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Sample records for rna content measured

  1. Evaluating bacterial activity from cell-specific ribosomal RNA content measured with oligonucleotide probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, P.F.; Lee, S.; LaRoche, J.

    1992-10-01

    We describe a procedure for measuring the cell-specific quantity of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and DNA in order to evaluate the frequency distribution of activity among cells. The procedure is inherently quantitative, does not require sample incubation and potentially can be taxon-specific. Fluorescently-labelled oligonucleotide probes are hybridized to the complementary 16S rRNA sequences in preserved, intact cells. The resulting cell fluorescence is proportional to cellular rRNA content and can be measured with a microscope-mounted photometer system, by image analysis, or by flow cytometry. Similarly, DNA content is measured as fluorescence of cells stained with the DNA specific fluorochrome DAPI. These are either prepared as separate samples for purposes of enumeration and DNA measurements, or are dual-labelled cells which are also hybridized with oligonucleotide probes.

  2. Evaluating bacterial activity from cell-specific ribosomal RNA content measured with oligonucleotide probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, P.F.; Lee, S.; LaRoche, J.

    1992-01-01

    We describe a procedure for measuring the cell-specific quantity of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and DNA in order to evaluate the frequency distribution of activity among cells. The procedure is inherently quantitative, does not require sample incubation and potentially can be taxon-specific. Fluorescently-labelled oligonucleotide probes are hybridized to the complementary 16S rRNA sequences in preserved, intact cells. The resulting cell fluorescence is proportional to cellular rRNA content and can be measured with a microscope-mounted photometer system, by image analysis, or by flow cytometry. Similarly, DNA content is measured as fluorescence of cells stained with the DNA specific fluorochrome DAPI. These are either prepared as separate samples for purposes of enumeration and DNA measurements, or are dual-labelled cells which are also hybridized with oligonucleotide probes.

  3. Can we estimate bacterial growth rates from ribosomal RNA content?

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    Several studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between the quantity of RNA in bacterial cells and their growth rate under laboratory conditions. It may be possible to use this relationship to provide information on the activity of natural bacterial communities, and in particular on growth rate. However, if this approach is to provide reliably interpretable information, the relationship between RNA content and growth rate must be well-understood. In particular, a requisite of such applications is that the relationship must be universal among bacteria, or alternately that the relationship can be determined and measured for specific bacterial taxa. The RNA-growth rate relationship has not been used to evaluate bacterial growth in field studies, although RNA content has been measured in single cells and in bulk extracts of field samples taken from coastal environments. These measurements have been treated as probable indicators of bacterial activity, but have not yet been interpreted as estimators of growth rate. The primary obstacle to such interpretations is a lack of information on biological and environmental factors that affect the RNA-growth rate relationship. In this paper, the available data on the RNA-growth rate relationship in bacteria will be reviewed, including hypotheses regarding the regulation of RNA synthesis and degradation as a function of growth rate and environmental factors; i.e. the basic mechanisms for maintaining RNA content in proportion to growth rate. An assessment of the published laboratory and field data, the current status of this research area, and some of the remaining questions will be presented.

  4. Growth rate regulation of rRNA content of a marine Synechococcus (cyanobacterium) strain

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, B.J.; Liu, Y.C.

    1998-09-01

    The relationship between growth rate and rRNA content in a marine Synechococcus strain was examined. A combination of flow cytometry and whole-cell hybridization with fluorescently labeled 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes was used to measure the rRNA content of Synechococcus strain WH8101 cells grown at a range of light-limited growth rates. The sensitivity of this approach was sufficient for the analysis of rRNA even in very slowly growing Synechococcus cells. The relationship between growth rate and cellular rRNA content comprised three phases: (1) at low growth rates, rRNA cell{sup {minus}1} remained approximately constant; (2) at intermediate rates, rRNA cell{sup {minus}1} increased proportionally with growth rate; and (3) at the highest, light-saturated rates, rRNA cell{sup {minus}1} dropped abruptly. Total cellular RNA was well correlated with the probe-based measure of rRNA and varied in a similar manner with growth rate. Mean cell volume and rRNA concentration were related to growth rate in a manner similar to rRNA cell{sup {minus}1}, although the overall magnitude linear increase in ribosome efficiency with increasing growth rate, which is consistent with the prevailing prokaryotic model at low growth rates. Taken together, these results support the notion that measurements of cellular rRNA content might be useful for estimating in situ growth rates in natural Synechococcus populations.

  5. Analysis of the RNA Content of the Yeast "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutch, Charles E.; Marshall, Pamela A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an interconnected set of relatively simple laboratory experiments in which students determine the RNA content of yeast cells and use agarose gel electrophoresis to separate and analyze the major species of cellular RNA. This set of experiments focuses on RNAs from the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae", a…

  6. RNA content in spinal cord motoneurons during hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorbunova, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of a diminished motor activity of rats upon the ribonucleic and (RNA) content in a single isolated motoneuron of frontal of their spinal cord was studied. Within a 1 to 30 day exposure of rats to the hypokinetic conditions, RNA content was found to decrease on the 1st, 3rd, and 5th day and to return to the initial level by the 7th day. No changes in RNA content were observed during the subsequent stages of the xperiments. The volume of the nerve cells declined on the 3rd and 5th day, whereas RNA concentration reduced on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 30th day.

  7. Measuring mRNA Translation by Polysome Profiling.

    PubMed

    Kudla, Marek; Karginov, Fedor V

    2016-01-01

    Determination of mRNA translation rates is essential to understanding the regulatory pathways governing eukaryotic gene expression. In this chapter, we present a transcriptome-wide method to assess translation by association of mRNAs with polysomes on sucrose density gradients. After sedimentation, the fractions are spiked with a control RNA mixture and the RNA content is measured by high-throughput sequencing. Normalization to the spike-ins provides a global quantitative view on the translational status of cellular mRNAs, with the ability to measure changes and identify active and silent subpopulations of each.

  8. Mapping the small RNA content of simian immunodeficiency virions (SIV).

    PubMed

    Brameier, Markus; Ibing, Wiebke; Höfer, Katharina; Montag, Judith; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Motzkus, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that regulatory small non-coding RNAs are not only components of eukaryotic cells and vesicles, but also reside within a number of different viruses including retroviral particles. Using ultra-deep sequencing we have comprehensively analyzed the content of simian immunodeficiency virions (SIV), which were compared to mock-control preparations. Our analysis revealed that more than 428,000 sequence reads matched the SIV mac239 genome sequence. Among these we could identify 12 virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) that were highly abundant. Beside known retrovirus-enriched small RNAs, like 7SL-RNA, tRNA(Lys3) and tRNA(Lys) isoacceptors, we also identified defined fragments derived from small ILF3/NF90-associated RNA snaR-A14, that were enriched more than 50 fold in SIV. We also found evidence that small nucleolar RNAs U2 and U12 were underrepresented in the SIV preparation, indicating that the relative number or the content of co-isolated exosomes was changed upon infection. Our comprehensive atlas of SIV-incorporated small RNAs provides a refined picture of the composition of retrovirions, which gives novel insights into viral packaging. PMID:24086438

  9. Mapping the Small RNA Content of Simian Immunodeficiency Virions (SIV)

    PubMed Central

    Brameier, Markus; Ibing, Wiebke; Höfer, Katharina; Montag, Judith; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Motzkus, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that regulatory small non-coding RNAs are not only components of eukaryotic cells and vesicles, but also reside within a number of different viruses including retroviral particles. Using ultra-deep sequencing we have comprehensively analyzed the content of simian immunodeficiency virions (SIV), which were compared to mock-control preparations. Our analysis revealed that more than 428,000 sequence reads matched the SIV mac239 genome sequence. Among these we could identify 12 virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) that were highly abundant. Beside known retrovirus-enriched small RNAs, like 7SL-RNA, tRNALys3 and tRNALys isoacceptors, we also identified defined fragments derived from small ILF3/NF90-associated RNA snaR-A14, that were enriched more than 50 fold in SIV. We also found evidence that small nucleolar RNAs U2 and U12 were underrepresented in the SIV preparation, indicating that the relative number or the content of co-isolated exosomes was changed upon infection. Our comprehensive atlas of SIV-incorporated small RNAs provides a refined picture of the composition of retrovirions, which gives novel insights into viral packaging. PMID:24086438

  10. RNA content in motor and sensory neurons and surrounding neuroglia of mouse spinal cord under conditions of hypodynamia and following normalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumberg, V. A.; Pevzner, L. Z.

    1979-01-01

    Male white mice were subjected to two and three week hypodynamia and then decapitated. Cytoplasmic RNA content per cell was measured by means of ultraviolet cytospectrometry. Changes in RNA content are shown, and the dynamics of the reparative processes of cells are discussed.

  11. Radar measurement of soil moisture content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of soil moisture on the radar backscattering coefficient was investigated by measuring the 4- to 8-GHz spectral response from two types of bare-soil fields: slightly rough and very rough, in terms of the wavelength. An FM-CW radar system mounted atop a 75-ft truck-mounted boom was used to measure the return at ten frequency points across the 4- to 8-GHz band, at eight different look angles (0 through 70 deg), and for all polarization combinations. A total of 17 sets of data were collected covering the range from 4 to 36% soil moisture content by weight. The results indicate that the radar response to soil moisture content is highly dependent on the surface roughness, microwave frequency, and look angle. The response seems to be linear, however, over the range from 15 to 30% moisture content for all angles, frequencies, polarizations and surface conditions.

  12. Quantitative Measurements of Autobiographical Memory Content

    PubMed Central

    Mainetti, Matteo; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2012-01-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM), subjective recollection of past experiences, is fundamental in everyday life. Nevertheless, characterization of the spontaneous occurrence of AM, as well as of the number and types of recollected details, remains limited. The CRAM (Cue-Recalled Autobiographical Memory) test (http://cramtest.info) adapts and combines the cue-word method with an assessment that collects counts of details recalled from different life periods. The SPAM (Spontaneous Probability of Autobiographical Memories) protocol samples introspection during everyday activity, recording memory duration and frequency. These measures provide detailed, naturalistic accounts of AM content and frequency, quantifying essential dimensions of recollection. AM content (∼20 details/recollection) decreased with the age of the episode, but less drastically than the probability of reporting remote compared to recent memories. AM retrieval was frequent (∼20/hour), each memory lasting ∼30 seconds. Testable hypotheses of the specific content retrieved in a fixed time from given life periods are presented. PMID:23028629

  13. Radar measurement of soil moisture content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of soil moisture on the radar backscattering coefficient was investigated by measuring the 4-8 GHz spectral response from two types of bare-soil fields: slightly rough and very rough, in terms of the wavelength. An FM-CW radar system was used to measure the return at 10 frequency points across the 4-8 GHz band, at different look angles, and for all polarization combinations. The results indicate that the radar response to soil moisture content is highly dependent on the surface roughness, microwave frequency, and look angle. The response seems to be linear over the range 15%-30% moisture content for all angles, frequencies, polarizations and surface conditions.

  14. Whole transcriptome profiling reveals the RNA content of motor axons

    PubMed Central

    Briese, Michael; Saal, Lena; Appenzeller, Silke; Moradi, Mehri; Baluapuri, Apoorva; Sendtner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Most RNAs within polarized cells such as neurons are sorted subcellularly in a coordinated manner. Despite advances in the development of methods for profiling polyadenylated RNAs from small amounts of input RNA, techniques for profiling coding and non-coding RNAs simultaneously are not well established. Here, we optimized a transcriptome profiling method based on double-random priming and applied it to serially diluted total RNA down to 10 pg. Read counts of expressed genes were robustly correlated between replicates, indicating that the method is both reproducible and scalable. Our transcriptome profiling method detected both coding and long non-coding RNAs sized >300 bases. Compared to total RNAseq using a conventional approach our protocol detected 70% more genes due to reduced capture of ribosomal RNAs. We used our method to analyze the RNA composition of compartmentalized motoneurons. The somatodendritic compartment was enriched for transcripts with post-synaptic functions as well as for certain nuclear non-coding RNAs such as 7SK. In axons, transcripts related to translation were enriched including the cytoplasmic non-coding RNA 7SL. Our profiling method can be applied to a wide range of investigations including perturbations of subcellular transcriptomes in neurodegenerative diseases and investigations of microdissected tissue samples such as anatomically defined fiber tracts. PMID:26464439

  15. Whole transcriptome profiling reveals the RNA content of motor axons.

    PubMed

    Briese, Michael; Saal, Lena; Appenzeller, Silke; Moradi, Mehri; Baluapuri, Apoorva; Sendtner, Michael

    2016-02-29

    Most RNAs within polarized cells such as neurons are sorted subcellularly in a coordinated manner. Despite advances in the development of methods for profiling polyadenylated RNAs from small amounts of input RNA, techniques for profiling coding and non-coding RNAs simultaneously are not well established. Here, we optimized a transcriptome profiling method based on double-random priming and applied it to serially diluted total RNA down to 10 pg. Read counts of expressed genes were robustly correlated between replicates, indicating that the method is both reproducible and scalable. Our transcriptome profiling method detected both coding and long non-coding RNAs sized >300 bases. Compared to total RNAseq using a conventional approach our protocol detected 70% more genes due to reduced capture of ribosomal RNAs. We used our method to analyze the RNA composition of compartmentalized motoneurons. The somatodendritic compartment was enriched for transcripts with post-synaptic functions as well as for certain nuclear non-coding RNAs such as 7SK. In axons, transcripts related to translation were enriched including the cytoplasmic non-coding RNA 7SL. Our profiling method can be applied to a wide range of investigations including perturbations of subcellular transcriptomes in neurodegenerative diseases and investigations of microdissected tissue samples such as anatomically defined fiber tracts.

  16. Active microwave measurement of soil water content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Cihlar, J.; Moore, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of radar backscatter from bare soil at 4.7, 5.9, and 7.1 GHz for incident angles of 0-70 deg have been analyzed to determine sensitivity to soil moisture. Because the effective depth of penetration of the radar signal is only about one skin depth, the observed signals were correlated with the moisture in a skin depth as characterized by the attenuation coefficient (reciprocal of skin depth). Since the attenuation coefficient is a monotonically increasing function of moisture density, it may also be used as a measure of moisture content over the distance involved, which varies with frequency and moisture content. The measurements show an approximately linear increase in scattering with attenuation coefficient of the soil at angles within 10 deg of vertical and all frequencies. At 4.7 GHz this increase continues relatively large out to 70 deg incidence, but by 7.1 GHz the sensitivity is much less even at 20 deg and practically gone at 50 deg.

  17. The high content of natural suppressor serine tRNA in dystrophic mouse muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Hitaka, T; Mizutani, T; Watanabe, K; Totsuka, T

    1990-01-01

    In order to gain an insight into the pathogenesis of mouse muscular dystrophy, we investigated the natural suppressor serine tRNA. The natural suppressor seryl-tRNA was distinguished from the other seryl-tRNAs on the basis of its specific property of being converted into phosphoseryl-tRNA by a tRNA kinase. On a wet-weight basis, the content of total tRNA in dystrophic muscles was 47% of that in normal muscles. Although the serine-accepting activities of tRNA were similar in muscles of 3-month-old dystrophic and normal mice, the ratio of [32P]phosphoseryl-tRNA (suppressor tRNA) to the total serine tRNA was significantly enhanced in dystrophic muscles compared with that in normal muscles. This high content of suppressor tRNA in dystrophic muscles was further confirmed by dot-blot hybridization experiments with the DNA probes CGTAGTCGGCAGGAT and CGCCCGAAAGGTGGAA for major tRNA(IGASer) and suppressor tRNA respectively. At the early postnatal age of 3 weeks, when only a week had elapsed since the first manifestation of the dystrophic symptom (hindleg dragging), the ratio of suppressor tRNA to major tRNAs in dystrophic hindleg muscles was abnormally increased. Thereafter it decreased with age in normal mice but remained almost unchanged in dystrophic mice. Consequently, at 3 months old, it was 1.7 times higher in dystrophic than in normal mice. The suppressor tRNA is now accepted to play a role in the synthesis of glutathione peroxidase. The present study showed that the content of this enzyme was abnormally elevated in dystrophic mice. Previously we had demonstrated that the docosahexaenoic (C22:6) acid content in phospholipids was decreased, possibly resulting from the enhanced oxidative milieu caused by the dystrophic condition. Thus far, the findings suggest that an increase in the contents of suppressor tRNA and glutathione peroxidase in dystrophic muscle may have been secondarily induced by such a highly oxidative state in the dystrophic condition. However, it is

  18. Regulation of cardiac myosin synthesis: Studies of RNA content in cultured heart cells

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, P.; Whitaker-Dowling, P.; Klein, I. Cornell Univ., New York, NY )

    1987-11-01

    Contraction regulates the myosin content and the rate of myosin synthesis in cultured neonatal rat heart cells. To further explore the mechanism for this regulation the authors examined various parameters of RNA content and RNA synthesis in contracting versus noncontracting myocytes. While contraction stimulated myosin heavy chain (MHC) synthesis by 72% compared to that of KCl-arrested cells, simultaneous analyses of polysome profiles were no different under the two culture conditions. Incorporation of ({sup 3}H) uridine monophosphate into cellular RNA revealed no change in the rate of total RNA or ribosomal subunits synthesis. In vitro translation of cellular RNA yielded similar incorporation of ({sup 35}S) methionine not trichloroacetic acid precipitable protein. Specific transcription of the MHC gene was examined by dot-blot analysis and was unaltered by contraction. Northern blot analysis of the MHC sequences detected by a cDNA probe revealed an mRNA sequence corresponding to a molecular weight of approximately 30 S. These data suggest that RNA synthesis and RNA content are unaltered by contraction in cultured heart cells and therefore the changes in myosin synthesis may be mediated at a post-transcriptional control level.

  19. Carbon fiber content measurement in composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiushi

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) have been widely used in various structural applications in industries such as aerospace and automotive because of their high specific stiffness and specific strength. Their mechanical properties are strongly influenced by the carbon fiber content in the composites. Measurement of the carbon fiber content in CFRPs is essential for product quality control and process optimization. In this work, a novel carbonization-in-nitrogen method (CIN) is developed to characterize the fiber content in carbon fiber reinforced thermoset and thermoplastic composites. In this method, a carbon fiber composite sample is carbonized in a nitrogen environment at elevated temperatures, alongside a neat resin sample. The carbon fibers are protected from oxidization while the resin (the neat resin and the resin matrix in the composite sample) is carbonized under the nitrogen environment. The residue of the carbonized neat resin sample is used to calibrate the resin carbonization rate and calculate the amount of the resin matrix in the composite sample. The new method has been validated on several thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems and found to yield an accurate measurement of fiber content in carbon fiber polymer composites. In order to further understand the thermal degradation behavior of the high temperature thermoplastic polymer during the carbonization process, the mechanism and the kinetic model of thermal degradation behavior of carbon fiber reinforced poly (phenylene sulfide) (CPPS) are studied using thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The CPPS is subjected to TGA in an air and nitrogen atmosphere at heating rates from 5 to 40°C min--1. The TGA curves obtained in air are different from those in nitrogen. This demonstrates that weight loss occurs in a single stage in nitrogen but in two stages in air. To elucidate this difference, thermal decomposition kinetics is analyzed by applying the Kissinger, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Coat-Redfern and

  20. Effect of restricted mobility on RNA content and nucleotide composition and on protein content in motoneurons of spinal cord anterior horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorbunova, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation into the effect of hypokinesia on the ribonucleic acid (RNA) content, the nucleotide composition, and dynamics of protein content in the motoneuron of the rat spinal cord anterior horns is described. Methodology and findings are presented. The study results showed that the nucleotide composition of the total cellular RNA at all the studied periods of hypokinesia remained unchanged and is characteristic for the cytoplasmic, high polymer ribosomal RNA. This means that with a change in the functional state of the neuron the newly formed RNA of the nerve cell has the same composition of bases as the original RNA that belongs to the ribosomal type.

  1. Changes in mRNA and protein content of SO sub 2 -fumigated maple leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Stinemetz, C.L. ); Roberts, B.R.; Schnipke, V.M. )

    1989-04-01

    The effect of acute SO{sub 2} fumigation on foliar DNA, RNA, and protein levels in 2-yr-old containerized Acer seedlings was examined. While DNA content did not change appreciably in either SO{sub 2}-sensitive red maple (A. rubrum L.) or SO{sub 2}-tolerant silver maple (A. saccharinum L.), significant reductions in mRNA (35% for red maple; 21% for silver maple) were observed after 54 h fumigation (6 h/day {times} 3 days/wk {times} 3 wk) at 2.5 ppm SO{sub 2}. Reductions in mRNA and protein content were accompanied by a corresponding decline in net photosynthesis (Pn). The data from this study suggest that acute SO{sub 2} fumigation alters Pn in red and silver maple by disrupting molecular events, and that species sensitivity for these particular Acer spp may be related to the degree of change associated with mRNA and total protein content.

  2. Measurement of leaf relative water content by infrared reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Rock, Barrett N.; Nobel, Park S.

    1987-01-01

    From basic considerations and Beer's law, a leaf water content index incorporating reflectances of wavelengths from 0.76 to 0.90 microns and from 1.55 to 1.75 microns was developed that relates leaf reflectance to leaf relative water content. For the leaf succulent, Agave deserti, the leaf water content index was not significantly different from the relative water content for either individual leaves or an entire plant. Also, the relative water contents of intact plants of Encelia farinosa and Hilaria rigida in the field were estimated by the leaf water content index; variations in the proportion of living to dead leaf area could cause large errors in the estimate of relative water content. Thus, the leaf water content index may be able to estimate average relative water content of canopies when TM4 and TM5 are measured at a known relative water content and fraction of dead leaf material.

  3. Dissecting the nascent human transcriptome by analysing the RNA content of transcription factories.

    PubMed

    Caudron-Herger, Maïwen; Cook, Peter R; Rippe, Karsten; Papantonis, Argyris

    2015-08-18

    While mapping total and poly-adenylated human transcriptomes has now become routine, characterizing nascent transcripts remains challenging, largely because nascent RNAs have such short half-lives. Here, we describe a simple, fast and cost-effective method to isolate RNA associated with transcription factories, the sites responsible for the majority of nuclear transcription. Following stimulation of human endothelial cells with the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα, we isolate and analyse the RNA content of factories by sequencing. Comparison with total, poly(A)(+) and chromatin RNA fractions reveals that sequencing of purified factory RNA maps the complete nascent transcriptome; it is rich in intronic unprocessed transcript, as well as long intergenic non-coding (lincRNAs) and enhancer-associated RNAs (eRNAs), micro-RNA precursors and repeat-derived RNAs. Hence, we verify that transcription factories produce most nascent RNA and confer a regulatory role via their association with a set of specifically-retained non-coding transcripts.

