus on tributary restoration for recovery of salmon: (1) Is there potential for improving habitat in tributaries? (2) What magnitude of early survival improvement can be expected based on stream restoration? and (3) Will incremental increases in early survival be sufficient to ensure viability overall? We combined simple mechanistic habitat models, population viability measures, and categorical filters to quantify "restoration potential," expressed as increased total life-cycle survival in response to restored tributary condition, across 32 populations composing five major population groups (MPG). A wide gap remains between how much survival improvement is needed vs. what is likely to occur; restoration potential meets the necessary minimum increase needed for only four populations within one MPG. The remaining populations (84%, 4 MPG) still fall far below the survival increase needed for future viability. In addition, across all populations and groups, a 171% increase (on average) in total life-cycle survival is needed; only approximately 106% appears possible. A recovery strategy for these salmon that relies largely on tributary restoration to mitigate for known mortality imposed at other life stages (e.g., migration through hydropower dams) is risky with a low probability of success. We demonstrate an approach for completing an a priori evaluation of restoration potential linked to population viability, such that

  18. Central Nebraska river basins Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntzinger, Thomas L.; Ellis, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    The Central Nebraska Basins (NAWQA) study unit includes the Platte River and two major tributaries, the Loup and Elkhorn Rivers. Platte River flows are variable of diversions, but the Loup and Elkhorn Rivers originate in an area of dune sand covered by grassland that generates consistent base flows. Ground water has no regional confining units and the system is a water table aquifer throughout. Macroinvertebrate and fish taxa were related to stream flow. One of the four wetland complexes includes habitat for threatened and endangered bird species. A water quality assessments will be based on the differences in environmental setting in each of four subunits within the study unit.

  19. Zooplankton Linkages between Rivers and Great Lakes: Case Study from the St. Louis River

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this case study, we characterized the spatial and seasonal distribution and abundance of zooplankton within the hydrologically complex drowned river mouth of the St. Louis River, the second largest tributary to Lake Superior and an important fish nursery. We hypothesize that z...

  20. [Spatial distribution of macroinvertebrates in Xiangxi River].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wan-xiang; Cai, Qing-hua; Tang, Tao; Wu, Nai-cheng; Fu, Xiao-cheng; Li, Feng-qing; Liu, Rui-qiu

    2008-11-01

    An investigation was made from July 2005 to June 2006 to understand the spatial distribution of macroinvertebrates in Xiangxi River, the largest tributary in Hubei portion of Three Gorges Reservoir. The results showed that Ephemeroptera baetis spp., Ephemeroptera epeorus spp., and Plecoptera nemoura spp. were the dominant taxa. There existed greater differences in the habitat characters and in the community structure of macroinvertebrates among the major tributaries of Xiangxi River, and the relative abundance of functional feeding groups could reflect the characters of different habitats. A comparison of the diversity of dominant taxa and their tolerance towards pollution among the major tributaries showed that Jiuchong River had the best habitat, followed by the main stream of Xiangxi River, and Gaolan River and Gufu River. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the NH4+ -N concentration in the main stream of Xiangxi River, the pH, turbidity, water depth, SiO2, conductance, and alkalinity in Jiuchong River, the turbidity in Gaolan River, and the NH4+ -N and NO3- -N concentrations in Gufu River had significant impact on the community structure of macroinvertebrates.

  1. Postglacial sediment evacuation from the tributaries of the Upper Rhone, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoch, Anna; Prasicek, Günther; Blöthe, Jan; Hoffmann, Thomas; Mey, Jürgen; Schrott, Lothar

    2016-04-01

    The paraglacial concept implies that most of the sediment from the last glaciation at the end of the Pleistocene should be evacuated from the headwaters and currently be stored further downstream. However, the location and spatial distribution of sediment storages (e.g. valley fills, debris cones, talus slopes) in alpine regions has mainly been addressed in small-scale sediment budget studies (catchments up to 10² km²). Our study tests the assumptions of the paraglacial concept by assessing the rate of Postglacial sediment evacuation from the large-scale Upper Rhone basin (URB, c. 5400 km²) based on the mapping of Postglacial sediment storages, knickpoints and valley fills as well as estimates of valley fill volumes. We investigate the distribution of sediment storage in the URB, how sediment storage changes with increasing drainage area and how this is related to Pleistocene glacial imprint, the morphometry of the tributaries as well as the location of knickpoints in the river network. Therefore, we examine whether the areal extent of sediment coverage varies with the degree of glacial imprint and if knickpoints control the location of valley fills. Bedrock and sediment storage was mapped in five sub-regions of the URB (Goms, Lötschen valley, Val d'Illiez, Vallée de la Liène, Turtmann valley) in the field as well as from high-resolution remote sensing imagery. Using a high-resolution digital elevation model (2 m, SwissALTI3D by swisstopo) and Landsat imagery, we derived 23 parameters characterizing topography, surface characteristics, and vegetation cover. Subsequently, we applied a principal component analysis (PCA) and used the uncorrelated PCs with the highest explanatory power as predictors in a stepwise logistic regression model to predict the spatial distribution of bedrock and sediment storage for the whole URB. Model performance was tested with odds ratios and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The morphometric analysis of the

  2. Geochemical Indicators of Urban Development in Tributaries and Springs along the Bull Creek Watershed, Austin, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senison, J. J.; Banner, J. L.; Reyes, D.; Sharp, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization can cause significant changes to both flow and water quality in streams and tributaries. In the Austin, Texas, area, previous studies have demonstrated that streamwater strontium isotope compositions (87Sr/86Sr) correlate with measures of urbanization when comparing non-urbanized streams to their urban counterparts. The inclusion of municipal water into natural surface water is inferred from the mean 87Sr/86Sr value found in urbanized streams, which falls between the high value in treated municipal water and the lower values found in local surface streams sourcing from non-urbanized catchments. Fluoride is added to municipal tap water in the treatment process, and a correlation between 87Sr/86Sr and fluoride is observed in streamwater sampled from the watersheds around Austin. These relationships represent some of the principal findings reported in Christian et al. (2011). Current research is testing the hypothesis that municipal water influx in urban areas is a primary modifier of stream- and spring-water chemistry in a single watershed that contains a strong gradient in land use. We compare 87Sr/86Sr and other chemical constituents with potential contributing endmembers, such as municipal tap water and wastewater, local soil and rock leachates, and land use within the Bull Creek watershed. As a consequence of the history of land development, some Bull Creek tributaries are sourced and flow almost entirely in fully-developed areas, whereas others are located in protected natural areas. Thirteen tributaries were monitored and classified as either urbanized or non-urbanized based upon land use within the tributary catchment. Springs in the Bull Creek watershed were also sampled and are similarly classified. The Bull Creek watershed is composed of Lower Cretaceous limestone with significantly lower 87Sr/86Sr than that of municipal water taken from the Lower Colorado River, which is underlain in part by Precambrian rocks upstream of Austin. There are

  3. Hydraulic and water-quality data collection for the investigation of Great Lakes tributaries for Asian carp spawning and egg-transport suitability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    While hydraulic data from all four rivers indicated settling of eggs is possible in some locations, all four rivers also exhibited sufficient temperatures, water-quality characteristics, turbulence, and transport times outside of settling zones for successful suspension and development of Asian carp eggs to the hatching stage before the threat of settlement. These observed data indicate that these four Great Lakes tributaries have sufficient hydraulic and water-quality characteristics to support successful spawning and recruitment of Asian carps. The data indicate that with the right temperature and flow conditions, river reaches as short as 25 km may allow Asian carp eggs sufficient time to develop to hatching. Additionally, examining the relation between critical shear velocity and mean velocity, egg settling appears to take place at mean velocities in the range of 15–25 centimeters per second, a much lower value than is generally cited in the literature. A first-order estimate of the minimum transport velocity for Asian carp eggs in a river can be obtained by using mean flow depth and river substrate data, and curves were constructed to show this relation. These findings would expand the number of possible tributaries suitable for Asian carp spawning and contribute to the understanding of how hydraulic and water-quality information can be used to screen additional rivers in the future.

  4. Isotopic fingerprint of the middle Olt River basin, Romania.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Raluca; Costinel, Diana; Ionete, Roxana Elena; Axente, Damian

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important tributaries of the Danube River in Romania, the Olt River, was characterized in its middle catchment in terms of the isotopic composition using continuous flow-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS). Throughout a period of 10 months, from November 2010 to August 2011, water samples from the Olt River and its more important tributaries were collected in order to investigate the seasonal and spatial isotope patterns of the basin waters. The results revealed a significant difference between the Olt River and its tributaries, by the fact that the Olt River waters show smaller seasonal variations in the stable isotopic composition and are more depleted in (18)O and (2)H. The waters present an overall enrichment in heavy isotopes during the warm seasons.

  5. Astronautics and Aeronautics: A Chronology, 2001-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivey, William Noel; Lewis, Marieke

    2010-01-01

    This report is a chronological compilation of narrative summaries of news reports and government documents highlighting significant events and developments in U.S. and foreign aeronautics and astronautics. It covers the years 2001 through 2005. These summaries provide a day-by-day recounting of major activities, such as administrative developments, awards, launches, scientific discoveries, corporate and government research results, and other events in countries with aeronautics and astronautics programs. Researchers used the archives and files housed in the NASA History Division, as well as reports and databases on the NASA Web site.

