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Sample records for rivets

  1. Riveting in metal airplane construction. Part II : riveting methods and equipment (concluded)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pleines, Wilhelm

    1930-01-01

    This report includes descriptive material on rivet inspection, types of rivets and sizes. Tabular data on shearing strength of rivets at failure, ultimate shear of various rivets, tensile tests of rivet plate, and tensile strength values of riveted joints.

  2. Riveting-force gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rotta, J. W., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Gage monitors riveting forces applied when components are mounted on printed-circuit boards. Correct swaging pressures have been established for specific substrate materials such as phenolics and ceramics.

  3. Rivet user manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Andy; Butterworth, Jonathan; Grellscheid, David; Hoeth, Hendrik; Lönnblad, Leif; Monk, James; Schulz, Holger; Siegert, Frank

    2013-12-01

    This is the manual and user guide for the Rivet system for the validation and tuning of Monte Carlo event generators. As well as the core Rivet library, this manual describes the usage of the rivet program and the AGILe generator interface library. The depth and level of description is chosen for users of the system, starting with the basics of using validation code written by others, and then covering sufficient details to write new Rivet analyses and calculational components. Catalogue identifier: AEPS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEPS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 571126 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4717522 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, Python. Computer: PC running Linux, Mac. Operating system: Linux, Mac OS. RAM: 20 MB Classification: 11.9, 11.2. External routines: HepMC (https://savannah.cern.ch/projects/hepmc/), GSL (http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/manual/gsl-ref.html), FastJet (http://fastjet.fr/), Python (http://www.python.org/), Swig (http://www.swig.org/), Boost (http://www.boostsoftware.com/), YAML (http://www.yaml.org/spec/1.2/spec.html) Nature of problem: Experimental measurements from high-energy particle colliders should be defined and stored in a general framework such that it is simple to compare theory predictions to them. Rivet is such a framework, and contains at the same time a large collection of existing measurements. Solution method: Rivet is based on HepMC events, a standardised output format provided by many theory simulation tools. Events are processed by Rivet to generate histograms for the requested list of analyses, incorporating all experimental phase space cuts and histogram definitions. Restrictions: Cannot calculate

  4. Timber rivet connections in US domestic species

    Treesearch

    Marshall Begel; Ronald W. Wolfe; Douglas C. Stahl

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses results of tests conducted to expand the data base on the performance of timber rivet connections in U.S. domestic species to verify existing and proposed design procedures. Eight-, 80-, and 200-rivet connections were tested. The 8-rivet joint tests illustrate the effects of material type, rivet length, and load direction on the behavior of rivet...

  5. Riveted joints in thin plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilbes, W

    1930-01-01

    The method of riveting by forming the closing head under increasing pressure or by a series of hammer blows is investigated. The question as to the best edge distance, i.e. that distance from the rivet center to the plate edge below which it is unadvisable to go and, at the same time useless to go beyond, was examined. The slippage of plates which occurs under the effect of a certain stress, does not completely disappear on unloading. The elastic form change is essentially a function of the elasticity modulus, the slip modulus, the supporting moment, the rivet spacing, etc.

  6. Riveting in metal airplane construction. Part IV : strength of riveted joints in duralumin (concluded)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pleines, Wilhelm

    1930-01-01

    Tests were made to determine the crushing strength of a riveted joint, in order to define the difference in crushing stregth between a strictly bolted joint and a riveted joint. The object was to tabulate the crushing strength by failure on various plate thicknesses for a one-rivet double-shear riveted joint.

  7. A Flush-Rivet Milling Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, Robert

    1942-01-01

    The investigation of machine-countersunk flush rivets for aircraft described in reference 1 revealed the necessity of having the height of the rivet heads greater than the depth of the countersunk holes if tightly riveted joints were to be obtained. If ordinary roundhead rivets were inserted from the opposite side of the joint and the countersunk heads formed in the driving of the rivets filled the countersunk holes completely, still tighter joints were obtained. In either case the rivets protruded above the skin surface after driving, and the protruding portion of the rivet heads had to be removed in order to obtain flush rivets. A number of requests have been received for a description of the tool used to mill off the protruding portion of the rivet heads. This report contains assembly and detail drawings of the latest flush-rivet milling tool used at the NACA Structures Research Laboratory. Figure 6 shows the tool in operation. This tool is quite satisfactory for 1/8-inch rivets, but a more powerful motor is recommended for use with larger rivets.

  8. Mechanical Properties of Aluminum-alloy Rivets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brueggeman, Wm C

    1936-01-01

    The development of metal construction for aircraft has created a need for accurate and detailed information regarding the strength of riveted joints in aluminum-alloy structures. To obtain this information the National Bureau of Standards in cooperation with the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics is investigating the strength of riveted joints in aluminum alloys. The strength of riveted joints may be influenced by the form of the head, the ratio of the rivet diameter to the sheet thickness, the driving stress, and other factors. This note gives the results of tests to develop the riveting technique for test specimens and to determine the effects of these factors.

  9. Performance Optimization of Self-Piercing Rivets through Analytical Rivet Strength Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2005-08-01

    This paper presents the authors' work on strength optimization and failure mode prediction of self-piercing rivets (SPR) for automotive applications. The limit load-based strength estimator is used to estimate the static strength of an SPR under cross tension loading configuration. Failure modes associated with the estimated failure strength are also predicted. Experimental strength and failure mode observations are used to validate the model. It is shown that the strength of an SPR joint depends on the material and gage combinations, rivet design, die design and riveting direction. The rivet strength estimator is then used to optimize the rivet strength by comparing the measured rivet strength and failure mode with the predicted ones. Two illustrative examples are used in which rivet strength is optimized by changing rivet design and riveting direction from the original manufacturing parameters.

  10. Evaluation of Dynamically Riveted Joints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    REPORT NO. NADC-77202-30 RE-587 LEVEL7 EVALUJATION OF DYNAMICALLY RIVETED JOINTS by 0 ~Basil P. Leftheris H. Eidirloff*J and R.E. Hooson* 19 9...DYNAMICALLY NIBEPT, JOINTS , RCOTAC 0R GRANT NUMB *S) Bas~ilinf (i ) N62269-77-C-,6478 R. E./Hooson .. RABW~ M IMW 9 . PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMM AND...VFatigue Interference Fit Fasteners Fatigue Life Joints Fatigue Tests Festened Joints Aluminum Joints IAUSTR ACT (Cmtifbusan ,.yero aid It nmeoeaep

  11. Timber rivets in structural composite lumber

    Treesearch

    Ronald W. Wolfe; Marshall Begel; Bruce Craig

    2004-01-01

    Timber rivet connections, originally developed for use with glulam construction, may be a viable option for use with structural composite lumber (SCL) products. Tests were conducted on small samples to assess the performance and predictability of timber rivet connections in parallel strand lumber (PSL) and laminated strand lumber (LSL). The test joint configurations...

  12. Simplified analysis of timber rivet connections

    Treesearch

    Douglas C. Stahl; Marshall. Begel; Ronald W. Wolfe

    2000-01-01

    Timber rivets, fasteners for glulam and heavy timber construction, have been used in Canada for about thirty years and recently were adopted by the U.S. National Design Specification for Wood Construction (NDS). Rivet connections can exhibit two failure modes, one of which is fundamentally different from those of other dowel fasteners. Failure can occur when a volume...

  13. Caring for Rosie the Riveter's Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Bill

    2011-01-01

    During the Second World War, women in the United States who worked in the war industries in such jobs as welders, riveters, heavy machinery operators, and parachute riggers were heralded in the media as "Rosie the Riveter." From 1943 to 1945 a fortunate few of these workplace pioneers participated in a memorable experiment in child care at Kaiser…

  14. Oxidation-Strengthened High-Temperature Rivets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclemore, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Shear strength of titanium-niobium rivets improves with oxidation. Ti-Nb rivets developed for fastening parts of Space Shuttle thrustors may be suitable also for other high-temperature applications in oxidizing environments--for example, in burner cans of commercial jet engines and boilers and retorts for coal gasification systems.

  15. Caring for Rosie the Riveter's Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Bill

    2011-01-01

    During the Second World War, women in the United States who worked in the war industries in such jobs as welders, riveters, heavy machinery operators, and parachute riggers were heralded in the media as "Rosie the Riveter." From 1943 to 1945 a fortunate few of these workplace pioneers participated in a memorable experiment in child care at Kaiser…

  16. 49 CFR 230.28 - Higher shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.28 Higher shearing strength of rivets. A higher shearing strength may be used for rivets when it can be shown through testing that the rivet material used is of such... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Higher shearing strength of rivets. 230.28...

  17. 49 CFR 230.28 - Higher shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.28 Higher shearing strength of rivets. A higher shearing strength may be used for rivets when it can be shown through testing that the rivet material used is of such... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Higher shearing strength of rivets. 230.28...

  18. 49 CFR 230.28 - Higher shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.28 Higher shearing strength of rivets. A higher shearing strength may be used for rivets when it can be shown through testing that the rivet material used is of such... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Higher shearing strength of rivets. 230.28...

  19. 49 CFR 230.28 - Higher shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.28 Higher shearing strength of rivets. A higher shearing strength may be used for rivets when it can be shown through testing that the rivet material used is of such... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Higher shearing strength of rivets. 230.28...

  20. 49 CFR 230.28 - Higher shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.28 Higher shearing strength of rivets. A higher shearing strength may be used for rivets when it can be shown through testing that the rivet material used is of such... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Higher shearing strength of rivets. 230.28...

  1. The role of rivet installation on the fatigue performance of riveted lap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rans, Calvin D.

    Solid rivets are widely used as mechanical fasteners in airframe applications due to their relative low cost and good fatigue performance. Although rivet installation is known to influence this fatigue performance, variabilities in hand riveting practices make exploiting rivet installation as a design variable difficult. Developments in riveting technology have led to force-controlled rivet squeezers and fully automated riveting gantries, improving the consistency of rivet installation and providing the opportunity to exploit its influence on fatigue. This dissertation describes a research program undertaken to examine the influence of rivet installation on the fatigue performance of riveted lap joints and identify what aspects can be exploited during design. A combination of finite element analyses and experimental techniques were used to investigate the role of rivet installation on the formation of residual stresses and on secondary bending stresses in a loaded joint, two aspects established as critical to the fatigue performance of riveted lap joints. Crack growth reconstructions of fracture surfaces marked using a special marker fatigue spectrum were also completed in order to quantify the effects of these residual and secondary bending stresses on fatigue performance. Additionally, variations in the effects of rivet installation on traditional monolithic aluminum sheet materials and hybrid aluminum-fibre glass laminates known as GLARE were also investigated. Results from these investigations provided new insights into the role of rivet installation on fatigue. The radial expansion mechanism to which residual stress formation during riveting is typically attributed was observed to be a secondary mechanism relative to the through-thickness compression of the joined sheets. The location and magnitude of peak secondary bending stresses were found to be directly influenced by rivet head geometry. In certain cases, shifts in the location of peak secondary bending

  2. Riveting in metal airplane construction. Part III : strength of riveted joints in duralumin (continued)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pleines, Wilhelm

    1930-01-01

    This report includes strength of riveted joints in duralumin, descriptions of test procedure and results of tests. Tabulated data includes: curshing strength by failure for various conditions, shearing strength of hole edge zone in direction of tearing, tearing strengths of plates weakened by rivet holes, and enlargement of holes at beginning of break.

  3. Multiple-site-damage fatigue of riveted joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schijve, J.

    1992-04-01

    Results of fatigue tests in riveted lap joints, including fractographic observations, are presented and analyzed. They indicate that the load transmission in a riveted lap joint is a rather complex phenomenon, as confirmed by quite different crack initiation mechanisms. It may not be expected that fracture mechanics predicts early crack growth with a practically useful degree of accuracy. Most important, the fractographic analysis reveals, that if there are visible cracks in a riveted lap joint, there are many small cracks at most rivet holes in the same critical row of rivets. A multiple site damage situation is present. The conclusion also applies to fuselage lap joints. Scatter in laboratory tests in riveted lap joint specimens is relatively low. However, scatter of riveted joints in a fleet of aircraft may be larger for several reasons. Crack growth in riveted lap joints may be sufficiently slow to allow a timely detection in service. For aging aircraft this should be confirmed by full scale testing.

  4. 46 CFR 59.10-15 - Rivets and staybolts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-15 Rivets and staybolts. (a) It is not permitted to reinforce or build up by welding the heads of rivets or staybolts that have deteriorated. Such rivets or staybolts shall be replaced. The seal welding of...

  5. 46 CFR 59.10-15 - Rivets and staybolts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-15 Rivets and staybolts. (a) It is not permitted to reinforce or build up by welding the heads of rivets or staybolts that have deteriorated. Such rivets or staybolts shall be replaced. The seal welding of...

  6. 46 CFR 59.10-15 - Rivets and staybolts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-15 Rivets and staybolts. (a) It is not permitted to reinforce or build up by welding the heads of rivets or staybolts that have deteriorated. Such rivets or staybolts shall be replaced. The seal welding of...

  7. 46 CFR 59.10-15 - Rivets and staybolts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-15 Rivets and staybolts. (a) It is not permitted to reinforce or build up by welding the heads of rivets or staybolts that have deteriorated. Such rivets or staybolts shall be replaced. The seal welding of...

  8. 46 CFR 59.10-15 - Rivets and staybolts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-15 Rivets and staybolts. (a) It is not permitted to reinforce or build up by welding the heads of rivets or staybolts that have deteriorated. Such rivets or staybolts shall be replaced. The seal welding of...

  9. Mechanical Properties of Flush-Riveted Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brueggeman, W C; Roop, Frederick C

    1940-01-01

    The strength of representative types of flush-riveted joints has been determined by testing 865 single-shearing, double-shearing, and tensile specimens representing 7 types of rivet and 18 types of joint. The results, presented in graphic form, show the stress at failure, type of failure, and d/t ratio. In general, dimpled joints were appreciably stronger than countersunk or protruding-head joints, but their strength was greatly influenced by constructional details. The optimum d/t ratios have been determined for the several kinds of joints. Photomicrographs of each type show constructional details and, in several instances, cracks in the sheet.

  10. Mechanical Properties of Flush-Riveted Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruggeman, Wm. C.; Roop, Frederick C.

    1940-01-01

    The strength of representative types of flush-riveted joints has been determined by testing 865 single-shearing, double-shearing, and tensile specimens representing 7 types of rivet and 18 types of joint. The results, presented in graphic form, show the stress at failure, type of failure, and d/t ratio. In general, 'dimpled' joints were appreciably stronger than countersunk or protruding-head joints, but their strength was greatly influenced by constructional details. The optimum d/t ratios have been determined for the several kinds of joints. Photomacrographs of each type show constructional details and, in several instances, cracks in the sheet.

  11. An investigation into the acute vascular effects of riveting.

    PubMed

    McKenna, K M; McGrann, S; Blann, A D; Allen, J A

    1993-02-01

    Measurements were made on 46 pairs of riveters and matched control subjects before and after a morning's work. Before starting work, the mean resting finger systolic pressure was 112 (SEM 3.3) mm Hg in the riveters, similar to 117 (1.7) in the control subjects. After cooling the middle phalanx to 10 degrees C for five minutes, 16 riveters but only one control subject exhibited digital vasospasm and these numbers were unaltered after a morning's work. A subgroup of riveters whose role was always to provide counter pressure to the rivet gun showed a higher incidence (45%) of cold induced vasospasm than did riveters who invariably held the gun (10%) or rotated between both roles (27%). Plasma levels of three markers of vascular activity, endothelin-1 (ET-1), von Willebrand factor antigen (vWFAg), and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), were measured in non-smoking riveters and control subjects. Before work, ET-1 concentrations were slightly lower (p < 0.05) in the riveters, but vWFAg concentration and ACE activity were similar in riveters and control subjects. Riveting for a morning did not alter ET-1 concentration or ACE activity but did induce a small increase (p < 0.05) in vWFAg concentration, which may indicate damage to the endothelium. This type of vascular assessment may be helpful in assessing vasospastic complications in workers exposed to vibration.

  12. An investigation into the acute vascular effects of riveting.

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, K M; McGrann, S; Blann, A D; Allen, J A

    1993-01-01

    Measurements were made on 46 pairs of riveters and matched control subjects before and after a morning's work. Before starting work, the mean resting finger systolic pressure was 112 (SEM 3.3) mm Hg in the riveters, similar to 117 (1.7) in the control subjects. After cooling the middle phalanx to 10 degrees C for five minutes, 16 riveters but only one control subject exhibited digital vasospasm and these numbers were unaltered after a morning's work. A subgroup of riveters whose role was always to provide counter pressure to the rivet gun showed a higher incidence (45%) of cold induced vasospasm than did riveters who invariably held the gun (10%) or rotated between both roles (27%). Plasma levels of three markers of vascular activity, endothelin-1 (ET-1), von Willebrand factor antigen (vWFAg), and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), were measured in non-smoking riveters and control subjects. Before work, ET-1 concentrations were slightly lower (p < 0.05) in the riveters, but vWFAg concentration and ACE activity were similar in riveters and control subjects. Riveting for a morning did not alter ET-1 concentration or ACE activity but did induce a small increase (p < 0.05) in vWFAg concentration, which may indicate damage to the endothelium. This type of vascular assessment may be helpful in assessing vasospastic complications in workers exposed to vibration. PMID:8435349

  13. The Effect of Surface Irregularities on Wing Drag. I. Rivets and Spot Welds. 1; Rivets and Spot Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Manley J.

    1938-01-01

    Tests have been conducted in the NACA 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel to determine the effect of exposed rivet heads and spot welds on wing drag. Most of the tests were made with an airfoil of 5-foot chord. The air speed was varied from 80 to 500 miles per hour and the lift coefficient from 0 to 0.30. The increases in the drag of the 5-foot airfoil varied from 6%, due to countersunk rivets, to 27%, due to 3/32-inch brazier-head rivets, with the rivets in a representative arrangement. The drag increases caused by protruding rivet heads were roughly proportional to the height of the heads. With the front row of rivets well forward, changes in spanwise pitch had negligible effects on drag unless the pitch was more than 2.5% of the chord. Data are presented for evaluating the drag reduction attained by removing rivets from the forward part of the wing surface; for example, it is shown that over 70% of the rivet drag is caused by the rivets on the forward 30% of the airfoil in a typical case.

  14. 49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing strength... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230.27 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL...

  15. 49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing strength... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230.27 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL...

  16. 49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing strength... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230.27 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL...

  17. 49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing strength... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230.27 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL...

  18. 49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing strength... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230.27 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL...

  19. 46 CFR 109.573 - Riveting, welding, and burning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Riveting, welding, and burning operations. 109.573... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.573 Riveting, welding, and burning operations. Except as..., welding, or burning— (1) In a fuel tank; (2) On the boundary of a fuel tank; (3) On pipelines, heating...

  20. 46 CFR 109.573 - Riveting, welding, and burning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Riveting, welding, and burning operations. 109.573... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.573 Riveting, welding, and burning operations. Except as..., welding, or burning— (1) In a fuel tank; (2) On the boundary of a fuel tank; (3) On pipelines, heating...

  1. 46 CFR 109.573 - Riveting, welding, and burning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Riveting, welding, and burning operations. 109.573... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.573 Riveting, welding, and burning operations. Except as..., welding, or burning— (1) In a fuel tank; (2) On the boundary of a fuel tank; (3) On pipelines, heating...

  2. 46 CFR 109.573 - Riveting, welding, and burning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Riveting, welding, and burning operations. 109.573... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.573 Riveting, welding, and burning operations. Except as..., welding, or burning— (1) In a fuel tank; (2) On the boundary of a fuel tank; (3) On pipelines, heating...

  3. 46 CFR 109.573 - Riveting, welding, and burning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Riveting, welding, and burning operations. 109.573... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.573 Riveting, welding, and burning operations. Except as..., welding, or burning— (1) In a fuel tank; (2) On the boundary of a fuel tank; (3) On pipelines, heating...

  4. 22. SHIPYARD NO. 2, ROSIE THE RIVETER MEMORIAL (SEE ALSO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. SHIPYARD NO. 2, ROSIE THE RIVETER MEMORIAL (SEE ALSO HAER No. CA-326-D), FORD ASSEMBLY PLANT (SEE ALSO HAER No. CA-326-H), AND RICHMOND SHIPYARD NO. 3, SW. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, 1401 Marina Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  5. Revolving Eddy-Current Probe Detects Cracks Near Rivets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkung, Min; Wincheski, Buzz; Fulton, James P.; Nath, Shridhar; Simpson, John

    1995-01-01

    Scanning eddy-current probe in circular pattern increases sensitivity with which probe indicates fatigue cracks and other defects in metal surfaces in vicinity of rivets. Technique devised to facilitate inspection of riveted joints in aircraft. Eddy-current probe in question described in "Electro-magnetic Flaw Detector Is Easier To Use" (LAR-15046).

  6. 49 CFR 230.34 - Riveted repairs and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administrator. If approval is granted, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall perform any riveting to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and... portions of the boiler. Prior to making riveted alterations on unstayed portions of the boiler, the steam...

  7. 49 CFR 230.34 - Riveted repairs and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Administrator. If approval is granted, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall perform any riveting to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and... portions of the boiler. Prior to making riveted alterations on unstayed portions of the boiler, the steam...

  8. 49 CFR 230.34 - Riveted repairs and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Administrator. If approval is granted, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall perform any riveting to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and... portions of the boiler. Prior to making riveted alterations on unstayed portions of the boiler, the steam...

  9. 49 CFR 230.34 - Riveted repairs and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Administrator. If approval is granted, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall perform any riveting to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and... portions of the boiler. Prior to making riveted alterations on unstayed portions of the boiler, the steam...

  10. 49 CFR 230.34 - Riveted repairs and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Administrator. If approval is granted, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall perform any riveting to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and... portions of the boiler. Prior to making riveted alterations on unstayed portions of the boiler, the steam...

  11. Tensile Tests of NACA and Conventional Machine-countersunk Flush Rivets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartone, Leonard M.; Mandel, Merven W.

    1944-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine and compare the tensile strength of NACA and conventional machine-countersunk flush rivets of several rivet-head angles and varying countersunk depth. The results of the investigation are presented in the form of curves that show the variation of the tensile strength of the rivet with the ratio of the sheet thickness to the rivet diameter. For the same rivet-head angle and for a given angle of c/d, the NACA rivets developed higher tensile strength than the conventional rivets.

  12. Rosie the Riveter's Wartime Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Collen, Morris F; Culp, Bryan; Debley, Tom

    2008-01-01

    On October 24, 2000, the Rosie the Riveter World War II/Home Front National Historical Park was established in Richmond, CA to commemorate in a substantial way the wartime women workers in the shipyards. A review of the 1942–1945 published case reports from the medical records of women who worked in the Kaiser Shipyards in Richmond, found that the women who helped build ships for the war effort suffered many of the same medical problems as the men with whom they worked. PMID:21331218

  13. Rosie the Riveter's Wartime Medical Records.

    PubMed

    Collen, Morris F; Culp, Bryan; Debley, Tom

    2008-01-01

    On October 24, 2000, the Rosie the Riveter World War II/Home Front National Historical Park was established in Richmond, CA to commemorate in a substantial way the wartime women workers in the shipyards. A review of the 1942-1945 published case reports from the medical records of women who worked in the Kaiser Shipyards in Richmond, found that the women who helped build ships for the war effort suffered many of the same medical problems as the men with whom they worked.

  14. Residual Strength Analyses of Riveted Lap-Splice Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshadri, B. R.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to analyze the crack-linkup behavior in riveted-stiffened lap-splice joint panels with small multiple-site damage (MSD) cracks at several adjacent rivet holes. Analyses are based on the STAGS (STructural Analysis of General Shells) code with the critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion. To account for high constraint around a crack front, the "plane strain core" option in STAGS was used. The importance of modeling rivet flexibility with fastener elements that accurately model load transfer across the joint is discussed. Fastener holes are not modeled but rivet connectivity is accounted for by attaching rivets to the sheet on one side of the cracks that simulated both the rivet diameter and MSD cracks. Residual strength analyses made on 2024-T3 alloy (1.6-mm thick) riveted-lap-splice joints with a lead crack and various size MSD cracks were compared with test data from Boeing Airplane Company. Analyses were conducted for both restrained and unrestrained buckling conditions. Comparison of results from these analyses and results from lap-splice-joint test panels, which were partially restrained against buckling indicate that the test results were bounded by the failure loads predicted by the analyses with restrained and unrestrained conditions.

  15. Strength Estimation of Self-Piercing Rivets using Lower Bound Limit Load Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2005-08-01

    This paper summarizes the authors' work on strength and failure mode estimation of self-piercing rivets (SPR) for automotive applications. First, the static cross tension strength of an SPR joint is estimated using a lower bound limit load based strength estimator. Failure mode associated with the predicted failure strength can also be identified. It is shown that the cross tension strength of an SPR joint depends on the material and gage combinations, rivet design, die design and riveting direction. The analytical rivet strength estimator is then validated by experimental rivet strength measurements and failure mode observations from nine SPR joint populations with various material and gage combinations. Next, the estimator is used to optimize rivet strength. Two illustrative examples are presented in which rivet strength is improved by changing rivet length and riveting direction from the original manufacturing parameters.

  16. 12. Detail view (looking east) of riveted cconnection of top ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail view (looking east) of riveted cconnection of top chord and vertical members at the second panel point north from south abutment of Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  17. 37. DAM 80' X 25' TAINTER GATE RIVETED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. DAM -- 80' X 25' TAINTER GATE -- RIVETED GENERAL ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS M-L 24 48A/1. December 1937 - Upper Mississippi River Nine-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 24, Clarksville, Pike County, MO

  18. Detail, brace connector for subdeck riveted support girder. View west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, brace connector for subdeck riveted support girder. View west - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  19. 14. Detail of riveted connections of top chord, away brace, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Detail of riveted connections of top chord, away brace, lateral bracing, vertical, and diagonals. Looking at north side, east span between fourth and fifth panels. - Tipp-Elizabeth Road Bridge, Spanning Great Miami River, Tipp City, Miami County, OH

  20. 23. NORTHEAST TO CIRCA 1875 POWER SHEAR, PUNCH, AND RIVETING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. NORTHEAST TO CIRCA 1875 POWER SHEAR, PUNCH, AND RIVETING MACHINE SET UP TO DEMONSTRATE USE IN RIVETING COMPONENTS OF WHEEL ARMS FOR ELI WINDMILLS. HISTORIC DEBRIS FROM PUNCHING WORK IS VISIBLE BENEATH THE MACHINE IN THE OPERATOR'S PIT.' ON THE LEFT IS A U-SHAPED LOVEJOY FIELD PUNCH FOR USE IN INSTALLING STEEL WINDMILL/TOWER COMPONENTS. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  1. Tensile Tests of Round-head, Flat-head, and Brazier-head Rivets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuette, Evan H; Bartone, Leonard M; Mandel, Merven W

    1944-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the tensile strength of round-head (AN43C), flat-head(AN442), and brazier-head (AN4556) aluminum-alloy rivets because of the scarcity of information on the tensile strength of rivets. The results of the investigation are presented as curves that show the variation of the ratio of the tensile strength of the rivet to the tensile strength of the rivet crank with the ratio of the sheet thickness to the rivet diameter for the different types of rivet.

  2. Effect of Rivet Pitch upon the Fatigue Strength of Single-row Riveted Joints of 0.025- to 0.025-inch 24S-T Alclad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seliger, Victor

    1943-01-01

    S-N curves at the range ratio of 0.2 were experimentally obtained for each of the following values of rivet pitch P as used in a single-row lap joint of 0.025- to 0.025-inch 24S-T alclad with one-eight AN430 round-head rivets: p=0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5. Families of constant rivet pitch curves, which define the fatigue life for specimens studied, were developed. Curves showing the variation of the effective stress concentration factor in fatigue with rivet pitch and maximum load per rivet were also established.

  3. Results of uniaxial and biaxial tests on riveted fuselage lap joint specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlieger, H.

    1994-01-01

    As part of an FAA-NLR collaborative program on structural integrity of aging aircraft, NLR carried out uniaxial and biaxial fatigue tests on riveted lap joint specimens being representative for application in a fuselage. All tests were constant amplitude tests with maximum stresses being representative for fuselage pressurization cycles and R-values of 0.1. The parameters selected in the testing program were the stress level (sigma(sub max) = 14 and 16 ksi) and the rivet spacing (0.75 and 1.0 inch). All specimens contained 3 rows of countersunk rivets, the rivet row spacing was 1 inch and the rivet orientation continuous.

  4. Laboratory and workplace assessments of rivet bucking bar vibration emissions.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Thomas W; Warren, Christopher; Xu, Xueyan S; Welcome, Daniel E; Dong, Ren G

    2015-04-01

    Sheet metal workers operating rivet bucking bars are at risk of developing hand and wrist musculoskeletal disorders associated with exposures to hand-transmitted vibrations and forceful exertions required to operate these hand tools. New bucking bar technologies have been introduced in efforts to reduce workplace vibration exposures to these workers. However, the efficacy of these new bucking bar designs has not been well documented. While there are standardized laboratory-based methodologies for assessing the vibration emissions of many types of powered hand tools, no such standard exists for rivet bucking bars. Therefore, this study included the development of a laboratory-based method for assessing bucking bar vibrations which utilizes a simulated riveting task. With this method, this study evaluated three traditional steel bucking bars, three similarly shaped tungsten alloy bars, and three bars featuring spring-dampeners. For comparison the bucking bar vibrations were also assessed during three typical riveting tasks at a large aircraft maintenance facility. The bucking bars were rank-ordered in terms of unweighted and frequency-weighted acceleration measured at the hand-tool interface. The results suggest that the developed laboratory method is a reasonable technique for ranking bucking bar vibration emissions; the lab-based riveting simulations produced similar rankings to the workplace rankings. However, the laboratory-based acceleration averages were considerably lower than the workplace measurements. These observations suggest that the laboratory test results are acceptable for comparing and screening bucking bars, but the laboratory measurements should not be directly used for assessing the risk of workplace bucking bar vibration exposures. The newer bucking bar technologies exhibited significantly reduced vibrations compared to the traditional steel bars. The results of this study, together with other information such as rivet quality, productivity, tool

  5. Laboratory and Workplace Assessments of Rivet Bucking Bar Vibration Emissions

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Thomas W.; Warren, Christopher; Xu, Xueyan S.; Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.

    2016-01-01

    Sheet metal workers operating rivet bucking bars are at risk of developing hand and wrist musculoskeletal disorders associated with exposures to hand-transmitted vibrations and forceful exertions required to operate these hand tools. New bucking bar technologies have been introduced in efforts to reduce workplace vibration exposures to these workers. However, the efficacy of these new bucking bar designs has not been well documented. While there are standardized laboratory-based methodologies for assessing the vibration emissions of many types of powered hand tools, no such standard exists for rivet bucking bars. Therefore, this study included the development of a laboratory-based method for assessing bucking bar vibrations which utilizes a simulated riveting task. With this method, this study evaluated three traditional steel bucking bars, three similarly shaped tungsten alloy bars, and three bars featuring spring-dampeners. For comparison the bucking bar vibrations were also assessed during three typical riveting tasks at a large aircraft maintenance facility. The bucking bars were rank-ordered in terms of unweighted and frequency-weighted acceleration measured at the hand-tool interface. The results suggest that the developed laboratory method is a reasonable technique for ranking bucking bar vibration emissions; the lab-based riveting simulations produced similar rankings to the workplace rankings. However, the laboratory-based acceleration averages were considerably lower than the workplace measurements. These observations suggest that the laboratory test results are acceptable for comparing and screening bucking bars, but the laboratory measurements should not be directly used for assessing the risk of workplace bucking bar vibration exposures. The newer bucking bar technologies exhibited significantly reduced vibrations compared to the traditional steel bars. The results of this study, together with other information such as rivet quality, productivity, tool

  6. The fatigue strength of riveted joints and lugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schijve, J

    1956-01-01

    This report deals with a number of tests on riveted joints and lugs for the primary purpose of comparing the several types of riveted joints and to study the effect of various factors on the fatigue strength of lugs. A check was made to ascertain whether or not an estimate of the fatigue life at a certain loading could be made from the dimensions of the joint and the fatigue data of the unnotched materials. Recommendations are made on the proportioning of joints to obtain better fatigue behavior.

  7. Self-Pierce Riveting of Three Aluminium Alloy and Mild Steel Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, K.; Abe, Y.; Sakai, S.; Kato, T.

    2010-06-15

    Three aluminium alloy and steel sheets were joined with a self-piercing rivet. Self-pierce riveting has the function of joining steel and aluminium alloys having very different melting points due to plastic joining. The requisites for joining the three sheets are the driving of the rivet leg through the middle sheet, the flaring of the rivet leg in the lower sheet and the prevention of the fracture of the lower sheet. The joinability for various combinations of the three sheets was determined. When the rivet leg is small, no driving through the middle sheet occurs, the lower sheet ruptures for a large rivet leg. In addition, 980 MPa high strength steel, mild steel and aluminium alloy sheets were joined by the self-pierce riveting.

  8. Fatigue crack initiation in riveted lap joints and in pressurized fuselages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Richard P. G.

    1993-06-01

    Riveted joints in pressurized fuselages are exposed to severe fatigue loading. The study was carried out to increase fundamental understanding of the behavior of riveted fuselage joints. Areas of interest include rivet flexibility, load transfer, residual stress distribution, fatigue crack location, secondary bending and inter-sheet friction. These aspects depend on the squeezing force used to drive the rivet. Flat uniaxially loaded riveted lap joint specimens show longer fatigue lives than curved riveted panels loaded by internal pressure in a barrel test setup. Strain gauge measurements on a barrel test setup show more severe loading of the non-countersunk inner sheet compared to the countersunk outer sheet. Finite element calculations gave insight to the improved fatigue crack initiation performance for increased sqeezing force and to the crack initiation location. The early crack initiation at the edges of flat riveted lap joint panels is explained.

  9. Self-Pierce Riveting of Three Aluminium Alloy and Mild Steel Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, K.; Abe, Y.; Kato, T.; Sakai, S.

    2010-06-01

    Three aluminium alloy and steel sheets were joined with a self-piercing rivet. Self-pierce riveting has the function of joining steel and aluminium alloys having very different melting points due to plastic joining. The requisites for joining the three sheets are the driving of the rivet leg through the middle sheet, the flaring of the rivet leg in the lower sheet and the prevention of the fracture of the lower sheet. The joinability for various combinations of the three sheets was determined. When the rivet leg is small, no driving through the middle sheet occurs, the lower sheet ruptures for a large rivet leg. In addition, 980 MPa high strength steel, mild steel and aluminium alloy sheets were joined by the self-pierce riveting.

  10. Contact analysis for riveted and bolted joints of composite laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tian-Qi; Li, Wei; Shen, Guanqing

    The computational strategy and numerical technique developed are demonstrated to be efficient for the analysis of riveted and bolted joints of composite laminates. The 3D contact analysis provides more accurate results for the evaluation of strength of the mechanically fastened joints in the composite structures. The method described can be extended to multibody contact problems, it has been implemented in the computer codes.

  11. Retention of riveted aluminum leg bands by wild turkeys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, Duane R.; Vreeland, Wendy C.; Casalena, Mary Jo; Schiavone, Michael V.

    2016-01-01

    In order for mark–recapture models to provide unbiased estimates of population parameters, it is critical that uniquely identifying tags or marks are not lost. We double-banded male and female wild turkeys with aluminum rivet bands and estimated the probability that a bird would be recovered with both bands <1–225 wk since banding (mean = 51.2 wk, SD = 44.0). We found that 100% of females (n = 37) were recovered with both bands. For males, we recovered 6 of 188 turkeys missing a rivet band for a retention probability of 0.984 (95% CI = 0.96–0.99). If male turkeys are double-banded with rivet bands the probability of recovering a turkey without any marks is <0.001. We failed to detect a change in band retention over time or differences between adults and juveniles. Given the low cost and high retention rates of rivet aluminum bands, we believe they are an effective marking technique for wild turkeys and, for most studies, will minimize any concern about the assumption that marks are not lost.