  4. Investigation of Content, Stoichiometry and Transfer of miRNA from Human Neural Stem Cell Line Derived Exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Stevanato, Lara; Thanabalasundaram, Lavaniya; Vysokov, Nickolai; Sinden, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are small (30–100 nm) membrane vesicles secreted by a variety of cell types and only recently have emerged as a new avenue for cell-to-cell communication. They are natural shuttles of RNA and protein cargo, making them attractive as potential therapeutic delivery vehicles. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs which regulate biological processes and can be found in exosomes. Here we characterized the miRNA contents of exosomes derived from human neural stem cells (hNSCs). Our investigated hNSC line is a clonal, conditionally immortalized cell line, compliant with good manufacturing practice (GMP), and in clinical trials for stroke and critical limb ischemia in the UK (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01151124, NCT02117635, and NCT01916369). By using next generation sequencing (NGS) technology we identified the presence of a variety of miRNAs in both exosomal and cellular preparations. Many of these miRNAs were enriched in exosomes indicating that cells specifically sort them for extracellular release. Although exosomes have been proven to contain miRNAs, the copy number quantification per exosome of a given miRNA remains unclear. Herein we quantified by real-time PCR a highly shuttled exosomal miRNA subtype (hsa-miR-1246) in order to assess its stoichiometry per exosome. Furthermore, we utilized an in vitro system to confirm its functional transfer by measuring the reduction in luciferase expression using a 3’ untranslated region dual luciferase reporter assay. In summary, NGS analysis allowed the identification of a unique set of hNSC derived exosomal miRNAs. Stoichiometry and functional transfer analysis of one of the most abundant identified miRNA, hsa-miR-1246, were measured to support biological relevance of exosomal miRNA delivery. PMID:26752061

  5. Investigation of Content, Stoichiometry and Transfer of miRNA from Human Neural Stem Cell Line Derived Exosomes.

    PubMed

    Stevanato, Lara; Thanabalasundaram, Lavaniya; Vysokov, Nickolai; Sinden, John D

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are small (30-100 nm) membrane vesicles secreted by a variety of cell types and only recently have emerged as a new avenue for cell-to-cell communication. They are natural shuttles of RNA and protein cargo, making them attractive as potential therapeutic delivery vehicles. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs which regulate biological processes and can be found in exosomes. Here we characterized the miRNA contents of exosomes derived from human neural stem cells (hNSCs). Our investigated hNSC line is a clonal, conditionally immortalized cell line, compliant with good manufacturing practice (GMP), and in clinical trials for stroke and critical limb ischemia in the UK (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01151124, NCT02117635, and NCT01916369). By using next generation sequencing (NGS) technology we identified the presence of a variety of miRNAs in both exosomal and cellular preparations. Many of these miRNAs were enriched in exosomes indicating that cells specifically sort them for extracellular release. Although exosomes have been proven to contain miRNAs, the copy number quantification per exosome of a given miRNA remains unclear. Herein we quantified by real-time PCR a highly shuttled exosomal miRNA subtype (hsa-miR-1246) in order to assess its stoichiometry per exosome. Furthermore, we utilized an in vitro system to confirm its functional transfer by measuring the reduction in luciferase expression using a 3' untranslated region dual luciferase reporter assay. In summary, NGS analysis allowed the identification of a unique set of hNSC derived exosomal miRNAs. Stoichiometry and functional transfer analysis of one of the most abundant identified miRNA, hsa-miR-1246, were measured to support biological relevance of exosomal miRNA delivery.

  6. SYBR Green-activated sorting of Arabidopsis pollen nuclei based on different DNA/RNA content.

    PubMed

    Schoft, Vera K; Chumak, Nina; Bindics, János; Slusarz, Lucyna; Twell, David; Köhler, Claudia; Tamaru, Hisashi

    2015-03-01

    Key message: Purification of pollen nuclei. Germ cell epigenetics is a critical topic in plants and animals. The male gametophyte (pollen) of flowering plants is an attractive model to study genetic and epigenetic reprogramming during sexual reproduction, being composed of only two sperm cells contained within, its companion, vegetative cell. Here, we describe a simple and efficient method to purify SYBR Green-stained sperm and vegetative cell nuclei of Arabidopsis thaliana pollen using fluorescence-activated cell sorting to analyze chromatin and RNA profiles. The method obviates generating transgenic lines expressing cell-type-specific fluorescence reporters and facilitates functional genomic analysis of various mutant lines and accessions. We evaluate the purity and quality of the sorted pollen nuclei and analyze the technique's molecular basis. Our results show that both DNA and RNA contents contribute to SYBR Green-activated nucleus sorting and RNA content differences impact on the separation of sperm and vegetative cell nuclei. We demonstrate the power of the approach by sorting wild-type and polyploid mutant sperm and vegetative cell nuclei from mitotic and meiotic mutants, which is not feasible using cell-type-specific transgenic reporters. Our approach should be applicable to pollen nuclei of crop plants and possibly to cell/nucleus types and cell cycle phases of different species containing substantially different amounts of DNA and/or RNA.

  7. Isolation of the protein and RNA content of active sites of transcription from mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Svitlana; Caudron-Herger, Maïwen; Brant, Lilija; Carr, Ian M; Rippe, Karsten; Cook, Peter R; Papantonis, Argyris

    2016-03-01

    Mammalian cell nuclei contain three RNA polymerases (RNAP I, RNAP II and RNAP III), which transcribe different gene subsets, and whose active forms are contained in supramolecular complexes known as 'transcription factories.' These complexes are difficult to isolate because they are embedded in the 3D structure of the nucleus. Factories exchange components with the soluble nucleoplasmic pool over time as gene expression programs change during development or disease. Analysis of their content can provide information on the nascent transcriptome and its regulators. Here we describe a protocol for the isolation of large factory fragments under isotonic salt concentrations in <72 h. It relies on DNase I-mediated detachment of chromatin from the nuclear substructure of freshly isolated, unfixed cells, followed by caspase treatment to release multi-megadalton factory complexes. These complexes retain transcriptional activity, and isolation of their contents is compatible with downstream analyses by mass spectrometry (MS) or RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to catalog the proteins and RNA associated with sites of active transcription. PMID:26914315

  8. 46 CFR 162.050-39 - Measurement of oil content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Measurement of oil content. 162.050-39 Section 162.050-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND... Measurement of oil content. The collection and testing of all samples of oil in water from the required...

  9. 46 CFR 162.050-39 - Measurement of oil content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measurement of oil content. 162.050-39 Section 162.050-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND... Measurement of oil content. The collection and testing of all samples of oil in water from the required...

  10. Efficient measurement of amylose content in cereal grains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid and economical measurement of amylose content in barley is important for genetic study and breeding improvement of this trait. Seventeen genotypes with a wide range of amylose contents were used to compare the amylose measurement accuracy of the cost-effective iodine-potassium iodide (I:KI) me...

  11. 46 CFR 162.050-39 - Measurement of oil content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Measurement of oil content. 162.050-39 Section 162.050... Measurement of oil content. The collection and testing of all samples of oil in water from the required test... oil index-Part 2: Method Using solvent extraction and Gas Chromatography (incorporated by...

  12. 46 CFR 162.050-39 - Measurement of oil content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measurement of oil content. 162.050-39 Section 162.050... Measurement of oil content. The collection and testing of all samples of oil in water from the required test... oil index-Part 2: Method Using solvent extraction and Gas Chromatography (incorporated by...

  13. 46 CFR 162.050-39 - Measurement of oil content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Measurement of oil content. 162.050-39 Section 162.050... Measurement of oil content. The collection and testing of all samples of oil in water from the required test... oil index-Part 2: Method Using solvent extraction and Gas Chromatography (incorporated by...

  14. "Per cell" normalization method for mRNA measurement by quantitative PCR and microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Jun; Aisaki, Ken-ichi; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Ono, Atsushi; Kodama, Yukio; Nagao, Taku

    2006-01-01

    Background Transcriptome data from quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) and DNA microarrays are typically obtained from a fixed amount of RNA collected per sample. Therefore, variations in tissue cellularity and RNA yield across samples in an experimental series compromise accurate determination of the absolute level of each mRNA species per cell in any sample. Since mRNAs are copied from genomic DNA, the simplest way to express mRNA level would be as copy number per template DNA, or more practically, as copy number per cell. Results Here we report a method (designated the "Percellome" method) for normalizing the expression of mRNA values in biological samples. It provides a "per cell" readout in mRNA copy number and is applicable to both quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) and DNA microarray studies. The genomic DNA content of each sample homogenate was measured from a small aliquot to derive the number of cells in the sample. A cocktail of five external spike RNAs admixed in a dose-graded manner (dose-graded spike cocktail; GSC) was prepared and added to each homogenate in proportion to its DNA content. In this way, the spike mRNAs represented absolute copy numbers per cell in the sample. The signals from the five spike mRNAs were used as a dose-response standard curve for each sample, enabling us to convert all the signals measured to copy numbers per cell in an expression profile-independent manner. A series of samples was measured by Q-PCR and Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays using this Percellome method, and the results showed up to 90 % concordance. Conclusion Percellome data can be compared directly among samples and among different studies, and between different platforms, without further normalization. Therefore, "percellome" normalization can serve as a standard method for exchanging and comparing data across different platforms and among different laboratories. PMID:16571132

  15. Measuring Sodium Chloride Contents of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Amount of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles measured in real time by analyzer that includes mass spectrometer. Analyzer used to determine mass distributions of active agents in therapeutic or diagnostic aerosols derived from saline solutions and in analyzing ocean spray. Aerosol particles composed of sodium chloride introduced into oven, where individually vaporized on hot wall. Vapor molecules thermally dissociated, and some of resulting sodium atoms ionized on wall. Ions leave oven in burst and analyzed by spectrometer, which is set to monitor sodium-ion intensity.

  16. Codon usage and tRNA content in unicellular and multicellular organisms.

    PubMed

    Ikemura, T

    1985-01-01

    Choices of synonymous codons in unicellular organisms are here reviewed, and differences in synonymous codon usages between Escherichia coli and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are attributed to differences in the actual populations of isoaccepting tRNAs. There exists a strong positive correlation between codon usage and tRNA content in both organisms, and the extent of this correlation relates to the protein production levels of individual genes. Codon-choice patterns are believed to have been well conserved during the course of evolution. Examination of silent substitutions and tRNA populations in Enterobacteriaceae revealed that the evolutionary constraint imposed by tRNA content on codon usage decelerated rather than accelerated the silent-substitution rate, at least insofar as pairs of taxonomically related organisms were examined. Codon-choice patterns of multicellular organisms are briefly reviewed, and diversity in G+C percentage at the third position of codons in vertebrate genes--as well as a possible causative factor in the production of this diversity--is discussed. PMID:3916708

  17. A path-based measurement for human miRNA functional similarities using miRNA-disease associations.

    PubMed

    Ding, Pingjian; Luo, Jiawei; Xiao, Qiu; Chen, Xiangtao

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the sequence and expression similarity, miRNA functional similarity is so important for biology researches and many applications such as miRNA clustering, miRNA function prediction, miRNA synergism identification and disease miRNA prioritization. However, the existing methods always utilized the predicted miRNA target which has high false positive and false negative to calculate the miRNA functional similarity. Meanwhile, it is difficult to achieve high reliability of miRNA functional similarity with miRNA-disease associations. Therefore, it is increasingly needed to improve the measurement of miRNA functional similarity. In this study, we develop a novel path-based calculation method of miRNA functional similarity based on miRNA-disease associations, called MFSP. Compared with other methods, our method obtains higher average functional similarity of intra-family and intra-cluster selected groups. Meanwhile, the lower average functional similarity of inter-family and inter-cluster miRNA pair is obtained. In addition, the smaller p-value is achieved, while applying Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Kruskal-Wallis test to different miRNA groups. The relationship between miRNA functional similarity and other information sources is exhibited. Furthermore, the constructed miRNA functional network based on MFSP is a scale-free and small-world network. Moreover, the higher AUC for miRNA-disease prediction indicates the ability of MFSP uncovering miRNA functional similarity. PMID:27585796

  18. A path-based measurement for human miRNA functional similarities using miRNA-disease associations

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Pingjian; Luo, Jiawei; Xiao, Qiu; Chen, Xiangtao

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the sequence and expression similarity, miRNA functional similarity is so important for biology researches and many applications such as miRNA clustering, miRNA function prediction, miRNA synergism identification and disease miRNA prioritization. However, the existing methods always utilized the predicted miRNA target which has high false positive and false negative to calculate the miRNA functional similarity. Meanwhile, it is difficult to achieve high reliability of miRNA functional similarity with miRNA-disease associations. Therefore, it is increasingly needed to improve the measurement of miRNA functional similarity. In this study, we develop a novel path-based calculation method of miRNA functional similarity based on miRNA-disease associations, called MFSP. Compared with other methods, our method obtains higher average functional similarity of intra-family and intra-cluster selected groups. Meanwhile, the lower average functional similarity of inter-family and inter-cluster miRNA pair is obtained. In addition, the smaller p-value is achieved, while applying Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Kruskal-Wallis test to different miRNA groups. The relationship between miRNA functional similarity and other information sources is exhibited. Furthermore, the constructed miRNA functional network based on MFSP is a scale-free and small-world network. Moreover, the higher AUC for miRNA-disease prediction indicates the ability of MFSP uncovering miRNA functional similarity. PMID:27585796

  19. A path-based measurement for human miRNA functional similarities using miRNA-disease associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Pingjian; Luo, Jiawei; Xiao, Qiu; Chen, Xiangtao

    2016-09-01

    Compared with the sequence and expression similarity, miRNA functional similarity is so important for biology researches and many applications such as miRNA clustering, miRNA function prediction, miRNA synergism identification and disease miRNA prioritization. However, the existing methods always utilized the predicted miRNA target which has high false positive and false negative to calculate the miRNA functional similarity. Meanwhile, it is difficult to achieve high reliability of miRNA functional similarity with miRNA-disease associations. Therefore, it is increasingly needed to improve the measurement of miRNA functional similarity. In this study, we develop a novel path-based calculation method of miRNA functional similarity based on miRNA-disease associations, called MFSP. Compared with other methods, our method obtains higher average functional similarity of intra-family and intra-cluster selected groups. Meanwhile, the lower average functional similarity of inter-family and inter-cluster miRNA pair is obtained. In addition, the smaller p-value is achieved, while applying Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Kruskal-Wallis test to different miRNA groups. The relationship between miRNA functional similarity and other information sources is exhibited. Furthermore, the constructed miRNA functional network based on MFSP is a scale-free and small-world network. Moreover, the higher AUC for miRNA-disease prediction indicates the ability of MFSP uncovering miRNA functional similarity.

  20. Rapid Measurement Of Asbestos Content Of Building Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, James R.; Grove, Cindy I.; Hoover, Gordon L.; Stephens, James B.

    1994-01-01

    Portable instrument measures asbestos content of construction materials in place. Helps building renovators determine, quickly and accurately, whether asbestos is present. Concept readily adapted to special-purpose, battery-powered instrument. Contractor using such instrument could obtain reliable information on asbestos content in minutes.

  1. MicroRNA Stability in FFPE Tissue Samples: Dependence on GC Content

    PubMed Central

    Kakimoto, Yu; Tanaka, Masayuki; Kamiguchi, Hiroshi; Ochiai, Eriko; Osawa, Motoki

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs responsible for fine-tuning of gene expression at post-transcriptional level. The alterations in miRNA expression levels profoundly affect human health and often lead to the development of severe diseases. Currently, high throughput analyses, such as microarray and deep sequencing, are performed in order to identify miRNA biomarkers, using archival patient tissue samples. MiRNAs are more robust than longer RNAs, and resistant to extreme temperatures, pH, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedding (FFPE) process. Here, we have compared the stability of miRNAs in FFPE cardiac tissues using next-generation sequencing. The mode read length in FFPE samples was 11 nucleotides (nt), while that in the matched frozen samples was 22 nt. Although the read counts were increased 1.7-fold in FFPE samples, compared with those in the frozen samples, the average miRNA mapping rate decreased from 32.0% to 9.4%. These results indicate that, in addition to the fragmentation of longer RNAs, miRNAs are to some extent degraded in FFPE tissues as well. The expression profiles of total miRNAs in two groups were highly correlated (0.88 RNA was different depending on the GC content (p<0.0001). The unequal degradation of each miRNA affected the abundance ranking in the library, and miR-133a was shown to be the most abundant in FFPE cardiac tissues instead of miR-1, which was predominant before fixation. Subsequent quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses revealed that miRNAs with GC content of less than 40% are more degraded than GC-rich miRNAs (p<0.0001). We showed that deep sequencing data obtained using FFPE samples cannot be directly compared with that of fresh frozen samples. The combination of miRNA deep sequencing and other quantitative analyses, such as qPCR, may improve the utility of archival FFPE tissue samples. PMID:27649415

  2. MicroRNA Stability in FFPE Tissue Samples: Dependence on GC Content.

    PubMed

    Kakimoto, Yu; Tanaka, Masayuki; Kamiguchi, Hiroshi; Ochiai, Eriko; Osawa, Motoki

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs responsible for fine-tuning of gene expression at post-transcriptional level. The alterations in miRNA expression levels profoundly affect human health and often lead to the development of severe diseases. Currently, high throughput analyses, such as microarray and deep sequencing, are performed in order to identify miRNA biomarkers, using archival patient tissue samples. MiRNAs are more robust than longer RNAs, and resistant to extreme temperatures, pH, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedding (FFPE) process. Here, we have compared the stability of miRNAs in FFPE cardiac tissues using next-generation sequencing. The mode read length in FFPE samples was 11 nucleotides (nt), while that in the matched frozen samples was 22 nt. Although the read counts were increased 1.7-fold in FFPE samples, compared with those in the frozen samples, the average miRNA mapping rate decreased from 32.0% to 9.4%. These results indicate that, in addition to the fragmentation of longer RNAs, miRNAs are to some extent degraded in FFPE tissues as well. The expression profiles of total miRNAs in two groups were highly correlated (0.88 RNA was different depending on the GC content (p<0.0001). The unequal degradation of each miRNA affected the abundance ranking in the library, and miR-133a was shown to be the most abundant in FFPE cardiac tissues instead of miR-1, which was predominant before fixation. Subsequent quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses revealed that miRNAs with GC content of less than 40% are more degraded than GC-rich miRNAs (p<0.0001). We showed that deep sequencing data obtained using FFPE samples cannot be directly compared with that of fresh frozen samples. The combination of miRNA deep sequencing and other quantitative analyses, such as qPCR, may improve the utility of archival FFPE tissue samples. PMID:27649415

  3. A Sensitive Measurement for Estimating Impressions of Image-Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Mie; Matouge, Shingo; Mori, Toshifumi; Suzuki, Noboru; Kasuga, Masao

    We have investigated Kansei Content that appeals maker's intention to viewer's kansei. An SD method is a very good way to evaluate subjective impression of image-contents. However, because the SD method is performed after subjects view the image-contents, it is difficult to examine impression of detailed scenes of the image-contents in real time. To measure viewer's impression of the image-contents in real time, we have developed a Taikan sensor. With the Taikan sensor, we investigate relations among the image-contents, the grip strength and the body temperature. We also explore the interface of the Taikan sensor to use it easily. In our experiment, a horror movie is used that largely affects emotion of the subjects. Our results show that there is a possibility that the grip strength increases when the subjects view a strained scene and that it is easy to use the Taikan sensor without its circle base that is originally installed.

  4. Measuring pulp consistency and fines content with a streak camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarela, J.; Törmänen, M.; Myllylä, R.

    2003-10-01

    The problem of determining the fines content of pulp in cases where consistency is not known remains to be solved. We explored the hypothesis that this problem may be solved by studying shape changes in a laser pulse after it has travelled through the pulp. A matrix was constructed of pulp samples with consistencies varying from 0 to 1.5% by increments of 0.2% and fines contents varying from 0 to 50% by 10% increments. A streak camera was used to record three pulses simultaneously. The first was a reference pulse, which was used to calibrate the measurement pulses. The second was a pulse measured at an angle of 90° to the straight light path. The third was the straight path pulse. Different fines contents form their own lines on consistency-maximum power graphs and consistency-time of 50% power fall graphs. When transmitted power is plotted against time of 50% power fall the lines representing different fines contents cross each other. These results indicate that the fines content and consistency can be measured in some cases with a single measurement. Also, if water is added in a controlled manner, measurement of the lowering in consistency allows the original consistency and fines content to be determined.

  5. Novel Positive-Sense, Single-Stranded RNA (+ssRNA) Virus with Di-Cistronic Genome from Intestinal Content of Freshwater Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Pankovics, Péter; Simmonds, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A novel positive-sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus (Halastavi árva RNA virus, HalV; JN000306) with di-cistronic genome organization was serendipitously identified in intestinal contents of freshwater carps (Cyprinus carpio) fished by line-fishing from fishpond “Lőrinte halastó” located in Veszprém County, Hungary. The complete nucleotide (nt) sequence of the genomic RNA is 9565 nt in length and contains two long - non-in-frame - open reading frames (ORFs), which are separated by an intergenic region. The ORF1 (replicase) is preceded by an untranslated sequence of 827 nt, while an untranslated region of 139 nt follows the ORF2 (capsid proteins). The deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of the ORFs showed only low (less than 32%) and partial similarity to the non-structural (2C-like helicase, 3C-like cystein protease and 3D-like RNA dependent RNA polymerase) and structural proteins (VP2/VP4/VP3) of virus families in Picornavirales especially to members of the viruses with dicistronic genome. Halastavi árva RNA virus is present in intestinal contents of omnivorous freshwater carps but the origin and the host species of this virus remains unknown. The unique viral sequence and the actual position indicate that Halastavi árva RNA virus seems to be the first member of a new di-cistronic ssRNA virus. Further studies are required to investigate the specific host species (and spectrum), ecology and role of Halastavi árva RNA virus in the nature. PMID:22195010

  6. Modulation of metallothionein-III mRNA content and growth rate of rat C6-glial cells by transfection with human 5-HT1D receptor genes.

    PubMed

    Amoureux, M C; Wurch, T; Pauwels, P J

    1995-09-14

    The mRNA content of the brain-specific metallothionein-III (MT-III) protein was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in two transformed glial cell lines: rat C6-glial and human U-373 MG cells. Low levels of MT-III mRNA were detected compared to a high expression of this mRNA in primary cultures of rat astrocytes. C6-glial cell lines stably transfected with a human 5-HT1D alpha or 5-HT1D beta receptor gene showed a decrease (87 to 93%) in basal [3H]thymidine incorporation, whereas their MT-III mRNA content was more than 30-fold increased compared to plasmid transfected C6-glial cells. The inverse proportion between mitogenic activity and MT-III mRNA content suggests that MT-III may act as a growth inhibitory factor in rat C6-glial cells. PMID:7677777

  7. Measurement of soil water content with dielectric dispersion frequency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) is an inexpensive and attractive methodology for repeated measurements of soil water content (SWC). Although there are some known measurement limitations for dry soil and sand, a fixed-frequency method is commonly employed using commercially available FDR probes....

  8. Measurement of Moisture Content in Sand, Slag, and Crucible Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.H.

    1999-09-20

    The deinventory process at Rocky Flats (RFETS) has included moisture content measurements of sand, slag, and crucible (SSC) materials by performing weight loss measurements at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius on representative samples prior to packaging for shipment. Shipping requirements include knowledge of the moisture content. Work at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) showed that the measurement at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius did not account for all of the moisture. The objective of the work in this report was to determine if the measurement at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius at RFETS could be used to set upper bounds on moisture content and therefore, eliminate the need for RFETS to unpack, reanalyze and repack the material.

