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Sample records for rna binding activity

  1. The Rrp6 C-terminal domain binds RNA and activates the nuclear RNA exosome

    PubMed Central

    Wasmuth, Elizabeth V.; Lima, Christopher D.

    2017-01-01

    The eukaryotic RNA exosome is an essential, multi-subunit complex that catalyzes RNA turnover, maturation, and quality control processes. Its non-catalytic donut-shaped core includes 9 subunits that associate with the 3′ to 5′ exoribonucleases Rrp6, and Rrp44/Dis3, a subunit that also catalyzes endoribonuclease activity. Although recent structures and biochemical studies of RNA bound exosomes from S. cerevisiae revealed that the Exo9 central channel guides RNA to either Rrp6 or Rrp44 using partially overlapping and mutually exclusive paths, several issues related to RNA recruitment remain. Here, we identify activities for the highly basic Rrp6 C-terminal tail that we term the ‘lasso’ because it binds RNA and stimulates ribonuclease activities associated with Rrp44 and Rrp6 within the 11-subunit nuclear exosome. Stimulation is dependent on the Exo9 central channel, and the lasso contributes to degradation and processing activities of exosome substrates in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we present evidence that the Rrp6 lasso may be a conserved feature of the eukaryotic RNA exosome. PMID:27899565

  2. RNA-binding properties and RNA chaperone activity of human peroxiredoxin 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Lee, Hae Na; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Ha, Bin; Ahn, Sung-Min; Jang, Ho Hee; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hPrx1 has RNA-binding properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hPrx1 exhibits helix-destabilizing activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cold stress increases hPrx1 level in the nuclear fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hPrx1 enhances the viability of cells exposed to cold stress. -- Abstract: Human peroxiredoxin 1 (hPrx1), a member of the peroxiredoxin family, detoxifies peroxide substrates and has been implicated in numerous biological processes, including cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and redox signaling. To date, Prx1 has not been implicated in RNA metabolism. Here, we investigated the ability of hPrx1 to bind RNA and act as an RNA chaperone. In vitro, hPrx1 bound to RNA and DNA, and unwound nucleic acid duplexes. hPrx1 also acted as a transcription anti-terminator in an assay using an Escherichia coli strain containing a stem-loop structure upstream of the chloramphenicol resistance gene. The overall cellular level of hPrx1 expression was not increased at low temperatures, but the nuclear level of hPrx1 was increased. In addition, hPrx1 overexpression enhanced the survival of cells exposed to cold stress, whereas hPrx1 knockdown significantly reduced cell survival under the same conditions. These findings suggest that hPrx1 may perform biological functions as a RNA-binding protein, which are distinctive from known functions of hPrx1 as a reactive oxygen species scavenger.

  3. Hsp70's RNA-binding and mRNA-stabilizing activities are independent of its protein chaperone functions.

    PubMed

    Kishor, Aparna; White, Elizabeth J F; Matsangos, Aerielle E; Yan, Zisui; Tandukar, Bishal; Wilson, Gerald M

    2017-08-25

    Hsp70 is a protein chaperone that prevents protein aggregation and aids protein folding by binding to hydrophobic peptide domains through a reversible mechanism directed by an ATPase cycle. However, Hsp70 also binds U-rich RNA including some AU-rich elements (AREs) that regulate the decay kinetics of select mRNAs and has recently been shown to bind and stabilize some ARE-containing transcripts in cells. Previous studies indicated that both the ATP- and peptide-binding domains of Hsp70 contributed to the stability of Hsp70-RNA complexes and that ATP might inhibit RNA recruitment. This suggested the possibility that RNA binding by Hsp70 might mimic features of its peptide-directed chaperone activities. Here, using purified, cofactor-free preparations of recombinant human Hsp70 and quantitative biochemical approaches, we found that high-affinity RNA binding requires at least 30 nucleotides of RNA sequence but is independent of Hsp70's nucleotide-bound status, ATPase activity, or peptide-binding roles. Furthermore, although both the ATP- and peptide-binding domains of Hsp70 could form complexes with an ARE sequence from VEGFA mRNA in vitro, only the peptide-binding domain could recover cellular VEGFA mRNA in ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitations. Finally, Hsp70-directed stabilization of VEGFA mRNA in cells was mediated exclusively by the protein's peptide-binding domain. Together, these findings indicate that the RNA-binding and mRNA-stabilizing functions of Hsp70 are independent of its protein chaperone cycle but also provide potential mechanical explanations for several well-established and recently discovered cytoprotective and RNA-based Hsp70 functions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. MORF9 increases the RNA-binding activity of PLS-type pentatricopeptide repeat protein in plastid RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Yan, Junjie; Zhang, Qunxia; Guan, Zeyuan; Wang, Qiang; Li, Li; Ruan, Fengying; Lin, Rongcheng; Zou, Tingting; Yin, Ping

    2017-04-10

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that modifies the genetic information on RNA molecules. In flowering plants, RNA editing usually alters cytidine to uridine in plastids and mitochondria. The PLS-type pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein and the multiple organellar RNA editing factor (MORF, also known as RNA editing factor interacting protein (RIP)) are two types of key trans-acting factors involved in this process. However, how they cooperate with one another remains unclear. Here, we have characterized the interactions between a designer PLS-type PPR protein (PLS)3PPR and MORF9, and found that RNA-binding activity of (PLS)3PPR is drastically increased on MORF9 binding. We also determined the crystal structures of (PLS)3PPR, MORF9 and the (PLS)3PPR-MORF9 complex. MORF9 binding induces significant compressed conformational changes of (PLS)3PPR, revealing the molecular mechanisms by which MORF9-bound (PLS)3PPR has increased RNA-binding activity. Similarly, increased RNA-binding activity is observed for the natural PLS-type PPR protein, LPA66, in the presence of MORF9. These findings significantly expand our understanding of MORF function in plant organellar RNA editing.

  5. The non-coding B2 RNA binds to the DNA cleft and active site region of RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Ponicsan, Steven L.; Houel, Stephane; Old, William M.; Ahn, Natalie G.; Goodrich, James A.; Kugel, Jennifer F.

    2013-01-01

    The B2 family of short interspersed elements is transcribed into non-coding RNA by RNA polymerase III. The ~180 nt B2 RNA has been shown to potently repress mRNA transcription by binding tightly to RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and assembling with it into complexes on promoter DNA, where it keeps the polymerase from properly engaging the promoter DNA. Mammalian Pol II is a ~500 kD complex that contains 12 different protein subunits, providing many possible surfaces for interaction with B2 RNA. We found that the carboxy-terminal domain of the largest Pol II subunit was not required for B2 RNA to bind Pol II and repress transcription in vitro. To identify the surface on Pol II to which the minimal functional region of B2 RNA binds, we coupled multi-step affinity purification, reversible formaldehyde crosslinking, peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry, and analysis of peptide enrichment. The Pol II peptides most highly recovered after crosslinking to B2 RNA mapped to the DNA binding cleft and active site region of Pol II. These studies determine the location of a defined nucleic acid binding site on a large, native, multi-subunit complex and provide insight into the mechanism of transcriptional repression by B2 RNA. PMID:23416138

  6. Molecular dynamics simulations of Zika virus NS3 helicase: Insights into RNA binding site activity.

    PubMed

    Mottin, Melina; Braga, Rodolpho C; da Silva, Roosevelt A; Silva, Joao H Martins da; Perryman, Alexander L; Ekins, Sean; Andrade, Carolina Horta

    2017-03-21

    America is still suffering with the outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Congenital ZIKV syndrome has already caused a public health emergency of international concern. However, there are still no vaccines to prevent or drugs to treat the infection caused by ZIKV. The ZIKV NS3 helicase (NS3h) protein is a promising target for drug discovery due to its essential role in viral genome replication. NS3h unwinds the viral RNA to enable the replication of the viral genome by the NS5 protein. NS3h contains two important binding sites: the NTPase binding site and the RNA binding site. Here, we used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the molecular behavior of ZIKV NS3h in the presence and absence of ssRNA and the potential implications for NS3h activity and inhibition. Although there is conformational variability and poor electron densities of the RNA binding loop in various apo flaviviruses NS3h crystallographic structures, the MD trajectories of NS3h-ssRNA demonstrated that the RNA binding loop becomes more stable when NS3h is occupied by RNA. Our results suggest that the presence of RNA generates important interactions with the RNA binding loop, and these interactions stabilize the loop sufficiently that it remains in a closed conformation. This closed conformation likely keeps the ssRNA bound to the protein for a sufficient duration to enable the unwinding/replication activities of NS3h to occur. In addition, conformational changes of this RNA binding loop can change the nature and location of the optimal ligand binding site, according to ligand binding site prediction results. These are important findings to help guide the design and discovery of new inhibitors of NS3h as promising compounds to treat the ZIKV infection.

  7. Trypanosoma brucei 20 S Editosomes Have One RNA Substrate-binding Site and Execute RNA Unwinding Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Cordula; Katari, Venkata Subbaraju; Brecht, Michael; Göringer, H. Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Editing of mitochondrial pre-mRNAs in African trypanosomes generates full-length transcripts by the site-specific insertion and deletion of uridylate nucleotides. The reaction is catalyzed by a 0.8 MDa multienzyme complex, the editosome. Although the binding of substrate pre-edited mRNAs and cognate guide RNAs (gRNAs) represents the first step in the reaction cycle, the biochemical and biophysical details of the editosome/RNA interaction are not understood. Here we show that editosomes bind full-length substrate mRNAs with nanomolar affinity in a nonselective fashion. The complexes do not discriminate–neither kinetically nor thermodynamically–between different mitochondrial pre-mRNAs or between edited and unedited versions of the same transcript. They also bind gRNAs and gRNA/pre-mRNA hybrid RNAs with similar affinities and association rate constants. Gold labeling of editosome-bound RNA in combination with transmission electron microscopy identified a single RNA-binding site per editosome. However, atomic force microscopy of individual pre-mRNA-editosome complexes revealed that multiple editosomes can interact with one pre-mRNA. Lastly, we demonstrate a so far unknown activity of the editing machinery: editosome-bound RNA becomes unfolded by a chaperone-type RNA unwinding activity. PMID:22661715

  8. RNA helicase activity of the plum pox potyvirus CI protein expressed in Escherichia coli. Mapping of an RNA binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, A; Laín, S; García, J A

    1995-01-01

    The plum pox potyvirus (PPV) cylindrical inclusion (CI) protein fused to the maltose binding protein (MBP) has been synthesized in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography in amylose resin. In the absence of any other viral factors, the fusion product had NTPase, RNA binding and RNA helicase activities. These in vitro activities were not affected by removal of the last 103 amino acids of the CI protein. However, other deletions in the C-terminal part of the protein, although leaving intact all the region conserved in RNA helicases, drastically impaired the ability to unwind dsRNA and to hydrolyze NTPs. A mutant protein lacking the last 225 residues retained the competence to interact with RNA. Further deletions mapped boundaries of the RNA binding domain within residues 350 and 402 of the PPV CI protein. This region includes the arginine-rich motif VI, the most carboxy terminal conserved domain of RNA helicases of the superfamily SF2. These results indicate that NTP hydrolysis is not an essential component for RNA binding of the PPV CI protein. Images PMID:7538661

  9. False positive RNA binding activities after Ni-affinity purification from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Milojevic, Tetyana; Sonnleitner, Elisabeth; Romeo, Alessandra; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina; Bläsi, Udo

    2013-06-01

    A His-tag is often added by means of recombinant DNA technology to a heterologous protein of interest, which is then over-produced in Escherchia coli and purified by one-step immobilized metal-affinity chromatography (IMAC). Owing to the presence of 24 histidines at the C-termini of the hexameric E. coli RNA chaperone Hfq, the protein co-purifies with His-tagged proteins of interest. As Hfq can bind to distinct RNA substrates with high affinity, its presence can obscure studies performed with (putative) RNA binding activities purified by IMAC. Here, we present results for a seemingly positive RNA-binding activity, exemplifying that false-positive results can be avoided if the protein of interest is either subjected to further purification step(s) or produced in an E. coli hfq- strain.

  10. Movement Protein Pns6 of Rice dwarf phytoreovirus Has Both ATPase and RNA Binding Activities

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chunhong; Ye, Gongyin; Zhang, Zhongkai; Wu, Zujian; Xie, Lianhui; Li, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Cell-to-cell movement is essential for plant viruses to systemically infect host plants. Plant viruses encode movement proteins (MP) to facilitate such movement. Unlike the well-characterized MPs of DNA viruses and single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses, knowledge of the functional mechanisms of MPs encoded by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses is very limited. In particular, many studied MPs of DNA and ssRNA viruses bind non-specifically ssRNAs, leading to models in which ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) move from cell to cell. Thus, it will be of special interest to determine whether MPs of dsRNA viruses interact with genomic dsRNAs or their derivative sRNAs. To this end, we studied the biochemical functions of MP Pns6 of Rice dwarf phytoreovirus (RDV), a member of Phytoreovirus that contains a 12-segmented dsRNA genome. We report here that Pns6 binds both dsRNAs and ssRNAs. Intriguingly, Pns6 exhibits non-sequence specificity for dsRNA but shows preference for ssRNA sequences derived from the conserved genomic 5′- and 3′- terminal consensus sequences of RDV. Furthermore, Pns6 exhibits magnesium-dependent ATPase activities. Mutagenesis identified the RNA binding and ATPase activity sites of Pns6 at the N- and C-termini, respectively. Our results uncovered the novel property of a viral MP in differentially recognizing dsRNA and ssRNA and establish a biochemical basis to enable further studies on the mechanisms of dsRNA viral MP functions. PMID:21949821

  11. Substitutions of Thr30 provide mechanistic insight into tryptophan-mediated activation of TRAP binding to RNA.

    PubMed

    Payal, Vandana; Gollnick, Paul

    2006-01-01

    TRAP is an 11 subunit RNA binding protein that regulates expression of genes involved in tryptophan biosynthesis and transport in Bacillus subtilis. TRAP is activated to bind RNA by binding up to 11 molecules of l-tryptophan in pockets formed by adjacent subunits. The precise mechanism by which tryptophan binding activates TRAP is not known. Thr30 is in the tryptophan binding pocket. A TRAP mutant in which Thr30 is substituted with Val (T30V) does not bind tryptophan but binds RNA constitutively, suggesting that Thr30 plays a key role in the activation mechanism. We have examined the effects of other substitutions of Thr30. TRAP proteins with small beta-branched aliphatic side chains at residue 30 bind RNA constitutively, whereas those with a small polar side chain show tryptophan-dependent RNA binding. Several mutant proteins exhibited constitutive RNA binding that was enhanced by tryptophan. Although the tryptophan and RNA binding sites on TRAP are distinct and are separated by approximately 7.5 A, several substitutions of residues that interact with the bound RNA restored tryptophan binding to T30V TRAP. These observations support the hypothesis that conformational changes in TRAP relay information between the tryptophan and RNA binding sites of the protein.

  12. Thermodynamics of tryptophan-mediated activation of the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Craig A; Manfredo, Amanda; Gollnick, Paul; Foster, Mark P

    2006-06-27

    The trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) functions in many bacilli to control the expression of the tryptophan biosynthesis genes. Transcription of the trp operon is controlled by TRAP through an attenuation mechanism, in which competition between two alternative secondary-structural elements in the 5' leader sequence of the nascent mRNA is influenced by tryptophan-dependent binding of TRAP to the RNA. Previously, NMR studies of the undecamer (11-mer) suggested that tryptophan-dependent control of RNA binding by TRAP is accomplished through ligand-induced changes in protein dynamics. We now present further insights into this ligand-coupled event from hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Scanning calorimetry showed tryptophan dissociation to be independent of global protein unfolding, while analysis of the temperature dependence of the binding enthalpy by ITC revealed a negative heat capacity change larger than expected from surface burial, a hallmark of binding-coupled processes. Analysis of this excess heat capacity change using parameters derived from protein folding studies corresponds to the ordering of 17-24 residues per monomer of TRAP upon tryptophan binding. This result is in agreement with qualitative analysis of residue-specific broadening observed in TROSY NMR spectra of the 91 kDa oligomer. Implications for the mechanism of ligand-mediated TRAP activation through a shift in a preexisting conformational equilibrium and an induced-fit conformational change are discussed.

  13. Regulated Pumilio-2 binding controls RINGO/Spy mRNA translation and CPEB activation.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Kiran; Richter, Joel D

    2006-01-15

    CPEB is a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein that controls the polyadenylation-induced translation of mos and cyclin B1 mRNAs in maturing Xenopus oocytes. CPEB activity requires not only the phosphorylation of S174, but also the synthesis of a heretofore-unknown upstream effector molecule. We show that the synthesis of RINGO/Spy, an atypical activator of cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks), is necessary for CPEB-directed polyadenylation. Deletion analysis and mRNA reporter assays show that a cis element in the RINGO/Spy 3'UTR is necessary for translational repression in immature (G2-arrested) oocytes. The repression is mediated by 3'UTR Pumilio-Binding Elements (PBEs), and by its binding protein Pumilio 2 (Pum2). Pum2 also interacts with the Xenopus homolog of human Deleted for Azoospermia-like (DAZL) and the embryonic poly(A)-binding protein (ePAB). Following the induction of maturation, Pum2 dissociates not only from RINGO/Spy mRNA, but from XDAZL and ePAB as well; as a consequence, RINGO/Spy mRNA is translated. These results demonstrate that a reversible Pum2 interaction controls RINGO/Spy mRNA translation and, as a result, CPEB-mediated cytoplasmic polyadenylation.

  14. Regulated Pumilio-2 binding controls RINGO/Spy mRNA translation and CPEB activation

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Kiran; Richter, Joel D.

    2006-01-01

    CPEB is a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein that controls the polyadenylation-induced translation of mos and cyclin B1 mRNAs in maturing Xenopus oocytes. CPEB activity requires not only the phosphorylation of S174, but also the synthesis of a heretofore-unknown upstream effector molecule. We show that the synthesis of RINGO/Spy, an atypical activator of cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks), is necessary for CPEB-directed polyadenylation. Deletion analysis and mRNA reporter assays show that a cis element in the RINGO/Spy 3′UTR is necessary for translational repression in immature (G2-arrested) oocytes. The repression is mediated by 3′UTR Pumilio-Binding Elements (PBEs), and by its binding protein Pumilio 2 (Pum2). Pum2 also interacts with the Xenopus homolog of human Deleted for Azoospermia-like (DAZL) and the embryonic poly(A)-binding protein (ePAB). Following the induction of maturation, Pum2 dissociates not only from RINGO/Spy mRNA, but from XDAZL and ePAB as well; as a consequence, RINGO/Spy mRNA is translated. These results demonstrate that a reversible Pum2 interaction controls RINGO/Spy mRNA translation and, as a result, CPEB-mediated cytoplasmic polyadenylation. PMID:16418484

  15. An RNA aptamer that interferes with the DNA binding of the HSF transcription activator.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoching; Shi, Hua; Sevilimedu, Aarti; Liachko, Nicole; Nelson, Hillary C M; Lis, John T

    2006-01-01

    Heat shock factor (HSF) is a conserved and highly potent transcription activator. It is involved in a wide variety of important biological processes including the stress response and specific steps in normal development. Reagents that interfere with HSF function would be useful for both basic studies and practical applications. We selected an RNA aptamer that binds to HSF with high specificity. Deletion analysis defined the minimal binding motif of this aptamer to be two stems and one stem-loop joined by a three-way junction. This RNA aptamer interferes with normal interaction of HSF with its DNA element, which is a key regulatory step for HSF function. The DNA-binding domain plus a flanking linker region on the HSF (DL) is essential for the RNA binding. Additionally, this aptamer inhibits HSF-induced transcription in vitro in the complex milieu of a whole cell extract. In contrast to the previously characterized NF-kappaB aptamer, the HSF aptamer does not simply mimic DNA binding, but rather binds to HSF in a manner distinct from DNA binding to HSF.

  16. Small activating RNA binds to the genomic target site in a seed-region-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xing; Jiang, Qian; Chang, Nannan; Wang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Chujun; Xiong, Jingwei; Cao, Huiqing; Liang, Zicai

    2016-01-01

    RNA activation (RNAa) is the upregulation of gene expression by small activating RNAs (saRNAs). In order to investigate the mechanism by which saRNAs act in RNAa, we used the progesterone receptor (PR) gene as a model, established a panel of effective saRNAs and assessed the involvement of the sense and antisense strands of saRNA in RNAa. All active saRNAs had their antisense strand effectively incorporated into Ago2, whereas such consistency did not occur for the sense strand. Using a distal hotspot for saRNA targeting at 1.6-kb upstream from the PR transcription start site, we further established that gene activation mediated by saRNA depended on the complementarity of the 5′ region of the antisense strand, and that such activity was largely abolished by mutations in this region of the saRNA. We found markedly reduced RNAa effects when we created mutations in the genomic target site of saRNA PR-1611, thus providing evidence that RNAa depends on the integrity of the DNA target. We further demonstrated that this saRNA bound the target site on promoter DNA. These results demonstrated that saRNAs work via an on-site mechanism by binding to target genomic DNA in a seed-region-dependent manner, reminiscent of miRNA-like target recognition. PMID:26873922

  17. Small activating RNA binds to the genomic target site in a seed-region-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xing; Jiang, Qian; Chang, Nannan; Wang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Chujun; Xiong, Jingwei; Cao, Huiqing; Liang, Zicai

    2016-03-18

    RNA activation (RNAa) is the upregulation of gene expression by small activating RNAs (saRNAs). In order to investigate the mechanism by which saRNAs act in RNAa, we used the progesterone receptor (PR) gene as a model, established a panel of effective saRNAs and assessed the involvement of the sense and antisense strands of saRNA in RNAa. All active saRNAs had their antisense strand effectively incorporated into Ago2, whereas such consistency did not occur for the sense strand. Using a distal hotspot for saRNA targeting at 1.6-kb upstream from the PR transcription start site, we further established that gene activation mediated by saRNA depended on the complementarity of the 5' region of the antisense strand, and that such activity was largely abolished by mutations in this region of the saRNA. We found markedly reduced RNAa effects when we created mutations in the genomic target site of saRNA PR-1611, thus providing evidence that RNAa depends on the integrity of the DNA target. We further demonstrated that this saRNA bound the target site on promoter DNA. These results demonstrated that saRNAs work via an on-site mechanism by binding to target genomic DNA in a seed-region-dependent manner, reminiscent of miRNA-like target recognition. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Glycyl-tRNA synthetase specifically binds to the poliovirus IRES to activate translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Andreev, Dmitri E.; Hirnet, Juliane; Terenin, Ilya M.; Dmitriev, Sergey E.; Niepmann, Michael; Shatsky, Ivan N.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation to the host cell environment to efficiently take-over the host cell's machinery is crucial in particular for small RNA viruses like picornaviruses that come with only small RNA genomes and replicate exclusively in the cytosol. Their Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) elements are specific RNA structures that facilitate the 5′ end-independent internal initiation of translation both under normal conditions and when the cap-dependent host protein synthesis is shut-down in infected cells. A longstanding issue is which host factors play a major role in this internal initiation. Here, we show that the functionally most important domain V of the poliovirus IRES uses tRNAGly anticodon stem–loop mimicry to recruit glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS) to the apical part of domain V, adjacent to the binding site of the key initiation factor eIF4G. The binding of GARS promotes the accommodation of the initiation region of the IRES in the mRNA binding site of the ribosome, thereby greatly enhancing the activity of the IRES at the step of the 48S initiation complex formation. Moonlighting functions of GARS that may be additionally needed for other events of the virus–host cell interaction are discussed. PMID:22373920

  19. Separate RNA-binding surfaces on the multifunctional La protein mediate distinguishable activities in tRNA maturation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Bayfield, Mark A; Intine, Robert V; Maraia, Richard J

    2006-07-01

    By sequence-specific binding to 3' UUU-OH, the La protein shields precursor (pre)-RNAs from 3' end digestion and is required to protect defective pre-transfer RNAs from decay. Although La is comprised of a La motif and an RNA-recognition motif (RRM), a recent structure indicates that the RRM beta-sheet surface is not involved in UUU-OH recognition, raising questions as to its function. Progressively defective suppressor tRNAs in Schizosaccharomyces pombe reveal differential sensitivities to La and Rrp6p, a 3' exonuclease component of pre-tRNA decay. 3' end protection is compromised by mutations to the La motif but not the RRM surface. The most defective pre-tRNAs require a second activity of La, in addition to 3' protection, that requires an intact RRM surface. The two activities of La in tRNA maturation map to its two conserved RNA-binding surfaces and suggest a modular model that has implications for its other ligands.

  20. Evolution of RNA-Protein Interactions: Non-Specific Binding Led to RNA Splicing Activity of Fungal Mitochondrial Tyrosyl-tRNA Synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Lamech, Lilian T.; Mallam, Anna L.; Lambowitz, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    The Neurospora crassa mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (mtTyrRS; CYT-18 protein) evolved a new function as a group I intron splicing factor by acquiring the ability to bind group I intron RNAs and stabilize their catalytically active RNA structure. Previous studies showed: (i) CYT-18 binds group I introns by using both its N-terminal catalytic domain and flexibly attached C-terminal anticodon-binding domain (CTD); and (ii) the catalytic domain binds group I introns specifically via multiple structural adaptations that occurred during or after the divergence of Peziomycotina and Saccharomycotina. However, the function of the CTD and how it contributed to the evolution of splicing activity have been unclear. Here, small angle X-ray scattering analysis of CYT-18 shows that both CTDs of the homodimeric protein extend outward from the catalytic domain, but move inward to bind opposite ends of a group I intron RNA. Biochemical assays show that the isolated CTD of CYT-18 binds RNAs non-specifically, possibly contributing to its interaction with the structurally different ends of the intron RNA. Finally, we find that the yeast mtTyrRS, which diverged from Pezizomycotina fungal mtTyrRSs prior to the evolution of splicing activity, binds group I intron and other RNAs non-specifically via its CTD, but lacks further adaptations needed for group I intron splicing. Our results suggest a scenario of constructive neutral (i.e., pre-adaptive) evolution in which an initial non-specific interaction between the CTD of an ancestral fungal mtTyrRS and a self-splicing group I intron was “fixed” by an intron RNA mutation that resulted in protein-dependent splicing. Once fixed, this interaction could be elaborated by further adaptive mutations in both the catalytic domain and CTD that enabled specific binding of group I introns. Our results highlight a role for non-specific RNA binding in the evolution of RNA-binding proteins. PMID:25536042

  1. Evolution of RNA-protein interactions: non-specific binding led to RNA splicing activity of fungal mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Lamech, Lilian T; Mallam, Anna L; Lambowitz, Alan M

    2014-12-01

    The Neurospora crassa mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (mtTyrRS; CYT-18 protein) evolved a new function as a group I intron splicing factor by acquiring the ability to bind group I intron RNAs and stabilize their catalytically active RNA structure. Previous studies showed: (i) CYT-18 binds group I introns by using both its N-terminal catalytic domain and flexibly attached C-terminal anticodon-binding domain (CTD); and (ii) the catalytic domain binds group I introns specifically via multiple structural adaptations that occurred during or after the divergence of Peziomycotina and Saccharomycotina. However, the function of the CTD and how it contributed to the evolution of splicing activity have been unclear. Here, small angle X-ray scattering analysis of CYT-18 shows that both CTDs of the homodimeric protein extend outward from the catalytic domain, but move inward to bind opposite ends of a group I intron RNA. Biochemical assays show that the isolated CTD of CYT-18 binds RNAs non-specifically, possibly contributing to its interaction with the structurally different ends of the intron RNA. Finally, we find that the yeast mtTyrRS, which diverged from Pezizomycotina fungal mtTyrRSs prior to the evolution of splicing activity, binds group I intron and other RNAs non-specifically via its CTD, but lacks further adaptations needed for group I intron splicing. Our results suggest a scenario of constructive neutral (i.e., pre-adaptive) evolution in which an initial non-specific interaction between the CTD of an ancestral fungal mtTyrRS and a self-splicing group I intron was "fixed" by an intron RNA mutation that resulted in protein-dependent splicing. Once fixed, this interaction could be elaborated by further adaptive mutations in both the catalytic domain and CTD that enabled specific binding of group I introns. Our results highlight a role for non-specific RNA binding in the evolution of RNA-binding proteins.

  2. Activated ribonucleotides undergo a sugar pucker switch upon binding to a single-stranded RNA template.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Zhang, Shenglong; Szostak, Jack W

    2012-02-29

    Template-directed polymerization of chemically activated ribonucleotide monomers, such as nucleotide 5'-phosphorimidazolides, has been studied as a model for nonenzymatic RNA replication during the origin of life. Kinetic studies of the polymerization of various nucleotide monomers on oligonucleotide templates have suggested that the A-form (C3'-endo sugar pucker) conformation is optimal for both monomers and templates for efficient copying. However, RNA monomers are predominantly in the C2'-endo conformation when free in solution, except for cytidine, which is approximately equally distributed between the C2'-endo and C3'-endo conformations. We hypothesized that ribonucleotides undergo a switch in sugar pucker upon binding to an A-type template and that this conformational switch allows or enhances subsequent polymerization. We used transferred nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (TrNOESY), which can be used for specific detection of the bound conformation of small-molecule ligands with relatively weak affinity to receptors, to study the interactions between nucleotide 5'-phosphorimidazolides and single-stranded oligonucleotide templates. We found that the sugar pucker of activated ribonucleotides switches from C2'-endo in the free state to C3'-endo upon binding to an RNA template. This switch occurs only on RNA and not on DNA templates. Furthermore, activated 2'-deoxyribonucleotides maintain a C2'-endo sugar pucker in both the free and template-bound states. Our results provide a structural explanation for the observations that activated ribonucleotides are superior to activated deoxyribonucleotides and that RNA templates are superior to DNA templates in template-directed nonenzymatic primer-extension reactions. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  3. Rice LGD1 containing RNA binding activity affects growth and development through alternative promoters.

    PubMed

    Thangasamy, Saminathan; Chen, Pei-Wei; Lai, Ming-Hsing; Chen, Jychian; Jauh, Guang-Yuh

    2012-07-01

    Tiller initiation and panicle development are important agronomical traits for grain production in Oryza sativa L. (rice), but their regulatory mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In this study, T-DNA mutant and RNAi transgenic approaches were used to functionally characterize a unique rice gene, LAGGING GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 1 (LGD1). The lgd1 mutant showed slow growth, reduced tiller number and plant height, altered panicle architecture and reduced grain yield. The fewer unelongated internodes and cells in lgd1 led to respective reductions in tiller number and to semi-dwarfism. Several independent LGD1-RNAi lines exhibited defective phenotypes similar to those observed in lgd1. Interestingly, LGD1 encodes multiple transcripts with different transcription start sites (TSSs), which were validated by RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of 5' and 3' cDNA ends (RLM-RACE). Additionally, GUS assays and a luciferase promoter assay confirmed the promoter activities of LGD1.1 and LGD1.5. LGD1 encoding a von Willebrand factor type A (vWA) domain containing protein is a single gene in rice that is seemingly specific to grasses. GFP-tagged LGD1 isoforms were predominantly detected in the nucleus, and weakly in the cytoplasm. In vitro northwestern analysis showed the RNA-binding activity of the recombinant C-terminal LGD1 protein. Our results demonstrated that LGD1 pleiotropically regulated rice vegetative growth and development through both the distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns of its multiple transcripts and RNA binding activity. Hence, the study of LGD1 will strengthen our understanding of the molecular basis of the multiple transcripts, and their corresponding polypeptides with RNA binding activity, that regulate pleiotropic effects in rice.

  4. In Vitro RNase and Nucleic Acid Binding Activities Implicate Coilin in U snRNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Broome, Hanna J.; Hebert, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Coilin is known as the marker protein for Cajal bodies (CBs), subnuclear domains important for the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) which function in pre-mRNA splicing. CBs associate non-randomly with U1 and U2 gene loci, which produce the small nuclear RNA (snRNA) component of the respective snRNP. Despite recognition as the CB marker protein, coilin is primarily nucleoplasmic, and the function of this fraction is not fully characterized. Here we show that coilin binds double stranded DNA and has RNase activity in vitro. U1 and U2 snRNAs undergo a processing event of the primary transcript prior to incorporation in the snRNP. We find that coilin displays RNase activity within the CU region of the U2 snRNA primary transcript in vitro, and that coilin knockdown results in accumulation of the 3′ pre-processed U1 and U2 snRNA. These findings present new characteristics of coilin in vitro, and suggest additional functions of the protein in vivo. PMID:22558428

  5. An extra double-stranded RNA binding domain confers high activity to a squid RNA editing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Palavicini, Juan Pablo; O'Connell, Mary A; Rosenthal, Joshua J C

    2009-06-01

    RNA editing by adenosine deamination is particularly prevalent in the squid nervous system. We hypothesized that the squid editing enzyme might contain structural differences that help explain this phenomenon. As a first step, a squid adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA (sqADAR2a) cDNA and the gene that encodes it were cloned from the giant axon system. PCR and RNase protection assays showed that a splice variant of this clone (sqADAR2b) was also expressed in this tissue. Both versions are homologous to the vertebrate ADAR2 family. sqADAR2b encodes a conventional ADAR2 family member with an evolutionarily conserved deaminase domain and two double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBD). sqADAR2a differs from sqADAR2b by containing an optional exon that encodes an "extra" dsRBD. Both splice variants are expressed at comparable levels and are extensively edited, each in a unique pattern. Recombinant sqADAR2a and sqADAR2b, produced in Pichia pastoris, are both active on duplex RNA. Using a standard 48-h protein induction, both sqADAR2a and sqADAR2b exhibit promiscuous self-editing; however, this activity is particularly robust for sqADAR2a. By decreasing the induction time to 16 h, self-editing was mostly eliminated. We next tested the ability of sqADAR2a and sqADAR2b to edit two K+ channel mRNAs in vitro. Both substrates are known to be edited in squid. For each mRNA, sqADAR2a edited many more sites than sqADAR2b. These data suggest that the "extra" dsRBD confers high activity on sqADAR2a.

  6. An extra double-stranded RNA binding domain confers high activity to a squid RNA editing enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Palavicini, Juan Pablo; O'connell, Mary A.; Rosenthal, Joshua J.C.

    2009-01-01

    RNA editing by adenosine deamination is particularly prevalent in the squid nervous system. We hypothesized that the squid editing enzyme might contain structural differences that help explain this phenomenon. As a first step, a squid adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA (sqADAR2a) cDNA and the gene that encodes it were cloned from the giant axon system. PCR and RNase protection assays showed that a splice variant of this clone (sqADAR2b) was also expressed in this tissue. Both versions are homologous to the vertebrate ADAR2 family. sqADAR2b encodes a conventional ADAR2 family member with an evolutionarily conserved deaminase domain and two double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBD). sqADAR2a differs from sqADAR2b by containing an optional exon that encodes an “extra” dsRBD. Both splice variants are expressed at comparable levels and are extensively edited, each in a unique pattern. Recombinant sqADAR2a and sqADAR2b, produced in Pichia pastoris, are both active on duplex RNA. Using a standard 48-h protein induction, both sqADAR2a and sqADAR2b exhibit promiscuous self-editing; however, this activity is particularly robust for sqADAR2a. By decreasing the induction time to 16 h, self-editing was mostly eliminated. We next tested the ability of sqADAR2a and sqADAR2b to edit two K+ channel mRNAs in vitro. Both substrates are known to be edited in squid. For each mRNA, sqADAR2a edited many more sites than sqADAR2b. These data suggest that the “extra” dsRBD confers high activity on sqADAR2a. PMID:19390115

  7. DNA/RNA binding and anticancer/antimicrobial activities of polymer-copper(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Lakshmipraba, Jagadeesan; Arunachalam, Sankaralingam; Riyasdeen, Anvarbatcha; Dhivya, Rajakumar; Vignesh, Sivanandham; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader; James, Rathinam Arthur

    2013-05-15

    Water soluble polymer-copper(II) complexes with various degrees of coordination in the polymer chain were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-visible and EPR spectra. The DNA/RNA binding behavior of these polymer-copper(II) complexes was examined by UV-visible absorption, emission and circular dichroism spectroscopic methods, and cyclic voltammetry techniques. The binding of the polymer-copper(II) complexes with DNA/RNA was mainly through intercalation but some amount of electrostatic interaction was also observed. This binding capacity increased with the degree of coordination of the complexes. The polymer-copper(II) complex having the highest degree of coordination was subjected to analysis of cytotoxic and antimicrobial properties. The cytotoxicity study indicated that the polymer-copper(II) complexes affected the viability of MCF-7 mammary carcinoma cells, and the cells responded to the treatment with mostly through apoptosis although a few cells succumbed to necrosis. The antimicrobial screening showed activity against some human pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. DNA/RNA binding and anticancer/antimicrobial activities of polymer-copper(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmipraba, Jagadeesan; Arunachalam, Sankaralingam; Riyasdeen, Anvarbatcha; Dhivya, Rajakumar; Vignesh, Sivanandham; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader; James, Rathinam Arthur

    2013-05-01

    Water soluble polymer-copper(II) complexes with various degrees of coordination in the polymer chain were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-visible and EPR spectra. The DNA/RNA binding behavior of these polymer-copper(II) complexes was examined by UV-visible absorption, emission and circular dichroism spectroscopic methods, and cyclic voltammetry techniques. The binding of the polymer-copper(II) complexes with DNA/RNA was mainly through intercalation but some amount of electrostatic interaction was also observed. This binding capacity increased with the degree of coordination of the complexes. The polymer-copper(II) complex having the highest degree of coordination was subjected to analysis of cytotoxic and antimicrobial properties. The cytotoxicity study indicated that the polymer-copper(II) complexes affected the viability of MCF-7 mammary carcinoma cells, and the cells responded to the treatment with mostly through apoptosis although a few cells succumbed to necrosis. The antimicrobial screening showed activity against some human pathogens.

  9. Discrimination of common and unique RNA-binding activities among Fragile X mental retardation protein paralogs.

    PubMed

    Darnell, Jennifer C; Fraser, Claire E; Mostovetsky, Olga; Darnell, Robert B

    2009-09-01

    Fragile X mental retardation is caused by loss-of-function of a single gene encoding FMRP, an RNA-binding protein that harbors three canonical RNA-binding domains, two KH-type and one RGG box. Two autosomal paralogs of FMRP, FXR1P and FXR2P, are similar to FMRP in their overall structure, including the presence of putative RNA-binding domains, but to what extent they provide functional redundancy with FMRP is unclear. Although FMRP has been characterized as a polyribosome-associated regulator of translation, less is known about the functions of FXR1P and FXR2P. For example, FMRP binds intramolecular G-quadruplex and kissing complex RNA (kcRNA) ligands via the RGG box and KH2 domain, respectively, although the RNA ligands of FXR1P and FXR2P are unknown. Here we demonstrate that FXR1P and FXR2P KH2 domains bind kcRNA ligands with the same affinity as the FMRP KH2 domain although other KH domains do not. RNA ligand recognition by this family is highly conserved, as the KH2 domain of the single Drosophila ortholog, dFMRP, also binds kcRNA. kcRNA was able to displace FXR1P and FXR2P from polyribosomes as it does for FMRP, and this displacement was FMRP-independent. This suggests that all three family members recognize the same binding site on RNA mediating their polyribosome association, and that they may be functionally redundant with regard to this aspect of translational control. In contrast, FMRP is unique in its ability to recognize G-quadruplexes, suggesting the FMRP RGG domain may play a non-redundant role in the pathophysiology of the disease.

  10. The non-coding B2 RNA binds to the DNA cleft and active-site region of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Ponicsan, Steven L; Houel, Stephane; Old, William M; Ahn, Natalie G; Goodrich, James A; Kugel, Jennifer F

    2013-10-09

    The B2 family of short interspersed elements is transcribed into non-coding RNA by RNA polymerase III. The ~180-nt B2 RNA has been shown to potently repress mRNA transcription by binding tightly to RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and assembling with it into complexes on promoter DNA, where it keeps the polymerase from properly engaging the promoter DNA. Mammalian Pol II is an ~500-kDa complex that contains 12 different protein subunits, providing many possible surfaces for interaction with B2 RNA. We found that the carboxy-terminal domain of the largest Pol II subunit was not required for B2 RNA to bind Pol II and repress transcription in vitro. To identify the surface on Pol II to which the minimal functional region of B2 RNA binds, we coupled multi-step affinity purification, reversible formaldehyde cross-linking, peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry, and analysis of peptide enrichment. The Pol II peptides most highly recovered after cross-linking to B2 RNA mapped to the DNA binding cleft and active-site region of Pol II. These studies determine the location of a defined nucleic acid binding site on a large, native, multi-subunit complex and provide insight into the mechanism of transcriptional repression by B2 RNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. New quinoline-arylamidine hybrids: Synthesis, DNA/RNA binding and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Krstulović, Luka; Stolić, Ivana; Jukić, Marijana; Opačak-Bernardi, Teuta; Starčević, Kristina; Bajić, Miroslav; Glavaš-Obrovac, Ljubica

    2017-09-08

    Four series of new hybrid molecules with 7-chloroquinoline and arylamidine moieties joined through the rigid -O- (groups I (2a-g) and II (5a-g)) or flexible -NH-CH2-CH2-O- (groups III (8a-g) and IV (10a-g)) linker were synthesized, and their DNA/RNA binding properties and cytotoxic activity were tested, against several human cancer lines. The compounds and their interaction with DNA and RNA were studied by UV-Vis and CD spectroscopy. The obtained results showed that the binding affinity of the investigated compounds increases proportionally with the increase of the length and number of groups able to form hydrogen bonds with ds-polynucleotides. Improvement of binding was additionally achieved by reduction of the structural rigidity of the investigated compounds, new hybrid compounds preferentially bind to ctDNA. For most of them the DNA/RNA grooves are dominant binding sites, except for the compounds from group II for which intercalation in polyA-polyU was the dominant binding mode. The antiproliferative effects were tested by the MTT test on normal (MDCK1), carcinoma (HeLa and CaCo2) and leukemia cell lines (Raji and K462). The GI50 values for all investigated compounds ranged from 5 to more than 100 × 10(-6) mol dm(-3). Carcinoma cells were more resistant to the investigated compounds than leukemia cells. The most effective compounds against leukemia cell lines were from group IV (10a-g), with GI50 values ranging from of 5 and 35 × 10(-6) mol dm(-3). The cell cycle arrest was investigated by flow cytometry and the obtained results indicate that the selected compounds, 2d, 2e, 8a, 10d, 10e, and 10f, induce changes in the cell cycle of treated cells, but the cycle phase distribution varies between them. A significant decrease in the number of cells in S phase (p < 0.001) was observed in all treated cells, but only 10d and 10f induce cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, dominantly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Amino acid residues Leu135 and Tyr236 are required for RNA binding activity of CFIm25 in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Ospina-Villa, Juan David; Zamorano-Carrillo, Absalom; Lopez-Camarillo, Cesar; Castañon-Sanchez, Carlos A; Soto-Sanchez, Jacqueline; Ramirez-Moreno, Esther; Marchat, Laurence A

    2015-08-01

    Pre-mRNA 3' end processing in the nucleus is essential for mRNA stability, efficient nuclear transport, and translation in eukaryotic cells. In Human, the cleavage/polyadenylation machinery contains the 25 kDa subunit of the Cleavage Factor Im (CFIm25), which specifically recognizes two UGUA elements and regulates the assembly of polyadenylation factors, poly(A) site selection and polyadenylation. In Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan parasite responsible for human amoebiasis, EhCFIm25 has been reported as a RNA binding protein that interacts with the Poly(A) Polymerase. Here, we follow-up with the study of EhCFIm25 to characterize its interaction with RNA. Using in silico strategy, we identified Leu135 and Tyr236 in EhCFIm25 as conserved amino acids among CFIm25 homologues. We therefore generated mutant EhCFIm25 proteins to investigate the role of these residues for RNA interaction. Results showed that RNA binding activity was totally abrogated when Leu135 and Tyr236 were replaced with Ala residue, and Tyr236 was changed for Phe. In contrast, RNA binding activity was less affected when Leu135 was substituted by Thr. Our data revealed for the first time -until we know-the functional relevance of the conserved Leu135 and Tyr236 in EhCFIm25 for RNA binding activity. They also gave some insights about the possible chemical groups that could be interacting with the RNA molecule.

  13. New Insights into the RNA-Binding and E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activities of Roquins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Fan, Lixin; Hou, Feng; Dong, Aiping; Wang, Yun-Xing; Tong, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Roquins are a family of highly conserved RNA-binding proteins that also contain a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase domain. They repress constitutive decay elements containing mRNAs and play a critical role in RNA homeostasis and immunological self-tolerance. Here we present the crystal structures of the RNA-binding region of Roquin paralog RC3H2 in both apo- and RNA-bound forms. The RNA-binding region has a bipartite architecture composed of ROQ and HEPN domains, and can bind to stem-loop and double-stranded RNAs simultaneously. The two domains undergo a large orientation change to accommodate RNA duplex binding. We profiled E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes that pair with Roquins and found that RC3H1 and RC3H2 interact with two sets of overlapping but not identical E2 enzymes to drive the assembly of polyubiquitin chains of different linkages. Crystal structures, small-angle X-ray scattering, and E2 profiling revealed that while the two paralogs are highly homologous, RC3H2 and RC3H1 are different in their structures and functions. We also demonstrated that RNA duplex binding to RC3H2 cross-talks with its E3 ubiquitin ligase function using an in vitro auto-ubiquitination assay. PMID:26489670

  14. Repressor activity of the RpoS/σS-dependent RNA polymerase requires DNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Lévi-Meyrueis, Corinne; Monteil, Véronique; Sismeiro, Odile; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Kolb, Annie; Monot, Marc; Dupuy, Bruno; Duarte, Sara Serradas; Jagla, Bernd; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Beraud, Mélanie; Norel, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    The RpoS/σS sigma subunit of RNA polymerase (RNAP) activates transcription of stationary phase genes in many Gram-negative bacteria and controls adaptive functions, including stress resistance, biofilm formation and virulence. In this study, we address an important but poorly understood aspect of σS-dependent control, that of a repressor. Negative regulation by σS has been proposed to result largely from competition between σS and other σ factors for binding to a limited amount of core RNAP (E). To assess whether σS binding to E alone results in significant downregulation of gene expression by other σ factors, we characterized an rpoS mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium producing a σS protein proficient for EσS complex formation but deficient in promoter DNA binding. Genome expression profiling and physiological assays revealed that this mutant was defective for negative regulation, indicating that gene repression by σS requires its binding to DNA. Although the mechanisms of repression by σS are likely specific to individual genes and environmental conditions, the study of transcription downregulation of the succinate dehydrogenase operon suggests that σ competition at the promoter DNA level plays an important role in gene repression by EσS. PMID:25578965

  15. Iron-dependent RNA-binding activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis aconitase.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sharmistha; Nandyala, Ashok Kumar; Raviprasad, Podili; Ahmed, Niyaz; Hasnain, Seyed E

    2007-06-01

    Cellular iron levels are closely monitored by iron regulatory and sensor proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for survival inside macrophages. One such class of proteins systematically studied in eukaryotes and reported in a few prokaryotes are the iron-responsive proteins (IRPs). These IRPs bind to iron-responsive elements (IREs) present at untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs and are responsible for posttranscriptional regulation of the expression of proteins involved in iron homeostasis. Amino acid sequence analysis of M. tuberculosis aconitase (Acn), a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzyme, showed the presence of the conserved residues of the IRP class of proteins. We demonstrate that M. tuberculosis Acn is bifunctional. It is a monomeric protein that is enzymatically active in converting isocitrate to cis-aconitate at a broad pH range of 7 to 10 (optimum, pH 8). As evident from gel retardation assays, M. tuberculosis Acn also behaves like an IRP by binding to known mammalian IRE-like sequences and to predicted IRE-like sequences present at the 3' UTR of thioredoxin (trxC) and the 5' UTR of the iron-dependent repressor and activator (ideR) of M. tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis Acn when reactivated with Fe(2+) functions as a TCA cycle enzyme, but upon iron depletion by a specific iron chelator, it behaves like an IRP, binding to the selected IREs in vitro. Since iron is required for the Acn activity and inhibits the RNA-binding activity of Acn, the two activities of M. tuberculosis Acn are mutually exclusive. Our results demonstrate the bifunctional nature of M. tuberculosis Acn, pointing to its likely role in iron homeostasis.

  16. Long non-coding RNA PVT1 activates hepatic stellate cells through competitively binding microRNA-152

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jianjian; Yu, Fujun; Dong, Peihong; Wu, Limei; Zhang, Yuan; Hu, Yanwei; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process is considered as a key event in the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is known to be required for EMT process. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to be involved in a wide range of biological processes. Plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1), a novel lncRNA, is often up-regulated in various human cancers. However, the role of PVT1 in liver fibrosis remains undefined. In this study, PVT1 was increased in fibrotic liver tissues and activated HSCs. Depletion of PVT1 attenuated collagen deposits in vivo. In vitro, PVT1 down-regulation inhibited HSC activation including the reduction of HSC proliferation, α-SMA and type I collagen. Further studies showed that PVT1 knockdown suppressed HSC activation was through inhibiting EMT process and Hh pathway. Patched1 (PTCH1), a negative regulator factor of Hh pathway, was enhanced by PVT1 knockdown. PTCH1 demethylation caused by miR-152 was responsible for the effects of PVT1 knockdown on PTCH1 expression. Notably, miR-152 inhibitor reversed the effects of PVT1 knockdown on HSC activation. Luciferase reporter assays and pull-down assays showed a direct interaction between miR-152 and PVT1. Collectively, we demonstrate that PVT1 epigenetically down-regulates PTCH1 expression via competitively binding miR-152, contributing to EMT process in liver fibrosis. PMID:27588491

  17. PARP activation regulates the RNA-binding protein NONO in the DNA damage response to DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Krietsch, Jana; Caron, Marie-Christine; Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Ethier, Chantal; Vignard, Julien; Vincent, Michel; Rouleau, Michèle; Hendzel, Michael J; Poirier, Guy G; Masson, Jean-Yves

    2012-11-01

    After the generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is one of the first proteins to be recruited and activated through its binding to the free DNA ends. Upon activation, PARP-1 uses NAD+ to generate large amounts of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), which facilitates the recruitment of DNA repair factors. Here, we identify the RNA-binding protein NONO, a partner protein of SFPQ, as a novel PAR-binding protein. The protein motif being primarily responsible for PAR-binding is the RNA recognition motif 1 (RRM1), which is also crucial for RNA-binding, highlighting a competition between RNA and PAR as they share the same binding site. Strikingly, the in vivo recruitment of NONO to DNA damage sites completely depends on PAR, generated by activated PARP-1. Furthermore, we show that upon PAR-dependent recruitment, NONO stimulates nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and represses homologous recombination (HR) in vivo. Our results therefore place NONO after PARP activation in the context of DNA DSB repair pathway decision. Understanding the mechanism of action of proteins that act in the same pathway as PARP-1 is crucial to shed more light onto the effect of interference on PAR-mediated pathways with PARP inhibitors, which have already reached phase III clinical trials but are until date poorly understood.

  18. PARP activation regulates the RNA-binding protein NONO in the DNA damage response to DNA double-strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Krietsch, Jana; Caron, Marie-Christine; Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Ethier, Chantal; Vignard, Julien; Vincent, Michel; Rouleau, Michèle; Hendzel, Michael J.; Poirier, Guy G.; Masson, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    After the generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is one of the first proteins to be recruited and activated through its binding to the free DNA ends. Upon activation, PARP-1 uses NAD+ to generate large amounts of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), which facilitates the recruitment of DNA repair factors. Here, we identify the RNA-binding protein NONO, a partner protein of SFPQ, as a novel PAR-binding protein. The protein motif being primarily responsible for PAR-binding is the RNA recognition motif 1 (RRM1), which is also crucial for RNA-binding, highlighting a competition between RNA and PAR as they share the same binding site. Strikingly, the in vivo recruitment of NONO to DNA damage sites completely depends on PAR, generated by activated PARP-1. Furthermore, we show that upon PAR-dependent recruitment, NONO stimulates nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and represses homologous recombination (HR) in vivo. Our results therefore place NONO after PARP activation in the context of DNA DSB repair pathway decision. Understanding the mechanism of action of proteins that act in the same pathway as PARP-1 is crucial to shed more light onto the effect of interference on PAR-mediated pathways with PARP inhibitors, which have already reached phase III clinical trials but are until date poorly understood. PMID:22941645

  19. Review on the binding of anticancer drug doxorubicin with DNA and tRNA: Structural models and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Agudelo, D; Bourassa, P; Bérubé, G; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2016-05-01

    In this review, we have compared the results of multiple spectroscopic studies and molecular modeling of anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) bindings to DNA and tRNA. DOX was intercalated into DNA duplex, while tRNA binding is via major and minor grooves. DOX-DNA intercalation is close to A-7, C-5, *C-19 (H-bonding with DOX NH2 group), G-6, T-8 and T-18 with the free binding energy of -4.99kcal/mol. DOX-tRNA groove bindings are near A-29, A-31, A-38, C-25, C-27, C-28, *G-30 (H-bonding) and U-41 with the free binding energy of -4.44kcal/mol. Drug intercalation induced a partial B to A-DNA transition, while tRNA remained in A-family structure. The structural differences observed between DOX bindings to DNA and tRNA can be the main reasons for drug antitumor activity. The results of in vitro MTT assay on SKC01 colon carcinoma are consistent with the observed DNA structural changes. Future research should be focused on finding suitable nanocarriers for delivery of DOX in vivo in order to exploit the full capacity of this very important anticancer drug.

  20. Allosteric regulation of helicase core activities of the DEAD-box helicase YxiN by RNA binding to its RNA recognition motif.

    PubMed

    Samatanga, Brighton; Andreou, Alexandra Z; Klostermeier, Dagmar

    2017-01-23

    DEAD-box proteins share a structurally similar core of two RecA-like domains (RecA_N and RecA_C) that contain the conserved motifs for ATP-dependent RNA unwinding. In many DEAD-box proteins the helicase core is flanked by ancillary domains. To understand the regulation of the DEAD-box helicase YxiN by its C-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM), we investigated the effect of RNA binding to the RRM on its position relative to the core, and on core activities. RRM/RNA complex formation substantially shifts the RRM from a position close to the RecA_C to the proximity of RecA_N, independent of RNA contacts with the core. RNA binding to the RRM is communicated to the core, and stimulates ATP hydrolysis and RNA unwinding. The conformational space of the core depends on the identity of the RRM-bound RNA. Allosteric regulation of core activities by RNA-induced movement of ancillary domains may constitute a general regulatory mechanism of DEAD-box protein activity.

  1. TAR RNA binding properties and relative transactivation activities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 Tat proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Rhim, H; Rice, A P

    1993-01-01

    Using gel shift assays, we found that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein (Tat-1) bound both HIV-1 and HIV-2 TAR RNAs with similar high affinities. In contrast, the HIV-2 Tat protein (Tat-2) bound only TAR-2 RNA with high affinity. We conclude that the weak in vivo activity of Tat-2 on the HIV-1 long terminal repeat that has been observed previously is likely the result of low affinity for TAR-1 RNA. Additionally, TAR-2 RNA was found to contain multiple specific binding sites for Tat proteins. GAL4-Tat fusion proteins were analyzed to compare the relative transactivation activities of Tat-1 and Tat-2 in the absence of requirements for binding to TAR RNAs. The GAL4-Tat-2 protein was found to transactivate synthetic promoters containing GAL4 binding sites at levels severalfold higher than did the GAL4-Tat-1 protein. Images PMID:8419640

  2. Stress- and Rho-activated ZO-1–associated nucleic acid binding protein binding to p21 mRNA mediates stabilization, translation, and cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Mei; Balda, Maria S.; Matter, Karl

    2012-01-01

    A central component of the cellular stress response is p21WAF1/CIP1, which regulates cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Inflammation and cell stress often up-regulate p21 posttranscriptionally by regulatory mechanisms that are poorly understood. ZO-1–associated nucleic acid binding protein (ZONAB)/DbpA is a Y-box transcription factor that is regulated by components of intercellular junctions that are affected by cytokines and tissue damage. We therefore asked whether ZONAB activation is part of the cellular stress response. Here, we demonstrate that ZONAB promotes cell survival in response to proinflammatory, hyperosmotic, and cytotoxic stress and that stress-induced ZONAB activation involves the Rho regulator GEF-H1. Unexpectedly, stress-induced ZONAB activation does not stimulate ZONAB’s activity as a transcription factor but leads to the posttranscriptional up-regulation of p21 protein and mRNA. Up-regulation is mediated by ZONAB binding to specific sites in the 3′-untranslated region of the p21 mRNA, resulting in mRNA stabilization and enhanced translation. Binding of ZONAB to mRNA is activated by GEF-H1 via Rho stimulation and also mediates Ras-induced p21 expression. We thus identify a unique type of stress and Rho signaling activated pathway that drives mRNA stabilization and translation and links the cellular stress response to p21 expression and cell survival. PMID:22711822

  3. Resveratrol post-transcriptionally regulates pro-inflammatory gene expression via regulation of KSRP RNA binding activity

    PubMed Central

    Bollmann, Franziska; Art, Julia; Henke, Jenny; Schrick, Katharina; Besche, Verena; Bros, Matthias; Li, Huige; Siuda, Daniel; Handler, Norbert; Bauer, Florian; Erker, Thomas; Behnke, Felix; Mönch, Bettina; Härdle, Lorena; Hoffmann, Markus; Chen, Ching-Yi; Förstermann, Ulrich; Dirsch, Verena M.; Werz, Oliver; Kleinert, Hartmut; Pautz, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol shows beneficial effects in inflammation-based diseases like cancer, cardiovascular and chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory resveratrol effects deserve more attention. In human epithelial DLD-1 and monocytic Mono Mac 6 cells resveratrol decreased the expression of iNOS, IL-8 and TNF-α by reducing mRNA stability without inhibition of the promoter activity. Shown by pharmacological and siRNA-mediated inhibition, the observed effects are SIRT1-independent. Target-fishing and drug responsive target stability experiments showed selective binding of resveratrol to the RNA-binding protein KSRP, a central post-transcriptional regulator of pro-inflammatory gene expression. Knockdown of KSRP expression prevented resveratrol-induced mRNA destabilization in human and murine cells. Resveratrol did not change KSRP expression, but immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that resveratrol reduces the p38 MAPK-related inhibitory KSRP threonine phosphorylation, without blocking p38 MAPK activation or activity. Mutation of the p38 MAPK target site in KSRP blocked the resveratrol effect on pro-inflammatory gene expression. In addition, resveratrol incubation enhanced KSRP-exosome interaction, which is important for mRNA degradation. Finally, resveratrol incubation enhanced its intra-cellular binding to the IL-8, iNOS and TNF-α mRNA. Therefore, modulation of KSRP mRNA binding activity and, thereby, enhancement of mRNA degradation seems to be the common denominator of many anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol. PMID:25352548

  4. Regulatory interactions of Csr components: the RNA binding protein CsrA activates csrB transcription in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gudapaty, S; Suzuki, K; Wang, X; Babitzke, P; Romeo, T

    2001-10-01

    The global regulator CsrA (carbon storage regulator) of Escherichia coli is a small RNA binding protein that represses various metabolic pathways and processes that are induced in the stationary phase of growth, while it activates certain exponential phase functions. Both repression and activation by CsrA involve posttranscriptional mechanisms, in which CsrA binding to mRNA leads to decreased or increased transcript stability, respectively. CsrA also binds to a small untranslated RNA, CsrB, forming a ribonucleoprotein complex, which antagonizes CsrA activity. We have further examined the regulatory interactions of CsrA and CsrB RNA. The 5' end of the CsrB transcript was mapped, and a csrB::cam null mutant was constructed. CsrA protein and CsrB RNA levels were estimated throughout the growth curves of wild-type and isogenic csrA, csrB, rpoS, or csrA rpoS mutant strains. CsrA levels exhibited modest or negligible effects of these mutations. The intracellular concentration of CsrA exceeded the total CsrA-binding capacity of intracellular CsrB RNA. In contrast, CsrB levels were drastically decreased (~10-fold) in the csrA mutants. CsrB transcript stability was unaffected by csrA. The expression of a csrB-lacZ transcriptional fusion containing the region from -242 to +4 bp of the csrB gene was decreased ~20-fold by a csrA::kanR mutation in vivo but was unaffected by CsrA protein in vitro. These results reveal a significant, though most likely indirect, role for CsrA in regulating csrB transcription. Furthermore, our findings suggest that CsrA mediates an intriguing form of autoregulation, whereby its activity, but not its levels, is modulated through effects on an RNA antagonist, CsrB.

  5. HuR/ELAVL1 RNA binding protein modulates interleukin-8 induction by muco-active ribotoxin deoxynivalenol

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Hye Jin; Yang, Hyun; Park, Seong Hwan; Moon, Yuseok

    2009-10-01

    HuR/Elav-like RNA binding protein 1 (ELAVL1) positively regulates mRNA stability of AU-rich elements (ARE)-containing transcript such as pro-inflammatory cytokines. Ribotoxic stresses can trigger the production of pro-inflammatory mediators by enhancing mRNA stability and the transcriptional activity. We investigated the effects of ribotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) on HuR translocation and its involvement in the regulation of the pro-inflammatory interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA stability. Exposure to the muco-active DON induced nuclear export of both endogenous and exogenous HuR RNA binding protein in human intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, the interference with HuR protein production suppressed ribotoxic DON-induced IL-8 secretion and its mRNA stability. Cytoplasmic HuR protein interacted with IL-8 mRNA and the complex stabilization was due to the presence of 3'-untranslated region of the transcript. Partly in terms of IL-8-modulating transcription factors, HuR protein was demonstrated to be positively and negatively associated with DON-induced early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), respectively. HuR was a critical mechanistic link between ribotoxic stress and the pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and may have a broader functional significance with regard to mucosal insults since ribotoxic stress responses are also produced upon interactions with the diverse environment of gut.

  6. Identification of an RNA aptamer binding hTERT-derived peptide and inhibiting telomerase activity in MCF7 cells.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Akhil; Bala, Jyoti; Santosh, Baby; Bhaskar, Ashima; Kumar, Suresh; Yadava, Pramod K

    2017-03-01

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase is an essential rate-limiting component of telomerase complex. hTERT protein in association with other proteins and the human telomerase RNA (hTR) shows telomerase activity, essential for maintaining genomic integrity in proliferating cells. hTERT binds hTR through a decapeptide located in the RID2 (RNA interactive domain 2) domain of N-terminal region. Since hTERT is essential for telomerase activity, inhibitors of hTERT are of great interest as potential anti-cancer agent. We have selected RNA aptamers against a synthetic peptide from the RID2 domain of hTERT by employing in vitro selection protocol (SELEX). The selected RNAs could bind the free peptide, as CD spectra suggested conformational change in aptamer upon RID2 binding. Extracts of cultured breast cancer cells (MCF7) expressing this aptamer showed lower telomerase activity as estimated by TRAP assay. hTERT-binding RNA aptamers hold promise as probable anti-cancer therapeutic agent.

  7. RNA-Binding Proteins in the Regulation of miRNA Activity: A Focus on Neuronal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Loffreda, Alessia; Rigamonti, Aurora; Barabino, Silvia M. L.; Lenzken, Silvia C.

    2015-01-01

    Posttranscriptional modifications of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are key processes in the fine-tuning of cellular homeostasis. Two major actors in this scenario are RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) that together play important roles in the biogenesis, turnover, translation and localization of mRNAs. This review will highlight recent advances in the understanding of the role of RBPs in the regulation of the maturation and the function of miRNAs. The interplay between miRNAs and RBPs is discussed specifically in the context of neuronal development and function. PMID:26437437

  8. Mediation of CTCF transcriptional insulation by DEAD-box RNA-binding protein p68 and steroid receptor RNA activator SRA

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hongjie; Brick, Kevin; Evrard, Yvonne; Xiao, Tiaojiang; Camerini-Otero, R. Daniel; Felsenfeld, Gary

    2010-01-01

    CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a DNA-binding protein that plays important roles in chromatin organization, although the mechanism by which CTCF carries out these functions is not fully understood. Recent studies show that CTCF recruits the cohesin complex to insulator sites and that cohesin is required for insulator activity. Here we showed that the DEAD-box RNA helicase p68 (DDX5) and its associated noncoding RNA, steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA), form a complex with CTCF that is essential for insulator function. p68 was detected at CTCF sites in the IGF2/H19 imprinted control region (ICR) as well as other genomic CTCF sites. In vivo depletion of SRA or p68 reduced CTCF-mediated insulator activity at the IGF2/H19 ICR, increased levels of IGF2 expression, and increased interactions between the endodermal enhancer and IGF2 promoter. p68/SRA also interacts with members of the cohesin complex. Depletion of either p68 or SRA does not affect CTCF binding to its genomic sites, but does reduce cohesin binding. The results suggest that p68/SRA stabilizes the interaction of cohesin with CTCF by binding to both, and is required for proper insulator function. PMID:20966046

  9. Essential role of lncRNA binding for WDR5 maintenance of active chromatin and embryonic stem cell pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yul W; Flynn, Ryan A; Chen, Yong; Qu, Kun; Wan, Bingbing; Wang, Kevin C; Lei, Ming; Chang, Howard Y

    2014-01-01

    The WDR5 subunit of the MLL complex enforces active chromatin and can bind RNA; the relationship between these two activities is unclear. Here we identify a RNA binding pocket on WDR5, and discover a WDR5 mutant (F266A) that selectively abrogates RNA binding without affecting MLL complex assembly or catalytic activity. Complementation in ESCs shows that WDR5 F266A mutant is unable to accumulate on chromatin, and is defective in gene activation, maintenance of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation, and ESC self renewal. We identify a family of ESC messenger and lncRNAs that interact with wild type WDR5 but not F266A mutant, including several lncRNAs known to be important for ESC gene expression. These results suggest that specific RNAs are integral inputs into the WDR5-MLL complex for maintenance of the active chromatin state and embryonic stem cell fates. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02046.001 PMID:24521543

  10. The Cellular TAR RNA Binding Protein, TRBP, Promotes HIV-1 Replication Primarily by Inhibiting the Activation of Double-Stranded RNA-Dependent Kinase PKR▿

    PubMed Central

    Sanghvi, Viraj R.; Steel, Laura F.

    2011-01-01

    The TAR RNA binding protein, TRBP, is a cellular double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding protein that can promote the replication of HIV-1 through interactions with the viral TAR element as well as with cellular proteins that affect the efficiency of translation of viral transcripts. The structured TAR element, present on all viral transcripts, can impede efficient translation either by sterically blocking access of translation initiation factors to the 5′-cap or by activating the dsRNA-dependent kinase, PKR. Several mechanisms by which TRBP can facilitate translation of viral transcripts have been proposed, including the binding and unwinding of TAR and the suppression of PKR activation. Further, TRBP has been identified as a cofactor of Dicer in the processing of microRNAs (miRNAs), and sequestration of TRBP by TAR in infected cells has been proposed as a viral countermeasure to potential host cell RNA interference-based antiviral activities. Here, we have addressed the relative importance of these various roles for TRBP in HIV-1 replication. Using Jurkat T cells, primary human CD4+ T cells, and additional cultured cell lines, we show that depletion of TRBP has no effect on viral replication when PKR activation is otherwise blocked. Moreover, the presence of TAR-containing mRNAs does not affect the efficacy of cellular miRNA silencing pathways. These results establish that TRBP, when expressed at physiological levels, promotes HIV-1 replication mainly by suppressing the PKR-mediated antiviral response, while its contribution to HIV-1 replication through PKR-independent pathways is minimal. PMID:21937648

  11. TATA-box DNA binding activity and subunit composition for RNA polymerase III transcription factor IIIB from Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed Central

    McBryant, S J; Meier, E; Leresche, A; Sharp, S J; Wolf, V J; Gottesfeld, J M

    1996-01-01

    The RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor TFIIIB contains the TATA-box-binding protein (TBP) and polymerase III-specific TBP-associated factors (TAFs). Previous studies have shown that DNA oligonucleotides containing the consensus TATA-box sequence inhibit polymerase III transcription, implying that the DNA binding domain of TBP is exposed in TFIIIB. We have investigated the TATA-box DNA binding activity of Xenopus TFIIIB, using transcription inhibition assays and a gel mobility shift assay. Gel shift competition assays with mutant and nonspecific DNAs demonstrate the specificity of the TFIIIB-TATA box DNA complex. The apparent dissociation constant for this protein-DNA interaction is approximately 0.4 nM, similar to the affinity of yeast TBP for the same sequence. TFIIIB transcriptional activity and TATA-box binding activity cofractionate during a series of four ion-exchange chromatographic steps, and reconstituted transcription reactions demonstrate that the TATA-box DNA-protein complex contains TFIIIB TAF activity. Polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of 75 and 92 kDa are associated with TBP in this complex. These polypeptides were renatured after elution from sodium dodecyl sulfate-gels and tested individually and in combination for TFIIIB TAF activity. Recombinant TBP along with protein fractions containing the 75- and 92-kDa polypeptides were sufficient to reconstitute TFIIIB transcriptional activity and DNA binding activity, suggesting that Xenopus TFIIIB is composed of TBP along with these polypeptides. PMID:8756620

  12. Regulatory Interactions of Csr Components: the RNA Binding Protein CsrA Activates csrB Transcription in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Gudapaty, Seshagirirao; Suzuki, Kazushi; Wang, Xin; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2001-01-01

    The global regulator CsrA (carbon storage regulator) of Escherichia coli is a small RNA binding protein that represses various metabolic pathways and processes that are induced in the stationary phase of growth, while it activates certain exponential phase functions. Both repression and activation by CsrA involve posttranscriptional mechanisms, in which CsrA binding to mRNA leads to decreased or increased transcript stability, respectively. CsrA also binds to a small untranslated RNA, CsrB, forming a ribonucleoprotein complex, which antagonizes CsrA activity. We have further examined the regulatory interactions of CsrA and CsrB RNA. The 5′ end of the CsrB transcript was mapped, and a csrB::cam null mutant was constructed. CsrA protein and CsrB RNA levels were estimated throughout the growth curves of wild-type and isogenic csrA, csrB, rpoS, or csrA rpoS mutant strains. CsrA levels exhibited modest or negligible effects of these mutations. The intracellular concentration of CsrA exceeded the total CsrA-binding capacity of intracellular CsrB RNA. In contrast, CsrB levels were drastically decreased (∼10-fold) in the csrA mutants. CsrB transcript stability was unaffected by csrA. The expression of a csrB-lacZ transcriptional fusion containing the region from −242 to +4 bp of the csrB gene was decreased ∼20-fold by a csrA::kanR mutation in vivo but was unaffected by CsrA protein in vitro. These results reveal a significant, though most likely indirect, role for CsrA in regulating csrB transcription. Furthermore, our findings suggest that CsrA mediates an intriguing form of autoregulation, whereby its activity, but not its levels, is modulated through effects on an RNA antagonist, CsrB. PMID:11567002

  13. Structure of human cytosolic phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase: evidence for kingdom-specific design of the active sites and tRNA binding patterns.

