An Investigation of the Sample Performance of Two Nonnormality Corrections for RMSEA
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brosseau-Liard, Patricia E.; Savalei, Victoria; Li, Libo
2012-01-01
The root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) is a popular fit index in structural equation modeling (SEM). Typically, RMSEA is computed using the normal theory maximum likelihood (ML) fit function. Under nonnormality, the uncorrected sample estimate of the ML RMSEA tends to be inflated. Two robust corrections to the sample ML RMSEA have…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huberty, Carl J.
An approach to statistical testing, which combines Neyman-Pearson hypothesis testing and Fisher significance testing, is recommended. The use of P-values in this approach is discussed in some detail. The author also discusses some problems which are often found in introductory statistics textbooks. The problems involve the definitions of…
Statistical Significance Testing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McLean, James E., Ed.; Kaufman, Alan S., Ed.
1998-01-01
The controversy about the use or misuse of statistical significance testing has become the major methodological issue in educational research. This special issue contains three articles that explore the controversy, three commentaries on these articles, an overall response, and three rejoinders by the first three authors. They are: (1)…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Gouvêa, André; Murayama, Hitoshi
2003-10-01
“Anarchy” is the hypothesis that there is no fundamental distinction among the three flavors of neutrinos. It describes the mixing angles as random variables, drawn from well-defined probability distributions dictated by the group Haar measure. We perform a Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistical test to verify whether anarchy is consistent with all neutrino data, including the new result presented by KamLAND. We find a KS probability for Nature's choice of mixing angles equal to 64%, quite consistent with the anarchical hypothesis. In turn, assuming that anarchy is indeed correct, we compute lower bounds on |Ue3|2, the remaining unknown “angle” of the leptonic mixing matrix.
Fit Indices Versus Test Statistics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yuan, Ke-Hai
2005-01-01
Model evaluation is one of the most important aspects of structural equation modeling (SEM). Many model fit indices have been developed. It is not an exaggeration to say that nearly every publication using the SEM methodology has reported at least one fit index. Most fit indices are defined through test statistics. Studies and interpretation of…
Statistics and Hypothesis Testing in Biology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maret, Timothy J.; Ziemba, Robert E.
1997-01-01
Suggests that early in their education students be taught to use basic statistical tests as rigorous methods of comparing experimental results with scientific hypotheses. Stresses that students learn how to use statistical tests in hypothesis-testing by applying them in actual hypothesis-testing situations. To illustrate, uses questions such as…
A STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF OHMSETT TESTING
This program was initiated to provide a statistical evaluation of performance data generated at the USEPA's Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Environmental Test Tank (OHMSETT). The objective was to investigate the value of replicate testing in developing efficient test progra...
Quantum Statistical Testing of a QRNG Algorithm
Humble, Travis S; Pooser, Raphael C; Britt, Keith A
2013-01-01
We present the algorithmic design of a quantum random number generator, the subsequent synthesis of a physical design and its verification using quantum statistical testing. We also describe how quantum statistical testing can be used to diagnose channel noise in QKD protocols.
2009 GED Testing Program Statistical Report
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
GED Testing Service, 2010
2010-01-01
The "2009 GED[R] Testing Program Statistical Report" is the 52nd annual report in the program's 68-year history of providing a second opportunity for adults without a high school credential to earn their jurisdiction's GED credential. The report provides candidate demographic and GED Test performance statistics as well as historical information on…
Applications of Statistical Tests in Hand Surgery
Song, Jae W.; Haas, Ann; Chung, Kevin C.
2015-01-01
During the nineteenth century, with the emergence of public health as a goal to improve hygiene and conditions of the poor, statistics established itself as a distinct scientific field important for critically interpreting studies of public health concerns. During the twentieth century, statistics began to evolve mathematically and methodologically with hypothesis testing and experimental design. Today, the design of medical experiments centers around clinical trials and observational studies, and with the use of statistics, the collected data are summarized, weighed, and presented to direct both physicians and the public towards Evidence-Based Medicine. Having a basic understanding of statistics is mandatory in evaluating the validity of published literature and applying it to patient care. In this review, we aim to apply a practical approach in discussing basic statistical tests by providing a guide to choosing the correct statistical test along with examples relevant to hand surgery research. PMID:19969193
Teaching Statistics in Language Testing Courses
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, James Dean
2013-01-01
The purpose of this article is to examine the literature on teaching statistics for useful ideas that teachers of language testing courses can draw on and incorporate into their teaching toolkits as they see fit. To those ends, the article addresses eight questions: What is known generally about teaching statistics? Why are students so anxious…
Statistics Test Questions: Content and Trends
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Salcedo, Audy
2014-01-01
This study presents the results of the analysis of a group of teacher-made test questions for statistics courses at the university level. Teachers were asked to submit tests they had used in their previous two semesters. Ninety-seven tests containing 978 questions were gathered and classified according to the SOLO taxonomy (Biggs & Collis,…
Binomial test statistics using Psi functions
Bowman, Kimiko o
2007-01-01
For the negative binomial model (probability generating function (p + 1 - pt){sup -k}) a logarithmic derivative is the Psi function difference {psi}(k + x) - {psi}(k); this and its derivatives lead to a test statistic to decide on the validity of a specified model. The test statistic uses a data base so there exists a comparison available between theory and application. Note that the test function is not dominated by outliers. Applications to (i) Fisher's tick data, (ii) accidents data, (iii) Weldon's dice data are included.
Basic statistics for clinicians: 1. Hypothesis testing.
Guyatt, G; Jaeschke, R; Heddle, N; Cook, D; Shannon, H; Walter, S
1995-01-01
In the first of a series of four articles the authors explain the statistical concepts of hypothesis testing and p values. In many clinical trials investigators test a null hypothesis that there is no difference between a new treatment and a placebo or between two treatments. The result of a single experiment will almost always show some difference between the experimental and the control groups. Is the difference due to chance, or is it large enough to reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is a true difference in treatment effects? Statistical tests yield a p value: the probability that the experiment would show a difference as great or greater than that observed if the null hypothesis were true. By convention, p values of less than 0.05 are considered statistically significant, and investigators conclude that there is a real difference. However, the smaller the sample size, the greater the chance of erroneously concluding that the experimental treatment does not differ from the control--in statistical terms, the power of the test may be inadequate. Tests of several outcomes from one set of data may lead to an erroneous conclusion that an outcome is significant if the joint probability of the outcomes is not taken into account. Hypothesis testing has limitations, which will be discussed in the next article in the series. PMID:7804919
Comments on the Statistical Significance Testing Articles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knapp, Thomas R.
1998-01-01
Expresses a "middle-of-the-road" position on statistical significance testing, suggesting that it has its place but that confidence intervals are generally more useful. Identifies 10 errors of omission or commission in the papers reviewed that weaken the positions taken in their discussions. (SLD)
Statistical Tests of Reliability of NDE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baaklini, George Y.; Klima, Stanley J.; Roth, Don J.; Kiser, James D.
1987-01-01
Capabilities of advanced material-testing techniques analyzed. Collection of four reports illustrates statistical method for characterizing flaw-detecting capabilities of sophisticated nondestructive evaluation (NDE). Method used to determine reliability of several state-of-the-art NDE techniques for detecting failure-causing flaws in advanced ceramic materials considered for use in automobiles, airplanes, and space vehicles.
Statistical treatment of fatigue test data
Raske, D.T.
1980-01-01
This report discussed several aspects of fatigue data analysis in order to provide a basis for the development of statistically sound design curves. Included is a discussion on the choice of the dependent variable, the assumptions associated with least squares regression models, the variability of fatigue data, the treatment of data from suspended tests and outlying observations, and various strain-life relations.
Mechanical Impact Testing: A Statistical Measurement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Engel, Carl D.; Herald, Stephen D.; Davis, S. Eddie
2005-01-01
In the decades since the 1950s, when NASA first developed mechanical impact testing of materials, researchers have continued efforts to gain a better understanding of the chemical, mechanical, and thermodynamic nature of the phenomenon. The impact mechanism is a real combustion ignition mechanism that needs understanding in the design of an oxygen system. The use of test data from this test method has been questioned due to lack of a clear method of application of the data and variability found between tests, material batches, and facilities. This effort explores a large database that has accumulated over a number of years and explores its overall nature. Moreover, testing was performed to determine the statistical nature of the test procedure to help establish sample size guidelines for material characterization. The current method of determining a pass/fail criterion based on either light emission or sound report or material charring is questioned.
Statistical tests for prediction of lignite quality
C.J. Kolovos
2007-06-15
Domestic lignite from large, bucket wheel excavators based open pit mines is the main fuel for electricity generation in Greece. Lignite from one or more mines may arrive at any power plant stockyard. The mixture obtained constitutes the lignite fuel fed to the power plant. The fuel is sampled in regular time intervals. These samples are considered as results of observations of values of spatial random variables. The aim was to form and statistically test many small sample populations. Statistical tests on the values of the humidity content, the ash-water free content, and the lower heating value of the lignite fuel indicated that the sample values form a normal population. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied for testing goodness-of-fit of sample distribution for a three year period and different power plants of the Kozani-Ptolemais area, western Macedonia, Greece. The normal distribution hypothesis can be widely accepted for forecasting the distribution of values of the basic quality characteristics even for a small number of samples.
Diagnostic rhyme test statistical analysis programs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sim, A.; Bain, R.; Belyavin, A. J.; Pratt, R. L.
1991-08-01
The statistical techniques and associated computer programs used to analyze data from Diagnostic Rhyme Test (DRT) are described. The DRT is used extensively for assessing the intelligibility of military communications systems and became an accepted NATO standard for testing linear predictive coders. The DRT vocabulary comprises ninety six minimally contrasting rhyming word pairs, the initial consonants of which differ only by a single acoustic feature, or attribute. There are six such attributes: voicing, nasality, sustention, silibation, graveness, and compactness. The attribute voicing is present when the vocal cords are excited: in the word pair 'veal-feel', the consonant 'v' is voiced, but the constant 'f' is unvoiced. The procedure for the implementation of the DRT is presented. To ensure the stability of the results, tests using not less than eight talkers and eight listeners are conducted.
A Statistical Perspective on Highly Accelerated Testing.
Thomas, Edward V.
2015-02-01
Highly accelerated life testing has been heavily promoted at Sandia (and elsewhere) as a means to rapidly identify product weaknesses caused by flaws in the product's design or manufacturing process. During product development, a small number of units are forced to fail at high stress. The failed units are then examined to determine the root causes of failure. The identification of the root causes of product failures exposed by highly accelerated life testing can instigate changes to the product's design and/or manufacturing process that result in a product with increased reliability. It is widely viewed that this qualitative use of highly accelerated life testing (often associated with the acronym HALT) can be useful. However, highly accelerated life testing has also been proposed as a quantitative means for "demonstrating" the reliability of a product where unreliability is associated with loss of margin via an identified and dominating failure mechanism. It is assumed that the dominant failure mechanism can be accelerated by changing the level of a stress factor that is assumed to be related to the dominant failure mode. In extreme cases, a minimal number of units (often from a pre-production lot) are subjected to a single highly accelerated stress relative to normal use. If no (or, sufficiently few) units fail at this high stress level, some might claim that a certain level of reliability has been demonstrated (relative to normal use conditions). Underlying this claim are assumptions regarding the level of knowledge associated with the relationship between the stress level and the probability of failure. The primary purpose of this document is to discuss (from a statistical perspective) the efficacy of using accelerated life testing protocols (and, in particular, "highly accelerated" protocols) to make quantitative inferences concerning the performance of a product (e.g., reliability) when in fact there is lack-of-knowledge and uncertainty concerning the
SANABRIA, FEDERICO; KILLEEN, PETER R.
2008-01-01
Despite being under challenge for the past 50 years, null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) remains dominant in the scientific field for want of viable alternatives. NHST, along with its significance level p, is inadequate for most of the uses to which it is put, a flaw that is of particular interest to educational practitioners who too often must use it to sanctify their research. In this article, we review the failure of NHST and propose prep, the probability of replicating an effect, as a more useful statistic for evaluating research and aiding practical decision making. PMID:19122766
Recent Tests for the Statistical Parton Distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourrely, Claude; Soffer, Jacques; Buccella, Franco
We compare some recent experimental results obtained at DESY, SLAC and Jefferson Lab., with the predictions of the statistical model, we have previously proposed. The result of this comparison is very satisfactory.
Assessing Statistical Aspects of Test Fairness with Structural Equation Modelling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kline, Rex B.
2013-01-01
Test fairness and test bias are not synonymous concepts. Test bias refers to statistical evidence that the psychometrics or interpretation of test scores depend on group membership, such as gender or race, when such differences are not expected. A test that is grossly biased may be judged to be unfair, but test fairness concerns the broader, more…
Multiple comparisons and nonparametric statistical tests on a programmable calculator.
Hurwitz, A
1987-03-01
Calculator programs are provided for statistical tests for comparing groups of data. These tests can be applied when t-tests are inappropriate, as for multiple comparisons, or for evaluating groups of data that are not distributed normally or have unequal variances. The programs, designed to run on the least expensive Hewlett-Packard programmable scientific calculator, Model HP-11C, should place these statistical tests within easy reach of most students and investigators. PMID:3560983
Testing the Difference of Correlated Agreement Coefficients for Statistical Significance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gwet, Kilem L.
2016-01-01
This article addresses the problem of testing the difference between two correlated agreement coefficients for statistical significance. A number of authors have proposed methods for testing the difference between two correlated kappa coefficients, which require either the use of resampling methods or the use of advanced statistical modeling…
Statistical Testing in the Behavioral Sciences: Textbook Developments.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huberty, Carl J.
Textbooks that have been and are being used by students in education and psychology to learn about statistical testing are reviewed. Twenty-eight textbooks published prior to 1950 were reviewed. These textbooks were found to focus on descriptive methods, to concentrate on educational testing, and to present limited formal statistical formulation.…
Incongruence between test statistics and P values in medical papers
García-Berthou, Emili; Alcaraz, Carles
2004-01-01
Background Given an observed test statistic and its degrees of freedom, one may compute the observed P value with most statistical packages. It is unknown to what extent test statistics and P values are congruent in published medical papers. Methods We checked the congruence of statistical results reported in all the papers of volumes 409–412 of Nature (2001) and a random sample of 63 results from volumes 322–323 of BMJ (2001). We also tested whether the frequencies of the last digit of a sample of 610 test statistics deviated from a uniform distribution (i.e., equally probable digits). Results 11.6% (21 of 181) and 11.1% (7 of 63) of the statistical results published in Nature and BMJ respectively during 2001 were incongruent, probably mostly due to rounding, transcription, or type-setting errors. At least one such error appeared in 38% and 25% of the papers of Nature and BMJ, respectively. In 12% of the cases, the significance level might change one or more orders of magnitude. The frequencies of the last digit of statistics deviated from the uniform distribution and suggested digit preference in rounding and reporting. Conclusions This incongruence of test statistics and P values is another example that statistical practice is generally poor, even in the most renowned scientific journals, and that quality of papers should be more controlled and valued. PMID:15169550
A Comparison of Statistical Significance Tests for Selecting Equating Functions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moses, Tim
2009-01-01
This study compared the accuracies of nine previously proposed statistical significance tests for selecting identity, linear, and equipercentile equating functions in an equivalent groups equating design. The strategies included likelihood ratio tests for the loglinear models of tests' frequency distributions, regression tests, Kolmogorov-Smirnov…
The Importance of Teaching Power in Statistical Hypothesis Testing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olinsky, Alan; Schumacher, Phyllis; Quinn, John
2012-01-01
In this paper, we discuss the importance of teaching power considerations in statistical hypothesis testing. Statistical power analysis determines the ability of a study to detect a meaningful effect size, where the effect size is the difference between the hypothesized value of the population parameter under the null hypothesis and the true value…
Advances in Testing the Statistical Significance of Mediation Effects
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mallinckrodt, Brent; Abraham, W. Todd; Wei, Meifen; Russell, Daniel W.
2006-01-01
P. A. Frazier, A. P. Tix, and K. E. Barron (2004) highlighted a normal theory method popularized by R. M. Baron and D. A. Kenny (1986) for testing the statistical significance of indirect effects (i.e., mediator variables) in multiple regression contexts. However, simulation studies suggest that this method lacks statistical power relative to some…
Chi-Square Statistics, Tests of Hypothesis and Technology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rochowicz, John A.
The use of technology such as computers and programmable calculators enables students to find p-values and conduct tests of hypotheses in many different ways. Comprehension and interpretation of a research problem become the focus for statistical analysis. This paper describes how to calculate chisquare statistics and p-values for statistical…
BIAZA statistics guidelines: toward a common application of statistical tests for zoo research.
Plowman, Amy B
2008-05-01
Zoo research presents many statistical challenges, mostly arising from the need to work with small sample sizes. Efforts to overcome these often lead to the misuse of statistics including pseudoreplication, inappropriate pooling, assumption violation or excessive Type II errors because of using tests with low power to avoid assumption violation. To tackle these issues and make some general statistical recommendations for zoo researchers, the Research Group of the British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquariums (BIAZA) conducted a workshop. Participants included zoo-based researchers, university academics with zoo interests and three statistical experts. The result was a BIAZA publication Zoo Research Guidelines: Statistics for Typical Zoo Datasets (Plowman [2006] Zoo research guidelines: statistics for zoo datasets. London: BIAZA), which provides advice for zoo researchers on study design and analysis to ensure appropriate and rigorous use of statistics. The main recommendations are: (1) that many typical zoo investigations should be conducted as single case/small N randomized designs, analyzed with randomization tests, (2) that when comparing complete time budgets across conditions in behavioral studies, G tests and their derivatives are the most appropriate statistical tests and (3) that in studies involving multiple dependent and independent variables there are usually no satisfactory alternatives to traditional parametric tests and, despite some assumption violations, it is better to use these tests with careful interpretation, than to lose information through not testing at all. The BIAZA guidelines were recommended by American Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) researchers at the AZA Annual Conference in Tampa, FL, September 2006, and are free to download from www.biaza.org.uk. PMID:19360620
On Interpreting Test Scores as Social Indicators: Statistical Considerations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spencer, Bruce D.
1983-01-01
Because test scores are ordinal not cordinal attributes, the average test score often is a misleading way to summarize the scores of a group of individuals. Similarly, correlation coefficients may be misleading summary measures of association between test scores. Proper, readily interpretable, summary statistics are developed from a theory of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hong, Eunsook
A path analytic model of state test anxiety was tested in 169 college students who were enrolled in statistics courses. Variables in the model included gender, mathematics ability, trait test anxiety (trait worry and trait emotionality as separate variables), statistics course anxiety, statistics achievement (scores on midterm examinations),…
Multiple statistical tests: lessons from a d20.
Madan, Christopher R
2016-01-01
Statistical analyses are often conducted with α=.05. When multiple statistical tests are conducted, this procedure needs to be adjusted to compensate for the otherwise inflated Type I error. In some instances in tabletop gaming, sometimes it is desired to roll a 20-sided dice (or `d20') twice and take the greater outcome. Here I draw from probability theory and the case of a d20, where the probability of obtaining any specific outcome is 1/20, to determine the probability of obtaining a specific outcome (Type-I error) at least once across repeated, independent statistical tests. PMID:27347382
Multiple statistical tests: lessons from a d20
Madan, Christopher R.
2016-01-01
Statistical analyses are often conducted with α=.05. When multiple statistical tests are conducted, this procedure needs to be adjusted to compensate for the otherwise inflated Type I error. In some instances in tabletop gaming, sometimes it is desired to roll a 20-sided dice (or `d20') twice and take the greater outcome. Here I draw from probability theory and the case of a d20, where the probability of obtaining any specific outcome is 1/20, to determine the probability of obtaining a specific outcome (Type-I error) at least once across repeated, independent statistical tests. PMID:27347382
Statistical Evaluation of Molecular Contamination During Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Philip; Hedgeland, Randy; Montoya, Alex; Roman-Velazquez, Juan; Dunn, Jamie; Colony, Joe; Petitto, Joseph
1999-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the statistical molecular contamination data with a goal to improve spacecraft contamination control. The statistical data was generated in typical thermal vacuum tests at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The magnitude of material outgassing was measured using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCNO device during the test. A solvent rinse sample was taken at the conclusion of each test. Then detailed qualitative and quantitative measurements were obtained through chemical analyses. All data used in this study encompassed numerous spacecraft tests in recent years.
Statistical Evaluation of Molecular Contamination During Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Philip; Hedgeland, Randy; Montoya, Alex; Roman-Velazquez, Juan; Dunn, Jamie; Colony, Joe; Petitto, Joseph
1997-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the statistical molecular contamination data with a goal to improve spacecraft contamination control. The statistical data was generated in typical thermal vacuum tests at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The magnitude of material outgassing was measured using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) device during the test. A solvent rinse sample was taken at the conclusion of the each test. Then detailed qualitative and quantitative measurements were obtained through chemical analyses. All data used in this study encompassed numerous spacecraft tests in recent years.
Statistical Evaluation of Molecular Contamination During Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Philip; Hedgeland, Randy; Montoya, Alex; Roman-Velazquez, Juan; Dunn, Jamie; Colony, Joe; Petitto, Joseph
1998-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the statistical molecular contamination data with a goal to improve spacecraft contamination control. The statistical data was generated in typical thermal vacuum tests at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The magnitude of material outgassing was measured using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) device during the test. A solvent rinse sample was taken at the conclusion of each test. Then detailed qualitative and quantitative measurements were obtained through chemical analyses. All data used in this study encompassed numerous spacecraft tests in recent years.
Your Chi-Square Test Is Statistically Significant: Now What?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sharpe, Donald
2015-01-01
Applied researchers have employed chi-square tests for more than one hundred years. This paper addresses the question of how one should follow a statistically significant chi-square test result in order to determine the source of that result. Four approaches were evaluated: calculating residuals, comparing cells, ransacking, and partitioning. Data…
Statistical significance test for transition matrices of atmospheric Markov chains
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vautard, Robert; Mo, Kingtse C.; Ghil, Michael
1990-01-01
Low-frequency variability of large-scale atmospheric dynamics can be represented schematically by a Markov chain of multiple flow regimes. This Markov chain contains useful information for the long-range forecaster, provided that the statistical significance of the associated transition matrix can be reliably tested. Monte Carlo simulation yields a very reliable significance test for the elements of this matrix. The results of this test agree with previously used empirical formulae when each cluster of maps identified as a distinct flow regime is sufficiently large and when they all contain a comparable number of maps. Monte Carlo simulation provides a more reliable way to test the statistical significance of transitions to and from small clusters. It can determine the most likely transitions, as well as the most unlikely ones, with a prescribed level of statistical significance.
Pass-Fail Testing: Statistical Requirements and Interpretations
Gilliam, David; Leigh, Stefan; Rukhin, Andrew; Strawderman, William
2009-01-01
Performance standards for detector systems often include requirements for probability of detection and probability of false alarm at a specified level of statistical confidence. This paper reviews the accepted definitions of confidence level and of critical value. It describes the testing requirements for establishing either of these probabilities at a desired confidence level. These requirements are computable in terms of functions that are readily available in statistical software packages and general spreadsheet applications. The statistical interpretations of the critical values are discussed. A table is included for illustration, and a plot is presented showing the minimum required numbers of pass-fail tests. The results given here are applicable to one-sided testing of any system with performance characteristics conforming to a binomial distribution. PMID:27504221
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gordon, Howard R. D.
A random sample of 113 members of the American Vocational Education Research Association (AVERA) was surveyed to obtain baseline information regarding AVERA members' perceptions of statistical significance tests. The Psychometrics Group Instrument was used to collect data from participants. Of those surveyed, 67% were male, 93% had earned a…
testing the regional application of site statistics with satellite data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kinne, S.; Paradise, S.
2009-04-01
Remote sensing from ground sites is often associated with a time record length and/or accuracy to its data, which is superior to that of remote sensing from space. Thus, in those cases ground measurement (network-) data are applied to constrain retrieval assumptions and/or to extend satellite data in time. Alternately, this combination can be and has been used to explore the potential application of local site statistics to surrounding regions. As a demonstrator MISR sensor statistical maps of the retrieved aerosol optical depth are applied the test the regional representation of site statistics for aerosol optical depth detected at AERONET (sub-photometer) and EARLINET (lidar) sites. The regional representation tests explore local applicability for regions from 100 to 1000 km in diameter based on an analysis of averages for relative error and relative bias.
A Statistical Approach to Establishing Subsystem Environmental Test Specifications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keegan, W. B.
1974-01-01
Results are presented of a research task to evaluate structural responses at various subsystem mounting locations during spacecraft level test exposures to the environments of mechanical shock, acoustic noise, and random vibration. This statistical evaluation is presented in the form of recommended subsystem test specifications for these three environments as normalized to a reference set of spacecraft test levels and are thus suitable for extrapolation to a set of different spacecraft test levels. The recommendations are dependent upon a subsystem's mounting location in a spacecraft, and information is presented on how to determine this mounting zone for a given subsystem.
Innovative role of statistics in acid rain performance testing
Warren-Hicks, W.; Etchison, T.; Lieberman, E.R.
1995-12-31
Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) of 1990 mandated that affected electric utilities reduce sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions, the primary precursors of acidic deposition, and included an innovative market-based SO{sub 2} regulatory program. A central element of the Acid Rain Program is the requirement that affected utility units install CEMS. This paper describes how the Acid Rain Regulations incorporated statistical procedures in the performance tests for continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) and how statistical analysis was used to assess the appropriateness, stringency, and potential impact of various performance tests and standards that were considered for inclusion in the Acid Rain Regulations. Described here is the statistical analysis that was used to set a relative accuracy standard, establish the calculation procedures for filling in missing data when a monitor malfunctions, and evaluate the performance tests applied to petitions for alternative monitoring systems. The paper concludes that the statistical evaluations of proposed provisions of the Acid Rain Regulations resulted in the adoption of performance tests and standards that were scientifically substantiated, workable, and effective.
Comparison of statistical tests for disease association with rare variants.
Basu, Saonli; Pan, Wei
2011-11-01
In anticipation of the availability of next-generation sequencing data, there is increasing interest in investigating association between complex traits and rare variants (RVs). In contrast to association studies for common variants (CVs), due to the low frequencies of RVs, common wisdom suggests that existing statistical tests for CVs might not work, motivating the recent development of several new tests for analyzing RVs, most of which are based on the idea of pooling/collapsing RVs. However, there is a lack of evaluations of, and thus guidance on the use of, existing tests. Here we provide a comprehensive comparison of various statistical tests using simulated data. We consider both independent and correlated rare mutations, and representative tests for both CVs and RVs. As expected, if there are no or few non-causal (i.e. neutral or non-associated) RVs in a locus of interest while the effects of causal RVs on the trait are all (or mostly) in the same direction (i.e. either protective or deleterious, but not both), then the simple pooled association tests (without selecting RVs and their association directions) and a new test called kernel-based adaptive clustering (KBAC) perform similarly and are most powerful; KBAC is more robust than simple pooled association tests in the presence of non-causal RVs; however, as the number of non-causal CVs increases and/or in the presence of opposite association directions, the winners are two methods originally proposed for CVs and a new test called C-alpha test proposed for RVs, each of which can be regarded as testing on a variance component in a random-effects model. Interestingly, several methods based on sequential model selection (i.e. selecting causal RVs and their association directions), including two new methods proposed here, perform robustly and often have statistical power between those of the above two classes. PMID:21769936
Statistical modeling for particle impact noise detection testing
Prairie, R.R. ); Zimmer, W.J. )
1990-01-01
Particle Impact Noise Detection (PIND) testing is widely used to test electronic devices for the presence of conductive particles which can cause catastrophic failure. This paper develops a statistical model based on the rate of particles contaminating the part, the rate of particles induced by the test vibration, the escape rate, and the false alarm rate. Based on data from a large number of PIND tests for a canned transistor, the model is shown to fit the observed results closely. Knowledge of the parameters for which this fit is made is important in evaluating the effectiveness of the PIND test procedure and for developing background judgment about the performance of the PIND test. Furthermore, by varying the input parameters to the model, the resulting yield, failure rate and percent fallout can be examined and used to plan and implement PIND test programs.
A critique of statistical hypothesis testing in clinical research
Raha, Somik
2011-01-01
Many have documented the difficulty of using the current paradigm of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) to test and validate the effectiveness of alternative medical systems such as Ayurveda. This paper critiques the applicability of RCTs for all clinical knowledge-seeking endeavors, of which Ayurveda research is a part. This is done by examining statistical hypothesis testing, the underlying foundation of RCTs, from a practical and philosophical perspective. In the philosophical critique, the two main worldviews of probability are that of the Bayesian and the frequentist. The frequentist worldview is a special case of the Bayesian worldview requiring the unrealistic assumptions of knowing nothing about the universe and believing that all observations are unrelated to each other. Many have claimed that the first belief is necessary for science, and this claim is debunked by comparing variations in learning with different prior beliefs. Moving beyond the Bayesian and frequentist worldviews, the notion of hypothesis testing itself is challenged on the grounds that a hypothesis is an unclear distinction, and assigning a probability on an unclear distinction is an exercise that does not lead to clarity of action. This critique is of the theory itself and not any particular application of statistical hypothesis testing. A decision-making frame is proposed as a way of both addressing this critique and transcending ideological debates on probability. An example of a Bayesian decision-making approach is shown as an alternative to statistical hypothesis testing, utilizing data from a past clinical trial that studied the effect of Aspirin on heart attacks in a sample population of doctors. As a big reason for the prevalence of RCTs in academia is legislation requiring it, the ethics of legislating the use of statistical methods for clinical research is also examined. PMID:22022152
Statistical Treatment of Earth Observing System Pyroshock Separation Test Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McNelis, Anne M.; Hughes, William O.
1998-01-01
The Earth Observing System (EOS) AM-1 spacecraft for NASA's Mission to Planet Earth is scheduled to be launched on an Atlas IIAS vehicle in June of 1998. One concern is that the instruments on the EOS spacecraft are sensitive to the shock-induced vibration produced when the spacecraft separates from the launch vehicle. By employing unique statistical analysis to the available ground test shock data, the NASA Lewis Research Center found that shock-induced vibrations would not be as great as the previously specified levels of Lockheed Martin. The EOS pyroshock separation testing, which was completed in 1997, produced a large quantity of accelerometer data to characterize the shock response levels at the launch vehicle/spacecraft interface. Thirteen pyroshock separation firings of the EOS and payload adapter configuration yielded 78 total measurements at the interface. The multiple firings were necessary to qualify the newly developed Lockheed Martin six-hardpoint separation system. Because of the unusually large amount of data acquired, Lewis developed a statistical methodology to predict the maximum expected shock levels at the interface between the EOS spacecraft and the launch vehicle. Then, this methodology, which is based on six shear plate accelerometer measurements per test firing at the spacecraft/launch vehicle interface, was used to determine the shock endurance specification for EOS. Each pyroshock separation test of the EOS spacecraft simulator produced its own set of interface accelerometer data. Probability distributions, histograms, the median, and higher order moments (skew and kurtosis) were analyzed. The data were found to be lognormally distributed, which is consistent with NASA pyroshock standards. Each set of lognormally transformed test data produced was analyzed to determine if the data should be combined statistically. Statistical testing of the data's standard deviations and means (F and t testing, respectively) determined if data sets were
Statistical process control testing of electronic security equipment
Murray, D.W.; Spencer, D.D.
1994-06-01
Statistical Process Control testing of manufacturing processes began back in the 1940`s with the development of Process Control Charts by Dr. Walter A. Shewart. Sandia National Laboratories has developed an application of the SPC method for performance testing of electronic security equipment. This paper documents the evaluation of this testing methodology applied to electronic security equipment and an associated laptop computer-based system for obtaining and analyzing the test data. Sandia developed this SPC sensor performance testing method primarily for use on portal metal detectors, but, has evaluated it for testing of an exterior intrusion detection sensor and other electronic security devices. This method is an alternative to the traditional binomial (alarm or no-alarm) performance testing. The limited amount of information in binomial data drives the number of tests necessary to meet regulatory requirements to unnecessarily high levels. For example, a requirement of a 0.85 probability of detection with a 90% confidence requires a minimum of 19 alarms out of 19 trials. By extracting and analyzing measurement (variables) data whenever possible instead of the more typical binomial data, the user becomes more informed about equipment health with fewer tests (as low as five per periodic evaluation).
Statistical tests for measures of colocalization in biological microscopy.
McDonald, John H; Dunn, Kenneth W
2013-12-01
Colocalization analysis is the most common technique used for quantitative analysis of fluorescence microscopy images. Several metrics have been developed for measuring the colocalization of two probes, including Pearson's correlation coefficient (PCC) and Manders' correlation coefficient (MCC). However, once measured, the meaning of these measurements can be unclear; interpreting PCC or MCC values requires the ability to evaluate the significance of a particular measurement, or the significance of the difference between two sets of measurements. In previous work, we showed how spatial autocorrelation confounds randomization techniques commonly used for statistical analysis of colocalization data. Here we use computer simulations of biological images to show that the Student's one-sample t-test can be used to test the significance of PCC or MCC measurements of colocalization, and the Student's two-sample t-test can be used to test the significance of the difference between measurements obtained under different experimental conditions. PMID:24117417
n-dimensional Statistical Inverse Graphical Hydraulic Test Simulator
2012-09-12
nSIGHTS (n-dimensional Statistical Inverse Graphical Hydraulic Test Simulator) is a comprehensive well test analysis software package. It provides a user-interface, a well test analysis model and many tools to analyze both field and simulated data. The well test analysis model simulates a single-phase, one-dimensional, radial/non-radial flow regime, with a borehole at the center of the modeled flow system. nSIGHTS solves the radially symmetric n-dimensional forward flow problem using a solver based on a graph-theoretic approach. The results of the forward simulation are pressure, and flow rate, given all the input parameters. The parameter estimation portion of nSIGHTS uses a perturbation-based approach to interpret the best-fit well and reservoir parameters, given an observed dataset of pressure and flow rate.
n-dimensional Statistical Inverse Graphical Hydraulic Test Simulator
2012-09-12
nSIGHTS (n-dimensional Statistical Inverse Graphical Hydraulic Test Simulator) is a comprehensive well test analysis software package. It provides a user-interface, a well test analysis model and many tools to analyze both field and simulated data. The well test analysis model simulates a single-phase, one-dimensional, radial/non-radial flow regime, with a borehole at the center of the modeled flow system. nSIGHTS solves the radially symmetric n-dimensional forward flow problem using a solver based on a graph-theoretic approach.more » The results of the forward simulation are pressure, and flow rate, given all the input parameters. The parameter estimation portion of nSIGHTS uses a perturbation-based approach to interpret the best-fit well and reservoir parameters, given an observed dataset of pressure and flow rate.« less
Statistical analysis of test data for APM rod issue
Edwards, T.B.; Harris, S.P.; Reeve, C.P.
1992-05-01
The uncertainty associated with the use of the K-Reactor axial power monitors (APMs) to measure roof-top-ratios is investigated in this report. Internal heating test data acquired under both DC-flow conditions and AC-flow conditions have been analyzed. These tests were conducted to simulate gamma heating at the lower power levels planned for reactor operation. The objective of this statistical analysis is to investigate the relationship between the observed and true roof-top-ratio (RTR) values and associated uncertainties at power levels within this lower operational range. Conditional on a given, known power level, a prediction interval for the true RTR value corresponding to a new, observed RTR is given. This is done for a range of power levels. Estimates of total system uncertainty are also determined by combining the analog-to-digital converter uncertainty with the results from the test data.
Statistical Tests of Conditional Independence between Responses and/or Response Times on Test Items
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van der Linden, Wim J.; Glas, Cees A. W.
2010-01-01
Three plausible assumptions of conditional independence in a hierarchical model for responses and response times on test items are identified. For each of the assumptions, a Lagrange multiplier test of the null hypothesis of conditional independence against a parametric alternative is derived. The tests have closed-form statistics that are easy to…
Quantum Statistical Testing of a Quantum Random Number Generator
Humble, Travis S
2014-01-01
The unobservable elements in a quantum technology, e.g., the quantum state, complicate system verification against promised behavior. Using model-based system engineering, we present methods for verifying the opera- tion of a prototypical quantum random number generator. We begin with the algorithmic design of the QRNG followed by the synthesis of its physical design requirements. We next discuss how quantum statistical testing can be used to verify device behavior as well as detect device bias. We conclude by highlighting how system design and verification methods must influence effort to certify future quantum technologies.
Statistical tests for power-law cross-correlated processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Podobnik, Boris; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene
2011-12-01
For stationary time series, the cross-covariance and the cross-correlation as functions of time lag n serve to quantify the similarity of two time series. The latter measure is also used to assess whether the cross-correlations are statistically significant. For nonstationary time series, the analogous measures are detrended cross-correlations analysis (DCCA) and the recently proposed detrended cross-correlation coefficient, ρDCCA(T,n), where T is the total length of the time series and n the window size. For ρDCCA(T,n), we numerically calculated the Cauchy inequality -1≤ρDCCA(T,n)≤1. Here we derive -1≤ρDCCA(T,n)≤1 for a standard variance-covariance approach and for a detrending approach. For overlapping windows, we find the range of ρDCCA within which the cross-correlations become statistically significant. For overlapping windows we numerically determine—and for nonoverlapping windows we derive—that the standard deviation of ρDCCA(T,n) tends with increasing T to 1/T. Using ρDCCA(T,n) we show that the Chinese financial market's tendency to follow the U.S. market is extremely weak. We also propose an additional statistical test that can be used to quantify the existence of cross-correlations between two power-law correlated time series.
Statistical tests for power-law cross-correlated processes.
Podobnik, Boris; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene
2011-12-01
For stationary time series, the cross-covariance and the cross-correlation as functions of time lag n serve to quantify the similarity of two time series. The latter measure is also used to assess whether the cross-correlations are statistically significant. For nonstationary time series, the analogous measures are detrended cross-correlations analysis (DCCA) and the recently proposed detrended cross-correlation coefficient, ρ(DCCA)(T,n), where T is the total length of the time series and n the window size. For ρ(DCCA)(T,n), we numerically calculated the Cauchy inequality -1 ≤ ρ(DCCA)(T,n) ≤ 1. Here we derive -1 ≤ ρ DCCA)(T,n) ≤ 1 for a standard variance-covariance approach and for a detrending approach. For overlapping windows, we find the range of ρ(DCCA) within which the cross-correlations become statistically significant. For overlapping windows we numerically determine-and for nonoverlapping windows we derive--that the standard deviation of ρ(DCCA)(T,n) tends with increasing T to 1/T. Using ρ(DCCA)(T,n) we show that the Chinese financial market's tendency to follow the U.S. market is extremely weak. We also propose an additional statistical test that can be used to quantify the existence of cross-correlations between two power-law correlated time series. PMID:22304166
Jones, P L; Swain, W T; Trammell, C J
1999-01-01
When a population is too large for exhaustive study, as is the case for all possible uses of a software system, a statistically correct sample must be drawn as a basis for inferences about the population. A Markov chain usage model is an engineering formalism that represents the population of possible uses for which a product is to be tested. In statistical testing of software based on a Markov chain usage model, the rich body of analytical results available for Markov chains provides numerous insights that can be used in both product development and test planing. A usage model is based on specifications rather than code, so insights that result from model building can inform product decisions in the early stages of a project when the opportunity to prevent problems is the greatest. Statistical testing based on a usage model provides a sound scientific basis for quantifying the reliability of software. PMID:10459417
Spatial patterns of nonstationarity: does the statistical test matter?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cahill, A. T.; Faloon, A.; Brumbelow, J. K.
2012-12-01
In many regions, extreme rainfalls are generated by large-scale weather features which are significantly larger than the separation among the set of rain gages in the region; it would be expected therefore that these rain gages would exhibit similar statistical behavior. When time series of extreme rainfalls measured at these gages are tested individually for nonstationarity, however, it is often found that any spatial pattern of the nonstationarity is poorly defined. The fact that extremes of rainfall at one location are increasing in time is not strongly predictive of the behavior of the extreme rainfall at neighboring rain gages, which may be increasing, decreasing or unchanging, when the individual time series are considered by themselves. Using rainfall data sets from the southern United States as a test case, we present work on detection of nonstationarity in rainfall extremes which takes into account the disparate answers individual tests of nonstationarity can give, given our assumption of larger-scale precipitation fields driving the behavior of point observations.
Testing the validity of Bose-Einstein statistics in molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cancio Pastor, P.; Galli, I.; Giusfredi, G.; Mazzotti, D.; De Natale, P.
2015-12-01
The search for small violations of the validity of the symmetrization postulate and of the spin-statistics connection (SSC) has been addressed in the last four decades by experimental tests performed in different physical systems of identical fermions or bosons. In parallel and consequently, theories extending the quantum mechanics to a more general level have been proposed to explain such possible violations. In this paper, we present the most stringent test to a possible violation of the SSC under permutation of the bosonic 16O nuclei in the 12CO162 molecule. An upper limit of 3.8 ×10-12 for an SSC-anomalous CO2 molecule is obtained using saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the SSC-forbidden (0001 -0000 ) R (25) rovibrational transition of 12CO162 at a 4.25 -μ m wavelength. Quantum mechanics implications of this result are discussed in the frame of the q -mutator theory. Finally, the perspective of stringent experimental tests of the symmetrization postulate in molecules that contain three or more identical nuclei is discussed.
Ergodicity testing for anomalous diffusion: Small sample statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janczura, Joanna; Weron, Aleksander
2015-04-01
The analysis of trajectories recorded in experiments often requires calculating time averages instead of ensemble averages. According to the Boltzmann hypothesis, they are equivalent only under the assumption of ergodicity. In this paper, we implement tools that allow to study ergodic properties. This analysis is conducted in two classes of anomalous diffusion processes: fractional Brownian motion and subordinated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. We show that only first of them is ergodic. We demonstrate this by applying rigorous statistical methods: mean square displacement, confidence intervals, and dynamical functional test. Our methodology is universal and can be implemented for analysis of many experimental data not only if a large sample is available but also when there are only few trajectories recorded.
Ergodicity testing for anomalous diffusion: small sample statistics.
Janczura, Joanna; Weron, Aleksander
2015-04-14
The analysis of trajectories recorded in experiments often requires calculating time averages instead of ensemble averages. According to the Boltzmann hypothesis, they are equivalent only under the assumption of ergodicity. In this paper, we implement tools that allow to study ergodic properties. This analysis is conducted in two classes of anomalous diffusion processes: fractional Brownian motion and subordinated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. We show that only first of them is ergodic. We demonstrate this by applying rigorous statistical methods: mean square displacement, confidence intervals, and dynamical functional test. Our methodology is universal and can be implemented for analysis of many experimental data not only if a large sample is available but also when there are only few trajectories recorded. PMID:25877558
Testing Punctuated Equilibrium Theory Using Evolutionary Activity Statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woodberry, O. G.; Korb, K. B.; Nicholson, A. E.
The Punctuated Equilibrium hypothesis (Eldredge and Gould,1972) asserts that most evolutionary change occurs during geologically rapid speciation events, with species exhibiting stasis most of the time. Punctuated Equilibrium is a natural extension of Mayr's theories on peripatric speciation via the founder effect, (Mayr, 1963; Eldredge and Gould, 1972) which associates changes in diversity to a population bottleneck. That is, while the formation of a foundation bottleneck brings an initial loss of genetic variation, it may subsequently result in the emergence of a child species distinctly different from its parent species. In this paper we adapt Bedau's evolutionary activity statistics (Bedau and Packard, 1991) to test these effects in an ALife simulation of speciation. We find a relative increase in evolutionary activity during speciations events, indicating that punctuation is occurring.
Statistical methods for the blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test
Frome, E.L.; Smith, M.H.; Littlefield, L.G.
1996-10-01
The blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) is a modification of the standard lymphocyte proliferation test that is used to identify persons who may have chronic beryllium disease. A major problem in the interpretation of BeLPT test results is outlying data values among the replicate well counts ({approx}7%). A log-linear regression model is used to describe the expected well counts for each set of Be exposure conditions, and the variance of the well counts is proportional to the square of the expected count. Two outlier-resistant regression methods are used to estimate stimulation indices (SIs) and the coefficient of variation. The first approach uses least absolute values (LAV) on the log of the well counts as a method for estimation; the second approach uses a resistant regression version of maximum quasi-likelihood estimation. A major advantage of these resistant methods is that they make it unnecessary to identify and delete outliers. These two new methods for the statistical analysis of the BeLPT data and the current outlier rejection method are applied to 173 BeLPT assays. We strongly recommend the LAV method for routine analysis of the BeLPT. Outliers are important when trying to identify individuals with beryllium hypersensitivity, since these individuals typically have large positive SI values. A new method for identifying large SIs using combined data from the nonexposed group and the beryllium workers is proposed. The log(SI)s are described with a Gaussian distribution with location and scale parameters estimated using resistant methods. This approach is applied to the test data and results are compared with those obtained from the current method. 24 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Namba, Kazuteru; Ito, Hideo
This paper proposes a method providing efficient test compression. The proposed method is for robust testable path delay fault testing with scan design facilitating two-pattern testing. In the proposed method, test data are interleaved before test compression using statistical coding. This paper also presents test architecture for two-pattern testing using the proposed method. The proposed method is experimentally evaluated from several viewpoints such as compression rates, test application time and area overhead. For robust testable path delay fault testing on 11 out of 20 ISCAS89 benchmark circuits, the proposed method provides better compression rates than the existing methods such as Huffman coding, run-length coding, Golomb coding, frequency-directed run-length (FDR) coding and variable-length input Huffman coding (VIHC).
The association between size of test chamber and patch test reaction: a statistical reanalysis.
Gefeller, O; Pfahlberg, A; Geier, J; Brasch, J; Uter, W
1999-01-01
A recent study by Brasch and co-workers reported on the association between size of test chamber and patch test reaction. The investigators interpreted their data on 495 patients as having conclusively shown that standard preparations of fragrance mix, wool wax alcohols, Kathon CG and formaldehyde led to more positive test reactions when large Finn Chambers were used for patch testing. We have scrutinized the statistical aspects of this study and conclude that the authors should have adopted a statistical approach suitable to analyse dependent samples. After explaining the correct methodological way of dealing with quadratic contingency tables formed by 2 dependent samples, we reanalyze the data accordingly and compare the results to those of the original paper. Based on this reanalysis, the conclusions are more complex: the reaction pattern for the fragrance mix and wool wax alcohols is significantly different between small and large test chambers; however, this discrepancy arises primarily from changing weak positive reactions with small chambers to strong positive reactions with large chambers. For formaldehyde, no relationship between chamber size and patch test reaction was found in the data, while for Kathon CG, statistical evidence is borderline that more positive test reactions are yielded by large test chambers than by small ones. PMID:9928799
A statistical design for testing apomictic diversification through linkage analysis.
Zeng, Yanru; Hou, Wei; Song, Shuang; Feng, Sisi; Shen, Lin; Xia, Guohua; Wu, Rongling
2014-03-01
The capacity of apomixis to generate maternal clones through seed reproduction has made it a useful characteristic for the fixation of heterosis in plant breeding. It has been observed that apomixis displays pronounced intra- and interspecific diversification, but the genetic mechanisms underlying this diversification remains elusive, obstructing the exploitation of this phenomenon in practical breeding programs. By capitalizing on molecular information in mapping populations, we describe and assess a statistical design that deploys linkage analysis to estimate and test the pattern and extent of apomictic differences at various levels from genotypes to species. The design is based on two reciprocal crosses between two individuals each chosen from a hermaphrodite or monoecious species. A multinomial distribution likelihood is constructed by combining marker information from two crosses. The EM algorithm is implemented to estimate the rate of apomixis and test its difference between two plant populations or species as the parents. The design is validated by computer simulation. A real data analysis of two reciprocal crosses between hickory (Carya cathayensis) and pecan (C. illinoensis) demonstrates the utilization and usefulness of the design in practice. The design provides a tool to address fundamental and applied questions related to the evolution and breeding of apomixis. PMID:23271157
Statistical tests of additional plate boundaries from plate motion inversions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stein, S.; Gordon, R. G.