  9. Developmental changes of the FAS and HSL mRNA expression and their effects on the content of intramuscular fat in Kazak and Xinjiang sheep.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yong; Huang, Zhiguo; Li, Qifa; Liu, Zhenshan; Hao, Chengli; Shi, Guoqing; Dai, Rong; Xie, Zhuang

    2007-10-01

    Twenty-four male Kazak sheep and 30 Xinjiang fine wool sheep at different ages were selected to investigate the development-dependent expression levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) gene in muscle and their effects on the contents of intramuscular fat (IMF). Longissimus dorsal muscle was sampled to measure IMF and total RNA was extracted to determine FAS and HSL mRNA expression levels by real-time PCR. The results showed that: 1) The IMF content increased continuously with growth and showed significant differences (P < 0.05) between different age groups in male Kazak sheep, but in Xinjiang fine wool sheep there was no such difference observed. Furthermore, the IMF contents in Kazak were much higher (P < 0.01) than that of the other breed from day 30 to 90. 2) FAS mRNA expression level was the highest (P < 0.05) on day 0 in Kazak sheep and then declined with growth, in the other breed the gene showed a 'decline-rise-decline-rise' expression manner as the animals grew. HSL mRNA expression level had a similar model in two breeds, in Kazak sheep it was the highest on day 0 (P < 0.05) and in Xinjiang fine wool sheep on day 30 (P < 0.01), then both decreased after this term. 3) In male Kazak sheep, FAS and HSL mRNA expression level were both negatively related to IMF content (r = -0.485 (P = 0.02), r = -0.423 (P = 0.05)), and the ratio of FAS/HSL expression exhibited significantly negatively related IMF contents. In male Xinjiang sheep, there were no obvious relationship between FAS and HSL expression and IMF content (P > 0.05).

  10. Rotational invariant similarity measurement for content-based image indexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ro, Yong M.; Yoo, Kiwon

    2000-04-01

    We propose a similarity matching technique for contents based image retrieval. The proposed technique is invariant from rotated images. Since image contents for image indexing and retrieval would be arbitrarily extracted from still image or key frame of video, the rotation invariant property of feature description of image is important for general application of contents based image indexing and retrieval. In this paper, we propose a rotation invariant similarity measurement in cooperating with texture featuring base on HVS. To simplify computational complexity, we employed hierarchical similarity distance searching. To verify the method, experiments with MPEG-7 data set are performed.

  11. High-content, full genome siRNA screen for regulators of oncogenic HRAS-driven macropinocytosis.

    PubMed

    Fennell, Myles; Commisso, Cosimo; Ramirez, Craig; Garippa, Ralph; Bar-Sagi, Dafna

    2015-09-01

    Uptake of nutrients, such as glucose and amino acids, is critical to support cell growth and is typically mediated by cell surface transporters. An alternative mechanism for the bulk uptake of nutrients from the extracellular space is macropinocytosis, a nonclathrin, and nonreceptor-mediated endocytic process, in which extracellular fluid is taken up into large intracellular vesicles called macropinosomes. Oncogenic transformation leads to the increased metabolic activity of tumor cells, and in the Ras-driven tumor part of this enhanced activity is the stimulation of macropinocytosis. To measure oncogene-dependent macropinocytosis, we used HeLa cells expressing oncogenic HRAS(G12D) driven from a Tet-regulated promoter. Upon oncogenic HRAS expression, the cells undergo metabolic changes that include the elevation of macropinocytosis. We detected macropinocytosis through the uptake of lysine-fixable tetramethyl rhodamine (TMR)-Dextran (70 kDa) from the cell media into nascent intracellular macropinosomes. These macropinosomes were quantified by image-based high-content analysis, with the size, intensity, and position of macropinosomes measured. Using this model system, we ran a full genome-wide siRNA screen (siGenome™; GE) to identify genes involved in controlling oncogenic HRAS-dependent macropinocytosis. Hits from the primary screen were confirmed with siRNA reagents from a different library (GE, OTP), which allowed us to mitigate potential off-target effects. Candidate genes from this screen include known regulators of macropinocytosis as well as novel targets.

  12. Improved measurements of RNA structure conservation with generalized centroid estimators.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yohei; Saito, Yutaka; Sato, Kengo; Sakakibara, Yasubumi

    2011-01-01

    Identification of non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in genomes is a crucial task for not only molecular cell biology but also bioinformatics. Secondary structures of ncRNAs are employed as a key feature of ncRNA analysis since biological functions of ncRNAs are deeply related to their secondary structures. Although the minimum free energy (MFE) structure of an RNA sequence is regarded as the most stable structure, MFE alone could not be an appropriate measure for identifying ncRNAs since the free energy is heavily biased by the nucleotide composition. Therefore, instead of MFE itself, several alternative measures for identifying ncRNAs have been proposed such as the structure conservation index (SCI) and the base pair distance (BPD), both of which employ MFE structures. However, these measurements are unfortunately not suitable for identifying ncRNAs in some cases including the genome-wide search and incur high false discovery rate. In this study, we propose improved measurements based on SCI and BPD, applying generalized centroid estimators to incorporate the robustness against low quality multiple alignments. Our experiments show that our proposed methods achieve higher accuracy than the original SCI and BPD for not only human-curated structural alignments but also low quality alignments produced by CLUSTAL W. Furthermore, the centroid-based SCI on CLUSTAL W alignments is more accurate than or comparable with that of the original SCI on structural alignments generated with RAF, a high quality structural aligner, for which twofold expensive computational time is required on average. We conclude that our methods are more suitable for genome-wide alignments which are of low quality from the point of view on secondary structures than the original SCI and BPD.

  13. Comparison of Protamine 1 to Protamine 2 mRNA Ratio and YBX2 gene mRNA Content in Testicular Tissue of Fertile and Azoospermic Men

    PubMed Central

    Moghbelinejad, Sahar; Najafipour, Reza; Hashjin, Amir Samimi

    2015-01-01

    Background Although aberrant protamine (PRM) ratios have been observed in infertile men, the mechanisms that implicit the uncoupling of PRM1 and PRM2 expression remain unclear. To uncover these mechanisms, in this observational study we have compared the PRM1/PRM2 mRNA ratio and mRNA contents of two regulatory factors of these genes. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, sampling was performed by a multi-step method from 50 non-obstructive azoospermic and 12 normal men. After RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT- QPCR) was used to analyze the PRM1, PRM2, Y box binding protein 2 (YBX2) and JmjC-containing histone demethylase 2a (JHDM2A) genes in testicular biopsies of the studied samples. Results The PRM1/PRM2 mRNA ratio differed significantly among studied groups, namely 0.21 ± 0.13 in azoospermic samples and -0.8 ± 0.22 in fertile samples. The amount of PRM2 mRNA, significantly reduced in azoospermic patients. Azoospermic men exhibited significant under expression of YBX2 gene compared to controls (P<0.001). mRNA content of this gene showed a positive correlation with PRM mRNA ratio (R=0.6, P=0.007). JHDM2A gene expression ratio did not show any significant difference between the studied groups (P=0.3). We also observed no correlation between JHDM2A mRNA content and the PRM mRNA ratio (R=0.2, P=0.3). Conclusion We found significant correlation between the aberrant PRM ratio (PRM2 under expression) and lower YBX2 mRNA content in testicular biopsies of azoospermic men compared to controls, which suggested that downregulation of the YBX2 gene might be involved in PRM2 under expression. These molecules could be useful biomarkers for predicting male infertility. PMID:26644857

  14. Microwave measurements of the water content of bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Latorre, V.R.; Glenn, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of operation of microwave coaxial resonators is described. Sample preparation and the application of resonator techniques to the measurement of the permittivity (dielectric constant) of bentonite is discussed. The results indicate a fairly linear change in resonant frequency for saturation levels at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90%. The results clearly demonstrate that this microwave technique is a viable method for measuring water content of soils. A discussion of additional applications of microwave methods for determining water content in materials is presented. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Evaluation of the information content of RNA structure mapping data for secondary structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Quarrier, Scott; Martin, Joshua S; Davis-Neulander, Lauren; Beauregard, Arthur; Laederach, Alain

    2010-06-01

    Structure mapping experiments (using probes such as dimethyl sulfate [DMS], kethoxal, and T1 and V1 RNases) are used to determine the secondary structures of RNA molecules. The process is iterative, combining the results of several probes with constrained minimum free-energy calculations to produce a model of the structure. We aim to evaluate whether particular probes provide more structural information, and specifically, how noise in the data affects the predictions. Our approach involves generating "decoy" RNA structures (using the sFold Boltzmann sampling procedure) and evaluating whether we are able to identify the correct structure from this ensemble of structures. We show that with perfect information, we are always able to identify the optimal structure for five RNAs of known structure. We then collected orthogonal structure mapping data (DMS and RNase T1 digest) under several solution conditions using our high-throughput capillary automated footprinting analysis (CAFA) technique on two group I introns of known structure. Analysis of these data reveals the error rates in the data under optimal (low salt) and suboptimal solution conditions (high MgCl(2)). We show that despite these errors, our computational approach is less sensitive to experimental noise than traditional constraint-based structure prediction algorithms. Finally, we propose a novel approach for visualizing the interaction of chemical and enzymatic mapping data with RNA structure. We project the data onto the first two dimensions of a multidimensional scaling of the sFold-generated decoy structures. We are able to directly visualize the structural information content of structure mapping data and reconcile multiple data sets.

  16. Evaluation of the information content of RNA structure mapping data for secondary structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Quarrier, Scott; Martin, Joshua S; Davis-Neulander, Lauren; Beauregard, Arthur; Laederach, Alain

    2010-06-01

    Structure mapping experiments (using probes such as dimethyl sulfate [DMS], kethoxal, and T1 and V1 RNases) are used to determine the secondary structures of RNA molecules. The process is iterative, combining the results of several probes with constrained minimum free-energy calculations to produce a model of the structure. We aim to evaluate whether particular probes provide more structural information, and specifically, how noise in the data affects the predictions. Our approach involves generating "decoy" RNA structures (using the sFold Boltzmann sampling procedure) and evaluating whether we are able to identify the correct structure from this ensemble of structures. We show that with perfect information, we are always able to identify the optimal structure for five RNAs of known structure. We then collected orthogonal structure mapping data (DMS and RNase T1 digest) under several solution conditions using our high-throughput capillary automated footprinting analysis (CAFA) technique on two group I introns of known structure. Analysis of these data reveals the error rates in the data under optimal (low salt) and suboptimal solution conditions (high MgCl(2)). We show that despite these errors, our computational approach is less sensitive to experimental noise than traditional constraint-based structure prediction algorithms. Finally, we propose a novel approach for visualizing the interaction of chemical and enzymatic mapping data with RNA structure. We project the data onto the first two dimensions of a multidimensional scaling of the sFold-generated decoy structures. We are able to directly visualize the structural information content of structure mapping data and reconcile multiple data sets. PMID:20413617

  17. Changes in tRNA methyltransferase activity and cellular S-adenosylmethionine content following methionine deprivation.

    PubMed

    Tisdale, M J

    1980-09-19

    Although homocysteine was unable to support growth of Walker carcinoma in media lacking methionine it did enable some proliferation of TLX5 lymphoma. In both cell lines there was an increase in growth rate in the presence of homocysteine at limiting methionine concentrations. The proliferation rate of Walker carcinoma was proportional to the methionine concentraion of the medium down to 0.5 microgram/ml, whereas growth of TLX5 lymphoma was only slightly reduced at such methionine concentrations. The difference in proliferative ability between the two cell lines was reflected in the level of S-adenosyl-L-methionine under conditions of methionine deprivation. In both cases transferance to a media in which methionine was growth limiting caused a rapid increase in the activity of tRNA methyltransferases to levels six to seven-fold greater than the control. The initial increase in methylase activity was not prevented by cycloheximide, although after 4 h there was a progressive decrease in activity which approached control values within 24 h. The increase in tRNA methyltransferase activity on removal of the normal level of methionine in the medium was also seen with human embryonic fibroblasts, which are able to proliferate normally in methionine-deficient, homocysteine-supplemented media. These results suggest that methyltransferase activity may be regulated in part by the S-adenosyl-methionine content of the cell.

  18. The effect of sequences with high AU content on mRNA stability in tobacco.

    PubMed Central

    Ohme-Takagi, M; Taylor, C B; Newman, T C; Green, P J

    1993-01-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms that target transcripts for rapid degradation in plants. In mammalian cells, sequences with a high AU content and multiple AUUUA motifs have been shown to cause mRNA instability when present in the 3' untranslated regions of several transcripts. This precedent, coupled with the poor accumulation of AU-rich foreign transcripts in plants (e.g., BT-toxin mRNAs), prompted us to test whether AU sequences could destabilize transcripts in tobacco. To address this question, we made a set of constructs containing sequences with high AU content inserted into the 3' untranslated regions of reporter genes. The stability of the corresponding transcripts was then assayed in stably transformed cell lines of tobacco. These experiments showed that a 60-base sequence containing 11 copies of the AUUUA motif (AUUUA repeat) markedly destabilized a beta-glucuronidase reporter transcript compared to a no-insert control or a 60-base spacer sequence (GC control). Another sequence with an identical A+U content had little effect. The same results were obtained when each sequence was assayed within the 3' untranslated region of a beta-globin reporter transcript. In regenerated transgenic plants, the AUUUA repeat decreased the accumulation of the beta-globin transcript by approximately 14-fold, compared to the GC control. Taken together, our results indicate that the AUUUA repeat is recognized as an instability determinant in plant cells and that the effect is due to the sequence of the element, not simply to the high AU content. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8265631

  19. Use of RNA polymerase molecular beacon assay to measure RNA polymerase interactions with model promoter fragments.

    PubMed

    Mekler, Vladimir; Severinov, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    RNA polymerase-promoter interactions that keep the transcription initiation complex together are complex and multipartite, and formation of the RNA polymerase-promoter complex proceeds through multiple intermediates. Short promoter fragments can be used as a tool to dissect RNA polymerase-promoter interactions and to pinpoint elements responsible for specific properties of the entire promoter complex. A recently developed fluorometric molecular beacon assay allows one to monitor the enzyme interactions with various DNA probes and quantitatively characterize partial RNA polymerase-promoter interactions. Here, we present detailed protocols for the preparation of an Escherichia coli molecular beacon and its application to study RNA polymerase interactions with model promoter fragments.

  20. Development of microcoulometry for measuring oxygen content in copper oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Fumiaki; Fujihara, Masaaki; Komiyama, Naokazu; Kambe, Shiro; Ishii, Osamu

    2005-12-01

    A microcoulometry system was developed and employed for measuring the oxygen content in copper oxides using a reduced amount of material. To achieve this reduction in sample size, Ar flow rate, and coulometric current were optimized. When using 5.0 mg of YBa2Cu3O6.71, which is about one-tenth of the amount used in conventional coulometry, the oxygen content was determined to be 6.68±0.03 in the optimized conditions that Ar flow rate, and coulometric current were 0.1l/min and 1.0 mA, respectively. This method will be useful for measuring the oxygen content of oxide samples smaller than 10 mg, i.e., oxide materials produced in small quantities for electronic applications.

  1. RNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darnell, James E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) converts genetic information into protein and usually must be processed to serve its function. RNA types, chemical structure, protein synthesis, translation, manufacture, and processing are discussed. Concludes that the first genes might have been spliced RNA and that humans might be closer than bacteria to primitive…

  2. Dielectric measurement of cerebral water content using a Network Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Kramer, G G; Cardoso, E R; Shwedyk, E

    1992-06-01

    At present, no practical method exists for monitoring the progression and severity of cerebral oedema in a clinical setting on a continuous basis. In search for such a method, we investigated the electrical characteristics of cerebral tissue at microwave frequencies to quantify cerebral oedema. The dielectric constants of normal and oedematous canine cerebral white matter were measured using a Network Analyzer and then compared to the tissue's water content. In addition, salt infiltration and time elapsed after excision of the tissue were examined to determine their effects on the measurements. The water content and dielectric constant of the white matter were linearly related (correlation coefficient, r = 0.903), comparable to results obtained with a Time Domain Reflectometer in previous research. The Network Analyzer, however, is a more robust measurement device and, because of this, can potentially be used for long term measurements. Further, it was found that neither an increased tissue salt content nor the amount of time after excision of the tissue significantly affected the results. This indicates that the dielectric constant of cerebral white matter is mainly a function of the tissue's water content.

  3. Information Theoretic Similarity Measures for Content Based Image Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachary, John; Iyengar, S. S.

    2001-01-01

    Content-based image retrieval is based on the idea of extracting visual features from images and using them to index images in a database. Proposes similarity measures and an indexing algorithm based on information theory that permits an image to be represented as a single number. When used in conjunction with vectors, this method displays…

  4. Measurements of the kaon content in tau decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronan, Michael T.

    1992-02-01

    Results on measurements of the kaon content in one-prong and three-prong τ decays are presented for data taken by the TPC/2γ detector at PEP. Using a self-consistent procedure to measure exclusive and inclusive decays, the one-prong analysis extends previous work to kaon decay modes. Three-prong results Kππ, Kπ and KKK decay modes provide improved branching ratios and a first look at strange axial-vector couplings in τ decays.

  5. RNA Interference

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIGMS Home > Science Education > RNA Interference Fact Sheet RNA Interference Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is RNA interference? RNA interference (RNAi) is a natural process ...

  6. Assessing the ceRNA hypothesis with quantitative measurements of miRNA and target abundance

    PubMed Central

    Denzler, Rémy; Agarwal, Vikram; Stefano, Joanna; Bartel, David P; Stoffel, Markus

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent studies have reported that competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) can act as sponges for a microRNA (miRNA) through their binding sites and that changes in ceRNA abundances from individual genes can modulate the miRNA’s activity. Consideration of this hypothesis would benefit from knowing the quantitative relationship between a miRNA and its endogenous target sites. Here, we altered intracellular target-site abundance through expression of a miR-122 target in hepatocytes and livers, and analyzed the effects on miR-122 target genes. Target repression was released in a threshold-like manner at high target-site abundance (≥1.5×105 added target sites per cell), and this threshold was insensitive to the effective levels of the miRNA. Furthermore, in response to extreme metabolic liver disease models, global target-site abundance of hepatocytes did not change sufficiently to affect miRNA-mediated repression. Thus, modulation of miRNA target abundance is unlikely to cause significant effects on gene expression and metabolism through a ceRNA effect. PMID:24793693

  7. Moisture content measurements of moss (Sphagnum spp.) using commercial sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yoshikawa, K.; Overduin, P.P.; Harden, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Sphagnum (spp.) is widely distributed in permafrost regions around the arctic and subarctic. The moisture content of the moss layer affects the thermal insulative capacity and preservation of permafrost. It also controls the growth and collapse history of palsas and other peat mounds, and is relevant, in general terms, to permafrost thaw (thermokarst). In this study, we test and calibrate seven different soil moisture sensors for measuring the moisture content of Sphagnum moss under laboratory conditions. The soil volume to which each probe is sensitive is one of the important parameters influencing moisture measurement, particularly in a heterogeneous medium such as moss. Each sensor has a unique response to changing moisture content levels, solution salinity, moss bulk density and to the orientation (structure) of the Sphagnum relative to the sensor. All of the probes examined here require unique polynomial calibration equations to obtain moisture content from probe output. We provide polynomial equations for dead and live Sphagnum moss (R2 > 0.99. Copyright ?? 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Measuring the 14C content in liquid scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enqvist, T.; Barabanov, I. R.; Bezrukov, L. B.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Gavrilyuk, Y. M.; Grishina, V. Yu; Gurentsov, V. I.; Hissa, J.; Joutsenvaara, J.; Kazalov, V. V.; Krokhaleva, S.; Kutuniva, J.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Kurlovich, A. S.; Loo, K.; Lubsandorzhiev, B. K.; Lubsandorzhiev, S.; Morgalyuk, V. P.; Novikova, G. Y.; Pshukov, A. M.; Sinev, V. V.; Słupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Umerov, Sh I.; Veresnikova, A. V.; Virkajärvi, A.; Yanovich, Y. A.; Zavarzina, V. P.

    2016-05-01

    We are going to perform a series of measurements where the 14C/12 C ratio will be measured from several liquid scintillator samples with a dedicated setup. The setup is designed with the aim of measuring ratios smaller than 10-18. Measurements take place in two underground laboratories: in the Baksan Neutrino Observatory, Russia and in the Pyhäsalmi mine, Finland. In Baksan the measurements started in 2015 and in Pyhäsalmi they start in the beginning of 2015. In order to fully understand the operation of the setup and its background contributions a development of simulation packages has also been started. Low-energy neutrino detection with a liquid scintillator requires that the intrinsic 14C content in the liquid is extremely low. In the Borexino CTF detector at Gran Sasso, Italy the 14C/12C ratio of 2 × 10-18 has been achieved being the lowest 14C concentration ever measured. In principle, the older the oil or gas source that the liquid scintillator is derived of and the deeper it situates, the smaller the 14C/12C ratio is supposed to be. This, however, is not generally the case, and the ratio is probably determined by the U and Th content of the local environment.

  9. Noninvasive technique for measurement of glucose content in body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapiou, George; Theofanous, N. G.

    1998-07-01

    This work is focused on the measurement of glucose in various diluted solutions and aims to be implemented in testing the glucose content in the anterior chamber of the eye by means of an electro-optic modulation method. By using solutions containing only glucose concentrations, a calibration curve displaying the dependence of the glucose concentration on a DC field, applied to a modulator, was obtained.

  10. Total Water Content Measurements with an Isokinetic Sampling Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Miller, Dean R.; Bidwell, Colin S.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a Total Water Content (TWC) Isokinetic Sampling Probe. Since it is not sensitive to cloud water particle phase nor size, it is particularly attractive to support super-cooled large droplet and high ice water content aircraft icing studies. The instrument is comprised of the Sampling Probe, Sample Flow Control, and Water Vapor Measurement subsystems. Analysis and testing have been conducted on the subsystems to ensure their proper function and accuracy. End-to-end bench testing has also been conducted to ensure the reliability of the entire instrument system. A Stokes Number based collection efficiency correction was developed to correct for probe thickness effects. The authors further discuss the need to ensure that no condensation occurs within the instrument plumbing. Instrument measurements compared to facility calibrations from testing in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel are presented and discussed. There appears to be liquid water content and droplet size effects in the differences between the two measurement techniques.

  11. Measurements of the kaon content in tau decays

    SciTech Connect

    Ronan, M.T. )

    1992-02-01

    Results on measurements of the kaon content in one-prong and three-prong [tau] decays are presented for data taken by the TPC/2[gamma] detector at PEP. Using a self-consistent procedure to measure exclusive and inclusive decays, the one-prong analysis extends previous work to kaon decay modes. Three-prong results [ital K][pi][pi], [ital K][pi] and [ital KKK] decay modes provide improved branching ratios and a first look at strange axial-vector couplings in [tau] decays.