    PubMed

    Finarov, Igal; Moor, Nina; Kessler, Naama; Klipcan, Liron; Safro, Mark G

    2010-03-10

    The existence of three types of phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS), bacterial (alphabeta)(2), eukaryotic/archaeal cytosolic (alphabeta)(2), and mitochondrial alpha, is a prominent example of structural diversity within the aaRS family. PheRSs have considerably diverged in primary sequences, domain compositions, and subunit organizations. Loss of the anticodon-binding domain B8 in human cytosolic PheRS (hcPheRS) is indicative of variations in the tRNA(Phe) binding and recognition as compared to bacterial PheRSs. We report herein the crystal structure of hcPheRS in complex with phenylalanine at 3.3 A resolution. A novel structural module has been revealed at the N terminus of the alpha subunit. It stretches out into the solvent of approximately 80 A and is made up of three structural domains (DBDs) possessing DNA-binding fold. The dramatic reduction of aminoacylation activity for truncated N terminus variants coupled with structural data and tRNA-docking model testify that DBDs play crucial role in hcPheRS activity.

  14. The bent conformation of poly(A)-binding protein induced by RNA-binding is required for its translational activation function

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ka Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Gu, Sohyun; Kim, Eunah; An, Sihyeon; Kwon, Junyoung; Jang, Sung Key

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A recent study revealed that poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) bound to poly(A) RNA exhibits a sharply bent configuration at the linker region between RNA-recognition motif 2 (RRM2) and RRM3, whereas free PABP exhibits a highly flexible linear configuration. However, the physiological role of the bent structure of mRNA-bound PABP remains unknown. We investigated a role of the bent structure of PABP by constructing a PABP variant that fails to form the poly(A)-dependent bent structure but maintains its poly(A)-binding activity. We found that the bent structure of PABP/poly(A) complex is required for PABP's efficient interaction with eIF4G and eIF4G/eIF4E complex. Moreover, the mutant PABP had compromised translation activation function and failed to augment the formation of 80S translation initiation complex in an in vitro translation system. These results suggest that the bent conformation of PABP, which is induced by the interaction with 3′ poly(A) tail, mediates poly(A)-dependent translation by facilitating the interaction with eIF4G and the eIF4G/eIF4E complex. The preferential binding of the eIF4G/eIF4E complex to the bent PABP/poly(A) complex seems to be a mechanism discriminating the mRNA-bound PABPs participating in translation from the idling mRNA-unbound PABPs. PMID:28095120

  15. The RNA-binding protein FPA regulates flg22-triggered defense responses and transcription factor activity by alternative polyadenylation.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Rebecca; Iwase, Akira; Gänsewig, Thomas; Sherstnev, Alexander; Duc, Céline; Barton, Geoffrey J; Hanada, Kousuke; Higuchi-Takeuchi, Mieko; Matsui, Minami; Sugimoto, Keiko; Kazan, Kemal; Simpson, Gordon G; Shirasu, Ken

    2013-10-09

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play an important role in plant host-microbe interactions. In this study, we show that the plant RBP known as FPA, which regulates 3'-end mRNA polyadenylation, negatively regulates basal resistance to bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis. A custom microarray analysis reveals that flg22, a peptide derived from bacterial flagellins, induces expression of alternatively polyadenylated isoforms of mRNA encoding the defence-related transcriptional repressor ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR 4 (ERF4), which is regulated by FPA. Flg22 induces expression of a novel isoform of ERF4 that lacks the ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif, while FPA inhibits this induction. The EAR-lacking isoform of ERF4 acts as a transcriptional activator in vivo and suppresses the flg22-dependent reactive oxygen species burst. We propose that FPA controls use of proximal polyadenylation sites of ERF4, which quantitatively limit the defence response output.

  16. IRP1 Ser-711 is a phosphorylation site, critical for regulation of RNA-binding and aconitase activities

    PubMed Central

    Fillebeen, Carine; Caltagirone, Annie; Martelli, Alain; Moulis, Jean-Marc; Pantopoulos, Kostas

    2005-01-01

    In iron-starved cells, IRP1 (iron regulatory protein 1) binds to mRNA iron-responsive elements and controls their translation or stability. In response to increased iron levels, RNA-binding is inhibited on assembly of a cubane [4Fe-4S] cluster, which renders IRP1 to a cytosolic aconitase. Phosphorylation at conserved serine residues may also regulate the activities of IRP1. We demonstrate that Ser-711 is a phosphorylation site in HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney 293 cells) treated with PMA, and we study the effects of the S711E (Ser-711→Glu) mutation on IRP1 functions. A highly purified preparation of recombinant IRP1S711E displays negligible IRE-binding and aconitase activities. It appears that the first step in the aconitase reaction (conversion of citrate into the intermediate cis-aconitate) is more severely affected, as recombinant IRP1S711E retains approx. 45% of its capacity to catalyse the conversion of cis-aconitate into the end-product isocitrate. When expressed in mammalian cells, IRP1S711E completely fails to bind to RNA and to generate isocitrate from citrate. We demonstrate that the apparent inactivation of IRP1S711E is not related to mutation-associated protein misfolding or to alterations in its stability. Sequence analysis of IRP1 from all species currently deposited in protein databases shows that Ser-711 and flanking sequences are highly conserved in the evolutionary scale. Our results suggest that Ser-711 is a critical residue for the control of IRP1 activities. PMID:15636585

  17. IRP1 Ser-711 is a phosphorylation site, critical for regulation of RNA-binding and aconitase activities.

    PubMed

    Fillebeen, Carine; Caltagirone, Annie; Martelli, Alain; Moulis, Jean-Marc; Pantopoulos, Kostas

    2005-05-15

    In iron-starved cells, IRP1 (iron regulatory protein 1) binds to mRNA iron-responsive elements and controls their translation or stability. In response to increased iron levels, RNA-binding is inhibited on assembly of a cubane [4Fe-4S] cluster, which renders IRP1 to a cytosolic aconitase. Phosphorylation at conserved serine residues may also regulate the activities of IRP1. We demonstrate that Ser-711 is a phosphorylation site in HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney 293 cells) treated with PMA, and we study the effects of the S711E (Ser-711-->Glu) mutation on IRP1 functions. A highly purified preparation of recombinant IRP1(S711E) displays negligible IRE-binding and aconitase activities. It appears that the first step in the aconitase reaction (conversion of citrate into the intermediate cis-aconitate) is more severely affected, as recombinant IRP1(S711E) retains approx. 45% of its capacity to catalyse the conversion of cis-aconitate into the end-product isocitrate. When expressed in mammalian cells, IRP1(S711E) completely fails to bind to RNA and to generate isocitrate from citrate. We demonstrate that the apparent inactivation of IRP1(S711E) is not related to mutation-associated protein misfolding or to alterations in its stability. Sequence analysis of IRP1 from all species currently deposited in protein databases shows that Ser-711 and flanking sequences are highly conserved in the evolutionary scale. Our results suggest that Ser-711 is a critical residue for the control of IRP1 activities.

  18. The RNA-binding protein bicaudal C regulates polycystin 2 in the kidney by antagonizing miR-17 activity

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Uyen; Zakin, Lise; Schweickert, Axel; Agrawal, Raman; Döger, Remziye; Blum, Martin; De Robertis, E. M.; Wessely, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein Bicaudal C is an important regulator of embryonic development in C. elegans, Drosophila and Xenopus. In mouse, bicaudal C (Bicc1) mutants are characterized by the formation of fluid-filled cysts in the kidney and by expansion of epithelial ducts in liver and pancreas. This phenotype is reminiscent of human forms of polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Here, we now provide data that Bicc1 functions by modulating the expression of polycystin 2 (Pkd2), a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily. Molecular analyses demonstrate that Bicc1 acts as a post-transcriptional regulator upstream of Pkd2. It regulates the stability of Pkd2 mRNA and its translation efficiency. Bicc1 antagonized the repressive activity of the miR-17 microRNA family on the 3′UTR of Pkd2 mRNA. This was substantiated in Xenopus, in which the pronephric defects of bicc1 knockdowns were rescued by reducing miR-17 activity. At the cellular level, Bicc1 protein is localized to cytoplasmic foci that are positive for the P-body markers GW182 and HEDLs. Based on these data, we propose that the kidney phenotype in Bicc1−/− mutant mice is caused by dysregulation of a microRNA-based translational control mechanism. PMID:20215348

  19. Interaction between the tRNA-Binding and C-Terminal Domains of Yeast Gcn2 Regulates Kinase Activity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lageix, Sebastien; Zhang, Jinwei; Rothenburg, Stefan; Hinnebusch, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    The stress-activated protein kinase Gcn2 regulates protein synthesis by phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2α. Gcn2 is activated in amino acid-deprived cells by binding of uncharged tRNA to the regulatory domain related to histidyl-tRNA synthetase, but the molecular mechanism of activation is unclear. We used a genetic approach to identify a key regulatory surface in Gcn2 that is proximal to the predicted active site of the HisRS domain and likely remodeled by tRNA binding. Mutations leading to amino acid substitutions on this surface were identified that activate Gcn2 at low levels of tRNA binding (Gcd- phenotype), while other substitutions block kinase activation (Gcn- phenotype), in some cases without altering tRNA binding by Gcn2 in vitro. Remarkably, the Gcn- substitutions increase affinity of the HisRS domain for the C-terminal domain (CTD), previously implicated as a kinase autoinhibitory segment, in a manner dampened by HisRS domain Gcd- substitutions and by amino acid starvation in vivo. Moreover, tRNA specifically antagonizes HisRS/CTD association in vitro. These findings support a model wherein HisRS-CTD interaction facilitates the autoinhibitory function of the CTD in nonstarvation conditions, with tRNA binding eliciting kinase activation by weakening HisRS-CTD association with attendant disruption of the autoinhibitory KD-CTD interaction. PMID:25695491

  20. TDP-43-Mediated Neuron Loss In Vivo Requires RNA-Binding Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kavita; Müller, Daniel; Karsten, Peter; Weber, Stephanie S.; Kahle, Philipp J.; Marquardt, Till; Schulz, Jörg B.

    2010-01-01

    Alteration and/or mutations of the ribonucleoprotein TDP-43 have been firmly linked to human neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). The relative impacts of TDP-43 alteration, mutation, or inherent protein function on neural integrity, however, remain less clear—a situation confounded by conflicting reports based on transient and/or random-insertion transgenic expression. We therefore performed a stringent comparative investigation of impacts of these TDP-43 modifications on neural integrity in vivo. To achieve this, we systematically screened ALS/FTLD-associated and synthetic TDP-43 isoforms via same-site gene insertion and neural expression in Drosophila; followed by transposon-based motor neuron-specific transgenesis in a chick vertebrate system. Using this bi-systemic approach we uncovered a requirement of inherent TDP-43 RNA-binding function—but not ALS/FTLD-linked mutation, mislocalization, or truncation—for TDP-43-mediated neurotoxicity in vivo. PMID:20806063

  1. RNA binding protein Pub1p regulates glycerol production and stress tolerance by controlling Gpd1p activity during winemaking.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Helena; Sepúlveda, Ana; Picazo, Cecilia; Matallana, Emilia; Aranda, Agustín

    2016-06-01

    Glycerol is a key yeast metabolite in winemaking because it contributes to improve the organoleptic properties of wine. It is also a cellular protective molecule that enhances the tolerance of yeasts to osmotic stress and promotes longevity. Thus, its production increases by genetic manipulation, which is of biotechnological and basic interest. Glycerol is produced by diverting glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate through the action of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (coded by genes GPD1 and GPD2). Here, we demonstrate that RNA-binding protein Pub1p regulates glycerol production by controlling Gpd1p activity. Its deletion does not alter GPD1 mRNA levels, but protein levels and enzymatic activity increase, which explains the higher intracellular glycerol concentration and greater tolerance to osmotic stress of the pub1∆ mutant. PUB1 deletion also enhances the activity of nicotinamidase, a longevity-promoting enzyme. Both enzymatic activities are partially located in peroxisomes, and we detected peroxisome formation during wine fermentation. The role of Pub1p in life span control depends on nutrient conditions and is related with the TOR pathway, and a major connection between RNA metabolism and the nutrient signaling response is established.

  2. Data of protein-RNA binding sites.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wook; Park, Byungkyu; Choi, Daesik; Han, Kyungsook

    2017-02-01

    Despite the increasing number of protein-RNA complexes in structure databases, few data resources have been made available which can be readily used in developing or testing a method for predicting either protein-binding sites in RNA sequences or RNA-binding sites in protein sequences. The problem of predicting protein-binding sites in RNA has received much less attention than the problem of predicting RNA-binding sites in protein. The data presented in this paper are related to the article entitled "PRIdictor: Protein-RNA Interaction predictor" (Tuvshinjargal et al. 2016) [1]. PRIdictor can predict protein-binding sites in RNA as well as RNA-binding sites in protein at the nucleotide- and residue-levels. This paper presents four datasets that were used to test four prediction models of PRIdictor: (1) model RP for predicting protein-binding sites in RNA from protein and RNA sequences, (2) model RaP for predicting protein-binding sites in RNA from RNA sequence alone, (3) model PR for predicting RNA-binding sites in protein from protein and RNA sequences, and (4) model PaR for predicting RNA-binding sites in protein from protein sequence alone. The datasets supplied in this article can be used as a valuable resource to evaluate and compare different methods for predicting protein-RNA binding sites.

  3. Key Importance of Small RNA Binding for the Activity of a Glycine-Tryptophan (GW) Motif-containing Viral Suppressor of RNA Silencing*

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Cañamás, Miryam; Hernández, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Viruses express viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) to counteract RNA silencing-based host defenses. Although virtually all stages of the antiviral silencing pathway can be inhibited by VSRs, small RNAs (sRNAs) and Argonaute (AGO) proteins seem to be the most frequent targets. Recently, GW/WG motifs of some VSRs have been proposed to dictate their suppressor function by mediating interaction with AGO(s). Here we have studied the VSR encoded by Pelargonium line pattern virus (family Tombusviridae). The results show that p37, the viral coat protein, blocks RNA silencing. Site-directed mutagenesis of some p37 sequence traits, including a conserved GW motif, allowed generation of suppressor-competent and -incompetent molecules and uncoupling of the VSR and particle assembly capacities. The engineered mutants were used to assess the importance of p37 functions for viral infection and the relative contribution of diverse molecular interactions to suppressor activity. Two main conclusions can be drawn: (i) the silencing suppression and encapsidation functions of p37 are both required for systemic Pelargonium line pattern virus infection, and (ii) the suppressor activity of p37 relies on the ability to bind sRNAs rather than on interaction with AGOs. The data also caution against potential misinterpretations of results due to overlap of sequence signals related to distinct protein properties. This is well illustrated by mutation of the GW motif in p37 that concurrently affects nucleolar localization, efficient interaction with AGO1, and sRNA binding capability. These concomitant effects could have been overlooked in other GW motif-containing suppressors, as we exemplify with the orthologous p38 of turnip crinkle virus. PMID:25505185

  4. Proteasomal Activity Is Required to Initiate and to Sustain Translational Activation of Messenger RNA Encoding the Stem-Loop-Binding Protein During Meiotic Maturation in Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qin; Allard, Patrick; Huang, Michael; Zhang, Wenling; Clarke, Hugh J.

    2009-01-01

    Developmentally regulated translation plays a key role in controlling gene expression during oogenesis. In particular, numerous mRNA species are translationally repressed in growing oocytes and become translationally activated during meiotic maturation. While many studies have focused on a U-rich sequence, termed the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE), located in the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) and the CPE-binding protein (CPEB) 1, multiple mechanisms likely contribute to translational control in oocytes. The stem-loop-binding protein (SLBP) is expressed in growing oocytes, where it is required for the accumulation of nonpolyadenylated histone mRNAs, and then accumulates substantially during meiotic maturation. We report that, in immature oocytes, Slbp mRNA carries a short poly(A) tail, and is weakly translated, and that a CPE-like sequence in the 3′-UTR is required to maintain this low activity. During maturation, Slbp mRNA becomes polyadenylated and translationally activated. Unexpectedly, proteasomal activity is required both to initiate and to sustain translational activation. This proteasomal activity is not required for the polyadenylation of Slbp mRNA during early maturation; however, it is required for a subsequent deadenylation of the mRNA that occurs during late maturation. Moreover, although CPEB1 is degraded during maturation, inhibiting its degradation by blocking mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/3 activity does not prevent the accumulation of SLBP, indicating that CPEB1 is not the protein whose degradation is required for translational activation of Slbp mRNA. These results identify a new role for proteasomal activity in initiating and sustaining translational activation during meiotic maturation. PMID:19759367

  5. Curcumin binding to DNA and RNA.

    PubMed

    Nafisi, Shohreh; Adelzadeh, Maryam; Norouzi, Zeinab; Sarbolouki, Mohammad Nabi

    2009-04-01

    Curcumin, the yellow pigment from the rhizoma of Curcuma longa, is a widely studied phytochemical with a variety of biological activities. The ongoing research and clinical trials have proved that this natural phenolic compound has great and diverse pharmacological potencies. Beside its effective antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antimicrobial/antiviral properties, curcumin is also considered as a cancer chemopreventive agent. While the antioxidant activity of curcumin is well documented, its interaction with DNA and RNA is not fully investigated. This study was designed to examine the interactions of curcumin with calf thymus DNA and yeast RNA in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using constant DNA and RNA concentration (6.25 mM) and various curcumin/polynucleotide (phosphate) ratios of 1/120, 1/80, 1/40, 1/20, and 1/10. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-visible spectroscopic methods were used to determine the ligand binding modes, the binding constants, and the stability of curcumin-DNA and curcumin-RNA complexes in aqueous solution. Spectroscopic evidence showed that curcumin binds to the major and minor grooves of DNA duplex and to RNA bases as well as to the back bone phosphate group with overall binding constants of K(curcumin-DNA) = 4.255 x 10(4) M(-1) and K(curcumin-RNA) = 1.262 x 10(4) M(-1). Major DNA and RNA aggregation occurred at high pigment concentration. No conformational changes were observed upon curcumin interaction with these biopolymers; that is, DNA remains in the B, and RNA retains its A-family structure.

  6. Developmental regulation of collagenase-3 mRNA in normal, differentiating osteoblasts through the activator protein-1 and the runt domain binding sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winchester, S. K.; Selvamurugan, N.; D'Alonzo, R. C.; Partridge, N. C.

    2000-01-01

    Collagenase-3 mRNA is initially detectable when osteoblasts cease proliferation, increasing during differentiation and mineralization. We showed that this developmental expression is due to an increase in collagenase-3 gene transcription. Mutation of either the activator protein-1 or the runt domain binding site decreased collagenase-3 promoter activity, demonstrating that these sites are responsible for collagenase-3 gene transcription. The activator protein-1 and runt domain binding sites bind members of the activator protein-1 and core-binding factor family of transcription factors, respectively. We identified core-binding factor a1 binding to the runt domain binding site and JunD in addition to a Fos-related antigen binding to the activator protein-1 site. Overexpression of both c-Fos and c-Jun in osteoblasts or core-binding factor a1 increased collagenase-3 promoter activity. Furthermore, overexpression of c-Fos, c-Jun, and core-binding factor a1 synergistically increased collagenase-3 promoter activity. Mutation of either the activator protein-1 or the runt domain binding site resulted in the inability of c-Fos and c-Jun or core-binding factor a1 to increase collagenase-3 promoter activity, suggesting that there is cooperative interaction between the sites and the proteins. Overexpression of Fra-2 and JunD repressed core-binding factor a1-induced collagenase-3 promoter activity. Our results suggest that members of the activator protein-1 and core-binding factor families, binding to the activator protein-1 and runt domain binding sites are responsible for the developmental regulation of collagenase-3 gene expression in osteoblasts.

  7. Developmental regulation of collagenase-3 mRNA in normal, differentiating osteoblasts through the activator protein-1 and the runt domain binding sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winchester, S. K.; Selvamurugan, N.; D'Alonzo, R. C.; Partridge, N. C.

    2000-01-01

    Collagenase-3 mRNA is initially detectable when osteoblasts cease proliferation, increasing during differentiation and mineralization. We showed that this developmental expression is due to an increase in collagenase-3 gene transcription. Mutation of either the activator protein-1 or the runt domain binding site decreased collagenase-3 promoter activity, demonstrating that these sites are responsible for collagenase-3 gene transcription. The activator protein-1 and runt domain binding sites bind members of the activator protein-1 and core-binding factor family of transcription factors, respectively. We identified core-binding factor a1 binding to the runt domain binding site and JunD in addition to a Fos-related antigen binding to the activator protein-1 site. Overexpression of both c-Fos and c-Jun in osteoblasts or core-binding factor a1 increased collagenase-3 promoter activity. Furthermore, overexpression of c-Fos, c-Jun, and core-binding factor a1 synergistically increased collagenase-3 promoter activity. Mutation of either the activator protein-1 or the runt domain binding site resulted in the inability of c-Fos and c-Jun or core-binding factor a1 to increase collagenase-3 promoter activity, suggesting that there is cooperative interaction between the sites and the proteins. Overexpression of Fra-2 and JunD repressed core-binding factor a1-induced collagenase-3 promoter activity. Our results suggest that members of the activator protein-1 and core-binding factor families, binding to the activator protein-1 and runt domain binding sites are responsible for the developmental regulation of collagenase-3 gene expression in osteoblasts.

  8. Bluetongue virus VP6 protein binds ATP and exhibits an RNA-dependent ATPase function and a helicase activity that catalyze the unwinding of double-stranded RNA substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Stäuber, N; Martinez-Costas, J; Sutton, G; Monastyrskaya, K; Roy, P

    1997-01-01

    RNA-dependent ATPase and helicase activities have been identified associated with the purified VP6 protein of bluetongue virus, a member of the Orbivirus genus of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA; Reoviridae family) viruses. In addition, the protein has an ATP binding activity. RNA unwinding of duplexes occurred with both 3' and 5' overhang templates, as well as with blunt-ended dsRNA, an activity not previously identified in other viral helicases. Although little sequence similarity to other helicases was detected, certain similarities to motifs commonly attributed to such proteins were identified. PMID:9311795

  9. Engineering RNA-binding proteins for biology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Varani, Gabriele

    2013-08-01

    RNA-binding proteins play essential roles in the regulation of gene expression. Many have modular structures and combine relatively few common domains in various arrangements to recognize RNA sequences and/or structures. Recent progress in engineering the specificity of the PUF class RNA-binding proteins has shown that RNA-binding domains may be combined with various effector or functional domains to regulate the metabolism of targeted RNAs. Designer RNA-binding proteins with tailored sequence specificity will provide valuable tools for biochemical research as well as potential therapeutic applications. In this review, we discuss the suitability of various RNA-binding domains for engineering RNA-binding specificity, based on the structural basis for their recognition. We also compare various protein engineering and design methods applied to RNA-binding proteins, and discuss future applications of these proteins.

  10. Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR of fishes and amphibians: Varying the number of double-stranded RNA binding domains and lineage-specific duplications

    PubMed Central

    Rothenburg, Stefan; Deigendesch, Nikolaus; Dey, Madhusudan; Dever, Thomas E; Tazi, Loubna

    2008-01-01

    Background Double-stranded (ds) RNA, generated during viral infection, binds and activates the mammalian anti-viral protein kinase PKR, which phosphorylates the translation initiation factor eIF2α leading to the general inhibition of protein synthesis. Although PKR-like activity has been described in fish cells, the responsible enzymes eluded molecular characterization until the recent discovery of goldfish and zebrafish PKZ, which contain Z-DNA-binding domains instead of dsRNA-binding domains (dsRBDs). Fish and amphibian PKR genes have not been described so far. Results Here we report the cloning and identification of 13 PKR genes from 8 teleost fish and amphibian species, including zebrafish, demonstrating the coexistence of PKR and PKZ in this latter species. Analyses of their genomic organization revealed up to three tandemly arrayed PKR genes, which are arranged in head-to-tail orientation. At least five duplications occurred independently in fish and amphibian lineages. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that the kinase domains of fish PKR genes are more closely related to those of fish PKZ than to the PKR kinase domains of other vertebrate species. The duplication leading to fish PKR and PKZ genes occurred early during teleost fish evolution after the divergence of the tetrapod lineage. While two dsRBDs are found in mammalian and amphibian PKR, one, two or three dsRBDs are present in fish PKR. In zebrafish, both PKR and PKZ were strongly upregulated after immunostimulation with some tissue-specific expression differences. Using genetic and biochemical assays we demonstrate that both zebrafish PKR and PKZ can phosphorylate eIF2α in yeast. Conclusion Considering the important role for PKR in host defense against viruses, the independent duplication and fixation of PKR genes in different lineages probably provided selective advantages by leading to the recognition of an extended spectrum of viral nucleic acid structures, including both dsRNA and Z-DNA/RNA, and

  11. Metazoan Maelstrom is an RNA-binding protein that has evolved from an ancient nuclease active in protists.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Ming; Campbell, Edgar; Pandey, Radha Raman; Yang, Zhaolin; McCarthy, Andrew A; Pillai, Ramesh S

    2015-05-01

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) guide Piwi argonautes to their transposon targets for silencing. The highly conserved protein Maelstrom is linked to both piRNA biogenesis and effector roles in this pathway. One defining feature of Maelstrom is the predicted MAEL domain of unknown molecular function. Here, we present the first crystal structure of the MAEL domain from Bombyx Maelstrom, which reveals a nuclease fold. The overall architecture resembles that found in Mg(2+)- or Mn(2+)-dependent DEDD nucleases, but a clear distinguishing feature is the presence of a structural Zn(2+) ion coordinated by the conserved ECHC residues. Strikingly, metazoan Maelstrom orthologs across the animal kingdom lack the catalytic DEDD residues, and as we show for Bombyx Maelstrom are inactive as nucleases. However, a MAEL domain-containing protein from amoeba having both sequence motifs (DEDD and ECHC) is robustly active as an exoribonuclease. Finally, we show that the MAEL domain of Bombyx Maelstrom displays a strong affinity for single-stranded RNAs. Our studies suggest that the ancient MAEL nuclease domain evolved to function as an RNA-binding module in metazoan Maelstrom. © 2015 Chen et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  12. CMT2D neuropathy is linked to the neomorphic binding activity of glycyl-tRNA synthetase

    PubMed Central

    He, Weiwei; Bai, Ge; Zhou, Huihao; Wei, Na; White, Nicholas M.; Lauer, Janelle; Liu, Huaqing; Shi, Yi; Dumitru, Calin Dan; Lettieri, Karen; Shubayev, Veronica; Jordanova, Albena; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Griffin, Patrick R.; Burgess, Robert W.; Pfaff, Samuel L.; Yang, Xiang-Lei

    2015-01-01

    Summary Selective neuronal loss is a hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases, which counter-intuitively are often caused by mutations in widely-expressed genes1. Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) diseases are the most common hereditary peripheral neuropathies, for which there are no effective therapies2,3. A subtype of the diseases—CMT2D—is caused by dominant mutations in GARS, encoding the ubiquitously expressed enzyme glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS). Despite the broad requirement of GlyRS for protein biosynthesis in all cells, mutations in this gene cause a selective degeneration of peripheral axons leading to deficits in distal motor function4. How mutations in GlyRS (GlyRSCMT2D) are linked to motor neuron vulnerability has remained elusive. Here we report that GlyRSCMT2D acquires a neomorphic binding activity that directly antagonizes an essential signaling pathway for motor neuron survival. We find that CMT2D mutations alter the conformation of GlyRS, enabling GlyRSCMT2D to bind the Neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) receptor. This aberrant interaction competitively interferes with the binding of the cognate ligand vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to Nrp1. Genetic reduction of Nrp1 in mice worsens CMT2D symptoms, whereas enhanced expression of VEGF improves motor function. These findings link the selective pathology of CMT2D to the neomorphic binding activity of GlyRSCMT2D that antagonizes the VEGF/Nrp1 interaction, and indicate the VEGF/Nrp1 signaling axis is an actionable target for treating CMT2D. PMID:26503042

  13. The cellular factor TRP-185 regulates RNA polymerase II binding to HIV-1 TAR RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Wu-Baer, F; Lane, W S; Gaynor, R B

    1995-01-01

    Activation of HIV-1 gene expression by the transactivator Tat is dependent on an RNA regulatory element located downstream of the transcription initiation site known as TAR. To characterize cellular factors that bind to TAR RNA and are involved in the regulation of HIV-1 transcription, HeLa nuclear extract was fractionated and RNA gel-retardation analysis was performed. This analysis indicated that only two cellular factors, RNA polymerase II and the previously characterized TAR RNA loop binding protein TRP-185, were capable of binding specifically to TAR RNA. To elucidate the function of TRP-185, it was purified from HeLa nuclear extract, amino acid microsequence analysis was performed and a cDNA encoding TRP-185 was isolated. TRP-185 is a novel protein of 1621 amino acids which contains a leucine zipper and potentially a novel RNA binding motif. In gel-retardation assays, the binding of both recombinant TRP-185 and RNA polymerase II was dependent on the presence of an additional group of proteins designated cellular cofactors. Both the TAR RNA loop and bulge sequences were critical for RNA polymerase II binding, while TRP-185 binding was dependent only on TAR RNA loop sequences. Since binding of TRP-185 and RNA polymerase II to TAR RNA was found to be mutually exclusive, our results suggest that TRP-185 may function either alone or in conjunction with Tat to disengage RNA polymerase II which is stalled upon binding to nascently synthesized TAR RNA during transcriptional elongation. Images PMID:8846792

  14. RNA binding and replication by the poliovirus RNA polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Oberste, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    RNA binding and RNA synthesis by the poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase were studied in vitro using purified polymerase. Templates for binding and RNA synthesis studies were natural RNAs, homopolymeric RNAs, or subgenomic poliovirus-specific RNAs synthesized in vitro from cDNA clones using SP6 or T7 RNA polymerases. The binding of the purified polymerase to poliovirion and other RNAs was studied using a protein-RNA nitrocellulose filter binding assay. A cellular poly(A)-binding protein was found in the viral polymerase preparations, but was easily separated from the polymerase by chromatography on poly(A) Sepharose. The binding of purified polymerase to {sup 32}P-labeled ribohomopolymeric RNAs was examined, and the order of binding observed was poly(G) >>> poly(U) > poly(C) > poly(A). The K{sub a} for polymerase binding to poliovirion RNA and to a full-length negative strand transcript was about 1 {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1}. The polymerase binds to a subgenomic RNAs which contain the 3{prime} end of the genome with a K{sub a} similar to that for virion RNA, but binds less well to 18S rRNA, globin mRNA, and subgenomic RNAs which lack portions of the 3{prime} noncoding region.

  15. Small Alarmone Synthetases as novel bacterial RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Hauryliuk, Vasili; Atkinson, Gemma C

    2017-08-18

    The alarmone nucleotides guanosine pentaphosphate (pppGpp) and tetraphosphate (ppGpp), collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp, are key regulators of bacterial growth, stress adaptation, antibiotic tolerance and pathogenicity. We have recently shown that the Small Alarmone Synthetase (SAS) RelQ from the Gram-positive pathogen Enterococcus faecalis has an RNA-binding activity (Beljantseva et al. 2017). RelQ's activities as an enzyme and as a RNA-binding protein are mutually incompatible: binding of single-stranded RNA potently inhibits (p)ppGpp synthesis in a sequence-specific manner, and RelQ's enzymatic activity destabilizes the RNA:RelQ complex. RelQ's allosteric regulator, pppGpp, destabilizes RNA binding and activates RelQ's enzymatic activity. Since SAS enzymes are widely distributed in bacteria, and, as it has been discovered recently, are also mobilized by phages (Dedrick et al. 2017), RNA binding to SAS is could be a wide-spread mechanism. The initial discovery raises numerous questions regarding RNA-binding function of the SAS enzymes: What is the molecular mechanism underlying the incompatibility of RNA:SAS complex formation with pppGpp binding and (p)ppGpp synthesis? What are the RNA targets in living cells? What is the regulatory output of the system - (p)ppGpp synthesis, modulation of RNA structure and function, or both?

  16. Overexpression of SERBP1 (Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 RNA binding protein) in human breast cancer is correlated with favourable prognosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) overexpression is an important prognostic and predictive biomarker in human breast cancer. SERBP1, a protein that is supposed to regulate the stability of PAI-1 mRNA, may play a role in gynaecological cancers as well, since upregulation of SERBP1 was described in ovarian cancer recently. This is the first study to present a systematic characterisation of SERBP1 expression in human breast cancer and normal breast tissue at both the mRNA and the protein level. Methods Using semiquantitative realtime PCR we analysed SERBP1 expression in different normal human tissues (n = 25), and in matched pairs of normal (n = 7) and cancerous breast tissues (n = 7). SERBP1 protein expression was analysed in two independent cohorts on tissue microarrays (TMAs), an initial evaluation set, consisting of 193 breast carcinomas and 48 normal breast tissues, and a second large validation set, consisting of 605 breast carcinomas. In addition, a collection of benign (n = 2) and malignant (n = 6) mammary cell lines as well as breast carcinoma lysates (n = 16) were investigated for SERBP1 expression by Western blot analysis. Furthermore, applying non-radioisotopic in situ hybridisation a subset of normal (n = 10) and cancerous (n = 10) breast tissue specimens from the initial TMA were analysed for SERBP1 mRNA expression. Results SERBP1 is not differentially expressed in breast carcinoma compared to normal breast tissue, both at the RNA and protein level. However, recurrence-free survival analysis showed a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between abundant SERBP1 expression in breast carcinoma and favourable prognosis. Interestingly, overall survival analysis also displayed a tendency (P = 0.09) towards favourable prognosis when SERBP1 was overexpressed in breast cancer. Conclusions The RNA-binding protein SERBP1 is abundantly expressed in human breast cancer and may represent a novel breast tumour

  17. Metazoan Maelstrom is an RNA-binding protein that has evolved from an ancient nuclease active in protists

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuan-Ming; Campbell, Edgar; Pandey, Radha Raman; Yang, Zhaolin; McCarthy, Andrew A.; Pillai, Ramesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) guide Piwi argonautes to their transposon targets for silencing. The highly conserved protein Maelstrom is linked to both piRNA biogenesis and effector roles in this pathway. One defining feature of Maelstrom is the predicted MAEL domain of unknown molecular function. Here, we present the first crystal structure of the MAEL domain from Bombyx Maelstrom, which reveals a nuclease fold. The overall architecture resembles that found in Mg2+- or Mn2+-dependent DEDD nucleases, but a clear distinguishing feature is the presence of a structural Zn2+ ion coordinated by the conserved ECHC residues. Strikingly, metazoan Maelstrom orthologs across the animal kingdom lack the catalytic DEDD residues, and as we show for Bombyx Maelstrom are inactive as nucleases. However, a MAEL domain-containing protein from amoeba having both sequence motifs (DEDD and ECHC) is robustly active as an exoribonuclease. Finally, we show that the MAEL domain of Bombyx Maelstrom displays a strong affinity for single-stranded RNAs. Our studies suggest that the ancient MAEL nuclease domain evolved to function as an RNA-binding module in metazoan Maelstrom. PMID:25778731

  18. DNA Mutagenic Activity and Capacity for HIV-1 Restriction of the Cytidine Deaminase APOBEC3G Depends on Whether DNA or RNA Binds to Tyrosine 315.

    PubMed

    Polevoda, Bogdan; Joseph, Rebecca; Friedman, Alan E; Bennett, Ryan P; Greiner, Rebecca; De Zoysa, Thareendra; Stewart, Ryan A; Smith, Harold C

    2017-04-05

    APOBEC3G (A3G) belongs to the AID/APOBEC protein family of cytidine deaminases (CDA) that bind to nucleic acids. A3G mutates the HIV genome by deamination of dC to dU, leading to accumulation of virus-inactivating mutations. Binding to cellular RNAs inhibits A3G binding to substrate single-stranded (ss) DNA and CDA activity. RNA and ssDNA bind to the same three A3G tryptic peptides (amino acids 181-194, 314-320, and 345-374) that form parts of a continuously exposed protein surface extending from the catalytic domain in the C-terminus of A3G to its N-terminus. We show here that the A3G tyrosines 181 and 315 directly cross-link ssDNA. Binding experiments showed that a Y315A mutation alone significantly reduced A3G binding to both ssDNA and RNA, whereas Y181A and Y182A mutations only moderately affected A3G nucleic acid binding. Consistent with these findings, the Y315A mutant exhibited little to no deaminase activity in an E. coli DNA mutator reporter, while Y181A and Y182A mutants retained ~50% of wild-type A3G activity. The Y315A mutant also showed a markedly reduced ability to assemble into viral particles and had reduced antiviral activity. In uninfected cells, the impaired RNA-binding capacity of Y315A was evident by a shift of A3G from high-molecular-mass ribonucleoprotein complexes to low-molecular-mass complexes. We conclude that Y315 is essential for coordinating ssDNA interaction with or entry to the deaminase domain and hypothesize that RNA bound to Y315 may be sufficient to competitively inhibit ssDNA deaminase-dependent antiviral activity.

  19. Native mitochondrial RNA-binding complexes in kinetoplastid RNA editing differ in guide RNA composition.

    PubMed

    Madina, Bhaskara R; Kumar, Vikas; Metz, Richard; Mooers, Blaine H M; Bundschuh, Ralf; Cruz-Reyes, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial mRNAs in kinetoplastids require extensive U-insertion/deletion editing that progresses 3'-to-5' in small blocks, each directed by a guide RNA (gRNA), and exhibits substrate and developmental stage-specificity by unsolved mechanisms. Here, we address compositionally related factors, collectively known as the mitochondrial RNA-binding complex 1 (MRB1) or gRNA-binding complex (GRBC), that contain gRNA, have a dynamic protein composition, and transiently associate with several mitochondrial factors including RNA editing core complexes (RECC) and ribosomes. MRB1 controls editing by still unknown mechanisms. We performed the first next-generation sequencing study of native subcomplexes of MRB1, immunoselected via either RNA helicase 2 (REH2), that binds RNA and associates with unwinding activity, or MRB3010, that affects an early editing step. The particles contain either REH2 or MRB3010 but share the core GAP1 and other proteins detected by RNA photo-crosslinking. Analyses of the first editing blocks indicate an enrichment of several initiating gRNAs in the MRB3010-purified complex. Our data also indicate fast evolution of mRNA 3' ends and strain-specific alternative 3' editing within 3' UTR or C-terminal protein-coding sequence that could impact mitochondrial physiology. Moreover, we found robust specific copurification of edited and pre-edited mRNAs, suggesting that these particles may bind both mRNA and gRNA editing substrates. We propose that multiple subcomplexes of MRB1 with different RNA/protein composition serve as a scaffold for specific assembly of editing substrates and RECC, thereby forming the editing holoenzyme. The MRB3010-subcomplex may promote early editing through its preferential recruitment of initiating gRNAs. © 2014 Madina et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  20. Drosophila Nanos acts as a molecular clamp that modulates the RNA-binding and repression activities of Pumilio

    PubMed Central

    Weidmann, Chase A; Qiu, Chen; Arvola, René M; Lou, Tzu-Fang; Killingsworth, Jordan; Campbell, Zachary T; Tanaka Hall, Traci M; Goldstrohm, Aaron C

    2016-01-01

    Collaboration among the multitude of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) is ubiquitous, yet our understanding of these key regulatory complexes has been limited to single RBPs. We investigated combinatorial translational regulation by Drosophila Pumilio (Pum) and Nanos (Nos), which control development, fertility, and neuronal functions. Our results show how the specificity of one RBP (Pum) is modulated by cooperative RNA recognition with a second RBP (Nos) to synergistically repress mRNAs. Crystal structures of Nos-Pum-RNA complexes reveal that Nos embraces Pum and RNA, contributes sequence-specific contacts, and increases Pum RNA-binding affinity. Nos shifts the recognition sequence and promotes repression complex formation on mRNAs that are not stably bound by Pum alone, explaining the preponderance of sub-optimal Pum sites regulated in vivo. Our results illuminate the molecular mechanism of a regulatory switch controlling crucial gene expression programs, and provide a framework for understanding how the partnering of RBPs evokes changes in binding specificity that underlie regulatory network dynamics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17096.001 PMID:27482653

  1. Drosophila Nanos acts as a molecular clamp that modulates the RNA-binding and repression activities of Pumilio

    DOE PAGES

    Weidmann, Chase A.; Qiu, Chen; Arvola, René M.; ...

    2016-08-02

    Collaboration among the multitude of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) is ubiquitous, yet our understanding of these key regulatory complexes has been limited to single RBPs. We investigated combinatorial translational regulation by Drosophila Pumilio (Pum) and Nanos (Nos), which control development, fertility, and neuronal functions. Our results show how the specificity of one RBP (Pum) is modulated by cooperative RNA recognition with a second RBP (Nos) to synergistically repress mRNAs. Crystal structures of Nos-Pum-RNA complexes reveal that Nos embraces Pum and RNA, contributes sequence-specific contacts, and increases Pum RNA-binding affinity. Nos shifts the recognition sequence and promotes repression complex formation onmore » mRNAs that are not stably bound by Pum alone, explaining the preponderance of sub-optimal Pum sites regulated in vivo . Our results illuminate the molecular mechanism of a regulatory switch controlling crucial gene expression programs, and provide a framework for understanding how the partnering of RBPs evokes changes in binding specificity that underlie regulatory network dynamics.« less

  2. Staufen2 functions in Staufen1-mediated mRNA decay by binding to itself and its paralog and promoting UPF1 helicase but not ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Eonyoung; Gleghorn, Michael L; Maquat, Lynne E

    2013-01-08

    Staufen (STAU)1-mediated mRNA decay (SMD) is a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in mammals that degrades mRNAs harboring a STAU1-binding site (SBS) in their 3'-untranslated regions (3' UTRs). We show that SMD involves not only STAU1 but also its paralog STAU2. STAU2, like STAU1, is a double-stranded RNA-binding protein that interacts directly with the ATP-dependent RNA helicase up-frameshift 1 (UPF1) to reduce the half-life of SMD targets that form an SBS by either intramolecular or intermolecular base-pairing. Compared with STAU1, STAU2 binds ~10-fold more UPF1 and ~two- to fivefold more of those SBS-containing mRNAs that were tested, and it comparably promotes UPF1 helicase activity, which is critical for SMD. STAU1- or STAU2-mediated augmentation of UPF1 helicase activity is not accompanied by enhanced ATP hydrolysis but does depend on ATP binding and a basal level of UPF1 ATPase activity. Studies of STAU2 demonstrate it changes the conformation of RNA-bound UPF1. These findings, and evidence for STAU1-STAU1, STAU2-STAU2, and STAU1-STAU2 formation in vitro and in cells, are consistent with results from tethering assays: the decrease in mRNA abundance brought about by tethering siRNA-resistant STAU2 or STAU1 to an mRNA 3' UTR is inhibited by downregulating the abundance of cellular STAU2, STAU1, or UPF1. It follows that the efficiency of SMD in different cell types reflects the cumulative abundance of STAU1 and STAU2. We propose that STAU paralogs contribute to SMD by "greasing the wheels" of RNA-bound UPF1 so as to enhance its unwinding capacity per molecule of ATP hydrolyzed.

  3. Native mitochondrial RNA-binding complexes in kinetoplastid RNA editing differ in guide RNA composition

    PubMed Central

    Madina, Bhaskara R.; Kumar, Vikas; Metz, Richard; Mooers, Blaine H.M.; Bundschuh, Ralf; Cruz-Reyes, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial mRNAs in kinetoplastids require extensive U-insertion/deletion editing that progresses 3′-to-5′ in small blocks, each directed by a guide RNA (gRNA), and exhibits substrate and developmental stage-specificity by unsolved mechanisms. Here, we address compositionally related factors, collectively known as the mitochondrial RNA-binding complex 1 (MRB1) or gRNA-binding complex (GRBC), that contain gRNA, have a dynamic protein composition, and transiently associate with several mitochondrial factors including RNA editing core complexes (RECC) and ribosomes. MRB1 controls editing by still unknown mechanisms. We performed the first next-generation sequencing study of native subcomplexes of MRB1, immunoselected via either RNA helicase 2 (REH2), that binds RNA and associates with unwinding activity, or MRB3010, that affects an early editing step. The particles contain either REH2 or MRB3010 but share the core GAP1 and other proteins detected by RNA photo-crosslinking. Analyses of the first editing blocks indicate an enrichment of several initiating gRNAs in the MRB3010-purified complex. Our data also indicate fast evolution of mRNA 3′ ends and strain-specific alternative 3′ editing within 3′ UTR or C-terminal protein-coding sequence that could impact mitochondrial physiology. Moreover, we found robust specific copurification of edited and pre-edited mRNAs, suggesting that these particles may bind both mRNA and gRNA editing substrates. We propose that multiple subcomplexes of MRB1 with different RNA/protein composition serve as a scaffold for specific assembly of editing substrates and RECC, thereby forming the editing holoenzyme. The MRB3010-subcomplex may promote early editing through its preferential recruitment of initiating gRNAs. PMID:24865612

  4. RNA structure, binding, and coordination in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Foley, Shawn W; Kramer, Marianne C; Gregory, Brian D

    2017-09-01

    From the moment of transcription, up through degradation, each RNA transcript is bound by an ever-changing cohort of RNA binding proteins. The binding of these proteins is regulated by both the primary RNA sequence, as well as the intramolecular RNA folding, or secondary structure, of the transcript. Thus, RNA secondary structure regulates many post-transcriptional processes. With the advent of next generation sequencing, several techniques have been developed to generate global landscapes of both RNA-protein interactions and RNA secondary structure. In this review, we describe the current state of the field detailing techniques to globally interrogate RNA secondary structure and/or RNA-protein interaction sites, as well as our current understanding of these features in the transcriptome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. WIREs RNA 2017, 8:e1426. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1426 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. An RNA motif that binds ATP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassanfar, M.; Szostak, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    RNAs that contain specific high-affinity binding sites for small molecule ligands immobilized on a solid support are present at a frequency of roughly one in 10(10)-10(11) in pools of random sequence RNA molecules. Here we describe a new in vitro selection procedure designed to ensure the isolation of RNAs that bind the ligand of interest in solution as well as on a solid support. We have used this method to isolate a remarkably small RNA motif that binds ATP, a substrate in numerous biological reactions and the universal biological high-energy intermediate. The selected ATP-binding RNAs contain a consensus sequence, embedded in a common secondary structure. The binding properties of ATP analogues and modified RNAs show that the binding interaction is characterized by a large number of close contacts between the ATP and RNA, and by a change in the conformation of the RNA.

  6. An RNA motif that binds ATP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassanfar, M.; Szostak, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    RNAs that contain specific high-affinity binding sites for small molecule ligands immobilized on a solid support are present at a frequency of roughly one in 10(10)-10(11) in pools of random sequence RNA molecules. Here we describe a new in vitro selection procedure designed to ensure the isolation of RNAs that bind the ligand of interest in solution as well as on a solid support. We have used this method to isolate a remarkably small RNA motif that binds ATP, a substrate in numerous biological reactions and the universal biological high-energy intermediate. The selected ATP-binding RNAs contain a consensus sequence, embedded in a common secondary structure. The binding properties of ATP analogues and modified RNAs show that the binding interaction is characterized by a large number of close contacts between the ATP and RNA, and by a change in the conformation of the RNA.

  7. CO and NO bind to Fe(II) DiGeorge critical region 8 heme but do not restore primary microRNA processing activity.

    PubMed

    Hines, Judy P; Smith, Aaron T; Jacob, Jose P; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S; Barr, Ian; Rodgers, Kenton R; Guo, Feng; Burstyn, Judith N

    2016-12-01

    The RNA-binding heme protein DiGeorge critical region 8 (DGCR8) and its ribonuclease partner Drosha cleave primary transcripts of microRNA (pri-miRNA) as part of the canonical microRNA (miRNA) processing pathway. Previous studies show that bis-cysteine thiolate-coordinated Fe(III) DGCR8 supports pri-miRNA processing activity, while Fe(II) DGCR8 does not. In this study, we further characterized Fe(II) DGCR8 and tested whether CO or NO might bind and restore pri-miRNA processing activity to the reduced protein. Fe(II) DGCR8 RNA-binding heme domain (Rhed) undergoes a pH-dependent transition from 6-coordinate to 5-coordinate, due to protonation and loss of a lysine ligand; the ligand bound throughout the pH change is a histidine. Fe(II) Rhed binds CO and NO from 6- and 5-coordinate states, forming common CO and NO adducts at all pHs. Fe(II)-CO Rhed is 6-coordinate, low-spin, and pH insensitive with the histidine ligand retained, suggesting that the protonatable lysine ligand has been replaced by CO. Fe(II)-NO Rhed is 5-coordinate and pH insensitive. Fe(II)-NO also forms slowly upon reaction of Fe(III) Rhed with excess NO via a stepwise process. Heme reduction by NO is rate-limiting, and the rate would be negligible at physiological NO concentrations. Importantly, in vitro pri-miRNA processing assays show that both CO- and NO-bound DGCR8 species are inactive. Fe(II), Fe(II)-CO, and Fe(II)-NO Rhed do not bear either of the cysteine ligands found in the Fe(III) state. These data support a model in which the bis-cysteine thiolate ligand environment of Fe(III) DGCR8 is necessary for establishing proper pri-miRNA binding and enabling processing activity.

  8. A point mutation in the RNA-binding domain of human parainfluenza virus type 2 nucleoprotein elicits an abnormally enhanced polymerase activity.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yusuke; Ohta, Keisuke; Kolakofsky, Daniel; Nishio, Machiko

    2017-02-08

    The genome RNA of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2) that acts as template for the polymerase complex is entirely encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (NP). Recently, the crystal structure of NP of PIV5, a virus closely related to hPIV2, was resolved in association with RNA. Ten amino acids that contact the bound RNA-binding were identified, and are strictly conserved between PIV5 and hPIV2 NP. Mutation of hPIV2 NP Q202 (that contacts a base rather than the RNA backbone) to some amino acids resulted in an over thirty-fold increase of polymerase activity as evidenced by a minireplicon assay, even though RNA-binding affinity was unaltered. Using various modified minireplicons, we found that enhanced reporter gene expression could be accounted for by increased minigenome replication, whereas mRNA synthesis itself was not affected by Q202 mutation. Moreover, the enhanced activities were still observed in minigenomes partially lacking the leader sequence and which were not of hexamer genome length. Unexpectedly, recombinant hPIV2 possessing the NP Q202A mutation could not be recovered from cDNA.IMPORTANCE We examined the importance of amino acids in the putative RNA-binding domain of hPIV2 NP for polymerase activity using minireplicons. Abnormally enhanced genome replication was observed by the substitution in NP Q202 position to various amino acids. Surprisingly, this mutation enabled polymerase to use minigenomes partially lacking the leader sequence and not of hexamer genome length. This mutation does not affect fundamental properties of NP, e.g., recognition of gene junctional and editing signals. However, the strongly enhanced polymerase activity may not be viable for infectious life-cycle. This report highlights the potential of the polymerase complex with point mutations in NP, and helps our detailed understanding of the molecular basis of gene expression.

  9. Altering the GTP binding site of the DNA/RNA-binding protein, Translin/TB-RBP, decreases RNA binding and may create a dominant negative phenotype.

    PubMed

    Chennathukuzhi, V M; Kurihara, Y; Bray, J D; Yang, J; Hecht, N B

    2001-11-01

    The DNA/RNA-binding protein, Translin/Testis Brain RNA-binding protein (Translin/TB-RBP), contains a putative GTP binding site in its C-terminus which is highly conserved. To determine if guanine nucleotide binding to this site functionally alters nucleic acid binding, electrophoretic mobility shift assays were performed with RNA and DNA binding probes. GTP, but not GDP, reduces RNA binding by approximately 50% and the poorly hydrolyzed GTP analog, GTPgammaS, reduces binding by >90% in gel shift and immunoprecipitation assays. No similar reduction of DNA binding is seen. When the putative GTP binding site of TB-RBP, amino acid sequence VTAGD, is altered to VTNSD by site directed mutagenesis, GTP will no longer bind to TB-RBP(GTP) and TB-RBP(GTP) no longer binds to RNA, although DNA binding is not affected. Yeast two-hybrid assays reveal that like wild-type TB-RBP, TB-RBP(GTP) will interact with itself, with wild-type TB-RBP and with Translin associated factor X (Trax). Transfection of TB-RBP(GTP) into NIH 3T3 cells leads to a marked increase in cell death suggesting a dominant negative function for TB-RBP(GTP) in cells. These data suggest TB-RBP is an RNA-binding protein whose activity is allosterically controlled by nucleotide binding.

  10. Viral and cellular mRNA-specific activators harness PABP and eIF4G to promote translation initiation downstream of cap binding.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard W P; Anderson, Ross C; Larralde, Osmany; Smith, Joel W S; Gorgoni, Barbara; Richardson, William A; Malik, Poonam; Graham, Sheila V; Gray, Nicola K

    2017-06-13

    Regulation of mRNA translation is a major control point for gene expression and is critical for life. Of central importance is the complex between cap-bound eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), eIF4G, and poly(A) tail-binding protein (PABP) that circularizes mRNAs, promoting translation and stability. This complex is often targeted to regulate overall translation rates, and also by mRNA-specific translational repressors. However, the mechanisms of mRNA-specific translational activation by RNA-binding proteins remain poorly understood. Here, we address this deficit, focusing on a herpes simplex virus-1 protein, ICP27. We reveal a direct interaction with PABP that is sufficient to promote PABP recruitment and necessary for ICP27-mediated activation. PABP binds several translation factors but is primarily considered to activate translation initiation as part of the PABP-eIF4G-eIF4E complex that stimulates the initial cap-binding step. Importantly, we find that ICP27-PABP forms a complex with, and requires the activity of, eIF4G. Surprisingly, ICP27-PABP-eIF4G complexes act independently of the effects of PABP-eIF4G on cap binding to promote small ribosomal subunit recruitment. Moreover, we find that a cellular mRNA-specific regulator, Deleted in Azoospermia-like (Dazl), also employs the PABP-eIF4G interaction in a similar manner. We propose a mechanism whereby diverse RNA-binding proteins directly recruit PABP, in a non-poly(A) tail-dependent manner, to stimulate the small subunit recruitment step. This strategy may be particularly relevant to biological conditions associated with hypoadenylated mRNAs (e.g., germ cells/neurons) and/or limiting cytoplasmic PABP (e.g., viral infection, cell stress). This mechanism adds significant insight into our knowledge of mRNA-specific translational activation and the function of the PABP-eIF4G complex in translation initiation.

  11. Viral and cellular mRNA-specific activators harness PABP and eIF4G to promote translation initiation downstream of cap binding

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard W. P.; Anderson, Ross C.; Larralde, Osmany; Smith, Joel W. S.; Gorgoni, Barbara; Richardson, William A.; Malik, Poonam; Graham, Sheila V.; Gray, Nicola K.

    2017-01-01

    Regulation of mRNA translation is a major control point for gene expression and is critical for life. Of central importance is the complex between cap-bound eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), eIF4G, and poly(A) tail-binding protein (PABP) that circularizes mRNAs, promoting translation and stability. This complex is often targeted to regulate overall translation rates, and also by mRNA-specific translational repressors. However, the mechanisms of mRNA-specific translational activation by RNA-binding proteins remain poorly understood. Here, we address this deficit, focusing on a herpes simplex virus-1 protein, ICP27. We reveal a direct interaction with PABP that is sufficient to promote PABP recruitment and necessary for ICP27-mediated activation. PABP binds several translation factors but is primarily considered to activate translation initiation as part of the PABP–eIF4G–eIF4E complex that stimulates the initial cap-binding step. Importantly, we find that ICP27-PABP forms a complex with, and requires the activity of, eIF4G. Surprisingly, ICP27–PABP–eIF4G complexes act independently of the effects of PABP-eIF4G on cap binding to promote small ribosomal subunit recruitment. Moreover, we find that a cellular mRNA-specific regulator, Deleted in Azoospermia-like (Dazl), also employs the PABP–eIF4G interaction in a similar manner. We propose a mechanism whereby diverse RNA-binding proteins directly recruit PABP, in a non–poly(A) tail-dependent manner, to stimulate the small subunit recruitment step. This strategy may be particularly relevant to biological conditions associated with hypoadenylated mRNAs (e.g., germ cells/neurons) and/or limiting cytoplasmic PABP (e.g., viral infection, cell stress). This mechanism adds significant insight into our knowledge of mRNA-specific translational activation and the function of the PABP–eIF4G complex in translation initiation. PMID:28559344

  12. Mammalian synthetic circuits with RNA binding proteins delivered by RNA

    PubMed Central

    Wroblewska, Liliana; Kitada, Tasuku; Endo, Kei; Siciliano, Velia; Stillo, Breanna; Saito, Hirohide; Weiss, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic regulatory circuits encoded on RNA rather than DNA could provide a means to control cell behavior while avoiding potentially harmful genomic integration in therapeutic applications. We create post-transcriptional circuits using RNA-binding proteins, which can be wired in a plug-and-play fashion to create networks of higher complexity. We show that the circuits function in mammalian cells when encoded on modified mRNA or self-replicating RNA. PMID:26237515

  13. Both Sm-domain and C-terminal extension of Lsm1 are important for the RNA-binding activity of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Ashis; Raju, Kalidindi K; Kalurupalle, Swathi; Tharun, Sundaresan

    2012-05-01

    Lsm proteins are a ubiquitous family of proteins characterized by the Sm-domain. They exist as hexa- or heptameric RNA-binding complexes and carry out RNA-related functions. The Sm-domain is thought to be sufficient for the RNA-binding activity of these proteins. The highly conserved eukaryotic Lsm1 through Lsm7 proteins are part of the cytoplasmic Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex, which is an activator of decapping in the conserved 5'-3' mRNA decay pathway. This complex also protects mRNA 3'-ends from trimming in vivo. Purified Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex is able to bind RNA in vitro and exhibits a unique binding preference for oligoadenylated RNA (over polyadenylated and unadenylated RNA). Lsm1 is a key subunit that determines the RNA-binding properties of this complex. The normal RNA-binding activity of this complex is crucial for mRNA decay and 3'-end protection in vivo and requires the intact Sm-domain of Lsm1. Here, we show that though necessary, the Sm-domain of Lsm1 is not sufficient for the normal RNA-binding ability of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex. Deletion of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Lsm1 (while keeping the Sm-domain intact) impairs mRNA decay in vivo and results in Lsm1-7-Pat1 complexes that are severely impaired in RNA binding in vitro. Interestingly, the mRNA decay and 3'-end protection defects of such CTD-truncated lsm1 mutants could be suppressed in trans by overexpression of the CTD polypeptide. Thus, unlike most Sm-like proteins, Lsm1 uniquely requires both its Sm-domain and CTD for its normal RNA-binding function.

  14. Detection of dsRNA-binding domains in RNA helicase A and Drosophila maleless: implications for monomeric RNA helicases.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, T J; Thompson, J D

    1994-01-01

    Searches with dsRNA-binding domain profiles detected two copies of the domain in each of RNA helicase A, Drosophila maleless and C. elegans ORF T20G5-11 (of unknown function). RNA helicase A is unusual in being one of the few characterised DEAD/DExH helicases that are active as monomers. Other monomeric DEAD/DExH RNA helicases (p68, NPH-II) have domains that match another RNA-binding motif, the RGG repeat. The DEAD/DExH domain appears to be insufficient on its own to promote helicase activity and additional RNA-binding capacity must be supplied either as domains adjacent to the DEAD/DExH-box or by bound partners as in the eIF-4AB dimer. The presence or absence of extra RNA-binding domains should allow classification of DEAD/DExH proteins as monomeric or multimeric helicases. Images PMID:8041617

  15. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein CIRP/hnRNP A18 regulates telomerase activity in a temperature-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youwei; Wu, Yangxiu; Mao, Pingsu; Li, Feng; Han, Xin; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Shuai; Chen, Yuxi; Huang, Junjiu; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Yong; Ma, Wenbin; Songyang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The telomerase is responsible for adding telomeric repeats to chromosomal ends and consists of the reverse transcriptase TERT and the RNA subunit TERC. The expression and activity of the telomerase are tightly regulated, and aberrant activation of the telomerase has been observed in >85% of human cancers. To better understand telomerase regulation, we performed immunoprecipitations coupled with mass spectrometry (IP-MS) and identified cold inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP or hnRNP A18) as a telomerase-interacting factor. We have found that CIRP is necessary to maintain telomerase activities at both 32°C and 37°C. Furthermore, inhibition of CIRP by CRISPR-Cas9 or siRNA knockdown led to reduced telomerase activities and shortened telomere length, suggesting an important role of CIRP in telomere maintenance. We also provide evidence here that CIRP associates with the active telomerase complex through direct binding of TERC and regulates Cajal body localization of the telomerase. In addition, CIRP regulates the level of TERT mRNAs. At the lower temperature, TERT mRNA is upregulated in a CIRP-dependent manner to compensate for reduced telomerase activities. Taken together, these findings highlight the dual roles that CIRP plays in regulating TERT and TERC, and reveal a new class of telomerase modulators in response to hypothermia conditions. PMID:26673712

  16. RNA Helicases at work: binding and rearranging

    PubMed Central

    Jankowsky, Eckhard

    2010-01-01

    RNA helicases are ubiquitous, highly conserved enzymes that participate in nearly all aspects of RNA metabolism. These proteins bind or remodel RNA or RNA–protein complexes in an ATP-dependent fashion. How RNA helicases physically perform their cellular tasks has been a longstanding question, but in recent years, intriguing models have started to link structure, mechanism and biological function for some RNA helicases. This review outlines our current view on major structural and mechanistic themes of RNA helicase function, and on emerging physical models for cellular roles of these enzymes. PMID:20813532

  17. The intracisternal A-particle proximal enhancer-binding protein activates transcription and is identical to the RNA- and DNA-binding protein p54nrb/NonO.

    PubMed

    Basu, A; Dong, B; Krainer, A R; Howe, C C

    1997-02-01

    The long terminal repeats of murine intracisternal A particles (IAPs) contain an IAP proximal enhancer (IPE) element that is inactive in murine F9 embryonal carcinoma cells and active in the parietal endoderm cell line PYS-2. The element binds efficiently to a 60-kDa IPE-binding protein (IPEB) present in PYS-2 cells but poorly to F9 proteins, suggesting a role for IPEB in regulating IAP expression. We have purified calf thymus IPEB, which binds to the IPE and transactivates a reporter gene in HeLa cell extracts. Based on the peptide sequence of the purified calf IPEB, we have cloned a 420-bp cDNA and showed that the encoded protein is the homolog of human p54nrb and mouse NonO, which are characterized by the presence of two RNA recognition motifs. We show that p54nrb is an IPE-binding transcription activator with its DNA-binding and activation domains in the N- and C-terminal halves, respectively. The activation domain of p54nrb is active in HeLa, PYS-2, and F9 cells, whereas p54nrb as a whole molecule is active in HeLa and PYS-2 cells but not in F9 cells. Thus, the lack of activity of p54nrb in F9 cells is due to an ineffective DNA-binding domain. We demonstrate that p54nrb also binds to a pre-mRNA. Based on the close sequence relatedness of this protein to PSF, which is required for pre-mRNA splicing in vitro, we discuss the possibility that p54nrb has dual roles in transcription and splicing.

  18. Dihydrotanshinone-I interferes with the RNA-binding activity of HuR affecting its post-transcriptional function

    PubMed Central

    D’Agostino, Vito Giuseppe; Lal, Preet; Mantelli, Barbara; Tiedje, Christopher; Zucal, Chiara; Thongon, Natthakan; Gaestel, Matthias; Latorre, Elisa; Marinelli, Luciana; Seneci, Pierfausto; Amadio, Marialaura; Provenzani, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation is an essential determinant of gene expression programs in physiological and pathological conditions. HuR is a RNA-binding protein that orchestrates the stabilization and translation of mRNAs, critical in inflammation and tumor progression, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). We identified the low molecular weight compound 15,16-dihydrotanshinone-I (DHTS), well known in traditional Chinese medicine practice, through a validated high throughput screening on a set of anti-inflammatory agents for its ability to prevent HuR:RNA complex formation. We found that DHTS interferes with the association step between HuR and the RNA with an equilibrium dissociation constant in the nanomolar range in vitro (Ki = 3.74 ± 1.63 nM). In breast cancer cell lines, short term exposure to DHTS influences mRNA stability and translational efficiency of TNF in a HuR-dependent manner and also other functional readouts of its post-transcriptional control, such as the stability of selected pre-mRNAs. Importantly, we show that migration and sensitivity of breast cancer cells to DHTS are modulated by HuR expression, indicating that HuR is among the preferential intracellular targets of DHTS. Here, we disclose a previously unrecognized molecular mechanism exerted by DHTS, opening new perspectives to therapeutically target the HuR mediated, post-transcriptional control in inflammation and cancer cells. PMID:26553968

  19. A probabilistic approach to microRNA-target binding

    SciTech Connect

    Ogul, Hasan; Umu, Sinan U.; Tuncel, Y. Yener; Akkaya, Mahinur S.

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} A new probabilistic model is introduced for microRNA-target binding. {yields} The new model significantly outperforms RNAHybrid and miRTif. {yields} The experiments can unveil the effects of the type and directions of distinct base pairings. -- Abstract: Elucidation of microRNA activity is a crucial step in understanding gene regulation. One key problem in this effort is how to model the pairwise interactions of microRNAs with their targets. As this interaction is strongly mediated by their sequences, it is desired to set-up a probabilistic model to explain the binding preferences between a microRNA sequence and the sequence of a putative target. To this end, we introduce a new model of microRNA-target binding, which transforms an aligned duplex to a new sequence and defines the likelihood of this sequence using a Variable Length Markov Chain. It offers a complementary representation of microRNA-mRNA pairs for microRNA target prediction tools or other probabilistic frameworks of integrative gene regulation analysis. The performance of present model is evaluated by its ability to predict microRNA-target mRNA interaction given a mature microRNA sequence and a putative mRNA binding site. In regard to classification accuracy, it outperforms two recent methods based on thermodynamic stability and sequence complementarity. The experiments can also unveil the effects of base pairing types and non-seed region in duplex formation.

  20. Computational Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins and Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Si, Jingna; Cui, Jing; Cheng, Jin; Wu, Rongling

    2015-01-01

    Proteins and RNA interaction have vital roles in many cellular processes such as protein synthesis, sequence encoding, RNA transfer, and gene regulation at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Approximately 6%–8% of all proteins are RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Distinguishing these RBPs or their binding residues is a major aim of structural biology. Previously, a number of experimental methods were developed for the determination of protein–RNA interactions. However, these experimental methods are expensive, time-consuming, and labor-intensive. Alternatively, researchers have developed many computational approaches to predict RBPs and protein–RNA binding sites, by combining various machine learning methods and abundant sequence and/or structural features. There are three kinds of computational approaches, which are prediction from protein sequence, prediction from protein structure, and protein-RNA docking. In this paper, we review all existing studies of predictions of RNA-binding sites and RBPs and complexes, including data sets used in different approaches, sequence and structural features used in several predictors, prediction method classifications, performance comparisons, evaluation methods, and future directions. PMID:26540053

  1. Evidence for auto-inhibition by the N terminus of hADAR2 and activation by dsRNA binding.

    PubMed

    Macbeth, Mark R; Lingam, Arunth T; Bass, Brenda L

    2004-10-01

    Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) catalyze adenosine to inosine conversion in RNA that is largely double stranded. Human ADAR2 (hADAR2) contains two double-stranded RNA binding motifs (dsRBMs), separated by a 90-amino acid linker, and these are followed by the C-terminal catalytic domain. We assayed enzymatic activity of N-terminal deletion constructs of hADAR2 to determine the role of the dsRBMs and the intervening linker peptide. We found that a truncated protein consisting of one dsRBM and the deaminase domain was capable of deaminating a short 15-bp substrate. In contrast, full-length hADAR2 was inactive on this short substrate. In addition, we observed that the N terminus, which was deleted from the truncated protein, inhibits editing activity when added in trans. We propose that the N-terminal domain of hADAR2 contains sequences that cause auto-inhibition of the enzyme. Our results suggest activation requires binding to an RNA substrate long enough to accommodate interactions with both dsRBMs.