1984-01-01
The application of the F-ratio test, a standard statistical technique, to the results of relative plate motion inversions has been investigated. The method tests whether the improvement in fit of the model to the data resulting from the addition of another plate to the model is greater than that expected purely by chance. This approach appears to be useful in determining whether additional plate boundaries are justified. Previous results have been confirmed favoring separate North American and South American plates with a boundary located beween 30 N and the equator. Using Chase's global relative motion data, it is shown that in addition to separate West African and Somalian plates, separate West Indian and Australian plates, with a best-fitting boundary between 70 E and 90 E, can be resolved. These results are generally consistent with the observation that the Indian plate's internal deformation extends somewhat westward of the Ninetyeast Ridge. The relative motion pole is similar to Minster and Jordan's and predicts the NW-SE compression observed in earthquake mechanisms near the Ninetyeast Ridge.
A Unifying Framework for Teaching Nonparametric Statistical Tests
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bargagliotti, Anna E.; Orrison, Michael E.
2014-01-01
Increased importance is being placed on statistics at both the K-12 and undergraduate level. Research divulging effective methods to teach specific statistical concepts is still widely sought after. In this paper, we focus on best practices for teaching topics in nonparametric statistics at the undergraduate level. To motivate the work, we…
Shaikh, Masood Ali
2016-04-01
Statistical tests help infer meaningful conclusions from studies conducted and data collected. This descriptive study analyzed the type of statistical tests used and the statistical software utilized for analysis reported in the original articles published in 2014 by the three Medline-indexed journals of Pakistan. Cumulatively, 466 original articles were published in 2014. The most frequently reported statistical tests for original articles by all three journals were bivariate parametric and non-parametric tests i.e. involving comparisons between two groups e.g. Chi-square test, t-test, and various types of correlations. Cumulatively, 201 (43.1%) articles used these tests. SPSS was the primary choice for statistical analysis, as it was exclusively used in 374 (80.3%) original articles. There has been a substantial increase in the number of articles published, and in the sophistication of statistical tests used in the articles published in the Pakistani Medline indexed journals in 2014, compared to 2007. PMID:27122277
Development and testing of improved statistical wind power forecasting methods.
Mendes, J.; Bessa, R.J.; Keko, H.; Sumaili, J.; Miranda, V.; Ferreira, C.; Gama, J.; Botterud, A.; Zhou, Z.; Wang, J.
2011-12-06
Wind power forecasting (WPF) provides important inputs to power system operators and electricity market participants. It is therefore not surprising that WPF has attracted increasing interest within the electric power industry. In this report, we document our research on improving statistical WPF algorithms for point, uncertainty, and ramp forecasting. Below, we provide a brief introduction to the research presented in the following chapters. For a detailed overview of the state-of-the-art in wind power forecasting, we refer to [1]. Our related work on the application of WPF in operational decisions is documented in [2]. Point forecasts of wind power are highly dependent on the training criteria used in the statistical algorithms that are used to convert weather forecasts and observational data to a power forecast. In Chapter 2, we explore the application of information theoretic learning (ITL) as opposed to the classical minimum square error (MSE) criterion for point forecasting. In contrast to the MSE criterion, ITL criteria do not assume a Gaussian distribution of the forecasting errors. We investigate to what extent ITL criteria yield better results. In addition, we analyze time-adaptive training algorithms and how they enable WPF algorithms to cope with non-stationary data and, thus, to adapt to new situations without requiring additional offline training of the model. We test the new point forecasting algorithms on two wind farms located in the U.S. Midwest. Although there have been advancements in deterministic WPF, a single-valued forecast cannot provide information on the dispersion of observations around the predicted value. We argue that it is essential to generate, together with (or as an alternative to) point forecasts, a representation of the wind power uncertainty. Wind power uncertainty representation can take the form of probabilistic forecasts (e.g., probability density function, quantiles), risk indices (e.g., prediction risk index) or scenarios
Statistical tests for detecting movements in repeatedly measured geodetic networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niemeier, W.
1981-01-01
Geodetic networks with two or more measuring epochs can be found rather frequently, for example in connection with the investigation of recent crustal movements, in the field of monitoring problems in engineering surveying or in ordinary control networks. For these repeatedly measured networks the so-called congruency problem has to be solved, i.e. possible changes in the geometry of the net have to be found. In practice distortions of bench marks and an extension or densification of the net (differences in the 1st-order design) and/or changes in the measuring elements or techniques (differences in the 2nd-order design) can frequently be found between different epochs. In this paper a rigorous mathematical procedure is presented for this congruency analysis of multiple measured networks, taking into account these above-mentioned differences in the network design. As a first step, statistical tests are carried out to detect the epochs with departures from congruency. As a second step the individual points with significant movements within these critical epochs can be identified. A numerical example for the analysis of a monitoring network with 9 epochs is given.
Testing the Limits of Statistical Learning for Word Segmentation
Johnson, Elizabeth K.; Tyler, Michael D.
2009-01-01
Past research has demonstrated that infants can rapidly extract syllable distribution information from an artificial language and use this knowledge to infer likely word boundaries in speech. However, artificial languages are extremely simplified with respect to natural language. In this study, we ask whether infants’ ability to track transitional probabilities between syllables in an artificial language can scale up to the challenge of natural language. We do so by testing both 5.5- and 8-month-olds’ ability to segment an artificial language containing four words of uniform length (all CVCV) or four words of varying length (two CVCV, two CVCVCV). The transitional probability cues to word boundaries were held equal across the two languages. Both age groups segmented the language containing words of uniform length, demonstrating that even 5.5-month-olds are extremely sensitive to the conditional probabilities in their environment. However, neither age group succeeded in segmenting the language containing words of varying length, despite the fact that the transitional probability cues defining word boundaries were equally strong in the two languages. We conclude that infants’ statistical learning abilities may not be as robust as earlier studies have suggested. PMID:20136930
Statistical Measures, Hypotheses, and Tests in Applied Research
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Saville, David J.; Rowarth, Jacqueline S.
2008-01-01
This article reviews and discusses the use of statistical concepts in a natural resources and life sciences journal on the basis of a census of the articles published in a recent issue of the "Agronomy Journal" and presents a flow chart and a graph that display the inter-relationships between the most commonly used statistical terms. It also…
Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.
TESTING THE DARK ENERGY WITH GRAVITATIONAL LENSING STATISTICS
Cao Shuo; Zhu Zonghong; Covone, Giovanni
2012-08-10
We study the redshift distribution of two samples of early-type gravitational lenses, extracted from a larger collection of 122 systems, to constrain the cosmological constant in the {Lambda}CDM model and the parameters of a set of alternative dark energy models (XCDM, Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati, and Ricci dark energy models), in a spatially flat universe. The likelihood is maximized for {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.70 {+-} 0.09 when considering the sample excluding the Sloan Lens ACS systems (known to be biased toward large image-separation lenses) and no-evolution, and {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.81 {+-} 0.05 when limiting to gravitational lenses with image separation {Delta}{theta} > 2'' and no-evolution. In both cases, results accounting for galaxy evolution are consistent within 1{sigma}. The present test supports the accelerated expansion, by excluding the null hypothesis (i.e., {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0) at more than 4{sigma}, regardless of the chosen sample and assumptions on the galaxy evolution. A comparison between competitive world models is performed by means of the Bayesian information criterion. This shows that the simplest cosmological constant model-that has only one free parameter-is still preferred by the available data on the redshift distribution of gravitational lenses. We perform an analysis of the possible systematic effects, finding that the systematic errors due to sample incompleteness, galaxy evolution, and model uncertainties approximately equal the statistical errors, with present-day data. We find that the largest sources of systemic errors are the dynamical normalization and the high-velocity cutoff factor, followed by the faint-end slope of the velocity dispersion function.
Understanding the Sampling Distribution and Its Use in Testing Statistical Significance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Breunig, Nancy A.
Despite the increasing criticism of statistical significance testing by researchers, particularly in the publication of the 1994 American Psychological Association's style manual, statistical significance test results are still popular in journal articles. For this reason, it remains important to understand the logic of inferential statistics. A…
Ensuring Positiveness of the Scaled Difference Chi-Square Test Statistic
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Satorra, Albert; Bentler, Peter M.
2010-01-01
A scaled difference test statistic T[tilde][subscript d] that can be computed from standard software of structural equation models (SEM) by hand calculations was proposed in Satorra and Bentler (Psychometrika 66:507-514, 2001). The statistic T[tilde][subscript d] is asymptotically equivalent to the scaled difference test statistic T[bar][subscript…
Stork, LeAnna M.; Gennings, Chris; Carchman, Richard; Carter, Jr., Walter H.; Pounds, Joel G.; Mumtaz, Moiz
2006-12-01
Several assumptions, defined and undefined, are used in the toxicity assessment of chemical mixtures. In scientific practice mixture components in the low-dose region, particularly subthreshold doses, are often assumed to behave additively (i.e., zero interaction) based on heuristic arguments. This assumption has important implications in the practice of risk assessment, but has not been experimentally tested. We have developed methodology to test for additivity in the sense of Berenbaum (Advances in Cancer Research, 1981), based on the statistical equivalence testing literature where the null hypothesis of interaction is rejected for the alternative hypothesis of additivity when data support the claim. The implication of this approach is that conclusions of additivity are made with a false positive rate controlled by the experimenter. The claim of additivity is based on prespecified additivity margins, which are chosen using expert biological judgment such that small deviations from additivity, which are not considered to be biologically important, are not statistically significant. This approach is in contrast to the usual hypothesis-testing framework that assumes additivity in the null hypothesis and rejects when there is significant evidence of interaction. In this scenario, failure to reject may be due to lack of statistical power making the claim of additivity problematic. The proposed method is illustrated in a mixture of five organophosphorus pesticides that were experimentally evaluated alone and at relevant mixing ratios. Motor activity was assessed in adult male rats following acute exposure. Four low-dose mixture groups were evaluated. Evidence of additivity is found in three of the four low-dose mixture groups.The proposed method tests for additivity of the whole mixture and does not take into account subset interactions (e.g., synergistic, antagonistic) that may have occurred and cancelled each other out.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sullivan, Jeremy R.
2001-01-01
Summarizes the post-1994 literature in psychology and education regarding statistical significance testing, emphasizing limitations and defenses of statistical testing and alternatives or supplements to statistical significance testing. (SLD)
Statistical algorithms for a comprehensive test ban treaty discrimination framework
Foote, N.D.; Anderson, D.N.; Higbee, K.T.; Miller, N.E.; Redgate, T.; Rohay, A.C.; Hagedorn, D.N.
1996-10-01
Seismic discrimination is the process of identifying a candidate seismic event as an earthquake or explosion using information from seismic waveform features (seismic discriminants). In the CTBT setting, low energy seismic activity must be detected and identified. A defensible CTBT discrimination decision requires an understanding of false-negative (declaring an event to be an earthquake given it is an explosion) and false-position (declaring an event to be an explosion given it is an earthquake) rates. These rates are derived from a statistical discrimination framework. A discrimination framework can be as simple as a single statistical algorithm or it can be a mathematical construct that integrates many different types of statistical algorithms and CTBT technologies. In either case, the result is the identification of an event and the numerical assessment of the accuracy of an identification, that is, false-negative and false-positive rates. In Anderson et al., eight statistical discrimination algorithms are evaluated relative to their ability to give results that effectively contribute to a decision process and to be interpretable with physical (seismic) theory. These algorithms can be discrimination frameworks individually or components of a larger framework. The eight algorithms are linear discrimination (LDA), quadratic discrimination (QDA), variably regularized discrimination (VRDA), flexible discrimination (FDA), logistic discrimination, K-th nearest neighbor (KNN), kernel discrimination, and classification and regression trees (CART). In this report, the performance of these eight algorithms, as applied to regional seismic data, is documented. Based on the findings in Anderson et al. and this analysis: CART is an appropriate algorithm for an automated CTBT setting.
Statistical Revisions in the Washington Pre-College Testing Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beanblossom, Gary F.; And Others
The Washington Pre-College (WPC) program decided, in fall 1967, to inaugurate in April 1968 the testing of high school students during the spring of their junior year. The advantages of this shift from senior year testing were to provide guidance data for earlier, more extensive use in high school and to make these data available to colleges at…
Statistics of sampling for microbiological testing of foodborne pathogens
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Despite the many recent advances in protocols for testing for pathogens in foods, a number of challenges still exist. For example, the microbiological safety of food cannot be completely ensured by testing because microorganisms are not evenly distributed throughout the food. Therefore, since it i...
Estimating Statistical Power When Making Adjustments for Multiple Tests
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Porter, Kristin E.
2016-01-01
In recent years, there has been increasing focus on the issue of multiple hypotheses testing in education evaluation studies. In these studies, researchers are typically interested in testing the effectiveness of an intervention on multiple outcomes, for multiple subgroups, at multiple points in time or across multiple treatment groups. When…
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF 40 CFR 60 COMPLIANCE TEST AUDIT DATA
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides audit materials to organizations conducting compliance tests using EPA Test Methods 6 (SO2), 7 (NOx), 18 (organics by GC/FID), 25 (organics as ppm C), and 26 (HCl). hese audit samples must be analyzed and the results reporte...
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF STATIONARY SOURCE COMPLIANCE TEST AUDIT RESULTS
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides audit materials to organizations conducting compliance tests using EPA Test Methods 6 (SO2), 7 (NOX), 18 (organics by GC/FID), 25 (organics as ppm C), 106 (vinyl chloride) and 26(HCl) and those organizations conducting trial...
Evaluation of a New Mean Scaled and Moment Adjusted Test Statistic for SEM
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tong, Xiaoxiao; Bentler, Peter M.
2013-01-01
Recently a new mean scaled and skewness adjusted test statistic was developed for evaluating structural equation models in small samples and with potentially nonnormal data, but this statistic has received only limited evaluation. The performance of this statistic is compared to normal theory maximum likelihood and 2 well-known robust test…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Monterde-i-Bort, Hector; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Pascual-Llobell, Juan
2010-01-01
The empirical study we present here deals with a pedagogical issue that has not been thoroughly explored up until now in our field. Previous empirical studies in other sectors have identified the opinions of researchers about this topic, showing that completely unacceptable interpretations have been made of significance tests and other statistical…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Purves, L.; Strang, R. F.; Dube, M. P.; Alea, P.; Ferragut, N.; Hershfeld, D.
1983-01-01
The software and procedures of a system of programs used to generate a report of the statistical correlation between NASTRAN modal analysis results and physical tests results from modal surveys are described. Topics discussed include: a mathematical description of statistical correlation, a user's guide for generating a statistical correlation report, a programmer's guide describing the organization and functions of individual programs leading to a statistical correlation report, and a set of examples including complete listings of programs, and input and output data.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Simpson, Robert G.
1981-01-01
Occasionally, differences in test scores seem to indicate that a student performs much better in one reading area than in another when, in reality, the differences may not be statistically significant. The author presents a table in which statistically significant differences between Woodcock test standard scores are identified. (Author)
Detection of Invalid Test Scores: The Usefulness of Simple Nonparametric Statistics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tendeiro, Jorge N.; Meijer, Rob R.
2014-01-01
In recent guidelines for fair educational testing it is advised to check the validity of individual test scores through the use of person-fit statistics. For practitioners it is unclear on the basis of the existing literature which statistic to use. An overview of relatively simple existing nonparametric approaches to identify atypical response…
"What If" Analyses: Ways to Interpret Statistical Significance Test Results Using EXCEL or "R"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ozturk, Elif
2012-01-01
The present paper aims to review two motivations to conduct "what if" analyses using Excel and "R" to understand the statistical significance tests through the sample size context. "What if" analyses can be used to teach students what statistical significance tests really do and in applied research either prospectively to estimate what sample size…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Norris, John M.
2015-01-01
Traditions of statistical significance testing in second language (L2) quantitative research are strongly entrenched in how researchers design studies, select analyses, and interpret results. However, statistical significance tests using "p" values are commonly misinterpreted by researchers, reviewers, readers, and others, leading to…
The Importance of Invariance Procedures as against Tests of Statistical Significance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fish, Larry
A growing controversy surrounds the strict interpretation of statistical significance tests in social research. Statistical significance tests fail in particular to provide estimates for the stability of research results. Methods that do provide such estimates are known as invariance or cross-validation procedures. Invariance analysis is largely…
A Review of Post-1994 Literature on Whether Statistical Significance Tests Should Be Banned.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sullivan, Jeremy R.
This paper summarizes the literature regarding statistical significance testing with an emphasis on: (1) the post-1994 literature in various disciplines; (2) alternatives to statistical significance testing; and (3) literature exploring why researchers have demonstrably failed to be influenced by the 1994 American Psychological Association…
The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST): A Statistical Validation Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Laux, John M.; Newman, Isadore; Brown, Russ
2004-01-01
This study extends the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST; M. L. Selzer, 1971) literature base by examining 4 issues related to the validity of the MAST scores. Specifically, the authors examine the validity of the MAST scores in light of the presence of impression management, participant demographic variables, and item endorsement…
Testing of hypotheses about altitude decompression sickness by statistical analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Van Liew, H. D.; Burkard, M. E.; Conkin, J.; Powell, M. R. (Principal Investigator)
1996-01-01
This communication extends a statistical analysis of forced-descent decompression sickness at altitude in exercising subjects (J Appl Physiol 1994; 76:2726-2734) with a data subset having an additional explanatory variable, rate of ascent. The original explanatory variables for risk-function analysis were environmental pressure of the altitude, duration of exposure, and duration of pure-O2 breathing before exposure; the best fit was consistent with the idea that instantaneous risk increases linearly as altitude exposure continues. Use of the new explanatory variable improved the fit of the smaller data subset, as indicated by log likelihood. Also, with ascent rate accounted for, replacement of the term for linear accrual of instantaneous risk by a term for rise and then decay made a highly significant improvement upon the original model (log likelihood increased by 37 log units). The authors conclude that a more representative data set and removal of the variability attributable to ascent rate allowed the rise-and-decay mechanism, which is expected from theory and observations, to become manifest.
Statistical analysis of shard and canister glass correlation test
Pulsipher, B.
1990-12-01
The vitrification facility at West Valley, New York will be used to incorporate nuclear waste into a vitrified waste form. Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) will be used to determine the acceptability of the waste form product. These specifications require chemical characterization of the waste form produced. West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) intends to characterize canister contents by obtaining shard samples from the top of the canisters prior to final sealing. A study was conducted to determine whether shard samples taken from the top of canisters filled with vitrified nuclear waste could be considered representative and therefore used to characterize the elemental composition of the entire canister contents. Three canisters produced during the SF-12 melter run conducted at WVNS were thoroughly sampled by core drilling at several axial and radial locations and by obtaining shard samples from the top of the canisters. Chemical analyses were performed and the resulting data were statistically analyzed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). If one can assume that the process controls employed by WVNS during the SF-12 run are representative of those to be employed during future melter runs, shard samples can be used to characterize the canister contents. However, if batch-to-batch variations cannot be controlled to the acceptable levels observed from the SF-12 data, the representativeness of shard samples will be in question. The estimates of process and within-canister variations provided herein will prove valuable in determining the required frequency and number of shard samples to meet waste form qualification objectives.
A Statistical Test of Uniformity in Solar Cycle Indices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hathaway David H.
2012-01-01
Several indices are used to characterize the solar activity cycle. Key among these are: the International Sunspot Number, the Group Sunspot Number, Sunspot Area, and 10.7 cm Radio Flux. A valuable aspect of these indices is the length of the record -- many decades and many (different) 11-year cycles. However, this valuable length-of-record attribute has an inherent problem in that it requires many different observers and observing systems. This can lead to non-uniformity in the datasets and subsequent erroneous conclusions about solar cycle behavior. The sunspot numbers are obtained by counting sunspot groups and individual sunspots on a daily basis. This suggests that the day-to-day and month-to-month variations in these numbers should follow Poisson Statistics and be proportional to the square-root of the sunspot numbers themselves. Examining the historical records of these indices indicates that this is indeed the case - even with Sunspot Area and 10.7 cm Radio Flux. The ratios of the RMS variations to the square-root of the indices themselves are relatively constant with little variation over the phase of each solar cycle or from small to large solar cycles. There are, however, important step-like changes in these ratios associated with changes in observer and/or observer system. Here we show how these variations can be used to construct more uniform datasets.
Spatial factors affecting statistical power in testing marine fauna displacement.
Pérez Lapeña, B; Wijnberg, K M; Stein, A; Hulscher, S J M H
2011-10-01
Impacts of offshore wind farms on marine fauna are largely unknown. Therefore, one commonly adheres to the precautionary principle, which states that one shall take action to avoid potentially damaging impacts on marine ecosystems, even when full scientific certainty is lacking. We implement this principle by means of a statistical power analysis including spatial factors. Implementation is based on geostatistical simulations, accommodating for zero-inflation in species data. We investigate scenarios in which an impact assessment still has to be carried out. Our results show that the environmental conditions at the time of the survey is the most influential factor on power. This is followed by survey effort and species abundance in the reference situation. Spatial dependence in species numbers at local scales affects power, but its effect is smaller for the scenarios investigated. Our findings can be used to improve effectiveness of the economical investment for monitoring surveys. In addition, unnecessary extra survey effort, and related costs, can be avoided when spatial dependence in species abundance is present and no improvement on power is achieved. PMID:22073657
Nonparametric statistical tests for the continuous data: the basic concept and the practical use.
Nahm, Francis Sahngun
2016-02-01
Conventional statistical tests are usually called parametric tests. Parametric tests are used more frequently than nonparametric tests in many medical articles, because most of the medical researchers are familiar with and the statistical software packages strongly support parametric tests. Parametric tests require important assumption; assumption of normality which means that distribution of sample means is normally distributed. However, parametric test can be misleading when this assumption is not satisfied. In this circumstance, nonparametric tests are the alternative methods available, because they do not required the normality assumption. Nonparametric tests are the statistical methods based on signs and ranks. In this article, we will discuss about the basic concepts and practical use of nonparametric tests for the guide to the proper use. PMID:26885295
Nonparametric statistical tests for the continuous data: the basic concept and the practical use
2016-01-01
Conventional statistical tests are usually called parametric tests. Parametric tests are used more frequently than nonparametric tests in many medical articles, because most of the medical researchers are familiar with and the statistical software packages strongly support parametric tests. Parametric tests require important assumption; assumption of normality which means that distribution of sample means is normally distributed. However, parametric test can be misleading when this assumption is not satisfied. In this circumstance, nonparametric tests are the alternative methods available, because they do not required the normality assumption. Nonparametric tests are the statistical methods based on signs and ranks. In this article, we will discuss about the basic concepts and practical use of nonparametric tests for the guide to the proper use. PMID:26885295
Development and performances of a high statistics PMT test facility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maximiliano Mollo, Carlos
2016-04-01
Since almost a century photomultipliers have been the main sensors for photon detection in nuclear and astro-particle physics experiments. In recent years the search for cosmic neutrinos gave birth to enormous size experiments (Antares, Kamiokande, Super-Kamiokande, etc.) and even kilometric scale experiments as ICECUBE and the future KM3NeT. A very large volume neutrino telescope like KM3NeT requires several hundreds of thousands photomultipliers. The performance of the telescope strictly depends on the performance of each PMT. For this reason, it is mandatory to measure the characteristics of each single sensor. The characterization of a PMT normally requires more than 8 hours mostly due to the darkening step. This means that it is not feasible to measure the parameters of each PMT of a neutrino telescope without a system able to test more than one PMT simultaneously. For this application, we have designed, developed and realized a system able to measure the main characteristics of 62 3-inch photomultipliers simultaneously. Two measurement sessions per day are possible. In this work, we describe the design constraints and how they have been satisfied. Finally, we show the performance of the system and the first results coming from the test of few thousand tested PMTs.
1993-02-01
In 1984, 99% of abortions conducted in Bombay, India, were of female fetuses. In 1986-87, 30,000-50,000 female fetuses were aborted in India. In 1987-88, 7 Delhi clinics conducted 13,000 sex determination tests. Thus, discrimination against females begins before birth in India. Some states (Maharashtra, Goa, and Gujarat) have drafted legislation to prevent the use of prenatal diagnostic tests (e.g., ultrasonography) for sex determination purposes. Families make decisions about an infant's nutrition based on the infant's sex so it is not surprising to see a higher incidence of morbidity among girls than boys (e.g., for respiratory infections in 1985, 55.5% vs. 27.3%). Consequently, they are more likely to die than boys. Even though vasectomy is simpler and safer than tubectomy, the government promotes female sterilizations. The percentage of all sexual sterilizations being tubectomy has increased steadily from 84% to 94% (1986-90). Family planning programs focus on female contraceptive methods, despite the higher incidence of adverse health effects from female methods (e.g., IUD causes pain and heavy bleeding). Some women advocates believe the effects to be so great that India should ban contraceptives and injectable contraceptives. The maternal mortality rate is quite high (460/100,000 live births), equaling a lifetime risk of 1:18 of a pregnancy-related death. 70% of these maternal deaths are preventable. Leading causes of maternal deaths in India are anemia, hemorrhage, eclampsia, sepsis, and abortion. Most pregnant women do not receive prenatal care. Untrained personnel attend about 70% of deliveries in rural areas and 29% in urban areas. Appropriate health services and other interventions would prevent the higher age specific death rates for females between 0 and 35 years old. Even though the government does provide maternal and child health services, it needs to stop decreasing resource allocate for health and start increasing it. PMID:12286355
Statistic Tests Aided Multi-Source dem Fusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, C. Y.; Tsay, J. R.
2016-06-01
Since the land surface has been changing naturally or manually, DEMs have to be updated continually to satisfy applications using the latest DEM at present. However, the cost of wide-area DEM production is too high. DEMs, which cover the same area but have different quality, grid sizes, generation time or production methods, are called as multi-source DEMs. It provides a solution to fuse multi-source DEMs for low cost DEM updating. The coverage of DEM has to be classified according to slope and visibility in advance, because the precisions of DEM grid points in different areas with different slopes and visibilities are not the same. Next, difference DEM (dDEM) is computed by subtracting two DEMs. It is assumed that dDEM, which only contains random error, obeys normal distribution. Therefore, student test is implemented for blunder detection and three kinds of rejected grid points are generated. First kind of rejected grid points is blunder points and has to be eliminated. Another one is the ones in change areas, where the latest data are regarded as their fusion result. Moreover, the DEM grid points of type I error are correct data and have to be reserved for fusion. The experiment result shows that using DEMs with terrain classification can obtain better blunder detection result. A proper setting of significant levels (α) can detect real blunders without creating too many type I errors. Weighting averaging is chosen as DEM fusion algorithm. The priori precisions estimated by our national DEM production guideline are applied to define weights. Fisher's test is implemented to prove that the priori precisions correspond to the RMSEs of blunder detection result.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xu, Kuan-Man
2006-01-01
A new method is proposed to compare statistical differences between summary histograms, which are the histograms summed over a large ensemble of individual histograms. It consists of choosing a distance statistic for measuring the difference between summary histograms and using a bootstrap procedure to calculate the statistical significance level. Bootstrapping is an approach to statistical inference that makes few assumptions about the underlying probability distribution that describes the data. Three distance statistics are compared in this study. They are the Euclidean distance, the Jeffries-Matusita distance and the Kuiper distance. The data used in testing the bootstrap method are satellite measurements of cloud systems called cloud objects. Each cloud object is defined as a contiguous region/patch composed of individual footprints or fields of view. A histogram of measured values over footprints is generated for each parameter of each cloud object and then summary histograms are accumulated over all individual histograms in a given cloud-object size category. The results of statistical hypothesis tests using all three distances as test statistics are generally similar, indicating the validity of the proposed method. The Euclidean distance is determined to be most suitable after comparing the statistical tests of several parameters with distinct probability distributions among three cloud-object size categories. Impacts on the statistical significance levels resulting from differences in the total lengths of satellite footprint data between two size categories are also discussed.
Evaluation of heart failure biomarker tests: a survey of statistical considerations.
De, Arkendra; Meier, Kristen; Tang, Rong; Li, Meijuan; Gwise, Thomas; Gomatam, Shanti; Pennello, Gene
2013-08-01
Biomarkers assessing cardiovascular function can encompass a wide range of biochemical or physiological measurements. Medical tests that measure biomarkers are typically evaluated for measurement validation and clinical performance in the context of their intended use. General statistical principles for the evaluation of medical tests are discussed in this paper in the context of heart failure. Statistical aspects of study design and analysis to be considered while assessing the quality of measurements and the clinical performance of tests are highlighted. A discussion of statistical considerations for specific clinical uses is also provided. The remarks in this paper mainly focus on methods and considerations for statistical evaluation of medical tests from the perspective of bias and precision. With such an evaluation of performance, healthcare professionals could have information that leads to a better understanding on the strengths and limitations of tests related to heart failure. PMID:23670231
New Statistics for Testing Differential Expression of Pathways from Microarray Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siu, Hoicheong; Dong, Hua; Jin, Li; Xiong, Momiao
Exploring biological meaning from microarray data is very important but remains a great challenge. Here, we developed three new statistics: linear combination test, quadratic test and de-correlation test to identify differentially expressed pathways from gene expression profile. We apply our statistics to two rheumatoid arthritis datasets. Notably, our results reveal three significant pathways and 275 genes in common in two datasets. The pathways we found are meaningful to uncover the disease mechanisms of rheumatoid arthritis, which implies that our statistics are a powerful tool in functional analysis of gene expression data.
Mnemonic Aids during Tests: Worthless Frivolity or Effective Tool in Statistics Education?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Larwin, Karen H.; Larwin, David A.; Gorman, Jennifer
2012-01-01
Researchers have explored many pedagogical approaches in an effort to assist students in finding understanding and comfort in required statistics courses. This study investigates the impact of mnemonic aids used during tests on students' statistics course performance in particular. In addition, the present study explores several hypotheses that…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LeMire, Steven D.
2010-01-01
This paper proposes an argument framework for the teaching of null hypothesis statistical testing and its application in support of research. Elements of the Toulmin (1958) model of argument are used to illustrate the use of p values and Type I and Type II error rates in support of claims about statistical parameters and subject matter research…
Evaluation of Small-Sample Statistics that Test Whether Variables Measure the Same Trait.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rasmussen, Jeffrey Lee
1988-01-01
The performance was studied of five small-sample statistics--by F. M. Lord, W. Kristof, Q. McNemar, R. A. Forsyth and L. S. Feldt, and J. P. Braden--that test whether two variables measure the same trait except for measurement error. Effects of non-normality were investigated. The McNemar statistic was most powerful. (TJH)
Some statistical and regulatory issues in the evaluation of genetic and genomic tests.
Campbell, Gregory
2004-08-01
The genomics revolution is reverberating throughout the worlds of pharmaceutical drugs, genetic testing and statistical science. This revolution, which uses single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gene expression technology, including cDNA and oligonucleotide microarrays, for a range of tests from home-brews to high-complexity lab kits, can allow the selection or exclusion of patients for therapy (responders or poor metabolizers). The wide variety of US regulatory mechanisms for these tests is discussed. Clinical studies to evaluate the performance of such tests need to follow statistical principles for sound diagnostic test design. Statistical methodology to evaluate such studies can be wide ranging, including receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology, logistic regression, discriminant analysis, multiple comparison procedures resampling, Bayesian hierarchical modeling, recursive partitioning, as well as exploratory techniques such as data mining. Recent examples of approved genetic tests are discussed. PMID:15468751
Comment on the asymptotics of a distribution-free goodness of fit test statistic.
Browne, Michael W; Shapiro, Alexander
2015-03-01
In a recent article Jennrich and Satorra (Psychometrika 78: 545-552, 2013) showed that a proof by Browne (British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology 37: 62-83, 1984) of the asymptotic distribution of a goodness of fit test statistic is incomplete because it fails to prove that the orthogonal component function employed is continuous. Jennrich and Satorra (Psychometrika 78: 545-552, 2013) showed how Browne's proof can be completed satisfactorily but this required the development of an extensive and mathematically sophisticated framework for continuous orthogonal component functions. This short note provides a simple proof of the asymptotic distribution of Browne's (British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology 37: 62-83, 1984) test statistic by using an equivalent form of the statistic that does not involve orthogonal component functions and consequently avoids all complicating issues associated with them. PMID:24306556
Fidler, Fiona; Burgman, Mark A; Cumming, Geoff; Buttrose, Robert; Thomason, Neil
2006-10-01
Over the last decade, criticisms of null-hypothesis significance testing have grown dramatically, and several alternative practices, such as confidence intervals, information theoretic, and Bayesian methods, have been advocated. Have these calls for change had an impact on the statistical reporting practices in conservation biology? In 2000 and 2001, 92% of sampled articles in Conservation Biology and Biological Conservation reported results of null-hypothesis tests. In 2005 this figure dropped to 78%. There were corresponding increases in the use of confidence intervals, information theoretic, and Bayesian techniques. Of those articles reporting null-hypothesis testing--which still easily constitute the majority--very few report statistical power (8%) and many misinterpret statistical nonsignificance as evidence for no effect (63%). Overall, results of our survey show some improvements in statistical practice, but further efforts are clearly required to move the discipline toward improved practices. PMID:17002771
An Application of M[subscript 2] Statistic to Evaluate the Fit of Cognitive Diagnostic Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Yanlou; Tian, Wei; Xin, Tao
2016-01-01
The fit of cognitive diagnostic models (CDMs) to response data needs to be evaluated, since CDMs might yield misleading results when they do not fit the data well. Limited-information statistic M[subscript 2] and the associated root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA[subscript 2]) in item factor analysis were extended to evaluate the fit of…
Evaluating Two Models of Collaborative Tests in an Online Introductory Statistics Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Björnsdóttir, Auðbjörg; Garfield, Joan; Everson, Michelle
2015-01-01
This study explored the use of two different types of collaborative tests in an online introductory statistics course. A study was designed and carried out to investigate three research questions: (1) What is the difference in students' learning between using consensus and non-consensus collaborative tests in the online environment?, (2) What is…
What Are Null Hypotheses? The Reasoning Linking Scientific and Statistical Hypothesis Testing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lawson, Anton E.
2008-01-01
We should dispense with use of the confusing term "null hypothesis" in educational research reports. To explain why the term should be dropped, the nature of, and relationship between, scientific and statistical hypothesis testing is clarified by explication of (a) the scientific reasoning used by Gregor Mendel in testing specific…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
White, Desley
2015-01-01
Two practical activities are described, which aim to support critical thinking about statistics as they concern multiple outcomes testing. Formulae are presented in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, which are used to calculate the inflation of error associated with the quantity of tests performed. This is followed by a decision-making exercise, where…
A Statistical Framework for Assessment Using the ETS Major Field Test in Business
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Settlage, Daniel Murray; Settlage, Latisha Ann
2011-01-01
The Major Field Test in Business (MFT-B) is a widely used end-of-program assessment tool; however, several challenges arise when using the test in this capacity. Changing student demographics and the lack of a statistical framework are two of the most vexing issues confronting educators when using the MFT-B for programmatic assessment. The authors…
A Third Moment Adjusted Test Statistic for Small Sample Factor Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Johnny; Bentler, Peter M.
2012-01-01
Goodness-of-fit testing in factor analysis is based on the assumption that the test statistic is asymptotically chi-square, but this property may not hold in small samples even when the factors and errors are normally distributed in the population. Robust methods such as Browne's (1984) asymptotically distribution-free method and Satorra Bentler's…
A Note on Three Statistical Tests in the Logistic Regression DIF Procedure
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paek, Insu
2012-01-01
Although logistic regression became one of the well-known methods in detecting differential item functioning (DIF), its three statistical tests, the Wald, likelihood ratio (LR), and score tests, which are readily available under the maximum likelihood, do not seem to be consistently distinguished in DIF literature. This paper provides a clarifying…
Statistical Techniques for Criterion-Referenced Tests. Final Report. October, 1976-October, 1977.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilcox, Rand R.
Three statistical problems related to criterion-referenced testing are investigated: estimation of the likelihood of a false-positive or false-negative decision with a mastery test, estimation of true scores in the Compound Binomial Error Model, and comparison of the examinees to a control. Two methods for estimating the likelihood of…
Steffen, Jason H.; Ford, Eric B.; Rowe, Jason F.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Holman, Matthew J.; Welsh, William F.; Borucki, William J.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Bryson, Steve; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Ciardi, David R.; /Caltech /NASA, Ames /SETI Inst., Mtn. View
2012-01-01
We analyze the deviations of transit times from a linear ephemeris for the Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI) through Quarter six (Q6) of science data. We conduct two statistical tests for all KOIs and a related statistical test for all pairs of KOIs in multi-transiting systems. These tests identify several systems which show potentially interesting transit timing variations (TTVs). Strong TTV systems have been valuable for the confirmation of planets and their mass measurements. Many of the systems identified in this study should prove fruitful for detailed TTV studies.
Steffen, Jason H.; Ford, Eric B.; Rowe, Jason F.; Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Steve; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Koch, David G.; Sanderfer, Dwight T.; Seader, Shawn; Twicken, Joseph D.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Welsh, William F.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Ciardi, David R.; Prsa, Andrej
2012-09-10
We analyze the deviations of transit times from a linear ephemeris for the Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI) through quarter six of science data. We conduct two statistical tests for all KOIs and a related statistical test for all pairs of KOIs in multi-transiting systems. These tests identify several systems which show potentially interesting transit timing variations (TTVs). Strong TTV systems have been valuable for the confirmation of planets and their mass measurements. Many of the systems identified in this study should prove fruitful for detailed TTV studies.
Improved Test Planning and Analysis Through the Use of Advanced Statistical Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, Lawrence L.; Maxwell, Katherine A.; Glass, David E.; Vaughn, Wallace L.; Barger, Weston; Cook, Mylan
2016-01-01
The goal of this work is, through computational simulations, to provide statistically-based evidence to convince the testing community that a distributed testing approach is superior to a clustered testing approach for most situations. For clustered testing, numerous, repeated test points are acquired at a limited number of test conditions. For distributed testing, only one or a few test points are requested at many different conditions. The statistical techniques of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Design of Experiments (DOE) and Response Surface Methods (RSM) are applied to enable distributed test planning, data analysis and test augmentation. The D-Optimal class of DOE is used to plan an optimally efficient single- and multi-factor test. The resulting simulated test data are analyzed via ANOVA and a parametric model is constructed using RSM. Finally, ANOVA can be used to plan a second round of testing to augment the existing data set with new data points. The use of these techniques is demonstrated through several illustrative examples. To date, many thousands of comparisons have been performed and the results strongly support the conclusion that the distributed testing approach outperforms the clustered testing approach.
On the power for linkage detection using a test based on scan statistics.
Hernández, Sonia; Siegmund, David O; de Gunst, Mathisca
2005-04-01
We analyze some aspects of scan statistics, which have been proposed to help for the detection of weak signals in genetic linkage analysis. We derive approximate expressions for the power of a test based on moving averages of the identity by descent allele sharing proportions for pairs of relatives at several contiguous markers. We confirm these approximate formulae by simulation. The results show that when there is a single trait-locus on a chromosome, the test based on the scan statistic is slightly less powerful than that based on the customary allele sharing statistic. On the other hand, if two genes having a moderate effect on a trait lie close to each other on the same chromosome, scan statistics improve power to detect linkage. PMID:15772104
Modified H-statistic with adaptive Winsorized mean in two groups test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teh, Kian Wooi; Abdullah, Suhaida; Yahaya, Sharipah Soaad Syed; Yusof, Zahayu Md
2014-06-01
t-test is a commonly used test statistics when comparing two independent groups. The computation of this test is simple yet it is powerful under normal distribution and equal variance dataset. However, in real life data, sometimes it is hard to get dataset which has this package. The violation of assumptions (normality and equal variances) will give the devastating effect on the Type I error rate control to the t-test. On the same time, the statistical power also will be reduced. Therefore in this study, the adaptive Winsorised mean with hinge estimator in H-statistic (AWM-H) is proposed. The H-statistic is one of the robust statistics that able to handle the problem of nonnormality in comparing independent group. This procedure originally used Modified One-step M (MOM) estimator which employed trimming process. In the AWM-H procedure, the MOM estimator is replaced with the adaptive Winsorized mean (AWM) as the central tendency measure of the test. The Winsorization process is based on hinge estimator HQ or HQ1. Overall results showed that the proposed method performed better than the original method and the classical method especially under heavy tailed distribution.
A NEW TEST OF THE STATISTICAL NATURE OF THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES
Lin, Yen-Ting; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Miller, Christopher J.
2010-06-01
A novel statistic is proposed to examine the hypothesis that all cluster galaxies are drawn from the same luminosity distribution (LD). In such a 'statistical model' of galaxy LD, the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) are simply the statistical extreme of the galaxy population. Using a large sample of nearby clusters, we show that BCGs in high luminosity clusters (e.g., L {sub tot} {approx}> 4 x 10{sup 11} h {sup -2} {sub 70} L {sub sun}) are unlikely (probability {<=}3 x 10{sup -4}) to be drawn from the LD defined by all red cluster galaxies more luminous than M{sub r} = -20. On the other hand, BCGs in less luminous clusters are consistent with being the statistical extreme. Applying our method to the second brightest galaxies, we show that they are consistent with being the statistical extreme, which implies that the BCGs are also distinct from non-BCG luminous, red, cluster galaxies. We point out some issues with the interpretation of the classical tests proposed by Tremaine and Richstone (TR) that are designed to examine the statistical nature of BCGs, investigate the robustness of both our statistical test and those of TR against difficulties in photometry of galaxies of large angular size, and discuss the implication of our findings on surveys that use the luminous red galaxies to measure the baryon acoustic oscillation features in the galaxy power spectrum.
Statistical tests, P values, confidence intervals, and power: a guide to misinterpretations.
Greenland, Sander; Senn, Stephen J; Rothman, Kenneth J; Carlin, John B; Poole, Charles; Goodman, Steven N; Altman, Douglas G
2016-04-01
Misinterpretation and abuse of statistical tests, confidence intervals, and statistical power have been decried for decades, yet remain rampant. A key problem is that there are no interpretations of these concepts that are at once simple, intuitive, correct, and foolproof. Instead, correct use and interpretation of these statistics requires an attention to detail which seems to tax the patience of working scientists. This high cognitive demand has led to an epidemic of shortcut definitions and interpretations that are simply wrong, sometimes disastrously so-and yet these misinterpretations dominate much of the scientific literature. In light of this problem, we provide definitions and a discussion of basic statistics that are more general and critical than typically found in traditional introductory expositions. Our goal is to provide a resource for instructors, researchers, and consumers of statistics whose knowledge of statistical theory and technique may be limited but who wish to avoid and spot misinterpretations. We emphasize how violation of often unstated analysis protocols (such as selecting analyses for presentation based on the P values they produce) can lead to small P values even if the declared test hypothesis is correct, and can lead to large P values even if that hypothesis is incorrect. We then provide an explanatory list of 25 misinterpretations of P values, confidence intervals, and power. We conclude with guidelines for improving statistical interpretation and reporting. PMID:27209009
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woessner, J.; Schorlemmer, D.; Wiemer, S.; Mai, P. M.
2005-12-01
Quantitatively correlating properties of finite-fault source models with hypocenters of aftershocks may provide new insight in the relationship between either slip or static stress change distributions and aftershock occurrence. We present advanced non-standard statistical test approaches to evaluate the test hypotheses (1) if aftershocks are preferentially located in areas of low slip and (2) if aftershocks are located in increased shear stress against the null hypothesis: aftershocks are located randomly on the fault plane. By using multiple test approaches, we investigate possible pitfalls and the information content of statistical testing. To perform the tests, we use earthquakes for which multiple finite-fault source models and earthquake catalogs of varying accuracy exist. The aftershock hypocenters are projected onto the main-shock rupture plane and uncertainties are accounted for by simulating hypocenter locations in the given error bounds. For the statistical tests, we retain the spatial clustering of earthquakes as the most important observed features of seismicity and synthesize random slip distributions with different approaches: first, using standard statistical methods that randomize the obtained finite-fault source model values and second, using a random spatial field model. We then determine the number of aftershocks in low-slip or increased shear-stress regions for simulated slip distributions, and compare those to the measurements obtained for finite-source slip inversions. We apply the tests to prominent earthquakes in California and Japan and find statistical significant evidence that aftershocks are preferentially located in low-slip regions. The tests, however, show a lower significance for the correlation with the shear-stress distribution, but are in general agreement with the expectations of the asperity model. Tests using the hypocenters of relocated catalogs show higher significances.
New Statistical Tests of Neutrality for DNA Samples from a Population
Fu, Y. X.
1996-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to develop statistical tests of the neutral model of evolution against a class of alternative models with the common characteristic of having an excess of mutations that occurred a long time ago or a reduction of recent mutations compared to the neutral model. This class of population genetics models include models for structured populations, models with decreasing effective population size and models of selection and mutation balance. Four statistical tests were proposed in this paper for DNA samples from a population. Two of these tests, one new and another a modification of an existing test, are based on EWENS' sampling formula, and the other two new tests make use of the frequencies of mutations of various classes. Using simulated samples and regression analyses, the critical values of these tests can be computed from regression equations. This approach for computing the critical values of a test was found to be appropriate and quite effective. We examined the powers of these four tests using simulated samples from structured populations, populations with linearly decreasing sizes and models of selection and mutation balance and found that they are more powerful than existing statistical tests of the neutral model of evolution. PMID:8722804
Statistical hypothesis testing by weak-value amplification: Proposal and evaluation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Susa, Yuki; Tanaka, Saki
2015-07-01
We study the detection capability of the weak-value amplification on the basis of the statistical hypothesis testing. We propose a reasonable testing method in the physical and statistical senses to find that the weak measurement with the large weak value has the advantage to increase the detection power and to reduce the possibility of missing the presence of interaction. We enhance the physical understanding of the weak value and mathematically establish the significance of the weak-value amplification. Our present work overcomes the critical dilemma of the weak-value amplification that the larger the amplification is, the smaller the number of data becomes, because the statistical hypothesis testing works even for a small number of data. This is contrasted with the parameter estimation by the weak-value amplification in the literature which requires a large number of data.
Festing, Michael F W
2014-12-01
The results of repeat-dose toxicity tests are usually presented as tables of means and standard deviations (SDs), with an indication of statistical significance for each biomarker. Interpretation is based mainly on the pattern of statistical significance rather than the magnitude of any response. Multiple statistical testing of many biomarkers leads to false-positive results and, with the exception of growth data, few graphical methods for showing the results are available. By converting means and SDs to standardized effect sizes, a range of graphical techniques including dot plots, line plots, box plots, and quantile-quantile plots become available to show the patterns of response. A bootstrap statistical test involving all biomarkers is proposed to compare the magnitudes of the response between treated groups. These methods are proposed as an extension rather than an alternative to current statistical analyses. They can be applied to published work retrospectively, as all that is required is tables of means and SDs. The methods are illustrated using published articles, where the results range from strong positive to completely negative responses to the test substances. PMID:24487356
New advances in methodology for statistical tests useful in geostatistical studies
Borgman, L.E.
1988-05-01
Methodology for statistical procedures to perform tests of hypothesis pertaining to various aspects of geostatistical investigations has been slow in developing. The correlated nature of the data precludes most classical tests and makes the design of new tests difficult. Recent studies have led to modifications of the classical t test which allow for the intercorrelation. In addition, results for certain nonparametric tests have been obtained. The conclusions of these studies provide a variety of new tools for the geostatistician in deciding questions on significant differences and magnitudes.