  12. Detail of south granite pier revealing riveted truss ends and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of south granite pier revealing riveted truss ends and iron footing plates on top of granite cap stones. View north - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. 5. STANDPIPE STRUCTURE DETAIL SHOWING CONNECTIONS TO PENSTOCKS, RIVETED SECTIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. STANDPIPE STRUCTURE DETAIL SHOWING CONNECTIONS TO PENSTOCKS, RIVETED SECTIONAL CONSTRUCTION OF TWO OF THE THREE ORIGINAL STANDPIPES (PHOTO RIGHT), WELDED SECTIONAL CONSTRUCTION OF FOURTH STANDPIPE, AND MODERN VENTILATION VALVES ON FIFTH PENSTOCK AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER BETWEEN FOURTH STANDPIPE AND ORIGINAL TWO. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 3 Penstock Standpipes, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  14. UNIDENTIFIED CATENARY SUSPENSION BRIDGE, SHOWING RIVETED METAL PIERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    UNIDENTIFIED CATENARY SUSPENSION BRIDGE, SHOWING RIVETED METAL PIERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION. NOTE APPROACH SPANS OF PIPE CONSTRUCTION IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. 3/4 VIEW FROM BELOW. - Clear Fork of Brazos River Suspension Bridge, Spanning Clear Fork of Brazos River at County Route 179, Albany, Shackelford County, TX

  15. Multicrack growth monitoring at riveted lap joints using piezoelectric patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihn, Jeong-Beom; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2002-06-01

    A built-in cost-effective diagnostic system is being developed to monitor fatigue crack growth in aircraft structures. The proposed system consists of a SMART Layer by Acellent Technologies with an embedded network of distributed piezoelectric sensors/actuators, a diagnostic unit, and software. Multi-riveted aluminum lap joints (936 x 462 mm) were tested for a constant amplitude fatigue test under tensile loading to monitor crack growth at rivet holes. A SMART Layer was designed as a strip and surface-mounted to the critical area of lap joints where crack initiation and growth were suspected. The SMART Layer installed between the two rivet rows was used as an actuator strip and the other layer located below the rivets was used as a sensor strip. Using the software, pre-selected diagnostic signals from a designated piezoelectric actuator to its neighboring sensors were generated by the diagnostic unit. A corresponding sensor signals were recorded and compared to a previously recorded baseline reference. The signal processing technique and interpretation algorithm were developed and implemented for extracting features related to crack growth condition at the time of measurement. The results of estimates were compared with non-destructive testing (NDT) data taken from the experiments, which were conducted during the course of the investigation. The probability of damage detection, compared to conventional NDT techniques, was evaluated.

  16. 14. View northeast. Detail of typical fish plating, riveted to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View northeast. Detail of typical fish plating, riveted to top flange at center of each span. Same detail is found at center of both lower chords. - Walpole-Westminster Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River between Walpole, NH & Westminster, VT, Walpole, Cheshire County, NH

  17. View of riveted joint on tower support superstructure of Tensaw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of riveted joint on tower support superstructure of Tensaw River Bridge truss No. 2, looking southwest, showing deflector sheaves, roller and complex joint construction - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  18. View of riveted joint on tower support superstructure of Tensaw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of riveted joint on tower support superstructure of Tensaw River Bridge truss No. 2, looking northeast, showing deflector sheaves, roller and complex joint construction - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  19. 16. View of riveted gusset plate connection between compression diagonal, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View of riveted gusset plate connection between compression diagonal, tension diagonal, and lateral brace at center of 4th panel from north end of west truss of north span, looking from the east - Bridge No. 4900, Spanning Root River at Trunk Highway 16, Rushford, Fillmore County, MN

  20. Assessment of the RIVET fixation system for cranioplasty using the pull-out technique.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Minabe, Toshiharu; Kato, Tatsuya; Kishi, Kazuo

    2015-03-01

    Cranioplasty using custom-made hydroxyapatite (HAP) ceramic implants is a common procedure to repair skull defects. However, commercially available titanium screws are only minimally stabilized due to characteristic brittleness. We developed the RIVET technique which involves fixing a bioabsorbable plate atop a HAP block using bioabsorbable screws extending beyond both layers, and evaluated fixation strength using the pull-out test and microtomography. Three experimental conditions were compared: a non-RIVET group, RIVET group, and dry skull control group. Pull-out strength significantly differed across groups (non-RIVET group, 1.33 ± 1.21 kgf; RIVET group, 4.46 ± 0.84 kgf; and control group, 6.99 ± 1.14 kgf, P < 0.01). Microtomography of the dry skull control group revealed thread grooves fitted to the screws. The non-RIVET and RIVET groups presented fewer thread grooves than the control group, and the screws did not fit perfectly to the HAP block. However, fixation in the RIVET group was more stable, as the rivet was firmly lodged into the implant. In conclusion, by melting and creating the rivet, pull-out strength can be increased and rigid stabilization of HAP can be obtained. This technique uses commercially available absorbable plate and screws, and thus can be used widely in clinical applications involving HAP blocks with different porosities and thicknesses. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On the Process-Related Rivet Microstructural Evolution, Material Flow and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V/GFRP Friction-Riveted Joints

    PubMed Central

    Borba, Natascha Z.; Afonso, Conrado R. M.; Blaga, Lucian; dos Santos, Jorge F.; Canto, Leonardo B.; Amancio-Filho, Sergio T.

    2017-01-01

    In the current work, process-related thermo-mechanical changes in the rivet microstructure, joint local and global mechanical properties, and their correlation with the rivet plastic deformation regime were investigated for Ti-6Al-4V (rivet) and glass-fiber-reinforced polyester (GF-P) friction-riveted joints of a single polymeric base plate. Joints displaying similar quasi-static mechanical performance to conventional bolted joints were selected for detailed characterization. The mechanical performance was assessed on lap shear specimens, whereby the friction-riveted joints were connected with AA2198 gussets. Two levels of energy input were used, resulting in process temperatures varying from 460 ± 130 °C to 758 ± 56 °C and fast cooling rates (178 ± 15 °C/s, 59 ± 15 °C/s). A complex final microstructure was identified in the rivet. Whereas equiaxial α-grains with β-phase precipitated in their grain boundaries were identified in the rivet heat-affected zone, refined α′ martensite, Widmanstätten structures and β-fleck domains were present in the plastically deformed rivet volume. The transition from equiaxed to acicular structures resulted in an increase of up to 24% in microhardness in comparison to the base material. A study on the rivet material flow through microtexture of the α-Ti phase and β-fleck orientation revealed a strong effect of shear stress and forging which induced simple shear deformation. By combining advanced microstructural analysis techniques with local mechanical testing and temperature measurement, the nature of the complex rivet plastic deformational regime could be determined. PMID:28772545

  2. Acoustical Evaluation of Bucking Bars during Riveting Operations in Bldg 9001, Tinker AFB, Oklahoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-14

    impact noise, bucking bar, riveting, hearing , acoustics, noise, sound pressure level, equivalent continuous level 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...B&K Microphone , Type 4938-A-011, SN: 2570818, 2570819 (3) B&K Microphone , Type 4941-A-001, SN: 2570642 (5) Quest Calibrator, Model # QC-20, SN...three bucking bar operators. b. A bucking bar is a tool that aids in the setting of a rivet. It is used on one side of a rivet to provide a counter

  3. Strength distributions of adhesive bonded and adhesive/rivet combined joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanaka, Makoto; Haraga, Kosuke; Nishikawa, Tetsuya

    1992-11-01

    The tensile and shear strengths of adhesive and adhesive/rivet combined joints are statistically evaluated, and the probability of failure is calculated for these two types of joints. Attention is given to the effects of the adhesive/rivet combination on mean tensile shear strength and coefficient of variation. The adhesive joint's strength distribution was well approximated by Weibull or doubly-exponential distribution function; tensile shear strength is significantly improved by the combination with rivets.

  4. Stress-intensity factor solutions for cracks at countersunk rivet holes under uniaxial tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P. W.; Bigelow, C. A.; Odonoghue, P. E.; Atluri, S. N.

    1994-02-01

    To predict crack growth and fracture strengths of riveted joints subjected to widespread fatigue damage, accurate stress and fracture analyses of corner and surface cracks at a rivet hole are needed. The results presented in this report focus on the computation of stress-intensity factor solutions for rivet holes with cracks. The stress-intensity factor solutions for surface and corner cracks at countersunk rivet holes in a plate were obtained using the finite-element-alternating technique. A range of crack shapes, crack sizes, and crack locations under remote tension were considered.

  5. Quantitative investigation of surface and subsurface fatigue cracks near rivets in riveted joints using acoustic, electron and optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Zayna Marie

    2000-10-01

    Using scanning acoustic microscopy, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, in conjunction with fractography of fractured surfaces, the crack formation and growth kinetics of subsurface fatigue cracks and surface breaking fatigue cracks near rivets have been characterized in detail in this research. The scanning acoustic microscope was used to quantitatively investigate subsurface fatigue cracks (even when they were very small) at and near countersunk rivets in riveted lap joint specimens that are similar to the riveted lap joints found in the fuselages of many aircraft. It was found that the maximum nominal applied stress influences the fatigue crack initiation and propagation behavior. Eyebrow type cracks develop at lower stresses and centerline cracks develop at higher stresses. At low stress ranges, the fatigue cracks initiate a short distance from the rivet at or near the hidden surface of the chamfered panel. At higher stress amplitudes, the cracks initiate at the blunt knife edge. Residual compressive stresses and fretting are suggested to play more important roles at lower stress ranges. Both types of cracks initiate in a shear mode but transform to tensile, mode I, cracks as they grow. This transition occurs much more rapidly at the higher stress amplitude. At both high and low stresses, the cracks are longer on the fayed surface of the panel than elsewhere. In a comparison of Alclad 2024-T3 and Alclad 2524-T3, it was found that the high purity aluminum alloy 2524 nucleates cracks at a greater number of cycles than the less pure aluminum alloy 2024. At high stress, crack initiation plays less of a roll and the 2024 alloy has a longer life. The scanning acoustic microscope enabled us to study subsurface fatigue cracks. The understanding gained from the characterization of the subsurface fatigue cracks will help in the modeling of crack initiation and growth in the riveted lap joint and will also aid in the improvement of NDE techniques for the

  6. Evaluation and Handbook Data of 7050 Rivets. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    343) 53.1 (366) 7/32 (5.5) 46.1 (318) 49.6 (342) 47.1 (325) 50.3 ( 347 ) 49.6 (342) 52.7 (363) 1/4 (6.3) 42.9 (296 45.6 (314) 44.5 (307) 46.1 (318...46.7 (322) 48.4 (333) 9/32 (7.1) 43.4 (299) 46.6 (321) 46.5 (321) 50.0 (345) 50.4 ( 347 ) 52.9 (365) 5/16 (7.9) 43.3 (298) 44.9 (308) 43.2 (298) 45.0 (310...of sheet material at countersink "F of Rivet" indicates failure of Rivet 73 9- o LU 4-U Lcv, %0 zz WEJ U -t; - -- 𔃽 I2-- - t .2W- 7F74 LI.- W 0) C

  7. Thermographic inspection of fatigue cracks in riveted plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Christopher S.; Cramer, K. E.; Dawicke, David S.

    A theoretical and experimental analysis of the inspection of reiveted plates using the thermoelastic effect is presented. Theoretically, a model is employed to estimate the thermoelastic response expected from a cracked and uncracked rivet hole. The stress invariant, which causes the thermoelastic response, is calculated for the cracked case using an FEM model and for the uncracked case using a theoretical approximation. The differences in the two thermal responses are reduced when the effects of optical spatial averaging, thermal conduction, and a concentric blind area representing the rivet heat are considered. It is suggested that discrimination between the cracked and uncracked cases for short cracks will improve with increasing frequency of stress oscillation. Measurements are shown for aerospace aluminum samples with and without fatigue cracks propagating from holes in a plate. The effect of mean stress on the thermoelastic response is illustrated, and the results are qualitatively compared with the finite element analysis.

  8. Experimental detection of cracks at rivets using structural wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromme, Paul; Sayir, Mahir B.

    2001-04-01

    Guided bending waves are used to detect defects in aluminum plates. The scattered field of a notched hole is studied as a model for a crack at a rivet hole in an airplane fuselage. The first anti-symmetric Lamb wave mode is excited using piezoelectric transducers. The scattered field is measured with a heterodyne laser-interferometer. Good agreement between measurements and an analytical model was found. A small notch changes the scattered field and can be detected.

  9. UNIDENTIFIED CATENARY SUSPENSION BRIDGE ON RIVETED METAL PIERS, SHOWING HOWE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    UNIDENTIFIED CATENARY SUSPENSION BRIDGE ON RIVETED METAL PIERS, SHOWING HOWE PIPE TRUSS RAILING AND TRUSSED DECK BEAMS TYPICAL TO BRIDGES BUILT BY FLINN-MOYER COMPANY. TRIPODAL PIPE TOWERS RESEMBLE CLEAR FORK OF THE BRAZOS SUSPENSION BRIDGE’S TOWERS PRIOR TO ENCASEMENT IN CONCRETE. NOTE COLLAPSED TRUSS IN RIVER. ELEVATION VIEW. - Clear Fork of Brazos River Suspension Bridge, Spanning Clear Fork of Brazos River at County Route 179, Albany, Shackelford County, TX

  10. The Alcoa ram fastener: A reusable blind rivet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewalt, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Results of tensile, shear, fatigue and accelerated weathering tests are presented for the ram fastener, a reusable, single unit blind rivet. The effects of variations in hole size, grip length and sheet thickness on strength properties of the fastener were determined. The test results show these fasteners to have strength characteristics suitable for light structural applications. Exposure to accelerated weathering did not impair their performance.

  11. The Relative Hydrodynamic Resistance of Various Types of Rivet Heads from Tests of Planning Surfaces, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscott, Starr; Parksinson, John B.

    1935-01-01

    The Committee was requested to investigate the effect of various types of rivet heads on hydrodynamic resistance. The proposal was made to obtain the resistance of the various types of rivets by tests of planing surfaces on which the full size rivets would be arranged. The testing methods, results and conclusions are given.

  12. 46 CFR 126.160 - Tests and inspections during repairs or alterations, or during riveting, welding, burning, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... during riveting, welding, burning, or other hot work. 126.160 Section 126.160 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 126.160 Tests and inspections during repairs or alterations, or during riveting, welding, burning, or... riveting, welding, burning, or other hot work may commence. (c) Each examination must be conducted...

  13. 46 CFR 126.160 - Tests and inspections during repairs or alterations, or during riveting, welding, burning, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... during riveting, welding, burning, or other hot work. 126.160 Section 126.160 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 126.160 Tests and inspections during repairs or alterations, or during riveting, welding, burning, or... riveting, welding, burning, or other hot work may commence. (c) Each examination must be conducted as...

  14. 46 CFR 126.160 - Tests and inspections during repairs or alterations, or during riveting, welding, burning, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... during riveting, welding, burning, or other hot work. 126.160 Section 126.160 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 126.160 Tests and inspections during repairs or alterations, or during riveting, welding, burning, or... riveting, welding, burning, or other hot work may commence. (c) Each examination must be conducted as...

  15. 46 CFR 126.160 - Tests and inspections during repairs or alterations, or during riveting, welding, burning, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... during riveting, welding, burning, or other hot work. 126.160 Section 126.160 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 126.160 Tests and inspections during repairs or alterations, or during riveting, welding, burning, or... riveting, welding, burning, or other hot work may commence. (c) Each examination must be conducted as...

  16. 46 CFR 126.160 - Tests and inspections during repairs or alterations, or during riveting, welding, burning, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... during riveting, welding, burning, or other hot work. 126.160 Section 126.160 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 126.160 Tests and inspections during repairs or alterations, or during riveting, welding, burning, or... riveting, welding, burning, or other hot work may commence. (c) Each examination must be conducted as...

  17. Effect of aging on mechanical properties of aluminum-alloy rivets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roop, Frederick C

    1941-01-01

    Curves and tabular data present the results of strength tests made during and after 2 1/2 years of aging on rivets and rivet wire of 3/16-inch nominal diameter. The specimens were of aluminum alloy: 24s, 17s, and a17s of the duralumin type and 53s of the magnesium-silicide type.

  18. Effect of aging on mechanical properties of aluminum-alloy rivets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roop, Frederick C

    1941-01-01

    Curves and tabular data present the results of strength tests made during and after 2 1/2 years of aging on rivets and rivet wire of 3/16-inch nominal diameter. The specimens were of aluminum alloy: 24S, 17S, and A17S of the duralumin type and 53S of the magnesium-silicide type.

  19. Influence of Micro-Rivet Manufacturing Process on Quality of Micro-Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presz, Wojciech; Cacko, Robert

    2011-05-01

    One of the modern industry endeavors is to be able to manufacture smaller size components using traditional or new technologies. Smaller components usually need special assembly techniques. New course of mechanical joining improvement is to develop process modification for decreased scale, i.e. micro-joining. Very interesting problems arise with self-piercing riveting (SPR) method, because one of the factors influencing SPR joint strength is rivet material properties. Rivet production by forming produces certain distribution of stress/strain field within cross-section of a rivet, influencing the process of SPR joint formation in micro-joining. Results of initial analysis of micro-joint strength are presented in the paper. Stress/strain field obtained during rivet production is taken into account in numerical simulation of micro-riveting process. Joint loading test was numerically modeled. Simulations consisted of three phases: manufacturing of the rivet, forming a joint and strength test. Stress strain fields were superimposed over the joint on every stage. Influence of the manufacturing method of the rivet on the joint quality and strength was observed. The commercial FEM software MSC-Marc is used for numerical simulations.

  20. Laboratory and field measurements and evaluations of vibration at the handles of riveting hammers

    PubMed Central

    McDOWELL, THOMAS W.; WARREN, CHRISTOPHER; WELCOME, DANIEL E.; DONG, REN G.

    2015-01-01

    The use of riveting hammers can expose workers to harmful levels of hand-transmitted vibration (HTV). As a part of efforts to reduce HTV exposures through tool selection, the primary objective of this study was to evaluate the applicability of a standardized laboratory-based riveting hammer assessment protocol for screening riveting hammers. The second objective was to characterize the vibration emissions of reduced vibration riveting hammers and to make approximations of the HTV exposures of workers operating these tools in actual work tasks. Eight pneumatic riveting hammers were selected for the study. They were first assessed in a laboratory using the standardized method for measuring vibration emissions at the tool handle. The tools were then further assessed under actual working conditions during three aircraft sheet metal riveting tasks. Although the average vibration magnitudes of the riveting hammers measured in the laboratory test were considerably different from those measured in the field study, the rank orders of the tools determined via these tests were fairly consistent, especially for the lower vibration tools. This study identified four tools that consistently exhibited lower frequency-weighted and unweighted accelerations in both the laboratory and workplace evaluations. These observations suggest that the standardized riveting hammer test is acceptable for identifying tools that could be expected to exhibit lower vibrations in workplace environments. However, the large differences between the accelerations measured in the laboratory and field suggest that the standardized laboratory-based tool assessment is not suitable for estimating workplace riveting hammer HTV exposures. Based on the frequency-weighted accelerations measured at the tool handles during the three work tasks, the sheet metal mechanics assigned to these tasks at the studied workplace are unlikely to exceed the daily vibration exposure action value (2.5 m s−2) using any of the

  1. Laboratory and field measurements and evaluations of vibration at the handles of riveting hammers.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Thomas W; Warren, Christopher; Welcome, Daniel E; Dong, Ren G

    2012-10-01

    The use of riveting hammers can expose workers to harmful levels of hand-transmitted vibration (HTV). As a part of efforts to reduce HTV exposures through tool selection, the primary objective of this study was to evaluate the applicability of a standardized laboratory-based riveting hammer assessment protocol for screening riveting hammers. The second objective was to characterize the vibration emissions of reduced vibration riveting hammers and to make approximations of the HTV exposures of workers operating these tools in actual work tasks. Eight pneumatic riveting hammers were selected for the study. They were first assessed in a laboratory using the standardized method for measuring vibration emissions at the tool handle. The tools were then further assessed under actual working conditions during three aircraft sheet metal riveting tasks. Although the average vibration magnitudes of the riveting hammers measured in the laboratory test were considerably different from those measured in the field study, the rank orders of the tools determined via these tests were fairly consistent, especially for the lower vibration tools. This study identified four tools that consistently exhibited lower frequency-weighted and unweighted accelerations in both the laboratory and workplace evaluations. These observations suggest that the standardized riveting hammer test is acceptable for identifying tools that could be expected to exhibit lower vibrations in workplace environments. However, the large differences between the accelerations measured in the laboratory and field suggest that the standardized laboratory-based tool assessment is not suitable for estimating workplace riveting hammer HTV exposures. Based on the frequency-weighted accelerations measured at the tool handles during the three work tasks, the sheet metal mechanics assigned to these tasks at the studied workplace are unlikely to exceed the daily vibration exposure action value (2.5 m s(-2)) using any of the

  2. Analysis of the rivets from the RMS Titanic using experimental and theoretical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Jennifer Jo

    Earlier studies of Titanic wrought iron rivets revealed an anisotropic, inhomogeneous composite material composed of glassy iron silicate (slag) particles embedded in a ferrite matrix. Micrographs indicated a directional character to the slag "stringers" that follows the method of processing---aligned parallel to the shaft in the center of the rivet, but oriented perpendicular to the shaft within the inner section of each head. It was proposed that the re-orientation of large slag particles in the rivet head weakened this region, predisposing the rivets to fail as a result of collision with the iceberg. Using quantitative metallography, mechanical testing, and a combination of modeling techniques, this hypothesis was tested using 35 Titanic rivets and additional contemporary wrought iron. Results revealed that the wrought iron microstructure showed a high slag content that was very coarse and unevenly distributed. Results from micro structural, chemical and mechanical analysis, as well as supporting historical evidence, suggested that two types of rivets, both wrought iron and steel, were used on the Titanic. Tensile testing results indicated that the longitudinal orientation in wrought iron possesses an average of 20% higher tensile strength and nearly four times the ductility of the transverse orientation. Results for Titanic rivet steel suggest a 100MPa enhancement in yield strength and tensile strength over wrought iron. Sequential imaging during mechanical testing, supported by micromechanical modeling predictions, indicated that the mechanical behavior of wrought iron is strongly affected by the orientation, distribution and content of slag within the matrix. Finite element analysis of a wrought iron rivet with anisotropic properties demonstrated that, because of poor ductility produced by the re-orientation of slag within the head, a Titanic rivet could not withstand a 5mm displacement of the hull's steel plates. Due to its low ultimate tensile strength, the

  3. Investigation of Riveted Joints of Fiberglass Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielawski, R.; Kowalik, M.; Suprynowicz, K.; Rządkowski, W.; Pyrzanowski, P.

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of riveted joints of composites. Using tensile tests, a series of strength investigations were conducted. The strength of composite specimens was examined with and without the presence of a feed force. The specimens were made using two types of fabric with four fiber orientations. The digital image correlation method was used to prepare their strain maps. Depending on the arrangement of fiber orientations, various composite damage models are described. Based on the failure mode of the test specimens, the least and most desirable fiber orientations are determined.

  4. Rivet-fastener belt splices reduce conveyor downtime

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    At Sahara Coal Co's No. 21 Mine in Illinois some 18 miles of conveyor belting are in underground use bringing coal from the faces to a main haulage conveyor which transports the coal to the surface. The belt material is nylon carcass with rubber cover. Because of relatively low roof clearance, thinner belt than is typically used underground is employed, since a 500 ft roll of thicker belting would be unable to negotiate low-clearance entries. This thinner belt material could not be spliced using conventional fasteners, but solid-plate rivetted splicing has been found to be satisfactory.

  5. Effects of process parameters on friction self-piercing riveting of dissimilar materials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xun; Lim, Yong Chae; Li, Yongbing; Tang, Wei; Ma, Yunwu; Feng, Zhili; Ni, Jun

    2016-05-24

    In the present work, a recently developed solid state joining technique, Friction self-piercing riveting (F-SPR), has been applied for joining high strength aluminum alloy AA7075-T6 to magnesium alloy AZ31B. The process was performed on a specially designed machine where the spindle can achieve the motion of sudden stop. Effects of rivet rotating rate and punch speed on axial plunge force, torque, joint microstructure and quality have been analyzed systematically. During F-SPR, higher rotating rate and slower punch speed can reduce axial force and torque, which correspondingly results in a slightly smaller interlock between rivet leg and joined materials. Improved local flowability of both aluminum and magnesium alloys under a higher rotating speed results in a thicker aluminum layer surrounding the rivet leg, where formation of Al-Mg intermetallics was observed. Equivalent joint strength obtained in this study are higher than the yield strength of the AZ31 Mg alloy. One of the tensile failure modes is the rivet fracture, which is due to local softening of rivet leg from frictional heat. Lastly, other two failure modes include rivet pullout and shear through of bottom sheet.

  6. Effects of process parameters on friction self-piercing riveting of dissimilar materials

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Xun; Lim, Yong Chae; Li, Yongbing; ...

    2016-05-24

    In the present work, a recently developed solid state joining technique, Friction self-piercing riveting (F-SPR), has been applied for joining high strength aluminum alloy AA7075-T6 to magnesium alloy AZ31B. The process was performed on a specially designed machine where the spindle can achieve the motion of sudden stop. Effects of rivet rotating rate and punch speed on axial plunge force, torque, joint microstructure and quality have been analyzed systematically. During F-SPR, higher rotating rate and slower punch speed can reduce axial force and torque, which correspondingly results in a slightly smaller interlock between rivet leg and joined materials. Improved localmore » flowability of both aluminum and magnesium alloys under a higher rotating speed results in a thicker aluminum layer surrounding the rivet leg, where formation of Al-Mg intermetallics was observed. Equivalent joint strength obtained in this study are higher than the yield strength of the AZ31 Mg alloy. One of the tensile failure modes is the rivet fracture, which is due to local softening of rivet leg from frictional heat. Lastly, other two failure modes include rivet pullout and shear through of bottom sheet.« less

  7. Effects of process parameters on friction self-piercing riveting of dissimilar materials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xun; Lim, Yong Chae; Li, Yongbing; Tang, Wei; Ma, Yunwu; Feng, Zhili; Ni, Jun

    2016-05-24

    In the present work, a recently developed solid state joining technique, Friction self-piercing riveting (F-SPR), has been applied for joining high strength aluminum alloy AA7075-T6 to magnesium alloy AZ31B. The process was performed on a specially designed machine where the spindle can achieve the motion of sudden stop. Effects of rivet rotating rate and punch speed on axial plunge force, torque, joint microstructure and quality have been analyzed systematically. During F-SPR, higher rotating rate and slower punch speed can reduce axial force and torque, which correspondingly results in a slightly smaller interlock between rivet leg and joined materials. Improved local flowability of both aluminum and magnesium alloys under a higher rotating speed results in a thicker aluminum layer surrounding the rivet leg, where formation of Al-Mg intermetallics was observed. Equivalent joint strength obtained in this study are higher than the yield strength of the AZ31 Mg alloy. One of the tensile failure modes is the rivet fracture, which is due to local softening of rivet leg from frictional heat. Lastly, other two failure modes include rivet pullout and shear through of bottom sheet.

  8. A finite element and experimental investigation on the fatigue of riveted lap joints in aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atre, Amarendra

    Aircraft fuselage skin panels are joined together by rivets. The initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks in aircraft structures at and around the rivet/skin interface is directly related to residual stress field induced during the riveting process and subsequent service loads. Variations in the manufacturing process, such as applied loading and presence of sealant can influence the induced residual stress field. In previous research, the riveting process has been simulated by a 2D axisymmetric force-controlled analysis. The 2D analysis cannot capture the unsymmetrical residual stress state resulting from process variations. Experimental work has also been limited to observing effects of squeeze force on fatigue crack initiation in the riveted lap joint. In this work, a 3D finite element model of the riveting process that incorporates plasticity and contact between the various surfaces is simulated using ABAQUS finite element code to capture the residual stress state at the rivet/skin interface. The finite element model is implemented to observe the effects of interference, sealant and hole quality on the residual stress state using Implicit and Explicit solvers. Effects of subsequent load transfer are also analyzed with the developed model. A set of controlled lap joint fatigue experiments for the different conditions provides validation to the model.

  9. Modeling growth of fatigue cracks which originate at rivet holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mear, Mark E.

    1989-01-01

    When a structural component is subjected to repeated stress cycles, it can fail at stresses which are well below the tensile strength of the material. The processes leading to this failure are termed fatigue. Instances of fatigue failure in aircraft have become an increasing concern. The crack leading to failure often originate at rivet holes and then grow in response to stress cycles which occur during the operation of the aircraft. A necessary step to preventing failures in todays fleet of aging aircraft is to increase the frequency and quality of inspections; steps were already taken in this direction. There is also a need for modeling of fatigue crack growth in the aircraft structures so that improvements in design can be established and predictions of the life of the components can be made. The purpose is to provide a method to accurately predict the growth of fatigue cracks and to use this method to make predictions about the life of aircraft structural components. The method relies on the formulation and numerical solution of a singular integral equation(s) for an arbitrarily shaped crack(s) which propagate in response to the applied loading. Of special interest to the aging aircraft studies are cracks which originate at circular holes (i.e., rivet holes), but other crack geometries can be treated equally as well.

  10. A robust multi-frequency mixing algorithm for suppression of rivet signal in GMR inspection of riveted structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safdernejad, Morteza S.; Karpenko, Oleksii; Ye, Chaofeng; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish

    2016-02-01

    The advent of Giant Magneto-Resistive (GMR) technology permits development of novel highly sensitive array probes for Eddy Current (EC) inspection of multi-layer riveted structures. Multi-frequency GMR measurements with different EC pene-tration depths show promise for detection of bottom layer notches at fastener sites. However, the distortion of the induced magnetic field due to flaws is dominated by the strong fastener signal, which makes defect detection and classification a challenging prob-lem. This issue is more pronounced for ferromagnetic fasteners that concentrate most of the magnetic flux. In the present work, a novel multi-frequency mixing algorithm is proposed to suppress rivet signal response and enhance defect detection capability of the GMR array probe. The algorithm is baseline-free and does not require any assumptions about the sample geometry being inspected. Fastener signal suppression is based upon the random sample consensus (RANSAC) method, which iteratively estimates parameters of a mathematical model from a set of observed data with outliers. Bottom layer defects at fastener site are simulated as EDM notches of different length. Performance of the proposed multi-frequency mixing approach is evaluated on finite element data and experimental GMR measurements obtained with unidirectional planar current excitation. Initial results are promising demonstrating the feasibility of the approach.

  11. Characterization of Coatings on Steel Self-Piercing Rivets for Use with Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCune, Robert C.; Forsmark, Joy H.; Upadhyay, Vinod; Battocchi, Dante

    Incorporation of magnesium alloys in self-pierce rivet (SPR) joints poses several unique challenges among which are the creation of spurious galvanic cells and aggravated corrosion of adjacent magnesium when coated steel rivets are employed. This work firstly reviews efforts on development of coatings to steel fasteners for the diminution of galvanic corrosion when used with magnesium alloys. Secondly, approaches, based on several electrochemical methods, for the measurement of the galvanic-limiting effect of a number of commercially-available coatings to hardened 10B37 steel self-piercing rivets inserted into alloy couples incorporating several grades of magnesium are reported. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), zero-resistance ammeter (ZRA), corrosion potential and potential-mapping visualization methods (e.g. scanning vibrating electrode technique — SVET) are illustrated for the several rivet coatings considered.

  12. Three-dimensional finite element analyses of the local mechanical behavior of riveted lap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Kaushik Arjunan

    Three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element models of single and double rivet-row lap joints have been developed to evaluate local distortions and the mechanics of airframe-type 7075-T6 aluminum alloy riveted assemblies. Loading induced distortion features such as the excess assembly compliance, rivet tilt, local in- and out-of-plane slips and stress concentration factors are evaluated as functions of rivet countersinking, rivet material and friction coefficient. Computed features are examined to identify alterations in the proportions of in-plane and out-of-plane load transmission across rivet-panel interfaces and isolate global and lower-order effects present in the complex response of these multi-body assemblies. Analytical procedures are validated by comparing calculated and measured values of excess assembly compliance and local panel bending. Direct out-of-plane load transmission between the rivet heads and panels affects global deformation features such as remote panel bending and local features such as the panel stress concentration factor. The increase in stress concentration due to panel bending is self-limiting owing to decreasing in-plane load bearing with increasing rivet tilt, which is a composite reflection of the basic rivet deformation modes of shear and rotation. Calculations have also been performed to define approximate steady-state fretting fatigue conditions that lead to crack initiation at a panel hole surface in single and double rivet-row assemblies for countersunk and non-countersunk rivets. These account for and isolate effects of interference and clamping forces on fatigue performance by comparing computed circumferential variations of bulk residual stresses, cyclic stress range and mean stress. With interference, a non-countersunk assembly is shown to be as prone to crack initiation as a countersunk assembly. Frictional work due to fretting is evaluated and the physical location of fretting fatigue crack initiation is predicted by

  13. Vibration reduction of pneumatic percussive rivet tools: mechanical and ergonomic re-design approaches.

    PubMed

    Cherng, John G; Eksioglu, Mahmut; Kizilaslan, Kemal

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a systematic design approach, which is the result of years of research effort, to ergonomic re-design of rivet tools, i.e. rivet hammers and bucking bars. The investigation was carried out using both ergonomic approach and mechanical analysis of the rivet tools dynamic behavior. The optimal mechanical design parameters of the re-designed rivet tools were determined by Taguchi method. Two ergonomically re-designed rivet tools with vibration damping/isolation mechanisms were tested against two conventional rivet tools in both laboratory and field tests. Vibration characteristics of both types of tools were measured by laboratory tests using a custom-made test fixture. The subjective field evaluations of the tools were performed by six experienced riveters at an aircraft repair shop. Results indicate that the isolation spring and polymer damper are very effective in reducing the overall level of vibration under both unweighted and weighted acceleration conditions. The mass of the dolly head and the housing played a significant role in the vibration absorption of the bucking bars. Another important result was that the duct iron has better vibration reducing capability compared to steel and aluminum for bucking bars. Mathematical simulation results were also consistent with the experimental results. Overall conclusion obtained from the study was that by applying the design principles of ergonomics and by adding vibration damping/isolation mechanisms to the rivet tools, the vibration level can significantly be reduced and the tools become safer and user friendly. The details of the experience learned, design modifications, test methods, mathematical models and the results are included in the paper.

  14. Self-Pierce Riveting Through 3 Sheet Metal Combinations

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Roger; Jonason, Paul; Pettersson, Tommy

    2011-05-04

    One way to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions in automotives is to reduce the weight of the Body-In-White. One easy to achieve the weight reduction is to replace steel sheet materials with Al alloys, which is 3 times lighter. One issue is the joining process, especially with combinations between steel grades and AL alloys. Example of combination of mixed material combinations (Al-steel) might be found in the door structure. The reason is because of the AL alloys worthier crash performance so the automotive manufacturer might want to use crash impact beams made by high strength steels in a AL intensive door structure. The joining process between aluminum and steel are problematic due it's not possible to use traditional spot-welding technologies due to the materials total difference in microstructure characteristics as well thermal properties. To overcome this issue then mechanical as well adhesion joining are frequently used. This paper describes a development process and subsequently analysis of a self-pierce rivet (SPR) process between 3 sheet metal combinations. The multi-material combinations in this study were a combination of ultra high strength steels sheets (DP1000) and a Al-alloy (AA 6014). The analysis of the SPR process, in sense of mechanical strengths, has been done by peel- and shear tests. To reduce the amount of future physical tests a virtual FE-model has been developed for the process. This FE model of the process has been subsequently used to analyze the mechanical strength during plastic deformation. By using inverse analysis a correct contact algorithm has been evaluated that would predict the binding force between the rivet and sheet under a deformation process. With this new virtual model it will not only possible to analyze and develop the SPR process but also to achieve the final strength of the joint.