  2. FASTKD2 is an RNA-binding protein required for mitochondrial RNA processing and translation.

    PubMed

    Popow, Johannes; Alleaume, Anne-Marie; Curk, Tomaz; Schwarzl, Thomas; Sauer, Sven; Hentze, Matthias W

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial RNA processing is an essential step for the synthesis of the components of the electron transport chain in all eukaryotic organisms, yet several aspects of mitochondrial RNA biogenesis and regulation are not sufficiently understood. RNA interactome capture identified several disease-relevant RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) with noncanonical RNA-binding architectures, including all six members of the FASTK (FAS-activated serine/threonine kinase) family of proteins. A mutation within one of these newly assigned FASTK RBPs, FASTKD2, causes a rare form of Mendelian mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. To investigate whether RNA binding of FASTKD2 contributes to the disease phenotype, we identified the RNA targets of FASTKD2 by iCLIP. FASTKD2 interacts with a defined set of mitochondrial transcripts including 16S ribosomal RNA (RNR2) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) messenger RNA. CRISPR-mediated deletion of FASTKD2 leads to aberrant processing and expression of RNR2 and ND6 mRNA that encodes a subunit of the respiratory complex I. Metabolic phenotyping of FASTKD2-deficient cells reveals impaired cellular respiration with reduced activities of all respiratory complexes. This work identifies key aspects of the molecular network of a previously uncharacterized, disease-relevant RNA-binding protein, FASTKD2, by a combination of genomic, molecular, and metabolic analyses. © 2015 Popow et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  3. FASTKD2 is an RNA-binding protein required for mitochondrial RNA processing and translation

    PubMed Central

    Popow, Johannes; Alleaume, Anne-Marie; Curk, Tomaz; Schwarzl, Thomas; Sauer, Sven; Hentze, Matthias W.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial RNA processing is an essential step for the synthesis of the components of the electron transport chain in all eukaryotic organisms, yet several aspects of mitochondrial RNA biogenesis and regulation are not sufficiently understood. RNA interactome capture identified several disease-relevant RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) with noncanonical RNA-binding architectures, including all six members of the FASTK (FAS-activated serine/threonine kinase) family of proteins. A mutation within one of these newly assigned FASTK RBPs, FASTKD2, causes a rare form of Mendelian mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. To investigate whether RNA binding of FASTKD2 contributes to the disease phenotype, we identified the RNA targets of FASTKD2 by iCLIP. FASTKD2 interacts with a defined set of mitochondrial transcripts including 16S ribosomal RNA (RNR2) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) messenger RNA. CRISPR-mediated deletion of FASTKD2 leads to aberrant processing and expression of RNR2 and ND6 mRNA that encodes a subunit of the respiratory complex I. Metabolic phenotyping of FASTKD2-deficient cells reveals impaired cellular respiration with reduced activities of all respiratory complexes. This work identifies key aspects of the molecular network of a previously uncharacterized, disease-relevant RNA-binding protein, FASTKD2, by a combination of genomic, molecular, and metabolic analyses. PMID:26370583

  4. RNA Binding Proteins in the miRNA Pathway.

    PubMed

    Connerty, Patrick; Ahadi, Alireza; Hutvagner, Gyorgy

    2015-12-26

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are short ~22 nucleotides (nt) ribonucleic acids which post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. miRNAs are key regulators of all cellular processes, and the correct expression of miRNAs in an organism is crucial for proper development and cellular function. As a result, the miRNA biogenesis pathway is highly regulated. In this review, we outline the basic steps of miRNA biogenesis and miRNA mediated gene regulation focusing on the role of RNA binding proteins (RBPs). We also describe multiple mechanisms that regulate the canonical miRNA pathway, which depends on a wide range of RBPs. Moreover, we hypothesise that the interaction between miRNA regulation and RBPs is potentially more widespread based on the analysis of available high-throughput datasets.

  5. Fas-activated Ser/Thr phosphoprotein (FAST) is a eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein that regulates mRNA stability and cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Ivanov, Pavel; Anderson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The recognition of T cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) by Fas-activated Ser/Thr phosphoprotein (FAST) results in prolonged cell survival by inducing the expression of inhibitors of apoptosis. Here we show that the functional effects of FAST are dependent on its interactions with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) which is the major cytosolic cap binding protein in cells. FAST binds to eIF4E via a consensus motif (428YXXXXLL433) that is also found in eIF4G, 4E-BP1/2/3, 4E-T, and cup. A point mutation within this motif at Y428 dampens the ability of FAST to recognize eIF4E. Wild-type (WT) FAST, but not its Y428G mutant, increases the expression of co-transfected cellular inhibitor of apoptosis-1 (cIAP-1) and β-gal mRNA and protein, but inhibits the Fas-induced activation of caspase-3. Increased expression of the co-transfected proteins results, in part, from stabilization of mRNA, suggesting that FAST:eIF4E interactions can inhibit mRNA decay. We propose that eIF4E:FAST:TIA-1 complexes regulate the translation and stability of specific mRNAs that encode proteins important for cell survival. PMID:26824015

  6. Rna14–Rna15 assembly mediates the RNA-binding capability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cleavage factor IA

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Christian G.; Walker, Philip A.; Calder, Lesley J.; Taylor, Ian A.

    2004-01-01

    The Rna14–Rna15 complex is a core component of the cleavage factor IA RNA-processing complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To understand the assembly and RNA-binding properties, we have isolated and characterized the Rna14–Rna15 complex using a combination of biochemical and biophysical methods. Analysis of the purified complex, using transmission electron microscopy, reveals that the two proteins assemble into a kinked rod-shaped structure and that these rods are able to further self-associate. Analytical ultracentrifugation reveals that Rna14 mediates this association and facilitates assembly of an A2B2 tetramer (Mr 230 000), where relatively compact Rna14–Rna15 heterodimers are in rapid equilibrium with tetramers that have a more extended shape. The Rna14–Rna15 complex, unlike the individual components, binds to an RNA oligonucleotide derived from the 3′-untranslated region of the S.cerevisiae GAL7 gene. Based on these structural and thermodynamic data, we propose that CFIA assembly regulates RNA-binding activity. PMID:15215336

  7. Rna14-Rna15 assembly mediates the RNA-binding capability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cleavage factor IA.

    PubMed

    Noble, Christian G; Walker, Philip A; Calder, Lesley J; Taylor, Ian A

    2004-01-01

    The Rna14-Rna15 complex is a core component of the cleavage factor IA RNA-processing complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To understand the assembly and RNA-binding properties, we have isolated and characterized the Rna14-Rna15 complex using a combination of biochemical and biophysical methods. Analysis of the purified complex, using transmission electron microscopy, reveals that the two proteins assemble into a kinked rod-shaped structure and that these rods are able to further self-associate. Analytical ultracentrifugation reveals that Rna14 mediates this association and facilitates assembly of an A2B2 tetramer (M(r) 230 000), where relatively compact Rna14-Rna15 heterodimers are in rapid equilibrium with tetramers that have a more extended shape. The Rna14-Rna15 complex, unlike the individual components, binds to an RNA oligonucleotide derived from the 3'-untranslated region of the S.cerevisiae GAL7 gene. Based on these structural and thermodynamic data, we propose that CFIA assembly regulates RNA-binding activity.

  8. Neurodegeneration and RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    De Conti, Laura; Baralle, Marco; Buratti, Emanuele

    2017-03-01

    In the eukaryotic nucleus, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play a very important role in the life cycle of both coding and noncoding RNAs. As soon as they are transcribed, in fact, all RNA molecules within a cell are bound by distinct sets of RBPs that have the task of regulating its correct processing, transport, stability, and function/translation up to its final degradation. These tasks are particularly important in cells that have a complex RNA metabolism, such as neurons. Not surprisingly, therefore, recent findings have shown that the misregulation of genes involved in RNA metabolism or the autophagy/proteasome pathway plays an important role in the onset and progression of several neurodegenerative diseases. In this article, we aim to review the recent advances that link neurodegenerative processes and RBP proteins. WIREs RNA 2017, 8:e1394. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1394 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  9. RNA Dimerization Promotes PKR Dimerization and Activation

    PubMed Central

    Heinicke, Laurie A.; Wong, C. Jason; Lary, Jeffrey; Nallagatla, Subba Rao; Diegelman-Parente, Amy; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Cole, James L.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.

    2009-01-01

    The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) plays a major role in the innate immune response in humans. PKR binds dsRNA non-sequence specifically and requires a minimum of 15 bp dsRNA for one protein to bind and 30 bp dsRNA to induce protein dimerization and activation by autophosphorylation. PKR phosphorylates eIF2α, a translation initiation factor, resulting in the inhibition of protein synthesis. We investigated the mechanism of PKR activation by an RNA hairpin with a number of base pairs intermediate between these 15 to 30 bp limits: HIV-I TAR RNA, a 23 bp hairpin with three bulges that is known to dimerize. To test whether RNA dimerization affects PKR dimerization and activation, TAR monomers and dimers were isolated from native gels and assayed for RNA and protein dimerization. To modulate the extent of dimerization, we included TAR mutants with different secondary features. Native gel mixing experiments and analytical ultracentrifugation indicate that TAR monomers bind one PKR monomer and that TAR dimers bind two or three PKRs, demonstrating that RNA dimerization drives the binding of multiple PKR molecules. Consistent with functional dimerization of PKR, TAR dimers activated PKR while TAR monomers did not, and RNA dimers with fewer asymmetrical secondary structure defects, as determined by enzymatic structure mapping, were more potent activators. Thus, the secondary structure defects in the TAR RNA stem function as antideterminants to PKR binding and activation. Our studies support that dimerization of a 15–30 bp hairpin RNA, which effectively doubles its length, is a key step in driving activation of PKR and provide a model for how RNA folding can be related to human disease. PMID:19445956

  10. Two basic (hydrophilic) regions in the movement protein of Parietaria mottle virus have RNA binding activity and are required for cell-to-cell transport.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Carolina; Coll-Bonfill, Nuria; Aramburu, Jose; Pallás, Vicente; Aparicio, Frederic; Galipienso, Luis

    2014-05-12

    The movement protein (MP) of parietaria mottle virus (PMoV) is required for virus cell-to-cell movement. Bioinformatics analysis identified two hydrophilic non-contiguous regions (R1 and R2) rich in the basic amino acids lysine and arginine and with the predicted secondary structure of an α-helix. Different approaches were used to determine the implication of the R1 and R2 regions in RNA binding, plasmodesmata (PD) targeting and cell-to-cell movement. EMSA (Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay) showed that both regions have RNA-binding activity whereas that mutational analysis reported that either deletion of any of these regions, or loss of the basic amino acids, interfered with the viral intercellular movement. Subcellular localization studies showed that PMoV MP locates at PD. Mutants designed to impeded cell-to-cell movement failed to accumulate at PD indicating that basic residues in both R1 and R2 are critical for binding the MP at PD.

  11. Hepatitis B virus X protein induces RNA polymerase III-dependent gene transcription and increases cellular TATA-binding protein by activating the Ras signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, H D; Trivedi, A; Johnson, D L

    1997-12-01

    Our previous studies have shown that the hepatitis B virus protein, X, activates all three classes of RNA polymerase III (pol III)-dependent promoters by increasing the cellular level of TATA-binding protein (TBP) (H.-D. Wang et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 15:6720-6728, 1995), a limiting transcription component (A. Trivedi et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 16:6909-6916, 1996). We have investigated whether these X-mediated events are dependent on the activation of the Ras/Raf-1 signaling pathway. Transient expression of a dominant-negative mutant Ras gene (Ras-ala15) in a Drosophila S-2 stable cell line expressing X (X-S2), or incubation of the cells with a Ras farnesylation inhibitor, specifically blocked both the X-dependent activation of a cotransfected tRNA gene and the increase in cellular TBP levels. Transient expression of a constitutively activated form of Ras (Ras-val12) in control S2 cells produced both an increase in tRNA gene transcription and an increase in cellular TBP levels. These events are not cell type specific since X-mediated gene induction was also shown to be dependent on Ras activation in a stable rat 1A cell line expressing X. Furthermore, increases in RNA pol III-dependent gene activity and TBP levels could be restored in X-S2 cells expressing Ras-ala15 by coexpressing a constitutively activated form of Raf-1. These events are serum dependent, and when the cells are serum deprived, the X-mediated effects are augmented. Together, these results demonstrate that the X-mediated induction of RNA pol III-dependent genes and increase in TBP are both dependent on the activation of the Ras/Raf-1 signaling cascade. In addition, these studies define two new and important consequences mediated by the activation of the Ras signal transduction pathway: an increase in the central transcription factor, TBP, and the induction of RNA pol III-dependent gene activity.

  12. Molecular dynamics and MM/GBSA-integrated protocol probing the correlation between biological activities and binding free energies of HIV-1 TAR RNA inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Peddi, Saikiran Reddy; Sivan, Sree Kanth; Manga, Vijjulatha

    2017-02-01

    The interaction of HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat with its cognate transactivation response (TAR) RNA has emerged as a promising target for developing antiviral compounds and treating HIV infection, since it is a crucial step for efficient transcription and replication. In the present study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and MM/GBSA calculations have been performed on a series of neamine derivatives in order to estimate appropriate MD simulation time for acceptable correlation between ΔGbind and experimental pIC50 values. Initially, all inhibitors were docked into the active site of HIV-1 TAR RNA. Later to explore various conformations and examine the docking results, MD simulations were carried out. Finally, binding free energies were calculated using MM/GBSA method and were correlated with experimental pIC50 values at different time scales (0-1 to 0-10 ns). From this study, it is clear that in case of neamine derivatives as simulation time increased the correlation between binding free energy and experimental pIC50 values increased correspondingly. Therefore, the binding energies which can be interpreted at longer simulation times can be used to predict the bioactivity of new neamine derivatives. Moreover, in this work, we have identified some plausible critical nucleotide interactions with neamine derivatives that are responsible for potent inhibitory activity. Furthermore, we also provide some insights into a new class of oxadiazole-based back bone cyclic peptides designed by incorporating the structural features of neamine derivatives. On the whole, this approach can provide a valuable guidance for designing new potent inhibitors and modify the existing compounds targeting HIV-1 TAR RNA.

  13. Dynamic profiling of double-stranded RNA binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinlei; Vukovic, Lela; Koh, Hye Ran; Schulten, Klaus; Myong, Sua

    2015-01-01

    Double-stranded (ds) RNA is a key player in numerous biological activities in cells, including RNA interference, anti-viral immunity and mRNA transport. The class of proteins responsible for recognizing dsRNA is termed double-stranded RNA binding proteins (dsRBP). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between dsRBPs and dsRNA. Here we examined four human dsRBPs, ADAD2, TRBP, Staufen 1 and ADAR1 on six dsRNA substrates that vary in length and secondary structure. We combined single molecule pull-down (SiMPull), single molecule protein-induced fluorescence enhancement (smPIFE) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the dsRNA-dsRBP interactions. Our results demonstrate that despite the highly conserved dsRNA binding domains, the dsRBPs exhibit diverse substrate specificities and dynamic properties when in contact with different RNA substrates. While TRBP and ADAR1 have a preference for binding simple duplex RNA, ADAD2 and Staufen1 display higher affinity to highly structured RNA substrates. Upon interaction with RNA substrates, TRBP and Staufen1 exhibit dynamic sliding whereas two deaminases ADAR1 and ADAD2 mostly remain immobile when bound. MD simulations provide a detailed atomic interaction map that is largely consistent with the affinity differences observed experimentally. Collectively, our study highlights the diverse nature of substrate specificity and mobility exhibited by dsRBPs that may be critical for their cellular function. PMID:26184879

  14. Utilization of a mammalian cell-based RNA binding assay to characterize the RNA binding properties of picornavirus 3C proteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Blair, W S; Parsley, T B; Bogerd, H P; Towner, J S; Semler, B L; Cullen, B R

    1998-01-01

    Using an assay capable of detecting sequence-specific RNA/protein interactions in mammalian cells, we demonstrate that the poliovirus and rhinovirus 3C proteinases are able to bind structured target RNA sequences derived from their respective 5' noncoding regions in vivo. Specific RNA binding by poliovirus 3C was found to be dependent on the integrity of stem-loop d of the RNA cloverleaf structure located at the 5' end of poliovirus genomic RNA. In contrast, mutation of stem-loop b did not prevent this in vivo interaction. However, mutation of stem-loop b, which serves as the RNA binding site for a cellular co-factor important for efficient poliovirus replication, did significantly attenuate the efficiency of 3C RNA binding in vivo and 3CD RNA binding in vitro. This in vivo protein:RNA binding assay was also used to identify several residues in 3C that are critical for RNA binding, but dispensable for 3C proteinase activity. The mammalian cell-based RNA binding assay described in this study may have considerable potential utility in the future detection or analysis of in vivo RNA/protein interactions unrelated to the 3C/RNA interaction described here. PMID:9570321

  15. Decreased RNA-binding motif 5 expression is associated with tumor progression in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takahiko; Ishida, Junich; Shimizu, Yuichi; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Suda, Goki; Muranaka, Tetsuhito; Komatsu, Yoshito; Asaka, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2017-03-01

    RNA-binding motif 5 is a putative tumor suppressor gene that modulates cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. We recently demonstrated that RNA-binding motif 5 inhibits cell growth through the p53 pathway. This study evaluated the clinical significance of RNA-binding motif 5 expression in gastric cancer and the effects of altered RNA-binding motif 5 expression on cancer biology in gastric cancer cells. RNA-binding motif 5 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using the surgical specimens of 106 patients with gastric cancer. We analyzed the relationships of RNA-binding motif 5 expression with clinicopathological parameters and patient prognosis. We further explored the effects of RNA-binding motif 5 downregulation with short hairpin RNA on cell growth and p53 signaling in MKN45 gastric cancer cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed that RNA-binding motif 5 expression was decreased in 29 of 106 (27.4%) gastric cancer specimens. Decreased RNA-binding motif 5 expression was correlated with histological differentiation, depth of tumor infiltration, nodal metastasis, tumor-node-metastasis stage, and prognosis. RNA-binding motif 5 silencing enhanced gastric cancer cell proliferation and decreased p53 transcriptional activity in reporter gene assays. Conversely, restoration of RNA-binding motif 5 expression suppressed cell growth and recovered p53 transactivation in RNA-binding motif 5-silenced cells. Furthermore, RNA-binding motif 5 silencing reduced the messenger RNA and protein expression of the p53 target gene p21. Our results suggest that RNA-binding motif 5 downregulation is involved in gastric cancer progression and that RNA-binding motif 5 behaves as a tumor suppressor gene in gastric cancer.

  16. Novel RNA chaperone domain of RNA-binding protein La is regulated by AKT phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kuehnert, Julia; Sommer, Gunhild; Zierk, Avery W.; Fedarovich, Alena; Brock, Alexander; Fedarovich, Dzmitry; Heise, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    The cellular function of the cancer-associated RNA-binding protein La has been linked to translation of viral and cellular mRNAs. Recently, we have shown that the human La protein stimulates IRES-mediated translation of the cooperative oncogene CCND1 in cervical cancer cells. However, there is little known about the underlying molecular mechanism by which La stimulates CCND1 IRES-mediated translation, and we propose that its RNA chaperone activity is required. Herein, we show that La binds close to the CCND1 start codon and demonstrate that La's RNA chaperone activity can change the folding of its binding site. We map the RNA chaperone domain (RCD) within the C-terminal region of La in close proximity to a novel AKT phosphorylation site (T389). Phosphorylation at T389 by AKT-1 strongly impairs its RNA chaperone activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the RCD as well as T389 is required to stimulate CCND1 IRES-mediated translation in cells. In summary, we provide a model whereby a novel interplay between RNA-binding, RNA chaperoning and AKT phosphorylation of La protein regulates CCND1 IRES-mediated translation. PMID:25520193

  17. Novel DNA-binding properties of the RNA-binding protein TIAR.

    PubMed

    Suswam, Esther A; Li, Yan Yan; Mahtani, Harry; King, Peter H

    2005-01-01

    TIA-1 related protein binds avidly to uridine-rich elements in mRNA and pre-mRNAs of a wide range of genes, including interleukin (IL)-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The protein has diverse regulatory roles, which in part depend on the locus of binding within the transcript, including translational control, splicing and apoptosis. Here, we observed selective and potent inhibition of TIAR-RNP complex formation with IL-8 and VEGF 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) using thymidine-rich deoxyoligonucleotide (ODN) sequences derived from the VEFG 3'-UTR. We show by ultraviolet crosslinking and electrophoretic mobility shift assays that TIAR can bind directly to single-stranded, thymidine-rich ODNs but not to double-stranded ODNs containing the same sequence. TIAR had a nearly 6-fold greater affinity for DNA than RNA (K(d)app = 1.6x10(-9) M versus 9.4 x 10(-9) M). Truncation of TIAR indicated that the high affinity DNA-binding site overlaps with the RNA-binding site involving RNA recognition motif 2 (RRM2). However, RRM1 alone could also bind to DNA. Finally, we show that TIAR can be displaced from single-stranded DNA by active transcription through the binding site. These results provide a potential mechanism by which TIAR can shuttle between RNA and DNA ligands.

  18. Trans-regulation of RNA-binding protein motifs by microRNA

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Francis; Tenenbaum, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    The wide array of vital functions that RNA performs is dependent on its ability to dynamically fold into different structures in response to intracellular and extracellular changes. RNA-binding proteins regulate much of this activity by targeting specific RNA structures or motifs. One of these structures, the 3-way RNA junction, is characteristically found in ribosomal RNA and results from the RNA folding in cis, to produce three separate helices that meet around a central unpaired region. Here we demonstrate that 3-way junctions can also form in trans as a result of the binding of microRNAs in an unconventional manner with mRNA by splinting two non-contiguous regions together. This may be used to reinforce the base of a stem-loop motif being targeted by an RNA-binding protein. Trans interactions between non-coding RNA and mRNA may be used to control the post-transcriptional regulatory code and suggests a possible role for some of the recently described transcripts of unknown function expressed from the human genome. PMID:24795744

  19. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus nucleocapsid protein has dual RNA binding modes.

    PubMed

    Jeeva, Subbiah; Pador, Sean; Voss, Brittany; Ganaie, Safder Saieed; Mir, Mohammad Ayoub

    2017-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, a zoonotic viral disease, has high mortality rate in humans. There is currently no vaccine for Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and chemical interventions are limited. The three negative sense genomic RNA segments of CCHFV are specifically encapsidated by the nucleocapsid protein into three ribonucleocapsids, which serve as templates for the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase. Here we demonstrate that CCHFV nucleocapsid protein has two distinct binding modes for double and single strand RNA. In the double strand RNA binding mode, the nucleocapsid protein preferentially binds to the vRNA panhandle formed by the base pairing of complementary nucleotides at the 5' and 3' termini of viral genome. The CCHFV nucleocapsid protein does not have RNA helix unwinding activity and hence does not melt the duplex vRNA panhandle after binding. In the single strand RNA binding mode, the nucleocapsid protein does not discriminate between viral and non-viral RNA molecules. Binding of both vRNA panhandle and single strand RNA induce a conformational change in the nucleocapsid protein. Nucleocapsid protein remains in a unique conformational state due to simultaneously binding of structurally distinct vRNA panhandle and single strand RNA substrates. Although the role of dual RNA binding modes in the virus replication cycle is unknown, their involvement in the packaging of viral genome and regulation of CCHFV replication in conjunction with RdRp and host derived RNA regulators is highly likely.

  20. microRNA Decay: Refining microRNA Regulatory Activity.

    PubMed

    Pepin, Genevieve; Gantier, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short 19-25 nucleotide RNA molecules that impact on most biological processes by regulating the efficiency of messenger RNA (mRNA) translation. To date, most research activities have been focused on the control of miRNA expression and its functional consequences. Nonetheless, much remains unknown about the mechanisms affecting the level of specific miRNAs in the cell, a critical feature impacting their regulatory activity. This review focuses on the factors that regulate the abundance of miRNAs, including synthesis, post-transcriptional modifications, nucleases, target binding, and secretion.

  1. Structure of the RNA-Binding Domain of Telomerase: Implications For RNA Recognition and Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Rouda,S.; Skordalakes, E.

    2007-01-01

    Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein complex, replicates the linear ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, thus taking care of the 'end of replication problem.' TERT contains an essential and universally conserved domain (TRBD) that makes extensive contacts with the RNA (TER) component of the holoenzyme, and this interaction is thought to facilitate TERT/TER assembly and repeat-addition processivity. Here, we present a high-resolution structure of TRBD from Tetrahymena thermophila. The nearly all-helical structure comprises a nucleic acid-binding fold suitable for TER binding. An extended pocket on the surface of the protein, formed by two conserved motifs (CP and T motifs) comprises TRBD's RNA-binding pocket. The width and the chemical nature of this pocket suggest that it binds both single- and double-stranded RNA, possibly stem I, and the template boundary element (TBE). Moreover, the structure provides clues into the role of this domain in TERT/TER stabilization and telomerase repeat-addition processivity.

  2. Structure-activity studies on the fluorescent indicator in a displacement assay for the screening of small molecules binding to RNA.

    PubMed

    Umemoto, Shiori; Im, Seongwang; Zhang, Jinhua; Hagihara, Masaki; Murata, Asako; Harada, Yasue; Fukuzumi, Takeo; Wazaki, Takahiro; Sasaoka, Shin-ichi; Nakatani, Kazuhiko

    2012-08-06

    A series of xanthone and thioxanthone derivatives with aminoalkoxy substituents were synthesized as fluorescent indicators for a displacement assay in the study of small-molecule-RNA interactions. The RNA-binding properties of these molecules were investigated in terms of the improved binding selectivity to the loop region in the RNA secondary structure relative to 2,7-bis(2-aminoethoxy)xanthone (X2S) by fluorimetric titration and displacement assay. An 11-mer double-stranded RNA and a hairpin RNA mimicking the stem loop IIB of Rev response element (RRE) RNA of HIV-1 mRNA were used. The X2S derivatives with longer aminoalkyl substituents showed a higher affinity to the double-stranded RNA than the parent molecule. Introduction of a methyl group on the aminoethoxy moiety of X2S effectively modulated the selectivity to the RNA secondary structure. Methyl group substitution at the C1' position suppressed the binding to the loop regions. Substitution with two methyl groups on the amino nitrogen atom resulted in reducing the affinity to the double-stranded region by a factor of 40%. The effect of methyl substitution on the amino nitrogen atom was also observed for a thioxanthone derivative. Titration experiments, however, suggested that thioxanthone derivatives showed a more prominent tendency of multiple binding to RNA than xanthone derivatives. The selectivity index calculated from the affinity to the double-stranded and loop regions suggested that the N,N-dimethyl derivative of X2S would be suitable for the screening of small molecules binding to RRE. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Air2p is critical for the assembly and RNA-binding of the TRAMP complex and the KOW domain of Mtr4p is crucial for exosome activation

    PubMed Central

    Holub, Peter; Lalakova, Jana; Cerna, Hana; Pasulka, Josef; Sarazova, Marie; Hrazdilova, Kristyna; Arce, Maria Sanudo; Hobor, Fruzsina; Stefl, Richard; Vanacova, Stepanka

    2012-01-01

    Trf4/5p-Air1/2p-Mtr4p polyadenylation complex (TRAMP) is an essential component of nuclear RNA surveillance in yeast. It recognizes a variety of nuclear transcripts produced by all three RNA polymerases, adds short poly(A) tails to aberrant or unstable RNAs and activates the exosome for their degradation. Despite the advances in understanding the structural features of the isolated complex subunits or their fragments, the details of complex assembly, RNA recognition and exosome activation remain poorly understood. Here we provide the first understanding of the RNA binding mode of the complex. We show that Air2p is an RNA-binding subunit of TRAMP. We identify the zinc knuckles (ZnK) 2, 3 and 4 as the RNA-binding domains, and reveal the essentiality of ZnK4 for TRAMP4 polyadenylation activity. Furthermore, we identify Air2p as the key component of TRAMP4 assembly providing bridging between Mtr4p and Trf4p. The former is bound via the N-terminus of Air2p, while the latter is bound via ZnK5, the linker between ZnK4 and 5 and the C-terminus of the protein. Finally, we uncover the RNA binding part of the Mtr4p arch, the KOW domain, as the essential component for TRAMP-mediated exosome activation. PMID:22402490

  4. Inhibition of RNA binding to hepatitis C virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: a new mechanism for antiviral intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed-Belkacem, Abdelhakim; Guichou, Jean-François; Brillet, Rozenn; Ahnou, Nazim; Hernandez, Eva; Pallier, Coralie; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is a key target for antiviral intervention. The goal of this study was to identify the binding site and unravel the molecular mechanism by which natural flavonoids efficiently inhibit HCV RdRp. Screening identified the flavonol quercetagetin as the most potent inhibitor of HCV RdRp activity. Quercetagetin was found to inhibit RdRp through inhibition of RNA binding to the viral polymerase, a yet unknown antiviral mechanism. X-ray crystallographic structure analysis of the RdRp-quercetagetin complex identified quercetagetin's binding site at the entrance of the RNA template tunnel, confirming its original mode of action. This antiviral mechanism was associated with a high barrier to resistance in both site-directed mutagenesis and long-term selection experiments. In conclusion, we identified a new mechanism for non-nucleoside inhibition of HCV RdRp through inhibition of RNA binding to the enzyme, a mechanism associated with broad genotypic activity and a high barrier to resistance. Our results open the way to new antiviral approaches for HCV and other viruses that use an RdRp based on RNA binding inhibition, that could prove to be useful in human, animal or plant viral infections. PMID:25053847

  5. The bicoid mRNA localization factor Exuperantia is an RNA-binding pseudonuclease.

    PubMed

    Lazzaretti, Daniela; Veith, Katharina; Kramer, Katharina; Basquin, Claire; Urlaub, Henning; Irion, Uwe; Bono, Fulvia

    2016-08-01

    Anterior patterning in Drosophila is mediated by the localization of bicoid (bcd) mRNA at the anterior pole of the oocyte. Exuperantia (Exu) is a putative exonuclease (EXO) associated with bcd and required for its localization. We present the crystal structure of Exu, which reveals a dimeric assembly with each monomer consisting of a 3'-5' EXO-like domain and a sterile alpha motif (SAM)-like domain. The catalytic site is degenerate and inactive. Instead, the EXO-like domain mediates dimerization and RNA binding. We show that Exu binds RNA directly in vitro, that the SAM-like domain is required for RNA binding activity and that Exu binds a structured element present in the bcd 3' untranslated region with high affinity. Through structure-guided mutagenesis, we show that Exu dimerization is essential for bcd localization. Our data demonstrate that Exu is a noncanonical RNA-binding protein with EXO-SAM-like domain architecture that interacts with its target RNA as a homodimer.

  6. Interaction of the sex-lethal RNA binding domains with RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Kanaar, R; Lee, A L; Rudner, D Z; Wemmer, D E; Rio, D C

    1995-01-01

    Sex determination and X chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster are directed by the Sex-lethal (Sxl) protein. In part, Sxl functions by regulating the splicing of the transformer pre-mRNA by binding to a 3' splice site polypyrimidine tract. Polypyrimidine tracts are essential for splicing of metazoan pre-mRNAs. To unravel the mechanism of splicing regulation at polypyrimidine tracts we analyzed the interaction of Sxl with RNA. The RNA binding activity of Sxl was mapped to the two ribonucleoprotein consensus sequence domains of the protein. Quantitation of binding showed that both RNA binding domains (RBDs) were required in cis for site-specific RNA binding. Individual RBDs interacted with RNA more weakly and had lost the ability to discriminate between wild-type and mutant transformer polypyrimidine tracts. Structural elements in one of the RBDs that are likely to interact with a polypyrimidine tract were identified using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. In addition, our data suggest that multiple imino protons of the transformer polypyrimidine tract were involved in hydrogen bonding. Interestingly, in vitro Sxl bound with equal affinity to polypyrimidine tracts of pre-mRNAs that it does not regulate in vivo. We discuss the implications of this finding for the mechanism through which Sxl may gain selectivity for particular polypyrimidine tracts in vivo. Images PMID:7556096

  7. Control of Messenger RNA Fate by RNA-Binding Proteins: An Emphasis on Mammalian Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    IDLER, R. KEEGAN; YAN, WEI

    2017-01-01

    Posttranscriptional status of messenger RNAs (mRNA) can be affected by many factors, most of which are RNA-binding proteins (RBP) that either bind mRNA in a nonspecific manner or through specific motifs, usually located in the 39 untranslated regions. RBPs can also be recruited by small noncoding RNAs (sncRNA), which have been shown to be involved in posttranscriptional regulations and transposon repression (eg, microRNAs or P-element–induced wimpy testis–interacting RNA) as components of the sncRNA effector complex. Non–sncRNA-binding RBPs have much more diverse effects on their target mRNAs. Some can cause degradation of their target transcripts and/or repression of translation, whereas others can stabilize and/or activate translation. The splicing and exportation of transcripts from the nucleus to the cytoplasm are often mediated by sequence-specific RBPs. The mechanisms by which RBPs regulate mRNA transcripts involve manipulating the 39 poly(A) tail, targeting the transcript to polysomes or to other ribonuclear protein particles, recruiting regulatory proteins, or competing with other RBPs. Here, we briefly review the known mechanisms of posttranscriptional regulation mediated by RBPs, with an emphasis on how these mechanisms might control spermatogenesis in general. PMID:21757510

  8. Differential roles of human Dicer-binding proteins TRBP and PACT in small RNA processing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho Young; Zhou, Kaihong; Smith, Alison Marie; Noland, Cameron L; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2013-07-01

    During RNA interference and related gene regulatory pathways, the endonuclease Dicer cleaves precursor RNA molecules to produce microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Human cells encode a single Dicer enzyme that can associate with two different double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding proteins, protein activator of PKR (PACT) and trans-activation response RNA-binding protein (TRBP). However, the functional redundancy or differentiation of PACT and TRBP in miRNA and siRNA biogenesis is not well understood. Using a reconstituted system, we show here that PACT and TRBP have distinct effects on Dicer-mediated dsRNA processing. In particular, we found that PACT in complex with Dicer inhibits the processing of pre-siRNA substrates when compared with Dicer and a Dicer-TRBP complex. In addition, PACT and TRBP show non-redundant effects on the production of different-sized miRNAs (isomiRs), which in turn alter target-binding specificities. Experiments using chimeric versions of PACT and TRBP suggest that the two N-terminal RNA-binding domains of each protein confer the observed differences in dsRNA substrate recognition and processing behavior of Dicer-dsRNA-binding protein complexes. These results support the conclusion that in humans, Dicer-associated dsRNA-binding proteins are important regulatory factors that contribute both substrate and cleavage specificity during miRNA and siRNA production.

  9. The RNA helicase MOV10L1 binds piRNA precursors to initiate piRNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Vourekas, Anastassios; Fu, Qi; Maragkakis, Manolis; Alexiou, Panagiotis; Ma, Jing; Pillai, Ramesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Piwi–piRNA (Piwi-interacting RNA) ribonucleoproteins (piRNPs) enforce retrotransposon silencing, a function critical for preserving the genome integrity of germ cells. The molecular functions of most of the factors that have been genetically implicated in primary piRNA biogenesis are still elusive. Here we show that MOV10L1 exhibits 5′-to-3′ directional RNA-unwinding activity in vitro and that a point mutation that abolishes this activity causes a failure in primary piRNA biogenesis in vivo. We demonstrate that MOV10L1 selectively binds piRNA precursor transcripts and is essential for the generation of intermediate piRNA processing fragments that are subsequently loaded to Piwi proteins. Multiple analyses suggest an intimate coupling of piRNA precursor processing with elements of local secondary structures such as G quadruplexes. Our results support a model in which MOV10L1 RNA helicase activity promotes unwinding and funneling of the single-stranded piRNA precursor transcripts to the endonuclease that catalyzes the first cleavage step of piRNA processing. PMID:25762440

  10. The dataset for protein-RNA binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiufeng; Li, Haotian; Huang, Yangyu; Liu, Shiyong

    2013-12-01

    We have developed a non-redundant protein-RNA binding benchmark dataset derived from the available protein-RNA structures in the Protein Database Bank. It consists of 73 complexes with measured binding affinity. The experimental conditions (pH and temperature) for binding affinity measurements are also listed in our dataset. This binding affinity dataset can be used to compare and develop protein-RNA scoring functions. The predicted binding free energy of the 73 complexes from three available scoring functions for protein-RNA docking has a low correlation with the binding Gibbs free energy calculated from Kd.

  11. Promiscuous RNA binding by Polycomb Repressive Complex 2

    PubMed Central

    Davidovich, Chen; Zheng, Leon; Goodrich, Karen J.; Cech, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Polycomb repressive complex-2 (PRC2) is a histone methyltransferase required for epigenetic silencing during development and cancer. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) recruit PRC2 to chromatin, but the general role of RNA in maintaining repressed chromatin is unknown. Here we measure the binding constant of human PRC2 to various RNAs and find comparable affinity for human lncRNAs targeted by PRC2 and irrelevant transcripts from ciliates and bacteria. PRC2 binding is size-dependent, with lower affinity for shorter RNAs. In vivo, PRC2 predominantly occupies repressed genes; PRC2 is also associated with active genes, but most of these are not regulated by PRC2. These findings support a model in which promiscuous binding of PRC2 to RNA transcripts allows it to scan for target genes that have escaped repression, leading to maintenance of the repressed state. Such RNAs may also provide a decoy for PRC2. PMID:24077223

  12. A protein with simultaneous capsid scaffolding and dsRNA-binding activities enhances the birnavirus capsid mechanical stability

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Johann; Casado, Santiago; Mata, Carlos P.; Hernando-Pérez, Mercedes; de Pablo, Pedro J.; Carrascosa, José L.; Castón, José R.

    2015-01-01

    Viral capsids are metastable structures that perform many essential processes; they also act as robust cages during the extracellular phase. Viruses can use multifunctional proteins to optimize resources (e.g., VP3 in avian infectious bursal disease virus, IBDV). The IBDV genome is organized as ribonucleoproteins (RNP) of dsRNA with VP3, which also acts as a scaffold during capsid assembly. We characterized mechanical properties of IBDV populations with different RNP content (ranging from none to four RNP). The IBDV population with the greatest RNP number (and best fitness) showed greatest capsid rigidity. When bound to dsRNA, VP3 reinforces virus stiffness. These contacts involve interactions with capsid structural subunits that differ from the initial interactions during capsid assembly. Our results suggest that RNP dimers are the basic stabilization units of the virion, provide better understanding of multifunctional proteins, and highlight the duality of RNP as capsid-stabilizing and genetic information platforms. PMID:26336920

  13. RNA binding domain of Jamestown Canyon virus S segment RNAs.

    PubMed

    Ogg, Monica M; Patterson, Jean L

    2007-12-01

    Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) is a member of the Bunyaviridae family, Orthobunyavirus genus, California serogroup. Replication and, ultimately, assembly and packaging rely on the process of encapsidation. Therefore, the ability of viral RNAs (vRNAs) (genomic and antigenomic) to interact with the nucleocapsid protein (N protein) and the location of this binding domain on the RNAs are of interest. The questions to be addressed are the following. Where is the binding domain located on both the vRNA and cRNA strands, is this RNA bound when double or single stranded, and does this identified region have the ability to transform the binding potential of nonviral RNA? Full-length viral and complementary S segment RNA, as well as 3' deletion mutants of both vRNA and cRNA, nonviral RNA, and hybrid viral/nonviral RNA, were analyzed for their ability to interact with bacterially expressed JCV N protein. RNA-nucleocapsid interactions were examined by UV cross-linking, filter binding assays, and the generation of hybrid RNA to help define the area responsible for RNA-protein binding. The assays identified the region responsible for binding to the nucleocapsid as being contained within the 5' half of both the genomic and antigenomic RNAs. This region, if placed within nonviral RNA, is capable of altering the binding potential of nonviral RNA to levels seen with wild-type vRNAs.

  14. The nuclear splicing factor RNA binding motif 5 promotes caspase activation in human neuronal cells, and increases after traumatic brain injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Travis C; Du, Lina; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Vagni, Vincent A; Dezfulian, Cameron; Poloyac, Samuel M; Jackson, Edwin K; Clark, Robert SB; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2015-01-01

    Splicing factors (SFs) coordinate nuclear intron/exon splicing of RNA. Splicing factor disturbances can cause cell death. RNA binding motif 5 (RBM5) and 10 (RBM10) promote apoptosis in cancer cells by activating detrimental alternative splicing of key death/survival genes. The role(s) of RBM5/10 in neurons has not been established. Here, we report that RBM5 knockdown in human neuronal cells decreases caspase activation by staurosporine. In contrast, RBM10 knockdown augments caspase activation. To determine whether brain injury alters RBM signaling, we measured RBM5/10 protein in mouse cortical/hippocampus homogenates after controlled cortical impact (CCI) traumatic brain injury (TBI) plus hemorrhagic shock (CCI+HS). The RBM5/10 staining was higher 48  to 72 hours after injury and appeared to be increased in neuronal nuclei of the hippocampus. We also measured levels of other nuclear SFs known to be essential for cellular viability and report that splicing factor 1 (SF1) but not splicing factor 3A (SF3A) decreased 4  to 72 hours after injury. Finally, we confirm that RBM5/10 regulate protein expression of several target genes including caspase-2, cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), LETM1 Domain-Containing Protein 1 (LETMD1), and amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2) in neuronal cells. Knockdown of RBM5 appeared to increase expression of c-FLIP(s), LETMD1, and APLP2 but decrease caspase-2. PMID:25586139

  15. Selection of the simplest RNA that binds isoleucine

    PubMed Central

    LOZUPONE, CATHERINE; CHANGAYIL, SHANKAR; MAJERFELD, IRENE; YARUS, MICHAEL

    2003-01-01

    We have identified the simplest RNA binding site for isoleucine using selection-amplification (SELEX), by shrinking the size of the randomized region until affinity selection is extinguished. Such a protocol can be useful because selection does not necessarily make the simplest active motif most prominent, as is often assumed. We find an isoleucine binding site that behaves exactly as predicted for the site that requires fewest nucleotides. This UAUU motif (16 highly conserved positions; 27 total), is also the most abundant site in successful selections on short random tracts. The UAUU site, now isolated independently at least 63 times, is a small asymmetric internal loop. Conserved loop sequences include isoleucine codon and anticodon triplets, whose nucleotides are required for amino acid binding. This reproducible association between isoleucine and its coding sequences supports the idea that the genetic code is, at least in part, a stereochemical residue of the most easily isolated RNA–amino acid binding structures. PMID:14561881

  16. Drosophila Nanos acts as a molecular clamp that modulates the RNA-binding and repression activities of Pumilio

    SciTech Connect

    Weidmann, Chase A.; Qiu, Chen; Arvola, René M.; Lou, Tzu-Fang; Killingsworth, Jordan; Campbell, Zachary T.; Tanaka Hall, Traci M.; Goldstrohm, Aaron C.

    2016-08-02

    Collaboration among the multitude of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) is ubiquitous, yet our understanding of these key regulatory complexes has been limited to single RBPs. We investigated combinatorial translational regulation byDrosophilaPumilio (Pum) and Nanos (Nos), which control development, fertility, and neuronal functions. Our results show how the specificity of one RBP (Pum) is modulated by cooperative RNA recognition with a second RBP (Nos) to synergistically repress mRNAs. Crystal structures of Nos-Pum-RNA complexes reveal that Nos embraces Pum and RNA, contributes sequence-specific contacts, and increases Pum RNA-binding affinity. Nos shifts the recognition sequence and promotes repression complex formation on mRNAs that are not stably bound by Pum alone, explaining the preponderance of sub-optimal Pum sites regulatedin vivo. Our results illuminate the molecular mechanism of a regulatory switch controlling crucial gene expression programs, and provide a framework for understanding how the partnering of RBPs evokes changes in binding specificity that underlie regulatory network dynamics.

  17. Guardian of Genetic Messenger-RNA-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Anji, Antje; Kumari, Meena

    2016-01-06

    RNA in cells is always associated with RNA-binding proteins that regulate all aspects of RNA metabolism including RNA splicing, export from the nucleus, RNA localization, mRNA turn-over as well as translation. Given their diverse functions, cells express a variety of RNA-binding proteins, which play important roles in the pathologies of a number of diseases. In this review we focus on the effect of alcohol on different RNA-binding proteins and their possible contribution to alcohol-related disorders, and discuss the role of these proteins in the development of neurological diseases and cancer. We further discuss the conventional methods and newer techniques that are employed to identify RNA-binding proteins.

  18. Guardian of Genetic Messenger-RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Anji, Antje; Kumari, Meena

    2016-01-01

    RNA in cells is always associated with RNA-binding proteins that regulate all aspects of RNA metabolism including RNA splicing, export from the nucleus, RNA localization, mRNA turn-over as well as translation. Given their diverse functions, cells express a variety of RNA-binding proteins, which play important roles in the pathologies of a number of diseases. In this review we focus on the effect of alcohol on different RNA-binding proteins and their possible contribution to alcohol-related disorders, and discuss the role of these proteins in the development of neurological diseases and cancer. We further discuss the conventional methods and newer techniques that are employed to identify RNA-binding proteins. PMID:26751491

  19. The specific binding to 21-nt double-stranded RNAs is crucial for the anti-silencing activity of Cucumber vein yellowing virus P1b and perturbs endogenous small RNA populations.

    PubMed

    Valli, Adrián; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Molnar, Attila; Baulcombe, David; García, Juan Antonio

    2011-06-01

    RNA silencing mediated by siRNAs plays an important role as an anti-viral defense mechanism in plants and other eukaryotic organisms, which is usually counteracted by viral RNA silencing suppressors (RSSs). The ipomovirus Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) lacks the typical RSS of members of the family Potyviridae, HCPro, which is replaced by an unrelated RSS, P1b. CVYV P1b resembles potyviral HCPro in forming complexes with synthetic siRNAs in vitro. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that P1b, like potyviral HCPro, interacts with double-stranded siRNAs, but is not able to bind single-stranded small RNAs or small DNAs. These assays also showed a preference of CVYV P1b for binding to 21-nt siRNAs, a feature also reported for HCPro. However, these two potyvirid RSSs differ in their requirements of 2-nucleotide (nt) 3' overhangs and 5' terminal phosphoryl groups for siRNA binding. Copurification assays confirmed in vivo P1b-siRNA interactions. We have demonstrated by deep sequencing of small RNA populations interacting in vivo with CVYV P1b that the size preference of P1b for small RNAs of 21 nt also takes place in the plant, and that expression of this RSS causes drastic changes in the endogenous small RNA populations. In addition, a site-directed mutagenesis analysis strongly supported the assumption that P1b-siRNA binding is decisive for the anti-silencing activity of P1b and localized a basic domain involved in the siRNA-binding activity of this protein.

  20. The RNA recognition motif domains of RBM5 are required for RNA binding and cancer cell proliferation inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Yu; Wu, Chuanfang

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • RNA recognition motif domains of RBM5 are essential for cell proliferation inhibition. • RNA recognition motif domains of RBM5 are essential for apoptosis induction. • RNA recognition motif domains of RBM5 are essential for RNA binding. • RNA recognition motif domains of RBM5 are essential for caspase-2 alternative splicing. - Abstract: RBM5 is a known putative tumor suppressor gene that has been shown to function in cell growth inhibition by modulating apoptosis. RBM5 also plays a critical role in alternative splicing as an RNA binding protein. However, it is still unclear which domains of RBM5 are required for RNA binding and related functional activities. We hypothesized the two putative RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains of RBM5 spanning from amino acids 98–178 and 231–315 are essential for RBM5-mediated cell growth inhibition, apoptosis regulation, and RNA binding. To investigate this hypothesis, we evaluated the activities of the wide-type and mutant RBM5 gene transfer in low-RBM5 expressing A549 cells. We found that, unlike wild-type RBM5 (RBM5-wt), a RBM5 mutant lacking the two RRM domains (RBM5-ΔRRM), is unable to bind RNA, has compromised caspase-2 alternative splicing activity, lacks cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction function in A549 cells. These data provide direct evidence that the two RRM domains of RBM5 are required for RNA binding and the RNA binding activity of RBM5 contributes to its function on apoptosis induction and cell growth inhibition.

  1. Additive activity between the trans-activation response RNA-binding protein, TRBP2, and cyclin T1 on HIV type 1 expression and viral production in murine cells.

    PubMed

    Battisti, Pier-Luigi; Daher, Aïcha; Bannwarth, Sylvie; Voortman, Johannes; Peden, Keith W C; Hiscott, John; Mouland, Andrew J; Benarous, Richard; Gatignol, Anne

    2003-09-01

    Tat-mediated trans-activation of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) occurs through the phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase II. The kinase complex, pTEFb, composed of cyclin T1 (CycT1) and CDK9, mediates this process. The trans-activation response (TAR) RNA-binding protein 2 (TRBP2) increases HIV-1 LTR expression through TAR and protein kinase R (PKR) binding, but not through interactions with the Tat-CycT1-CDK9 complex. TRBP2 and the Tat-CycT1-CDK9 complex have overlapping binding sites on TAR RNA. TRBP2 and CycT1 increased Tat trans-activation in NIH 3T3 cells with additive effects. Upon transfection of HIV-1 pLAI, pNL4-3, pMAL, and pAD molecular clones, reverse transcriptase (RT) activity and p24 concentration were decreased 200- to 900-fold in NIH 3T3 cells compared with HeLa cells in both cells and supernatants. In murine cells, cotransfection of the HIV clones with CycT1 or TRBP2 increased modestly the expression of RT activity in cell extracts. The analysis of Gag expression in murine cells transfected with CycT1 compared with human cells showed a 20-fold decrease in expression and a strong processing defect. The expression of both CycT1 and TRBP2 had a more than additive activity on RT function in cell extracts and on viral particle production in supernatant of murine cells. These results suggest an activity of CycT1 and TRBP2 at different steps in HIV-1 expression and indicate the requirement for another posttranscriptional factor in murine cells for full HIV replication.

  2. Characterization of RNA binding protein RBP-P reveals a possible role in rice glutelin gene expression and RNA localization.

    PubMed

    Doroshenk, Kelly A; Tian, Li; Crofts, Andrew J; Kumamaru, Toshihiro; Okita, Thomas W

    2014-07-01

    RNA binding proteins (RBPs) play an important role in mRNA metabolism including synthesis, maturation, transport, localization, and stability. In developing rice seeds, RNAs that code for the major storage proteins are transported to specific domains of the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by a regulated mechanism requiring RNA cis-localization elements, or zipcodes. Putative trans-acting RBPs that recognize prolamine RNA zipcodes required for restricted localization to protein body-ER have previously been identified. Here, we describe the identification of RBP-P using a Northwestern blot approach as an RBP that recognizes and binds to glutelin zipcode RNA, which is required for proper RNA localization to cisternal-ER. RBP-P protein expression coincides with that of glutelin during seed maturation and is localized to both the nucleus and cytosol. RNA-immunoprecipitation and subsequent RT-PCR analysis further demonstrated that RBP-P interacts with glutelin RNAs. In vitro RNA-protein UV-crosslinking assays showed that recombinant RBP-P binds strongly to glutelin mRNA, and in particular, 3' UTR and zipcode RNA. RBP-P also exhibited strong binding activity to a glutelin intron sequence, suggesting that RBP-P might participate in mRNA splicing. Overall, these results support a multifunctional role for RBP-P in glutelin mRNA metabolism, perhaps in nuclear pre-mRNA splicing and cytosolic localization to the cisternal-ER.

  3. Modelling of vitamin A binding to tRNA.

    PubMed

    N'soukpoé-Kossi, C N; Bourassa, P; Mandeville, J S; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2014-10-01

    The binding sites of retinol and retinoic acid with tRNA are located in aqueous solution at physiological conditions using constant tRNA concentration and various retinoid contents. FTIR, CD, fluorescence spectroscopic methods and molecular modelling were used to determine retinoid binding sites, the binding constant and the effects of retinol and retinoic acid complexation on tRNA conformation and aggregation. Structural analysis showed that retinol and retinoic acid bind tRNA via G-C and A-U base pairs with overall binding constants of Kret-tRNA=2.0 (±0.40)×10(4)M(-1) and Kretac-tRNA=6.0 (±1)×10(4)M(-1). The number of binding sites occupied by retinoids on tRNA were 1.4 for retinol-tRNA and 1.7 for retinoic acid-tRNA complexes. Hydrophobic interactions were also observed at high retinol and retinoic acid contents. Molecular modelling showed the participation of several nucleobases in retinoid-tRNA complexation with free binding energy of -4.36 for retinol-tRNA and -4.53kcal/mol for retinoic acid-tRNA adducts.

  4. Jpx RNA Activates Xist by Evicting CTCF

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Sha; Del Rosario, Brian C.; Szanto, Attila; Ogawa, Yuya; Jeon, Yesu; Lee, Jeannie T.

    2013-01-01

    Summary In mammals, dosage compensation between XX and XY individuals occurs through X chromosome inactivation (XCI). The noncoding Xist RNA is expressed and initiates XCI only when more than one X chromosome is present. Current models invoke a dependency on the X-to-autosome ratio (X:A), but molecular factors remain poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that molecular titration between an X-encoded RNA and an autosomally encoded protein dictates Xist induction. In pre-XCI cells, CTCF protein represses Xist transcription. At the onset of XCI, Jpx RNA is upregulated, binds CTCF, and extricates CTCF from one Xist allele. We demonstrate that CTCF is an RNA-binding protein and is titrated away from the Xist promoter by Jpx RNA. Thus, Jpx activates Xist by evicting CTCF. The functional antagonism via molecular titration reveals a role for long noncoding RNA in epigenetic regulation. PMID:23791181

  5. Evolution and Characterization of a Benzylguanine-binding RNA Aptamer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J.; Carrocci, T.J.; Hoskins, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Repurposing the “protein-labeling toolkit” for RNA research could be a pragmatic approach for developing new RNA-labeling methods. We have evolved an RNA aptamer that tightly binds benzylguanine (bG), the key ligand for the protein SNAP-tag. The aptamer tightly binds bG fluorophores and can be purified from cellular RNA with bG agarose under native conditions. PMID:26538152

  6. Backbone resonance assignments of the micro-RNA precursor binding region of human TRBP.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Matthieu P M H; Plevin, Michael J

    2013-10-01

    TAR-RNA binding protein (TRBP) is a multidomain human protein involved in micro-RNA (miRNA) biogenesis. TRBP is a component of both the Dicer complex, which processes precursor miRNAs, and the RNA-induced silencing complex-loading complex. In addition, TRBP is implicated in the human immunodeficiency virus replication cycle and interferon-protein kinase R activity. TRBP contains 3 double-stranded RNA binding domains the first two of which have been shown to interact with miRNA precursors. Here we present the backbone resonance assignments and secondary structure of residues 19-228 of human TRBP2.

  7. A membrane-associated movement protein of Pelargonium flower break virus shows RNA-binding activity and contains a biologically relevant leucine zipper-like motif.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Turiño, Sandra; Hernández, Carmen

    2011-05-10

    Two small viral proteins (DGBp1 and DGBp2) have been proposed to act in a concerted manner to aid intra- and intercellular trafficking of carmoviruses though the distribution of functions and mode of action of each protein partner are not yet clear. Here we have confirmed the requirement of the DGBps of Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV), p7 and p12, for pathogen movement. Studies focused on p12 have shown that it associates to cellular membranes, which is in accordance to its hydrophobic profile and to that reported for several homologs. However, peculiarities that distinguish p12 from other DGBps2 have been found. Firstly, it contains a leucine zipper-like motif which is essential for virus infectivity in plants. Secondly, it has an unusually long and basic N-terminal region that confers RNA binding activity. The results suggest that PFBV p12 may differ mechanistically from related proteins and possible roles of PFBV DGBps are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A dispensable peptide from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase affects tRNA binding.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga, Roberto; Salazar, Juan; Canales, Mauricio; Orellana, Omar

    2002-12-18

    The activation domain of class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which contains the Rossmann fold and the signature sequences HIGH and KMSKS, is generally split into two halves by the connective peptides (CP1, CP2) whose amino acid sequences are idiosyncratic. CP1 has been shown to participate in the binding of tRNA as well as the editing of the reaction intermediate aminoacyl-AMP or the aminoacyl-tRNA. No function has been assigned to CP2. The amino acid sequence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans TrpRS was predicted from the genome sequence. Protein sequence alignments revealed that A. ferrooxidans TrpRS contains a 70 amino acids long CP2 that is not found in any other bacterial TrpRS. However, a CP2 in the same relative position was found in the predicted sequence of several archaeal TrpRSs. A. ferrooxidans TrpRS is functional in vivo in Escherichia coli. A deletion mutant of A. ferrooxidans trpS lacking the coding region of CP2 was constructed. The in vivo activity of the mutant TrpRS in E. coli, as well as the kinetic parameters of the in vitro activation of tryptophan by ATP, were not altered by the deletion. However, the K(m) value for tRNA was seven-fold higher upon deletion, reducing the efficiency of aminoacylation. Structural modeling suggests that CP2 binds to the inner corner of the L shape of tRNA.

  9. Structure and Function of Nematode RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kaymak, Ebru; Wee, L.M.; Ryder, Sean P.

    2010-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins are critical effectors of gene expression. They guide mRNA localization, translation, and stability, and potentially play a role in regulating mRNA synthesis. The structural basis for RNA recognition by RNA-binding proteins is the key to understanding how they target specific transcripts for regulation. Compared to other metazoans, nematode genomes contain a significant expansion in several RNA-binding protein families, including Pumilio-FBF (PUF), TTP-like zinc finger (TZF), and argonaute-like (AGO) proteins. Genetic data suggest that individual members of each family have distinct functions, presumably due to sequence variations that alter RNA binding specificity or protein interaction partners. In this review, we highlight example structures and identify the variable regions that likely contribute to functional divergence in nematodes. PMID:20418095

  10. Effect of Zn2+ binding and enzyme active site on the transition state for RNA 2'-O-transphosphorylation interpreted through kinetic isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haoyuan; Piccirilli, Joseph A; Harris, Michael E; York, Darrin M

    2015-11-01

    Divalent metal ions, due to their ability to stabilize high concentrations of negative charge, are important for RNA folding and catalysis. Detailed models derived from the structures and kinetics of enzymes and from computational simulations have been developed. However, in most cases the specific catalytic modes involving metal ions and their mechanistic roles and effects on transition state structures remain controversial. Valuable information about the nature of the transition state is provided by measurement of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs). However, KIEs reflect changes in all bond vibrational modes that differ between the ground state and transition state. QM calculations are therefore essential for developing structural models of the transition state and evaluating mechanistic alternatives. Herein, we present computational models for Zn2+ binding to RNA 2'O-transphosphorylation reaction models that aid in the interpretation of KIE experiments. Different Zn2+ binding modes produce distinct KIE signatures, and one binding mode involving two zinc ions is in close agreement with KIEs measured for non-enzymatic catalysis by Zn2+ aquo ions alone. Interestingly, the KIE signatures in this specific model are also very close to those in RNase A catalysis. These results allow a quantitative connection to be made between experimental KIE measurements and transition state structure and bonding, and provide insight into RNA 2'O-ransphosphorylation reactions catalyzed by metal ions and enzymes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Enzyme Transition States from Theory and Experiment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. RNA recognition by the DNA end-binding Ku heterodimer

    PubMed Central

    Dalby, Andrew B.; Goodrich, Karen J.; Pfingsten, Jennifer S.; Cech, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Most nucleic acid-binding proteins selectively bind either DNA or RNA, but not both nucleic acids. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ku heterodimer is unusual in that it has two very different biologically relevant binding modes: (1) Ku is a sequence-nonspecific double-stranded DNA end-binding protein with prominent roles in nonhomologous end-joining and telomeric capping, and (2) Ku associates with a specific stem–loop of TLC1, the RNA subunit of budding yeast telomerase, and is necessary for proper nuclear localization of this ribonucleoprotein enzyme. TLC1 RNA-binding and dsDNA-binding are mutually exclusive, so they may be mediated by the same site on Ku. Although dsDNA binding by Ku is well studied, much less is known about what features of an RNA hairpin enable specific recognition by Ku. To address this question, we localized the Ku-binding site of the TLC1 hairpin with single-nucleotide resolution using phosphorothioate footprinting, used chemical modification to identify an unpredicted motif within the hairpin secondary structure, and carried out mutagenesis of the stem–loop to ascertain the critical elements within the RNA that permit Ku binding. Finally, we provide evidence that the Ku-binding site is present in additional budding yeast telomerase RNAs and discuss the possibility that RNA binding is a conserved function of the Ku heterodimer. PMID:23610127

  12. RNA recognition by the DNA end-binding Ku heterodimer.

    PubMed

    Dalby, Andrew B; Goodrich, Karen J; Pfingsten, Jennifer S; Cech, Thomas R

    2013-06-01

    Most nucleic acid-binding proteins selectively bind either DNA or RNA, but not both nucleic acids. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ku heterodimer is unusual in that it has two very different biologically relevant binding modes: (1) Ku is a sequence-nonspecific double-stranded DNA end-binding protein with prominent roles in nonhomologous end-joining and telomeric capping, and (2) Ku associates with a specific stem-loop of TLC1, the RNA subunit of budding yeast telomerase, and is necessary for proper nuclear localization of this ribonucleoprotein enzyme. TLC1 RNA-binding and dsDNA-binding are mutually exclusive, so they may be mediated by the same site on Ku. Although dsDNA binding by Ku is well studied, much less is known about what features of an RNA hairpin enable specific recognition by Ku. To address this question, we localized the Ku-binding site of the TLC1 hairpin with single-nucleotide resolution using phosphorothioate footprinting, used chemical modification to identify an unpredicted motif within the hairpin secondary structure, and carried out mutagenesis of the stem-loop to ascertain the critical elements within the RNA that permit Ku binding. Finally, we provide evidence that the Ku-binding site is present in additional budding yeast telomerase RNAs and discuss the possibility that RNA binding is a conserved function of the Ku heterodimer.

  13. Multifunctional roles for the N-terminal basic motif of Alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein: nucleolar/cytoplasmic shuttling, modulation of RNA-binding activity, and virion formation.

    PubMed

    Herranz, Mari Carmen; Pallas, Vicente; Aparicio, Frederic

    2012-08-01

    In addition to virion formation, the coat protein (CP) of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is involved in the regulation of replication and translation of viral RNAs, and in cell-to-cell and systemic movement of the virus. An intriguing feature of the AMV CP is its nuclear and nucleolar accumulation. Here, we identify an N-terminal lysine-rich nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) in the AMV CP required to both enter the nucleus and accumulate in the nucleolus of infected cells, and a C-terminal leucine-rich domain which might function as a nuclear export signal. Moreover, we demonstrate that AMV CP interacts with importin-α, a component of the classical nuclear import pathway. A mutant AMV RNA 3 unable to target the nucleolus exhibited reduced plus-strand RNA synthesis and cell-to-cell spread. Moreover, virion formation and systemic movement were completely abolished in plants infected with this mutant. In vitro analysis demonstrated that specific lysine residues within the NoLS are also involved in modulating CP-RNA binding and CP dimerization, suggesting that the NoLS represents a multifunctional domain within the AMV CP. The observation that nuclear and nucleolar import signals mask RNA-binding properties of AMV CP, essential for viral replication and translation, supports a model in which viral expression is carefully modulated by a cytoplasmic/nuclear balance of CP accumulation.

  14. The RNA Binding Specificity of Human APOBEC3 Proteins Resembles That of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid

    PubMed Central

    Errando, Manel; Bieniasz, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    The APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminases are antiretroviral proteins, whose targets include human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Their incorporation into viral particles is critical for antiviral activity and is driven by interactions with the RNA molecules that are packaged into virions. However, it is unclear whether A3 proteins preferentially target RNA molecules that are destined to be packaged and if so, how. Using cross-linking immunoprecipitation sequencing (CLIP-seq), we determined the RNA binding preferences of the A3F, A3G and A3H proteins. We found that A3 proteins bind preferentially to RNA segments with particular properties, both in cells and in virions. Specifically, A3 proteins target RNA sequences that are G-rich and/or A-rich and are not scanned by ribosomes during translation. Comparative analyses of HIV-1 Gag, nucleocapsid (NC) and A3 RNA binding to HIV-1 RNA in cells and virions revealed the striking finding that A3 proteins partially mimic the RNA binding specificity of the HIV-1 NC protein. These findings suggest a model for A3 incorporation into HIV-1 virions in which an NC-like RNA binding specificity is determined by nucleotide composition rather than sequence. This model reconciles the promiscuity of A3 RNA binding that has been observed in previous studies with a presumed advantage that would accompany selective binding to RNAs that are destined to be packaged into virions. PMID:27541140

  15. SONAR Discovers RNA-Binding Proteins from Analysis of Large-Scale Protein-Protein Interactomes.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Kristopher W; Jin, Wenhao; Huelga, Stephanie C; Banks, Charles A S; Gilmore, Joshua M; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Van Nostrand, Eric L; Pratt, Gabriel A; Schwinn, Marie K; Daniels, Danette L; Yeo, Gene W

    2016-10-20

    RNA metabolism is controlled by an expanding, yet incomplete, catalog of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), many of which lack characterized RNA binding domains. Approaches to expand the RBP repertoire to discover non-canonical RBPs are currently needed. Here, HaloTag fusion pull down of 12 nuclear and cytoplasmic RBPs followed by quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) demonstrates that proteins interacting with multiple RBPs in an RNA-dependent manner are enriched for RBPs. This motivated SONAR, a computational approach that predicts RNA binding activity by analyzing large-scale affinity precipitation-MS protein-protein interactomes. Without relying on sequence or structure information, SONAR identifies 1,923 human, 489 fly, and 745 yeast RBPs, including over 100 human candidate RBPs that contain zinc finger domains. Enhanced CLIP confirms RNA binding activity and identifies transcriptome-wide RNA binding sites for SONAR-predicted RBPs, revealing unexpected RNA binding activity for disease-relevant proteins and DNA binding proteins.

  16. Domain-specific phosphomimetic mutation allows dissection of different protein kinase C (PKC) isotype-triggered activities of the RNA binding protein HuR.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Sebastian; Doller, Anke; Pendini, Nicole R; Wilce, Jacqueline A; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2013-12-01

    The ubiquitous mRNA binding protein human antigen R (HuR) participates in the post-transcriptional regulation of many AU-rich element (ARE)-bearing mRNAs. Previously, by using in vitro kinase assay, we have identified serines (Ser) 158, 221 and 318 as targets of protein kinase C (PKC)-triggered phosphorylation. In this study, we tested whether GFP- or GST-tagged HuR constructs bearing a phosphomimetic Ser (S)-to-Asp (D) substitution at the different PKC target sites, would affect different HuR functions including HuR nucleo-cytoplasmic redistribution and binding to different types of ARE-containing mRNAs. The phosphomimetic GFP-tagged HuR protein bearing a phosphomimetic substitution in the hinge region of HuR (HuR-S221D) showed an increased cytoplasmic abundance when compared to wild-type HuR. Conversely, data from in vitro kinase assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), implicates that phosphorylation at Ser 221 is not relevant for mRNA binding of HuR. Quantification of in vitro binding affinities of GST-tagged wild-type HuR and corresponding HuR proteins bearing a phosphomimetic substitution in either RRM2 (HuR-S158D) or in RRM3 (HuR-S318D) by microscale thermophoresis (MST) indicates a specific binding of wild-type HuR to type I, II or type III-ARE-oligonucleotides in the high nanomolar range. Interestingly, phosphomimetic mutation at position 158 or 318 had a negative influence on HuR binding to type I- and type II-ARE-mRNAs whereas it significantly enhanced HuR affinity to a type III-ARE substrate. Our data suggest that differential phosphorylation of HuR by PKCs at different HuR domains coordinates subcellular HuR distribution and leads to a preferential binding to U-rich bearing target mRNA.

  17. Substrate masking: binding of RNA by EGTA-inactivated micrococcal nuclease results in artifactual inhibition of RNA processing reactions.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, M J; Gegenheimer, P

    1990-01-01

    Inhibition of an RNA processing reaction after treatment with the Ca2(+)-dependent micrococcal nuclease (MN) is often used as a criterion for the presence of a required RNA or ribonucleoprotein component in the system. Following MN digestion, the nuclease is inactivated with EGTA and radiolabeled substrate is added to assay for remaining RNA processing activity. We found previously that inhibition of RNA processing by MN need not involve RNA hydrolysis: EGTA-inactivated MN can suppress RNA processing if the assay is performed in the absence of carrier RNA. We now demonstrate both by native gel electrophoresis and by nitrocellulose filter retention that EGTA-inactivated MN forms a complex with free RNA which can be dissociated by addition of synthetic polynucleotides or heparin. In the absence of Ca2+, nuclease binds to precursor tRNA with an apparent KD congruent to 1.4 x 10(-6) M, comparable to its reported affinity for DNA. In an assay for endonucleolytic tRNA maturation, inactivated MN bound to radiolabeled pre-tRNA physically blocks the sites of endonuclease cleavage and prevents tRNA processing. We call this phenomenon 'substrate masking'. Addition of excess carrier RNA competes with pre-tRNA for MN binding and restores normal processing. Images PMID:2123540

  18. MicroRNA-144 regulates hepatic ATP binding cassette transporter A1 and plasma high-density lipoprotein after activation of the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar Vallim, Thomas Q; Tarling, Elizabeth J; Kim, Tammy; Civelek, Mete; Baldán, Ángel; Esau, Christine; Edwards, Peter A

    2013-06-07

    The bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates many aspects of lipid metabolism by variouscomplex and incompletely understood molecular mechanisms. We set out to investigate the molecular mechanisms for FXR-dependent regulation of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. To identify FXR-regulated microRNAs that were subsequently involved in regulating lipid metabolism. ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a major determinant of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Here, we show that activation of the nuclear receptor FXR in vivo increases hepatic levels of miR-144, which in turn lowers hepatic ABCA1 and plasma HDL levels. We identified 2 complementary sequences to miR-144 in the 3' untranslated region of ABCA1 mRNA that are necessary for miR-144-dependent regulation. Overexpression of miR-144 in vitro decreased both cellular ABCA1 protein and cholesterol efflux to lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I protein, whereas overexpression in vivo reduced hepatic ABCA1 protein and plasma HDL-cholesterol. Conversely, silencing miR-144 in mice increased hepatic ABCA1 protein and HDL-cholesterol. In addition, we used tissue-specific FXR-deficient mice to show that induction of miR-144 and FXR-dependent hypolipidemia requires hepatic, but not intestinal, FXR. Finally, we identified functional FXR response elements upstream of the miR-144 locus, consistent with direct FXR regulation. We have identified a novel pathway involving FXR, miR-144, and ABCA1 that together regulate plasma HDL-cholesterol.