ENHANCING TEST SENSITIVITY IN TOXICITY TESTING BY USING A STATISTICAL PERFORMANCE STANDARD
Previous reports have shown that within-test sensitivity can vary markedly among laboratories. Experts have advocated an empirical approach to controlling test variability based on the MSD, control means, and other test acceptability criteria. (The MSD represents the smallest dif...
Can Percentiles Replace Raw Scores in the Statistical Analysis of Test Data?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zimmerman, Donald W.; Zumbo, Bruno D.
2005-01-01
Educational and psychological testing textbooks typically warn of the inappropriateness of performing arithmetic operations and statistical analysis on percentiles instead of raw scores. This seems inconsistent with the well-established finding that transforming scores to ranks and using nonparametric methods often improves the validity and power…
Alphas and Asterisks: The Development of Statistical Significance Testing Standards in Sociology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leahey, Erin
2005-01-01
In this paper, I trace the development of statistical significance testing standards in sociology by analyzing data from articles published in two prestigious sociology journals between 1935 and 2000. I focus on the role of two key elements in the diffusion literature, contagion and rationality, as well as the role of institutional factors. I…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ho, Andrew D.; Yu, Carol C.
2015-01-01
Many statistical analyses benefit from the assumption that unconditional or conditional distributions are continuous and normal. More than 50 years ago in this journal, Lord and Cook chronicled departures from normality in educational tests, and Micerri similarly showed that the normality assumption is met rarely in educational and psychological…
Fine Mapping Causal Variants with an Approximate Bayesian Method Using Marginal Test Statistics.
Chen, Wenan; Larrabee, Beth R; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Kennedy, Richard B; Haralambieva, Iana H; Poland, Gregory A; Schaid, Daniel J
2015-07-01
Two recently developed fine-mapping methods, CAVIAR and PAINTOR, demonstrate better performance over other fine-mapping methods. They also have the advantage of using only the marginal test statistics and the correlation among SNPs. Both methods leverage the fact that the marginal test statistics asymptotically follow a multivariate normal distribution and are likelihood based. However, their relationship with Bayesian fine mapping, such as BIMBAM, is not clear. In this study, we first show that CAVIAR and BIMBAM are actually approximately equivalent to each other. This leads to a fine-mapping method using marginal test statistics in the Bayesian framework, which we call CAVIAR Bayes factor (CAVIARBF). Another advantage of the Bayesian framework is that it can answer both association and fine-mapping questions. We also used simulations to compare CAVIARBF with other methods under different numbers of causal variants. The results showed that both CAVIARBF and BIMBAM have better performance than PAINTOR and other methods. Compared to BIMBAM, CAVIARBF has the advantage of using only marginal test statistics and takes about one-quarter to one-fifth of the running time. We applied different methods on two independent cohorts of the same phenotype. Results showed that CAVIARBF, BIMBAM, and PAINTOR selected the same top 3 SNPs; however, CAVIARBF and BIMBAM had better consistency in selecting the top 10 ranked SNPs between the two cohorts. Software is available at https://bitbucket.org/Wenan/caviarbf. PMID:25948564
The Effect of Clustering on Statistical Tests: An Illustration Using Classroom Environment Data
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dorman, Jeffrey Paul
2008-01-01
This paper discusses the effect of clustering on statistical tests and illustrates this effect using classroom environment data. Most classroom environment studies involve the collection of data from students nested within classrooms and the hierarchical nature to these data cannot be ignored. In particular, this paper studies the influence of…
Connecting Science and Mathematics: The Nature of Scientific and Statistical Hypothesis Testing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lawson, Anton E.; Oehrtman, Michael; Jensen, Jamie
2008-01-01
Confusion persists concerning the roles played by scientific hypotheses and predictions in doing science. This confusion extends to the nature of scientific and statistical hypothesis testing. The present paper utilizes the "If/and/then/Therefore" pattern of hypothetico-deductive (HD) reasoning to explicate the nature of both scientific and…
A Short-Cut Statistic for Item Analysis of Mastery Tests: A Comparison of Three Procedures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Subkoviak, Michael J.; Harris, Deborah J.
This study examined three statistical methods for selecting items for mastery tests. One is the pretest-posttest method due to Cox and Vargas (1966); it is computationally simple, but has a number of serious limitations. The second is a latent trait method recommended by van der Linden (1981); it is computationally complex, but has a number of…
A Critique of One-Tailed Hypothesis Test Procedures in Business and Economics Statistics Textbooks.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Tung; Stone, Courtenay C.
1999-01-01
Surveys introductory business and economics statistics textbooks and finds that they differ over the best way to explain one-tailed hypothesis tests: the simple null-hypothesis approach or the composite null-hypothesis approach. Argues that the composite null-hypothesis approach contains methodological shortcomings that make it more difficult for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lawrence, John A.; Singhania, Ram P.
2004-01-01
In this investigation of student performance in introductory business statistics classes, the authors performed two separate controlled studies to compare performance in (a) distance-learning versus traditionally delivered courses and (b) multiple choice versus problem-solving tests. Results of the first study, based on the authors' several…
Diagnosing Skills of Statistical Hypothesis Testing Using the Rule Space Method
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Im, Seongah; Yin, Yue
2009-01-01
This study illustrated the use of the Rule Space Method to diagnose students' proficiencies in, skills and knowledge of statistical hypothesis testing. Participants included 96 undergraduate and, graduate students, of whom 94 were classified into one or more of the knowledge states identified by, the rule space analysis. Analysis at the level of…
Recent Literature on Whether Statistical Significance Tests Should or Should Not Be Banned.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Deegear, James
This paper summarizes the literature regarding statistical significant testing with an emphasis on recent literature in various discipline and literature exploring why researchers have demonstrably failed to be influenced by the American Psychological Association publication manual's encouragement to report effect sizes. Also considered are…
Interpreting Statistical Significance Test Results: A Proposed New "What If" Method.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kieffer, Kevin M.; Thompson, Bruce
As the 1994 publication manual of the American Psychological Association emphasized, "p" values are affected by sample size. As a result, it can be helpful to interpret the results of statistical significant tests in a sample size context by conducting so-called "what if" analyses. However, these methods can be inaccurate unless "corrected" effect…
Candini, Giancarlo
2004-12-01
In the fields of didactics and continuous professional development (CPD) plans, the increasing use of multiple answer tests for the evaluation of the level of knowledge in various kinds of subjects makes it increasingly important to have reliable and effective tools for data processing and for the evaluation of the results. The aim of the present work is to explore a new methodological approach based on a widely tested statistical analysis able to yield more information content when compared with the traditional methods. With this purpose we suggest a Graduated Response Test and the relative operating characteristic curve (ROC) for the evaluation of the results. A short description of a computerized procedure, written in Visual Basic Pro (v.6.0), which automatically performs the statistical analysis, the ROC curves plot and the calculation of a learning index is given as well. PMID:15518651
Halpin, Peter F; Stam, Henderikus J
2006-01-01
The application of statistical testing in psychological research over the period of 1940-1960 is examined in order to address psychologists' reconciliation of the extant controversy between the Fisher and Neyman-Pearson approaches. Textbooks of psychological statistics and the psychological journal literature are reviewed to examine the presence of what Gigerenzer (1993) called a hybrid model of statistical testing. Such a model is present in the textbooks, although the mathematically incomplete character of this model precludes the appearance of a similarly hybridized approach to statistical testing in the research literature. The implications of this hybrid model for psychological research and the statistical testing controversy are discussed. PMID:17286092
Statistical Requirements For Pass-Fail Testing Of Contraband Detection Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilliam, David M.
2011-06-01
Contraband detection systems for homeland security applications are typically tested for probability of detection (PD) and probability of false alarm (PFA) using pass-fail testing protocols. Test protocols usually require specified values for PD and PFA to be demonstrated at a specified level of statistical confidence CL. Based on a recent more theoretical treatment of this subject [1], this summary reviews the definition of CL and provides formulas and spreadsheet functions for constructing tables of general test requirements and for determining the minimum number of tests required. The formulas and tables in this article may be generally applied to many other applications of pass-fail testing, in addition to testing of contraband detection systems.
Detecting trends in raptor counts: power and type I error rates of various statistical tests
Hatfield, J.S.; Gould, W.R., IV; Hoover, B.A.; Fuller, M.R.; Lindquist, E.L.
1996-01-01
We conducted simulations that estimated power and type I error rates of statistical tests for detecting trends in raptor population count data collected from a single monitoring site. Results of the simulations were used to help analyze count data of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from 7 national forests in Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin during 1980-1989. Seven statistical tests were evaluated, including simple linear regression on the log scale and linear regression with a permutation test. Using 1,000 replications each, we simulated n = 10 and n = 50 years of count data and trends ranging from -5 to 5% change/year. We evaluated the tests at 3 critical levels (alpha = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.10) for both upper- and lower-tailed tests. Exponential count data were simulated by adding sampling error with a coefficient of variation of 40% from either a log-normal or autocorrelated log-normal distribution. Not surprisingly, tests performed with 50 years of data were much more powerful than tests with 10 years of data. Positive autocorrelation inflated alpha-levels upward from their nominal levels, making the tests less conservative and more likely to reject the null hypothesis of no trend. Of the tests studied, Cox and Stuart's test and Pollard's test clearly had lower power than the others. Surprisingly, the linear regression t-test, Collins' linear regression permutation test, and the nonparametric Lehmann's and Mann's tests all had similar power in our simulations. Analyses of the count data suggested that bald eagles had increasing trends on at least 2 of the 7 national forests during 1980-1989.
Rudd, James; Moore, Jason H.; Urbanowicz, Ryan J.
2013-01-01
Permutation-based statistics for evaluating the significance of class prediction, predictive attributes, and patterns of association have only appeared within the learning classifier system (LCS) literature since 2012. While still not widely utilized by the LCS research community, formal evaluations of test statistic confidence are imperative to large and complex real world applications such as genetic epidemiology where it is standard practice to quantify the likelihood that a seemingly meaningful statistic could have been obtained purely by chance. LCS algorithms are relatively computationally expensive on their own. The compounding requirements for generating permutation-based statistics may be a limiting factor for some researchers interested in applying LCS algorithms to real world problems. Technology has made LCS parallelization strategies more accessible and thus more popular in recent years. In the present study we examine the benefits of externally parallelizing a series of independent LCS runs such that permutation testing with cross validation becomes more feasible to complete on a single multi-core workstation. We test our python implementation of this strategy in the context of a simulated complex genetic epidemiological data mining problem. Our evaluations indicate that as long as the number of concurrent processes does not exceed the number of CPU cores, the speedup achieved is approximately linear. PMID:24358057
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coelho, Carlos A.; Marques, Filipe J.
2013-09-01
In this paper the authors combine the equicorrelation and equivariance test introduced by Wilks [13] with the likelihood ratio test (l.r.t.) for independence of groups of variables to obtain the l.r.t. of block equicorrelation and equivariance. This test or its single block version may find applications in many areas as in psychology, education, medicine, genetics and they are important "in many tests of multivariate analysis, e.g. in MANOVA, Profile Analysis, Growth Curve analysis, etc" [12, 9]. By decomposing the overall hypothesis into the hypotheses of independence of groups of variables and the hypothesis of equicorrelation and equivariance we are able to obtain the expressions for the overall l.r.t. statistic and its moments. From these we obtain a suitable factorization of the characteristic function (c.f.) of the logarithm of the l.r.t. statistic, which enables us to develop highly manageable and precise near-exact distributions for the test statistic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duari, Debiprosad; Gupta, Patrick D.; Narlikar, Jayant V.
1992-01-01
An overview of statistical tests of peaks and periodicities in the redshift distribution of quasi-stellar objects is presented. The tests include the power-spectrum analysis carried out by Burbidge and O'Dell (1972), the generalized Rayleigh test, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and the 'comb-tooth' test. The tests reveal moderate to strong evidence for periodicities of 0.0565 and 0.0127-0.0129. The confidence level of the periodicity of 0.0565 in fact marginally increases when redshifts are transformed to the Galactocentric frame. The same periodicity, first noticed in 1968, persists to date with a QSO population that has since grown about 30 times its original size. The prima facie evidence for periodicities in 1n(1 + z) is found to be of no great significance.
Accuracy of Estimates and Statistical Power for Testing Meditation in Latent Growth Curve Modeling
Cheong, JeeWon
2016-01-01
The latent growth curve modeling (LGCM) approach has been increasingly utilized to investigate longitudinal mediation. However, little is known about the accuracy of the estimates and statistical power when mediation is evaluated in the LGCM framework. A simulation study was conducted to address these issues under various conditions including sample size, effect size of mediated effect, number of measurement occasions, and R2 of measured variables. In general, the results showed that relatively large samples were needed to accurately estimate the mediated effects and to have adequate statistical power, when testing mediation in the LGCM framework. Guidelines for designing studies to examine longitudinal mediation and ways to improve the accuracy of the estimates and statistical power were discussed.
Using global statistical tests in long-term Parkinson's disease clinical trials.
Huang, Peng; Goetz, Christopher G; Woolson, Robert F; Tilley, Barbara; Kerr, Douglas; Palesch, Yuko; Elm, Jordan; Ravina, Bernard; Bergmann, Kenneth J; Kieburtz, Karl
2009-09-15
Parkinson's disease (PD) impairments are multidimensional, making it difficult to choose a single primary outcome when evaluating treatments to stop or lessen the long-term decline in PD. We review commonly used multivariate statistical methods for assessing a treatment's global impact, and we highlight the novel Global Statistical Test (GST) methodology. We compare the GST to other multivariate approaches using data from two PD trials. In one trial where the treatment showed consistent improvement on all primary and secondary outcomes, the GST was more powerful than other methods in demonstrating significant improvement. In the trial where treatment induced both improvement and deterioration in key outcomes, the GST failed to demonstrate statistical evidence even though other techniques showed significant improvement. Based on the statistical properties of the GST and its relevance to overall treatment benefit, the GST appears particularly well suited for a disease like PD where disability and impairment reflect dysfunction of diverse brain systems and where both disease and treatment side effects impact quality of life. In future long term trials, use of GST for primary statistical analysis would allow the assessment of clinically relevant outcomes rather than the artificial selection of a single primary outcome. PMID:19514076
Using Global Statistical Tests in Long-Term Parkinson’s Disease Clinical Trials
Huang, Peng; Goetz, Christopher G.; Woolson, Robert F.; Tilley, Barbara; Kerr, Douglas; Palesch, Yuko; Elm, Jordan; Ravina, Bernard; Bergmann, Kenneth J.; Kieburtz, Karl
2010-01-01
Parkinson’s disease (PD) impairments are multidimensional, making it difficult to choose a single primary outcome when evaluating treatments to stop or lessen the long-term decline in PD. We review commonly used multivariate statistical methods for assessing a treatment’s global impact, and we highlight the novel Global Statistical Test (GST) methodology. We compare the GST to other multivariate approaches using data from two PD trials. In one trial where the treatment showed consistent improvement on all primary and secondary outcomes, the GST was more powerful than other methods in demonstrating significant improvement. In the trial where treatment induced both improvement and deterioration in key outcomes, the GST failed to demonstrate statistical evidence even though other techniques showed significant improvement. Based on the statistical properties of the GST and its relevance to overall treatment benefit, the GST appears particularly well suited for a disease like PD where disability and impairment reflect dysfunction of diverse brain systems and where both disease and treatment side effects impact quality of life. In future long term trials, use of GST for primary statistical analysis would allow the assessment of clinically relevant outcomes rather than the artificial selection of a single primary outcome. PMID:19514076
Taroni, F; Biedermann, A; Bozza, S
2016-02-01
Many people regard the concept of hypothesis testing as fundamental to inferential statistics. Various schools of thought, in particular frequentist and Bayesian, have promoted radically different solutions for taking a decision about the plausibility of competing hypotheses. Comprehensive philosophical comparisons about their advantages and drawbacks are widely available and continue to span over large debates in the literature. More recently, controversial discussion was initiated by an editorial decision of a scientific journal [1] to refuse any paper submitted for publication containing null hypothesis testing procedures. Since the large majority of papers published in forensic journals propose the evaluation of statistical evidence based on the so called p-values, it is of interest to expose the discussion of this journal's decision within the forensic science community. This paper aims to provide forensic science researchers with a primer on the main concepts and their implications for making informed methodological choices. PMID:26743713
2014-01-01
Background Under a Markov model of evolution, recoding, or lumping, of the four nucleotides into fewer groups may permit analysis under simpler conditions but may unfortunately yield misleading results unless the evolutionary process of the recoded groups remains Markovian. If a Markov process is lumpable, then the evolutionary process of the recoded groups is Markovian. Results We consider stationary, reversible, and homogeneous Markov processes on two taxa and compare three tests for lumpability: one using an ad hoc test statistic, which is based on an index that is evaluated using a bootstrap approximation of its distribution; one that is based on a test proposed specifically for Markov chains; and one using a likelihood-ratio test. We show that the likelihood-ratio test is more powerful than the index test, which is more powerful than that based on the Markov chain test statistic. We also show that for stationary processes on binary trees with more than two taxa, the tests can be applied to all pairs. Finally, we show that if the process is lumpable, then estimates obtained under the recoded model agree with estimates obtained under the original model, whereas, if the process is not lumpable, then these estimates can differ substantially. We apply the new likelihood-ratio test for lumpability to two primate data sets, one with a mitochondrial origin and one with a nuclear origin. Conclusions Recoding may result in biased phylogenetic estimates because the original evolutionary process is not lumpable. Accordingly, testing for lumpability should be done prior to phylogenetic analysis of recoded data. PMID:24564837
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michael, A. J.
2012-12-01
Detecting trends in the rate of sporadic events is a problem for earthquakes and other natural hazards such as storms, floods, or landslides. I use synthetic events to judge the tests used to address this problem in seismology and consider their application to other hazards. Recent papers have analyzed the record of magnitude ≥7 earthquakes since 1900 and concluded that the events are consistent with a constant rate Poisson process plus localized aftershocks (Michael, GRL, 2011; Shearer and Stark, PNAS, 2012; Daub et al., GRL, 2012; Parsons and Geist, BSSA, 2012). Each paper removed localized aftershocks and then used a different suite of statistical tests to test the null hypothesis that the remaining data could be drawn from a constant rate Poisson process. The methods include KS tests between event times or inter-event times and predictions from a Poisson process, the autocorrelation function on inter-event times, and two tests on the number of events in time bins: the Poisson dispersion test and the multinomial chi-square test. The range of statistical tests gives us confidence in the conclusions; which are robust with respect to the choice of tests and parameters. But which tests are optimal and how sensitive are they to deviations from the null hypothesis? The latter point was raised by Dimer (arXiv, 2012), who suggested that the lack of consideration of Type 2 errors prevents these papers from being able to place limits on the degree of clustering and rate changes that could be present in the global seismogenic process. I produce synthetic sets of events that deviate from a constant rate Poisson process using a variety of statistical simulation methods including Gamma distributed inter-event times and random walks. The sets of synthetic events are examined with the statistical tests described above. Preliminary results suggest that with 100 to 1000 events, a data set that does not reject the Poisson null hypothesis could have a variability that is 30% to
Statistical correlation analysis for comparing vibration data from test and analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Butler, T. G.; Strang, R. F.; Purves, L. R.; Hershfeld, D. J.
1986-01-01
A theory was developed to compare vibration modes obtained by NASTRAN analysis with those obtained experimentally. Because many more analytical modes can be obtained than experimental modes, the analytical set was treated as expansion functions for putting both sources in comparative form. The dimensional symmetry was developed for three general cases: nonsymmetric whole model compared with a nonsymmetric whole structural test, symmetric analytical portion compared with a symmetric experimental portion, and analytical symmetric portion with a whole experimental test. The theory was coded and a statistical correlation program was installed as a utility. The theory is established with small classical structures.
A statistical method for assessing network stability using the Chow test.
Sotirakopoulos, Kostas; Barham, Richard; Piper, Ben; Nencini, Luca
2015-10-01
A statistical method is proposed for the assessment of stability in noise monitoring networks. The technique makes use of a variation of the Chow test applied between multiple measurement nodes placed at different locations and its novelty lies in the way it utilises a simple statistical test based on linear regression to uncover complex issues that can be difficult to expose otherwise. Measurements collected by a noise monitoring network deployed in the center of Pisa are used to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the test. It is shown that even in urban environments, where great soundscape variations are exhibited, accurate and robust results can be produced regardless of the proximity of the compared sensors as long as they are located in acoustically similar environments. Also it is shown that variations of the same method can be applied for self-testing on data collected by single stations. Finally it is presented that the versatility of the test makes it suitable for detection of various types of issues that can occur in real life network implementations; from slow drifts away from calibration, to severe, abrupt failures and noise floor shifts. PMID:26370835
Case Studies for the Statistical Design of Experiments Applied to Powered Rotor Wind Tunnel Tests
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Overmeyer, Austin D.; Tanner, Philip E.; Martin, Preston B.; Commo, Sean A.
2015-01-01
The application of statistical Design of Experiments (DOE) to helicopter wind tunnel testing was explored during two powered rotor wind tunnel entries during the summers of 2012 and 2013. These tests were performed jointly by the U.S. Army Aviation Development Directorate Joint Research Program Office and NASA Rotary Wing Project Office, currently the Revolutionary Vertical Lift Project, at NASA Langley Research Center located in Hampton, Virginia. Both entries were conducted in the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel with a small portion of the overall tests devoted to developing case studies of the DOE approach as it applies to powered rotor testing. A 16-47 times reduction in the number of data points required was estimated by comparing the DOE approach to conventional testing methods. The average error for the DOE surface response model for the OH-58F test was 0.95 percent and 4.06 percent for drag and download, respectively. The DOE surface response model of the Active Flow Control test captured the drag within 4.1 percent of measured data. The operational differences between the two testing approaches are identified, but did not prevent the safe operation of the powered rotor model throughout the DOE test matrices.
Symmetry of the CMB sky as a new test of its statistical isotropy. Non cosmological octupole?
Naselsky, P.; Hansen, M.; Kim, J. E-mail: kirstejn@nbi.dk
2011-09-01
In this article we propose a novel test for statistical anisotropy of the CMB ΔT( n-circumflex = (θ,φ)). The test is based on the fact, that the Galactic foregrounds have a remarkably strong symmetry with respect to their antipodal points with respect to the Galactic plane, while the cosmological signal should not be symmetric or asymmetric under these transitions. We have applied the test for the octupole component of the WMAP ILC 7 map, by looking at a{sub 3,1} and a{sub 3,3}, and their ratio to a{sub 3,2} both for real and imaginary values. We find abnormal symmetry of the octupole component at the level of 0.58%, compared to Monte Carlo simulations. By using the analysis of the phases of the octupole we found remarkably strong cross-correlations between the phases of the kinematic dipole and the ILC 7 octupole, in full agreement with previous results. We further test the multipole range 2 < l < 100, by investigating the ratio between the l+m = even and l+m = odd parts of power spectra. We compare the results to simulations of a Gaussian random sky, and find significant departure from the statistically isotropic and homogeneous case, for a very broad range of multipoles. We found that for the most prominent peaks of our estimator, the phases of the corresponding harmonics are coherent with phases of the octupole. We believe, our test would be very useful for detections of various types of residuals of the foreground and systematic effects at a very broad range of multipoles 2 ≤ l ≤ 1500−3000 for the forthcoming PLANCK CMB map, before any conclusions about primordial non-Gaussianity and statistical anisotropy of the CMB.
Gershgorin, B.; Majda, A.J.
2011-02-20
A statistically exactly solvable model for passive tracers is introduced as a test model for the authors' Nonlinear Extended Kalman Filter (NEKF) as well as other filtering algorithms. The model involves a Gaussian velocity field and a passive tracer governed by the advection-diffusion equation with an imposed mean gradient. The model has direct relevance to engineering problems such as the spread of pollutants in the air or contaminants in the water as well as climate change problems concerning the transport of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide with strongly intermittent probability distributions consistent with the actual observations of the atmosphere. One of the attractive properties of the model is the existence of the exact statistical solution. In particular, this unique feature of the model provides an opportunity to design and test fast and efficient algorithms for real-time data assimilation based on rigorous mathematical theory for a turbulence model problem with many active spatiotemporal scales. Here, we extensively study the performance of the NEKF which uses the exact first and second order nonlinear statistics without any approximations due to linearization. The role of partial and sparse observations, the frequency of observations and the observation noise strength in recovering the true signal, its spectrum, and fat tail probability distribution are the central issues discussed here. The results of our study provide useful guidelines for filtering realistic turbulent systems with passive tracers through partial observations.
A Statistical Approach for Testing Cross-Phenotype Effects of Rare Variants.
Broadaway, K Alaine; Cutler, David J; Duncan, Richard; Moore, Jacob L; Ware, Erin B; Jhun, Min A; Bielak, Lawrence F; Zhao, Wei; Smith, Jennifer A; Peyser, Patricia A; Kardia, Sharon L R; Ghosh, Debashis; Epstein, Michael P
2016-03-01
Increasing empirical evidence suggests that many genetic variants influence multiple distinct phenotypes. When cross-phenotype effects exist, multivariate association methods that consider pleiotropy are often more powerful than univariate methods that model each phenotype separately. Although several statistical approaches exist for testing cross-phenotype effects for common variants, there is a lack of similar tests for gene-based analysis of rare variants. In order to fill this important gap, we introduce a statistical method for cross-phenotype analysis of rare variants using a nonparametric distance-covariance approach that compares similarity in multivariate phenotypes to similarity in rare-variant genotypes across a gene. The approach can accommodate both binary and continuous phenotypes and further can adjust for covariates. Our approach yields a closed-form test whose significance can be evaluated analytically, thereby improving computational efficiency and permitting application on a genome-wide scale. We use simulated data to demonstrate that our method, which we refer to as the Gene Association with Multiple Traits (GAMuT) test, provides increased power over competing approaches. We also illustrate our approach using exome-chip data from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy. PMID:26942286
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith M. L. A.; Meijer, Rob R.
Person-fit research in the context of paper-and-pencil tests is reviewed, and some specific problems regarding person fit in the context of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) are discussed. Some new methods are proposed to investigate person fit in a CAT environment. These statistics are based on Statistical Process Control (SPC) theory. A…
Tests of Mediation: Paradoxical Decline in Statistical Power as a Function of Mediator Collinearity.
Beasley, T Mark
2014-01-01
Increasing the correlation between the independent variable and the mediator (a coefficient) increases the effect size (ab) for mediation analysis; however, increasing a by definition increases collinearity in mediation models. As a result, the standard error of product tests increase. The variance inflation due to increases in a at some point outweighs the increase of the effect size (ab) and results in a loss of statistical power. This phenomenon also occurs with nonparametric bootstrapping approaches because the variance of the bootstrap distribution of ab approximates the variance expected from normal theory. Both variances increase dramatically when a exceeds the b coefficient, thus explaining the power decline with increases in a. Implications for statistical analysis and applied researchers are discussed. PMID:24954952
Tests of Mediation: Paradoxical Decline in Statistical Power as a Function of Mediator Collinearity
Beasley, T. Mark
2013-01-01
Increasing the correlation between the independent variable and the mediator (a coefficient) increases the effect size (ab) for mediation analysis; however, increasing a by definition increases collinearity in mediation models. As a result, the standard error of product tests increase. The variance inflation due to increases in a at some point outweighs the increase of the effect size (ab) and results in a loss of statistical power. This phenomenon also occurs with nonparametric bootstrapping approaches because the variance of the bootstrap distribution of ab approximates the variance expected from normal theory. Both variances increase dramatically when a exceeds the b coefficient, thus explaining the power decline with increases in a. Implications for statistical analysis and applied researchers are discussed. PMID:24954952
Statistical auditing and randomness test of lotto k/N-type games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coronel-Brizio, H. F.; Hernández-Montoya, A. R.; Rapallo, F.; Scalas, E.
2008-11-01
One of the most popular lottery games worldwide is the so-called “lotto k/N”. It considers N numbers 1,2,…,N from which k are drawn randomly, without replacement. A player selects k or more numbers and the first prize is shared amongst those players whose selected numbers match all of the k randomly drawn. Exact rules may vary in different countries. In this paper, mean values and covariances for the random variables representing the numbers drawn from this kind of game are presented, with the aim of using them to audit statistically the consistency of a given sample of historical results with theoretical values coming from a hypergeometric statistical model. The method can be adapted to test pseudorandom number generators.
A statistical treatment of accelerated life test data for copper-water heat pipes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murakami, M.; Arai, K.; Kojima, Y.
1988-03-01
A statistical method is proposed to treat accelerated life test data conducted at several elevated temperatures for a sufficient number of commercially available Cu-water heat pipes to predict the operation life. The temperature distribution measurements periodically carried out yield both data sets concerning the temperature drop and the gas column length as measures of noncondensible gas accumulation. The gas analysis with a mass spectrometer is also carried out to obtain the gas quantity data. A method of unified regression analysis to take account of the acceleration factor resulted from a number of elevated test temperatures is proposed to establish a method to predict the long term performance degradation from life test data. The mutual correlations among three kinds of data sets are also discussed.
Statistical characterization of negative control data in the Ames Salmonella/microsome test.
Hamada, C; Wada, T; Sakamoto, Y
1994-01-01
A statistical characterization of negative control data in the Ames Salmonella/microsome reverse mutation test was performed using data obtained at Takeda Analytical Research Laboratories during January 1989 to April 1990. The lot-to-lot variability of bacterial stock cultures and day-to-day variability of experiments were small for Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1535 and TA1537 and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA, but they were larger for S. typhimurium TA100. The number of revertant colonies for all test strains studied here followed Poisson distributions within the same day. The two-fold rule that is an empirical method to evaluate the Ames Salmonella/microsome test results has been widely used in Japan. This two-fold rule was evaluated statistically. The comparison-wise type I error rate was less than 0.05 for TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, and WP2uvrA. Moreover, this rule is particularly conservative for TA100, for which the type I error rate was nearly 0. PMID:8187699
Day, N E; Byar, D P
1979-09-01
The two approaches in common use for the analysis of case-control studies are cross-classification by confounding variables, and modeling the logarithm of the odds ratio as a function of exposure and confounding variables. We show here that score statistics derived from the likelihood function in the latter approach are identical to the Mantel-Haenszel test statistics appropriate for the former approach. This identity holds in the most general situation considered, testing for marginal homogeneity in mK tables. This equivalence is demonstrated by a permutational argument which leads to a general likelihood expression in which the exposure variable may be a vector of discrete and/or continuous variables and in which more than two comparison groups may be considered. This likelihood can be used in analyzing studies in which there are multiple controls for each case or in which several disease categories are being compared. The possibility of including continuous variables makes this likelihood useful in situations that cannot be treated using the Mantel-Haenszel cross-classification approach. PMID:497345
Chi, Yunchan
2005-01-15
In clinical trials or drug development studies, researchers are often interested in identifying which treatments or dosages are more effective than the standard one. Recently, several multiple testing procedures based on weighted logrank tests have been proposed to compare several treatments with a control in a one-way layout where survival data are subject to random right-censorship. However, weighted logrank tests are based on ranks, and these tests might not be sensitive to the magnitude of the difference in survival times against a specific alternative. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a more robust and powerful multiple testing procedure. This paper proposes multiple testing procedures based on two-sample weighted Kaplan-Meier statistics, each comparing an individual treatment with the control, to determine which treatments are more effective than the control. The comparative results from a simulation study are presented and the implementation of these methods to the prostate cancer clinical trial and the renal carcinoma tumour study are presented. PMID:15515153
Atmospheric Array Loss Statistics Derived from Short Time Scale Site Test Interferometer Phase Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morabito, David D.; D'Addario, Larry R.
2014-08-01
NASA is interested in using the technique of arraying smaller-diameter antennas to increase effective aperture to replace the aging 70-m-diameter antennas of the Deep Space Network (DSN). Downlink arraying using the 34-m-diameter and 70-m-diameter antennas is routinely performed. Future scenarios include extending the technique to uplink arraying where a downlink signal may not be available. Atmospheric turbulence causes decorrelation of the arrayed signal, and becomes more severe at higher frequencies such as at the uplink allocations near 34 GHz and 40 GHz. This article expands the study initiated in a previous article that focused on average array loss statistics extracted from Site Test Interferometer (STI) data. In that study, cumulative distributions of the annual and monthly expected phasing loss were derived from STI data collected at the Goldstone and Canberra DSN complexes. For a two-element array, the average array loss cannot exceed 3 dB. This article considers the instantaneous (short time scale) array loss that sometimes exceeds 3 dB for a two-element array. We also consider cases of three-element arrays, which behave somewhat differently. The short time scale statistics of array loss at 7.15 GHz and 34.5 GHz are compared against the average array loss statistics for the best-case and worst-case weather months for the Goldstone and Canberra DSN sites.
Giambartolomei, Claudia; Vukcevic, Damjan; Schadt, Eric E; Franke, Lude; Hingorani, Aroon D; Wallace, Chris; Plagnol, Vincent
2014-05-01
Genetic association studies, in particular the genome-wide association study (GWAS) design, have provided a wealth of novel insights into the aetiology of a wide range of human diseases and traits, in particular cardiovascular diseases and lipid biomarkers. The next challenge consists of understanding the molecular basis of these associations. The integration of multiple association datasets, including gene expression datasets, can contribute to this goal. We have developed a novel statistical methodology to assess whether two association signals are consistent with a shared causal variant. An application is the integration of disease scans with expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) studies, but any pair of GWAS datasets can be integrated in this framework. We demonstrate the value of the approach by re-analysing a gene expression dataset in 966 liver samples with a published meta-analysis of lipid traits including >100,000 individuals of European ancestry. Combining all lipid biomarkers, our re-analysis supported 26 out of 38 reported colocalisation results with eQTLs and identified 14 new colocalisation results, hence highlighting the value of a formal statistical test. In three cases of reported eQTL-lipid pairs (SYPL2, IFT172, TBKBP1) for which our analysis suggests that the eQTL pattern is not consistent with the lipid association, we identify alternative colocalisation results with SORT1, GCKR, and KPNB1, indicating that these genes are more likely to be causal in these genomic intervals. A key feature of the method is the ability to derive the output statistics from single SNP summary statistics, hence making it possible to perform systematic meta-analysis type comparisons across multiple GWAS datasets (implemented online at http://coloc.cs.ucl.ac.uk/coloc/). Our methodology provides information about candidate causal genes in associated intervals and has direct implications for the understanding of complex diseases as well as the design of drugs to
A clone-based statistical test for localizing disease genes using genomic mismatch scanning
Palmer, C.G.S.; Woodward, A.; Smalley, S.L.
1994-09-01
Genomic mismatch scanning (GMS) is a technique for isolating regions of DNA that are identical-by-descent (IBD) within pairs of relatives. GMS selected data are hybridized to an ordered array of DNA, e.g., metaphase chromosomes, YACs, to identify and localize enhanced region(s) of IBD across pairs of relatives affected with a trait of interest. If the trait has a genetic basis, it is reasonable to assume that the trait gene(s) will be located in these enhanced regions. Our approach to localize these enhanced regions is based on the availability of an ordered array of clones, e.g., YACs, which span the entire human genome. We use an exact binomial order statistic to develop a test for enhanced regions of IBD in sets of clones 1 cM in size selected for being biologically independent (i.e., separated by 50 cM). The test statistic is the maximum proportion of IBD pairs selected from the independent YACs within a set. Thus far, we have defined the power of the test under the alternative hypothesis of a single gene conditional on the maximum proportion IBD being located at the disease locus. As an example, for 60 grandparent-grandchild pairs, the exact power of the test with alpha=0.001 is 0.83 when the relative risk of the disease is 4.0 and the maximum proportion is at the disease locus. This method can be used in small samples and is not dependent on any specific mapping function.
Vardhanabhuti, Saran; Blakemore, Steven J; Clark, Steven M; Ghosh, Sujoy; Stephens, Richard J; Rajagopalan, Dilip
2006-01-01
Signal quantification and detection of differential expression are critical steps in the analysis of Affymetrix microarray data. Many methods have been proposed in the literature for each of these steps. The goal of this paper is to evaluate several signal quantification methods (GCRMA, RSVD, VSN, MAS5, and Resolver) and statistical methods for differential expression (t test, Cyber-T, SAM, LPE, RankProducts, Resolver RatioBuild). Our particular focus is on the ability to detect differential expression via statistical tests. We have used two different datasets for our evaluation. First, we have used the HG-U133 Latin Square spike in dataset developed by Affymetrix. Second, we have used data from an in-house rat liver transcriptomics study following 30 different drug treatments generated using the Affymetrix RAE230A chip. Our overall recommendation based on this study is to use GCRMA for signal quantification. For detection of differential expression, GCRMA coupled with Cyber-T or SAM is the best approach, as measured by area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The integrated pipeline in Resolver RatioBuild combining signal quantification and detection of differential expression is an equally good alternative for detecting differentially expressed genes. For most of the differential expression algorithms we considered, the performance using MAS5 signal quantification was inferior to that of the other methods we evaluated. PMID:17233564
Li, Ke; Zhang, Qiuju; Wang, Kun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Huaqing
2016-01-01
A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF) and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN) is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal) and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO). To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs) for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26761006
Observations in the statistical analysis of NBG-18 nuclear graphite strength tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hindley, Michael P.; Mitchell, Mark N.; Blaine, Deborah C.; Groenwold, Albert A.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to report on the selection of a statistical distribution chosen to represent the experimental material strength of NBG-18 nuclear graphite. Three large sets of samples were tested during the material characterisation of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor and Core Structure Ceramics materials. These sets of samples are tensile strength, flexural strength and compressive strength (CS) measurements. A relevant statistical fit is determined and the goodness of fit is also evaluated for each data set. The data sets are also normalised for ease of comparison, and combined into one representative data set. The validity of this approach is demonstrated. A second failure mode distribution is found on the CS test data. Identifying this failure mode supports the similar observations made in the past. The success of fitting the Weibull distribution through the normalised data sets allows us to improve the basis for the estimates of the variability. This could also imply that the variability on the graphite strength for the different strength measures is based on the same flaw distribution and thus a property of the material.
Li, Ke; Zhang, Qiuju; Wang, Kun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Huaqing
2016-01-01
A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF) and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN) is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal) and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO). To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs) for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26761006
Debate on GMOs health risks after statistical findings in regulatory tests.
de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux; Cellier, Dominique; Vélot, Christian; Clair, Emilie; Mesnage, Robin; Séralini, Gilles-Eric
2010-01-01
We summarize the major points of international debate on health risk studies for the main commercialized edible GMOs. These GMOs are soy, maize and oilseed rape designed to contain new pesticide residues since they have been modified to be herbicide-tolerant (mostly to Roundup) or to produce mutated Bt toxins. The debated alimentary chronic risks may come from unpredictable insertional mutagenesis effects, metabolic effects, or from the new pesticide residues. The most detailed regulatory tests on the GMOs are three-month long feeding trials of laboratory rats, which are biochemically assessed. The tests are not compulsory, and are not independently conducted. The test data and the corresponding results are kept in secret by the companies. Our previous analyses of regulatory raw data at these levels, taking the representative examples of three GM maize NK 603, MON 810, and MON 863 led us to conclude that hepatorenal toxicities were possible, and that longer testing was necessary. Our study was criticized by the company developing the GMOs in question and the regulatory bodies, mainly on the divergent biological interpretations of statistically significant biochemical and physiological effects. We present the scientific reasons for the crucially different biological interpretations and also highlight the shortcomings in the experimental protocols designed by the company. The debate implies an enormous responsibility towards public health and is essential due to nonexistent traceability or epidemiological studies in the GMO-producing countries. PMID:20941377
Debate on GMOs Health Risks after Statistical Findings in Regulatory Tests
de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux; Cellier, Dominique; Vélot, Christian; Clair, Emilie; Mesnage, Robin; Séralini, Gilles-Eric
2010-01-01
We summarize the major points of international debate on health risk studies for the main commercialized edible GMOs. These GMOs are soy, maize and oilseed rape designed to contain new pesticide residues since they have been modified to be herbicide-tolerant (mostly to Roundup) or to produce mutated Bt toxins. The debated alimentary chronic risks may come from unpredictable insertional mutagenesis effects, metabolic effects, or from the new pesticide residues. The most detailed regulatory tests on the GMOs are three-month long feeding trials of laboratory rats, which are biochemically assessed. The tests are not compulsory, and are not independently conducted. The test data and the corresponding results are kept in secret by the companies. Our previous analyses of regulatory raw data at these levels, taking the representative examples of three GM maize NK 603, MON 810, and MON 863 led us to conclude that hepatorenal toxicities were possible, and that longer testing was necessary. Our study was criticized by the company developing the GMOs in question and the regulatory bodies, mainly on the divergent biological interpretations of statistically significant biochemical and physiological effects. We present the scientific reasons for the crucially different biological interpretations and also highlight the shortcomings in the experimental protocols designed by the company. The debate implies an enormous responsibility towards public health and is essential due to nonexistent traceability or epidemiological studies in the GMO-producing countries. PMID:20941377
Statistical Analysis of Pure Tone Audiometry and Caloric Test in Herpes Zoster Oticus
Kim, Jin; Jung, Jinsei; Moon, In Seok; Lee, Ho-Ki
2008-01-01
Objectives Pure tone audiometry and caloric test in patients with herpes zoster oticus were performed to determine the biologic features of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) and the pathogenesis of vestibulocochlear nerve disease in herpes zoster oticus. Study Design A retrospective chart review of 160 patients with herpes zoster oticus was designed in order to determine the classic characteristics of vestibulocochlear nerve disease associated with the syndrome. Speech frequency and isolated high frequency acoustic thresholds were analyzed based on severity of facial paralysis and patient age. Patients without cochlear symptoms were selected randomly, and audiological function was evaluated. Patients with symptoms of vestibular dysfunction underwent the caloric test, and canal paresis was analyzed according to the severity of facial paralysis and the age of each patient. Results Among the 160 patients, 111 exhibited pure tone audiometry; 26 (79%) of the patients with cochlear symptoms and 44 (56%) of the patients without cochlear symptoms had abnormal audiological data. Among the patients without cochlear symptoms, 15 (19%) had hearing loss at speech frequency, and 42 (54%) had hearing loss isolated to high frequency. The incidence of cochlear symptoms in herpes zoster oticus was not related to the severity of facial paralysis. The incidence of patients with isolated high frequency hearing loss statistically increased with age, however the incidence of patients with speech frequency hearing loss did not increase. Thirteen patients complained vertigo, and the incidence of vestibular disturbances and the value of canal paresis in the caloric test increased to statistical significance in parallel with increasing severity of facial paralysis. Conclusion Mild or moderate cochlear symptoms with high frequency hearing loss were related to age, and severe vestibular symptoms were related to the severity of facial paralysis after onset of herpetic symptoms. This study might
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zheng, Yinggan; Gierl, Mark J.; Cui, Ying
2010-01-01
This study combined the kernel smoothing procedure and a nonparametric differential item functioning statistic--Cochran's Z--to statistically test the difference between the kernel-smoothed item response functions for reference and focal groups. Simulation studies were conducted to investigate the Type I error and power of the proposed…
Improved tests reveal that the accelarating moment release hypothesis is statistically insignificant
Hardebeck, J.L.; Felzer, K.R.; Michael, A.J.
2008-01-01
We test the hypothesis that accelerating moment release (AMR) is a precursor to large earthquakes, using data from California, Nevada, and Sumatra. Spurious cases of AMR can arise from data fitting because the time period, area, and sometimes magnitude range analyzed before each main shock are often optimized to produce the strongest AMR signal. Optimizing the search criteria can identify apparent AMR even if no robust signal exists. For both 1950-2006 California-Nevada M ??? 6.5 earthquakes and the 2004 M9.3 Sumatra earthquake, we can find two contradictory patterns in the pre-main shock earthquakes by data fitting: AMR and decelerating moment release. We compare the apparent AMR found in the real data to the apparent AMR found in four types of synthetic catalogs with no inherent AMR. When spatiotemporal clustering is included in the simulations, similar AMR signals are found by data fitting in both the real and synthetic data sets even though the synthetic data sets contain no real AMR. These tests demonstrate that apparent AMR may arise from a combination of data fitting and normal foreshock and aftershock activity. In principle, data-fitting artifacts could be avoided if the free parameters were determined from scaling relationships between the duration and spatial extent of the AMR pattern and the magnitude of the earthquake that follows it. However, we demonstrate that previously proposed scaling relationships are unstable, statistical artifacts caused by the use of a minimum magnitude for the earthquake catalog that scales with the main shock magnitude. Some recent AMR studies have used spatial regions based on hypothetical stress loading patterns, rather than circles, to select the data. We show that previous tests were biased and that unbiased tests do not find this change to the method to be an improvement. The use of declustered catalogs has also been proposed to eliminate the effect of clustering but we demonstrate that this does not increase the
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Luh, Wei-Ming; Guo, Jiin-Huarng
2005-01-01
To deal with nonnormal and heterogeneous data for the one-way fixed effect analysis of variance model, the authors adopted a trimmed means method in conjunction with Hall's invertible transformation into a heteroscedastic test statistic (Alexander-Govern test or Welch test). The results of simulation experiments showed that the proposed technique…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Greg; Johnson, Hadley
1999-09-01
Over the past several years, many investigators have argued that static stress changes caused by large earthquakes influence the spatial and temporal distributions of subsequent regional seismicity, with earthquakes occurring preferentially in areas of stress increase and reduced seismicity where stress decreases. Some workers have developed quantitative methods to test for the existence of such static stress triggering, but no firm consensus has yet been reached as to the significance of these effects. We have developed a new test for static stress triggering in which we compute the change in Coulomb stress on the focal mechanism nodal planes of a set of events spanning the occurrence of a large earthquake. We compare the statistical distributions of these stress changes for events before and after the mainshock to decide if we can reject the hypothesis that these distributions are the same. Such rejection would be evidence for stress triggering. We have applied this test to the November 24, 1987, Elmore Ranch/Superstition Hills earthquake sequence and find that those post-mainshock events that experienced stress increases of at least 0.01-0.03 MPa (0.1-0.3 bar) or that occurred from 1.4 to 2.8 years after the mainshocks are consistent with having been triggered by mainshock-generated static stress changes.
Jha, Sumit Kumar; Pullum, Laura L; Ramanathan, Arvind
2016-01-01
Embedded intelligent systems ranging from tiny im- plantable biomedical devices to large swarms of autonomous un- manned aerial systems are becoming pervasive in our daily lives. While we depend on the flawless functioning of such intelligent systems, and often take their behavioral correctness and safety for granted, it is notoriously difficult to generate test cases that expose subtle errors in the implementations of machine learning algorithms. Hence, the validation of intelligent systems is usually achieved by studying their behavior on representative data sets, using methods such as cross-validation and bootstrapping.In this paper, we present a new testing methodology for studying the correctness of intelligent systems. Our approach uses symbolic decision procedures coupled with statistical hypothesis testing to. We also use our algorithm to analyze the robustness of a human detection algorithm built using the OpenCV open-source computer vision library. We show that the human detection implementation can fail to detect humans in perturbed video frames even when the perturbations are so small that the corresponding frames look identical to the naked eye.