  6. LITERATURE SURVEY ON ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCE RATIO MEASUREMENTS - 2001-2005

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-08-13

    Along with my usual weekly review of the published literature for new nuclear data, I also search for new candidates for best measurements of isotopic abundances from a single source. Most of the published articles, that I previously had found in the Research Library at the Brookhaven Lab, have already been sent to the members of the Atomic Weights Commission, by either Michael Berglund or Thomas Walczyk. In the last few days, I checked the published literature for any other articles in the areas of natural variations in isotopic abundance ratios, measurements of isotopic abundance ratios on samples of extra-terrestrial material and isotopic abundance ratio measurements performed using ICPMS instruments. Hopefully this information will be of interest to members of the Commission, the sub-committee on isotopic abundance measurements (SIAM), members of the former sub-committee on natural isotopic fractionation (SNIF), the sub-committee on extra-terrestrial isotope ratios (SETIR), the RTCE Task Group and the Guidelines Task Group, who are dealing with ICPMS and TIMS comparisons. In the following report, I categorize the publications in one of four areas. Measurements performed using either positive or negative ions with Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer, TIMS, instruments; measurements performed on Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer, ICPMS, instruments; measurements of natural variations of the isotopic abundance ratios; and finally measurements on extra-terrestrial samples with instrumentation of either type. There is overlap in these areas. I selected out variations and ET results first and then categorized the rest of the papers by TIMS and ICPMS.

  7. Yakima Tributary Access and Habitat Program, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Myra, D.; Ready, C.

    2003-12-01

    The Yakima Tributary Access and Habitat Program (YTAHP) was organized to restore salmonid passage to Yakima tributaries that historically supported salmonids and to improve habitat in areas where access is restored. This program intends to (a) screen unscreened diversion structures to prevent fish entrainment into artificial waterways; (b) provide for fish passage at man-made barriers, such as diversion dams, culverts, siphons and bridges; and (c) provide information and assistance to landowners interested in to contributing to the improvement of water quality, water reliability and stream habitat. The YTAHP developed from a number of groups actively engaged in watershed management, and/or habitat restoration within the Yakima River Basin. These groups include the Washington State Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), Kittitas County Conservation District (KCCD), North Yakima Conservation District (NYCD), Kittitas County Water Purveyors (KCWP), and Ahtanum Irrigation District (AID). The US Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and Yakama Nation (YN) both participated in the development of the objectives of YTAHP. Other entities that will be involved during permitting or project review may include the YN, the federal Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and US Army Corps of Engineers (COE). The objectives of YTAHP are listed below and also include subtasks detailed in the report: (1) Conduct Early Action Projects; (2) Review Strategic Plan; (3) Restore Access, including stream inventory, prioritization, implementation; and (4) Provide opportunities to improve habitat and conserve resources. The BPA YTAHP funding supported activities of the program which are described in this report. These activities are primarily related to objective 1 (conduct early action projects) and parts of objectives 2-4. The work supported by YTAHP funding will support a series of scheduled projects and be

  8. Climatic variation and runoff from partially-glacierised Himalayan tributary basins of the Ganges.

    PubMed

    Collins, David N; Davenport, Joshua L; Stoffel, Markus

    2013-12-01

    Climate records for locations across the southern slope of the Himalaya between 77°E and 91°E were selected together with discharge measurements from gauging stations on rivers draining partially-glacierised basins tributary to the Ganges, with a view to assessing impacts of climatic fluctuations on year-to-year variations of runoff during a sustained period of glacier decline. The aims were to describe temporal patterns of variation of glaciologically- and hydrologically-relevant climatic variables and of river flows from basins with differing percentages of ice-cover. Monthly precipitation and air temperature records, starting in the mid-nineteenth century at high elevation sites and minimising data gaps, were selected from stations in the Global Historical Climatology Network and CRUTEM3. Discharge data availability was limited to post 1960 for stations in Nepal and at Khab in the adjacent Sutlej basin. Strengths of climate-runoff relationships were assessed by correlation between overlapping portions of annual data records. Summer monsoon precipitation dominates runoff across the central Himalaya. Flow in tributaries of the Ganges in Nepal fluctuated from year to year but the general background level of flow was usually maintained from the 1960s to 2000s. Flow in the Sutlej, however, declined by 32% between the 1970s and 1990s, reflecting substantially reduced summer precipitation. Over the north-west Ganges-upper Sutlej area, monsoon precipitation declined by 30-40% from the 1960s to 2000s. Mean May-September air temperatures along the southern slope of the central Himalayas dipped from the 1960s, after a long period of slow warming or sustained temperatures, before rising rapidly from the mid-1970s so that in the 2000s summer air temperatures reached those achieved in earlier warmer periods. There are few measurements of runoff from highly-glacierised Himalayan headwater basins; runoff from one of which, Langtang Khola, was less than that of the monsoon

  9. Streamflow-induced variations in nitrate flux in tributaries to the Atlantic coastal zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, R.B.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Smith, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Streamflow-related variability in nutrient flux represents an important source of uncertainty in managing nutrient inputs to coastal ecosystems. Quantification of flux variability is of particular interest to coastal resource managers in adopting effective nutrient-reduction goals and monitoring progress towards these goals. We used historical records of streamflow and water-quality measurements for 104 river monitoring stations in an analysis of variability in annual and seasonal flux of nitrate to the Atlantic coastal zone. We present two measures of temporal flux variability: the coefficient of variation (CV) and the exceedence probability (EP) of 1.5 times the median flux. The magnitude of flux variations spans a very wide range and depends importantly upon the season of year and the climatic and land-use characteristics of the tributary watersheds. Year-to-year variations (CV) in annual mean flux range over two orders of magnitude, from 3-200% of the long-term mean flux, although variations more typically range from 20-40% of the long term mean. The annual probability of exceeding the long term median flux by more than 50% (EP) is less than 0.10 in most rivers, but is between 0.10 and 0.35 in 40% of the rivers. Year- to-year variability in seasonal mean flux commonly exceeds that in annual flux by a factor of 1.5 to 4. In western Gulf of Mexico coastal rivers, the year-to- year variability in the seasonal mean flux is larger than in other regions, and is of a similar magnitude in all seasons. By contrast, in Atlantic coastal rivers, the winter and spring seasons, which account for about 70% of the annual flux, display the smallest relative variability in seasonal mean flux. We quantify the elasticity of nutrient flux to hypothetical changes in streamflow (i.e., the percent increase in flux per percentage increase in mean discharge) to allow the approximation of flux variability from streamflow records and the estimation of the effects of future climatically

  10. Organic priority pollutants in nearshore fish from 14 Lake Michigan tributaries and embayments, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Camanzo, J.; Rice, C.P.; Jude, D.J.; Rossmann, R.

    1987-01-01

    Composite, nearshore, whole fish samples of selected species, collected in fall 1983 from 13 Lake Michigan tributaries and Grand Traverse Bay, were analyzed for a wide range of pesticides and priority pollutants using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study was carried out to identify existing source areas for known and previously unrecognized toxic substances. The authors strategy was to analyze those resident fish with the highest likely levels of contaminant. All fish analyzed exceeded the 2 mg/kg FDA action levels for PCBs, while 50% of the samples exceeded the DDTr IJC objective of 1 mg/kg. St. Joseph River common carp (Cyprinus carpio) carried the heaviest contaminant burden of all fish examined for PCBs (27.6 mg/kg), DDTr (10.2 kg/mg), and toxaphene (3.3 mg/kg); chlordane levels (0.85 mg/kg) were second highest to those in Kalamazoo River common carp (0.87 mg/kg). Concentrations of PCBs, toxaphene, DDT, DDE, and other pesticides were higher in bottom-feeding fish, such as common carp, than in top predators, e.g., northern pike (Esox lucius). Bottom feeders are relatively fatty fish, and live and feed near contaminated sediments, which increases their potential to bioaccumulate fat-soluble contaminants. Pesticides were also present in elevated concentrations in fish from sites with higher industrial and agricultural development. 31 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  11. Variation of Fraser Valley, British Columbia, Tributary Streams Water Chemistry, 2010 to 2014.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, S. J.; Gillies, S. L.; Ehrenbrink, B. P. E.; Voss, B.; Bulygina, E.; Fiske, G. J.; Birdwhistell, S.; Janmaat, A.; Yakemchuk, A.; Smith, S.; Faber, A.; Luymes, R.; Epp, A.; Bennett, M. C.; Fanslau, J.; Downey, B.; Wiebe, B.; VanKoughnett, H.; Macklam-Harron, G.; Herbert, J.