  15. Self-Pierce Riveting Through 3 Sheet Metal Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Roger; Jonason, Paul; Pettersson, Tommy

    2011-05-01

    One way to reduce the CO2 emissions in automotives is to reduce the weight of the Body-In-White. One easy to achieve the weight reduction is to replace steel sheet materials with Al alloys, which is 3 times lighter. One issue is the joining process, especially with combinations between steel grades and AL alloys. Example of combination of mixed material combinations (Al-steel) might be found in the door structure. The reason is because of the AL alloys worthier crash performance so the automotive manufacturer might want to use crash impact beams made by high strength steels in a AL intensive door structure. The joining process between aluminum and steel are problematic due it's not possible to use traditional spot-welding technologies due to the materials total difference in microstructure characteristics as well thermal properties. To overcome this issue then mechanical as well adhesion joining are frequently used. This paper describes a development process and subsequently analysis of a self-pierce rivet (SPR) process between 3 sheet metal combinations. The multi-material combinations in this study were a combination of ultra high strength steels sheets (DP1000) and a Al-alloy (AA 6014). The analysis of the SPR process, in sense of mechanical strengths, has been done by peel- and shear tests. To reduce the amount of future physical tests a virtual FE-model has been developed for the process. This FE model of the process has been subsequently used to analyze the mechanical strength during plastic deformation. By using inverse analysis a correct contact algorithm has been evaluated that would predict the binding force between the rivet and sheet under a deformation process. With this new virtual model it will not only possible to analyze and develop the SPR process but also to achieve the final strength of the joint.

  16. Novel tnpR-based transposable promoter traps suitable for RIVET studies in different gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Mauricio J; Salas, María Eugenia; Giusti, María de los Angeles; Martini, María Carla; López, José Luis; Salto, Ileana; Del Papa, María Florencia; Pistorio, Mariano; Lagares, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The preparation of plasmid-borne RIVET libraries can be troublesome when high genomic coverages are needed. We present here the construction and functional validation of a new set of miniTn5 promoter traps to generate tnpR-based RIVET libraries. The ability to generate tnpR transcriptional fusions by transposition will significantly facilitate the setup of RIVET studies in those bacteria where Tn5 transposition is operative.

  17. Mechanical joining with self piercing solid-rivets at elevated tool velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Neugebauer, R.; Jesche, F.; Kraus, C.; Hensel, S.

    2011-05-04

    In the present paper the influence of a higher setting velocity in the joining process of self piercing solid-rivets is shown. In the conventional process tool velocities well below 1 m/s are common. The present research results show the potential of increasing them in the range of about 5 m/s. The results are especially relevant for joining high-strength steels. These steel sheets often cause problems in the process of riveting mixed materials, e. g. aluminium-steel compound. The high strength of the steel sometimes leads to undesirable material flow in the joining process or unwanted burr development. These effects, which are described in detail in the article, can be reduced significantly for the investigated cases by the use of higher tool velocities. Using a high speed camera and a load cell, a test setup based on a drop tower was realized. It was used to time the force signals and the motion profile of the high speed riveting process. The results of the force analysis show an oscillating force progression. Within a numerical research the principal effects influencing the results of the riveting process can be shown. It was found that the pulse-like force transmission between riveting machine and punch, results in various vibrations especially of long and thin tool parts. Hence the rivet penetrates the sheet metal with non-uniform velocities. As a result the early indentation of die into the lower sheet metal at the beginning of the process is reduced, so that the final process step provides a sufficient material flow into the circular rivet groove. A strain-rate dependent process model with elastic tool properties and consideration of inertia effects is presented.

  18. The Increase in Frictional Resistance Caused by Various Types of Rivet Heads as Determined by Tests of Planing Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscott, Starr; Parkinson, J B

    1938-01-01

    The increase in the frictional resistance of a surface caused by the presence of rivet heads was determined by towing four planing surfaces of the same dimensions. One surface was smooth and represented a surface without rivet heads or one with perfectly flush countersunk rivets. The other three surfaces were each fitted with the same number of full-size rivet heads but of a different type arranged in the same pattern on each surface. The surfaces were towed at speeds representative of the high water speeds encountered by seaplanes during take-off and the range of Reynolds Number covered by the test was from 4 x 10(exp 6) to 18 x 10(exp 6). The rivet heads investigated were oval countersunk, brazier, and round for rivets having shanks 5/32 inch in diameter. The oval countersunk heads were sunk below the surface by dimpling the plating around them. The results of the tests showed that, for the rivet heads investigated, the increase in the friction coefficient of the surface is directly proportional to the height of the rivet head. The order of merit in regard to low resistance is flush countersunk, oval countersunk (whether sunk below the surface or not), brazier, and round.

  19. Life determination of riveted aircraft structure by holographic NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, John P.; Heslehurst, Rikard B.; Williamson, Hugh M.; Clark, Robert K.; Hollamby, Derek

    1996-11-01

    In a project funded by the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Aging Aircraft Program, a Portable Holographic Inspection System (PHITS) has been further developed. The technique involves taking a double exposure white light reflection hologram of aircraft structures. Each exposure is taken at a slightly different load state, and the resulting interferogram shows the deformations that occur between the two load states. Results showed that the rivets in a simple lap joint, designed to simulate the longitudinal lap splice on a Boeing 737, behaved in two distinct and easily recognizable modes. The first mode occurred at low loads and was an indication that friction forces between the two sheets of the lap joint dominated the load transfer mechanism. Indications were that the second mode related to higher loads for which the friction forces played a much lesser role. The load at which the changeover begins to occur has been called the critical load. Preliminary experiments showed that structures with a high value of critical load had a fatigue life of order ten times that of a normally fastened splice. Critical load can be readily determined in the field using the PHITS system. Research designed to establish the relationship between fatigue life and critical load is continuing. An understanding of that relationship could lead to a technique capable of fatigue life determination in typical aircraft structures.

  20. The use of rivets for electrical resistance measurement on carbon fibre-reinforced thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBaere, I.; Van Paepegem, W.; Degrieck, J.

    2007-10-01

    The use of fibre-reinforced thermoplastics, for example in the aeronautical industry, is increasing rapidly. Therefore, there is an increasing need for in situ monitoring tools, which preferably have limited influence on the behaviour of the material and which are easy to use. Furthermore, in the aeronautical industry composites are very often attached with rivets. In this study, the possibility of the use of rivets as contact electrodes for electrical resistance measurement is explored. The material used is a carbon fibre-reinforced polyphenylene sulphide. First, the set-up used is discussed. Then, static tensile tests on the laminate are performed. The possible influence of an extensometer on the measurements is examined. Furthermore, failure predictability is assessed. It may be concluded that the proposed set-up with the rivets can be used for electrical resistance measurement, with the ability to predict failure, and that the extensometer has a negative influence on the resistance measurement.

  1. Fractographic analysis of initiation and growth of fatigue cracks at rivet holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelloux, R.; Warren, A.; O'Grady, J.

    A series of fatigue tests were performed on riveted panels of clad 2024-T3 without epoxy bonds. Fatigue crack initiation occurred at the apex of the rivet hole chamfers. Transgranular fatigue crack growth by ductile striation formation occurred through the sheet. The fracture features at low, medium and high growth rates were examined with the SEM. Microscopic crack propagation rates as measured by fatigue striation spacings correlate with macroscopic crack growth rates observed. The fatigue crack growth rate is fairly constant over a length of 6 mm (0.25 in.) from the edge of the rivet hole, due to the fact that the stress intensity range is approximately constant in this region. Transition to fast fracture and unstable crack propagation is readily identified due to marked yielding of the cladding material.

  2. Effect of adherend steel strength on static and fatigue strength of adhesive/rivet combined joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanaka, Makoto; Haraga, Kosuke; Nishikawa, Tetsuya

    1992-02-01

    Adhesive/rivet combined bonding has attracted special interest recently as a joining technique of high-strength steel because of its high joint efficiency. In this study, the effects of steel strength on the tensile and fatigue strength of adhesive/rivet combined and adhesive joints were investigated. In addition, the stress distributions of these joints were analyzed by finite-element methods, taking into consideration the plastic deformation of adherend steels. With the increase of steel strength, the tensile strength of combined and adhesive joints increased and tensile strength was improved by the combination with the rivet. However, irrespective of the steel strength, the fatigue strength of combined and adhesive joints was constant and the fatigue strength of the combined joint was similar to that of the adhesive joint. These findings could be explained from the difference of stress distribution between static and fatigue load conditions.

  3. A rivet model for channel formation by aerolysin-like pore-forming toxins.

    PubMed

    Iacovache, Ioan; Paumard, Patrick; Scheib, Holger; Lesieur, Claire; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan; Parker, Michael W; van der Goot, F Gisou

    2006-02-08

    The bacterial toxin aerolysin kills cells by forming heptameric channels, of unknown structure, in the plasma membrane. Using disulfide trapping and cysteine scanning mutagenesis coupled to thiol-specific labeling on lipid bilayers, we identify a loop that lines the channel. This loop has an alternating pattern of charged and uncharged residues, suggesting that the transmembrane region has a beta-barrel configuration, as observed for Staphylococcal alpha-toxin. Surprisingly, we found that the turn of the beta-hairpin is composed of a stretch of five hydrophobic residues. We show that this hydrophobic turn drives membrane insertion of the developing channel and propose that, once the lipid bilayer has been crossed, it folds back parallel to the plane of the membrane in a rivet-like fashion. This rivet-like conformation was modeled and sequence alignments suggest that such channel riveting may operate for many other pore-forming toxins.

  4. The mechanics and tribology of fretting fatigue with application to riveted lap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolwinski, Matthew Paul

    Fretting is the synergistic combination of wear, corrosion, and fatigue damage mechanisms driven by the partial slip of contacting surfaces. The surface microslip and near-surface contact stresses associated with fretting can lead to severe reduction in service lifetimes of contacting components as diversified as bearings, turbine blades and mechanically-fastened joints, both structural and biological. This tribologically induced degradation has come under close scrutiny by those responsible for maintaining aging fleets of both commercial and military aircraft. Thus a critical need exists for predicting fretting crack nucleation in riveted aluminum. aircraft joints. Fulfilling this need requires characterizing both the near-surface mechanics and intimately-related tribology of fretting. To this end, a well characterized experimental setup has been developed to generate carefully controlled and monitored fretting contacts to investigate the nature of the near-surface conditions. Included in this investigation were in-situ observations of the fretting contact stress field via a non-invasive thermal imaging technique and a characterization of the evolution of friction under partial slip conditions. With specific qualitative and quantitative understanding of these near-surface conditions, a series of fretting fatigue experiments have been conducted to validate a mechanics-based model for predicting fretting fatigue crack nucleation. Finally, efforts have been directed toward extending this understanding of fretting crack nucleation to riveted aircraft structure through modeling of the riveting process and a related experimental program designed to link riveting process parameters and fretting damage in single-lap joint structures. This work focuses specifically on determination of the residual stresses induced during rivet installation and the morphological characterization of fretting fatigue damage in the riveted test specimens manufactured under controlled

  5. Online visual inspection of self-piercing riveting to determine the quality of the mechanical interlock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, P.; Cullen, J. D.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.; Shaw, A.

    2007-07-01

    Self-piercing riveting (SPR) has become a significant joining technique for the automotive applications of aluminium sheets. Quality control in this locale has progressed at an altogether more leisurely rate than other areas of mechanical joining (e.g. spotweld) and is underdeveloped. Testing the quality mechanical interlock is often achieved by destructive testing, which results in material and time wastage. The solution is online monitoring of the self-piercing riveting process to provide non-destructive testing of the mechanical interlock. Introducing sensors into the process facilitates real time data acquisition, which can be used to determine the quality of the joint.

  6. Effect of Rivet Pitch Upon the Fatique Strength of Single-Row Riveted Joints of 0.025- to 0.025-inch 24S-T Alclad

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-07-01

    P) 12 0.5 ? 0.75 6 1.0 4 1.5 fatigue test specimen Half size Material.- Alclad 24ST Joggle both sheets .013" Figurei 4. 2 I» 1-3 CD I...34both sheets joggled .025-.025 24ST Alclad 6 rivets 1 spacing Ultimate load = 393 lh/rivet 400 +3 ay > u <u ft w o ft ä •H a o 300 200...t soo ÄBT430DD-4 i •ivets joggl .lclad Both sheets .025-.025 4 H = + 0.2 ed 24ST 250 200 ^ 10° cycles __ — 2.5 x 105 05~~ 150

  7. New Equipment for Testing the Fatigue Strength of Riveted and Welded Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, W

    1940-01-01

    The mechanical and electrical construction of a new experimental instrument for fatigue testing riveted and welded joints is described. This experimental device has the advantage of being able to stress, even with comparatively low magnetic exciter force, structural components in alternate bending by resonance vibrations up to incipient fatigue failure.

  8. A biomechanical study of bankart lesion fixation - biodegradable ArthroRivet tack vs. suture repair.

    PubMed

    Collins, Kevin J; Mukherjee, Debi P; Ogden, Alan L; Sadasivan, Kalia K; Albright, James A; Pietrzak, William S

    2007-01-01

    Bioabsorbable fixation is commonly used in soft tissue procedures performed in the shoulder. ArthroRivettrade mark tacks (referred to as rivets here), made from a copolymer of 82% poly-L-lactic acid and 18% polyglycolic acid, were developed for the Bankart procedure. Although a previous in vivo study demonstrated favorable comparison of the fixation strength and absorption characteristics of this device with that of polyglyconate bioabsorbable tacks, there have been no published biomechanical studies of this rivet in the shoulder. Fourteen shoulders were harvested from fresh-frozen cadavers of average age 74 years (46-89). Biomechanical testing was performed by measuring the energy, or work, required to anteriorly displace the humeral head 6 mm from the glenoid. Each shoulder was tested intact, vented, and before and after repair of a simulated Bankart lesion at 0, 45, and 90 degrees of abduction with and without maximal external rotation. Overall, the average work required ranged from 54.7 N-mm to 178.27 N-mm. Although the biomechanical performance of the rivet, based on resistance to anterior displacement of the humeral head, was indistinguishable from that of the suture repair, the statistical power of the test was low due to the large variance in the cadaver specimens. The results, in general, correlated well with those of previously published studies, suggesting the suitability of the bioabsorbable rivet for use in Bankart repair.

  9. Guided Wave Based Crack Detection in the Rivet Hole Using Global Analytical with Local FEM Approach.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Md Yeasin; Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2016-07-21

    In this article, ultrasonic guided wave propagation and interaction with the rivet hole cracks has been formulated using closed-form analytical solution while the local damage interaction, scattering, and mode conversion have been obtained from finite element analysis. The rivet hole cracks (damage) in the plate structure gives rise to the non-axisymmetric scattering of Lamb wave, as well as shear horizontal (SH) wave, although the incident Lamb wave source (primary source) is axisymmetric. The damage in the plate acts as a non-axisymmetric secondary source of Lamb wave and SH wave. The scattering of Lamb and SH waves are captured using wave damage interaction coefficient (WDIC). The scatter cubes of complex-valued WDIC are formed that can describe the 3D interaction (frequency, incident direction, and azimuth direction) of Lamb waves with the damage. The scatter cubes are fed into the exact analytical framework to produce the time domain signal. This analysis enables us to obtain the optimum design parameters for better detection of the cracks in a multiple-rivet-hole problem. The optimum parameters provide the guideline of the design of the sensor installation to obtain the most noticeable signals that represent the presence of cracks in the rivet hole.

  10. 7. TYPICAL INTERIOR AND BOTTOM OF EMPTY 14.5FOOTDIAMETER RIVETED STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. TYPICAL INTERIOR AND BOTTOM OF EMPTY 14.5-FOOT-DIAMETER RIVETED STEEL SOAP KETTLE, WITH STEAM COILS; VIEW DOWN FROM KETTLE TOP, FIFTH FLOOR, EAST BAY, THIRD KETTLE FROM SOUTH - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-13, 48-50 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  11. 13. DETAIL, U1 JOINT, FROM BELOW AND SOUTH, SHOWING RIVETED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL, U1 JOINT, FROM BELOW AND SOUTH, SHOWING RIVETED CONNECTION, AND INTERSECTION OF END POST, VERTICAL, DIAGONAL AND UPPER CHORD MEMBERS AND LATERAL BRACING - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  12. 14. DETAIL, U3 JOINT, FROM BELOW AND SOUTH, SHOWING RIVETED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL, U3 JOINT, FROM BELOW AND SOUTH, SHOWING RIVETED CONNECTION, AND INTERSECTION OF TOP CHORD, VERTICAL U3-L3, DIAGONALS, AND LATERAL BRACING INCLUDING DOUBLE ANGLES WITH LACING BARS - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  13. 16. DETAIL, L1 JOINT, FROM BELOW AND SOUTH, SHOWING RIVETED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL, L1 JOINT, FROM BELOW AND SOUTH, SHOWING RIVETED CONNECTION, AND CONFIGURATION OF VERTICAL U1-I1, LOWER CHORD AND FLOOR SYSTEM - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  14. Tensile and fatigue behaviour of self-piercing rivets of CFRP to aluminium for automotive application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, J.; Rao, H.; Zhang, R.; Avery, K.; Su, X.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the tensile and fatigue behaviour of self-piercing rivets (SPRs) in carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) to aluminium 6111 T82 alloys were evaluated. An average maximum lap-shear tensile load capacity of 3858 N was achieved, which is comparable to metal-to-metal SPR lap-shear joints. The CFRP-Al SPRs failed in lap-shear tension due to pull-out of the rivet head from the CFRP upper sheet. The CFRP-Al SPR lap- shear specimens exhibited superior fatigue life compared to previously studied aluminium-to- aluminium SPR lap-shear joints. The SPR lap-shear joints under fatigue loads failed predominantly due to kinked crack growth along the width of the bottom aluminium sheet. The fatigue cracks initiated in the plastically deformed region of the aluminium sheet close to the rivet shank in the rivet-sheet interlock region. Scatter in fatigue life and failure modes was observed in SPR lap-shear specimens tested close to maximum tensile load.

  15. Guided Wave Based Crack Detection in the Rivet Hole Using Global Analytical with Local FEM Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bhuiyan, Md Yeasin; Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2016-01-01

    In this article, ultrasonic guided wave propagation and interaction with the rivet hole cracks has been formulated using closed-form analytical solution while the local damage interaction, scattering, and mode conversion have been obtained from finite element analysis. The rivet hole cracks (damage) in the plate structure gives rise to the non-axisymmetric scattering of Lamb wave, as well as shear horizontal (SH) wave, although the incident Lamb wave source (primary source) is axisymmetric. The damage in the plate acts as a non-axisymmetric secondary source of Lamb wave and SH wave. The scattering of Lamb and SH waves are captured using wave damage interaction coefficient (WDIC). The scatter cubes of complex-valued WDIC are formed that can describe the 3D interaction (frequency, incident direction, and azimuth direction) of Lamb waves with the damage. The scatter cubes are fed into the exact analytical framework to produce the time domain signal. This analysis enables us to obtain the optimum design parameters for better detection of the cracks in a multiple-rivet-hole problem. The optimum parameters provide the guideline of the design of the sensor installation to obtain the most noticeable signals that represent the presence of cracks in the rivet hole. PMID:28773724

  16. Numerical analysis of static performance comparison of friction stir welded versus riveted 2024-T3 aluminum alloy stiffened panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qing; He, Yuting; Zhang, Teng; Wu, Liming

    2014-07-01

    Most researches on the static performance of stiffened panel joined by friction stir welding(FSW) mainly focus on the compression stability rather than shear stability. To evaluate the potential of FSW as a replacement for traditional rivet fastening for stiffened panel assembly in aviation application, finite element method(FEM) is applied to compare compression and shear stability performances of FSW stiffened panels with stability performances of riveted stiffened panels. FEMs of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy FSW and riveted stiffened panels are developed and nonlinear static analysis method is applied to obtain buckling pattern, buckling load and load carrying capability of each panel model. The accuracy of each FEM of FSW stiffened panel is evaluated by stability experiment of FSW stiffened panel specimens with identical geometry and boundary condition and the accuracy of each FEM of riveted stiffened panel is evaluated by semi-empirical calculation formulas. It is found that FEMs without considering weld-induced initial imperfections notably overestimate the static strengths of FSW stiffened panels. FEM results show that, buckling patterns of both FSW and riveted compression stiffened panels represent local buckling of plate between stiffeners. The initial buckling waves of FSW stiffened panel emerge uniformly in each plate between stiffeners while those of riveted panel mainly emerge in the mid-plate. Buckling patterns of both FSW and riveted shear stiffened panels represent local buckling of plate close to the loading corner. FEM results indicate that, shear buckling of FSW stiffened panel is less sensitive to the initial imperfections than compression buckling. Load carrying capability of FSW stiffened panel is less sensitive to the initial imperfections than initial buckling. It can be concluded that buckling loads of FSW panels are a bit lower than those of riveted panels whereas carrying capabilities of FSW panels are almost equivalent to those of riveted

  17. Two-sided friction stir riveting by extrusion: A process for joining dissimilar materials

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, William T.; Cox, Chase D.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Cook, George E.; Gibson, Brian T.

    2016-06-25

    Two-sided friction stir riveting (FSR) by extrusion is an innovative process developed to rapidly, efficiently, and securely join dissimilar materials. This process extends a previously developed one sided friction stir extrusion process to create a strong and robust joint by producing a continuous, rivet-like structure through a preformed hole in one of the materials with a simultaneous, two-sided friction stir spot weld. The two-sided FSR by extrusion process securely joins the dissimilar materials together and effectively locks them in place without the use of any separate materials or fasteners. Lastly, in this paper we demonstrate the process by joining aluminum to steel and illustrate its potential application to automotive and aerospace manufacturing processes.

  18. Two-sided friction stir riveting by extrusion: A process for joining dissimilar materials

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, William T.; Cox, Chase D.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Cook, George E.; Gibson, Brian T.

    2016-06-25

    Two-sided friction stir riveting (FSR) by extrusion is an innovative process developed to rapidly, efficiently, and securely join dissimilar materials. This process extends a previously developed one sided friction stir extrusion process to create a strong and robust joint by producing a continuous, rivet-like structure through a preformed hole in one of the materials with a simultaneous, two-sided friction stir spot weld. The two-sided FSR by extrusion process securely joins the dissimilar materials together and effectively locks them in place without the use of any separate materials or fasteners. Lastly, in this paper we demonstrate the process by joining aluminum to steel and illustrate its potential application to automotive and aerospace manufacturing processes.

  19. A Practical Engineering Approach to Predicting Fatigue Crack Growth in Riveted Lap Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. E.; Piascik, R. S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive experimental database has been assembled from very detailed teardown examinations of fatigue cracks found in rivet holes of fuselage structural components. Based on this experimental database, a comprehensive analysis methodology was developed to predict the onset of widespread fatigue damage in lap joints of fuselage structure. Several computer codes were developed with specialized capabilities to conduct the various analyses that make up the comprehensive methodology. Over the past several years, the authors have interrogated various aspects of the analysis methods to determine the degree of computational rigor required to produce numerical predictions with acceptable engineering accuracy. This study led to the formulation of a practical engineering approach to predicting fatigue crack growth in riveted lap joints. This paper describes the practical engineering approach and compares predictions with the results from several experimental studies.

  20. A Practical Engineering Approach to Predicting Fatigue Crack Growth in Riveted Lap Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Piascik, Robert S.; Newman, James C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    An extensive experimental database has been assembled from very detailed teardown examinations of fatigue cracks found in rivet holes of fuselage structural components. Based on this experimental database, a comprehensive analysis methodology was developed to predict the onset of widespread fatigue damage in lap joints of fuselage structure. Several computer codes were developed with specialized capabilities to conduct the various analyses that make up the comprehensive methodology. Over the past several years, the authors have interrogated various aspects of the analysis methods to determine the degree of computational rigor required to produce numerical predictions with acceptable engineering accuracy. This study led to the formulation of a practical engineering approach to predicting fatigue crack growth in riveted lap joints. This paper describes the practical engineering approach and compares predictions with the results from several experimental studies.

  1. Two-sided friction stir riveting by extrusion: A process for joining dissimilar materials

    DOE PAGES

    Evans, William T.; Cox, Chase D.; Strauss, Alvin M.; ...

    2016-06-25

    Two-sided friction stir riveting (FSR) by extrusion is an innovative process developed to rapidly, efficiently, and securely join dissimilar materials. This process extends a previously developed one sided friction stir extrusion process to create a strong and robust joint by producing a continuous, rivet-like structure through a preformed hole in one of the materials with a simultaneous, two-sided friction stir spot weld. The two-sided FSR by extrusion process securely joins the dissimilar materials together and effectively locks them in place without the use of any separate materials or fasteners. Lastly, in this paper we demonstrate the process by joining aluminummore » to steel and illustrate its potential application to automotive and aerospace manufacturing processes.« less

  2. Fatigue Behaviors of Self-Piercing Rivets Joining Similar and Dissimilar Sheet Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the fatigue test results of self-piercing rivet (SPR) joints between similar and dissimilar sheet metals. The influences of material grades, material thickness, piercing direction and the use of structural adhesive on the rivet samples’ fatigue behaviors were investigated. Fatigue test results indicate that SPR joints have superior fatigue strength than resistance spot weld (RSW) joints for the same material combinations. The application of structure adhesive also significantly enhances the fatigue strength of the joint samples; this is particularly true for the lap shear loading configuration. In addition, different piercing directions for SPR joints have a noticeable effect on the static and fatigue strength of the joints. The joint fatigue results presented in this paper can offer design engineers with the durability data for SPR joints with these material combinations. Moreover, it will provide manufacturing engineers with some insights on the effects of different manufacturing parameters on the strength and durability of these joints.

  3. Exposure to vibration and self-reported health complaints of riveters in the aircraft industry.

    PubMed

    Burdorf, A; Monster, A

    1991-06-01

    Workers using vibrating tools may experience neurological and vascular symptoms in the fingers and hands. The effect of vibration exposure on bone and joint disorders in the hand, arm and shoulder is less clear. In a cross-sectional study, riveters and controls in an aircraft company were investigated for vibration exposure and health complaints. Vibration measurements showed that frequency-weighted acceleration levels for riveting hammers and bucking bars ranged from 5.5 to 12.3 m s -2. The calculated equivalent frequency-weighted acceleration for a period of 4 h was the questionnaire survey 101 riveters reported statistically significant more complaints of pain and stiffness in their hands and arms when compared with 76 controls with no, or little, exposure to vibration. After 10 years of exposure statistically significant age-adjusted odds ratios (P less than 0.05) were found for vibration-induced white finger (VWF) (1.9) and pain or stiffness of the wrist (3.2). Although they were not statistically significant (0.05 less than P less than 0.10) odds ratios appreciably greater than 1 were found for numbness in fingers (1.6) and pain or stiffness in the elbow (1.6) and the shoulder (1.5), and these complaints were strongly associated with duration of exposure to vibration. With logistic regression the probabilities for a riveter of having symptoms of VWF after 10 and 20 years of exposure was estimated to be P = 0.18 and P = 0.29, respectively, which can be compared with the prevalences predicted by the dose-response relationship for VWF in ISO 5349, which are 10 and 30%. The results of this study suggest that exposure to vibration from working with impact power tools can contribute to complaints of pain and stiffness in the hand, arm and shoulder, and especially in the wrist.

  4. Optimization and Validation of Rotating Current Excitation with GMR Array Sensors for Riveted

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-16

    E.X.; Simkin, J. Total and reduced magnetic vector potentials and electrical scalar potential for eddy current calculation. IEEE Trans. Magn. 2004, 40...AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0195 OPTIMIZATION AND VALIDATION OF ROTATING CURRENT EXCITATION WITH GMR ARRAY SENSORS FOR RIVETED (POSTPRINT...person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number

  5. Detection of Fatigue Cracks at Rivets with Self-Nulling Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Fulton, Jim; Nath, Shridhar; Namkung, Min

    1994-01-01

    A new eddy current probe developed at NASA Langley Research Center has been used to detect small cracks at rivets in aircraft lap splices [1]. The device has earlier been used to detect isolated fatigue cracks with a minimum detectable flaw size of roughly 1/2 to 1/3 the diameter of the probe [2]. The present work shows that the detectable flaw size for cracks originating at rivets can be greatly improved upon from that of isolated flaws. The use of a rotating probe method combined with spatial filtering has been used to detect 0.18 cm EDM notches, as measured from the rivet shank, with a 1.27 cm diameter probe and to detect flaws buried under the rivet head, down to a length of 0.076 cm, using a 0.32 cm diameter probe. The Self-Nulling Electromagnetic Flaw Detector induces a high density eddy current ring in the sample under test. A ferromagnetic flux focusing lens is incorporated such that in the absence of any inhomogeneities in the material under test only a minimal magnetic field will reach the interior of the probe. A magnetometer (pickup coil) located in the center of the probe therefore registers a null voltage in the absence of material defects. When a fatigue crack or other discontinuity is present in the test article the path of the eddy currents in the material is changed. The magnetic field associated with these eddy currents then enter into the interior of the probe, producing a large output voltage across the pickup coil leads. Further

  6. Experimental Analysis of Stiffness of the Riveted Steel Railway Bridge Deck Members' Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocál, Jozef; Hlinka, Richard; Jošt, Jozef; Bahleda, František

    2014-12-01

    The paper deals with the real behaviour of the riveted steel railway bridge deck members' connections with respect to their bending stiffness. Attention is paid to the stringer-to-cross beam connection as well as the cross beam-to-main girder connection. The stiffness of the two connections is investigated on the basis of evaluation of the experimentally determined stress response of the observed structural members to the actual traffic load on an existing railway bridge.

  7. Joining of molybdenum thin films with copper printed circuit board by laser micro-riveting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Klaus; Ehrhardt, Martin; Lorenz, Pierre; Stephan, Tino; Ebert, Robby; Braun, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    The joining of micron devices by bonding of thin films is required for the electrical or mechanical connection of thin film components. Current developments of flexible electronics call for advanced micron interconnection technologies. For the joining of thin film devices on flexible polymer substrates a novel technique called "laser microriveting" (LMR) is introduced and demonstrated which enables the bonding of two thin metal layers of different materials for mechanical and electrical connections. In this approach the mechanical and electrical connections are achieved by geometrical interlocking of the thin film materials as a consequence of pulsed laser irradiation. Imaging by SEM and EDX shows clearly that a hollow rivet of copper is formed interlocking the copper layer with the overlaying molybdenum film. The copper hollow rivet formation is the result of highly-dynamic laser-driven processes of melting, evaporation, recoil pressure formation, material transport processes, and resolidification of the molten copper within a single laser pulse. A contact resistance of less than 100 mΩ for one rivet of approximately 20 μm size was measured. This new approach provides a solution for current problems of joining very dissimilar materials.

  8. The Load Distribution in Bolted or Riveted Joints in Light-Alloy Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, F.

    1947-01-01

    This report contains a theoretical discussion of the load distribution in bolted or riveted joints in light-alloy structures which is applicable not only for loads below the limit of proportionality but also for loads above this limit. The theory is developed for double and single shear joints. The methods given are illustrated by numerical examples and the values assumed for the bolt (or rivet) stiffnesses are based partly on theory and partly on known experimental values. It is shown that the load distribution does not vary greatly with the bolt (or rivet) stiffnesses and that for design purposes it is usually sufficient to know their order of magnitude. The theory may also be directly used for spot-welded structures and, with small modifications, for seam-welded structures, The computational work involved in the methods described is simple and may be completed in a reasonable time for most practical problems. A summary of earlier theoretical and experimental investigations on the subject is included in the report.

  9. Computerized evaluation of holographic interferograms for fatigue crack detection in riveted lap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiang

    Using an innovative portable holographic inspection and testing system (PHITS) developed at the Australian Defence Force Academy, fatigue cracks in riveted lap joints can be detected by visually inspecting the abnormal fringe changes recorded on holographic interferograms. In this thesis, for automatic crack detection, some modern digital image processing techniques are investigated and applied to holographic interferogram evaluation. Fringe analysis algorithms are developed for identification of the crack-induced fringe changes. Theoretical analysis of PHITS and riveted lap joints and two typical experiments demonstrate that the fatigue cracks in lightly-clamped joints induce two characteristic fringe changes: local fringe discontinuities at the cracking sites; and the global crescent fringe distribution near to the edge of the rivet hole. Both of the fringe features are used for crack detection in this thesis. As a basis of the fringe feature extraction, an algorithm for local fringe orientation calculation is proposed. For high orientation accuracy and computational efficiency, Gaussian gradient filtering and neighboring direction averaging are used to minimize the effects of image background variations and random noise. The neighboring direction averaging is also used to approximate the fringe directions in centerlines of bright and dark fringes. Experimental results indicate that for high orientation accuracy the scales of the Gaussian filter and neighboring direction averaging should be chosen according to the local fringe spacings. The orientation histogram technique is applied to detect the local fringe discontinuity due to the fatigue cracks. The Fourier descriptor technique is used to characterize the global fringe distribution change from a circular to a crescent distribution with the fatigue crack growth. Experiments and computer simulations are conducted to analyze the detectability and reliability of crack detection using the two techniques. Results

  10. Multifrequency Eddy Current Inspection of Corrosion in Clad Aluminum Riveted Lap Joints and Its Effect on Fatigue Life

    SciTech Connect

    Okafor, A. C.; Natarajan, S.

    2007-03-21

    Aging aircraft are prone to corrosion damage and fatigue cracks in riveted lap joints of fuselage skin panels. This can cause catastrophic failure if not detected and repaired. Hence detection of corrosion damage and monitoring its effect on structural integrity are essential. This paper presents multifrequency eddy current (EC) inspection of corrosion damage and machined material loss defect in clad A1 2024-T3 riveted lap joints and its effect on fatigue life. Results of eddy current inspection, corrosion product removal and fatigue testing are presented.

  11. An assessment of lead controls for torch cutting and rivet removal on steel structures.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, M; Clark, N L; Levin, S M; Zuckerman, N; Doucette, J T

    2000-05-01

    The use of engineering and work practice controls to protect workers from lead-containing dusts and fumes generated during rehabilitation of steel structures is mandated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Lead in Construction Standard (1993). Because the implementation and assessment of controls can be problematic in the rugged and dynamic construction environment, industrial hygienists should understand the effectiveness and limitations of controls adopted. The present investigation assesses the efficacy of two controls to reduce lead exposure: paint removal prior to oxy-acetylene torch cutting of steel, and encapsulation of rivets prior to their removal. A task-based exposure assessment approach was used to evaluate these tasks at three sites. Exposures at one site without controls were compared to exposures at sites with controls. Comparison of the results via an analysis of variance (0.05 significance level) indicates that, for torch cutting, exposures at the control site were not significantly different from those at an uncontrolled site (p = 0.14). The results for rivet busting show no significant differences in exposures at the control site compared to the uncontrolled site (p = 0.08). Results are also presented from two control sites where work was done in enclosed spaces. Two main difficulties in applying the controls are explored: technical and managerial. Technical problems during torch cutting included the penetration of paint into the steel profile and the configuration of the structures. For rivet busting, working within an enclosure was an important factor. Management problems arose both from a lack of coordination among different contractors, and from a failure to provide day-to-day guidance and assessment of the control. Important components of a program to implement controls are preplanning and coordination of control implementation, frequent testing of control efficacy, and a method for timely intervention to correct

  12. Three-Dimensional Geometric Nonlinear Contact Stress Analysis of Riveted Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, Kunigal N.; Ramanujapuram, Vivek

    1998-01-01

    The problems associated with fatigue were brought into the forefront of research by the explosive decompression and structural failure of the Aloha Airlines Flight 243 in 1988. The structural failure of this airplane has been attributed to debonding and multiple cracking along the longitudinal lap splice riveted joint in the fuselage. This crash created what may be termed as a minor "Structural Integrity Revolution" in the commercial transport industry. Major steps have been taken by the manufacturers, operators and authorities to improve the structural airworthiness of the aging fleet of airplanes. Notwithstanding, this considerable effort there are still outstanding issues and concerns related to the formulation of Widespread Fatigue Damage which is believed to have been a contributing factor in the probable cause of the Aloha accident. The lesson from this accident was that Multiple-Site Damage (MSD) in "aging" aircraft can lead to extensive aircraft damage. A strong candidate in which MSD is highly probable to occur is the riveted lap joint.