  19. MeRNA: a Database of Metal Ion Binding Sites in RNAStructures

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan, Liliana R.; Zhang, Rui; Levitan, Aaron G.; Hendrix, DonnaF.; Brenner, Steven E.; Holbrook, Stephen R.

    2005-10-05

    Metal ions are essential for the folding of RNA into stable tertiary structures and for the catalytic activity of some RNA enzymes. To aid in the study of the roles of metal ions in RNA structural biology, we have created MeRNA (Metals in RNA), a comprehensive compilation of all metal binding sites identified in RNA three-dimensional structures available from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and Nucleic Acid Database (NDB). Currently, our database contains information relating to binding of 9764 metal ions corresponding to 23 distinct elements; in 256 RNA structures. The metal ion locations were confirmed and ligands characterized using original literature references. MeRNA includes eight manually identified metal-ion binding motifs, which are described in the literature. MeRNA is searchable by PDB identifier, metal ion, method of structure determination, resolution and R-values for X-ray structure, and distance from metal to any RNA atom or to water. New structures with their respective binding motifs will be added to the database as they become available. The MeRNA database will further our understanding of the roles of metal ions in RNA folding and catalysis and have applications in structural and functional analysis, RNA design and engineering.

  20. Cyclin A2 is an RNA binding protein that controls Mre11 mRNA translation

    PubMed Central

    Kanakkanthara, Arun; Jeganathan, Karthik B.; Limzerwala, Jazeel F.; Baker, Darren J.; Hamada, Masakazu; Nam, Hyun-Ja; van Deursen, Willemijn H.; Hamada, Naomi; Naylor, Ryan M.; Becker, Nicole A.; Davies, Brian A.; van Ree, Janine H.; Mer, Georges; Shapiro, Virginia S.; Maher, L. James; Katzmann, David J.; van Deursen, Jan M.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin A2 activates the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk1 and Cdk2 and is expressed at elevated levels from S phase until early mitosis. We found that mutant mice that cannot elevate cyclin A2 are chromosomally unstable and tumor-prone. Underlying the chromosomal instability is a failure to up-regulate the meiotic recombination 11 (Mre11) nuclease in S phase, which leads to impaired resolution of stalled replication forks, insufficient repair of double-stranded DNA breaks, and improper segregation of sister chromosomes. Unexpectedly, cyclin A2 controlled Mre11 abundance through a C-terminal RNA binding domain that selectively and directly binds Mre11 transcripts to mediate polysome loading and translation.These data reveal cyclin A2 as a mechanistically diverse regulator of DNA replication combining multifaceted kinase-dependent functions with a kinase-independent, RNA binding–dependent role that ensures adequate repair of common replication errors. PMID:27708105

  1. The RIPper case: identification of RNA-binding protein targets by RNA immunoprecipitation.

    PubMed

    Köster, Tino; Haas, Meike; Staiger, Dorothee

    2014-01-01

    Control at the posttranscriptional level emerges as an important layer of regulation in the circadian timing system. RNA-binding proteins that specifically interact with cis-regulatory motifs within pre-mRNAs are key elements of this regulation. While the ability to interact with RNA in vitro has been demonstrated for numerous Arabidopsis RNA-binding proteins, a full understanding of posttranscriptional networks controlled by an RNA-binding protein requires the identification of its immediate in vivo targets. Here we describe differential RNA immunoprecipitation in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing RNA-binding protein variants epitope-tagged with green fluorescent protein. To control for RNAs that nonspecifically co-purify with the RNA-binding protein, transgenic plants are generated with a mutated version of the RNA-binding protein that is not capable of binding to its target RNAs. The RNA-binding protein variants are expressed under the control of their authentic promoter and cis-regulatory motifs. Incubation of the plants with formaldehyde in vivo cross-links the proteins to their RNA targets. A whole-cell extract is then prepared and subjected to immunoprecipitation with an antibody against the GFP tag and to mock precipitation with an antibody against the unrelated red fluorescent protein. The RNAs coprecipitating with the proteins are eluted from the immunoprecipitate and identified via reverse transcription-PCR.

  2. Discovery of RNA Binding Small Molecules Using Small Molecule Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Colleen M; Abulwerdi, Fardokht A; Schneekloth, John S

    2017-01-01

    New methods to identify RNA-binding small molecules open yet unexplored opportunities for the pharmacological modulation of RNA-driven biology and disease states. One such approach is the use of small molecule microarrays (SMMs). Typically, SMMs are generated by spatially arraying and covalently linking a library of small molecules to a glass surface. Next, incubation of the arrays with a fluorescently labeled RNA reveals binding interactions that are detected upon slide imaging. The relative ease with which SMMs are manufactured enables the screening of multiple oligonucleotides in parallel against tens of thousands of small molecules, providing information about both binding and selectivity of identified RNA-small molecule interactions. This approach is useful for screening a broad variety of structurally and functionally diverse RNAs. Here, we present a general method for the preparation and use of SMMs to rapidly identify small molecules that selectively bind to an RNA of interest.

  3. RNA-binding region of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Goh, Zee Hong; Mohd, Nur Azmina Syakirin; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Wen Siang

    2014-09-01

    White tail disease (WTD) kills prawn larvae and causes drastic losses to the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) industry. The main causative agent of WTD is Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). The N-terminal end of the MrNV capsid protein is very rich in positively charged amino acids and is postulated to interact with RNA molecules. N-terminal and internal deletion mutagenesis revealed that the RNA-binding region is located at positions 20-29, where 80 % of amino acids are positively charged. Substitution of all these positively charged residues with alanine abolished the RNA binding. Mutants without the RNA-binding region still assembled into virus-like particles, suggesting that this region is not a part of the capsid assembly domain. This paper is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to report the specific RNA-binding region of MrNV capsid protein. © 2014 The Authors.

  4. The YTH Domain Is a Novel RNA Binding Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaiyi; Theler, Dominik; Kaminska, Katarzyna H.; Hiller, Michael; de la Grange, Pierre; Pudimat, Rainer; Rafalska, Ilona; Heinrich, Bettina; Bujnicki, Janusz M.; Allain, Frédéric H.-T.; Stamm, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The YTH (YT521-B homology) domain was identified by sequence comparison and is found in 174 different proteins expressed in eukaryotes. It is characterized by 14 invariant residues within an α-helix/β-sheet structure. Here we show that the YTH domain is a novel RNA binding domain that binds to a short, degenerated, single-stranded RNA sequence motif. The presence of the binding motif in alternative exons is necessary for YT521-B to directly influence splice site selection in vivo. Array analyses demonstrate that YT521-B predominantly regulates vertebrate-specific exons. An NMR titration experiment identified the binding surface for single-stranded RNA on the YTH domain. Structural analyses indicate that the YTH domain is related to the pseudouridine synthase and archaeosine transglycosylase (PUA) domain. Our data show that the YTH domain conveys RNA binding ability to a new class of proteins that are found in all eukaryotic organisms. PMID:20167602

  5. Preparation of biologically active Arabidopsis ribosomes and comparison with yeast ribosomes for binding to a tRNA-mimic that enhances translation of plant plus-strand RNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Stupina, Vera A.; Simon, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    Isolation of biologically active cell components from multicellular eukaryotic organisms often poses difficult challenges such as low yields and inability to retain the integrity and functionality of the purified compound. We previously identified a cap-independent translation enhancer (3′CITE) in the 3′UTR of Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) that structurally mimics a tRNA and binds to yeast 80S ribosomes and 60S subunits in the P-site. Yeast ribosomes were used for these studies due to the lack of methods for isolation of plant ribosomes with high yields and integrity. To carry out studies with more natural components, a simple and efficient procedure has been developed for the isolation of large quantities of high quality ribosomes and ribosomal subunits from Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts prepared from seed-derived callus tissue. Attempts to isolate high quality ribosomes from wheat germ, bean sprouts, and evacuolated protoplasts were unsuccessful. Addition of purified Arabidopsis 80S plant ribosomes to ribosome-depleted wheat germ lysates resulted in a greater than 1200-fold enhancement in in vitro translation of a luciferase reporter construct. The TCV 3′CITE bound to ribosomes with a three to sevenfold higher efficiency when using plant 80S ribosomes compared with yeast ribosomes, indicating that this viral translational enhancer is adapted to interact more efficiently with host plant ribosomes. PMID:23885260

  6. Probing binding hot spots at protein–RNA recognition sites

    PubMed Central

    Barik, Amita; Nithin, Chandran; Karampudi, Naga Bhushana Rao; Mukherjee, Sunandan; Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad

    2016-01-01

    We use evolutionary conservation derived from structure alignment of polypeptide sequences along with structural and physicochemical attributes of protein–RNA interfaces to probe the binding hot spots at protein–RNA recognition sites. We find that the degree of conservation varies across the RNA binding proteins; some evolve rapidly compared to others. Additionally, irrespective of the structural class of the complexes, residues at the RNA binding sites are evolutionary better conserved than those at the solvent exposed surfaces. For recognitions involving duplex RNA, residues interacting with the major groove are better conserved than those interacting with the minor groove. We identify multi-interface residues participating simultaneously in protein–protein and protein–RNA interfaces in complexes where more than one polypeptide is involved in RNA recognition, and show that they are better conserved compared to any other RNA binding residues. We find that the residues at water preservation site are better conserved than those at hydrated or at dehydrated sites. Finally, we develop a Random Forests model using structural and physicochemical attributes for predicting binding hot spots. The model accurately predicts 80% of the instances of experimental ΔΔG values in a particular class, and provides a stepping-stone towards the engineering of protein–RNA recognition sites with desired affinity. PMID:26365245

  7. Probing binding hot spots at protein-RNA recognition sites.

    PubMed

    Barik, Amita; Nithin, Chandran; Karampudi, Naga Bhushana Rao; Mukherjee, Sunandan; Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad

    2016-01-29

    We use evolutionary conservation derived from structure alignment of polypeptide sequences along with structural and physicochemical attributes of protein-RNA interfaces to probe the binding hot spots at protein-RNA recognition sites. We find that the degree of conservation varies across the RNA binding proteins; some evolve rapidly compared to others. Additionally, irrespective of the structural class of the complexes, residues at the RNA binding sites are evolutionary better conserved than those at the solvent exposed surfaces. For recognitions involving duplex RNA, residues interacting with the major groove are better conserved than those interacting with the minor groove. We identify multi-interface residues participating simultaneously in protein-protein and protein-RNA interfaces in complexes where more than one polypeptide is involved in RNA recognition, and show that they are better conserved compared to any other RNA binding residues. We find that the residues at water preservation site are better conserved than those at hydrated or at dehydrated sites. Finally, we develop a Random Forests model using structural and physicochemical attributes for predicting binding hot spots. The model accurately predicts 80% of the instances of experimental ΔΔG values in a particular class, and provides a stepping-stone towards the engineering of protein-RNA recognition sites with desired affinity.

  8. The expanding universe of ribonucleoproteins: of novel RNA-binding proteins and unconventional interactions.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Benedikt M; Castello, Alfredo; Medenbach, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression plays a critical role in almost all cellular processes. Regulation occurs mostly by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that recognise RNA elements and form ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) to control RNA metabolism from synthesis to decay. Recently, the repertoire of RBPs was significantly expanded owing to methodological advances such as RNA interactome capture. The newly identified RNA binders are involved in diverse biological processes and belong to a broad spectrum of protein families, many of them exhibiting enzymatic activities. This suggests the existence of an extensive crosstalk between RNA biology and other, in principle unrelated, cell functions such as intermediary metabolism. Unexpectedly, hundreds of new RBPs do not contain identifiable RNA-binding domains (RBDs), raising the question of how they interact with RNA. Despite the many functions that have been attributed to RNA, our understanding of RNPs is still mostly governed by a rather protein-centric view, leading to the idea that proteins have evolved to bind to and regulate RNA and not vice versa. However, RNPs formed by an RNA-driven interaction mechanism (RNA-determined RNPs) are abundant and offer an alternative explanation for the surprising lack of classical RBDs in many RNA-interacting proteins. Moreover, RNAs can act as scaffolds to orchestrate and organise protein networks and directly control their activity, suggesting that nucleic acids might play an important regulatory role in many cellular processes, including metabolism.

  9. Structure of the second RRM domain of Nrd1, a fission yeast MAPK target RNA binding protein, and implication for its RNA recognition and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Ayaho; Kanaba, Teppei; Satoh, Ryosuke; Fujiwara, Toshinobu; Ito, Yutaka; Sugiura, Reiko; Mishima, Masaki

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •Solution structure of the second RRM of Nrd1 was determined. •RNA binding site of the second RRM was estimated. •Regulatory mechanism of RNA binding by phosphorylation is discussed. -- Abstract: Negative regulator of differentiation 1 (Nrd1) is known as a negative regulator of sexual differentiation in fission yeast. Recently, it has been revealed that Nrd1 also regulates cytokinesis, in which physical separation of the cell is achieved by a contractile ring comprising many proteins including actin and myosin. Cdc4, a myosin II light chain, is known to be required for cytokinesis. Nrd1 binds and stabilizes Cdc4 mRNA, and thereby suppressing the cytokinesis defects of the cdc4 mutants. Interestingly, Pmk1 MAPK phosphorylates Nrd1, resulting in markedly reduced RNA binding activity. Furthermore, Nrd1 localizes to stress granules in response to various stresses, and Pmk1 phosphorylation enhances the localization. Nrd1 consists of four RRM domains, although the mechanism by which Pmk1 regulates the RNA binding activity of Nrd1 is unknown. In an effort to delineate the relationship between Nrd1 structure and function, we prepared each RNA binding domain of Nrd1 and examined RNA binding to chemically synthesized oligo RNA using NMR. The structure of the second RRM domain of Nrd1 was determined and the RNA binding site on the second RRM domain was mapped by NMR. A plausible mechanism pertaining to the regulation of RNA binding activity by phosphorylation is also discussed.

  10. A versatile assay for RNA-binding proteins in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Strein, Claudia; Alleaume, Anne-Marie; Rothbauer, Ulrich; Hentze, Matthias W.; Castello, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) control RNA fate from synthesis to decay. Since their cellular expression levels frequently do not reflect their in vivo activity, methods are needed to assess the steady state RNA-binding activity of RBPs as well as their responses to stimuli. While electrophoresis mobility shift assays (EMSA) have been used for such determinations, their results serve at best as proxies for the RBP activities in living cells. Here, we describe a quantitative dual fluorescence method to analyze protein–mRNA interactions in vivo. Known or candidate RBPs are fused to fluorescent proteins (eGFP, YFP), expressed in cells, cross-linked in vivo to RNA by ultraviolet light irradiation, and immunoprecipitated, after lysis, with a single chain antibody fragment directed against eGFP (GFP-binding protein, GBP). Polyadenylated RNA-binding activity of fusion proteins is assessed by hybridization with an oligo(DT) probe coupled with a red fluorophore. Since UV light is directly applied to living cells, the assay can be used to monitor dynamic changes in RNA-binding activities in response to biological or pharmacological stimuli. Notably, immunoprecipitation and hybridization can also be performed with commercially available GBP-coupled 96-well plates (GFP-multiTrap), allowing highly parallel RNA-binding measurements in a single experiment. Therefore, this method creates the possibility to conduct in vivo high-throughput RNA-binding assays. We believe that this fast and simple radioactivity-free method will find many useful applications in RNA biology. PMID:24664470

  11. A versatile assay for RNA-binding proteins in living cells.

    PubMed

    Strein, Claudia; Alleaume, Anne-Marie; Rothbauer, Ulrich; Hentze, Matthias W; Castello, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) control RNA fate from synthesis to decay. Since their cellular expression levels frequently do not reflect their in vivo activity, methods are needed to assess the steady state RNA-binding activity of RBPs as well as their responses to stimuli. While electrophoresis mobility shift assays (EMSA) have been used for such determinations, their results serve at best as proxies for the RBP activities in living cells. Here, we describe a quantitative dual fluorescence method to analyze protein-mRNA interactions in vivo. Known or candidate RBPs are fused to fluorescent proteins (eGFP, YFP), expressed in cells, cross-linked in vivo to RNA by ultraviolet light irradiation, and immunoprecipitated, after lysis, with a single chain antibody fragment directed against eGFP (GFP-binding protein, GBP). Polyadenylated RNA-binding activity of fusion proteins is assessed by hybridization with an oligo(DT) probe coupled with a red fluorophore. Since UV light is directly applied to living cells, the assay can be used to monitor dynamic changes in RNA-binding activities in response to biological or pharmacological stimuli. Notably, immunoprecipitation and hybridization can also be performed with commercially available GBP-coupled 96-well plates (GFP-multiTrap), allowing highly parallel RNA-binding measurements in a single experiment. Therefore, this method creates the possibility to conduct in vivo high-throughput RNA-binding assays. We believe that this fast and simple radioactivity-free method will find many useful applications in RNA biology.

  12. Architecture and RNA binding of the human negative elongation factor

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Seychelle M; Pöllmann, David; Caizzi, Livia; Hofmann, Katharina B; Rombaut, Pascaline; Zimniak, Tomasz; Herzog, Franz; Cramer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Transcription regulation in metazoans often involves promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase (Pol) II, which requires the 4-subunit negative elongation factor (NELF). Here we discern the functional architecture of human NELF through X-ray crystallography, protein crosslinking, biochemical assays, and RNA crosslinking in cells. We identify a NELF core subcomplex formed by conserved regions in subunits NELF-A and NELF-C, and resolve its crystal structure. The NELF-AC subcomplex binds single-stranded nucleic acids in vitro, and NELF-C associates with RNA in vivo. A positively charged face of NELF-AC is involved in RNA binding, whereas the opposite face of the NELF-AC subcomplex binds NELF-B. NELF-B is predicted to form a HEAT repeat fold, also binds RNA in vivo, and anchors the subunit NELF-E, which is confirmed to bind RNA in vivo. These results reveal the three-dimensional architecture and three RNA-binding faces of NELF. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14981.001 PMID:27282391

  13. Comparative analyses of the thermodynamic RNA binding signatures of different types of RNA recognition motifs

    PubMed Central

    Cléry, Antoine; Allain, Frédéric H-T

    2017-01-01

    Abstract RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) are structurally versatile domains important in regulation of alternative splicing. Structural mechanisms of sequence-specific recognition of single-stranded RNAs (ssRNAs) by RRMs are well understood. The thermodynamic strategies are however unclear. Therefore, we utilized microcalorimetry and semi-empirical analyses to comparatively analyze the cognate ssRNA binding thermodynamics of four different RRM domains, each with a different RNA binding mode. The different binding modes are: canonical binding to the β-sheet surface; canonical binding with involvement of N- and C-termini; binding to conserved loops; and binding to an α-helix. Our results identify enthalpy as the sole and general force driving association at physiological temperatures. Also, networks of weak interactions are a general feature regulating stability of the different RRM–ssRNA complexes. In agreement, non-polyelectrolyte effects contributed between ∼75 and 90% of the overall free energy of binding in the considered complexes. The various RNA binding modes also displayed enormous heat capacity differences, that upon dissection revealed large differential changes in hydration, conformations and dynamics upon binding RNA. Altogether, different modes employed by RRMs to bind cognate ssRNAs utilize various thermodynamics strategies during the association process. PMID:28334819

  14. Comparative analyses of the thermodynamic RNA binding signatures of different types of RNA recognition motifs.

    PubMed

    Samatanga, Brighton; Cléry, Antoine; Barraud, Pierre; Allain, Frédéric H-T; Jelesarov, Ilian

    2017-06-02

    RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) are structurally versatile domains important in regulation of alternative splicing. Structural mechanisms of sequence-specific recognition of single-stranded RNAs (ssRNAs) by RRMs are well understood. The thermodynamic strategies are however unclear. Therefore, we utilized microcalorimetry and semi-empirical analyses to comparatively analyze the cognate ssRNA binding thermodynamics of four different RRM domains, each with a different RNA binding mode. The different binding modes are: canonical binding to the β-sheet surface; canonical binding with involvement of N- and C-termini; binding to conserved loops; and binding to an α-helix. Our results identify enthalpy as the sole and general force driving association at physiological temperatures. Also, networks of weak interactions are a general feature regulating stability of the different RRM-ssRNA complexes. In agreement, non-polyelectrolyte effects contributed between ∼75 and 90% of the overall free energy of binding in the considered complexes. The various RNA binding modes also displayed enormous heat capacity differences, that upon dissection revealed large differential changes in hydration, conformations and dynamics upon binding RNA. Altogether, different modes employed by RRMs to bind cognate ssRNAs utilize various thermodynamics strategies during the association process. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. RNA-Binding Proteins Revisited - The Emerging Arabidopsis mRNA Interactome.

    PubMed

    Köster, Tino; Marondedze, Claudius; Meyer, Katja; Staiger, Dorothee

    2017-04-12

    RNA-protein interaction is an important checkpoint to tune gene expression at the RNA level. Global identification of proteins binding in vivo to mRNA has been possible through interactome capture - where proteins are fixed to target RNAs by UV crosslinking and purified through affinity capture of polyadenylated RNA. In Arabidopsis over 500 RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) enriched in UV-crosslinked samples have been identified. As in mammals and yeast, the mRNA interactomes came with a few surprises. For example, a plethora of the proteins caught on RNA had not previously been linked to RNA-mediated processes, for example proteins of intermediary metabolism. Thus, the studies provide unprecedented insights into the composition of the mRNA interactome, highlighting the complexity of RNA-mediated processes.

  16. Nuclear dynamics of topoisomerase IIβ reflects its catalytic activity that is regulated by binding of RNA to the C-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Onoda, Akihisa; Hosoya, Osamu; Sano, Kuniaki; Kiyama, Kazuko; Kimura, Hiroshi; Kawano, Shinji; Furuta, Ryohei; Miyaji, Mary; Tsutsui, Ken; Tsutsui, Kimiko M.

    2014-01-01

    DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) changes DNA topology by cleavage/re-ligation cycle(s) and thus contributes to various nuclear DNA transactions. It is largely unknown how the enzyme is controlled in a nuclear context. Several studies have suggested that its C-terminal domain (CTD), which is dispensable for basal relaxation activity, has some regulatory influence. In this work, we examined the impact of nuclear localization on regulation of activity in nuclei. Specifically, human cells were transfected with wild-type and mutant topo IIβ tagged with EGFP. Activity attenuation experiments and nuclear localization data reveal that the endogenous activity of topo IIβ is correlated with its subnuclear distribution. The enzyme shuttles between an active form in the nucleoplasm and a quiescent form in the nucleolus in a dynamic equilibrium. Mechanistically, the process involves a tethering event with RNA. Isolated RNA inhibits the catalytic activity of topo IIβ in vitro through the interaction with a specific 50-residue region of the CTD (termed the CRD). Taken together, these results suggest that both the subnuclear distribution and activity regulation of topo IIβ are mediated by the interplay between cellular RNA and the CRD. PMID:25034690

  17. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Analyses of Iron Response Element (IRE)-mRNA Binding to Iron Regulatory Protein, IRP1.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mateen A; Walden, William E; Theil, Elizabeth C; Goss, Dixie J

    2017-08-17

    Comparison of kinetic and thermodynamic properties of IRP1 (iron regulatory protein1) binding to FRT (ferritin) and ACO2 (aconitase2) IRE-RNAs, with or without Mn(2+), revealed differences specific to each IRE-RNA. Conserved among animal mRNAs, IRE-RNA structures are noncoding and bind Fe(2+) to regulate biosynthesis rates of the encoded, iron homeostatic proteins. IRP1 protein binds IRE-RNA, inhibiting mRNA activity; Fe(2+) decreases IRE-mRNA/IRP1 binding, increasing encoded protein synthesis. Here, we observed heat, 5 °C to 30 °C, increased IRP1 binding to IRE-RNA 4-fold (FRT IRE-RNA) or 3-fold (ACO2 IRE-RNA), which was enthalpy driven and entropy favorable. Mn(2+) (50 µM, 25 °C) increased IRE-RNA/IRP1 binding (K d) 12-fold (FRT IRE-RNA) or 6-fold (ACO2 IRE-RNA); enthalpic contributions decreased ~61% (FRT) or ~32% (ACO2), and entropic contributions increased ~39% (FRT) or ~68% (ACO2). IRE-RNA/IRP1 binding changed activation energies: FRT IRE-RNA 47.0 ± 2.5 kJ/mol, ACO2 IRE-RNA 35.0 ± 2.0 kJ/mol. Mn(2+) (50 µM) decreased the activation energy of RNA-IRP1 binding for both IRE-RNAs. The observations suggest decreased RNA hydrogen bonding and changed RNA conformation upon IRP1 binding and illustrate how small, conserved, sequence differences among IRE-mRNAs selectively influence thermodynamic and kinetic selectivity of the protein/RNA interactions.

  18. DNA damage: RNA-binding proteins protect from near and far.

    PubMed

    Dutertre, Martin; Lambert, Sarah; Carreira, Aura; Amor-Guéret, Mounira; Vagner, Stéphan

    2014-03-01

    Recent work, including large-scale genetic and molecular analyses, identified RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) as major players in the prevention of genome instability. These studies show that RBPs prevent harmful RNA/DNA hybrids and are involved in the DNA damage response (DDR), from DNA repair to cell survival decisions. Indeed, specific RBPs allow the selective regulation of DDR genes at multiple post-transcriptional levels (from pre-mRNA splicing/polyadenylation to mRNA stability/translation) and are directly involved in DNA repair. These multiple activities are mediated by RBP binding to mRNAs, nascent transcripts, noncoding RNAs, and damaged DNA. Finally, because DNA damage modifies RBP localization and binding to different RNA/DNA molecules, we propose that upon DNA damage, RBPs coordinately regulate various aspects of both RNA and DNA metabolism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The RNA-binding landscapes of two SR proteins reveal unique functions and binding to diverse RNA classes.

    PubMed

    Änkö, Minna-Liisa; Müller-McNicoll, Michaela; Brandl, Holger; Curk, Tomaz; Gorup, Crtomir; Henry, Ian; Ule, Jernej; Neugebauer, Karla M

    2012-01-01

    The SR proteins comprise a family of essential, structurally related RNA binding proteins. The complexity of their RNA targets and specificity of RNA recognition in vivo is not well understood. Here we use iCLIP to globally analyze and compare the RNA binding properties of two SR proteins, SRSF3 and SRSF4, in murine cells. SRSF3 and SRSF4 binding sites mapped to largely non-overlapping target genes, and in vivo consensus binding motifs were distinct. Interactions with intronless and intron-containing mRNAs as well as non-coding RNAs were detected. Surprisingly, both SR proteins bound to the 3' ends of the majority of intronless histone transcripts, implicating SRSF3 and SRSF4 in histone mRNA metabolism. In contrast, SRSF3 but not SRSF4 specifically bound transcripts encoding numerous RNA binding proteins. Remarkably, SRSF3 was shown to modulate alternative splicing of its own as well as three other transcripts encoding SR proteins. These SRSF3-mediated splicing events led to downregulation of heterologous SR proteins via nonsense-mediated decay. SRSF3 and SRSF4 display unique RNA binding properties underlying diverse cellular regulatory mechanisms, with shared as well as unique coding and non-coding targets. Importantly, CLIP analysis led to the discovery that SRSF3 cross-regulates the expression of other SR protein family members.

  20. The RNA-binding landscapes of two SR proteins reveal unique functions and binding to diverse RNA classes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The SR proteins comprise a family of essential, structurally related RNA binding proteins. The complexity of their RNA targets and specificity of RNA recognition in vivo is not well understood. Here we use iCLIP to globally analyze and compare the RNA binding properties of two SR proteins, SRSF3 and SRSF4, in murine cells. Results SRSF3 and SRSF4 binding sites mapped to largely non-overlapping target genes, and in vivo consensus binding motifs were distinct. Interactions with intronless and intron-containing mRNAs as well as non-coding RNAs were detected. Surprisingly, both SR proteins bound to the 3' ends of the majority of intronless histone transcripts, implicating SRSF3 and SRSF4 in histone mRNA metabolism. In contrast, SRSF3 but not SRSF4 specifically bound transcripts encoding numerous RNA binding proteins. Remarkably, SRSF3 was shown to modulate alternative splicing of its own as well as three other transcripts encoding SR proteins. These SRSF3-mediated splicing events led to downregulation of heterologous SR proteins via nonsense-mediated decay. Conclusions SRSF3 and SRSF4 display unique RNA binding properties underlying diverse cellular regulatory mechanisms, with shared as well as unique coding and non-coding targets. Importantly, CLIP analysis led to the discovery that SRSF3 cross-regulates the expression of other SR protein family members. PMID:22436691

  1. Mapping the tRNA binding site on the surface of human DNMT2 methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Jurkowski, Tomasz P; Shanmugam, Raghuvaran; Helm, Mark; Jeltsch, Albert

    2012-06-05

    The DNMT2 enzyme methylates tRNA-Asp at position C38. Because there is no tRNA-Dnmt2 cocrystal structure available, we have mapped the tRNA binding site of DNMT2 by systematically mutating surface-exposed lysine and arginine residues to alanine and studying the tRNA methylation activity and binding of the corresponding variants. After mutating 20 lysine and arginine residues, we identified eight of them that caused large (>4-fold) decreases in catalytic activity. These residues cluster within and next to a surface cleft in the protein, which is large enough to accommodate the tRNA anticodon loop and stem. This cleft is located next to the binding pocket for the cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine, and the catalytic residues of DNMT2 are positioned at its walls or bottom. Many of the variants with strongly reduced catalytic activity showed only a weak loss of tRNA binding or even bound better to tRNA than wild-type DNMT2, which suggests that the enzyme induces some conformational changes in the tRNA in the transition state of the methyl group transfer reaction. Manual placement of tRNA into the structure suggests that DNMT2 mainly interacts with the anticodon stem and loop.

  2. Xenopus interspersed RNA families, Ocr and XR, bind DNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Guttridge, K L; Smith, L D

    1995-05-01

    Interspersed RNA makes up two-thirds of cytoplasmic polyadenylated RNA in Xenopus and sea urchin eggs. Although it has no known function, previous work has suggested that at least one family of interspersed RNA, XR, binds Xenopus oocyte proteins, and can influence the rate of translation. We have used two Xenopus repeat families, Ocr and XR, to explore their protein binding abilities. Ocr RNA binds the same pattern of highly abundant oocyte proteins that XR RNA binds, which are believed to be messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle proteins. In addition, we show that Ocr RNA binds the Oct-60 protein, a member of the POU-domain family of transcription factors found in Xenopus oocytes. Using a 32 base pair sequence from the XR repeat in a DNA affinity column two proteins were isolated, 66 kDa and 92 kDa, that together form a complex with XR DNA. One of these proteins (92 kDa) also binds XR RNA. We suggest that the role of at least a subset of interspersed RNAs in development may be to bind, and sequester in the cytoplasm, DNA-binding proteins until the end of oogenesis.

  3. Oncogenic potential of TAR RNA binding protein TRBP and its regulatory interaction with RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR.

    PubMed Central

    Benkirane, M; Neuveut, C; Chun, R F; Smith, S M; Samuel, C E; Gatignol, A; Jeang, K T

    1997-01-01

    TAR RNA binding protein (TRBP) belongs to an RNA binding protein family that includes the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), Drosophila Staufen and Xenopus xlrbpa. One member of this family, PKR, is a serine/threonine kinase which has anti-viral and anti-proliferative effects. In this study we show that TRBP is a cellular down-regulator of PKR function. Assaying expression from an infectious HIV-1 molecular clone, we found that PKR inhibited viral protein synthesis and that over-expression of TRBP effectively countered this inhibition. In intracellular and in cell-free assays we show that TRBP directly inhibits PKR autophosphorylation through an RNA binding-independent pathway. Biologically, TRBP serves a growth-promoting role; cells that overexpress TRBP exhibit transformed phenotypes. Our results demonstrate the oncogenic potential of TRBP and are consistent with the notion that intracellular PKR function contributes physiologically towards regulating cellular proliferation. PMID:9034343

  4. Mutational definition of RNA-binding and protein-protein interaction domains of heterogeneous nuclear RNP C1.

    PubMed

    Wan, L; Kim, J K; Pollard, V W; Dreyfuss, G

    2001-03-09

    The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hn- RNP) C proteins, among the most abundant pre-mRNA-binding proteins in the eukaryotic nucleus, have a single RNP motif RNA-binding domain. The RNA-binding domain (RBD) is comprised of approximately 80-100 amino acids, and its structure has been determined. However, relatively little is known about the role of specific amino acids of the RBD in the binding to RNA. We have devised a phage display-based screening method for the rapid identification of amino acids in hnRNP C1 that are essential for its binding to RNA. The identified mutants were further tested for binding to poly(U)-Sepharose, a substrate to which wild type hnRNP C1 binds with high affinity. We found both previously predicted, highly conserved residues as well as additional residues in the RBD to be essential for C1 RNA binding. We also identified three mutations in the leucine-rich C1-C1 interaction domain near the carboxyl terminus of the protein that both abolished C1 oligomerization and reduced RNA binding. These results demonstrate that although the RBD is the primary determinant of C1 RNA binding, residues in the C1-C1 interaction domain also influence the RNA binding activity of the protein. The experimental approach we described should be generally applicable for the screening and identification of amino acids that play a role in the binding of proteins to nucleic acid substrates.

  5. Modeling RNA-ligand interactions: the Rev-binding element RNA-aminoglycoside complex.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, F; Cedergren, R

    1998-01-15

    An approach to the modeling of ligand-RNA complexes has been developed by combining three-dimensional structure-activity relationship (3D-SAR) computations with a docking protocol. The ability of 3D-SAR to predict bound conformations of flexible ligands was first assessed by attempting to reconstruct the known, bound conformations of phenyloxazolines complexed with human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14) RNA. Subsequently, the same 3D-SAR analysis was applied to the identification of bound conformations of aminoglycosides which associate with the Rev-binding element (RBE) RNA. Bound conformations were identified by parsing ligand conformational data sets with pharmacophores determined by the 3D-SAR analysis. These "bioactive" structures were docked to the receptor RNA, and optimization of the complex was undertaken by extensive searching of ligand conformational space coupled with molecular dynamics computations. The similarity between the bound conformations of the ligand from the 3D-SAR analysis and those found in the docking protocol suggests that this methodology is valid for the prediction of bound ligand conformations and the modeling of the structure of the ligand-RNA complexes.

  6. Protein-Binding RNA Aptamers Affect Molecular Interactions Distantly from Their Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Daniel M.; Thuesen, Cathrine K.; Bøtkjær, Kenneth A.; Behrens, Manja A.; Dam, Karen; Sørensen, Hans P.; Pedersen, Jan S.; Ploug, Michael; Jensen, Jan K.; Andreasen, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid aptamer selection is a powerful strategy for the development of regulatory agents for molecular intervention. Accordingly, aptamers have proven their diligence in the intervention with serine protease activities, which play important roles in physiology and pathophysiology. Nonetheless, there are only a few studies on the molecular basis underlying aptamer-protease interactions and the associated mechanisms of inhibition. In the present study, we use site-directed mutagenesis to delineate the binding sites of two 2´-fluoropyrimidine RNA aptamers (upanap-12 and upanap-126) with therapeutic potential, both binding to the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). We determine the subsequent impact of aptamer binding on the well-established molecular interactions (plasmin, PAI-1, uPAR, and LRP-1A) controlling uPA activities. One of the aptamers (upanap-126) binds to the area around the C-terminal α-helix in pro-uPA, while the other aptamer (upanap-12) binds to both the β-hairpin of the growth factor domain and the kringle domain of uPA. Based on the mapping studies, combined with data from small-angle X-ray scattering analysis, we construct a model for the upanap-12:pro-uPA complex. The results suggest and highlight that the size and shape of an aptamer as well as the domain organization of a multi-domain protein such as uPA, may provide the basis for extensive sterical interference with protein ligand interactions considered distant from the aptamer binding site. PMID:25793507

  7. Binding of tobamovirus replication protein with small RNA duplexes.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Yukio; Inaba, Naoko; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Takeda, Atsushi; Tagami, Yuko; Watanabe, Yuichiro

    2007-08-01

    The sequence profiles of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in Arabidopsis infected with the crucifer tobamovirus tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-Cg were determined by using a small RNA cloning technique. The majority of TMV-derived siRNAs were 21 nt in length. The size of the most abundant endogenous small RNAs in TMV-infected plants was 21 nt, whilst in mock-inoculated plants, it was 24 nt. Northern blot analysis revealed that some microRNAs (miRNAs) accumulated more in TMV-infected plants than in mock-inoculated plants. The question of whether the TMV-Cg-encoded 126K replication protein, an RNA-silencing suppressor, caused small RNA enrichment was examined. Transient expression of the replication protein did not change the pattern of miRNA processing. However, miRNA, miRNA* (the opposite strand of the miRNA duplex) and hairpin-derived siRNA all co-immunoprecipitated with the replication protein. Gel mobility-shift assays indicated that the replication protein binds small RNA duplexes. These results suggest that the tobamovirus replication protein functions as a silencing suppressor by binding small RNA duplexes, changing the small RNA profile in infected plants.

  8. RNAs nonspecifically inhibit RNA polymerase II by preventing binding to the DNA template

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Dave A.; Kaplan, Craig D.; Kweon, Hye Kyong; Murakami, Kenji; Andrews, Philip C.; Engelke, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Many RNAs are known to act as regulators of transcription in eukaryotes, including certain small RNAs that directly inhibit RNA polymerases both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We have examined the potential for a variety of RNAs to directly inhibit transcription by yeast RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and find that unstructured RNAs are potent inhibitors of purified yeast Pol II. Inhibition by RNA is achieved by blocking binding of the DNA template and requires binding of the RNA to Pol II prior to open complex formation. RNA is not able to displace a DNA template that is already stably bound to Pol II, nor can RNA inhibit elongating Pol II. Unstructured RNAs are more potent inhibitors than highly structured RNAs and can also block specific transcription initiation in the presence of basal transcription factors. Crosslinking studies with ultraviolet light show that unstructured RNA is most closely associated with the two large subunits of Pol II that comprise the template binding cleft, but the RNA has contacts in a basic residue channel behind the back wall of the active site. These results are distinct from previous observations of specific inhibition by small, structured RNAs in that they demonstrate a sensitivity of the holoenzyme to inhibition by unstructured RNA products that bind to a surface outside the DNA cleft. These results are discussed in terms of the need to prevent inhibition by RNAs, either though sequestration of nascent RNA or preemptive interaction of Pol II with the DNA template. PMID:24614752

  9. RNAs nonspecifically inhibit RNA polymerase II by preventing binding to the DNA template.

    PubMed

    Pai, Dave A; Kaplan, Craig D; Kweon, Hye Kyong; Murakami, Kenji; Andrews, Philip C; Engelke, David R

    2014-05-01

    Many RNAs are known to act as regulators of transcription in eukaryotes, including certain small RNAs that directly inhibit RNA polymerases both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We have examined the potential for a variety of RNAs to directly inhibit transcription by yeast RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and find that unstructured RNAs are potent inhibitors of purified yeast Pol II. Inhibition by RNA is achieved by blocking binding of the DNA template and requires binding of the RNA to Pol II prior to open complex formation. RNA is not able to displace a DNA template that is already stably bound to Pol II, nor can RNA inhibit elongating Pol II. Unstructured RNAs are more potent inhibitors than highly structured RNAs and can also block specific transcription initiation in the presence of basal transcription factors. Crosslinking studies with ultraviolet light show that unstructured RNA is most closely associated with the two large subunits of Pol II that comprise the template binding cleft, but the RNA has contacts in a basic residue channel behind the back wall of the active site. These results are distinct from previous observations of specific inhibition by small, structured RNAs in that they demonstrate a sensitivity of the holoenzyme to inhibition by unstructured RNA products that bind to a surface outside the DNA cleft. These results are discussed in terms of the need to prevent inhibition by RNAs, either though sequestration of nascent RNA or preemptive interaction of Pol II with the DNA template.

  10. The Drosophila RNA-binding protein HOW controls the stability of dgrasp mRNA in the follicular epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Giuliano; Giuliani, Fabrizio; Volk, Talila; Rabouille, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation of RNA stability and localization underlies a wide array of developmental processes, such as axon guidance and epithelial morphogenesis. In Drosophila, ectopic expression of the classically Golgi peripheral protein dGRASP at the plasma membrane is achieved through its mRNA targeting at key developmental time-points, in a process critical to follicular epithelium integrity. However, the trans-acting factors that tightly regulate the spatio-temporal dynamics of dgrasp are unknown. Using an in silico approach, we identified two putative HOW Response Elements (HRE1 and HRE2) within the dgrasp open reading frame for binding to Held Out Wings (HOW), a member of the Signal Transduction and Activation of RNA family of RNA-binding proteins. Using RNA immunoprecipitations, we confirmed this by showing that the short cytoplasmic isoform of HOW binds directly to dgrasp HRE1. Furthermore, HOW loss of function in vivo leads to a significant decrease in dgrasp mRNA levels. We demonstrate that HRE1 protects dgrasp mRNA from cytoplasmic degradation, but does not mediate its targeting. We propose that this binding event promotes the formation of ribonucleoprotein particles that ensure dgrasp stability during transport to the basal plasma membrane, thus enabling the local translation of dgrasp for its roles at non-Golgi locations. PMID:24217913

  11. Predicting protein-binding RNA nucleotides with consideration of binding partners.

    PubMed

    Tuvshinjargal, Narankhuu; Lee, Wook; Park, Byungkyu; Han, Kyungsook

    2015-06-01

    In recent years several computational methods have been developed to predict RNA-binding sites in protein. Most of these methods do not consider interacting partners of a protein, so they predict the same RNA-binding sites for a given protein sequence even if the protein binds to different RNAs. Unlike the problem of predicting RNA-binding sites in protein, the problem of predicting protein-binding sites in RNA has received little attention mainly because it is much more difficult and shows a lower accuracy on average. In our previous study, we developed a method that predicts protein-binding nucleotides from an RNA sequence. In an effort to improve the prediction accuracy and usefulness of the previous method, we developed a new method that uses both RNA and protein sequence data. In this study, we identified effective features of RNA and protein molecules and developed a new support vector machine (SVM) model to predict protein-binding nucleotides from RNA and protein sequence data. The new model that used both protein and RNA sequence data achieved a sensitivity of 86.5%, a specificity of 86.2%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 72.6%, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 93.8% and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.69 in a 10-fold cross validation; it achieved a sensitivity of 58.8%, a specificity of 87.4%, a PPV of 65.1%, a NPV of 84.2% and MCC of 0.48 in independent testing. For comparative purpose, we built another prediction model that used RNA sequence data alone and ran it on the same dataset. In a 10 fold-cross validation it achieved a sensitivity of 85.7%, a specificity of 80.5%, a PPV of 67.7%, a NPV of 92.2% and MCC of 0.63; in independent testing it achieved a sensitivity of 67.7%, a specificity of 78.8%, a PPV of 57.6%, a NPV of 85.2% and MCC of 0.45. In both cross-validations and independent testing, the new model that used both RNA and protein sequences showed a better performance than the model that used RNA sequence data alone in

  12. RNA-Binding Proteins in Female Reproductive Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Khalaj, Kasra; Miller, Jessica E; Fenn, Christian R; Ahn, SooHyun; Luna, Rayana L; Symons, Lindsey; Monsanto, Stephany P; Koti, Madhuri; Tayade, Chandrakant

    2017-06-01

    RNA-binding proteins are key regulatory molecules involved primarily in post-transcriptional gene regulation of RNAs. Post-transcriptional gene regulation is critical for adequate cellular growth and survival. Recent reports have shown key interactions between these RNA-binding proteins and other regulatory elements, such as miRNAs and long noncoding RNAs, either enhancing or diminishing their response to RNA stabilization. Many RNA-binding proteins have been reported to play a functional role in mediation of cytokines involved in inflammation and immune dysfunction, and some have been classified as global post-transcriptional regulators of inflammation. The ubiquitous expression of RNA-binding proteins in a wide variety of cell types and their unique mechanisms of degradative action provide evidence that they are involved in reproductive tract pathologies. Aberrant inflammation and immune dysfunction are major contributors to the pathogenesis and disease pathophysiology of many reproductive pathologies, including ovarian and endometrial cancers in the female reproductive tract. Herein, we discuss various RNA-binding proteins and their unique contributions to female reproductive pathologies with a focus on those mediated by aberrant inflammation and immune dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. RNA-Binding Proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis: Atypical Multifunctional Proteins.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E; Calla-Choque, Jaeson S; Mancilla-Olea, Maria Inocente; Arroyo, Rossana

    2015-11-26

    Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE) located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis.

  14. Increased CRE-binding activity and tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") in the rat frontal cortex but not in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    García-Osta, Ana; Del Río, Joaquín; Frechilla, Diana

    2004-07-26

    A single administration of either 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") or p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) produced a rapid and marked reduction of serotonin (5-HT) content in rat frontal cortex and hippocampus. In the cortex of MDMA-treated rats, 5-HT levels returned to control values 48 h after drug administration. This recovery was correlated with an induction of CRE-binding activity and an enhanced expression of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) mRNA, the rate-limiting enzyme in 5-HT biosynthesis, suggesting that MDMA may up-regulate the TPH gene through a CREB-dependent mechanism. In the cortex of PCA-treated rats, neither a recovery of 5-HT levels nor changes in DNA-binding or TPH mRNA were found at the same time point. In the hippocampus of rats receiving either PCA or MDMA a decrease in TPH mRNA levels was found at all times, along with a reduced CRE-binding at the 8-h time point. The results show region-specific effects of MDMA. In the frontal cortex, the increased TPH expression suggests a compensatory response to MDMA-induced loss of serotonergic function.

  15. Structural Basis for Telomerase Catalytic Subunit TERT Binding to RNA Template and Telomeric DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M.; Gillis, A; Futahashi, M; Fujiwara, H; Skordalakes, E

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase is a specialized DNA polymerase that extends the 3{prime} ends of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, a process required for genomic stability and cell viability. Here we present the crystal structure of the active Tribolium castaneum telomerase catalytic subunit, TERT, bound to an RNA-DNA hairpin designed to resemble the putative RNA-templating region and telomeric DNA. The RNA-DNA hybrid adopts a helical structure, docked in the interior cavity of the TERT ring. Contacts between the RNA template and motifs 2 and B{prime} position the solvent-accessible RNA bases close to the enzyme active site for nucleotide binding and selectivity. Nucleic acid binding induces rigid TERT conformational changes to form a tight catalytic complex. Overall, TERT-RNA template and TERT-telomeric DNA associations are remarkably similar to those observed for retroviral reverse transcriptases, suggesting common mechanistic aspects of DNA replication between the two families of enzymes.

  16. Rp-phosphorothioate modifications in RNase P RNA that interfere with tRNA binding.

    PubMed Central

    Hardt, W D; Warnecke, J M; Erdmann, V A; Hartmann, R K

    1995-01-01

    We have used Rp-phosphorothioate modifications and a binding interference assay to analyse the role of phosphate oxygens in tRNA recognition by Escherichia coli ribonuclease P (RNase P) RNA. Total (100%) Rp-phosphorothioate modification at A, C or G positions of RNase P RNA strongly impaired tRNA binding and pre-tRNA processing, while effects were less pronounced at U positions. Partially modified E. coli RNase P RNAs were separated into tRNA binding and non-binding fractions by gel retardation. Rp-phosphorothioate modifications that interfered with tRNA binding were found 5' of nucleotides A67, G68, U69, C70, C71, G72, A130, A132, A248, A249, G300, A317, A330, A352, C353 and C354. Manganese rescue at positions U69, C70, A130 and A132 identified, for the first time, sites of direct metal ion coordination in RNase P RNA. Most sites of interference are at strongly conserved nucleotides and nine reside within a long-range base-pairing interaction present in all known RNase P RNAs. In contrast to RNase P RNA, 100% Rp-phosphorothioate substitutions in tRNA showed only moderate effects on binding to RNase P RNAs from E. coli, Bacillus subtilis and Chromatium vinosum, suggesting that pro-Rp phosphate oxygens of mature tRNA contribute relatively little to the formation of the tRNA-RNase P RNA complex. Images PMID:7540978

  17. The binding sites for tRNA on eukaryotic ribosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Leader, D P; Machray, G C

    1975-01-01

    We have studied the non-enzymic binding of phe-tRNA to ribosomes from rat liver using deacylated tRNA to inhibit binding to the P-site and puromycin (5 x 10-minus3M) to inhibit binding to the A-site. We conclude that at a low concentration of magnesium ions (10mM) phe-tRNA is bound only at the A-site of 80S irbosomes, whereas at a high concentration of magnesium ions (40mM) phe-tRNA is also bound at the P-site. Studies with edeine indicate that, during non-enzymic binding of phe-tRNA, eukaryotic ribosomes (in contrast to prokarotic ribosomes) have the A-site of the 60S subunit and the initiation site of the 40S subunit juxtaposed. This may account for the differences observed, in formation of diphenylalanyl-tRNA and phenylalanyl-puromycin, between phe-tRNA bound non-enzymically to the P-sites of eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes. PMID:1098024

  18. The binding sites for tRNA on eukaryotic ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Leader, D P; Machray, G C

    1975-07-01

    We have studied the non-enzymic binding of phe-tRNA to ribosomes from rat liver using deacylated tRNA to inhibit binding to the P-site and puromycin (5 x 10-minus3M) to inhibit binding to the A-site. We conclude that at a low concentration of magnesium ions (10mM) phe-tRNA is bound only at the A-site of 80S irbosomes, whereas at a high concentration of magnesium ions (40mM) phe-tRNA is also bound at the P-site. Studies with edeine indicate that, during non-enzymic binding of phe-tRNA, eukaryotic ribosomes (in contrast to prokarotic ribosomes) have the A-site of the 60S subunit and the initiation site of the 40S subunit juxtaposed. This may account for the differences observed, in formation of diphenylalanyl-tRNA and phenylalanyl-puromycin, between phe-tRNA bound non-enzymically to the P-sites of eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes.

  19. The RNA-binding protein repertoire of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Marondedze, Claudius; Thomas, Ludivine; Serrano, Natalia L.; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Gehring, Chris

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have essential roles in determining the fate of RNA from synthesis to decay and have been studied on a protein-by-protein basis, or computationally based on a number of well-characterised RNA-binding domains. Recently, high-throughput methods enabled the capture of mammalian RNA-binding proteomes. To gain insight into the role of Arabidopsis thaliana RBPs at the systems level, we have employed interactome capture techniques using cells from different ecotypes grown in cultures and leaves. In vivo UV-crosslinking of RNA to RBPs, oligo(dT) capture and mass spectrometry yielded 1,145 different proteins including 550 RBPs that either belong to the functional category ‘RNA-binding’, have known RNA-binding domains or have orthologs identified in mammals, C. elegans, or S. cerevisiae in addition to 595 novel candidate RBPs. We noted specific subsets of RBPs in cultured cells and leaves and a comparison of Arabidopsis, mammalian, C. elegans, and S. cerevisiae RBPs reveals a common set of proteins with a role in intermediate metabolism, as well as distinct differences suggesting that RBPs are also species and tissue specific. This study provides a foundation for studies that will advance our understanding of the biological significance of RBPs in plant developmental and stimulus specific responses. PMID:27405932

  20. Norovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: A computational study of metal-binding preferences.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Md Munan; Bhattacharjee, Nicholus; Feliks, Mikolaj; Ng, Kenneth K-S; Field, Martin J

    2017-04-06

    Norovirus (NV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) is essential for replicating the genome of the virus, which makes this enzyme a key target for the development of antiviral agents against NV gastroenteritis. In this work, a complex of NV RdRP bound to manganese ions and an RNA primer-template duplex was investigated using X-ray crystallography and hybrid quantum chemical/molecular mechanical simulations. Experimentally, the complex crystallized in a tetragonal crystal form. The nature of the primer/template duplex binding in the resulting structure indicates that the complex is a closed back-tracked state of the enzyme, in which the 3'-end of the primer occupies the position expected for the post-incorporated nucleotide before translocation. Computationally, it is found that the complex can accept a range of divalent metal cations without marked distortions in the active site structure. The highest binding energy is for copper, followed closely by manganese and iron, and then by zinc, nickel and cobalt. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. RNA/DNA hybrid binding affinity determines telomerase template-translocation efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xiaodong; Xie, Mingyi; Brown, Andrew F; Bley, Christopher J; Podlevsky, Joshua D; Chen, Julian J-L

    2012-01-01

    Telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA repeats onto chromosome termini from an intrinsic RNA template. The processive synthesis of DNA repeats relies on a unique, yet poorly understood, mechanism whereby the telomerase RNA template translocates and realigns with the DNA primer after synthesizing each repeat. Here, we provide evidence that binding of the realigned RNA/DNA hybrid by the active site is an essential step for template translocation. Employing a template-free human telomerase system, we demonstrate that the telomerase active site directly binds to RNA/DNA hybrid substrates for DNA polymerization. In telomerase processivity mutants, the template-translocation efficiency correlates with the affinity for the RNA/DNA hybrid substrate. Furthermore, the active site is unoccupied during template translocation as a 5 bp extrinsic RNA/DNA hybrid effectively reduces the processivity of the template-containing telomerase. This suggests that strand separation and template realignment occur outside the active site, preceding the binding of realigned hybrid to the active site. Our results provide new insights into the ancient RNA/DNA hybrid binding ability of telomerase and its role in template translocation. PMID:21989387

  2. SUMO-Modification of the La Protein Facilitates Binding to mRNA In Vitro and in Cells.

    PubMed

    Kota, Venkatesh; Sommer, Gunhild; Durette, Chantal; Thibault, Pierre; van Niekerk, Erna A; Twiss, Jeffery L; Heise, Tilman

    2016-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein La is involved in several aspects of RNA metabolism including the translational regulation of mRNAs and processing of pre-tRNAs. Besides its well-described phosphorylation by Casein kinase 2, the La protein is also posttranslationally modified by the Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier (SUMO), but the functional outcome of this modification has not been defined. The objective of this study was to test whether sumoylation changes the RNA-binding activity of La. Therefore, we established an in vitro sumoylation assay for recombinant human La and analyzed its RNA-binding activity by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. We identified two novel SUMO-acceptor sites within the La protein located between the RNA recognition motif 1 and 2 and we demonstrate for the first time that sumoylation facilitates the RNA-binding of La to small RNA oligonucleotides representing the oligopyrimidine tract (TOP) elements from the 5' untranslated regions (UTR) of mRNAs encoding ribosomal protein L22 and L37 and to a longer RNA element from the 5' UTR of cyclin D1 (CCND1) mRNA in vitro. Furthermore, we show by RNA immunoprecipitation experiments that a La mutant deficient in sumoylation has impaired RNA-binding activity in cells. These data suggest that modulating the RNA-binding activity of La by sumoylation has important consequences on its functionality.

  3. SUMO-Modification of the La Protein Facilitates Binding to mRNA In Vitro and in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Venkatesh; Sommer, Gunhild; Durette, Chantal; Thibault, Pierre; van Niekerk, Erna A.; Twiss, Jeffery L.

    2016-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein La is involved in several aspects of RNA metabolism including the translational regulation of mRNAs and processing of pre-tRNAs. Besides its well-described phosphorylation by Casein kinase 2, the La protein is also posttranslationally modified by the Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier (SUMO), but the functional outcome of this modification has not been defined. The objective of this study was to test whether sumoylation changes the RNA-binding activity of La. Therefore, we established an in vitro sumoylation assay for recombinant human La and analyzed its RNA-binding activity by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. We identified two novel SUMO-acceptor sites within the La protein located between the RNA recognition motif 1 and 2 and we demonstrate for the first time that sumoylation facilitates the RNA-binding of La to small RNA oligonucleotides representing the oligopyrimidine tract (TOP) elements from the 5’ untranslated regions (UTR) of mRNAs encoding ribosomal protein L22 and L37 and to a longer RNA element from the 5’ UTR of cyclin D1 (CCND1) mRNA in vitro. Furthermore, we show by RNA immunoprecipitation experiments that a La mutant deficient in sumoylation has impaired RNA-binding activity in cells. These data suggest that modulating the RNA-binding activity of La by sumoylation has important consequences on its functionality. PMID:27224031

  4. STAR RNA-binding protein Quaking suppresses cancer via stabilization of specific miRNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, An-Jou; Paik, Ji-Hye; Zhang, Hailei; Shukla, Sachet A; Mortensen, Richard; Hu, Jian; Ying, Haoqiang; Hu, Baoli; Hurt, Jessica; Farny, Natalie; Dong, Caroline; Xiao, Yonghong; Wang, Y Alan; Silver, Pamela A; Chin, Lynda; Vasudevan, Shobha; Depinho, Ronald A

    2012-07-01

    Multidimensional cancer genome analysis and validation has defined Quaking (QKI), a member of the signal transduction and activation of RNA (STAR) family of RNA-binding proteins, as a novel glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumor suppressor. Here, we establish that p53 directly regulates QKI gene expression, and QKI protein associates with and leads to the stabilization of miR-20a; miR-20a, in turn, regulates TGFβR2 and the TGFβ signaling network. This pathway circuitry is substantiated by in silico epistasis analysis of its components in the human GBM TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas Project) collection and by their gain- and loss-of-function interactions in in vitro and in vivo complementation studies. This p53-QKI-miR-20a-TGFβ pathway expands our understanding of the p53 tumor suppression network in cancer and reveals a novel tumor suppression mechanism involving regulation of specific cancer-relevant microRNAs.

  5. Fluorophore ligand binding and complex stabilization of the RNA Mango and RNA Spinach aptamers.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Sunny C Y; Chan, Hedy H Y; Booy, Evan P; McKenna, Sean A; Unrau, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    The effective tracking and purification of biological RNAs and RNA protein complexes is currently challenging. One promising strategy to simultaneously address both of these problems is to develop high-affinity RNA aptamers against taggable small molecule fluorophores. RNA Mango is a 39-nucleotide, parallel-stranded G-quadruplex RNA aptamer motif that binds with nanomolar affinity to a set of thiazole orange (TO1) derivatives while simultaneously inducing a 10(3)-fold increase in fluorescence. We find that RNA Mango has a large increase in its thermal stability upon the addition of its TO1-Biotin ligand. Consistent with this thermal stabilization, RNA Mango can effectively discriminate TO1-Biotin from a broad range of small molecule fluorophores. In contrast, RNA Spinach, which is known to have a substantially more rigid G-quadruplex structure, was found to bind to this set of fluorophores, often with higher affinity than to its native ligand, 3,5-difluoro-4-hydroxybenzylidene imidazolinone (DFHBI), and did not exhibit thermal stabilization in the presence of the TO1-Biotin fluorophore. Our data suggest that RNA Mango is likely to use a concerted ligand-binding mechanism that allows it to simultaneously bind and recognize its TO1-Biotin ligand, whereas RNA Spinach appears to lack such a mechanism. The high binding affinity and fluorescent efficiency of RNA Mango provides a compelling alternative to RNA Spinach as an RNA reporter system and paves the way for the future development of small fluorophore RNA reporter systems. © 2016 Jeng et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  6. A viral suppressor of RNA silencing inhibits ARGONAUTE 1 function by precluding target RNA binding to pre-assembled RISC.

    PubMed

    Kenesi, Erzsébet; Carbonell, Alberto; Lózsa, Rita; Vértessy, Beáta; Lakatos, Lóránt

    2017-07-27

    In most eukaryotes, RNA silencing is an adaptive immune system regulating key biological processes including antiviral defense. To evade this response, viruses of plants, worms and insects have evolved viral suppressors of RNA silencing proteins (VSRs). Various VSRs, such as P1 from Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV), inhibit the activity of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) including an ARGONAUTE (AGO) protein loaded with a small RNA. However, the specific mechanisms explaining this class of inhibition are unknown. Here, we show that SPMMV P1 interacts with AGO1 and AGO2 from Arabidopsis thaliana, but solely interferes with AGO1 function. Moreover, a mutational analysis of a newly identified zinc finger domain in P1 revealed that this domain could represent an effector domain as it is required for P1 suppressor activity but not for AGO1 binding. Finally, a comparative analysis of the target RNA binding capacity of AGO1 in the presence of wild-type or suppressor-defective P1 forms revealed that P1 blocks target RNA binding to AGO1. Our results describe the negative regulation of RISC, the small RNA containing molecular machine. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Conformational movements and cooperativity upon amino acid, ATP and tRNA binding in threonyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Torres-Larios, Alfredo; Sankaranarayanan, Rajan; Rees, Bernard; Dock-Bregeon, Anne Catherine; Moras, Dino

    2003-08-01

    The crystal structures of threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) from Staphylococcus aureus, with ATP and an analogue of threonyl adenylate, are described. Together with the previously determined structures of Escherichia coli ThrRS with different substrates, they allow a comprehensive analysis of the effect of binding of all the substrates: threonine, ATP and tRNA. The tRNA, by inserting its acceptor arm between the N-terminal domain and the catalytic domain, causes a large rotation of the former. Within the catalytic domain, four regions surrounding the active site display significant conformational changes upon binding of the different substrates. The binding of threonine induces the movement of as much as 50 consecutive amino acid residues. The binding of ATP triggers a displacement, as large as 8A at some C(alpha) positions, of a strand-loop-strand region of the core beta-sheet. Two other regions move in a cooperative way upon binding of threonine or ATP: the motif 2 loop, which plays an essential role in the first step of the aminoacylation reaction, and the ordering loop, which closes on the active site cavity when the substrates are in place. The tRNA interacts with all four mobile regions, several residues initially bound to threonine or ATP switching to a position in which they can contact the tRNA. Three such conformational switches could be identified, each of them in a different mobile region. The structural analysis suggests that, while the small substrates can bind in any order, they must be in place before productive tRNA binding can occur.

  8. The VP3 factor from viruses of Birnaviridae family suppresses RNA silencing by binding both long and small RNA duplexes.

    PubMed

    Valli, Adrian; Busnadiego, Idoia; Maliogka, Varvara; Ferrero, Diego; Castón, José R; Rodríguez, José Francisco; García, Juan Antonio

    2012-01-01

    RNA silencing is directly involved in antiviral defense in a wide variety of eukaryotic organisms, including plants, fungi, invertebrates, and presumably vertebrate animals. The study of RNA silencing-mediated antiviral defences in vertebrates is hampered by the overlap with other antiviral mechanisms; thus, heterologous systems are often used to study the interplay between RNA silencing and vertebrate-infecting viruses. In this report we show that the VP3 protein of the avian birnavirus Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) displays, in addition to its capacity to bind long double-stranded RNA, the ability to interact with double-stranded small RNA molecules. We also demonstrate that IBDV VP3 prevents the silencing mediated degradation of a reporter mRNA, and that this silencing suppression activity depends on its RNA binding ability. Furthermore, we find that the anti-silencing activity of IBDV VP3 is shared with the homologous proteins expressed by both insect- and fish-infecting birnaviruses. Finally, we show that IBDV VP3 can functionally replace the well-characterized HCPro silencing suppressor of Plum pox virus, a potyvirus that is unable to infect plants in the absence of an active silencing suppressor. Altogether, our results support the idea that VP3 protects the viral genome from host sentinels, including those of the RNA silencing machinery.

  9. 6S RNA binding to Eσ70 requires a positively charged surface of σ70 region 4.2

    PubMed Central

    Klocko, Andrew D.; Wassarman, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY 6S RNA is a small, noncoding RNA that interacts with σ70-RNA polymerase and down-regulates transcription at many promoters during stationary phase. When bound to σ70-RNA polymerase, 6S RNA is engaged in the active site of σ70-RNA polymerase in a manner similar enough to promoter DNA that the RNA can serve as a template for RNA synthesis. It has been proposed that 6S RNA mimics the conformation of DNA during transcription initiation, suggesting contacts between RNA polymerase and 6S RNA or DNA may be similar. Here we demonstrate that region 4.2 of σ70 is critical for the interaction between 6S RNA and RNA polymerase. We define an expanded binding surface that encompasses positively charged residues throughout the recognition helix of the helix-turn-helix motif in region 4.2, in contrast to DNA binding that is largely focused on the N-terminal region of this helix. Furthermore, negatively charged residues in region 4.2 weaken binding to 6S RNA but do not similarly affect DNA binding. We propose that the binding sites for promoter DNA and 6S RNA on region 4.2 of σ70 are overlapping but distinct, raising interesting possibilities for how core promoter elements contribute to defining promoters that are sensitive to 6S RNA regulation. PMID:19538447

  10. NMR Chemical Exchange as a Probe for Ligand-Binding Kinetics in a Theophylline-Binding RNA Aptamer

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Michael P.; Zimmermann, Grant R.; Pardi, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    The apparent on- and off-rate constants for theophylline binding to its RNA aptamer in the absence of Mg2+ were determined here by 2D 1H-1H NMR ZZ-exchange spectroscopy. Analysis of the build-up rate of the exchange cross peaks for several base-paired imino protons in the RNA yielded an apparent kon of 600 M-1 s-1. This small apparent kon results from the free RNA existing as a dynamic equilibrium of inactive states rapidly interconverting with a low population of active species. The data here indicate that the RNA aptamer employs a conformational selection mechanism for binding theophylline in the absence of Mg2+. The kinetic data here also explain a very unusual property of this RNA-theophylline system, slow exchange on the NMR chemical shift timescale for a weak-binding complex. To our knowledge, it is unprecedented to have such a weak binding complex (Kd ≈ 3.0 mM at 15 °C) show slow exchange on the NMR chemical shift timescale, but the results clearly demonstrate that slow exchange and weak binding are readily rationalized by a small kon. Comparisons with other ligand-receptor interactions are presented. PMID:19317486

  11. Upstream Binding of Idling RNA Polymerase Modulates Transcription Initiation from a Nearby Promoter*

    PubMed Central

    Gerganova, Veneta; Maurer, Sebastian; Stoliar, Liubov; Japaridze, Aleksandre; Dietler, Giovanni; Nasser, William; Kutateladze, Tamara; Travers, Andrew; Muskhelishvili, Georgi

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial gene regulatory regions often demonstrate distinctly organized arrays of RNA polymerase binding sites of ill-defined function. Previously we observed a module of closely spaced polymerase binding sites upstream of the canonical promoter of the Escherichia coli fis operon. FIS is an abundant nucleoid-associated protein involved in adjusting the chromosomal DNA topology to changing cellular physiology. Here we show that simultaneous binding of the polymerase at the canonical fis promoter and an upstream transcriptionally inactive site stabilizes a RNAP oligomeric complex in vitro. We further show that modulation of the upstream binding of RNA polymerase affects the fis promoter activity both in vivo and in vitro. The effect of the upstream RNA polymerase binding on the fis promoter activity depends on the spatial arrangement of polymerase binding sites and DNA supercoiling. Our data suggest that a specific DNA geometry of the nucleoprotein complex stabilized on concomitant binding of RNA polymerase molecules at the fis promoter and the upstream region acts as a topological device regulating the fis transcription. We propose that transcriptionally inactive RNA polymerase molecules can act as accessory factors regulating the transcription initiation from a nearby promoter. PMID:25648898

  12. How do ADARs bind RNA? New protein-RNA structures illuminate substrate recognition by the RNA editing ADARs.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Justin M; Beal, Peter A

    2017-04-01

    Deamination of adenosine in RNA to form inosine has wide ranging consequences on RNA function including amino acid substitution to give proteins not encoded in the genome. What determines which adenosines in an mRNA are subject to this modification reaction? The answer lies in an understanding of the mechanism and substrate recognition properties of adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs). Our recent publication of X-ray crystal structures of the human ADAR2 deaminase domain bound to RNA editing substrates shed considerable light on how the catalytic domains of these enzymes bind RNA and promote adenosine deamination. Here we review in detail the deaminase domain-RNA contact surfaces and present models of how full length ADARs, bearing double stranded RNA-binding domains (dsRBDs) and deaminase domains, could process naturally occurring substrate RNAs.