    2014-12-01

    The University of the Fraser Valley has undertaken the time series sampling of water chemistry of the Fraser River at Fort Langley, British Columbia and five Fraser Valley tributary creeks as a member of the Global Rivers Observatory (GRO, www.globalrivers.org) which is coordinated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institutionand Woods Hole Research Center. Kanaka Creek (Maple Ridge), Silverdale Creek (Mission), Clayburn Creek, Willband Creek and Nathan Creek (Abbotsford) have been sampled as part of the GRO. The creeks have been sampled for nutrient concentrations (silicate, phosphate, nitrate/nitrite, and ammonium), major ions and water chemistry parameters, such as dissolved oxygen, temperature, conductivity, pH, and turbidity monthly over the past four years. Each of these salmon bearing creeks is being threatened by anthropogenic activity (agricultural, industrial and residential development) that is occurring in the watersheds. Nathan and Willband Creeks are being threatened by agricultural activity, while Kanaka, Clayburn and Silverdale Creeks are being threatened by residential developments. Understanding these changes and their seasonal variations is crucial in assisting in protecting the natural habitat of these watersheds and streams.

  12. Tracing the sources of fine sediment in a nickel mining catchment using fallout and geogenic radionuclides (Thio River, New Caledonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, Olivier; Navratil, Oldrich; Lefèvre, Irène; Laceby, J. Patrick; Allenbach, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion and subsequent sediment transfer in rivers are exacerbated in tropical regions exposed to heavy rainfall. In New Caledonia, an island located in the southwestern part of the Southern Pacific Ocean, a significant fraction of this sediment is likely originating from tributaries draining nickel mining sites that are known to increase the terrigenous inputs to the rivers and, potentially to UNESCO World Heritage listed coastal lagoons. However, downstream contributions from these tributaries remain to be quantified. A pilot sediment tracing study has therefore been conducted in the 400-km² Thio River catchment. Fallout and geogenic radionuclides have been measured in sediment deposits collected in potential sources, i.e. (i) tributaries draining mines, (ii) tributaries draining 'natural' areas affected by landslides, and (iii) the main stem of the Thio River. Thorium-228 and Caesium-137 provide the best discrimination between sediment originating from the two tributaries. A distribution modelling approach was used to quantify the relative sediment contributions from these tributaries to the Thio River main stem. Results demonstrate that tributaries draining mining sites supply the majority of sediment (67-84%) to the main river. In the future, the validity of these results obtained on sediment deposits collected in April and May 2015 should be verified over a longer time period by applying a similar approach to sediment cores collected in the Thio river deltaic plain. Once validated, this method will be applicable to other catchments draining mines in New Caledonia to design appropriate measures to limit sediment supply to the lagoon.

  13. Water resources of the Yellow Medicine River Watershed, Southwestern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Novitzki, R.P.; Van Voast, Wayne A.; Jerabek, L.A.

    1969-01-01

    The Yellow Medicine and Minnesota Rivers are the major sources of surface water. For physiographic regions – Upland Plain, Slope, Lowland Plain, and Minnesota River Flood Plain – influence surface drainage, and the flow of ground water through the aquifers. The watershed comprises 1070 square miles, including the drainage basin of the Yellow Medicine River (665 square miles) and 405 square miles drained by small streams tributary to the Minnesota River.

  14. Floods in the English River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, A.J.; Riddle, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Information describing floods is essential for proper planning, design, and operation of bridges and other structures on or over streams and their flood plains. This report provides information on flood stages and discharges, flood magnitude and frequency, bench mark data, and flood profiles for the English River and some of its tributaries. It covers the English River, the North English River to near Guernsey, the south Eaglish River to Barnes City and the lower reaches of the Biddle English and Deep Rivers

  15. Assessing the link between coastal urbanization and the quality of nekton habitat in mangrove tidal tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krebs, Justin M.; Bell, Susan S.; McIvor, Carole C.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the potential influence of coastal development on habitat quality for estuarine nekton, we characterized body condition and reproduction for common nekton from tidal tributaries classified as undeveloped, industrial, urban or man-made (i.e., mosquito-control ditches). We then evaluated these metrics of nekton performance, along with several abundance-based metrics and community structure from a companion paper (Krebs et al. 2013) to determine which metrics best reflected variation in land-use and in-stream habitat among tributaries. Body condition was not significantly different among undeveloped, industrial, and man-made tidal tributaries for six of nine taxa; however, three of those taxa were in significantly better condition in urban compared to undeveloped tributaries. Palaemonetes shrimp were the only taxon in significantly poorer condition in urban tributaries. For Poecilia latipinna, there was no difference in body condition (length–weight) between undeveloped and urban tributaries, but energetic condition was significantly better in urban tributaries. Reproductive output was reduced for both P. latipinna (i.e., fecundity) and grass shrimp (i.e., very low densities, few ovigerous females) in urban tributaries; however a tradeoff between fecundity and offspring size confounded meaningful interpretation of reproduction among land-use classes for P. latipinna. Reproductive allotment by P. latipinna did not differ significantly among land-use classes. Canonical correspondence analysis differentiated urban and non-urban tributaries based on greater impervious surface, less natural mangrove shoreline, higher frequency of hypoxia and lower, more variable salinities in urban tributaries. These characteristics explained 36 % of the variation in nekton performance, including high densities of poeciliid fishes, greater energetic condition of sailfin mollies, and low densities of several common nekton and economically important taxa from urban tributaries

  16. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington, Collection of Surface Water, River Sediments, and Island Soils

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2009-09-28

    This report has been prepared in support of the remedial investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River and describes the 2008/2009 data collection efforts. This report documents field activities associated with collection of sediment, river water, and soil in and adjacent to the Columbia River near the Hanford Site and in nearby tributaries.

  17. Water quality of the main tributaries of the Paraná Basin: glyphosate and AMPA in surface water and bottom sediments.

    PubMed

    Ronco, A E; Marino, D J G; Abelando, M; Almada, P; Apartin, C D

    2016-08-01

    The Paraná River, the sixth largest in the world, is the receptor of pollution loads from tributaries traversing urban and industrialized areas plus agricultural expanses, particularly so in the river's middle and lower reaches along the Argentine sector. In the present study, we analyzed and discussed the main water quality parameters, sediment compositions, and content of the herbicide glyphosate plus its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in water and sediments. Samples were obtained from distal positions in the principal tributaries of the Paraná and the main watercourse during surveys conducted in 2011 and 2012 to monitor the basin. Only 15 % of the water samples contained detectable concentrations of glyphosate at an average concentration of 0.60 μg/L, while no detectable levels of AMPA were observed. The herbicide and metabolite were primarily present in sediments of the middle and lower stretch's tributaries, there occurring at a respective average of 37 and 17 % in samples. The mean detectable concentrations measured were 742 and 521 μg/kg at mean, maximum, and minimum glyphosate/AMPA ratios of 2.76, 7.80, and 0.06, respectively. The detection of both compounds was correlated with the presence of sulfides and copper in the sediment matrix.

  18. Water quality of the main tributaries of the Paraná Basin: glyphosate and AMPA in surface water and bottom sediments.

    PubMed

    Ronco, A E; Marino, D J G; Abelando, M; Almada, P; Apartin, C D

    2016-08-01

    The Paraná River, the sixth largest in the world, is the receptor of pollution loads from tributaries traversing urban and industrialized areas plus agricultural expanses, particularly so in the river's middle and lower reaches along the Argentine sector. In the present study, we analyzed and discussed the main water quality parameters, sediment compositions, and content of the herbicide glyphosate plus its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in water and sediments. Samples were obtained from distal positions in the principal tributaries of the Paraná and the main watercourse during surveys conducted in 2011 and 2012 to monitor the basin. Only 15 % of the water samples contained detectable concentrations of glyphosate at an average concentration of 0.60 μg/L, while no detectable levels of AMPA were observed. The herbicide and metabolite were primarily present in sediments of the middle and lower stretch's tributaries, there occurring at a respective average of 37 and 17 % in samples. The mean detectable concentrations measured were 742 and 521 μg/kg at mean, maximum, and minimum glyphosate/AMPA ratios of 2.76, 7.80, and 0.06, respectively. The detection of both compounds was correlated with the presence of sulfides and copper in the sediment matrix. PMID:27395359

  19. Connecticut River Hydrologic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballestero, T. P.

    2004-12-01

    The Connecticut River basin possesses some characteristics that make it unique for studying hydrologic issues that transcend scale. The watershed was first dramatically altered through natural processes (glaciation) and then heavily impacted by human stresses (dams, deforestation, acid precipitation/deposition), only to exhibit recent decades of return to a more natural state (reforestation, land conservation, stream restoration, pollution abatement, and dam removal). The watershed is sufficiently north to be classified as a cold region. More specifically to hydrology, the watershed exhibits the spectrum of flooding problems: ice dams, convective storms, hurricanes, rain on melting snow, and low pressure systems. The 28,000 square kilometer Connecticut River Watershed covers one third of the states of New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. The >640-km long rivers' headwaters start on the Canadian border at the Fourth Connecticut Lake, and flows southward to discharge in Long Island sound. The lower 100 km of river are tidally influenced. The Connecticut River is responsible for 70 % of the freshwater inflow to Long Island Sound. The Connecticut River is a sixth order stream that exhibits a dendritic pattern in an elongated scheme. This setting therefore affords many first and second order streams in almost parallel fashion, flowing west or east towards the central Connecticut River spine. There are 38 major tributaries to the mainstem Connecticut River, and 26 of these tributaries drain greater than 250 square kilometers. There is in excess of 30,000 km of perennially flowing stream length in the watershed. For more information, see: http://www.unh.edu/erg/connho/

  20. Savannah River Aquatic Ecology Program: Volume 3, Macroinvertebrates periphyton and water quality: Annual report, October 1983-September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hop, J.R.; Tilly, L.J.; Chimney, M.J.; Painter, W.B.