Experimental Test of Heisenberg's Measurement Uncertainty Relation Based on Statistical Distances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Wenchao; Ma, Zhihao; Wang, Hengyan; Chen, Zhihua; Liu, Ying; Kong, Fei; Li, Zhaokai; Peng, Xinhua; Shi, Mingjun; Shi, Fazhan; Fei, Shao-Ming; Du, Jiangfeng
2016-04-01
Incompatible observables can be approximated by compatible observables in joint measurement or measured sequentially, with constrained accuracy as implied by Heisenberg's original formulation of the uncertainty principle. Recently, Busch, Lahti, and Werner proposed inaccuracy trade-off relations based on statistical distances between probability distributions of measurement outcomes [P. Busch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 160405 (2013); P. Busch et al., Phys. Rev. A 89, 012129 (2014)]. Here we reformulate their theoretical framework, derive an improved relation for qubit measurement, and perform an experimental test on a spin system. The relation reveals that the worst-case inaccuracy is tightly bounded from below by the incompatibility of target observables, and is verified by the experiment employing joint measurement in which two compatible observables designed to approximate two incompatible observables on one qubit are measured simultaneously.
Experimental Test of Heisenberg's Measurement Uncertainty Relation Based on Statistical Distances.
Ma, Wenchao; Ma, Zhihao; Wang, Hengyan; Chen, Zhihua; Liu, Ying; Kong, Fei; Li, Zhaokai; Peng, Xinhua; Shi, Mingjun; Shi, Fazhan; Fei, Shao-Ming; Du, Jiangfeng
2016-04-22
Incompatible observables can be approximated by compatible observables in joint measurement or measured sequentially, with constrained accuracy as implied by Heisenberg's original formulation of the uncertainty principle. Recently, Busch, Lahti, and Werner proposed inaccuracy trade-off relations based on statistical distances between probability distributions of measurement outcomes [P. Busch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 160405 (2013); P. Busch et al., Phys. Rev. A 89, 012129 (2014)]. Here we reformulate their theoretical framework, derive an improved relation for qubit measurement, and perform an experimental test on a spin system. The relation reveals that the worst-case inaccuracy is tightly bounded from below by the incompatibility of target observables, and is verified by the experiment employing joint measurement in which two compatible observables designed to approximate two incompatible observables on one qubit are measured simultaneously. PMID:27152779
Early aftershocks statistics: first results of prospective test of alarm-based model (EAST)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shebalin, Peter; Narteau, Clement; Holschneider, Matthias; Schorlemmer, Danijel
2010-05-01
It was shown recently that the c-value systematically changes across different faulting styles and thus may reflect the state of stress. Hypothesizing that smaller c-values indicate places more vulnerable to moderate and large earthquakes, we suggested a simple alarm-based forecasting model, called EAST, submitted for the test in CSEP in California (3-month, M ≥ 4 class); the official test was started on July 1, 2009. We replaced the c-value by more robust parameter, the geometric average of the aftershock elapsed times (the ea-value). We normalize the ea-value calculated for last 5 years by the value calculated for preceding 25 years. When and where the normalized ea-value exceeds a given threshold, an 'alarm' is issued: an earthquake is expected to occur within the next 3 months. Retrospective tests of the model show good and stable results (even better for targets M ≥ 5). During the first 6 months of the prospective test 22 target earthquakes took place in the testing area. 14 of them (more than 60%) were forecasted with the alarm threshold resulting in only 1% of space-time occupied by alarms (5% if space is normalized by past earthquake frequencies). This highly encouraging result was obtained mostly due to successful forecast of the sequence of 11 earthquakes near Lone Pine in 1-9 October 2009. However, if we disregard aftershocks as targets, then 4 out of 9 main shocks occurred in alarms with normalized ea-value threshold resulting in 2.5% of normalized space-time occupied by alarms, the result is also impossible to get by chance at a significance level 1%. To expand the evaluation of the EAST model relative to larger number of forecast models, we have developed its frequency-based version. We estimate the expected frequency of earthquakes using joint retrospective statistics of targets and the ea-value.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Bingjie; Bitner-Gregersen, Elzbieta Maria; Sun, Hui; Block Helmers, Jens
2013-04-01
Earlier investigations have indicated that proper prediction of nonlinear loads and responses due to nonlinear waves is important for ship safety in extreme seas. However, the nonlinear loads and responses in extreme seas have not been sufficiently investigated yet, particularly when rogue waves are considered. A question remains whether the existing linear codes can predict nonlinear loads and responses with a satisfactory accuracy and how large the deviations from linear predictions are. To indicate it response statistics have been studied based on the model tests carried out with a LNG tanker in the towing tank of the Technical University of Berlin (TUB), and compared with the statistics derived from numerical simulations using the DNV code WASIM. It is a potential code for wave-ship interaction based on 3D Panel method, which can perform both linear and nonlinear simulation. The numerical simulations with WASIM and the model tests in extreme and rogue waves have been performed. The analysis of ship motions (heave and pitch) and bending moments, in both regular and irregular waves, is performed. The results from the linear and nonlinear simulations are compared with experimental data to indicate the impact of wave non-linearity on loads and response calculations when the code based on the Rankine Panel Method is used. The study shows that nonlinearities may have significant effect on extreme motions and bending moment generated by strongly nonlinear waves. The effect of water depth on ship responses is also demonstrated using numerical simulations. Uncertainties related to the results are discussed, giving particular attention to sampling variability.
Stanisavljevic, Dejana; Trajkovic, Goran; Marinkovic, Jelena; Bukumiric, Zoran; Cirkovic, Andja; Milic, Natasa
2014-01-01
Background Medical statistics has become important and relevant for future doctors, enabling them to practice evidence based medicine. Recent studies report that students’ attitudes towards statistics play an important role in their statistics achievements. The aim of the study was to test the psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the Survey of Attitudes Towards Statistics (SATS) in order to acquire a valid instrument to measure attitudes inside the Serbian educational context. Methods The validation study was performed on a cohort of 417 medical students who were enrolled in an obligatory introductory statistics course. The SATS adaptation was based on an internationally accepted methodology for translation and cultural adaptation. Psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the SATS were analyzed through the examination of factorial structure and internal consistency. Results Most medical students held positive attitudes towards statistics. The average total SATS score was above neutral (4.3±0.8), and varied from 1.9 to 6.2. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the six-factor structure of the questionnaire (Affect, Cognitive Competence, Value, Difficulty, Interest and Effort). Values for fit indices TLI (0.940) and CFI (0.961) were above the cut-off of ≥0.90. The RMSEA value of 0.064 (0.051–0.078) was below the suggested value of ≤0.08. Cronbach’s alpha of the entire scale was 0.90, indicating scale reliability. In a multivariate regression model, self-rating of ability in mathematics and current grade point average were significantly associated with the total SATS score after adjusting for age and gender. Conclusion Present study provided the evidence for the appropriate metric properties of the Serbian version of SATS. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the six-factor structure of the scale. The SATS might be reliable and a valid instrument for identifying medical students’ attitudes towards statistics in the Serbian
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tabor, Josh
2010-01-01
On the 2009 AP[c] Statistics Exam, students were asked to create a statistic to measure skewness in a distribution. This paper explores several of the most popular student responses and evaluates which statistic performs best when sampling from various skewed populations. (Contains 8 figures, 3 tables, and 4 footnotes.)
Combining test statistics and models in bootstrapped model rejection: it is a balancing act
2014-01-01
Background Model rejections lie at the heart of systems biology, since they provide conclusive statements: that the corresponding mechanistic assumptions do not serve as valid explanations for the experimental data. Rejections are usually done using e.g. the chi-square test (χ2) or the Durbin-Watson test (DW). Analytical formulas for the corresponding distributions rely on assumptions that typically are not fulfilled. This problem is partly alleviated by the usage of bootstrapping, a computationally heavy approach to calculate an empirical distribution. Bootstrapping also allows for a natural extension to estimation of joint distributions, but this feature has so far been little exploited. Results We herein show that simplistic combinations of bootstrapped tests, like the max or min of the individual p-values, give inconsistent, i.e. overly conservative or liberal, results. A new two-dimensional (2D) approach based on parametric bootstrapping, on the other hand, is found both consistent and with a higher power than the individual tests, when tested on static and dynamic examples where the truth is known. In the same examples, the most superior test is a 2D χ2vsχ2, where the second χ2-value comes from an additional help model, and its ability to describe bootstraps from the tested model. This superiority is lost if the help model is too simple, or too flexible. If a useful help model is found, the most powerful approach is the bootstrapped log-likelihood ratio (LHR). We show that this is because the LHR is one-dimensional, because the second dimension comes at a cost, and because LHR has retained most of the crucial information in the 2D distribution. These approaches statistically resolve a previously published rejection example for the first time. Conclusions We have shown how to, and how not to, combine tests in a bootstrap setting, when the combination is advantageous, and when it is advantageous to include a second model. These results also provide a deeper
DWPF Sample Vial Insert Study-Statistical Analysis of DWPF Mock-Up Test Data
Harris, S.P.
1997-09-18
This report is prepared as part of Technical/QA Task Plan WSRC-RP-97-351 which was issued in response to Technical Task Request HLW/DWPF/TTR-970132 submitted by DWPF. Presented in this report is a statistical analysis of DWPF Mock-up test data for evaluation of two new analytical methods which use insert samples from the existing HydragardTM sampler. The first is a new hydrofluoric acid based method called the Cold Chemical Method (Cold Chem) and the second is a modified fusion method.Either new DWPF analytical method could result in a two to three fold improvement in sample analysis time.Both new methods use the existing HydragardTM sampler to collect a smaller insert sample from the process sampling system. The insert testing methodology applies to the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) and the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) samples.The insert sample is named after the initial trials which placed the container inside the sample (peanut) vials. Samples in small 3 ml containers (Inserts) are analyzed by either the cold chemical method or a modified fusion method. The current analytical method uses a HydragardTM sample station to obtain nearly full 15 ml peanut vials. The samples are prepared by a multi-step process for Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis by drying, vitrification, grinding and finally dissolution by either mixed acid or fusion. In contrast, the insert sample is placed directly in the dissolution vessel, thus eliminating the drying, vitrification and grinding operations for the Cold chem method. Although the modified fusion still requires drying and calcine conversion, the process is rapid due to the decreased sample size and that no vitrification step is required.A slurry feed simulant material was acquired from the TNX pilot facility from the test run designated as PX-7.The Mock-up test data were gathered on the basis of a statistical design presented in SRT-SCS-97004 (Rev. 0). Simulant PX-7 samples were taken in the DWPF Analytical Cell Mock
Testing of an erosion-based landform evolution model using objective statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willgoose, G.; Hancock, G.; Kuczera, G.
2003-04-01
Landform evolution models are increasingly being used to assess the long-term safety of repositories of hazardous waste under the action of erosion. The timescales required for safe containment typically vary from 200 to 1000 years. While these models are based on observed physics, small variations in the physics modelled (within the range of currently accepted agricultural erosion models) result in significant differences in the predictions at 1000 years. Testing the validity of landform evolution models is then crucial. These tests must be quantitative because decisions are being made based on the quantitative predictions of the model. These tests must also be objective. A difficulty is designing the tests is that we are unable to perform repeatable experiments over timescales of 200--1000 years. A range of experiments that indirectly address the issue of timescale will be discussed including accelerated laboratory experiments, degraded mine landscapes and undisturbed natural landscapes. A statistical framework will be presented that addresses the unrepeatibility of field data, where each field site is unique. The methodology involves developing error bands for model predictions using Monte-Carlo simulation, comparing these bands with observed field data and then assessing whether the field data is likely to have come from the probability distribution of model predictions. The methodology is demonstrated using the first author's SIBERIA landform evolution model on an undisturbed field catchment in northern Australia at Tin Camp Creek. It is concluded that SIBERIA does a good job of modelling the observed geomorphology. The value of the methodology for designing experiments in earth science and environmental applications will also be discussed.
Statistical testing of the full-range leadership theory in nursing.
Kanste, Outi; Kääriäinen, Maria; Kyngäs, Helvi
2009-12-01
The aim of this study is to test statistically the structure of the full-range leadership theory in nursing. The data were gathered by postal questionnaires from nurses and nurse leaders working in healthcare organizations in Finland. A follow-up study was performed 1 year later. The sample consisted of 601 nurses and nurse leaders, and the follow-up study had 78 respondents. Theory was tested through structural equation modelling, standard regression analysis and two-way anova. Rewarding transformational leadership seems to promote and passive laissez-faire leadership to reduce willingness to exert extra effort, perceptions of leader effectiveness and satisfaction with the leader. Active management-by-exception seems to reduce willingness to exert extra effort and perception of leader effectiveness. Rewarding transformational leadership remained as a strong explanatory factor of all outcome variables measured 1 year later. The data supported the main structure of the full-range leadership theory, lending support to the universal nature of the theory. PMID:19702652
Penarrubia, Jorge; Walker, Matthew G.
2012-11-20
We introduce the Minimum Entropy Method, a simple statistical technique for constraining the Milky Way gravitational potential and simultaneously testing different gravity theories directly from 6D phase-space surveys and without adopting dynamical models. We demonstrate that orbital energy distributions that are separable (i.e., independent of position) have an associated entropy that increases under wrong assumptions about the gravitational potential and/or gravity theory. Of known objects, 'cold' tidal streams from low-mass progenitors follow orbital distributions that most nearly satisfy the condition of separability. Although the orbits of tidally stripped stars are perturbed by the progenitor's self-gravity, systematic variations of the energy distribution can be quantified in terms of the cross-entropy of individual tails, giving further sensitivity to theoretical biases in the host potential. The feasibility of using the Minimum Entropy Method to test a wide range of gravity theories is illustrated by evolving restricted N-body models in a Newtonian potential and examining the changes in entropy introduced by Dirac, MONDian, and f(R) gravity modifications.
FLAGS: A Flexible and Adaptive Association Test for Gene Sets Using Summary Statistics.
Huang, Jianfei; Wang, Kai; Wei, Peng; Liu, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaoming; Tan, Kai; Boerwinkle, Eric; Potash, James B; Han, Shizhong
2016-03-01
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been widely used for identifying common variants associated with complex diseases. Despite remarkable success in uncovering many risk variants and providing novel insights into disease biology, genetic variants identified to date fail to explain the vast majority of the heritability for most complex diseases. One explanation is that there are still a large number of common variants that remain to be discovered, but their effect sizes are generally too small to be detected individually. Accordingly, gene set analysis of GWAS, which examines a group of functionally related genes, has been proposed as a complementary approach to single-marker analysis. Here, we propose a FL: exible and A: daptive test for G: ene S: ets (FLAGS), using summary statistics. Extensive simulations showed that this method has an appropriate type I error rate and outperforms existing methods with increased power. As a proof of principle, through real data analyses of Crohn's disease GWAS data and bipolar disorder GWAS meta-analysis results, we demonstrated the superior performance of FLAGS over several state-of-the-art association tests for gene sets. Our method allows for the more powerful application of gene set analysis to complex diseases, which will have broad use given that GWAS summary results are increasingly publicly available. PMID:26773050
Test statistics for the identification of assembly neurons in parallel spike trains.
Picado Muiño, David; Borgelt, Christian
2015-01-01
In recent years numerous improvements have been made in multiple-electrode recordings (i.e., parallel spike-train recordings) and spike sorting to the extent that nowadays it is possible to monitor the activity of up to hundreds of neurons simultaneously. Due to these improvements it is now potentially possible to identify assembly activity (roughly understood as significant synchronous spiking of a group of neurons) from these recordings, which-if it can be demonstrated reliably-would significantly improve our understanding of neural activity and neural coding. However, several methodological problems remain when trying to do so and, among them, a principal one is the combinatorial explosion that one faces when considering all potential neuronal assemblies, since in principle every subset of the recorded neurons constitutes a candidate set for an assembly. We present several statistical tests to identify assembly neurons (i.e., neurons that participate in a neuronal assembly) from parallel spike trains with the aim of reducing the set of neurons to a relevant subset of them and this way ease the task of identifying neuronal assemblies in further analyses. These tests are an improvement of those introduced in the work by Berger et al. (2010) based on additional features like spike weight or pairwise overlap and on alternative ways to identify spike coincidences (e.g., by avoiding time binning, which tends to lose information). PMID:25866503
Statistical methods for the analysis of a screening test for chronic beryllium disease
Frome, E.L.; Neubert, R.L.; Smith, M.H.; Littlefield, L.G.; Colyer, S.P.
1994-10-01
The lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) is a noninvasive screening procedure used to identify persons who may have chronic beryllium disease. A practical problem in the analysis of LPT well counts is the occurrence of outlying data values (approximately 7% of the time). A log-linear regression model is used to describe the expected well counts for each set of test conditions. The variance of the well counts is proportional to the square of the expected counts, and two resistant regression methods are used to estimate the parameters of interest. The first approach uses least absolute values (LAV) on the log of the well counts to estimate beryllium stimulation indices (SIs) and the coefficient of variation. The second approach uses a resistant regression version of maximum quasi-likelihood estimation. A major advantage of the resistant regression methods is that it is not necessary to identify and delete outliers. These two new methods for the statistical analysis of the LPT data and the outlier rejection method that is currently being used are applied to 173 LPT assays. The authors strongly recommend the LAV method for routine analysis of the LPT.
A Tool Preference Choice Method for RNA Secondary Structure Prediction by SVM with Statistical Tests
Hor, Chiou-Yi; Yang, Chang-Biau; Chang, Chia-Hung; Tseng, Chiou-Ting; Chen, Hung-Hsin
2013-01-01
The Prediction of RNA secondary structures has drawn much attention from both biologists and computer scientists. Many useful tools have been developed for this purpose. These tools have their individual strengths and weaknesses. As a result, based on support vector machines (SVM), we propose a tool choice method which integrates three prediction tools: pknotsRG, RNAStructure, and NUPACK. Our method first extracts features from the target RNA sequence, and adopts two information-theoretic feature selection methods for feature ranking. We propose a method to combine feature selection and classifier fusion in an incremental manner. Our test data set contains 720 RNA sequences, where 225 pseudoknotted RNA sequences are obtained from PseudoBase, and 495 nested RNA sequences are obtained from RNA SSTRAND. The method serves as a preprocessing way in analyzing RNA sequences before the RNA secondary structure prediction tools are employed. In addition, the performance of various configurations is subject to statistical tests to examine their significance. The best base-pair accuracy achieved is 75.5%, which is obtained by the proposed incremental method, and is significantly higher than 68.8%, which is associated with the best predictor, pknotsRG. PMID:23641141
Létourneau, Daniel McNiven, Andrea; Keller, Harald; Wang, An; Amin, Md Nurul; Pearce, Jim; Norrlinger, Bernhard; Jaffray, David A.
2014-12-15
Purpose: High-quality radiation therapy using highly conformal dose distributions and image-guided techniques requires optimum machine delivery performance. In this work, a monitoring system for multileaf collimator (MLC) performance, integrating semiautomated MLC quality control (QC) tests and statistical process control tools, was developed. The MLC performance monitoring system was used for almost a year on two commercially available MLC models. Control charts were used to establish MLC performance and assess test frequency required to achieve a given level of performance. MLC-related interlocks and servicing events were recorded during the monitoring period and were investigated as indicators of MLC performance variations. Methods: The QC test developed as part of the MLC performance monitoring system uses 2D megavoltage images (acquired using an electronic portal imaging device) of 23 fields to determine the location of the leaves with respect to the radiation isocenter. The precision of the MLC performance monitoring QC test and the MLC itself was assessed by detecting the MLC leaf positions on 127 megavoltage images of a static field. After initial calibration, the MLC performance monitoring QC test was performed 3–4 times/week over a period of 10–11 months to monitor positional accuracy of individual leaves for two different MLC models. Analysis of test results was performed using individuals control charts per leaf with control limits computed based on the measurements as well as two sets of specifications of ±0.5 and ±1 mm. Out-of-specification and out-of-control leaves were automatically flagged by the monitoring system and reviewed monthly by physicists. MLC-related interlocks reported by the linear accelerator and servicing events were recorded to help identify potential causes of nonrandom MLC leaf positioning variations. Results: The precision of the MLC performance monitoring QC test and the MLC itself was within ±0.22 mm for most MLC leaves
A statistical test on the reliability of the non-coevality of stars in binary systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valle, G.; Dell'Omodarme, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.
2016-03-01
Aims: We develop a statistical test on the expected difference in age estimates of two coeval stars in detached double-lined eclipsing binary systems that are only caused by observational uncertainties. We focus on stars in the mass range [0.8; 1.6] M⊙, with an initial metallicity [Fe/H] from -0.55 to 0.55 dex, and on stars in the main-sequence phase. Methods: The ages were obtained by means of the SCEPtER technique, a maximum-likelihood procedure relying on a pre-computed grid of stellar models. The observational constraints used in the recovery procedure are stellar mass, radius, effective temperature, and metallicity [Fe/H]. To check the effect of the uncertainties affecting observations on the (non-)coevality assessment, the chosen observational constraints were subjected to a Gaussian perturbation before applying the SCEPtER code. We defined the statistic W computed as the ratio of the absolute difference of estimated ages for the two stars over the age of the older one. We determined the critical values of this statistics above which coevality can be rejected in dependence on the mass of the two stars, on the initial metallicity [Fe/H], and on the evolutionary stage of the primary star. Results: The median expected difference in the reconstructed age between the coeval stars of a binary system - caused alone by the observational uncertainties - shows a strong dependence on the evolutionary stage. This ranges from about 20% for an evolved primary star to about 75% for a near ZAMS primary. The median difference also shows an increase with the mass of the primary star from 20% for 0.8 M⊙ stars to about 50% for 1.6 M⊙ stars. The reliability of these results was checked by repeating the process with a grid of stellar models computed by a different evolutionary code; the median difference in the critical values was only 0.01. We show that the W test is much more sensible to age differences in the binary system components than the alternative approach of
KURETZKI, Carlos Henrique; CAMPOS, Antônio Carlos Ligocki; MALAFAIA, Osvaldo; SOARES, Sandramara Scandelari Kusano de Paula; TENÓRIO, Sérgio Bernardo; TIMI, Jorge Rufino Ribas
2016-01-01
Background: The use of information technology is often applied in healthcare. With regard to scientific research, the SINPE(c) - Integrated Electronic Protocols was created as a tool to support researchers, offering clinical data standardization. By the time, SINPE(c) lacked statistical tests obtained by automatic analysis. Aim: Add to SINPE(c) features for automatic realization of the main statistical methods used in medicine . Methods: The study was divided into four topics: check the interest of users towards the implementation of the tests; search the frequency of their use in health care; carry out the implementation; and validate the results with researchers and their protocols. It was applied in a group of users of this software in their thesis in the strict sensu master and doctorate degrees in one postgraduate program in surgery. To assess the reliability of the statistics was compared the data obtained both automatically by SINPE(c) as manually held by a professional in statistics with experience with this type of study. Results: There was concern for the use of automatic statistical tests, with good acceptance. The chi-square, Mann-Whitney, Fisher and t-Student were considered as tests frequently used by participants in medical studies. These methods have been implemented and thereafter approved as expected. Conclusion: The incorporation of the automatic SINPE(c) Statistical Analysis was shown to be reliable and equal to the manually done, validating its use as a research tool for medical research. PMID:27120732
Chlorine-36 data at Yucca Mountain: Statistical tests of conceptual models for unsaturated-zone flow
Campbell, K.; Wolfsberg, A.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Sweetkind, D.
2003-01-01
An extensive set of chlorine-36 (36Cl) data has been collected in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), an 8-km-long tunnel at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the purpose of developing and testing conceptual models of flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at this site. At several locations, the measured values of 36Cl/Cl ratios for salts leached from rock samples are high enough to provide strong evidence that at least a small component of bomb-pulse 36Cl, fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear devices in the 1950s and 1960s, was measured, implying that some fraction of the water traveled from the ground surface through 200-300 m of unsaturated rock to the level of the ESF during the last 50 years. These data are analyzed here using a formal statistical approach based on log-linear models to evaluate alternative conceptual models for the distribution of such fast flow paths. The most significant determinant of the presence of bomb-pulse 36Cl in a sample from the welded Topopah Spring unit (TSw) is the structural setting from which the sample was collected. Our analysis generally supports the conceptual model that a fault that cuts through the nonwelded Paintbrush tuff unit (PTn) that overlies the TSw is required in order for bomb-pulse 36Cl to be transmitted to the sample depth in less than 50 years. Away from PTn-cutting faults, the ages of water samples at the ESF appear to be a strong function of the thickness of the nonwelded tuff between the ground surface and the ESF, due to slow matrix flow in that unit. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Campbell, Katherine; Wolfsberg, Andrew; Fabryka-Martin, June; Sweetkind, Donald
2003-01-01
An extensive set of chlorine-36 (36Cl) data has been collected in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), an 8-km-long tunnel at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the purpose of developing and testing conceptual models of flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at this site. At several locations, the measured values of 36Cl/Cl ratios for salts leached from rock samples are high enough to provide strong evidence that at least a small component of bomb-pulse 36Cl, fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear devices in the 1950s and 1960s, was measured, implying that some fraction of the water traveled from the ground surface through 200-300 m of unsaturated rock to the level of the ESF during the last 50 years. These data are analyzed here using a formal statistical approach based on log-linear models to evaluate alternative conceptual models for the distribution of such fast flow paths. The most significant determinant of the presence of bomb-pulse 36Cl in a sample from the welded Topopah Spring unit (TSw) is the structural setting from which the sample was collected. Our analysis generally supports the conceptual model that a fault that cuts through the nonwelded Paintbrush tuff unit (PTn) that overlies the TSw is required in order for bomb-pulse 36Cl to be transmitted to the sample depth in less than 50 years. Away from PTn-cutting faults, the ages of water samples at the ESF appear to be a strong function of the thickness of the nonwelded tuff between the ground surface and the ESF, due to slow matrix flow in that unit. PMID:12714284
Statistical Risk Estimation for Communication System Design: Results of the HETE-2 Test Case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babuscia, A.; Cheung, K.-M.
2014-05-01
The Statistical Risk Estimation (SRE) technique described in this article is a methodology to quantify the likelihood that the major design drivers of mass and power of a space system meet the spacecraft and mission requirements and constraints through the design and development lifecycle. The SRE approach addresses the long-standing challenges of small sample size and unclear evaluation path of a space system, and uses a combination of historical data and expert opinions to estimate risk. Although the methodology is applicable to the entire spacecraft, this article is focused on a specific subsystem: the communication subsystem. Using this approach, the communication system designers will be able to evaluate and to compare different communication architectures in a risk trade-off perspective. SRE was introduced in two previous papers. This article aims to present additional results of the methodology by adding a new test case from a university mission, the High-Energy Transient Experiment (HETE)-2. The results illustrate the application of SRE to estimate the risks of exceeding constraints in mass and power, hence providing crucial risk information to support a project's decision on requirements rescope and/or system redesign.
Ramus, Claire; Hovasse, Agnès; Marcellin, Marlène; Hesse, Anne-Marie; Mouton-Barbosa, Emmanuelle; Bouyssié, David; Vaca, Sebastian; Carapito, Christine; Chaoui, Karima; Bruley, Christophe; Garin, Jérôme; Cianférani, Sarah; Ferro, Myriam; Dorssaeler, Alain Van; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Schaeffer, Christine; Couté, Yohann; Gonzalez de Peredo, Anne
2015-01-01
This data article describes a controlled, spiked proteomic dataset for which the “ground truth” of variant proteins is known. It is based on the LC-MS analysis of samples composed of a fixed background of yeast lysate and different spiked amounts of the UPS1 mixture of 48 recombinant proteins. It can be used to objectively evaluate bioinformatic pipelines for label-free quantitative analysis, and their ability to detect variant proteins with good sensitivity and low false discovery rate in large-scale proteomic studies. More specifically, it can be useful for tuning software tools parameters, but also testing new algorithms for label-free quantitative analysis, or for evaluation of downstream statistical methods. The raw MS files can be downloaded from ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001819. Starting from some raw files of this dataset, we also provide here some processed data obtained through various bioinformatics tools (including MaxQuant, Skyline, MFPaQ, IRMa-hEIDI and Scaffold) in different workflows, to exemplify the use of such data in the context of software benchmarking, as discussed in details in the accompanying manuscript [1]. The experimental design used here for data processing takes advantage of the different spike levels introduced in the samples composing the dataset, and processed data are merged in a single file to facilitate the evaluation and illustration of software tools results for the detection of variant proteins with different absolute expression levels and fold change values. PMID:26862574
Longitudinal change detection in diffusion MRI using multivariate statistical testing on tensors.
Grigis, Antoine; Noblet, Vincent; Heitz, Fabrice; Blanc, Frédéric; de Sèze, Jérome; Kremer, Stéphane; Rumbach, Lucien; Armspach, Jean-Paul
2012-05-01
This paper presents a longitudinal change detection framework for detecting relevant modifications in diffusion MRI, with application to neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS). The core problem is to identify image regions that are significantly different between two scans. The proposed method is based on multivariate statistical testing which was initially introduced for tensor population comparison. We use this method in the context of longitudinal change detection by considering several strategies to build sets of tensors characterizing the variability of each voxel. These strategies make use of the variability existing in the diffusion weighted images (thanks to a bootstrap procedure), or in the spatial neighborhood of the considered voxel, or a combination of both. Results on synthetic evolutions and on real data are presented. Interestingly, experiments on NMO patients highlight the ability of the proposed approach to detect changes in the normal-appearing white matter (according to conventional MRI) that are related with physical status outcome. Experiments on MS patients highlight the ability of the proposed approach to detect changes in evolving and non-evolving lesions (according to conventional MRI). These findings might open promising prospects for the follow-up of NMO and MS pathologies. PMID:22387171
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Andrew T.
2011-01-01
Practitioners often depend on item analysis to select items for exam forms and have a variety of options available to them. These include the point-biserial correlation, the agreement statistic, the B index, and the phi coefficient. Although research has demonstrated that these statistics can be useful for item selection, no research as of yet has…
The T(ea) Test: Scripted Stories Increase Statistical Method Selection Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hackathorn, Jana; Ashdown, Brien
2015-01-01
To teach statistics, teachers must attempt to overcome pedagogical obstacles, such as dread, anxiety, and boredom. There are many options available to teachers that facilitate a pedagogically conducive environment in the classroom. The current study examined the effectiveness of incorporating scripted stories and humor into statistical method…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fidalgo, Angel M.; Alavi, Seyed Mohammad; Amirian, Seyed Mohammad Reza
2014-01-01
This study examines three controversial aspects in differential item functioning (DIF) detection by logistic regression (LR) models: first, the relative effectiveness of different analytical strategies for detecting DIF; second, the suitability of the Wald statistic for determining the statistical significance of the parameters of interest; and…
The Effects of Pre-Lecture Quizzes on Test Anxiety and Performance in a Statistics Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Michael J.; Tallon, Jennifer
2015-01-01
The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of pre-lecture quizzes in a statistics course. Students (N = 70) from 2 sections of an introductory statistics course served as participants in this study. One section completed pre-lecture quizzes whereas the other section did not. Completing pre-lecture quizzes was associated with improved exam…
Brown, Geoffrey W.; Sandstrom, Mary M.; Preston, Daniel N.; Pollard, Colin J.; Warner, Kirstin F.; Sorensen, Daniel N.; Remmers, Daniel L.; Phillips, Jason J.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; Hsu, Peter C.; Reynolds, John G.
2014-04-10
In this study, the Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program has conducted a proficiency test for small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are statistical analyses of the results from this test for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of the RDX Class 5 Type II standard. The material was tested as a well-characterized standard several times during the proficiency test to assess differences among participants and the range of results that may arise for well-behaved explosive materials.
Brown, Geoffrey W.; Sandstrom, Mary M.; Preston, Daniel N.; Pollard, Colin J.; Warner, Kirstin F.; Sorensen, Daniel N.; Remmers, Daniel L.; Phillips, Jason J.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; et al
2014-11-17
In this study, the Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program has conducted a proficiency test for small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are statistical analyses of the results from this test for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of the RDX Class 5 Type II standard. The material was tested as a well-characterized standard several times during the proficiency test to assess differences among participants and the range of results that may arise for well-behaved explosive materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiraishi, Maresuke; Hikage, Chiaki; Namba, Ryo; Namikawa, Toshiya; Hazumi, Masashi
2016-08-01
The B -mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies at large angular scales provides compelling evidence for the primordial gravitational waves (GWs). It is often stated that a discovery of the GWs establishes the quantum fluctuation of vacuum during the cosmic inflation. Since the GWs could also be generated by source fields, however, we need to check if a sizable signal exists due to such source fields before reaching a firm conclusion when the B mode is discovered. Source fields of particular types can generate non-Gaussianity (NG) in the GWs. Testing statistics of the B mode is a powerful way of detecting such NG. As a concrete example, we show a model in which gauge field sources chiral GWs via a pseudoscalar coupling and forecast the detection significance at the future CMB satellite LiteBIRD. Effects of residual foregrounds and lensing B mode are both taken into account. We find the B -mode bispectrum "BBB" is in particular sensitive to the source-field NG, which is detectable at LiteBIRD with a >3 σ significance. Therefore the search for the BBB will be indispensable toward unambiguously establishing quantum fluctuation of vacuum when the B mode is discovered. We also introduced the Minkowski functional to detect the NGs. While we find that the Minkowski functional is less efficient than the harmonic-space bispectrum estimator, it still serves as a useful cross-check. Finally, we also discuss the possibility of extracting clean information on parity violation of GWs and new types of parity-violating observables induced by lensing.
An objective statistical test for eccentricity forcing of Oligo-Miocene climate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Proistosescu, C.; Huybers, P.; Maloof, A. C.
2008-12-01
We seek a maximally objective test for the presence of orbital features in Oligocene and Miocene δ18O records from marine sediments. Changes in Earth's orbital eccentricity are thought to be an important control on the long term variability of climate during the Oligocene and Miocene Epochs. However, such an important control from eccentricity is surprising because eccentricity has relatively little influence on Earth's annual average insolation budget. Nevertheless, if significant eccentricity variability is present, it would provide important insight into the operation of the climate system at long timescales. Here we use previously published data, but using a chronology which is initially independent of orbital assumptions, to test for the presence of eccentricity period variability in the Oligocene/Miocene sediment records. In contrast to the sawtooth climate record of the Pleistocene, the Oligocene and Miocene climate record appears smooth and symmetric and does not reset itself every hundred thousand years. This smooth variation, as well as the time interval spanning many eccentricity periods makes Oligocene and Miocene paleorecords very suitable for evaluating the importance of eccentricity forcing. First, we construct time scales depending only upon the ages of geomagnetic reversals with intervening ages linearly interpolated with depth. Such a single age-depth relationship is, however, too uncertain to assess whether orbital features are present. Thus, we construct a second depth-derived age-model by averaging ages across multiple sediment cores which have, at least partly, independent accumulation rate histories. But ages are still too uncertain to permit unambiguous detection of orbital variability. Thus we employ limited tuning assumptions and measure the degree by orbital period variability increases using spectral power estimates. By tuning we know that we are biasing the record toward showing orbital variations, but we account for this bias in our
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Callamaras, Peter
1983-01-01
This buyer's guide to seven major types of statistics software packages for microcomputers reviews Edu-Ware Statistics 3.0; Financial Planning; Speed Stat; Statistics with DAISY; Human Systems Dynamics package of Stats Plus, ANOVA II, and REGRESS II; Maxistat; and Moore-Barnes' MBC Test Construction and MBC Correlation. (MBR)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meyer, Donald L.
Bayesian statistical methodology and its possible uses in the behavioral sciences are discussed in relation to the solution of problems in both the use and teaching of fundamental statistical methods, including confidence intervals, significance tests, and sampling. The Bayesian model explains these statistical methods and offers a consistent…
Using the {delta}{sub 3} statistic to test for missed levels in neutron resonance data
Mulhall, Declan
2009-03-31
The {delta}{sub 3}(L) statistic is studied as a possible tool to detect missing levels in the neutron resonance data of odd-A nuclei. A {delta}{sub 3}(L) analysis of neutron resonance data is compared with the results of a maximum likelihood method applied to the level spacing distribution. The {delta}{sub 3}(L) statistic compares favorably with the level spacing distribution as a tool to gauge the completeness of the data.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Whether a required Salmonella test series is passed or failed depends not only on the presence of the bacteria, but also on the methods for taking the samples, the methods for culturing the samples, and the statistics associated with the sampling plan. A spreadsheet program was used to perform a Mo...
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Whether a required Salmonella test series is passed or failed depends not only on the presence of the bacteria, but also on the methods for taking samples, the methods for culturing samples, and the statistics associated with the sampling plan. The pass-fail probabilities of the two-class attribute...
Semenov, Alexander V; Elsas, Jan Dirk; Glandorf, Debora C M; Schilthuizen, Menno; Boer, Willem F
2013-08-01
To fulfill existing guidelines, applicants that aim to place their genetically modified (GM) insect-resistant crop plants on the market are required to provide data from field experiments that address the potential impacts of the GM plants on nontarget organisms (NTO's). Such data may be based on varied experimental designs. The recent EFSA guidance document for environmental risk assessment (2010) does not provide clear and structured suggestions that address the statistics of field trials on effects on NTO's. This review examines existing practices in GM plant field testing such as the way of randomization, replication, and pseudoreplication. Emphasis is placed on the importance of design features used for the field trials in which effects on NTO's are assessed. The importance of statistical power and the positive and negative aspects of various statistical models are discussed. Equivalence and difference testing are compared, and the importance of checking the distribution of experimental data is stressed to decide on the selection of the proper statistical model. While for continuous data (e.g., pH and temperature) classical statistical approaches - for example, analysis of variance (ANOVA) - are appropriate, for discontinuous data (counts) only generalized linear models (GLM) are shown to be efficient. There is no golden rule as to which statistical test is the most appropriate for any experimental situation. In particular, in experiments in which block designs are used and covariates play a role GLMs should be used. Generic advice is offered that will help in both the setting up of field testing and the interpretation and data analysis of the data obtained in this testing. The combination of decision trees and a checklist for field trials, which are provided, will help in the interpretation of the statistical analyses of field trials and to assess whether such analyses were correctly applied. We offer generic advice to risk assessors and applicants that will
Semenov, Alexander V; Elsas, Jan Dirk; Glandorf, Debora C M; Schilthuizen, Menno; Boer, Willem F
2013-01-01
Abstract To fulfill existing guidelines, applicants that aim to place their genetically modified (GM) insect-resistant crop plants on the market are required to provide data from field experiments that address the potential impacts of the GM plants on nontarget organisms (NTO's). Such data may be based on varied experimental designs. The recent EFSA guidance document for environmental risk assessment (2010) does not provide clear and structured suggestions that address the statistics of field trials on effects on NTO's. This review examines existing practices in GM plant field testing such as the way of randomization, replication, and pseudoreplication. Emphasis is placed on the importance of design features used for the field trials in which effects on NTO's are assessed. The importance of statistical power and the positive and negative aspects of various statistical models are discussed. Equivalence and difference testing are compared, and the importance of checking the distribution of experimental data is stressed to decide on the selection of the proper statistical model. While for continuous data (e.g., pH and temperature) classical statistical approaches – for example, analysis of variance (ANOVA) – are appropriate, for discontinuous data (counts) only generalized linear models (GLM) are shown to be efficient. There is no golden rule as to which statistical test is the most appropriate for any experimental situation. In particular, in experiments in which block designs are used and covariates play a role GLMs should be used. Generic advice is offered that will help in both the setting up of field testing and the interpretation and data analysis of the data obtained in this testing. The combination of decision trees and a checklist for field trials, which are provided, will help in the interpretation of the statistical analyses of field trials and to assess whether such analyses were correctly applied. We offer generic advice to risk assessors and
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric
2008-01-01
In this article, the authors focus on hypothesis testing--that peculiarly statistical way of deciding things. Statistical methods for testing hypotheses were developed in the 1920s and 1930s by some of the most famous statisticians, in particular Ronald Fisher, Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson, who laid the foundations of almost all modern methods of…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berti, Matteo; Corsini, Alessandro; Franceschini, Silvia; Iannacone, Jean Pascal
2013-04-01
The application of space borne synthetic aperture radar interferometry has progressed, over the last two decades, from the pioneer use of single interferograms for analyzing changes on the earth's surface to the development of advanced multi-interferogram techniques to analyze any sort of natural phenomena which involves movements of the ground. The success of multi-interferograms techniques in the analysis of natural hazards such as landslides and subsidence is widely documented in the scientific literature and demonstrated by the consensus among the end-users. Despite the great potential of this technique, radar interpretation of slope movements is generally based on the sole analysis of average displacement velocities, while the information embraced in multi interferogram time series is often overlooked if not completely neglected. The underuse of PS time series is probably due to the detrimental effect of residual atmospheric errors, which make the PS time series characterized by erratic, irregular fluctuations often difficult to interpret, and also to the difficulty of performing a visual, supervised analysis of the time series for a large dataset. In this work is we present a procedure for automatic classification of PS time series based on a series of statistical characterization tests. The procedure allows to classify the time series into six distinctive target trends (0=uncorrelated; 1=linear; 2=quadratic; 3=bilinear; 4=discontinuous without constant velocity; 5=discontinuous with change in velocity) and retrieve for each trend a series of descriptive parameters which can be efficiently used to characterize the temporal changes of ground motion. The classification algorithms were developed and tested using an ENVISAT datasets available in the frame of EPRS-E project (Extraordinary Plan of Environmental Remote Sensing) of the Italian Ministry of Environment (track "Modena", Northern Apennines). This dataset was generated using standard processing, then the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hilborn, Robert C.
1997-04-01
The connection between the spin of particles and the permutation symmetry ("statistics") of multiparticle states lies at the heart of much of atomic, molecular, condensed matter, and nuclear physics. The spin-statistics theorem of relativistic quantum field theory seems to provide a theoretical basis for this connection. There are, however, loopholes (O. W. Greenberg, Phys. Rev. D 43, 4111 (1991).) that allow for a field theory of identical particles whose statistics interpolate smoothly between that of bosons and fermions. Thus, it is up to experiment to reveal how closely nature follows the usual spin- statistics connection. After reviewing experiments that provide stringent limits on possible violations of the spin-statistics connection for electrons, I shall describe recent analogous experiments for spin-0 particles (R. C. Hilborn and C. L. Yuca, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2844 (1996).) using diode laser spectroscopy of the A-band of molecular oxygen near 760 nm. These experiments show that the probability of finding two ^16O nuclei (spin-0 particles) in an antisymmetric state is less than 1ppm. I shall also discuss proposals to test the spin-statistics connection for photons.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adams, David R.
1977-01-01
Discusses the application of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample tests, as an alternative to the Chi-square test, for survey research problems in business education and includes a computer program written for the convenience of researchers. The two-sample test is recommended for differentiating independent distributions. (MF)
Nomogram for Obtaining Z-Test Statistic from Kendall's S and Sample Size 10 to 50.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Graney, Marshall J.
1979-01-01
Kendall's S is often used for measuring magnitude of bivariate association in social and behavioral research. This nomogram permits a research analyst to make rapid and accurate evaluation of the statistical significance of S without recourse to formulae or computations in all except borderline cases. (Author/CTM)
The Adequacy of Different Robust Statistical Tests in Comparing Two Independent Groups
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pero-Cebollero, Maribel; Guardia-Olmos, Joan
2013-01-01
In the current study, we evaluated various robust statistical methods for comparing two independent groups. Two scenarios for simulation were generated: one of equality and another of population mean differences. In each of the scenarios, 33 experimental conditions were used as a function of sample size, standard deviation and asymmetry. For each…
Comment on a Wilcox Test Statistic for Comparing Means When Variances Are Unequal.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hsiung, Tung-Hsing; And Others
1994-01-01
The alternative proposed by Wilcox (1989) to the James second-order statistic for comparing population means when variances are heterogeneous can sometimes be invalid. The degree to which the procedure is invalid depends on differences in sample size, the expected values of the observations, and population variances. (SLD)
Basic Mathematics Test Predicts Statistics Achievement and Overall First Year Academic Success
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fonteyne, Lot; De Fruyt, Filip; Dewulf, Nele; Duyck, Wouter; Erauw, Kris; Goeminne, Katy; Lammertyn, Jan; Marchant, Thierry; Moerkerke, Beatrijs; Oosterlinck, Tom; Rosseel, Yves
2015-01-01
In the psychology and educational science programs at Ghent University, only 36.1% of the new incoming students in 2011 and 2012 passed all exams. Despite availability of information, many students underestimate the scientific character of social science programs. Statistics courses are a major obstacle in this matter. Not all enrolling students…
Accuracy of Estimates and Statistical Power for Testing Meditation in Latent Growth Curve Modeling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cheong, JeeWon
2011-01-01
The latent growth curve modeling (LGCM) approach has been increasingly utilized to investigate longitudinal mediation. However, little is known about the accuracy of the estimates and statistical power when mediation is evaluated in the LGCM framework. A simulation study was conducted to address these issues under various conditions including…
Residuals and the Residual-Based Statistic for Testing Goodness of Fit of Structural Equation Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foldnes, Njal; Foss, Tron; Olsson, Ulf Henning
2012-01-01
The residuals obtained from fitting a structural equation model are crucial ingredients in obtaining chi-square goodness-of-fit statistics for the model. The authors present a didactic discussion of the residuals, obtaining a geometrical interpretation by recognizing the residuals as the result of oblique projections. This sheds light on the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
American Council on Education, Washington, DC. General Educational Development Testing Service.
Data are presented for applicants taking the test of the General Educational Development Testing Service (GEDTS) under these categories: United States, states and territories, VA hospitals and GEDTS offices, Canada and provinces, and high school level GED testing at official centers from 1949-1973 for veterans, nonveterans, and unclassified…
Tests of Independence in Contingency Tables with Small Samples: A Comparison of Statistical Power.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parshall, Cynthia G.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.
1996-01-01
Power and Type I error rates were estimated for contingency tables with small sample sizes for the following four types of tests: (1) Pearson's chi-square; (2) chi-square with Yates's continuity correction; (3) the likelihood ratio test; and (4) Fisher's Exact Test. Various marginal distributions, sample sizes, and effect sizes were examined. (SLD)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reese, Lynda M.
This study extended prior Law School Admission Council (LSAC) research related to the item response theory (IRT) local item independence assumption into the realm of classical test theory. Initially, results from the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and two other tests were investigated to determine the approximate state of local item independence…
Statistical Profiling of Academic Oral English Proficiency Based on an ITA Screening Test
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Choi, Ick Kyu
2013-01-01
At the University of California, Los Angeles, the Test of Oral Proficiency (TOP), an internally developed oral proficiency test, is administered to international teaching assistant (ITA) candidates to ensure an appropriate level of academic oral English proficiency. Test taker performances are rated live by two raters according to four subscales.…
Consistency in statistical moments as a test for bubble cloud clustering.
Weber, Thomas C; Lyons, Anthony P; Bradley, David L
2011-11-01
Frequency dependent measurements of attenuation and/or sound speed through clouds of gas bubbles in liquids are often inverted to find the bubble size distribution and the void fraction of gas. The inversions are often done using an effective medium theory as a forward model under the assumption that the bubble positions are Poisson distributed (i.e., statistically independent). Under circumstances in which single scattering does not adequately describe the pressure field, the assumption of independence in position can yield large errors when clustering is present, leading to errors in the inverted bubble size distribution. It is difficult, however, to determine the existence of clustering in bubble clouds without the use of specialized acoustic or optical imaging equipment. A method is described here in which the existence of bubble clustering can be identified by examining the consistency between the first two statistical moments of multiple frequency acoustic measurements. PMID:22088013
Numerical Model-Reality Intercomparison Tests Using Small-Sample Statistics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preisendorfer, Rudolph W.; Barnett, Tim P.