  12. Uracil content of 16S rRNA of thermophilic and psychrophilic prokaryotes correlates inversely with their optimal growth temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Khachane, Amit N.; Timmis, Kenneth N.; dos Santos, Vítor A. P. Martins

    2005-01-01

    We report here the finding of a highly significant inverse correlation of the uracil content of 16S rRNA and the optimum growth temperature (Topt) of cultured thermophilic and psychrophilic prokaryotes. This correlation was significantly different from the weaker correlations between the contents of other nucleotides and Topt. Analysis of the 16S rRNA secondary structure regions revealed a fall in the A:U base-pair content in step with the increase in Topt that was much steeper than that of mismatched base-pairs, which are thermodynamically less stable. These findings indicate that the 16S rRNA sequences of thermophiles and psychrophiles are under a strong thermo-adaptive pressure, and that structure–function constraints play a crucial role in determining their 16S rRNA nucleotide composition. The derived relationship between uracil content and Topt was used to develop an algorithm to predict the Topt values of uncultured prokaryotes lacking cultured close relatives and belonging to the phyla predominantly containing thermophiles. This algorithm may be useful in guiding the design of cultivation conditions for hitherto uncultured microbes. PMID:16030352

  13. Changes in Oleic Acid Content of Transgenic Soybeans by Antisense RNA Mediated Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Yang, Xiang-dong; Zhang, Yuan-yu; Yang, Jing; Qi, Guang-xun; Guo, Dong-quan; Xing, Guo-jie; Yao, Yao; Xu, Wen-jing; Li, Hai-yun; Li, Qi-yun; Dong, Ying-shan

    2014-01-01

    The Delta-12 oleate desaturase gene (FAD2-1), which converts oleic acid into linoleic acid, is the key enzyme determining the fatty acid composition of seed oil. In this study, we inhibited the expression of endogenous Delta-12 oleate desaturase GmFad2-1b gene by using antisense RNA in soybean Williams 82. By employing the soybean cotyledonary-node method, a part of the cDNA of soybean GmFad2-1b 801 bp was cloned for the construction of a pCAMBIA3300 vector under the soybean seed promoter BCSP. Leaf painting, LibertyLink strip, PCR, Southern blot, qRT-PCR, and fatty acid analysis were used to detect the insertion and expression of GmFad2-1b in the transgenic soybean lines. The results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 51.71%) and a reduction in palmitic acid (to <3%) in their seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and the nontransgenic oil extracts. PMID:25197629

  14. Changes in oleic Acid content of transgenic soybeans by antisense RNA mediated posttranscriptional gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Yang, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Yuan-Yu; Yang, Jing; Qi, Guang-Xun; Guo, Dong-Quan; Xing, Guo-Jie; Yao, Yao; Xu, Wen-Jing; Li, Hai-Yun; Li, Qi-Yun; Dong, Ying-Shan

    2014-01-01

    The Delta-12 oleate desaturase gene (FAD2-1), which converts oleic acid into linoleic acid, is the key enzyme determining the fatty acid composition of seed oil. In this study, we inhibited the expression of endogenous Delta-12 oleate desaturase GmFad2-1b gene by using antisense RNA in soybean Williams 82. By employing the soybean cotyledonary-node method, a part of the cDNA of soybean GmFad2-1b 801 bp was cloned for the construction of a pCAMBIA3300 vector under the soybean seed promoter BCSP. Leaf painting, LibertyLink strip, PCR, Southern blot, qRT-PCR, and fatty acid analysis were used to detect the insertion and expression of GmFad2-1b in the transgenic soybean lines. The results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 51.71%) and a reduction in palmitic acid (to <3%) in their seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and the nontransgenic oil extracts.

  15. Aluminum in Pediatric Parenteral Nutrition Products: Measured Versus Labeled Content

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Robert L.; Pieroni, Kevin P.; Gaskari, Shabnam; Dixon, Tessa K.; Park, KT; Kerner, John A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Aluminum is a contaminant in all parenteral nutrition solutions. Manufacturers currently label these products with the maximum aluminum content at the time of expiry, but there are no published data to establish the actual measured concentration of aluminum in parenteral nutrition solution products prior to being compounded in the clinical setting. This investigation assessed quantitative aluminum content of products commonly used in the formulation of parenteral nutrition solutions. The objective of this study is to determine the best products to be used when compounding parenteral nutrition solutions (i.e., those with the least amount of aluminum contamination). METHODS All products available in the United States from all manufacturers used in the production of parenteral nutrition solutions were identified and collected. Three lots were collected for each identified product. Samples were quantitatively analyzed by Mayo Laboratories. These measured concentrations were then compared to the manufacturers' labeled concentration. RESULTS Large lot-to-lot and manufacturer-to-manufacturer differences were noted for all products. Measured aluminum concentrations were less than manufacturer-labeled values for all products. CONCLUSIONS The actual aluminum concentrations of all the parenteral nutrition solutions were significantly less than the aluminum content based on manufacturers' labels. These findings indicate that 1) the manufacturers should label their products with actual aluminum content at the time of product release rather than at the time of expiry, 2) that there are manufacturers whose products provide significantly less aluminum contamination than others, and 3) pharmacists can select products with the lowest amounts of aluminum contamination and reduce the aluminum exposure in their patients. PMID:22477831

  16. High resolution DNA content measurements of mammalian sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkel, D.; Lake, S.; Gledhill, B.L.; Van Dilla, M.A.; Stephenson, D.; Watchmaker, G.

    1982-01-01

    The high condensation and flat shape of the mammalian sperm nucleus present unique difficulties to flow cytometric measurement of DNA content. Chromatin compactness makes quantitative fluorescent staining for DNA difficult and causes a high index of refraction. The refractive index makes optical measurements sensitive to sperm head orientation. We demonstrate that the optical problems can be overcome using the commercial ICP22 epiillumination flow cytometer (Ortho Instruments, Westwood, MA) or a specially built cell orientating flow cytometer (OFCM). The design and operation of the OFCM are described. Measurements of the angular dependence of fluorescence from acriflavine stained rabbit sperm show that it is capable of orienting flat sperm with a tolerance of +-7/sup 0/. Differences in the angular dependence for the similarly shaped bull and rabbit sperm allow discrimination of these cells. We show that DNA staining with 4-6 diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) or an ethidium bromide mithramycin combination allows resolution of the X and Y populations in mouse sperm. They have also been successful with sperm from the bull, ram, rabbit, and boar. Reliable results with human sperm are not obtained. The accuracy of the staining and measurement techniques are verified by the correct determination of the relative content of these two populations in sperm from normal mice and those with the Cattanach (7 to X) translocation. Among the potential uses of these techniques are measurement of DNA content errors induced in sperm due to mutagen exposure, and assessment of the fractions of X and Y sperm in semen that may have one population artifically enriched.

  17. Measurement of the U-235 Content of Concreted Waste Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Rackham, J.; Hughes, K.; Oldeide, R.; Sharpe, J.; Morgan, S.

    2008-07-01

    A challenging assay situation recently arose, whereby the fissile (i.e. total plutonium plus U-235) content of a population of 164 historical waste drums containing concrete needed to be measured, to comply with nuclear safety limits for transport to, and interim storage within, an Engineered Drum Store. BIL Solutions Ltd has developed a new methodology for measurement of the U-235 content of these 'concrete' drums, because the approach normally used by the in-situ Drum Monitors was found to be overly pessimistic. Initial investigations indicated significant quantities of uranium were present in these drums (but negligible plutonium), mixed with Np-237 and / or Ra-226. These initial measurements also indicated that the uranium was likely to be depleted in enrichment. The U-235 content was therefore determined by measuring the U-238 mass via the passive coincident neutron emission, and combining this with the U-235 and U-238 isotopic abundances, obtained by analysis of a gamma spectrum. Of the uranium isotopic analysis codes available, the FRAM (Fixed energy, Response function Analysis with Multiple efficiencies) software was selected as being most suitable for this application. A wide gamma-ray energy range is used (i.e. 120 keV to 1200 keV) which was considered more likely to yield results when there is significant attenuation. The software is also user configurable, enabling interferences from the other radionuclides present (i.e. Np-237 and Ra-226) to be accounted for. A series of test measurements were performed with well-characterised uranium sources attenuated by concrete shielding, to gain confidence in the performance of FRAM under such conditions. These test measurements indicated that FRAM was able to correctly determine the enrichment of heavily shielded uranium. The new U-235 measurement methodology was then applied to the population of concrete drums; successfully yielding U-235 results despite the dense waste matrix and significant interference from

  18. Measurement practices: methods for developing content-valid student examinations.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Patrick D; Musial, Joseph; Frank, Robert; Roe, Thomas; Sawilowsky, Shlomo

    2003-07-01

    Measurement experts generally agree that a systematic approach to test construction will probably result in an instrument with sound psychometric properties. One fundamental method is called the blueprint approach to test construction. A test blueprint is a tool used in the process for generating content-valid exams by linking the subject matter delivered during instruction and the items appearing on the test. Unfortunately, this procedure as well as other educational measurement practices is often overlooked A survey of curriculum administrators at 144 United States and international medical schools was conducted to assess the importance and prevalence of test blueprinting in their school. Although most found test blueprinting to be very important, few require the practice. The purpose of this paper is to review the fundamental principals associated with achieving a high level of content validity when developing tests for students. The short-term efforts necessary to develop and integrate measurement theory into practice will lead to long-term gains for students, faculty and academic institutions.

  19. Cellular stress conditions are reflected in the protein and RNA content of endothelial cell-derived exosomes

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Olivier G.; Verhaar, Marianne C.; Chen, Yong; Vader, Pieter; Gremmels, Hendrik; Posthuma, George; Schiffelers, Raymond M.; Gucek, Marjan; van Balkom, Bas W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The healthy vascular endothelium, which forms the barrier between blood and the surrounding tissues, is known to efficiently respond to stress signals like hypoxia and inflammation by adaptation of cellular physiology and the secretion of (soluble) growth factors and cytokines. Exosomes are potent mediators of intercellular communication. Their content consists of RNA and proteins from the cell of origin, and thus depends on the condition of these cells at the time of exosome biogenesis. It has been suggested that exosomes protect their target cells from cellular stress through the transfer of RNA and proteins. We hypothesized that endothelium-derived exosomes are involved in the endothelial response to cellular stress, and that exosome RNA and protein content reflect the effects of cellular stress induced by hypoxia, inflammation or hyperglycemia. Methods We exposed cultured endothelial cells to different types of cellular stress (hypoxia, TNF-α-induced activation, high glucose and mannose concentrations) and compared mRNA and protein content of exosomes produced by these cells by microarray analysis and a quantitative proteomics approach. Results We identified 1,354 proteins and 1,992 mRNAs in endothelial cell-derived exosomes. Several proteins and mRNAs showed altered abundances after exposure of their producing cells to cellular stress, which were confirmed by immunoblot or qPCR analysis. Conclusion Our data show that hypoxia and endothelial activation are reflected in RNA and protein exosome composition, and that exposure to high sugar concentrations alters exosome protein composition only to a minor extend, and does not affect exosome RNA composition. PMID:24009886

  20. Effect of soil clay content on RNA isolation and on detection and quantification of bacterial gene transcripts in soil by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR.

    PubMed

    Novinscak, A; Filion, M

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of soil clay content on RNA isolation and on quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) quantification of microbial gene transcripts. The amount of clay significantly altered RNA isolation yields and qRT-PCR analyses. Recommendations are made for quantifying microbial gene transcripts in soil samples varying in clay content.

  1. Measurement of tag confidence in user generated contents retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sihyoung; Min, Hyun-Seok; Lee, Young Bok; Ro, Yong Man

    2009-01-01

    As online image sharing services are becoming popular, the importance of correctly annotated tags is being emphasized for precise search and retrieval. Tags created by user along with user-generated contents (UGC) are often ambiguous due to the fact that some tags are highly subjective and visually unrelated to the image. They cause unwanted results to users when image search engines rely on tags. In this paper, we propose a method of measuring tag confidence so that one can differentiate confidence tags from noisy tags. The proposed tag confidence is measured from visual semantics of the image. To verify the usefulness of the proposed method, experiments were performed with UGC database from social network sites. Experimental results showed that the image retrieval performance with confidence tags was increased.

  2. Influence of chlorophyll content on phytochrome measurements in turnip cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Grill, R

    1977-01-01

    Phytochrome determinations at 730/800 nm were performed on de-etiolated turnip (Brassica rapa L.) cotyledons in which chlorophyll (Chl) content had been reduced experimentally to varying degrees by pre-treatment with high temperature (HT), or transfer to 3% ethanol. The magnitude of detectable phytochrome depended on Chl content, showing a linear relationshop in vivo. The results were confirmed by an in vitro experiment where, however, the correlation was exponential. An attempt is made to illustrate phytochrome decay in continuous blue or red light after corretion for Chl interference. To overcome the possible objection that the higher Δ(ΔA) measured in continuous light after HT pre-treatment could be caused by a reduced rate of destruction, apparent re-synthesis following red light was measured after several hours of darkness during which time the HT effect was lost. Under these conditions HT pre-treated samples display a more realistic magnitude of apparent new synthesis and make correlation with a physiological response possible.

  3. Polysome shift assay for direct measurement of miRNA inhibition by anti-miRNA drugs.

    PubMed

    Androsavich, John R; Sobczynski, Daniel J; Liu, Xueqing; Pandya, Shweta; Kaimal, Vivek; Owen, Tate; Liu, Kai; MacKenna, Deidre A; Chau, B Nelson

    2016-01-29

    Anti-miRNA (anti-miR) oligonucleotide drugs are being developed to inhibit overactive miRNAs linked to disease. To help facilitate the transition from concept to clinic, new research tools are required. Here we report a novel method--miRNA Polysome Shift Assay (miPSA)--for direct measurement of miRNA engagement by anti-miR, which is more robust than conventional pharmacodynamics using downstream target gene derepression. The method takes advantage of size differences between active and inhibited miRNA complexes. Active miRNAs bind target mRNAs in high molecular weight polysome complexes, while inhibited miRNAs are sterically blocked by anti-miRs from forming this interaction. These two states can be assessed by fractionating tissue or cell lysates using differential ultracentrifugation through sucrose gradients. Accordingly, anti-miR treatment causes a specific shift of cognate miRNA from heavy to light density fractions. The magnitude of this shift is dose-responsive and maintains a linear relationship with downstream target gene derepression while providing a substantially higher dynamic window for aiding drug discovery. In contrast, we found that the commonly used 'RT-interference' approach, which assumes that inhibited miRNA is undetectable by RT-qPCR, can yield unreliable results that poorly reflect the binding stoichiometry of anti-miR to miRNA. We also demonstrate that the miPSA has additional utility in assessing anti-miR cross-reactivity with miRNAs sharing similar seed sequences.

  4. Content Appraisal as a Method for Measuring the Effectiveness & Usability of Online Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeau, Jenifer; Heidorn, Neely; Broady, Nick; Whittle, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Content appraisal is a simple, qualitative system to identify modifications to make website material more useful to clientele. This system provides a comprehensive evaluation of content, focuses on content strategy, identifies weaknesses, and provides recommendations for improvement. The criteria examined included knowledge level,…

  5. A comprehensive assessment of RNA-seq accuracy, reproducibility and information content by the Sequencing Quality Control consortium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We present primary results from the Sequencing Quality Control (SEQC) project, coordinated by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Examining Illumina HiSeq, Life Technologies SOLiD and Roche 454 platforms at multiple laboratory sites using reference RNA samples with built-in controls, we assess RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) performance for junction discovery and differential expression profiling and compare it to microarray and quantitative PCR (qPCR) data using complementary metrics. At all sequencing depths, we discover unannotated exon-exon junctions, with >80% validated by qPCR. We find that measurements of relative expression are accurate and reproducible across sites and platforms if specific filters are used. In contrast, RNA-seq and microarrays do not provide accurate absolute measurements, and gene-specific biases are observed, for these and qPCR. Measurement performance depends on the platform and data analysis pipeline, and variation is large for transcript-level profiling. The complete SEQC data sets, comprising >100 billion reads (10Tb), provide unique resources for evaluating RNA-seq analyses for clinical and regulatory settings. PMID:25150838

  6. A comprehensive assessment of RNA-seq accuracy, reproducibility and information content by the Sequencing Quality Control Consortium.

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    We present primary results from the Sequencing Quality Control (SEQC) project, coordinated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Examining Illumina HiSeq, Life Technologies SOLiD and Roche 454 platforms at multiple laboratory sites using reference RNA samples with built-in controls, we assess RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) performance for junction discovery and differential expression profiling and compare it to microarray and quantitative PCR (qPCR) data using complementary metrics. At all sequencing depths, we discover unannotated exon-exon junctions, with >80% validated by qPCR. We find that measurements of relative expression are accurate and reproducible across sites and platforms if specific filters are used. In contrast, RNA-seq and microarrays do not provide accurate absolute measurements, and gene-specific biases are observed for all examined platforms, including qPCR. Measurement performance depends on the platform and data analysis pipeline, and variation is large for transcript-level profiling. The complete SEQC data sets, comprising >100 billion reads (10Tb), provide unique resources for evaluating RNA-seq analyses for clinical and regulatory settings.

  7. Measuring rainwater content by radar using propagation differential phase shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    While radars measure several quantities closely coupled to the rainfall rate, for frequencies less than 15 GHz, estimates of the rainwater content W are traditionally computed from the radar reflectivity factor Z or the rate of attenuation A--quantities only weakly related to W. Consequently, instantaneous point estimates of W using Z and A are often erroneous. A more natural, alternative parameter for estimating W at these frequencies is the specific polarization propagation differential phase shift phi(sub DP), which is a measure of the change in the difference between phases of vertically (V) and horizontally (H) polarized waves with increasing distance from a radar. It is now well known that W is nearly linearly related to phi(sub DP) divided by (1 - reversed R), where reversed R is the mass-weighted mean axis ratio of the raindrops. Unfortunately, such relations are not widely used in part because measurements of phi(sub DP) are scarce but also because one must determine reversed R. In this work it is shown that this parameter can be estimated using the differential reflectivity (Z(sub H)/Z(sub V) at 3 GHz. An alternative technique is suggested for higher frequencies when the differential reflectivity becomes degraded by attenuation. While theory indicates that it should be possible using phi(sub DP) to estimate W quite accurately, measurement errors increase the uncertainty to +/- 18%-35% depending on reversed R. While far from ideal, it appears that these estimates are likely to be considerably more accurate than those deduced using currently available methods.

  8. Increased RNA oxidative damage and iron content in skeletal muscle with aging and disuse atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Tim; Marzetti, Emanuele; Xu, Jinze; Seo, Arnold Y.; Gulec, Sukru; Knutson, Mitchell D.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle atrophy with aging or disuse is associated with deregulated iron homeostasis and increased oxidative stress likely inflicting damage to nucleic acids. Therefore, we investigated RNA and DNA oxidation, and iron homeostasis in gastrocnemius muscles. Disuse atrophy was induced in 6- and 32-month old male Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats by 14 days of hind limb suspension (HS). We show that RNA, but not DNA, oxidative damage increased 85% with age and 36% with HS in aged muscle. Additionally, non-heme iron levels increased 233% with aging and 83% with HS at old age, while staining for free iron was strongest in the smallest fibers. Simultaneously, the mRNA abundance of transferrin receptor-1 decreased by 80% with age and 48% with HS for young animals, while that of the hepcidin regulator hemojuvelin decreased 37% with age, but increased about 44% with disuse, indicating a dysregulation of iron homeostasis favoring increased intracellular free iron in atrophied muscles. RNA and DNA concentrations increased with age and were negatively correlated with muscle mass, whereas protein concentrations decreased with aging, indicating a preferential loss of protein compared to nucleic acids. Furthermore, xanthine oxidase activity increased with age, but not with HS, while mRNA abundance of the Y box-binding protein-1, which has been suggested to bind oxidized RNA, did not change with age or HS. These results suggest that RNA oxidation, possibly mediated by increased non-heme iron, might contribute to muscle atrophy due to disuse particularly in aged muscle. PMID:18395385

  9. Characterization and Small RNA Content of Extracellular Vesicles in Follicular Fluid of Developing Bovine Antral Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Navakanitworakul, Raphatphorn; Hung, Wei-Ting; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Davis, John S.; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Christenson, Lane K.

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes and microvesicles (i.e., extracellular vesicles: EVs) have been identified within ovarian follicular fluid and recent evidence suggests that EVs are able to elicit profound effects on ovarian cell function. While existence of miRNA within EVs has been reported, whether EV size and concentration as well as their cargos (i.e., proteins and RNA) change during antral follicle growth remains unknown. Extracellular vesicles isolated from follicular fluid of small, medium and large bovine follicles were similar in size, while concentration of EVs decreased progressively as follicle size increased. Electron microscopy indicated a highly purified population of the lipid bilayer enclosed vesicles that were enriched in exosome biomarkers including CD81 and Alix. Small RNA sequencing identified a large number of known and novel miRNAs that changed in the EVs of different size follicles. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) indicated that miRNA abundant in small follicle EV preparations were associated with cell proliferation pathways, while those miRNA abundant in large follicle preparations were related to inflammatory response pathways. These studies are the first to demonstrate that EVs change in their levels and makeup during antral follicle development and point to the potential for a unique vesicle-mediated cell-to-cell communication network within the ovarian follicle. PMID:27158133

  10. Impact of Measurement System Characteristics on Advanced Sounder Information Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel K.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced satellite sensors are tasked with improving global observations of the Earth's atmosphere, clouds, and surface to enable enhancements in weather prediction, climate monitoring capability, and environmental change detection. Achieving such an improvement in geophysical information inferred from these observations requires optimal usage of data from current systems as well as instrument system enhancements for future sensors. This presentation addresses results of tradeoff studies evaluating the impact of spectral resolution, spectral coverage, instrument noise, and a priori knowledge on remote sensing system information content, with a specific emphasis on thermodynamic state and trace species information obtainable from advanced atmospheric sounders. Particular attention will be devoted toward information achievable from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) on the NASA EOS Aqua satellite in orbit since 2002, the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) aboard MetOp-A since 2006, and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) instrument to fly aboard the NPP and JPSS series of satellites expected to begin in late 2011. While all of these systems cover nearly the same infrared spectral extent, they have very different number of channels, instrument line shapes, coverage continuity, and instrument noise. AIRS is a grating spectrometer having 2378 discrete spectral channels ranging from about 0.4 to 2.2/cm resolution; IASI is a Michelson interferometer with 8461 uniformly-spaced spectral channels of 0.5/cm (apodized) resolution; and CrIS is a Michelson interferometer having 1305 spectral channels of 0.625, 1.250, and 2.50/cm (unapodized) spectral resolution, respectively, over its three continuous but non-overlapping bands. Results of tradeoff studies showing information content sensitivity to assumed measurement system characteristics will be presented.

  11. Simultaneous measurement of unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil using gamma ray attenuation and TDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaohai; Zhou, Jian; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang; Stauffer, Fritz

    2014-12-01

    The freezing temperature of water in soil is not constant but varies over a range determined by soil texture. Consequently, the amounts of unfrozen water and ice change with temperature in frozen soil, which in turn affects hydraulic, thermal, and mechanical properties of frozen soil. In this paper, an Am-241 gamma ray source and time-domain reflectometry (TDR) were combined to measure unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil simultaneously. The gamma ray attenuation was used to determine total water content. The TDR was used to determine the dielectric constant of the frozen soil. Based on a four-phase mixing model, the amount of unfrozen water content in the frozen soil could be determined. The ice content was inferred by the difference between total water content and unfrozen water content. The gamma ray attenuation and the TDR were both calibrated by a gravimetric method. Water contents measured by gamma ray attenuation and TDR in an unfrozen silt column under infiltration were compared and showed that the two methods have the same accuracy and response to changes of water content. Unidirectional column freezing experiments were performed to apply the combined method of gamma ray attenuation and TDR for measuring unfrozen water content and ice content. The measurement error of the gamma ray attenuation and TDR was around 0.02 and 0.01 m3/m3, respectively. The overestimation of unfrozen water in frozen soil by TDR alone was quantified and found to depend on the amount of ice content. The higher the ice content, the larger the overestimation. The study confirmed that the combined method could accurately determine unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil. The results of soil column freezing experiments indicate that total water content distribution is affected by available pore space and the freezing front advance rate. It was found that there is similarity between the soil water characteristic and the soil freezing characteristic of

  12. Relationships between hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 activity and mRNA expression with liver fat content in humans.