  13. Fatigue crack detection in a multi-riveted strap joint aluminium panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolze, Frank; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Manson, Graeme; Worden, Keith

    2009-03-01

    The scope of this paper is the investigation of reliable damage indicators obtained from Lamb wave responses on a multi-riveted strap joint aluminium panel representing a standard joint in aviation. Damage indices based on amplitude and cross-correlation are assessed by examining two data sets. The first set was taken 8 years ago, while the second set was obtained recently. The resumption of the experiment on the aircraft riveted panel after 8 years required a new clamping, a different data acquisition system and involved a new operator amongst other changes. Those variations inevitably caused deviations in the gathered data. The deviations obtained will be examined in the context of the derived damage indices. The application of a second baseline is carried out and its necessity discussed. Additional temperature measurements were recorded for the second phase of the experiment which showed high correlation with the variation of the waveforms and hence with the damage indices. This study gives a good indication of the sensitivity and reliability of a SHM system based on guided waves in complex joint structures. It also provides information about the robustness of the chosen method, as in real-world applications it is more likely that operators will change too.

  14. The RIVET: a novel technique involving absorbable fixation for hydroxyapatite osteosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Shido, Hirokazu; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Miwa, Tomoru; Ohira, Takayuki; Yoshida, Kazunari; Kishi, Kazuo

    2013-05-01

    Cranioplasty using custom-made hydroxyapatite (HAP) ceramic implants is a common procedure for the repair of skull defects. The advantages of using HAP are that it is nonmetallic, unlike titanium; biocompatible; and osteoconductive. Furthermore, it can be molded to any complex shape that may be needed. A disadvantage is that titanium screws and plates are in development for its fixation. We developed a technique for implant fixation using bioabsorbable screws and plates, and named this technique RIVET: resorbable immobilization for vacuolar en bloc technique.Before each operation, the implant was customized for the patient in question on the basis of models prepared using computed tomography data. The bioabsorbable plates were attached to the implant by drilling, tapping, and screwing, as shown in the video (http://links.lww.com/SCS/A43). The interior portion of the screw was then melted to flatten it against the internal surface of the implant, forming a rivet to join the plate and HAP implant.We used this technique for cranial reconstruction in 2 patients, with satisfying and functional results. We did not encounter any complications.In conclusion, the technique described here allows surgeons to fix implants and plates together more rigidly, giving a better result than possible with previous methods.

  15. Optimization and Validation of Rotating Current Excitation with GMR Array Sensors for Riveted Structures Inspection.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chaofeng; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish

    2016-09-16

    In eddy current non-destructive testing of a multi-layered riveted structure, rotating current excitation, generated by orthogonal coils, is advantageous in providing sensitivity to defects of all orientations. However, when used with linear array sensors, the exciting magnetic flux density ( B x ) of the orthogonal coils is not uniform over the sensor region, resulting in an output signal magnitude that depends on the relative location of the defect to the sensor array. In this paper, the rotating excitation coil is optimized to achieve a uniform B x field in the sensor array area and minimize the probe size. The current density distribution of the coil is optimized using the polynomial approximation method. A non-uniform coil design is derived from the optimized current density distribution. Simulation results, using both an optimized coil and a conventional coil, are generated using the finite element method (FEM) model. The signal magnitude for an optimized coil is seen to be more robust with respect to offset of defects from the coil center. A novel multilayer coil structure, fabricated on a multi-layer printed circuit board, is used to build the optimized coil. A prototype probe with the optimized coil and 32 giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors is built and tested on a two-layer riveted aluminum sample. Experimental results show that the optimized probe has better defect detection capability compared with a conventional non-optimized coil.

  16. Optimization and Validation of Rotating Current Excitation with GMR Array Sensors for Riveted Structures Inspection

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chaofeng; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish

    2016-01-01

    In eddy current non-destructive testing of a multi-layered riveted structure, rotating current excitation, generated by orthogonal coils, is advantageous in providing sensitivity to defects of all orientations. However, when used with linear array sensors, the exciting magnetic flux density (Bx) of the orthogonal coils is not uniform over the sensor region, resulting in an output signal magnitude that depends on the relative location of the defect to the sensor array. In this paper, the rotating excitation coil is optimized to achieve a uniform Bx field in the sensor array area and minimize the probe size. The current density distribution of the coil is optimized using the polynomial approximation method. A non-uniform coil design is derived from the optimized current density distribution. Simulation results, using both an optimized coil and a conventional coil, are generated using the finite element method (FEM) model. The signal magnitude for an optimized coil is seen to be more robust with respect to offset of defects from the coil center. A novel multilayer coil structure, fabricated on a multi-layer printed circuit board, is used to build the optimized coil. A prototype probe with the optimized coil and 32 giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors is built and tested on a two-layer riveted aluminum sample. Experimental results show that the optimized probe has better defect detection capability compared with a conventional non-optimized coil. PMID:27649202

  17. The role of fretting corrosion and fretting fatigue in aircraft rivet hole cracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Charles B., III; Moesser, Mark; Hoeppner, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Personnel in the Quality and Integrity Design Engineering Center (QIDEC) at the University of Utah are working under a two year grant from the FAA to better understand the role of fretting corrosion and fretting fatigue in aircraft rivet hole cracking. The current program follows a one year grant program which was completed in 1993. This paper provides a status report on the results of these grant programs. Recent effort has been focused on developing basic fretting fatigue models which consider variation in the coefficient of friction with time and location within the fretting interface. This is a very important characteristic of the QIDEC model because coefficient of friction varies significantly during the fretting fatigue process. Copies of QIDEC documents discussed in this paper can be obtained by contacting the authors.

  18. Evaluation of the Mechanical Performance of Self-Piercing Rivets in Friction Stir Welded Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Grant, Glenn J.; Davies, Richard W.; Wazny, Scott; Kaunitz, Leon; Fulbright, Brian; Waldron, D.

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents the coupon performance data of friction stir welded tailor welded blanks (TWBs) joined to a monolithic aluminum sheet by self-piercing rivets (SPRs). Uniaxial tensile tests were performed to characterize the joint strength and the total energy absorption capability of the TWB/monolithic joint assemblies. Cyclic fatigue tests were also conducted to characterize the fatigue behavior and failure mechanisms of the jointed assemblies. It was found that the static and fatigue strength of the TWB/monolithic assembly was approximately 30 percent less in all loading configurations tested in comparison to a common monolithic sheet SPR assembly. The total energy absorbed by the TWB/monolithic sheet assemblies was also found to be 30 percent less than the monolithic sheet assemblies in cross tension loading. In lap shear loading, the total energy absorbed was comparable.

  19. The role of fretting corrosion and fretting fatigue in aircraft rivet hole cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Charles B., III; Moesser, Mark; Hoeppner, David W.

    1994-09-01

    Personnel in the Quality and Integrity Design Engineering Center (QIDEC) at the University of Utah are working under a two year grant from the FAA to better understand the role of fretting corrosion and fretting fatigue in aircraft rivet hole cracking. The current program follows a one year grant program which was completed in 1993. This paper provides a status report on the results of these grant programs. Recent effort has been focused on developing basic fretting fatigue models which consider variation in the coefficient of friction with time and location within the fretting interface. This is a very important characteristic of the QIDEC model because coefficient of friction varies significantly during the fretting fatigue process. Copies of QIDEC documents discussed in this paper can be obtained by contacting the authors.

  20. The Characteristics of Fatigue Damage in the Fuselage Riveted Lap Splice Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Willard, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    An extensive data base has been developed to form the physical basis for new analytical methodology to predict the onset of widespread fatigue damage in the fuselage lap splice joint. The results of detailed destructive examinations have been cataloged to describe the physical nature of MSD in the lap splice joint. ne catalog includes a detailed description, e.g., crack initiation, growth rates, size, location, and fracture morphology, of fatigue damage in the fuselage lap splice joint structure. Detailed examinations were conducted on a lap splice joint panel removed from a full scale fuselage test article after completing a 60,000 cycle pressure test. The panel contained a four bay region that exhibited visible outer skin cracks and regions of crack link-up along the upper rivet row. Destructive examinations revealed undetected fatigue damage in the outer skin, inner skin, and tear strap regions. Outer skin fatigue cracks were found to initiate by fretting damage along the faying surface. The cracks grew along the faying surface to a length equivalent to two to three skin thicknesses before penetrating the outboard surface of the outer skin. Analysis of fracture surface marker bands produced during full scale testing revealed that all upper rivet row fatigue cracks contained in a dim bay region grow at similar rates; this important result suggests that fracture mechanics based methods can be used to predict the growth of outer skin fatigue cracks in lap splice structure. Results are presented showing the affects of MSD and out-of-plane pressure loads on outer skin crack link-up.

  1. In vivo degradation of a new concept of magnesium-based rivet-screws in the minipig mandibular bone.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Benoit; Saulacic, Nikola; Beck, Stefan; Imwinkelried, Thomas; Goh, Bee Tin; Nakahara, Ken; Hofstetter, Willy; Iizuka, Tateyuki

    2016-12-01

    Self-tapping of magnesium screws in hard bone may be a challenge due to the limited torsional strength of magnesium alloys in comparison with titanium. To avoid screw failure upon implantation, the new concept of a rivet-screw was applied to a WE43 magnesium alloy. Hollow cylinders with threads on the outside were expanded inside drill holes of minipig mandibles. During the expansion with a hexagonal mandrel, the threads engaged the surrounding bone and the inside of the screw transformed into a hexagonal screw drive to allow further screwing in or out of the implant. The in vivo degradation of the magnesium implants and the performance of the used coating were studied in a human standard-sized animal model. Four magnesium alloy rivet-screws were implanted in each mandible of 12 minipigs. Six animals received the plasmaelectrolytically coated magnesium alloy implants; another six received the uncoated magnesium alloy rivet-screws. Two further animals received one titanium rivet-screw each as control. In vivo radiologic examination was performed at one, four, and eight weeks. Euthanasia was performed for one group of seven animals (three animals with coated, three with uncoated magnesium alloy implants and one with titanium implant) at 12weeks and for the remaining seven animals at 24weeks. After euthanasia, micro-computed tomography and histological examination with histomorphometry were performed. Significantly less void formation as well as higher bone volume density (BV/TV) and bone-implant contact area (BIC) were measured around the coated implants compared to the uncoated ones. The surface coating was effective in delaying degradation despite plastic deformation. The results showed potential for further development of magnesium hollow coated screws for bone fixation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrasonic inspection of multiple-rivet-hole lap joint cracks using global analysis with local finite element approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiyan, Yeasin; Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasonic inspection of multiple-rivet-hole lap joint cracks has been introduced using combined analytical and finite element approach (CAFA). Finite element analyses have been performed on local damage area in spite of the whole large structure and transfer function based analytical model is used to analyze the full structure. "Scattered cube" of complex valued wave damage interaction coefficient (WDIC) that involves scattering and mode conversion of Lamb waves around the damage is used as coupling between analytical and FEM simulation. WDIC is captured for multiple angles of incident Lamb mode (S0 and A0) over the frequency domain to analyze the cracks of multiple-rivet-hole lap joint. By analyzing the scattered cube of WDICs over the frequency domain and azimuthal angles the optimum parameters can be determined for each angle of incidence and the most sensitive signals are obtained using WaveformRevealer2D (WFR2D). These sensitive signals confirm the detection of the butterfly cracks in rivet holes through the installment of the transmitting and sensing PWASs in the proper locations and selecting the right frequency of excitation.

  3. Correlation-based imaging technique for fatigue monitoring of riveted lap-joint structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaegebeur, N.; Ostiguy, P. C.; Masson, P.

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, a correlation-based imaging technique called Excitelet is assessed to monitor fatigue crack propagation in a riveted aluminum lap-joint, representative of an aircraft component. For this purpose, a micro-machined piezoceramic array is used to generate guided waves into the structure and measure the reflections induced by potential damage. The method uses a propagation model to correlate measured signals with a bank of signals and imaging is performed using a round-robin procedure (full-matrix capture). This allows taking into account the transducer dynamics and finite dimensions, multi-modal and dispersive characteristics of the guided wave propagation and complex interaction between with damage. Experimental validation has been conducted on an aluminum lap-joint instrumented with a compact linear piezoceramic array of 8 circular elements of 3 mm diameter each. The imaging technique is applied to detect crack propagation after fatigue cycling. Imaging results obtained using A0 mode at 300 and 450 kHz are presented for different crack sizes. It is demonstrated that crack detection and localization can be achieved, while the correlation level indicates the level of reflected energy, and thus damage severity. An accuracy below 5 mm on damage location can be achieved, demonstrating the potential of the correlation-based imaging technique for damage monitoring of complex aerospace structures.

  4. Statistical investigation of fatigue crack initiation and growth around chamfered rivet holes in Alclad 2024 T3 as affected by corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fadragas, M. I.; Fine, M. E.; Moran, B.

    1994-01-01

    In panel specimens with rivet holes cracks initiate in the blunted knife edge of the chamfered rivet hole and propagate inward as well as along the hole. The fatigue lifetime to dominant crack information was defined as the number of cycles, N500 micrometer, to formation of a 500 micrometer long crack. Statistical data on N500 micrometer and on crack propagation after N500 micrometer were obtained for a large number of uncorroded specimens and specimens corroded in an ASTM B 117 salt spray. Considerable variation in N500 micrometer and crack propagation behavior was observed from specimen to specimen of the same nominal geometry with chamfered rivet holes increased the probability for both early formation and later formation of a propagating 500 micrometer fatigue crack. The growth of fatigue cracks after 500 micrometer size was little affected by prior salt spray.

  5. Analytical-variational method of analysis about a finite plate with a cracked hole stiffened by a ring with rivet joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Dong-Shan; Zhang, Xing

    1995-02-01

    -An analytical-variational method is presented for the solution of a finite plate with both an unloaded cracked large hole and loaded uncracked small holes. This method is also used to solve a problem of a ring with loaded uncracked small holes only. On the foundation of the above analysis, a classical force method is used to solve a problem of a finite plate with a cracked hole stiffened by a ring with rivet joints for determination of rivet forces, stress intensity factor in the stiffened finite plate with a cracked hole and the stress concentration factor in the stiffening ring.

  6. Tank Tests to Show the Effect Rivet Heads on the Water Performance of a Seaplane-Float

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, J B

    1938-01-01

    A 1/3.5 full-sized model of a seaplane float constructed from lines supplied by the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, was tested first with smooth painted bottom surfaces and then with round-head rivets, plate laps, and keel plates fitted to simulate the actual bottom of a metal float. A percentage increase in water resistance caused by the added roughness was found to be from 5 to 20 percent at the hump speed and from 15 to 40 percent at high speeds. The effect of the roughness of the afterbody was found to be negligible except at high trims. The model data were extrapolated to full size by the usual method that assumes the forces to vary according to Froude's law and, in the case of the smooth model, by a method of separation that takes into account the effect of scale on the frictional resistance. It was concluded that the effect of rivet heads on the take-off performance of a relatively high-powered float seaplane is of little consequence, but it may be of greater importance in the case of more moderately powered flying boats.

  7. Tank Tests of the Effect of Rivet Heads, etc., on the Water Performance of a Seaplane Float, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, J. B.; Robertson, J. B., Jr.

    1936-01-01

    A 1/3.5 full-size model of the Mark V float of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, was tested in the NACA tank both with smooth painted bottom surfaces and with roundhead rivets, plate laps, and keel plates fitted to simulate the actual bottom of a metal float. The augmentation in water resistance due to the added roughness was found to be from 10-12% at the hum speed and from 12-14% at high speeds. The effect of the roughness of the afterbody was found to be negligible except at high trims. The model data were extrapolated to full size by the usual method which assumes the forces to vary according to Froude's law, and in the case of the smooth model by a method of separation that takes into account the effect of scale on the frictional resistance. It was concluded that the effect of rivet heads on the takeoff performance of a relatively high-powered float seaplane is of little consequence but that it may be of greater importance in the case of more moderately powered flying boats.

  8. Revisiting (Some of) the Lasting Impacts of the Liberty Ships via a Metallurgical Analysis of Rivets from the SS "John W. Brown"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, M. D.; Grogg, W. J.; Akoma, A.; Hayes, B. J.; Reidy, R. F.; Imhoff, E. F.; Collins, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    During World War II, 2710 Liberty ships were built in the United States across 18 ship yards. The rate of production of these ships was at a scale not previously witnessed, reflecting a strategic marshaling of national assets critical to the war effort. For the metallurgist, metallurgical engineer, or materials scientist, these ships also struck commanding images regarding their catastrophic failures. The study of these failures led to increased understanding of brittle fracture, fracture mechanics, and ductile-to-brittle transition temperatures. The post-mortem studies of Liberty ships highlighted the importance of composition and microstructure in controlling the properties of steel in fracture-critical applications. This study examines a rivet from the SS "John W. Brown", which was assembled in Baltimore, Maryland, and launched in September 1942, The "John W. Brown" was restored between 1988 and 1991. Classical metallurgical analysis of a rivet from the original 1942 vessel is compared with modern rivets used during its restoration. The rivets provide an analogue to the plate material used in these ships. A comparison of these materials is presented along with a discussion of the importance of composition-microstructure-property relationships that concomitantly evolved.

  9. Carbon-riveted Pt catalyst supported on nanocapsule MWCNTs-Al2O3 with ultrahigh stability for high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zheng-Zhi; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Qu, Wei-Li; Rivera, Harry; Gu, Da-Ming; Yin, Ge-Ping

    2012-11-01

    Pt catalyst supported on nanocapsule MWCNTs-Al2O3 (multi-walled carbon nanotubes, MWCNTs) catalyst has been prepared by microwave-assisted polyol process (MAPP). The results of electrochemical measurements show that the nanocapsule Pt/MWCNTs-Al2O3 catalyst has higher activity due to more uniform dispersion and smaller size of Pt nanoparticles, and higher stability ascribed to the stronger metal-support interaction (SMSI) between Pt nanoparticles and nanocapsule support than in Pt/MWCNTs. Furthermore, the carbon-riveted nanocapsule Pt/MWCNTs-Al2O3 catalyst has been designed and synthesized on the basis of in situ carbonization of glucose. The physical characteristics such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have indicated that α-Al2O3 indeed entered into the inside of the MWCNTs and formed a nanocapsule support of MWCNTs with α-Al2O3 as stuffing. The accelerated potential cycling tests (APCT) show that carbon-riveted nanocapsule Pt/MWCNTs-Al2O3 possesses 10 times the stability of Pt/C and has 4.5 times the life-span of carbon-riveted Pt/TiO2-C reported in our previous work. The significantly enhanced stability for carbon-riveted nanocapsule Pt/MWCNTs-Al2O3 catalyst is attributed to the reasons as follows: the inherently excellent mechanical resistance and stability of α-Al2O3 and MWCNTs in acidic and oxidative environments; SMSI between Pt nanoparticles and the nanocapsule support; the anchoring effect of the carbon layers formed during the carbon-riveting process (CRP); the increase of Pt(0) composition during CRP.

  10. Analytical developments in support of the NASA aging aircraft program with an application to crack growth from rivets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, Daniel; Gondhalekar, Sudhir; Dawicke, Dave

    The NASA Airframe Structural Integrity Program is a multi-disciplinary program to develop analysis methodology, a fracture data base, and improved methods of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) detection of disbonds and cracks. As part of this program, analysis tools to predict crack growth rates and fracture propagation in shell structures are being developed. This paper describes a finite element model of crack growth in layered structures, such as lap splice joints. The model is developed using separate two-dimensional meshes of individual layers which can overlap in space. These layers can be connected with either rivit elements or by adhesive elements. Cracks can be modeled in any layer, with automatic remeshing during crack growth. Using the model, an investigation was made of the effect of rivet interference on fatigue crack growth from a loaded rivit hole. It was found that the interference reduced the stress intensity factor range significantly, resulting in slower crack growth.

  11. A record of all marker bands found in the upper rivet rows of 2 adjacent bays from a fuselage lap splice joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willard, Scott A.

    1995-01-01

    A full scale fuselage test article was subjected to 60,000 load cycles (pressurizations) to study the effect of widespread fatigue damage in fuselage structures. Every 10,000 cycles coded marker block loading sequences were used to mark the fracture surfaces of the fatigue cracks propagating within the panel. The loading sequences consisted of series of underloads combined with a series of full pressurizations. The combination of loads and underloads marked the fracture surfaces with marker bands that could later be used to reconstruct the fatigue crack growth history of selected regions within the test article. Thirty rivet holes comprising the upper rivet rows from two adjacent bays (bays #3 and #4) from a fuselage lap splice joint were examined for the purpose of this study. Optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to locate the marker bands.

  12. Compression Buckling Behavior of Large-Scale Friction Stir Welded and Riveted 2090-T83 Al-Li Alloy Skin-Stiffener Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Eric K.; Hafley, Robert A.; Wagner, John A.; Jegley, Dawn C.; Pecquet, Robert W.; Blum, Celia M.; Arbegast, William J.

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the potential of friction stir welding (FSW) as a replacement for traditional rivet fastening for launch vehicle dry bay construction, a large-scale friction stir welded 2090-T83 aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy skin-stiffener panel was designed and fabricated by Lockheed-Martin Space Systems Company - Michoud Operations (LMSS) as part of NASA Space Act Agreement (SAA) 446. The friction stir welded panel and a conventional riveted panel were tested to failure in compression at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The present paper describes the compression test results, stress analysis, and associated failure behavior of these panels. The test results provide useful data to support future optimization of FSW processes and structural design configurations for launch vehicle dry bay structures.

  13. Dynamic Strength Evaluations for Self-Piercing Rivets and Resistance Spot Welds Joining Similar and Dissimilar Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2007-10-01

    This paper summarizes the dynamic joint strength evaluation procedures and the measured dynamic strength data for thirteen joint populations of self-piercing rivets (SPR) and resistance spot welds (RSW) joining similar and dissimilar metals. A state-of-the-art review of the current practice for conducting dynamic tensile/compressive strength tests in different strain rate regimes is first presented, and the generic issues associated with dynamic strength test are addressed. Then, the joint strength testing procedures and fixture designs used in the current study are described, and the typical load versus displacement curves under different loading configurations are presented. Uniqueness of the current data compared with data in the open literature is discussed. The experimental results for all the joint populations indicate that joint strength increases with increasing loading rate. However, the strength increase from 4.47m/s (10mph) to 8.94m/s (20mph) is not as significant as the strength increase from static to 4.47m/s. It is also found that with increasing loading velocity, displacement to failure decreases for all the joint samples. Therefore, “brittleness” of the joint sample increases with impact velocity. Detailed static and dynamic strength data and the associated energy absorption levels for all the samples in the thirteen joint populations are also included.

  14. Initiation and growth of multiple-site damage in the riveted lap joint of a curved stiffened fuselage panel: An experimental and analytical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Abubaker Ali

    As part of the structural integrity research of the National Aging Aircraft Research Program, a comprehensive study on multiple-site damage (MSD) initiation and growth in a pristine lap-joint fuselage panel has been conducted. The curved stiffened fuselage panel was tested at the Full-Scale Aircraft Structural Test Evaluation and Research (FASTER) facility located at the Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center. A strain survey test was conducted to verify proper load application. The panel was then subjected to a fatigue test with constant-amplitude cyclic loading. The applied loading spectrum included underload marker cycles so that crack growth history could be reconstructed from post-test fractographic examinations. Crack formation and growth were monitored via nondestructive and high-magnification visual inspections. Strain gage measurements recorded during the strain survey tests indicated that the inner surface of the skin along the upper rivet row of the lap joint experienced high tensile stresses due to local bending. During the fatigue loading, cracks were detected by eddy-current inspections at multiple rivet holes along the upper rivet row. Through-thickness cracks were detected visually after about 80% of the fatigue life. Once MSD cracks from two adjacent rivet holes linked up, there was a quick deterioration in the structural integrity of the lap joint. The linkup resulted in a 2.87" (72.9-mm) lead fatigue crack that rapidly propagated across 12 rivet holes and crossed over into the next skin bay, at which stage the fatigue test was terminated. A post-fatigue residual strength test was then conducted by loading the panel quasi-statically up to final failure. The panel failed catastrophically when the crack extended instantaneously across three additional bays. Post-test fractographic examinations of the fracture surfaces in the lap joint of the fuselage panel were conducted to characterize subsurface crack initiation and

  15. Comparison of fatigue crack growth of riveted and bonded aircraft lap joints made of Aluminium alloy 2024-T3 substrates - A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitta, S.; Rojas, J. I.; Crespo, D.

    2017-05-01

    Aircraft lap joints play an important role in minimizing the operational cost of airlines. Hence, airlines pay more attention to these technologies to improve efficiency. Namely, a major time consuming and costly process is maintenance of aircraft between the flights, for instance, to detect early formation of cracks, monitoring crack growth, and fixing the corresponding parts with joints, if necessary. This work is focused on the study of repairs of cracked aluminium alloy (AA) 2024-T3 plates to regain their original strength; particularly, cracked AA 2024-T3 substrate plates repaired with doublers of AA 2024-T3 with two configurations (riveted and with adhesive bonding) are analysed. The fatigue life of the substrate plates with cracks of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 12.7mm is computed using Fracture Analysis 3D (FRANC3D) tool. The stress intensity factors for the repaired AA 2024-T3 plates are computed for different crack lengths and compared using commercial FEA tool ABAQUS. The results for the bonded repairs showed significantly lower stress intensity factors compared with the riveted repairs. This improves the overall fatigue life of the bonded joint.

  16. Asbestos fibres in the lungs of an American mechanic who drilled, riveted, and ground brake linings: a case report and discussion.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Murray M

    2015-05-01

    In North America and Europe, the use of asbestos in friction products was discontinued before the end of the 20th century. In the developing world, the use of asbestos-containing friction products continues. In 2010, Cely-Garcia and colleagues (Cely-Garcia et al., 2012) sampled three brake repair shops located in Bogota, Colombia. Both asbestos and non-asbestos containing brake linings were sold separately or attached to a shoe. When brake linings are sold separated from the shoe, they must be manipulated to attach them to the shoe before installation. The process starts with the removal of the old brake shoe from the vehicle's brake drum. If the existing brake shoe is to be reused, the old lining needs to be removed and the old shoe must be ground to prepare it for a new lining. Riveting requires drilling holes in the linings and shoes and before installing rivets, the lining must be countersunk. The borders of the lining are bevelled. On some occasions, the entire exposed surface of the lining is ground to make it thinner. Once attached to the shoe, the edges of brake linings may extend beyond the shoe. In this case, it is necessary to cut or grind the edges to match the lining to the shoe before bevelling or grinding. The authors reported that 'the sampling results indicate that the brake mechanics sampled are exposed to extremely high asbestos concentrations (i.e. based on transmission electron microscopy counts), suggesting that this occupational group could be at excess risk of asbestos-related diseases'. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  17. Rosie the Riveter Remembers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Pat

    2002-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that focuses on women on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Offers four interviews with women about their experiences and includes a list of questions for students to answer after they have read the interviews. Discusses other activities. (CMK)

  18. A multi-feature integration method for fatigue crack detection and crack length estimation in riveted lap joints using Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jingjing; Guan, Xuefei; Peng, Tishun; Liu, Yongming; Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Goebel, Kai

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of damage detection and quantification in riveted lap joints. Embedded lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric (PZT) ceramic wafer-type sensors are employed to perform in situ non-destructive evaluation (NDE) during fatigue cyclical loading. PZT wafers are used to monitor the wave reflection from the boundaries of the fatigue crack at the edge of bolt joints. The group velocity of the guided wave is calculated to select a proper time window in which the received signal contains the damage information. It is found that the fatigue crack lengths are correlated with three main features of the signal, i.e., correlation coefficient, amplitude change, and phase change. It was also observed that a single feature cannot be used to quantify the damage among different specimens since a considerable variability was observed in the response from different specimens. A multi-feature integration method based on a second-order multivariate regression analysis is proposed for the prediction of fatigue crack lengths using sensor measurements. The model parameters are obtained using training datasets from five specimens. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated using several lap joint specimens from different manufactures and under different loading conditions.

  19. Fatigue Strength and Related Characteristics of Aircraft Joints I : Comparison of Spot-Weld and Rivet Patterns in 24s-t Alclad and 75s-t Alclad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, H W; Jackson, L R; Grover, H J; Beaver, W W

    1944-01-01

    Report contains detailed results of a number of fatigue tests on spot-welded joints in aluminum alloys. The tests described include: (1) fatigue tests on spot-welded lap joints in sheets of unequal thickness of alclad 24s-t. These tests indicate that the fatigue strength of a spot-welded joint in sheets of two different gages is slightly higher than that of a similar joint in two sheets of the thinner gage but definitely lower than that of a similar joint in two sheets of the thicker gage. (2) Fatigue tests on spot-welded alclad 75s-t spot-welded lap-joint specimens of alclad 75s-t were not any stronger in fatigue than similar specimens of alclad 24s-t. (3) Fatigue tests on lap-joint specimens spot -welded after various surface preparations--these included ac welding wire-brushed surfaces, dc welding wire-brushed surfaces, and dc welding chemically cleaned surfaces. While the ac welds were strongest statically, the dc welds on wire-brushed surfaces were strongest in fatigue. Specimens prepared in this way were very nearly as strong as the best riveted specimens tested for comparison. (4) Fatigue tests on specimens spot-welded with varying voltage so as to include a wide range of static spot-weld strengths. The fatigue strengths were in the same order as the static strengths but showed less range. (author)

  20. Tests on riveted joints in sheet duralumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rettew, H F; Thumin, G

    1923-01-01

    In making tension tests, the slippage of the joints was noted at three points across each joint. In addition, stress strain curves were obtained for plain tension specimens, and a chemical analysis was made of the sheet.

  1. Whatever Happened to Rosie the Riveter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Nancy A.

    1993-01-01

    Being judged both as women and managers, women managers risk being perceived as ineffective managers or "unwomanly" women. The key to changing perceptions of women in organizations is a critical mass of women at senior levels, redefining management along less gender-specific lines. (SK)

  2. In the Manner of Rosie the Riveter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Edwin

    1975-01-01

    As a consequence of the increasing number of women workers, the Manpower Administration has stepped up its efforts to see that women are getting equal opportunities in manpower training programs for nontraditional jobs. (Author/BP)

  3. Whatever Happened to Rosie the Riveter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Nancy A.

    1993-01-01

    Being judged both as women and managers, women managers risk being perceived as ineffective managers or "unwomanly" women. The key to changing perceptions of women in organizations is a critical mass of women at senior levels, redefining management along less gender-specific lines. (SK)

  4. The New Workforce: Not Just Rosie the Riveter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Leila Gonzalez

    American women have always been an integral part of the work force, first on the family farm and later as industrial laborers. In World War II, millions of women went to work only to be sent back home when the men returned. Today, women are in a very different situation. Between 1985 and 2000, 80% of new entrants into the work force are expected…

  5. Close Encounters with Deadly Dangers: Riveting Reads and Classroom Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haven, Kendall

    This book presents 15 tales that bring the animal world into the classroom. The stories in this book are divided into two sections: stories from aquatic ecosystems (both fresh- and saltwater systems), and from terrestrial systems, including desert, meadow, woodland, mountain, Arctic tundra, savanna, pine forest, and jungle ecosystems. All predator…

  6. Close Encounters with Deadly Dangers: Riveting Reads and Classroom Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haven, Kendall

    This book presents 15 tales that bring the animal world into the classroom. The stories in this book are divided into two sections: stories from aquatic ecosystems (both fresh- and saltwater systems), and from terrestrial systems, including desert, meadow, woodland, mountain, Arctic tundra, savanna, pine forest, and jungle ecosystems. All predator…

  7. The Use of Adhesive-Bonded Rivets to Lessen the Reductions in Fatigue Life Caused by Rivet Holes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    defined by the fracture toug hnes of the material, no great diffcrences in the crack growth characteristics between the four t pc of specimens would...bonding on fatigue crack initiation in these speci meins The frac(ographic crack gro th measurements also allowed the determination of the incre- mental

  8. Interactions of Waves, Tidal Currents and Riverine Outflow and their Effects on Sediment Transport (RIVET II)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data ...sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden... communication ). However, the dominant mechanisms responsible for such elevated level of sediment concentration are unclear (e.g., local resuspension, or

  9. An Absolutely Riveting Online Course: Nine Principles for Excellence in Web-Based Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Jim; Meadows, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    This article explores excellence in web-­based teaching. Drawing on the views of experts in the field and the perspective of their own years of experience, the authors compiled a list of 9 principles to provide direction in the search for online excellence. The principles include: the online world is a medium unto itself; sense of community and…

  10. RIVETS: A Mechanical System for In Vivo and In Vitro Electrophysiology and Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Jason E.; Dudman, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent studies have provided compelling demonstrations that both mice and rats can be trained to perform a variety of behavioral tasks while restrained by mechanical elements mounted to the skull. The independent development of this technique by a number of laboratories has led to diverse solutions. We found that these solutions often used expensive materials and impeded future development and modification in the absence of engineering support. In order to address these issues, here we report on the development of a flexible single hardware design for electrophysiology and imaging both in brain tissue in vitro. Our hardware facilitates the rapid conversion of a single preparation between physiology and imaging system and the conversion of a given system between preparations. In addition, our use of rapid prototyping machines (“3D printers”) allows for the deployment of new designs within a day. Here, we present specifications for design and manufacturing as well as some data from our lab demonstrating the suitability of the design for physiology in behaving animals and imaging in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24551206

  11. RIVETS: a mechanical system for in vivo and in vitro electrophysiology and imaging.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Jason E; Dudman, Joshua T

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent studies have provided compelling demonstrations that both mice and rats can be trained to perform a variety of behavioral tasks while restrained by mechanical elements mounted to the skull. The independent development of this technique by a number of laboratories has led to diverse solutions. We found that these solutions often used expensive materials and impeded future development and modification in the absence of engineering support. In order to address these issues, here we report on the development of a flexible single hardware design for electrophysiology and imaging both in brain tissue in vitro. Our hardware facilitates the rapid conversion of a single preparation between physiology and imaging system and the conversion of a given system between preparations. In addition, our use of rapid prototyping machines ("3D printers") allows for the deployment of new designs within a day. Here, we present specifications for design and manufacturing as well as some data from our lab demonstrating the suitability of the design for physiology in behaving animals and imaging in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Mission Crew Fatigue during RIVET JOINT Block II Demonstration/Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    you feel RIGHT NOW. STATEMENT SETTER THAN SAME AS WORSE THAN 1. VERY LIVELY 2. EXTREMELY TIRED & QUITE FRESH & SLIGHTLY POOPED 0 S, EXTREMELY PEPPV 6...SOMEWHAT PRISMJ 7. PETERED OUT •Z L. VERY REFRESHED 9. FAIL.Y WELL POOPED Re IEADY TO DROP WE SAM roy’" 136 SUBJECTIVE FATIGUE CNECKCARDGaip 74 aa

  13. Aircraft Assembly, Riveting and Surface Repair 1; Sheet Metal Work 2: 9855.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline will serve as a guide to the 11th grade student interested in sheet metal occupations. The course, 135 hours in length, covers the basic techniques of cutting and trimming, drilling and hole preparation of metals. Lecture and demonstration techniques are to be utilized, with emphasis on the use of visual aids, mock-ups,…

  14. AN/GRC-171 Rivet Switch Multichannel UHF/AM Transceiver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    up configuration in accordance with Installation Standard LDBWS00893AD00 Revision B in the space proposed for mounting the UHF transceivers. This... Revision B to verify installation standards. 3.5.2 The keying tests were conducted during plain text operation only. The different keying modes would...8217<:■:: ; 4.1 Installation. 4.1.1 Procedure: Two AN/GRC-171s were installed in a standard installation configuration LDBWS00893AD000 Revision B. A photograph of

  15. Aircraft Assembly, Riveting and Surface Repair 2; Sheet Metal Work 2: 9855.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course provides experience in assembly techniques, including repairs on aircraft structures, utilizing all methods from basic layout to surface protection of finished parts. Course content includes goals, specific objectives, metal fasteners, general structural repairs, and aircraft assembly. A bibliography and post-test are appended. Prior…

  16. Riveting for Victory: Women in Magazine Ads in World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nancy L.

    An examination of the portrayal of women in popular magazine advertising from 1942 to 1945 suggests that the mass media played a major role in calling women out of the home and into the factory and machine shop to assist in the war effort. Discouraged from working during the Depression years when jobs were scarce, in the 1940s women were eagerly…

  17. Teaching about Rosie the Riveter: The Role of Women during World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Karen

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a neglected area of U.S. history: the impact of World War II on the role and status of women. Shows how women's work in the home and in the community assisted the national defense effort, and examined the way that changes in employment opportunities affected traditional ideas about women's roles and fostered the modern women's movement.…

  18. Multiplexed HTS rf SQUID magnetometer array for eddy current testing of aircraft rivet joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gärtner, S.; Krause, H.-J.; Wolters, N.; Lomparski, D.; Wolf, W.; Schubert, J.; Kreutzbruck, M. v.; Allweins, K.