1983-08-01
When a numerical model's representation of a physical field is to be compared with a corresponding real observed field, it is usually the case that the numbers of realizations of model and observed field are relatively small, so that the natural procedure of producing histograms of pertinent statistics of the fields (e.g., means, variances) from the data sets themselves cannot be usually carried out. Also, it is not always safe to adopt assumptions of normality and independence of the data values. This prevents the confident use of classical statistical methods to make significance statements about the success or failure of the model's replication of the data. Here we suggest two techniques of determinable statistical power, in which small samples of spatially extensive physical fields can be made to blossom into workably large samples on which significance decisions can be based. We also introduce some new measures of location, spread and shape of multivariate data sets which may be used in conjunction with the two techniques. The result is a pair of new data intercomparison procedures which we illustrate using GCM simulations of the January sea-level pressure field and regional ocean model simulations of the new-shore velocity field of South America. We include with these procedures a method of determining the spatial and temporal locations of non-random errors between the model and data fields so that models can be improved accordingly.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.
2010-01-01
The Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft was launched on an Atlas IIAS launch vehicle on its mission to observe planet Earth in late 1999. Prior to launch, the new design of the spacecraft's pyroshock separation system was characterized by a series of 13 separation ground tests. The analysis methods used to evaluate this unusually large amount of shock data will be discussed in this paper, with particular emphasis on population distributions and finding statistically significant families of data, leading to an overall shock separation interface level. The wealth of ground test data also allowed a derivation of a Mission Assurance level for the flight. All of the flight shock measurements were below the EOS Terra Mission Assurance level thus contributing to the overall success of the EOS Terra mission. The effectiveness of the statistical methodology for characterizing the shock interface level and for developing a flight Mission Assurance level from a large sample size of shock data is demonstrated in this paper.
Fujita, André; Takahashi, Daniel Y; Patriota, Alexandre G; Sato, João R
2014-12-10
Statistical inference of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data is an important tool in neuroscience investigation. One major hypothesis in neuroscience is that the presence or not of a psychiatric disorder can be explained by the differences in how neurons cluster in the brain. Therefore, it is of interest to verify whether the properties of the clusters change between groups of patients and controls. The usual method to show group differences in brain imaging is to carry out a voxel-wise univariate analysis for a difference between the mean group responses using an appropriate test and to assemble the resulting 'significantly different voxels' into clusters, testing again at cluster level. In this approach, of course, the primary voxel-level test is blind to any cluster structure. Direct assessments of differences between groups at the cluster level seem to be missing in brain imaging. For this reason, we introduce a novel non-parametric statistical test called analysis of cluster structure variability (ANOCVA), which statistically tests whether two or more populations are equally clustered. The proposed method allows us to compare the clustering structure of multiple groups simultaneously and also to identify features that contribute to the differential clustering. We illustrate the performance of ANOCVA through simulations and an application to an fMRI dataset composed of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls. Results show that there are several differences in the clustering structure of the brain between them. Furthermore, we identify some brain regions previously not described to be involved in the ADHD pathophysiology, generating new hypotheses to be tested. The proposed method is general enough to be applied to other types of datasets, not limited to fMRI, where comparison of clustering structures is of interest. PMID:25185759
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woodruff, David; Wu, Yi-Fang
2012-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate alpha's robustness and usefulness, using actual and simulated educational test data. The sampling properties of alpha are compared with the sampling properties of several other reliability coefficients: Guttman's lambda[subscript 2], lambda[subscript 4], and lambda[subscript 6]; test-retest reliability;…
Hybrid Statistical Testing for Nuclear Material Accounting Data and/or Process Monitoring Data
Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Hamada, Michael Scott; Sprinkle, James K.; Burr, Thomas Lee
2015-04-14
The two tests employed in the hybrid testing scheme are Page’s cumulative sums for all streams within a Balance Period (maximum of the maximums and average of the maximums) and Crosier’s multivariate cumulative sum applied to incremental cumulative sums across Balance Periods. The role of residuals for both kinds of data is discussed.
Statistical Tests of the Apple IIe Random Number Generator Yield Suggestions from Generator Seeding.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gleason, John M.
1988-01-01
Discusses flaws in the Apple IIe Applesoft random number generator, RND, and reports results of frequency and serial correlation tests of the generator. Suggestions of seeds that yield sequences of numbers which pass fundamental screening tests for randomness are presented. (Author/LRW)
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The availability of accurate diagnostic tests is essential for the detection and control of Toxoplasma gondii infections in both definitive and intermediate hosts. Sensitivity, specificity and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve are commonly-used measures of test accura...
Multilevel Factor Analysis by Model Segregation: New Applications for Robust Test Statistics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schweig, Jonathan
2014-01-01
Measures of classroom environments have become central to policy efforts that assess school and teacher quality. This has sparked a wide interest in using multilevel factor analysis to test measurement hypotheses about classroom-level variables. One approach partitions the total covariance matrix and tests models separately on the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilson, Kenneth M.; Powers, Donald E.
This study was undertaken to clarify the internal structure of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and shed light on the ability or abilities measured by the three item types that make up the test (logical reasoning, analytical reasoning, and reading comprehension). The study used data for two forms of the LSAT for general samples of LSAT…
De Meeûs, Thierry
2014-03-01
In population genetics data analysis, researchers are often faced to the problem of decision making from a series of tests of the same null hypothesis. This is the case when one wants to test differentiation between pathogens found on different host species sampled from different locations (as many tests as number of locations). Many procedures are available to date but not all apply to all situations. Finding which tests are significant or if the whole series is significant, when tests are independent or not do not require the same procedures. In this note I describe several procedures, among the simplest and easiest to undertake, that should allow decision making in most (if not all) situations population geneticists (or biologists) should meet, in particular in host-parasite systems. PMID:24444592
Denton, Debra L; Diamond, Jerry; Zheng, Lei
2011-05-01
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and state agencies implement the Clean Water Act, in part, by evaluating the toxicity of effluent and surface water samples. A common goal for both regulatory authorities and permittees is confidence in an individual test result (e.g., no-observed-effect concentration [NOEC], pass/fail, 25% effective concentration [EC25]), which is used to make regulatory decisions, such as reasonable potential determinations, permit compliance, and watershed assessments. This paper discusses an additional statistical approach (test of significant toxicity [TST]), based on bioequivalence hypothesis testing, or, more appropriately, test of noninferiority, which examines whether there is a nontoxic effect at a single concentration of concern compared with a control. Unlike the traditional hypothesis testing approach in whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing, TST is designed to incorporate explicitly both α and β error rates at levels of toxicity that are unacceptable and acceptable, given routine laboratory test performance for a given test method. Regulatory management decisions are used to identify unacceptable toxicity levels for acute and chronic tests, and the null hypothesis is constructed such that test power is associated with the ability to declare correctly a truly nontoxic sample as acceptable. This approach provides a positive incentive to generate high-quality WET data to make informed decisions regarding regulatory decisions. This paper illustrates how α and β error rates were established for specific test method designs and tests the TST approach using both simulation analyses and actual WET data. In general, those WET test endpoints having higher routine (e.g., 50th percentile) within-test control variation, on average, have higher method-specific α values (type I error rate), to maintain a desired type II error rate. This paper delineates the technical underpinnings of this approach and demonstrates the benefits
Goedhart, Paul W; van der Voet, Hilko; Baldacchino, Ferdinando; Arpaia, Salvatore
2014-01-01
Genetic modification of plants may result in unintended effects causing potentially adverse effects on the environment. A comparative safety assessment is therefore required by authorities, such as the European Food Safety Authority, in which the genetically modified plant is compared with its conventional counterpart. Part of the environmental risk assessment is a comparative field experiment in which the effect on non-target organisms is compared. Statistical analysis of such trials come in two flavors: difference testing and equivalence testing. It is important to know the statistical properties of these, for example, the power to detect environmental change of a given magnitude, before the start of an experiment. Such prospective power analysis can best be studied by means of a statistical simulation model. This paper describes a general framework for simulating data typically encountered in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants. The simulation model, available as Supplementary Material, can be used to generate count data having different statistical distributions possibly with excess-zeros. In addition the model employs completely randomized or randomized block experiments, can be used to simulate single or multiple trials across environments, enables genotype by environment interaction by adding random variety effects, and finally includes repeated measures in time following a constant, linear or quadratic pattern in time possibly with some form of autocorrelation. The model also allows to add a set of reference varieties to the GM plants and its comparator to assess the natural variation which can then be used to set limits of concern for equivalence testing. The different count distributions are described in some detail and some examples of how to use the simulation model to study various aspects, including a prospective power analysis, are provided. PMID:24834325
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dimitri, P. S.; Wall, C. 3rd; Oas, J. G.; Rauch, S. D.
2001-01-01
Meniere's disease (MD) and migraine associated dizziness (MAD) are two disorders that can have similar symptomatologies, but differ vastly in treatment. Vestibular testing is sometimes used to help differentiate between these disorders, but the inefficiency of a human interpreter analyzing a multitude of variables independently decreases its utility. Our hypothesis was that we could objectively discriminate between patients with MD and those with MAD using select variables from the vestibular test battery. Sinusoidal harmonic acceleration test variables were reduced to three vestibulo-ocular reflex physiologic parameters: gain, time constant, and asymmetry. A combination of these parameters plus a measurement of reduced vestibular response from caloric testing allowed us to achieve a joint classification rate of 91%, independent quadratic classification algorithm. Data from posturography were not useful for this type of differentiation. Overall, our classification function can be used as an unbiased assistant to discriminate between MD and MAD and gave us insight into the pathophysiologic differences between the two disorders.
A statistical analysis of effects of test methods on spun carbon nanotube yarn
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veliky, Kenneth Blake
Carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers are very promising materials for many applications. Strong interactions among individual CNTs could produce a dense yarn results in exceptional properties. These properties are used in the application of high-performance reinforcement for composites. . As the reinforcement, the primary function is to provide outstanding load bearing capability. Currently literatures use a variety of measurement techniques and gauge lengths that have not been uniform for CNT yarn tests. The need for a standardized testing method for characterization is necessary in generating reproducible and comparable data for CNT yarn or fiber materials. In this work, the strength of CNT fibers was characterized using three different types of tensile test method: the film and fiber test fixtures from dynamics mechanic analysis (DMA), and --TS 600 tensile fixture. Samples that underwent the film and TS 600 tensile fixture were attached with a thick paper tabbing methodology based on ASTM standard D3379. As for the fiber fixture was performed with the test material attached directly to the fixture based on the fiber test instruction from TA Instrument. The results of the three different methods provided distinct variance in stress, strain, and modulus. A design of experiment (DoE) was established and performed on the DMA film fixture as determined from the preliminary experiment. The DoE was successful in quantifying the critical parameters' ranges that attributed to standard deviation of average stress. These parameters were then tested on 30 more samples with an improved additive manufactured tab. The results significantly decreased all mechanical testing parameters' standard deviations. Most importantly, the results prove the probability of a valid gauge break increased to more than 400%.
The power of the optimal asymptotic tests of composite statistical hypotheses.
Singh, A C; Zhurbenko, I G
1975-02-01
The easily computable asymptotic power of the locally asymptotically optimal test of a composite hypothesis, known as the optimal C(alpha) test, is obtained through a "double" passage to the limit: the number n of observations is indefinitely increased while the conventional measure xi of the error in the hypothesis tested tends to zero so that xi(n)n((1/2)) --> tau not equal 0. Contrary to this, practical problems require information on power, say beta(xi,n), for a fixed xi and for a fixed n. The present paper gives the upper and the lower bounds for beta(xi,n). These bounds can be used to estimate the rate of convergence of beta(xi,n) to unity as n --> infinity. The results obtained can be extended to test criteria other than those labeled C(alpha). The study revealed a difference between situations in which the C(alpha) test criterion is used to test a simple or a composite hypothesis. This difference affects the rate of convergence of the actual probability of type I error to the preassigned level alpha. In the case of a simple hypothesis, the rate is of the order of n(-(1/2)). In the case of a composite hypothesis, the best that it was possible to show is that the rate of convergence cannot be slower than that of the order of n(-(1/2)) ln n. PMID:16592222
Statistical analysis and ground-based testing of the on-orbit Space Shuttle damage detection sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miles, Brian H.; Tanner, Elizabeth A.; Carter, John P.; Kamerman, Gary W.; Schwartz, Robert
2005-05-01
The loss of Space Shuttle Columbia and her crew led to the creation of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), which concluded that a piece of external fuel tank insulating foam impacted the Shuttle"s wing leading edge. The foam created a hole in the reinforced carbon/carbon (RCC) insulating material which gravely compromised the Shuttle"s thermal protection system (TPS). In response to the CAIB recommendation, the upcoming Return to Flight Shuttle Mission (STS-114) NASA will include a Shuttle deployed sensor suite which, among other sensors, will include two laser sensing systems, Sandia National Lab"s Laser Dynamic Range Imager (LDRI) and Neptec"s Laser Camera System (LCS) to collect 3-D imagery of the Shuttle"s exterior. Herein is described a ground-based statistical testing procedure that will be used by NASA as part of a damage detection performance assessment studying the performance of each of the two laser radar systems in detecting and identifying impact damage to the Shuttle. A statistical framework based on binomial and Bayesian statistics is used to describe the probability of detection and associated statistical confidence. A mock-up of a section of Shuttle wing RCC with interchangeable panels includes a random pattern of 1/4" and 1" diameter holes on the simulated RCC panels and is cataloged prior to double-blind testing. A team of ladar sensor operators will acquire laser radar imagery of the wing mock-up using a robotic platform in a laboratory at Johnson Space Center to execute linear image scans of the wing mock-up. The test matrix will vary robotic platform motion to simulate boom wobble and alter lighting and background conditions at the 6.5 foot and 10 foot sensor-wing stand-off distances to be used on orbit. A separate team of image analysts will process and review the data and characterize and record the damage that is found. A suite of software programs has been developed to support hole location definition, damage disposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morabito, D. D.; D'Addario, L. R.
2014-02-01
NASA is interested in using the technique of arraying smaller-diameter antennas to increase effective aperture in order to replace aging monolithic 70-m structures of the Deep Space Network (DSN). Downlink arraying using the 34-m-diameter and 70-m-diameter antennas is routinely performed by the DSN for certain missions. Future scenarios will include extending the technique to uplink arraying where a downlink signal may not necessarily be available for phasing the signals at the individual stations of the array. Atmospheric decorrelation degrades the arrayed signal, and it becomes more severe in high-frequency bands such as the uplink allocations near 34 GHz and 40 GHz. This article provides sufficient information for a flight project to statistically account for this effect in the design of a telecommunications link involving arrayed antennas in the DSN. The annual and monthly cumulative distributions of expected phasing loss have been derived from the data acquired by site test interferometers at the Goldstone and Canberra complexes. These phasing loss statistics have then been mapped into two-element and three-element amplitude fade (dB loss) statistics referenced at the DSN uplink frequencies of 7.15 GHz and 34.5 GHz and at an elevation angle of 20 deg for both Goldstone and Canberra DSN sites. We also discuss validation tests that ensure the integrity of the data.
Adams, Michael C; Barbano, David M
2015-06-01
Our objective was to develop a statistical approach that could be used to determine whether a handler's fat, protein, or other solids mid-infrared (MIR) spectrophotometer test values were different, on average, from a milk regulatory laboratory's MIR test values when split-sampling test values are not available. To accomplish this objective, the Proc GLM procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to evaluate 4 mo of MIR producer payment testing data (112 to 167 producers per month) from 2 different MIR instruments. For each of the 4 mo and each of the 2 components (fat or protein), the GLM model was Response=Instrument+Producer+Date+2-Way Interactions+3-Way Interaction. Instrument was significant in determining fat and protein tests for 3 of the 4 mo, and Producer was significant in determining fat and protein tests for all 4 mo. This model was also used to establish fat and protein least significant differences (LSD) between instruments. Fat LSD between instruments ranged from 0.0108 to 0.0144% (α=0.05) for the 4 mo studied, whereas protein LSD between instruments ranged from 0.0046 to 0.0085% (α=0.05). In addition, regression analysis was used to determine the effects of component concentration and date of sampling on fat and protein differences between 2 MIR instruments. This statistical approach could be performed monthly to document a regulatory laboratory's verification that a given handler's instrument has obtained a different test result, on average, from that of the regulatory laboratory's and that an adjustment to producer payment may be required. PMID:25828652
Garbarino, J.R.; Jones, B.E.; Stein, G.P.
1985-01-01
In an interlaboratory test, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was compared with flame atomic absorption spectrometry and molecular absorption spectrophotometry for the determination of 17 major and trace elements in 100 filtered natural water samples. No unacceptable biases were detected. The analysis precision of ICP-AES was found to be equal to or better than alternative methods. Known-addition recovery experiments demonstrated that the ICP-AES determinations are accurate to between plus or minus 2 and plus or minus 10 percent; four-fifths of the tests yielded average recoveries of 95-105 percent, with an average relative standard deviation of about 5 percent.
Effect of screening tests on the lifetime statistics of injection lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lynch, R. T., Jr.
1980-11-01
Standard oxide-stripe defined GaAs(GaAl)As lasers were aged at room temperature at high CW power (20 mW); the current was increased during aging to maintain this output level and the lasers were considered dead when they could no longer produce 20 mW, regardless of current. The laser lifetime data were subjected to a simple screening test to identify the longer lived units. The effect this test has on the lifetime distribution and on the reliability of a system composed of a set of these lasers is considered.
The Probability of Exceedance as a Nonparametric Person-Fit Statistic for Tests of Moderate Length
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tendeiro, Jorge N.; Meijer, Rob R.
2013-01-01
To classify an item score pattern as not fitting a nonparametric item response theory (NIRT) model, the probability of exceedance (PE) of an observed response vector x can be determined as the sum of the probabilities of all response vectors that are, at most, as likely as x, conditional on the test's total score. Vector x is to be considered…
Tests of Mediation: Paradoxical Decline in Statistical Power as a Function of Mediator Collinearity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beasley, T. Mark
2014-01-01
Increasing the correlation between the independent variable and the mediator ("a" coefficient) increases the effect size ("ab") for mediation analysis; however, increasing a by definition increases collinearity in mediation models. As a result, the standard error of product tests increase. The variance inflation caused by…
Brain morphometry measurements are required in test guidelines proposed by the USEPA to screen chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity. Because the DNT is a screening battery, the analysis of this data should be sensitive to dose-related changes in the pattern of brain growt...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Godleski, Stephanie A.; Ostrov, Jamie M.
2010-01-01
The present study used both categorical and dimensional approaches to test the association between relational and physical aggression and hostile intent attributions for both relational and instrumental provocation situations using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development longitudinal Study of Early Child Care and Youth…
MODELS AND STATISTICAL METHODS FOR GASEOUS EMISSION TESTING OF FINITE SOURCES IN WELL-MIXED CHAMBERS
The paper proposes two families of mathematical models to represent either the concentration of a gaseous emission in (or the accumulated amount exiting from) a well-mixed, environmentally controlled test chamber. A thin film model, which seems applicable to such sources as carpe...
V/V_max_ statistics and neo-classic cosmological tests.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Waerbeke, L.; Mathez, G.; Mellier, Y.; Bonnet, H.; Lachieze-Rey, M.
1996-12-01
A new cosmological test is derived, based on the distribution of individual V/V_max_ in a complete redshift-limited sample of distant objects. The fundamental assumption is that, in any range of absolute luminosity, individual V/V_max_ are required to be uniformly spread over the [0,1] range. Under the assumption of Pure Luminosity Evolution, this gives rise to a natural partition of the sample into high luminosity, redshift-limited and low luminosity magnitude-limited quasars. The behavior of V/V_max_ versus evolution and cosmology differs substantially in the two subsamples. This condition of uniformity is probed in any absolute magnitude bin, allowing a likelihood function to be computed from the Kolmogorov-Smirnov probabilities of each bin. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the test is mostly sensitive to the density parameter, but, under certain conditions, it also sets constraints on the space curvature and, to a lower extent, on the cosmological constant. Cross-tests between power law and exponential luminosity evolution laws are performed, showing that the functional form of luminosity evolution does not affect substantially the probabilities in the parameter space ({OMEGA}_0_, {LAMBDA}). The efficiency of the test applied to two kinds of simulated quasar samples is examined: large number QSO sample, but limited to redshifts z<2.2 or smaller in QSO number, but with higher a redshift limit. Two observational strategies are compared, aimed at the construction of such samples with the future instrumentation of the VLT. Finally, the test is applied to the UVX sample of Boyle et al. (1990MNRAS.243....1B). A low matter density, and a flat Universe without cosmological constant, are rejected: 0.2<{OMEGA}<0.8 within the 95% confidence level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohn, T. A.; England, J. F.; Berenbrock, C. E.; Mason, R. R.; Stedinger, J. R.; Lamontagne, J. R.
2013-08-01
The Grubbs-Beck test is recommended by the federal guidelines for detection of low outliers in flood flow frequency computation in the United States. This paper presents a generalization of the Grubbs-Beck test for normal data (similar to the Rosner (1983) test; see also Spencer and McCuen (1996)) that can provide a consistent standard for identifying multiple potentially influential low flows. In cases where low outliers have been identified, they can be represented as "less-than" values, and a frequency distribution can be developed using censored-data statistical techniques, such as the Expected Moments Algorithm. This approach can improve the fit of the right-hand tail of a frequency distribution and provide protection from lack-of-fit due to unimportant but potentially influential low flows (PILFs) in a flood series, thus making the flood frequency analysis procedure more robust.
Cohn, T.A.; England, J.F.; Berenbrock, C.E.; Mason, R.R.; Stedinger, J.R.; Lamontagne, J.R.
2013-01-01
he Grubbs-Beck test is recommended by the federal guidelines for detection of low outliers in flood flow frequency computation in the United States. This paper presents a generalization of the Grubbs-Beck test for normal data (similar to the Rosner (1983) test; see also Spencer and McCuen (1996)) that can provide a consistent standard for identifying multiple potentially influential low flows. In cases where low outliers have been identified, they can be represented as “less-than” values, and a frequency distribution can be developed using censored-data statistical techniques, such as the Expected Moments Algorithm. This approach can improve the fit of the right-hand tail of a frequency distribution and provide protection from lack-of-fit due to unimportant but potentially influential low flows (PILFs) in a flood series, thus making the flood frequency analysis procedure more robust.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ovchinnikov, M.; Kassianov, E.; Rasch, P. J.
2013-12-01
Convective clouds come in a variety of different sizes, most of which cannot be resolved in modern-era coarse-grid GCMs. Although these models typically predict the subgrid cloud fraction, most of them do not account for a distribution of clouds of different sizes. Doing so would be beneficial because cloud size affects a number of processes controlling energy and moisture budgets in the atmosphere. For example, due to their larger surface area to volume ratio, smaller clouds are subjected to a more efficient entrainment and detrainment than larger clouds. Precipitation development also depends on cloud size. In this presentation, we will show that the cloud size information can be extracted from parameters of probability density function (PDF) of prognostic model variables, such as total water content and vertical velocity. While there is no mathematical formalism to link spatial correlation patterns (clouds) to single-point statistics (PDF), the two are related when driven by the same physical process, such as cloudy updrafts. The presented concept is illustrated by a quantitative analysis of large-eddy simulations (LES) of tropical convection on a large domain, the so-called Giga-LES, which are shown to reproduce the observed cloud size distribution. The implications of explicit accounting for cloud size in convective parameterizations will be discussed, including a potential reconciliation of PDF and plume-based approaches for representing unresolved convection.
An improved classification of foci for carcinogenicity testing by statistical descriptors.
Callegaro, Giulia; Stefanini, Federico Mattia; Colacci, Annamaria; Vaccari, Monica; Urani, Chiara
2015-10-01
Carcinogenesis is a multi-step process involving genetic alterations and non-genotoxic mechanisms. The in vitro cell transformation assay (CTA) is a promising tool for both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogenesis. CTA relies on the ability of cells (e.g. BALB/c 3T3 mouse embryo fibroblasts) to develop a transformed phenotype after the treatment with suspected carcinogens. The classification of the transformed phenotype is based on coded morphological features, which are scored under a light microscope by trained experts. This procedure is time-consuming and somewhat prone to subjectivity. Herewith we provide a promising approach based on image analysis to support the scoring of malignant foci in BALB/c 3T3 CTA. The image analysis system is a quantitative approach, based on measuring features of malignant foci: dimension, multilayered growth, and invasivity into the surrounding monolayer of non-transformed cells. A logistic regression model was developed to estimate the probability for each focus to be transformed as a function of three statistical image descriptors. The estimated sensitivity of the derived classifier (untransformed against Type III) was 0.9, with an Area Under the Curve (AUC) value equal to 0.90 under the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve. PMID:26183914
Lew, Bartosz
2008-08-15
We introduce and analyze a method for testing statistical isotropy and Gaussianity and apply it to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) cosmic microwave background (CMB) foreground reduced temperature maps. We also test cross-channel difference maps to constrain levels of residual foreground contamination and systematic uncertainties. We divide the sky into regions of varying size and shape and measure the first four moments of the one-point distribution within these regions, and using their simulated spatial distributions we test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity hypotheses. By randomly varying orientations of these regions, we sample the underlying CMB field in a new manner, that offers a richer exploration of the data content, and avoids possible biasing due to a single choice of sky division. In our analysis we account for all two-point correlations between different regions and also show the impact on the results when these correlations are neglected. The statistical significance is assessed via comparison with realistic Monte Carlo simulations. We find the three-year WMAP maps to agree well with the isotropic, Gaussian random field simulations as probed by regions corresponding to the angular scales ranging from 6 Degree-Sign to 30 Degree-Sign at 68% confidence level (CL). We report a strong, anomalous (99.8% CL) dipole 'excess' in the V band of the three-year WMAP data and also in the V band of the WMAP five-year data (99.3% CL). Using our statistics, we notice large scale hemispherical power asymmetry, and find that it is not highly statistically significant in the WMAP three-year data ( Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 97%) at scales l{<=}40. The significance is even smaller if multipoles up to l=1024 are considered ({approx}90% CL). We give constraints on the amplitude of the previously proposed CMB dipole modulation field parameter. We find some hints of foreground contamination in the form of a locally strong, anomalous kurtosis excess in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pater, Liana; Miclea, Şerban; Izvercian, Monica
2016-06-01
This paper considers the impact of SMEs' annual turnover upon its marketing activities (in terms of marketing responsibility, strategic planning and budgeting). Empirical results and literature reviews unveil that SMEs managers incline to partake in planned and profitable marketing activities, depending on their turnover's level. Thus, using the collected data form 131 Romanian SMEs managers, we have applied the Chi-Square Test in order to validate or invalidate three research assumptions (hypotheses), created starting from the empirical and literature findings.
Stockburger, D W
1999-05-01
Active server pages permit a software developer to customize the Web experience for users by inserting server-side script and database access into Web pages. This paper describes applications of these techniques and provides a primer on the use of these methods. Applications include a system that generates and grades individualized homework assignments and tests for statistics students. The student accesses the system as a Web page, prints out the assignment, does the assignment, and enters the answers on the Web page. The server, running on NT Server 4.0, grades the assignment, updates the grade book (on a database), and returns the answer key to the student. PMID:10495807
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verschuur, Gerrit L.
2014-06-01
The archive of IRIS, PLANCK and WMAP data available at the IRSA website of IPAC allows the apparent associations between galactic neutral hydrogen (HI) features and small-scale structure in WMAP and PLANCK data to be closely examined. In addition, HI new observations made with the Green Bank Telescope are used to perform a statistical test of putative associations. It is concluded that attention should be paid to the possibility that some of the small-scale structure found in WMAP and PLANCK data harbors the signature of a previously unrecognized source of high-frequency continuum emission in the Galaxy.
Nosedal-Sanchez, Alvaro; Jackson, Charles S.; Huerta, Gabriel
2016-07-20
A new test statistic for climate model evaluation has been developed that potentially mitigates some of the limitations that exist for observing and representing field and space dependencies of climate phenomena. Traditionally such dependencies have been ignored when climate models have been evaluated against observational data, which makes it difficult to assess whether any given model is simulating observed climate for the right reasons. The new statistic uses Gaussian Markov random fields for estimating field and space dependencies within a first-order grid point neighborhood structure. We illustrate the ability of Gaussian Markov random fields to represent empirical estimates of fieldmore » and space covariances using "witch hat" graphs. We further use the new statistic to evaluate the tropical response of a climate model (CAM3.1) to changes in two parameters important to its representation of cloud and precipitation physics. Overall, the inclusion of dependency information did not alter significantly the recognition of those regions of parameter space that best approximated observations. However, there were some qualitative differences in the shape of the response surface that suggest how such a measure could affect estimates of model uncertainty.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nosedal-Sanchez, Alvaro; Jackson, Charles S.; Huerta, Gabriel
2016-07-01
A new test statistic for climate model evaluation has been developed that potentially mitigates some of the limitations that exist for observing and representing field and space dependencies of climate phenomena. Traditionally such dependencies have been ignored when climate models have been evaluated against observational data, which makes it difficult to assess whether any given model is simulating observed climate for the right reasons. The new statistic uses Gaussian Markov random fields for estimating field and space dependencies within a first-order grid point neighborhood structure. We illustrate the ability of Gaussian Markov random fields to represent empirical estimates of field and space covariances using "witch hat" graphs. We further use the new statistic to evaluate the tropical response of a climate model (CAM3.1) to changes in two parameters important to its representation of cloud and precipitation physics. Overall, the inclusion of dependency information did not alter significantly the recognition of those regions of parameter space that best approximated observations. However, there were some qualitative differences in the shape of the response surface that suggest how such a measure could affect estimates of model uncertainty.
Möbius, Wolfram; Gerland, Ulrich
2010-01-01
The positions of nucleosomes in eukaryotic genomes determine which parts of the DNA sequence are readily accessible for regulatory proteins and which are not. Genome-wide maps of nucleosome positions have revealed a salient pattern around transcription start sites, involving a nucleosome-free region (NFR) flanked by a pronounced periodic pattern in the average nucleosome density. While the periodic pattern clearly reflects well-positioned nucleosomes, the positioning mechanism is less clear. A recent experimental study by Mavrich et al. argued that the pattern observed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is qualitatively consistent with a "barrier nucleosome model," in which the oscillatory pattern is created by the statistical positioning mechanism of Kornberg and Stryer. On the other hand, there is clear evidence for intrinsic sequence preferences of nucleosomes, and it is unclear to what extent these sequence preferences affect the observed pattern. To test the barrier nucleosome model, we quantitatively analyze yeast nucleosome positioning data both up- and downstream from NFRs. Our analysis is based on the Tonks model of statistical physics which quantifies the interplay between the excluded-volume interaction of nucleosomes and their positional entropy. We find that although the typical patterns on the two sides of the NFR are different, they are both quantitatively described by the same physical model with the same parameters, but different boundary conditions. The inferred boundary conditions suggest that the first nucleosome downstream from the NFR (the +1 nucleosome) is typically directly positioned while the first nucleosome upstream is statistically positioned via a nucleosome-repelling DNA region. These boundary conditions, which can be locally encoded into the genome sequence, significantly shape the statistical distribution of nucleosomes over a range of up to approximately 1,000 bp to each side. PMID:20808881
Burr, Tom; Hamada, Michael S.; Ticknor, Larry; Sprinkle, James
2015-01-01
The aim of nuclear safeguards is to ensure that special nuclear material is used for peaceful purposes. Historically, nuclear material accounting (NMA) has provided the quantitative basis for monitoring for nuclear material loss or diversion, and process monitoring (PM) data is collected by the operator to monitor the process. PM data typically support NMA in various ways, often by providing a basis to estimate some of the in-process nuclear material inventory. We develop options for combining PM residuals and NMA residuals (residual = measurement - prediction), using a hybrid of period-driven and data-driven hypothesis testing. The modified statistical tests canmore » be used on time series of NMA residuals (the NMA residual is the familiar material balance), or on a combination of PM and NMA residuals. The PM residuals can be generated on a fixed time schedule or as events occur.« less
Burr, Tom; Hamada, Michael S.; Ticknor, Larry; Sprinkle, James
2015-01-01
The aim of nuclear safeguards is to ensure that special nuclear material is used for peaceful purposes. Historically, nuclear material accounting (NMA) has provided the quantitative basis for monitoring for nuclear material loss or diversion, and process monitoring (PM) data is collected by the operator to monitor the process. PM data typically support NMA in various ways, often by providing a basis to estimate some of the in-process nuclear material inventory. We develop options for combining PM residuals and NMA residuals (residual = measurement - prediction), using a hybrid of period-driven and data-driven hypothesis testing. The modified statistical tests can be used on time series of NMA residuals (the NMA residual is the familiar material balance), or on a combination of PM and NMA residuals. The PM residuals can be generated on a fixed time schedule or as events occur.
Edwards, T.B.
2000-01-20
The Chemical and Hydrogen Technology Section (CHT) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has conducted a series of gas generation tests in support of the revision of the safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) for the 9975 container, developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The Packaging and Transportation Group of SRTC is coordinating the revision to this SARP. A Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan directing this work was issued by CHT in February 1999. Initially, the primary interest in this testing was hydrogen generation. From these ``gas generation tests can be tracked in real-time by measuring the pressure of a sealed container of the materials being studied. Because multiple gas phase reactions are produced in the radiation field of the sample, material pressure measurements do not necessarily define the quantity of H{sub 2} generated. However, the change in total molecules of gas can be calculated using the ideal gas law from the pressure measurement, known container volume and sample temperature. A measurement of the actual headspace gases must be completed to calculate the H{sub 2} generation rate for a particular sample.'' As the results from these tests were reviewed, however, questions arose regarding the oxygen in the headspace gases. Specifically, do the data from some tests indicate that oxygen was generated for those tests? And do the data for other tests indicate that the oxygen was depleted for them? A statistical analysis of the oxygen data derived from these tests is provided in this report to help answer these questions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Longjie; Min, Lequan
2014-06-01
Recently, a stream encryption scheme using d-bit segment sequences has been proposed. This scheme may generate key avalanche effect. The randomness tests of d-bit segment pseudorandom number generator will be important for implementing such a scheme. Firstly this paper extends Beker and Piper's binary pseudorandom sequence statistical test suite to d-bit segment sequences case. Secondly, a novel 3-dimensional polynomial discrete chaotic map (3DPDCM) is proposed. The calculated Lyapunov exponents of the 3DPCDM are 0.213, 0.125 and - 3.228. Using the 3DPDCM constructs a 6-dimensional generalized synchronization chaotic system. Based on this system, a 8-bit segment chaotic pseudorandom number generator (CPRNG) is introduced. Using the generalized test suite tests 100 key streams generated via the 8-bit PRNG with different initial conditions and perturbed system parameters. The tested results are similar to those of the key streams generated via RC4 PRNG. As an application, using the key streams generated via the CPRNG and the RC4 PRNG encrypts an RGB image Landscape. The results have shown that the encrypted RGB images have significant avalanche effects. This research suggests that the requirements for PRNGs are not as strict as those under the traditional avalanche criteria. Suitable designed chaos-based d-bit string PRNGs may be qualified candidates for the stream encryption scheme with avalanche effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matney, M.
2012-01-01
A number of statistical tools have been developed over the years for assessing the risk of reentering objects to human populations. These tools make use of the characteristics (e.g., mass, material, shape, size) of debris that are predicted by aerothermal models to survive reentry. The statistical tools use this information to compute the probability that one or more of the surviving debris might hit a person on the ground and cause one or more casualties. The statistical portion of the analysis relies on a number of assumptions about how the debris footprint and the human population are distributed in latitude and longitude, and how to use that information to arrive at realistic risk numbers. Because this information is used in making policy and engineering decisions, it is important that these assumptions be tested using empirical data. This study uses the latest database of known uncontrolled reentry locations measured by the United States Department of Defense. The predicted ground footprint distributions of these objects are based on the theory that their orbits behave basically like simple Kepler orbits. However, there are a number of factors in the final stages of reentry - including the effects of gravitational harmonics, the effects of the Earth's equatorial bulge on the atmosphere, and the rotation of the Earth and atmosphere - that could cause them to diverge from simple Kepler orbit behavior and possibly change the probability of reentering over a given location. In this paper, the measured latitude and longitude distributions of these objects are directly compared with the predicted distributions, providing a fundamental empirical test of the model assumptions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matney, Mark
2011-01-01
A number of statistical tools have been developed over the years for assessing the risk of reentering objects to human populations. These tools make use of the characteristics (e.g., mass, material, shape, size) of debris that are predicted by aerothermal models to survive reentry. The statistical tools use this information to compute the probability that one or more of the surviving debris might hit a person on the ground and cause one or more casualties. The statistical portion of the analysis relies on a number of assumptions about how the debris footprint and the human population are distributed in latitude and longitude, and how to use that information to arrive at realistic risk numbers. Because this information is used in making policy and engineering decisions, it is important that these assumptions be tested using empirical data. This study uses the latest database of known uncontrolled reentry locations measured by the United States Department of Defense. The predicted ground footprint distributions of these objects are based on the theory that their orbits behave basically like simple Kepler orbits. However, there are a number of factors in the final stages of reentry - including the effects of gravitational harmonics, the effects of the Earth s equatorial bulge on the atmosphere, and the rotation of the Earth and atmosphere - that could cause them to diverge from simple Kepler orbit behavior and possibly change the probability of reentering over a given location. In this paper, the measured latitude and longitude distributions of these objects are directly compared with the predicted distributions, providing a fundamental empirical test of the model assumptions.
Xiao, Qingtai; Xu, Jianxin; Wang, Hua
2016-01-01
A new index, the estimate of the error variance, which can be used to quantify the evolution of the flow patterns when multiphase components or tracers are difficultly distinguishable, was proposed. The homogeneity degree of the luminance space distribution behind the viewing windows in the direct contact boiling heat transfer process was explored. With image analysis and a linear statistical model, the F-test of the statistical analysis was used to test whether the light was uniform, and a non-linear method was used to determine the direction and position of a fixed source light. The experimental results showed that the inflection point of the new index was approximately equal to the mixing time. The new index has been popularized and applied to a multiphase macro mixing process by top blowing in a stirred tank. Moreover, a general quantifying model was introduced for demonstrating the relationship between the flow patterns of the bubble swarms and heat transfer. The results can be applied to investigate other mixing processes that are very difficult to recognize the target. PMID:27527065
Xiao, Qingtai; Xu, Jianxin; Wang, Hua
2016-01-01
A new index, the estimate of the error variance, which can be used to quantify the evolution of the flow patterns when multiphase components or tracers are difficultly distinguishable, was proposed. The homogeneity degree of the luminance space distribution behind the viewing windows in the direct contact boiling heat transfer process was explored. With image analysis and a linear statistical model, the F-test of the statistical analysis was used to test whether the light was uniform, and a non-linear method was used to determine the direction and position of a fixed source light. The experimental results showed that the inflection point of the new index was approximately equal to the mixing time. The new index has been popularized and applied to a multiphase macro mixing process by top blowing in a stirred tank. Moreover, a general quantifying model was introduced for demonstrating the relationship between the flow patterns of the bubble swarms and heat transfer. The results can be applied to investigate other mixing processes that are very difficult to recognize the target. PMID:27527065
Statistically small effects of the Implicit Association Test can have societally large effects.
Greenwald, Anthony G; Banaji, Mahzarin R; Nosek, Brian A
2015-04-01
Greenwald, Poehlman, Uhlmann, and Banaji (2009; GPUB hereafter) reported an average predictive validity correlation of r̄ = .236 for Implicit Association Test (IAT) measures involving Black-White racial attitudes and stereotypes. Oswald, Mitchell, Blanton, Jaccard, and Tetlock (2013; OMBJT) reported a lower aggregate figure for correlations involving IAT measures (r̄ = .148). The difference between the estimates of the 2 reviews was due mostly to their use of different policies for including effect sizes. GPUB limited their study to findings that assessed theoretically expected attitude-behavior and stereotype-judgment correlations along with others that the authors expected to show positive correlations. OMBJT included a substantial minority of correlations for which there was no theoretical expectation of a predictive relationship. Regardless of inclusion policy, both meta-analyses estimated aggregate correlational effect sizes that were large enough to explain discriminatory impacts that are societally significant either because they can affect many people simultaneously or because they can repeatedly affect single persons. PMID:25402677
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedretti, D.; Fernandez-Garcia, D.; Bolster, D.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Benson, D.
2012-04-01
For risk assessment and adequate decision making regarding remediation strategies in contaminated aquifers, solute fate in the subsurface must be modeled correctly. In practical situations, hydrodynamic transport parameters are obtained by fitting procedures, that aim to mathematically reproduce solute breakthrough (BTC) observed in the field during tracer tests. In recent years, several methods have been proposed (curve-types, moments, nonlocal formulations) but none of them combine the two main characteristic effects of convergent flow tracer tests (which are the most used tests in the practice): the intrinsic non-stationarity of the convergent flow to a well and the ubiquitous multiscale hydraulic heterogeneity of geological formations. These two effects separately have been accounted for by a lot of methods that appear to work well. Here, we investigate both effects at the same time via numerical analysis. We focus on the influence that measurable statistical properties of the aquifers (such as the variance and the statistical geometry of correlation scales) have on the shape of BTCs measured at the pumping well during convergent flow tracer tests. We built synthetic multigaussian 3D fields of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields with variable statistics. A well is located in the center of the domain to reproduce a forced gradient towards it. Constant-head values are imposed on the boundaries of the domains, which have 251x251x100 cells. Injections of solutes take place by releasing particles at different distances from the well and using a random walk particle tracking scheme with constant local coefficient of dispersivity. The results show that BTCs partially display the typical anomalous behavior that has been commonly referred to as the effect of heterogeneity and connectivity (early and late arrival times of solute differ from the one predicted by local formulations). Among the most salient features, the behaviors of BTCs after the peak (the slope
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James
2014-01-01
Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.
Zhang Shuangnan; Xie Yi
2012-10-01
We test models for the evolution of neutron star (NS) magnetic fields (B). Our model for the evolution of the NS spin is taken from an analysis of pulsar timing noise presented by Hobbs et al.. We first test the standard model of a pulsar's magnetosphere in which B does not change with time and magnetic dipole radiation is assumed to dominate the pulsar's spin-down. We find that this model fails to predict both the magnitudes and signs of the second derivatives of the spin frequencies ({nu}-double dot). We then construct a phenomenological model of the evolution of B, which contains a long-term decay (LTD) modulated by short-term oscillations; a pulsar's spin is thus modified by its B-evolution. We find that an exponential LTD is not favored by the observed statistical properties of {nu}-double dot for young pulsars and fails to explain the fact that {nu}-double dot is negative for roughly half of the old pulsars. A simple power-law LTD can explain all the observed statistical properties of {nu}-double dot. Finally, we discuss some physical implications of our results to models of the B-decay of NSs and suggest reliable determination of the true ages of many young NSs is needed, in order to constrain further the physical mechanisms of their B-decay. Our model can be further tested with the measured evolutions of {nu}-dot and {nu}-double dot for an individual pulsar; the decay index, oscillation amplitude, and period can also be determined this way for the pulsar.
Murray, Samuel S; Brochmann, Elsa J; Harker, Judith O; King, Edward; Lollis, Ryan J; Khaliq, Sameer A
2007-08-01
Demineralised bone matrix (DBM) products are complex mixtures of proteins known to influence bone growth, turnover, and repair. They are used extensively in orthopaedic surgery, and are bioassayed in vivo prior to being used in clinical applications. Many factors contribute to the osteogenic potency of DBM, but the relative contributions of these factors, as well as the possibility of interactive effects, are not completely defined. The "gold standard" measure of the therapeutic value of DBM, the in vivo assay for ectopic bone formation, is costly, time-consuming, and involves the use of numerous animal subjects. We have measured the levels of five growth factors released by the collagenase digestion of DBM, and statistically related these levels with osteogenic potency as determined by a standard in vivo model, in order to determine which value or combination of values of growth factors best predict osteogenic activity. We conclude that the level of BMP-2 is the best single predictor of osteogenic potency, and that adding the values of other growth factors only minimally increases the predictive power of the BMP-2 measurement. A small, but significant, interactive effect between BMP-2 and BMP-7 was demonstrated. We present a statistical model based on growth factor (e.g. BMP-2) analysis that best predicts the in vivo assay score for DBM. This model allows the investigator to predict which lots of DBM are likely to exhibit in vivo bioactivity and which are not, thus reducing the need to conduct in vivo testing of insufficiently active lots of DBM. This model uses cut-point analysis to allow the user to assign an estimate of acceptable uncertainty with respect to the "gold standard" test. This procedure will significantly reduce the number of animal subjects used to test DBM products. PMID:17850186
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meijer, Rob R.; van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith M. L. A.
In this study a cumulative-sum (CUSUM) procedure from the theory of Statistical Process Control was modified and applied in the context of person-fit analysis in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) environment. Six person-fit statistics were proposed using the CUSUM procedure, and three of them could be used to investigate the CAT in online test…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsaneva, M. G.; Krezhova, D. D.; Yanev, T. K.
2010-10-01
A statistical model is proposed for analysis of the texture of land cover types for global and regional land cover classification by using texture features extracted by multiresolution image analysis techniques. It consists of four novel indices representing second-order texture, which are calculated after wavelet decomposition of an image and after texture extraction by a new approach that makes use of a four-pixel texture unit. The model was applied to four satellite images of the Black Sea region, obtained by Terra/MODIS and Aqua/MODIS at different spatial resolution. In single texture classification experiments, we used 15 subimages (50 × 50 pixels) of the selected classes of land covers that are present in the satellite images studied. These subimages were subjected to one-level and two-level decompositions by using orthonormal spline and Gabor-like spline wavelets. The texture indices were calculated and used as feature vectors in the supervised classification system with neural networks. The testing of the model was based on the use of two kinds of widely accepted statistical texture quantities: five texture features determined by the co-occurrence matrix (angular second moment, contrast, correlation, inverse difference moment, entropy), and four statistical texture features determined after the wavelet transformation (mean, standard deviation, energy, entropy). The supervised neural network classification was performed and the discrimination ability of the proposed texture indices was found comparable with that for the sets of five GLCM texture features and four wavelet-based texture features. The results obtained from the neural network classifier showed that the proposed texture model yielded an accuracy of 92.86% on average after orthonormal wavelet decomposition and 100% after Gabor-like wavelet decomposition for texture classification of the examined land cover types on satellite images.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Qasem, Mamun Ali Naji; Altrairy, Abdulrhman; Govil, Punita
2012-01-01
This research has aimed at constructing Criterion Referenced Test to measure the statistical competencies of the Post-graduate Students in Education Colleges in Yemeni Universities, at examining the validity of the test's grades (the descriptive validity and the Domain Selection Validity), at examining the test's grades Reliability according to…
Mulhall, Declan
2009-09-15
The {delta}{sub 3}(L) statistic is studied as a tool to detect missing levels in the neutron resonance data where two sequences are present. These systems are problematic because there is no level repulsion, and the resonances can be too close to resolve. {delta}{sub 3}(L) is a measure of the fluctuations in the number of levels in an interval of length L on the energy axis. The method used is tested on ensembles of mixed Gaussian orthogonal ensemble spectra, with a known fraction of levels (x%) randomly depleted, and can accurately return x. The accuracy of the method as a function of spectrum size is established. The method is used on neutron resonance data for 11 isotopes with either s-wave neutrons on odd-A isotopes, or p-wave neutrons on even-A isotopes. The method compares favorably with a maximum likelihood method applied to the level spacing distribution. Nuclear data ensembles were made from 20 isotopes in total, and their {delta}{sub 3}(L) statistics are discussed in the context of random matrix theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doubrovine, Pavel V.; Steinberger, Bernhard; Torsvik, Trond H.