  13. Many-body effect in ion binding to RNA

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuhong; Chen, Shi-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Ion-mediated electrostatic interactions play an important role in RNA folding stability. For a RNA in a solution with higher Mg2+ ion concentration, more counterions in the solution can bind to the RNA, causing a strong many-body coupling between the bound ions. The many-body effect can change the effective potential of mean force between the tightly bound ions. This effect tends to dampen ion binding and lower RNA folding stability. Neglecting the many-body effect leads to a systematic error (over-estimation) of RNA folding stability at high Mg2+ ion concentrations. Using the tightly bound ion model combined with a conformational ensemble model, we investigate the influence of the many-body effect on the ion-dependent RNA folding stability. Comparisons with the experimental data indicate that including the many-body effect led to much improved predictions for RNA folding stability at high Mg2+ ion concentrations. The results suggest that the many-body effect can be important for RNA folding in high concentrations of multivalent ions. Further investigation showed that the many-body effect can influence the spatial distribution of the tightly bound ions and the effect is more pronounced for compact RNA structures and structures prone to the formation of local clustering of ions. PMID:25106614

  14. Individual RNA recognition motifs of TIA-1 and TIAR have different RNA binding specificities.

    PubMed

    Dember, L M; Kim, N D; Liu, K Q; Anderson, P

    1996-02-02

    TIA-1 and TIAR are two closely related RNA recognition motif (RRM) proteins which possess three RRM-type RNA binding domains (RRMs 1, 2, and 3). Although both proteins have been implicated as effectors of apoptotic cell death, the specific functions of TIA-1 and TIAR are not known. We have performed in vitro selection/amplification from pools of random RNA sequences to identify RNAs to which TIA-1 and TIAR bind with high affinity. Both proteins selected RNAs containing one or several short stretches of uridylate residues suggesting that the two proteins have similar RNA binding specificities. Replacement of the uridylate stretch with an equal number of cytidine residues eliminates the protein-RNA interaction. Mutational analysis indicates that, for both TIA-1 and TIAR, it is the second RNA binding domain (RRM 2) which mediates the specific binding to uridylate-rich RNAs. Although RRM 2 is both necessary and sufficient for this interaction, the affinity for the selected RNA (as determined by filter binding assays) does increase when the second domain of TIAR is expressed together with the first and third domains (Kd = 2 x 10(-8) M) rather than alone (Kd = 5 x 10(-8) M). Although RRM 3 (of either TIA-1 or TIAR) does not interact with the uridylate-rich sequences selected by the full-length proteins, it is a bona fide RNA binding domain capable of affinity-precipitating a population of cellular RNAs ranging in size from 0.5 to 5 kilobases. In contrast, RRM 1 does not affinity-precipitate cellular RNA. The inability of RRM 1 to interact with RNA may be due to the presence of negatively charged amino acids within the RNP 1 octamer.

  15. Structures of the first and second double-stranded RNA-binding domains of human TAR RNA-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Seisuke; Nagata, Takashi; Kawazoe, Masahito; Takemoto, Chie; Kigawa, Takanori; Güntert, Peter; Kobayashi, Naohiro; Terada, Takaho; Shirouzu, Mikako; Wakiyama, Motoaki; Muto, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2011-01-01

    The TAR RNA-binding Protein (TRBP) is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding protein, which binds to Dicer and is required for the RNA interference pathway. TRBP consists of three dsRNA-binding domains (dsRBDs). The first and second dsRBDs (dsRBD1 and dsRBD2, respectively) have affinities for dsRNA, whereas the third dsRBD (dsRBD3) binds to Dicer. In this study, we prepared the single domain fragments of human TRBP corresponding to dsRBD1 and dsRBD2 and solved the crystal structure of dsRBD1 and the solution structure of dsRBD2. The two structures contain an α−β−β−β−α fold, which is common to the dsRBDs. The overall structures of dsRBD1 and dsRBD2 are similar to each other, except for a slight shift of the first α helix. The residues involved in dsRNA binding are conserved. We examined the small interfering RNA (siRNA)-binding properties of these dsRBDs by isothermal titration colorimetry measurements. The dsRBD1 and dsRBD2 fragments both bound to siRNA, with dissociation constants of 220 and 113 nM, respectively. In contrast, the full-length TRBP and its fragment with dsRBD1 and dsRBD2 exhibited much smaller dissociation constants (0.24 and 0.25 nM, respectively), indicating that the tandem dsRBDs bind simultaneously to one siRNA molecule. On the other hand, the loop between the first α helix and the first β strand of dsRBD2, but not dsRBD1, has a Trp residue, which forms hydrophobic and cation-π interactions with the surrounding residues. A circular dichroism analysis revealed that the thermal stability of dsRBD2 is higher than that of dsRBD1 and depends on the Trp residue. PMID:21080422

  16. The CRM domain: an RNA binding module derived from an ancient ribosome-associated protein.

    PubMed

    Barkan, Alice; Klipcan, Larik; Ostersetzer, Oren; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Asakura, Yukari; Watkins, Kenneth P

    2007-01-01

    The CRS1-YhbY domain (also called the CRM domain) is represented as a stand-alone protein in Archaea and Bacteria, and in a family of single- and multidomain proteins in plants. The function of this domain is unknown, but structural data and the presence of the domain in several proteins known to interact with RNA have led to the proposal that it binds RNA. Here we describe a phylogenetic analysis of the domain, its incorporation into diverse proteins in plants, and biochemical properties of a prokaryotic and eukaryotic representative of the domain family. We show that a bacterial member of the family, Escherichia coli YhbY, is associated with pre-50S ribosomal subunits, suggesting that YhbY functions in ribosome assembly. GFP fused to a single-domain CRM protein from maize localizes to the nucleolus, suggesting that an analogous activity may have been retained in plants. We show further that an isolated maize CRM domain has RNA binding activity in vitro, and that a small motif shared with KH RNA binding domains, a conserved "GxxG" loop, contributes to its RNA binding activity. These and other results suggest that the CRM domain evolved in the context of ribosome function prior to the divergence of Archaea and Bacteria, that this function has been maintained in extant prokaryotes, and that the domain was recruited to serve as an RNA binding module during the evolution of plant genomes.

  17. Unraveling Mg(2+)-RNA binding with atomistic molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Richard A; Bussi, Giovanni

    2017-05-01

    Interaction with divalent cations is of paramount importance for RNA structural stability and function. We report here a detailed molecular dynamics study of all the possible binding sites for Mg(2+) on an RNA duplex, including both direct (inner sphere) and indirect (outer sphere) binding. In order to tackle sampling issues, we develop a modified version of bias-exchange metadynamics, which allows us to simultaneously compute affinities with previously unreported statistical accuracy. Results correctly reproduce trends observed in crystallographic databases. Based on this, we simulate a carefully chosen set of models that allows us to quantify the effects of competition with monovalent cations, RNA flexibility, and RNA hybridization. Our simulations reproduce the decrease and increase of Mg(2+) affinity due to ion competition and hybridization, respectively, and predict that RNA flexibility has a site-dependent effect. This suggests a nontrivial interplay between RNA conformational entropy and divalent cation binding. © 2017 Cunha and Bussi; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  18. Quantifying RNA binding sites transcriptome-wide using DO-RIP-seq.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Cindo O; Friedersdorf, Matthew; Keene, Jack D

    2017-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and noncoding RNAs orchestrate post-transcriptional processes through the recognition of specific sites on targeted transcripts. Thus, understanding the connection between binding to specific sites and active regulation of the whole transcript is essential. Many immunoprecipitation techniques have been developed that identify either whole transcripts or binding sites of RBPs on each transcript using cell lysates. However, none of these methods simultaneously measures the strength of each binding site and quantifies binding to whole transcripts. In this study, we compare current procedures and present digestion optimized (DO)-RIP-seq, a simple method that locates and quantifies RBP binding sites using a continuous metric. We have used the RBP HuR/ELAVL1 to demonstrate that DO-RIP-seq can quantify HuR binding sites with high coverage across the entire human transcriptome, thereby generating metrics of relative RNA binding strength. We demonstrate that this quantitative enrichment of binding sites is proportional to the relative in vitro binding strength for these sites. In addition, we used DO-RIP-seq to quantify and compare HuR's binding to whole transcripts, thus allowing for seamless integration of binding site data with whole-transcript measurements. Finally, we demonstrate that DO-RIP-seq is useful for identifying functional mRNA target sets and binding sites where combinatorial interactions between HuR and AGO-microRNAs regulate the fate of the transcripts. Our data indicate that DO-RIP-seq will be useful for quantifying RBP binding events that regulate dynamic biological processes. © 2016 Nicholson et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  19. DNA-Damage Response RNA-Binding Proteins (DDRBPs): Perspectives from a New Class of Proteins and Their RNA Targets.

    PubMed

    Dutertre, Martin; Vagner, Stéphan

    2016-09-29

    Upon DNA damage, cells trigger an early DNA-damage response (DDR) involving DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints, and late responses involving gene expression regulation that determine cell fate. Screens for genes involved in the DDR have found many RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), while screens for novel RBPs have identified DDR proteins. An increasing number of RBPs are involved in early and/or late DDR. We propose to call this new class of actors of the DDR, which contain an RNA-binding activity, DNA-damage response RNA-binding proteins (DDRBPs). We then discuss how DDRBPs contribute not only to gene expression regulation in the late DDR but also to early DDR signaling, DNA repair, and chromatin modifications at DNA-damage sites through interactions with both long and short noncoding RNAs.

  20. Orphan Receptor DAX-1 Is a Shuttling RNA Binding Protein Associated with Polyribosomes via mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Lalli, Enzo; Ohe, Kenji; Hindelang, Colette; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2000-01-01

    The DAX-1 (NR0B1) gene encodes an unusual member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily which acts as a transcriptional repressor. Mutations in the human DAX-1 gene cause X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HHG). We have studied the intracellular localization of the DAX-1 protein in human adrenal cortex and mouse Leydig tumor cells and found it to be both nuclear and cytoplasmic. A significant proportion of DAX-1 is associated with polyribosomes and is found complexed with polyadenylated RNA. DAX-1 directly binds to RNA, two domains within the protein being responsible for cooperative binding activity and specificity. Mutations in DAX-1 found in AHC-HHG patients significantly impair RNA binding. These findings reveal that DAX-1 plays multiple regulatory roles at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. PMID:10848616

  1. Live cell imaging reveals the relocation of dsRNA binding proteins upon viral infection.

    PubMed

    Barton, Deborah; Roovers, Elke; Gouil, Quentin; C da Fonseca, Guilherme; Reis, Rodrigo S; Jackson, Craig; Overall, Robyn; Fusaro, Adriana; Waterhouse, Peter

    2017-03-15

    Viral infection triggers a range of plant responses such as the activation of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. The double-stranded RNA binding (DRB) proteins, DRB3 and DRB4, are part of this pathway and aid in defending against DNA and RNA viruses, respectively. Using live cell imaging, we show that DRB2, DRB3 and DRB5 relocate from their uniform cytoplasmic distribution to concentrated accumulation in nascent viral replication complexes (VRCs) that develop following cell invasion by viral RNA. Inactivation of the DRB3 gene in Arabidopsis, by T-DNA insertion, rendered these plants less able to repress RNA viral replication. We propose a model for the early stages of virus defense in which DRB2, DRB3 and DRB5 are invasion sensors that relocate to nascent VRCs, where they bind to viral RNA and inhibit virus replication.

  2. Importance of diffuse metal ion binding to RNA.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhi-Jie; Chen, Shi-Jie

    2011-01-01

    RNAs are highly charged polyanionic molecules. RNA structure and function are strongly correlated with the ionic condition of the solution. The primary focus of this article is on the role of diffusive ions in RNA folding. Due to the long-range nature of electrostatic interactions, the diffuse ions can contribute significantly to RNA structural stability and folding kinetics. We present an overview of the experimental findings as well as the theoretical developments on the diffuse ion effects in RNA folding. This review places heavy emphasis on the effect of magnesium ions. Magnesium ions play a highly efficient role in stabilizing RNA tertiary structures and promoting tertiary structural folding. The highly efficient role goes beyond the mean-field effect such as the ionic strength. In addition to the effects of specific ion binding and ion dehydration, ion-ion correlation for the diffuse ions can contribute to the efficient role of the multivalent ions such as the magnesium ions in RNA folding.

  3. Magnesium-binding architectures in RNA crystal structures: validation, binding preferences, classification and motif detection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Heping; Shabalin, Ivan G.; Handing, Katarzyna B.; Bujnicki, Janusz M.; Minor, Wladek

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous presence of magnesium ions in RNA has long been recognized as a key factor governing RNA folding, and is crucial for many diverse functions of RNA molecules. In this work, Mg2+-binding architectures in RNA were systematically studied using a database of RNA crystal structures from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Due to the abundance of poorly modeled or incorrectly identified Mg2+ ions, the set of all sites was comprehensively validated and filtered to identify a benchmark dataset of 15 334 ‘reliable’ RNA-bound Mg2+ sites. The normalized frequencies by which specific RNA atoms coordinate Mg2+ were derived for both the inner and outer coordination spheres. A hierarchical classification system of Mg2+ sites in RNA structures was designed and applied to the benchmark dataset, yielding a set of 41 types of inner-sphere and 95 types of outer-sphere coordinating patterns. This classification system has also been applied to describe six previously reported Mg2+-binding motifs and detect them in new RNA structures. Investigation of the most populous site types resulted in the identification of seven novel Mg2+-binding motifs, and all RNA structures in the PDB were screened for the presence of these motifs. PMID:25800744

  4. Characterization of the B Cell Transcriptome Bound by RNA-Binding Proteins with iCLIP.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Muñoz, Manuel D; Monzón-Casanova, Elisa; Turner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression shapes the B cell transcriptome and controls messenger RNA (mRNA) translation into protein. Recent reports have highlighted the importance of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) for mRNA splicing, subcellular location, stability, and translation during B lymphocyte development, activation, and differentiation. Here we describe individual-nucleotide resolution UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) in primary lymphocytes, a method that maps RNA-protein interactions in a genome-wide scale allowing mechanistic analysis of RBP function. We discuss the latest improvements in iCLIP technology and provide some examples of how integration of the RNA-protein interactome with other high-throughput mRNA sequencing methodologies uncovers the important role of RBP-mediated RNA regulation in key biological cell processes.

  5. The DGCR8 RNA-binding heme domain recognizes primary microRNAs by clamping the hairpin

    PubMed Central

    Quick-Cleveland, Jen; Jacob, Jose P.; Weitz, Sara H.; Shoffner, Grant; Senturia, Rachel; Guo, Feng

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Canonical primary microRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs) are characterized by a ~30-bp hairpin flanked by single-stranded regions. These pri-miRNAs are recognized and cleaved by the Microprocessor complex consisting of the Drosha nuclease and its obligate RNA-binding partner DGCR8. It is not well understood how the Microprocessor specifically recognizes pri-miRNA substrates. Here we show that in addition to the well-known double-stranded RNA-binding domains, DGCR8 uses a dimeric heme-binding domain to directly contact pri-miRNAs. This RNA-binding heme domain (Rhed) directs two DGCR8 dimers to bind each pri-miRNA hairpin. The two Rhed-binding sites are located at both ends of the hairpin. The Rhed and its RNA-binding surface are important for pri-miRNA processing activity. Additionally, the heme cofactor is required for formation of processing-competent DGCR8-pri-miRNA complexes. Our study reveals a unique protein-RNA interaction central to pri-miRNA recognition. We propose a unifying model in which two DGCR8 dimers clamp a pri-miRNA hairpin using their Rheds. PMID:24910438

  6. SPOT-Seq-RNA: predicting protein-RNA complex structure and RNA-binding function by fold recognition and binding affinity prediction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuedong; Zhao, Huiying; Wang, Jihua; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2014-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play key roles in RNA metabolism and post-transcriptional regulation. Computational methods have been developed separately for prediction of RBPs and RNA-binding residues by machine-learning techniques and prediction of protein-RNA complex structures by rigid or semiflexible structure-to-structure docking. Here, we describe a template-based technique called SPOT-Seq-RNA that integrates prediction of RBPs, RNA-binding residues, and protein-RNA complex structures into a single package. This integration is achieved by combining template-based structure-prediction software, SPARKS X, with binding affinity prediction software, DRNA. This tool yields reasonable sensitivity (46 %) and high precision (84 %) for an independent test set of 215 RBPs and 5,766 non-RBPs. SPOT-Seq-RNA is computationally efficient for genome-scale prediction of RBPs and protein-RNA complex structures. Its application to human genome study has revealed a similar sensitivity and ability to uncover hundreds of novel RBPs beyond simple homology. The online server and downloadable version of SPOT-Seq-RNA are available at http://sparks-lab.org/server/SPOT-Seq-RNA/.

  7. The N Terminus of Pro-endothelial Monocyte-activating Polypeptide II (EMAP II) Regulates Its Binding with the C Terminus, Arginyl-tRNA Synthetase, and Neurofilament Light Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haiming; Malinin, Nikolay L.; Awasthi, Niranjan; Schwarz, Roderich E.; Schwarz, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Pro-endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II (EMAP II), one component of the multi-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex, plays multiple roles in physiological and pathological processes of protein translation, signal transduction, immunity, lung development, and tumor growth. Recent studies have determined that pro-EMAP II has an essential role in maintaining axon integrity in central and peripheral neural systems where deletion of the C terminus of pro-EMAP II has been reported in a consanguineous Israeli Bedouin kindred suffering from Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease. We hypothesized that the N terminus of pro-EMAP II has an important role in the regulation of protein-protein interactions. Using a GFP reporter system, we defined a putative leucine zipper in the N terminus of human pro-EMAP II protein (amino acid residues 1–70) that can form specific strip-like punctate structures. Through GFP punctum analysis, we uncovered that the pro-EMAP II C terminus (amino acids 147–312) can repress GFP punctum formation. Pulldown assays confirmed that the binding between the pro-EMAP II N terminus and its C terminus is mediated by a putative leucine zipper. Furthermore, the pro-EMAP II 1–70 amino acid region was identified as the binding partner of arginyl-tRNA synthetase, a polypeptide of the multi-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex. We also determined that the punctate GFP pro-EMAP II 1–70 amino acid aggregate colocalizes and binds to the neurofilament light subunit protein that is associated with pathologic neurofilament network disorganization and degeneration of motor neurons. These findings indicate the structure and binding interaction of pro-EMAP II protein and suggest a role of this protein in pathological neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25724651

  8. An Ancient Family of RNA-Binding Proteins: Still Important!

    PubMed

    Wells, Melissa L; Perera, Lalith; Blackshear, Perry J

    2017-04-01

    RNA-binding proteins are important modulators of mRNA stability, a crucial process that determines the ultimate cellular levels of mRNAs and their encoded proteins. The tristetraprolin (TTP) family of RNA-binding proteins appeared early in the evolution of eukaryotes, and has persisted in modern eukaryotes. The domain structures and biochemical functions of family members from widely divergent lineages are remarkably similar, but their mRNA 'targets' can be very different, even in closely related species. Recent gene knockout studies in species as distantly related as plants, flies, yeasts, and mice have demonstrated crucial roles for these proteins in a wide variety of physiological processes. Inflammatory and hematopoietic phenotypes in mice have suggested potential therapeutic approaches for analogous human disorders.

  9. RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Activity in Influenza Virions

    PubMed Central

    Penhoet, Edward; Miller, Henry; Doyle, Michael; Blatti, Stanley

    1971-01-01

    An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity has been detected in purified preparations of influenza virus. In contrast to the replicase activity induced in influenza-infected cells, the virion-associated enzyme has an absolute requirement for Mn++. Most of the RNA synthesized in vitro is complementary to virion RNA. PMID:5288388

  10. rRNA Binding Sites and the Molecular Mechanism of Action of the Tetracyclines

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The tetracycline antibiotics are known to be effective in the treatment of both infectious and noninfectious disease conditions. The 16S rRNA binding mechanism currently held for the antibacterial action of the tetracyclines does not explain their activity against viruses, protozoa that lack mitochondria, and noninfectious conditions. Also, the mechanism by which the tetracyclines selectively inhibit microbial protein synthesis against host eukaryotic protein synthesis despite conservation of ribosome structure and functions is still questionable. Many studies have investigated the binding of the tetracyclines to the 16S rRNA using the small ribosomal subunit of different bacterial species, but there seems to be no agreement between various reports on the exact binding site on the 16S rRNA. The wide range of activity of the tetracyclines against a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens, viruses, protozoa, and helminths, as well as noninfectious conditions, indicates a more generalized effect on RNA. In the light of recent evidence that the tetracyclines bind to various synthetic double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) of random base sequences, suggesting that the double-stranded structures may play a more important role in the binding of the tetracyclines to RNA than the specific base pairs, as earlier speculated, it is imperative to consider possible alternative binding modes or sites that could help explain the mechanisms of action of the tetracyclines against various pathogens and disease conditions. PMID:27246781

  11. GE23077 binds to the RNA polymerase 'i' and 'i+1' sites and prevents the binding of initiating nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Degen, David; Ho, Mary X; Sineva, Elena; Ebright, Katherine Y; Ebright, Yon W; Mekler, Vladimir; Vahedian-Movahed, Hanif; Feng, Yu; Yin, Ruiheng; Tuske, Steve; Irschik, Herbert; Jansen, Rolf; Maffioli, Sonia; Donadio, Stefano; Arnold, Eddy; Ebright, Richard H

    2014-04-22

    Using a combination of genetic, biochemical, and structural approaches, we show that the cyclic-peptide antibiotic GE23077 (GE) binds directly to the bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) active-center 'i' and 'i+1' nucleotide binding sites, preventing the binding of initiating nucleotides, and thereby preventing transcription initiation. The target-based resistance spectrum for GE is unusually small, reflecting the fact that the GE binding site on RNAP includes residues of the RNAP active center that cannot be substituted without loss of RNAP activity. The GE binding site on RNAP is different from the rifamycin binding site. Accordingly, GE and rifamycins do not exhibit cross-resistance, and GE and a rifamycin can bind simultaneously to RNAP. The GE binding site on RNAP is immediately adjacent to the rifamycin binding site. Accordingly, covalent linkage of GE to a rifamycin provides a bipartite inhibitor having very high potency and very low susceptibility to target-based resistance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02450.001.

  12. Context-dependent control of alternative splicing by RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiang-Dong; Ares, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Sequence-specific RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) bind to pre-mRNA to control alternative splicing, but it is not yet possible to read the ‘splicing code’ that dictates splicing regulation on the basis of genome sequence. Each alternative splicing event is controlled by multiple RBPs, the combined action of which creates a distribution of alternatively spliced products in a given cell type. As each cell type expresses a distinct array of RBPs, the interpretation of regulatory information on a given RNA target is exceedingly dependent on the cell type. RBPs also control each other’s functions at many levels, including by mutual modulation of their binding activities on specific regulatory RNA elements. In this Review, we describe some of the emerging rules that govern the highly context-dependent and combinatorial nature of alternative splicing regulation. PMID:25112293

  13. Two RNA-binding sites in plant fibrillarin provide interactions with various RNA substrates

    PubMed Central

    Rakitina, D. V.; Taliansky, Michael; Brown, J. W. S.; Kalinina, N. O.

    2011-01-01

    Fibrillarin, one of the major proteins of the nucleolus, plays several essential roles in ribosome biogenesis including pre-rRNA processing and 2′-O-ribose methylation of rRNA and snRNAs. Recently, it has been shown that fibrillarin plays a role in virus infections and is associated with viral RNPs. Here, we demonstrate the ability of recombinant fibrillarin 2 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtFib2) to interact with RNAs of different lengths and types including rRNA, snoRNA, snRNA, siRNA and viral RNAs in vitro. Our data also indicate that AtFib2 possesses two RNA-binding sites in the central (138–179 amino acids) and C-terminal (225–281 amino acids) parts of the protein, respectively. The conserved GCVYAVEF octamer does not bind RNA directly as suggested earlier, but may assist with the proper folding of the central RNA-binding site. PMID:21785141

  14. Inhibition by Siomycin and Thiostrepton of Both Aminoacyl-tRNA and Factor G Binding to Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Ll, Juan Modole; Cabrer, Bartolomé; Parmeggiani, Andrea; Azquez, David V

    1971-01-01

    Siomycin, a peptide antibiotic that interacts with the 50S ribosomal subunit and inhibits binding of factor G, is shown also to inhibit binding of aminoacyl-tRNA; however, it does not impair binding of fMet-tRNA and completion of the initiation complex. Moreover, unlike other inhibitors of aminoacyl-tRNA binding (tetracycline, sparsomycin, and streptogramin A), siomycin completely abolishes the GTPase activity associated with the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA catalyzed by factor Tu. A single-site interaction of siomycin appears to be responsible for its effect on both the binding of the aminoacyl-tRNA-Tu-GTP complex and that of factor G. PMID:4331558

  15. RNA Chaperone Activity of Human La Protein Is Mediated by Variant RNA Recognition Motif*

    PubMed Central

    Naeeni, Amir R.; Conte, Maria R.; Bayfield, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    La proteins are conserved factors in eukaryotes that bind and protect the 3′ trailers of pre-tRNAs from exonuclease digestion via sequence-specific recognition of UUU-3′OH. La has also been hypothesized to assist pre-tRNAs in attaining their native fold through RNA chaperone activity. In addition to binding polymerase III transcripts, human La has also been shown to enhance the translation of several internal ribosome entry sites and upstream ORF-containing mRNA targets, also potentially through RNA chaperone activity. Using in vitro FRET-based assays, we show that human and Schizosaccharomyces pombe La proteins harbor RNA chaperone activity by enhancing RNA strand annealing and strand dissociation. We use various RNA substrates and La mutants to show that UUU-3′OH-dependent La-RNA binding is not required for this function, and we map RNA chaperone activity to its RRM1 motif including a noncanonical α3-helix. We validate the importance of this α3-helix by appending it to the RRM of the unrelated U1A protein and show that this fusion protein acquires significant strand annealing activity. Finally, we show that residues required for La-mediated RNA chaperone activity in vitro are required for La-dependent rescue of tRNA-mediated suppression via a mutated suppressor tRNA in vivo. This work delineates the structural elements required for La-mediated RNA chaperone activity and provides a basis for understanding how La can enhance the folding of its various RNA targets. PMID:22203678

  16. RNA chaperone activity of human La protein is mediated by variant RNA recognition motif.

    PubMed

    Naeeni, Amir R; Conte, Maria R; Bayfield, Mark A

    2012-02-17

    La proteins are conserved factors in eukaryotes that bind and protect the 3' trailers of pre-tRNAs from exonuclease digestion via sequence-specific recognition of UUU-3'OH. La has also been hypothesized to assist pre-tRNAs in attaining their native fold through RNA chaperone activity. In addition to binding polymerase III transcripts, human La has also been shown to enhance the translation of several internal ribosome entry sites and upstream ORF-containing mRNA targets, also potentially through RNA chaperone activity. Using in vitro FRET-based assays, we show that human and Schizosaccharomyces pombe La proteins harbor RNA chaperone activity by enhancing RNA strand annealing and strand dissociation. We use various RNA substrates and La mutants to show that UUU-3'OH-dependent La-RNA binding is not required for this function, and we map RNA chaperone activity to its RRM1 motif including a noncanonical α3-helix. We validate the importance of this α3-helix by appending it to the RRM of the unrelated U1A protein and show that this fusion protein acquires significant strand annealing activity. Finally, we show that residues required for La-mediated RNA chaperone activity in vitro are required for La-dependent rescue of tRNA-mediated suppression via a mutated suppressor tRNA in vivo. This work delineates the structural elements required for La-mediated RNA chaperone activity and provides a basis for understanding how La can enhance the folding of its various RNA targets.

  17. Towards a Consensus on the Binding Specificity and Promiscuity of PRC2 for RNA

    PubMed Central

    Davidovich, Chen; Wang, Xueyin; Cifuentes-Rojas, Catherine; Goodrich, Karen J.; Gooding, Anne R.; Lee, Jeannie T.; Cech, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Polycomb repressive complex-2 (PRC2) is a histone methyltransferase required for epigenetic silencing during development and cancer. Early works suggested binding specificity of PRC2 to certain long non-coding RNAs for recruitment to chromatin. More recent studies provided evidence both in favor and against this idea. Here, we bridge the two existing models of PRC2-RNA interaction. RepA RNA is a good binding partner for PRC2, while multiple non-relevant RNAs, including bacterial mRNAs, also bind PRC2; with Kd's depend to some extent on the experimental conditions. Human and mouse PRC2 have broadly similar RNA-binding properties in vitro. Examination of evidence supporting an existing model for site-specific recruitment of PRC2 by a well-defined RNA motif in cells reveals that results are PRC2-independent. We conclude that promiscuous and specific RNA-binding activities of PRC2 in vitro are not mutually exclusive, and that binding specificity in vivo remains to be demonstrated. PMID:25601759

  18. The RNA-binding protein Gemin5 binds directly to the ribosome and regulates global translation

    PubMed Central

    Francisco-Velilla, Rosario; Fernandez-Chamorro, Javier; Ramajo, Jorge; Martinez-Salas, Encarnación

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play crucial roles in all organisms. The protein Gemin5 harbors two functional domains. The N-terminal domain binds to snRNAs targeting them for snRNPs assembly, while the C-terminal domain binds to IRES elements through a non-canonical RNA-binding site. Here we report a comprehensive view of the Gemin5 interactome; most partners copurified with the N-terminal domain via RNA bridges. Notably, Gemin5 sediments with the subcellular ribosome fraction, and His-Gemin5 binds to ribosome particles via its N-terminal domain. The interaction with the ribosome was lost in F381A and Y474A Gemin5 mutants, but not in W14A and Y15A. Moreover, the ribosomal proteins L3 and L4 bind directly with Gemin5, and conversely, Gemin5 mutants impairing the binding to the ribosome are defective in the interaction with L3 and L4. The overall polysome profile was affected by Gemin5 depletion or overexpression, concomitant to an increase or a decrease, respectively, of global protein synthesis. Gemin5, and G5-Nter as well, were detected on the polysome fractions. These results reveal the ribosome-binding capacity of the N-ter moiety, enabling Gemin5 to control global protein synthesis. Our study uncovers a crosstalk between this protein and the ribosome, and provides support for the view that Gemin5 may control translation elongation. PMID:27507887

  19. 'Black sheep' that don't leave the double-stranded RNA-binding domain fold.

    PubMed

    Gleghorn, Michael L; Maquat, Lynne E

    2014-07-01

    The canonical double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding domain (dsRBD) is composed of an α1-β1-β2-β3-α2 secondary structure that folds in three dimensions to recognize dsRNA. Recently, structural and functional studies of divergent dsRBDs revealed adaptations that include intra- and/or intermolecular protein interactions, sometimes in the absence of detectable dsRNA-binding ability. We describe here how discrete dsRBD components can accommodate pronounced amino-acid sequence changes while maintaining the core fold. We exemplify the growing importance of divergent dsRBDs in mRNA decay by discussing Dicer, Staufen (STAU)1 and 2, trans-activation responsive RNA-binding protein (TARBP)2, protein activator of protein kinase RNA-activated (PKR) (PACT), DiGeorge syndrome critical region (DGCR)8, DEAH box helicase proteins (DHX) 9 and 30, and dsRBD-like fold-containing proteins that have ribosome-related functions. We also elaborate on the computational limitations to discovering yet-to-be-identified divergent dsRBDs.

  20. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) regulates target mRNA stabilization in the mouse testis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhiping; Zheng, Xinmin; Zheng, Hang; Liu, Xiaojun; Yang, Zhonghua; Wang, Xinghuan

    2012-09-21

    Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is an RNA-binding protein that is expressed in normal testis and down-regulated after heat stress. Recent studies suggest that CIRP contributes to male fertility problems but the mechanisms are unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify the likely mechanism of CIRP in reproduction. Based on the RNA-Binding Protein Immunoprecipitation-Microarray (Chip) Profiling (RIP-Chip) and biotin pull-down assays, we found that the mRNAs binding with CIRP in testis were mostly associated with translation regulator activity, antioxidant activity, envelope and reproduction, including important mRNAs related to male infertility. We also discovered that (Un)(n ≥2) was the possible core recognition sequence, and the binding mRNAs increased their stabilization. Our results improve our understanding of the mechanism by which heat stress causes male infertility. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hacking RNA: Hakai promotes tumorigenesis by enhancing the RNA-binding function of PSF.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Angélica; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Gorospe, Myriam

    2009-11-15

    Hakai, an E3 ubiquitin ligase for the E-cadherin complex, plays a crucial role in lowering cell-cell contacts in epithelial cells, a hallmark feature of tumor progression. Recently, Hakai was also found to interact with PSF (PTB-associated splicing factor). While PSF can function as a DNA-binding protein with a tumor suppressive function, its association with Hakai promotes PSF's RNA-binding ability and post-transcriptional influence on target mRNAs. Hakai overexpression enhanced the binding of PSF to mRNAs encoding cancer-related proteins, while knockdown of Hakai reduced the RNA-binding ability of PSF. Furthermore, the knockdown of PSF suppressed Hakai-induced cell proliferation. Thus, Hakai can affect the oncogenic phenotype both by altering E-cadherin-based intercellular adhesions and by increasing PSF's ability to bind RNAs that promote cancer-related gene expression.

  2. RNA binding properties of the US11 protein from four primate simplexviruses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The protein encoded by the Us11 gene of herpes simplex viruses is a dsRNA binding protein which inhibits protein kinase R activity, thereby preventing the interferon-induced shut down of protein synthesis following viral infection. Us11 protein is not essential for infectivity in vitro and in mice in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), however this virus has a second, and apparently more important, inhibitor of PKR activity, the γ134.5 protein. Recently sequenced simian simplexviruses SA8, HVP2 and B virus do not have an ORF corresponding to the γ134.5 protein, yet they have similar, or greater, infectivity as HSV1 and HSV2. Methods We have expressed the US11 proteins of the simplexviruses HSV1, HSV2, HVP2 and B virus and measured their abilities to bind dsRNA, in order to investigate possible differences that could complement the absence of the γ134.5 protein. We employed a filter binding technique that allows binding of the Us11 protein under condition of excess dsRNA substrate and therefore a measurement of the true Kd value of Us11-dsRNA binding. Results and Conclusions The results show a Kd of binding in the range of 0.89 nM to 1.82 nM, with no significant difference among the four Us11 proteins. PMID:22054255

  3. The RNA-binding domain of influenzavirus non-structural protein-1 cooperatively binds to virus-specific RNA sequences in a structure-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Marc, Daniel; Barbachou, Sosthène; Soubieux, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Influenzavirus non-structural protein NS1 is involved in several steps of the virus replication cycle. It counteracts the interferon response, and also exhibits other activities towards viral and cellular RNAs. NS1 is known to bind non-specifically to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as well as to viral and cellular RNAs. We set out to search whether NS1 could preferentially bind sequence-specific RNA patterns, and performed an in vitro selection (SELEX) to isolate NS1-specific aptamers from a pool of 80-nucleotide(nt)-long RNAs. Among the 63 aptamers characterized, two families were found to harbour a sequence that is strictly conserved at the 5′ terminus of all positive-strand RNAs of influenzaviruses A. We found a second virus-specific motif, a 9 nucleotide sequence located 15 nucleotides downstream from NS1’s stop codon. In addition, a majority of aptamers had one or two symmetrically positioned copies of the 5′-GUAAC / 3′-CUUAG double-stranded motif, which closely resembles the canonical 5′-splice site. Through an in-depth analysis of the interaction combining fluorimetry and gel-shift assays, we showed that NS1’s RNA-binding domain (RBD) specifically recognizes sequence patterns in a structure-dependent manner, resulting in an intimate interaction with high affinity (low nanomolar to subnanomolar KD values) that leads to oligomerization of the RBD on its RNA ligands. PMID:23093596

  4. Systemic delivery of siRNA in pumpkin by a plant PHLOEM SMALL RNA-BINDING PROTEIN 1-ribonucleoprotein complex.

    PubMed

    Ham, Byung-Kook; Li, Gang; Jia, Weitao; Leary, Julie A; Lucas, William J

    2014-11-01

    In plants, the vascular system, specifically the phloem, functions in delivery of small RNA (sRNA) to exert epigenetic control over developmental and defense-related processes. Although the importance of systemic sRNA delivery has been established, information is currently lacking concerning the nature of the protein machinery involved in this process. Here, we show that a PHLOEM SMALL-RNA BINDING PROTEIN 1 (PSRP1) serves as the basis for formation of an sRNA ribonucleoprotein complex (sRNPC) that delivers sRNA (primarily 24 nt) to sink organs. Assembly of this complex is facilitated through PSRP1 phosphorylation by a phloem-localized protein kinase, PSRPK1. During long-distance transport, PSRP1-sRNPC is stable against phloem phosphatase activity. Within target tissues, phosphatase activity results in disassembly of PSRP1-sRNPC, a process that is probably required for unloading cargo sRNA into surrounding cells. These findings provide an insight into the mechanism involved in delivery of sRNA associated with systemic gene silencing in plants.

  5. RNA-protein binding kinetics in an automated microfluidic reactor.

    PubMed

    Ridgeway, William K; Seitaridou, Effrosyni; Phillips, Rob; Williamson, James R

    2009-11-01

    Microfluidic chips can automate biochemical assays on the nanoliter scale, which is of considerable utility for RNA-protein binding reactions that would otherwise require large quantities of proteins. Unfortunately, complex reactions involving multiple reactants cannot be prepared in current microfluidic mixer designs, nor is investigation of long-time scale reactions possible. Here, a microfluidic 'Riboreactor' has been designed and constructed to facilitate the study of kinetics of RNA-protein complex formation over long time scales. With computer automation, the reactor can prepare binding reactions from any combination of eight reagents, and is optimized to monitor long reaction times. By integrating a two-photon microscope into the microfluidic platform, 5-nl reactions can be observed for longer than 1000 s with single-molecule sensitivity and negligible photobleaching. Using the Riboreactor, RNA-protein binding reactions with a fragment of the bacterial 30S ribosome were prepared in a fully automated fashion and binding rates were consistent with rates obtained from conventional assays. The microfluidic chip successfully combines automation, low sample consumption, ultra-sensitive fluorescence detection and a high degree of reproducibility. The chip should be able to probe complex reaction networks describing the assembly of large multicomponent RNPs such as the ribosome.

  6. A 3′ untranslated region variant in FMR1 eliminates neuronal activity-dependent translation of FMRP by disrupting binding of the RNA-binding protein HuR

    PubMed Central

    Suhl, Joshua A.; Muddashetty, Ravi S.; Anderson, Bart R.; Ifrim, Marius F.; Visootsak, Jeannie; Bassell, Gary J.; Warren, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is a common cause of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. The gene underlying the disorder, fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1), is silenced in most cases by a CGG-repeat expansion mutation in the 5′ untranslated region (UTR). Recently, we identified a variant located in the 3′UTR of FMR1 enriched among developmentally delayed males with normal repeat lengths. A patient-derived cell line revealed reduced levels of endogenous fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), and a reporter containing a patient 3′UTR caused a decrease in expression. A control reporter expressed in cultured mouse cortical neurons showed an expected increase following synaptic stimulation that was absent when expressing the patient reporter, suggesting an impaired response to neuronal activity. Mobility-shift assays using a control RNA detected an RNA–protein interaction that is lost with the patient RNA, and HuR was subsequently identified as an associated protein. Cross-linking immunoprecipitation experiments identified the locus as an in vivo target of HuR, supporting our in vitro findings. These data suggest that the disrupted interaction of HuR impairs activity-dependent translation of FMRP, which may hinder synaptic plasticity in a clinically significant fashion. PMID:26554012

  7. Boundary of pRNA functional domains and minimum pRNA sequence requirement for specific connector binding and DNA packaging of phage phi29.

    PubMed Central

    Garver, K; Guo, P

    1997-01-01

    Bacteriophage phi29 utilizes a viral-encoded 120-base RNA (pRNA) to accomplish dsDNA packaging into a preformed procapsid. Six pRNAs bind to the procapsid and work sequentially. The pRNA contains two functional domains, one for binding to the DNA translocating connector, and the other for interacting with another component of the DNA packaging machinery during DNA translocation. By UV crosslinking, the pRNA was found to bind to the connector specifically and not to the capsid or scaffolding proteins. When purified connectors were incubated with pRNA, rosette-like connector oligomers were observed. These oligomers were found to contain pRNA. A series of deletion mutants of the pRNA were constructed and their ability to perform various tasks involved in phi29 assembly were assayed. The minimum sizes of the pRNA needed for the following activities have been determined: (1) specific binding to procapsid or to connectors; (2) connector or procapsid binding with full efficiency compared with wild-type pRNA; and (3) genomic DNA packaging. In summary, bases 37-91 (55 nt) comprised the minimum sequence required for specific connector binding, although with lower efficiency; bases 6-113 (105 nt with the additional deletion of two nonessential bases, C109 and A106) comprised the minimum sequence required for full connector binding activity; and bases 1-117 comprised the minimum sequence needed for full DNA packaging activity. These data indicate clearly that the helical region composed of bases 1-6 and 113-117 plays a crucial role in DNA translocation, but is dispensable for connector binding. A model for the role of the pRNA in DNA packaging was also presented. PMID:9292504

  8. Phloem RNA-binding proteins as potential components of the long-distance RNA transport system

    PubMed Central

    Pallas, Vicente; Gómez, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) govern a myriad of different essential processes in eukaryotic cells. Recent evidence reveals that apart from playing critical roles in RNA metabolism and RNA transport, RBPs perform a key function in plant adaptation to various environmental conditions. Long-distance RNA transport occurs in land plants through the phloem, a conducting tissue that integrates the wide range of signaling pathways required to regulate plant development and response to stress processes. The macromolecules in the phloem pathway vary greatly and include defense proteins, transcription factors, chaperones acting in long-distance trafficking, and RNAs (mRNAs, siRNAs, and miRNAs). How these RNA molecules translocate through the phloem is not well understood, but recent evidence indicates the presence of translocatable RBPs in the phloem, which act as potential components of long-distance RNA transport system. This review updates our knowledge on the characteristics and functions of RBPs present in the phloem. PMID:23675378

  9. The RNA Binding Protein Csx1 Promotes Sexual Differentiation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Matia-Gonzalez, Ana M.; Sotelo, Jael; Rodriguez-Gabriel, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual differentiation is a highly regulated process in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and is triggered by nutrient depletion, mainly nitrogen source. One of the key regulatory proteins in fission yeast sexual differentiation is the transcription factor Ste11. Ste11 regulates the transcription of many genes required for the initial steps of conjugation and meiosis, and its deficiency leads to sterility. Ste11 activity is mainly regulated at two levels: phosphorylation and abundance of its mRNA. Csx1 is an RNA binding protein that we have previously described to bind and regulate the turnover rate of the mRNA encoding the transcription factor Atf1 in the presence of oxidative stress. We have observed that Csx1-deficient cells have defects in sexual differentiation and are partially sterile. We investigated how Csx1 is regulating this process in S. pombe. Csx1 associates with ste11+ mRNA and cells lacking Csx1 are sterile with a reduced amount of ste11+ mRNA. Overexpression of ste11+ mRNA completely rescues the mating deficiencies of csx1Δ cells. Here, we present a novel mechanism of ste11+ mRNA positive regulation through the activity of Csx1, an RNA binding protein that also have key functions in the response to oxidative stress in fission yeast. This finding opens interesting question about the possible coordination of sexual differentiation and oxidative stress response in eukaryotes and the role of RNA binding proteins in the adaptation to environmental signals. PMID:22253882

  10. A compendium of RNA-binding motifs for decoding gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Debashish; Kazan, Hilal; Cook, Kate B.; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Najafabadi, Hamed S.; Li, Xiao; Gueroussov, Serge; Albu, Mihai; Zheng, Hong; Yang, Ally; Na, Hong; Irimia, Manuel; Matzat, Leah H.; Dale, Ryan K.; Smith, Sarah A.; Yarosh, Christopher A.; Kelly, Seth M.; Nabet, Behnam; Mecenas, Desirea; Li, Weimin; Laishram, Rakesh S.; Qiao, Mei; Lipshitz, Howard D.; Piano, Fabio; Corbett, Anita H.; Carstens, Russ P.; Frey, Brendan J.; Anderson, Richard A.; Lynch, Kristen W.; Penalva, Luiz O. F.; Lei, Elissa P.; Fraser, Andrew G.; Blencowe, Benjamin J.; Morris, Quaid D.; Hughes, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins are key regulators of gene expression, yet only a small fraction have been functionally characterized. Here we report a systematic analysis of the RNA motifs recognized by RNA-binding proteins, encompassing 205 distinct genes from 24 diverse eukaryotes. The sequence specificities of RNA-binding proteins display deep evolutionary conservation, and the recognition preferences for a large fraction of metazoan RNA-binding proteins can thus be inferred from their RNA-binding domain sequence. The motifs that we identify in vitro correlate well with in vivo RNA-binding data. Moreover, we can associate them with distinct functional roles in diverse types of post-transcriptional regulation, enabling new insights into the functions of RNA-binding proteins both in normal physiology and in human disease. These data provide an unprecedented overview of RNA-binding proteins and their targets, and constitute an invaluable resource for determining post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in eukaryotes. PMID:23846655

  11. Lomofungin and dilomofungin: inhibitors of MBNL1-CUG RNA binding with distinct cellular effects

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Jason W.; Ofori, Leslie O.; Chen, Catherine Z.; Kumar, Amit; Sobczak, Krzysztof; Nakamori, Masayuki; Southall, Noel; Patnaik, Samarjit; Marugan, Juan J.; Zheng, Wei; Austin, Christopher P.; Disney, Matthew D.; Miller, Benjamin L.; Thornton, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a dominantly inherited neuromuscular disorder resulting from expression of RNA containing an expanded CUG repeat (CUGexp). The pathogenic RNA is retained in nuclear foci. Poly-(CUG) binding proteins in the Muscleblind-like (MBNL) family are sequestered in foci, causing misregulated alternative splicing of specific pre-mRNAs. Inhibitors of MBNL1-CUGexp binding have been shown to restore splicing regulation and correct phenotypes in DM1 models. We therefore conducted a high-throughput screen to identify novel inhibitors of MBNL1-(CUG)12 binding. The most active compound was lomofungin, a natural antimicrobial agent. We found that lomofungin undergoes spontaneous dimerization in DMSO, producing dilomofungin, whose inhibition of MBNL1–(CUG)12 binding was 17-fold more potent than lomofungin itself. However, while dilomofungin displayed the desired binding characteristics in vitro, when applied to cells it produced a large increase of CUGexp RNA in nuclear foci, owing to reduced turnover of the CUGexp transcript. By comparison, the monomer did not induce CUGexp accumulation in cells and was more effective at rescuing a CUGexp-induced splicing defect. These results support the feasibility of high-throughput screens to identify compounds targeting toxic RNA, but also demonstrate that ligands for repetitive sequences may have unexpected effects on RNA decay. PMID:24799433

  12. FliW antagonizes CsrA RNA binding by a noncompetitive allosteric mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sampriti; Oshiro, Reid T.; Yakhnin, Helen; Babitzke, Paul; Kearns, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    CsrA (carbon storage regulator A) is a widely distributed bacterial RNA binding protein that regulates translation initiation and mRNA stability of target transcripts. In γ-proteobacteria, CsrA activity is competitively antagonized by one or more small RNAs (sRNAs) containing multiple CsrA binding sites, but CsrA in bacteria outside the γ-proteobacteria is antagonized by a protein called FliW. Here we show that FliW of Bacillus subtilis does not bind to the same residues of CsrA required for RNA binding. Instead, CsrA mutants resistant to FliW antagonism (crw) altered residues of CsrA on an allosteric surface of previously unattributed function. Some crw mutants abolished CsrA–FliW binding, but others did not, suggesting that FliW and RNA interaction is not mutually exclusive. We conclude that FliW inhibits CsrA by a noncompetitive mechanism that differs dramatically from the well-established sRNA inhibitors. FliW is highly conserved with CsrA in bacteria, appears to be the ancestral form of CsrA regulation, and represents a widespread noncompetitive mechanism of CsrA control. PMID:27516547

  13. FliW antagonizes CsrA RNA binding by a noncompetitive allosteric mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sampriti; Oshiro, Reid T; Yakhnin, Helen; Babitzke, Paul; Kearns, Daniel B

    2016-08-30

    CsrA (carbon storage regulator A) is a widely distributed bacterial RNA binding protein that regulates translation initiation and mRNA stability of target transcripts. In γ-proteobacteria, CsrA activity is competitively antagonized by one or more small RNAs (sRNAs) containing multiple CsrA binding sites, but CsrA in bacteria outside the γ-proteobacteria is antagonized by a protein called FliW. Here we show that FliW of Bacillus subtilis does not bind to the same residues of CsrA required for RNA binding. Instead, CsrA mutants resistant to FliW antagonism (crw) altered residues of CsrA on an allosteric surface of previously unattributed function. Some crw mutants abolished CsrA-FliW binding, but others did not, suggesting that FliW and RNA interaction is not mutually exclusive. We conclude that FliW inhibits CsrA by a noncompetitive mechanism that differs dramatically from the well-established sRNA inhibitors. FliW is highly conserved with CsrA in bacteria, appears to be the ancestral form of CsrA regulation, and represents a widespread noncompetitive mechanism of CsrA control.

  14. Poly(A) RNA-binding proteins and polyadenosine RNA: new members and novel functions.

    PubMed

    Wigington, Callie P; Williams, Kathryn R; Meers, Michael P; Bassell, Gary J; Corbett, Anita H

    2014-01-01

    Poly(A) RNA-binding proteins (Pabs) bind with high affinity and specificity to polyadenosine RNA. Textbook models show a nuclear Pab, PABPN1, and a cytoplasmic Pab, PABPC, where the nuclear PABPN1 modulates poly(A) tail length and the cytoplasmic PABPC stabilizes poly(A) RNA in the cytoplasm and also enhances translation. While these conventional roles are critically important, the Pab family has expanded recently both in number and in function. A number of novel roles have emerged for both PAPBPN1 and PABPC that contribute to the fine-tuning of gene expression. Furthermore, as the characterization of the nucleic acid binding properties of RNA-binding proteins advances, additional proteins that show high affinity and specificity for polyadenosine RNA are being discovered. With this expansion of the Pab family comes a concomitant increase in the potential for Pabs to modulate gene expression. Further complication comes from an expansion of the potential binding sites for Pab proteins as revealed by an analysis of templated polyadenosine stretches present within the transcriptome. Thus, Pabs could influence mRNA fate and function not only by binding to the nontemplated poly(A) tail but also to internal stretches of adenosine. Understanding the diverse functions of Pab proteins is not only critical to understand how gene expression is regulated but also to understand the molecular basis for tissue-specific diseases that occur when Pab proteins are altered. Here we describe both conventional and recently emerged functions for PABPN1 and PABPC and then introduce and discuss three new Pab family members, ZC3H14, hnRNP-Q1, and LARP4.

  15. RNA-binding proteins in microsatellite expansion disorders: mediators of RNA toxicity.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Gloria V; Cooper, Thomas A

    2012-06-26

    Although protein-mediated toxicity in neurological disease has been extensively characterized, RNA-mediated toxicity is an emerging mechanism of pathogenesis. In microsatellite expansion disorders, expansion of repeated sequences in noncoding regions gives rise to RNA that produces a toxic gain of function, while expansions in coding regions can disrupt protein function as well as produce toxic RNA. The toxic RNA typically aggregates into nuclear foci and contributes to disease pathogenesis. In many cases, toxicity of the RNA is caused by the disrupted functions of RNA-binding proteins. We will discuss evidence for RNA-mediated toxicity in microsatellite expansion disorders. Different microsatellite expansion disorders are linked with alterations in the same as well as disease-specific RNA-binding proteins. Recent studies have shown that microsatellite expansions can encode multiple repeat-containing toxic RNAs through bidirectional transcription and protein species through repeat-associated non-ATG translation. We will discuss approaches that have characterized the toxic contributions of these various factors.

  16. Tumor-targeted Nanoparticle Delivery of HuR siRNA Inhibits Lung Tumor Growth In Vitro and In Vivo By Disrupting the Oncogenic Activity of the RNA-binding Protein HuR.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Ranganayaki; Babu, Anish; Amreddy, Narsireddy; Srivastava, Akhil; Chen, Allshine; Zhao, Yan Daniel; Kompella, Uday B; Munshi, Anupama; Ramesh, Rajagopal

    2017-08-01

    Selective downregulation of the human antigen R (HuR) protein by siRNA may provide a powerful approach for treating lung cancer. To this end, we investigated the efficacy of transferrin receptor-targeted liposomal nanoparticle-based HuR siRNA (HuR-TfNP) therapy and compared with control siRNA (C)-TfNP therapy both, in vitro and in vivo using lung cancer models. In vitro studies showed HuR-TfNP, but not C-TfNP, efficiently downregulated HuR and HuR-regulated proteins in A549, and HCC827 lung cancer cells, resulting in reduced cell viability, inhibition of cell migration and invasion, and induction of G1 cell-cycle arrest culminating in apoptosis. However, HuR-TfNP activity in normal MRC-9 lung fibroblasts was negligible. In vivo biodistribution study demonstrated that fluorescently labeled HuR-siRNA or ICG dye-loaded TfNP localized in tumor tissues. Efficacy studies showed intratumoral or intravenous administration of HuR-TfNP significantly inhibited A549 (>55% inhibition) and HCC827 (>45% inhibition) subcutaneous tumor growth compared with C-TfNP. Furthermore, HuR-TfNP treatment reduced HuR, Ki67, and CD31 expression and increased caspase-9 and PARP cleavage and TUNEL-positive staining indicative of apoptotic cell death in tumor tissues compared with C-TfNP treatment. The antitumor activity of HuR-TfNP was also observed in an A549-luc lung metastatic model, as significantly fewer tumor nodules (9.5 ± 3.1; P < 0.001; 88% inhibition) were observed in HuR-TfNP-treated group compared with the C-TfNP-treated group (77.7 ± 20.1). Significant reduction in HuR, Ki67, and CD31 expression was also observed in the tumor tissues of HuR-TfNP-treatment compared with C-TfNP treatment. Our findings highlight HuR-TfNP as a promising nanotherapeutic system for lung cancer treatment. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(8); 1470-86. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. RNA Silencing Suppressor p21 of Beet Yellows Virus Forms an RNA binding Octameric Ring Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ye,K.; Patel, D.

    2005-01-01

    Many plant viruses encode proteins that suppress the antiviral RNA silencing response mounted by the host. The suppressors p19 from tombusvirus and p21 from Beet yellows virus appear to block silencing by directly binding siRNA, a critical mediator in the process. Here, we report the crystal structure of p21, which reveals an octameric ring architecture with a large central cavity of {approx}90 Angstrom diameter. The all {alpha}-helical p21 monomer consists of N- and C-terminal domains that associate with their neighboring counterparts through symmetric head-to-head and tail-to-tail interactions. A putative RNA binding surface is identified in the conserved, positive-charged inner surface of the ring. In contrast to the specific p19-siRNA duplex interaction, p21 is a general nucleic acid binding protein, interacting with 21 nt or longer single- and double-stranded RNAs in vitro. This study reveals an RNA binding structure adopted by the p21 silencing suppressor.

  18. Expression of Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1), Progestin and AdipoQ Receptor 7 (PAQPR7), and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 RNA-Binding Protein (PAIRBP1) in Glioma Spheroids In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hlavaty, Juraj; Ertl, Reinhard; Miller, Ingrid; Gabriel, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Some effects of progesterone on glioma cells can be explained through the slow, genomic mediated response via nuclear receptors; the other effects suggest potential role of a fast, nongenomic action mediated by membrane-associated progesterone receptors. Methods. The effects of progesterone treatment on the expression levels of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 RNA-binding protein (PAIRBP1), and progestin and adipoQ receptor 7 (PAQR7) on both mRNA and protein levels were investigated in spheroids derived from human glioma cell lines U-87 MG and LN-229. Results. The only significant alteration at the transcript level was the decrease in PGRMC1 mRNA observed in LN-229 spheroids treated with 30 ng/mL of progesterone. No visible alterations at the protein levels were observed using immunohistochemical analysis. Stimulation of U-87 MG spheroids resulted in an increase of PGRMC1 but a decrease of PAIRBP1 protein. Double immunofluorescent detection of PGRMC1 and PAIRBP1 identified the two proteins to be partially colocalized in the cells. Western blot analysis revealed the expected bands for PGRMC1 and PAIRBP1, whereas two bands were detected for PAQR7. Conclusion. The progesterone action is supposed to be mediated via membrane-associated progesterone receptors as the nuclear progesterone receptor was absent in tested spheroids. PMID:27340667

  19. Expression of Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1), Progestin and AdipoQ Receptor 7 (PAQPR7), and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 RNA-Binding Protein (PAIRBP1) in Glioma Spheroids In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Hlavaty, Juraj; Ertl, Reinhard; Miller, Ingrid; Gabriel, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Some effects of progesterone on glioma cells can be explained through the slow, genomic mediated response via nuclear receptors; the other effects suggest potential role of a fast, nongenomic action mediated by membrane-associated progesterone receptors. Methods. The effects of progesterone treatment on the expression levels of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 RNA-binding protein (PAIRBP1), and progestin and adipoQ receptor 7 (PAQR7) on both mRNA and protein levels were investigated in spheroids derived from human glioma cell lines U-87 MG and LN-229. Results. The only significant alteration at the transcript level was the decrease in PGRMC1 mRNA observed in LN-229 spheroids treated with 30 ng/mL of progesterone. No visible alterations at the protein levels were observed using immunohistochemical analysis. Stimulation of U-87 MG spheroids resulted in an increase of PGRMC1 but a decrease of PAIRBP1 protein. Double immunofluorescent detection of PGRMC1 and PAIRBP1 identified the two proteins to be partially colocalized in the cells. Western blot analysis revealed the expected bands for PGRMC1 and PAIRBP1, whereas two bands were detected for PAQR7. Conclusion. The progesterone action is supposed to be mediated via membrane-associated progesterone receptors as the nuclear progesterone receptor was absent in tested spheroids.

  20. Evolutionary Conservation and Diversification of Puf RNA Binding Proteins and Their mRNA Targets

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Gregory J.; Brown, Patrick O.; Herschlag, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Reprogramming of a gene’s expression pattern by acquisition and loss of sequences recognized by specific regulatory RNA binding proteins may be a major mechanism in the evolution of biological regulatory programs. We identified that RNA targets of Puf3 orthologs have been conserved over 100–500 million years of evolution in five eukaryotic lineages. Focusing on Puf proteins and their targets across 80 fungi, we constructed a parsimonious model for their evolutionary history. This model entails extensive and coordinated changes in the Puf targets as well as changes in the number of Puf genes and alterations of RNA binding specificity including that: 1) Binding of Puf3 to more than 200 RNAs whose protein products are predominantly involved in the production and organization of mitochondrial complexes predates the origin of budding yeasts and filamentous fungi and was maintained for 500 million years, throughout the evolution of budding yeast. 2) In filamentous fungi, remarkably, more than 150 of the ancestral Puf3 targets were gained by Puf4, with one lineage maintaining both Puf3 and Puf4 as regulators and a sister lineage losing Puf3 as a regulator of these RNAs. The decrease in gene expression of these mRNAs upon deletion of Puf4 in filamentous fungi (N. crassa) in contrast to the increase upon Puf3 deletion in budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) suggests that the output of the RNA regulatory network is different with Puf4 in filamentous fungi than with Puf3 in budding yeast. 3) The coregulated Puf4 target set in filamentous fungi expanded to include mitochondrial genes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and other nuclear-encoded RNAs with mitochondrial function not bound by Puf3 in budding yeast, observations that provide additional evidence for substantial rewiring of post-transcriptional regulation. 4) Puf3 also expanded and diversified its targets in filamentous fungi, gaining interactions with the mRNAs encoding the mitochondrial electron transport

  1. Control of Cytokine mRNA Expression by RNA-binding Proteins and microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Palanisamy, V.; Jakymiw, A.; Van Tubergen, E.A.; D’Silva, N.J.; Kirkwood, K.L.

    2012-01-01

    Cytokines are critical mediators of inflammation and host defenses. Regulation of cytokines can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcription, mRNA export, and post- transcriptional and translational levels. Among these modes of regulation, post-transcriptional regulation has been shown to play a vital role in controlling the expression of cytokines by modulating mRNA stability. The stability of cytokine mRNAs, including TNFα, IL-6, and IL-8, has been reported to be altered by the presence of AU-rich elements (AREs) located in the 3′-untranslated regions (3′UTRs) of the mRNAs. Numerous RNA-binding proteins and microRNAs bind to these 3′UTRs to regulate the stability and/or translation of the mRNAs. Thus, this paper describes the cooperative function between RNA-binding proteins and miRNAs and how they regulate AU-rich elements containing cytokine mRNA stability/degradation and translation. These mRNA control mechanisms can potentially influence inflammation as it relates to oral biology, including periodontal diseases and oral pharyngeal cancer progression. PMID:22302144

  2. Normal microRNA Maturation and Germ-Line Stem Cell Maintenance Requires Loquacious, a Double-Stranded RNA-Binding Domain Protein

    PubMed Central

    Förstemann, Klaus; Tomari, Yukihide; Du, Tingting; Vagin, Vasily V; Denli, Ahmet M; Bratu, Diana P; Klattenhoff, Carla; Theurkauf, William E

    2005-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded, 21- to 23-nucleotide cellular RNAs that control the expression of cognate target genes. Primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) transcripts are transformed to mature miRNA by the successive actions of two RNase III endonucleases. Drosha converts pri-miRNA transcripts to precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA); Dicer, in turn, converts pre-miRNA to mature miRNA. Here, we show that normal processing of Drosophila pre-miRNAs by Dicer-1 requires the double-stranded RNA-binding domain (dsRBD) protein Loquacious (Loqs), a homolog of human TRBP, a protein first identified as binding the HIV trans-activator RNA (TAR). Efficient miRNA-directed silencing of a reporter transgene, complete repression of white by a dsRNA trigger, and silencing of the endogenous Stellate locus by Suppressor of Stellate, all require Loqs. In loqs f00791 mutant ovaries, germ-line stem cells are not appropriately maintained. Loqs associates with Dcr-1, the Drosophila RNase III enzyme that processes pre-miRNA into mature miRNA. Thus, every known Drosophila RNase-III endonuclease is paired with a dsRBD protein that facilitates its function in small RNA biogenesis. PMID:15918770

  3. RNA-mediated gene activation

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Alan L; Slack, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression by non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) has become a new paradigm in biology. RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways have been studied extensively, revealing diverse epigenetic and posttranscriptional mechanisms. In contrast, the roles of ncRNAs in activating gene expression remains poorly understood. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of gene activation by small RNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and enhancer-derived RNAs, with an emphasis on epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:24185374

  4. Phosphorylation-regulated Binding of RNA Polymerase II to Fibrous Polymers of Low Complexity Domains

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Siheng; Wu, Leeju; Theodoropoulos, Pano; Mirzaei, Hamid; Han, Tina; Xie, Shanhai; Corden, Jeffry L.; McKnight, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The low complexity (LC) domains of the products of the fused in sarcoma (FUS), Ewings sarcoma (EWS) and TAF15 genes are translocated onto a variety of different DNA-binding domains and thereby assist in driving the formation of cancerous cells. In the context of the translocated fusion proteins, these LC sequences function as transcriptional activation domains. Here we show that polymeric fibers formed from these LC domains directly bind the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II in a manner reversible by phosphorylation of the iterated, heptad repeats of the CTD. Mutational analysis indicates that the degree of binding between the CTD and the LC domain polymers correlates with the strength of transcriptional activation. These studies offer a simple means of conceptualizing how RNA polymerase II is recruited to active genes in its unphosphorylated state, and released for elongation following phosphorylation of the CTD. PMID:24267890

  5. LINE-1 ORF1 Protein Localizes in Stress Granules with Other RNA-Binding Proteins, Including Components of RNA Interference RNA-Induced Silencing Complex▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Goodier, John L.; Zhang, Lili; Vetter, Melissa R.; Kazazian, Haig H.

    2007-01-01

    LINE-1 retrotransposons constitute one-fifth of human DNA and have helped shape our genome. A full-length L1 encodes a 40-kDa RNA-binding protein (ORF1p) and a 150-kDa protein (ORF2p) with endonuclease and reverse transcriptase activities. ORF1p is distinctive in forming large cytoplasmic foci, which we identified as cytoplasmic stress granules. A phylogenetically conserved central region of the protein is critical for wild-type localization and retrotransposition. Yeast two-hybrid screens revealed several RNA-binding proteins that coimmunoprecipitate with ORF1p and colocalize with ORF1p in foci. Two of these proteins, YB-1 and hnRNPA1, were previously reported in stress granules. We identified additional proteins associated with stress granules, including DNA-binding protein A, 9G8, and plasminogen activator inhibitor RNA-binding protein 1 (PAI-RBP1). PAI-RBP1 is a homolog of VIG, a part of the Drosophila melanogaster RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Other RISC components, including Ago2 and FMRP, also colocalize with PAI-RBP1 and ORF1p. We suggest that targeting ORF1p, and possibly the L1 RNP, to stress granules is a mechanism for controlling retrotransposition and its associated genetic and cellular damage. PMID:17562864

  6. Importance of Diffuse Metal Ion Binding to RNA

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Zhi-Jie; Chen, Shi-Jie

    2016-01-01

    RNAs are highly charged polyanionic molecules. RNA structure and function are strongly correlated with the ionic condition of the solution. The primary focus of this article is on the role of diffusive ions in RNA folding. Due to the long-range nature of electrostatic interactions, the diffuse ions can contribute significantly to RNA structural stability and folding kinetics. We present an overview of the experimental findings as well as the theoretical developments on the diffuse ion effects in RNA folding. This review places heavy emphasis on the effect of magnesium ions. Magnesium ions play a highly efficient role in stabilizing RNA tertiary structures and promoting tertiary structural folding. The highly efficient role goes beyond the mean-field effect such as the ionic strength. In addition to the effects of specific ion binding and ion dehydration, ion-ion correlation for the diffuse ions can contribute to the efficient role of the multivalent ions such as the magnesium ions in RNA folding. PMID:22010269

  7. RNA-binding protein Lin28 in cancer and immunity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuai; Baltimore, David

    2016-05-28

    The highly conserved RNA-binding protein, Lin28, is involved in many biological processes, including development, reprogramming, pluripotency, and metabolism. Importantly, Lin28 functions as an oncogene, promoting tumor progression and metastasis in various human cancers. Lin28 can regulate gene expression either by directly binding to mRNAs or by blocking microRNA biogenesis, and the underlying mechanisms include Let-7-dependent and Let-7-independent modes of action. Recent evidence shows that Lin28 also plays a fundamental role in immunity. The roles of Lin28 in disease are complex and require characterization of its physiological functions in cancer and immunological contexts. Here we review emerging information on the role of Lin28 in cancer and immunity and the molecular mechanisms it uses. We discuss our present knowledge of the system and highlight remaining mysteries related to the functions of this small RNA-binding protein. This knowledge may lead to Lin28 becoming a diagnostic marker for cancer or immune-related diseases and a possible therapeutic target.

  8. Evoking picomolar binding in RNA by a single phosphorodithioate linkage

    PubMed Central

    Abeydeera, N. Dinuka; Egli, Martin; Cox, Nehemiah; Mercier, Karen; Conde, Jonas Nascimento; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Mizurini, Daniella M.; Sierant, Malgorzata; Hibti, Fatima-Ezzahra; Hassell, Tom; Wang, Tianzhi; Liu, Feng-Wu; Liu, Hong-Min; Martinez, Carlos; Sood, Anil K.; Lybrand, Terry P.; Frydman, Chiraz; Monteiro, Robson Q.; Gomer, Richard H.; Nawrot, Barbara; Yang, Xianbin

    2016-01-01

    RNA aptamers are synthetic oligonucleotide-based affinity molecules that utilize unique three-dimensional structures for their affinity and specificity to a target such as a protein. They hold the promise of numerous advantages over biologically produced antibodies; however, the binding affinity and specificity of RNA aptamers are often insufficient for successful implementation in diagnostic assays or as therapeutic agents. Strong binding affinity is important to improve the downstream applications. We report here the use of the phosphorodithioate (PS2) substitution on a single nucleotide of RNA aptamers to dramatically improve target binding affinity by ∼1000-fold (from nanomolar to picomolar). An X-ray co-crystal structure of the α-thrombin:PS2-aptamer complex reveals a localized induced-fit rearrangement of the PS2-containing nucleotide which leads to enhanced target interaction. High-level quantum mechanical calculations for model systems that mimic the PS2 moiety and phenylalanine demonstrate that an edge-on interaction between sulfur and the aromatic ring is quite favorable, and also confirm that the sulfur analogs are much more polarizable than the corresponding phosphates. This favorable interaction involving the sulfur atom is likely even more significant in the full aptamer-protein complexes than in the model systems. PMID:27566147

  9. Structural Studies of Trypanosoma brucei RNA Editing Ligases and Their Binding Partner Proteins.

    PubMed

    Shaneh, Alireza; Purisima, Enrico O; Salavati, Reza; Sulea, Traian

    2016-04-26

    To study the mechanism of ligating nicked RNA strands, we conducted molecular dynamics simulations of Trypanosoma brucei RNA editing ligases L1 and L2 complexed with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) fragments. In each resulting model, a Mg(2+) ion coordinates the 5'-PO4 of the nicked nucleotide and the 3'-OH of the terminal nucleotide for a nucleophilic reaction consistent with the postulated step 3 chemistry of the ligation mechanism. Moreover, coordination of the 3'-OH to the Mg(2+) ion may lower its pKa, thereby rendering it a more effective nucleophile as an oxyanion. Thus, Mg(2+) may play a twofold role: bringing the reactants into the proximity of each other and activating the nucleophile. We also conducted solvated interaction energy calculations to explore whether ligation specificities can be correlated to ligase-dsRNA binding affinity changes. The calculated dsRNA binding affinities are stronger for both L1 and L2 when the terminal nucleotide is changed from cytosine to guanine, in line with their experimentally measured ligation specificities. Because the ligation mechanism is also influenced by interactions of the ligase with partner proteins from the editosome subcomplex, we also modeled the structure of the RNA-bound L2 in complex with the oligonucleotide binding (OB) domain of largest editosome interacting protein A1. The resulting L2-dsRNA-A1 model, which is consistent with mutagenesis and binding data recorded to date, provides the first atomic-level glimpse of plausible interactions around the RNA ligation site in the presence of an OB domain presented in-trans to a nucleic acid ligase.