    PubMed

    Peter, Andreas; Cegan, Alexander; Wagner, Silvia; Elcnerova, Michaela; Königsrainer, Alfred; Königsrainer, Ingmar; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Schleicher, Erwin D; Stefan, Norbert

    2011-02-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) has gained much interest as a future drug target to treat fatty liver and its consequences. However, there are few and inconsistent human data about expression and activity of this important enzyme. We investigated activity and expression of SCD1 and their relationships with liver fat (LF) content in human liver samples. Fifty subjects undergoing liver surgery were studied. SCD1 activity was estimated from the ratio of oleate (C18:1) to stearate (C18:0) within lipid subfractions. Furthermore, SCD1 mRNA expression and LF content were measured. Similarly to previous studies, we observed a strong positive correlation between LF content and the C18:1/C18:0 ratio in the combined fatty acid (FA) fractions (r = 0.96, P < 0.0001), which could be interpreted as higher SCD1 activity with increasing LF. However, hepatic SCD1 mRNA expression did not correlate with LF (r = 0.16, P = 0.13). To solve these conflicting data, we analyzed the FA composition of hepatic lipid subfractions. With increasing LF content the amount of FAs from the triglyceride (TG) fraction increased (r = 0.96, P < 0.0001), whereas the FAs from the phospholipid (PL) fraction remained unchanged (r = -0.17, P = 0.19). Of these two major lipid fractions, the C18:1/C18:0 ratio in TG was 16-fold higher than in PL. Supporting the SCD1 mRNA expression data, the C18:1/C18:0 ratio of the TG or PL fraction did not correlate with LF (r = 0.26, P = 0.12 and r = 0.08, P = 0.29). We provide novel information that SCD1 activity and mRNA expression appear not to be elevated in subjects with high LF content. We suggest that the FA composition of lipid subclasses, rather than of mixed lipids, should be analyzed to estimate SCD1 activity.

  13. The small RNA content of human sperm reveals pseudogene-derived piRNAs complementary to protein-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Pantano, Lorena; Jodar, Meritxell; Bak, Mads; Ballescà, Josep Lluís; Tommerup, Niels; Oliva, Rafael; Vavouri, Tanya

    2015-06-01

    At the end of mammalian sperm development, sperm cells expel most of their cytoplasm and dispose of the majority of their RNA. Yet, hundreds of RNA molecules remain in mature sperm. The biological significance of the vast majority of these molecules is unclear. To better understand the processes that generate sperm small RNAs and what roles they may have, we sequenced and characterized the small RNA content of sperm samples from two human fertile individuals. We detected 182 microRNAs, some of which are highly abundant. The most abundant microRNA in sperm is miR-1246 with predicted targets among sperm-specific genes. The most abundant class of small noncoding RNAs in sperm are PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Surprisingly, we found that human sperm cells contain piRNAs processed from pseudogenes. Clusters of piRNAs from human testes contain pseudogenes transcribed in the antisense strand and processed into small RNAs. Several human protein-coding genes contain antisense predicted targets of pseudogene-derived piRNAs in the male germline and these piRNAs are still found in mature sperm. Our study provides the most extensive data set and annotation of human sperm small RNAs to date and is a resource for further functional studies on the roles of sperm small RNAs. In addition, we propose that some of the pseudogene-derived human piRNAs may regulate expression of their parent gene in the male germline.

  14. The small RNA content of human sperm reveals pseudogene-derived piRNAs complementary to protein-coding genes

    PubMed Central

    Pantano, Lorena; Jodar, Meritxell; Bak, Mads; Ballescà, Josep Lluís; Tommerup, Niels; Oliva, Rafael; Vavouri, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    At the end of mammalian sperm development, sperm cells expel most of their cytoplasm and dispose of the majority of their RNA. Yet, hundreds of RNA molecules remain in mature sperm. The biological significance of the vast majority of these molecules is unclear. To better understand the processes that generate sperm small RNAs and what roles they may have, we sequenced and characterized the small RNA content of sperm samples from two human fertile individuals. We detected 182 microRNAs, some of which are highly abundant. The most abundant microRNA in sperm is miR-1246 with predicted targets among sperm-specific genes. The most abundant class of small noncoding RNAs in sperm are PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Surprisingly, we found that human sperm cells contain piRNAs processed from pseudogenes. Clusters of piRNAs from human testes contain pseudogenes transcribed in the antisense strand and processed into small RNAs. Several human protein-coding genes contain antisense predicted targets of pseudogene-derived piRNAs in the male germline and these piRNAs are still found in mature sperm. Our study provides the most extensive data set and annotation of human sperm small RNAs to date and is a resource for further functional studies on the roles of sperm small RNAs. In addition, we propose that some of the pseudogene-derived human piRNAs may regulate expression of their parent gene in the male germline. PMID:25904136

  15. Characterizing a novel and sensitive method to measure dsRNA in soil.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Joshua R; Zapata, Fatima; Dubelman, Samuel; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Jensen, Peter D; Levine, Steven L

    2016-10-01

    Performing environmental assessments for double-stranded RNA-based agricultural products require the development of sensitive and selective methods to measure biodegradation rates of dsRNAs. We developed and characterized a novel analytical procedure that uses a molecular hybridization assay (QuantiGene(®)) to accurately measure dsRNA extracted from diverse soils. In this report, we utilize this method to demonstrate that two dsRNAs with distinct size, structure, and sequence degrade rapidly in soil with indistinguishable kinetics.

  16. Determination of Ionospheric Total Electron Content Derived from Gnss Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inyurt, S.; Mekik, C.; Yildirim, O.

    2014-12-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has been used in numerous fields especially related to satellite- based radio navigation system for a long time. Ionosphere, one of the upper atmosphere layers ranges from 60 km to 1500 km, is a dispersive medium and it includes a number of free electrons and ions. The ionization is mainly subject to the sun and its activity. Ionospheric activity depends also on seasonal, diurnal variations and geographical location. Total Electron Content (TEC), which is also called Slant Total Electron Content (STEC), is a parameter that changes according to ionospheric conditions and has highly variable structure. Furthermore, Vertical TEC (VTEC) can be explained as TEC value in the direction of zenith. Thanks to VTEC, TEC values can be modelled. TEC is measured in units of TECU and 1TECU= 1016 electrons/m2. Ionospheric modelling has a great importance for improving the accuracies of positioning and understanding the ionosphere. Thus, various models have been developed to detect TEC value in the last years. Single Layer Model (SLM) which provides determining TEC value and GPS positioning in the ionosphere accurately is one of the most commonly used models. SLM assumes that all free electrons are concentrated in a shell of infinitesimal thickness. In this paper SLM model was used to derive TEC values by means of Bernese 5.0 program developed by the University of Bern, Sweden. In this study, we have used regional ionosphere model to derive TEC value. First of all, GPS data have been collected from 10 stations in Turkey and 13 IGS stations for 7 days from 06.03.2010 to 12.03.2010. Then, Regional Ionosphere Model (RIM) is created with the reference of the GPS data. At the end of the process, the result files are stored as IONEX format. TEC results for those days are obtained with two hours interval. TEC variation related to the research area ranges from nearly 6 TECU to approximately 20 TECU. The obtained results show that TEC values start

  17. Measuring Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Primary Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohaan, Ellen J.; Taconis, Ruurd; Jochems, Wim M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Pedagogical content knowledge is found to be a crucial part of the knowledge base for teaching. Studies in the field of primary technology education showed that this domain of teacher knowledge is related to pupils' increased learning, motivation, and interest. The common methods to investigate teachers' pedagogical content knowledge are often…

  18. Rapid RNA-ligand interaction analysis through high-information content conformational and stability landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, Nathan J.; Inglese, James; Ferré-D’Amaré, Adrian R.

    2015-12-07

    The structure and biological properties of RNAs are a function of changing cellular conditions, but comprehensive, simultaneous investigation of the effect of multiple interacting environmental variables is not easily achieved. We have developed an efficient, high-throughput method to characterize RNA structure and thermodynamic stability as a function of multiplexed solution conditions using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). In a single FRET experiment using conventional quantitative PCR instrumentation, 19,400 conditions of MgCl2, ligand and temperature are analysed to generate detailed empirical conformational and stability landscapes of the cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) riboswitch. This method allows rapid comparison of RNA structure modulation by cognate and non-cognate ligands. Landscape analysis reveals that kanamycin B stabilizes a non-native, idiosyncratic conformation of the riboswitch that inhibits c-di-GMP binding. Our research demonstrates that allosteric control of folding, rather than direct competition with cognate effectors, is a viable approach for pharmacologically targeting riboswitches and other structured RNA molecules.

  19. Rapid RNA-ligand interaction analysis through high-information content conformational and stability landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Nathan J.; Inglese, James; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R.

    2015-12-01

    The structure and biological properties of RNAs are a function of changing cellular conditions, but comprehensive, simultaneous investigation of the effect of multiple interacting environmental variables is not easily achieved. We have developed an efficient, high-throughput method to characterize RNA structure and thermodynamic stability as a function of multiplexed solution conditions using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). In a single FRET experiment using conventional quantitative PCR instrumentation, 19,400 conditions of MgCl2, ligand and temperature are analysed to generate detailed empirical conformational and stability landscapes of the cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) riboswitch. The method allows rapid comparison of RNA structure modulation by cognate and non-cognate ligands. Landscape analysis reveals that kanamycin B stabilizes a non-native, idiosyncratic conformation of the riboswitch that inhibits c-di-GMP binding. This demonstrates that allosteric control of folding, rather than direct competition with cognate effectors, is a viable approach for pharmacologically targeting riboswitches and other structured RNA molecules.

  20. The HI Content of Groups as Measured by ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; Haynes, Martha P.; Finn, Rose; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 groups at distances between 70-160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5 < log M/M⊙ < 15.0, for a total of 1986 late-type galaxies out to a projected group-centric distance of 4.0 Mpc. We find that late-type galaxies in the centers of groups lack HI at fixed stellar mass relative to the regions surrounding them. Larger groups show evidence of a stronger gradient in HI properties, despite a similar gradient in stellar mass, and in color at fixed stellar mass, over the same range in r/R200. We compare several environment variables to determine which is the best predictor of galaxy properties; group-centric distance r and r/R200 are similarly effective predictors, while local density is slightly more effective and group size and halo mass are slightly less effective. Finally, we see evidence that HI is deficient for blue cloud galaxies in denser environments even when both stellar mass and color are fixed. This is consistent with a picture where HI is removed or destroyed, followed by reddening within the blue cloud. Overall, our results support the existence of pre-processing in isolated groups, along with an additional rapid mechanism for gas removal within larger groups and clusters, perhaps by ram-pressure stripping. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  1. The use of molecular beacons to directly measure bacterial mRNA abundances and transcript degradation.

    PubMed

    Kuechenmeister, Lisa J; Anderson, Kelsi L; Morrison, John M; Dunman, Paul M

    2009-02-01

    The regulation of mRNA turnover is a dynamic means by which bacteria regulate gene expression. Although current methodologies allow characterization of the stability of individual transcripts, procedures designed to measure alterations in transcript abundance/turnover on a high throughput scale are lacking. In the current report, we describe the development of a rapid and simplified molecular beacon-based procedure to directly measure the mRNA abundances and mRNA degradation properties of well-characterized Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity factors. This method does not require any PCR-based amplification, can monitor the abundances of multiple transcripts within a single RNA sample, and was successfully implemented into a high throughput screen of transposon mutant library members to detect isolates with altered mRNA turnover properties. It is expected that the described methodology will provide great utility in characterizing components of bacterial RNA degradation processes and can be used to directly measure the mRNA levels of virtually any bacterial transcript.

  2. Density-based similarity measures for content based search

    SciTech Connect

    Hush, Don R; Porter, Reid B; Ruggiero, Christy E

    2009-01-01

    We consider the query by multiple example problem where the goal is to identify database samples whose content is similar to a coUection of query samples. To assess the similarity we use a relative content density which quantifies the relative concentration of the query distribution to the database distribution. If the database distribution is a mixture of the query distribution and a background distribution then it can be shown that database samples whose relative content density is greater than a particular threshold {rho} are more likely to have been generated by the query distribution than the background distribution. We describe an algorithm for predicting samples with relative content density greater than {rho} that is computationally efficient and possesses strong performance guarantees. We also show empirical results for applications in computer network monitoring and image segmentation.

  3. Selecting Reliable mRNA Expression Measurements Across Platforms Improves Downstream Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tong, Pan; Diao, Lixia; Shen, Li; Li, Lerong; Heymach, John Victor; Girard, Luc; Minna, John D; Coombes, Kevin R; Byers, Lauren Averett; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    With increasing use of publicly available gene expression data sets, the quality of the expression data is a critical issue for downstream analysis, gene signature development, and cross-validation of data sets. Thus, identifying reliable expression measurements by leveraging multiple mRNA expression platforms is an important analytical task. In this study, we propose a statistical framework for selecting reliable measurements between platforms by modeling the correlations of mRNA expression levels using a beta-mixture model. The model-based selection provides an effective and objective way to separate good probes from probes with low quality, thereby improving the efficiency and accuracy of the analysis. The proposed method can be used to compare two microarray technologies or microarray and RNA sequencing measurements. We tested the approach in two matched profiling data sets, using microarray gene expression measurements from the same samples profiled on both Affymetrix and Illumina platforms. We also applied the algorithm to mRNA expression data to compare Affymetrix microarray data with RNA sequencing measurements. The algorithm successfully identified probes/genes with reliable measurements. Removing the unreliable measurements resulted in significant improvements for gene signature development and functional annotations.

  4. An Experimental Study on the Iso-Content-Based Angle Similarity Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin; Rasmussen, Edie M.

    2002-01-01

    Retrieval performance of the iso-content-based angle similarity measure within the angle, distance, conjunction, disjunction, and ellipse retrieval models is compared with retrieval performance of the distance similarity measure and the angle similarity measure. Results show the iso-content-based angle similarity measure achieves satisfactory…

  5. Experimental approaches for measuring pKa's in RNA and DNA.

    PubMed

    Thaplyal, Pallavi; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2014-01-01

    RNA and DNA carry out diverse functions in biology including catalysis, splicing, gene regulation, and storage of genetic information. Interest has grown in understanding how nucleic acids perform such sophisticated functions given their limited molecular repertoire. RNA can fold into diverse shapes that often perturb pKa values and allow it to ionize appreciably under biological conditions, thereby extending its molecular diversity. The goal of this chapter is to enable experimental measurement of pKa's in RNA and DNA. A number of experimental methods for measuring pKa values in RNA and DNA have been developed over the last 10 years, including RNA cleavage kinetics; UV-, fluorescence-, and NMR-detected pH titrations; and Raman crystallography. We begin with general considerations for choosing a pKa assay and then describe experimental conditions, advantages, and disadvantages for these assays. Potential pitfalls in measuring a pKa are provided including the presence of apparent pKa's due to a kinetic pKa or coupled acid- and alkali-promoted RNA unfolding, as well as degradation of RNA, precipitation of metal hydroxides and poor baselines. Use of multiple data fitting procedures and the study of appropriate mutants are described as ways to avoid some of these pitfalls. Application of these experimental methods to RNA and DNA will increase the number of available nucleic acid pKa values in the literature, which should deepen insight into biology and provide benchmarks for pKa calculations. Future directions for measuring pKa's in nucleic acids are discussed.

  6. Exosomes: improved methods to characterize their morphology, RNA content, and surface protein biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yueting; Deng, Wentao; Klinke, David J

    2015-10-01

    As a type of secreted membrane vesicle, exosomes are an emerging mode of cell-to-cell communication. Yet as exosome samples are commonly contaminated with other extracellular vesicles, the biological roles of exosomes in regulating immunity and promoting oncogenesis remain controversial. Wondering whether existing methods could distort our view of exosome biology, we compared two direct methods for imaging extracellular vesicles and quantified the impact of different production and storage conditions on the quality of exosome samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was compared to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as alternatives to examine the morphology of exosomes. Using SEM, we were able to distinguish exosomes from other contaminating extracellular vesicles based on the size distribution. More importantly, freezing of samples prior to SEM imaging made it more difficult to distinguish exosomes from extracellular vesicles secreted during cell death. In addition to morphology, the quality of RNA contained within the exosomes was characterized under different storage conditions, where freezing of samples also degraded RNA. Finally, we developed a new flow cytometry approach to assay transmembrane proteins on exosomes. While high-copy-number proteins could be readily detected, detecting low-copy-number proteins was improved using a lipophilic tracer that clustered exosomes. To illustrate this, we observed that exosomes derived from SKBR3 cells, a cell model for human HER2+ breast cancer, contained both HER1 and HER2 but at different levels of abundance. Collectively, these new methods will help to ensure a consistent framework to identify specific roles that exosomes play in regulating cell-to-cell communication.

  7. Study on fast measurement of sugar content of yogurt using Vis/NIR spectroscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yong; Feng, Shuijuan; Wu, Di; Li, Xiaoli

    2006-09-01

    In order to measuring the sugar content of yogurt rapidly, a fast measurement of sugar content of yogurt using Vis/NIR-spectroscopy techniques was established. 25 samples selected separately from five different brands of yogurt were measured by Vis/NIR-spectroscopy. The sugar content of yogurt on positions scanned by spectrum were measured by a sugar content meter. The mathematical model between sugar content and Vis/NIR spectral measurements was established and developed based on partial least squares (PLS). The correlation coefficient of sugar content based on PLS model is more than 0.894, and standard error of calibration (SEC) is 0.356, standard error of prediction (SEP) is 0.389. Through predicting the sugar content quantitatively of 35 samples of yogurt from 5 different brands, the correlation coefficient between predictive value and measured value of those samples is more than 0.934. The results show the good to excellent prediction performance. The Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique had significantly greater accuracy for determining the sugar content. It was concluded that the Vis/NIRS measurement technique seems reliable to assess the fast measurement of sugar content of yogurt, and a new method for the measurement of sugar content of yogurt was established.

  8. Platelets confound the measurement of extracellular miRNA in archived plasma

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Adam J.; Gray, Warren D.; Hayek, Salim S.; Ko, Yi-An; Thomas, Sheena; Rooney, Kim; Awad, Mosaab; Roback, John D.; Quyyumi, Arshed; Searles, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular miRNAs are detectable in biofluids and represent a novel class of disease biomarker. Although many studies have utilized archived plasma for miRNA biomarker discovery, the effects of processing and storage have not been rigorously studied. Previous reports have suggested plasma samples are commonly contaminated by platelets, significantly confounding the measurement of extracellular miRNA, which was thought to be easily addressed by additional post-thaw plasma processing. In a case-control study of archived plasma, we noted a significant correlation between miRNA levels and platelet counts despite post-thaw processing. We thus examined the effects of a single freeze/thaw cycle on microparticles (MPs) and miRNA levels, and show that a single freeze/thaw cycle of plasma dramatically increases the number of platelet-derived MPs, contaminates the extracellular miRNA pool, and profoundly affects the levels of miRNAs detected. The measurement of extracellular miRNAs in archived samples is critically dependent on the removal of residual platelets prior to freezing plasma samples. Many previous clinical studies of extracellular miRNA in archived plasma should be interpreted with caution and future studies should avoid the effects of platelet contamination. PMID:27623086

  9. Platelets confound the measurement of extracellular miRNA in archived plasma.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Adam J; Gray, Warren D; Hayek, Salim S; Ko, Yi-An; Thomas, Sheena; Rooney, Kim; Awad, Mosaab; Roback, John D; Quyyumi, Arshed; Searles, Charles D

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular miRNAs are detectable in biofluids and represent a novel class of disease biomarker. Although many studies have utilized archived plasma for miRNA biomarker discovery, the effects of processing and storage have not been rigorously studied. Previous reports have suggested plasma samples are commonly contaminated by platelets, significantly confounding the measurement of extracellular miRNA, which was thought to be easily addressed by additional post-thaw plasma processing. In a case-control study of archived plasma, we noted a significant correlation between miRNA levels and platelet counts despite post-thaw processing. We thus examined the effects of a single freeze/thaw cycle on microparticles (MPs) and miRNA levels, and show that a single freeze/thaw cycle of plasma dramatically increases the number of platelet-derived MPs, contaminates the extracellular miRNA pool, and profoundly affects the levels of miRNAs detected. The measurement of extracellular miRNAs in archived samples is critically dependent on the removal of residual platelets prior to freezing plasma samples. Many previous clinical studies of extracellular miRNA in archived plasma should be interpreted with caution and future studies should avoid the effects of platelet contamination. PMID:27623086

  10. Post-synthetic Spin-Labeling of RNA through Click Chemistry for PELDOR Measurements.

    PubMed

    Kerzhner, Mark; Abdullin, Dinar; Więcek, Jennifer; Matsuoka, Hideto; Hagelueken, Gregor; Schiemann, Olav; Famulok, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Site-directed spin labeling of RNA based on click chemistry is used in combination with pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) to benchmark a nitroxide spin label, called here dŲ. We compare this approach with another established method that employs the rigid spin label Çm for RNA labeling. By using CD spectroscopy, thermal denaturation measurements, CW-EPR as well as PELDOR we analyzed and compared the influence of dŲ and Çm on a self-complementary RNA duplex. Our results demonstrate that the conformational diversity of dŲ is significantly reduced near the freezing temperature of a phosphate buffer, resulting in strongly orientation-selective PELDOR time traces of the dŲ-labeled RNA duplex.

  11. Post-synthetic Spin-Labeling of RNA through Click Chemistry for PELDOR Measurements.

    PubMed

    Kerzhner, Mark; Abdullin, Dinar; Więcek, Jennifer; Matsuoka, Hideto; Hagelueken, Gregor; Schiemann, Olav; Famulok, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Site-directed spin labeling of RNA based on click chemistry is used in combination with pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) to benchmark a nitroxide spin label, called here dŲ. We compare this approach with another established method that employs the rigid spin label Çm for RNA labeling. By using CD spectroscopy, thermal denaturation measurements, CW-EPR as well as PELDOR we analyzed and compared the influence of dŲ and Çm on a self-complementary RNA duplex. Our results demonstrate that the conformational diversity of dŲ is significantly reduced near the freezing temperature of a phosphate buffer, resulting in strongly orientation-selective PELDOR time traces of the dŲ-labeled RNA duplex. PMID:27412453

  12. How to measure wisdom: content, reliability, and validity of five measures

    PubMed Central

    Glück, Judith; König, Susanne; Naschenweng, Katja; Redzanowski, Uwe; Dorner, Lara; Straßer, Irene; Wiedermann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Wisdom is a field of growing interest both inside and outside academic psychology, and researchers are increasingly interested in using measures of wisdom in their work. However, wisdom is a highly complex construct, and its various operationalizations are based on quite different definitions. Which measure a researcher chooses for a particular research project may have a strong influence on the results. This study compares four well-established measures of wisdom—the Self-Assessed Wisdom Scale (Webster, 2003, 2007), the Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (Ardelt, 2003), the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory (Levenson et al., 2005), and the Berlin Wisdom Paradigm (Baltes and Smith, 1990; Baltes and Staudinger, 2000)—with respect to content, reliability, factorial structure, and construct validity (relationships to wisdom nomination, interview-based wisdom ratings, and correlates of wisdom). The sample consisted of 47 wisdom nominees and 123 control participants. While none of the measures performed “better” than the others by absolute standards, recommendations are given for researchers to select the most suitable measure for their substantive interests. In addition, a “Brief Wisdom Screening Scale” is introduced that contains those 20 items from the three self-report scales that were most highly correlated with the common factor across the scales. PMID:23874310

  13. How to measure wisdom: content, reliability, and validity of five measures.

    PubMed

    Glück, Judith; König, Susanne; Naschenweng, Katja; Redzanowski, Uwe; Dorner, Lara; Straßer, Irene; Wiedermann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Wisdom is a field of growing interest both inside and outside academic psychology, and researchers are increasingly interested in using measures of wisdom in their work. However, wisdom is a highly complex construct, and its various operationalizations are based on quite different definitions. Which measure a researcher chooses for a particular research project may have a strong influence on the results. This study compares four well-established measures of wisdom-the Self-Assessed Wisdom Scale (Webster, 2003, 2007), the Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (Ardelt, 2003), the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory (Levenson et al., 2005), and the Berlin Wisdom Paradigm (Baltes and Smith, 1990; Baltes and Staudinger, 2000)-with respect to content, reliability, factorial structure, and construct validity (relationships to wisdom nomination, interview-based wisdom ratings, and correlates of wisdom). The sample consisted of 47 wisdom nominees and 123 control participants. While none of the measures performed "better" than the others by absolute standards, recommendations are given for researchers to select the most suitable measure for their substantive interests. In addition, a "Brief Wisdom Screening Scale" is introduced that contains those 20 items from the three self-report scales that were most highly correlated with the common factor across the scales.