    2002-05-01

    Using three rf SQUID magnetometers, a multiplexed SQUID array was implemented. The SQUIDs are positioned in line with 7 mm spacing and operated using one feedback electronics with sequential read out demodulation at different radio frequencies (rf). The cross-talk between SQUID channels was determined to be negligible. To show the performance of the SQUID array, eddy current (EC) measurements of aluminum aircraft samples in conjunction with a differential (double-D) EC excitation and lock-in readout were carried out. With computer-controlled continuous switching of the SQUIDs during the scan, three EC signal traces of the sample are obtained simultaneously. We performed measurements with an EC excitation frequency of 135 Hz to localize an artificial crack (sawcut flaw) of 20 mm length in an aluminum sheet with 0.6 mm thickness. The flaw was still detected when covered with aluminum of up to 10 mm thickness. In addition, measurements with varying angles between scanning direction and flaw orientation are presented.

  19. Teaching about Rosie the Riveter: The Role of Women during World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Karen

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a neglected area of U.S. history: the impact of World War II on the role and status of women. Shows how women's work in the home and in the community assisted the national defense effort, and examined the way that changes in employment opportunities affected traditional ideas about women's roles and fostered the modern women's movement.…

  20. Vulnerabilities of the Global Positioning System and the Impact on the Iron Triad: The AWACS, JSTARS, and Rivet Joint Fleets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    Aviation Administration FANS Future Air Navigation System GAO Government Accountability Office GBAS Ground Based Augmentation System GLS GNSS Landing...System GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System GPS Global Positioning System ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization INU Inertial...Systems ( GNSS ) may give those that would do America ill an opportunity to turn one of our greatest military assets against us or deny US forces its

  1. AN/GRC-171 Rivet Switch Multichannel UHF/AM Transceiver Demonstrated Mean Time Between Failure (DMTBF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-22

    f)7 Pretn~red by:YHQhterIt J./nvares) 11,t, USAF -AFLC/ CR7PA Approved b olJRRowlan J10 R. F~J, ~oe, z ’ Directorulte o.’ -,31 Manolsemaout... GEERATOR AND CONNECT RF LOAD PRIOR TO PERFORMING TRANSMITTM TESTS 11. APPENDIX 11 6.2 TRANSMITTER POWER OUTPUT Remove the audio input signal. Key the...clause shall be final and shall not be subject to the "Disputes" clause of this contract. 21. 64- VI z " ’ C" 1. 00 n w AvS L Z 4. TEST RESULTS 4.1

  2. A Guide for Developing Human-Robot Interaction Experiments in the Robotic Interactive Visualization and Experimentation Technology (RIVET) Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    ARL-TR-7683 ● MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory A Guide for Developing Human-Robot Interaction Experiments in the Robotic...ARL-TR-7683 ● MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory A Guide for Developing Human-Robot Interaction Experiments in the Robotic...ES) US Army Research Laboratory ATTN: RDRL-HRS-E Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5425 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ARL-TR-7683 9

  3. Rosie the Riveter and Her Latchkey Children: What Americans Can Learn about Child Day Care from the Second World War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, William M., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that concern for "latchkey" children during World War II was hyperbolic. Examines the variety of successful solutions parents devised for child day care: (1) day care arrangements made by families themselves; (2) Lanham Act child day care centers; (3) centers operated by private industry; and (4) the very successful Extended…

  4. Dynamics of Sandwaves under Combined Wave - Current Forcing and Mine Burial Processes, and RIVET I and Mine Burial Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    the mine burial project has been documented in previous annual reports. Preparation of new side-looking multibeam bedform imaging sonars and mine...Instrumentation for Plume, Sediment and Bed Dynamics in Energetic Coastal Environments: A Multibeam Sidescan Sonar and Portable Turbulance Profiler”) is a...support of optical measurements of particle dynamics (Environmental Optics ), and integrating the pcADPs on Geyer’s MAST (Physical Oceanography). The

  5. Airframe Repair Career Ladder AFS 427X5.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    percent 22 TABLE 9 REPRESENTATIVE TASKS PERFORMED BY 42735/55 PERSONNEL PERCENT MEMBERS PERFORMING TASKS (N=1 ,089) FIfO DRILL OUT AND REMOVE RIVETS 95 F107 ...RELATED PROBLEMS 77 Al ASSIGN PERSONNEL TO DETAILS 76 FII0 DRILL OUT AND REMOVE RIVETS 75 F107 COUNTER-SINK RIVET HOLES 75 * Fill DRILL RIVET HOLES 75 F140...FIRST-ENLISTMENT PERSONNEL (1-48 MONTHS TAFMS) PERCENT MEMBERS PERFORMING TASKS (N=1327) Fl10 DRILL OUT AND REMOVE RIVETS 96 F107 COUNTER-SINK RIVET HOLES

  6. Anderson, S.C., Woman Gets Prison for Extensive Bank Fraud Scam and Environmental Crime Nancy Stein operated American Screw and Rivet Corporation which was also sentenced

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - United States Attorney Bill Nettles stated late yesterday that Nancy Marie Stein, age 62, of Anderson, South Carolina , was sentenced by Senior United States District Judge Henry M. Herlong in federal court in Greenville, to a total of 73

  7. VIEW EAST SHOWING THE WEST SIDE OF THE FORWARD (BOW) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW EAST SHOWING THE WEST SIDE OF THE FORWARD (BOW) SECTION - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Rosie the Riveter Memorial, Off Regatta at Melville Square in Marina Park, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  8. VIEW SOUTH FROM WITHING THE FORWARD (BOW) SECTION Rosie ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH FROM WITHING THE FORWARD (BOW) SECTION - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Rosie the Riveter Memorial, Off Regatta at Melville Square in Marina Park, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  9. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING THE STRUCTURE REPRESENTING THE FORWARD (BOW) SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH SHOWING THE STRUCTURE REPRESENTING THE FORWARD (BOW) SECTION OF A LIBERTY SHIP - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Rosie the Riveter Memorial, Off Regatta at Melville Square in Marina Park, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  10. Classification of Magneto-Optic Images using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nath, Shridhar; Wincheski, Buzz; Fulton, Jim; Namkung, Min

    1994-01-01

    A real time imaging system with a neural network classifier has been incorporated on a Macintosh computer in conjunction with an MOI system. This system images rivets on aircraft aluminium structures using eddy currents and magnetic imaging. Moment invariant functions from the image of a rivet is used to train a multilayer perceptron neural network to classify the rivets as good or bad (rivets with cracks).

  11. 76 FR 55785 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model DHC-8-400 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    .... Investigations revealed that loose rivets in the torque tube assemblies caused relative motion between the crank arms and torque tubes. Loose rivets could result in excessive wear and subsequent significant backlash... engaged. Investigations revealed that loose rivets in the torque tube assemblies caused relative...

  12. 46 CFR 35.01-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions-TB..., repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions—TB... safety, no alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or...

  13. 46 CFR 71.60-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning or like fire-producing actions. 71... required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning or... undertaken with safety, no alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting,...

  14. 46 CFR 35.01-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions-TB... making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire... with safety, no alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or...

  15. 46 CFR 35.01-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions-TB... making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire... with safety, no alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or...

  16. 46 CFR 35.01-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions-TB... making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire... with safety, no alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or...

  17. High-strength combination fasteners for joint assembly in aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'Ev, S. L.; Gromov, V. F.; Liapunov, M. L.; Maslov, Iu. V.

    Two new titanium alloy rivet designs intended for the assembly of the aluminum structures of wide-body aircraft are described. One type of rivet consists of a bushing of VT16 titanium alloy and a pin of V65 alloy. The other rivet is a three-element design consisting of a pin with two end cavities filled with inserts of V65 alloy. The new rivets make it possible to produce high-strength joints using automatic equipment and can be used instead of bolt-rivets of titanium alloys.

  18. Knowledge, Models and Tools in Support of Advanced Distance Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    authoring iRides simulations and training, Rivets , is a fast C++ program that has been compiled for three Unix-type operating systems: Linux, Silicon...School instructors to introduce core concepts of the tool in advance of teaching about expected value theory. 4.0 Rivets -Linux-based Authoring of...Simulations and Instruction Functioning versions of Rivets , a descendent of the classic RIDES program have been developed for Linux and for the Macintosh

  19. Summary of Results of Tests Made by Aluminum Research Laboratories of Spot-welded Joints and Structural Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HARTMANN E C; Stickley, G W

    1942-01-01

    Available information concerning spot welding as a means of joining aluminum-alloy parts has been summarized and comparisons have been made of the relative merits of spot-welded and riveted aluminum-alloy structural elements. The results indicated that spot welding was as satisfactory as riveting insofar as resistance to static loads is concerned. Spot welds showed slightly lower resistance to impact loads but definitely lower resistance to repeated loads than rivets.

  20. Demonstration of Ice-Free Cathodic Protection Systems for Water Storage Tanks at Fort Drum: Final Report on Project AR-F-318 for FY05

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    and immovable with fingers. Body side rivet base and outside rivet burr should be flat against the material. Bent rivets will fail under stress ...such as using knots, tying around sharp edges, etc.) and maximum permitted free fall distance. Also, to be stressed are the importance of inspections...limitations; e. Application limits; f. Proper hook -up, anchoring and tie-off techniques, including the proper dee-ring or other attachment point to use on

  1. The Missing Components of U.S. Strategic Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    program aimed at promoting domestic support for the war. This program produced such popular icons of national unity as “ Rosie the Riveter ” and wide...above, one begins to see why Rosie the Riveter is absent today. Against the backdrop of the enigmatic but palpable threat we face from al Qaeda as...and tepid Clockwise from below: Uncle Sam poster by James Montgomery Flagg for Office of Government Reports; Rosie the Riveter poster by J. Howard

  2. Welded Permanent Fittings for Titanium Hydraulic Tubing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FITTINGS, *HYDRAULIC EQUIPMENT, RIVETED JOINTS, TITANIUM ALLOYS, PIPES , JET TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT, COLD WORKING, PRESSURE, RUPTURE, ARC WELDING , INERT...GAS WELDING , RADIOGRAPHY, STRESS RELIEVING, SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT, COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT.

  3. A modified self-calibrating technique for an ultrasonic bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komsky, I. N.; Achenbach, J. D.

    A second-generation ultrasonic bridge is presented for dry-contact self-calibrated measurements of wave velocities and amplitude changes over the gauge length of the ultrasonic bridge. The modified bridge and the modified self-calibrating technique are applied to the detection of radial edge cracks emanating from a countersunk rivet in a rivet joint of two aluminum plates. The transmission of ultrasound across the rivet joint for a sequence of placements of the bridge at increasing distances from the center of the rivet for ultrasound propagation parallel and normal to the crack direction is investigated. Waveforms for the propagation of ultrasound normal and parallel to the crack are shown.

  4. 76 FR 27617 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model DHC-8-400 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    .... Investigations revealed that loose rivets in the torque tube assemblies caused relative motion between the crank arms and torque tubes. Loose rivets could result in excessive wear and subsequent significant backlash.... For information on the availability of this material at the FAA, call 425-227-1221. Examining the...

  5. 46 CFR 91.50-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning or like fire-producing actions. 91... testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding..., welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions shall be made: (1) Within or on the boundaries of...

  6. 77 FR 41895 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... requires a dye penetrant inspection for cracking of the rivet holes of the bushing plate and repair or..., improved components. That NPRM also proposed to require a dye penetrant inspection for cracking of the..., dated June 9, 2009, do a dye penetrant inspection for cracking of the rivet holes and replace any...

  7. 76 FR 73592 - Certain Lined Paper Products From Indonesia: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... scope of the order whether or not the lined paper and/or cover are hole punched, drilled, perforated... such writing pads if they consist of hole-punched or drilled filler paper; three-ring or multiple-ring... binding ring. The ring fixture is riveted with six metal rivets and sewn to the back plastic cover and...

  8. 78 FR 40072 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... rivets on the left-hand (LH) and right-hand (RH) Y350 longitudinal beams (longitudinal beams Y350). This...., Washington, DC 20590-0001. Hand Delivery: Deliver to the ``Mail'' address between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday... unsafe condition as non-conforming rivets installed on the left-hand (LH) and right-hand (RH)...

  9. 49 CFR 179.201-3 - Lined tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lining, at least 5/32-inch thick, except overall rivets and seams formed by riveted attachments in the lining must be double thickness. The rubber lining must overlap at least 11/2 inches at all edges which must be straight and be beveled to an angle of approximately 45°, or butted edges of lining must...

  10. 46 CFR 71.60-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning or like fire-producing actions. 71... required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning or..., burning, or like fire-producing actions shall be made: (1) Within or on the boundaries of cargo tanks...

  11. VIEW NORTH FROM THE AFT (FANTAIL) SECTION OF THE MEMORIAL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH FROM THE AFT (FANTAIL) SECTION OF THE MEMORIAL, LOOKING FORWARD TOWARD THE STACK AND BOW SECTIONS - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Rosie the Riveter Memorial, Off Regatta at Melville Square in Marina Park, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  12. Winning the Battle of Ideas in the War on Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    workforce of millions through the skillful use of strategic themes concerning volunteerism and sacrifice, as evidenced by the ‘ Rosie the Riveter ...46 The National Park Service, Rosie the Riveter : Women Working During World War II, available from http://www.nps.gov/pwro/collection/website/rosie.htm; Internet; accessed 09 March 2007. 20

  13. Bayesian reliability analysis in connection with the evaluation of multiple-site damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itagaki, Hiroshi; Asada, H.; Ito, S.

    A rivet splice model for analyzing multiple-site damage is presented. The effectiveness of the periodic inspection of multiple-site fatigue cracks along a rivet joint is discussed. The relative frequency distribution of visible crack length and joint posterior probability density are described.

  14. Fatigue strength of a single lap joint SPR-bonded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Franco, G.; Fratini, L.; Pasta, A.

    2011-05-01

    In the last years, hybrid joints, meaning with this the joints which consist in combining a traditional mechanical joint to a layer of adhesive, are gradually attracting the attention of various sectors of the construction of vehicles and transportation industries, for their better performance compared to just mechanical joints (self-piercing riveting SPR, riveting, and so on) or just to bonded joints. The paper investigates the fatigue behavior of a single lap joint self-piercing riveted (SPR) and bonded throughout fatigue tests. The considered geometric configuration allowed the use of two rivets placed longitudinally; an epoxy resin was used as adhesive. In the first part of the work static characterization of the joints was carried out through tensile tests. Then fatigue tests were made with the application of different levels of load. The fatigue curves were also obtained at the varying the distance between the two rivets in order to better assess the joint strength for a given length of overlap.

  15. Damage Tolerance of Integral Structure in Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forth, Scott C.; Urban, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    The rotorcraft industry has rapidly implemented integral structures into aircraft to benefit from the weight and cost advantages over traditionally riveted structure. The cost to manufacture an integral structure, where the entire component is machined from a single plate of material, is about one-fifth that of a riveted structure. Furthermore, the integral structure can weigh only one-half that of a riveted structure through optimal design of stiffening structure and part reduction. Finally, inspection and repair of damage in the field can be less costly than riveted structure. There are no rivet heads to inspect under, reducing inspection time, and damage can be removed or patched readily without altering the primary structure, reducing replacement or repair costs. In this paper, the authors will investigate the damage tolerance implications of fielding an integral structure manufactured from thick plate aluminum.

  16. Joints of Articles made of Polymer Composite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    joints analysis has shown that the most widely used aircraft joints are: – mechanical ones (bolted, screwed, riveted ); – pure adhesive; – combined...mechanical joints are recommended for joining articles with thickness more than 1.7 mm: – rivets can be used for thickness from 1.7 to 3.2 mm...case of single-side access. Possible variants of so-called “removable” fasteners (bolts or rivets ) are worked out too; – low-diameter fastener

  17. The Growth of Multi-Site Fatigue Damage in Fuselage Lap Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Willard, Scott A.

    1999-01-01

    Destructive examinations were performed to document the progression of multi-site damage (MSD) in three lap joint panels that were removed from a full scale fuselage test article that was tested to 60,000 full pressurization cycles. Similar fatigue crack growth characteristics were observed for small cracks (50 microns to 10 mm) emanating from counter bore rivets, straight shank rivets, and 100 deg counter sink rivets. Good correlation of the fatigue crack growth data base obtained in this study and FASTRAN Code predictions show that the growth of MSD in the fuselage lap joint structure can be predicted by fracture mechanics based methods.

  18. Approaches for mechanical joining of 7xxx series aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäckel, M.; Grimm, T.; Landgrebe, D.

    2016-10-01

    This paper shows a numerical and experimental analysis of the different problems occurring during or after the conventional self-pierce riveting with semi-tubular and solid rivets of the high strength aluminum alloy EN AW-7021 T4. Furthermore this paper describes different pre-process methods by which the fracture in the high strength aluminum, caused by the self-pierce riveting processes, can be prevented and proper joining results are achieved. On this basis, the different approaches are compared regarding joint strength.

  19. 29 CFR 1926.104 - Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nominal breaking strength of 5,400 pounds. (e) All safety belt and lanyard hardware shall be drop forged... hardware, except rivets, shall be capable of withstanding a tensile loading of 4,000 pounds without...

  20. Counting Lattice-Gas Invariants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Dominique d’Humières, Brosl Hasslacher, Pierre Lallemand, Yves Pomeau, and Jean-Pierre Rivet . Lattice gas hydrodynamics in two and three dimensions...177. Springer -Verlag, Februrary 1989. Proceedings of the Winter School, Les Houches, France. 6

  1. 75 FR 6407 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... County Ingraham, Robert C., School, 80 Rivet St., New Bedford, 10000056 Middlesex County Groton High School, 145 Main St., Groton, 10000057 NEW YORK Putnam County West Point Foundry Archeological Site...

  2. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF BOILER ROOM, LOOKING NORTH; CONTROL PANEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF BOILER ROOM, LOOKING NORTH; CONTROL PANEL AT CENTER; BOXLIKE, RIVETED HOUSING AT TOP CENTER CONTAINED AUGER FOR COAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM - Rath Packing Company, Boiler Room, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  3. 17. MARINA WAY, HARBOUR WAY, AND MARITIME CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. MARINA WAY, HARBOUR WAY, AND MARITIME CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTER (SEE ALSO HABS No. CA-2718), WITH RICHMOND SHIPYARD NO. 3. S. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, 1401 Marina Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  4. 12. DETAIL OF CONNECTION BETWEEN SOUTHEAST END POST AND TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL OF CONNECTION BETWEEN SOUTHEAST END POST AND TOP CHORD, SHOWING BOLT, RIVETED PLATES, AND EYE BAR; VIEW FROM WEST. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  5. 46 CFR 59.15-10 - Bagged or blistered shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... portion to be cut away and the shell repaired by fitting a patch of steel plate conforming to the... riveting schedule of the patch is so arranged as to give the plate sufficient strength to withstand...

  6. 46 CFR 59.15-10 - Bagged or blistered shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... portion to be cut away and the shell repaired by fitting a patch of steel plate conforming to the... riveting schedule of the patch is so arranged as to give the plate sufficient strength to withstand...

  7. 12. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, INCLINED ENDPOST, PORTAL BRACING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, INCLINED ENDPOST, PORTAL BRACING, TOP CHORD, SOUTHWEST CORNER OF SOUTH TRUSS (RIVETED CONNECTION) - Marathon City Bridge, Spanning Big Rib River, on state Trunk Highway 107, Marathon, Marathon County, WI

  8. PANORAMIC VIEW OF SHIPYARD NO. 3, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. FIRST AID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PANORAMIC VIEW OF SHIPYARD NO. 3, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. FIRST AID STATION AT CENTER LEFT AND FORGE SHOP AT RIGHT - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Richmond Shipyard No. 3, Point Potrero, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  9. 6. Detail of central Samson post showing portal struts and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of central Samson post showing portal struts and paired stay rods; note riveted girder at bottom center; view to southeast. - Summer Street Bridge, Spanning Reserved Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. 3. VIEW TO WEST SHOWING NORTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW TO WEST SHOWING NORTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING. NOTE STIFFENING TRUSS OVER DOORWAY TO SUPPORT THE WALL. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Auxiliary Plate Shop, 912 Harbour Way, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  11. 13. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST OF WAITING AREA SHOWING STAIRS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST OF WAITING AREA SHOWING STAIRS TO FIRST FLOOR (LEFT) AND HALL TO MANAGERS OFFICES (RIGHT). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  12. 5. GENERAL WAREHOUSE, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO NORTHWEST SHOWING FRONT ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL WAREHOUSE, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO NORTHWEST SHOWING FRONT ELEVATION (LEFT) AND NORTH SIDE (RIGHT). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, General Warehouse, 1320 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  13. 7. GENERAL WAREHOUSE, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO NORTHWEST SHOWING FRONT ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GENERAL WAREHOUSE, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO NORTHWEST SHOWING FRONT ELEVATION (LEFT) AND NORTH SIDE (RIGHT). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, General Warehouse, 1320 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  14. 3. VIEW TO WEST SHOWING EAST END OF OIL HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW TO WEST SHOWING EAST END OF OIL HOUSE (LEFT) AND EAST SIDE OF CRATING SHED AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING (RIGHT BACKGROUND). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  15. 7. VIEW TO NORTHEAST AT NORTHWEST END OF BUILDING. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW TO NORTHEAST AT NORTHWEST END OF BUILDING. NOTE CRANEWAY TRESTLE EXTENDING BEYOND END OF BUILDING. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Auxiliary Plate Shop, 912 Harbour Way, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  16. 6. GENERAL WAREHOUSE, VIEW TO EAST SHOWING DETAIL OF ELEVATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL WAREHOUSE, VIEW TO EAST SHOWING DETAIL OF ELEVATOR DOOR (CENTER), FLANKING PEDESTRIAN ENTRIES, AND LOADING DOCK. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, General Warehouse, 1320 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  17. 14. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST AT NORTH END OF SECONDFLOOR ASSEMBLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST AT NORTH END OF SECOND-FLOOR ASSEMBLY AREA. VIEW SHOWS DETAILS OF SAWTOOTH ROOF STRUCTURE. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  18. 7. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING ELEVATION OF THE OFFICE PORTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING ELEVATION OF THE OFFICE PORTION OF THE STRUCTURE AT NORTHWEST CORNER. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  19. CAFETERIA AT SHIPYARD NO. 3, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO NORTHWEST SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAFETERIA AT SHIPYARD NO. 3, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO NORTHWEST SHOWING SOUTHEAST END AND FRONT SIDE (SHADED BY TREES) - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Cafeteria, 1301 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  20. 1. VIEW TO NORTHEAST ACROSS RICHMOND INNER HARBOR FROM RICHMOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO NORTHEAST ACROSS RICHMOND INNER HARBOR FROM RICHMOND SHIPYARD NO. 3. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  1. 1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO WEST SHOWING SOUTHEAST END. NOTE THAT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO WEST SHOWING SOUTHEAST END. NOTE THAT EXTERIOR CRANEWAY TRESTLES HAVE BEEN REDUCED IN LENGTH. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Auxiliary Plate Shop, 912 Harbour Way, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  2. 4. GENERAL WAREHOUSE, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO NORTHWEST SHOWING SOUTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GENERAL WAREHOUSE, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO NORTHWEST SHOWING SOUTH SIDE (LEFT) AND FRONT ELEVATION (RIGHT). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, General Warehouse, 1320 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  3. 4. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING WEST END OF CRANEWAY (CENTER), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING WEST END OF CRANEWAY (CENTER), WEST SIDE OF ASSEMBLY BUILDING (LEFT), AND WHARF (RIGHT). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  4. 2. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST SHOWING OIL HOUSE (LEFT), BOILER ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST SHOWING OIL HOUSE (LEFT), BOILER ROOM AND STACK (CENTER), ROOF OF CRANEWAY (BACKGROUND), AND CRATING SHED (RIGHT). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  5. 9. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST ALONG THE LENGTH OF THE SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST ALONG THE LENGTH OF THE SOUTHWEST SIDE BAY. NOTE WORK AREAS IN LEAN-TO BAYS ALONG RIGHT SIDE. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Auxiliary Plate Shop, 912 Harbour Way, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  6. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 115, 117, 119, 121, 123, 125, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 115, 117, 119, 121, 123, 125, 127, 129 COLLINS STREET. ATCHISON VILLAGE HOUSED WORKERS DURING WORLD WAR II - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Atchison Village, Collins Street, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  7. 6. NORTH END OF MACHINE SHOP. FORGE SHOP (HAER No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. NORTH END OF MACHINE SHOP. FORGE SHOP (HAER No. CA-326-K) ON LEFT, FORD PLANT IN DISTANCE, NE BY 60. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Machine Shop, 1311 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  8. Giant-electrode welder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, B. R.; Chihoski, R. A.; Yashiro, F.

    1979-01-01

    Welder produces spot-welds in place of rivets and saves time and money. Unit comprised of concical copper electrode base diameter of 11.5 ft is also capable of welding very thin, hard aluminum alloys.

  9. 78 FR 46315 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 247-Erie, Pennsylvania, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, GE...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... racks; tissue holders; towel holders; staples; rivets; brazing alloys; diesel engines; frame assemblies...; fuel filter assemblies; paper inserts; air intake filter boxes; element assemblies; screen assemblies... light; displat; LED module; silicone keypads; capacitors; aluminum electrolytic capacitor; fixed paper...

  10. An examination of faying surface fretting in single lap splices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Adam

    While fretting damage in mechanically fastened joints is widely acknowledged as a common source of crack nucleation, little work is available in the open literature on the role that fretting damage plays in the fatigue life of a riveted joint. To expand on the limited knowledge available, a study was undertaken on fretting fatigue in thin-sheet riveted fuselage lap joints. In joints constructed out of 1 mm thick 2024-T3 aluminum sheet the rivet forming load was found to have a significant effect on the location of fretting damage and crack nucleation. This effect was observed for splices riveted with machine countersunk and with universal rivets. The shift in the location of peak fretting damage and crack nucleation with changing rivet forming loads was investigated through numerical and experimental methods. A predictive model based on the critical plane Smith-Watson-Topper strain life equation was applied to the complex geometry of the single lap splice and was shown to be effective in predicting the fretting fatigue life as well as the location of fretting-induced crack nucleation. Basing this model on an explicit finite element simulation allowed for the inclusion of compressive residual stresses generated during rivet forming. Key to the proper functionality of the predictive model was to have a validated finite element model from which results for the stress and strain field in the loaded component could be obtained. In addition to the predictive model, a series of splice coupon and simplified geometry fretting fatigue tests were performed. The tests showed that, at higher rivet forming loads, crack nucleation is on the faying surface away from the hole edge and that the type of surface condition is important to the fretting fatigue life of the splice. The discovery of this variation with surface treatment at high rivet forming loads is important as more research is showing the benefit of using load-controlled rivet forming and higher rivet forming loads in

  11. Merging Imagery and Models for River Current Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    imagery. Snohomish Rivet 1. INTRODUCTION River operations are rapidly becoming a major part of Military Special Operations, yet rivers pose one of...yet minimal. input for the RST is I ollet ted from the user to facilitate specification of upstream and downstream forcing and frictional effects of...point extraction process for the Snohomish Rivet W \\ 2.2 Shoreline Processing I’sing the water and edge point data obtained from the imagery, a

  12. Synthetic Infrared Scene: Improving the KARMA IRSG Module and Signature Modelling Tool SMAT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Desmeules Alexandre Bastien Louis Tanguay Informatique inc. Geoffroy Rivet-Sabourin Technologie Intelligence Image inc. Prepared By: Louis Tanguay... Informatique inc. 825 Boulevard Lebourgneuf, Bureau 204 Québec, Canada G2J 0B9 Contractor’s Document Number: LTI-SIS-2011-1 Contract Project Manager...Alexandre Bastien Louis Tanguay Informatique inc. Geoffroy Rivet-Sabourin Technologie Intelligence Image inc. Prepared By: Louis Tanguay

  13. Evaluation of the fuselage lap joint fatigue and terminating action repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samavedam, Gopal; Thomson, Douglas; Jeong, David Y.

    1994-01-01

    Terminating action is a remedial repair which entails the replacement of shear head countersunk rivets with universal head rivets which have a larger shank diameter. The procedure was developed to eliminate the risk of widespread fatigue damage (WFD) in the upper rivet row of a fuselage lap joint. A test and evaluation program has been conducted by Foster-Miller, Inc. (FMI) to evaluate the terminating action repair of the upper rivet row of a commercial aircraft fuselage lap splice. Two full scale fatigue tests were conducted on fuselage panels using the growth of fatigue cracks in the lap joint. The second test was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the terminating action repair. In both tests, cyclic pressurization loading was applied to the panels while crack propagation was recorded at all rivet locations at regular intervals to generate detailed data on conditions of fatigue crack initiation, ligament link-up, and fuselage fracture. This program demonstrated that the terminating action repair substantially increases the fatigue life of a fuselage panel structure and effectively eliminates the occurrence of cracking in the upper rivet row of the lap joint. While high cycle crack growth was recorded in the middle rivet row during the second test, failure was not imminent when the test was terminated after cycling to well beyond the service life. The program also demonstrated that the initiation, propagation, and linkup of WFD in full-scale fuselage structures can be simulated and quantitatively studied in the laboratory. This paper presents an overview of the testing program and provides a detailed discussion of the data analysis and results. Crack distribution and propagation rates and directions as well as frequency of cracking are presented for both tests. The progression of damage to linkup of adjacent cracks and to eventual overall panel failure is discussed. In addition, an assessment of the effectiveness of the terminating action repair and the

  14. Cathodic Protection of Hot Water Tanks at Fort Sill

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    should be flat against the material. Bent rivets will fail under stress . Especially note condition of Dee Ring rivets and Dee Ring metal wear pads...free fall distance. Also, to be stressed are the importance of inspections prior to use, the limitations of the equipment, and unique conditions at...devices during the force test; d. Caution statements on critical use limitations; e. Application limits; f. Proper hook -up, anchoring and tie-off

  15. The Creeping Irrelevance of U.S. Force Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-19

    established states. He believes U.S. force plan- ning, for decades riveted on the prospect of massive conventional and even’nuclear operations...terms other than what it is not. U.S. force planning, for decades riveted on the prospect of massive conventional and even nuclear operations...States." Philippe Delmas, The Rosy Future of War, New York: The Free Press, 1995, p. 7. 20. Michael Ignatieff, The Warrior’s Dilemma, Ethnic War and

  16. Evaluation of the fuselage lap joint fatigue and terminating action repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samavedam, Gopal; Thomson, Douglas; Jeong, David Y.

    1994-09-01

    Terminating action is a remedial repair which entails the replacement of shear head countersunk rivets with universal head rivets which have a larger shank diameter. The procedure was developed to eliminate the risk of widespread fatigue damage (WFD) in the upper rivet row of a fuselage lap joint. A test and evaluation program has been conducted by Foster-Miller, Inc. (FMI) to evaluate the terminating action repair of the upper rivet row of a commercial aircraft fuselage lap splice. Two full scale fatigue tests were conducted on fuselage panels using the growth of fatigue cracks in the lap joint. The second test was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the terminating action repair. In both tests, cyclic pressurization loading was applied to the panels while crack propagation was recorded at all rivet locations at regular intervals to generate detailed data on conditions of fatigue crack initiation, ligament link-up, and fuselage fracture. This program demonstrated that the terminating action repair substantially increases the fatigue life of a fuselage panel structure and effectively eliminates the occurrence of cracking in the upper rivet row of the lap joint. While high cycle crack growth was recorded in the middle rivet row during the second test, failure was not imminent when the test was terminated after cycling to well beyond the service life. The program also demonstrated that the initiation, propagation, and linkup of WFD in full-scale fuselage structures can be simulated and quantitatively studied in the laboratory. This paper presents an overview of the testing program and provides a detailed discussion of the data analysis and results. Crack distribution and propagation rates and directions as well as frequency of cracking are presented for both tests. The progression of damage to linkup of adjacent cracks and to eventual overall panel failure is discussed. In addition, an assessment of the effectiveness of the terminating action repair and the

  17. Fracture analysis of multi-site cracking in fuselage lap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuth, J. L.; Hutchinson, J. W.

    1994-09-01

    A two-dimensional plane stress elastic fracture mechanics analysis of a cracked lap joint fastened by rigid pins is presented and results are applied to the problem of multi-site damage (MSD) in riveted lap joints of aircraft fuselage skins. Two problems are addressed, the problem of equal length MSD cracks and the problem of alternating length MSD cracks. For the problem of equal length cracks, two models of rivet/skin interactions are studied and the role of residual stresses due to the riveting process is explored. Stress intensity factors are obtained as a function of normalized crack length. Also, the load distribution among rivet rows and the compliance change of the joint due to MSD cracking are obtained. For the problem of alternating length cracks, attention is focussed on how load is distributed between columns of rivets and how this load shedding can alter crack tip stress intensity factors. The equal and alternating length crack analyses reveal no clear-cut mechanism to explain the relative uniformity of fatigue cracks emerging from lap joint rivet holes in actual aircraft and in mechanical lap joint tests.

  18. Rotating flux-focusing eddy current probe for flaw detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Fulton, James P. (Inventor); Nath, Shridhar C. (Inventor); Simpson, John W. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A flux-focusing electromagnetic sensor which uses a ferromagnetic flux-focusing lens simplifies inspections and increases detectability of fatigue cracks about circular fasteners and other circular inhomogeneities in high conductivity material. The unique feature of the device is the ferrous shield isolating a high-turn pick-up coil from an excitation coil, The use of the magnetic shield is shown to produce a null voltage output across the receiving coil in the presence of an unflawed sample. A redistribution of the current flow in the sample caused by the presence of flaws, however, eliminates the shielding condition and a large output voltage is produced, yielding a clear unambiguous flaw signal. By rotating the probe in a path around a circular fastener such as a rivet while maintaining a constant distance between the probe and the center of a rivet, the signal due to current flow about the rivet can be held constant. Any further changes in the current distribution, such as due to a fatigue crack at the rivet joint, can be detected as an increase in the output voltage above that due to the flow about the rivet head.

  19. The Effects of Some Surface Irregularities on Wing Drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drag, Manley

    1939-01-01

    The N.A.C.A. has conducted tests to provide more complete data than were previously available for estimating the effects of common surface irregularities on wing drag. The irregularities investigated included: brazier-head and countersunk rivets, spot welds, several types of sheet-metal joints, and surface roughness. Tests were also conducted to determine the over-all effect of manufacturing irregularities incidental to riveted aluminum alloy and to spot-welded stainless-steel construction. The tests were made in the 8-foot high speed wind tunnel at Reynolds Numbers up to 18,000,000. The results show that any of the surface irregularities investigated may increase wing drag enough to have important adverse effects on high-speed performance and economy. A method of estimating increases in wing drag caused by brazier-head rivets and lapped joints under conditions outside the range of the tests is suggested. Estimated drag increases due to rivets and lapped joints under conditions outside the range of the tests is suggested. Estimated drag increases due to rivets and lapped joints on a wing of 20-foot chord flying at 250 miles per hour are shown.

  20. Fatigue strength of a single lap joint SPR-bonded

    SciTech Connect

    Di Franco, G.; Fratini, L.; Pasta, A.