2016-03-01
Absolute reconstructions of large igneous provinces (LIPs) for the past 300 Ma reveal a remarkable spatial pattern suggesting that almost all LIPs have erupted over the margins of the two large-scale structures in the Earth's lower mantle commonly referred to as the Large Low Shear-wave Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs). This correlation suggests that mantle plumes that have triggered LIP eruptions rose from the margins of LLSVPs, implying long-term stability of these structures and suggesting that they may be chemically distinct from the bulk of the mantle. Yet, some researchers consider the LLSVPs to be purely thermal upwellings, arguing that the observed distribution of LIPs can be explained by plumes randomly forming over the entire areas of LLSVPs. Here we examine the correlation between the LIPs and LLSVPs using nonparametric statistical tests, updated plate reconstructions, and a large number of alternative definitions of LLSVPs based on seismic tomography. We show that probability models assuming plume sources originating at the margins of LLSVPs adequately explain the observed distribution of reconstructed LIPs. In contrast, we find strong evidence against the models seeking to link LIPs with plumes randomly forming over the entire LLSVP areas. However, the hypothesis proposing that the correlation can be explained by plumes randomly forming over a larger area of slower-than-average shear wave velocities in the lowermost mantle cannot be ruled out formally. Our analysis suggests that there is no statistically sound reason for questioning the hypothesis that the LIPs correlate with the margins of LLSVP globally.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lundquist, Marjorie
2009-03-01
Since 1999 over 425 in-custody deaths have occurred in the USA after law enforcement officers (LEOs) used an M26 or X26 Taser, causing Amnesty International and the ACLU to call for a moratorium on Taser use until its physiological effects on people have been better studied. A person's Taser dose is defined as the total duration (in seconds) of all Taser shocks received by that person during a given incident. Utilizing the concept of Taser dose for these deaths, TASER International's claim of Taser safety can be treated as a null hypothesis and its validity scientifically tested. Such a test using chi-square as the test statistic is presented. It shows that the null hypothesis should be rejected; i.e., model M26 and X26 Tasers are capable of producing lethal effects non-electrically and so have played a causal or contributory role in a great many of the in-custody deaths following their use. This implies that the Taser is a lethal weapon, and that LEOs have not been adequately trained in its safe use!
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, J. Q.; Yang, J.; Li, P. X.; Liu, M. Y.; Shi, Y. M.
2016-06-01
Accurate and timely change detection of Earth's surface features is extremely important for understanding relationships and interactions between people and natural phenomena. Many traditional methods of change detection only use a part of polarization information and the supervised threshold selection. Those methods are insufficiency and time-costing. In this paper, we present a novel unsupervised change-detection method based on quad-polarimetric SAR data and automatic threshold selection to solve the problem of change detection. First, speckle noise is removed for the two registered SAR images. Second, the similarity measure is calculated by the test statistic, and automatic threshold selection of KI is introduced to obtain the change map. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated by the quad-pol SAR images acquired by Radarsat-2 over Wuhan of China.
Debiasse, Melissa B; Nelson, Bradley J; Hellberg, Michael E
2014-01-01
Conflicting patterns of population differentiation between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes (mito-nuclear discordance) have become increasingly evident as multilocus data sets have become easier to generate. Incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) of nucDNA is often implicated as the cause of such discordance, stemming from the large effective population size of nucDNA relative to mtDNA. However, selection, sex-biased dispersal and historical demography can also lead to mito-nuclear discordance. Here, we compare patterns of genetic diversity and subdivision for six nuclear protein-coding gene regions to those for mtDNA in a common Caribbean coral reef sponge, Callyspongia vaginalis, along the Florida reef tract. We also evaluated a suite of summary statistics to determine which are effective metrics for comparing empirical and simulated data when testing drivers of mito-nuclear discordance in a statistical framework. While earlier work revealed three divergent and geographically subdivided mtDNACOI haplotypes separated by 2.4% sequence divergence, nuclear alleles were admixed with respect to mitochondrial clade and geography. Bayesian analysis showed that substitution rates for the nuclear loci were up to 7 times faster than for mitochondrial COI. Coalescent simulations and neutrality tests suggested that mito-nuclear discordance in C. vaginalis is not the result of ILS in the nucDNA or selection on the mtDNA but is more likely caused by changes in population size. Sperm-mediated gene flow may also influence patterns of population subdivision in the nucDNA. PMID:24283627
CAP,JEROME S.; TRACEY,BRIAN
1999-11-15
Aerospace payloads, such as satellites, are subjected to vibroacoustic excitation during launch. Sandia's MTI satellite has recently been certified to this environment using a combination of base input random vibration and reverberant acoustic noise. The initial choices for the acoustic and random vibration test specifications were obtained from the launch vehicle Interface Control Document (ICD). In order to tailor the random vibration levels for the laboratory certification testing, it was necessary to determine whether vibration energy was flowing across the launch vehicle interface from the satellite to the launch vehicle or the other direction. For frequencies below 120 Hz this issue was addressed using response limiting techniques based on results from the Coupled Loads Analysis (CLA). However, since the CLA Finite Element Analysis FEA model was only correlated for frequencies below 120 Hz, Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) was considered to be a better choice for predicting the direction of the energy flow for frequencies above 120 Hz. The existing SEA model of the launch vehicle had been developed using the VibroAcoustic Payload Environment Prediction System (VAPEPS) computer code [1]. Therefore, the satellite would have to be modeled using VAPEPS as well. As is the case for any computational model, the confidence in its predictive capability increases if one can correlate a sample prediction against experimental data. Fortunately, Sandia had the ideal data set for correlating an SEA model of the MTI satellite--the measured response of a realistic assembly to a reverberant acoustic test that was performed during MTI's qualification test series. The first part of this paper will briefly describe the VAPEPS modeling effort and present the results of the correlation study for the VAPEPS model. The second part of this paper will present the results from a study that used a commercial SEA software package [2] to study the effects of in-plane modes and to
Huh, Iksoo; Kwon, Min-Seok; Park, Taesung
2015-01-01
Recent advances in genotyping methodologies have allowed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to accurately identify genetic variants that associate with common or pathological complex traits. Although most GWAS have focused on associations with single genetic variants, joint identification of multiple genetic variants, and how they interact, is essential for understanding the genetic architecture of complex phenotypic traits. Here, we propose an efficient stepwise method based on the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test (for stratified categorical data) to identify causal joint multiple genetic variants in GWAS. This method combines the CMH statistic with a stepwise procedure to detect multiple genetic variants associated with specific categorical traits, using a series of associated I × J contingency tables and a null hypothesis of no phenotype association. Through a new stratification scheme based on the sum of minor allele count criteria, we make the method more feasible for GWAS data having sample sizes of several thousands. We also examine the properties of the proposed stepwise method via simulation studies, and show that the stepwise CMH test performs better than other existing methods (e.g., logistic regression and detection of associations by Markov blanket) for identifying multiple genetic variants. Finally, we apply the proposed approach to two genomic sequencing datasets to detect linked genetic variants associated with bipolar disorder and obesity, respectively. PMID:26406920
Moukadem, Ali; Schmidt, Samuel; Dieterlen, Alain
2015-01-01
This paper considers the problem of classification of the first and the second heart sounds (S1 and S2) under cardiac stress test. The main objective is to classify these sounds without electrocardiogram (ECG) reference and without taking into consideration the systolic and the diastolic time intervals criterion which can become problematic and useless in several real life settings as severe tachycardia and tachyarrhythmia or in the case of subjects being under cardiac stress activity. First, the heart sounds are segmented by using a modified time-frequency based envelope. Then, to distinguish between the first and the second heart sounds, new features, named αopt, β, and γ, based on high order statistics and energy concentration measures of the Stockwell transform (S-transform) are proposed in this study. A study of the variation of the high frequency content of S1 and S2 over the HR (heart rate) is also discussed. The proposed features are validated on a database that contains 2636 S1 and S2 sounds corresponding to 62 heart signals and 8 subjects under cardiac stress test collected from healthy subjects. Results and comparisons with existing methods in the literature show a large superiority for our proposed features. PMID:26089957
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhan, Yimin; Mechefske, Chris K.
2007-07-01
Optimal maintenance decision analysis is heavily dependent on the accuracy of condition indicators. A condition indicator that is subject to such varying operating conditions as load is unable to provide precise condition information of the monitored object for making optimal operational maintenance decisions even if the maintenance program is established within a rigorous theoretical framework. For this reason, the performance of condition monitoring techniques applied to rotating machinery under varying load conditions has been a long-term concern and has attracted intensive research interest. Part I of this study proposed a novel technique based on adaptive autoregressive modeling and hypothesis tests. The method is able to automatically search for the optimal time-series model order and establish a compromised autoregressive model fitting based on the healthy gear motion residual signals under varying load conditions. The condition of the monitored gearbox is numerically represented by a modified Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistic. Part II of this study is devoted to applications of the proposed technique to entire lifetime condition detection of three gearboxes with distinct physical specifications, distinct load conditions, and distinct failure modes. A comprehensive and thorough comparative study is conducted between the proposed technique and several counterparts. The detection technique is further enhanced by a proposed method to automatically identify and generate fault alerts with the aid of the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and thus requires no supervision from maintenance personnel. Experimental analysis demonstrated that the proposed technique applied to automatic identification and generation of fault alerts also features two highly desirable properties, i.e. few false alerts and early alert for incipient faults. Furthermore, it is found that the proposed technique is able to identify two types of abnormalities, i.e. strong ghost components abruptly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Auchmann, Renate; Brönnimann, Stefan; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa
2016-04-01
For the correction of inhomogeneities in sub-daily temperature series, Auchmann and Brönnimann (2012) developed a physics-based model for one specific type of break, i.e. the transition from a Wild screen to a Stevenson screen at one specific station in Basel, Switzerland. The model is based solely on physical considerations, no relationships of the covariates to the differences between the parallel measurements have been investigated. The physics-based model requires detailed information on the screen geometry, the location, and includes a variety of covariates in the model. The model is mainly based on correcting the radiation error, including a modification by ambient wind. In this study we test the application of the model to another station, Zurich, experiencing the same type of transition. Furthermore we compare the performance of the physics based correction to purely statistical correction approaches (constant correction, correcting for annual cycle using spline). In Zurich the Wild screen was replaced in 1954 by the Stevenson screen, from 1954-1960 parallel temperature measurements in both screens were taken, which will be used to assess the performance of the applied corrections. For Zurich the required model input is available (i.e. three times daily observations of wind, cloud cover, pressure and humidity measurements, local times of sunset and sunrise). However, a large number of stations do not measure these additional input data required for the model, which hampers the transferability and applicability of the model to other stations. Hence, we test possible simplifications and generalizations of the model to make it more easily applicable to stations with the same type of inhomogeneity. In a last step we test whether other types of transitions (e.g., from a Stevenson screen to an automated weather system) can be corrected using the principle of a physics-based approach.
Kossobokov, V.G.; Romashkova, L.L.; Keilis-Borok, V. I.; Healy, J.H.
1999-01-01
Algorithms M8 and MSc (i.e., the Mendocino Scenario) were used in a real-time intermediate-term research prediction of the strongest earthquakes in the Circum-Pacific seismic belt. Predictions are made by M8 first. Then, the areas of alarm are reduced by MSc at the cost that some earthquakes are missed in the second approximation of prediction. In 1992-1997, five earthquakes of magnitude 8 and above occurred in the test area: all of them were predicted by M8 and MSc identified correctly the locations of four of them. The space-time volume of the alarms is 36% and 18%, correspondingly, when estimated with a normalized product measure of empirical distribution of epicenters and uniform time. The statistical significance of the achieved results is beyond 99% both for M8 and MSc. For magnitude 7.5 + , 10 out of 19 earthquakes were predicted by M8 in 40% and five were predicted by M8-MSc in 13% of the total volume considered. This implies a significance level of 81% for M8 and 92% for M8-MSc. The lower significance levels might result from a global change in seismic regime in 1993-1996, when the rate of the largest events has doubled and all of them become exclusively normal or reversed faults. The predictions are fully reproducible; the algorithms M8 and MSc in complete formal definitions were published before we started our experiment [Keilis-Borok, V.I., Kossobokov, V.G., 1990. Premonitory activation of seismic flow: Algorithm M8, Phys. Earth and Planet. Inter. 61, 73-83; Kossobokov, V.G., Keilis-Borok, V.I., Smith, S.W., 1990. Localization of intermediate-term earthquake prediction, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 19763-19772; Healy, J.H., Kossobokov, V.G., Dewey, J.W., 1992. A test to evaluate the earthquake prediction algorithm, M8. U.S. Geol. Surv. OFR 92-401]. M8 is available from the IASPEI Software Library [Healy, J.H., Keilis-Borok, V.I., Lee, W.H.K. (Eds.), 1997. Algorithms for Earthquake Statistics and Prediction, Vol. 6. IASPEI Software Library]. ?? 1999 Elsevier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chae, Kyu-Hyun; Gong, In-Taek
2015-08-01
Modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) proposed by Milgrom provides a paradigm alternative to dark matter (DM) that has been successful in fitting and predicting the rich phenomenology of rotating disc galaxies. There have also been attempts to test MOND in dispersion-supported spheroidal early-type galaxies, but it remains unclear whether MOND can fit the various empirical properties of early-type galaxies for the whole ranges of mass and radius. As a way of rigorously testing MOND in elliptical galaxies we calculate the MOND-predicted velocity dispersion profiles (VDPs) in the inner regions of ˜2000 nearly round Sloan Digital Sky Survey elliptical galaxies under a variety of assumptions on velocity dispersion (VD) anisotropy, and then compare the predicted distribution of VDP slopes with the observed distribution in 11 ATLAS3D galaxies selected with essentially the same criteria. We find that the MOND model parametrized with an interpolating function that works well for rotating galaxies can also reproduce the observed distribution of VDP slopes based only on the observed stellar mass distribution without DM or any other galaxy-to-galaxy varying factor. This is remarkable in view that Newtonian dynamics with DM requires a specific amount and/or profile of DM for each galaxy in order to reproduce the observed distribution of VDP slopes. When we analyse non-round galaxy samples using the MOND-based spherical Jeans equation, we do not find any systematic difference in the mean property of the VDP slope distribution compared with the nearly round sample. However, in line with previous studies of MOND through individual analyses of elliptical galaxies, varying MOND interpolating function or VD anisotropy can lead to systematic change in the VDP slope distribution, indicating that a statistical analysis of VDPs can be used to constrain specific MOND models with an accurate measurement of VDP slopes or a prior constraint on VD anisotropy.
Distribution of the two-sample t-test statistic following blinded sample size re-estimation.
Lu, Kaifeng
2016-05-01
We consider the blinded sample size re-estimation based on the simple one-sample variance estimator at an interim analysis. We characterize the exact distribution of the standard two-sample t-test statistic at the final analysis. We describe a simulation algorithm for the evaluation of the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis at given treatment effect. We compare the blinded sample size re-estimation method with two unblinded methods with respect to the empirical type I error, the empirical power, and the empirical distribution of the standard deviation estimator and final sample size. We characterize the type I error inflation across the range of standardized non-inferiority margin for non-inferiority trials, and derive the adjusted significance level to ensure type I error control for given sample size of the internal pilot study. We show that the adjusted significance level increases as the sample size of the internal pilot study increases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26865383
Lee, Juneyoung; Kim, Kyung Won; Choi, Sang Hyun; Huh, Jimi; Park, Seong Ho
2015-01-01
Meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies differs from the usual meta-analysis of therapeutic/interventional studies in that, it is required to simultaneously analyze a pair of two outcome measures such as sensitivity and specificity, instead of a single outcome. Since sensitivity and specificity are generally inversely correlated and could be affected by a threshold effect, more sophisticated statistical methods are required for the meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy. Hierarchical models including the bivariate model and the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic model are increasingly being accepted as standard methods for meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. We provide a conceptual review of statistical methods currently used and recommended for meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. This article could serve as a methodological reference for those who perform systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. PMID:26576107
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, H. J.; Shi, W. L.; Chen, X. H.
2006-05-01
The West Development Policy being implemented in China is causing significant land use and land cover (LULC) changes in West China. With the up-to-date satellite database of the Global Land Cover Characteristics Database (GLCCD) that characterizes the lower boundary conditions, the regional climate model RIEMS-TEA is used to simulate possible impacts of the significant LULC variation. The model was run for five continuous three-month periods from 1 June to 1 September of 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997, and the results of the five groups are examined by means of a student t-test to identify the statistical significance of regional climate variation. The main results are: (1) The regional climate is affected by the LULC variation because the equilibrium of water and heat transfer in the air-vegetation interface is changed. (2) The integrated impact of the LULC variation on regional climate is not only limited to West China where the LULC varies, but also to some areas in the model domain where the LULC does not vary at all. (3) The East Asian monsoon system and its vertical structure are adjusted by the large scale LULC variation in western China, where the consequences axe the enhancement of the westward water vapor transfer from the east east and the relevant increase of wet-hydrostatic energy in the middle-upper atmospheric layers. (4) The ecological engineering in West China affects significantly the regional climate in Northwest China, North China and the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River; there are obvious effects in South, Northeast, and Southwest China, but minor effects in Tibet.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levin, Joel R.; Ferron, John M.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.
2012-01-01
In this four-investigation Monte Carlo simulation study, we examined the properties of nonparametric randomization and permutation statistical tests applied to single-case ABAB...AB and alternating treatment designs based on either systematically alternating or randomly determined phase assignments. Contrary to previous admonitions, when…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Osler, James Edward, II
2015-01-01
This monograph provides an epistemological rational for the Accumulative Manifold Validation Analysis [also referred by the acronym "AMOVA"] statistical methodology designed to test psychometric instruments. This form of inquiry is a form of mathematical optimization in the discipline of linear stochastic modelling. AMOVA is an in-depth…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gómez-Benito, Juana; Hidalgo, Maria Dolores; Zumbo, Bruno D.
2013-01-01
The objective of this article was to find an optimal decision rule for identifying polytomous items with large or moderate amounts of differential functioning. The effectiveness of combining statistical tests with effect size measures was assessed using logistic discriminant function analysis and two effect size measures: R[superscript 2] and…
Josse, Florent; Lefebvre, Yannick; Todeschini, Patrick; Turato, Silvia; Meister, Eric
2006-07-01
Assessing the structural integrity of a nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) subjected to pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) transients is extremely important to safety. In addition to conventional deterministic calculations to confirm RPV integrity, Electricite de France (EDF) carries out probabilistic analyses. Probabilistic analyses are interesting because some key variables, albeit conventionally taken at conservative values, can be modeled more accurately through statistical variability. One variable which significantly affects RPV structural integrity assessment is cleavage fracture initiation toughness. The reference fracture toughness method currently in use at EDF is the RCCM and ASME Code lower-bound K{sub IC} based on the indexing parameter RT{sub NDT}. However, in order to quantify the toughness scatter for probabilistic analyses, the master curve method is being analyzed at present. Furthermore, the master curve method is a direct means of evaluating fracture toughness based on K{sub JC} data. In the framework of the master curve investigation undertaken by EDF, this article deals with the following two statistical items: building a master curve from an extract of a fracture toughness dataset (from the European project 'Unified Reference Fracture Toughness Design curves for RPV Steels') and controlling statistical uncertainty for both mono-temperature and multi-temperature tests. Concerning the first point, master curve temperature dependence is empirical in nature. To determine the 'original' master curve, Wallin postulated that a unified description of fracture toughness temperature dependence for ferritic steels is possible, and used a large number of data corresponding to nuclear-grade pressure vessel steels and welds. Our working hypothesis is that some ferritic steels may behave in slightly different ways. Therefore we focused exclusively on the basic french reactor vessel metal of types A508 Class 3 and A 533 grade B Class 1, taking the sampling
Trickey, Amber W.; Crosby, Moira E.; Singh, Monika; Dort, Jonathan M.
2014-01-01
Background The application of evidence-based medicine to patient care requires unique skills of the physician. Advancing residents' abilities to accurately evaluate the quality of evidence is built on understanding of fundamental research concepts. The American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) provides a relevant measure of surgical residents' knowledge of research design and statistics. Objective We implemented a research education curriculum in an independent academic medical center general residency program, and assessed the effect on ABSITE scores. Methods The curriculum consisted of five 1-hour monthly research and statistics lectures. The lectures were presented before the 2012 and 2013 examinations. Forty residents completing ABSITE examinations from 2007 to 2013 were included in the study. Two investigators independently identified research-related item topics from examination summary reports. Correct and incorrect responses were compared precurriculum and postcurriculum. Regression models were calculated to estimate improvement in postcurriculum scores, adjusted for individuals' scores over time and postgraduate year level. Results Residents demonstrated significant improvement in postcurriculum examination scores for research and statistics items. Correct responses increased 27% (P < .001). Residents were 5 times more likely to achieve a perfect score on research and statistics items postcurriculum (P < .001). Conclusions Residents at all levels demonstrated improved research and statistics scores after receiving the curriculum. Because the ABSITE includes a wide spectrum of research topics, sustained improvements suggest a genuine level of understanding that will promote lifelong evaluation and clinical application of the surgical literature. PMID:26140115
Simonson, K.M.
1998-08-01
The rate at which a mine detection system falsely identifies man-made or natural clutter objects as mines is referred to as the system's false alarm rate (FAR). Generally expressed as a rate per unit area or time, the FAR is one of the primary metrics used to gauge system performance. In this report, an overview is given of statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of data relating to FAR. Techniques are presented for determining a suitable size for the clutter collection area, for summarizing the performance of a single sensor, and for comparing different sensors. For readers requiring more thorough coverage of the topics discussed, references to the statistical literature are provided. A companion report addresses statistical issues related to the estimation of mine detection probabilities.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chalmers, R. Philip; Counsell, Alyssa; Flora, David B.
2016-01-01
Differential test functioning, or DTF, occurs when one or more items in a test demonstrate differential item functioning (DIF) and the aggregate of these effects are witnessed at the test level. In many applications, DTF can be more important than DIF when the overall effects of DIF at the test level can be quantified. However, optimal statistical…
Khakimov, A.N.; Agafonov, V.V.; Efimenko, L.A.; Zakharov, V.A.
1984-01-01
Electroslag welding with control of the thermal cycles provides weld joints with the required mechanical properties, reduces the labor requirements and saves on costs. A statistical analysis of the results of sample compounds of weld joints of apparatus from specified sources derives strength indices, and the mechanical test results are treated by the methods of mathematical statistics with the use of a computer. It is found that electroslag welding can be used in the production of apparatus of 20K, 20 YuCh, 09G2S, and 16GS steels.
The Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model simulates long-term transport and deposition of oxides of and nitrogen. t is a potential screening tool for assessing long-term effects on regional visibility from sulfur emission sources. owever, a rigorou...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nevitt, Jonathan; Hancock, Gregory R.
2001-01-01
Evaluated the bootstrap method under varying conditions of nonnormality, sample size, model specification, and number of bootstrap samples drawn from the resampling space. Results for the bootstrap suggest the resampling-based method may be conservative in its control over model rejections, thus having an impact on the statistical power associated…
Hsiao, Chiaowen; Liu, Mengya; Stanton, Rick; McGee, Monnie; Qian, Yu; Scheuermann, Richard H
2016-01-01
Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fluorescence-based single-cell experimental technology that is routinely applied in biomedical research for identifying cellular biomarkers of normal physiological responses and abnormal disease states. While many computational methods have been developed that focus on identifying cell populations in individual FCM samples, very few have addressed how the identified cell populations can be matched across samples for comparative analysis. This article presents FlowMap-FR, a novel method for cell population mapping across FCM samples. FlowMap-FR is based on the Friedman-Rafsky nonparametric test statistic (FR statistic), which quantifies the equivalence of multivariate distributions. As applied to FCM data by FlowMap-FR, the FR statistic objectively quantifies the similarity between cell populations based on the shapes, sizes, and positions of fluorescence data distributions in the multidimensional feature space. To test and evaluate the performance of FlowMap-FR, we simulated the kinds of biological and technical sample variations that are commonly observed in FCM data. The results show that FlowMap-FR is able to effectively identify equivalent cell populations between samples under scenarios of proportion differences and modest position shifts. As a statistical test, FlowMap-FR can be used to determine whether the expression of a cellular marker is statistically different between two cell populations, suggesting candidates for new cellular phenotypes by providing an objective statistical measure. In addition, FlowMap-FR can indicate situations in which inappropriate splitting or merging of cell populations has occurred during gating procedures. We compared the FR statistic with the symmetric version of Kullback-Leibler divergence measure used in a previous population matching method with both simulated and real data. The FR statistic outperforms the symmetric version of KL-distance in distinguishing equivalent from nonequivalent cell
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zenisky, April L.; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Sireci, Stephen G.
Measurement specialists routinely assume examinee responses to test items are independent of one another. However, previous research has shown that many contemporary tests contain item dependencies and not accounting for these dependencies leads to misleading estimates of item, test, and ability parameters. In this study, methods for detecting…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilkins, M. Elaine
2012-01-01
In 2001, No Child Left Behind introduced the highly qualified status for k-12 teachers, which mandated the successful scores on a series of high-stakes test; within this series is the Pre-Professional Skills Test (PPST) or PRAXIS I. The PPST measures basic k-12 skills for reading, writing, and mathematics. The mathematics sub-test is a national…
Test of the statistical model in {sup 96}Mo with the BaF{sub 2}{gamma} calorimeter DANCE array
Sheets, S. A.; Mitchell, G. E.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Becker, J. A.; Parker, W.; Wu, C. Y.; Becvar, F.; Krticka, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Sharapov, E. I.
2009-02-15
The {gamma}-ray cascades following the {sup 95}Mo(n,{gamma}){sup 96}Mo reaction were studied with the {gamma} calorimeter DANCE (Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments) consisting of 160 BaF{sub 2} scintillation detectors at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The {gamma}-ray energy spectra for different multiplicities were measured for s- and p-wave resonances below 2 keV. The shapes of these spectra were found to be in very good agreement with simulations using the DICEBOX statistical model code. The relevant model parameters used for the level density and photon strength functions were identical with those that provided the best fit of the data from a recent measurement of the thermal {sup 95}Mo(n,{gamma}){sup 96}Mo reaction with the two-step-cascade method. The reported results strongly suggest that the extreme statistical model works very well in the mass region near A=100.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ignatius, K.; Henning, S.; Stratmann, F.
2013-12-01
We encountered the question of how to do statistical inference and uncertainty estimation for the aerosol particle hygroscopicity (κ) measured up- and downstream of a hilltop in two conditions: during full-cloud events (FCE) where a cap cloud was present on the hilltop, and under cloud-free conditions (non-cloud events, NCE). The aim was to show with statistical testing that particle hygroscopicity is altered by cloud processing. This type of statistical experimental design known as a 'pre-post case control study', 'between-within design' or 'mixed design' is common in medicine and biostatistics but it may not be familiar to all researchers in the atmospheric sciences. Therefore we review the statistical testing methods that can be applied to solve these kind of problems. The key point is that these methods use the pre-measurement as a covariate to the post-measurement, which accounts for the daily variation and reduces variance in the analysis. All the three tests, Change score analysis, Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and multi-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) gave similar results and suggested a statistically significant change in κ between FCE and NCE. Quantification of the uncertainty in hygroscopicities derived from cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements implies an uncertainty interval estimation in a nonlinear expression where the uncertainty of one parameter is Gaussian with known mean and variance. We concluded that the commonly used way of estimating and showing the uncertainty intervals in hygroscopicity studies may make the error bars appear too large. Using simple Monte Carlo sampling and plotting the resulting nonlinear distribution and its quantiles may better represent the probability mass in the uncertainty distribution.
Zhang Youcai; Yang Xiaohu; Springel, Volker
2010-10-10
We study the topology of cosmic large-scale structure through the genus statistics, using galaxy catalogs generated from the Millennium Simulation and observational data from the latest Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release (SDSS DR7). We introduce a new method for constructing galaxy density fields and for measuring the genus statistics of its isodensity surfaces. It is based on a Delaunay tessellation field estimation (DTFE) technique that allows the definition of a piece-wise continuous density field and the exact computation of the topology of its polygonal isodensity contours, without introducing any free numerical parameter. Besides this new approach, we also employ the traditional approaches of smoothing the galaxy distribution with a Gaussian of fixed width, or by adaptively smoothing with a kernel that encloses a constant number of neighboring galaxies. Our results show that the Delaunay-based method extracts the largest amount of topological information. Unlike the traditional approach for genus statistics, it is able to discriminate between the different theoretical galaxy catalogs analyzed here, both in real space and in redshift space, even though they are based on the same underlying simulation model. In particular, the DTFE approach detects with high confidence a discrepancy of one of the semi-analytic models studied here compared with the SDSS data, while the other models are found to be consistent.
Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Pérez-Rodríguez, Marcela; Talavera, Juan O
2013-01-01
Among the test to show differences between means, the Student t test is the most characteristic. Its basic algebraic structure shows the difference between two means weighted by their dispersion. In this way, you can estimate the p value and the 95 % confidence interval of the mean difference. An essential feature is that the variable from which the mean is going to be calculated must have a normal distribution. The Student t test is used to compare two unrelated means (compared between two maneuvers), this is known as t test for independent samples. It is also used to compare two related means (a comparison before and after a maneuver in just one group), what is called paired t test. When the comparison is between more than two means (three or more dependent means, or three or more independent means) an ANOVA test (or an analysis of variance) it is used to perform the analysis. PMID:23883459
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Hanqi; Small, Mitchell J.; Pekney, Natalie J.
2015-10-01
The objective of the current work was to develop a statistical method and associated tool to evaluate the impact of oil and natural gas exploration and production activities on local air quality. Nonparametric regression of pollutant concentrations on wind direction was combined with bootstrap hypothesis testing to provide statistical inference regarding the existence of a local/regional air quality impact. The block bootstrap method was employed to address the effect of autocorrelation on test significance. The method was applied to short-term air monitoring data collected at three sites within Pennsylvania's Allegheny National Forest. All of the measured pollutant concentrations were well below the National Ambient Air Quality Standards, so the usual criteria and methods for data analysis were not sufficient. Using advanced directional analysis methods, test results were first applied to verify the existence of a regional impact at a background site. Next the impact of an oil field on local NOx and SO2 concentrations at a second monitoring site was identified after removal of the regional effect. Analysis of a third site also revealed air quality impacts from nearby areas with a high density of oil and gas wells. All results and conclusions were quantified in terms of statistical significance level for the associated inferences. The proposed method can be used to formulate hypotheses and verify conclusions regarding oil and gas well impacts on air quality and support better-informed decisions for their management and regulation.
Cosmic statistics of statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szapudi, István; Colombi, Stéphane; Bernardeau, Francis
1999-12-01
The errors on statistics measured in finite galaxy catalogues are exhaustively investigated. The theory of errors on factorial moments by Szapudi & Colombi is applied to cumulants via a series expansion method. All results are subsequently extended to the weakly non-linear regime. Together with previous investigations this yields an analytic theory of the errors for moments and connected moments of counts in cells from highly non-linear to weakly non-linear scales. For non-linear functions of unbiased estimators, such as the cumulants, the phenomenon of cosmic bias is identified and computed. Since it is subdued by the cosmic errors in the range of applicability of the theory, correction for it is inconsequential. In addition, the method of Colombi, Szapudi & Szalay concerning sampling effects is generalized, adapting the theory for inhomogeneous galaxy catalogues. While previous work focused on the variance only, the present article calculates the cross-correlations between moments and connected moments as well for a statistically complete description. The final analytic formulae representing the full theory are explicit but somewhat complicated. Therefore we have made available a fortran program capable of calculating the described quantities numerically (for further details e-mail SC at colombi@iap.fr). An important special case is the evaluation of the errors on the two-point correlation function, for which this should be more accurate than any method put forward previously. This tool will be immensely useful in the future for assessing the precision of measurements from existing catalogues, as well as aiding the design of new galaxy surveys. To illustrate the applicability of the results and to explore the numerical aspects of the theory qualitatively and quantitatively, the errors and cross-correlations are predicted under a wide range of assumptions for the future Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The principal results concerning the cumulants ξ, Q3 and Q4 is that
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomas, Leslie; Kalohn, John C.
Test specifications dictate the kind of content that should be included on each form of an examination, and the relative weight that each content domain should contribute to the determination of examinees' test scores by specifying the proportion of items to be included in each content area. This paper addresses a step in the development of…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shih, A. L.; Liu, J. Y. G.
2015-12-01
A median-based method and a z test are employed to find characteristics of seismo-ionospheric precursor (SIP) of the total electron content (TEC) in global ionosphere map (GIM) associated with 129 M≥5.5 earthquakes in Taiwan during 1999-2014. Results show that both negative and positive anomalies in the GIM TEC with the statistical significance of the z test appear few days before the earthquakes. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is further applied to see whether the SIPs exist in Taiwan.
Statistics 101 for Radiologists.
Anvari, Arash; Halpern, Elkan F; Samir, Anthony E
2015-10-01
Diagnostic tests have wide clinical applications, including screening, diagnosis, measuring treatment effect, and determining prognosis. Interpreting diagnostic test results requires an understanding of key statistical concepts used to evaluate test efficacy. This review explains descriptive statistics and discusses probability, including mutually exclusive and independent events and conditional probability. In the inferential statistics section, a statistical perspective on study design is provided, together with an explanation of how to select appropriate statistical tests. Key concepts in recruiting study samples are discussed, including representativeness and random sampling. Variable types are defined, including predictor, outcome, and covariate variables, and the relationship of these variables to one another. In the hypothesis testing section, we explain how to determine if observed differences between groups are likely to be due to chance. We explain type I and II errors, statistical significance, and study power, followed by an explanation of effect sizes and how confidence intervals can be used to generalize observed effect sizes to the larger population. Statistical tests are explained in four categories: t tests and analysis of variance, proportion analysis tests, nonparametric tests, and regression techniques. We discuss sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, receiver operating characteristic analysis, and likelihood ratios. Measures of reliability and agreement, including κ statistics, intraclass correlation coefficients, and Bland-Altman graphs and analysis, are introduced. PMID:26466186
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James
2011-01-01
In their 2009 Annals of Statistics paper, Gavrilov, Benjamini, and Sarkar report the results of a simulation assessing the robustness of their adaptive step-down procedure (GBS) for controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) when normally distributed test statistics are serially correlated. In this study we extend the investigation to the case of multiple comparisons involving correlated non-central t-statistics, in particular when several treatments or time periods are being compared to a control in a repeated-measures design with many dependent outcome measures. In addition, we consider several dependence structures other than serial correlation and illustrate how the FDR depends on the interaction between effect size and the type of correlation structure as indexed by Foerstner s distance metric from an identity. The relationship between the correlation matrix R of the original dependent variables and R, the correlation matrix of associated t-statistics is also studied. In general R depends not only on R, but also on sample size and the signed effect sizes for the multiple comparisons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woolley, Thomas W.; Dawson, George O.
It has been two decades since the first power analysis of a psychological journal and 10 years since the Journal of Research in Science Teaching made its contribution to this debate. One purpose of this article is to investigate what power-related changes, if any, have occurred in science education research over the past decade as a result of the earlier survey. In addition, previous recommendations are expanded and expounded upon within the context of more recent work in this area. The absence of any consistent mode of presenting statistical results, as well as little change with regard to power-related issues are reported. Guidelines for reporting the minimal amount of information demanded for clear and independent evaluation of research results by readers are also proposed.
Velasco-Tapia, Fernando
2014-01-01
Magmatic processes have usually been identified and evaluated using qualitative or semiquantitative geochemical or isotopic tools based on a restricted number of variables. However, a more complete and quantitative view could be reached applying multivariate analysis, mass balance techniques, and statistical tests. As an example, in this work a statistical and quantitative scheme is applied to analyze the geochemical features for the Sierra de las Cruces (SC) volcanic range (Mexican Volcanic Belt). In this locality, the volcanic activity (3.7 to 0.5 Ma) was dominantly dacitic, but the presence of spheroidal andesitic enclaves and/or diverse disequilibrium features in majority of lavas confirms the operation of magma mixing/mingling. New discriminant-function-based multidimensional diagrams were used to discriminate tectonic setting. Statistical tests of discordancy and significance were applied to evaluate the influence of the subducting Cocos plate, which seems to be rather negligible for the SC magmas in relation to several major and trace elements. A cluster analysis following Ward's linkage rule was carried out to classify the SC volcanic rocks geochemical groups. Finally, two mass-balance schemes were applied for the quantitative evaluation of the proportion of the end-member components (dacitic and andesitic magmas) in the comingled lavas (binary mixtures). PMID:24737994
Velasco-Tapia, Fernando
2014-01-01
Magmatic processes have usually been identified and evaluated using qualitative or semiquantitative geochemical or isotopic tools based on a restricted number of variables. However, a more complete and quantitative view could be reached applying multivariate analysis, mass balance techniques, and statistical tests. As an example, in this work a statistical and quantitative scheme is applied to analyze the geochemical features for the Sierra de las Cruces (SC) volcanic range (Mexican Volcanic Belt). In this locality, the volcanic activity (3.7 to 0.5 Ma) was dominantly dacitic, but the presence of spheroidal andesitic enclaves and/or diverse disequilibrium features in majority of lavas confirms the operation of magma mixing/mingling. New discriminant-function-based multidimensional diagrams were used to discriminate tectonic setting. Statistical tests of discordancy and significance were applied to evaluate the influence of the subducting Cocos plate, which seems to be rather negligible for the SC magmas in relation to several major and trace elements. A cluster analysis following Ward's linkage rule was carried out to classify the SC volcanic rocks geochemical groups. Finally, two mass-balance schemes were applied for the quantitative evaluation of the proportion of the end-member components (dacitic and andesitic magmas) in the comingled lavas (binary mixtures). PMID:24737994
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calderon, Christopher P.; Weiss, Lucien E.; Moerner, W. E.
2014-05-01
Experimental advances have improved the two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) spatial resolution that can be extracted from in vivo single-molecule measurements. This enables researchers to quantitatively infer the magnitude and directionality of forces experienced by biomolecules in their native environment. Situations where such force information is relevant range from mitosis to directed transport of protein cargo along cytoskeletal structures. Models commonly applied to quantify single-molecule dynamics assume that effective forces and velocity in the x ,y (or x ,y,z) directions are statistically independent, but this assumption is physically unrealistic in many situations. We present a hypothesis testing approach capable of determining if there is evidence of statistical dependence between positional coordinates in experimentally measured trajectories; if the hypothesis of independence between spatial coordinates is rejected, then a new model accounting for 2D (3D) interactions can and should be considered. Our hypothesis testing technique is robust, meaning it can detect interactions, even if the noise statistics are not well captured by the model. The approach is demonstrated on control simulations and on experimental data (directed transport of intraflagellar transport protein 88 homolog in the primary cilium).
Cap, J.S.
1997-11-01
Defining the maximum expected shock and vibration responses for an on-road truck transportation environment is strongly dependent on the amount of response data that can be obtained. One common test scheme consists of measuring response data over a relatively short prescribed road course and then reviewing that data to obtain the maximum response levels. The more mathematically rigorous alternative is to collect an unbiased ensemble of response data during a long road trip. This paper compares data gathered both ways during a recent on-road certification test for a tractor trailer van being designed by Sandia.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Xie, Yi
2012-10-01
We test models for the evolution of neutron star (NS) magnetic fields (B). Our model for the evolution of the NS spin is taken from an analysis of pulsar timing noise presented by Hobbs et al.. We first test the standard model of a pulsar's magnetosphere in which B does not change with time and magnetic dipole radiation is assumed to dominate the pulsar's spin-down. We find that this model fails to predict both the magnitudes and signs of the second derivatives of the spin frequencies (\\ddot{\
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alston, D. W.
1981-01-01
The considered research had the objective to design a statistical model that could perform an error analysis of curve fits of wind tunnel test data using analysis of variance and regression analysis techniques. Four related subproblems were defined, and by solving each of these a solution to the general research problem was obtained. The capabilities of the evolved true statistical model are considered. The least squares fit is used to determine the nature of the force, moment, and pressure data. The order of the curve fit is increased in order to delete the quadratic effect in the residuals. The analysis of variance is used to determine the magnitude and effect of the error factor associated with the experimental data.
Over the last 10 years a great deal of research effort has concentrated on determining the effects of contaminated sediments on aquatic organisms. or marine systems, this effort has emphasized acute sediment toxicity tests using amphipods, although a variety of other end points a...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klein, Ariel; Badia, Toni
2015-01-01
In this study we show how complex creative relations can arise from fairly frequent semantic relations observed in everyday language. By doing this, we reflect on some key cognitive aspects of linguistic and general creativity. In our experimentation, we automated the process of solving a battery of Remote Associates Test tasks. By applying…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cheng, Ying-Yao; Wang, Wen-Chung; Ho, Yi-Hui
2009-01-01
Educational and psychological tests are often composed of multiple short subtests, each measuring a distinct latent trait. Unfortunately, short subtests suffer from low measurement precision, which makes the bandwidth-fidelity dilemma inevitable. In this study, the authors demonstrate how a multidimensional Rasch analysis can be employed to take…
Boareto, Marcelo; Caticha, Nestor
2014-01-01
Microarray data analysis typically consists in identifying a list of differentially expressed genes (DEG), i.e., the genes that are differentially expressed between two experimental conditions. Variance shrinkage methods have been considered a better choice than the standard t-test for selecting the DEG because they correct the dependence of the error with the expression level. This dependence is mainly caused by errors in background correction, which more severely affects genes with low expression values. Here, we propose a new method for identifying the DEG that overcomes this issue and does not require background correction or variance shrinkage. Unlike current methods, our methodology is easy to understand and implement. It consists of applying the standard t-test directly on the normalized intensity data, which is possible because the probe intensity is proportional to the gene expression level and because the t-test is scale- and location-invariant. This methodology considerably improves the sensitivity and robustness of the list of DEG when compared with the t-test applied to preprocessed data and to the most widely used shrinkage methods, Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) and Linear Models for Microarray Data (LIMMA). Our approach is useful especially when the genes of interest have small differences in expression and therefore get ignored by standard variance shrinkage methods.
Dimitri, P S; Wall, C; Oas, J G; Rauch, S D
2001-01-01
Menière's disease (MD) and migraine associated dizziness (MAD) are two disorders that can have similar symptomatologies, but differ vastly in treatment. Vestibular testing is sometimes used to help differentiate between these disorders, but the inefficiency of a human interpreter analyzing a multitude of variables independently decreases its utility. Our hypothesis was that we could objectively discriminate between patients with MD and those with MAD using select variables from the vestibular test battery. Sinusoidal harmonic acceleration test variables were reduced to three vestibulo-ocular reflex physiologic parameters: gain, time constant, and asymmetry. A combination of these parameters plus a measurement of reduced vestibular response from caloric testing allowed us to achieve a joint classification rate of 91%, independent quadratic classification algorithm. Data from posturography were not useful for this type of differentiation. Overall, our classification function can be used as an unbiased assistant to discriminate between MD and MAD and gave us insight into the pathophysiologic differences between the two disorders. PMID:11673678
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lange, Matthew; Dawson, Andrew
2009-01-01
To test claims that postcolonial civil violence is a common legacy of colonialism, we create a dataset on the colonial heritage of 160 countries and explore whether a history of colonialism is related to indicators of inter-communal conflict, political rebellion and civil war in the years 1960-1999. The analysis provides evidence against sweeping…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deschanel, Stephanie; Vigier, Gerard; Godin, Nathalie; Vanel, Loic; Ciliberto, Sergio
2007-03-01
For some heterogeneous materials fracture can be described as a clustering of microcracks: global rupture being not controlled by a single event. We focus on polyurethane foams whose heterogeneities (pores) constitute the termination points where microcracks can stop. We record both the spatial and time distributions of acoustic emission emitted by a sample during mechanical tests: each microcrack nucleation corresponds to a burst of energy that can be localized on the widest face of the specimen. The probability distributions of the energy released is power-law distributed, independently of the material density, the loading mode or the mechanical behavior. On the other hand, the agreement of a power law for the time intervals between two damaging events seems to require a quasi constant stress during damaging. Moreover, we notice a behavior difference of the cumulative number of events and the cumulative energy of the localized events with temperature in the case of tensile tests and not any more for creep tests. The occurrence of a unique behavior and a power law in a restricted time interval for the cumulative number of events and the cumulative energy in creep allow us to apprehend interesting later studies of materials' lifetime prediction.
Jamalabadi, Hamidreza; Alizadeh, Sarah; Schönauer, Monika; Leibold, Christian; Gais, Steffen
2016-05-01
Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) has recently become a popular tool for data analysis. Often, classification accuracy as quantified by correct classification rate (CCR) is used to illustrate the size of the effect under investigation. However, we show that in low sample size (LSS), low effect size (LES) data, which is typical in neuroscience, the distribution of CCRs from cross-validation of linear MVPA is asymmetric and can show classification rates considerably below what would be expected from chance classification. Conversely, the mode of the distribution in these cases is above expected chance levels, leading to a spuriously high number of above chance CCRs. This unexpected distribution has strong implications when using MVPA for hypothesis testing. Our analyses warrant the conclusion that CCRs do not well reflect the size of the effect under investigation. Moreover, the skewness of the null-distribution precludes the use of many standard parametric tests to assess significance of CCRs. We propose that MVPA results should be reported in terms of P values, which are estimated using randomization tests. Also, our results show that cross-validation procedures using a low number of folds, e.g. twofold, are generally more sensitive, even though the average CCRs are often considerably lower than those obtained using a higher number of folds. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1842-1855, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27015748
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markowitz, A.
2015-09-01
We summarize two papers providing the first X-ray-derived statistical constraints for both clumpy-torus model parameters and cloud ensemble properties. In Markowitz, Krumpe, & Nikutta (2014), we explored multi-timescale variability in line-of-sight X-ray absorbing gas as a function of optical classification. We examined 55 Seyferts monitored with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, and found in 8 objects a total of 12 eclipses, with durations between hours and years. Most clouds are commensurate with the outer portions of the BLR, or the inner regions of infrared-emitting dusty tori. The detection of eclipses in type Is disfavors sharp-edged tori. We provide probabilities to observe a source undergoing an absorption event for both type Is and IIs, yielding constraints in [N_0, sigma, i] parameter space. In Nikutta et al., in prep., we infer that the small cloud angular sizes, as seen from the SMBH, imply the presence of >10^7 clouds in BLR+torus to explain observed covering factors. Cloud size is roughly proportional to distance from the SMBH, hinting at the formation processes (e.g. disk fragmentation). All observed clouds are sub-critical with respect to tidal disruption; self-gravity alone cannot contain them. External forces (e.g. magnetic fields, ambient pressure) are needed to contain them, or otherwise the clouds must be short-lived. Finally, we infer that the radial cloud density distribution behaves as 1/r^{0.7}, compatible with VLTI observations. Our results span both dusty and non-dusty clumpy media, and probe model parameter space complementary to that for short-term eclipses observed with XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and Chandra.
Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Izbicki, John A.; Reichard, Eric G.
1998-01-01
To better understand flow processes, solute-transport processes, and ground-water/surface-water interactions on the Santa Clara River in Ventura County, California, a 24-hour fluorescent-dye tracer study was performed under steady-state flow conditions on a 28-mile reach of the river. The study reach includes perennial (uppermost and lowermost) subreaches and ephemeral subreaches of the lower Piru Creek and the middle Santa Clara River. Dye was injected at a site on Piru Creek, and fluorescence of river water was measured continuously at four sites and intermittently at two sites. Discharge measurements were also made at the six sites. The time of travel of the dye, peak dye concentration, and time-variance of time-concentration curves were obtained at each site. The long tails of the time-concentration curves are indicative of sources/sinks within the river, such as riffles and pools, or transient bank storage. A statistical analysis of the data indicates that, in general, the transport characteristics follow Fickian theory. These data and previously collected discharge data were used to calibrate a one-dimensional flow model (DAFLOW) and a solute-transport model (BLTM). DAFLOW solves a simplified form of the diffusion-wave equation and uses empirical relations between flow rate and cross-sectional area, and flow rate and channel width. BLTM uses the velocity data from DAFLOW and solves the advection-dispersion transport equation, including first-order decay. The simulations of dye transport indicated that (1) ground-water recharge explains the loss of dye mass in the middle, ephemeral, subreaches, and (2) ground-water recharge does not explain the loss of dye mass in the uppermost and lowermost, perennial, subreaches. This loss of mass was simulated using a linear decay term. The loss of mass in the perennial subreaches may be caused by a combination of photodecay or adsorption/desorption.