    1985-12-01

    This report presents data on: (1) the taxonomic composition, biomass, and density of macroinvertebrates which colonize artificial substrate samplers; (2) the taxonomic composition and densities of macroinvertebrates in the drift communities of the Savannah River and five tributary creeks; (3) the biomass and chlorophyll a content of periphyton communities that colonize artificial substrates; (4) water quality data for selected parameters in the Savannah River and major tributary creeks upstream, downstream and in the vicinity of the SRP; and (5) the possible impacts of the existing and proposed SRP thermal discharges on the macroinvertebrate and periphyton communities of the Savannah River and tributary creeks.

  1. Yakima River Species Interactions Studies Annual Report, FY 1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Hindman, James N.

    1991-02-01

    Studies of species interactions were implemented to address concerns about the possible effects of supplementation (with anadromous species) on resident fish populations in the upper Yakima River basin. The current study objectives include collection of baseline information on the fish populations in the upper Yakima River and associated tributaries. As part of this baseline phase, spawning surveys of the upper Yakima River and thirteen selected tributaries between Roza and Keechelus dams were initiated during the spring of 1990. This report summarizes the results of field activities conducted from December, 1989 to June, 1990.

  2. [Trophic states and nutrient output of tributaries in Three Gorges Reservoir area].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng; Li, Chong-Ming; Zheng, Bing-Hui; Zhai, Chong-Zhi; Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Qin

    2007-03-01

    TP, TN, chlorophyll a, potassium permanganate index and secchi depth (SD) and phytoplankton were determined in 15 tributaries of Three Gorges Reservoir. Trophic states were assessed and output fluxes of TN, TP and potassium permanganate index were calculated. The results showed that value of TN, TP, potassium permanganate index, SD and Chla were different in each tributary. SD, TN, TP, potassium permanganate index and Chla value are 0.45 - 1.5 m, 0.65 - 4.27 mg x L(-1), 0.011 - 0.432 mg x L(-1), 0.657 - 5.37 mg x L(-1) and 0.57 - 12.2 mg x m(-3) respectively. The water body of tributaries is polluted at various levels. The concentration of TN is abundant. The rate of TN and TP showed that a part of tributaries eutrophication are limited by TP. Utilizing the method of integrated nutrition state index, it assessed the trophic states degree of tributaries. All of the studied tributaries, 3 tributaries are eutropher, 10 tributaries are mesotropher and 2 tributaries are oligotropher respectively. 129 species of phytoplankton are identified, which belongs to 7 division and 67 genera. The dominant species are Bacillariophyceae, Chiorophyceae and Cyanophyta. The type of phytoplankton community is Bacillariophyceae-Chlorophyceaetype, Bacillariophyceae-Cyanophytatype and Cyanophyta-Chlorophyceaetype. The species and numbers of phytoplankton are various in different tributaries. The nutritive peculiarity belongs to responding type of phytoplankton. The nutrient fluxes load was calculated by discharge and concentration of each tributary. The nutrient fluxes load of TN, TP and potassium permanganate index are 3.14 x 10(5) t, 1.76 x 10(4) t and 2.74 x 10(5) t respectively in one year. After the Three Gorges Dam was completed in 2009, eutrophication trend of tributaries estuaries would be more serious with the decreasing of flow velocity.

  3. Tributary response to baselevel fall in Grand Canyon: incision timing and influences of coarse sediment supply on knickpoint form and channel steepness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, A.; Whipple, K. X.

    2015-12-01

    Western Grand Canyon is characterized by a steep inner gorge inset into broad upland plateaus. The uplands preserve sediments and volcanic rock from a period of relatively stable baselevel during the Tertiary coeval with the erosional beveling of the Hualapai Plateau to a low relief surface that cross cuts dipping erosionally resistant carbonates and weaker shale and sandstone units. Low erosion rates on the plateau surface persist, but more recent baselevel fall likely drove dissection of the plateau by the Colorado River and its tributaries. Baselevel of the western Grand Canyon region was likely lowered a net ~1000 m during basin and range extension coincident with slip on the Grand Wash fault between 18 and 12 million years ago and associated sedimentation. The tributaries draining into the Grand Wash Trough produce canyons and rugged topography, but these channels and surrounding hillslopes are not as steep as in the western Grand Canyon. Channel steepness and hillslope gradient are positively correlated with erosion rate where lithology and climate are similar and we infer that erosion rate is higher and began more recently in western Grand Canyon than along the Grand Wash Cliffs. The tributaries of western Grand Canyon express a variety of knickpoint forms, opening several questions about the controls on channel form due to baselevel fall. Knickpoints here are often expressed at lithologic contacts however there is no predictive relationship between lithology and the magnitude or shape of an associated knickpoint. Large tributaries tend toward gentle knickpoints, with few small or no waterfalls, while small tributaries tend toward localized abrupt knickpoints with ephemeral waterfalls reaching over 100 m in height. We hypothesize the large, waterfall-style knickpoints may be fluvial hanging valleys and are exploring whether they are associated with a threshold contributing drainage area. However, variable contributions of sediment type and size may

  4. Flooding of the Ob and Irtysh Rivers, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of true- and false-color images shows flooding along the Ob' (large east-west running river) and Irtysh (southern tributary of the Ob') on July 7, 2002. In the false-color image, land surfaces are orange-gold and flood waters are black or dark blue. Fires are marked with red dots in both images. Rivers

  5. A New Hydrogeological Research Site in the Willamette River Floodplain

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Willamette River is a ninth-order tributary of the Columbia which passes through a productive and populous region in northwest Oregon. Where unconstrained by shoreline revetments, the floodplain of this river is a high-energy, dynamic system which supports a variety of ripari...

  6. Flooding in the South Platte River and Fountain Creek Basins in eastern Colorado, September 9–18, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimbrough, Robert A.; Holmes, Jr., Robert R.

    2015-11-25

    Flooding in the Fountain Creek Basin was primarily contained to Fountain Creek from southern Colorado Springs to its confluence with the Arkansas River in Pueblo, in lower Monument Creek, and in several mountain tributaries. New record peak streamflows occurred at four mountain tributary streamgages having at least 10 years of record; Bear Creek, Cheyenne Creek, Rock Creek, and Little Fountain

  7. Captures, Cutoffs, and Autogenic Drainage Basin Reorganization from Bedrock River Meandering in the Oregon Coast Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. N.; Finnegan, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Meandering bedrock channels in the Oregon Coast Range (OCR), USA, have lateral migration rates far in excess of vertical incision rates. Consequently, the sweeping of trunk streams through this landscape can locally exert a much stronger influence on tributary channel long profiles than far-field tectonic forcing of base-level. Here, we use LiDAR-data to explore the influence of lateral channel mobility on the evolution of tributaries to the Smith River, in the OCR. We focus on two processes that dramatically and instantaneously change tributary long profiles: 1) Capture of tributaries by growing meander bends, and 2) Meander bend neck cutoffs on the main-stem that leave tributaries disconnected from base-level lowering. We focus on these two types of events because they provide clear examples of autogenic drivers of landscape disequilibrium at the sub-watershed scale in a landscape that is commonly argued to reflect steady tectonic forcing of base-level. We show that tributary streams are significantly more likely to flow into the leading edge of meander bends, testifying to the repeated capture of tributaries by growing bends. Examples of eminent captures by migrating bends, and examples with large knick points along recently captured tributaries suggest that the autogenic capture of tributaries by growing bends is a fundamental cause of transience in tributary channels in this landscape. To demonstrate the influence of the process of meander bend neck cutoff on tributary long profile evolution, we compare the long profiles of 34 tributaries that were hung above the main-stem of the Smith River following neck cutoff events. These stagnated tributary channels typically exhibit large convexities that record ongoing lowering of the trunk stream. Measured heights of these hanging tributaries implies that the timescale of adjustment for tributaries following cutoff events is ~ 105-106 years. The timescale of adjustment of tributary channels following meander cutoff

  8. Nutrient chemistry of River Pinios (Thessalia, Greece).

    PubMed

    Bellos, D; Sawidis, T; Tsekos, I

    2004-03-01

    The impact of human activities with 3-year monitoring on the fluctuation of nutrients along the Pinios River and its tributaries were studied. Their seasonal variations throughout the years 1996-1998 were also presented. High temperatures, from June to August, cause a restriction of the water flow, an enhancement of nutrient concentration with the subsequent increase of eutrophication. High concentrations of nutrients were observed first in winter (wet period), caused by leaching of fertilizers from terrestrial systems after heavy rainfall, later during the warm months due to low water flow of the river, and at last in autumn when plant organisms began to decompose. The intensive algal and macrophyte growth (spring, summer) resulted in severe depletion of nutrients. Organic carbon showed no seasonal trend but its values were high near the estuaries. Nitrate fluxes were high at the initial station (sources) and the Titarisios tributary, whereas nitrites and ammonium were low. In contrary, the Kalentzis tributary with relatively low nitrate values showed increased values of nitrite ammonium or total nitrogen. On the other hand, the Enipeas tributary showed high SO4 values. Phosphates are remarkably present mainly after the city of Larissa, where sewage and industrial discharges occur. None of the nutrients measured in the Pinios River and its tributaries showed a clear seasonal cycle of concentration. Concentrations of nutrients and organic carbon increased as a consequence of anthropogenic inputs, particularly point discharges from sewage treatment plants (i.e. showing distinct, but variable, concentration peaks), as well as diffuse urban and/or agricultural runoff over long areas during storm events. The agricultural management, the urban pollution, mainly from Larissa City, and the climate conditions in the catchment basin (Thessalia Plain) of Pinios River and its tributaries greatly affect the chemical composition of their waters. PMID:14664870