  10. The nuclear RNA binding protein RBP33 influences mRNA and spliced leader RNA abundance in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Cirovic, Olivera; Trikin, Roman; Hoffmann, Anneliese; Doiron, Nicholas; Jakob, Martin; Ochsenreiter, Torsten

    2017-03-01

    RNA recognition motif (RRM) containing proteins are important regulators of gene expression in trypanosomes. Here we expand our current knowledge on the exclusively nuclear localized RRM domain containing protein RBP33 of Trypanosoma brucei. Overexpression of RBP33 leads to a quick growth arrest in G2/M in bloodstream form cells likely due to an overall mRNA- and spliced leader abundance decrease while the ribosomal RNAs remain unaffected. The recombinant RBP33 binds to poly(A) and random sequence RNA in vitro confirming its role as a RNA binding protein. Finally super-resolution microscopy detects RBP33 in small punctae throughout the nucleus and surrounding the nucleolus, however the signal is depleted inside the nucleolus.

  11. The function of circadian RNA-binding proteins and their cis-acting elements in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Mittag, Maria

    2003-07-01

    An endogenous clock regulates the temporal expression of genes/mRNAs that are involved in the circadian output pathway. In the bioluminescent dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra circadian expression of the luciferin-binding protein (LBP) is controlled at the translational level. Thereby, a clock-controlled RNA-binding protein, called circadian controlled translational regulator (CCTR), interacts specifically with an UG-repeat, which is situated in the lbp 3' UTR. Its binding activity correlates negatively with the amount of LBP during a circadian cycle. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a clock-controlled RNA-binding protein (CHLAMY 1) was identified, which represents an analog of the CCTR from the phylogenetically diverse alga G. polyedra. CHLAMY 1 binds specifically to the 3' UTRs of several mRNAs and recognizes them all via a common cis-acting element, composed of at least seven UG-repeats. The binding strength of CHLAMY 1 is strongest to mRNAs, whose products are key components of nitrogen metabolism resulting in arginine biosynthesis as well as of CO2 metabolism. Since temporal activities of processes involved in nitrogen metabolism have an opposite phase than CHLAMY 1 binding activity, the protein might repress the translation of the cognate mRNAs.

  12. RNA-Binding Proteins: Splicing Factors and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fredericks, Alger M.; Cygan, Kamil J.; Brown, Brian A.; Fairbrother, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing is mediated by interactions of the Core Spliceosome and an array of accessory RNA binding proteins with cis-sequence elements. Splicing is a major regulatory component in higher eukaryotes. Disruptions in splicing are a major contributor to human disease. One in three hereditary disease alleles are believed to cause aberrant splicing. Hereditary disease alleles can alter splicing by disrupting a splicing element, creating a toxic RNA, or affecting splicing factors. One of the challenges of medical genetics is identifying causal variants from the thousands of possibilities discovered in a clinical sequencing experiment. Here we review the basic biochemistry of splicing, the mechanisms of splicing mutations, the methods for identifying splicing mutants, and the potential of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25985083

  13. RNA regulation went wrong in neurodevelopmental disorders: The example of Msi/Elavl RNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Yano, Masato; Hayakawa-Yano, Yoshika; Okano, Hideyuki

    2016-12-01

    RNA regulation participates in many aspects of brain development. There is substantial evidence that RNA dysregulation is critical in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders, neurological diseases, and cancer. Several gene families encode RNA-binding proteins (RNABPs) that bind directly to RNA and orchestrate the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, including pre-mRNA splicing, stability, and poly(A) site usage. Among neural RNABPs, the Elavl and Msi families are the focus of neuronal development research owing to their hierarchical expression pattern: Msi1 is expressed in neural progenitor/stem cells, Elavl2 is expressed in early neuronal progenitors to mature neurons, and Elavl3/4 expression begins slightly later, during cortical neuron development. Traditional biochemical analyses provide mechanistic insight into RNA regulation by these RNABPs, and Drosophila and mouse genetic studies support a relationship between these RNABPs and several neurodevelopmental disorders. In addition, a recent cohort analysis of the human genome shows that genetic mutations and SNPs in these RNABPs are associated with various neurological disorders. Newly emerged technologies assess transcriptome-wide RNA-protein interactions in vivo. These technologies, combined with classical genetics methods, provide new insight into Elavl and Msi, not only with respect to their neurodevelopmental functions, but also their roles in several diseases. We review recent discoveries related to the two RNABP families in brain development and disease.

  14. Potyvirus virion structure shows conserved protein fold and RNA binding site in ssRNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Miguel; Méndez-López, Eduardo; Agirrezabala, Xabier; Cuesta, Rebeca; Lavín, José L.; Sánchez-Pina, M. Amelia; Aranda, Miguel A.; Valle, Mikel

    2017-01-01

    Potyviruses constitute the second largest genus of plant viruses and cause important economic losses in a large variety of crops; however, the atomic structure of their particles remains unknown. Infective potyvirus virions are long flexuous filaments where coat protein (CP) subunits assemble in helical mode bound to a monopartite positive-sense single-stranded RNA [(+)ssRNA] genome. We present the cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) structure of the potyvirus watermelon mosaic virus at a resolution of 4.0 Å. The atomic model shows a conserved fold for the CPs of flexible filamentous plant viruses, including a universally conserved RNA binding pocket, which is a potential target for antiviral compounds. This conserved fold of the CP is widely distributed in eukaryotic viruses and is also shared by nucleoproteins of enveloped viruses with segmented (−)ssRNA (negative-sense ssRNA) genomes, including influenza viruses.

  15. Potyvirus virion structure shows conserved protein fold and RNA binding site in ssRNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Miguel; Méndez-López, Eduardo; Agirrezabala, Xabier; Cuesta, Rebeca; Lavín, José L; Sánchez-Pina, M Amelia; Aranda, Miguel A; Valle, Mikel

    2017-09-01

    Potyviruses constitute the second largest genus of plant viruses and cause important economic losses in a large variety of crops; however, the atomic structure of their particles remains unknown. Infective potyvirus virions are long flexuous filaments where coat protein (CP) subunits assemble in helical mode bound to a monopartite positive-sense single-stranded RNA [(+)ssRNA] genome. We present the cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) structure of the potyvirus watermelon mosaic virus at a resolution of 4.0 Å. The atomic model shows a conserved fold for the CPs of flexible filamentous plant viruses, including a universally conserved RNA binding pocket, which is a potential target for antiviral compounds. This conserved fold of the CP is widely distributed in eukaryotic viruses and is also shared by nucleoproteins of enveloped viruses with segmented (-)ssRNA (negative-sense ssRNA) genomes, including influenza viruses.

  16. High-affinity RNA binding by a hyperthermophilic single-stranded DNA-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Morten, Michael J; Gamsjaeger, Roland; Cubeddu, Liza; Kariawasam, Ruvini; Peregrina, Jose; Penedo, J Carlos; White, Malcolm F

    2017-03-01

    Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs), including replication protein A (RPA) in eukaryotes, play a central role in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. SSBs utilise an oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold domain to bind DNA, and typically oligomerise in solution to bring multiple OB fold domains together in the functional SSB. SSBs from hyperthermophilic crenarchaea, such as Sulfolobus solfataricus, have an unusual structure with a single OB fold coupled to a flexible C-terminal tail. The OB fold resembles those in RPA, whilst the tail is reminiscent of bacterial SSBs and mediates interaction with other proteins. One paradigm in the field is that SSBs bind specifically to ssDNA and much less strongly to RNA, ensuring that their functions are restricted to DNA metabolism. Here, we use a combination of biochemical and biophysical approaches to demonstrate that the binding properties of S. solfataricus SSB are essentially identical for ssDNA and ssRNA. These features may represent an adaptation to a hyperthermophilic lifestyle, where DNA and RNA damage is a more frequent event.

  17. The influenza virus nucleoprotein: a multifunctional RNA-binding protein pivotal to virus replication.

    PubMed

    Portela, Agustín; Digard, Paul

    2002-04-01

    All viruses with negative-sense RNA genomes encode a single-strand RNA-binding nucleoprotein (NP). The primary function of NP is to encapsidate the virus genome for the purposes of RNA transcription, replication and packaging. The purpose of this review is to illustrate using the influenza virus NP as a well-studied example that the molecule is much more than a structural RNA-binding protein, but also functions as a key adapter molecule between virus and host cell processes. It does so through the ability to interact with a wide variety of viral and cellular macromolecules, including RNA, itself, two subunits of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the viral matrix protein. NP also interacts with cellular polypeptides, including actin, components of the nuclear import and export apparatus and a nuclear RNA helicase. The evidence for the existence of each of these activities and their possible roles in transcription, replication and intracellular trafficking of the virus genome is considered.

  18. The human RNA-binding protein and E3 ligase MEX-3C binds the MEX-3-recognition element (MRE) motif with high affinity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lingna; Wang, Chongyuan; Li, Fudong; Zhang, Jiahai; Nayab, Anam; Wu, Jihui; Shi, Yunyu; Gong, Qingguo

    2017-09-29

    MEX-3 is a K-homology (KH) domain-containing RNA-binding protein first identified as a translational repressor in Caenorhabditis elegans, and its four orthologs (MEX-3A-D) in human and mouse were subsequently found to have E3 ubiquitin ligase activity mediated by a RING domain and critical for RNA degradation. Current evidence implicates human MEX-3C in many essential biological processes and suggests a strong connection with immune diseases and carcinogenesis. The highly conserved dual KH domains in MEX-3 proteins enable RNA binding and are essential for the recognition of the 3'-UTR and post-transcriptional regulation of MEX-3 target transcripts. However, the molecular mechanisms of translational repression and the consensus RNA sequence recognized by the MEX-3C KH domain are unknown. Here, using X-ray crystallography and isothermal titration calorimetry, we investigated the RNA-binding activity and selectivity of human MEX-3C dual KH domains. Our high-resolution crystal structures of individual KH domains complexed with a noncanonical U-rich and a GA-rich RNA sequence revealed that the KH1/2 domains of human MEX-3C bound MRE10, a 10-mer RNA (5'-CAGAGUUUAG-3') consisting of an eight-nucleotide MEX-3-recognition element (MRE) motif, with high affinity. Of note, we also identified a consensus RNA motif recognized by human MEX-3C. The potential RNA-binding sites in the 3'-UTR of the human leukocyte antigen serotype (HLA-A2) mRNA were mapped with this RNA-binding motif and further confirmed by fluorescence polarization. The binding motif identified here will provide valuable information for future investigations of the functional pathways controlled by human MEX-3C and for predicting potential mRNAs regulated by this enzyme. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Interaction of zanamivir with DNA and RNA: Models for drug DNA and drug RNA bindings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafisi, Shohreh; Kahangi, Fatemeh Ghoreyshi; Azizi, Ebrahim; Zebarjad, Nader; Tajmir-Riahi, Heidar-Ali

    2007-03-01

    Zanamivir (ZAN) is the first of a new generation of influenza virus-specific drugs known as neuraminidase inhibitors, which acts by interfering with life cycles of influenza viruses A and B. It prevents the virus spreading infection to other cells by blocking the neuraminidase enzyme present on the surface of the virus. The aim of this study was to examine the stability and structural features of calf thymus DNA and yeast RNA complexes with zanamivir in aqueous solution, using constant DNA or RNA concentration (12.5 mM) and various zanamivir/polynucleotide ( P) ratios of 1/20, 1/10, 1/4, and 1/2. FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy are used to determine the drug external binding modes, the binding constant and the stability of zanamivir-DNA and RNA complexes in aqueous solution. Structural analysis showed major interaction of zanamivir with G-C (major groove) and A-T (minor groove) base pairs and minor perturbations of the backbone PO 2 group with overall binding constants of Kzanamivir-DNA = 1.30 × 10 4 M -1 and Kzanamivir-RNA = 1.38 × 10 4 M -1. The drug interaction induces a partial B to A-DNA transition, while RNA remains in A-conformation.

  20. A second essential function of the Est1-binding arm of yeast telomerase RNA.

    PubMed

    Lebo, Kevin J; Niederer, Rachel O; Zappulla, David C

    2015-05-01

    The enzymatic ribonucleoprotein telomerase maintains telomeres in many eukaryotes, including humans, and plays a central role in aging and cancer. Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomerase RNA, TLC1, is a flexible scaffold that tethers telomerase holoenzyme protein subunits to the complex. Here we test the hypothesis that a lengthy conserved region of the Est1-binding TLC1 arm contributes more than simply Est1-binding function. We separated Est1 binding from potential other functions by tethering TLC1 to Est1 via a heterologous RNA-protein binding module. We find that Est1-tethering rescues in vivo function of telomerase RNA alleles missing nucleotides specifically required for Est1 binding, but not those missing the entire conserved region. Notably, however, telomerase function is restored for this condition by expressing the arm of TLC1 in trans. Mutational analysis shows that the Second Essential Est1-arm Domain (SEED) maps to an internal loop of the arm, which SHAPE chemical mapping and 3D modeling suggest could be regulated by conformational change. Finally, we find that the SEED has an essential, Est1-independent role in telomerase function after telomerase recruitment to the telomere. The SEED may be required for establishing telomere extendibility or promoting telomerase RNP holoenzyme activity. © 2015 Lebo et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  1. Visualizing double-stranded RNA distribution and dynamics in living cells by dsRNA binding-dependent fluorescence complementation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Xiaofei; Deng, Ping; Cui, Hongguang; Wang, Aiming

    2015-11-15

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is an important type of RNA that plays essential roles in diverse cellular processes in eukaryotic organisms and a hallmark in infections by positive-sense RNA viruses. Currently, no in vivo technology has been developed for visualizing dsRNA in living cells. Here, we report a dsRNA binding-dependent fluorescence complementation (dRBFC) assay that can be used to efficiently monitor dsRNA distribution and dynamics in vivo. The system consists of two dsRNA-binding proteins, which are fused to the N- and C-terminal halves of the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Binding of the two fusion proteins to a common dsRNA brings the split YFP halves in close proximity, leading to the reconstitution of the fluorescence-competent structure and restoration of fluorescence. Using this technique, we were able to visualize the distribution and trafficking of the replicative RNA intermediates of positive-sense RNA viruses in living cells. - Highlights: • A live-cell imaging system was developed for visualizing dsRNA in vivo. • It uses dsRNA binding proteins fused with two halves of a fluorescent protein. • Binding to a common dsRNA enables the reporter to become fluorescent. • The system can efficiently monitor viral RNA replication in living cells.

  2. A crystallographic study of the binding of 13 metal ions to two related RNA duplexes

    PubMed Central

    Ennifar, Eric; Walter, Philippe; Dumas, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Metal ions, and magnesium in particular, are known to be involved in RNA folding by stabilizing secondary and tertiary structures, and, as cofactors, in RNA enzymatic activity. We have conducted a systematic crystallographic analysis of cation binding to the duplex form of the HIV-1 RNA dimerization initiation site for the subtype-A and -B natural sequences. Eleven ions (K+, Pb2+, Mn2+, Ba2+, Ca2+, Cd2+, Sr2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Au3+ and Pt4+) and two hexammines [Co (NH3)6]3+ and [Ru (NH3)6]3+ were found to bind to the DIS duplex structure. Although the two sequences are very similar, strong differences were found in their cation binding properties. Divalent cations bind almost exclusively, as Mg2+, at ‘Hoogsteen’ sites of guanine residues, with a cation-dependent affinity for each site. Notably, a given cation can have very different affinities for a priori equivalent sites within the same molecule. Surprisingly, none of the two hexammines used were able to efficiently replace hexahydrated magnesium. Instead, [Co (NH3)4]3+ was seen bound by inner-sphere coordination to the RNA. This raises some questions about the practical use of [Co (NH3)6]3+ as a [Mg (H2O)6]2+ mimetic. Also very unexpected was the binding of the small Au3+ cation exactly between the Watson–Crick sites of a G-C base pair after an obligatory deprotonation of N1 of the guanine base. This extensive study of metal ion binding using X-ray crystallography significantly enriches our knowledge on the binding of middleweight or heavy metal ions to RNA, particularly compared with magnesium. PMID:12736317

  3. A conserved loop in polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) essential for both RNA and ADP/phosphate binding.

    PubMed

    Carzaniga, Thomas; Mazzantini, Elisa; Nardini, Marco; Regonesi, Maria Elena; Greco, Claudio; Briani, Federica; De Gioia, Luca; Dehò, Gianni; Tortora, Paolo

    2014-02-01

    Polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) reversibly catalyzes RNA phosphorolysis and polymerization of nucleoside diphosphates. Its homotrimeric structure forms a central channel where RNA is accommodated. Each protomer core is formed by two paralogous RNase PH domains: PNPase1, whose function is largely unknown, hosts a conserved FFRR loop interacting with RNA, whereas PNPase2 bears the putative catalytic site, ∼20 Å away from the FFRR loop. To date, little is known regarding PNPase catalytic mechanism. We analyzed the kinetic properties of two Escherichia coli PNPase mutants in the FFRR loop (R79A and R80A), which exhibited a dramatic increase in Km for ADP/Pi binding, but not for poly(A), suggesting that the two residues may be essential for binding ADP and Pi. However, both mutants were severely impaired in shifting RNA electrophoretic mobility, implying that the two arginines contribute also to RNA binding. Additional interactions between RNA and other PNPase domains (such as KH and S1) may preserve the enzymatic activity in R79A and R80A mutants. Inspection of enzyme structure showed that PNPase has evolved a long-range acting hydrogen bonding network that connects the FFRR loop with the catalytic site via the F380 residue. This hypothesis was supported by mutation analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of PNPase domains and RNase PH suggests that such network is a unique feature of PNPase1 domain, which coevolved with the paralogous PNPase2 domain.

  4. Dissection of specific binding of HIV-1 Gag to the 'packaging signal' in viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Comas-Garcia, Mauricio; Datta, Siddhartha Ak; Baker, Laura; Varma, Rajat; Gudla, Prabhakar R; Rein, Alan

    2017-07-20

    Selective packaging of HIV-1 genomic RNA (gRNA) requires the presence of a cis-acting RNA element called the 'packaging signal' (Ψ). However, the mechanism by which Ψ promotes selective packaging of the gRNA is not well understood. We used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and quenching data to monitor the binding of recombinant HIV-1 Gag protein to Cy5-tagged 190-base RNAs. At physiological ionic strength, Gag binds with very similar, nanomolar affinities to both Ψ-containing and control RNAs. We challenged these interactions by adding excess competing tRNA; introducing mutations in Gag; or raising the ionic strength. These modifications all revealed high specificity for Ψ. This specificity is evidently obscured in physiological salt by non-specific, predominantly electrostatic interactions. This nonspecific activity was attenuated by mutations in the MA, CA, and NC domains, including CA mutations disrupting Gag-Gag interaction. We propose that gRNA is selectively packaged because binding to Ψ nucleates virion assembly with particular efficiency.

  5. MDA5 cooperatively forms dimers and ATP-sensitive filaments upon binding double-stranded RNA

    PubMed Central

    Berke, Ian C; Modis, Yorgo

    2012-01-01

    Melanoma differentiation-associated gene-5 (MDA5) detects viral double-stranded RNA in the cytoplasm. RNA binding induces MDA5 to activate the signalling adaptor MAVS through interactions between the caspase recruitment domains (CARDs) of the two proteins. The molecular mechanism of MDA5 signalling is not well understood. Here, we show that MDA5 cooperatively binds short RNA ligands as a dimer with a 16–18-basepair footprint. A crystal structure of the MDA5 helicase-insert domain demonstrates an evolutionary relationship with the archaeal Hef helicases. In X-ray solution structures, the CARDs in unliganded MDA5 are flexible, and RNA binds on one side of an asymmetric MDA5 dimer, bridging the two subunits. On longer RNA, full-length and CARD-deleted MDA5 constructs assemble into ATP-sensitive filaments. We propose a signalling model in which the CARDs on MDA5–RNA filaments nucleate the assembly of MAVS filaments with the same polymeric geometry. PMID:22314235

  6. Viral Proteins That Bind Double-Stranded RNA: Countermeasures Against Host Antiviral Responses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Several animal viruses encode proteins that bind double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to counteract host dsRNA-dependent antiviral responses. This article discusses the structure and function of the dsRNA-binding proteins of influenza A virus and Ebola viruses (EBOVs). PMID:24905203

  7. Staufen Negatively Modulates MicroRNA Activity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhiji; Veksler-Lublinsky, Isana; Morrissey, David; Ambros, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The double-stranded RNA-binding protein Staufen has been implicated in various posttranscriptional gene regulatory processes. Here, we demonstrate that the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of Staufen, STAU-1, functionally interacts with microRNAs. Loss-of-function mutations of stau-1 significantly suppress phenotypes of let-7 family microRNA mutants, a hypomorphic allele of dicer, and a lsy-6 microRNA partial loss-of-function mutant. Furthermore, STAU-1 modulates the activity of lin-14, a target of lin-4 and let-7 family microRNAs, and this modulation is abolished when the 3′ untranslated region of lin-14 is removed. Deep sequencing of small RNA cDNA libraries reveals no dramatic change in the levels of microRNAs or other small RNA populations between wild-type and stau-1 mutants, with the exception of certain endogenous siRNAs in the WAGO pathway. The modulation of microRNA activity by STAU-1 does not seem to be associated with the previously reported enhanced exogenous RNAi (Eri) phenotype of stau-1 mutants, since eri-1 exhibits the opposite effect on microRNA activity. Altogether, our results suggest that STAU-1 negatively modulates microRNA activity downstream of microRNA biogenesis, possibly by competing with microRNAs for binding on the 3′ untranslated region of target mRNAs. PMID:26921297

  8. The adenovirus L4-22K protein regulates transcription and RNA splicing via a sequence-specific single-stranded RNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Susan; Kamel, Wael; Punga, Tanel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The adenovirus L4-22K protein both activates and suppresses transcription from the adenovirus major late promoter (MLP) by binding to DNA elements located downstream of the MLP transcriptional start site: the so-called DE element (positive) and the R1 region (negative). Here we show that L4-22K preferentially binds to the RNA form of the R1 region, both to the double-stranded RNA and the single-stranded RNA of the same polarity as the nascent MLP transcript. Further, L4-22K binds to a 5΄-CAAA-3΄ motif in the single-stranded RNA, which is identical to the sequence motif characterized for L4-22K DNA binding. L4-22K binding to single-stranded RNA results in an enhancement of U1 snRNA recruitment to the major late first leader 5΄ splice site. This increase in U1 snRNA binding results in a suppression of MLP transcription and a concurrent stimulation of major late first intron splicing. PMID:27899607

  9. Structural basis underlying CAC RNA recognition by the RRM domain of dimeric RNA-binding protein RBPMS.

    PubMed

    Teplova, Marianna; Farazi, Thalia A; Tuschl, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (designated RBPMS) is a higher vertebrate mRNA-binding protein containing a single RNA recognition motif (RRM). RBPMS has been shown to be involved in mRNA transport, localization and stability, with key roles in axon guidance, smooth muscle plasticity, as well as regulation of cancer cell proliferation and migration. We report on structure-function studies of the RRM domain of RBPMS bound to a CAC-containing single-stranded RNA. These results provide insights into potential topologies of complexes formed by the RBPMS RRM domain and the tandem CAC repeat binding sites as detected by photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation. These studies establish that the RRM domain of RBPMS forms a symmetrical dimer in the free state, with each monomer binding sequence-specifically to all three nucleotides of a CAC segment in the RNA bound state. Structure-guided mutations within the dimerization and RNA-binding interfaces of RBPMS RRM on RNA complex formation resulted in both disruption of dimerization and a decrease in RNA-binding affinity as observed by size exclusion chromatography and isothermal titration calorimetry. As anticipated from biochemical binding studies, over-expression of dimerization or RNA-binding mutants of Flag-HA-tagged RBPMS were no longer able to track with stress granules in HEK293 cells, thereby documenting the deleterious effects of such mutations in vivo.

  10. Engineered proteins with Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA binding factor scaffold to manipulate RNA metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Zefeng; Tanaka Hall, Traci M

    2013-08-01

    Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA binding factor proteins are characterized by a sequence-specific RNA-binding domain. This unique single-stranded RNA recognition module, whose sequence specificity can be reprogrammed, has been fused with functional modules to engineer protein factors with various functions. We summarize the advances made with respect to developing RNA regulatory tools, as well as opportunities for the future.

  11. Predicting RNA-binding residues from evolutionary information and sequence conservation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play crucial roles in post-transcriptional control of RNA. RBPs are designed to efficiently recognize specific RNA sequences after it is derived from the DNA sequence. To satisfy diverse functional requirements, RNA binding proteins are composed of multiple blocks of RNA-binding domains (RBDs) presented in various structural arrangements to provide versatile functions. The ability to computationally predict RNA-binding residues in a RNA-binding protein can help biologists reveal important site-directed mutagenesis in wet-lab experiments. Results The proposed prediction framework named “ProteRNA” combines a SVM-based classifier with conserved residue discovery by WildSpan to identify the residues that interact with RNA in a RNA-binding protein. Although these conserved residues can be either functionally conserved residues or structurally conserved residues, they provide clues on the important residues in a protein sequence. In the independent testing dataset, ProteRNA has been able to deliver overall accuracy of 89.78%, MCC of 0.2628, F-score of 0.3075, and F0.5-score of 0.3546. Conclusions This article presents the design of a sequence-based predictor aiming to identify the RNA-binding residues in a RNA-binding protein by combining machine learning and pattern mining approaches. RNA-binding proteins have diverse functions while interacting with different categories of RNAs because these proteins are composed of multiple copies of RNA-binding domains presented in various structural arrangements to expand the functional repertoire of RNA-binding proteins. Furthermore, predicting RNA-binding residues in a RNA-binding protein can help biologists reveal important site-directed mutagenesis in wet-lab experiments. PMID:21143803

  12. The genomic binding sites of a noncoding RNA

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Matthew D.; Wang, Charlotte I.; Kharchenko, Peter V.; West, Jason A.; Chapman, Brad A.; Alekseyenko, Artyom A.; Borowsky, Mark L.; Kuroda, Mitzi I.; Kingston, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have important regulatory roles and can function at the level of chromatin. To determine where lncRNAs bind to chromatin, we developed capture hybridization analysis of RNA targets (CHART), a hybridization-based technique that specifically enriches endogenous RNAs along with their targets from reversibly cross-linked chromatin extracts. CHART was used to enrich the DNA and protein targets of endogenous lncRNAs from flies and humans. This analysis was extended to genome-wide mapping of roX2, a well-studied ncRNA involved in dosage compensation in Drosophila. CHART revealed that roX2 binds at specific genomic sites that coincide with the binding sites of proteins from the male-specific lethal complex that affects dosage compensation. These results reveal the genomic targets of roX2 and demonstrate how CHART can be used to study RNAs in a manner analogous to chromatin immunoprecipitation for proteins. PMID:22143764

  13. Cis-Active RNA Elements (CREs) and Picornavirus RNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Steil, Benjamin P.; Barton, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Our understanding of picornavirus RNA replication has improved over the past 10 years, due in large part to the discovery of cis-active RNA elements (CREs) within picornavirus RNA genomes. CREs function as templates for the conversion of VPg, the Viral Protein of the genome, into VPgpUpUOH. These so called CREs are different from the previously recognized cis-active RNA sequences and structures within the 5′ and 3′ NTRs of picornavirus genomes. Two adenosine residues in the loop of the CRE RNA structures allow the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 3DPol to add two uridine residues to the tyrosine residue of VPg. Because VPg and/or VPgpUpUOH prime the initiation of viral RNA replication, the asymmetric replication of viral RNA could not be explained without an understanding of the viral RNA template involved in the conversion of VPg into VPgpUpUOH primers. We review the growing body of knowledge regarding picornavirus CREs and discuss how CRE RNAs work coordinately with viral replication proteins and other cis-active RNAs in the 5′ and 3′ NTRs during RNA replication. PMID:18773930

  14. Inhibition by Elongation Factor EF G of Aminoacyl-tRNA Binding to Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Cabrer, Bartolomé; Vázquez, David; Modolell, Juan

    1972-01-01

    Elongation factor G (EF G), bound to ribosomes either with GMPPCP or with fusidic acid and GDP, inhibits elongation factor Tu (EF Tu)-dependent binding of Phe-tRNA on the ribosome-poly(U) complex and binding of Ala-tRNA on the initiation complex formed with RNA from bacteriophage R17; GTP hydrolysis associated with Phe-tRNA binding is also inhibited. Moreover, nonenzymic binding of Phe-tRNA at high Mg++ concentration is completely blocked by EF G. Thus, EF G appears to bind at a site that overlaps or interacts with the ribosomal A-site. PMID:4551985

  15. RNA-binding protein RBM20 represses splicing to orchestrate cardiac pre-mRNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Maatz, Henrike; Jens, Marvin; Liss, Martin; Schafer, Sebastian; Heinig, Matthias; Kirchner, Marieluise; Adami, Eleonora; Rintisch, Carola; Dauksaite, Vita; Radke, Michael H.; Selbach, Matthias; Barton, Paul J.R.; Cook, Stuart A.; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Gotthardt, Michael; Landthaler, Markus; Hubner, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the RNA-binding protein RBM20 have been implicated in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a major cause of chronic heart failure, presumably through altering cardiac RNA splicing. Here, we combined transcriptome-wide crosslinking immunoprecipitation (CLIP-seq), RNA-seq, and quantitative proteomics in cell culture and rat and human hearts to examine how RBM20 regulates alternative splicing in the heart. Our analyses revealed the presence of a distinct RBM20 RNA-recognition element that is predominantly found within intronic binding sites and linked to repression of exon splicing with RBM20 binding near 3′ and 5′ splice sites. Proteomic analysis determined that RBM20 interacts with both U1 and U2 small nuclear ribonucleic particles (snRNPs) and suggested that RBM20-dependent splicing repression occurs through spliceosome stalling at complex A. Direct RBM20 targets included several genes previously shown to be involved in DCM as well as genes not typically associated with this disease. In failing human hearts, reduced expression of RBM20 affected alternative splicing of several direct targets, indicating that differences in RBM20 expression may affect cardiac function. Together, these findings identify RBM20-regulated targets and provide insight into the pathogenesis of human heart failure. PMID:24960161

  16. When core competence is not enough: functional interplay of the DEAD-box helicase core with ancillary domains and auxiliary factors in RNA binding and unwinding.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Markus G; Klostermeier, Dagmar

    2015-08-01

    DEAD-box helicases catalyze RNA duplex unwinding in an ATP-dependent reaction. Members of the DEAD-box helicase family consist of a common helicase core formed by two RecA-like domains. According to the current mechanistic model for DEAD-box mediated RNA unwinding, binding of RNA and ATP triggers a conformational change of the helicase core, and leads to formation of a compact, closed state. In the closed conformation, the two parts of the active site for ATP hydrolysis and of the RNA binding site, residing on the two RecA domains, become aligned. Closing of the helicase core is coupled to a deformation of the RNA backbone and destabilization of the RNA duplex, allowing for dissociation of one of the strands. The second strand remains bound to the helicase core until ATP hydrolysis and product release lead to re-opening of the core. The concomitant disruption of the RNA binding site causes dissociation of the second strand. The activity of the helicase core can be modulated by interaction partners, and by flanking N- and C-terminal domains. A number of C-terminal flanking regions have been implicated in RNA binding: RNA recognition motifs (RRM) typically mediate sequence-specific RNA binding, whereas positively charged, unstructured regions provide binding sites for structured RNA, without sequence-specificity. Interaction partners modulate RNA binding to the core, or bind to RNA regions emanating from the core. The functional interplay of the helicase core and ancillary domains or interaction partners in RNA binding and unwinding is not entirely understood. This review summarizes our current knowledge on RNA binding to the DEAD-box helicase core and the roles of ancillary domains and interaction partners in RNA binding and unwinding by DEAD-box proteins.

  17. RNA-binding proteins in plants: the tip of an iceberg?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedoroff, Nina V.; Federoff, N. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins, which are involved in the synthesis, processing, transport, translation, and degradation of RNA, are emerging as important, often multifunctional, cellular regulatory proteins. Although relatively few RNA-binding proteins have been studied in plants, they are being identified with increasing frequency, both genetically and biochemically. RNA-binding proteins that regulate chloroplast mRNA stability and translation in response to light and that have been elegantly analyzed in Clamydomonas reinhardtii have counterparts with similar functions in higher plants. Several recent reports describe mutations in genes encoding RNA-binding proteins that affect plant development and hormone signaling.

  18. RNA-binding proteins in plants: the tip of an iceberg?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedoroff, Nina V.; Federoff, N. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins, which are involved in the synthesis, processing, transport, translation, and degradation of RNA, are emerging as important, often multifunctional, cellular regulatory proteins. Although relatively few RNA-binding proteins have been studied in plants, they are being identified with increasing frequency, both genetically and biochemically. RNA-binding proteins that regulate chloroplast mRNA stability and translation in response to light and that have been elegantly analyzed in Clamydomonas reinhardtii have counterparts with similar functions in higher plants. Several recent reports describe mutations in genes encoding RNA-binding proteins that affect plant development and hormone signaling.

  19. Phosphorylation of a chloroplast RNA-binding protein changes its affinity to RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Lisitsky, I; Schuster, G

    1995-01-01

    An RNA-binding protein of 28 kDa (28RNP) was previously isolated from spinach chloroplasts and found to be required for 3' end-processing of chloroplast mRNAs. The amino acid sequence of 28RNP revealed two approximately 80 amino-acid RNA-binding domains, as well as an acidic- and glycine-rich amino terminal domain. Upon analysis of the RNA-binding properties of the 'native' 28RNP in comparison to the recombinant bacterial expressed protein, differences were detected in the affinity to some chloroplastic 3' end RNAs. It was suggested that post-translational modification can modulate the affinity of the 28RNP in the chloroplast to different RNAs. In order to determine if phosphorylation accounts for this post-translational modification, we examined if the 28RNP is a phosphoprotein and if it can serve as a substrate for protein kinases. It was found that the 28RNP was phosphorylated when intact chloroplasts were metabolically labeled with [32P] orthophosphate, and that recombinant 28RNP served as an excellent substrate in vitro for protein kinase isolated from spinach chloroplasts or recombinant alpha subunit of maize casein kinase II. The 28RNP was apparently phosphorylated at one site located in the acidic domain at the N-terminus of the protein. Site-directed mutagenesis of the serines in that region revealed that the phosphorylation of the protein was eliminated when serine number 22 from the N-terminus was changed to tryptophan. RNA-binding analysis of the phosphorylated 28RNP revealed that the affinity of the phosphorylated protein was reduced approximately 3-4-fold in comparison to the non-phosphorylated protein. Therefore, phosphorylation of the 28RNP modulates its affinity to RNA and may play a significant role in its biological function in the chloroplast. Images PMID:7630729

  20. Structural and functional analysis reveals that human OASL binds dsRNA to enhance RIG-I signaling.

    PubMed

    Ibsen, Mikkel Søes; Gad, Hans Henrik; Andersen, Line Lykke; Hornung, Veit; Julkunen, Ilkka; Sarkar, Saumendra N; Hartmann, Rune

    2015-05-26

    The oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) enzymes are cytoplasmic dsRNA sensors belonging to the antiviral innate immune system. Upon binding to viral dsRNA, the OAS enzymes synthesize 2'-5' linked oligoadenylates (2-5As) that initiate an RNA decay pathway to impair viral replication. The human OAS-like (OASL) protein, however, does not harbor the catalytic activity required for synthesizing 2-5As and differs from the other human OAS family members by having two C-terminal ubiquitin-like domains. In spite of its lack of enzymatic activity, human OASL possesses antiviral activity. It was recently demonstrated that the ubiquitin-like domains of OASL could substitute for K63-linked poly-ubiquitin and interact with the CARDs of RIG-I and thereby enhance RIG-I signaling. However, the role of the OAS-like domain of OASL remains unclear. Here we present the crystal structure of the OAS-like domain, which shows a striking similarity with activated OAS1. Furthermore, the structure of the OAS-like domain shows that OASL has a dsRNA binding groove. We demonstrate that the OAS-like domain can bind dsRNA and that mutating key residues in the dsRNA binding site is detrimental to the RIG-I signaling enhancement. Hence, binding to dsRNA is an important feature of OASL that is required for enhancing RIG-I signaling.

  1. BORIS/CTCFL is an RNA-binding protein that associates with polysomes.

    PubMed

    Ogunkolade, Babatunji W; Jones, Tania A; Aarum, Johan; Szary, Jaroslaw; Owen, Nicholas; Ottaviani, Diego; Mumin, Muhammad A; Patel, Shyam; Pieri, Christopher A; Silver, Andrew R; Sheer, Denise

    2013-11-26

    BORIS (CTCFL), a paralogue of the multifunctional and ubiquitously expressed transcription factor CTCF, is best known for its role in transcriptional regulation. In the nucleus, BORIS is particularly enriched in the nucleolus, a crucial compartment for ribosomal RNA and RNA metabolism. However, little is known about cytoplasmic BORIS, which represents the major pool of BORIS protein. We show, firstly, that BORIS has a putative nuclear export signal in the C-terminal domain. Furthermore, BORIS associates with mRNA in both neural stem cells and young neurons. The majority of the BORIS-associated transcripts are different in the two cell types. Finally, by using polysome profiling we show that BORIS is associated with actively translating ribosomes. We have demonstrated the RNA binding properties of cellular BORIS and its association with actively translating ribosomes. We suggest that BORIS is involved in gene expression at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

  2. RNA and DNA binding properties of HIV-1 Vif protein: a fluorescence study.

    PubMed

    Bernacchi, Serena; Henriet, Simon; Dumas, Philippe; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Marquet, Roland

    2007-09-07

    The HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) is a small basic protein essential for viral fitness and pathogenicity. Some "non-permissive" cell lines cannot sustain replication of Vif(-) HIV-1 virions. In these cells, Vif counteracts the natural antiretroviral activity of the DNA-editing enzymes APOBEC3G/3F. Moreover, Vif is packaged into viral particles through a strong interaction with genomic RNA in viral nucleoprotein complexes. To gain insights into determinants of this binding process, we performed the first characterization of Vif/nucleic acid interactions using Vif intrinsic fluorescence. We determined the affinity of Vif for RNA fragments corresponding to various regions of the HIV-1 genome. Our results demonstrated preferential and moderately cooperative binding for RNAs corresponding to the 5'-untranslated region of HIV-1 (5'-untranslated region) and gag (cooperativity parameter omega approximately 65-80, and K(d) = 45-55 nM). In addition, fluorescence spectroscopy allowed us to point out the TAR apical loop and a short region in gag as primary strong affinity binding sites (K(d) = 9.5-14 nM). Interestingly, beside its RNA binding properties, the Vif protein can also bind the corresponding DNA oligonucleotides and their complementary counterparts with an affinity similar to the one observed for the RNA sequences, while other DNA sequences displayed reduced affinity. Taken together, our results suggest that Vif binding to RNA and DNA offers several non-exclusive ways to counteract APOBEC3G/3F factors, in addition to the well documented Vif-induced degradation by the proteasome and to the Vif-mediated repression of translation of these antiviral factors.

  3. The RNA-binding protein HuR regulates DNA methylation through stabilization of DNMT3b mRNA.

    PubMed

    López de Silanes, Isabel; Gorospe, Myriam; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Srikantan, Subramanya; Alaminos, Miguel; Berdasco, María; Urdinguio, Rocío G; Fraga, Mario F; Jacinto, Filipe V; Esteller, Manel

    2009-05-01

    The molecular basis underlying the aberrant DNA-methylation patterns in human cancer is largely unknown. Altered DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity is believed to contribute, as DNMT expression levels increase during tumorigenesis. Here, we present evidence that the expression of DNMT3b is post-transcriptionally regulated by HuR, an RNA-binding protein that stabilizes and/or modulates the translation of target mRNAs. The presence of a putative HuR-recognition motif in the DNMT3b 3'UTR prompted studies to investigate if this transcript associated with HuR. The interaction between HuR and DNMT3b mRNA was studied by immunoprecipitation of endogenous HuR ribonucleoprotein complexes followed by RT-qPCR detection of DNMT3b mRNA, and by in vitro pulldown of biotinylated DNMT3b RNAs followed by western blotting detection of HuR. These studies revealed that binding of HuR stabilized the DNMT3b mRNA and increased DNMT3b expression. Unexpectedly, cisplatin treatment triggered the dissociation of the [HuR-DNMT3b mRNA] complex, in turn promoting DNMT3b mRNA decay, decreasing DNMT3b abundance, and lowering the methylation of repeated sequences and global DNA methylation. In summary, our data identify DNMT3b mRNA as a novel HuR target, present evidence that HuR affects DNMT3b expression levels post-transcriptionally, and reveal the functional consequences of the HuR-regulated DNMT3b upon DNA methylation patterns.

  4. Translational repression by RNA-binding protein TIAR.

    PubMed

    Mazan-Mamczarz, Krystyna; Lal, Ashish; Martindale, Jennifer L; Kawai, Tomoko; Gorospe, Myriam

    2006-04-01

    The RNA-binding protein TIAR has been proposed to inhibit protein synthesis transiently by promoting the formation of translationally silent stress granules. Here, we report the selective binding of TIAR to several mRNAs encoding translation factors such as eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) and eIF4E (translation initiation factors), eEF1B (a translation elongation factor), and c-Myc (which transcriptionally controls the expression of numerous translation regulatory proteins). TIAR bound the 3'-untranslated regions of these mRNAs and potently suppressed their translation, particularly in response to low levels of short-wavelength UV (UVC) irradiation. The UVC-imposed global inhibition of the cellular translation machinery was significantly relieved after silencing of TIAR expression. We propose that the TIAR-mediated inhibition of translation factor expression elicits a sustained repression of protein biosynthesis in cells responding to stress.

  5. Targeting of cytosolic mRNA to mitochondria: naked RNA can bind to the mitochondrial surface.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Morgane; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence; Duchêne, Anne-Marie

    2014-05-01

    Mitochondria contain hundreds of proteins but only a few are encoded by the mitochondrial genome. The other proteins are nuclear-encoded and imported into mitochondria. These proteins can be translated on free cytosolic polysomes, then targeted and imported into mitochondria. Nonetheless, numerous cytosolic mRNAs encoding mitochondrial proteins are detected at the surface of mitochondria in yeast, plants and animals. The localization of mRNAs to the vicinity of mitochondria would be a way for mitochondrial protein sorting. The mechanisms responsible for mRNA targeting to mitochondria are not clearly identified. Sequences within the mRNA molecules (cis-elements), as well as a few trans-acting factors, have been shown to be essential for targeting of some mRNAs. In order to identify receptors involved in mRNA docking to the mitochondrial surface, we have developed an in vitro mRNA binding assay with isolated plant mitochondria. We show that naked mRNAs are able to bind to isolated mitochondria, and our results strongly suggest that mRNA docking to the plant mitochondrial outer membrane requires at least one component of TOM complex.

  6. Crystal structure of Cwc2 reveals a novel architecture of a multipartite RNA-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Schmitzová, Jana; Rasche, Nicolas; Dybkov, Olexander; Kramer, Katharina; Fabrizio, Patrizia; Urlaub, Henning; Lührmann, Reinhard; Pena, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The yeast splicing factor Cwc2 contacts several catalytically important RNA elements in the active spliceosome, suggesting that Cwc2 is involved in determining their spatial arrangement at the spliceosome's catalytic centre. We have determined the crystal structure of the Cwc2 functional core, revealing how a previously uncharacterized Torus domain, an RNA recognition motif (RRM) and a zinc finger (ZnF) are tightly integrated in a compact folding unit. The ZnF plays a pivotal role in the architecture of the whole assembly. UV-induced crosslinking of Cwc2–U6 snRNA allowed the identification by mass spectrometry of six RNA-contacting sites: four in or close to the RRM domain, one in the ZnF and one on a protruding element connecting the Torus and RRM domains. The three distinct regions contacting RNA are connected by a contiguous and conserved positively charged surface, suggesting an expanded interface for RNA accommodation. Cwc2 mutations confirmed that the connector element plays a crucial role in splicing. We conclude that Cwc2 acts as a multipartite RNA-binding platform to bring RNA elements of the spliceosome's catalytic centre into an active conformation. PMID:22407296

  7. Exploring the molecular basis of RNA recognition by the dimeric RNA-binding protein via molecular simulation methods.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shan; Zhang, Da-Wei; Xu, Lei; Wan, Hua; Hou, Ting-Jun; Kong, Ren

    2016-11-01

    RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS) is critical for axon guidance, smooth muscle plasticity, and regulation of cancer cell proliferation and migration. Recently, different states of the RNA-recognition motif (RRM) of RBPMS, one in its free form and another in complex with CAC-containing RNA, were determined by X-ray crystallography. In this article, the free RRM domain, its wild type complex and 2 mutant complex systems are studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Through comparison of free RRM domain and complex systems, it's found that the RNA binding facilitates stabilizing the RNA-binding interface of RRM domain, especially the C-terminal loop. Although both R38Q and T103A/K104A mutations reduce the binding affinity of RRM domain and RNA, the underlining mechanisms are different. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) methods were used to explore the dynamical and recognition mechanisms of RRM domain and RNA. R38Q mutation is positioned on the homodimerization interface and mainly induces the large fluctuations of RRM domains. This mutation does not directly act on the RNA-binding interface, but some interfacial hydrogen bonds are weakened. In contrast, T103A/K104A mutations are located on the RNA-binding interface of RRM domain. These mutations obviously break most of high occupancy hydrogen bonds in the RNA-binding interface. Meanwhile, the key interfacial residues lose their favorable energy contributions upon RNA binding. The ranking of calculated binding energies in 3 complex systems is well consistent with that of experimental binding affinities. These results will be helpful in understanding the RNA recognition mechanisms of RRM domain.

  8. RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  9. RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2006-10-17

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  10. Roles of RNA-binding Proteins and Post-transcriptional Regulation in Driving Male Germ Cell Development in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Licatalosi, Donny D

    Tissue development and homeostasis are dependent on highly regulated gene expression programs in which cell-specific combinations of regulatory factors determine which genes are expressed and the post-transcriptional fate of the resulting RNA transcripts. Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by RNA-binding proteins has critical roles in tissue development-allowing individual genes to generate multiple RNA and protein products, and the timing, location, and abundance of protein synthesis to be finely controlled. Extensive post-transcriptional regulation occurs during mammalian gametogenesis, including high levels of alternative mRNA expression, stage-specific expression of mRNA variants, broad translational repression, and stage-specific activation of mRNA translation. In this chapter, an overview of the roles of RNA-binding proteins and the importance of post-transcriptional regulation in male germ cell development in the mouse is presented.

  11. Structure and dynamics study of translation initiation factor 1 from Staphylococcus aureus suggests its RNA binding mode.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hee; Kang, Su-Jin; Lee, Ki-Young; Jang, Sun-Bok; Kang, Sung-Min; Lee, Bong-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Translation initiation, the rate-limiting step in the protein synthesis, is tightly regulated. As one of the translation initiation factors, translation initiation factor 1 (IF1) plays crucial roles not only in translation but also in many cellular processes that are important for genomic stability, such as the activity of RNA chaperones. Here, we characterize the RNA interactions and dynamics of IF1 from Staphylococcus aureus Mu50 (IF1Sa) by NMR spectroscopy. First, the NMR-derived solution structure of IF1Sa revealed that IF1Sa adopts an oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding (OB)-fold. Structural comparisons showed large deviations in the α-helix and the following loop, which are potential RNA-binding regions of the OB-fold, as well as differences in the electrostatic potential surface among bacterial IF1s. Second, the (15)N NMR relaxation data for IF1Sa indicated the flexible nature of the α-helix and the following loop region of IF1Sa. Third, RNA-binding properties were studied using FP assays and NMR titrations. FP binding assays revealed that IF1Sa binds to RNAs with moderate affinity. In combination with the structural analysis, the NMR titration results revealed the RNA binding sites. Taken together, these results show that IF1Sa binds RNAs with moderate binding affinity via the residues that occupy the large surface area of its β-barrel. These findings suggest that IF1Sa is likely to bind RNA in various conformations rather than only at a specific site and indicate that the flexible RNA binding mode of IF1Sa is necessary for its interaction with various RNA substrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The sweet side of RNA regulation: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as a noncanonical RNA-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    White, Michael R.; Garcin, Elsa D.

    2016-01-01

    The glycolytic protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), has a vast array of extraglycolytic cellular functions, including interactions with nucleic acids. GAPDH has been implicated in the translocation of transfer RNA (tRNA), the regulation of cellular messenger RNA (mRNA) stability and translation, as well as the regulation of replication and gene expression of many single-stranded RNA viruses. A growing body of evidence supports GAPDH–RNA interactions serving as part of a larger coordination between intermediary metabolism and RNA biogenesis. Despite the established role of GAPDH in nucleic acid regulation, it is still unclear how and where GAPDH binds to its RNA targets, highlighted by the absence of any conserved RNA-binding sequences. This review will summarize our current understanding of GAPDH-mediated regulation of RNA function. PMID:26564736

  13. A bioinformatic survey of RNA-binding proteins in Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Reddy, B P Niranjan; Shrestha, Sony; Hart, Kevin J; Liang, Xiaoying; Kemirembe, Karen; Cui, Liwang; Lindner, Scott E

    2015-11-02

    The malaria parasites in the genus Plasmodium have a very complicated life cycle involving an invertebrate vector and a vertebrate host. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are critical factors involved in every aspect of the development of these parasites. However, very few RBPs have been functionally characterized to date in the human parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Using different bioinformatic methods and tools we searched P. falciparum genome to list and annotate RBPs. A representative 3D models for each of the RBD domain identified in P. falciparum was created using I-TESSAR and SWISS-MODEL. Microarray and RNAseq data analysis pertaining PfRBPs was performed using MeV software. Finally, Cytoscape was used to create protein-protein interaction network for CITH-Dozi and Caf1-CCR4-Not complexes. We report the identification of 189 putative RBP genes belonging to 13 different families in Plasmodium, which comprise 3.5% of all annotated genes. Almost 90% (169/189) of these genes belong to six prominent RBP classes, namely RNA recognition motifs, DEAD/H-box RNA helicases, K homology, Zinc finger, Puf and Alba gene families. Interestingly, almost all of the identified RNA-binding helicases and KH genes have cognate homologs in model species, suggesting their evolutionary conservation. Exploration of the existing P. falciparum blood-stage transcriptomes revealed that most RBPs have peak mRNA expression levels early during the intraerythrocytic development cycle, which taper off in later stages. Nearly 27% of RBPs have elevated expression in gametocytes, while 47 and 24% have elevated mRNA expression in ookinete and asexual stages. Comparative interactome analyses using human and Plasmodium protein-protein interaction datasets suggest extensive conservation of the PfCITH/PfDOZI and PfCaf1-CCR4-NOT complexes. The Plasmodium parasites possess a large number of putative RBPs belonging to most of RBP families identified so far, suggesting the presence of extensive post

  14. Robust transcriptome-wide discovery of RNA binding protein binding sites with enhanced CLIP (eCLIP)

    PubMed Central

    Van Nostrand, Eric L.; Pratt, Gabriel A.; Shishkin, Alexander A.; Gelboin-Burkhart, Chelsea; Fang, Mark Y.; Sundararaman, Balaji; Blue, Steven M.; Nguyen, Thai B.; Surka, Christine; Elkins, Keri; Stanton, Rebecca; Rigo, Frank; Guttman, Mitchell; Yeo, Gene W.

    2016-01-01

    As RNA binding proteins (RBPs) play essential roles in cellular physiology by interacting with target RNAs, binding site identification by UV-crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) of ribonucleoprotein complexes is critical to understanding RBP function. However, current CLIP protocols are technically demanding and yield low complexity libraries with high experimental failure rates. We have developed an enhanced CLIP (eCLIP) protocol that decreases requisite amplification by ~1,000-fold, decreasing discarded PCR duplicate reads by ~60% while maintaining single-nucleotide binding resolution. By simplifying the generation of paired IgG and size-matched input controls, eCLIP improves specificity in discovery of authentic binding sites. We generated 102 eCLIP experiments for 73 diverse RBPs in HepG2 and K562 cells (available at https://www.encodeproject.org), demonstrating that eCLIP enables large-scale and robust profiling, with amplification and sample requirements similar to ChIP-seq. eCLIP enables integrative analysis of diverse RBPs to reveal factor-specific profiles, common artifacts for CLIP and RNA-centric perspectives of RBP activity. PMID:27018577

  15. The extended AT-hook is a novel RNA binding motif.

    PubMed

    Filarsky, Michael; Zillner, Karina; Araya, Ingrid; Villar-Garea, Ana; Merkl, Rainer; Längst, Gernot; Németh, Attila

    2015-01-01

    The AT-hook has been defined as a DNA binding peptide motif that contains a glycine-arginine-proline (G-R-P) tripeptide core flanked by basic amino acids. Recent reports documented variations in the sequence of AT-hooks and revealed RNA binding activity of some canonical AT-hooks, suggesting a higher structural and functional variability of this protein domain than previously anticipated. Here we describe the discovery and characterization of the extended AT-hook peptide motif (eAT-hook), in which basic amino acids appear symmetrical mainly at a distance of 12-15 amino acids from the G-R-P core. We identified 80 human and 60 mouse eAT-hook proteins and biochemically characterized the eAT-hooks of Tip5/BAZ2A, PTOV1 and GPBP1. Microscale thermophoresis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal the nucleic acid binding features of this peptide motif, and show that eAT-hooks bind RNA with one order of magnitude higher affinity than DNA. In addition, cellular localization studies suggest a role for the N-terminal eAT-hook of PTOV1 in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. In summary, our findings classify the eAT-hook as a novel nucleic acid binding motif, which potentially mediates various RNA-dependent cellular processes.

  16. A second essential function of the Est1-binding arm of yeast telomerase RNA

    PubMed Central

    Lebo, Kevin J.; Niederer, Rachel O.; Zappulla, David C.

    2015-01-01

    The enzymatic ribonucleoprotein telomerase maintains telomeres in many eukaryotes, including humans, and plays a central role in aging and cancer. Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomerase RNA, TLC1, is a flexible scaffold that tethers telomerase holoenzyme protein subunits to the complex. Here we test the hypothesis that a lengthy conserved region of the Est1-binding TLC1 arm contributes more than simply Est1-binding function. We separated Est1 binding from potential other functions by tethering TLC1 to Est1 via a heterologous RNA-protein binding module. We find that Est1-tethering rescues in vivo function of telomerase RNA alleles missing nucleotides specifically required for Est1 binding, but not those missing the entire conserved region. Notably, however, telomerase function is restored for this condition by expressing the arm of TLC1 in trans. Mutational analysis shows that the Second Essential Est1-arm Domain (SEED) maps to an internal loop of the arm, which SHAPE chemical mapping and 3D modeling suggest could be regulated by conformational change. Finally, we find that the SEED has an essential, Est1-independent role in telomerase function after telomerase recruitment to the telomere. The SEED may be required for establishing telomere extendibility or promoting telomerase RNP holoenzyme activity. PMID:25737580

  17. The extended AT-hook is a novel RNA binding motif

    PubMed Central

    Filarsky, Michael; Zillner, Karina; Araya, Ingrid; Villar-Garea, Ana; Merkl, Rainer; Längst, Gernot; Németh, Attila

    2015-01-01

    The AT-hook has been defined as a DNA binding peptide motif that contains a glycine-arginine-proline (G-R-P) tripeptide core flanked by basic amino acids. Recent reports documented variations in the sequence of AT-hooks and revealed RNA binding activity of some canonical AT-hooks, suggesting a higher structural and functional variability of this protein domain than previously anticipated. Here we describe the discovery and characterization of the extended AT-hook peptide motif (eAT-hook), in which basic amino acids appear symmetrical mainly at a distance of 12–15 amino acids from the G-R-P core. We identified 80 human and 60 mouse eAT-hook proteins and biochemically characterized the eAT-hooks of Tip5/BAZ2A, PTOV1 and GPBP1. Microscale thermophoresis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal the nucleic acid binding features of this peptide motif, and show that eAT-hooks bind RNA with one order of magnitude higher affinity than DNA. In addition, cellular localization studies suggest a role for the N-terminal eAT-hook of PTOV1 in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. In summary, our findings classify the eAT-hook as a novel nucleic acid binding motif, which potentially mediates various RNA-dependent cellular processes. PMID:26156556

  18. Crystal Structure and RNA Binding of the Tex Protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson,S.; Close, D.; Robinson, H.; Vallet-Gely, I.; Dove, S.; Hill, C.

    2008-01-01

    Tex is a highly conserved bacterial protein that likely functions in a variety of transcriptional processes. Here, we describe two crystal structures of the 86-kDa Tex protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 2.3 and 2.5 Angstroms resolution, respectively. These structures reveal a relatively flat and elongated protein, with several potential nucleic acid binding motifs clustered at one end, including an S1 domain near the C-terminus that displays considerable structural flexibility. Tex binds nucleic acids, with a preference for single-stranded RNA, and the Tex S1 domain is required for this binding activity. Point mutants further demonstrate that the primary nucleic acid binding site corresponds to a surface of the S1 domain. Sequence alignment and modeling indicate that the eukaryotic Spt6 transcription factor adopts a similar core structure. Structural analysis further suggests that the RNA polymerase and nucleosome interacting regions of Spt6 flank opposite sides of the Tex-like scaffold. Therefore, the Tex structure may represent a conserved scaffold that binds single-stranded RNA to regulate transcription in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms.

  19. Proteome-Wide Search Reveals Unexpected RNA-Binding Proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Salzman, Julia; Brown, Patrick O.

    2010-01-01

    The vast landscape of RNA-protein interactions at the heart of post-transcriptional regulation remains largely unexplored. Indeed it is likely that, even in yeast, a substantial fraction of the regulatory RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) remain to be discovered. Systematic experimental methods can play a key role in discovering these RBPs - most of the known yeast RBPs lack RNA-binding domains that might enable this activity to be predicted. We describe here a proteome-wide approach to identify RNA-protein interactions based on in vitro binding of RNA samples to yeast protein microarrays that represent over 80% of the yeast proteome. We used this procedure to screen for novel RBPs and RNA-protein interactions. A complementary mass spectrometry technique also identified proteins that associate with yeast mRNAs. Both the protein microarray and mass spectrometry methods successfully identify previously annotated RBPs, suggesting that other proteins identified in these assays might be novel RBPs. Of 35 putative novel RBPs identified by either or both of these methods, 12, including 75% of the eight most highly-ranked candidates, reproducibly associated with specific cellular RNAs. Surprisingly, most of the 12 newly discovered RBPs were enzymes. Functional characteristics of the RNA targets of some of the novel RBPs suggest coordinated post-transcriptional regulation of subunits of protein complexes and a possible link between mRNA trafficking and vesicle transport. Our results suggest that many more RBPs still remain to be identified and provide a set of candidates for further investigation. PMID:20844764

  20. RNA binding protein CPEB1 remodels host and viral RNA landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Ranjan; Stark, Thomas J.; Clark, Elizabeth; Belzile, Jean-Philippe; Wheeler, Emily C.; Yee, Brian A.; Huang, Hui; Gelboin-Burkhart, Chelsea; Huelga, Stephanie C.; Aigner, Stefan; Roberts, Brett T.; Bos, Tomas J.; Sathe, Shashank; Donohue, John Paul; Rigo, Frank; Ares, Manuel; Spector, Deborah H.; Yeo, Gene W.

    2016-01-01

    Host and virus interactions at the post-transcriptional level are critical for infection but remain poorly understood. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a prevalent herpesvirus family member that causes severe complications in immunocompromised patients and newborns. Here, we perform comprehensive transcriptome-wide analyses revealing that HCMV infection results in widespread alternative splicing (AS), shorter 3′-untranslated regions (3′UTRs) and polyA tail lengthening in host genes. The host RNA binding protein cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1 (CPEB1) is highly induced upon infection and ectopic expression of CPEB1 in non-infected cells recapitulates infection-related post-transcriptional changes. CPEB1 is also required for polyA-tail lengthening of viral RNAs important for productive infection. Strikingly, depletion of CPEB1 reverses infection-related cytopathology and post-transcriptional changes, and decreases productive HCMV titers. Host RNA processing is also altered in herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infected cells, indicating a common theme among herpesvirus infections. Our work is a starting point for therapeutic targeting of host RNA binding proteins in herpesvirus infections. PMID:27775709

  1. Exploring the RNA World in Hematopoietic Cells Through the Lens of RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Joan; Muljo, Stefan A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The discovery of microRNAs has renewed interest in post-transcriptional modes of regulation, fueling an emerging view of a rich RNA world within our cells that deserves further exploration. Much work has gone into elucidating genetic regulatory networks that orchestrate gene expression programs and direct cell fate decisions in the hematopoietic system. However, the focus has been to elucidate signaling pathways and transcriptional programs. To bring us one step closer to reverse engineering the molecular logic of cellular differentiation, it will be necessary to map post-transcriptional circuits as well and integrate them in the context of existing network models. In this regard, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) may rival transcription factors as important regulators of cell fates and represent a tractable opportunity to connect the RNA world to the proteome. ChIP-seq has greatly facilitated genome-wide localization of DNA-binding proteins, helping us to understand genomic regulation at a systems level. Similarly, technological advances such as CLIP-seq allow transcriptome-wide mapping of RBP binding sites, aiding us to unravel post-transcriptional networks. Here, we review RBP-mediated post-transcriptional regulation, paying special attention to findings relevant to the immune system. As a prime example, we highlight the RBP Lin28B, which acts as a heterochronic switch between fetal and adult lymphopoiesis. PMID:23550653

  2. BindUP: a web server for non-homology-based prediction of DNA and RNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Paz, Inbal; Kligun, Efrat; Bengad, Barak; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2016-07-08

    Gene expression is a multi-step process involving many layers of regulation. The main regulators of the pathway are DNA and RNA binding proteins. While over the years, a large number of DNA and RNA binding proteins have been identified and extensively studied, it is still expected that many other proteins, some with yet another known function, are awaiting to be discovered. Here we present a new web server, BindUP, freely accessible through the website http://bindup.technion.ac.il/, for predicting DNA and RNA binding proteins using a non-homology-based approach. Our method is based on the electrostatic features of the protein surface and other general properties of the protein. BindUP predicts nucleic acid binding function given the proteins three-dimensional structure or a structural model. Additionally, BindUP provides information on the largest electrostatic surface patches, visualized on the server. The server was tested on several datasets of DNA and RNA binding proteins, including proteins which do not possess DNA or RNA binding domains and have no similarity to known nucleic acid binding proteins, achieving very high accuracy. BindUP is applicable in either single or batch modes and can be applied for testing hundreds of proteins simultaneously in a highly efficient manner.

  3. RNA binding proteins in the regulation of heart development.

    PubMed

    Blech-Hermoni, Yotam; Ladd, Andrea N

    2013-11-01

    In vivo, RNA molecules are constantly accompanied by RNA binding proteins (RBPs), which are intimately involved in every step of RNA biology, including transcription, editing, splicing, transport and localization, stability, and translation. RBPs therefore have opportunities to shape gene expression at multiple levels. This capacity is particularly important during development, when dynamic chemical and physical changes give rise to complex organs and tissues. This review discusses RBPs in the context of heart development. Since the targets and functions of most RBPs--in the heart and at large--are not fully understood, this review focuses on the expression and roles of RBPs that have been implicated in specific stages of heart development or developmental pathology. RBPs are involved in nearly every stage of cardiogenesis, including the formation, morphogenesis, and maturation of the heart. A fuller understanding of the roles and substrates of these proteins could ultimately provide attractive targets for the design of therapies for congenital heart defects, cardiovascular disease, or cardiac tissue repair.

  4. Regulation of alternative splicing in Drosophila by 56 RNA binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Angela N.; Duff, Michael O.; May, Gemma; Yang, Li; Bolisetty, Mohan; Landolin, Jane; Wan, Ken; Sandler, Jeremy; Booth, Benjamin W.; Celniker, Susan E.; Graveley, Brenton R.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2015-08-20

    Alternative splicing is regulated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that recognize pre-mRNA sequence elements and activate or repress adjacent exons. Here, we used RNA interference and RNA-seq to identify splicing events regulated by 56 Drosophila proteins, some previously unknown to regulate splicing. Nearly all proteins affected alternative first exons, suggesting that RBPs play important roles in first exon choice. Half of the splicing events were regulated by multiple proteins, demonstrating extensive combinatorial regulation. We observed that SR and hnRNP proteins tend to act coordinately with each other, not antagonistically. We also identified a cross-regulatory network where splicing regulators affected the splicing of pre-mRNAs encoding other splicing regulators. In conclusion, this large-scale study substantially enhances our understanding of recent models of splicing regulation and provides a resource of thousands of exons that are regulated by 56 diverse RBPs.

  5. DEAD-box Helicases as Integrators of RNA, Nucleotide and Protein Binding

    PubMed Central

    Putnam, Andrea A.

    2013-01-01

    DEAD-box helicases perform diverse cellular functions in virtually all steps of RNA metabolism from Bacteria to Humans. Although DEAD-box helicases share a highly conserved core domain, the enzymes catalyze a wide range of biochemical reactions. In addition to the well established RNA unwinding and corresponding ATPase activities, DEAD-box helicases promote duplex formation and displace proteins from RNA. They can also function as assembly platforms for larger ribonucleoprotein complexes, and as metabolite sensors. This review aims to provide a perspective on the diverse biochemical features of DEAD-box helicases and connections to structural information. We discuss these data in the context of a model that views the enzymes as integrators of RNA, nucleotide, and protein binding. PMID:23416748

  6. Regulation of alternative splicing in Drosophila by 56 RNA binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Angela N.; Duff, Michael O.; May, Gemma; Yang, Li; Bolisetty, Mohan; Landolin, Jane; Wan, Ken; Sandler, Jeremy; Booth, Benjamin W.; Celniker, Susan E.; Graveley, Brenton R.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing is regulated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that recognize pre-mRNA sequence elements and activate or repress adjacent exons. Here, we used RNA interference and RNA-seq to identify splicing events regulated by 56 Drosophila proteins, some previously unknown to regulate splicing. Nearly all proteins affected alternative first exons, suggesting that RBPs play important roles in first exon choice. Half of the splicing events were regulated by multiple proteins, demonstrating extensive combinatorial regulation. We observed that SR and hnRNP proteins tend to act coordinately with each other, not antagonistically. We also identified a cross-regulatory network where splicing regulators affected the splicing of pre-mRNAs encoding other splicing regulators. This large-scale study substantially enhances our understanding of recent models of splicing regulation and provides a resource of thousands of exons that are regulated by 56 diverse RBPs. PMID:26294686

  7. Regulation of alternative splicing in Drosophila by 56 RNA binding proteins

    DOE PAGES

    Brooks, Angela N.; Duff, Michael O.; May, Gemma; ...

    2015-08-20

    Alternative splicing is regulated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that recognize pre-mRNA sequence elements and activate or repress adjacent exons. Here, we used RNA interference and RNA-seq to identify splicing events regulated by 56 Drosophila proteins, some previously unknown to regulate splicing. Nearly all proteins affected alternative first exons, suggesting that RBPs play important roles in first exon choice. Half of the splicing events were regulated by multiple proteins, demonstrating extensive combinatorial regulation. We observed that SR and hnRNP proteins tend to act coordinately with each other, not antagonistically. We also identified a cross-regulatory network where splicing regulators affected themore » splicing of pre-mRNAs encoding other splicing regulators. In conclusion, this large-scale study substantially enhances our understanding of recent models of splicing regulation and provides a resource of thousands of exons that are regulated by 56 diverse RBPs.« less

  8. Identification of the RNA recognition element of the RBPMS family of RNA-binding proteins and their transcriptome-wide mRNA targets

    PubMed Central

    Farazi, Thalia A.; Leonhardt, Carl S.; Mukherjee, Neelanjan; Mihailovic, Aleksandra; Li, Song; Max, Klaas E.A.; Meyer, Cindy; Yamaji, Masashi; Cekan, Pavol; Jacobs, Nicholas C.; Gerstberger, Stefanie; Bognanni, Claudia; Larsson, Erik; Ohler, Uwe; Tuschl, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies implicated the RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS) family of proteins in oocyte, retinal ganglion cell, heart, and gastrointestinal smooth muscle development. These RNA-binding proteins contain a single RNA recognition motif (RRM), and their targets and molecular function have not yet been identified. We defined transcriptome-wide RNA targets using photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) in HEK293 cells, revealing exonic mature and intronic pre-mRNA binding sites, in agreement with the nuclear and cytoplasmic localization of the proteins. Computational and biochemical approaches defined the RNA recognition element (RRE) as a tandem CAC trinucleotide motif separated by a variable spacer region. Similar to other mRNA-binding proteins, RBPMS family of proteins relocalized to cytoplasmic stress granules under oxidative stress conditions suggestive of a support function for mRNA localization in large and/or multinucleated cells where it is preferentially expressed. PMID:24860013

  9. Association of the Adenovirus DNA-Binding Protein with RNA Both in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleghon, Vaughn G.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    1986-12-01

    The multifunctional DNA-binding protein (DBP) encoded by human adenovirus binds RNA. The association of purified DBP with RNA in vitro was demonstrated by using either a gel filtration or a filter binding assay. This association is sensitive to ionic strength and exhibits no apparent sequence specificity. DBP also interacts with RNA in vivo; it can be crosslinked to polyadenylylated RNA by UV-irradiation of intact cells during the late phase of adenovirus infections. The 46-kDa carboxyl-terminal domain of DBP binds RNA in vitro and was found to be associated with polyadenylylated RNA in vivo. This is the same domain that interacts with DNA. However, the differences in sensitivity of DBP to trypsin when bound to RNA versus DNA suggest that RNA and DNA either bind at different sites within this domain or induce different conformational changes within the protein.

  10. The Human Nuclear Poly(A)-Binding Protein Promotes RNA Hyperadenylation and Decay

    PubMed Central

    Bresson, Stefan M.; Conrad, Nicholas K.