    2011-05-04

    In the last years, hybrid joints, meaning with this the joints which consist in combining a traditional mechanical joint to a layer of adhesive, are gradually attracting the attention of various sectors of the construction of vehicles and transportation industries, for their better performance compared to just mechanical joints (self-piercing riveting SPR, riveting, and so on) or just to bonded joints.The paper investigates the fatigue behavior of a single lap joint self-piercing riveted (SPR) and bonded throughout fatigue tests. The considered geometric configuration allowed the use of two rivets placed longitudinally; an epoxy resin was used as adhesive. In the first part of the work static characterization of the joints was carried out through tensile tests. Then fatigue tests were made with the application of different levels of load. The fatigue curves were also obtained at the varying the distance between the two rivets in order to better assess the joint strength for a given length of overlap.

  1. Automatic Fastening Large Structures: a New Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumley, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    The external tank (ET) intertank structure for the space shuttle, a 27.5 ft diameter 22.5 ft long externally stiffened mechanically fastened skin-stringer-frame structure, was a labor intensitive manual structure built on a modified Saturn tooling position. A new approach was developed based on half-section subassemblies. The heart of this manufacturing approach will be 33 ft high vertical automatic riveting system with a 28 ft rotary positioner coming on-line in mid 1985. The Automatic Riveting System incorporates many of the latest automatic riveting technologies. Key features include: vertical columns with two sets of independently operating CNC drill-riveting heads; capability of drill, insert and upset any one piece fastener up to 3/8 inch diameter including slugs without displacing the workpiece offset bucking ram with programmable rotation and deep retraction; vision system for automatic parts program re-synchronization and part edge margin control; and an automatic rivet selection/handling system.

  2. Development of ultrafine-grained microstructure in Al-Cu-Mg alloy through equal-channel angular pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sai Anuhya, Danam; Gupta, Ashutosh; Nayan, Niraj; Narayana Murty, S. V. S.; Manna, R.; Sastry, G. V. S.

    2014-08-01

    Al-Cu-Mg alloys are extensively used for riveting applications in aerospace industries due to their relatively high shear strength coupled with high plasticity. The significant advantage of using V65 aluminum alloy ((Al-4Cu-0.2Mg) for rivet application also stems from its significantly slower natural aging kinetics, which gives operational flexibility to carryout riveting operation even after 4 days of solution heat treatment, in contrast to its equivalent alloy AA2024.Rivets are usually made by cold heading of wire rods. In order to form a defect free rivet head, grain size control in wire rods is essential at each and every stage of processing right from casting onwards upto the final wire drawing stage. Wire drawing is carried out at room temperature to reduce diameter as well as impart good surface finish. In the present study, different microstructures in V65 alloy bars were produced by rolling at different temperatures (room temperature to 523K) and subsequently deformed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 423K upto an equivalent strain of 7. ECAP was carried out to study the effect of initial microstructure on grain refinement and degree of deformation on the evolution of ultrafine grain structure. The refinement of V65 alloy by ECAP is significantly influenced by Initial microstructure but amount of deformation strongly affects the evolution processes as revealed by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

  3. Flux-focusing eddy current probe and rotating probe method for flaw detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz A. (Inventor); Fulton, James P. (Inventor); Nath, Shridhar C. (Inventor); Simpson, John W. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A flux-focusing electromagnetic sensor which uses a ferromagnetic flux-focusing lens simplifies inspections and increases detectability of fatigue cracks about circular fasteners and other circular inhomogeneities in high conductivity material. The unique feature of the device is the ferrous shield isolating a high-turn pick-up coil from an excitation coil. The use of the magnetic shield is shown to produce a null voltage output across the receiving coil in the presence of an unflawed sample. A redistribution of the current flow in the sample caused by the presence of flaws, however, eliminates the shielding condition and a large output voltage is produced, yielding a clear unambiguous flaw signal. By rotating the probe in a path around a circular fastener such as a rivet while maintaining a constant distance between the probe and the center of a rivet, the signal due to current flow about the rivet can be held constant. Any further changes in the current distribution, such as due to a fatigue crack at the rivet joint, can be detected as an increase in the output voltage above that due to the flow about the rivet head.

  4. Detection of tightness of mechanical joints using lock-in thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweschper, Thomas; Wu, Datong; Busse, Gerhard

    1999-09-01

    Lockin thermography is currently being used for the rapid and remote identification of subsurface structures and defects such as impact damages, delaminations, and hidden corrosion. The purpose of this paper is to show that lockin thermography is also a reliable tool to inspect in a remote way the tightness of mechanical joints in safety relevant structures (e.g. aerospace equipment and vehicles). For example, the rapid identification of loose rivets is a major concern for airlines and manufacturers in order to monitor the structural integrity of their aircraft. Our measurements aimed at the early detection of loose rivets. We analyzed the phase image signature obtained on two metal plates pressed together by screws fastened at various torque levels. A clear relationship was established between phase angle and torque level at which the screws had been fastened. Based on these results our investigations were extended to riveted samples where two aluminum plates were pressed together by an array of ten blind rivets. Also in this case the level of tightness of rivet joints can be detected. In addition to these feasibility studies on model samples, we performed investigations on airplane components which confirmed the applicability of lockin thermography for remote maintenance inspection within a few minutes.

  5. Flux-focusing eddy current probe and rotating probe method for flaw detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wincheski, Buzz A.; Fulton, James P.; Nath, Shridhar C.; Simpson, John W.; Namkung, Min

    1994-11-01

    A flux-focusing electromagnetic sensor which uses a ferromagnetic flux-focusing lens simplifies inspections and increases detectability of fatigue cracks about circular fasteners and other circular inhomogeneities in high conductivity material. The unique feature of the device is the ferrous shield isolating a high-turn pick-up coil from an excitation coil. The use of the magnetic shield is shown to produce a null voltage output across the receiving coil in the presence of an unflawed sample. A redistribution of the current flow in the sample caused by the presence of flaws, however, eliminates the shielding condition and a large output voltage is produced, yielding a clear unambiguous flaw signal. By rotating the probe in a path around a circular fastener such as a rivet while maintaining a constant distance between the probe and the center of a rivet, the signal due to current flow about the rivet can be held constant. Any further changes in the current distribution, such as due to a fatigue crack at the rivet joint, can be detected as an increase in the output voltage above that due to the flow about the rivet head.

  6. Model-based study for evaluating the sensitivity of eddy current GMR probe inspection of multilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Zhiyi; Rosell, Anders; Udpa, Lalita; Tamburrino, Antonello

    2017-02-01

    In eddy current nondestructive testing (EC-NDT) of a multilayer riveted structure, rotating current excitation, generated by orthogonal coils, is advantageous in providing sensitivity to defects of all orientations. The signal of a defect is not only a function of its size but also of the geometrical features in vicinity to the rivet such as edges, adjacent rivets and properties of the layered structure. Numerical models can be used to provide fast and accurate estimates of defect signals. In this paper the sensitivity of the eddy current system with rotating current excitation and GMR sensors is evaluated by considering the effect of rivet permeability, lift-off, thickness of first layer as well as defect orientation related to adjacent rivets and edges on the signal measured. A numerical model capable of simulating these combinations of defect and test geometry parameters at an acceptable computation time is used. A meta-model is developed based on these simulation results and utilized for sensitivity evaluation.

  7. Finite Element Modeling and Optimization of Mechanical Joining Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenot, Jean-Loup; Bouchard, Pierre-Olivier; Massoni, Elisabeth; Mocellin, Katia; Lasne, Patrice

    2011-05-01

    The main scientific ingredients are recalled for developing a general finite element code and model accurately large plastic deformation of metallic materials during joining processes. Multi material contact is treated using the classical master and slave approach. Rupture may occur in joining processes or even be imposed in self piercing riveting and it must be predicted to evaluate the ultimate strength of joins. Damage is introduced with a generalized uncoupled damage criterion, or by utilizing a coupled formulation with a Lemaître law. Several joining processes are briefly analyzed in term of specific scientific issues: riveting, self piercing riveting, clinching, crimping, hemming and screwing. It is shown that not only the joining process can be successfully simulated and optimized, but also the strength of the assembly can be predicted in tension and in shearing.

  8. Rotating concave eddy current probe

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Dennis P.; Walkington, Phil; Rackow, Kirk A.; Hohman, Ed

    2008-04-01

    A rotating concave eddy current probe for detecting fatigue cracks hidden from view underneath the head of a raised head fastener, such as a buttonhead-type rivet, used to join together structural skins, such as aluminum aircraft skins. The probe has a recessed concave dimple in its bottom surface that closely conforms to the shape of the raised head. The concave dimple holds the probe in good alignment on top of the rivet while the probe is rotated around the rivet's centerline. One or more magnetic coils are rigidly embedded within the probe's cylindrical body, which is made of a non-conducting material. This design overcomes the inspection impediment associated with widely varying conductivity in fastened joints.

  9. Preliminary results on the fracture analysis of multi-site cracking of lap joints in aircraft skins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuth, J. L., Jr.; Hutchinson, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Results of a fracture mechanics analysis relevant to fatigue crack growth at rivets in lap joints of aircraft skins are presented. Multi-site damage (MSD) is receiving increased attention within the context of problems of aging aircraft. Fracture analyses previously carried out include small-scale modeling of rivet/skin interactions, larger-scale two-dimensional models of lap joints similar to that developed here, and full scale three-dimensional models of large portions of the aircraft fuselage. Fatigue testing efforts have included flat coupon specimens, two-dimensional lap joint tests, and full scale tests on specimens designed to closely duplicate aircraft sections. Most of this work is documented in the proceedings of previous symposia on the aging aircraft problem. The effect MSD has on the ability of skin stiffeners to arrest the growth of long skin cracks is a particularly important topic that remains to be addressed. One of the most striking features of MSD observed in joints of some test sections and in the joints of some of the older aircraft fuselages is the relative uniformity of the fatigue cracks from rivet to rivet along an extended row of rivets. This regularity suggests that nucleation of the cracks must not be overly difficult. Moreover, it indicates that there is some mechanism which keeps longer cracks from running away from shorter ones, or, equivalently, a mechanism for shorter cracks to catch-up with longer cracks. This basic mechanism has not been identified, and one of the objectives of the work is to see to what extent the mechanism is revealed by a fracture analysis of the MSD cracks. Another related aim is to present accurate stress intensity factor variations with crack length which can be used to estimate fatigue crack growth lifetimes once cracks have been initiated. Results are presented which illustrate the influence of load shedding from rivets with long cracks to neighboring rivets with shorter cracks. Results are also included

  10. Preliminary results on the fracture analysis of multi-site cracking of lap joints in aircraft skins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuth, J. L., Jr.; Hutchinson, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Results of a fracture mechanics analysis relevant to fatigue crack growth at rivets in lap joints of aircraft skins are presented. Multi-site damage (MSD) is receiving increased attention within the context of problems of aging aircraft. Fracture analyses previously carried out include small-scale modeling of rivet/skin interactions, larger-scale two-dimensional models of lap joints similar to that developed here, and full scale three-dimensional models of large portions of the aircraft fuselage. Fatigue testing efforts have included flat coupon specimens, two-dimensional lap joint tests, and full scale tests on specimens designed to closely duplicate aircraft sections. Most of this work is documented in the proceedings of previous symposia on the aging aircraft problem. The effect MSD has on the ability of skin stiffeners to arrest the growth of long skin cracks is a particularly important topic that remains to be addressed. One of the most striking features of MSD observed in joints of some test sections and in the joints of some of the older aircraft fuselages is the relative uniformity of the fatigue cracks from rivet to rivet along an extended row of rivets. This regularity suggests that nucleation of the cracks must not be overly difficult. Moreover, it indicates that there is some mechanism which keeps longer cracks from running away from shorter ones, or, equivalently, a mechanism for shorter cracks to catch-up with longer cracks. This basic mechanism has not been identified, and one of the objectives of the work is to see to what extent the mechanism is revealed by a fracture analysis of the MSD cracks. Another related aim is to present accurate stress intensity factor variations with crack length which can be used to estimate fatigue crack growth lifetimes once cracks have been initiated. Results are presented which illustrate the influence of load shedding from rivets with long cracks to neighboring rivets with shorter cracks. Results are also included

  11. US Army Assignment Policy for Women: Relevancy in 21st Century Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Many Americans are familiar with ‘ Rosie  the  Riveter ’, the iconic symbol of women in the wartime  workforce during World War II.  This further...familiar with ‘ Rosie  the  Riveter ’, the iconic symbol of women in the  wartime workforce during World War II.  As with previous large‐scale conflicts

  12. Preliminary results on the fracture analysis of multi-site cracking of lap joints in aircraft skins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuth, J. L., Jr.; Hutchinson, John W.

    1992-07-01

    Results of a fracture mechanics analysis relevant to fatigue crack growth at rivets in lap joints of aircraft skins are presented. Multi-site damage (MSD) is receiving increased attention within the context of problems of aging aircraft. Fracture analyses previously carried out include small-scale modeling of rivet/skin interactions, larger-scale two-dimensional models of lap joints similar to that developed here, and full scale three-dimensional models of large portions of the aircraft fuselage. Fatigue testing efforts have included flat coupon specimens, two-dimensional lap joint tests, and full scale tests on specimens designed to closely duplicate aircraft sections. Most of this work is documented in the proceedings of previous symposia on the aging aircraft problem. The effect MSD has on the ability of skin stiffeners to arrest the growth of long skin cracks is a particularly important topic that remains to be addressed. One of the most striking features of MSD observed in joints of some test sections and in the joints of some of the older aircraft fuselages is the relative uniformity of the fatigue cracks from rivet to rivet along an extended row of rivets. This regularity suggests that nucleation of the cracks must not be overly difficult. Moreover, it indicates that there is some mechanism which keeps longer cracks from running away from shorter ones, or, equivalently, a mechanism for shorter cracks to catch-up with longer cracks. This basic mechanism has not been identified, and one of the objectives of the work is to see to what extent the mechanism is revealed by a fracture analysis of the MSD cracks. Another related aim is to present accurate stress intensity factor variations with crack length which can be used to estimate fatigue crack growth lifetimes once cracks have been initiated. Results are presented which illustrate the influence of load shedding from rivets with long cracks to neighboring rivets with shorter cracks. Results are also included

  13. Development of shearography for nondestructive testing of highway structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Y. Y.; Hovanesian, J. D.

    1984-06-01

    Testing methodologies which may lead to early detection of impending structural failures are developed. The research is aimed at a laboratory feasibility study of an optical technique known as SHEAROGRAPHY for nondestructive testing of highway structural members. Laboratory samples representing typical highway structural members with programmed defects are tested with shearography. These samples include tubular member with an internal crack, butt weld joint with an imperfection in the weld, riveted joint with a loosened rivet, steel reinforced concrete slab with a broken internal reinforcement rod, and cord reinforced composite plate with the delaminations. All the programmed defects are detectable by shearography.

  14. Development of Alternating Current Potential Drop (ACPD) Procedures for Crack Detection in Aluminum Aircraft Panels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    SPECIMEN ALH3 6 . o . . . o . o. . . . . . . o 26 4. SUMMARY OF RIVETED PANEL TESTS . . o . . . . . 31 S. COMPARISON BETWEEN SEN AND VISUAL CRACK LENGTHS IN...first two specimens ALH3 1 and ALH3 2 attempted to determine the difference between-the two current lead geometries. The results showed that the single...in tests with specimens ALH3 4 and those following it, including all the riveted tests and tests on one hole specimens ALH 1 6 and those following it

  15. Standard Waste Box Lid Screw Removal Option Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2016-03-11

    This report provides results from test work conducted to resolve the removal of screws securing the standard waste box (SWB) lids that hold the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) drums. The test work evaluated equipment and process alternatives for removing the 42 screws that hold the SWB lid in place. The screws were secured with a red Loctite thread locker that makes removal very difficult because the rivets that the screw threads into would slip before the screw could be freed from the rivet, making it impossible to remove the screw and therefore the SWB lid.

  16. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a locking...

  17. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a locking...

  18. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a locking...

  19. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a locking...

  20. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a locking...

  1. Value of Value-Added Models Based on Student Outcomes to Evaluate Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Ronald A.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, student outcomes have bubbled to the top of debates about how to evaluate teaching in community and liberal arts colleges, universities, and professional schools, but even more international attention has been riveted on how outcomes are being used to evaluate teachers and administrators K-12 (Harris, 2012; Rowen & Raudenbush, 2016;…

  2. 78 FR 25361 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Eurocopter aircraft maintenance manual (AMM), which erroneously specifies replacing the solid rivets on the... requirements.'' Under that section, Congress charges the FAA with promoting safe flight of civil aircraft in... and placed it in the AD docket. List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 39 Air transportation, Aircraft...

  3. 6. VIEW OF THE EASTERN BRIDGE ELEVATION, SHOWING CENTRAL PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF THE EASTERN BRIDGE ELEVATION, SHOWING CENTRAL PIER AND ASSOCIATED SUPERSTRUCTURE, AND CANTILEVERED NORTHERN TRUSS SECTION. NOTE THE JOIN BETWEEN EYE-BAR (LEFT) AND RIVETED CHANNEL (RIGHT) LOWER BRIDGE CHORDS AT CENTER LEFT OF PHOTOGRAPH. FACING NORTH. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  4. View of north tower base panel and portion of concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north tower base panel and portion of concrete abutment. Note riveted construction and dual-wire rope connections from counterweight to lift span on both sides. Lift wire ropes have been removed. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  5. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST FROM NORTHWEST CORNER OF BASING NO. 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO SOUTHEAST FROM NORTHWEST CORNER OF BASING NO. 4 (SECOND BASING FROM THE EAST) SHOWING CRANEWAY AND GALLERY BETWEEN BASINS NO. 4 AND 5. GENERAL WAREHOUSE IS IN BACKGROUND - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Graving Docks, Shipyard No. 3, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  6. YARD NO. 3 BASINS (GRAVING DOCKS), VIEW TO EASTNORTHEAST AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    YARD NO. 3 BASINS (GRAVING DOCKS), VIEW TO EAST-NORTHEAST AT THE SOUTH END OF THE CRANEWAY AND GALLERY BETWEEN BASINS NO. 1 AND 2, LOOKING ACROSS SOUTH END OF BASIN NO. 1 (THE WESTERN-MOST BASIN) - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Graving Docks, Shipyard No. 3, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  7. Teen Cyberbullying Investigated: Where Do Your Rights End and Consequences Begin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    The Internet age has led to a different kind of teen bullying: cyberbullying. What is cyberbullying and what can teens do about it? In "Teen Cyberbullying Investigated," Judge Tom Jacobs presents a powerful collection of landmark court cases involving teens and charges of cyberbullying and cyberharassment. This riveting, informative guide will…

  8. Fastener Design Course

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Richard T.

    1997-01-01

    Richard T. Barrett, Senior Aerospace Engineer of NASA Lewis Research Center presents a comprehensive course on fastener design. A recognized expert in the field of fastener technology Mr. Barrett combines lecture, charts, illustrations with real-world experiences. Topics covered include: materials, plantings and coatings, locking methods threads, joint stiffness, rivets, inserts, nut plates, thread lubricants, design criteria, etc. A workbook accompanies the DVD.

  9. Aviation Maintenance Safety Articles, January/February 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    Superintendent of Docrerts i. S Gover ’ Tart 0 Printing Office Washington DC 20402 Second Class postage pad at Ma’- Pa I. WE, POSTMASTER Send address... Cherry Max rivet. After the operator A review of NAVMATSO records indicates that pulled the trigger and while the gun was cycling the Navy and Marine

  10. Lessons: Katrina and Beginning Anew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirylo, James D.

    2005-01-01

    New Orleans, fondly known in better days for its spectacular cuisine, cool jazz, and good times, was the leading story on television news broadcasts the world over when a massive hurricane came. As Katrina took its destructive path, culminating in the devastating rupture of ill-prepared levee systems, the world was riveted by stories about the…

  11. Best Reference 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts, Brian E.; LaGuardia, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    America's subprime mortgage crisis of 2007 spiraled into a global financial crisis in 2008. For much of the year, attention was riveted on the presidential primaries. A worsening economy made the election somewhat anticlimactic, but everybody rejoiced with the choice of the first "international" President. With stocks tumbling and major firms…

  12. On the Strength of Box Type Fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathar, J

    1929-01-01

    The present investigation relates to a box-type fuselage with sides consisting of thin smooth sheet metal, stiffened by longitudinal members riveted to the flanged channel-section bulkheads or transverse frames and to the semicircular corrugated corner stiffenings. The results obtained in this particular case can be applied to a great number of similar structures.

  13. The Rosenberg Trial: Uncovering the Layers of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragsdale, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    The trial of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg on charges of conspiring to spy for the Soviet Union remains one of the defining moments of the Cold War era. The dramatic allegations of stolen atomic secrets and networks of Communist spies riveted the public's attention. The determination of government prosecutors reflected a widely shared belief that the…

  14. 78 FR 32349 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ..., S550, 560, 560XL, and 650 airplanes. This AD was prompted by multiple reports of smoke and/or fire in... rivet in the brush contacting the commutator causing sparks and consequent fire and/or smoke in the tailcone with no means to detect or extinguish the fire and/or smoke. DATES: This AD is effective July 5...

  15. 11. View showing detail of truss tower. The vertical, or ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View showing detail of truss tower. The vertical, or compression, members of the bridge are formed from two channel beams riveted together with lacing bars. The diagonal or tension members, are die-forged eyebars. - Center Street Swing Bridge, Southwest of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  16. 29 CFR 1910.181 - Derricks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Structural members for deformations, cracks, and corrosion. (b) Bolts or rivets for tightness. (c) Parts such... the original safety factor. (g) Rope inspection—(1) Running ropes. A thorough inspection of all ropes... diameter due to loss of core support, internal or external corrosion, or wear of outside wires. (ii)...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.181 - Derricks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Structural members for deformations, cracks, and corrosion. (b) Bolts or rivets for tightness. (c) Parts such... the original safety factor. (g) Rope inspection—(1) Running ropes. A thorough inspection of all ropes... diameter due to loss of core support, internal or external corrosion, or wear of outside wires. (ii)...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.181 - Derricks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Structural members for deformations, cracks, and corrosion. (b) Bolts or rivets for tightness. (c) Parts such... the original safety factor. (g) Rope inspection—(1) Running ropes. A thorough inspection of all ropes... diameter due to loss of core support, internal or external corrosion, or wear of outside wires. (ii)...

  19. Time Critical Targeting Concept of Operations (CONOPS) Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    video.  1 Low Earth Orbit (LEO) SBR constellation overhead 40-80% of time with SAR and GMTI.  1 Rivet Joint orbit or Signals Intelligence (SIGINT...1217, Springer -Verlag 1997, 203-208. Keithley, H, “Space Based Radar Utility Analysis”, DSC FY02 Study Task 1 (DSC 02-1), Volume III Tracking

  20. Sculpture, Metallic Formations II, Art Education: 6683.12b.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubocq, Edward R.

    An exploratory course in the creation of shapes using a variety of metals and techniques is described in this guide for quinmester elective course for grades 7-12. Students cut, form, weld, rivet, cast and finish such metals as steel, copper, aluminum, brass, pewter, and bronze. They develop a working knowledge of the various tools and processes,…

  1. 77 FR 37797 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... of sheared fasteners located on the outside skin of the forward cargo door and cracks on the frame... inspection of the outer skin rivets at the frame fork ends of the forward and aft cargo door for sheared... inspections. We are issuing this AD to detect and correct sheared, loose, or missing fasteners on the forward...

  2. 16. VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF SECONDFLOOR ASSEMBLY AREA FROM NEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF SECOND-FLOOR ASSEMBLY AREA FROM NEAR SOUTHWEST WEST. NOTE DIFFERENCE IN ROOF STRUCTURE BETWEEN SAWTOOTH SKYLIGHTS OVER MOST OF THE SECOND FLOOR (RIGHT) AND THE PORTION OF THE ROOF RUNNING ALONG THE WEST EDGE OF THE BUILDING (LEFT). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  3. Ergonomic Survey, Hill AFB, UT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    It seems possible to eliminate most of this awkwardness by using a pusher bar from the side of the conveyer opposite the opening into the booth...Epidemiologic survey of vibration syndrome among riveters, chippers, and grinders in the railroad system of the People’s Republic of China. Scandinavian

  4. Defense Science and Technology Success Stories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    aircraft is a tailless configuration with retractable gear, rigid upper and lower wing surfaces and a “twin- knuckle” folding wing. The NextGen aircraft ...Fuel .................................................. 100 Morphing Aircraft Structures (MAS) ................................. 104 Reversible Barriers...missiles and tactical communications systems. A NCCT-equipped RC-12 Guardrail aircraft working with a modified RC-135 Rivet Joint aircraft will allow

  5. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., commodities such as ball and roller bearings, bolts, nuts, washers, screws, nails, tacks, rivets, pins, studs... are: Automobile air conditioners; baby seats for automobiles; automobile beds; automobile hammocks... installation in automobiles; and automobile bearings, such as automobile crankshaft or connecting rod bearings...

  6. 5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO EAST SHOWING NORTHWEST END AND SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO EAST SHOWING NORTHWEST END AND SOUTHWEST SIDE OF BUILDING. (NOTE THAT RIGHT PORTION OF PHOTOGRAPH WAS FOGGED DUE TO BELLOWS LEAK). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Auxiliary Plate Shop, 912 Harbour Way, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  7. An alternative fabrication method of the dart thrower's motion orthosis (also known as the dart orthosis).

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    To allow safe early wrist motion after wrist injury, this author has modified an earlier version of a dart thrower's motion orthotic device using material that is currently available on the market and an inexpensive paper fastener as the rivet. - KristinValdes, OTD, OT, CHT, Practice Forum Editor.

  8. The Rosenberg Trial: Uncovering the Layers of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragsdale, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    The trial of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg on charges of conspiring to spy for the Soviet Union remains one of the defining moments of the Cold War era. The dramatic allegations of stolen atomic secrets and networks of Communist spies riveted the public's attention. The determination of government prosecutors reflected a widely shared belief that the…

  9. The Cuban Missile Crisis: Considering Its Place in Cold War History. Teacher's Resource Book [and Student Text]. Public Policy Debate in the Classroom. Choices for the 21st Century Education Project. 4th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soukup, Nancy, Ed.

    Like no other region on the globe, the Caribbean Basin has served as a testing ground for U.S. foreign policy. Of all the countries in the region, Cuba has been the scene of many of the United States' most riveting foreign policy dramas. The teacher resource book and student text probe the complex, often troubled, relationship between the United…

  10. 46 CFR 59.10-30 - Seal welding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seal welding. 59.10-30 Section 59.10-30 Shipping COAST... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-30 Seal welding. Where leaks occur in riveted joints or connections, they shall be carefully investigated...

  11. 46 CFR 189.50-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions..., welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions. (a) The provisions of “Standard for the Control of Gas..., burning, welding, or like fire-producing actions shall be made: (1) Within or on the boundaries of...

  12. 46 CFR 71.60-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... undertaken with safety, no alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding... boundaries of fuel tanks; or, (3) To pipe lines, heating coils, pumps, fittings, or other appurtenances... the inspection indicated that such operations can be undertaken with safety, a certificate...

  13. 46 CFR 71.60-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... undertaken with safety, no alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding... boundaries of fuel tanks; or, (3) To pipe lines, heating coils, pumps, fittings, or other appurtenances... the inspection indicated that such operations can be undertaken with safety, a certificate...

  14. 46 CFR 189.50-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... can be undertaken with safety, no alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting... liquids or within spaces adjacent to such tanks; or, (5) To pipelines, heat coils, pumps, fittings, or... inspection. If the inspection indicates that such operations can be undertaken with safety, a...

  15. 46 CFR 35.01-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... safety, no alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like..., pumps, fittings, or other appurtenances connected to such cargo or fuel tanks. (c) Such inspections... safety, a certificate setting forth the fact in writing and qualified as may be required, shall be...

  16. 46 CFR 71.60-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... undertaken with safety, no alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding... boundaries of fuel tanks; or, (3) To pipe lines, heating coils, pumps, fittings, or other appurtenances... the inspection indicated that such operations can be undertaken with safety, a certificate...

  17. 46 CFR 167.30-10 - Special operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... can be undertaken with safety, no alterations, repairs, or other such operations involving riveting..., (3) Within or on the boundaries of fuel tanks; or, (4) To pipe lines, heating coils, pumps, fittings... inspection. If the inspection indicates that such operations can be undertaken with safety, a...

  18. 17. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING ONE OF THE OPENINGS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING ONE OF THE OPENINGS IN THE SECOND FLOOR EAST WALL THROUGH WHICH A CONVEYOR ONCE PASSED FOR MOVING BODY PANELS TO AND FROM THE SECOND FLOOR. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  19. 78 FR 38546 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ..., inspecting the tailboom assembly for a crack, loose rivet, or other damage. This AD was prompted by a stress... cracking. This condition, if not detected, could result in a crack in the tailboom assembly, failure of the... chemically milled tailboom skin ``revealed a possibility of skin cracking due to high stress...

  20. Dear Mr. Kozol. . . . Four African American Women Scholars and the Re-Authoring of Savage Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer-Hinton, Raquel; Lewis, Joi D.; Patton, Lori D.; Rivers, Ishwanzya D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 1991, Savage Inequalities quickly became the most riveting assessment of the inequalities in U.S. public schools. When Kozol visited East St. Louis for his book, the authors of this paper lived and attended schools there. As Kozol's readers in their respective graduate and undergraduate classes, the authors found it difficult to…

  1. Lautal as a material for airplane construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Paul

    1929-01-01

    Lautal is a refinable aluminum alloy which, unlike duralumin, contains no magnesium. According to the statements of the Lauta Works, lautal contains: aluminum, 94%; copper, 4%; silicon, 2%. The use of lautal as a construction material is discussed in relation to specific weight, production methods, and riveting tests.

  2. 49 CFR 195.205 - Repair, alteration and reconstruction of aboveground breakout tanks that have been in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... approximately atmospheric pressure constructed of carbon and low alloy steel, welded or riveted, and non... service must be capable of withstanding the internal pressure produced by the hazardous liquid to be..., examination, and material requirements of those respective standards. (3) For high pressure tanks built to...

  3. 49 CFR 195.205 - Repair, alteration and reconstruction of aboveground breakout tanks that have been in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... approximately atmospheric pressure constructed of carbon and low alloy steel, welded or riveted, and non... service must be capable of withstanding the internal pressure produced by the hazardous liquid to be..., examination, and material requirements of those respective standards. (3) For high pressure tanks built to...

  4. 49 CFR 195.205 - Repair, alteration and reconstruction of aboveground breakout tanks that have been in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... approximately atmospheric pressure constructed of carbon and low alloy steel, welded or riveted, and non... service must be capable of withstanding the internal pressure produced by the hazardous liquid to be..., examination, and material requirements of those respective standards. (3) For high pressure tanks built to...

  5. 49 CFR 195.205 - Repair, alteration and reconstruction of aboveground breakout tanks that have been in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... approximately atmospheric pressure constructed of carbon and low alloy steel, welded or riveted, and non... service must be capable of withstanding the internal pressure produced by the hazardous liquid to be..., examination, and material requirements of those respective standards. (3) For high pressure tanks built to...

  6. 49 CFR 195.205 - Repair, alteration and reconstruction of aboveground breakout tanks that have been in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... approximately atmospheric pressure constructed of carbon and low alloy steel, welded or riveted, and non... service must be capable of withstanding the internal pressure produced by the hazardous liquid to be..., examination, and material requirements of those respective standards. (3) For high pressure tanks built to...

  7. 13. DETAIL OF CONNECTION BETWEEN TOP CHORD AND POST IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF CONNECTION BETWEEN TOP CHORD AND POST IN WEST TRUSS, SHOWING CHANNELS AND REINFORCED CAST-IRON LACING, I-BEAMS FASTENED TOGETHER WITH RIVETTED PLATES, AND ASSEMBLY OF DIAGONAL EYE BEAM AND BOLT; VIEW FROM EAST SIDE. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  8. 9. DETAIL OF ONE OF THE TWO CENTER PANELS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF ONE OF THE TWO CENTER PANELS IN THE WEST TRUSS, SEEN FROM THE WEST, SHOWING POSTS, RIVETED PLATES, LOWER CHORDS, DIAGONAL EYE BARS WITH TURNBUCKLES, AND ENDS OF FLOOR BEAMS SUSPENDED FROM POSTS. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  9. Robotics 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Robots are used in all kinds of industrial settings. They are used to rivet bolts to cars, to move items from one conveyor belt to another, to gather information from other planets, and even to perform some very delicate types of surgery. Anyone who has watched a robot perform its tasks cannot help but be impressed by how it works. This article…

  10. Creativity in Biographical Writing as the Necessary Fictions of Nonfiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Paula R.

    Biographical writing is highly imaginative writing and always has been. The task of the biographer is to weave a riveting story from the fabric of the subject's life. For example, a single pivotal incident in the lives of Percy Bysshe Shelley, the English poet, and Mary Godwin, author of "Frankenstein", at the grave of Mary's mother,…

  11. Civil Rights Milestones Offer Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malveaux, Julianne

    2004-01-01

    The landmark legal decision, Brown v. Board of Education, was rendered on May 17, 1954. Fifty years later, campuses and communities are commemorating the decision and its impact on contemporary life. The Harvard legal scholar, Charles Ogletree, has published a riveting book of his reflections, a government commission is staging a variety of…

  12. Fastener Design Course

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Richard T.

    1997-01-01

    Richard T. Barrett, Senior Aerospace Engineer of NASA Lewis Research Center presents a comprehensive course on fastener design. A recognized expert in the field of fastener technology Mr. Barrett combines lecture, charts, illustrations with real-world experiences. Topics covered include: materials, plantings and coatings, locking methods threads, joint stiffness, rivets, inserts, nut plates, thread lubricants, design criteria, etc. A workbook accompanies the DVD.

  13. 15. Detail showing lower chord pinconnected to vertical member, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail showing lower chord pin-connected to vertical member, showing floor beam riveted to extension of vertical member below pin-connection, and showing brackets supporting cantilevered sidewalk. View to southwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  14. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., commodities such as ball and roller bearings, bolts, nuts, washers, screws, nails, tacks, rivets, pins, studs... an article is produced through the use of special machinery or as a result of specialized skills from... installation in automobiles; and automobile bearings, such as automobile crankshaft or connecting rod bearings...

  15. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., commodities such as ball and roller bearings, bolts, nuts, washers, screws, nails, tacks, rivets, pins, studs... an article is produced through the use of special machinery or as a result of specialized skills from... installation in automobiles; and automobile bearings, such as automobile crankshaft or connecting rod bearings...

  16. Celebrating Excellence: Learning and Teaching in Adult Higher Education. National Conference on Alternative and External Degree Programs for Adults (15th, Columbus, Ohio, October 5-7, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance, an Association for Alternative Degree Programs.

    These 23 presentations are organized in five categories: diversity, assessment, distance education, learning, and teaching. Five papers on diversity include the following: "From Rosie the Riveter to Comparable Worth: The Infusion of Gender and Women's Issues into an Interdisciplinary Curriculum for Working Adults" (Linda L. Hulbert, Theodore A.…

  17. Civil Rights Milestones Offer Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malveaux, Julianne

    2004-01-01

    The landmark legal decision, Brown v. Board of Education, was rendered on May 17, 1954. Fifty years later, campuses and communities are commemorating the decision and its impact on contemporary life. The Harvard legal scholar, Charles Ogletree, has published a riveting book of his reflections, a government commission is staging a variety of…

  18. Teen Cyberbullying Investigated: Where Do Your Rights End and Consequences Begin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    The Internet age has led to a different kind of teen bullying: cyberbullying. What is cyberbullying and what can teens do about it? In "Teen Cyberbullying Investigated," Judge Tom Jacobs presents a powerful collection of landmark court cases involving teens and charges of cyberbullying and cyberharassment. This riveting, informative guide will…

  19. 49 CFR 230.20 - Alteration and repair report for steam locomotive boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... boilers. 230.20 Section 230.20 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... boilers. (a) Alterations. When an alteration is made to a steam locomotive boiler, the steam locomotive... maintained for the life of the boiler. (See appendix B of this part.) (b) Welded and riveted repairs...