  9. Nutrient chemistry of River Pinios (Thessalia, Greece).

    PubMed

    Bellos, D; Sawidis, T; Tsekos, I

    2004-03-01

    The impact of human activities with 3-year monitoring on the fluctuation of nutrients along the Pinios River and its tributaries were studied. Their seasonal variations throughout the years 1996-1998 were also presented. High temperatures, from June to August, cause a restriction of the water flow, an enhancement of nutrient concentration with the subsequent increase of eutrophication. High concentrations of nutrients were observed first in winter (wet period), caused by leaching of fertilizers from terrestrial systems after heavy rainfall, later during the warm months due to low water flow of the river, and at last in autumn when plant organisms began to decompose. The intensive algal and macrophyte growth (spring, summer) resulted in severe depletion of nutrients. Organic carbon showed no seasonal trend but its values were high near the estuaries. Nitrate fluxes were high at the initial station (sources) and the Titarisios tributary, whereas nitrites and ammonium were low. In contrary, the Kalentzis tributary with relatively low nitrate values showed increased values of nitrite ammonium or total nitrogen. On the other hand, the Enipeas tributary showed high SO4 values. Phosphates are remarkably present mainly after the city of Larissa, where sewage and industrial discharges occur. None of the nutrients measured in the Pinios River and its tributaries showed a clear seasonal cycle of concentration. Concentrations of nutrients and organic carbon increased as a consequence of anthropogenic inputs, particularly point discharges from sewage treatment plants (i.e. showing distinct, but variable, concentration peaks), as well as diffuse urban and/or agricultural runoff over long areas during storm events. The agricultural management, the urban pollution, mainly from Larissa City, and the climate conditions in the catchment basin (Thessalia Plain) of Pinios River and its tributaries greatly affect the chemical composition of their waters.

  10. Water quality of Lake Tuscaloosa and streamflow and water quality of selected tributaries to Lake Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 1982-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Lake Tuscaloosa, created in 1969 by the impoundment of North River, provides the primary water supply for Tuscaloosa, Alabama , and surrounding areas. This report describes the percent contribution of major tributaries to the mean inflow to the lake; water quality; and changes in water quality in the lake and selected tributaries. During base flow, about 60% of the total flow into Lake Tuscaloosa is contributed by Binion and Carroll Creeks, which drain only 22% of the Lake Tuscaloosa basin. Binion and Carroll Creek basins are underlain primarily by sand and gravel deposits of the Coker Formation. Mean inflow to the lake was 1,150 cu ft/sec during 1983, a wet year, and 450 cu ft/sec during 1985, a relatively dry year. More than 80% of the total inflow during both years was contributed by North River and Binion, Cripple, and Carroll Creeks. About 59% was contributed by North River during those years. Except for pH, sulfate, and dissolved and total recoverable iron and manganese, the water quality of the tributaries is generally within drinking water limits and acceptable for most uses. The water quality of Lake Tuscaloosa is generally within drinking water limits and acceptable for most uses. The maximum and median concentrations of sulfate increased every year at the dam from 1979 to 1985 (7.2 to 18 mg/L and 6.2 to 14 mg/L, respectively). The dissolved solids concentrations for water at the dam have varied (1979-86) from 27 to 43 mg/L; the sulfate, 5.2 to 18 mg/L; and the dissolved iron, 10 to 250 micrograms/L--all within the recommended drinking water limits. However, concentrations of dissolved manganese and total recoverable iron and manganese at the dam commonly exceeded the recommended drinking water limits. In November 1985, after the summer warmup and increase in biological activity, the water quality at five depth profiles sites on Lake Tuscaloosa was acceptable for most uses, generally. However, a dissolved oxygen concentration of 1 mg/L or less was

  11. South Fork Clearwater River Habitat Enhancement, Crooked and Red Rivers : Annual Report, 1989.

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, William H.

    1990-01-01

    In 1983, the Nez Perce National Forest and the Bonneville Power Administration entered into an interagency agreement to enhance and improve habitat for two anadromous fish species, spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawyscha) and summer steelhead trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss), in the South Fork Clearwater River tributaries. The South Fork Clearwater River was dammed in 1927 for hydroelectric development. Anadromous fish runs were virtually eliminated until the dam was removed in 1962. To complicate the problem, upstream spawning and rearing habitats were severely impacted by dredge and hydraulic mining, road building, timber harvest, and over-grazing. Fish habitat improvement projects under the above contract are being carried out in two major tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River. Both the Red River and the Crooked River projects began in 1983 and will be completed in 1990. 12 figures., 1 tab.

  12. Estuarine River Data for the Ten Thousand Islands Area, Florida, Water Year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrne, Michael J.; Patino, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected stream discharge, stage, salinity, and water-temperature data near the mouths of 11 tributaries flowing into the Ten Thousand Islands area of Florida from October 2004 to June 2005. Maximum positive discharge from Barron River and Faka Union River was 6,000 and 3,200 ft3/s, respectively; no other tributary exceeded 2,600 ft3/s. Salinity variation was greatest at Barron River and Faka Union River, ranging from 2 to 37 ppt, and from 3 to 34 ppt, respectively. Salinity maximums were greatest at Wood River and Little Wood River, each exceeding 40 ppt. All data were collected prior to the commencement of the Picayune Strand Restoration Project, which is designed to establish a more natural flow regime to the tributaries of the Ten Thousand Islands area.

  13. [Trophic states and nutrient output of tributaries bay in Three Gorges Reservoir after impoundment].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng; Li, Chong-Ming; Fu, Yong-Chuan; Zhang, Yong; Zheng, Jian

    2008-01-01

    After the Three Gorges Reservoir storaged water in June 2003, total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), chlorophyll a (Chl-a), potassium permanganate index and Secchi depth (SD) were determined in 12 tributaries bay in Three Gorges Reservoir. Trophic states were assessed and output fluxes of TN, TP and potassium permanganate index were calculated. The results showed that value of TN,TP, potassium permanganate index, SD and Chl-a were different in each tributary bay. SD, TN, TP, potassium permanganate index and Chl-a value were 0.10-3.5m, 0.535-7.47 mg x L(-1), 0.016-0.835 mg x L(-1), 1.55-5.88 mg x L(-1) and 1.38-23.7 mg x m(-3) respectively. The water body of tributaries is polluted at various levels. The concentration of TN is abundant. The rate of TN and TP showed that a part of tributaries eutrophication were limited by TP. The correlation of nutrient and Chl-a were researched. It indicated there was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.6242) between chlorophyll a and potassium permanganate index. Utilizing the method of integrated nutrition state index, it assessed the trophic states degree of tributaries bay. The integrated nutrition state index ranged from 33.3 to 66.1. Among all of the studied tributaries, 5 tributaries are eutrophic in May and 8 tributaries are eutrophic in June. The rest of tributaries are mesotrophic. The degree of eutrophication is more serious than before the Three Gorges Reservoir impoundment. The nutrient fluxes load was calculated by discharge and concentration of each tributary. The nutrient fluxes load of TN, TP, potassium permanganate index and NH4(+)-N are 668, 26.7, 890 and 99.2 g x s(-1) respectively. After the Three Gorges Dam was completed in 2009, eutrophication trend of tributaries estuaries will be more serious with the more slow flow velocity.

  14. Reestablish Safe Access into Tributaries of the Yakima Subbasin, Progress Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Hank

    2003-03-01

    Safe Access work has concentrated on the lower portions of five drainages in the Upper Yakima Basin. Streams in the Kittitas Valley include Wilson Creek, Naneum and Little Naneum Creeks, Reecer and Currier Creeks, and Manastash Creek. Tucker Creek is tributary to the Yakima River near Easton, Washington to the northwest. For numerous reasons delays in project implementation have occurred. Unclear water rights have resulted in long delays; however, permitting delays, general landowner reluctance to commit to any deviation from past practices, and lengthy legal review have all been factors. Realistic work windows are short and do not coincide well with fiscal year planning and contract renewals. The following is a summary of the projects anticipated under Safe Access that the Yakama Nation thought would be funded by BPA via carry-forward/over monies. Preparatory work toward construction in 03 was done for projects in the Wilson, Naneum and Tucker Creek systems; feasibility studies were done in the Manastash and Reecer systems by Montgomery Watson Harza (MWH) relative to screening and passage options and associated costs.