    2013-01-01

    Control of nuclear RNA stability is essential for proper gene expression, but the mechanisms governing RNA degradation in mammalian nuclei are poorly defined. In this study, we uncover a mammalian RNA decay pathway that depends on the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein (PABPN1), the poly(A) polymerases (PAPs), PAPα and PAPγ, and the exosome subunits RRP6 and DIS3. Using a targeted knockdown approach and nuclear RNA reporters, we show that PABPN1 and PAPα, redundantly with PAPγ, generate hyperadenylated decay substrates that are recognized by the exosome and degraded. Poly(A) tail extension appears to be necessary for decay, as cordycepin treatment or point mutations in the PAP-stimulating domain of PABPN1 leads to the accumulation of stable transcripts with shorter poly(A) tails than controls. Mechanistically, these data suggest that PABPN1-dependent promotion of PAP activity can stimulate nuclear RNA decay. Importantly, efficiently exported RNAs are unaffected by this decay pathway, supporting an mRNA quality control function for this pathway. Finally, analyses of both bulk poly(A) tails and specific endogenous transcripts reveals that a subset of nuclear RNAs are hyperadenylated in a PABPN1-dependent fashion, and this hyperadenylation can be either uncoupled or coupled with decay. Our results highlight a complex relationship between PABPN1, PAPα/γ, and nuclear RNA decay, and we suggest that these activities may play broader roles in the regulation of human gene expression. PMID:24146636

  11. Aggregation of ALS-linked FUS mutant sequesters RNA binding proteins and impairs RNA granules formation

    SciTech Connect

    Takanashi, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Atsushi

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Aggregation of ALS-linked FUS mutant sequesters ALS-associated RNA-binding proteins (FUS wt, hnRNP A1, and hnRNP A2). • Aggregation of ALS-linked FUS mutant sequesters SMN1 in the detergent-insoluble fraction. • Aggregation of ALS-linked FUS mutant reduced the number of speckles in the nucleus. • Overproduced ALS-linked FUS mutant reduced the number of processing-bodies (PBs). - Abstract: Protein aggregate/inclusion is one of hallmarks for neurodegenerative disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). FUS/TLS, one of causative genes for familial ALS, encodes a multifunctional DNA/RNA binding protein predominantly localized in the nucleus. C-terminal mutations in FUS/TLS cause the retention and the inclusion of FUS/TLS mutants in the cytoplasm. In the present study, we examined the effects of ALS-linked FUS mutants on ALS-associated RNA binding proteins and RNA granules. FUS C-terminal mutants were diffusely mislocalized in the cytoplasm as small granules in transiently transfected SH-SY5Y cells, whereas large aggregates were spontaneously formed in ∼10% of those cells. hnRNP A1, hnRNP A2, and SMN1 as well as FUS wild type were assembled into stress granules under stress conditions, and these were also recruited to FUS mutant-derived spontaneous aggregates in the cytoplasm. These aggregates stalled poly(A) mRNAs and sequestered SMN1 in the detergent insoluble fraction, which also reduced the number of nuclear oligo(dT)-positive foci (speckles) in FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) assay. In addition, the number of P-bodies was decreased in cells harboring cytoplasmic granules of FUS P525L. These findings raise the possibility that ALS-linked C-terminal FUS mutants could sequester a variety of RNA binding proteins and mRNAs in the cytoplasmic aggregates, which could disrupt various aspects of RNA equilibrium and biogenesis.

  12. In Vitro Assays for RNA Binding and Protein Priming of Hepatitis B Virus Polymerase.

    PubMed

    Clark, Daniel N; Jones, Scott A; Hu, Jianming

    2017-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase synthesizes the viral DNA genome from the pre-genomic RNA (pgRNA) template through reverse transcription. Initiation of viral DNA synthesis is accomplished via a novel protein priming mechanism, so named because the polymerase itself acts as a primer, whereby the initiating nucleotide becomes covalently linked to a tyrosine residue on the viral polymerase. Protein priming, in turn, depends on specific recognition of the packaging signal on pgRNA called epsilon. These early events in viral DNA synthesis can now be dissected in vitro as described here.The polymerase is expressed in mammalian cells and purified by immunoprecipitation. The purified protein is associated with host cell factors, is enzymatically active, and its priming activity is epsilon dependent. A minimal epsilon RNA construct from pgRNA is co-expressed with the polymerase in cells. This RNA binds to and co-immunoprecipitates with the polymerase. Modifications can be made to either the epsilon RNA or the polymerase protein by manipulating the expression plasmids. Also, the priming reaction itself can be modified to assay for the initiation or subsequent DNA synthesis during protein priming, the susceptibility of the polymerase to chemical inhibitors, and the precise identification of the DNA products upon their release from the polymerase. The identity of associated host factors can also be evaluated. This protocol closely mirrors our current understanding of the RNA binding and protein priming steps of the HBV replication cycle, and it is amenable to modification. It should therefore facilitate both basic research and drug discovery.

  13. Metal ion binding and function in natural and artificial small RNA enzymes from a structural perspective.

    PubMed

    Wedekind, Joseph E

    2011-01-01

    Ribozymes are often perceived as part of an antiquated catalytic arsenal hearkening back to a pre-biotic RNA World that was eventually supplanted by proteins. However, recent genome-wide searches have revealed a plethora of new catalytic RNA motifs that appear to be variations on well-known themes. This suggests that ribozymes have continued to evolve in order to fulfill specific, RNA-essential biological niches. Although such ribozymes are small and catalyze one-step phosphodiester-bond scission reactions, ongoing structure and function analyses at the lab bench have demonstrated that RNA has the capacity for a diverse number of reactions such as carbon-carbon bond formation, and tRNA aminoacylation. Here we describe the fundamental structure and metal binding properties of four naturally occurring RNA enzymes: the hammerhead, hairpin, hepatitis delta virus, and glmS metabolite sensing ribozyme. In addition, we discuss the fold and ion coordination of three artificial ribozymes developed to probe the boundaries of RNA catalysis; these include the leadzyme, the flexizyme, and the Diels-Alder ribozyme. Our approach is to relate structure to function with the knowledge of ideal metal-ion coordination geometry that we have derived herein from surveys of high-resolution small molecule structures. An emergent theme is that natural and artificial ribozymes that catalyze single-step reactions often possess a pre-formed active site. Multivalent ions facilitate RNA active site formation, but can also provide Lewis acid functionality that is necessary for catalysis. When metal ion binding isn't possible, ribozymes make due by ionizing their bases, or by recruiting cofactors that augment their chemical functionality.

  14. RPI-Bind: a structure-based method for accurate identification of RNA-protein binding sites.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiesi; Liu, Liang; Venkateswaran, Suresh; Song, Qianqian; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2017-04-04

    RNA and protein interactions play crucial roles in multiple biological processes, while these interactions are significantly influenced by the structures and sequences of protein and RNA molecules. In this study, we first performed an analysis of RNA-protein interacting complexes, and identified interface properties of sequences and structures, which reveal the diverse nature of the binding sites. With the observations, we built a three-step prediction model, namely RPI-Bind, for the identification of RNA-protein binding regions using the sequences and structures of both proteins and RNAs. The three steps include 1) the prediction of RNA binding regions on protein, 2) the prediction of protein binding regions on RNA, and 3) the prediction of interacting regions on both RNA and protein simultaneously, with the results from steps 1) and 2). Compared with existing methods, most of which employ only sequences, our model significantly improves the prediction accuracy at each of the three steps. Especially, our model outperforms the catRAPID by >20% at the 3(rd) step. All of these results indicate the importance of structures in RNA-protein interactions, and suggest that the RPI-Bind model is a powerful theoretical framework for studying RNA-protein interactions.

  15. The RNA polymerase I transcription factor, upstream binding factor, interacts directly with the TATA box-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Kwon, H; Green, M R

    1994-12-02

    The accurate transcription of human rRNA genes by RNA polymerase I requires two transcription factors, upstream binding factor (UBF) and promoter selectivity factor (SL1). Human SL1 (hSL1) is a multisubunit complex, one of whose components is TATA box-binding protein (TBP). hSL1 binds to the core region of the rRNA promoter, but does so inefficiently in the absence of human UBF (hUBF). hUBF interacts with the upstream control element of the rRNA promoter and facilitates binding of hSL1. The molecular basis by which hUBF increases binding of hSL1 remains to be elucidated. In this report, we use an immobilized protein binding assay to identify and purify a 95-kDa TBP-binding polypeptide. Microsequence analysis reveals that the 95-kDa TBP-binding protein is hUBF. We show that hUBF is stably associated with TBP and is present in large TBP-containing complexes. Our results indicate that the cooperative binding of hUBF and hSL1 on the rRNA promoter is mediated by direct interaction between hUBF and TBP. We also provide evidence that hUBF associates with TFIID, a TBP-containing RNA polymerase II transcription factor.

  16. RNA-Binding Protein FXR1 Regulates p21 and TERC RNA to Bypass p53-Mediated Cellular Senescence in OSCC

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Mrinmoyee; House, Reniqua; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Qie, Shuo; Day, Terrence A.; Neskey, David; Diehl, J. Alan

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBP) regulate numerous aspects of co- and post-transcriptional gene expression in cancer cells. Here, we demonstrate that RBP, fragile X-related protein 1 (FXR1), plays an essential role in cellular senescence by utilizing mRNA turnover pathway. We report that overexpressed FXR1 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma targets (G-quadruplex (G4) RNA structure within) both mRNA encoding p21 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A, Cip1) and the non-coding RNA Telomerase RNA Component (TERC), and regulates their turnover to avoid senescence. Silencing of FXR1 in cancer cells triggers the activation of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors, p53, increases DNA damage, and ultimately, cellular senescence. Overexpressed FXR1 binds and destabilizes p21 mRNA, subsequently reduces p21 protein expression in oral cancer cells. In addition, FXR1 also binds and stabilizes TERC RNA and suppresses the cellular senescence possibly through telomerase activity. Finally, we report that FXR1-regulated senescence is irreversible and FXR1-depleted cells fail to form colonies to re-enter cellular proliferation. Collectively, FXR1 displays a novel mechanism of controlling the expression of p21 through p53-dependent manner to bypass cellular senescence in oral cancer cells. PMID:27606879

  17. Low specificity of metal ion binding in the metal ion core of a folded RNA.

    PubMed

    Travers, Kevin J; Boyd, Nathan; Herschlag, Daniel

    2007-08-01

    The structure and activity of nucleic acids depend on their interactions with metal ions. Fundamental to these interactions is the degree of specificity observed between the metal ions and nucleic acids, and a complete description of nucleic acid folding requires that we understand the nature of the interactions with metal ions, including specificity. The prior demonstration that high concentrations of monovalent cations prevent nonspecific association of divalent ions with nucleic acids provides a novel and powerful means to examine site-specific metal ion binding isolated from complicating effects of the ion atmosphere. Using these high monovalent cation solution conditions we have monitored the affinity of a series of divalent metal ions for two site-specific metal ion binding sites in the P4-P6 domain of the Tetrahymena group I intron ribozyme. The metal ion core of this highly structured RNA binds two divalent metal ions under these conditions. Despite multiple metal ion-RNA interactions observed in the X-ray crystallographic structure of P4-P6 RNA at the metal ion binding sites, these sites exhibit low specificity among Mn(2+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Ni(2+), and Zn(2+). Nevertheless, the largest divalent metal ions tested, Sr(2+) and Ba(2+), were excluded from binding, exhibiting affinities at least two orders of magnitude weaker than observed for the other metal ions. Thus, a picture emerges of two metal ion binding sites, each with a high tolerance for metal ions with different properties but also with limits to accommodation. These limits presumably arise from steric or electrostatic features of the metal ion binding sites.

  18. Coordinated activities of human dicer domains in regulatory RNA processing.

    PubMed

    Ma, Enbo; Zhou, Kaihong; Kidwell, Mary Anne; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2012-09-28

    The conserved ribonuclease Dicer generates microRNAs and short-interfering RNAs that guide gene silencing in eukaryotes. The specific contributions of human Dicer's structural domains to RNA product length and substrate preference are incompletely understood, due in part to the difficulties of Dicer purification. Here, we show that active forms of human Dicer can be assembled from recombinant polypeptides expressed in bacteria. Using this system, we find that three distinct modes of RNA recognition give rise to Dicer's fidelity and product length specificity. The first involves anchoring one end of a double-stranded RNA helix within the PAZ domain, which can assemble in trans with Dicer's catalytic domains to reconstitute an accurate but non-substrate-selective dicing activity. The second entails nonspecific RNA binding by the double-stranded RNA binding domain, an interaction that is essential for substrate recruitment in the absence of the PAZ domain. The third mode of recognition involves hairpin RNA loop recognition by the helicase domain, which ensures efficient processing of specific substrates. These results reveal distinct interactions of each Dicer domain with different RNA structural features and provide a facile system for investigating the molecular mechanisms of human microRNA biogenesis.

  19. Identification of proteins at the peptidyl-tRNA binding site of rat liver ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Fabijanski, S; Pellegrini, M

    1981-01-01

    We have identified proteins involved in the peptidyl-tRNA-binding site of rat liver ribosomes, using an affinity label designed specifically to probe the P-site in eukaryotic peptidyl transferase. The label is a 3'-terminal pentanucleotide fragment of N-acetylleucyl-tRNA in which mercury atoms have been added at the C-5 position of the three cytosine residues. This mercurated fragment can bind to rat liver peptidyl transferase and function as a donor of N-acetylleucine to puromycin. Concomitant with this binding, the mercury atoms present in the fragment can form a covalent linkage with a small number of ribosomal proteins. The major proteins labeled by this reagent are L5 and L36A. Four protein spots are found labeled to a lesser extent: L10, L7/7a, L3/4 and L25/31. Each of these proteins, therefore, is implicated in the binding of the 3'-terminus of peptidyl-tRNA. The results presented here are correlated with other investigations of the structure-function aspects of rat liver peptidyl transferase. Using these data, we have constructed a model for the arrangement of proteins within this active site.

  20. The zinc fingers of YY1 bind single-stranded RNA with low sequence specificity.

    PubMed

    Wai, Dorothy C C; Shihab, Manar; Low, Jason K K; Mackay, Joel P

    2016-11-02

    Classical zinc fingers (ZFs) are traditionally considered to act as sequence-specific DNA-binding domains. More recently, classical ZFs have been recognised as potential RNA-binding modules, raising the intriguing possibility that classical-ZF transcription factors are involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation via direct RNA binding. To date, however, only one classical ZF-RNA complex, that involving TFIIIA, has been structurally characterised. Yin Yang-1 (YY1) is a multi-functional transcription factor involved in many regulatory processes, and binds DNA via four classical ZFs. Recent evidence suggests that YY1 also interacts with RNA, but the molecular nature of the interaction remains unknown. In the present work, we directly assess the ability of YY1 to bind RNA using in vitro assays. Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX) was used to identify preferred RNA sequences bound by the YY1 ZFs from a randomised library over multiple rounds of selection. However, a strong motif was not consistently recovered, suggesting that the RNA sequence selectivity of these domains is modest. YY1 ZF residues involved in binding to single-stranded RNA were identified by NMR spectroscopy and found to be largely distinct from the set of residues involved in DNA binding, suggesting that interactions between YY1 and ssRNA constitute a separate mode of nucleic acid binding. Our data are consistent with recent reports that YY1 can bind to RNA in a low-specificity, yet physiologically relevant manner.

  1. The zinc fingers of YY1 bind single-stranded RNA with low sequence specificity

    PubMed Central

    Wai, Dorothy C.C.; Shihab, Manar; Low, Jason K.K.; Mackay, Joel P.

    2016-01-01

    Classical zinc fingers (ZFs) are traditionally considered to act as sequence-specific DNA-binding domains. More recently, classical ZFs have been recognised as potential RNA-binding modules, raising the intriguing possibility that classical-ZF transcription factors are involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation via direct RNA binding. To date, however, only one classical ZF-RNA complex, that involving TFIIIA, has been structurally characterised. Yin Yang-1 (YY1) is a multi-functional transcription factor involved in many regulatory processes, and binds DNA via four classical ZFs. Recent evidence suggests that YY1 also interacts with RNA, but the molecular nature of the interaction remains unknown. In the present work, we directly assess the ability of YY1 to bind RNA using in vitro assays. Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX) was used to identify preferred RNA sequences bound by the YY1 ZFs from a randomised library over multiple rounds of selection. However, a strong motif was not consistently recovered, suggesting that the RNA sequence selectivity of these domains is modest. YY1 ZF residues involved in binding to single-stranded RNA were identified by NMR spectroscopy and found to be largely distinct from the set of residues involved in DNA binding, suggesting that interactions between YY1 and ssRNA constitute a separate mode of nucleic acid binding. Our data are consistent with recent reports that YY1 can bind to RNA in a low-specificity, yet physiologically relevant manner. PMID:27369384

  2. Role of Electrostatics in Protein-RNA Binding: The Global vs the Local Energy Landscape.

    PubMed

    Ghaemi, Zhaleh; Guzman, Irisbel; Gnutt, David; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida; Gruebele, Martin

    2017-09-14

    U1A protein-stem loop 2 RNA association is a basic step in the assembly of the spliceosomal U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein. Long-range electrostatic interactions due to the positive charge of U1A are thought to provide high binding affinity for the negatively charged RNA. Short range interactions, such as hydrogen bonds and contacts between RNA bases and protein side chains, favor a specific binding site. Here, we propose that electrostatic interactions are as important as local contacts in biasing the protein-RNA energy landscape toward a specific binding site. We show by using molecular dynamics simulations that deletion of two long-range electrostatic interactions (K22Q and K50Q) leads to mutant-specific alternative RNA bound states. One of these states preserves short-range interactions with aromatic residues in the original binding site, while the other one does not. We test the computational prediction with experimental temperature-jump kinetics using a tryptophan probe in the U1A-RNA binding site. The two mutants show the distinct predicted kinetic behaviors. Thus, the stem loop 2 RNA has multiple binding sites on a rough RNA-protein binding landscape. We speculate that the rough protein-RNA binding landscape, when biased to different local minima by electrostatics, could be one way that protein-RNA interactions evolve toward new binding sites and novel function.

  3. Dihedral angle preferences of DNA and RNA binding amino acid residues in proteins.

    PubMed

    Ponnuraj, Karthe; Saravanan, Konda Mani

    2017-04-01

    A protein can interact with DNA or RNA molecules to perform various cellular processes. Identifying or analyzing DNA/RNA binding site amino acid residues is important to understand molecular recognition process. It is quite possible to accurately model DNA/RNA binding amino acid residues in experimental protein-DNA/RNA complex by using the electron density map whereas, locating/modeling the binding site amino acid residues in the predicted three dimensional structures of DNA/RNA binding proteins is still a difficult task. Considering the above facts, in the present work, we have carried out a comprehensive analysis of dihedral angle preferences of DNA and RNA binding site amino acid residues by using a classical Ramachandran map. We have computed backbone dihedral angles of non-DNA/RNA binding residues and used as control dataset to make a comparative study. The dihedral angle preference of DNA and RNA binding site residues of twenty amino acid type is presented. Our analysis clearly revealed that the dihedral angles (φ, ψ) of DNA/RNA binding amino acid residues prefer to occupy (-89° to -60°, -59° to -30°) bins. The results presented in this paper will help to model/locate DNA/RNA binding amino acid residues with better accuracy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural delineation of stem-loop RNA binding by human TAF15 protein

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Maruthi; Ganguly, Akshay Kumar; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar

    2015-01-01

    Human TATA binding protein associated factor 2 N (TAF15) and Fused in sarcoma (FUS) are nucleic acid binding proteins belonging to the conserved FET family of proteins. They are involved in diverse processes such as pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA transport, and DNA binding. The absence of information regarding the structural mechanism employed by the FET family in recognizing and discriminating their cognate and non-cognate RNA targets has hampered the attainment of consensus on modes of protein-RNA binding for this family. Our study provides a molecular basis of this RNA recognition using a combination of solution-state NMR spectroscopy, calorimetry, docking and molecular dynamics simulation. Analysis of TAF15-RRM solution structure and its binding with stem-loop RNA has yielded conclusive evidence of a non-canonical mode of RNA recognition. Rather than classical stacking interactions that occur across nitrogen bases and aromatic amino acids on ribonucleoprotein sites, moderate-affinity hydrogen bonding network between the nitrogen bases in the stem-loop RNA and a concave face on the RRM surface primarily mediate TAF15-RRM RNA interaction. We have compared the binding affinities across a set of single-stranded RNA oligonucleotides to conclusively establish that RNA binding is dependent upon structural elements in the RNA rather than sequence. PMID:26612539

  5. The RNA-binding protein SFPQ orchestrates an RNA regulon to promote axon viability.

    PubMed

    Cosker, Katharina E; Fenstermacher, Sara J; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F; Elliott, Hunter L; Segal, Rosalind A

    2016-05-01

    To achieve accurate spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) guide nuclear processing, intracellular trafficking and local translation of target mRNAs. In neurons, RBPs direct transport of target mRNAs to sites of translation in remote axons and dendrites. However, it is not known whether an individual RBP coordinately regulates multiple mRNAs within these morphologically complex cells. Here we identify SFPQ (splicing factor, poly-glutamine rich) as an RBP that binds and regulates multiple mRNAs in dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons and thereby promotes neurotrophin-dependent axonal viability. SFPQ acts in nuclei, cytoplasm and axons to regulate functionally related mRNAs essential for axon survival. Notably, SFPQ is required for coassembly of LaminB2 (Lmnb2) and Bclw (Bcl2l2) mRNAs in RNA granules and for axonal trafficking of these mRNAs. Together these data demonstrate that SFPQ orchestrates spatial gene expression of a newly identified RNA regulon essential for axonal viability.

  6. RNA-binding protein CPEB1 remodels host and viral RNA landscapes.

    PubMed

    Batra, Ranjan; Stark, Thomas J; Clark, Elizabeth; Belzile, Jean-Philippe; Wheeler, Emily C; Yee, Brian A; Huang, Hui; Gelboin-Burkhart, Chelsea; Huelga, Stephanie C; Aigner, Stefan; Roberts, Brett T; Bos, Tomas J; Sathe, Shashank; Donohue, John Paul; Rigo, Frank; Ares, Manuel; Spector, Deborah H; Yeo, Gene W

    2016-12-01

    Host and virus interactions occurring at the post-transcriptional level are critical for infection but remain poorly understood. Here, we performed comprehensive transcriptome-wide analyses revealing that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection results in widespread alternative splicing (AS), shortening of 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) and lengthening of poly(A)-tails in host gene transcripts. We found that the host RNA-binding protein CPEB1 was highly induced after infection, and ectopic expression of CPEB1 in noninfected cells recapitulated infection-related post-transcriptional changes. CPEB1 was also required for poly(A)-tail lengthening of viral RNAs important for productive infection. Strikingly, depletion of CPEB1 reversed infection-related cytopathology and post-transcriptional changes, and decreased productive HCMV titers. Host RNA processing was also altered in herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2)-infected cells, thereby indicating that this phenomenon might be a common occurrence during herpesvirus infections. We anticipate that our work may serve as a starting point for therapeutic targeting of host RNA-binding proteins in herpesvirus infections.

  7. A new α-helical extension promotes RNA binding by the dsRBD of Rnt1p RNAse III

    PubMed Central

    Leulliot, Nicolas; Quevillon-Cheruel, Sophie; Graille, Marc; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Leeper, Thomas C; Godin, Katherine S; Edwards, Thomas E; Sigurdsson, Snorri TL; Rozenkrants, Natasha; Nagel, Roland J; Ares, Manuel; Varani, Gabriele

    2004-01-01

    Rnt1 endoribonuclease, the yeast homolog of RNAse III, plays an important role in the maturation of a diverse set of RNAs. The enzymatic activity requires a conserved catalytic domain, while RNA binding requires the double-stranded RNA-binding domain (dsRBD) at the C-terminus of the protein. While bacterial RNAse III enzymes cleave double-stranded RNA, Rnt1p specifically cleaves RNAs that possess short irregular stem-loops containing 12–14 base pairs interrupted by internal loops and bulges and capped by conserved AGNN tetraloops. Consistent with this substrate specificity, the isolated Rnt1p dsRBD and the 30–40 amino acids that follow bind to AGNN-containing stem-loops preferentially in vitro. In order to understand how Rnt1p recognizes its cognate processing sites, we have defined its minimal RNA-binding domain and determined its structure by solution NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. We observe a new carboxy-terminal helix following a canonical dsRBD structure. Removal of this helix reduces binding to Rnt1p substrates. The results suggest that this helix allows the Rnt1p dsRBD to bind to short RNA stem-loops by modulating the conformation of helix α1, a key RNA-recognition element of the dsRBD. PMID:15192703

  8. Conserved regulation of MAP kinase expression by PUF RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myon-Hee; Hook, Brad; Pan, Guangjin; Kershner, Aaron M; Merritt, Christopher; Seydoux, Geraldine; Thomson, James A; Wickens, Marvin; Kimble, Judith

    2007-12-28

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PUF (for Pumilio and FBF [fem-3 binding factor]) RNA-binding proteins control many cellular processes critical for animal development and tissue homeostasis. In the present work, we report that PUF proteins act directly on MAPK/ERK-encoding mRNAs to downregulate their expression in both the Caenorhabditis elegans germline and human embryonic stem cells. In C. elegans, FBF/PUF binds regulatory elements in the mpk-1 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) and coprecipitates with mpk-1 mRNA; moreover, mpk-1 expression increases dramatically in FBF mutants. In human embryonic stem cells, PUM2/PUF binds 3'UTR elements in both Erk2 and p38alpha mRNAs, and PUM2 represses reporter constructs carrying either Erk2 or p38alpha 3' UTRs. Therefore, the PUF control of MAPK expression is conserved. Its biological function was explored in nematodes, where FBF promotes the self-renewal of germline stem cells, and MPK-1 promotes oocyte maturation and germ cell apoptosis. We found that FBF acts redundantly with LIP-1, the C. elegans homolog of MAPK phosphatase (MKP), to restrict MAPK activity and prevent apoptosis. In mammals, activated MAPK can promote apoptosis of cancer cells and restrict stem cell self-renewal, and MKP is upregulated in cancer cells. We propose that the dual negative regulation of MAPK by both PUF repression and MKP inhibition may be a conserved mechanism that influences both stem cell maintenance and tumor progression.

  9. Structural basis for Pan3 binding to Pan2 and its function in mRNA recruitment and deadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Jana; Valkov, Eugene; Allen, Mark D; Meineke, Birthe; Gordiyenko, Yuliya; McLaughlin, Stephen H; Olsen, Tayla M; Robinson, Carol V; Bycroft, Mark; Stewart, Murray; Passmore, Lori A

    2014-01-01

    The conserved eukaryotic Pan2–Pan3 deadenylation complex shortens cytoplasmic mRNA 3′ polyA tails to regulate mRNA stability. Although the exonuclease activity resides in Pan2, efficient deadenylation requires Pan3. The mechanistic role of Pan3 is unclear. Here, we show that Pan3 binds RNA directly both through its pseudokinase/C-terminal domain and via an N-terminal zinc finger that binds polyA RNA specifically. In contrast, isolated Pan2 is unable to bind RNA. Pan3 binds to the region of Pan2 that links its N-terminal WD40 domain to the C-terminal part that contains the exonuclease, with a 2:1 stoichiometry. The crystal structure of the Pan2 linker region bound to a Pan3 homodimer shows how the unusual structural asymmetry of the Pan3 dimer is used to form an extensive high-affinity interaction. This binding allows Pan3 to supply Pan2 with substrate polyA RNA, facilitating efficient mRNA deadenylation by the intact Pan2–Pan3 complex. PMID:24872509

  10. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated integration enables TAG-eCLIP of endogenously tagged RNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Van Nostrand, Eric L; Gelboin-Burkhart, Chelsea; Wang, Ruth; Pratt, Gabriel A; Blue, Steven M; Yeo, Gene W

    2017-04-15

    Identification of in vivo direct RNA targets for RNA binding proteins (RBPs) provides critical insight into their regulatory activities and mechanisms. Recently, we described a methodology for enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (eCLIP) using antibodies against endogenous RNA binding proteins. However, in many cases it is desirable to profile targets of an RNA binding protein for which an immunoprecipitation-grade antibody is lacking. Here we describe a scalable method for using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated homologous recombination to insert a peptide tag into the endogenous RNA binding protein locus. Further, we show that TAG-eCLIP performed using tag-specific antibodies can yield the same robust binding profiles after proper control normalization as eCLIP with antibodies against endogenous proteins. Finally, we note that antibodies against commonly used tags can immunoprecipitate significant amounts of antibody-specific RNA, emphasizing the need for paired controls alongside each experiment for normalization. TAG-eCLIP enables eCLIP profiling of new native proteins where no suitable antibody exists, expanding the RBP-RNA interaction landscape. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. RNA binding to APOBEC3G induces the disassembly of functional deaminase complexes by displacing single-stranded DNA substrates

    PubMed Central

    Polevoda, Bogdan; McDougall, William M.; Tun, Bradley N.; Cheung, Michael; Salter, Jason D.; Friedman, Alan E.; Smith, Harold C.

    2015-01-01

    APOBEC3G (A3G) DNA deaminase activity requires a holoenzyme complex whose assembly on nascent viral reverse transcripts initiates with A3G dimers binding to ssDNA followed by formation of higher-order A3G homo oligomers. Catalytic activity is inhibited when A3G binds to RNA. Our prior studies suggested that RNA inhibited A3G binding to ssDNA. In this report, near equilibrium binding and gel shift analyses showed that A3G assembly and disassembly on ssDNA was an ordered process involving A3G dimers and multimers thereof. Although, fluorescence anisotropy showed that A3G had similar nanomolar affinity for RNA and ssDNA, RNA stochastically dissociated A3G dimers and higher-order oligomers from ssDNA, suggesting a different modality for RNA binding. Mass spectrometry mapping of A3G peptides cross-linked to nucleic acid suggested ssDNA only bound to three peptides, amino acids (aa) 181–194 in the N-terminus and aa 314–320 and 345–374 in the C-terminus that were part of a continuous exposed surface. RNA bound to these peptides and uniquely associated with three additional peptides in the N- terminus, aa 15–29, 41–52 and 83–99, that formed a continuous surface area adjacent to the ssDNA binding surface. The data predict a mechanistic model of RNA inhibition of ssDNA binding to A3G in which competitive and allosteric interactions determine RNA-bound versus ssDNA-bound conformational states. PMID:26424853

  12. Analysis of sequencing data for probing RNA secondary structures and protein-RNA binding in studying posttranscriptional regulations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xihao; Wu, Yang; Lu, Zhi John; Yip, Kevin Y

    2016-11-01

    High-throughput sequencing has been used to study posttranscriptional regulations, where the identification of protein-RNA binding is a major and fast-developing sub-area, which is in turn benefited by the sequencing methods for whole-transcriptome probing of RNA secondary structures. In the study of RNA secondary structures using high-throughput sequencing, bases are modified or cleaved according to their structural features, which alter the resulting composition of sequencing reads. In the study of protein-RNA binding, methods have been proposed to immuno-precipitate (IP) protein-bound RNA transcripts in vitro or in vivo By sequencing these transcripts, the protein-RNA interactions and the binding locations can be identified. For both types of data, read counts are affected by a combination of confounding factors, including expression levels of transcripts, sequence biases, mapping errors and the probing or IP efficiency of the experimental protocols. Careful processing of the sequencing data and proper extraction of important features are fundamentally important to a successful analysis. Here we review and compare different experimental methods for probing RNA secondary structures and binding sites of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), and the computational methods proposed for analyzing the corresponding sequencing data. We suggest how these two types of data should be integrated to study the structural properties of RBP binding sites as a systematic way to better understand posttranscriptional regulations.

  13. Prediction of RNA-binding proteins from primary sequence by a support vector machine approach

    PubMed Central

    HAN, LIAN YI; CAI, CONG ZHONG; LO, SIEW LIN; CHUNG, MAXEY C.M.; CHEN, YU ZONG

    2004-01-01

    Elucidation of the interaction of proteins with different molecules is of significance in the understanding of cellular processes. Computational methods have been developed for the prediction of protein–protein interactions. But insufficient attention has been paid to the prediction of protein–RNA interactions, which play central roles in regulating gene expression and certain RNA-mediated enzymatic processes. This work explored the use of a machine learning method, support vector machines (SVM), for the prediction of RNA-binding proteins directly from their primary sequence. Based on the knowledge of known RNA-binding and non-RNA-binding proteins, an SVM system was trained to recognize RNA-binding proteins. A total of 4011 RNA-binding and 9781 non-RNA-binding proteins was used to train and test the SVM classification system, and an independent set of 447 RNA-binding and 4881 non-RNA-binding proteins was used to evaluate the classification accuracy. Testing results using this independent evaluation set show a prediction accuracy of 94.1%, 79.3%, and 94.1% for rRNA-, mRNA-, and tRNA-binding proteins, and 98.7%, 96.5%, and 99.9% for non-rRNA-, non-mRNA-, and non-tRNA-binding proteins, respectively. The SVM classification system was further tested on a small class of snRNA-binding proteins with only 60 available sequences. The prediction accuracy is 40.0% and 99.9% for snRNA-binding and non-snRNA-binding proteins, indicating a need for a sufficient number of proteins to train SVM. The SVM classification systems trained in this work were added to our Web-based protein functional classification software SVMProt, at http://jing.cz3.nus.edu.sg/cgi-bin/svmprot.cgi. Our study suggests the potential of SVM as a useful tool for facilitating the prediction of protein–RNA interactions. PMID:14970381

  14. RNA binding proteins, neural development and the addictions

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Camron D.; Yazdani, Neema

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression defines the neurobiological mechanisms that bridge genetic and environmental risk factors with neurobehavioral dysfunction underlying the addictions. More than 1000 genes in the eukaryotic genome code for multifunctional RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that can regulate all levels of RNA biogenesis. More than 50% of these RBPs are expressed in the brain where they regulate alternative splicing, transport, localization, stability, and translation of RNAs during development and adulthood. RBP dysfunction can exert global effects on their targetomes that underlie neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease as well as neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism and schizophrenia. Here, we consider the evidence that RBPs influence key molecular targets, neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity, and neurobehavioral dysfunction underlying the addictions. Increasingly well-powered genome-wide association studies in humans and mammalian model organisms combined with ever more precise transcriptomic and proteomic approaches will continue to uncover novel and possibly selective roles for RBPs in the addictions. Key challenges include identifying the biological functions of the dynamic RBP targetomes from specific cell types throughout subcellular space (e.g., the nuclear spliceome versus the synaptic translatome) and time and manipulating RBP programs through post-transcriptional modifications to prevent or reverse aberrant neurodevelopment and plasticity underlying the addictions. PMID:26643147

  15. RNA Binding Proteins RZ-1B and RZ-1C Play Critical Roles in Regulating Pre-mRNA Splicing and Gene Expression during Development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhe; Zhu, Danling; Lin, Xiaoya; Miao, Jin; Gu, Lianfeng; Deng, Xian; Zhu, Danmeng; Cao, Xiaofeng; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Dean, Caroline; Aoyama, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear-localized RNA binding proteins are involved in various aspects of RNA metabolism, which in turn modulates gene expression. However, the functions of nuclear-localized RNA binding proteins in plants are poorly understood. Here, we report the functions of two proteins containing RNA recognition motifs, RZ-1B and RZ-1C, in Arabidopsis thaliana. RZ-1B and RZ-1C were localized to nuclear speckles and interacted with a spectrum of serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins through their C termini. RZ-1C preferentially bound to purine-rich RNA sequences in vitro through its N-terminal RNA recognition motif. Disrupting the RNA binding activity of RZ-1C with SR proteins through overexpression of the C terminus of RZ-1C conferred defective phenotypes similar to those observed in rz-1b rz-1c double mutants, including delayed seed germination, reduced stature, and serrated leaves. Loss of function of RZ-1B and RZ-1C was accompanied by defective splicing of many genes and global perturbation of gene expression. In addition, we found that RZ-1C directly targeted FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), promoting efficient splicing of FLC introns and likely also repressing FLC transcription. Our findings highlight the critical role of RZ-1B/1C in regulating RNA splicing, gene expression, and many key aspects of plant development via interaction with proteins including SR proteins. PMID:26721863

  16. RNA Binding Proteins RZ-1B and RZ-1C Play Critical Roles in Regulating Pre-mRNA Splicing and Gene Expression during Development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhe; Zhu, Danling; Lin, Xiaoya; Miao, Jin; Gu, Lianfeng; Deng, Xian; Yang, Qian; Sun, Kangtai; Zhu, Danmeng; Cao, Xiaofeng; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Dean, Caroline; Aoyama, Takashi; Gu, Hongya; Qu, Li-Jia

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear-localized RNA binding proteins are involved in various aspects of RNA metabolism, which in turn modulates gene expression. However, the functions of nuclear-localized RNA binding proteins in plants are poorly understood. Here, we report the functions of two proteins containing RNA recognition motifs, RZ-1B and RZ-1C, in Arabidopsis thaliana. RZ-1B and RZ-1C were localized to nuclear speckles and interacted with a spectrum of serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins through their C termini. RZ-1C preferentially bound to purine-rich RNA sequences in vitro through its N-terminal RNA recognition motif. Disrupting the RNA binding activity of RZ-1C with SR proteins through overexpression of the C terminus of RZ-1C conferred defective phenotypes similar to those observed in rz-1b rz-1c double mutants, including delayed seed germination, reduced stature, and serrated leaves. Loss of function of RZ-1B and RZ-1C was accompanied by defective splicing of many genes and global perturbation of gene expression. In addition, we found that RZ-1C directly targeted FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), promoting efficient splicing of FLC introns and likely also repressing FLC transcription. Our findings highlight the critical role of RZ-1B/1C in regulating RNA splicing, gene expression, and many key aspects of plant development via interaction with proteins including SR proteins. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  17. The structure of the C-terminal domain of the largest editosome interaction protein and its role in promoting RNA binding by RNA-editing ligase L2.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Jun; Budiarto, Tanya; Wu, Meiting; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Hol, Wim G J

    2012-08-01

    Trypanosomatids, such as the sleeping sickness parasite Trypanosoma brucei, contain a ∼ 20S RNA-editing complex, also called the editosome, which is required for U-insertion/deletion editing of mitochondrial mRNAs. The editosome contains a core of 12 proteins including the large interaction protein A1, the small interaction protein A6, and the editing RNA ligase L2. Using biochemical and structural data, we identified distinct domains of T. brucei A1 which specifically recognize A6 and L2. We provide evidence that an N-terminal domain of A1 interacts with the C-terminal domain of L2. The C-terminal domain of A1 appears to be required for the interaction with A6 and also plays a key role in RNA binding by the RNA-editing ligase L2 in trans. Three crystal structures of the C-terminal domain of A1 have been elucidated, each in complex with a nanobody as a crystallization chaperone. These structures permitted the identification of putative dsRNA recognition sites. Mutational analysis of conserved residues of the C-terminal domain identified Arg703, Arg731 and Arg734 as key requirements for RNA binding. The data show that the editing RNA ligase activity is modulated by a novel mechanism, i.e. by the trans-acting RNA binding C-terminal domain of A1.

  18. Mutually Exclusive Binding of Telomerase RNA and DNA by Ku Alters Telomerase Recruitment Model

    PubMed Central

    Pfingsten, Jennifer S.; Goodrich, Karen J.; Taabazuing, Cornelius; Ouenzar, Faissal; Chartrand, Pascal; Cech, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Ku heterodimer contributes to telomere maintenance as a component of telomeric chromatin and as an accessory subunit of telomerase. How Ku binding to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and to telomerase RNA (TLC1) promotes its telomeric functions is incompletely understood. We demonstrate that deletions designed to constrict the DNA-binding ring of Ku80 disrupt non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), telomeric gene silencing and telomere length maintenance, suggesting that these functions require Ku's DNA end-binding activity. Contrary to the current model, a mutant Ku with low affinity for dsDNA also loses affinity for TLC1 both in vitro and in vivo. Competition experiments reveal that wild-type Ku binds dsDNA and TLC1 mutually exclusively. Cells expressing the mutant Ku are deficient in nuclear accumulation of TLC1, as expected from the RNA-binding defect. These findings force reconsideration of the mechanisms by which Ku assists in recruiting telomerase to natural telomeres and broken chromosome ends. PMID:22365814

  19. MicroRNA binding sites in C. elegans 3' UTRs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaochun; Rennie, William A; Mallick, Bibekanand; Kanoria, Shaveta; Long, Dang; Wolenc, Adam; Carmack, C Steven; Ding, Ye

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Since the discovery of lin-4, the founding member of the miRNA family, over 360 miRNAs have been identified for Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Prediction and validation of targets are essential for elucidation of regulatory functions of these miRNAs. For C. elegans, crosslinking immunoprecipitation (CLIP) has been successfully performed for the identification of target mRNA sequences bound by Argonaute protein ALG-1. In addition, reliable annotation of the 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) as well as developmental stage-specific expression profiles for both miRNAs and 3' UTR isoforms are available. By utilizing these data, we developed statistical models and bioinformatics tools for both transcriptome-scale and developmental stage-specific predictions of miRNA binding sites in C. elegans 3' UTRs. In performance evaluation via cross validation on the ALG-1 CLIP data, the models were found to offer major improvements over established algorithms for predicting both seed sites and seedless sites. In particular, our top-ranked predictions have a substantially higher true positive rate, suggesting a much higher likelihood of positive experimental validation. A gene ontology analysis of stage-specific predictions suggests that miRNAs are involved in dynamic regulation of biological functions during C. elegans development. In particular, miRNAs preferentially target genes related to development, cell cycle, trafficking, and cell signaling processes. A database for both transcriptome-scale and stage-specific predictions and software for implementing the prediction models are available through the Sfold web server at http://sfold.wadsworth.org.

  20. Novel RNA- and FMRP-binding protein TRF2-S regulates axonal mRNA transport and presynaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peisu; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Liu, Yong; Tominaga-Yamanaka, Kumiko; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Ioannis, Grammatikakis; Martindale, Jennifer L; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G; Yang, In Hong; Gorospe, Myriam; Mattson, Mark P

    2015-11-20

    Despite considerable evidence that RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) regulate mRNA transport and local translation in dendrites, roles for axonal RBPs are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that a non-telomeric isoform of telomere repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2-S) is a novel RBP that regulates axonal plasticity. TRF2-S interacts directly with target mRNAs to facilitate their axonal delivery. The process is antagonized by fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Distinct from the current RNA-binding model of FMRP, we show that FMRP occupies the GAR domain of TRF2-S protein to block the assembly of TRF2-S-mRNA complexes. Overexpressing TRF2-S and silencing FMRP promotes mRNA entry to axons and enhances axonal outgrowth and neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals. Our findings suggest a pivotal role for TRF2-S in an axonal mRNA localization pathway that enhances axon outgrowth and neurotransmitter release.

  1. Neural BC1 RNA associates with pur alpha, a single-stranded DNA and RNA binding protein, which is involved in the transcription of the BC1 RNA gene.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Agui, K; Kamo, S; Li, Y; Anzai, K

    2000-10-22

    BC1 RNA is preferentially expressed in neural cells by RNA polymerase III (Pol III) and forms ribonucleoprotein particles (RNP) in the somatodendritic domain of neurons. Our previous studies have suggested that, in the nucleus, BC1 RNA forms an RNP containing a nuclear protein(s) that participates in the transcription of the BC1 RNA gene. In this study, we have shown that newly synthesized BC1 RNA in purified brain nuclear extracts is immunoprecipitated by an antibody against Pur alpha. Pur alpha is a protein that binds single-stranded DNA and RNA and is known to regulate transcription of Pol II system. Although BC1 RNA is transcribed by Pol III, the BC1 RNA gene has two putative Pur alpha binding sites, which Pur alpha specifically recognizes. Point mutations within these sites reduced transcriptional activity in vitro. Furthermore, transcription was inhibited by depletion of Pur alpha from the nuclear extracts, either by the coexistence of its binding region of BC1 RNA or by the antibody that was able to precipitate the nuclear BC1 RNP. These observations suggest that BC1 RNA associates with Pur alpha which is involved in the transcription of the BC1 RNA gene. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  2. Estrogen binding, receptor mRNA, and biologic response in osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Komm, B.S.; Terpening, C.M.; Benz, D.J.; Graeme, K.A.; Gallegos, A.; Korc, M.; Greene, G.L.; O'Malley, B.W.; Haussler, M.R.

    1988-07-01

    High specific activity estradiol labeled with iodine-125 was used to detect approximately 200 saturable, high-affinity (dissociation constant approximately equal to 1.0 nM) nuclear binding sites in rat (ROS 17/2.8) and human (HOS TE85) clonal osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells. Of the steroids tested, only testosterone exhibited significant cross-reactivity with estrogen binding. RNA blot analysis with a complementary DNA probe to the human estrogen receptor revealed putative receptor transcripts of 6 to 6.2 kilobases in both rat and human osteosarcoma cells. Type I procollagen and transforming growth factor-beta messenger RNA levels were enhanced in cultured human osteoblast-like cells treated with 1 nM estradiol. Thus, estrogen can act directly on osteoblasts by a receptor-mediated mechanism and thereby modulate the extracellular matrix and other proteins involved in the maintenance of skeletal mineralization and remodeling.

  3. IN VITRO SELECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CELLULOSE-BINDING RNA APTAMERS USING ISOTHERMAL AMPLIFICATION

    PubMed Central

    Boese, B. J.; Corbino, K.; Breaker, R. R.

    2017-01-01

    We sought to create new cellulose-binding RNA aptamers for use as modular components in the engineering of complex functional nucleic acids. We designed our in vitro selection strategy to incorporate self-sustained sequence replication (3SR), which is an isothermal nucleic acid amplification protocol that allows for the rapid amplification of RNAs with little manipulation. The best performing aptamer representative was chosen for reselection and further optimization. The aptamer exhibits robust affinity for cellulose in both the powdered and paper form, but did not show any significant affinity for closely related polysaccharides. The minimal cellulose-binding RNA aptamer also can be grafted onto other RNAs to permit the isolation of RNAs from complex biochemical mixtures via cellulose affinity chromatography. This was demonstrated by fusing the aptamer to a glmS ribozyme sequence, and selectively eluting ribozyme cleavage products from cellulose using the glucosamine 6-phosphate to activate glmS ribozyme function. PMID:18696364

  4. RNA-binding proteins in eye development and disease: implication of conserved RNA granule components.

    PubMed

    Dash, Soma; Siddam, Archana D; Barnum, Carrie E; Janga, Sarath Chandra; Lachke, Salil A

    2016-07-01

    The molecular biology of metazoan eye development is an area of intense investigation. These efforts have led to the surprising recognition that although insect and vertebrate eyes have dramatically different structures, the orthologs or family members of several conserved transcription and signaling regulators such as Pax6, Six3, Prox1, and Bmp4 are commonly required for their development. In contrast, our understanding of posttranscriptional regulation in eye development and disease, particularly regarding the function of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), is limited. We examine the present knowledge of RBPs in eye development in the insect model Drosophila as well as several vertebrate models such as fish, frog, chicken, and mouse. Interestingly, of the 42 RBPs that have been investigated for their expression or function in vertebrate eye development, 24 (~60%) are recognized in eukaryotic cells as components of RNA granules such as processing bodies, stress granules, or other specialized ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. We discuss the distinct developmental and cellular events that may necessitate potential RBP/RNA granule-associated RNA regulon models to facilitate posttranscriptional control of gene expression in eye morphogenesis. In support of these hypotheses, three RBPs and RNP/RNA granule components Tdrd7, Caprin2, and Stau2 are linked to ocular developmental defects such as congenital cataract, Peters anomaly, and microphthalmia in human patients or animal models. We conclude by discussing the utility of interdisciplinary approaches such as the bioinformatics tool iSyTE (integrated Systems Tool for Eye gene discovery) to prioritize RBPs for deriving posttranscriptional regulatory networks in eye development and disease. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:527-557. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1355 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  5. An RNA matchmaker protein regulates the activity of the long noncoding RNA HOTAIR.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Emily K; Balas, Maggie M; Sindy, Karla; Haislop, Krystal; Johnson, Aaron M

    2016-07-01

    The human long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) HOTAIR acts in trans to recruit the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) to the HOXD gene cluster and to promote gene silencing during development. In breast cancers, overexpression of HOTAIR increases metastatic potential via the repression of many additional genes. It has remained unclear what factors determine HOTAIR-dependent PRC2 activity at specific genomic loci, particularly when high levels of HOTAIR result in aberrant gene silencing. To identify additional proteins that contribute to the specific action of HOTAIR, we performed a quantitative proteomic analysis of the HOTAIR interactome. We found that the most specific interaction was between HOTAIR and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1, a member of a family of proteins involved in nascent mRNA processing and RNA matchmaking. Our data suggest that A2/B1 are key contributors to HOTAIR-mediated chromatin regulation in breast cancer cells: A2/B1 knockdown reduces HOTAIR-dependent breast cancer cell invasion and decreases PRC2 activity at the majority of HOTAIR-dependent loci. We found that the B1 isoform, which differs from A2 by 12 additional amino acids, binds with highest specificity to HOTAIR. B1 also binds chromatin and associates preferentially with RNA transcripts of HOTAIR gene targets. We furthermore demonstrate a direct RNA-RNA interaction between HOTAIR and a target transcript that is enhanced by B1 binding. Together, these results suggest a model in which B1 matches HOTAIR with transcripts of target genes on chromatin, leading to repression by PRC2. © 2016 Meredith et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  6. Roles of RNA-Binding Proteins in DNA Damage Response.

    PubMed

    Kai, Mihoko

    2016-02-27

    Living cells experience DNA damage as a result of replication errors and oxidative metabolism, exposure to environmental agents (e.g., ultraviolet light, ionizing radiation (IR)), and radiation therapies and chemotherapies for cancer treatments. Accumulation of DNA damage can lead to multiple diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, cancers, immune deficiencies, infertility, and also aging. Cells have evolved elaborate mechanisms to deal with DNA damage. Networks of DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are coordinated to detect and repair DNA damage, regulate cell cycle and transcription, and determine the cell fate. Upstream factors of DNA damage checkpoints and repair, "sensor" proteins, detect DNA damage and send the signals to downstream factors in order to maintain genomic integrity. Unexpectedly, we have discovered that an RNA-processing factor is involved in DNA repair processes. We have identified a gene that contributes to glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)'s treatment resistance and recurrence. This gene, RBM14, is known to function in transcription and RNA splicing. RBM14 is also required for maintaining the stem-like state of GBM spheres, and it controls the DNA-PK-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway by interacting with KU80. RBM14 is a RNA-binding protein (RBP) with low complexity domains, called intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), and it also physically interacts with PARP1. Furthermore, RBM14 is recruited to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)-dependent manner (unpublished data). DNA-dependent PARP1 (poly-(ADP) ribose polymerase 1) makes key contributions in the DNA damage response (DDR) network. RBM14 therefore plays an important role in a PARP-dependent DSB repair process. Most recently, it was shown that the other RBPs with intrinsically disordered domains are recruited to DNA damage sites in a PAR-dependent manner, and that these RBPs form liquid compartments (also known as "liquid-demixing"). Among the

  7. The RNA-binding protein ELAV regulates Hox RNA processing, expression and function within the Drosophila nervous system.

    PubMed

    Rogulja-Ortmann, Ana; Picao-Osorio, Joao; Villava, Casandra; Patraquim, Pedro; Lafuente, Elvira; Aspden, Julie; Thomsen, Stefan; Technau, Gerhard M; Alonso, Claudio R

    2014-05-01

    The regulated head-to-tail expression of Hox genes provides a coordinate system for the activation of specific programmes of cell differentiation according to axial level. Recent work indicates that Hox expression can be regulated via RNA processing but the underlying mechanisms and biological significance of this form of regulation remain poorly understood. Here we explore these issues within the developing Drosophila central nervous system (CNS). We show that the pan-neural RNA-binding protein (RBP) ELAV (Hu antigen) regulates the RNA processing patterns of the Hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) within the embryonic CNS. Using a combination of biochemical, genetic and imaging approaches we demonstrate that ELAV binds to discrete elements within Ubx RNAs and that its genetic removal reduces Ubx protein expression in the CNS leading to the respecification of cellular subroutines under Ubx control, thus defining for the first time a specific cellular role of ELAV within the developing CNS. Artificial provision of ELAV in glial cells (a cell type that lacks ELAV) promotes Ubx expression, suggesting that ELAV-dependent regulation might contribute to cell type-specific Hox expression patterns within the CNS. Finally, we note that expression of abdominal A and Abdominal B is reduced in elav mutant embryos, whereas other Hox genes (Antennapedia) are not affected. Based on these results and the evolutionary conservation of ELAV and Hox genes we propose that the modulation of Hox RNA processing by ELAV serves to adapt the morphogenesis of the CNS to axial level by regulating Hox expression and consequently activating local programmes of neural differentiation.

  8. The RNA-binding protein ELAV regulates Hox RNA processing, expression and function within the Drosophila nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Rogulja-Ortmann, Ana; Picao-Osorio, Joao; Villava, Casandra; Patraquim, Pedro; Lafuente, Elvira; Aspden, Julie; Thomsen, Stefan; Technau, Gerhard M.; Alonso, Claudio R.

    2014-01-01

    The regulated head-to-tail expression of Hox genes provides a coordinate system for the activation of specific programmes of cell differentiation according to axial level. Recent work indicates that Hox expression can be regulated via RNA processing but the underlying mechanisms and biological significance of this form of regulation remain poorly understood. Here we explore these issues within the developing Drosophila central nervous system (CNS). We show that the pan-neural RNA-binding protein (RBP) ELAV (Hu antigen) regulates the RNA processing patterns of the Hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) within the embryonic CNS. Using a combination of biochemical, genetic and imaging approaches we demonstrate that ELAV binds to discrete elements within Ubx RNAs and that its genetic removal reduces Ubx protein expression in the CNS leading to the respecification of cellular subroutines under Ubx control, thus defining for the first time a specific cellular role of ELAV within the developing CNS. Artificial provision of ELAV in glial cells (a cell type that lacks ELAV) promotes Ubx expression, suggesting that ELAV-dependent regulation might contribute to cell type-specific Hox expression patterns within the CNS. Finally, we note that expression of abdominal A and Abdominal B is reduced in elav mutant embryos, whereas other Hox genes (Antennapedia) are not affected. Based on these results and the evolutionary conservation of ELAV and Hox genes we propose that the modulation of Hox RNA processing by ELAV serves to adapt the morphogenesis of the CNS to axial level by regulating Hox expression and consequently activating local programmes of neural differentiation. PMID:24803653

  9. Crystal structure and RNA-binding properties of an Hfq homolog from the deep-branching Aquificae: conservation of the lateral RNA-binding mode.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Kimberly A; Patterson-West, Jennifer; Randolph, Peter S; Mura, Cameron

    2017-04-01

    The host factor Hfq, as the bacterial branch of the Sm family, is an RNA-binding protein involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA expression and turnover. Hfq facilitates pairing between small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) and their corresponding mRNA targets by binding both RNAs and bringing them into close proximity. Hfq homologs self-assemble into homo-hexameric rings with at least two distinct surfaces that bind RNA. Recently, another binding site, dubbed the `lateral rim', has been implicated in sRNA·mRNA annealing; the RNA-binding properties of this site appear to be rather subtle, and its degree of evolutionary conservation is unknown. An Hfq homolog has been identified in the phylogenetically deep-branching thermophile Aquifex aeolicus (Aae), but little is known about the structure and function of Hfq from basal bacterial lineages such as the Aquificae. Therefore, Aae Hfq was cloned, overexpressed, purified, crystallized and biochemically characterized. Structures of Aae Hfq were determined in space groups P1 and P6, both to 1.5 Å resolution, and nanomolar-scale binding affinities for uridine- and adenosine-rich RNAs were discovered. Co-crystallization with U6 RNA reveals that the outer rim of the Aae Hfq hexamer features a well defined binding pocket that is selective for uracil. This Aae Hfq structure, combined with biochemical and biophysical characterization of the homolog, reveals deep evolutionary conservation of the lateral RNA-binding mode, and lays a foundation for further studies of Hfq-associated RNA biology in ancient bacterial phyla.

  10. Application of RNase in the purification of RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jonghoon; Lee, Myung Soog; Gorenstein, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Basic findings It was found that RNA-binding proteins can be contaminated with host RNA during purification. The contamination of purified RNA-binding protein with RNA was identified by gel electrophoresis and EtBr staining. Our data suggest that applications of appropriate enzymes (DNase or RNase) in the early stage of purification may remove the contaminating nucleic acids. Significance The concept introduced in this research can easily be extended to the purification of other RNA- or DNA-binding proteins by applying RNase or DNase directly to the cell extracts. PMID:17400170

  11. Recombinant human MDM2 oncoprotein shows sequence composition selectivity for binding to both RNA and DNA.

    PubMed

    Challen, Christine; Anderson, John J; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Zofia M A; Lightowlers, Robert N; Lunec, John

    2012-03-01

    MDM2 is a 90 kDa nucleo-phosphoprotein that binds p53 and other proteins contributing to its oncogenic properties. Its structure includes an amino proximal p53 binding site, a central acidic domain and a carboxy region which incorporates Zinc and Ring Finger domains suggestive of nucleic acid binding or transcription factor function. It has previously been reported that a bacculovirus expressed MDM2 protein binds RNA in a sequence-specific manner through the Ring Finger domain, however, its ability to bind DNA has yet to be examined. We report here that a bacterially expressed human MDM2 protein binds both DNA as well as the previously defined RNA consensus sequence. DNA binding appears selective and involves the carboxy-terminal domain of the molecule. RNA binding is inhibited by an MDM2 specific antibody, which recognises an epitope within the carboxy region of the protein. Selection cloning and sequence analysis of MDM2 DNA binding sequences, unlike RNA binding sequences, revealed no obvious DNA binding consensus sequence, but preferential binding to oligopurine:pyrimidine-rich stretches. Our results suggest that the observed preferential DNA binding may occur through the Zinc Finger or in a charge-charge interaction through the Ring Finger, thereby implying potentially different mechanisms for DNA and RNA MDM2 binding.

  12. The binding of tyrosinyl-5'-AMP to tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (E.coli).

    PubMed Central

    Grosse, F; Krauss, G; Kownatzki, R; Maass, G

    1979-01-01

    The binding between tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (E.coli) and the alkylanalogue of the aminoacyladenylate, tyrosinyl-5'-AMP, has been investigated by fluorescence titrations and rapid mixing experiments. Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase has two equivalent and independent binding sites for tyrosinyl-5'-AMP. The intrinsic binding constant is 4 x 10(7)M-1. The binding sites for tRNATyr and tyrosinyl-5'-AMP are independent of each other, the anticooperative mode of tRNA binding being preserved in the presence of tyrosinyl-5-AMP. PMID:377229

  13. N6-methyladenosine alters RNA structure to regulate binding of a low-complexity protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nian; Zhou, Katherine I; Parisien, Marc; Dai, Qing; Diatchenko, Luda; Pan, Tao

    2017-02-25

    N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant internal modification in eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA), and affects almost every stage of the mRNA life cycle. The YTH-domain proteins can specifically recognize m6A modification to control mRNA maturation, translation and decay. m6A can also alter RNA structures to affect RNA-protein interactions in cells. Here, we show that m6A increases the accessibility of its surrounding RNA sequence to bind heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein G (HNRNPG). Furthermore, HNRNPG binds m6A-methylated RNAs through its C-terminal low-complexity region, which self-assembles into large particles in vitro. The Arg-Gly-Gly repeats within the low-complexity region are required for binding to the RNA motif exposed by m6A methylation. We identified 13,191 m6A sites in the transcriptome that regulate RNA-HNRNPG interaction and thereby alter the expression and alternative splicing pattern of target mRNAs. Low-complexity regions are pervasive among mRNA binding proteins. Our results show that m6A-dependent RNA structural alterations can promote direct binding of m6A-modified RNAs to low-complexity regions in RNA binding proteins.

  14. A novel RNA-binding protein from Triturus carnifex identified by RNA-ligand screening with the newt hammerhead ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Denti, Michela A.; Alba, A. Emilio Martínez de; Sägesser, Rudolf; Tsagris, Mina; Tabler, Martin

    2000-01-01

    The newt hammerhead ribozyme is transcribed from Satellite 2 DNA, which consists of tandemly repeated units of 330 bp. However, different transcripts are synthesized in different tissues. In all somatic tissues and in testes, dimeric and multimeric RNA transcripts are generated which, to some extent, self-cleave into monomers at the hammerhead domain. In ovaries, primarily a distinct monomeric unit is formed by transcription, which retains an intact hammerhead self-cleavage site. The ovarian monomeric RNA associates to form a 12S complex with proteins that are poorly characterised so far. In this work we identified NORA, a protein that binds the ovarian form of the newt ribozyme. We show that the newt ribozyme binds to the Escherichia coli-expressed protein, as well as to a protein of identical size that is found exclusively in newt ovaries. Also NORA mRNA was detectable only in ovary, but in neither somatic tissues nor testes. The tissue-specific expression of NORA is analogous to the ovary-specific transcription of the newt ribozyme. Although NORA was identified by its ability to bind to the newt ribozyme in the presence of a vast excess of carrier RNA, it was able to interact with certain other RNA probes. This novel RNA-binding protein does not contain any motif characteristic for RNA-binding proteins or any other known protein domain, but it shares a striking similarity with a rat resiniferatoxin-binding protein. PMID:10666442

  15. Natural product (–)-gossypol inhibits colon cancer cell growth by targeting RNA-binding protein Musashi-1

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Lan; Appelman, Carl; Smith, Amber R.; Yu, Jia; Larsen, Sarah; Marquez, Rebecca T.; Liu, Hao; Wu, Xiaoqing; Gao, Philip; Roy, Anuradha; Anbanandam, Asokan; Gowthaman, Ragul; Karanicolas, John; De Guzman, Roberto N.; Rogers, Steven; Aubé, Jeffrey; Ji, Min; Cohen, Robert S.; Neufeld, Kristi L.; Xu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Musashi-1 (MSI1) is an RNA-binding protein that acts as a translation activator or repressor of target mRNAs. The best-characterized MSI1 target is Numb mRNA, whose encoded protein negatively regulates Notch signaling. Additional MSI1 targets include the mRNAs for the tumor suppressor protein APC that regulates Wnt signaling and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P21WAF-1. We hypothesized that increased expression of NUMB, P21 and APC, through inhibition of MSI1 RNA-binding activity might be an effective way to simultaneously downregulate Wnt and Notch signaling, thus blocking the growth of a broad range of cancer cells. We used a fluorescence polarization assay to screen for small molecules that disrupt the binding of MSI1 to its consensus RNA binding site. One of the top hits was (–)-gossypol (Ki = 476 ± 273 nM), a natural product from cottonseed, known to have potent anti-tumor activity and which has recently completed Phase IIb clinical trials for prostate cancer. Surface plasmon resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance studies demonstrate a direct interaction of (–)-gossypol with the RNA binding pocket of MSI1. We further showed that (–)-gossypol reduces Notch/Wnt signaling in several colon cancer cell lines having high levels of MSI1, with reduced SURVIVIN expression and increased apoptosis/autophagy. Finally, we showed that orally administered (–)-gossypol inhibits colon cancer growth in a mouse xenograft model. Our study identifies (–)-gossypol as a potential small molecule inhibitor of MSI1-RNA interaction, and suggests that inhibition of MSI1's RNA binding activity may be an effective anti-cancer strategy. PMID:25933687

  16. Distinct modes of mature and precursor tRNA binding to Escherichia coli RNase P RNA revealed by NAIM analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Heide, C; Busch, S; Feltens, R; Hartmann, R K

    2001-01-01

    We have analyzed by nucleotide analog interference mapping (NAIM) pools of precursor or mature tRNA molecules, carrying a low level of Rp-RMPalphaS (R = A, G, I) or Rp-c7-deaza-RMPalphaS (R = A, G) modifications, to identify functional groups that contribute to the specific interaction with and processing efficiency by Escherichia coli RNase P RNA. The majority of interferences were found in the acceptor stem, T arm, and D arm, including the strongest effects observed at positions G19, G53, A58, and G71. In some cases (interferences at G5, G18, and G71), the affected functional groups are candidates for direct contacts with RNase P RNA. Several modifications disrupt intramolecular tertiary contacts known to stabilize the authentic tRNA fold. Such indirect interference effects were informative as well, because they allowed us to compare the structural constraints required for ptRNA processing versus product binding. Our ptRNA processing and mature tRNA binding NAIM analyses revealed overlapping but nonidentical patterns of interference effects, suggesting that substrate binding and cleavage involves binding modes or conformational states distinct from the binding mode of mature tRNA, the product of the reaction. PMID:11345434

  17. In silico evaluation of miRNA binding site in mutated 3'UTR mRNA of G6PD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Syarifah Anis Wafa Binti Syed Mohd; Noorden, Mohd Shihabudin; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd; Ismail, Endom

    2015-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non coding RNA sized 21-25 nucleotide. It has the ability to bind to the 3'- untranslated regions (3'UTR) of their target genes. Consequently, the binding of miRNA in the 3'UTR of targeted mRNA will regulate the expression of this gene. Thus, changes in 3'UTR may affect miRNA binding to mRNA of their target gene, leading to aberrations in mRNA regulations or expression and likely contribute to the various phenotypic changes or clinical risk for certain diseases in man. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate candidate miRNAs species involved during the regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) mRNA with and without a specific 3'UTR nucleotide change that was previously shown to be responsible for G6PD deficiency in a Negrito sub-group of the Malaysian Orang Asli. We have conducted in silico analysis using TargetScan, PITA, RegRNA 2.0 and miRanda platform. Our results indicate that three potential miRNAs may have a functional role towards the regulated expression of those bearing the 3'UTR mutation. The role of these eleven miRNA can be investigated in future in vitro expression studies in order to verify its miRNA:mRNA relationship.

  18. NEAT1 scaffolds RNA-binding proteins and the Microprocessor to globally enhance pri-miRNA processing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Shao, Changwei; Wu, Qi-Jia; Chen, Geng; Zhou, Jie; Yang, Bo; Li, Hairi; Gou, Lan-Tao; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Yangming; Yeo, Gene W; Zhou, Yu; Fu, Xiang-Dong

    2017-10-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) biogenesis is known to be modulated by a variety of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), but in most cases, individual RBPs appear to influence the processing of a small subset of target miRNAs. Here, we report that the RNA-binding NONO-PSF heterodimer binds a large number of expressed pri-miRNAs in HeLa cells to globally enhance pri-miRNA processing by the Drosha-DGCR8 Microprocessor. NONO and PSF are key components of paraspeckles organized by the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) NEAT1. We further demonstrate that NEAT1 also has a profound effect on global pri-miRNA processing. Mechanistic dissection reveals that NEAT1 broadly interacts with the NONO-PSF heterodimer as well as many other RBPs and that multiple RNA segments in NEAT1, including a 'pseudo pri-miRNA' near its 3' end, help attract the Microprocessor. These findings suggest a 'bird nest' model in which an lncRNA orchestrates efficient processing of potentially an entire class of small noncoding RNAs in the nucleus.

  19. RNase footprinting of protein binding sites on an mRNA target of small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yi; Soper, Toby J; Woodson, Sarah A

    2012-01-01

    Endoribonuclease footprinting is an important technique for probing RNA-protein interactions with single nucleotide resolution. The susceptibility of RNA residues to enzymatic digestion gives information about the RNA secondary structure, the location of protein binding sites, and the effects of protein binding on the RNA structure. Here we present a detailed protocol for using RNase T2, which cleaves single stranded RNA with a preference for A nucleotides, to footprint the protein Hfq on the rpoS mRNA leader. This protocol covers how to form the RNP complex, determine the correct dose of enzyme, footprint the protein, and analyze the cleavage pattern using primer extension.

  20. Hexanucleotide Repeats in ALS/FTD Form Length-Dependent RNA Foci, Sequester RNA Binding Proteins, and Are Neurotoxic

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youn-Bok; Chen, Han-Jou; Peres, João N.; Gomez-Deza, Jorge; Attig, Jan; Štalekar, Maja; Troakes, Claire; Nishimura, Agnes L.; Scotter, Emma L.; Vance, Caroline; Adachi, Yoshitsugu; Sardone, Valentina; Miller, Jack W.; Smith, Bradley N.; Gallo, Jean-Marc; Ule, Jernej; Hirth, Frank; Rogelj, Boris; Houart, Corinne; Shaw, Christopher E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The GGGGCC (G4C2) intronic repeat expansion within C9ORF72 is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Intranuclear neuronal RNA foci have been observed in ALS and FTD tissues, suggesting that G4C2 RNA may be toxic. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of 38× and 72× G4C2 repeats form intranuclear RNA foci that initiate apoptotic cell death in neuronal cell lines and zebrafish embryos. The foci colocalize with a subset of RNA binding proteins, including SF2, SC35, and hnRNP-H in transfected cells. Only hnRNP-H binds directly to G4C2 repeats following RNA immunoprecipitation, and only hnRNP-H colocalizes with 70% of G4C2 RNA foci detected in C9ORF72 mutant ALS and FTD brain tissues. We show that expanded G4C2 repeats are potently neurotoxic and bind hnRNP-H and other RNA binding proteins. We propose that RNA toxicity and protein sequestration may disrupt RNA processing and contribute to neurodegeneration. PMID:24290757

  1. Hexanucleotide repeats in ALS/FTD form length-dependent RNA foci, sequester RNA binding proteins, and are neurotoxic.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youn-Bok; Chen, Han-Jou; Peres, João N; Gomez-Deza, Jorge; Attig, Jan; Stalekar, Maja; Troakes, Claire; Nishimura, Agnes L; Scotter, Emma L; Vance, Caroline; Adachi, Yoshitsugu; Sardone, Valentina; Miller, Jack W; Smith, Bradley N; Gallo, Jean-Marc; Ule, Jernej; Hirth, Frank; Rogelj, Boris; Houart, Corinne; Shaw, Christopher E

    2013-12-12

    The GGGGCC (G4C2) intronic repeat expansion within C9ORF72 is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Intranuclear neuronal RNA foci have been observed in ALS and FTD tissues, suggesting that G4C2 RNA may be toxic. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of 38× and 72× G4C2 repeats form intranuclear RNA foci that initiate apoptotic cell death in neuronal cell lines and zebrafish embryos. The foci colocalize with a subset of RNA binding proteins, including SF2, SC35, and hnRNP-H in transfected cells. Only hnRNP-H binds directly to G4C2 repeats following RNA immunoprecipitation, and only hnRNP-H colocalizes with 70% of G4C2 RNA foci detected in C9ORF72 mutant ALS and FTD brain tissues. We show that expanded G4C2 repeats are potently neurotoxic and bind hnRNP-H and other RNA binding proteins. We propose that RNA toxicity and protein sequestration may disrupt RNA processing and contribute to neurodegeneration.