  20. 49 CFR 230.20 - Alteration and repair report for steam locomotive boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... boilers. 230.20 Section 230.20 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... boilers. (a) Alterations. When an alteration is made to a steam locomotive boiler, the steam locomotive... maintained for the life of the boiler. (See appendix B of this part.) (b) Welded and riveted repairs...

  1. 49 CFR 230.20 - Alteration and repair report for steam locomotive boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... boilers. 230.20 Section 230.20 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... boilers. (a) Alterations. When an alteration is made to a steam locomotive boiler, the steam locomotive... maintained for the life of the boiler. (See appendix B of this part.) (b) Welded and riveted repairs...

  2. Literature Review and Preliminary Studies of Fretting and Fretting Fatigue Including Special Applications to Aircraft Joints.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    interfay sealant appeared to be porous. There was a small fatigue reduction. Hot bonded joints ( hot cured interfay) had no cracking at rivet holes. A...Base, Ohio,1973, 11 pp. 1 05 F. E. Kiddie , Fatigue behavior of bolted joints in RR58 aluminum alloy with and without interfay sealant, Procurement

  3. 78 FR 12991 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... elevator surface, resulting in a significant pitch upset and possible loss of control of the airplane... elevator power control actuator (PCA) bellcrank assemblies to determine the condition of the shear rivets... repetitive testing of the elevator control system to determine if an elevator PCA is rigged incorrectly, and...

  4. Pre-Coated Fasteners

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Issues • Equivalent to and/or improved corrosion protection from a “dry” ready-to-use fastener • Elimination of hazardous solvents and reduction in...3 3 1 7 13 M SMRC Product (gray) Preapplied sealant 2001 3 3 1 7 14 N METSS Product (brown) Preapplied sealant 3 3 1 7 15 O Contro , Plain Rivets 3 3

  5. MARINA & MAINE STREETS FACING NW. DARKER COLORED HOME ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MARINA & MAINE STREETS FACING NW. DARKER COLORED HOME ON SE CORNER. NYSTROM VILLAGE, LIKE ATCHISON VILLAGE (HAER CA-326-N), HOUSED WORKERS DURING WORLD WAR II - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Nystrom Village, Marina & Maine Streets, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  6. The Cuban Missile Crisis: Considering Its Place in Cold War History. Teacher's Resource Book [and Student Text]. Public Policy Debate in the Classroom. Choices for the 21st Century Education Project. 4th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soukup, Nancy, Ed.

    Like no other region on the globe, the Caribbean Basin has served as a testing ground for U.S. foreign policy. Of all the countries in the region, Cuba has been the scene of many of the United States' most riveting foreign policy dramas. The teacher resource book and student text probe the complex, often troubled, relationship between the United…

  7. Engineering Drawing II, 6-2. Military Curriculum Project for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Engineer School, Fort Belvoir, VA.

    This military-developed text consists of seven lessons to teach students with basic drafting skills more advanced techniques. Covered in the individual lessons are the following topics: auxiliary views; isometric drawing; screws, bolts, rivets, and welds; detail and assembly practices; intersections and developments; machine drawing; architectural…

  8. Effects of Bank Revetment on Sacramento River, California

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Harvey; Chester C. Watson

    1989-01-01

    Twelve low radius of curvature bends, half of which were rivetted, were studied in the Butte Basin reach of Sacramento River, California, to determine whether bank revetment deleteriously affected salmonid habitat. At low discharge (128.6 cubic meters/s) it was demonstrated that revetment does not cause channel narrowing or deepening, nor does it prevent re-entrainment...

  9. 46 CFR 189.50-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions..., welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions. (a) The provisions of “Standard for the Control of Gas..., burning, welding, or like fire-producing actions shall be made: (1) Within or on the boundaries of tanks...

  10. 46 CFR 91.50-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning or like fire-producing actions. 91..., burning or like fire-producing actions. (a) The provisions of “Standard for The Control of Gas Hazards on..., welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions shall be made: (1) Within or on the boundaries of cargo...

  11. 46 CFR 189.50-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions..., welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions. (a) The provisions of “Standard for the Control of Gas..., burning, welding, or like fire-producing actions shall be made: (1) Within or on the boundaries of tanks...

  12. 46 CFR 91.50-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning or like fire-producing actions. 91..., burning or like fire-producing actions. (a) The provisions of “Standard for The Control of Gas Hazards on..., welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions shall be made: (1) Within or on the boundaries of cargo...

  13. 46 CFR 189.50-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions..., welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions. (a) The provisions of “Standard for the Control of Gas..., burning, welding, or like fire-producing actions shall be made: (1) Within or on the boundaries of tanks...

  14. 46 CFR 91.50-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning or like fire-producing actions. 91..., burning or like fire-producing actions. (a) The provisions of “Standard for The Control of Gas Hazards on..., welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions shall be made: (1) Within or on the boundaries of cargo...

  15. 46 CFR 91.50-1 - Inspection and testing required when making alterations, repairs, or other such operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., repairs, or other such operations involving riveting, welding, burning or like fire-producing actions. 91..., burning or like fire-producing actions. (a) The provisions of “Standard for The Control of Gas Hazards on..., welding, burning, or like fire-producing actions shall be made: (1) Within or on the boundaries of cargo...

  16. Aircraft Structural Maintenance AFSC 458X2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    Donald J. Cochran, Inventory Development Specialist, developed the survey instrument; Captain Douglas K. Eads, Occupational Ana- lyst, analyzed the data...0767 INSTALL OR REMOVE PULL-THROUGH BLIND RIVETS 68 M694 REMOVE DAMAGED AREAS USING AVATION SNIPS 68 F256 APPLY AERODYNAMIC SMOOTHING COMPOUNDS 66 0740

  17. 20. VIEW TO WEST OF INTERIOR OF CRANEWAY WITH TOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW TO WEST OF INTERIOR OF CRANEWAY WITH TOW TRAVELING BRIDGE CRANES (ONE OVERHEAD IN FOREGROUND AND ONE OVERHEAD IN BACKGROUNDS). NOTE WOOD BLOCK PAVING ON THE FLOOR. FIRST FLOOR ASSEMBLY AREA IS THE SPACE IN THE BACKGROUND ON THE RIGHT. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  18. 6. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO SOUTHWEST SHOWING NORTHWEST CORNER OF ASSEMBLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO SOUTHWEST SHOWING NORTHWEST CORNER OF ASSEMBLY BUILDING WHERE SHOWROOMS (FIRST FLOOR) AND OFFICES (SECOND FLOOR) WERE LOCATED. WEST SIDE OF ASSEMBLY AREA IS TO RIGHT. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  19. 8. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST FROM NORTHWEST END OF BUILDING, ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST FROM NORTHWEST END OF BUILDING, ELEVATION OF CENTER BAY WOODEN PRATT ROOF TRUSSES. NOTE VARIABLE DIMENSIONS OF VERTICAL AND DIAGONAL MEMBERS: THICKER TOWARD ENDS AND THINNER TOWARD CENTER. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Auxiliary Plate Shop, 912 Harbour Way, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  20. 8. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING PORTION OF WEST ELEVATION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING PORTION OF WEST ELEVATION OF ASSEMBLY AREA. MAIN ASSEMBLY LINE RAN FROM RIGHT TO LEFT ALONG THE FIRST-FLOOR WINDOWS. PARTS STORAGE WAS ON SECOND FLOOR. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  1. 12. VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM WITHIN SERVICE OFFICE. THROUGH DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM WITHIN SERVICE OFFICE. THROUGH DOOR IS LEFT IS DISTRIBUTOR OFFICE; THROUGH DOOR TO RIGHT IS WAITING ROOM AND STAIRS TO FIRST FLOOR. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  2. 2. GENERAL WAREHOUSE AT SHIPYARD NO. 3, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL WAREHOUSE AT SHIPYARD NO. 3, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO WEST SOUTHWEST, OF FRONT ELEVATION AND NORTH SIDE. LOOKING ACROSS RICHMOND INNER HARBOR FROM NEAR THE FORD ASSEMBLY BUILDING. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, General Warehouse, 1320 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  3. 6. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST ALONG CENTRAL BAY. NOTE TRUSSED SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST ALONG CENTRAL BAY. NOTE TRUSSED SUPPORT FOR CRANEWAY TRACKS WITH OVERHEAD BRIDGE CRANES IN BACKGROUND. NOTE ALSO SWINGING BOOM CRANES ATTACHED TO COLUMNS. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Auxiliary Plate Shop, 912 Harbour Way, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  4. 1. VIEW OF GENERAL WAREHOUSE (LEFT) AND MACHINE SHOP (RIGHT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF GENERAL WAREHOUSE (LEFT) AND MACHINE SHOP (RIGHT) AT SHIPYARD NO. 3, VIEW TO WEST-SOUTHWEST. LOOKING ACROSS RICHMOND INNER HARBOR FROM NEAR THE FORD ASSEMBLY BUILDING. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, General Warehouse, 1320 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  5. 78 FR 7308 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... rivet, or other damage. This proposed AD is prompted by a stress analysis of the tailboom skin that revealed high-stress-concentration areas are susceptible to skin cracking. This condition, if not detected... tailboom assembly, part number (P/N) 407-030-801-201, -203, or -205. Transport Canada states that a stress...

  6. 21. VIEW OF INTERFACE BETWEEN THE SOUTHERN TRUSS SECTION'S PINCONNECTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF INTERFACE BETWEEN THE SOUTHERN TRUSS SECTION'S PIN-CONNECTED EYEBAR LOWER CHORD, AND THE BEGINNING OF THE RIVETED CHANNEL LOWER BRIDGE CHORD USED IN THE CENTRAL AND NORTHERN SECTIONS OF THE BRIDGE. FACING SOUTHEAST. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  7. Weapon System Costing Methodology for Aircraft Airframes and Basic Structures. Volume II. Estimating Handbook and User’s Manual. Part I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    Manual provides the msl rtK’Uon.s iicccssary lor makilifi; :i cost t\\stiinalr usinu, ci Hier what is rdiri-cd to as the trade study rosi rstim.iiir.o...in- sj)ecting, etc. Where assembly was required, these operations were identified and included clamping in place, hole drilling riveting

  8. 11. INTERIOR VIEW TO WEST ALONG SOUTHWEST SIDE OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR VIEW TO WEST ALONG SOUTHWEST SIDE OF BUILDING WITH NORTHWEST END OF BUILDING IN BACKGROUND. NOTE WORK AREAS IN LEAN-TO BAYS ALONG SIDE OF BUILDING. ALSO NOTE TRAVELING BRIDGE CRANES OVERHEAD AND SWINGING BOOM CRANES ATTACHED TO COLUMNS. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Auxiliary Plate Shop, 912 Harbour Way, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  9. 15. VIEW TO NORTHWEST OF SECONDFLOOR ASSEMBLY AREA FROM NEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW TO NORTHWEST OF SECOND-FLOOR ASSEMBLY AREA FROM NEAR MIDDLE OF EAST WALL. VIEW SHOWS DETAIL OF NORTH-FACING SKYLIGHTS. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  10. Stress and Aircraft Maintenance Performance in a Combat Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    combat situation the individual’s stress level will be very high and that most of his attention will be riveted on that which threatens to destroy him...coping. in I. L. Kutash, L. B. Schlesinger, and Associates (Eds.). J Handbook on stress and anxiety. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1980. Rosy , B. (1984

  11. Male and Female Performance in Ten Traditionally Male Navy Ratings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    were doing work usually thought of as masculine even before World War 1, no data were collected on their performance. During World War 11, " Rosie the... Riveter " symbolized the thousands of women working in jobs that were then considered male occupations: aircraft assembler, sheet metal worker, truck

  12. On Writing Labor History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, Penny

    1997-01-01

    Examines the personal views, research methods, and writing strategies of an author who specializes in books on labor history aimed at the young adult market. Discusses some of the work that went into biographies of Mother Jones, Rosie the Riveter, and Frances Perkins. Recommends an increased focus on labor history. (MJP)

  13. 75 FR 26889 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University) et al...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... the specified model helicopters. The AD would require inspecting each affected tail rotor blade (blade... voids and removing any blade with an excessive void from service. This AD would also require modifying certain blades by installing shear pins and tip closure rivets. This proposal is prompted by...

  14. 77 FR 44434 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Restricted Category Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... affected tail rotor blade (blade) forward tip weight retention block (tip block) and the aft tip closure (tip closure) for adhesive bond voids and removing any blade with an excessive void from service. This AD also requires modifying certain blades by installing shear pins and tip closure rivets. This...

  15. Preprocessing of Edge of Light images: towards a quantitative evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Forsyth, David S.; Marincak, Anton

    2003-08-01

    A computer vision inspection system, named Edge of Light TM (EOL), was invented and developed at the Institute for Aerospace Research of the National Research Council Canada. One application of interest is the detection and quantitative measurement of "pillowing" caused by corrosion in the faying surfaces of aircraft fuselage joints. To quantify the hidden corrosion, one approach is to relate the average corrosion of a region to the peak-to-peak amplitude between two diagonally adjacent rivet centers. This raises the requirement for automatically locating the rivet centers. The first step to achieve this is the rivet edge detection. In this study, gradient-based edge detection, local energy based feature extraction, and an adaptive threshold method were employed to identify the edge of rivets, which facilitated the first step in the EOL quantification procedure. Furthermore, the brightness profile is processed by the derivative operation, which locates the pillowing along the scanning direction. The derivative curves present an estimation of the inspected surface.

  16. Comparison of the biomechanics and histology of two soft-tissue fixators composed of bioabsorbable copolymers.

    PubMed

    Powers, D L; Sonawala, M; Woolf, S K; An, Y H; Hawkins, R; Pietrzak, W S

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the dynamic in vitro and in vivo characteristics of two different bioabsorbable copolymer soft-tissue fixation devices and to determine their efficacy in reattaching soft tissue to bone. Suretac fixators (Smith & Nephew/Acufex MicroSurgical Inc., Northwood, MA), made of polyglyconate (2:1 glycolic acid:trimethylene carbonate), and Pop Rivets (Arthrotek, Warsaw, IN), made of LactoSorb (82% poly L-lactic acid, 18% polyglycolic acid), were anchored into synthetic bone, and their pull-out strengths were evaluated. The devices were also evaluated with the use of an in vivo goat model in which the medial collateral ligament (MCL) was elevated from the tibia and directly reattached. In the in vitro biomechanical study, the Suretac fixators had negligible strength remaining by four weeks, whereas the Pop Rivets retained 50% of their strength at 4 weeks, 20% at 8 weeks, and negligible strength at 12 weeks. The in vivo strength of MCL repairs affected by each implant was not statistically different at any of the time points. Histologically, both implants were absorbed by 52 weeks, and there was no appreciable adverse tissue response. In conclusion, both copolymer fixators were found to be biocompatible. The Pop Rivet fixators demonstrated in vivo performance comparable to the Suretac fixators, although the Pop Rivets retained strength longer in vitro. Our results suggest that both devices provide adequate strength of fixation before degrading to allow the healing soft tissues to reach or surpass their native strength.

  17. Robotics 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Robots are used in all kinds of industrial settings. They are used to rivet bolts to cars, to move items from one conveyor belt to another, to gather information from other planets, and even to perform some very delicate types of surgery. Anyone who has watched a robot perform its tasks cannot help but be impressed by how it works. This article…

  18. Best Reference 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts, Brian E.; LaGuardia, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    America's subprime mortgage crisis of 2007 spiraled into a global financial crisis in 2008. For much of the year, attention was riveted on the presidential primaries. A worsening economy made the election somewhat anticlimactic, but everybody rejoiced with the choice of the first "international" President. With stocks tumbling and major firms…

  19. The Adult Learner: Some Things We Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Robin J.; Pete, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses the "warrior" who rises to the challenge of teaching the adult learner. The discussion is designed as a catalyst for dialogue about the adult learner and to uncover the complexities of teaching this rare and riveting species. This book is organized around three interlocking themes: some things we know about the adult learner;…

  20. 10. View northwest Typical panel detail (south chord) of variable ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View northwest Typical panel detail (south chord) of variable section girder showing riveted connections, angle stiffeners for girder web, and nuts securing wind bracing rods. - Walpole-Westminster Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River between Walpole, NH & Westminster, VT, Walpole, Cheshire County, NH

  1. 18. VIEW TO EAST, DETAIL OF OPENING THROUGH THE SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW TO EAST, DETAIL OF OPENING THROUGH THE SECOND FLOOR EAST WALL SHOWING CONVEYOR FOR MOVING MATERIAL TO THE SECOND FLOOR. (NOTE: THIS IS NOT AN ORIGINAL CONVEYOR FOR MOVING BODY PARTS). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  2. 77 FR 3382 - Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ...-27-08] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation... are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Agusta S.p.A. (Agusta) model A109S and AW109SP helicopters. This AD is prompted by a fatigue crack found in the left elevator assembly along the riveting of...

  3. Survey and Testing of Archaeological Resources at Clinton Lake, Kansas, 1978-1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    By 11,500 B.P., mixed prairie and deciduous forest with .-.. ironwood and hazelnut replaced the spruce forest. Because of further climatic...dewberries, hazelnuts , pokeweed, grapes, sorrels and several others (Schmits 1976). 0 , . - *- . 5i Ii PLATE 3 The eastward view of the Wakarusa Rivet

  4. 13. Detail of west side of southwest portal showing the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail of west side of southwest portal showing the latticed top chord rivet-connected to the latticed inclined end post and the portal strut; also shown is the webbed portal bracing and the top lateral bracing with the pin connection of the hip vertical and the diagonal. - Post Road Bridge, State Route 7-A, Havre de Grace, Harford County, MD

  5. 49 CFR 238.230 - Safety appliances-new equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... part 231 of this chapter to be attached by a mechanical fastener (i.e., bolts, rivets, or screws.../2 inch diameter bolts that would be required for each attachment; (iii) Except for any access... not considered part of the car body under paragraph (b)(1) of this section; (iii) A detailed...

  6. 49 CFR 238.230 - Safety appliances-new equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... part 231 of this chapter to be attached by a mechanical fastener (i.e., bolts, rivets, or screws.../2 inch diameter bolts that would be required for each attachment; (iii) Except for any access... not considered part of the car body under paragraph (b)(1) of this section; (iii) A detailed...

  7. 49 CFR 238.230 - Safety appliances-new equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... part 231 of this chapter to be attached by a mechanical fastener (i.e., bolts, rivets, or screws.../2 inch diameter bolts that would be required for each attachment; (iii) Except for any access... not considered part of the car body under paragraph (b)(1) of this section; (iii) A detailed...

  8. 49 CFR 238.230 - Safety appliances-new equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... part 231 of this chapter to be attached by a mechanical fastener (i.e., bolts, rivets, or screws.../2 inch diameter bolts that would be required for each attachment; (iii) Except for any access... not considered part of the car body under paragraph (b)(1) of this section; (iii) A detailed...

  9. 49 CFR 238.230 - Safety appliances-new equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... part 231 of this chapter to be attached by a mechanical fastener (i.e., bolts, rivets, or screws.../2 inch diameter bolts that would be required for each attachment; (iii) Except for any access... not considered part of the car body under paragraph (b)(1) of this section; (iii) A detailed...

  10. MACHINE SHOP AT SHIPYARD NO. 3, VIEW TO WESTSOUTHWEST OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MACHINE SHOP AT SHIPYARD NO. 3, VIEW TO WEST-SOUTHWEST OF THE EAST ELEVATION. LOOKING ACROSS THE RICHMOND INNER HARBOR FROM NEAR THE FORD ASSEMBLY BUILDING - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Machine Shop, 1311 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  11. MACHINE SHOP, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO NORTHNORTHEAST OF THE WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MACHINE SHOP, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHEAST OF THE WEST SIDE AND SOUTH END. WEST (REAR) SIDE OF GENERAL WAREHOUSE IS IN RIGHT FOREGROUND - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Machine Shop, 1311 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  12. 75 FR 30270 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Astazou XIV B and XIV H Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... provides instructions for re-boring the holes at overhaul or repair in order to improve their surface... riveting detail. SB 283 72 0805 provides instructions for re-boring the holes at overhaul or repair in... detail. SN 283 72 0805 provides instructions for re-boring the holes at overhaul or repair in order...

  13. 9. VIEW TO SOUTH SHOWING ENTRANCES TO BUILDING AT NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW TO SOUTH SHOWING ENTRANCES TO BUILDING AT NORTHEAST CORNER. DOORS TO LEFT WERE FOR INTERIOR RAILROAD SPUR. ROLL-UP GARAGE DOOR TO RIGHT HAS REPLACED ORIGINAL PEDESTRIAN DOORS WHERE HOURLY SHIP WORKERS REPORTED TO WORK. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  14. 18. DETAIL, L0 JOINT AND BEARING SEAT AT WEST ABUTMENT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL, L0 JOINT AND BEARING SEAT AT WEST ABUTMENT, FROM NORTH, SHOWING RIVETED CONNECTION OF BOTTOM CHORD AND END POST AT JOINT, AND FIXED SHOE - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  15. 49 CFR 231.15 - Steam locomotives used in road service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., inches. Minimum clearance, 21/2 inches. (3) Location. One on each end of buffer-beam. If uncoupling lever...-inch bolts or rivets. (f) Uncoupling levers—(1) Number. Two double levers, operative from either side. (2) Dimensions. Rear-end levers shall extend across end of tender with handles not more than 12...

  16. 49 CFR 231.16 - Steam locomotives used in switching service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Side handholds shall be securely fastened with bolts or rivets. (e) Uncoupling levers—(1) Number. Two double levers, operative from either side. (2) Dimensions. (i) Handles of front-end levers shall be not... minimum clearance of 2 inches around handle. (ii) Rear-end levers shall extend across end of tender with...

  17. 49 CFR 231.15 - Steam locomotives used in road service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., inches. Minimum clearance, 21/2 inches. (3) Location. One on each end of buffer-beam. If uncoupling lever...-inch bolts or rivets. (f) Uncoupling levers—(1) Number. Two double levers, operative from either side. (2) Dimensions. Rear-end levers shall extend across end of tender with handles not more than 12...

  18. 49 CFR 231.27 - Box and other house cars without roof hatches or placed in service after October 1, 1966.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... uncoupling lever shall extend to within twelve (12) inches of a vertical plane parallel with end of car and...) inch rivets. (h) Uncoupling levers—(1) Number. Two (2). (2) Dimensions. (i) Handles of uncoupling levers, except those shown on Plate B or of similar designs, shall be not more than six (6) inches from...

  19. 49 CFR 231.16 - Steam locomotives used in switching service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Side handholds shall be securely fastened with bolts or rivets. (e) Uncoupling levers—(1) Number. Two double levers, operative from either side. (2) Dimensions. (i) Handles of front-end levers shall be not... minimum clearance of 2 inches around handle. (ii) Rear-end levers shall extend across end of tender with...

  20. 49 CFR 231.16 - Steam locomotives used in switching service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Side handholds shall be securely fastened with bolts or rivets. (e) Uncoupling levers—(1) Number. Two double levers, operative from either side. (2) Dimensions. (i) Handles of front-end levers shall be not... minimum clearance of 2 inches around handle. (ii) Rear-end levers shall extend across end of tender with...

  1. 49 CFR 231.16 - Steam locomotives used in switching service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Side handholds shall be securely fastened with bolts or rivets. (e) Uncoupling levers—(1) Number. Two double levers, operative from either side. (2) Dimensions. (i) Handles of front-end levers shall be not... minimum clearance of 2 inches around handle. (ii) Rear-end levers shall extend across end of tender with...

  2. 49 CFR 231.15 - Steam locomotives used in road service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., inches. Minimum clearance, 21/2 inches. (3) Location. One on each end of buffer-beam. If uncoupling lever...-inch bolts or rivets. (f) Uncoupling levers—(1) Number. Two double levers, operative from either side. (2) Dimensions. Rear-end levers shall extend across end of tender with handles not more than 12...

  3. 49 CFR 231.16 - Steam locomotives used in switching service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Side handholds shall be securely fastened with bolts or rivets. (e) Uncoupling levers—(1) Number. Two double levers, operative from either side. (2) Dimensions. (i) Handles of front-end levers shall be not... minimum clearance of 2 inches around handle. (ii) Rear-end levers shall extend across end of tender with...

  4. 49 CFR 231.27 - Box and other house cars without roof hatches or placed in service after October 1, 1966.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... uncoupling lever shall extend to within twelve (12) inches of a vertical plane parallel with end of car and...) inch rivets. (h) Uncoupling levers—(1) Number. Two (2). (2) Dimensions. (i) Handles of uncoupling levers, except those shown on Plate B or of similar designs, shall be not more than six (6) inches from...

  5. 49 CFR 231.15 - Steam locomotives used in road service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., inches. Minimum clearance, 21/2 inches. (3) Location. One on each end of buffer-beam. If uncoupling lever...-inch bolts or rivets. (f) Uncoupling levers—(1) Number. Two double levers, operative from either side. (2) Dimensions. Rear-end levers shall extend across end of tender with handles not more than 12...

  6. 49 CFR 231.15 - Steam locomotives used in road service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., inches. Minimum clearance, 21/2 inches. (3) Location. One on each end of buffer-beam. If uncoupling lever...-inch bolts or rivets. (f) Uncoupling levers—(1) Number. Two double levers, operative from either side. (2) Dimensions. Rear-end levers shall extend across end of tender with handles not more than 12...

  7. 12. Detail of west side of southwest portal showing the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail of west side of southwest portal showing the latticed diagonal brace and the hip vertical, pin-connected to the latticed inclined end post directly beneath the riveted connection with the portal bracing. - Post Road Bridge, State Route 7-A, Havre de Grace, Harford County, MD

  8. The Adult Learner: Some Things We Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Robin J.; Pete, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses the "warrior" who rises to the challenge of teaching the adult learner. The discussion is designed as a catalyst for dialogue about the adult learner and to uncover the complexities of teaching this rare and riveting species. This book is organized around three interlocking themes: some things we know about the adult learner;…

  9. 77 FR 10406 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... deactivation pin. This proposed AD would add a dye penetrant inspection for cracking of the rivet holes of the....com . You may review copies of the referenced service information at the FAA, Transport Airplane Directorate, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, Washington. For information on the availability of this material at...

  10. Heuristic Enhancement of Magneto-Optical Images for NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciola, Matteo; Megali, Giuseppe; Pellicanò, Diego; Calcagno, Salvatore; Versaci, Mario; Morabito, FrancescoCarlo

    2010-12-01

    The quality of measurements in nondestructive testing and evaluation plays a key role in assessing the reliability of different inspection techniques. Each different technique, like the magneto-optic imaging here treated, is affected by some special types of noise which are related to the specific device used for their acquisition. Therefore, the design of even more accurate image processing is often required by relevant applications, for instance, in implementing integrated solutions for flaw detection and characterization. The aim of this paper is to propose a preprocessing procedure based on independent component analysis (ICA) to ease the detection of rivets and/or flaws in the specimens under test. A comparison of the proposed approach with some other advanced image processing methodologies used for denoising magneto-optic images (MOIs) is carried out, in order to show advantages and weakness of ICA in improving the accuracy and performance of the rivets/flaw detection.

  11. The characterization of widespread fatigue damage in fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Willard, Scott A.; Miller, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    The characteristics of widespread fatigue damage (WSFD) in fuselage riveted structure were established by detailed nondestructive and destructive examinations of fatigue damage contained in a full size fuselage test article. The objectives of this were to establish an experimental data base for validating emerging WSFD analytical prediction methodology and to identify first order effects that contribute to fatigue crack initiation and growth. Detailed examinations were performed on a test panel containing four bays of a riveted lap splice joint. The panel was removed from a full scale fuselage test article after receiving 60,000 full pressurization cycles. The results of in situ examinations document the progression of fuselage skin fatigue crack growth through crack linkup. Detailed tear down examinations and fractography of the lap splice joint region revealed fatigue crack initiation sites, crack morphology, and crack linkup geometry. From this large data base, distributions of crack size and locations are presented and discussions of operative damage mechanisms are offered.

  12. Effect of polymer coatings on fatigue strength of aluminum alloy 2024 box beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordmark, G. E.; Kelsey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Previous investigators have shown that polymer coatings raise the fatigue strength of metals tested in air to about the same level as that of uncoated specimens tested in vacuum. The results are given of tests to determine if a polymer coating would improve the fatigue strength of built-up aluminum alloy members simulating aircraft construction. Aluminum alloy 2024-T4 riveted box beams were subjected to constant amplitude fatigue tests in air as well as in salt water fog. The coating did not improve the fatigue strength of beams tested in either environment. This is believed to result from the fact that most failures originated at rivet holes, which were isolated from both the coating and the environment.

  13. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Spot Welded Aluminum Alloy AA2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, S.; Sankar, V. S.; Janaki Ram, G. D.; Venkitakrishnan, P. V.; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.; Prasad Rao, K.

    2013-01-01

    Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is a relatively recent development, which can provide a superior alternative to resistance spot welding and riveting for fabrication of aluminum sheet metal structures. In the current work, FSSW experiments were conducted in 3-mm thick sheets of aluminum alloy 2014 in T4 and T6 conditions, with and without Alclad layers. The effects of tool geometry and welding process parameters on joint formation were investigated. A good correlation between process parameters, bond width, hook height, joint strength, and fracture mode was observed. The presence of Alclad layers and the base metal temper condition were found to have no major effect on joint formation and joint strength. Friction stir spot welds produced under optimum conditions were found to be superior to riveted joints in lap-shear and cross-tension tests. The prospects of FSSW in aluminum sheet metal fabrication are discussed.

  14. The characterization of widespread fatigue damage in fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Willard, Scott A.; Miller, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    The characteristics of widespread fatigue damage (WSFD) in fuselage riveted structure were established by detailed nondestructive and destructive examinations of fatigue damage contained in a full size fuselage test article. The objectives of this work were to establish an experimental data base for validating emerging WSFD analytical prediction methodology and to identify first order effects that contribute to fatigue crack initiation and growth. Detailed examinations were performed on a test panel containing four bays of a riveted lap splice joint. The panel was removed from a full scale fuselage test article after receiving 60,000 full pressurization cycles. The results of in situ examinations document the progression of fuselage skin fatigue crack growth through crack linkup. Detailed tear down examinations and fractography of the lap splice joint region revealed fatigue crack initiation sites, crack morphology and crack linkup geometry. From this large data base, distributions of crack size and locations are presented and discussions of operative damage mechanisms are offered.

  15. The design of repairable advanced composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart-Smith, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses the repair of advanced composite structures by mechanical fasteners or by adhesive bonding. It is shown that many of today's composite designs are unreasonably difficult to repair. Conversely, the knowledge to design repairable structures is already available, if only it is applied during the initial design stage. Bolted or riveted repairs require only the avoidance of extremely orthotropic composite fiber patterns; those near the quasi-isotropic layup are the most suitable. Mildly orthotropic fiber patterns are appropriate for structures in which there is a dominant load direction. Thick composite structures are shown to require bolted or riveted repairs while thin structures favor adhesively bonded permanent repairs, although provisions can be easily made for temporary mechanical repairs. The reasons why integrally stiffened cocured composite designs are usually impractical to repair are explained and alternative repairable design concepts are presented.

  16. Neck-band retention for Canada geese in the Mississippi (USA) flyway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Weiss, N.T.; Rusch, D.H.; Craven, S.R.; Trost, R.E.; Caswell, F.D.

    1990-01-01

    We used capture, harvest, and observation histories of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) banded in the Mississippi flyway, 1974-88, to examine the problem of neck-band retention. Methods for the analysis of survival data were used to estimate rates of neck-band retention and to evaluate factors associated with neck-band loss. Sex, age of bird at banding, rivet use, and neck-band type significantly influenced neck-band retention. For most of the resulting cohorts (e.g., sex, age, rivet, and neck-band type categories), neck-band retention rates decreased through time. We caution against using small samples or data collected during short-term studies to determine retention rates. We suggest that observation data be used in neck-band retention studies to increase the efficiency of estimating retention time.

  17. Tests of Aluminum-alloy Stiffened-sheet Specimens Cut from an Airplane Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Marshall

    1943-01-01

    The specimens used in the present tests were cut from an actual airplane wing of the stressed-skin type. The specimens thus obtained were not representative of the usual type of laboratory specimens because the stiffeners were not exactly parallel nor evenly spaced and, in one case, the skin consisted of pieces of sheet of different thicknesses. The test data obtained indicate that the buckling strain of stiffened curved sheet can be computed with reasonable accuracy by the equation given by Wenzek. The ultimate loads of the specimens when tested as flat sheet were within +/-11 percent of the product of the compressive yield strength and the cross-sectional area of the stiffeners. A rivet spacing equal to 98 times the sheet thickness was a source of weakness, and rivet spacings up to 36 times the sheet thickness appeared satisfactory.

  18. Design, Static Analysis And Fabrication Of Composite Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathiselvan, G.; Gobinath, R.; Yuvaraja, S.; Raja, T.

    2017-05-01

    The Bonded joints will be having one of the important issues in the composite technology is the repairing of aging in aircraft applications. In these applications and also for joining various composite material parts together, the composite materials fastened together either using adhesives or mechanical fasteners. In this paper, we have carried out design, static analysis of 3-D models and fabrication of the composite joints (bonded, riveted and hybrid). The 3-D model of the composite structure will be fabricated by using the materials such as epoxy resin, glass fibre material and aluminium rivet for preparing the joints. The static analysis was carried out with different joint by using ANSYS software. After fabrication, parametric study was also conducted to compare the performance of the hybrid joint with varying adherent width, adhesive thickness and overlap length. Different joint and its materials tensile test result have compared.

  19. Tetraploid Wheat Landraces in the Mediterranean Basin: Taxonomy, Evolution and Genetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Hugo R.; Campana, Michael G.; Jones, Huw; Hunt, Harriet V.; Leigh, Fiona; Redhouse, David I.; Lister, Diane L.; Jones, Martin K.

    2012-01-01

    The geographic distribution of genetic diversity and the population structure of tetraploid wheat landraces in the Mediterranean basin has received relatively little attention. This is complicated by the lack of consensus concerning the taxonomy of tetraploid wheats and by unresolved questions regarding the domestication and spread of naked wheats. These knowledge gaps hinder crop diversity conservation efforts and plant breeding programmes. We investigated genetic diversity and population structure in tetraploid wheats (wild emmer, emmer, rivet and durum) using nuclear and chloroplast simple sequence repeats, functional variations and insertion site-based polymorphisms. Emmer and wild emmer constitute a genetically distinct population from durum and rivet, the latter seeming to share a common gene pool. Our population structure and genetic diversity data suggest a dynamic history of introduction and extinction of genotypes in the Mediterranean fields. PMID:22615891

  20. Finite Element Simulation of Plastic Joining Processes of Steel and Aluminum Alloy Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, K.; Abe, Y.; Kato, T.

    2007-05-17

    Various high tensile strength steel sheets and an aluminum alloy sheet were joined with a self-piercing rivet. It is not easy to weld the aluminum alloy sheet and high tensile strength sheets by means of conventional resistance welding because of very different melting points. To obtain optimum joining conditions, joining defects were categorized into separation of the sheets and an inner fracture. The joining range of ultra high tensile strength steel and aluminum alloy sheets was extended by means of dies optimized by finite element simulation. The joint strength is greatly influenced by not only the strength of the sheets and rivets but also the ratio of the thickness of the lower sheet to the total thickness. In addition, mechanical clinching of high strength steel and aluminum alloy sheets was simulated.

  1. Finite Element Simulation of Plastic Joining Processes of Steel and Aluminum Alloy Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, K.; Abe, Y.; Kato, T.