  15. Reestablish Safe Access into Tributaries of the Yakima Subbasin, 2002-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Hank

    2003-03-01

    ''Safe Access'' work has concentrated on the lower portions of five drainages in the Upper Yakima Basin. Streams in the Kittitas Valley include Wilson Creek, Naneum and Little Naneum Creeks, Reecer and Currier Creeks, and Manastash Creek. Tucker Creek is tributary to the Yakima River near Easton, Washington to the northwest. For numerous reasons delays in project implementation have occurred. Unclear water rights have resulted in long delays; however, permitting delays, general landowner reluctance to commit to any deviation from past practices, and lengthy legal review have all been factors. Realistic work windows are short and do not coincide well with fiscal year planning and contract renewals. The following is a summary of the projects anticipated under ''Safe Access'' that the Yakama Nation thought would be funded by BPA via carry-forward/over monies. Preparatory work toward construction in '03 was done for projects in the Wilson, Naneum and Tucker Creek systems; feasibility studies were done in the Manastash and Reecer systems by Montgomery Watson Harza (MWH) relative to screening and passage options and associated costs.

  16. Delineating incised stream sediment sources within a San Francisco Bay tributary basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, Paul; Benda, Lee; Pearce, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Erosion and sedimentation pose ubiquitous problems for land and watershed managers, requiring delineation of sediment sources and sinks across landscapes. However, the technical complexity of many spatially explicit erosion models precludes their use by practitioners. To address this critical gap, we demonstrate a contemporary use of applied geomorphometry through a straightforward GIS analysis of sediment sources in the San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA, designed to support erosion reduction strategies. Using 2 m lidar digital elevation models, we delineated the entire river network in the Arroyo Mocho watershed (573 km2) at the scale of ˜ 30 m segments and identified incised landforms using a combination of hillslope gradient and planform curvature. Chronic erosion to the channel network was estimated based on these topographic attributes and the size of vegetation, and calibrated to sediment gage data, providing a spatially explicit estimate of sediment yield from incised channels across the basin. Rates of erosion were summarized downstream through the channel network, revealing patterns of sediment supply at the reach scale. Erosion and sediment supply were also aggregated to subbasins, allowing comparative analyses at the scale of tributaries. The erosion patterns delineated using this approach provide land use planners with a robust framework to design erosion reduction strategies. More broadly, the study demonstrates a modern analysis of important geomorphic processes affected by land use that is easily applied by agencies to solve common problems in watersheds, improving the integration between science and environmental management.

  17. Seasonal variation in habitat use of juvenile Steelhead in a tributary of Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Studdert, Emily W.; Johnson, James H.

    2015-01-01

    We examined seasonal-habitat use by subyearling and yearling Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout or Steelhead) in Trout Brook, a tributary of the Salmon River, NY. We determined daytime fish-habitat use and available habitat during August and October of the same year and observed differences in habitat selection among year classes. Water depth and cover played the greatest role in Steelhead habitat use. During summer and autumn, we found yearling Steelhead in areas with deeper water and more cover than where we observed subyearling Steelhead. Both year classes sought out areas with abundant cover during both seasons; this habitat was limited within the stream reach. Subyearling Steelhead were associated with more cover during autumn, even though available cover within the stream reach was greater during summer. Principal component analysis showed that variation in seasonal-habitat use was most pronounced for subyearling Steelhead and that yearling Steelhead were more selective in their habitat use than subyearling Steelhead. The results of this study contribute to a greater understanding of how this popular sportfish is adapting to a new environment and the factors that may limit juvenile Steelhead survival. Our findings provide valuable new insights into the seasonal-habitat requirements of subyearling and yearling Steelhead that can be used by fisheries managers to enhance and protect the species throughout the Great Lakes region.

  18. Geometrical and gravimetrical observations of the Aral Sea and its tributaries along with hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.; Seitz, F.; Schwatke, C.; Güntner, A.

    2012-04-01

    Satellite altimetry is capable of measuring surface water level changes of large water bodies. This is especially interesting for regions where in-situ gauges are sparse or not available. Temporal variations of coastline and horizontal extent of a water body can be derived from optical remote sensing data. A joint analysis of both data types together with a digital elevation model allows for the estimation of water volume changes. Related variations of water mass map into the observations of the satellite gravity field mission GRACE. In this presentation, we demonstrate the application of heterogeneuous remote sensing methods for studying chages of water volume and mass of the Aral Sea and compare the results with respect to their consistency. Our analysis covers the period 2002-2011. In particular we deal with data from multi-mission radar and laser satellite altimetry that are analyzed in combination with coastlines from Landsat images. The resultant vertical and horizontal variations of the lake surface are geometrically intersected with the bathymetry of the Aral Sea in order to compute volumetric changes. These are transformed into variations of water mass that are subsequently compared with storage changes derived from GRACE satellite gravimetry. Hence we obtain a comprehensive picture of the hydrological changes in the region. Observations from all datasets correspond quite well with each other with respect to their temporal development. However, geometrically determined volume changes and mass changes observed by GRACE agree less well during years of heavy water inflow in to the Aral Sea from its southern tributary 'Amu Darya' since the GRACE signals are contaminated by the large mass of water stored in the river delta and prearalie region On the other hand, GRACE observations of the river basins of Syr Darya and Amu Dayra correspond very well with hydrological models and mass changes computed from the balance of precipitation, evaporation and runoff

  19. Physicochemical and analytical data for tributary water, lake water, and lake sediment, Lake Arrowhead, Clay and Archer Counties, Texas, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Jennifer T.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Haynie, Monti M.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    Lake Arrowhead is a reservoir about 24 kilometers southeast of Wichita Falls, Texas, that provides drinking water for the city of Wichita Falls and surrounding areas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Wichita Falls, did a study in 2006 to assess conditions contributing to elevated arsenic concentrations in Lake Arrowhead. This report describes the sampling and analytical methods, quality assurance, and physicochemical and analytical data. Physiochemical properties were measured in and water samples were collected from five tributaries to Lake Arrowhead (Little Wichita River, West Little Post Oak Creek, East Little Post Oak Creek, Deer Creek, and an unnamed tributary) immediately after storms. Lake water measuring and sampling were done approximately monthly from January through September 2006 at three deep-water sites and seasonally, in January and August 2006, at three shallow-water sites. Cores of lake bottom sediment were collected from five sites on August 30, 2006. Arsenic concentrations in tributary water samples ranged from 1.5 to 6.3 and 0.5 to 4.8 micrograms per liter for unfiltered and filtered samples, respectively. The highest arsenic concentrations were in samples collected from the West Little Post Oak Creek sampling site. Physicochemical properties in lake water varied with depth and season. Dissolved arsenite plus arsenate concentrations in lake water samples generally were between 3 and 5 micrograms per liter. Arsenite concentrations typically were below the laboratory reporting level of 0.6 microgram per liter. There were no detections of monomethylarsonate or dimethylarsinate. The concentration of arsenic in lake sediment samples ranged from 4.4 to 11.2 milligrams per kilogram, with a median of 6.4 milligrams per kilogram. The median arsenic concentration of the five top-interval sediment samples was 8.8 milligrams per kilogram, which generally is higher than the concentrations estimated to be on suspended sediment in

  20. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  1. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  2. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  3. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  4. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  5. 75 FR 77691 - Douglas and Nolichucky Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, in Cocke, Greene, Hamblen...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Douglas and Nolichucky Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, in Cocke, Greene, Hamblen, Jefferson... (NEPA). TVA has prepared the Douglas and Nolichucky Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan for the 3...). Under the plan adopted by the TVA Board, TVA-managed public land on Douglas and Nolichucky...

  6. The 1965 Mississippi River flood in Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwob, Harian H.; Myers, Richard E.

    1965-01-01

    Flood data compiled for the part of the River along the eastern border include flood discharges, flood elevations, and the frequency of floods of varying magnitudes. They also include the daily or more frequent stage and discharge data for both the Mississippi River and the downstream gaging stations on Iowa tributaries for the period March-May 1965. Sufficient data are presented to permit studied for preparation of plans for protective works and plans for zoning or for flood plain regulation.