Shi, Runhua; McLarty, Jerry W
2009-10-01
In this article, we introduced basic concepts of statistics, type of distributions, and descriptive statistics. A few examples were also provided. The basic concepts presented herein are only a fraction of the concepts related to descriptive statistics. Also, there are many commonly used distributions not presented herein, such as Poisson distributions for rare events and exponential distributions, F distributions, and logistic distributions. More information can be found in many statistics books and publications. PMID:19891281
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric
2008-01-01
As a branch of knowledge, Statistics is ubiquitous and its applications can be found in (almost) every field of human endeavour. In this article, the authors track down the possible source of the link between the "Siren song" and applications of Statistics. Answers to their previous five questions and five new questions on Statistics are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markowitz, Alex; Krumpe, Mirko; Nikutta, R.
2016-06-01
In two papers (Markowitz, Krumpe, & Nikutta 2014, and Nikutta et al., in prep.), we derive the first X-ray statistical constraints for clumpy-torus models in Seyfert AGN by quantifying multi-timescale variability in line of-sight X-ray absorbing gas as a function of optical classification.We systematically search for discrete absorption events in the vast archive of RXTE monitoring of 55 nearby type Is and Compton-thin type IIs. We are sensitive to discrete absorption events due to clouds of full-covering, neutral/mildly ionized gas transiting the line of sight. Our results apply to both dusty and non-dusty clumpy media, and probe model parameter space complementary to that for eclipses observed with XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and Chandra.We detect twelve eclipse events in eight Seyferts, roughly tripling the number previously published from this archive. Event durations span hours to years. Most of our detected clouds are Compton-thin, and most clouds' distances from the black hole are inferred to be commensurate with the outer portions of the BLR or the inner regions of infrared-emitting dusty tori.We present the density profiles of the highest-quality eclipse events; the column density profile for an eclipsing cloud in NGC 3783 is doubly spiked, possibly indicating a cloud that is being tidallysheared. We discuss implications for cloud distributions in the context of clumpy-torus models. We calculate eclipse probabilities for orientation-dependent Type I/II unification schemes.We present constraints on cloud sizes, stability, and radial distribution. We infer that clouds' small angular sizes as seen from the SMBH imply 107 clouds required across the BLR + torus. Cloud size is roughly proportional to distance from the black hole, hinting at the formation processes (e.g., disk fragmentation). All observed clouds are sub-critical with respect to tidal disruption; self-gravity alone cannot contain them. External forces, such as magnetic fields or ambient pressure, are
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brazhnik, Olga D.; Freed, Karl F.
1996-07-01
The lattice cluster theory (LCT) is extended to enable inclusion of longer range correlation contributions to the partition function of lattice model polymers in the athermal limit. A diagrammatic technique represents the expansion of the partition function in powers of the inverse lattice coordination number. Graph theory is applied to sort, classify, and evaluate the numerous diagrams appearing in higher orders. New general theorems are proven that provide a significant reduction in the computational labor required to evaluate the contributions from higher order correlations. The new algorithm efficiently generates the correction to the Flory mean field approximation from as many as eight sterically interacting bonds. While the new results contain the essential ingredients for treating a system of flexible chains with arbitrary lengths and concentrations, the complexity of our new algorithm motivates us to test the theory here for the simplest case of a system of lattice dimers by comparison to the dimer packing entropies from the work of Gaunt. This comparison demonstrates that the eight bond LCT is exact through order φ5 for dimers in one through three dimensions, where φ is the volume fraction of dimers. A subsequent work will use the contracted diagrams, derived and tested here, to treat the packing entropy for a system of flexible N-mers at a volume fraction of φ on hypercubic lattices.
Dziak, John J.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Tan, Xianming
2014-01-01
Selecting the number of different classes which will be assumed to exist in the population is an important step in latent class analysis (LCA). The bootstrap likelihood ratio test (BLRT) provides a data-driven way to evaluate the relative adequacy of a (K −1)-class model compared to a K-class model. However, very little is known about how to predict the power or the required sample size for the BLRT in LCA. Based on extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we provide practical effect size measures and power curves which can be used to predict power for the BLRT in LCA given a proposed sample size and a set of hypothesized population parameters. Estimated power curves and tables provide guidance for researchers wishing to size a study to have sufficient power to detect hypothesized underlying latent classes. PMID:25328371
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Lopaka; Helsel, Dennis
2007-05-01
Analysis of low concentrations of trace contaminants in environmental media often results in left-censored data that are below some limit of analytical precision. Interpretation of values becomes complicated when there are multiple detection limits in the data—perhaps as a result of changing analytical precision over time. Parametric and semi-parametric methods, such as maximum likelihood estimation and robust regression on order statistics, can be employed to model distributions of multiply censored data and provide estimates of summary statistics. However, these methods are based on assumptions about the underlying distribution of data. Nonparametric methods provide an alternative that does not require such assumptions. A standard nonparametric method for estimating summary statistics of multiply-censored data is the Kaplan-Meier (K-M) method. This method has seen widespread usage in the medical sciences within a general framework termed "survival analysis" where it is employed with right-censored time-to-failure data. However, K-M methods are equally valid for the left-censored data common in the geosciences. Our S-language software provides an analytical framework based on K-M methods that is tailored to the needs of the earth and environmental sciences community. This includes routines for the generation of empirical cumulative distribution functions, prediction or exceedance probabilities, and related confidence limits computation. Additionally, our software contains K-M-based routines for nonparametric hypothesis testing among an unlimited number of grouping variables. A primary characteristic of K-M methods is that they do not perform extrapolation and interpolation. Thus, these routines cannot be used to model statistics beyond the observed data range or when linear interpolation is desired. For such applications, the aforementioned parametric and semi-parametric methods must be used.
Lee, L.; Helsel, D.
2007-01-01
Analysis of low concentrations of trace contaminants in environmental media often results in left-censored data that are below some limit of analytical precision. Interpretation of values becomes complicated when there are multiple detection limits in the data-perhaps as a result of changing analytical precision over time. Parametric and semi-parametric methods, such as maximum likelihood estimation and robust regression on order statistics, can be employed to model distributions of multiply censored data and provide estimates of summary statistics. However, these methods are based on assumptions about the underlying distribution of data. Nonparametric methods provide an alternative that does not require such assumptions. A standard nonparametric method for estimating summary statistics of multiply-censored data is the Kaplan-Meier (K-M) method. This method has seen widespread usage in the medical sciences within a general framework termed "survival analysis" where it is employed with right-censored time-to-failure data. However, K-M methods are equally valid for the left-censored data common in the geosciences. Our S-language software provides an analytical framework based on K-M methods that is tailored to the needs of the earth and environmental sciences community. This includes routines for the generation of empirical cumulative distribution functions, prediction or exceedance probabilities, and related confidence limits computation. Additionally, our software contains K-M-based routines for nonparametric hypothesis testing among an unlimited number of grouping variables. A primary characteristic of K-M methods is that they do not perform extrapolation and interpolation. Thus, these routines cannot be used to model statistics beyond the observed data range or when linear interpolation is desired. For such applications, the aforementioned parametric and semi-parametric methods must be used.
Statistical Inference at Work: Statistical Process Control as an Example
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bakker, Arthur; Kent, Phillip; Derry, Jan; Noss, Richard; Hoyles, Celia
2008-01-01
To characterise statistical inference in the workplace this paper compares a prototypical type of statistical inference at work, statistical process control (SPC), with a type of statistical inference that is better known in educational settings, hypothesis testing. Although there are some similarities between the reasoning structure involved in…
Explorations in Statistics: Power
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curran-Everett, Douglas
2010-01-01
Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This fifth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" revisits power, a concept fundamental to the test of a null hypothesis. Power is the probability that we reject the null hypothesis when it is false. Four things affect…
Kogalovskii, M.R.
1995-03-01
This paper presents a review of problems related to statistical database systems, which are wide-spread in various fields of activity. Statistical databases (SDB) are referred to as databases that consist of data and are used for statistical analysis. Topics under consideration are: SDB peculiarities, properties of data models adequate for SDB requirements, metadata functions, null-value problems, SDB compromise protection problems, stored data compression techniques, and statistical data representation means. Also examined is whether the present Database Management Systems (DBMS) satisfy the SDB requirements. Some actual research directions in SDB systems are considered.
Smith, Alwyn
1969-01-01
This paper is based on an analysis of questionnaires sent to the health ministries of Member States of WHO asking for information about the extent, nature, and scope of morbidity statistical information. It is clear that most countries collect some statistics of morbidity and many countries collect extensive data. However, few countries relate their collection to the needs of health administrators for information, and many countries collect statistics principally for publication in annual volumes which may appear anything up to 3 years after the year to which they refer. The desiderata of morbidity statistics may be summarized as reliability, representativeness, and relevance to current health problems. PMID:5306722
NSTec Environmental Restoration
2009-04-20
A statistical analysis and geologic evaluation of recently acquired laboratory-derived physical property data are being performed to better understand and more precisely correlate physical properties with specific geologic parameters associated with non-zeolitized tuffs at the Nevada Test Site. Physical property data include wet and dry bulk density, grain density (i.e., specific gravity), total porosity, and effective porosity. Geologic parameters utilized include degree of welding, lithology, stratigraphy, geographic area, and matrix mineralogy (i.e., vitric versus devitrified). Initial results indicate a very good correlation between physical properties and geologic parameters such as degree of welding, lithology, and matrix mineralogy. However, physical properties appear to be independent of stratigraphy and geographic area, suggesting that the data are transferrable with regards to these two geologic parameters. Statistical analyses also indicate that the assumed grain density of 2.65 grams per cubic centimeter used to calculate porosity in some samples is too high. This results in corresponding calculated porosity values approximately 5 percent too high (e.g., 45 percent versus 40 percent), which can be significant in the lower porosity rocks. Similar analyses and evaluations of zeolitic tuffs and carbonate rock physical properties data are ongoing as well as comparisons to geophysical log values.
Januszyk, Michael; Gurtner, Geoffrey C
2011-01-01
The scope of biomedical research has expanded rapidly during the past several decades, and statistical analysis has become increasingly necessary to understand the meaning of large and diverse quantities of raw data. As such, a familiarity with this lexicon is essential for critical appraisal of medical literature. This article attempts to provide a practical overview of medical statistics, with an emphasis on the selection, application, and interpretation of specific tests. This includes a brief review of statistical theory and its nomenclature, particularly with regard to the classification of variables. A discussion of descriptive methods for data presentation is then provided, followed by an overview of statistical inference and significance analysis, and detailed treatment of specific statistical tests and guidelines for their interpretation. PMID:21200241
Winters, Ryan; Winters, Andrew; Amedee, Ronald G.
2010-01-01
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education sets forth a number of required educational topics that must be addressed in residency and fellowship programs. We sought to provide a primer on some of the important basic statistical concepts to consider when examining the medical literature. It is not essential to understand the exact workings and methodology of every statistical test encountered, but it is necessary to understand selected concepts such as parametric and nonparametric tests, correlation, and numerical versus categorical data. This working knowledge will allow you to spot obvious irregularities in statistical analyses that you encounter. PMID:21603381
Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Agüeros, Marcel A.; Fournier, Amanda P.; Street, Rachel; Ofek, Eran O.; Covey, Kevin R.; Levitan, David; Sesar, Branimir; Laher, Russ R.; Surace, Jason
2014-01-20
Many photometric time-domain surveys are driven by specific goals, such as searches for supernovae or transiting exoplanets, which set the cadence with which fields are re-imaged. In the case of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), several sub-surveys are conducted in parallel, leading to non-uniform sampling over its ∼20,000 deg{sup 2} footprint. While the median 7.26 deg{sup 2} PTF field has been imaged ∼40 times in the R band, ∼2300 deg{sup 2} have been observed >100 times. We use PTF data to study the trade off between searching for microlensing events in a survey whose footprint is much larger than that of typical microlensing searches, but with far-from-optimal time sampling. To examine the probability that microlensing events can be recovered in these data, we test statistics used on uniformly sampled data to identify variables and transients. We find that the von Neumann ratio performs best for identifying simulated microlensing events in our data. We develop a selection method using this statistic and apply it to data from fields with >10 R-band observations, 1.1 × 10{sup 9} light curves, uncovering three candidate microlensing events. We lack simultaneous, multi-color photometry to confirm these as microlensing events. However, their number is consistent with predictions for the event rate in the PTF footprint over the survey's three years of operations, as estimated from near-field microlensing models. This work can help constrain all-sky event rate predictions and tests microlensing signal recovery in large data sets, which will be useful to future time-domain surveys, such as that planned with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.
The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute works to provide information on cancer statistics in an effort to reduce the burden of cancer among the U.S. population.
... cancer statistics across the world. U.S. Cancer Mortality Trends The best indicator of progress against cancer is ... the number of cancer survivors has increased. These trends show that progress is being made against the ...
Streiner, David L
2015-10-01
Testing many null hypotheses in a single study results in an increased probability of detecting a significant finding just by chance (the problem of multiplicity). Debates have raged over many years with regard to whether to correct for multiplicity and, if so, how it should be done. This article first discusses how multiple tests lead to an inflation of the α level, then explores the following different contexts in which multiplicity arises: testing for baseline differences in various types of studies, having >1 outcome variable, conducting statistical tests that produce >1 P value, taking multiple "peeks" at the data, and unplanned, post hoc analyses (i.e., "data dredging," "fishing expeditions," or "P-hacking"). It then discusses some of the methods that have been proposed for correcting for multiplicity, including single-step procedures (e.g., Bonferroni); multistep procedures, such as those of Holm, Hochberg, and Šidák; false discovery rate control; and resampling approaches. Note that these various approaches describe different aspects and are not necessarily mutually exclusive. For example, resampling methods could be used to control the false discovery rate or the family-wise error rate (as defined later in this article). However, the use of one of these approaches presupposes that we should correct for multiplicity, which is not universally accepted, and the article presents the arguments for and against such "correction." The final section brings together these threads and presents suggestions with regard to when it makes sense to apply the corrections and how to do so. PMID:26245806
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hermann, Claudine
Statistical Physics bridges the properties of a macroscopic system and the microscopic behavior of its constituting particles, otherwise impossible due to the giant magnitude of Avogadro's number. Numerous systems of today's key technologies - such as semiconductors or lasers - are macroscopic quantum objects; only statistical physics allows for understanding their fundamentals. Therefore, this graduate text also focuses on particular applications such as the properties of electrons in solids with applications, and radiation thermodynamics and the greenhouse effect.
Osnes, J.D. ); Winberg, A.; Andersson, J.E.; Larsson, N.A. )
1991-09-27
Statistical and probabilistic methods for estimating the probability that a fracture is nonconductive (or equivalently, the conductive-fracture frequency) and the distribution of the transmissivities of conductive fractures from transmissivity measurements made in single-hole injection (well) tests were developed. These methods were applied to a database consisting of over 1,000 measurements made in nearly 25 km of borehole at five sites in Sweden. The depths of the measurements ranged from near the surface to over 600-m deep, and packer spacings of 20- and 25-m were used. A probabilistic model that describes the distribution of a series of transmissivity measurements was derived. When the parameters of this model were estimated using maximum likelihood estimators, the resulting estimated distributions generally fit the cumulative histograms of the transmissivity measurements very well. Further, estimates of the mean transmissivity of conductive fractures based on the maximum likelihood estimates of the model's parameters were reasonable, both in magnitude and in trend, with respect to depth. The estimates of the conductive fracture probability were generated in the range of 0.5--5.0 percent, with the higher values at shallow depths and with increasingly smaller values as depth increased. An estimation procedure based on the probabilistic model and the maximum likelihood estimators of its parameters was recommended. Some guidelines regarding the design of injection test programs were drawn from the recommended estimation procedure and the parameter estimates based on the Swedish data. 24 refs., 12 figs., 14 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murphy, Brendan; Simon, Anna
2015-10-01
p-process nucleosynthesis is believed to be the origin of 35 stable, proton-rich nuclei called ``p-nuclei'', that cannot be synthesized by neutron captures. The complex p-process network includes, among others, (α , γ) reactions, whose cross-sections are not very well described by current theoretical models. Here, a collection of experimentally measured (α , γ) reactions from the KADoNiS-p database was used as a test for various models obtained from TALYS, a nuclear reaction program, and NON-SMOKER, the principal theoretical database in this field. Statistical models in this investigation required the alpha optical model potential (aOMP), the gamma strength function (gSF), and the level density model (ld) as input. Permutations of all three were used in theoretical calculations; as there exist 5 separate models for aOMP and gSF, and 6 for ld, there were 150 combinations of interest. After calculating cross-sections with these parameters, a χ2 test was used to determine the set of permutes that was closest to the experimental data. The (α , γ) reaction of the 91Zr target is presented as the example case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodman, J. W.
This book is based on the thesis that some training in the area of statistical optics should be included as a standard part of any advanced optics curriculum. Random variables are discussed, taking into account definitions of probability and random variables, distribution functions and density functions, an extension to two or more random variables, statistical averages, transformations of random variables, sums of real random variables, Gaussian random variables, complex-valued random variables, and random phasor sums. Other subjects examined are related to random processes, some first-order properties of light waves, the coherence of optical waves, some problems involving high-order coherence, effects of partial coherence on imaging systems, imaging in the presence of randomly inhomogeneous media, and fundamental limits in photoelectric detection of light. Attention is given to deterministic versus statistical phenomena and models, the Fourier transform, and the fourth-order moment of the spectrum of a detected speckle image.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, Paul S.; Hyers, Albert D.
Three descriptive statistics (difficulty, discrimination, and reliability) of multiple-choice (MC) test items were compared to those of a new (1980s) format of machine-scored questions. The new method, answer-bank multi-digit testing (MDT), uses alphabetized lists of up to 1,000 alternatives and approximates the completion style of assessment…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chicot, Katie; Holmes, Hilary
2012-01-01
The use, and misuse, of statistics is commonplace, yet in the printed format data representations can be either over simplified, supposedly for impact, or so complex as to lead to boredom, supposedly for completeness and accuracy. In this article the link to the video clip shows how dynamic visual representations can enliven and enhance the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Catley, Alan
2007-01-01
Following the announcement last year that there will be no more math coursework assessment at General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), teachers will in the future be able to devote more time to preparing learners for formal examinations. One of the key things that the author has learned when teaching statistics is that it makes for far…
Croarkin, M. Carroll
2001-01-01
For more than 50 years, the Statistical Engineering Division (SED) has been instrumental in the success of a broad spectrum of metrology projects at NBS/NIST. This paper highlights fundamental contributions of NBS/NIST statisticians to statistics and to measurement science and technology. Published methods developed by SED staff, especially during the early years, endure as cornerstones of statistics not only in metrology and standards applications, but as data-analytic resources used across all disciplines. The history of statistics at NBS/NIST began with the formation of what is now the SED. Examples from the first five decades of the SED illustrate the critical role of the division in the successful resolution of a few of the highly visible, and sometimes controversial, statistical studies of national importance. A review of the history of major early publications of the division on statistical methods, design of experiments, and error analysis and uncertainty is followed by a survey of several thematic areas. The accompanying examples illustrate the importance of SED in the history of statistics, measurements and standards: calibration and measurement assurance, interlaboratory tests, development of measurement methods, Standard Reference Materials, statistical computing, and dissemination of measurement technology. A brief look forward sketches the expanding opportunity and demand for SED statisticians created by current trends in research and development at NIST.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lauter, Judith L.; Ninness, Chris
2003-10-01
The Auditory Cross-Section (AXS) Test Battery [J. L. Lauter, Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 32, 180-190 (2000)], described in presentations to ASA in 2002 and 2003, is designed to document dynamic relations linking the cortex, brainstem, and body periphery (whether physics, physiology, or behavior) on an individually-specific basis. Data collections using the battery typically employ a within-subject, time-varying, multivariate design, yet conventional group statistics do not provide satisfactory means of treating such data. We have recently developed an approach based on Kohonens (2001) Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) algorithm, which categorizes time-varying profiles across variables, either within- or between-subjects. The treatment entails three steps: (1) z-score transformation of all raw data; (2) employing the SOM to sort the time-varying profiles into groups; and (3) deriving an estimate of the bounds for the Bayes error rate. Our three-step procedure will be briefly described and illustrated with data from a recent study combining otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem responses, and cortical qEEG.
Explorations in statistics: statistical facets of reproducibility.
Curran-Everett, Douglas
2016-06-01
Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This eleventh installment of Explorations in Statistics explores statistical facets of reproducibility. If we obtain an experimental result that is scientifically meaningful and statistically unusual, we would like to know that our result reflects a general biological phenomenon that another researcher could reproduce if (s)he repeated our experiment. But more often than not, we may learn this researcher cannot replicate our result. The National Institutes of Health and the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology have created training modules and outlined strategies to help improve the reproducibility of research. These particular approaches are necessary, but they are not sufficient. The principles of hypothesis testing and estimation are inherent to the notion of reproducibility in science. If we want to improve the reproducibility of our research, then we need to rethink how we apply fundamental concepts of statistics to our science. PMID:27231259
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frimann, S.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Haugbølle, T.
2016-02-01
Context. Both observations and simulations of embedded protostars have progressed rapidly in recent years. Bringing them together is an important step in advancing our knowledge about the earliest phases of star formation. Aims: To compare synthetic continuum images and spectral energy distributions (SEDs), calculated from large-scale numerical simulations, to observational studies, thereby aiding in both the interpretation of the observations and in testing the fidelity of the simulations. Methods: The adaptive mesh refinement code, RAMSES, is used to simulate the evolution of a 5 pc × 5 pc × 5 pc molecular cloud. The simulation has a maximum resolution of 8 AU, resolving simultaneously the molecular cloud on parsec scales and individual protostellar systems on AU scales. The simulation is post-processed with the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D, which is used to create synthetic continuum images and SEDs of the protostellar systems. In this way, more than 13 000 unique radiative transfer models, of a variety of different protostellar systems, are produced. Results: Over the course of 0.76 Myr the simulation forms more than 500 protostars, primarily within two sub-clusters. The synthetic SEDs are used to calculate evolutionary tracers Tbol and Lsmm/Lbol. It is shown that, while the observed distributions of the tracers are well matched by the simulation, they generally do a poor job of tracking the protostellar ages. Disks form early in the simulation, with 40% of the Class 0 protostars being encircled by one. The flux emission from the simulated disks is found to be, on average, a factor ~6 too low relative to real observations; an issue that can be traced back to numerical effects on the smallest scales in the simulation. The simulated distribution of protostellar luminosities spans more than three order of magnitudes, similar to the observed distribution. Cores and protostars are found to be closely associated with one another, with the distance distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodman, Joseph W.
2000-07-01
The Wiley Classics Library consists of selected books that have become recognized classics in their respective fields. With these new unabridged and inexpensive editions, Wiley hopes to extend the life of these important works by making them available to future generations of mathematicians and scientists. Currently available in the Series: T. W. Anderson The Statistical Analysis of Time Series T. S. Arthanari & Yadolah Dodge Mathematical Programming in Statistics Emil Artin Geometric Algebra Norman T. J. Bailey The Elements of Stochastic Processes with Applications to the Natural Sciences Robert G. Bartle The Elements of Integration and Lebesgue Measure George E. P. Box & Norman R. Draper Evolutionary Operation: A Statistical Method for Process Improvement George E. P. Box & George C. Tiao Bayesian Inference in Statistical Analysis R. W. Carter Finite Groups of Lie Type: Conjugacy Classes and Complex Characters R. W. Carter Simple Groups of Lie Type William G. Cochran & Gertrude M. Cox Experimental Designs, Second Edition Richard Courant Differential and Integral Calculus, Volume I RIchard Courant Differential and Integral Calculus, Volume II Richard Courant & D. Hilbert Methods of Mathematical Physics, Volume I Richard Courant & D. Hilbert Methods of Mathematical Physics, Volume II D. R. Cox Planning of Experiments Harold S. M. Coxeter Introduction to Geometry, Second Edition Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Representation Theory of Finite Groups and Associative Algebras Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume I Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume II Cuthbert Daniel Fitting Equations to Data: Computer Analysis of Multifactor Data, Second Edition Bruno de Finetti Theory of Probability, Volume I Bruno de Finetti Theory of Probability, Volume 2 W. Edwards Deming Sample Design in Business Research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
da Silva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.
2013-01-01
Part I presented a Monte Carlo Bayesian method for constraining a complex statistical model of GCM sub-gridcolumn moisture variability using high-resolution MODIS cloud data, thereby permitting large-scale model parameter estimation and cloud data assimilation. This part performs some basic testing of this new approach, verifying that it does indeed significantly reduce mean and standard deviation biases with respect to the assimilated MODIS cloud optical depth, brightness temperature and cloud top pressure, and that it also improves the simulated rotational-Ramman scattering cloud optical centroid pressure (OCP) against independent (non-assimilated) retrievals from the OMI instrument. Of particular interest, the Monte Carlo method does show skill in the especially difficult case where the background state is clear but cloudy observations exist. In traditional linearized data assimilation methods, a subsaturated background cannot produce clouds via any infinitesimal equilibrium perturbation, but the Monte Carlo approach allows finite jumps into regions of non-zero cloud probability. In the example provided, the method is able to restore marine stratocumulus near the Californian coast where the background state has a clear swath. This paper also examines a number of algorithmic and physical sensitivities of the new method and provides guidance for its cost-effective implementation. One obvious difficulty for the method, and other cloud data assimilation methods as well, is the lack of information content in the cloud observables on cloud vertical structure, beyond cloud top pressure and optical thickness, thus necessitating strong dependence on the background vertical moisture structure. It is found that a simple flow-dependent correlation modification due to Riishojgaard (1998) provides some help in this respect, by better honoring inversion structures in the background state.
Stanwell, Peter; Siddall, Philip; Keshava, Nirmal; Cocuzzo, Daniel; Ramadan, Saadallah; Lin, Alexander; Herbert, David; Craig, Ashley; Tran, Yvonne; Middleton, James; Gautam, Shiva; Cousins, Michael; Mountford, Carolyn
2010-11-01
Spinal cord injury (SCI) can be accompanied by chronic pain, the mechanisms for which are poorly understood. Here we report that magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements from the brain, collected at 3T, and processed using wavelet-based feature extraction and classification algorithms, can identify biochemical changes that distinguish control subjects from subjects with SCI as well as subdividing the SCI group into those with and without chronic pain. The results from control subjects (n=10) were compared to those with SCI (n=10). The SCI cohort was made up of subjects with chronic neuropathic pain (n=5) and those without chronic pain (n=5). The wavelet-based decomposition of frequency domain MRS signals employs statistical significance testing to identify features best suited to discriminate different classes. Moreover, the features benefit from careful attention to the post-processing of the spectroscopy data prior to the comparison of the three cohorts. The spectroscopy data, from the thalamus, best distinguished control subjects without SCI from those with SCI with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.9 (Percentage of Correct Classification). The spectroscopy data obtained from the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex both distinguished between SCI subjects with chronic neuropathic pain and those without pain with a sensitivity and specificity of 1.0. In this study, where two underlying mechanisms co-exist (i.e. SCI and pain), the thalamic changes appear to be linked more strongly to SCI, while the anterior cingulate cortex and prefrontal cortex changes appear to be specifically linked to the presence of pain. PMID:20600973
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grégoire, G.
2016-05-01
This chapter is devoted to two objectives. The first one is to answer the request expressed by attendees of the first Astrostatistics School (Annecy, October 2013) to be provided with an elementary vademecum of statistics that would facilitate understanding of the given courses. In this spirit we recall very basic notions, that is definitions and properties that we think sufficient to benefit from courses given in the Astrostatistical School. Thus we give briefly definitions and elementary properties on random variables and vectors, distributions, estimation and tests, maximum likelihood methodology. We intend to present basic ideas in a hopefully comprehensible way. We do not try to give a rigorous presentation, and due to the place devoted to this chapter, can cover only a rather limited field of statistics. The second aim is to focus on some statistical tools that are useful in classification: basic introduction to Bayesian statistics, maximum likelihood methodology, Gaussian vectors and Gaussian mixture models.
1986-01-01
Official population data for the USSR are presented for 1985 and 1986. Part 1 (pp. 65-72) contains data on capitals of union republics and cities with over one million inhabitants, including population estimates for 1986 and vital statistics for 1985. Part 2 (p. 72) presents population estimates by sex and union republic, 1986. Part 3 (pp. 73-6) presents data on population growth, including birth, death, and natural increase rates, 1984-1985; seasonal distribution of births and deaths; birth order; age-specific birth rates in urban and rural areas and by union republic; marriages; age at marriage; and divorces. PMID:12178831
Pekney, Natalie J.; Cheng, Hanqi; Small, Mitchell J.
2015-11-05
Abstract: The objective of the current work was to develop a statistical method and associated tool to evaluate the impact of oil and natural gas exploration and production activities on local air quality.
Lack of Statistical Significance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Kawano, Takuji
2007-01-01
Criticism has been leveled against the use of statistical significance testing (SST) in many disciplines. However, the field of school psychology has been largely devoid of critiques of SST. Inspection of the primary journals in school psychology indicated numerous examples of SST with nonrandom samples and/or samples of convenience. In this…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Killoran, James, Ed.
1984-01-01
This journal issue addresses the issue of testing in the social studies classroom. The first article, "The Role of Testing" (Bragaw), focuses on the need for tests to reflect the objectives of the study completed. The varying functions of pop quizzes, weekly tests, and unit tests are explored. "Testing Thinking Processes" (Killoran, Zimmer, and…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabil, M.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; Lazrek, M.; Habib, A.; Hach, Y.; Benhida, A.; Jabiri, A.; Elazhari, Y.
2014-07-01
In this paper we present an analysis of the statistical and temporal properties of seeing and isoplanatic angle measurements obtained with combined Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) and Multi-Aperture Scintillation Sensor (MASS) at Jbel Aklim candidate site for the Eauropean Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These data have been collected from February 2008 to Jun 2010. The overall seeing statistics for Jbel Aklim site are presented, broken into total seeing, free atmosphere seeing and isoplanatic angle, and ground-layer seeing (difference between the total and free-atmosphere seeing). We examine the statistical distributions of seeing measurements and investigate annual and nightly behavior. The properties of the seeing measurements are discussed in terms of the geography and meteorological conditions at Jbel Aklim site.
Candidate Assembly Statistical Evaluation
1998-07-15
The Savannah River Site (SRS) receives aluminum clad spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel from all over the world for storage and eventual reprocessing. There are hundreds of different kinds of MTR fuels and these fuels will continue to be received at SRS for approximately ten more years. SRS''s current criticality evaluation methodology requires the modeling of all MTR fuels utilizing Monte Carlo codes, which is extremely time consuming and resource intensive. Now that amore » significant number of MTR calculations have been conducted it is feasible to consider building statistical models that will provide reasonable estimations of MTR behavior. These statistical models can be incorporated into a standardized model homogenization spreadsheet package to provide analysts with a means of performing routine MTR fuel analyses with a minimal commitment of time and resources. This became the purpose for development of the Candidate Assembly Statistical Evaluation (CASE) program at SRS.« less
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Texeira, Antonio; Rosa, Alvaro; Calapez, Teresa
2009-01-01
This article presents statistical power analysis (SPA) based on the normal distribution using Excel, adopting textbook and SPA approaches. The objective is to present the latter in a comparative way within a framework that is familiar to textbook level readers, as a first step to understand SPA with other distributions. The analysis focuses on the…
Statistical Downscaling: Lessons Learned
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walton, D.; Hall, A. D.; Sun, F.
2013-12-01
In this study, we examine ways to improve statistical downscaling of general circulation model (GCM) output. Why do we downscale GCM output? GCMs have low resolution, so they cannot represent local dynamics and topographic effects that cause spatial heterogeneity in the regional climate change signal. Statistical downscaling recovers fine-scale information by utilizing relationships between the large-scale and fine-scale signals to bridge this gap. In theory, the downscaled climate change signal is more credible and accurate than its GCM counterpart, but in practice, there may be little improvement. Here, we tackle the practical problems that arise in statistical downscaling, using temperature change over the Los Angeles region as a test case. This region is an ideal place to apply downscaling since its complex topography and shoreline are poorly simulated by GCMs. By comparing two popular statistical downscaling methods and one dynamical downscaling method, we identify issues with statistically downscaled climate change signals and develop ways to fix them. We focus on scale mismatch, domain of influence, and other problems - many of which users may be unaware of - and discuss practical solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sánchez, L. J.; Cruz-González, I.; Echevarría, J.; Ruelas-Mayorga, A.; García, A. M.; Avila, R.; Carrasco, E.; Carramiñana, A.; Nigoche-Netro, A.
2012-10-01
We present comprehensive seeing statistics for the San Pedro Mártir site derived from the Thirty Meter Telescope site-selection data. The observations were obtained between 2004 and 2008 with a Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) and a Multi-Aperture Scintillation Sensor (MASS) combined instrument (MASS-DIMM). The parameters that are statistically analysed here are the whole atmosphere seeing (measured by the DIMM), the free atmosphere seeing (measured by the MASS) and the ground-layer (GL) seeing, which is the difference between the total seeing and the free atmosphere seeing. We have made a careful data coverage study, along with statistical distributions of simultaneous MASS-DIMM seeing measurements, in order to investigate the nightly, monthly, seasonal, annual and global behaviour, as well as possible hourly seeing trends. Although this campaign covers five years, the sampling is uneven, with 2006 and 2007 being the best sampled years in terms of seasonal coverage. The overall results yield a median seeing of 0.78 arcsec (DIMM), 0.37 arcsec (MASS) and 0.59 arcsec (GL). Therefore, the strongest contribution to the whole atmosphere seeing comes from a strong ground layer. We find that the best season is summer, while the worst season is winter, in accordance with previous studies. It is worth noting that the best yearly results are correlated with the best sampled years. The hourly analysis shows that there is no statistically significant tendency for seeing degradation towards dawn. The seeing values are slightly larger than those reported previously, which might be the result of climate changes. Based on observations obtained at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, México, operated by the Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
Explorations in Statistics: Permutation Methods
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curran-Everett, Douglas
2012-01-01
Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This eighth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores permutation methods, empiric procedures we can use to assess an experimental result--to test a null hypothesis--when we are reluctant to trust statistical…
Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics
2014 Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics Cosmetic Procedure Trends 2014 Plastic Surgery Statistics Report Please credit the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PLASTIC SURGEONS when citing statistical data or using ...
Cooley, Laura A.; Oster, Alexandra M.; Rose, Charles E.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Le, Binh C.; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela
2014-01-01
In 2011, 62% of estimated new HIV diagnoses in the United States were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact (men who have sex with men, MSM); 39% of these MSM were black or African American. HIV testing, recommended at least annually by CDC for sexually active MSM, is an essential first step in HIV care and treatment for HIV-positive individuals. A variety of HIV testing initiatives, designed to reach populations disproportionately affected by HIV, have been developed at both national and local levels. We assessed changes in HIV testing behavior among MSM participating in the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System in 2008 and 2011. We compared the percentages tested in the previous 12 months in 2008 and 2011, overall and by race/ethnicity and age group. In unadjusted analyses, recent HIV testing increased from 63% in 2008 to 67% in 2011 overall (P<0.001), from 63% to 71% among black MSM (P<0.001), and from 63% to 75% among MSM of other/multiple races (P<0.001); testing did not increase significantly for white or Hispanic/Latino MSM. Multivariable model results indicated an overall increase in recent HIV testing (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.07, P<0.001). Increases were largest for black MSM (aPR = 1.12, P<0.001) and MSM of other/multiple races (aPR = 1.20, P<0.001). Among MSM aged 18–19 years, recent HIV testing was shown to increase significantly among black MSM (aPR = 1.20, P = 0.007), but not among MSM of other racial/ethnic groups. Increases in recent HIV testing among populations most affected by HIV are encouraging, but despite these increases, improved testing coverage is needed to meet CDC recommendations. PMID:25180514
Statistical methods in microbiology.
Ilstrup, D M
1990-01-01
Statistical methodology is viewed by the average laboratory scientist, or physician, sometimes with fear and trepidation, occasionally with loathing, and seldom with fondness. Statistics may never be loved by the medical community, but it does not have to be hated by them. It is true that statistical science is sometimes highly mathematical, always philosophical, and occasionally obtuse, but for the majority of medical studies it can be made palatable. The goal of this article has been to outline a finite set of methods of analysis that investigators should choose based on the nature of the variable being studied and the design of the experiment. The reader is encouraged to seek the advice of a professional statistician when there is any doubt about the appropriate method of analysis. A statistician can also help the investigator with problems that have nothing to do with statistical tests, such as quality control, choice of response variable and comparison groups, randomization, and blinding of assessment of response variables. PMID:2200604
Boenigk, Katharina; Hamann, Henning; Distl, Ottmar
2006-01-01
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the importance of genetic and environmental sources of variation for results of behaviour tests recorded at juvenile and breeding performance tests in the Hovawart dog. For these analyses behaviour test results of 1882 (juvenile evaluation), respectively 929 dogs (breeding performance test) born in 1995 to 2000 had been used. Variance component estimation was performed for the traits appearance, play instinct, hunting affinity, group of people, shoot, acoustical and optical influences and temperament using multivariate linear animal models and Residual Maximum Likelihood (REML). The models included test-year-season, sex, litter size, age and inbreeding coefficient of the animal as fixed effects. Additive genetic effects of the animal, permanent environmental effect of the litter and the effect of the kennel were considered as random factors. The sex of the dog was significant for appearance, play instinct, hunting affinity, acoustical and optical influences of juvenile evaluation and for the traits temperament, play instinct, hunting affinity, acoustical and one of the optical influences of breeding performance test. The age of the dog at test significantly influenced the traits play instinct, hunting affinity and acoustical influences of juvenile evaluation and optical influences and hunting affinity of breeding performance test. All traits with exception of hunting affinity and group of people were significantly affected by the test-year-season. The inbreeding coefficient was significant for appearance of juvenile evaluation and play affinity of breeding performance test. The effect litter size did not influence any of the traits significantly. The estimated heritabilities for the behaviour traits of juvenile and breeding performance test ranged from h2 = 0.01 to h2 = 0.13, respectively h2 = 0.01 to h2 = 0.14, with standard errors of up to 0.03. The additive genetic correlations between most of the traits were
Statistical assessment of Monte Carlo distributional tallies
Kiedrowski, Brian C; Solomon, Clell J
2010-12-09
Four tests are developed to assess the statistical reliability of distributional or mesh tallies. To this end, the relative variance density function is developed and its moments are studied using simplified, non-transport models. The statistical tests are performed upon the results of MCNP calculations of three different transport test problems and appear to show that the tests are appropriate indicators of global statistical quality.
Böhm, K; Smidt, E; Binner, E; Schwanninger, M; Tintner, J; Lechner, P
2010-04-01
The Austrian Landfill Ordinance provides limit values regarding the reactivity for the disposal of mechanically biologically treated (MBT) waste before landfilling. The potential reactivity determined by biological tests according to the Austrian Standards (OENORM S 2027 1-2) can be underestimated if the microbial community is affected by environmental conditions. New analytical tools have been developed as an alternative to error-prone and time-consuming biological tests. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in association with Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS-R) was used to predict the reactivity parameters respiration activity (RA(4)) and gas generation sum (GS(21)) as well as to detect errors resulting from inhibiting effects on biological tests. For this purpose 250 MBT-waste samples from different Austrian MBT-plants were investigated using FT-IR spectroscopy in the mid (MIR) and near infrared (NIR) area and biological tests. Spectroscopic results were compared with those from biological tests. Arising problems caused by interferences of RA(4) and GS(21) are discussed. It is shown that FT-IR spectroscopy predicts RA(4) and GS(21) reliably to assess stability of MBT-waste materials and to detect errors. PMID:19854633
Guo, Junfeng; Wang, Chao; Chan, Kung-Sik; Jin, Dakai; Saha, Punam K.; Sieren, Jered P.; Barr, R. G.; Han, MeiLan K.; Kazerooni, Ella; Cooper, Christopher B.; Couper, David; Hoffman, Eric A.
2016-01-01
Purpose: A test object (phantom) is an important tool to evaluate comparability and stability of CT scanners used in multicenter and longitudinal studies. However, there are many sources of error that can interfere with the test object-derived quantitative measurements. Here the authors investigated three major possible sources of operator error in the use of a test object employed to assess pulmonary density-related as well as airway-related metrics. Methods: Two kinds of experiments were carried out to assess measurement variability caused by imperfect scanning status. The first one consisted of three experiments. A COPDGene test object was scanned using a dual source multidetector computed tomographic scanner (Siemens Somatom Flash) with the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) inspiration protocol (120 kV, 110 mAs, pitch = 1, slice thickness = 0.75 mm, slice spacing = 0.5 mm) to evaluate the effects of tilt angle, water bottle offset, and air bubble size. After analysis of these results, a guideline was reached in order to achieve more reliable results for this test object. Next the authors applied the above findings to 2272 test object scans collected over 4 years as part of the SPIROMICS study. The authors compared changes of the data consistency before and after excluding the scans that failed to pass the guideline. Results: This study established the following limits for the test object: tilt index ≤0.3, water bottle offset limits of [−6.6 mm, 7.4 mm], and no air bubble within the water bottle, where tilt index is a measure incorporating two tilt angles around x- and y-axis. With 95% confidence, the density measurement variation for all five interested materials in the test object (acrylic, water, lung, inside air, and outside air) resulting from all three error sources can be limited to ±0.9 HU (summed in quadrature), when all the requirements are satisfied. The authors applied these criteria to 2272 SPIROMICS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villa, Luisa F.; Reñones, Aníbal; Perán, Jose R.; de Miguel, Luis J.
2012-05-01
In this paper the authors are dealing with the detection of different mechanical faults (unbalance and misalignment) under a wide range of working conditions of speed and load. The conditions tested in a test bench are similar to the ones that can be found in different kinds of machines like for example wind turbines. The authors demonstrate how to take advantage of the information on vibrations from the mechanical system under study in a wide range of load and speed conditions. Using such information the prognosis and detection of faults is faster and more reliable than the one obtained from an analysis over a restricted range of working conditions (e.g. nominal).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Neman, Ronald S.; And Others
The study represents an extension of previous research involving the development of scales for the five-card, orally administered, and tape-recorded version of the Thematic Apperception Test(TAT). Scale development is documented and national norms are presented based on a national probability sample of 1,398 youths administered the Cycle III test…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hitchcock, Dale C.; Pinder, Glenn B.
National estimates of school achievement as measured by the reading and arithmetic subtests of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT) for the noninstitutionalized population of the United States aged 12-17 years are presented. Data were obtained in the Health Examination Survey (HES) of 1966-70. In the survey a probability sample of 7,514 youths…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pollock, Judith M.; And Others
This report describes an experiment in constructed response testing undertaken in conjunction with the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). Constructed response questions are those that require students to produce their own response rather than selecting the correct answer from several options. Participants in this experiment…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
SAW, J.G.
THIS VOLUME DEALS WITH THE BIVARIATE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION. THE AUTHOR MAKES A DISTINCTION BETWEEN DISTRIBUTION AND DENSITY FROM WHICH HE DEVELOPS THE CONSEQUENCES OF THIS DISTINCTION FOR HYPOTHESIS TESTING. OTHER ENTRIES IN THIS SERIES ARE ED 003 044 AND ED 003 045. (JK)
SOCR: Statistics Online Computational Resource
Dinov, Ivo D.
2011-01-01
The need for hands-on computer laboratory experience in undergraduate and graduate statistics education has been firmly established in the past decade. As a result a number of attempts have been undertaken to develop novel approaches for problem-driven statistical thinking, data analysis and result interpretation. In this paper we describe an integrated educational web-based framework for: interactive distribution modeling, virtual online probability experimentation, statistical data analysis, visualization and integration. Following years of experience in statistical teaching at all college levels using established licensed statistical software packages, like STATA, S-PLUS, R, SPSS, SAS, Systat, etc., we have attempted to engineer a new statistics education environment, the Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR). This resource performs many of the standard types of statistical analysis, much like other classical tools. In addition, it is designed in a plug-in object-oriented architecture and is completely platform independent, web-based, interactive, extensible and secure. Over the past 4 years we have tested, fine-tuned and reanalyzed the SOCR framework in many of our undergraduate and graduate probability and statistics courses and have evidence that SOCR resources build student’s intuition and enhance their learning. PMID:21451741
Predict! Teaching Statistics Using Informational Statistical Inference
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Makar, Katie
2013-01-01
Statistics is one of the most widely used topics for everyday life in the school mathematics curriculum. Unfortunately, the statistics taught in schools focuses on calculations and procedures before students have a chance to see it as a useful and powerful tool. Researchers have found that a dominant view of statistics is as an assortment of tools…
Statistics Poker: Reinforcing Basic Statistical Concepts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leech, Nancy L.
2008-01-01
Learning basic statistical concepts does not need to be tedious or dry; it can be fun and interesting through cooperative learning in the small-group activity of Statistics Poker. This article describes a teaching approach for reinforcing basic statistical concepts that can help students who have high anxiety and makes learning and reinforcing…
... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Collapse All How many people are diagnosed with HIV each year in the United States? In 2014, ...
Ranald Macdonald and statistical inference.
Smith, Philip T
2009-05-01
Ranald Roderick Macdonald (1945-2007) was an important contributor to mathematical psychology in the UK, as a referee and action editor for British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology and as a participant and organizer at the British Psychological Society's Mathematics, statistics and computing section meetings. This appreciation argues that his most important contribution was to the foundations of significance testing, where his concern about what information was relevant in interpreting the results of significance tests led him to be a persuasive advocate for the 'Weak Fisherian' form of hypothesis testing. PMID:19351454
The Statistical Loop Analyzer (SLA)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindsey, W. C.
1985-01-01
The statistical loop analyzer (SLA) is designed to automatically measure the acquisition, tracking and frequency stability performance characteristics of symbol synchronizers, code synchronizers, carrier tracking loops, and coherent transponders. Automated phase lock and system level tests can also be made using the SLA. Standard baseband, carrier and spread spectrum modulation techniques can be accomodated. Through the SLA's phase error jitter and cycle slip measurements the acquisition and tracking thresholds of the unit under test are determined; any false phase and frequency lock events are statistically analyzed and reported in the SLA output in probabilistic terms. Automated signal drop out tests can be performed in order to trouble shoot algorithms and evaluate the reacquisition statistics of the unit under test. Cycle slip rates and cycle slip probabilities can be measured using the SLA. These measurements, combined with bit error probability measurements, are all that are needed to fully characterize the acquisition and tracking performance of a digital communication system.
Snedeker, Jess G; Muser, Markus H; Walz, Felix H
2003-10-01
In this study, we first present a comparison between pelvis/upper leg injuries observed in real-world accidents as recorded in the database of the Medical University of Hanover, and the EEVC test results of corresponding cars as published by EuroNCAP. The fact that modern cars with rounded hood edges cause very few pelvis/upper leg injuries is discussed against the findings of the EEVC tests, where these cars do not perform significantly better than their older counterparts with sharper hood leading edges. This discrepancy could be due to the fact that the radius of the hood edge is not accounted for in the current version of the test protocol. In a second step, various impacts against several different simplified hood shapes were simulated using a detailed finite element model of a 50(th) percentile male pedestrian. The finite element model (THUMS) has been extensively validated against PMHS experiments in previous studies. The validated model affords detailed insight into pelvic and femoral deformations and loading patterns, and reveals, as expected, that the shape of the hood leading edge plays a critical role in the resulting biomechanical loading patterns. Based upon the results of this study, recommendations are offered for a more appropriate characterization of the hood shape with regard to pelvis/upper leg injury risk. PMID:17096259
Guta, Madalin; Butucea, Cristina
2010-10-15
The notion of a U-statistic for an n-tuple of identical quantum systems is introduced in analogy to the classical (commutative) case: given a self-adjoint 'kernel' K acting on (C{sup d}){sup '}x{sup r} with r
Statistical Methods in Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verde, L.