    2007-05-01

    Various high tensile strength steel sheets and an aluminum alloy sheet were joined with a self-piercing rivet. It is not easy to weld the aluminum alloy sheet and high tensile strength sheets by means of conventional resistance welding because of very different melting points. To obtain optimum joining conditions, joining defects were categorized into separation of the sheets and an inner fracture. The joining range of ultra high tensile strength steel and aluminum alloy sheets was extended by means of dies optimized by finite element simulation. The joint strength is greatly influenced by not only the strength of the sheets and rivets but also the ratio of the thickness of the lower sheet to the total thickness. In addition, mechanical clinching of high strength steel and aluminum alloy sheets was simulated.

  2. A laboratory study of fracture in the presence of lap splice multiple site damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayville, Ronald A.; Warren, Thomas J.

    Flat coupons were tested in the laboratory to determine a fracture criterion for link-up of fuselage lap splice multiple site damage at adjacent rivet holes. Experiments were performed on 0.040 inch (1 mm) thick 2024-T3 clad aluminum sheet. Continuous and riveted lap splice coupons were tested with simulated uniform (equal crack lengths) and nonuniform MSD, and the effects of notch sharpness were also studied. A net section stress criterion was found to provide excellent predictions of fracture for uniform MSD and uniform stress distributions. This same criterion provides conservative predictions for nonuniform MSD in uniform stress fields. An overload/cyclic stress experiment was also conducted to explore the pressurized proof test scenario of ensuring structural integrity.

  3. Mechanical fastening solution with a sealing undercut which ensures a uniform force transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krugmann, J.; Moritzer, E.

    2014-05-01

    Whereas metal rivet connections are well-researched and are used especially with lightweight structures [1], plastic rivet connections are still in need of further research. The fastening solution presented here represents an alternative to existing connections. Through the direct molding-on of a boss with an optimized geometry, a mechanical connection is created with a uniform sealing undercut over the entire circumference. The method of direct screwing assumes significant importance in the development of the new fastening solution. It is only the introduction of the threaded screw that creates the axial tension for the compression of the boss, and thus, together with the necessary preload force, secures the connection. The characteristic features of the fastening element are one-side accessibility (blind joint), uniform force transmission and simultaneous sealing of the connection.

  4. Fatigue growth of multiple-cracks near a row of fastener-holes in a fuselage lap-joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Atluri, S. N.

    1993-12-01

    The fatigue growth of multiple cracks, of arbitrary lengths, emanating from a row of fastener holes in a bonded, riveted, lap joint in a pressurized aircraft fuselage is studied. The effects of residual stresses due to a rivet misfit, and of plastic deformation near the hole, are included. A Schwartz-Neumann alternating method which uses the analytical solution for a row of multiple colinear cracks in an infinite sheet (the crack-faces being subject to arbitrary tractions), is developed to analyze this MSD problem on a personal computer. It is found that for a range of crack lengths, a phenomena wherein the shorter cracks may grow faster than longer cracks may exist.

  5. Arthroscopy for shoulder instability and a technique for arthroscopic repair.

    PubMed

    Wiley, A M

    1988-01-01

    At this time the principal role of the arthroscope in the management of dislocating shoulder seems to be the identification of the intra-articular pathology. The findings should enable a surgeon to carry out an appropriate open repair, and the results of such surgery are excellent. Is there a place for arthroscopic repair? Some patients sometimes request it; others have had a failed open repair, or wish to avoid a scar. The author has devised a removable "Rivet," which fixes a loose labrum and the inferior glenohumeral ligament back on to a roughened glenoid margin. Use of this technique avoids some of the hazards that occur with implanting a staple or similar device in the joint. The "Rivet" is removed after 4-6 weeks. Ten patients have been so treated, with a follow-up of 6 months to 2 years. There was one failure, with a return of dislocation.

  6. Analytical and experimental investigation of fatigue in lap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, Daniel V.; Chih-Chien, Chia; Derber, Thomas G.

    A finite element model is presented that can simulate crack growth in layered structures such as lap joints. The layers can be joined either by rivets or adhesives. The crack is represented discretely in the mesh, and automatic remeshing is performed as the crack grows. Because of the connections between the layers, load is transferred to the uncracked layer as the crack grows. This reduces the stress intensity and slows the crack growth rate. The model is used to analyze tests performed on a section of a wing spanwise lap joint. The crack was initiated at a rivet and grown under constant amplitude cyclic loads. Both experimentally observed crack growth rates and the analysis show the retardation that occurs as a result of load transfer between layers. A good correlation is obtained between predicted and observed crack growth rates for the fullly developed through-thickness crack.

  7. The fretting damage and effect of temperature in typical joint of aircraft construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, T. Z.

    The fatigue test results and the fatigue fracture for three types of joints, i.e., bolted joints, set-head rivet joints and countersunk rivet joints of the aluminum alloy, have been studied on the basis of more than 200 joints test at both elevated temperature and room temperature. It is revealed that the cracks initiated in the places where fretting had taken place and led to the failure of fretting fatigue. Different types of joints cause different modes of transmitting loads so that the places of cracks changed, which result in difference of fatigue strength. In this paper, the effect of fretting damage on fatigue strength and the effect of elevated temperature on fatigue strength and fracture appearance are also presented.

  8. Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Composites are lighter and stronger than metals. Aramid fibers like Kevlar and Nomex were developed by DuPont Corporation and can be combined in a honeycomb structure which can give an airplane a light, tough structure. Composites can be molded into many aerodynamic shapes eliminating rivets and fasteners. Langley Research Center has tested composites for both aerospace and non-aerospace applications. They are also used in boat hulls, military shelters, etc.

  9. SAR Product Improvements and Enhancements - SARprises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    in Germany, Steffen Grünler, published a paper on the potential of using spaceborne ATI systems to estimate mean river discharges [ D ]. RESULTS...directly involved, and to the River Inlet (RIVET) projects. 6 REFERENCES [1] Toporkov, J.V., D . Perkovic, G. Farquharson, M.A. Sletten, S.J. Frasier...2004JC002809, 17 pp., 2005. [3] Romeiser, R., A. Seibt-Winckler, M. Heineke, D . Eppel, Validation of current and bathymetry measurements in the German

  10. VIEW TO EAST OF THE NORTH END OF BASIN NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO EAST OF THE NORTH END OF BASIN NO. 1 (THE WESTERN-MOST BASIN) SHOWING THE CRANEWAY AND GALLERY BETWEEN BASINS NO. 1 AND 2. BASSWOOD BUOY TENDER AND THREE SMALL VESSELS ARE BERTHED IN BASIN NO. 1. LARGER VESSELS ARE BERTHED IN BASINS TO THE EAST, SEEN IN BACKGROUND - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Graving Docks, Shipyard No. 3, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  11. European Craft Training a Trip Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Raebarn House, England, 1982. 28. The Training of Craftsmen: Pipeworkers Information Paper No. 12, Shipbuilding Industry Training Board, Raebarn House... pipework together Shrink fitting Trimming sheet metal sections Hammering (forge work) Cold and hot riveting by hand and mechanically Hand mortising...tanks for pressure testing Tack welding — oxy-acetylene and electric Oxy-acetylene flame cutting with mandrel, trimming tanks and pipework

  12. Particle contamination from Martin Optical Black. [in design of barrel baffle of Infrared Astronomical Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, P. J.; Noll, R.; Andreozzi, L.; Hope, J.

    1981-01-01

    The design of the barrel baffle of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Optical Subsystem to minimize production of particulate contamination is described. The configuration of the 50-inch long, 28.5-inch diameter baffle required pop-rivet assembly after coating with Martin Optical Black for stray light suppression. An experiment to determine the contamination produced at assembly led to the modification of the baffle construction to preclude such damage to the coated surfaces.

  13. Dark Clouds and Deadly Skies: Assessing the Strategic Effectiveness of Using Remotely Piloted Aircraft Outside of Designated Combat Zones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    COMPLETION OF GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES AIR UNIVERSITY MAXWELL AIR FORCE BASE , ALABAMA JUNE 2015...operations. He deployed as the Chief of Mission Management at Prince Sultan Air Base in Saudi Arabia for RC-135 RIVET JOINT operations during...Operation SOUTHERN WATCH. He was also deployed to Al-Udeid Air Base in Qatar and Rhein-Main Air Base in Germany, where he was the Chief of Intelligence

  14. Intelligence and Electronic Warfare (IEW) System Fact Sheets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    DIA accredited CSP is compatible with TROJAN, MSE, DIN/ DSSCS as well as all TENCAP systems. A TIBS (RIVET JOINT) capability will be added in FY94. Other...via UHF SATCOM, and point-to-point terrestrial communications. The FAST CSP is compatible with TROJAN, MSE, DIN/ DSSCS as well as all TENCAP systems. A...with TROJAN, MSE, DIN/ DSSCS as well as other TENCAP systems. The SUCCESS additionally provides a TRAP/TADIX-B interface. The data acquisition system

  15. In-flight measurements of the GA/W/-2 aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregorek, G. M.; Hoffmann, M. J.; Weislogel, G. S.; Vogel, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    Flight tests of a new 13% General Aviation Airfoil - the GA(W)-2 - gloved full span onto the existing wing of a Beech Sundowner have generated chordwise pressure distributions and wake surveys. Section lift, drag and moment coefficients derived from these measurements verify wind tunnel data and theory predicting the performance of this airfoil. The effect of steps, rivets and surface coatings upon the drag of the GA(W)-2 was also evaluated.

  16. Prosthetic Tool For Holding Small Ferromagnetic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, William E.; Carden, James R.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Tool attached to prosthetic hand or arm enables user to hold nails, screws, nuts, rivets, and other small ferromagnetic objects on small magnetic tip. Device adjusted to hold nail or screw at proper angle for hammering or for use of screwdriver, respectively. Includes base connector with threaded outer surface and lower male member inserted in standard spring-action, quick-connect/quick-disconnect wrist adapter on prosthetic hand or arm.

  17. Small Fixture Strains Composites for Environmental Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tervet, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Fixture for long-term strain tests of composites is based on inexpensive tool for repairing motorcycle chains. (In normal use tool forces rivet out of chain element.) As modified for composite testing, tool has precision screw and shim. Qualification tests for graphite/epoxy composites are made less expensive by simple test fixture. Used in quantity, fixtures apply precisely similar loads to many samples.

  18. Lunar Tire Close-up

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-23

    This is a close-up of an exact replica of the Apollo-era Lunar Roving Vehicle Wheel, of which twelve originals still rest on the surface of the Moon. The tire was designed to flex under load, without air, and was formed from a mesh of plated piano wire. Metal straps were hand riveted onto the mesh to reduce sinking into loose lunar soils. These replica wheels were tested in NASA Glenn's SLOPE Lab to establish a baseline for future improvements.

  19. Advanced Robotics for Air Force Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    required. The de- of peacetime operations plus maintaining seal and reseal of the F-I I fuel tanks a wartime capability. The mix of depot is an example...and rigid structure. In a like manner, robots and with improved quality and the robot can precisely locate the hole efficiency. and install the rivet...reduce the labor "form- pack " system would eliminate most intensity of the operation; speed the of the customized packaging now used. process; in the

  20. Linear-Elastic 2D and 3D Finite Element Contact Analysis of a Hole Containing a Circular Insert in a Fatigue Test Coupon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    approximate 3D solution for the stress distribution around a circular cylindrical hole in an infinite plate of arbitrary thickness. They did this by...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Linear-Elastic 2D and 3D Finite Element Contact Analysis of a Hole Containing a Circular Insert in a Fatigue Test...large numbers of circular holes that are fitted with fasteners such as bolts or rivets. During the service life of aircraft, fatigue damage often occurs

  1. MCPLOTS: a particle physics resource based on volunteer computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karneyeu, A.; Mijovic, L.; Prestel, S.; Skands, P. Z.

    2014-02-01

    The mcplots.cern.ch web site ( mcplots) provides a simple online repository of plots made with high-energy-physics event generators, comparing them to a wide variety of experimental data. The repository is based on the hepdata online database of experimental results and on the rivet Monte Carlo analysis tool. The repository is continually updated and relies on computing power donated by volunteers, via the lhc@home 2.0 platform.

  2. Handbook of structural stability part V : compressive strength of flat stiffened panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerard, George

    1957-01-01

    A generalized crippling analysis for short monolithic panels with formed or extruded stiffeners is presented. Methods are presented for determining if riveted panels act in a monolithic manner and for determining the strength of those which do not. The failure modes of intermediate-length and long stiffened panels are discussed and methods given for estimating column strength. Theory and test data on optimum stiffened panels are presented and the various factors of importance in box types of construction are considered.

  3. Superplastic Formed Aluminum Airframe Structures. Volume 1. Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    only ten pieces. All of the substructure was combined into one waffled pan (four formers and three intercostals . The final assembly was rivet bonded... articulated by an actua- tor attached to the left hand forward corner (Figure 2). The design is complicated by a cooling air outlet vent located in... intercost - als are of two-piece construction. This is to assure proper fit between the deck and skin. Shear clips are required at each frame and

  4. Stability and Robustness Analysis Tools for Marine Robot Localization and Mapping Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    propeller, and shaft, and sometimes rivets and welds). DIDSON provides a range and bearing measurement associated with each pixel of each image... Springer - Verlag, 1990, pp. 167-193. [22] M. Csorba, Simultaneous Localisation and Map Building, PhD Thesis, University of Oxford, 1997. [23] G... Springer -Verlag, 2003, pp. 361-371. [39] E. Malis, “Stability Analysis of Invariant Visual Servoing and Robutness to Parametric Uncertainties,” A

  5. DARLA: Data Assimilation and Remote Sensing for Littoral Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    a data assimilation model of wave and circulation dynamics in an area characterized by a river mouth or tidal inlet and surrounding beaches. As a...guided) with environmental parameters derived from remote sensing measurements. 3. Bathymetry on open beaches, river mouths , and at tidal inlets can be...under the ONR-sponsored Inlets and Rivers Mouth Dynamics Departmental Research Initiative (RIVET). This approach will benefit both the remote sensing

  6. 13. SOUTHEAST TO SUCKER ROD WORK BENCH AND WOODEN SUCKER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SOUTHEAST TO SUCKER ROD WORK BENCH AND WOODEN SUCKER ROD STORAGE RACKS ALONG EAST WALL OF FACTORY INTERIOR. AT THIS BENCH WORKERS RIVETED THREADED WROUGHT IRON CONNECTORS TO THE ENDS OF 20' LONG WOODEN SUCKER RODS (THE RODS WHICH EXTEND DOWNWARD IN THE WELL FROM THE GROUND SURFACE TO PISTON DISPLACEMENT PUMPS WHICH ACTUALLY ELEVATE WATER TO THE SURFACE). ROZNOR HEATER AT THE FAR RIGHT WAS ADDED CIRCA 1960. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  7. Prosthetic Tool For Holding Small Ferromagnetic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, William E.; Carden, James R.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Tool attached to prosthetic hand or arm enables user to hold nails, screws, nuts, rivets, and other small ferromagnetic objects on small magnetic tip. Device adjusted to hold nail or screw at proper angle for hammering or for use of screwdriver, respectively. Includes base connector with threaded outer surface and lower male member inserted in standard spring-action, quick-connect/quick-disconnect wrist adapter on prosthetic hand or arm.

  8. Advanced Vehicle Power Technology Alliance (AVPTA) Overview Briefing to USCAR (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-03

    Dissimilar Material Joining” ‒ Objective: investigate unique concepts for joining materials beyond fusion or friction welding , riveting or...Joining  Dissimilar Material Joining Fuel Bulk Modulus Lubricant Formulations to Enhance Fuel Efficiency Ignition Models for Heavy...Generator) Ongoing Projects Multi-Material Joining To overcome technology gaps to enable joining of dissimilar materials for both commercial and

  9. Four paths of competition

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1995-05-01

    The financial community`s focus on utility competition has been riveted on the proceedings now in progress at state regulatory commissions. The fear that something immediately damaging will come out of these proceedings seems to have diminished in recent months, and the stock market has reacted favorably. However, regulatory developments are only one of four paths leading to competition; the others are the marketplace, the legislatures, and the courts. Each could play a critical role in the emergence of competition.

  10. Task Analysis - Aircraft Structural Maintenance AFSC 458X2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    PARTS USING ULTRASONIC CLEANERS 10346 CLEAN AIRCRAFT PARTS USING VAPOR DEGREASERS 10359 SPRAY CLEAN AIRCRAFT PARTS 10360 SPRAY CLEAN SUPPORT EQUIPMENT...tasks are as follows: ACTIVITIES: A summary of the actions performed during the task. We identified activities which: (a) summarize major parts of the...FASTENER HOLES 21 USE REAMING TOOLS 13 USE PNEUMATIC RIVET GUNS 12 APPLY PARTING AGENTS 11 USE MICROSHAVER 7 OPERATE HEATING/CURING EQUIPMENT 6 USE

  11. Particle contamination from Martin Optical Black. [in design of barrel baffle of Infrared Astronomical Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, P. J.; Noll, R.; Andreozzi, L.; Hope, J.

    1981-01-01

    The design of the barrel baffle of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Optical Subsystem to minimize production of particulate contamination is described. The configuration of the 50-inch long, 28.5-inch diameter baffle required pop-rivet assembly after coating with Martin Optical Black for stray light suppression. An experiment to determine the contamination produced at assembly led to the modification of the baffle construction to preclude such damage to the coated surfaces.

  12. An Analysis of the United States Naval Aviation Schedule Removal Component (SRC) Card Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    guidance throughout this process; Ms. Jane Zimmerman, Logistics Automation Manager of COMFISCS, for making us part of the team and for her vision...an equal number of bolts, rivets and other fasteners; and 36 miles (58 kilometers) of electrical wire” ( Addams , 2003). Unlike the military’s use...increasing readiness around the Fleet. 85 LIST OF REFERENCES Addams , C. (2003, April 15). A world of service for the Boeing 737. Press release. Retrieved

  13. Open Field Scoring Record No. 298

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    platform are the axles, the hub, and a small number of aluminum pop rivets. The wheels are composite. Even the tires have had the metal beads removed ...then applied to that set of data to background-level the sensors and remove streaks in the image. A site-wide offset may also be applied if the reference...quantities can therefore be written as Pdres(tres), Pfpes (tres), Pb(trges), and BARres(tres). DISCRIMINATION STAGE DEFINITIONS Discrimination: The application

  14. A Cultural Resource Survey of the East Shore of Lake Oahe, South Dakota. Volume 1. Covering Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    students from the Universities of Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and Oklahoma, assisted in the field and laboratory efforts. Field crew members ...1971) Bad-Cheyenne, Grand-Moreau, and Cannonball archeological regions. However, Lehmer’s divisions are more similar in purpose to study units, which...the truss are riveted composite members formed by two U-channels connected with a continuous plate along the top and straps along the bottom of the

  15. Fastener Design Course [Workbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Richart T.

    1997-01-01

    Richard T. Barrett, Senior Aerospace Engineer of NASA Lewis Research Center presents a comprehensive course on fastener design. A recognized expert in the field of fastener technology Mr. Barrett combines lecture, charts, illustrations with real-world experiences. Topics covered include: materials, plantings and coatings, locking methods threads, joint stiffness, rivets, inserts, nut plates, thread lubricants, design criteria, etc. These presentation slides accompany the DVD.

  16. High Cycle Random Fatigue Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    1. All aluminum assemblies made from same mill run of 2024-T81 bare sheef ; all titanium assemblies from same mill run of dAiMV annealed sheet. 2...SI>’ piiUH.iijwiijfH’PJPWHWii.1’ ■ .i-v-^ ■■ —- --^ f+l 2024-T8| Bore Aluminum At SO^F, Riveted SheeF , Rmdom Flmyr^ Z«!o M*^’$tr^«: xmr

  17. 2005 10th Annual Expeditionary Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-27

    S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e Transformation Objective Network Centric C2 & ISR Environment NSA NGA AF DCGS Wide Area Network i Rivet...Directorate Army Research Lab SPAWAR NETWARCOM ONI NRO NSA N096 NAVMETOC CORE NOPP NOAA NASA UNOLS NAVSEA NAVSURFOR NAVSUBFOR NAVAIRFOR (for ship systems...SYSTEM (E&D) COMBAT SITUATION AWARENESS (D&I) COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE FOR ENHANCING TRAINING & PERFORMANCE (D&I) ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL MARKERS OF

  18. Australian DefenceScience. Volume 13, Number 4, Summer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    fuselage and cockpit, mid and aft fuselage, empennage , wing , wing and fuselage intersection, and finally engine nacelles. A photographic survey of...own rivet lines as a guide. Areas of high curvature in three dimensions, like the engine nacelles, empennage - fuselage intersection and wing -fuselage...tony.cox@dsto.defence.gov.au Design and illustration: Rebekah Meere Phone: 61 3 9626 7141 Fax: 61 3 9626 7133 e-mail: rebekah.meere

  19. Vibration and recoil control of pneumatic hammers. [by air flow pressure regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinescu, I. N.; Darabont, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Vibration sources are described for pneumatic hammers used in the mining industry (pick hammers), in boiler shops (riveting hammers), etc., bringing to light the fact that the principal vibration source is the variation in air pressure inside the cylinder. The present state of the art of vibration control of pneumatic hammers as it is practiced abroad, and the solutions adopted for this purpose, are discussed. A new type of pneumatic hammer with a low noise and vibration level is presented.

  20. Rescuing magical thinking from the jaws of social determinism.

    PubMed

    Chandler, M

    1997-12-01

    Although there is otherwise much to recommend it, by riveting attention too narrowly on the contents of magical thought, and by recasting what is left of process in exclusively substantiative terms, this target article works to create the unwarranted impression that the magical thoughts of children and adults are all of a common piece. This commentary reads these oversights and omissions as symptoms of an unspoken new-situationalism working behind the back of Woolley's review.

  1. A Summary of Diagonal Tension Part I : Methods of Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Paul; Peterson, James P; Levin, L Ross

    1952-01-01

    Previously published methods for stress and strength analysis of plane and curved shear webs working in diagonal tension are presented as a unified method. The treatment is sufficiently comprehensive and detailed to make the paper self-contained. Part 1 discusses the theory and methods for calculating the stresses and shear deflections of web systems as well as the strengths of the web, the stiffeners, and the riveting. Part 2, published separately, presents the experimental evidence. (author)

  2. Beyond the Simple Model of Child Care Facilities: Support Spaces for Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Jim

    2006-01-01

    The age of child care building on a wide scale really began in the 1970s. Before that, there had been a history of day nurseries going back to the turn of the century and Lanham Act centers during World War II to provide care for "Rosie the Riveter" mothers in the work force. The "purpose built" child care center was an economical box with almost…

  3. Effects Based Assessment in the United States Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    during OIF includes: Predator and Global Hawk UAV, RC-135 Rivet Joint , E-8 JSTARS, E-3 AWACS, and overhead national assets. 59 Operation Iraqi Freedom...Moseley, Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Joint Forces Air Component Commander (JFACC), succinctly described OIF assessment when he said, “BDA [was...only three weeks, the war was over. During these three weeks, Moseley’s air component provided crucial support to Frank’s joint campaign. In order

  4. Current Procedures for Assessment of Battle-Damage Repair of Fixed-Wing Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    addition of ABDR Engineering training which focuses on thin-walled structural analysis and fastened joint design. ABDR engineers are typically assigned...Sheet metal thickness gauge – necessary for accurate measurement of skin panels. • Blind rivet depth gauge – necessary to prescribe the proper...Further damage  Accomplish Designated Missions  Contribute to the Battle  Deferment of Repairs for a “One Time” Flight or Self Recovery

  5. Interaction of Bearing and Tensile Loads on Creep Properties of Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodine, E G; Carlson, R L; Manning, G K

    1956-01-01

    The interaction of bearing and tensile loads on the creep behavior of joints was studied. A specimen was designed for this study which possessed some of the general features of pin and rivet joint connections and an apparatus was constructed to apply both bearing and tensile loads to the joint model. Deformation measurements were made by use of a photogrid printed on the joint model.

  6. Describing the Elephant: Framing a Discussion on Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    operations in support of combat- ant commanders. A master navigator with more than 4,200 flying hours, pri- marily in the RC-135 Rivet Joint and E-8C JSTARS...that term varies across the levels of war; by service, mediums, career fields, and platforms; and across the realms of academics, joint -requirements...the battlespace. Although designed to be platform agnostic, most of the articles incorporate recent experience with the Joint Sur- veillance Target

  7. Multi-Site Fatigue Testing and Characterization of Fuselage Panels from Aging Aircraft Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-07

    Multi-site fatigue damage is a common problem in the riveted lap joint structure of aging aircraft. Modeling and characterization of such damage is...an especially daunting task. In this effort we present the results from fatigue tests which were performed on fuselage lap joints extracted from...in the lap joint . Some spot welded lap joint panels were also tested during the larger program; however, only the results from mechanically fastened

  8. Arthroscopic stabilization procedures for recurrent anterior shoulder instability.

    PubMed

    Yahiro, M A; Matthews, L S

    1989-11-01

    Anterior shoulder instability is a common and functionally disabling problem in young athletes. The goal in treatment of this condition is a stable, yet mobile, joint. Current methods now being utilized in the arthroscopic stabilization of the anterior shoulder include staple capsulorrhaphy, removable rivet capsulorrhaphy, cannulated screw fixation, and the transglenoid suture technique. These techniques and the clinical experience with each are reviewed, with an emphasis on providing stability, improving function, and allowing earlier rehabilitation in the unstable shoulder of the athlete.

  9. Toward Omniscient command: How to Lead in the Information Age

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    to understand the tremendous value of both tangible assets (M1A1 Abrams Tank, RC-135 Rivet Joint , et cetera) and intangible assets (morale...and used information, and how it affected their leadership. The study will conduct a review and analysis of joint and service-specific leadership...The study will also place these leadership skills into the context of the Joint Operating Environment (JOE) to determine how these skills will

  10. Air Force Command and Control: The Need for Increased Adaptability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    classification issues limited the ability to conduct effective training for elements of the TACS. At times, RC­135 Rivet Joint operators were restricted from...electronic warfare officer. He has been published in such peri­ odicals as the Armed Forces Journal, Joint Force Quarterly, and Defense Analysis and in...lead to more effective and ef­ ficient operations in support of the joint force commander’s re­ quirements. Current and future operations demand this

  11. HOT METAL BRIDGE (NOTE: BUILDERS: JONES AND LAUGHLIN STEEL CA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT METAL BRIDGE (NOTE: BUILDERS: JONES AND LAUGHLIN STEEL CA. 1890), SOUTH PORTAL. THREE PIN CONNECTED CAMELBACK TRUSS SPANS, ONE SKEWED THROUGH TRUSS SPAN ON NORTH SIDE TRUSS BRIDGE, EAST OF HOT METAL BRIDGE BUILT BY AMERICAN BRIDGE COMPANY CA. 1910. (RIVETED MULTI-SPAN TRUSS). - Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh Works, Morgan Billet Mill Engine, 550 feet north of East Carson Street, opposite South Twenty-seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  12. RIGGERS LOFT/PAINT SHOP/SHEET METAL SHOP, VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. THE PAINT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RIGGERS LOFT/PAINT SHOP/SHEET METAL SHOP, VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. THE PAINT SHOP WAS LOCATED IN THE CLOSEST CORNER OF THE BUILDING. THE SHEET METAL SHOP WAS LOCATED IN THE CORNER OF THE BUILDING ON THE RIGHT. THE RIGGERS LOFT WAS LOCATED IN THE PORTION OF THE BUILDING OUT OF VIEW TO THE LEFT - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Riggers Loft/Paint Shop/Sheet Metal Shop, 1322 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  13. A low-cost method to identify tubewells for longitudinal research on arsenic in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Jonathan D; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Rashid, Mahbubur; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Labrique, Alain B

    2007-09-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of arsenic in tubewell groundwater from the shallow aquifers of Bangladesh could result in up to 300,000 arsenic-related cancer cases over the next four decades. Understanding the magnitude and temporal dynamics of this exposure, via longitudinal studies, is imperative for planning effective mitigation and management strategies. Appropriate methods are needed to identify tubewells for longitudinal sampling. A plastic band marked with a unique identification number was developed, and various methods for attaching the band to the tubewell were tested, resulting in the choice of a galvanized-iron split-rivet. Two follow-up surveys at two and 14 months post-banding assessed the durability and longevity under field conditions in the JiVitA Project area in rural, northwestern Bangladesh. After two months, approximately 96.0% of the original bands on 1,063 tubewells were functional, although the rivets were partially corroded. After 14 months, approximately 65% of a subsample of the bands were functional. With further improvements to the rivets, these bands offer an inexpensive, durable, enumeration technology for longitudinal studies on groundwater arsenic.

  14. Structural analysis of Aircraft fuselage splice joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udaya Prakash, R.; Kumar, G. Raj; Vijayanandh, R.; Senthil Kumar, M.; Ramganesh, T.

    2016-09-01

    In Aviation sector, composite materials and its application to each component are one of the prime factors of consideration due to the high strength to weight ratio, design flexibility and non-corrosive so that the composite materials are widely used in the low weight constructions and also it can be treated as a suitable alternative to metals. The objective of this paper is to estimate and compare the suitability of a composite skin joint in an aircraft fuselage with different joints by simulating the displacement, normal stress, vonmises stress and shear stress with the help of numerical solution methods. The reference Z-stringer component of this paper is modeled by CATIA and numerical simulation is carried out by ANSYS has been used for splice joint presents in the aircraft fuselage with three combinations of joints such as riveted joint, bonded joint and hybrid joint. Nowadays the stringers are using to avoid buckling of fuselage skin, it has joined together by rivets and they are connected end to end by splice joint. Design and static analysis of three-dimensional models of joints such as bonded, riveted and hybrid are carried out and results are compared.

  15. A Low-cost Method to Identify Tubewells for Longitudinal Research on Arsenic in Groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Jonathan D.; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Rashid, Mahbubur; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Labrique, Alain B.

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of arsenic in tubewell groundwater from the shallow aquifers of Bangladesh could result in up to 300,000 arsenic-related cancer cases over the next four decades. Understanding the magnitude and temporal dynamics of this exposure, via longitudinal studies, is imperative for planning effective mitigation and management strategies. Appropriate methods are needed to identify tubewells for longitudinal sampling. A plastic band marked with a unique identification number was developed, and various methods for attaching the band to the tubewell were tested, resulting in the choice of a galvanized-iron split-rivet. Two follow-up surveys at two and 14 months post-banding assessed the durability and longevity under field conditions in the JiVitA Project area in rural, northwestern Bangladesh. After two months, ~96.0% of the original bands on 1,063 tubewells were functional, although the rivets were partially corroded. After 14 months, ~65% of a subsample of the bands were functional. With further improvements to the rivets, these bands offer an inexpensive, durable, enumeration technology for longitudinal studies on groundwater arsenic. PMID:18330072

  16. Fracture analyses of thin films, interfaces, and joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuth, Jack Lee, Jr.

    multi-site damage (multiple small fatigue cracks emerging from rivet holes along a single line of rivets) in the lap joints of the skins of aging aircraft. Stress intensity factors are plotted as a function of normalized crack length for two types of rivet contact conditions. The roles of transverse stresses and residual stresses induced by the riveting process are explored. The underlying cause of MSD cracking is investigated, including the potential influence of the shedding of load from one cracked rivet hole to a lesser cracked neighbor.

  17. Evaluating the Upset Protrusion Joining (UPJ) Method to Join Magnesium Castings to Dissimilar Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Stephen

    2016-02-24

    This presentation discusses advantages and best practices for incorporating magnesium in automotive component applications to achieve substantial mass reduction, as well as some of the key challenges with respect to joining, coating, and galvanic corrosion, before providing an introduction and status update of the U.S. Department of Energy and Department of Defense jointly sponsored Upset Protrusion Joining (UPJ) process development and evaluation project. This update includes sharing performance results of a benchmark evaluation of the self-pierce riveting (SPR) process for joining dissimilar magnesium (Mg) to aluminum (Al) materials in four unique coating configurations before introducing the UPJ concept and comparing performance results of the joints made with the UPJ process to those made with the SPR process. Key results presented include: • The benchmark SPR process can produce good joints in the MgAM60B-Al 6013 joint configuration with minimal cracking in the Mg coupons if the rivet is inserted from the Mg side into the Al side. • Numerous bare Mg to bare Al joints made with the SPR process separated after only 6-wks of accelerated corrosion testing due to fracture of the rivet as a result of hydrogen embrittlement • For the same joint configurations, UPJ demonstrated substantially higher pre-corrosion joint strengths and post-corrosion joint strengths, primarily because of the larger diameter protrusion compared to smaller SPR rivet diameter and reduced degradation due to accelerated corrosion exposure • As with the SPR process, numerous bare Mg to bare Al joints made with the UPJ process also separated after 6-wks of accelerated corrosion testing, but unlike the SPR experience, the UPJ joints experienced degradation of the boss and head because of galvanic corrosion of the Mg casting, not hydrogen embrittlement of the steel rivet. • In the configuration where both the Mg and Al were pretreated with Alodine 5200 prior to joining and the complete

  18. Robotic collaborative technology alliance: an open architecture approach to integrated research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Robert Michael S.; DiBerardino, Charles A.

    2014-06-01

    The Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA) seeks to provide adaptive robot capabilities which move beyond traditional metric algorithms to include cognitive capabilities [1]. Research occurs in 5 main Task Areas: Intelligence, Perception, Dexterous Manipulation and Unique Mobility (DMUM), Human Robot Interaction (HRI), and Integrated Research (IR). This last task of Integrated Research is especially critical and challenging. Individual research components can only be fully assessed when integrated onto a robot where they interact with other aspects of the system to create cross-Task capabilities which move beyond the State of the Art. Adding to the complexity, the RCTA is comprised of 12+ independent organizations across the United States. Each has its own constraints due to development environments, ITAR, "lab" vs "real-time" implementations, and legacy software investments from previous and ongoing programs. We have developed three main components to manage the Integration Task. The first is RFrame, a data-centric transport agnostic middleware which unifies the disparate environments, protocols, and data collection mechanisms. Second is the modular Intelligence Architecture built around the Common World Model (CWM). The CWM instantiates a Common Data Model and provides access services. Third is RIVET, an ITAR free Hardware-In-The-Loop simulator based on 3D game technology. RIVET provides each researcher a common test-bed for development prior to integration, and a regression test mechanism. Once components are integrated and verified, they are released back to the consortium to provide the RIVET baseline for further research. This approach allows Integration of new and legacy systems built upon different architectures, by application of Open Architecture principles.

  19. Building tomorrow`s automobiles

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, B.

    1995-08-01

    Detroit is awhirl these days with speculation about the next generation of automobile. Pressures are clamping down on the industry to produce cars that are free from emissions, much more fuel efficient, and, through it all, salable. Right now, a great deal of attention is being paid to the body-in-white or that part of the automobile represented by the frame and the body parts. Will it be high-strength steel, aluminum, plastic, composite, or a combination of different materials? Will resistance spot welding and gas metal arc welding still be used? What role will the laser play in all of this activity? Can welding expect severe competition from other joining processes, like adhesive bonding and riveting? The best answers to the above questions are yes, maybe, and no. Whatever happens, it seems the jury is still out. Nevertheless, the verdicts will be critical to the welding industry because the automotive industry is the largest single market for welding. Competitively, welding technology has its hands full. A number of Fortune 500 companies are developing improved adhesives. There is also a quasi-riveting process popular in Europe that is being introduced here in the States. And there is a rivet bonding version of that process. Also, weld bonding or the technique of making resistance spot welds through adhesives is gaining ground among the designers of the next generation of automobile. Over the years, the number one market for arc welding and resistance welding has been the automotive industry. Changes in the designs of automobiles have required adjustments on the part of welding technologies, but there has not been anything unusual in that respect. For the most part, the requirements have been met.

  20. Finite Element Model Development For Aircraft Fuselage Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Fleming, Gary A.; Pappa, Richard S.; Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    2000-01-01

    The ability to extend the valid frequency range for finite element based structural dynamic predictions using detailed models of the structural components and attachment interfaces is examined for several stiffened aircraft fuselage structures. This extended dynamic prediction capability is needed for the integration of mid-frequency noise control technology. Beam, plate and solid element models of the stiffener components are evaluated. Attachment models between the stiffener and panel skin range from a line along the rivets of the physical structure to a constraint over the entire contact surface. The finite element models are validated using experimental modal analysis results.