  7. Impacts of Precipitation on Pathogens and a Fecal Indicator in a Tributary and Near-Coastal Area of Lake Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zepp, R. G.; Molina, M.; Cyterski, M.; Whelan, G.; Parmar, R.; Wolfe, K.; Villegas, E. N.; Corsi, S. R.; Borchardt, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Great Lakes have over 100 tributaries contributing a variety of pollutants, including pathogens. This loading results in contamination of near coastal sites on the lakes by pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria, such as enterococci. Here, we present data, relationships and modeling tools for evaluating exposure to microorganisms in Lake Michigan near Manitowoc, WI and in the Manitowoc River, a tributary that flows into Lake Michigan at Manitowoc. Increased precipitation and subsequent runoff during a basin-wide storm in June 2011 caused an order of magnitude increase in riverine discharge, a 100-fold increase in enterococci densities and a doubling of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the river. CDOM is a UV-protective substance that decreases UV inactivation of enterococci and most pathogens. Water samples were collected at four riverine sites including at a USGS gage station with large-volume pathogen sampling equipment, one beach site at Lake Michigan and at a nearby stormwater outflow. Potential sources of microbial contamination include agricultural activities such as manure application and wastewater treatment effluent; therefore, additional samples were collected from the effluent stream of the Manitowoc Wastewater Treatment Facility and manure from spreading trucks. Pathogens measured included Campylobacter jejuni, E. coli O157:H7, Enterovirus - 5' UTR , Adenovirus Groups A , B, C, D, and F, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis. Meteorological data were also collected at nearby weather stations and water-quality data such as turbidity, temperature, conductivity, and chlorophyll were also measured. Three acoustic doppler current profilers were located between the river mouth and the beach to measure current movements. The data were analyzed using modeling infrastructure technologies (FRAMES, D4EM and SuperMUSE) coupled with hydrodynamic and water quality models (HSPF, WASP, HEC-RAS, FVCOM and MRA-IT) and the Virtual Beach 3.0 statistical

  8. Stream habitat and water-quality information for sites in the Buffalo River Basin and nearby basins of Arkansas, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The Buffalo River lies in north-central Arkansas and is a tributary of the White River. Stream-habitat and water-quality information are presented for 52 sites in the Buffalo River Basin and adjacent areas of the White River Basin. The information was collected during the summers of 2001 and 2002 to supplement fish community sampling during the same time period.

  9. Concentrations and Loads of Organic Compounds and Trace Elements in Tributaries to Newark and Raritan Bays, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Timothy P.; Bonin, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the concentrations and loads of sediment and chemicals delivered to Newark and Raritan Bays by five major tributaries: the Raritan, Passaic, Rahway, Elizabeth, and Hackensack Rivers. This study was initiated by the State of New Jersey as Study I-C of the New Jersey Toxics Reduction Workplan for the New York-New Jersey Harbor, working under the NY-NJ Harbor Estuary Program (HEP) Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Program (CARP). The CARP is a comprehensive effort to evaluate the levels and sources of toxic contaminants to the tributaries and estuarine areas of the NY-NJ Harbor, including Newark and Raritan Bays. The Raritan and Passaic Rivers are large rivers (mean daily discharges of 1,189 and 1,132 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively), that drain large, mixed rural/urban basins. The Elizabeth and Rahway Rivers are small rivers (mean daily discharges of 25.9 and 49.1 ft3/s, respectively) that drain small, highly urbanized and industrialized basins. The Hackensack River drains a small, mixed rural/urban basin, and its flow is highly controlled by an upstream reservoir (mean daily discharge of 90.4 ft3/s). These rivers flow into urbanized estuaries and ultimately, to the Atlantic Ocean. Each of these tributaries were sampled during two to four storm events, and twice each during low-flow discharge conditions. Samples were collected using automated equipment installed at stations adjacent to U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations near the heads-of-tide of these rivers. Large-volume (greater than 50 liters of water and a target of 1 gram of sediment), flow-weighted composite samples were collected for chemical analysis using filtration to collect suspended particulates and exchange resin (XAD-2) to sequester dissolved contaminants. Composite whole-water samples were collected for dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and for trace element analysis. Additional discrete grab samples were collected

  10. The Columbia River System Inside Story

    SciTech Connect

    2001-04-01

    The Columbia River is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Pacific Northwest—from fostering world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying clean natural fuel for 50 to 65 percent of the region’s electrical generation. Since early in the 20th century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system.

  11. Flooding of the Ob River, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of heavy rainfall, snowmelt, and ice jams in late May and early June of this year caused the Ob River and surrounding tributaries in Western Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in thess image taken on June 16, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Last year, the river flooded farther north. Normally, the river resembles a thin black line, but floods have swollen the river considerably. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  12. Characterization of selenium in the lower Gunnison River basin, Colorado, 1988-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, David L.; Leib, Kenneth J.

    2002-01-01

    Selenium concentrations in certain water bodies in the lower Gunnison River Basin, including the lower Gunnison River and lower Uncompahgre River, have exceeded the Colorado water-quality standard of 5 micrograms per liter for selenium. A task force was formed in 1998 that consists of various government agencies, private irrigation companies, and local residents to address the selenium concerns in the lower Gunnison River Basin. The task force, working with the National Irrigation Water Quality Program, needed more detailed information on selenium loading in the basin to develop viable alternatives for remediating selenium in the lower Gunnison River Basin. In 1999-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey collected selenium data for tributaries of the Gunnison River downstream from the North Fork of the Gunnison and in the North Fork Basin. The largest selenium load in a tributary stream was in the Uncompahgre River, which accounted for about 38 percent of the selenium load in the Gunnison River at Whitewater. The North Fork of the Gunnison River accounted for about 7 percent of the selenium load in the Gunnison River. Two tributaries east of Delta, Sunflower Drain and Bonafide Ditch, consist primarily of irrigation return flows and were other major selenium sources to the Gunnison River. Some tributaries in the lower North Fork Basin had selenium concentrations exceeding 5 micrograms per liter. Except for several streams draining the Uncompahgre Plateau, many tributaries to the Gunnison River downstream from the North Fork had selenium concentrations exceeding 5 micrograms per liter. Except during occasional rain and snowmelt events, selenium loading from nonirrigated desert areas was minimal. Detailed characterization studies were done in 1999-2000 on Cedar Creek and Loutzenhizer Arroyo, which contribute the largest tributary selenium loads to the Uncompahgre River. Selenium concentrations in Cedar Creek downstream from Miguel Road ranged from 12 to 28 micrograms per

  13. Response of bacterial community compositions to different sources of pollutants in sediments of a tributary of Taihu Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Li, Yi; Wang, Peifang; Niu, Lihua; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao

    2016-07-01

    Sediment bacterial communities are sensitive to water conditions in river ecosystems. The objective of this study was to compare the influences of different pollution sources, including urban areas, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), suburban areas, and agricultural areas, on sediment bacterial communities along a typical tributary of Taihu Lake, China. The dominant composition of the sediment bacterial community was determined using a combination of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and a 16S rRNA clone library. The results showed that the sediment bacterial communities were distinctly affected by the four pollution sources. Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria (>50 % in total) were the predominant bacterial taxa across the sediment samples. Apart from those, the sediment bacterial community composition (BCC) affected by WWTP effluent was subsequently dominated by Nitrospira (12.4 %) and Bacteroidetes (11.5 %), agriculture was dominated by Firmicutes (13.2 %) and Deltaproteobacteria (7.2 %), while urban and suburban were dominated by Bacteroidetes (7.6 and 7.9 %, respectively) and Deltaproteobacteria (7.9 and 7.6 %, respectively). Cluster analysis indicated that the BCC affected by WWTP effluent was distinct from the BCC in urban, suburban, and agricultural areas. In addition, the bacterial community richness and evenness affected by WWTP effluent were much less than those by the other pollution sources. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that the variation in BCC across the sediment samples was significantly associated with ammonium (17 %), organic matter (12 %), and cadmium (3 %) (p < 0.01). Overall, the results indicated that the four different pollution sources (WWTP, urban, suburban, and agriculture) have dissimilar impacts on the sediment BCC in the tributary of Taihu Lake, while WWTPs exhibited the greatest potential to lead to biotic homogenization in river sediments. PMID:27040536

  14. Spectrophotometric discrimination of river dissolved organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Andy

    2002-11-01

    There is a need to be able to differentiate the dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction in river waters. Research in the 1970s and 1980s has attempted to utilize both absorbance and fluorescence to distinguish between DOM fractions in river waters, but both were limited by the available technology. Total organic carbon content has, therefore, been widely used as a standard method of measuring DOM concentration, although it has little power to differentiate DOM fractions. Recent advances in fluorescence spectrophotometry enable rapid and optically precise analysis of DOM. Here, we show how a combination of both fluorescence and absorbance can be used to discriminate statistically between spatial variations of DOM in tributaries in a small catchment of the Ouseburn, NE England. The results of the discriminant analysis suggest that about 70% of the samples can be correctly classified to its tributary. Discriminant function 1 explains 60·8% of the variance in the data and the fulvic-like fluorescence intensity has the largest absolute correlation within this function; discriminant function 2 explains a further 21·5% of the variance and the fulvic-like fluorescence emission wavelength has the largest absolute correlation within this function. The discriminant analysis does not correctly classify all tributaries every time, and successfully discriminates between the different tributaries 70% of the time. Occasions when the tributary waters are less well discriminated are due to either episodic pollution events (at two sites) or due to tributaries that have strong seasonal trends in spectrophotometric parameters, which allows the sites to be misclassified. Results suggest that spectrophotometric techniques have considerable potential in the discrimination of DOM in rivers.