  14. Characterizing a novel and sensitive method to measure dsRNA in soil.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Joshua R; Zapata, Fatima; Dubelman, Samuel; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Jensen, Peter D; Levine, Steven L

    2016-10-01

    Performing environmental assessments for double-stranded RNA-based agricultural products require the development of sensitive and selective methods to measure biodegradation rates of dsRNAs. We developed and characterized a novel analytical procedure that uses a molecular hybridization assay (QuantiGene(®)) to accurately measure dsRNA extracted from diverse soils. In this report, we utilize this method to demonstrate that two dsRNAs with distinct size, structure, and sequence degrade rapidly in soil with indistinguishable kinetics. PMID:27441991

  15. Measuring DNA content by flow cytometry in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Sabatinos, Sarah A; Forsburg, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Flow cytometry is an essential tool to monitor DNA content and determine cell cycle distribution. Its utility in fission yeast reflects the ease of sample preparation, the stochiometric binding of the most popular DNA dyes (propidium iodide and Sytox Green), and ability to monitor cell size. However, the study of DNA replication with multicolour flow analysis has lagged behind its use in mammalian cells. We present basic and advanced protocols for analysis of DNA replication in fission yeast by flow cytometry including whole cell, nuclear "ghosts," two-color imaging with BrdU, and estimates of DNA synthesis using EdU.

  16. Bone optical spectroscopy for the measurement of hemoglobin content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollmann, Joseph L.; Arambel, Paula; Piet, Judith; Shefelbine, Sandra; Markovic, Stacey; Niedre, Mark; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2014-05-01

    Osteoporosis is a common side effect of spinal cord injuries. Blood perfusion in the bone provides an indication of bone health and may help to evaluate therapies addressing bone loss. Current methods for measuring blood perfusion of bone use dyes and ionizing radiation, and yield qualitative results. We present a device capable of measuring blood oxygenation in the tibia. The device illuminates the skin directly over the tibia with a white light source and measures the diffusely reflected light in the near infrared spectrum. Multiple source-detector distances are utilized so that the blood perfusion in skin and bone may be differentiated.

  17. Improved apparatus for measuring hydraulic conductivity at low water content

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, J.R.; Akstin, K.C.; Mello, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    A modification of the steady-state centrifuge method for unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K) measurement improves the range and adjustability of this method. The modified apparatus allows mechanical adjustment to vary the measured K by a factor of 360. In addition, the use of different flow-regulation ceramic materials can give a total K range covering about six orders of magnitude. The range extension afforded has led to the lowest steady-state K measurement to date, for a sandy soil of the Delhi series (Typic Xeropsamment). -from Authors

  18. A measure of aperiodicity content in a speech signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Om D.; Espy-Wilson, Carol Y.

    2003-04-01

    Most of the current aperiodicity detectors measure aperiodicity indirectly, in which the absence of periodic component in a nonsilent region is termed as aperiodicity. Such indirect measurements are inadequate and can be misleading especially in cases like voiced fricatives or breathy vowels. This motivated us to develop a direct measure of aperiodicity which is independent of the periodicity measure. The speech signal is passed through a 60-channel gamma tone auditory filterbank. Average Magnitude Difference Function (AMDF) is computed on the envelope of each channel. The randomness in the distribution of the AMDF dips is the basis for the measure of the aperiodicity whereas the measure of the periodicity is based on the occurrence of the dips at multiple locations. The system was evaluated on the MOCHA database, which has simultaneous recording of the EGG data, and on the TIMIT database. Preliminary analysis shows that the aperiodicity and voicing accuracy on a per frame basis are 95% and 90.3%, respectively. In voiced fricatives and voiced stops, high aperiodicity and high periodicity were detected in 21.6% of the frames. Note that not all these sounds necessarily had both the sources prominent.

  19. Collimated neutron probe for soil water content measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klenke, J.M.; Flint, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    A collimated neutron probe was designed to enable mesurements in specific directions from the access tube. To determine the size and shape of soil volume affecting the neutron counts, experiments were conducted to evaluate: 1) the vertical distance of soil above and below the probe that influences neutron counts; 2) the horizontal distance away from the probe into the soil that influences neutron counts; 3) the angle of soil viewed by the probe from the collimator; and 4) the three-dimensional thermal-neutron density field. The vertical distance was ~0.5m, the horizontal distance was ~0.2m, and the angle of soil viewed by the probe from the collimator was ~120??. Thermal neutrons detected from distances or angles larger than these values influence the determination of relative water content by 5% or less. -from Authors

  20. Optimized Collection Protocol for Plasma MicroRNA Measurement in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chi-Sheng; Lin, Fen-Chiung; Chen, Shu-Jen; Chen, Yung-Lung; Chung, Wen-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Background. Various microRNAs (miRNAs) are used as markers of acute coronary syndrome, in which heparinization is considered mandatory therapy. Nevertheless, a standard method of handling plasma samples has not been proposed, and the effects of heparin treatment on miRNA detection are rarely discussed. Materials and Method. This study used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis to investigate how storage temperature, standby time, hemolysis, and heparin treatment affect miRNA measurement in plasma samples from 25 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Results. For most miRNAs, the qPCR results remained consistent during the first 2 hours. The miRNA signals did not significantly differ between samples stored at 4°C before processing and samples stored at room temperature (RT) before processing. miR-451a/miR-23a ratio < 60 indicated < 0.12% hemolysis with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Pretreatment with 0.25 U heparinase I recovered qPCR signals that were reduced by in vivo heparinization. Conclusions. For miRNA measurement, blood samples stored at RT should be processed into plasma within 2 hours after withdrawal and should be pretreated with 0.25 U heparinase I to overcome heparin-attenuated miRNA signals. The miR-451a/miR-23a ratio is a reliable indicator of significant hemolysis. PMID:27725938

  1. Fluorescence competition assay measurements of free energy changes for RNA pseudoknots.

    PubMed

    Liu, Biao; Shankar, Neelaabh; Turner, Douglas H

    2010-01-26

    RNA pseudoknots have important functions, and thermodynamic stability is a key to predicting pseudoknots in RNA sequences and to understanding their functions. Traditional methods, such as UV melting and differential scanning calorimetry, for measuring RNA thermodynamics are restricted to temperature ranges around the melting temperature for a pseudoknot. Here, we report RNA pseudoknot free energy changes at 37 degrees C measured by fluorescence competition assays. Sequence-dependent studies for the loop 1-stem 2 region reveal (1) the individual nearest-neighbor hydrogen bonding (INN-HB) model provides a reasonable estimate for the free energy change when a Watson-Crick base pair in stem 2 is changed, (2) the loop entropy can be estimated by a statistical polymer model, although some penalty for certain loop sequences is necessary, and (3) tertiary interactions can significantly stabilize pseudoknots and extending the length of stem 2 may alter tertiary interactions such that the INN-HB model does not predict the net effect of adding a base pair. The results can inform writing of algorithms for predicting and/or designing RNA secondary structures.

  2. Improving Student Achievement by Measuring Ability, Not Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Malbert S., III

    2005-01-01

    Although significant federal funds are tied to student assessment, public education in this country is the responsibility of individual states. Subsequently, it seems as if there are as many approaches to measuring student ability and achievement as there are states. We now live in an increasingly mobile society in which today's families move from…

  3. A Theory of the Measurement of Knowledge Content, Access, and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirolli, Peter; Wilson, Mark

    1998-01-01

    An approach to the measurement of knowledge content, knowledge access, and knowledge learning is developed. First a theoretical view of cognition is described, and then a class of measurement models, based on Rasch modeling, is presented. Knowledge access and content are viewed as determining the observable actions selected by an agent to achieve…

  4. A Simple Experiment To Measure the Content of Oxygen in the Air Using Heated Steel Wool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Francisco; Rivera, Rodrigo; Nunez, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    The typical experiment to measure the oxygen content in the atmosphere uses the rusting of steel wool inside a closed volume of air. Two key aspects of this experiment that make possible a successful measurement of the content of oxygen in the air are the use of a closed atmosphere and the use of a chemical reaction that involves the oxidation of…

  5. Fiber moisture content measurements of lint and seed cotton by a small microwave instrument

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The timely and accurate measurement of cotton fiber moisture content is important, as deviations in moisture fiber content can impact the fiber quality and processing of cotton fiber. The Mesdan Aqualab is a small, modular, microwave-based fiber moisture measurement instrument for samples with mode...

  6. The use of a permanent magnet for water content measurements ofwood chips

    SciTech Connect

    Barale, P.J.; Fong, C.G.; Green, M.A.; Luft, P.A.; McInturff,A.D.; Reimer, J.A.; Yahnke, M.

    2001-09-20

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed a device that measures the water content of wood chips, pulp and brown stock for the paper industry. This device employs a permanent magnet as the central part of a NMR measurement system. This report describes the magnet and the NMR measurement system. The results of water content measurements in wood chips in a magnetic field of 0.47 T are presented.

  7. Measuring the Dark Matter Content of Galaxies with SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bixel, Alex; Sellwood, Jerry; Mitchell, Carl

    2016-01-01

    In order to test the predictions of galaxy formation models, we seek to measure the detailed dark matter distributions of spiral galaxies. The best way to accomplish this is through measurements of the Doppler shift of the Hα line, through which we can produce detailed velocity maps and rotational models of a galaxy. Since the gas flows in rough centrifugal balance, we can use the rotational models to estimate the central gravitational attraction and therefore the mass distribution. As an example, we present a rotational velocity model fitted to an Hα velocity map of the spiral galaxy NGC 908, and find that the fitted systemic velocity gives good agreement with previous measurements in the literature. In the future, this method can be used to determine the rotation curves of the nineteen nearby galaxies for which we have or plan to collect interferometric data; we are currently working to produce similar results for the galaxy NGC 7606.This research has been supported by NSF grant PHY-1263280.

  8. Developing Respondent Based Multi-Media Measures of Exposure to Sexual Content

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Hennessy, Michal; Jordan, Amy; Chernin, Ariel; Stevens, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Despite the interest in the effects of the media on sexual behavior, there is no single method for assessing exposure to a particular type of media content (e.g., sex). This paper discusses the development of six sexual content exposure measures based on adolescents’ own subjective ratings of the sexual content in titles in 4 media (i.e., television, music, magazines, videogames). We assessed the construct and criterion validity of these measures by examining the associations among each of these measures of exposure to sexual content as well as their associations with adolescents’ sexual activity. Data were collected in summer 2005 through a web-based survey using a quota sample of 547 youth aged 14–16 from the Philadelphia area. Adolescents rated how often they were exposed to specific television shows, magazine titles, etc. on 4-point never to often scales. They also rated the sexual content of those titles on 4-point no sexual content to a lot of sexual content scales. Sexual behavior was measured using an ordered index of lifetime pre-coital and coital sexual activity. The strength of association between exposure to sexual content and sexual activity varied by medium and measure. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of a multiple media weighted sum measure. This measure produces findings that are consistent with those of similar studies. PMID:20411048

  9. Retro-orbital blood acquisition facilitates circulating microRNA measurement in zebrafish with paracetamol hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Vliegenthart, Adriaan D B; Starkey Lewis, Philip; Tucker, Carl S; Del Pozo, Jorge; Rider, Sebastein; Antoine, Daniel J; Dubost, Valérie; Westphal, Magdalena; Moulin, Pierre; Bailey, Matthew A; Moggs, Jonathan G; Goldring, Chris E; Park, B Kevin; Dear, James W

    2014-06-01

    Paracetamol is the commonest cause of acute liver failure in the Western world and biomarkers are needed that report early hepatotoxicity. The liver-enriched microRNA (miRNA), miR-122, is a promising biomarker currently being qualified in humans. For biomarker development and drug toxicity screening, the zebrafish has advantages over rodents; however, blood acquisition in this model remains technically challenging. We developed a method for collecting blood from the adult zebrafish by retro-orbital (RO) bleeding and compared it to the commonly used lateral incision method. The RO technique was more reliable in terms of the blood yield and minimum amount per fish. This new RO technique was used in a zebrafish model of paracetamol toxicity. Paracetamol induced dose-dependent increases in liver cell necrosis, serum alanine transaminase activity, and mortality. In situ hybridization localized expression of miR-122 to the cytoplasm of zebrafish hepatocytes. After collection by RO bleeding, serum miR-122 could be measured and this miRNA was substantially increased by paracetamol 24 h after exposure, an increase that was prevented by delayed (3 h poststart of paracetamol exposure) treatment with acetylcysteine. In summary, collection of blood by RO bleeding facilitated measurement of miR-122 in a zebrafish model of paracetamol hepatotoxicity. The zebrafish represents a new species for measurement of circulating miRNA biomarkers that are translational and can bridge between fish and humans.

  10. Measuring soil water content using gypsum blocks with long leads

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, R.H.; Hof, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a system for measuring soil water status quickly and accurately at several sites from a central location. The heart of the system is an instrument, developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, that compensates for the capacitance in the long leads between the gypsum blocks and switching unit that connects each block to the instrument. Advantages of the system are: data collection time can be reduced by as much as 90 percent; digital display eliminates interpolation and therefore yields more accurate data; and damage to the sampling area from trampling or compaction is avoided.

  11. PRECEDENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF CONTENTS USING DOSE RATE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.

    2012-06-05

    For the transportation of Radioactive Material (RAM) packages, the requirements for the maximum allowed dose rate at the package surface and in its vicinity are given in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 71.47. The regulations are based on the acceptable dose rates to which the public, workers, and the environment may be exposed. As such, the regulations specify dose rates, rather than quantity of radioactive isotopes and require monitoring to confirm the requirements are met. 10CFR71.47 requires that each package of radioactive materials offered for transportation must be designed and prepared for shipment so that under conditions normally incident to transportation the radiation level does not exceed 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) at any point on the external Surface of the package, and the transport index does not exceed 10. Before shipment, the dose rate of the package is determined by measurement, ensuring that it conforms to the regulatory limits, regardless of any analyses. This is the requirement for all certified packagings. This paper discusses the requirements for establishing the dose rates when shipping RAM packages and the precedents for meeting these requirements by measurement.

  12. Extraction of RNA from archival tissues and measurement of thrombospondin-1 mRNA in normal, dysplastic, and malignant oral tissues.

    PubMed

    Macluskey, M; Baillie, R; Morrow, H; Schor, S L; Schor, A M

    2006-04-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein implicated in the regulation of angiogenesis and tumour development. Our objectives were to ascertain the quantity and quality of RNA extracted from archival, formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded, oral tissues and their application in measuring the concentrations of TSP-1 mRNA in these tissues. We compared three techniques of isolation of RNA as well as related experimental variables. TSP-1 mRNA was measured in specimens of normal, dysplastic, and malignant oral tissues by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RNA suitable for analysis by real-time RT-PCR was obtained by the three techniques tested, although the yield varied depending on the protocol used (range 0.2-3.6 microg/mm(3)). The mean (S.D.) concentrations of TSP-1 mRNA relative to 18S were 21.1 (7.2) in normal oral tissues (n=9), 11.0 (8.2) in dysplastic tissue (n=8) and 7.3 (5.3) in carcinomatous tissue (n=17). The difference between normal and carcinomatous specimens was significant (p=0.01). This reduction in expression of TSP-1 mRNA from normal to dysplasia to carcinoma may favour the angiogenic drive that accompanies the development of oral tumours.

  13. First measurements of formaldehyde integral content at Zvenigorod Scientific Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barouski, A. N.; Elokhov, A.; Postylyakov, O.; Kanaya, Y.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first observations of formaldehyde (HCHO) atmospheric column performed in Zvenigorod, Moscow Region, Russia. The data were retrieved from UV spectra of the scattered solar radiation measured by the MAX-DOAS instrument developed by JAMSTEC. We developed an algorithm for the HCHO retrieval from these spectra. For the HCHO differential slant column densities retrieval we used recommended by CINDI campaign DOAS settings (Pinardi et al, 2012). The slant column densities of HCHO were converted to the vertical column densities (VCD) using the air mass factor calculated by a radiative transfer model MCC++ (Postylyakov O.V., 2004). The determination of HCHO in the reference spectrum used multi-axis measurements. The variability of the HCHO vertical column in 2010 is analyzed. The HCHO vertical column density is larger during east wind directions than during non-east wind directions. It can be associated with Moscow Megacity influence on air quality at Zvenigorod. The estimation of Moscow Megacity influence on HCHO abundance at Zvenigorod is around 2.5 × 1014 mol/cm2 per 1 km length of trajectory path inside Moscow Ring Road. A temperature effect is noticeable in the HCHO VCD. Our data show statistically significant positive temperature effect in HCHO for the background condition for temperatures from -5C to +33C. The temperature trend in HCHO data at Zvenigorod Scientific Station is about (8.9×2.3)×1014 mol/cm2/C. The increase of the HCHO VCD during increase of the air temperature can be explained by the HCHO formation from non-methane volatile organic compounds for which more emission is expected at higher temperatures, especially from isoprene (Irie et al, 2011). This study was supported by RFBR under grants 12-05-92108 and 11-05-01175, and by JSPS under the Japan-Russia Research Cooperative Program. References. Irie H., Takashima H., Kanaya Y., Boersma K. F., Gast L., Wittrock F., Brunner D., Zhou Y. and Van Roozendael M.: Eight-component retrievals

  14. Gram-positive bacteria with a high DNA G+C content are characterized by a common insertion within their 23S rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Roller, C; Ludwig, W; Schleifer, K H

    1992-06-01

    An insertion of about 100 bases within the central part of the 23S rRNA genes was found to be a phylogenetic marker for the bacterial line of descent of Gram-positive bacteria with a high DNA G + C content. The insertion was present in 23S rRNA genes of 64 strains representing the major phylogenetic groups of Gram-positive bacteria with a high DNA G+C content, whereas it was not found in 23S rRNA genes of 55 (eu)bacteria representing Gram-positive bacteria with a low DNA G + C content and all other known (eu)bacterial phyla. The presence of the insertion could be easily demonstrated by comparative gel electrophoretic analysis of in vitro-amplified 23S rDNA fragments, which contained the insertion. The nucleotide sequences of the amplified fragments were determined and sequence similarities of at least 44% were found. The overall similarity values are lower than those of 16S and 23S rRNA sequences of the particular organism. Northern hybridization experiments indicated the presence of the insertion within the mature 23S rRNA of Corynebacterium glutamicum.

  15. Study of E. coli Hfq’s RNA annealing acceleration and duplex destabilization activities using substrates with different GC-contents

    PubMed Central

    Doetsch, Martina; Stampfl, Sabine; Fürtig, Boris; Beich-Frandsen, Mads; Saxena, Krishna; Lybecker, Meghan; Schroeder, Renée

    2013-01-01

    Folding of RNA molecules into their functional three-dimensional structures is often supported by RNA chaperones, some of which can catalyse the two elementary reactions helix disruption and helix formation. Hfq is one such RNA chaperone, but its strand displacement activity is controversial. Whereas some groups found Hfq to destabilize secondary structures, others did not observe such an activity with their RNA substrates. We studied Hfq’s activities using a set of short RNAs of different thermodynamic stabilities (GC-contents from 4.8% to 61.9%), but constant length. We show that Hfq’s strand displacement as well as its annealing activity are strongly dependent on the substrate’s GC-content. However, this is due to Hfq’s preferred binding of AU-rich sequences and not to the substrate’s thermodynamic stability. Importantly, Hfq catalyses both annealing and strand displacement with comparable rates for different substrates, hinting at RNA strand diffusion and annealing nucleation being rate-limiting for both reactions. Hfq’s strand displacement activity is a result of the thermodynamic destabilization of the RNA through preferred single-strand binding whereas annealing acceleration is independent from Hfq’s thermodynamic influence. Therefore, the two apparently disparate activities annealing acceleration and duplex destabilization are not in energetic conflict with each other. PMID:23104381

  16. Artificial miRNA-mediated down-regulation of two monolignoid biosynthetic genes (C3H and F5H) cause reduction in lignin content in jute.

    PubMed

    Shafrin, Farhana; Das, Sudhanshu Sekhar; Sanan-Mishra, Neeti; Khan, Haseena

    2015-11-01

    Artificial microRNAs (amiRNA) provide a new feature in the gene silencing era. Concomitantly, reducing the amount of lignin in fiber-yielding plants such as jute holds significant commercial and environmental potential, since this amount is inversely proportional to the quality of the fiber. The present study aimed at reducing the lignin content in jute, by introducing amiRNA based vectors for down-regulation of two monolignoid biosynthetic genes of jute, coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) and ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H). The transgenic lines of F5H-amiRNA and C3H-amiRNA showed a reduced level of gene expression, which resulted in about 25% reduction in acid insoluble lignin content for whole stem and 12-15% reduction in fiber lignin as compared to the non-transgenic plants. The results indicate successful F5H-amiRNA and C3H-amiRNA transgenesis for lignin reduction in jute. This is likely to have far-reaching commercial implications and economic acceleration for jute producing countries.

  17. Artificial miRNA-mediated down-regulation of two monolignoid biosynthetic genes (C3H and F5H) cause reduction in lignin content in jute.

    PubMed

    Shafrin, Farhana; Das, Sudhanshu Sekhar; Sanan-Mishra, Neeti; Khan, Haseena

    2015-11-01

    Artificial microRNAs (amiRNA) provide a new feature in the gene silencing era. Concomitantly, reducing the amount of lignin in fiber-yielding plants such as jute holds significant commercial and environmental potential, since this amount is inversely proportional to the quality of the fiber. The present study aimed at reducing the lignin content in jute, by introducing amiRNA based vectors for down-regulation of two monolignoid biosynthetic genes of jute, coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) and ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H). The transgenic lines of F5H-amiRNA and C3H-amiRNA showed a reduced level of gene expression, which resulted in about 25% reduction in acid insoluble lignin content for whole stem and 12-15% reduction in fiber lignin as compared to the non-transgenic plants. The results indicate successful F5H-amiRNA and C3H-amiRNA transgenesis for lignin reduction in jute. This is likely to have far-reaching commercial implications and economic acceleration for jute producing countries. PMID:26453352

  18. Reduction of drosopterin content caused by a 45-nt insertion in Henna pre-mRNA of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Zhao, Chunjiang; Bai, Lihua; Deng, Xuemei; Wu, Changxin

    2008-08-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase is assumed to be a key enzyme in drosopterin metabolism, but direct in vivo evidence to support this hypothesis is still absent. In the present study, we found a new natural recessive purple eye mutant of Drosophila melanogaster, Hn ( bp ), which was a 45-nt insertion mutant in the second exon of Henna. The insertion resulted in a predicted protein with 15 additional amino acids as compared to the wild-type protein. Further analysis of protein structure showed that the predicted mutant protein probably had two more beta-sheets, which may cause instability of two alpha-helices near the catalytic centre of the enzyme in the Biopterin-Hydroxyl binding domain. Hn ( bp ) mutant showed eye color defect with decrease of mRNA level, as well as drosopterin content reduction. The drosopterin defect could be fully rescued by expression of wild type Henna in the Hn ( bp ) background by GMR-GAL4 UAS-Henna/UAS-Henna:Hn ( bp )/Hn ( bp ) transgenic line. All taken together, it can be concluded that the mutation in Henna is responsible for drosopterin reduction in mutant Hn ( bp ), which provides key in vivo evidence to support the hypothesis that Henna is involved in drosopterin synthesis. PMID:18677598

  19. A novel measurement of allele discrimination for assessment of allele-specific silencing by RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masaki; Hohjoh, Hirohiko

    2014-11-01

    Allele-specific silencing by RNA interference (ASP-RNAi) is an atypical RNAi that is capable of discriminating target alleles from non-target alleles, and may be therapeutically useful for specific inhibition of disease-causing alleles without affecting their corresponding normal alleles. However, it is difficult to design and select small interfering RNA (siRNAs) that confer ASP-RNAi. A major problem is that there are few appropriate measures in determining optimal allele-specific siRNAs. Here we show two novel formulas for calculating a new measure of allele-discrimination, named "ASP-score". The formulas and ASP-score allow for an unbiased determination of optimal siRNAs, and may contribute to characterizing such allele-specific siRNAs.