2010-03-01
The advent of large data-set in cosmology has meant that in the past 10 or 20 years our knowledge and understanding of the Universe has changed not only quantitatively but also, and most importantly, qualitatively. Cosmologists rely on data where a host of useful information is enclosed, but is encoded in a non-trivial way. The challenges in extracting this information must be overcome to make the most of a large experimental effort. Even after having converged to a standard cosmological model (the LCDM model) we should keep in mind that this model is described by 10 or more physical parameters and if we want to study deviations from it, the number of parameters is even larger. Dealing with such a high dimensional parameter space and finding parameters constraints is a challenge on itself. Cosmologists want to be able to compare and combine different data sets both for testing for possible disagreements (which could indicate new physics) and for improving parameter determinations. Finally, cosmologists in many cases want to find out, before actually doing the experiment, how much one would be able to learn from it. For all these reasons, sophisiticated statistical techniques are being employed in cosmology, and it has become crucial to know some statistical background to understand recent literature in the field. I will introduce some statistical tools that any cosmologist should know about in order to be able to understand recently published results from the analysis of cosmological data sets. I will not present a complete and rigorous introduction to statistics as there are several good books which are reported in the references. The reader should refer to those.
Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics
... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor - Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor - Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on how many people survive this type of ...
Performance of statistical energy analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, R. F.; Hines, D. E.
1973-01-01
Statistical energy analysis (SEA) methods have been developed for high frequency modal analyses on random vibration environments. These SEA methods are evaluated by comparing analytical predictions to test results. Simple test methods are developed for establishing SEA parameter values. Techniques are presented, based on the comparison of the predictions with test values, for estimating SEA accuracy as a function of frequency for a general structure.
Recent statistical methods for orientation data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batschelet, E.
1972-01-01
The application of statistical methods for determining the areas of animal orientation and navigation are discussed. The method employed is limited to the two-dimensional case. Various tests for determining the validity of the statistical analysis are presented. Mathematical models are included to support the theoretical considerations and tables of data are developed to show the value of information obtained by statistical analysis.
Statistical Reference Datasets
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access) The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.
INCREASING SCIENTIFIC POWER WITH STATISTICAL POWER
A brief survey of basic ideas in statistical power analysis demonstrates the advantages and ease of using power analysis throughout the design, analysis, and interpretation of research. he power of a statistical test is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis of the test...
Statistical validation of system models
Barney, P.; Ferregut, C.; Perez, L.E.; Hunter, N.F.; Paez, T.L.
1997-01-01
It is common practice in system analysis to develop mathematical models for system behavior. Frequently, the actual system being modeled is also available for testing and observation, and sometimes the test data are used to help identify the parameters of the mathematical model. However, no general-purpose technique exists for formally, statistically judging the quality of a model. This paper suggests a formal statistical procedure for the validation of mathematical models of systems when data taken during operation of the system are available. The statistical validation procedure is based on the bootstrap, and it seeks to build a framework where a statistical test of hypothesis can be run to determine whether or not a mathematical model is an acceptable model of a system with regard to user-specified measures of system behavior. The approach to model validation developed in this study uses experimental data to estimate the marginal and joint confidence intervals of statistics of interest of the system. These same measures of behavior are estimated for the mathematical model. The statistics of interest from the mathematical model are located relative to the confidence intervals for the statistics obtained from the experimental data. These relative locations are used to judge the accuracy of the mathematical model. An extension of the technique is also suggested, wherein randomness may be included in the mathematical model through the introduction of random variable and random process terms. These terms cause random system behavior that can be compared to the randomness in the bootstrap evaluation of experimental system behavior. In this framework, the stochastic mathematical model can be evaluated. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the application of the technique.
Statistical modeling of software reliability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Douglas R.
1992-01-01
This working paper discusses the statistical simulation part of a controlled software development experiment being conducted under the direction of the System Validation Methods Branch, Information Systems Division, NASA Langley Research Center. The experiment uses guidance and control software (GCS) aboard a fictitious planetary landing spacecraft: real-time control software operating on a transient mission. Software execution is simulated to study the statistical aspects of reliability and other failure characteristics of the software during development, testing, and random usage. Quantification of software reliability is a major goal. Various reliability concepts are discussed. Experiments are described for performing simulations and collecting appropriate simulated software performance and failure data. This data is then used to make statistical inferences about the quality of the software development and verification processes as well as inferences about the reliability of software versions and reliability growth under random testing and debugging.
Instructional Theory for Teaching Statistics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Atwood, Jan R.; Dinham, Sarah M.
Metatheoretical analysis of Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning and Gagne's Theory of Instruction using the Dickoff and James paradigm produced two instructional systems for basic statistics. The systems were tested with a pretest-posttest control group design utilizing students enrolled in an introductory-level graduate statistics…
On More Sensitive Periodogram Statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bélanger, G.
2016-05-01
Period searches in event data have traditionally used the Rayleigh statistic, R 2. For X-ray pulsars, the standard has been the Z 2 statistic, which sums over more than one harmonic. For γ-rays, the H-test, which optimizes the number of harmonics to sum, is often used. These periodograms all suffer from the same problem, namely artifacts caused by correlations in the Fourier components that arise from testing frequencies with a non-integer number of cycles. This article addresses this problem. The modified Rayleigh statistic is discussed, its generalization to any harmonic, {{ R }}k2, is formulated, and from the latter, the modified Z 2 statistic, {{ Z }}2, is constructed. Versions of these statistics for binned data and point measurements are derived, and it is shown that the variance in the uncertainties can have an important influence on the periodogram. It is shown how to combine the information about the signal frequency from the different harmonics to estimate its value with maximum accuracy. The methods are applied to an XMM-Newton observation of the Crab pulsar for which a decomposition of the pulse profile is presented, and shows that most of the power is in the second, third, and fifth harmonics. Statistical detection power of the {{ R }}k2 statistic is superior to the FFT and equivalent to the Lomb--Scargle (LS). Response to gaps in the data is assessed, and it is shown that the LS does not protect against the distortions they cause. The main conclusion of this work is that the classical R 2 and Z 2 should be replaced by {{ R }}k2 and {{ Z }}2 in all applications with event data, and the LS should be replaced by the {{ R }}k2 when the uncertainty varies from one point measurement to another.
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Mathematical and statistical analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houston, A. Glen
1988-01-01
The goal of the mathematical and statistical analysis component of RICIS is to research, develop, and evaluate mathematical and statistical techniques for aerospace technology applications. Specific research areas of interest include modeling, simulation, experiment design, reliability assessment, and numerical analysis.
Minnesota Health Statistics 1988.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Minnesota State Dept. of Health, St. Paul.
This document comprises the 1988 annual statistical report of the Minnesota Center for Health Statistics. After introductory technical notes on changes in format, sources of data, and geographic allocation of vital events, an overview is provided of vital health statistics in all areas. Thereafter, separate sections of the report provide tables…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lenard, Christopher; McCarthy, Sally; Mills, Terence
2014-01-01
There are many different aspects of statistics. Statistics involves mathematics, computing, and applications to almost every field of endeavour. Each aspect provides an opportunity to spark someone's interest in the subject. In this paper we discuss some ethical aspects of statistics, and describe how an introduction to ethics has been…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Strasser, Nora
2007-01-01
Avoiding statistical mistakes is important for educators at all levels. Basic concepts will help you to avoid making mistakes using statistics and to look at data with a critical eye. Statistical data is used at educational institutions for many purposes. It can be used to support budget requests, changes in educational philosophy, changes to…
Statistical quality management
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanderlaan, Paul
1992-10-01
Some aspects of statistical quality management are discussed. Quality has to be defined as a concrete, measurable quantity. The concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM), Statistical Process Control (SPC), and inspection are explained. In most cases SPC is better than inspection. It can be concluded that statistics has great possibilities in the field of TQM.
Statistical comparison of dissolution profiles.
Wang, Yifan; Snee, Ronald D; Keyvan, Golshid; Muzzio, Fernando J
2016-05-01
Statistical methods to assess similarity of dissolution profiles are introduced. Sixteen groups of dissolution profiles from a full factorial design were used to demonstrate implementation details. Variables in the design include drug strength, tablet stability time, and dissolution testing condition. The 16 groups were considered similar when compared using the similarity factor f2 (f2 > 50). However, multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA) repeated measures suggested statistical differences. A modified principal component analysis (PCA) was used to describe the dissolution curves in terms of level and shape. The advantage of the modified PCA approach is that the calculated shape principal components will not be confounded by level effect. Effect size test using omega-squared was also used for dissolution comparisons. Effects indicated by omega-squared are independent of sample size and are a necessary supplement to p value reported from the MANOVA table. Methods to compare multiple groups show that product strength and dissolution testing condition had significant effects on both level and shape. For pairwise analysis, a post-hoc analysis using Tukey's method categorized three similar groups, and was consistent with level-shape analysis. All these methods provide valuable information that is missed using f2 method alone to compare average profiles. The improved statistical analysis approach introduced here enables one to better ascertain both statistical significance and clinical relevance, supporting more objective regulatory decisions. PMID:26294289
Asymptotic derivation of T* statistic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, Shamshuritawati; Djauhari, Maman A.
2014-12-01
Monitoring the stability of correlation structure becomes an imperative subject in economic development and financial industry. It has been extensively implemented by various researchers to understand the behaviour of a sequence of correlation structures based on independent samples in certain time periods. The existing statistical test can only tackle problems involving p
Statistical prediction of cyclostationary processes
Kim, K.Y.
2000-03-15
Considered in this study is a cyclostationary generalization of an EOF-based prediction method. While linear statistical prediction methods are typically optimal in the sense that prediction error variance is minimal within the assumption of stationarity, there is some room for improved performance since many physical processes are not stationary. For instance, El Nino is known to be strongly phase locked with the seasonal cycle, which suggests nonstationarity of the El Nino statistics. Many geophysical and climatological processes may be termed cyclostationary since their statistics show strong cyclicity instead of stationarity. Therefore, developed in this study is a cyclostationary prediction method. Test results demonstrate that performance of prediction methods can be improved significantly by accounting for the cyclostationarity of underlying processes. The improvement comes from an accurate rendition of covariance structure both in space and time.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ciftci, S. Koza; Karadag, Engin; Akdal, Pinar
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of statistics instruction using computer-based tools, on statistics anxiety, attitude, and achievement. This study was designed as quasi-experimental research and the pattern used was a matched pre-test/post-test with control group design. Data was collected using three scales: a Statistics…
Statistical Mechanics of Zooplankton
Hinow, Peter; Nihongi, Ai; Strickler, J. Rudi
2015-01-01
Statistical mechanics provides the link between microscopic properties of many-particle systems and macroscopic properties such as pressure and temperature. Observations of similar “microscopic” quantities exist for the motion of zooplankton, as well as many species of other social animals. Herein, we propose to take average squared velocities as the definition of the “ecological temperature” of a population under different conditions on nutrients, light, oxygen and others. We test the usefulness of this definition on observations of the crustacean zooplankton Daphnia pulicaria. In one set of experiments, D. pulicaria is infested with the pathogen Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. We find that infested D. pulicaria under light exposure have a significantly greater ecological temperature, which puts them at a greater risk of detection by visual predators. In a second set of experiments, we observe D. pulicaria in cold and warm water, and in darkness and under light exposure. Overall, our ecological temperature is a good discriminator of the crustacean’s swimming behavior. PMID:26270537
Statistical Mechanics of Zooplankton.
Hinow, Peter; Nihongi, Ai; Strickler, J Rudi
2015-01-01
Statistical mechanics provides the link between microscopic properties of many-particle systems and macroscopic properties such as pressure and temperature. Observations of similar "microscopic" quantities exist for the motion of zooplankton, as well as many species of other social animals. Herein, we propose to take average squared velocities as the definition of the "ecological temperature" of a population under different conditions on nutrients, light, oxygen and others. We test the usefulness of this definition on observations of the crustacean zooplankton Daphnia pulicaria. In one set of experiments, D. pulicaria is infested with the pathogen Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. We find that infested D. pulicaria under light exposure have a significantly greater ecological temperature, which puts them at a greater risk of detection by visual predators. In a second set of experiments, we observe D. pulicaria in cold and warm water, and in darkness and under light exposure. Overall, our ecological temperature is a good discriminator of the crustacean's swimming behavior. PMID:26270537
Atmospheric statistics for aerospace vehicle operations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, O. E.; Batts, G. W.
1993-01-01
Statistical analysis of atmospheric variables was performed for the Shuttle Transportation System (STS) design trade studies and the establishment of launch commit criteria. Atmospheric constraint statistics have been developed for the NASP test flight, the Advanced Launch System, and the National Launch System. The concepts and analysis techniques discussed in the paper are applicable to the design and operations of any future aerospace vehicle.
Application of Statistics in Engineering Technology Programs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhan, Wei; Fink, Rainer; Fang, Alex
2010-01-01
Statistics is a critical tool for robustness analysis, measurement system error analysis, test data analysis, probabilistic risk assessment, and many other fields in the engineering world. Traditionally, however, statistics is not extensively used in undergraduate engineering technology (ET) programs, resulting in a major disconnect from industry…
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Statistics. 1065.602 Section 1065.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.602 Statistics. (a) Overview. This section...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statistics. 1065.602 Section 1065.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.602 Statistics. (a) Overview. This section...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Statistics. 1065.602 Section 1065.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.602 Statistics. (a) Overview. This section...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Statistics. 1065.602 Section 1065.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.602 Statistics. (a) Overview. This section...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Statistics. 1065.602 Section 1065.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.602 Statistics. (a) Overview. This section...
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF A DETERMINISTIC STOCHASTIC ORBIT
Kaufman, Allan N.; Abarbanel, Henry D.I.; Grebogi, Celso
1980-05-01
If the solution of a deterministic equation is stochastic (in the sense of orbital instability), it can be subjected to a statistical analysis. This is illustrated for a coded orbit of the Chirikov mapping. Statistical dependence and the Markov assumption are tested. The Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy is related to the probability distribution for the orbit.
Statistical Power in Meta-Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Jin
2015-01-01
Statistical power is important in a meta-analysis study, although few studies have examined the performance of simulated power in meta-analysis. The purpose of this study is to inform researchers about statistical power estimation on two sample mean difference test under different situations: (1) the discrepancy between the analytical power and…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schieve, William C.; Horwitz, Lawrence P.
2009-04-01
1. Foundations of quantum statistical mechanics; 2. Elementary examples; 3. Quantum statistical master equation; 4. Quantum kinetic equations; 5. Quantum irreversibility; 6. Entropy and dissipation: the microscopic theory; 7. Global equilibrium: thermostatics and the microcanonical ensemble; 8. Bose-Einstein ideal gas condensation; 9. Scaling, renormalization and the Ising model; 10. Relativistic covariant statistical mechanics of many particles; 11. Quantum optics and damping; 12. Entanglements; 13. Quantum measurement and irreversibility; 14. Quantum Langevin equation: quantum Brownian motion; 15. Linear response: fluctuation and dissipation theorems; 16. Time dependent quantum Green's functions; 17. Decay scattering; 18. Quantum statistical mechanics, extended; 19. Quantum transport with tunneling and reservoir ballistic transport; 20. Black hole thermodynamics; Appendix; Index.
Statistical distribution sampling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, E. S.
1975-01-01
Determining the distribution of statistics by sampling was investigated. Characteristic functions, the quadratic regression problem, and the differential equations for the characteristic functions are analyzed.
The statistics of vacuum geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duncan, Melissa; Gu, Wei; He, Yang-Hui; Zhou, Da
2014-06-01
We investigate the vacuum moduli space of supersymmetric gauge theories en masse by probing the space of such vacua from a statistical standpoint. Using quiver gauge theories with = 1 supersymmetry as a testing ground, we sample over a large number of vacua as algebraic varieties, computing explicitly their dimension, degree and Hilbert series. We study the distribution of these geometrical quantities, and also address the question of how likely it is for the moduli space to be Calabi-Yau.
Thorn, Joanna C; Turner, Emma L; Hounsome, Luke; Walsh, Eleanor; Down, Liz; Verne, Julia; Donovan, Jenny L; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Martin, Richard M; Noble, Sian M
2016-01-01
Objectives To evaluate the accuracy of routine data for costing inpatient resource use in a large clinical trial and to investigate costing methodologies. Design Final-year inpatient cost profiles were derived using (1) data extracted from medical records mapped to the National Health Service (NHS) reference costs via service codes and (2) Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data using NHS reference costs. Trust finance departments were consulted to obtain costs for comparison purposes. Setting 7 UK secondary care centres. Population A subsample of 292 men identified as having died at least a year after being diagnosed with prostate cancer in Cluster randomised triAl of PSA testing for Prostate cancer (CAP), a long-running trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. Results Both inpatient cost profiles showed a rise in costs in the months leading up to death, and were broadly similar. The difference in mean inpatient costs was £899, with HES data yielding ∼8% lower costs than medical record data (differences compatible with chance, p=0.3). Events were missing from both data sets. 11 men (3.8%) had events identified in HES that were all missing from medical record review, while 7 men (2.4%) had events identified in medical record review that were all missing from HES. The response from finance departments to requests for cost data was poor: only 3 of 7 departments returned adequate data sets within 6 months. Conclusions Using HES routine data coupled with NHS reference costs resulted in mean annual inpatient costs that were very similar to those derived via medical record review; therefore, routinely available data can be used as the primary method of costing resource use in large clinical trials. Neither HES nor medical record review represent gold standards of data collection. Requesting cost data from finance departments is impractical for large clinical trials. Trial registration number ISRCTN92187251
Explorations in Statistics: Regression
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curran-Everett, Douglas
2011-01-01
Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This seventh installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores regression, a technique that estimates the nature of the relationship between two things for which we may only surmise a mechanistic or predictive connection.…
Multidimensional Visual Statistical Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.; Isola, Phillip J.; Scholl, Brian J.; Treat, Teresa A.
2008-01-01
Recent studies of visual statistical learning (VSL) have demonstrated that statistical regularities in sequences of visual stimuli can be automatically extracted, even without intent or awareness. Despite much work on this topic, however, several fundamental questions remain about the nature of VSL. In particular, previous experiments have not…
Deconstructing Statistical Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Snell, Joel
2014-01-01
Using a very complex statistical analysis and research method for the sake of enhancing the prestige of an article or making a new product or service legitimate needs to be monitored and questioned for accuracy. 1) The more complicated the statistical analysis, and research the fewer the number of learned readers can understand it. This adds a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huizingh, Eelko K. R. E.
2007-01-01
Accessibly written and easy to use, "Applied Statistics Using SPSS" is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. What is unique about Eelko Huizingh's approach is that this book is based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, and its self-help style is designed to…
Vijayaraj, Veeraraghavan; Cheriyadat, Anil M; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Vatsavai, Raju; Bright, Eddie A
2008-01-01
Statistical properties of high-resolution overhead images representing different land use categories are analyzed using various local and global statistical image properties based on the shape of the power spectrum, image gradient distributions, edge co-occurrence, and inter-scale wavelet coefficient distributions. The analysis was performed on a database of high-resolution (1 meter) overhead images representing a multitude of different downtown, suburban, commercial, agricultural and wooded exemplars. Various statistical properties relating to these image categories and their relationship are discussed. The categorical variations in power spectrum contour shapes, the unique gradient distribution characteristics of wooded categories, the similarity in edge co-occurrence statistics for overhead and natural images, and the unique edge co-occurrence statistics of downtown categories are presented in this work. Though previous work on natural image statistics has showed some of the unique characteristics for different categories, the relationships for overhead images are not well understood. The statistical properties of natural images were used in previous studies to develop prior image models, to predict and index objects in a scene and to improve computer vision models. The results from our research findings can be used to augment and adapt computer vision algorithms that rely on prior image statistics to process overhead images, calibrate the performance of overhead image analysis algorithms, and derive features for better discrimination of overhead image categories.
Understanding Undergraduate Statistical Anxiety
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McKim, Courtney
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study was to understand undergraduate students' views of statistics. Results reveal that students with less anxiety have a higher interest in statistics and also believe in their ability to perform well in the course. Also students who have a more positive attitude about the class tend to have a higher belief in their…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hodgson, Ted; Andersen, Lyle; Robison-Cox, Jim; Jones, Clain
2004-01-01
Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.
Summary statistics on application and registration patterns of applicants wishing to pursue full-time study in first-year places in Ontario universities (for the fall of 1987) are given. Data on registrations were received indirectly from the universities as part of their annual submission of USIS/UAR enrollment data to Statistics Canada and MCU.…
Introduction to Statistical Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casquilho, João Paulo; Ivo Cortez Teixeira, Paulo
2014-12-01
Preface; 1. Random walks; 2. Review of thermodynamics; 3. The postulates of statistical physics. Thermodynamic equilibrium; 4. Statistical thermodynamics – developments and applications; 5. The classical ideal gas; 6. The quantum ideal gas; 7. Magnetism; 8. The Ising model; 9. Liquid crystals; 10. Phase transitions and critical phenomena; 11. Irreversible processes; Appendixes; Index.
Reform in Statistical Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huck, Schuyler W.
2007-01-01
Two questions are considered in this article: (a) What should professionals in school psychology do in an effort to stay current with developments in applied statistics? (b) What should they do with their existing knowledge to move from surface understanding of statistics to deep understanding? Written for school psychologists who have completed…
Statistical Mapping by Computer.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Utano, Jack J.
The function of a statistical map is to provide readers with a visual impression of the data so that they may be able to identify any geographic characteristics of the displayed phenomena. The increasingly important role played by the computer in the production of statistical maps is manifested by the varied examples of computer maps in recent…
The purpose of the Disability Statistics Center is to produce and disseminate statistical information on disability and the status of people with disabilities in American society and to establish and monitor indicators of how conditions are changing over time to meet their health...
Towards Good Statistical Practices in Astronomical Studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feigelson, Eric
2014-06-01
Astronomers do not receive strong training in statistical methodology and are therefore sometimes prone to analyze data in ways that are discouraged by modern statisticians. A number of such cases are reviewed involving the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, histograms and other binned statistics, various issues with regression, model selection with the likelihood ratio test, over-reliance on `3-sigma' criteria, under-use of multivariate clustering algorithms, and other issues.
Statistical Fault Detection & Diagnosis Expert System
Wegerich, Stephan
1996-12-18
STATMON is an expert system that performs real-time fault detection and diagnosis of redundant sensors in any industrial process requiring high reliability. After a training period performed during normal operation, the expert system monitors the statistical properties of the incoming signals using a pattern recognition test. If the test determines that statistical properties of the signals have changed, the expert system performs a sequence of logical steps to determine which sensor or machine component has degraded.
Statistical Data Analysis in the Computer Age
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Efron, Bradley; Tibshirani, Robert
1991-07-01
Most of our familiar statistical methods, such as hypothesis testing, linear regression, analysis of variance, and maximum likelihood estimation, were designed to be implemented on mechanical calculators. modern electronic computation has encouraged a host of new statistical methods that require fewer distributional assumptions than their predecessors and can be applied to more complicated statistical estimators. These methods allow the scientist to explore and describe data and draw valid statistical inferences without the usual concerns for mathematical tractability. This is possible because traditional methods of mathematical analysis are replaced by specially constructed computer algorithms. Mathematics has not disappeared from statistical theory. It is the main method for deciding which algorithms are correct and efficient tools for automating statistical inference.
The ENSEMBLES Statistical Downscaling Portal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cofino, Antonio S.; San-Martín, Daniel; Gutiérrez, Jose M.
2010-05-01
The demand for high-resolution seasonal and ACC predictions is continuously increasing due to the multiple end-user applications in a variety of sectors (hydrology, agronomy, energy, etc.) which require regional meteorological inputs. To fill the gap between the coarse-resolution grids used by global weather models and the regional needs of applications, a number of statistical downscaling techniques have been proposed. Statistical downscaling is a complex multi-disciplinary problem which requires a cascade of different scientific tools to access and process different sources of data, from GCM outputs to local observations and to run complex statistical algorithms. Thus, an end-to-end approach is needed in order to link the outputs of the ensemble prediction systems to a range of impact applications. To accomplish this task in an interactive and user-friendly form, a Web portal has been developed within the European ENSEMBLES project, integrating the necessary tools and providing the appropriate technology for distributed data access and computing. In this form, users can obtain their downscaled data testing and validating different statistical methods (from the categories weather typing, regression or weather generators) in a transparent form, not worrying about the details of the downscaling techniques and the data formats and access.
Statistical Analysis Techniques for Small Sample Sizes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Navard, S. E.
1984-01-01
The small sample sizes problem which is encountered when dealing with analysis of space-flight data is examined. Because of such a amount of data available, careful analyses are essential to extract the maximum amount of information with acceptable accuracy. Statistical analysis of small samples is described. The background material necessary for understanding statistical hypothesis testing is outlined and the various tests which can be done on small samples are explained. Emphasis is on the underlying assumptions of each test and on considerations needed to choose the most appropriate test for a given type of analysis.
Ector, Hugo
2010-12-01
I still remember my first book on statistics: "Elementary statistics with applications in medicine and the biological sciences" by Frederick E. Croxton. For me, it has been the start of pursuing understanding statistics in daily life and in medical practice. It was the first volume in a long row of books. In his introduction, Croxton pretends that"nearly everyone involved in any aspect of medicine needs to have some knowledge of statistics". The reality is that for many clinicians, statistics are limited to a "P < 0.05 = ok". I do not blame my colleagues who omit the paragraph on statistical methods. They have never had the opportunity to learn concise and clear descriptions of the key features. I have experienced how some authors can describe difficult methods in a well understandable language. Others fail completely. As a teacher, I tell my students that life is impossible without a basic knowledge of statistics. This feeling has resulted in an annual seminar of 90 minutes. This tutorial is the summary of this seminar. It is a summary and a transcription of the best pages I have detected. PMID:21302664
Microcomputer statistics packages for biomedical scientists.
Ludbrook, J
1995-12-01
1. There are hundreds of commercially available microcomputer statistics packages, ranging from the very cheap and elementary to the very expensive and complex, and from the very general to the very specialized. This review covers only those that appear to be popular with biomedical investigators who deal with fairly small sets of data but may wish to use relatively complex analytical techniques. 2. It is highly desirable, if not essential, that biomedical investigators who use microcomputer statistics packages have access to a spreadsheet program. These provide sample statistics and simple statistical analyses but, more importantly, they are often the best way of entering data into the files of the statistics packages proper. 3. A vital component of any statistics package is its manual. This should be easy to follow, but at the same time it must provide full documentation of, and references to, precisely how the various statistical tests are performed. 4. Some packages are elementary and offer only a narrow range of test procedures (mini-packages). Some are designed to be used as statistical libraries and programming tools for professional statisticians. Between these extremes are the general purpose packages (mid-range, maxi- and supermaxi-packages) that constitute the main body of this review. 5. All the packages reviewed have some shortcomings or flaws. It is argued that the ideal package for biomedical investigators should have the following features: (i) it should provide a wide range of test procedures for analysing continuous, rank-ordered, and categorical data; (ii) the way in which these tests are carried out should be clearly stated in the manual; and (iii) lastly, although not unimportantly, the package should be easy to use. 6. It is recommended that biomedical investigators purchase a package that provides many more statistical routines than they use in their everyday practice. Provided the manual is a good one and the package itself has no serious
Statistics of football dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendes, R. S.; Malacarne, L. C.; Anteneodo, C.
2007-06-01
We investigate the dynamics of football matches. Our goal is to characterize statistically the temporal sequence of ball movements in this collective sport game, searching for traits of complex behavior. Data were collected over a variety of matches in South American, European and World championships throughout 2005 and 2006. We show that the statistics of ball touches presents power-law tails and can be described by q-gamma distributions. To explain such behavior we propose a model that provides information on the characteristics of football dynamics. Furthermore, we discuss the statistics of duration of out-of-play intervals, not directly related to the previous scenario.
Practical Uses of Statistical Power in Business Research Studies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Markowski, Edward P.; Markowski, Carol A.
1999-01-01
Proposes the use of statistical power subsequent to the results of hypothesis testing in business research. Describes how posttest use of power might be integrated into business statistics courses. (SK)
Knight, Raymond A; Sims-Knight, Judith E
2003-06-01
A unified model of the origin of sexual aggression against women on both adult and juvenile sexual offender samples has been developed and successfully tested. This model proposed three major causal paths to sexual coercion against women. In the first path, physical and verbal abuse was hypothesized to produce callousness and lack of emotionality, which disinhibited sexual drive and sexual fantasies. These in turn disinhibited hostile sexual fantasies, and led to sexual coercion. In the second causal path, sexual abuse contributed directly to the disinhibition of sexual drive and sexual fantasies, which through hostile sexual fantasies led to sexual coercion. The third path operated through early antisocial behavior, including aggressive acts. It developed as a result of both physical/verbal abuse and callousness/lack of emotion. It in turn directly affected sexual coercion and worked indirectly through the hostile sexual fantasies path. In the present study, the anonymous responses of a group of 168 blue-collar, community males to an inventory (the Multidimensional Assessment of Sex and Aggression) were used in a structural equation model to test the validity of this model. Moreover, this model was pitted against (Malamuth's (1998)) two-path model. Whereas the three-path model had an excellent fit with the data (CFI =.951, RMSEA =.047), the two-path model fit less well (CFI =.857, RMSEA =.079). These results indicate the superiority of the three-path model and suggest that it constitutes a solid, empirically disconfirmable heuristic for the etiology of sexual coercion against women. PMID:12839887
Resource Letter SS-1: The Spin-Statistics Connection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Curceanu, Catalina; Gillaspy, J. D.; Hilborn, Robert C.
2012-07-01
This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the spin-statistics connection and related issues such as the Pauli exclusion principle and particle indistinguishability. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: basic resources, general aspects of spin-statistics, the spin-statistics theorem, theories that go beyond the standard spin-statistics theorem, and experimental tests of the spin-statistics theorem and the symmetrization postulate.
Kuhn, T.; Gullett, J. M.; Nguyen, P.; Boutzoukas, A. E.; Ford, A.; Colon-Perez, L. M.; Triplett, W.; Carney, P.R.; Mareci, T. H.; Price, C. C.; Bauer, R. M.
2015-01-01
Introduction This study examined the reliability of high angular resolution diffusion tensor imaging (HARDI) data collected on a single individual across several sessions using the same scanner. Methods HARDI data was acquired for one healthy adult male at the same time of day on ten separate days across a one-month period. Environmental factors (e.g. temperature) were controlled across scanning sessions. Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) was used to assess session-to-session variability in measures of diffusion, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). To address reliability within specific structures of the medial temporal lobe (MTL; the focus of an ongoing investigation), probabilistic tractography segmented the Entorhinal cortex (ERc) based on connections with Hippocampus (HC), Perirhinal (PRc) and Parahippocampal (PHc) cortices. Streamline tractography generated edge weight (EW) metrics for the aforementioned ERc connections and, as comparison regions, connections between left and right rostral and caudal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Coefficients of variation (CoV) were derived for the surface area and volumes of these ERc connectivity-defined regions (CDR) and for EW across all ten scans, expecting that scan-to-scan reliability would yield low CoVs. Results TBSS revealed no significant variation in FA or MD across scanning sessions. Probabilistic tractography successfully reproduced histologically-verified adjacent medial temporal lobe circuits. Tractography-derived metrics displayed larger ranges of scanner-to-scanner variability. Connections involving HC displayed greater variability than metrics of connection between other investigated regions. Conclusions By confirming the test retest reliability of HARDI data acquisition, support for the validity of significant results derived from diffusion data can be obtained. PMID:26189060
Kuhn, T; Gullett, J M; Nguyen, P; Boutzoukas, A E; Ford, A; Colon-Perez, L M; Triplett, W; Carney, P R; Mareci, T H; Price, C C; Bauer, R M
2016-06-01
This study examined the reliability of high angular resolution diffusion tensor imaging (HARDI) data collected on a single individual across several sessions using the same scanner. HARDI data was acquired for one healthy adult male at the same time of day on ten separate days across a one-month period. Environmental factors (e.g. temperature) were controlled across scanning sessions. Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) was used to assess session-to-session variability in measures of diffusion, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). To address reliability within specific structures of the medial temporal lobe (MTL; the focus of an ongoing investigation), probabilistic tractography segmented the Entorhinal cortex (ERc) based on connections with Hippocampus (HC), Perirhinal (PRc) and Parahippocampal (PHc) cortices. Streamline tractography generated edge weight (EW) metrics for the aforementioned ERc connections and, as comparison regions, connections between left and right rostral and caudal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Coefficients of variation (CoV) were derived for the surface area and volumes of these ERc connectivity-defined regions (CDR) and for EW across all ten scans, expecting that scan-to-scan reliability would yield low CoVs. TBSS revealed no significant variation in FA or MD across scanning sessions. Probabilistic tractography successfully reproduced histologically-verified adjacent medial temporal lobe circuits. Tractography-derived metrics displayed larger ranges of scanner-to-scanner variability. Connections involving HC displayed greater variability than metrics of connection between other investigated regions. By confirming the test retest reliability of HARDI data acquisition, support for the validity of significant results derived from diffusion data can be obtained. PMID:26189060
Playing at Statistical Mechanics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clark, Paul M.; And Others
1974-01-01
Discussed are the applications of counting techniques of a sorting game to distributions and concepts in statistical mechanics. Included are the following distributions: Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein, and most probable. (RH)
Cooperative Learning in Statistics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keeler, Carolyn M.; And Others
1994-01-01
Formal use of cooperative learning techniques proved effective in improving student performance and retention in a freshman level statistics course. Lectures interspersed with group activities proved effective in increasing conceptual understanding and overall class performance. (11 references) (Author)
Understanding Solar Flare Statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheatland, M. S.
2005-12-01
A review is presented of work aimed at understanding solar flare statistics, with emphasis on the well known flare power-law size distribution. Although avalanche models are perhaps the favoured model to describe flare statistics, their physical basis is unclear, and they are divorced from developing ideas in large-scale reconnection theory. An alternative model, aimed at reconciling large-scale reconnection models with solar flare statistics, is revisited. The solar flare waiting-time distribution has also attracted recent attention. Observed waiting-time distributions are described, together with what they might tell us about the flare phenomenon. Finally, a practical application of flare statistics to flare prediction is described in detail, including the results of a year of automated (web-based) predictions from the method.
Titanic: A Statistical Exploration.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Takis, Sandra L.
1999-01-01
Uses the available data about the Titanic's passengers to interest students in exploring categorical data and the chi-square distribution. Describes activities incorporated into a statistics class and gives additional resources for collecting information about the Titanic. (ASK)
... and Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Plague in the United States Plague was first introduced ... per year in the United States: 1900-2012. Plague Worldwide Plague epidemics have occurred in Africa, Asia, ...
Tuberculosis Data and Statistics
... Organization Chart Advisory Groups Federal TB Task Force Data and Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... United States publication. PDF [6 MB] Interactive TB Data Tool Online Tuberculosis Information System (OTIS) OTIS is ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richfield, Jon; bookfeller
2016-07-01
In reply to Ralph Kenna and Pádraig Mac Carron's feature article “Maths meets myths” in which they describe how they are using techniques from statistical physics to characterize the societies depicted in ancient Icelandic sagas.
... facts and statistics here include brain and central nervous system tumors (including spinal cord, pituitary and pineal gland ... U.S. living with a primary brain and central nervous system tumor. This year, nearly 17,000 people will ...
Purposeful Statistical Investigations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Day, Lorraine
2014-01-01
Lorraine Day provides us with a great range of statistical investigations using various resources such as maths300 and TinkerPlots. Each of the investigations link mathematics to students' lives and provide engaging and meaningful contexts for mathematical inquiry.
Oakland, J.S.
1986-01-01
Addressing the increasing importance for firms to have a thorough knowledge of statistically based quality control procedures, this book presents the fundamentals of statistical process control (SPC) in a non-mathematical, practical way. It provides real-life examples and data drawn from a wide variety of industries. The foundations of good quality management and process control, and control of conformance and consistency during production are given. Offers clear guidance to those who wish to understand and implement modern SPC techniques.
Statistical Physics of Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kardar, Mehran
2006-06-01
Statistical physics has its origins in attempts to describe the thermal properties of matter in terms of its constituent particles, and has played a fundamental role in the development of quantum mechanics. Based on lectures for a course in statistical mechanics taught by Professor Kardar at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, this textbook introduces the central concepts and tools of statistical physics. It contains a chapter on probability and related issues such as the central limit theorem and information theory, and covers interacting particles, with an extensive description of the van der Waals equation and its derivation by mean field approximation. It also contains an integrated set of problems, with solutions to selected problems at the end of the book. It will be invaluable for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses in statistical physics. A complete set of solutions is available to lecturers on a password protected website at www.cambridge.org/9780521873420. Based on lecture notes from a course on Statistical Mechanics taught by the author at MIT Contains 89 exercises, with solutions to selected problems Contains chapters on probability and interacting particles Ideal for graduate courses in Statistical Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kardar, Mehran
2006-06-01
While many scientists are familiar with fractals, fewer are familiar with the concepts of scale-invariance and universality which underly the ubiquity of their shapes. These properties may emerge from the collective behaviour of simple fundamental constituents, and are studied using statistical field theories. Based on lectures for a course in statistical mechanics taught by Professor Kardar at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, this textbook demonstrates how such theories are formulated and studied. Perturbation theory, exact solutions, renormalization groups, and other tools are employed to demonstrate the emergence of scale invariance and universality, and the non-equilibrium dynamics of interfaces and directed paths in random media are discussed. Ideal for advanced graduate courses in statistical physics, it contains an integrated set of problems, with solutions to selected problems at the end of the book. A complete set of solutions is available to lecturers on a password protected website at www.cambridge.org/9780521873413. Based on lecture notes from a course on Statistical Mechanics taught by the author at MIT Contains 65 exercises, with solutions to selected problems Features a thorough introduction to the methods of Statistical Field theory Ideal for graduate courses in Statistical Physics
Statistical analysis of pyroshock data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hughes, William O.
2002-05-01
The sample size of aerospace pyroshock test data is typically small. This often forces the engineer to make assumptions on its population distribution and to use conservative margins or methodologies in determining shock specifications. For example, the maximum expected environment is often derived by adding 3-6 dB to the maximum envelope of a limited amount of shock data. The recent availability of a large amount of pyroshock test data has allowed a rare statistical analysis to be performed. Findings and procedures from this analysis will be explained, including information on population distributions, procedures to properly combine families of test data, and methods of deriving appropriate shock specifications for a multipoint shock source.
Advice on statistical analysis for Circulation Research.
Kusuoka, Hideo; Hoffman, Julien I E
2002-10-18
Since the late 1970s when many journals published articles warning about the misuse of statistical methods in the analysis of data, researchers have become more careful about statistical analysis, but errors including low statistical power and inadequate analysis of repeated-measurement studies are still prevalent. In this review, several statistical methods are introduced that are not always familiar to basic and clinical cardiologists but may be useful for revealing the correct answer from the data. The aim of this review is not only to draw the attention of investigators to these tests but also to stress the conditions in which they are applicable. These methods are now generally available in statistical program packages. Researchers need not know how to calculate the statistics from the data but are required to select the correct method from the menu and interpret the statistical results accurately. With the choice of appropriate statistical programs, the issue is no longer how to do the test but when to do it. PMID:12386142
Infants Generalize Representations of Statistically Segmented Words
Graf Estes, Katharine
2012-01-01
The acoustic variation in language presents learners with a substantial challenge. To learn by tracking statistical regularities in speech, infants must recognize words across tokens that differ based on characteristics such as the speaker’s voice, affect, or the sentence context. Previous statistical learning studies have not investigated how these types of non-phonemic surface form variation affect learning. The present experiments used tasks tailored to two distinct developmental levels to investigate the robustness of statistical learning to variation. Experiment 1 examined statistical word segmentation in 11-month-olds and found that infants can recognize statistically segmented words across a change in the speaker’s voice from segmentation to testing. The direction of infants’ preferences suggests that recognizing words across a voice change is more difficult than recognizing them in a consistent voice. Experiment 2 tested whether 17-month-olds can generalize the output of statistical learning across variation to support word learning. The infants were successful in their generalization; they associated referents with statistically defined words despite a change in voice from segmentation to label learning. Infants’ learning patterns also indicate that they formed representations of across word syllable sequences during segmentation. Thus, low probability sequences can act as object labels in some conditions. The findings of these experiments suggest that the units that emerge during statistical learning are not perceptually constrained, but rather are robust to naturalistic acoustic variation. PMID:23112788
Statistical Physics of Fracture
Alava, Mikko; Nukala, Phani K; Zapperi, Stefano
2006-05-01
Disorder and long-range interactions are two of the key components that make material failure an interesting playfield for the application of statistical mechanics. The cornerstone in this respect has been lattice models of the fracture in which a network of elastic beams, bonds, or electrical fuses with random failure thresholds are subject to an increasing external load. These models describe on a qualitative level the failure processes of real, brittle, or quasi-brittle materials. This has been particularly important in solving the classical engineering problems of material strength: the size dependence of maximum stress and its sample-to-sample statistical fluctuations. At the same time, lattice models pose many new fundamental questions in statistical physics, such as the relation between fracture and phase transitions. Experimental results point out to the existence of an intriguing crackling noise in the acoustic emission and of self-affine fractals in the crack surface morphology. Recent advances in computer power have enabled considerable progress in the understanding of such models. Among these partly still controversial issues, are the scaling and size-effects in material strength and accumulated damage, the statistics of avalanches or bursts of microfailures, and the morphology of the crack surface. Here we present an overview of the results obtained with lattice models for fracture, highlighting the relations with statistical physics theories and more conventional fracture mechanics approaches.
Measuring Statistics Anxiety: Cross-Country Validity of the Statistical Anxiety Scale (SAS)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina; Carmona, Jose
2011-01-01
The aim of the research was to test the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Vigil-Colet et al.'s Statistical Anxiety Scale (SAS), taking into account evidences based on (a) internal structure (factorial structure and cross-country invariance) and (b) relationships to other variables (the statistics anxiety's nomological network).…
Suite versus composite statistics
Balsillie, J.H.; Tanner, W.F.
1999-01-01
Suite and composite methodologies, two statistically valid approaches for producing statistical descriptive measures, are investigated for sample groups representing a probability distribution where, in addition, each sample is probability distribution. Suite and composite means (first moment measures) are always equivalent. Composite standard deviations (second moment measures) are always larger than suite standard deviations. Suite and composite values for higher moment measures have more complex relationships. Very seldom, however, are they equivalent, and they normally yield statistically significant but different results. Multiple samples are preferable to single samples (including composites) because they permit the investigator to examine sample-to-sample variability. These and other relationships for suite and composite probability distribution analyses are investigated and reported using granulometric data.
Perception in statistical graphics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
VanderPlas, Susan Ruth
There has been quite a bit of research on statistical graphics and visualization, generally focused on new types of graphics, new software to create graphics, interactivity, and usability studies. Our ability to interpret and use statistical graphics hinges on the interface between the graph itself and the brain that perceives and interprets it, and there is substantially less research on the interplay between graph, eye, brain, and mind than is sufficient to understand the nature of these relationships. The goal of the work presented here is to further explore the interplay between a static graph, the translation of that graph from paper to mental representation (the journey from eye to brain), and the mental processes that operate on that graph once it is transferred into memory (mind). Understanding the perception of statistical graphics should allow researchers to create more effective graphs which produce fewer distortions and viewer errors while reducing the cognitive load necessary to understand the information presented in the graph. Taken together, these experiments should lay a foundation for exploring the perception of statistical graphics. There has been considerable research into the accuracy of numerical judgments viewers make from graphs, and these studies are useful, but it is more effective to understand how errors in these judgments occur so that the root cause of the error can be addressed directly. Understanding how visual reasoning relates to the ability to make judgments from graphs allows us to tailor graphics to particular target audiences. In addition, understanding the hierarchy of salient features in statistical graphics allows us to clearly communicate the important message from data or statistical models by constructing graphics which are designed specifically for the perceptual system.
Statistically determined nickel cadmium performance relationships
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gross, Sidney
1987-01-01
A statistical analysis was performed on sealed nickel cadmium cell manufacturing data and cell matching data. The cells subjected to the analysis were 30 Ah sealed Ni/Cd cells, made by General Electric. A total of 213 data parameters was investigated, including such information as plate thickness, amount of electrolyte added, weight of active material, positive and negative capacity, and charge-discharge behavior. Statistical analyses were made to determine possible correlations between test events. The data show many departures from normal distribution. Product consistency from one lot to another is an important attribute for aerospace applications. It is clear from these examples that there are some significant differences between lots. Statistical analyses are seen to be an excellent way to spot those differences. Also, it is now proven beyond doubt that battery testing is one of the leading causes of statistics.
Statistical methods for environmental pollution monitoring
Gilbert, R.O.
1987-01-01
The application of statistics to environmental pollution monitoring studies requires a knowledge of statistical analysis methods particularly well suited to pollution data. This book fills that need by providing sampling plans, statistical tests, parameter estimation procedure techniques, and references to pertinent publications. Most of the statistical techniques are relatively simple, and examples, exercises, and case studies are provided to illustrate procedures. The book is logically divided into three parts. Chapters 1, 2, and 3 are introductory chapters. Chapters 4 through 10 discuss field sampling designs and Chapters 11 through 18 deal with a broad range of statistical analysis procedures. Some statistical techniques given here are not commonly seen in statistics book. For example, see methods for handling correlated data (Sections 4.5 and 11.12), for detecting hot spots (Chapter 10), and for estimating a confidence interval for the mean of a lognormal distribution (Section 13.2). Also, Appendix B lists a computer code that estimates and tests for trends over time at one or more monitoring stations using nonparametric methods (Chapters 16 and 17). Unfortunately, some important topics could not be included because of their complexity and the need to limit the length of the book. For example, only brief mention could be made of time series analysis using Box-Jenkins methods and of kriging techniques for estimating spatial and spatial-time patterns of pollution, although multiple references on these topics are provided. Also, no discussion of methods for assessing risks from environmental pollution could be included.
Statistical considerations in design of spacelab experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, J.
1978-01-01
After making an analysis of experimental error sources, statistical models were developed for the design and analysis of potential Space Shuttle experiments. Guidelines for statistical significance and/or confidence limits of expected results were also included. The models were then tested out on the following proposed Space Shuttle biomedical experiments: (1) bone density by computer tomography; (2) basal metabolism; and (3) total body water. Analysis of those results and therefore of the models proved inconclusive due to the lack of previous research data and statistical values. However, the models were seen as possible guides to making some predictions and decisions.
Analogies for Understanding Statistics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hocquette, Jean-Francois
2004-01-01
This article describes a simple way to explain the limitations of statistics to scientists and students to avoid the publication of misleading conclusions. Biologists examine their results extremely critically and carefully choose the appropriate analytic methods depending on their scientific objectives. However, no such close attention is usually…
Statistical Energy Analysis Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferebee, R. C.; Trudell, R. W.; Yano, L. I.; Nygaard, S. I.
1985-01-01
Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is powerful tool for estimating highfrequency vibration spectra of complex structural systems and incorporated into computer program. Basic SEA analysis procedure divided into three steps: Idealization, parameter generation, and problem solution. SEA computer program written in FORTRAN V for batch execution.