  15. Dissolved-oxygen and algal conditions in selected locations of the Willamette River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, F.A.; McKenzie, S.W.; Wille, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    During July and August 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oregon Department of Enviromental Quality, made three intensive river-quality dissolved-oxygen studies in the upper Willamette River basin. Two studies were made on the upper Willamette River and one was made on the Santiam River, a Willamette River tributary. Nitrification, occurring in both the upper Willamette and South Santiam Rivers, accounted for about 62% and 92% of the DO sag in the rivers, respectively. Rates of nitrification were found to be dependent on ammonia concentrations in the rivers. Periphyton and phytoplankton algal samples were collected on the main stem Willamette River and selected tributaries during August 1978. Diatoms were the dominant group in both the periphyton and phytoplankton samples. The most common diatom genera were Melosira, Stephanodiscus, Cymbella, Achnanthes, and Nitzschia. Comparisons with historical data indicate no significant difference from previous years in the total abundance or diversity of the algae. (USGS)

  16. Evidence that sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) complete their life cycle within a tributary of the Laurentian Great Lakes by parasitizing fishes in inland lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas; Twohey, Michael B.; Miehls, Scott M.; Cwalinski, Tim A; Godby, Neal A; Lochet, Aude; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Jubar, Aaron K.; Siefkes, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) invaded the upper Laurentian Great Lakes and feeds on valued fish. The Cheboygan River, Michigan, USA, is a large sea lamprey producing tributary to Lake Huron and despite having a renovated dam 2 km from the river mouth that presumably blocks sea lamprey spawning migrations, the watershed upstream of the dam remains infested with larval sea lamprey. A navigational lock near the dam has been hypothesized as the means of escapement of adult sea lampreys from Lake Huron and source of the upper river population (H1). However, an alternative hypothesis (H2) is that some sea lampreys complete their life cycle upstream of the dam, without entering Lake Huron. To evaluate the alternative hypothesis, we gathered angler reports of lamprey wounds on game fishes upstream of the dam, and captured adult sea lampreys downstream and upstream of the dam to contrast abundance, run timing, size, and statolith microchemistry. Results indicate that a small population of adult sea lampreys (n < 200) completed their life cycle upstream of the dam during 2013 and 2014. This is the most comprehensive evidence that sea lampreys complete their life history within a tributary of the upper Great Lakes, and indicates that similar landlocked populations could occur in other watersheds. Because the adult sea lamprey population upstream of the dam is small, complete elimination of the already low adult escapement from Lake Huron might allow multiple control tactics such as lampricides, trapping, and sterile male release to eradicate the population.

  17. South Fork Clearwater River Habitat Enhancement, Nez Perce National Forest.

    SciTech Connect

    Siddall, Phoebe

    1992-04-01

    In 1984, the Nez Perce National forest and the Bonneville Power Administration entered into a contractual agreement which provided for improvement of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead trout habitat in south Fork Clearwater River tributaries. Project work was completed in seven main locations: Crooked River, Red River, Meadow Creek Haysfork Gloryhole, Cal-Idaho Gloryhole, Fisher Placer and Leggett Placer. This report describes restoration activities at each of these sites.

  18. Trends in the distribution, abundance, and habitat quality of submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries: 1971 to 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, R.J.; Batiuk, R.A.; Nowak, J.F.

    1994-05-01

    This report builds on two decades of aerial and ground surveys of SAV distribution and abundance data along with the development of SAV habitat requirements, establishment of SAV restoration goals and targets, compilation of historical water quality data, and implementation of a coordinated baywide monitoring program. The objectives of this report are to: describe trends in SAV distribution and abundance in Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries from 1971 to 1991; relate SAV distribution overtime with tiered distribution restoration goals and targets; compare trends in SAV distribution and abundance with corresponding trends in water quality; and correlate SAV distribution with river flow.

  19. Population connectivity and genetic structure of burbot (Lota lota) populations in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Underwood, Zachary E.; Mandeville, Elizabeth G.; Walters, Annika W.

    2016-01-01

    Burbot (Lota lota) occur in the Wind River Basin in central Wyoming, USA, at the southwestern extreme of the species’ native range in North America. The most stable and successful of these populations occur in six glacially carved mountain lakes on three different tributary streams and one large main stem impoundment (Boysen Reservoir) downstream from the tributary populations. Burbot are rarely found in connecting streams and rivers, which are relatively small and high gradient, with a variety of potential barriers to upstream movement of fish. We used high-throughput genomic sequence data for 11,197 SNPs to characterize the genetic diversity, population structure, and connectivity among burbot populations on the Wind River system. Fish from Boysen Reservoir and lower basin tributary populations were genetically differentiated from those in the upper basin tributary populations. In addition, fish within the same tributary streams fell within the same genetic clusters, suggesting there is movement of fish between lakes on the same tributaries but that populations within each tributary system are isolated and genetically distinct from other populations. Observed genetic differentiation corresponded to natural and anthropogenic barriers, highlighting the importance of barriers to fish population connectivity and gene flow in human-altered linked lake-stream habitats.

  20. Sources and fluxes of mercury in the St. Lawrence River

    SciTech Connect

    Quemerais, B.; Rondeau, B.; Pham, T.T.; Gagnon, P.; Fortin, B.; Cossa, D.

    1999-03-15

    A mass balance approach, based essentially on the reconstruction of daily fluxes and circumscribed by strict error calculations, was designed to quantify the main mercury sources for the St. Lawrence and its tributaries, which constitute a large river system. High-frequency samplings were performed over an 18-month period (1955--1996) at the main water inputs and the mouth of the river. Minor tributaries and the Montreal effluent were also sampled. This strategy allowed models to be obtained that relate mercury concentrations in solution and in particles to the hydrological regime. The calculated budget was balanced relative to the calculated errors of the estimates. Gross mercury export from the river was found to be 5.9 kmol yr{sup {minus}1}. Tributaries and internal erosion of the river contributed equally for a total of 75% of this gross load, whereas the Upper St. Lawrence River, which is almost exclusively composed of Lake Ontario waters, accounted for less than 10%, and inventoried anthropogenic point sources accounted for about 5%. Dissolved mercury was mainly from north shore tributaries, and particulate mercury was largely from erosion of the river bed and banks. On the basis of the present results as well as estimates of atmospheric deposition from the literature it can be inferred that at least 88% of deposited mercury was retained in the watersheds.

  1. Endocrine disrupter--estradiol--in Chesapeake Bay tributaries.

    PubMed

    Dorabawila, Nelum; Gupta, Gian

    2005-04-11

    Exogenous chemicals that interfere with natural hormonal functions are considered endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Estradiol (17beta-estradiol or E2) is the most potent of all xenoestrogens. Induction of vitellogenin (VTG) production in male fish occurs at E2 concentrations as low as 1 ng l-1. E2 reaches aquatic systems mainly through sewage and animal waste disposal. Surface water samples from ponds, rivers (Wicomico, Manokin and Pocomoke), sewage treatment plants (STPs), and coastal bays (Assawoman, Monie, Chincoteague, and Tangier Sound-Chesapeake Bay) on the Eastern Shore of Maryland were analyzed for E2 using enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). E2 concentrations in river waters varied between 1.9 and 6.0 ng l-1. Highest E2 concentrations in river waters were observed immediately downstream of STPs. E2 concentrations in all the coastal bays tested were 2.3-3.2 ng l-1. PMID:15811666

  2. Fingerprinting the sources of suspended sediment delivery to a large municipal drinking water reservoir: Falls Lake, Neuse River, North Carolina, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We employ a novel geochemical-fingerprinting approach to estimate the source of suspended sediments collected from tributaries entering Falls Lake, a 50 km2 drinking water reservoir on the Neuse River, North Carolina. Many of the major tributaries to the lake are on North Carolina’s 303(d) list for ...

  3. Standard Imaging Techniques for Assessment of Portal Venous System and its Tributaries by Linear Endoscopic Ultrasound: A Pictorial Essay

    PubMed Central

    Rameshbabu, C. S.; Wani, Zeeshn Ahamad; Rai, Praveer; Abdulqader, Almessabi; Garg, Shubham; Sharma, Malay

    2013-01-01

    Linear Endosonography has been used to image the Portal Venous System but no established standard guidelines exist. This article presents techniques to visualize the portal venous system and its tributaries by linear endosonography. Attempt has been made to show most of the first order tributaries and some second order tributaries of splenic vein, superior mesenteric vein and portal vein. PMID:24949362

  4. Integrating Salmon Recovery, Clean Water Act Compliance, Restoration, and Climate Change Impacts in the South Fork Nooksack River

    EPA Science Inventory

    "The South Fork Nooksack River (SFNR) is an important tributary to the Nooksack River, Bellingham Bay, and the Salish Sea. The South Fork Nooksack River comprises one of the 22 independent populations of spring Chinook in the Puget Sound Chinook Evolutionarily Significant Un...

  5. Use of dissolved chloride concentrations in tributary streams to support geospatial estimates of Cl contamination potential near Skiatook Lake, northeastern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.A.; Abbott, M.M.; Zielinski, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Releases of NaCl-rich (>100 000 mg/L) water that is co-produced from petroleum wells can adversely affect the quality of ground and surface waters. To evaluate produced water impacts on lakes, rivers and streams, an assessment of the contamination potential must be attainable using reliable and cost-effective methods. This study examines the feasibility of using geographic information system (GIS) analysis to assess the contamination potential of Cl to Skiatook Lake in the Hominy Creek drainage basin in northeastern Oklahoma. GIS-based predictions of affects of Cl within individual subdrainages are supported by measurements of Cl concentration and discharge in 19 tributaries to Skiatook Lake. Dissolved Cl concentrations measured in October, 2004 provide a snapshot of conditions assumed to be