  20. COMPARING MOISTURE METER READINGS WITH MEASURED EQUILIBRIUM MOISTURE CONTENT OF GYPSUM BOARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Moisture meters routinely used in the field to determine the moisture content in gypsum wallboard are primarily designed and manufactured to measure the moisture content of wood. Often they are used to decide whether to replace wallboard by determining if moisture is qualitativel...

  1. Measurement of rRNA Variations in Natural Communities of Microorganisms on the Southeastern U.S. Continental Shelf †

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Jonathan G.; Singleton, Fred L.

    1993-01-01

    The development of a clear understanding of the physiology of marine prokaryotes is complicated by the difficulties inherent in resolving the activity of various components of natural microbial communities. Application of appropriate molecular biological techniques offers a means of overcoming some of these problems. In this regard, we have used direct probing of bulk RNA purified from selective size fractions to examine variations in the rRNA content of heterotrophic communities and Synechococcus populations on the southeastern U.S. continental shelf. Heterotrophic communities in natural seawater cultures amended with selected substrates were examined. Synechococcus populations were isolated from the water column by differential filtration. The total cellular rRNA content of the target populations was assayed by probing RNA purified from these samples with an oligonucleotide complementing a universally conserved region in the eubacterial 16S rRNA (heterotrophs) or with a 1.5-kbp fragment encoding the Synechococcus sp. strain WH 7803 16S rRNA (cyanobacteria). The analyses revealed that heterotrophic bacteria responded to the addition of glucose and trace nutrients after a 6-h lag period. However, no response was detected after amino acids were added. The cellular rRNA content increased 48-fold before dropping to a value 20 times that detected before nutrients were added. Variations in the rRNA content from Synechococcus spp. followed a distinct diel pattern imposed by the phasing of cell division within the irradiance cycle. The results indicate that careful application of these appropriate molecular biological techniques can be of great use in discerning basic physiological characteristics of selected natural populations and the mechanisms which regulate growth at the subcellular level. Images PMID:16349009

  2. Calibration of a neutron coincidence counter for measurement of the plutonium content of wet oxalate cakes

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, T.W.

    1983-04-01

    A novel calibration procedure has been applied to the dual-ring thermal neutron coincidence counter used at the Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility to measure the plutonium content of wet oxalate cakes. The calibration uses the measured content of the plutonium oxide product and the coincidence counter response to estimate the plutonium content in up to four wet plutonium oxalate cakes. These estimated mass values are then used to calibrate the counter. The calibration calculation is iterative in determining the calibration function coefficients and plutonium masses for oxalate material.

  3. Source of amino acids for tRNA acylation. Implications for measurement of protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, D M; Calvert, C C; Klasing, K C

    1992-01-01

    Estimates of protein-synthesis rates using radioisotopes require accurate measurement of the specific radioactivity of the label in protein and in the precursor pool over time. Although the extracellular and intracellular pools of amino acids are easiest to sample, the tRNA pool is the direct precursor and is the appropriate pool for sampling. To test if the intracellular or extracellular pools reflect the tRNA specific radioactivity, a chicken macrophage cell line was incubated in medium containing either 0.23 mM-leucine and 14.5 microCi of [3H]leucine (tracer dose) or 2.3 microM-leucine plus 145.0 microCi of [3H]leucine (flooding dose). At both leucine levels, the tRNA specific radioactivity reached a plateau quickly, but did not equilibrate with either the extracellular or intracellular specific radioactivity within 30 min, and remained closer to that of protein. In a second experiment, proteins in chicken macrophages were labelled with [3H]leucine for 2 days. Labelling medium was removed, and the cells were washed free of residual free [3H]leucine and incubated with medium containing either 0.23 mM- or 2.3 mM-leucine (unlabelled). The specific radioactivity of leucyl-tRNA leucine reached a plateau within 2 min and remained considerably closer to that in the protein than that in intracellular or extracellular pools for at least 60 min. These results suggest that amino acids from protein degradation are a primary source for charging tRNA. When protein-synthesis rates are estimated by label incorporation, use of extracellular or intracellular specific-radioactivity values result in a marked underestimation. PMID:1575701

  4. Prototype Specifications and Measures for Content-Based Explanation Skills. Project 2.2: Alternative Approaches to Measuring School Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing, Los Angeles, CA.

    A set of prototype measures has been developed to measure students' understanding of content areas. Although the starting point has been history, the project has explored the use of a common model for assessment in geography and science as well. These prototypes are intended to provide models for users with assessment requirements who do not have…

  5. Outdoor, indoor, and human breath content measurements of ammonia by tunable diode laser spectroscopy technique

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, C.L.; Nadezhdinskii, A.I.

    1996-12-31

    Trace contents of ammonia in outdoor, indoor and exhaled air were measured on the base of high resolution absorption spectra. Tunable Diode Laser (TDL) system developed for this purpose possesses: {approximately}one second time constant, {approximately}200 cm{sup 3} sample volume, 5 ppb-sensitivity. The calibration of unit was based on measurements of relative intensities of sQ(3,1){hor_ellipsis}sQ(3,3) absorption lines of {nu}{sub 2S} and following calculation on the base of a priori data on strength and broadening coefficients of detected lines. Measured indoor contents (20--50 ppb) of ammonia was in 5--10 times higher than outdoor contents ({approximately}5 ppb). Approximately two times drop in NH{sub 3} room content after 6 p.m. was detected. Obtained behavior of ammonia content in respiration right after the smoking demonstrates that the removing of ammonia from lungs has the ventilation character. Measured contents of NH{sub 3} in human respiration was ranged between 120 and 220 ppb. The absence of ammonia content differences from respiration of smoking and non-smoking persons demonstrates that the accumulation of NH{sub 3} by humans seems to be rather negligible for a short time exposure, e.g., like smoking.

  6. Measuring differences in preactivation on the Internet: the content category superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Eichstaedt, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Preactivation of particular content categories in memory yields latency differences in a visual recognition task. Two Internet studies demonstrate this content category superiority effect (CCSE). Target words are repeatedly flashed for 400 ms and then masked for 200 ms. Experiment 1 shows that differences in pre-activated memory content, related to participants' use of computer operating systems, influence z-scored visual word recognition latencies. Experiment 2 shows that this influence is susceptible to instruction. Participants expecting to find positive words recognized those words faster, whereas participants expecting to find negative words were faster on negative words. The CCSE provides a basis on which new measures of implicit memory content can be founded. Two such applications are discussed--the Motive Superiority Measure of implicit motives, and a latency-based measure of self-focused attention. PMID:12455334

  7. A New Route for Unburned Carbon Concentration Measurements Eliminating Mineral Content and Coal Rank Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Duan, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Zhen; Yu, Hai-Tong

    2014-01-01

    500 million tons of coal fly ash are produced worldwide every year with only 16% of the total amount utilized. Therefore, potential applications using fly ash have both environmental and industrial interests. Unburned carbon concentration measurements are fundamental to effective fly ash applications. Current on-line measurement accuracies are strongly affected by the mineral content and coal rank. This paper describes a char/ash particle cluster spectral emittance method for unburned carbon concentration measurements. The char/ash particle cluster spectral emittance is predicted theoretically here for various unburned carbon concentrations to show that the measurements are sensitive to unburned carbon concentration but insensitive to the mineral content and coal rank at short wavelengths. The results show that the char/ash particle cluster spectral emittance method is a novel and promising route for unburned carbon concentration on-line measurements without being influenced by mineral content or coal rank effects. PMID:24691496

  8. In situ probing of gram-positive bacteria with high DNA G + C content using 23S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Roller, C; Wagner, M; Amann, R; Ludwig, W; Schleifer, K H

    1994-10-01

    23S-rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were designed for the phylogenetic group 'Gram-positive bacteria with high G + C content of DNA' (GPBHGC). A sequence idiosyncrasy in two adjacent base pairs in the stem of helix 69 in domain IV of the 23S rRNA is present in all hitherto analysed strains of GPBHGC. An oligonucleotide probe targeted to this region hybridized only with strains of GPBHGC and was successfully used for in situ monitoring of these cells in activated sludge. Another unique feature of the 23S rRNA molecules of GPBHGC is a large insertion in domain III. Fluorescent oligonucleotides targeted to the highly variable regions of the rRNA within the insertions of Corynebacterium glutamicum DSM 20300, Aureobacterium testaceum DSM 20166 and Brevibacterium sp. DSM 20165 hybridized specifically to their target strains, whereas probing with oligonucleotides complementary to the rRNA-coding strand of the 23S rDNA and to the spacer between 16S and 23S rRNA of C. glutamicum did not result in detectable fluorescence. This confirmed that the large 23S insertions are indeed present in 23S rRNAs of GPBHGC and provide potential target sites for highly specific nucleic acid probes.

  9. Unbinding forces and energies between a siRNA molecule and a dendrimer measured by force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dumitru, Andra C; Herruzo, Elena T; Rausell, Estrella; Ceña, Valentin; Garcia, Ricardo

    2015-12-21

    We have measured the intermolecular forces between small interference RNA (siRNA) and polyamidoamine dendrimers at the single molecular level. A single molecule force spectroscopy approach has been developed to measure the unbinding forces and energies between a siRNA molecule and polyamidoamine dendrimers deposited on a mica surface in a buffer solution. We report three types of unbinding events which are characterized by forces and free unbinding energies, respectively, of 28 pN, 0.709 eV; 38 pN, 0.722 eV; and 50 pN, 0.724 eV. These events reflect different possible electrostatic interactions between the positive charges of one or two dendrimers and the negatively charged phosphate groups of a single siRNA. We have evidence of a high binding affinity of siRNA towards polyamidoamine dendrimers that leads to a 45% probability of measuring specific unbinding events.

  10. Mode Content Determination of Terahertz Corrugated Waveguides Using Experimentally Measured Radiated Field Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Jawla, Sudheer K.; Nanni, Emilio A.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Woskov, Paul P.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    This work focuses on the accuracy of the mode content measurements in an overmoded corrugated waveguide using measured radiated field patterns. Experimental results were obtained at 250 GHz using a vector network analyzer with over 70 dB of dynamic range. The intensity and phase profiles of the fields radiated from the end of the 19 mm diameter helically tapped brass waveguide were measured on planes at 7, 10, and 13 cm from the waveguide end. The measured fields were back propagated to the waveguide aperture to provide three independent estimates of the field at the waveguide exit aperture. Projecting that field onto the modes of the guide determined the waveguide mode content. The three independent mode content estimates were found to agree with one another to an accuracy of better than ±0.3%. These direct determinations of the mode content were compared with indirect measurements using the experimentally measured amplitude in three planes, with the phase determined by a phase retrieval algorithm. The phase retrieval technique using the planes at 7, 10, and 13 cm yielded a mode content estimate in excellent agreement, within 0.3%, of the direct measurements. Phase retrieval results using planes at 10, 20, and 30 cm were less accurate due to truncation of the measurement in the transverse plane. The reported measurements benefited greatly from a precise mechanical alignment of the scanner with respect to the waveguide axis. These results will help to understand the accuracy of mode content measurements made directly in cold test and indirectly in hot test using the phase retrieval technique. PMID:25264391

  11. [Research on Modeling Method for Chlorophyll Content Fine Measurement Based on Neural Network].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chun-yan; Hua, Deng-xin; Le, Jing; Wan, Wen-bo; Jiang, Peng; Mao, Jian-dong

    2015-09-01

    Aiming at SPAD values of living plant leaf chlorophyll content affected easily by the blade thickness, water content, etc, a fine retrieval method of chlorophyll content based on multiple parameters of neural network model is presented. The SPAD values and water index (WI) of leaves were obtained by the leaf transmittance under the irradiation of light central wavelength in 650 nm, 940 nm, 1450 nm respectively. Meanwhile, the corresponding blade thickness is got by micrometer and the chlorophyll content is measured by spectrophotometric method. To modeling samples, the single parameter model between SPAD values and chlorophyll content was built and the nonlinear model between WI, thickness, SPAD values and chlorophyll content was established based on BP neural network. The predicted value of chlorophyll content of test samples were calculated separately by two models, and the correlation and relative errors were analyzed between predicted values and actual values. 340 samples of three different plant leaves were tested by the method described above in experiment. The results showed that compared with single parameter model, the prediction accuracy of three different plant samples were improved in different degrees, the average absolute relative error of chlorophyll content of all pooled samples predicted by BP neural network model reduced from 7.55% to 5.22%. The fitting determination coefficient is increased from 0.83 to 0.93. The feasibility were verified in this paper that the prediction accuracy of living plant chlorophyll content can improved effectively using multiple parameter BP neural network model.

  12. The Chloroplast Genome of Pellia endiviifolia: Gene Content, RNA-Editing Pattern, and the Origin of Chloroplast Editing

    PubMed Central

    Grosche, Christopher; Funk, Helena T.; Maier, Uwe G.; Zauner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that can act upon transcripts from mitochondrial, nuclear, and chloroplast genomes. In chloroplasts, single-nucleotide conversions in mRNAs via RNA editing occur at different frequencies across the plant kingdom. These range from several hundred edited sites in some mosses and ferns to lower frequencies in seed plants and the complete lack of RNA editing in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. Here, we report the sequence and edited sites of the chloroplast genome from the liverwort Pellia endiviifolia. The type and frequency of chloroplast RNA editing display a pattern highly similar to that in seed plants. Analyses of the C to U conversions and the genomic context in which the editing sites are embedded provide evidence in favor of the hypothesis that chloroplast RNA editing evolved to compensate mutations in the first land plants. PMID:23221608

  13. Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

  14. Validating Measures of Algebra Teacher Subject Matter Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschang, Rebecca E.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Delacruz, Girlie C.; Baker, Eva L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate inferences about scores of one task designed to measure subject matter knowledge and three tasks designed to measure aspects of pedagogical content knowledge. Evidence for the validity of inferences was based on two expectations. First, if tasks were sensitive to expertise, we would find group differences.…

  15. Validating Measures of Algebra Teacher Subject Matter Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge. CRESST Report 820

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschang, Rebecca E.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Delacruz, Girlie C.; Baker, Eva L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate inferences about scores of one task designed to measure subject matter knowledge and three tasks designed to measure aspects of pedagogical content knowledge. Evidence for the validity of inferences was based on two expectations. First, if tasks were sensitive to expertise, we would find group differences.…

  16. Short, multi-needle FDR sensor suitable for measuring soil water content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is a well-established electromagnetic technique used to measure soil water content. TDR sensors have been combined with heat pulse sensors to produce thermo-TDR sensors. Thermo-TDR sensors are restricted to having relatively short needles in order to accurately measur...

  17. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Graneheim, U H; Lundman, B

    2004-02-01

    Qualitative content analysis as described in published literature shows conflicting opinions and unsolved issues regarding meaning and use of concepts, procedures and interpretation. This paper provides an overview of important concepts (manifest and latent content, unit of analysis, meaning unit, condensation, abstraction, content area, code, category and theme) related to qualitative content analysis; illustrates the use of concepts related to the research procedure; and proposes measures to achieve trustworthiness (credibility, dependability and transferability) throughout the steps of the research procedure. Interpretation in qualitative content analysis is discussed in light of Watzlawick et al.'s [Pragmatics of Human Communication. A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies and Paradoxes. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, London] theory of communication.

  18. Balancing cationic and hydrophobic content of PEGylated siRNA polyplexes enhances endosome escape, stability, blood circulation time, and bioactivity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christopher E; Kintzing, James R; Hanna, Ann; Shannon, Joshua M; Gupta, Mukesh K; Duvall, Craig L

    2013-10-22

    A family of pH-responsive diblock polymers composed of poly[(ethylene glycol)-b-[(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-co-(butyl methacrylate)], PEG-(DMAEMA-co-BMA), was reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) synthesized with 0-75 mol % BMA in the second polymer block. The relative mole % of DMAEMA and BMA was varied in order to identify a polymer that can be used to formulate PEGylated, siRNA-loaded polyplex nanoparticles (NPs) with an optimized balance of cationic and hydrophobic content in the NP core based on siRNA packaging, cytocompatibility, blood circulation half-life, endosomal escape, and in vivo bioactivity. The polymer with 50:50 mol % of DMAEMA:BMA (polymer "50 B") in the RAFT-polymerized block efficiently condensed siRNA into 100 nm NPs that displayed pH-dependent membrane disruptive behavior finely tuned for endosomal escape. In vitro delivery of siRNA with polymer 50 B produced up to 94% protein-level knockdown of the model gene luciferase. The PEG corona of the NPs blocked nonspecific interactions with constituents of human whole blood, and the relative hydrophobicity of polymer 50 B increased NP stability in the presence of human serum or the polyanion heparin. When injected intravenously, 50 B NPs enhanced blood circulation half-life 3-fold relative to more standard PEG-DMAEMA (0 B) NPs (p < 0.05), due to improved stability and a reduced rate of renal clearance. The 50 B NPs enhanced siRNA biodistribution to the liver and other organs and significantly increased gene silencing in the liver, kidneys, and spleen relative to the benchmark polymer 0 B (p < 0.05). These collective findings validate the functional significance of tuning the balance of cationic and hydrophobic content of polyplex NPs utilized for systemic siRNA delivery in vivo.

  19. Novel Assays for Measurement of Total Cell-Associated HIV-1 DNA and RNA

    PubMed Central

    Aga, Evgenia; Cillo, Anthony R.; Yates, Aarika L.; Besson, Guillaume; Fyne, Elizabeth; Koontz, Dianna L.; Jennings, Cheryl; Zheng, Lu; Mellors, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Although a number of PCR-based quantitative assays for measuring HIV-1 persistence during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been reported, a simple, sensitive, reproducible method is needed for application to large clinical trials. We developed novel quantitative PCR assays for cell-associated (CA) HIV-1 DNA and RNA, targeting a highly conserved region in HIV-1 pol, with sensitivities of 3 to 5 copies/1 million cells. We evaluated the performance characteristics of the assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 5 viremic patients and 20 patients receiving effective ART. Total and resting CD4+ T cells were isolated from a subset of patients and tested for comparison with PBMCs. The estimated standard deviations including interassay variability and intra-assay variability of the assays were modest, i.e., 0.15 and 0.10 log10 copies/106 PBMCs, respectively, for CA HIV-1 DNA and 0.40 and 0.19 log10 copies/106 PBMCs for CA HIV-1 RNA. Testing of longitudinally obtained PBMC samples showed little variation for either viremic patients (median fold differences of 0.80 and 0.88 for CA HIV-1 DNA and RNA, respectively) or virologically suppressed patients (median fold differences of 1.14 and 0.97, respectively). CA HIV-1 DNA and RNA levels were strongly correlated (r = 0.77 to 1; P = 0.0001 to 0.037) for assays performed using PBMCs from different sources (phlebotomy versus leukapheresis) or using total or resting CD4+ T cells purified by either bead selection or flow cytometric sorting. Their sensitivity, reproducibility, and broad applicability to small numbers of mononuclear cells make these assays useful for observational and interventional studies that examine longitudinal changes in the numbers of HIV-1-infected cells and their levels of transcription. PMID:26763968

  20. Progress In Methods Of Measuring The Free Water Content Of Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, David J.

    1983-09-01

    Providing ground truth for the backscatter and absorption effects of a snow cover on electromagnetic waves has long been a problem. One characteristic of the snow cover which has been particularly difficult to measure is its free, or liquid, water content - the fraction of the snow's volume which exists in the liquid state. Five methods which have been used for measuring this parameter are described and their merits and deficiencies discussed. Two of the methods are calorimetric, measuring the free water content as a function of the heat added to or removed from a snow sample while completely melting or freezing it. The third uses the freezing point depression observed on adding a salt solution to a snow sample to calculate the snow's free water content. In the fourth procedure, a snow sample is completely dissolved in ethyl or methyl alcohol. The corresponding decrease in temperature is inversely related to the free water content of the snow. The final technique is electronic: above a certain frequency, the electrical capacitance of snow is related to its density and free water content. With accurate calibration, devices which measure snow capacitance are likely to be the simplest and fastest means of providing free water measurements.

  1. Development of transgenic Artemisia annua (Chinese wormwood) plants with an enhanced content of artemisinin, an effective anti-malarial drug, by hairpin-RNA-mediated gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Jing, Fuyuan; Li, Fupeng; Li, Meiya; Wang, Yuliang; Wang, Guofeng; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2009-03-01

    Artemisinin is an effective anti-malarial drug isolated from Artemisia annua L. (Chinese wormwood), but the content of artemisinin in A. annua is low. In the present study we explored the possibility of using genetic engineering to increase the artemisinin content of A. annua by suppressing the expression of SQS (squalene synthase), a key enzyme of sterol pathway (a pathway competitive with that of artemisinin biosynthesis) by means of a hairpin-RNA-mediated RNAi (RNA interference) technique. A total of 23 independent transgenic A. annua plants were obtained through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, which was confirmed by PCR and Southern-blot analyses. HPLC-evaporative light-scattering detection analysis showed that the artemisinin content of some transgenic plants was significantly increased, with the highest values reaching 31.4 mg/g dry weight, which is about 3.14-fold the content observed in untransformed control plants. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis demonstrated that the expression of SQS was suppressed significantly, and GC-MS analysis showed that sterol was efficiently decreased in the transgenic plants. The present study demonstrated that genetic-engineering strategy of RNAi is an effective means of increasing artemisinin content in plants.

  2. Do digestive contents confound body mass as a measure of relative condition in nestling songbirds?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Vernasco, Ben J.; Andersen, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Relative nestling condition, typically measured as nestling mass or as an index including nestling mass, is commonly purported to correlate with fledgling songbird survival. However, most studies directly investigating fledgling survival have found no such relationship. We weighed feces and stomach contents of nestling golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) to investigate the potential contribution of variation in digestive contents to differences in nestling mass. We estimated that the mass of a seventh-day (near fledging) nestling golden-winged warbler varies by 0.65 g (approx. 9% of mean nestling mass) depending on the contents of the nestling's digestive system at the time of weighing, and that digestive contents are dissimilar among nestlings at any moment the brood is removed from the nest for weighing. Our conservative estimate of within-individual variation in digestive contents equals 72% and 24% of the mean within-brood and population-wide range in nestling mass, respectively. Based on our results, a substantive but typically unknown amount of the variation in body mass among nestlings is confounded by differences in digestive contents. We conclude that short-term variation in digestive contents likely precludes the use of body mass, and therefore any mass-dependent index, as a measure of relative nestling condition or as a predictor of survival in golden-winged warblers and likely in many other songbirds of similar size.