  2. Global RNA association with the transcriptionally active chromosome of chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Lehniger, Marie-Kristin; Finster, Sabrina; Melonek, Joanna; Oetke, Svenja; Krupinska, Karin; Schmitz-Linneweber, Christian

    2017-09-08

    Processed chloroplast RNAs are co-enriched with preparations of the chloroplast transcriptionally active chromosome. Chloroplast genomes are organized as a polyploid DNA-protein structure called the nucleoid. Transcriptionally active chloroplast DNA together with tightly bound protein factors can be purified by gel filtration as a functional entity called the transcriptionally active chromosome (TAC). Previous proteomics analyses of nucleoids and of TACs demonstrated a considerable overlap in protein composition including RNA binding proteins. Therefore the RNA content of TAC preparations from Nicotiana tabacum was determined using whole genome tiling arrays. A large number of chloroplast RNAs was found to be associated with the TAC. The pattern of RNAs attached to the TAC consists of RNAs produced by different chloroplast RNA polymerases and differs from the pattern of RNA found in input controls. An analysis of RNA splicing and RNA editing of selected RNA species demonstrated that TAC-associated RNAs are processed to a similar extent as the RNA in input controls. Thus, TAC fractions contain a specific subset of the processed chloroplast transcriptome.

  3. Acanthamoeba castellanii contains a ribosomal RNA enhancer binding protein which stimulates TIF-IB binding and transcription under stringent conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Q; Radebaugh, C A; Kubaska, W; Geiss, G K; Paule, M R

    1995-01-01

    The intergenic spacer (IGS) of Acanthamoeba castellanii rRNA genes contains repeated elements which are weak enhancers for transcription by RNA polymerase I. A protein, EBF, was identified and partially purified which binds to the enhancers and to several other sequences within the IGS, but not to other DNA fragments, including the rRNA core promoter. No consensus binding sequence could be discerned in these fragments and bound factor is in rapid equilibrium with unbound. EBF has functional characteristics similar to vertebrate upstream binding factors (UBF). Not only does it bind to the enhancer and other IGS elements, but it also stimulates binding of TIF-IB, the fundamental transcription initiation factor, to the core promoter and stimulates transcription from the promoter. Attempts to identify polypeptides with epitopes similar to rat or Xenopus laevis UBF suggest that structurally the protein from A.castellanii is not closely related to vertebrate UBF. Images PMID:7501455

  4. Acanthamoeba castellanii contains a ribosomal RNA enhancer binding protein which stimulates TIF-IB binding and transcription under stringent conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Q; Radebaugh, C A; Kubaska, W; Geiss, G K; Paule, M R

    1995-11-11

    The intergenic spacer (IGS) of Acanthamoeba castellanii rRNA genes contains repeated elements which are weak enhancers for transcription by RNA polymerase I. A protein, EBF, was identified and partially purified which binds to the enhancers and to several other sequences within the IGS, but not to other DNA fragments, including the rRNA core promoter. No consensus binding sequence could be discerned in these fragments and bound factor is in rapid equilibrium with unbound. EBF has functional characteristics similar to vertebrate upstream binding factors (UBF). Not only does it bind to the enhancer and other IGS elements, but it also stimulates binding of TIF-IB, the fundamental transcription initiation factor, to the core promoter and stimulates transcription from the promoter. Attempts to identify polypeptides with epitopes similar to rat or Xenopus laevis UBF suggest that structurally the protein from A.castellanii is not closely related to vertebrate UBF.

  5. Single-Molecule Imaging of an in Vitro-Evolved RNA Aptamer Reveals Homogeneous Ligand Binding Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Many studies of RNA folding and catalysis have revealed conformational heterogeneity, metastable folding intermediates, and long-lived states with distinct catalytic activities. We have developed a single-molecule imaging approach for investigating the functional heterogeneity of in vitro-evolved RNA aptamers. Monitoring the association of fluorescently labeled ligands with individual RNA aptamer molecules has allowed us to record binding events over the course of multiple days, thus providing sufficient statistics to quantitatively define the kinetic properties at the single-molecule level. The ligand binding kinetics of the highly optimized RNA aptamer studied here displays a remarkable degree of uniformity and lack of memory. Such homogeneous behavior is quite different from the heterogeneity seen in previous single-molecule studies of naturally derived RNA and protein enzymes. The single-molecule methods we describe may be of use in analyzing the distribution of functional molecules in heterogeneous evolving populations or even in unselected samples of random sequences. PMID:19572753

  6. A Novel RNA-Binding Protein Involves ABA Signaling by Post-transcriptionally Repressing ABI2

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianwen; Chen, Yihan; Qian, Luofeng; Mu, Rong; Yuan, Xi; Fang, Huimin; Huang, Xi; Xu, Enshun; Zhang, Hongsheng; Huang, Ji

    2017-01-01

    The Stress Associated RNA-binding protein 1 (SRP1) repressed by ABA, salt and cold encodes a C2C2-type zinc finger protein in Arabidopsis. The knock-out mutation in srp1 reduced the sensitivity of seed to ABA and salt stress during germination and post-germinative growth stages. In contrast, SRP1-overexpressing seedlings were more sensitive to ABA and salt compared to wild type plants. In the presence of ABA, the transcript levels of ABA signaling and germination-related genes including ABI3. ABI5. EM1 and EM6 were less induced in srp1 compared to WT. Interestingly, expression of ABI2 encoding a protein phosphatase 2C protein were significantly up-regulated in srp1 mutants. By in vitro analysis, SRP1 was identified as a novel RNA-binding protein directly binding to 3′UTR of ABI2 mRNA. Moreover, transient expression assay proved the function of SRP1 in reducing the activity of luciferase whose coding sequence was fused with the ABI2 3’UTR. Together, it is suggested that SRP1 is involved in the ABA signaling by post-transcriptionally repressing ABI2 expression in Arabidopsis. PMID:28174577

  7. The RNA-Binding Protein QKI Suppresses Cancer-Associated Aberrant Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Feng-Yang; Fu, Xing; Wei, Wen-Juan; Luo, Ya-Ge; Heiner, Monika; Cao, Li-Juan; Fang, Zhaoyuan; Fang, Rong; Lu, Daru; Ji, Hongbin; Hui, Jingyi

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Aberrant splicing has been implicated in lung tumorigenesis. However, the functional links between splicing regulation and lung cancer are not well understood. Here we identify the RNA-binding protein QKI as a key regulator of alternative splicing in lung cancer. We show that QKI is frequently down-regulated in lung cancer, and its down-regulation is significantly associated with a poorer prognosis. QKI-5 inhibits the proliferation and transformation of lung cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that QKI-5 regulates the alternative splicing of NUMB via binding to two RNA elements in its pre-mRNA, which in turn suppresses cell proliferation and prevents the activation of the Notch signaling pathway. We further show that QKI-5 inhibits splicing by selectively competing with a core splicing factor SF1 for binding to the branchpoint sequence. Taken together, our data reveal QKI as a critical regulator of splicing in lung cancer and suggest a novel tumor suppression mechanism involving QKI-mediated regulation of the Notch signaling pathway. PMID:24722255

  8. The RNA-binding protein QKI suppresses cancer-associated aberrant splicing.

    PubMed

    Zong, Feng-Yang; Fu, Xing; Wei, Wen-Juan; Luo, Ya-Ge; Heiner, Monika; Cao, Li-Juan; Fang, Zhaoyuan; Fang, Rong; Lu, Daru; Ji, Hongbin; Hui, Jingyi

    2014-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Aberrant splicing has been implicated in lung tumorigenesis. However, the functional links between splicing regulation and lung cancer are not well understood. Here we identify the RNA-binding protein QKI as a key regulator of alternative splicing in lung cancer. We show that QKI is frequently down-regulated in lung cancer, and its down-regulation is significantly associated with a poorer prognosis. QKI-5 inhibits the proliferation and transformation of lung cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that QKI-5 regulates the alternative splicing of NUMB via binding to two RNA elements in its pre-mRNA, which in turn suppresses cell proliferation and prevents the activation of the Notch signaling pathway. We further show that QKI-5 inhibits splicing by selectively competing with a core splicing factor SF1 for binding to the branchpoint sequence. Taken together, our data reveal QKI as a critical regulator of splicing in lung cancer and suggest a novel tumor suppression mechanism involving QKI-mediated regulation of the Notch signaling pathway.

  9. Identification of high-confidence RNA regulatory elements by combinatorial classification of RNA-protein binding sites.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang Eric; Xiao, Mu; Shi, Binbin; Yang, Yu-Cheng T; Wang, Dong; Wang, Fei; Marcia, Marco; Lu, Zhi John

    2017-09-08

    Crosslinking immunoprecipitation sequencing (CLIP-seq) technologies have enabled researchers to characterize transcriptome-wide binding sites of RNA-binding protein (RBP) with high resolution. We apply a soft-clustering method, RBPgroup, to various CLIP-seq datasets to group together RBPs that specifically bind the same RNA sites. Such combinatorial clustering of RBPs helps interpret CLIP-seq data and suggests functional RNA regulatory elements. Furthermore, we validate two RBP-RBP interactions in cell lines. Our approach links proteins and RNA motifs known to possess similar biochemical and cellular properties and can, when used in conjunction with additional experimental data, identify high-confidence RBP groups and their associated RNA regulatory elements.

  10. A host small GTP-binding protein ARL8 plays crucial roles in tobamovirus RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Nishikiori, Masaki; Mori, Masashi; Dohi, Koji; Okamura, Hideyasu; Katoh, Etsuko; Naito, Satoshi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2011-12-01

    Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), like other eukaryotic positive-strand RNA viruses, replicates its genomic RNA in replication complexes formed on intracellular membranes. Previous studies showed that a host seven-pass transmembrane protein TOM1 is necessary for efficient ToMV multiplication. Here, we show that a small GTP-binding protein ARL8, along with TOM1, is co-purified with a FLAG epitope-tagged ToMV 180K replication protein from solubilized membranes of ToMV-infected tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells. When solubilized membranes of ToMV-infected tobacco cells that expressed FLAG-tagged ARL8 were subjected to immunopurification with anti-FLAG antibody, ToMV 130K and 180K replication proteins and TOM1 were co-purified and the purified fraction showed RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity that transcribed ToMV RNA. From uninfected cells, TOM1 co-purified with FLAG-tagged ARL8 less efficiently, suggesting that a complex containing ToMV replication proteins, TOM1, and ARL8 are formed on membranes in infected cells. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ARL8 consists of four family members. Simultaneous mutations in two specific ARL8 genes completely inhibited tobamovirus multiplication. In an in vitro ToMV RNA translation-replication system, the lack of either TOM1 or ARL8 proteins inhibited the production of replicative-form RNA, indicating that TOM1 and ARL8 are required for efficient negative-strand RNA synthesis. When ToMV 130K protein was co-expressed with TOM1 and ARL8 in yeast, RNA 5'-capping activity was detected in the membrane fraction. This activity was undetectable or very weak when the 130K protein was expressed alone or with either TOM1 or ARL8. Taken together, these results suggest that TOM1 and ARL8 are components of ToMV RNA replication complexes and play crucial roles in a process toward activation of the replication proteins' RNA synthesizing and capping functions.

  11. Nop9 is an RNA binding protein present in pre-40S ribosomes and required for 18S rRNA synthesis in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Emma; Rappsilber, Juri; Tollervey, David

    2007-01-01

    Proteomic analyses in yeast have identified a large number of proteins that are associated with preribosomal particles. However, the product of the yeast ORF YJL010C, herein designated as Nop9, failed to be identified in any previous physical or genetic analysis of preribosomes. Here we report that Nop9 is a nucleolar protein, which is associated with 90S and 40S preribosomes. In cells depleted of Nop9p, early cleavages of the 35S pre-rRNA are inhibited, resulting in the nucleolar retention of accumulated precursors and a failure to synthesize 18S rRNA. Nop9 contains multiple pumilio-like putative RNA binding repeats and displays robust in vitro RNA binding activity. The identification of Nop9p as a novel, essential factor in the nuclear maturation of 90S and pre-40S ribosomal subunits shows that the complement of ribosome synthesis factors remains incomplete. PMID:17956976

  12. The conserved protein Seb1 drives transcription termination by binding RNA polymerase II and nascent RNA.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Sina; Renner, Max; Watts, Beth R; Adams, Oliver; Huseyin, Miles; Baejen, Carlo; El Omari, Kamel; Kilchert, Cornelia; Heo, Dong-Hyuk; Kecman, Tea; Cramer, Patrick; Grimes, Jonathan M; Vasiljeva, Lidia

    2017-04-03

    Termination of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription is an important step in the transcription cycle, which involves the dislodgement of polymerase from DNA, leading to release of a functional transcript. Recent studies have identified the key players required for this process and showed that a common feature of these proteins is a conserved domain that interacts with the phosphorylated C-terminus of Pol II (CTD-interacting domain, CID). However, the mechanism by which transcription termination is achieved is not understood. Using genome-wide methods, here we show that the fission yeast CID-protein Seb1 is essential for termination of protein-coding and non-coding genes through interaction with S2-phosphorylated Pol II and nascent RNA. Furthermore, we present the crystal structures of the Seb1 CTD- and RNA-binding modules. Unexpectedly, the latter reveals an intertwined two-domain arrangement of a canonical RRM and second domain. These results provide important insights into the mechanism underlying eukaryotic transcription termination.

  13. EBV noncoding RNA binds nascent RNA to drive host PAX5 to viral DNA

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nara; Moss, Walter N.; Yario, Therese A.; Steitz, Joan A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary EBER2 is an abundant nuclear noncoding RNA expressed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Probing its possible chromatin localization by CHART revealed EBER2’s presence at the terminal repeats (TRs) of the latent EBV genome, overlapping previously identified binding sites for the B-cell transcription factor PAX5. EBER2 interacts with and is required for PAX5 localization to the TRs. EBER2 knockdown phenocopies PAX5 depletion in upregulating the expression of LMP2A/B and LMP1, genes nearest the TRs. Knockdown of EBER2 also decreases EBV lytic replication, underscoring the essential role of the TRs in viral replication. Recruitment of the EBER2-PAX5 complex is mediated by base-pairing between EBER2 and nascent transcripts from the TR locus. The interaction is evolutionarily conserved in the related primate herpesvirus CeHV15 despite great sequence divergence. Using base-pairing with nascent RNA to guide an interacting transcription factor to its DNA target site is a previously undescribed function for a trans-acting noncoding RNA. PMID:25662012

  14. The siRNA suppressor RTL1 is redox-regulated through glutathionylation of a conserved cysteine in the double-stranded-RNA-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Charbonnel, Cyril; Niazi, Adnan K; Elvira-Matelot, Emilie; Nowak, Elzbieta; Zytnicki, Matthias; de Bures, Anne; Jobet, Edouard; Opsomer, Alisson; Shamandi, Nahid; Nowotny, Marcin; Carapito, Christine; Reichheld, Jean-Philippe; Vaucheret, Hervé; Sáez-Vásquez, Julio

    2017-09-15

    RNase III enzymes cleave double stranded (ds)RNA. This is an essential step for regulating the processing of mRNA, rRNA, snoRNA and other small RNAs, including siRNA and miRNA. Arabidopsis thaliana encodes nine RNase III: four DICER-LIKE (DCL) and five RNASE THREE LIKE (RTL). To better understand the molecular functions of RNase III in plants we developed a biochemical assay using RTL1 as a model. We show that RTL1 does not degrade dsRNA randomly, but recognizes specific duplex sequences to direct accurate cleavage. Furthermore, we demonstrate that RNase III and dsRNA binding domains (dsRBD) are both required for dsRNA cleavage. Interestingly, the four DCL and the three RTL that carry dsRBD share a conserved cysteine (C230 in Arabidopsis RTL1) in their dsRBD. C230 is essential for RTL1 and DCL1 activities and is subjected to post-transcriptional modification. Indeed, under oxidizing conditions, glutathionylation of C230 inhibits RTL1 cleavage activity in a reversible manner involving glutaredoxins. We conclude that the redox state of the dsRBD ensures a fine-tune regulation of dsRNA processing by plant RNase III. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. The actin binding cytoskeletal protein Moesin is involved in nuclear mRNA export.

    PubMed

    Kristó, Ildikó; Bajusz, Csaba; Borsos, Barbara N; Pankotai, Tibor; Dopie, Joseph; Jankovics, Ferenc; Vartiainen, Maria K; Erdélyi, Miklós; Vilmos, Péter

    2017-10-01

    Current models imply that the evolutionarily conserved, actin-binding Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin (ERM) proteins perform their activities at the plasma membrane by anchoring membrane proteins to the cortical actin network. Here we show that beside its cytoplasmic functions, the single ERM protein of Drosophila, Moesin, has a novel role in the nucleus. The activation of transcription by heat shock or hormonal treatment increases the amount of nuclear Moesin, indicating biological function for the protein in the nucleus. The distribution of Moesin in the nucleus suggests a function in transcription and the depletion of mRNA export factors Nup98 or its interacting partner, Rae1, leads to the nuclear accumulation of Moesin, suggesting that the nuclear function of the protein is linked to mRNA export. Moesin localizes to mRNP particles through the interaction with the mRNA export factor PCID2 and knock down of Moesin leads to the accumulation of mRNA in the nucleus. Based on our results we propose that, beyond its well-known, manifold functions in the cytoplasm, the ERM protein of Drosophila is a new, functional component of the nucleus where it participates in mRNA export. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Duplicate Gene Divergence by Changes in MicroRNA Binding Sites in Arabidopsis and Brassica

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sishuo; Adams, Keith L.

    2015-01-01

    Gene duplication provides large numbers of new genes that can lead to the evolution of new functions. Duplicated genes can diverge by changes in sequences, expression patterns, and functions. MicroRNAs play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in many eukaryotes. After duplication, two paralogs may diverge in their microRNA binding sites, which might impact their expression and function. Little is known about conservation and divergence of microRNA binding sites in duplicated genes in plants. We analyzed microRNA binding sites in duplicated genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa. We found that duplicates are more often targeted by microRNAs than singletons. The vast majority of duplicated genes in A. thaliana with microRNA binding sites show divergence in those sites between paralogs. Analysis of microRNA binding sites in genes derived from the ancient whole-genome triplication in B. rapa also revealed extensive divergence. Paralog pairs with divergent microRNA binding sites show more divergence in expression patterns compared with paralog pairs with the same microRNA binding sites in Arabidopsis. Close to half of the cases of binding site divergence are caused by microRNAs that are specific to the Arabidopsis genus, indicating evolutionarily recent gain of binding sites after target gene duplication. We also show rapid evolution of microRNA binding sites in a jacalin gene family. Our analyses reveal a dynamic process of changes in microRNA binding sites after gene duplication in Arabidopsis and highlight the role of microRNA regulation in the divergence and contrasting evolutionary fates of duplicated genes. PMID:25644246

  17. Duplicate gene divergence by changes in microRNA binding sites in Arabidopsis and Brassica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sishuo; Adams, Keith L

    2015-02-02

    Gene duplication provides large numbers of new genes that can lead to the evolution of new functions. Duplicated genes can diverge by changes in sequences, expression patterns, and functions. MicroRNAs play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in many eukaryotes. After duplication, two paralogs may diverge in their microRNA binding sites, which might impact their expression and function. Little is known about conservation and divergence of microRNA binding sites in duplicated genes in plants. We analyzed microRNA binding sites in duplicated genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa. We found that duplicates are more often targeted by microRNAs than singletons. The vast majority of duplicated genes in A. thaliana with microRNA binding sites show divergence in those sites between paralogs. Analysis of microRNA binding sites in genes derived from the ancient whole-genome triplication in B. rapa also revealed extensive divergence. Paralog pairs with divergent microRNA binding sites show more divergence in expression patterns compared with paralog pairs with the same microRNA binding sites in Arabidopsis. Close to half of the cases of binding site divergence are caused by microRNAs that are specific to the Arabidopsis genus, indicating evolutionarily recent gain of binding sites after target gene duplication. We also show rapid evolution of microRNA binding sites in a jacalin gene family. Our analyses reveal a dynamic process of changes in microRNA binding sites after gene duplication in Arabidopsis and highlight the role of microRNA regulation in the divergence and contrasting evolutionary fates of duplicated genes.

  18. Cytoplasmic-nuclear shuttling of the urokinase mRNA binding protein regulates message stability.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Sreerama

    2002-08-01

    Treatment of small airway epithelial (SAEC) cells or lung epithelial (Beas2B) cells with TNF-alpha or PMA induces urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) expression. Treatment of these cells with TNF-alpha, PMA or cycloheximide but not TGF-beta increased steady-state expression of uPAmRNA. TNF-alpha, PMA or cycloheximide caused 8-10 fold extensions of the uPAmRNA half-life in SAEC or Beas2B cells treated with DRB, a transcriptional inhibitor. These findings suggest that uPA gene expression involves a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism. Using gel mobility shift and UV cross-linking assays, we identified a 30 kDa uPA mRNA binding protein (uPA mRNABp) that selectively binds to a 66 nt protein binding fragment of uPA mRNA containing regulatory information for message stabilization. Binding of cytoplasmic uPA mRNABp to uPA mRNA was abolished after treatment with TNF-alpha but not TGF-beta. In addition, we found the accumulation of 30 kDa uPAmRNABp in the nuclear extracts of TNF-alpha but not TGF-beta treated cells. The uPA mRNABp starts moving to the nucleus from the cytoplasmic compartment as early as three hours after TNF-alpha treatment. Complete translocation is achieved between 12-24 h, which coincides with the maximal expression of uPA protein effected by cytokine stimulation. Treatment of Beas2B cells with NaF inhibited TNF-alpha-mediated translocation of uPA mRNABp from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and concomitant inhibition of uPA expression. TNF-alpha stabilizes uPA mRNA by translocating the uPA mRNABp from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanism governing uPA mRNA stability through shuttling of uPA mRNABp between the nucleus and cytoplasm. This newly identified pathway may have evolved to regulate uPA-mediated functions of the lung epithelium in inflamation or neoplasia.

  19. RsiteDB: a database of protein binding pockets that interact with RNA nucleotide bases.

    PubMed

    Shulman-Peleg, Alexandra; Nussinov, Ruth; Wolfson, Haim J

    2009-01-01

    We present a new database and an on-line search engine, which store and query the protein binding pockets that interact with single-stranded RNA nucleotide bases. The database consists of a classification of binding sites derived from protein-RNA complexes. Each binding site is assigned to a cluster of similar binding sites in other protein-RNA complexes. Cluster members share similar spatial arrangements of physico-chemical properties, thus can reveal novel similarity between proteins and RNAs with different sequences and folds. The clusters provide 3D consensus binding patterns important for protein-nucleotide recognition. The database search engine allows two types of useful queries: first, given a PDB code of a protein-RNA complex, RsiteDB can detail and classify the properties of the protein binding pockets accommodating extruded RNA nucleotides not involved in local RNA base pairing. Second, given an unbound protein structure, RsiteDB can perform an on-line structural search against the constructed database of 3D consensus binding patterns. Regions similar to known patterns are predicted to serve as binding sites. Alignment of the query to these patterns with their corresponding RNA nucleotides allows making unique predictions of the protein-RNA interactions at the atomic level of detail. This database is accessible at http://bioinfo3d.cs.tau.ac.il/RsiteDB.

  20. Ebolavirus VP35 uses a bimodal strategy to bind dsRNA for innate immune suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberlin, Christopher R.; Bornholdt, Zachary A.; Li, Sheng; Woods, Jr., Virgil L.; MacRae, Ian J.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2010-03-12

    Ebolavirus causes a severe hemorrhagic fever and is divided into five distinct species, of which Reston ebolavirus is uniquely nonpathogenic to humans. Disease caused by ebolavirus is marked by early immunosuppression of innate immune signaling events, involving silencing and sequestration of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) by the viral protein VP35. Here we present unbound and dsRNA-bound crystal structures of the dsRNA-binding domain of Reston ebolavirus VP35. The structures show that VP35 forms an unusual, asymmetric dimer on dsRNA binding, with each of the monomers binding dsRNA in a different way: one binds the backbone whereas the other caps the terminus. Additional SAXS, DXMS, and dsRNA-binding experiments presented here support a model of cooperative dsRNA recognition in which binding of the first monomer assists binding of the next monomer of the oligomeric VP35 protein. This work illustrates how ebolavirus VP35 could mask key recognition sites of molecules such as RIG-I, MDA-5, and Dicer to silence viral dsRNA in infection.

  1. DO-RIP-seq to quantify RNA binding sites transcriptome-wide.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Cindo O; Friedersdorf, Matthew B; Bisogno, Laura S; Keene, Jack D

    2017-04-15

    Post-transcriptional processes orchestrate gene expression through dynamic protein-RNA interactions. These interactions occur at specific sites determined by RNA sequence, secondary structure, or nucleotide modifications. Methods have been developed either to quantify binding of whole transcripts or to identify the binding sites, but there is none proven to quantify binding at both the whole transcript and binding site levels. Here we describe digestion optimized RNA immunoprecipitation with deep sequencing (DO-RIP-seq) as a method that quantitates at the whole transcript target (RIP-Seq-Like or RSL) level and at the binding site level (BSL) using continuous metrics. DO-RIP-seq methodology was developed using the RBP HuR/ELAVL1 as a test case (Nicholson et al., 2016). DO-RIP-seq employs treatment of cell lysates with a nuclease under optimized conditions to yield partially digested RNA fragments bound by RNA binding proteins, followed by immunoprecipitations that capture the digested RNA-protein complexes and assess non-specific or background interactions. Analyses of sequenced cDNA libraries made from the bound RNA fragments yielded two types of enrichment scores; one for RSL binding events and the other for BSL events (Nicholson et al., 2016). These analyses plus the extensive read coverage of DO-RIP-seq allows seamless integration of binding site and whole transcript information. Therefore, DO-RIP-seq is useful for quantifying RBP binding events that are regulated during dynamic biological processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bovine coronavirus nonstructural protein 1 (p28) is an RNA binding protein that binds terminal genomic cis-replication elements.

    PubMed

    Gustin, Kortney M; Guan, Bo-Jhih; Dziduszko, Agnieszka; Brian, David A

    2009-06-01

    Nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1), a 28-kDa protein in the bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and closely related mouse hepatitis coronavirus, is the first protein cleaved from the open reading frame 1 (ORF 1) polyprotein product of genome translation. Recently, a 30-nucleotide (nt) cis-replication stem-loop VI (SLVI) has been mapped at nt 101 to 130 within a 288-nt 5'-terminal segment of the 738-nt nsp1 cistron in a BCoV defective interfering (DI) RNA. Since a similar nsp1 coding region appears in all characterized groups 1 and 2 coronavirus DI RNAs and must be translated in cis for BCoV DI RNA replication, we hypothesized that nsp1 might regulate ORF 1 expression by binding this intra-nsp1 cistronic element. Here, we (i) establish by mutation analysis that the 72-nt intracistronic SLV immediately upstream of SLVI is also a DI RNA cis-replication signal, (ii) show by gel shift and UV-cross-linking analyses that cellular proteins of approximately 60 and 100 kDa, but not viral proteins, bind SLV and SLVI, (SLV-VI) and (iii) demonstrate by gel shift analysis that nsp1 purified from Escherichia coli does not bind SLV-VI but does bind three 5' untranslated region (UTR)- and one 3' UTR-located cis-replication SLs. Notably, nsp1 specifically binds SLIII and its flanking sequences in the 5' UTR with approximately 2.5 muM affinity. Additionally, under conditions enabling expression of nsp1 from DI RNA-encoded subgenomic mRNA, DI RNA levels were greatly reduced, but there was only a slight transient reduction in viral RNA levels. These results together indicate that nsp1 is an RNA-binding protein that may function to regulate viral genome translation or replication but not by binding SLV-VI within its own coding region.

  3. Progesterone receptor induces bcl-x expression through intragenic binding sites favoring RNA polymerase II elongation

    PubMed Central

    Bertucci, Paola Y.; Nacht, A. Silvina; Alló, Mariano; Rocha-Viegas, Luciana; Ballaré, Cecilia; Soronellas, Daniel; Castellano, Giancarlo; Zaurin, Roser; Kornblihtt, Alberto R.; Beato, Miguel; Vicent, Guillermo P.; Pecci, Adali

    2013-01-01

    Steroid receptors were classically described for regulating transcription by binding to target gene promoters. However, genome-wide studies reveal that steroid receptors-binding sites are mainly located at intragenic regions. To determine the role of these sites, we examined the effect of progestins on the transcription of the bcl-x gene, where only intragenic progesterone receptor-binding sites (PRbs) were identified. We found that in response to hormone treatment, the PR is recruited to these sites along with two histone acetyltransferases CREB-binding protein (CBP) and GCN5, leading to an increase in histone H3 and H4 acetylation and to the binding of the SWI/SNF complex. Concomitant, a more relaxed chromatin was detected along bcl-x gene mainly in the regions surrounding the intragenic PRbs. PR also mediated the recruitment of the positive elongation factor pTEFb, favoring RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation activity. Together these events promoted the re-distribution of the active Pol II toward the 3′-end of the gene and a decrease in the ratio between proximal and distal transcription. These results suggest a novel mechanism by which PR regulates gene expression by facilitating the proper passage of the polymerase along hormone-dependent genes. PMID:23640331

  4. Hijacking an RNA-editing enzyme to identify cell-specific targets of RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Aoife C; Rahman, Reazur; Jin, Hua; Shen, James L; Fieldsend, Allegra; Luo, Weifei; Rosbash, Michael

    2016-01-01

    RNA transcripts are bound and regulated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Current methods for identifying in vivo targets of a RBP are imperfect and not amenable to examining small numbers of cells. To address these issues, we developed TRIBE (Targets of RNA-binding proteins Identified By Editing), a technique that couples an RBP to the catalytic domain of the Drosophila RNA editing enzyme ADAR and expresses the fusion protein in vivo. RBP targets are marked with novel RNA editing events and identified by sequencing RNA. We have used TRIBE to identify the targets of three RBPs (Hrp48, dFMR1 and NonA). TRIBE compares favorably to other methods, including CLIP, and we have identified RBP targets from as little as 150 specific fly neurons. TRIBE can be performed without an antibody and in small numbers of specific cells. PMID:27040499

  5. Protein universe containing a PUA RNA-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Cerrudo, Carolina S; Ghiringhelli, Pablo D; Gomez, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    Here, we review current knowledge about pseudouridine synthase and archaeosine transglycosylase (PUA)-domain-containing proteins to illustrate progress in this field. A methodological analysis of the literature about the topic was carried out, together with a 'qualitative comparative analysis' to give a more comprehensive review. Bioinformatics methods for whole-protein or protein-domain identification are commonly based on pairwise protein sequence comparisons; we added comparison of structures to detect the whole universe of proteins containing the PUA domain. We present an update of proteins having this domain, focusing on the specific proteins present in Homo sapiens (dyskerin, MCT1, Nip7, eIF2D and Nsun6), and explore the existence of these in other species. We also analyze the phylogenetic distribution of the PUA domain in different species and proteins. Finally, we performed a structural comparison of the PUA domain through data mining of structural databases, determining a conserved structural motif, despite the differences in the sequence, even among eukaryotes, archaea and bacteria. All data discussed in this review, both bibliographic and analytical, corroborate the functional importance of the PUA domain in RNA-binding proteins.

  6. Bases in 16S rRNA Important for Subunit Association, tRNA binding, and Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xinying; Chiu, Katie; Ghosh, Srikanta; Joseph, Simpson

    2009-01-01

    Ribosomes are the cellular machinery responsible for protein synthesis. A well-orchestrated step in the elongation cycle of protein synthesis is the precise translocation of the tRNA-mRNA complex within the ribosome. Here we report the application of a new in vitro modification-interference method for the identification of bases in 16S rRNA that are essential for translocation. Our results suggest that conserved bases U56, U723, A1306, A1319, and A1468 in 16S rRNA are important for translocation. These five bases were deleted or mutated in order to study their role in translation. Depending on the type of mutation, we observed inhibition of growth rate, subunit association, tRNA binding and/or translocation. Interestingly, deletion of U56 or A1319 or mutation of A1319 to C showed a lethal phenotype and were defective in protein synthesis in vitro. Further analysis showed that deletion of U56 or A1319 caused defects in 30S subunit assembly, subunit association and tRNA binding. In contrast, A1319C mutation showed no defects in subunit association; however, the extent of tRNA binding and translocation was significantly reduced. These results show that conserved bases located as far away as 100 Å from the tRNA binding sites can be important for translation. PMID:19545171

  7. Functional Equivalence of Retroviral MA Domains in Facilitating Psi RNA Binding Specificity by Gag

    PubMed Central

    Rye-McCurdy, Tiffiny; Olson, Erik D.; Liu, Shuohui; Binkley, Christiana; Reyes, Joshua-Paolo; Thompson, Brian R.; Flanagan, John M.; Parent, Leslie J.; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Retroviruses specifically package full-length, dimeric genomic RNA (gRNA) even in the presence of a vast excess of cellular RNA. The “psi” (Ψ) element within the 5′-untranslated region (5′UTR) of gRNA is critical for packaging through interaction with the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of Gag. However, in vitro Gag binding affinity for Ψ versus non-Ψ RNAs is not significantly different. Previous salt-titration binding assays revealed that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag bound to Ψ RNA with high specificity and relatively few charge interactions, whereas binding to non-Ψ RNA was less specific and involved more electrostatic interactions. The NC domain was critical for specific Ψ binding, but surprisingly, a Gag mutant lacking the matrix (MA) domain was less effective at discriminating Ψ from non-Ψ RNA. We now find that Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Gag also effectively discriminates RSV Ψ from non-Ψ RNA in a MA-dependent manner. Interestingly, Gag chimeras, wherein the HIV-1 and RSV MA domains were swapped, maintained high binding specificity to cognate Ψ RNAs. Using Ψ RNA mutant constructs, determinants responsible for promoting high Gag binding specificity were identified in both systems. Taken together, these studies reveal the functional equivalence of HIV-1 and RSV MA domains in facilitating Ψ RNA selectivity by Gag, as well as Ψ elements that promote this selectivity. PMID:27657107

  8. N 6-methyladenosine alters RNA structure to regulate binding of a low-complexity protein

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nian; Zhou, Katherine I.; Parisien, Marc; Dai, Qing; Diatchenko, Luda

    2017-01-01

    Abstract N 6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant internal modification in eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA), and affects almost every stage of the mRNA life cycle. The YTH-domain proteins can specifically recognize m6A modification to control mRNA maturation, translation and decay. m6A can also alter RNA structures to affect RNA–protein interactions in cells. Here, we show that m6A increases the accessibility of its surrounding RNA sequence to bind heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein G (HNRNPG). Furthermore, HNRNPG binds m6A-methylated RNAs through its C-terminal low-complexity region, which self-assembles into large particles in vitro. The Arg-Gly-Gly repeats within the low-complexity region are required for binding to the RNA motif exposed by m6A methylation. We identified 13,191 m6A sites in the transcriptome that regulate RNA–HNRNPG interaction and thereby alter the expression and alternative splicing pattern of target mRNAs. Low-complexity regions are pervasive among mRNA binding proteins. Our results show that m6A-dependent RNA structural alterations can promote direct binding of m6A-modified RNAs to low-complexity regions in RNA binding proteins. PMID:28334903

  9. Recruitment of RNA molecules by connexin RNA-binding motifs: Implication in RNA and DNA transport through microvesicles and exosomes.

    PubMed

    Varela-Eirin, Marta; Varela-Vazquez, Adrian; Rodríguez-Candela Mateos, Marina; Vila-Sanjurjo, Anton; Fonseca, Eduardo; Mascareñas, José L; Eugenio Vázquez, M; Mayan, Maria D

    2017-04-01

    Connexins (Cxs) are integral membrane proteins that form high-conductance plasma membrane channels, allowing communication from cell to cell (via gap junctions) and from cells to the extracellular environment (via hemichannels). Initially described for their role in joining excitable cells (nerve and muscle), gap junctions (GJs) are found between virtually all cells in solid tissues and are essential for functional coordination by enabling the direct transfer of small signalling molecules, metabolites, ions, and electrical signals from cell to cell. Several studies have revealed diverse channel-independent functions of Cxs, which include the control of cell growth and tumourigenicity. Connexin43 (Cx43) is the most widespread Cx in the human body. The myriad roles of Cx43 and its implication in the development of disorders such as cancer, inflammation, osteoarthritis and Alzheimer's disease have given rise to many novel questions. Several RNA- and DNA-binding motifs were predicted in the Cx43 and Cx26 sequences using different computational methods. This review provides insights into new, ground-breaking functions of Cxs, highlighting important areas for future work such as transfer of genetic information through extracellular vesicles. We discuss the implication of potential RNA- and DNA-binding domains in the Cx43 and Cx26 sequences in the cellular communication and control of signalling pathways.

  10. GE23077 binds to the RNA polymerase ‘i’ and ‘i+1’ sites and prevents the binding of initiating nucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Degen, David; Ho, Mary X; Sineva, Elena; Ebright, Katherine Y; Ebright, Yon W; Mekler, Vladimir; Vahedian-Movahed, Hanif; Feng, Yu; Yin, Ruiheng; Tuske, Steve; Irschik, Herbert; Jansen, Rolf; Maffioli, Sonia; Donadio, Stefano; Arnold, Eddy; Ebright, Richard H

    2014-01-01

    Using a combination of genetic, biochemical, and structural approaches, we show that the cyclic-peptide antibiotic GE23077 (GE) binds directly to the bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) active-center ‘i’ and ‘i+1’ nucleotide binding sites, preventing the binding of initiating nucleotides, and thereby preventing transcription initiation. The target-based resistance spectrum for GE is unusually small, reflecting the fact that the GE binding site on RNAP includes residues of the RNAP active center that cannot be substituted without loss of RNAP activity. The GE binding site on RNAP is different from the rifamycin binding site. Accordingly, GE and rifamycins do not exhibit cross-resistance, and GE and a rifamycin can bind simultaneously to RNAP. The GE binding site on RNAP is immediately adjacent to the rifamycin binding site. Accordingly, covalent linkage of GE to a rifamycin provides a bipartite inhibitor having very high potency and very low susceptibility to target-based resistance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02450.001 PMID:24755292

  11. HIV-1 Integrase Binds the Viral RNA Genome and Is Essential during Virion Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kessl, Jacques J; Kutluay, Sebla B; Townsend, Dana; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Slaughter, Alison; Larue, Ross C; Shkriabai, Nikoloz; Bakouche, Nordine; Fuchs, James R; Bieniasz, Paul D; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka

    2016-08-25

    While an essential role of HIV-1 integrase (IN) for integration of viral cDNA into human chromosome is established, studies with IN mutants and allosteric IN inhibitors (ALLINIs) have suggested that IN can also influence viral particle maturation. However, it has remained enigmatic as to how IN contributes to virion morphogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that IN directly binds the viral RNA genome in virions. These interactions have specificity, as IN exhibits distinct preference for select viral RNA structural elements. We show that IN substitutions that selectively impair its binding to viral RNA result in eccentric, non-infectious virions without affecting nucleocapsid-RNA interactions. Likewise, ALLINIs impair IN binding to viral RNA in virions of wild-type, but not escape mutant, virus. These results reveal an unexpected biological role of IN binding to the viral RNA genome during virion morphogenesis and elucidate the mode of action of ALLINIs.

  12. Identification of an RNA-binding protein that is phosphorylated by PTH and potentially mediates PTH-induced destabilization of Npt2a mRNA.

    PubMed

    Murray, Rebecca D; Merchant, Michael L; Hardin, Ericka; Clark, Barbara; Khundmiri, Syed J; Lederer, Eleanor D

    2016-02-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a key regulator of the expression and function of the type IIa sodium-phosphate cotransporter (Npt2a), the protein responsible for regulated renal phosphate reabsorption. We previously showed that PTH induces rapid decay of Npt2a mRNA through posttranscriptional mechanisms. We hypothesized that PTH-induced changes in RNA-binding protein (RBP) activity mediate the degradation of Npt2a mRNA. To address this aim, we treated opossum kidney (OK) cells, a PTH-sensitive proximal tubule cell culture model, with 100 nM PTH for 30 min and 2 h, followed by mass spectrometry characterization of the PTH-stimulated phosphoproteome. We identified 1,182 proteins differentially phosphorylated in response to PTH, including 68 RBPs. Preliminary analysis identified a phospho-RBP, hnRNPK-homology-type-splicing regulatory protein (KSRP), with predicted binding sites for the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of Npt2a mRNA. Western blot analysis confirmed expression of KSRP in OK cells and showed PTH-dependent translocation to the nucleus. Immunoprecipitation of KSRP from control and PTH-treated cells followed by RNA isolation and RT-quantitative PCR analysis identified Npt2a mRNA from both control and PTH-treated KSRP pulldowns. Knockdown of KSRP followed by PTH treatment showed that KSRP is required for mediating PTH-stimulated reduction in sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 mRNA, but not Npt2a mRNA. We conclude that 1) PTH is a major regulator of both transcription and translation, and 2) KSRP binds Npt2a mRNA but its role in PTH regulation of Npt2a mRNA is not clear.

  13. Thy-1 mRNA destabilization by norepinephrine requires a 3′ UTR cAMP responsive decay element and involves RNA binding proteins1

    PubMed Central

    LaJevic, Melissa D.; Koduvayur, Sujatha P.; Caffrey, Veronique; Cohen, Rhonna L.; Chambers, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Thy-1 is a cell surface protein important in immunologic and neurologic processes, including T cell activation and proliferation, and neuronal outgrowth. In murine thymocytes, Thy-1 is downregulated in response to norepinephrine (NE) through posttranscriptional destabilization of its mRNA mediated by βAR/AC/cAMP/PKA signaling. In this study we investigated factors involved in NE/cAMP mediated Thy-1 mRNA destabilization in S49 thymoma cells, and identified a region containing two copies of the AUUUA regulatory element (ARE), a motif commonly associated with mRNA decay, in the Thy-1 mRNA 3′ UTR. Insertion of the Thy-1 ARE region into a reporter gene, resulted in cAMP induced destabilization of the reporter gene mRNA. RNA-protein binding studies revealed multiple Thy-1 ARE binding proteins, including AUF1, HuR, and TIAR. RNA silencing of HuR enhanced cAMP mediated downregulation of Thy-1 mRNA, in contrast, silencing AUF1 had no effect. Immunoblotting revealed multiple proteins phosphorylated by PKA as a result of NE or cAMP signaling. These results reveal that the machinery of NE/cAMP modulation of Thy-1 mRNA decay involves a cAMP responsive ARE in its 3′ UTR and multiple site specific ARE binding proteins. These findings add to our knowledge of Thy-1 mRNA regulation and provide insight into the regulation of ARE containing mRNAs, which impacts stress-related immunosuppression. PMID:20412850

  14. The QKI-5 and QKI-6 RNA binding proteins regulate the expression of microRNA 7 in glial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunling; Vogel, Gillian; Yu, Zhenbao; Richard, Stéphane

    2013-03-01

    The quaking (qkI) gene encodes 3 major alternatively spliced isoforms that contain unique sequences at their C termini dictating their cellular localization. QKI-5 is predominantly nuclear, whereas QKI-6 is distributed throughout the cell and QKI-7 is cytoplasmic. The QKI isoforms are sequence-specific RNA binding proteins expressed mainly in glial cells modulating RNA splicing, export, and stability. Herein, we identify a new role for the QKI proteins in the regulation of microRNA (miRNA) processing. We observed that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated QKI depletion of U343 glioblastoma cells leads to a robust increase in miR-7 expression. The processing from primary to mature miR-7 was inhibited in the presence QKI-5 and QKI-6 but not QKI-7, suggesting that the nuclear localization plays an important role in the regulation of miR-7 expression. The primary miR-7-1 was bound by the QKI isoforms in a QKI response element (QRE)-specific manner. We observed that the pri-miR-7-1 RNA was tightly bound to Drosha in the presence of the QKI isoforms, and this association was not observed in siRNA-mediated QKI or Drosha-depleted U343 glioblastoma cells. Moreover, the presence of the QKI isoforms led to an increase presence of pri-miR-7 in nuclear foci, suggesting that pri-miR-7-1 is retained in the nucleus by the QKI isoforms. miR-7 is known to target the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR), and indeed, QKI-deficient U343 cells had reduced EGFR expression and decreased ERK activation in response to EGF. Elevated levels of miR-7 are associated with cell cycle arrest, and it was observed that QKI-deficient U343 that harbor elevated levels of miR-7 exhibited defects in cell proliferation that were partially rescued by the addition of a miR-7 inhibitor. These findings suggest that the QKI isoforms regulate glial cell function and proliferation by regulating the processing of certain miRNAs.

  15. RNA-binding Protein Immunoprecipitation (RIP) to Examine AUF1 Binding to Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP) Factor mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Alspach, Elise; Stewart, Sheila A.

    2016-01-01

    Immunoprecipitation and subsequent isolation of nucleic acids allows for the investigation of protein:nucleic acid interactions. RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP) is used for the analysis of protein interactions with mRNA. Combining RIP with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) further enhances the RIP technique by allowing for the quantitative assessment of RNA-binding protein interactions with their target mRNAs, and how these interactions change in different cellular settings. Here, we describe the immunoprecipitation of the RNA-binding protein AUF1 with several different factors associated with the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) (Alspach and Stewart, 2013), specifically IL6 and IL8. This protocol was originally published in Alspach et al. (2014). PMID:27453911

  16. The dsRBP and inactive editor ADR-1 utilizes dsRNA binding to regulate A-to-I RNA editing across the C. elegans transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Michael C; Kakaradov, Boyko; Sundararaman, Balaji; Wheeler, Emily; Hoon, Shawn; Yeo, Gene W; Hundley, Heather A

    2014-02-27

    Inadequate adenosine-to-inosine editing of noncoding regions occurs in disease but is often uncorrelated with ADAR levels, underscoring the need to study deaminase-independent control of editing. C. elegans have two ADAR proteins, ADR-2 and the theoretically catalytically inactive ADR-1. Using high-throughput RNA sequencing of wild-type and adr mutant worms, we expand the repertoire of C. elegans edited transcripts over 5-fold and confirm that ADR-2 is the only active deaminase in vivo. Despite lacking deaminase function, ADR-1 affects editing of over 60 adenosines within the 3' UTRs of 16 different mRNAs. Furthermore, ADR-1 interacts directly with ADR-2 substrates, even in the absence of ADR-2, and mutations within its double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding domains abolish both binding and editing regulation. We conclude that ADR-1 acts as a major regulator of editing by binding ADR-2 substrates in vivo. These results raise the possibility that other dsRNA binding proteins, including the inactive human ADARs, regulate RNA editing through deaminase-independent mechanisms.

  17. RNA-binding protein ZFP36L1 maintains posttranscriptional regulation of bile acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tarling, Elizabeth J; Clifford, Bethan L; Cheng, Joan; Morand, Pauline; Cheng, Angela; Lester, Ellen; Sallam, Tamer; Turner, Martin; de Aguiar Vallim, Thomas Q

    2017-10-02

    Bile acids function not only as detergents that facilitate lipid absorption but also as signaling molecules that activate the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR). FXR agonists are currently being evaluated as therapeutic agents for a number of hepatic diseases due to their lipid-lowering and antiinflammatory properties. FXR is also essential for maintaining bile acid homeostasis and prevents the accumulation of bile acids. Elevated bile acids activate FXR, which in turn switches off bile acid synthesis by reducing the mRNA levels of bile acid synthesis genes, including cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1). Here, we show that FXR activation triggers a rapid posttranscriptional mechanism to degrade Cyp7a1 mRNA. We identified the RNA-binding protein Zfp36l1 as an FXR target gene and determined that gain and loss of function of ZFP36L1 reciprocally regulate Cyp7a1 mRNA and bile acid levels in vivo. Moreover, we found that mice lacking hepatic ZFP36L1 were protected from diet-induced obesity and steatosis. The reduced adiposity and antisteatotic effects observed in ZFP36L1-deficient mice were accompanied by impaired lipid absorption that was consistent with altered bile acid metabolism. Thus, the ZFP36L1-dependent regulation of bile acid metabolism is an important metabolic contributor to obesity and hepatosteatosis.

  18. dsRNA binding protein PACT/RAX in gene silencing, development and diseases

    PubMed Central

    YONG, Yue

    2014-01-01

    PACT (Protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator) and its murine ortholog RAX (PKR-associated protein X) were originally identified as a protein activator for the dsRNA-dependent, interferon-inducible protein kinase (PKR). Endogenous PACT/RAX activates PKR in response to diverse stress signals such as serum starvation, and peroxide or arsenite treatment. PACT/RAX heterodimerized with PKR and activated it with its third motif in the absence of dsRNA. The activation of PKR leads to enhanced eIF2α phosphorylation followed by apoptosis or inhibition of growth. Besides the role of activating PKR, PACT is associated with a ~500 kDa complex that contains Dicer, hAgo2, and TRBP (TAR RNA binding protein) and it associates with Dicer to facilitate the production of small interfering RNA. PACT/RAX plays an important role in diverse physiological and pathological processes. Pact−/− mice exhibit notable developmental abnormalities including microtia, with craniofacial ear, and hearing defects. Pact−/− mice had smaller body sizes and fertility defects, both of which were caused by defective pituitary functions. It was found that dRAX disrupted fly embryos homozygous, displayed highly abnormal commissural axon structure of the central nervous system, and 70% of the flies homozygous for the mutant allele died prior to adulthood. Using high density SNP genotyping arrays, it was found that a mutation in PRKRA (the PACT/RAX gene) is the causative genetic mutation in DYT16, a novel autosomal recessive dystonia-parkinsonism syndrome in Brazilian patients. PMID:25554729

  19. ADAR proteins: double-stranded RNA and Z-DNA binding domains.

    PubMed

    Barraud, Pierre; Allain, Frédéric H-T

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) catalyze adenosine to inosine editing within double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) substrates. Inosine is read as a guanine by most cellular processes and therefore these changes create codons for a different amino acid, stop codons or even a new splice-site allowing protein diversity generated from a single gene. We review here the current structural and molecular knowledge on RNA editing by the ADAR family of protein. We focus especially on two types of nucleic acid binding domains present in ADARs, namely the dsRNA and Z-DNA binding domains.

  20. RNase footprinting of protein binding sites on an mRNA target of small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Peng; Soper, Toby J.; Woodson, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Endoribonuclease footprinting is an important technique for probing RNA•protein interactions with single nucleotide resolution. The susceptibility of RNA residues to enzymatic digestion gives information about the RNA secondary structure, the location of protein binding sites, and the effects of protein binding on the RNA structure. Here we present a detailed protocol for using RNase T2, which cleaves single stranded RNA with a preference for A nucleotides, to footprint the protein Hfq on the rpoS mRNA leader. This protocol covers how to form the RNP complex, determine the correct dose of enzyme, footprint the protein, and analyze the cleavage pattern using primer extension. PMID:22736006

  1. A plant viral coat protein RNA binding consensus sequence contains a crucial arginine.

    PubMed Central

    Ansel-McKinney, P; Scott, S W; Swanson, M; Ge, X; Gehrke, L

    1996-01-01

    A defining feature of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and ilarviruses [type virus: tobacco streak virus (TSV)] is that, in addition to genomic RNAs, viral coat protein is required to establish infection in plants. AMV and TSV coat proteins, which share little primary amino acid sequence identity, are functionally interchangeable in RNA binding and initiation of infection. The lysine-rich amino-terminal RNA binding domain of the AMV coat protein lacks previously identified RNA binding motifs. Here, the AMV coat protein RNA binding domain is shown to contain a single arginine whose specific side chain and position are crucial for RNA binding. In addition, the putative RNA binding domain of two ilarvirus coat proteins, TSV and citrus variegation virus, is identified and also shown to contain a crucial arginine. AMV and ilarvirus coat protein sequence alignment centering on the key arginine revealed a new RNA binding consensus sequence. This consensus may explain in part why heterologous viral RNA-coat protein mixtures are infectious. Images PMID:8890181

  2. siRNA targeting vaccinia virus double-stranded RNA binding protein [E3L] exerts potent antiviral effects.

    PubMed

    Dave, Rajnish S; McGettigan, James P; Qureshi, Tazeen; Schnell, Matthias J; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Pomerantz, Roger J

    2006-05-10

    The Vaccinia virus gene, E3L, encodes a double-stranded RNA [dsRNA]-binding protein. We hypothesized that, owing to the critical nature of dsRNA in triggering host innate antiviral responses, E3L-specific small-interfering RNAs [siRNAs] should be effective antiviral agents against pox viruses, for which Vaccinia virus is an appropriate surrogate. In this study, we have utilized two human cell types, namely, HeLa and 293T, one which responds to interferon [IFN]-beta and the other produces and responds to IFN-beta, respectively. The antiviral effects were equally robust in HeLa and 293T cells. However, in the case of 293T cells, several distinct features were observed, when IFN-beta is activated in these cells. Vaccinia virus replication was inhibited by 97% and 98% as compared to control infection in HeLa and 293T cells transfected with E3L-specific siRNAs, respectively. These studies demonstrate the utility of E3L-specific siRNAs as potent antiviral agents for small pox and related pox viruses.

  3. A Conjugate of Two tPA-Binding RNA Aptamers Efficiently Inhibits Fibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    Bjerregaard, Nils; Dupont, Daniel M; Andreasen, Peter A

    2017-04-01

    Uncontrolled bleeding is a major cause of mortality. Lysine analogues are routinely used in the management of bleeding, but several studies indicate a risk of serious detrimental effects upon their administration. In this study, we report a bivalent conjugate "3218" of two RNA aptamers selected for binding to the serine protease tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), the principal initiator of fibrinolysis in mammals. The constituent monomeric aptamers, K32v2 and K18v2, were previously demonstrated to weakly inhibit fibrinolysis. We now show that K32v2 and K18v2 recognize distinct binding sites, presumably in the A- and B-chain of tPA, respectively. Both aptamers bind tPA with low nanomolar affinity and inhibit tPA-mediated activities in a way that is consistent with the proposed localization of their binding sites. The 3218 conjugate possesses the inhibitory activities of both K32v2 and K18v2 and additionally exhibits increased inhibitory efficiency relative to the monomeric aptamers. The 3218 conjugate proved an efficient inhibitor of fibrinolysis and may find application in the management of bleeding as a substitute for, or in combination with, currently used lysine analogues.

  4. The RNA-binding protein Rumpelstiltskin antagonizes gypsy chromatin insulator function in a tissue-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    King, Matthew R.; Matzat, Leah H.; Dale, Ryan K.; Lim, Su Jun; Lei, Elissa P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chromatin insulators are DNA–protein complexes that are situated throughout the genome that are proposed to contribute to higher-order organization and demarcation into distinct transcriptional domains. Mounting evidence in different species implicates RNA and RNA-binding proteins as regulators of chromatin insulator activities. Here, we identify the Drosophila hnRNP M homolog Rumpelstiltskin (Rump) as an antagonist of gypsy chromatin insulator enhancer-blocking and barrier activities. Despite ubiquitous expression of Rump, decreasing Rump levels leads to improvement of barrier activity only in tissues outside of the central nervous system (CNS). Furthermore, rump mutants restore insulator body localization in an insulator mutant background only in non-CNS tissues. Rump associates physically with core gypsy insulator proteins, and chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing analysis of Rump demonstrates extensive colocalization with a subset of insulator sites across the genome. The genome-wide binding profile and tissue specificity of Rump contrast with that of Shep, a recently identified RNA-binding protein that antagonizes gypsy insulator activity primarily in the CNS. Our findings indicate parallel roles for RNA-binding proteins in mediating tissue-specific regulation of chromatin insulator activity. PMID:24706949

  5. The RNA-binding protein Rumpelstiltskin antagonizes gypsy chromatin insulator function in a tissue-specific manner.

    PubMed

    King, Matthew R; Matzat, Leah H; Dale, Ryan K; Lim, Su Jun; Lei, Elissa P

    2014-07-01

    Chromatin insulators are DNA-protein complexes that are situated throughout the genome that are proposed to contribute to higher-order organization and demarcation into distinct transcriptional domains. Mounting evidence in different species implicates RNA and RNA-binding proteins as regulators of chromatin insulator activities. Here, we identify the Drosophila hnRNP M homolog Rumpelstiltskin (Rump) as an antagonist of gypsy chromatin insulator enhancer-blocking and barrier activities. Despite ubiquitous expression of Rump, decreasing Rump levels leads to improvement of barrier activity only in tissues outside of the central nervous system (CNS). Furthermore, rump mutants restore insulator body localization in an insulator mutant background only in non-CNS tissues. Rump associates physically with core gypsy insulator proteins, and chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing analysis of Rump demonstrates extensive colocalization with a subset of insulator sites across the genome. The genome-wide binding profile and tissue specificity of Rump contrast with that of Shep, a recently identified RNA-binding protein that antagonizes gypsy insulator activity primarily in the CNS. Our findings indicate parallel roles for RNA-binding proteins in mediating tissue-specific regulation of chromatin insulator activity. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. The yeast protein Arc1p binds to tRNA and functions as a cofactor for the methionyl- and glutamyl-tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed Central

    Simos, G; Segref, A; Fasiolo, F; Hellmuth, K; Shevchenko, A; Mann, M; Hurt, E C

    1996-01-01

    Arc1p was found in a screen for components that interact genetically with Los1p, a nuclear pore-associated yeast protein involved in tRNA biogenesis. Arc1p is associated with two proteins which were identified as methionyl-tRNA and glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS and GluRS) by a new mass spectrometry method. ARC1 gene disruption leads to slow growth and reduced MetRS activity, and synthetically lethal arc1- mutants are complemented by the genes for MetRS and GluRS. Recombinant Arc1p binds in vitro to purified monomeric yeast MetRS, but not to an N-terminal truncated form, and strongly increases its apparent affinity for tRNAMet. Furthermore, Arc1p, which is allelic to the quadruplex nucleic acid binding protein G4p1, exhibits specific binding to tRNA as determined by gel retardation and UV-cross-linking. Arc1p is, therefore, a yeast protein with dual specificity: it associates with tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. This functional interaction may be required for efficient aminoacylation in vivo. Images PMID:8895587

  7. Locating the binding sites of antioxidants resveratrol, genistein and curcumin with tRNA.

    PubMed

    N'soukpoé-Kossi, C N; Bourassa, P; Mandeville, J S; Bekale, L; Bariyanga, J; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2015-09-01

    We located the binding sites of antioxidants resveratrol, genistein and curcumin on tRNA in aqueous solution at physiological conditions using constant tRNA concentration and various polyphenol contents. FTIR, UV-visible, CD spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling were used to determine polyphenol binding sites, the binding constant and the effects of polyphenol complexation on tRNA conformation and particle formation. Structural analysis showed that polyphenols bind tRNA via G-C and A-U base pairs through hydrophilic, hydrophobic and H-bonding contacts with overall binding constants of K(res-tRNA)=8.95(±0.80)×10(3) M(-1), K(gen-tRNA)=3.07(±0.5)×10(3) M(-1) and K(cur-tRNA)=1.55(±0.3)×10(4) M(-1). Molecular modeling showed the participation of several nucleobases in polyphenol-tRNA adduct formation with free binding energy of -4.43 for resveratrol, -4.26 kcal/mol for genistein and -4.84 kcal/mol for curcumin, indicating that the interaction process is spontaneous at room temperature. While tRNA remains in A-family structure, major biopolymer aggregation and particle formation occurred at high polyphenol contents.

  8. Nanog RNA-binding proteins YBX1 and ILF3 affect pluripotency of embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chuanliang; Xue, Yan; Yang, Guanheng; Yin, Shang; Shi, Wansheng; Cheng, Yan; Yan, Xiaoshuang; Fan, Shuyue; Zhang, Huijun; Zeng, Fanyi

    2016-08-01

    Nanog is a well-known transcription factor that plays a fundamental role in stem cell self-renewal and the maintenance of their pluripotent cell identity. There remains a large data gap with respect to the spectrum of the key pluripotency transcription factors' interaction partners. Limited information is available concerning Nanog-associated RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), and the intrinsic protein-RNA interactions characteristic of the regulatory activities of Nanog. Herein, we used an improved affinity protocol to purify Nanog-interacting RBPs from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and 49 RBPs of Nanog were identified. Among them, the interaction of YBX1 and ILF3 with Nanog mRNA was further confirmed by in vitro assays, such as Western blot, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), and ex vivo methods, such as immunofluorescence staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), MS2 in vivo biotin-tagged RNA affinity purification (MS2-BioTRAP). Interestingly, RNAi studies revealed that YBX1 and ILF3 positively affected the expression of Nanog and other pluripotency-related genes. Particularly, downregulation of YBX1 or ILF3 resulted in high expression of mesoderm markers. Thus, a reduction in the expression of YBX1 and ILF3 controls the expression of pluripotency-related genes in ESCs, suggesting their roles in further regulation of the pluripotent state of ESCs.

  9. Low-molecular- weight Rauscher leukemia virus protein with preferential binding for single-stranded RNA and DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J; Scherer, M; Tsai, W P; Long, C

    1976-01-01

    A sensitive nitrocellulose filter assay that measures the retention of 125I single-stranded calf thymus DNA has been used to detect and purify DNA-binding proteins that retain a biological function from Rauscher murine leukemia virus. By consecutive purification on oligo (dT)- cellulose and DEAE-Bio-Gel columns and centrifugation in 10 to 30% glycerol gradients, RNA-dependent DNA polymerase has been separated from a second virion DNA-binding protein. The binding of this protein to DNA was strongly affected by NaCl concentration but showed little change in activity over a wide range of temperature or pH. After glycerol gradient purification, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of this protein showed one major band with a molecular weight of approximately 9,800. This protein binds about as well as to single-stranded Escherichia coli or calf thymus DNA or 70S type C viral RNA. The binding to 125I single-stranded calf thymus DNA is very efficiently inhibited by unlabeled single-stranded DNA from either E. coli or calf thymus and by 70S murine or feline viral RNA. Much larger amounts of double-stranded DNA are required to produce an equivalent percentage of inhibition. This protein, therefore, shows preferential binding to single-stranded DNA or viral RNA. Images PMID:58075

  10. Structural Divergence of the Group I Intron Binding Surface in Fungal Mitochondrial Tyrosyl-tRNA Synthetases That Function in RNA Splicing.

    PubMed

    Lamech, Lilian T; Saoji, Maithili; Paukstelis, Paul J; Lambowitz, Alan M

    2016-05-27

    The mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases (mtTyrRSs) of Pezizomycotina fungi, a subphylum that includes many pathogenic species, are bifunctional proteins that both charge mitochondrial tRNA(Tyr) and act as splicing cofactors for autocatalytic group I introns. Previous studies showed that one of these proteins, Neurospora crassa CYT-18, binds group I introns by using both its N-terminal catalytic and C-terminal anticodon binding domains and that the catalytic domain uses a newly evolved group I intron binding surface that includes an N-terminal extension and two small insertions (insertions 1 and 2) with distinctive features not found in non-splicing mtTyrRSs. To explore how this RNA binding surface diverged to accommodate different group I introns in other Pezizomycotina fungi, we determined x-ray crystal structures of C-terminally truncated Aspergillus nidulans and Coccidioides posadasii mtTyrRSs. Comparisons with previous N. crassa CYT-18 structures and a structural model of the Aspergillus fumigatus mtTyrRS showed that the overall topology of the group I intron binding surface is conserved but with variations in key intron binding regions, particularly the Pezizomycotina-specific insertions. These insertions, which arose by expansion of flexible termini or internal loops, show greater variation in structure and amino acids potentially involved in group I intron binding than do neighboring protein core regions, which also function in intron binding but may be more constrained to preserve mtTyrRS activity. Our results suggest a structural basis for the intron specificity of different Pezizomycotina mtTyrRSs, highlight flexible terminal and loop regions as major sites for enzyme diversification, and identify targets for therapeutic intervention by disrupting an essential RNA-protein interaction in pathogenic fungi. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Structure, expression and in vitro functional characterization of a novel RNA binding zinc finger protein from Xenopus.

    PubMed Central

    Köster, M; Kühn, U; Bouwmeester, T; Nietfeld, W; el-Baradi, T; Knöchel, W; Pieler, T

    1991-01-01

    Large multigene families of zinc finger proteins are expressed in vertebrates. One way of approaching their function is to characterize their structure, expression and biochemical properties. XFG 5-1 is a Xenopus zinc finger protein which is widely transcribed in oocytes, embryos and adult tissues. It carries a novel, non-finger repeat structure, which is common to a subfamily of Xenopus zinc finger proteins. The bacterially expressed protein exhibits specific RNA homopolymer binding activities with the zinc finger domain being sufficient for this ability. These findings suggest that XFG 5-1 serves a general biological function involving its RNA binding capacity. Images PMID:1717260

  12. LARP4 mRNA codon-tRNA match contributes to LARP4 activity for ribosomal protein mRNA poly(A) tail length protection

    PubMed Central

    Mattijssen, Sandy; Arimbasseri, Aneeshkumar G; Iben, James R; Gaidamakov, Sergei; Lee, Joowon; Hafner, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Messenger RNA function is controlled by the 3' poly(A) tail (PAT) and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP). La-related protein-4 (LARP4) binds poly(A) and PABP. LARP4 mRNA contains a translation-dependent, coding region determinant (CRD) of instability that limits its expression. Although the CRD comprises <10% of LARP4 codons, the mRNA levels vary >20 fold with synonymous CRD substitutions that accommodate tRNA dynamics. Separately, overexpression of the most limiting tRNA increases LARP4 levels and reveals its functional activity, net lengthening of the PATs of heterologous mRNAs with concomitant stabilization, including ribosomal protein (RP) mRNAs. Genetic deletion of cellular LARP4 decreases PAT length and RPmRNA stability. This LARP4 activity requires its PABP-interaction domain and the RNA-binding module which we show is sensitive to poly(A) 3'-termini, consistent with protection from deadenylation. The results indicate that LARP4 is a posttranscriptional regulator of ribosomal protein production in mammalian cells and suggest that this activity can be controlled by tRNA levels. PMID:28895529

  13. RNA-binding proteins SOP-2 and SOR-1 form a novel PcG-like complex in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Sun, Yinyan; Tian, E; Deng, Hansong; Zhang, Yuxia; Luo, Xin; Cai, Qingchun; Wang, Huayi; Chai, Jijie; Zhang, Hong

    2006-03-01

    We describe the identification and characterization of a novel PcG gene in C. elegans, sor-1, which is involved in global repression of Hox genes. sor-1 encodes a novel protein with an RNA-binding activity. We provide evidence that SOR-1 and the previously identified RNA-binding protein SOP-2 may constitute an RNA-binding complex in Hox gene repression. SOR-1 and SOP-2 directly interact with each other and are colocalized in nuclear bodies. The localization of SOR-1 depends on SOP-2. Surprisingly, homologs of SOR-1 and SOP-2 are not found in other organisms, including the congeneric species C. briggsae, suggesting an unexpected lack of evolutionary constraint on an essential global gene regulatory system.

  14. Short Peptide Nucleic Acids Bind Strongly to Homopurine Tract of Double Helical RNA at pH 5.5

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Zengeya, Thomas; Rozners, Eriks

    2010-01-01

    The important role that non-coding RNA plays in cell biology makes it an attractive target for molecular recognition. However, the discovery of small molecules that bind double helical RNA selectively and may serve as biochemical probes and potential drug leads has been relatively slow. Herein, we show that peptide nucleic acids, as short as six nucleobases, bind very strongly (Ka > 107) and sequence selectively to a homopurine tract of double helical RNA at pH 5.5. The isothermal titration calorimetry and circular dichroism experiments suggest that the binding mode may be a sequence selective triple helix formation. Our results have implications for development of biochemical probes to study function of non-coding RNAs and design of compounds with potential antibacterial and antiviral activity. PMID:20527745

  15. Short peptide nucleic acids bind strongly to homopurine tract of double helical RNA at pH 5.5.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Zengeya, Thomas; Rozners, Eriks

    2010-06-30

    The important role that noncoding RNA plays in cell biology makes it an attractive target for molecular recognition. However, the discovery of small molecules that bind double helical RNA selectively and may serve as biochemical probes and potential drug leads has been relatively slow. Herein, we show that peptide nucleic acids, as short as six nucleobases, bind very strongly (K(a) > 10(7)) and sequence selectively to a homopurine tract of double helical RNA at pH 5.5. The isothermal titration calorimetry and circular dichroism experiments suggest that the binding mode may be a sequence selective triple helix formation. Our results have implications for development of biochemical probes to study function of noncoding RNAs and design of compounds with potential antibacterial and antiviral activity.

  16. Modelling ion binding to AA platform motifs in RNA: a continuum solvent study including conformational adaptation