  3. Online measurement of contents in compound fertilizer and application research using VIS-NIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhidan; Wang, Yubing; Wang, Rujing; Liu, Jing; Lu, Cuiping; Wang, Liusan

    2015-10-01

    The on-line measurement of the main component contents is essential for production, detection and identification of compound fertilizer. Using developed VIS-NIR sensors for on-line measurement of the main component contents in compound fertilizer, primary results about nitrogen (N), phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) and potassium oxide (K2O) were reported. A visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) spectrophotometer (Ocean Optics), with a measurement range of 360.18-2221.53 nm was used to measure fertilizer spectra in reflectance mode. By using principal component analysis (PCA) and mahalanobis distance method, 3 outlier samples were detected and eliminated from 174 samples firstly. Then these models of three components with the 124 samples in calibration set were established using principal component regress (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLS) coupled respectively with the full cross-validation technique after preprocessing the original spectrum with different methods. These models were used to estimate the contents of N, P2O5 and K2O of the other 47 samples in predicted set. The research results showed that the method could be applied to rapid measurement to the main component contents in compound fertilizer. Compared with the traditional analysis method, the on-line measurement could do it rapidly, inexpensively and pollution-freely. It suggested the potential use of the VIS-NIR sensing system for on-line measurement in the production, detection and identification process of compound fertilizer.

  4. A systematic review and content analysis of bullying and cyber-bullying measurement strategies

    PubMed Central

    Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Martell, Brandi N.; Holland, Kristin M.; Westby, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Bullying has emerged as a behavior with deleterious effects on youth; however, prevalence estimates vary based on measurement strategies employed. We conducted a systematic review and content analysis of bullying measurement strategies to gain a better understanding of each strategy including behavioral content. Multiple online databases (i.e., PsychInfo, MedLine, ERIC) were searched to identify measurement strategies published between 1985 and 2012. Included measurement strategies assessed bullying behaviors, were administered to respondents with ages of 12 to 20, were administered in English, and included psychometric data. Each publication was coded independently by two study team members with a pre-set data extraction form, who subsequently met to discuss discrepancies. Forty-one measures were included in the review. A majority used differing terminology; student self-report as primary reporting method; and included verbal forms of bullying in item content. Eleven measures included a definition of bullying, and 13 used the term “bullying” in the measure. Very few definitions or measures captured components of bullying such as repetition, power imbalance, aggression, and intent to harm. Findings demonstrate general inconsistency in measurement strategies on a range of issues, thus, making comparing prevalence rates between measures difficult. PMID:26752229

  5. Super-resolution measurement of distance between transcription sites using RNA FISH with intronic probes

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Joshua D.; Cook, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Nascent transcripts being copied from specific human genes can be detected using RNA FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) with intronic probes, and the distance between two different nascent transcripts is often measured when studying structure–function relationships. Such distance measurements are limited by the resolution of the light microscope. Here we describe methods for measuring these distances in cultured cells with a precision of a few tens of nanometers, using equipment found in most laboratories (i.e., a wide-field fluorescence microscope equipped with a charged-coupled-device camera). Using images of pairs of transcripts that are often co-transcribed, we discuss how selection of cell type, design of FISH probes, image acquisition, and image processing affect the precision that can be achieved. PMID:26564237

  6. Meeting report: discussions and preliminary findings on extracellular RNA measurement methods from laboratories in the NIH Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Louise C.; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B.; Adelson, P. David; Arango, Jorge; Balaj, Leonora; Breakefield, Xandra; Carlson, Elizabeth; Carter, Bob S.; Majem, Blanca; Chen, Clark C.; Cocucci, Emanuele; Danielson, Kirsty; Courtright, Amanda; Das, Saumya; Elmageed, Zakaria Y. Abd; Enderle, Daniel; Ezrin, Alan; Ferrer, Marc; Freedman, Jane; Galas, David; Gandhi, Roopali; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall; Kalani, Yashar; Kim, Yong; Krichevsky, Anna M.; Lai, Charles; Lal-Nag, Madhu; Laurent, Clara D.; Leonardo, Trevor; Li, Feng; Malenica, Ivana; Mondal, Debasis; Nejad, Parham; Patel, Tushar; Raffai, Robert L.; Rubio, Renee; Skog, Johan; Spetzler, Robert; Sun, Jie; Tanriverdi, Kahraman; Vickers, Kasey; Wang, Liang; Wang, Yaoyu; Wei, Zhiyun; Weiner, Howard L.; Wong, David; Yan, Irene K.; Yeri, Ashish; Gould, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) have been identified in all tested biofluids and have been associated with a variety of extracellular vesicles, ribonucleoprotein complexes and lipoprotein complexes. Much of the interest in exRNAs lies in the fact that they may serve as signalling molecules between cells, their potential to serve as biomarkers for prediction and diagnosis of disease and the possibility that exRNAs or the extracellular particles that carry them might be used for therapeutic purposes. Among the most significant bottlenecks to progress in this field is the lack of robust and standardized methods for collection and processing of biofluids, separation of different types of exRNA-containing particles and isolation and analysis of exRNAs. The Sample and Assay Standards Working Group of the Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium is a group of laboratories funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health to develop such methods. In our first joint endeavour, we held a series of conference calls and in-person meetings to survey the methods used among our members, placed them in the context of the current literature and used our findings to identify areas in which the identification of robust methodologies would promote rapid advancements in the exRNA field. PMID:26320937

  7. Development of micro-coulometry for measuring oxygen content in copper oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Fumiaki; Fujihara, Masaaki; Kambe, Shiro; Ishii, Osamu

    2006-10-01

    A micro-coulometry system was newly developed and employed for measuring the oxygen content in copper oxides using a reduced amount of material. To achieve this reduction in sample size, Ar flow rate, and coulometric current were optimized. When using 5.0 mg of YBa2Cu3O6.71, which is about 1/10 the amount used in conventional coulometry, the oxygen content was successfully determined to be 6.68 ± 0.03, Ar flow rate, and coulometric current were 0.1 l/min, and 1.0 mA, respectively. It was found to be necessary to continue to pass Ar through the solution before coulometry more than ten minutes and during the coulometric measurement. This method will be useful for measuring the oxygen content of oxide samples smaller than 10 mg, i.e. oxide materials produced in small quantities for electronic applications.

  8. Exploration of Tektite Formation Processes through Water and Metal Content Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, Nigel John DeWolfe McKinley, II

    Impact events are a significant surface-modifying process on bodies lacking frequent resurfacing by atmospheric or igneous processes. To explore the effects of impacts on surface materials, we measured water and trace element compositions of tektites from Vietnam. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for water measurements and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used for trace element measurements. Consistent with previous investigations of tektites, we found that the samples are depleted in volatile metals (e.g., Zn, Pb) as well as in water compared to the average continental crust, though water contents are high for rocks melted at atmospheric pressure. While Zn and Pb concentrations are linearly correlated with each other, there is no correlation between H2O and Zn or Pb contents. Combined with water contents of other tektites in the Australasian strewnfield, our results demonstrate that the source impact occurred at a wet site near the Indochina peninsula.

  9. Computerized measurement of the content analysis of natural language for use in biomedical and neuropsychiatric research.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, L A; Bechtel, R

    1995-07-01

    Over several decades, the senior author, with various colleagues, has developed an objective method of measuring the magnitude of commonly useful and pertinent neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological dimensions from the content and form analysis of verbal behavior and natural language. Extensive reliability and validation studies using this method have been published involving English, German, Spanish and many other languages, and which confirm that these Content Analysis Scales can be reliably scored cross-culturally and have construct validity. The validated measures include the Anxiety Scale (and six subscales), the Hostility Outward Scale (and two subscales), the Hostility In Scale, the Ambivalent Hostility Scale, the Social Alienation-Personal Disorganization Scale, the Cognitive Impairment Scale, the Depression Scale (and seven subscales), and the Hope Scale. Here, the authors report the development of artificial intelligence (LISP based) software that can reliably score these Content Analysis Scales, whose achievement facilitates the application of these measures to biomedical and neuropsychiatric research. PMID:7587159

  10. Continuous measurements of the total ozone content in the full moon period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishov, Alexander G.

    1994-01-01

    Presented are the experimental data on the total ozone content obtained during continuous measurements (day-night-...-night-day) by Brewer 044 spectrophotometer near the Issyk Kul Lake (42.59N, 77.04W) at 1650 m above the sea level at full moon from 13 to 18 October 1989 under anomalously high transparent atmospheric conditions (the horizontal visibility range exceeded 50 km). At night the total O3 content decreased regularly to about 20 percent of the average daytime values. The minimum values at night were observed in 1-2 hours after the maximum solar dip below the horizon. In the daytime the measurements were carried out from direct Sun, at night - from the Moon. The values of the total ozone content for adjacent measurements from the Sun and from the Moon in the evening as well as in the morning are in good agreement.

  11. The Calculated and Measured Performance Characteristics of a Heated-Wire Liquid-Water-Content Meter for Measuring Icing Severity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neel, Carr B.; Steinmetz, Charles P.

    1952-01-01

    Ground tests have been made of an instrument which, when assembled in a more compact form for flight installation, could be used to obtain statistical flight data on the liquid-water content of icing clouds and to provide an indication of icing severity. The sensing element of the instrument consists of an electrically heated wire which is mounted in the air stream. The degree of cooling of the wire resulting from evaporation of the impinging water droplets is a measure. of the liquid-water content of the cloud. Determination of the value of the liquid-water content from the wire temperature at any instant requires a knowledge of the airspeed, altitude, and air temperature. An analysis was made of the temperature response of a heated wire exposed to an air stream containing water drops. Comparisons were made of the liquid-water content as measured with several heated wires and absorbent cylinders in an artificially produced cloud. For one of the wires, comparative tests were made with a rotating-disk icing-rate meter in an icing wind tunnel. From the test results, it was shown that an instrument for measuring the concentration of liquid water in an air stream can be built using an electrically heated wire of known temperatureresistance characteristics, and that the performance of such a device can be predicted using appropriate theory. Although an instrument in a form suitable for gathering statistical data in flight was not built, the practicability of constructing such an instrument was illustrated. The ground-test results indicated that a flight heated-wire instrument would be simple and durable, would respond rapidly to variations in liquid-water content, and could be used for the measurement of water content in clouds which are above freezing temperature, as well as in icing clouds.

  12. High-accuracy measurement of low-water-content in liquid using NIR spectral absorption method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Bao-Jin; Wan, Xu; Jin, Hong-Zhen; Zhao, Yong; Mao, He-Fa

    2005-01-01

    Water content measurement technologies are very important for quality inspection of food, medicine products, chemical products and many other industry fields. In recent years, requests for accurate low-water-content measurement in liquid are more and more exigent, and great interests have been shown from the research and experimental work. With the development and advancement of modern production and control technologies, more accurate water content technology is needed. In this paper, a novel experimental setup based on near-infrared (NIR) spectral technology and fiber-optic sensor (OFS) is presented. It has a good measurement accuracy about -/+ 0.01%, which is better, to our knowledge, than most other methods published until now. It has a high measurement resolution of 0.001% in the measurement range from zero to 0.05% for water-in-alcohol measurement, and the water-in-oil measurement is carried out as well. In addition, the advantages of this method also include pollution-free to the measured liquid, fast measurement and so on.

  13. Accurate measurement of bromine contents in plastic samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, I J; Lee, K S; Hwang, E; Min, H S; Yim, Y H

    2013-03-26

    Accurate measurements of bromine contents in plastic samples were made by the direct comparator instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Individual factors affecting the measurements were comprehensively evaluated and compensated, including the volatility loss of bromine from standard comparators, the background bromine level in the filter papers used for preparation of the standard comparators, nuclear interference, γ-ray spectral interference and the variance among replicates of the samples. Uncertainty contributions from those factors were thoroughly evaluated and included in the uncertainty budgeting of the INAA measurement. (81)Br was chosen as the target isotope, and the INAA measurements for bromine were experimentally confirmed to exhibit good linearity within a bromine content range of 10-170 μg. The established method has been applied to the analysis of eight plastic samples: four commercially available certified reference materials (CRMs) of polyethylene and polystyrene and four acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) samples prepared as the candidate reference materials (KRISS CRM 113-01-012, -013, -014 and -015). The bromine contents of the samples were calculated at three different γ-ray energies and compared, showing good agreement. The results of the four CRMs also showed good consistency with their certified values within the stated uncertainties. Finally, the bromine contents of the ABS samples were determined with expanded uncertainties (at a 95% level of confidence) between 2.5% and 5% in a bromine content range of 25-900 mg kg(-1).

  14. Karl Fischer titration and coulometry for measurement of water content in small cartilage specimens.

    PubMed

    Spahn, Gunter; Plettenberg, Holger; Nagel, Horst; Kahl, Enrico; Klinger, Hans Michael; Günther, Manfred; Mückley, Thomas; Hofmann, Gunther O

    2006-12-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of Karl Fischer titration and coulometry for measurement of water content in small intact and defective cartilage specimens. Cartilage from the main weight-bearing zone of the medial condyle of 38 fresh sheep knees was used. Of these, 20 condyles had an intact cartilage, while defects (14 grade I and 4 grade II) were found in the rest. The mechanical hardness was determined as Shore A. Cartilage specimens of approximately 5 mg were analyzed in special devices for moisture measurement and then continuously heated up to 105 degrees C. The actual measurement was performed in an electric cell (coulometry). An electrode was laminated with hygroscopic phosphorus pentoxide. In the electrochemical reaction, H and O are liberated from the electrode. The requirement for electric energy correlates with the amount of water in the specimen. The water content in intact cartilage was 66.9%. Grade I (72.6%) and grade II (77.8%) defects had significantly higher water content. Significantly higher and faster spontaneous evaporation was observed in cartilage defects at room temperature. The water content and spontaneous water evaporation correlated with significantly lower mechanical hardness. The experimental design (combined method of thermogravimetry, Karl Fischer titration, and coulometry) was sufficient for evaluating the water content in small cartilage specimens. It is also possible to measure the temperature-dependent water liberation from cartilage specimens.

  15. Optical transparency of paper as a function of moisture content with applications to moisture measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forughi, A. F.; Green, S. I.; Stoeber, B.

    2016-02-01

    Accurate measurement of the moisture content of paper is essential in papermaking and is also important in some paper-based microfluidic devices. Traditional measurement techniques provide very limited spatiotemporal resolution and working range. This article presents a novel method for moisture content measurement whose operating principle is the strong correlation between the optical transparency of paper and its moisture content. Spectrographic and microscopic measurement techniques were employed to characterize the relation of moisture content and relative transparency of four types of paper: hardwood chemi-thermomechanical pulp paper, Northern bleached softwood kraft paper, unbleached softwood kraft paper, and General Electric® Whatman™ grade 1 chromatography paper. It was found that for all paper types, the paper transparency increased monotonically with the moisture content (as the ratio of the mass-of-water to the mass-of-dry-paper increased from 0% to 120%). This significant increase in relative transparency occurred due to the refractive index matching role of water in wet paper. It is further shown that mechanical loading of the paper has little impact on the relative transparency, for loadings that would be typical on a paper machine. The results of two transient water absorption experiments are presented that show the utility and accuracy of the technique.

  16. Accurate measurement of bromine contents in plastic samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, I J; Lee, K S; Hwang, E; Min, H S; Yim, Y H

    2013-03-26

    Accurate measurements of bromine contents in plastic samples were made by the direct comparator instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Individual factors affecting the measurements were comprehensively evaluated and compensated, including the volatility loss of bromine from standard comparators, the background bromine level in the filter papers used for preparation of the standard comparators, nuclear interference, γ-ray spectral interference and the variance among replicates of the samples. Uncertainty contributions from those factors were thoroughly evaluated and included in the uncertainty budgeting of the INAA measurement. (81)Br was chosen as the target isotope, and the INAA measurements for bromine were experimentally confirmed to exhibit good linearity within a bromine content range of 10-170 μg. The established method has been applied to the analysis of eight plastic samples: four commercially available certified reference materials (CRMs) of polyethylene and polystyrene and four acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) samples prepared as the candidate reference materials (KRISS CRM 113-01-012, -013, -014 and -015). The bromine contents of the samples were calculated at three different γ-ray energies and compared, showing good agreement. The results of the four CRMs also showed good consistency with their certified values within the stated uncertainties. Finally, the bromine contents of the ABS samples were determined with expanded uncertainties (at a 95% level of confidence) between 2.5% and 5% in a bromine content range of 25-900 mg kg(-1). PMID:23498117

  17. Correlation between near infrared spectroscopy and electrical techniques in measuring skin moisture content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad, M.; Sabbri, A. R. M.; Mat Jafri, M. Z.; Omar, A. F.

    2014-11-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique serves as an important tool for the measurement of moisture content of skin owing to the advantages it has over the other techniques. The purpose of the study is to develop a correlation between NIR spectrometer with electrical conventional techniques for skin moisture measurement. A non-invasive measurement of moisture content of skin was performed on different part of human face and hand under control environment (temperature 21 ± 1 °C, relative humidity 45 ± 5 %). Ten healthy volunteers age between 21-25 (male and female) participated in this study. The moisture content of skin was measured using DermaLab® USB Moisture Module, Scalar Moisture Checker and NIR spectroscopy (NIRQuest). Higher correlation was observed between NIRQuest and Dermalab moisture probe with a coefficient of determination (R2) above 70 % for all the subjects. However, the value of R2 between NIRQuest and Moisture Checker was observed to be lower with the R2 values ranges from 51.6 to 94.4 %. The correlation of NIR spectroscopy technique successfully developed for measuring moisture content of the skin. The analysis of this correlation can help to establish novel instruments based on an optical system in clinical used especially in the dermatology field.

  18. Porous media matric potential and water content measurements during parabolic flight.

    PubMed

    Norikane, Joey H; Jones, Scott B; Steinberg, Susan L; Levine, Howard G; Or, Dani

    2005-01-01

    Control of water and air in the root zone of plants remains a challenge in the microgravity environment of space. Due to limited flight opportunities, research aimed at resolving microgravity porous media fluid dynamics must often be conducted on Earth. The NASA KC-135 reduced gravity flight program offers an opportunity for Earth-based researchers to study physical processes in a variable gravity environment. The objectives of this study were to obtain measurements of water content and matric potential during the parabolic profile flown by the KC-135 aircraft. The flight profile provided 20-25 s of microgravity at the top of the parabola, while pulling 1.8 g at the bottom. The soil moisture sensors (Temperature and Moisture Acquisition System: Orbital Technologies, Madison, WI) used a heat-pulse method to indirectly estimate water content from heat dissipation. Tensiometers were constructed using a stainless steel porous cup with a pressure transducer and were used to measure the matric potential of the medium. The two types of sensors were placed at different depths in a substrate compartment filled with 1-2 mm Turface (calcined clay). The ability of the heat-pulse sensors to monitor overall changes in water content in the substrate compartment decreased with water content. Differences in measured water content data recorded at 0, 1, and 1.8 g were not significant. Tensiometer readings tracked pressure differences due to the hydrostatic force changes with variable gravity. The readings may have been affected by changes in cabin air pressure that occurred during each parabola. Tensiometer porous membrane conductivity (function of pore size) and fluid volume both influence response time. Porous media sample height and water content influence time-to-equilibrium, where shorter samples and higher water content achieve faster equilibrium. Further testing is needed to develop these sensors for space flight applications.

  19. Porous media matric potential and water content measurements during parabolic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norikane, Joey H.; Jones, Scott B.; Steinberg, Susan L.; Levine, Howard G.; Or, Dani

    2005-01-01

    Control of water and air in the root zone of plants remains a challenge in the microgravity environment of space. Due to limited flight opportunities, research aimed at resolving microgravity porous media fluid dynamics must often be conducted on Earth. The NASA KC-135 reduced gravity flight program offers an opportunity for Earth-based researchers to study physical processes in a variable gravity environment. The objectives of this study were to obtain measurements of water content and matric potential during the parabolic profile flown by the KC-135 aircraft. The flight profile provided 20-25 s of microgravity at the top of the parabola, while pulling 1.8 g at the bottom. The soil moisture sensors (Temperature and Moisture Acquisition System: Orbital Technologies, Madison, WI) used a heat-pulse method to indirectly estimate water content from heat dissipation. Tensiometers were constructed using a stainless steel porous cup with a pressure transducer and were used to measure the matric potential of the medium. The two types of sensors were placed at different depths in a substrate compartment filled with 1-2 mm Turface (calcined clay). The ability of the heat-pulse sensors to monitor overall changes in water content in the substrate compartment decreased with water content. Differences in measured water content data recorded at 0, 1, and 1.8 g were not significant. Tensiometer readings tracked pressure differences due to the hydrostatic force changes with variable gravity. The readings may have been affected by changes in cabin air pressure that occurred during each parabola. Tensiometer porous membrane conductivity (function of pore size) and fluid volume both influence response time. Porous media sample height and water content influence time-to-equilibrium, where shorter samples and higher water content achieve faster equilibrium. Further testing is needed to develop these sensors for space flight applications.

  20. First direct body fat content measurement during pregnancy using Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Azizian, Hormoz; Kramer, John K G; Phillips, Stuart M

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there are no direct and reliable methods to measure the body fat content of women during pregnancy. Estimates of fat accretion can significantly affect calculations of energy requirements. We report here the first direct measurement of determining the body fat content of two women during pregnancy using the Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) method. Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy was shown to provide comparable results to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. These latter methods, even though very reliable to measure body fat levels, cannot be used to measure the body fat of women during pregnancy because of health concerns, while FT-NIR poses no health risk. The FT-NIR results showed the percent body fat remained relatively constant throughout pregnancy, but fat mass and fat free mass increased. Fat mass followed an S curve with a maximum increase between 15 to 25 weeks of gestation that was only detected by repeated measurements using the FT-NIR technique. These results demonstrate the value of the FT-NIR method to directly measure the fat content of pregnant women in minutes instead of relying on indirect calculations or taking measurements before and after pregnancy to track gestational fat mass accretion.

  1. Assessing advertising content in a hospital advertising campaign: An application of Puto and Wells (1984) measure of informational and transformational advertising content.

    PubMed

    Menon, Mohan K; Goodnight, Janelle M; Wayne, Robin J

    2006-01-01

    The following is a report of a study designed to measure advertising content based on the cognitive and affective elements of informational (i.e., information processing) and transformational (i.e., experiential) content using the measure of advertising informational and transformational content developed by Puto and Wells (1984). A university hospital advertising campaign designed to be high in transformational content did not appear to affect perceived quality of local university hospitals relative to private hospitals or increase the likelihood of choosing a university hospital in the future. Further, experiences with university hospitals that seemed to be in direct contrast to the content of the advertisements based on subject perceptions affected how university hospital advertisements were perceived in terms of content. Conclusions and implications for hospital advertising campaigns are discussed. PMID:17062533

  2. A high resolution capacitive sensing system for the measurement of water content in crude oil.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Muhammad; Tang, Tong Boon

    2014-06-25

    This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ± 50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design.

  3. A High Resolution Capacitive Sensing System for the Measurement of Water Content in Crude Oil

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad Zubair; Tang, Tong Boon

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ±50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design. PMID:24967606

  4. Relating x-ray attenuation measurements to water content and distribution in SB-15D core

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, B.P.; Roberts, J.J.; Schneberk, D.J

    1996-09-30

    Making improved estimates of the water content of The Geysers reservoir is fundamental to efficient and economic long term production of steam power from the resource. A series of coordinated physical properties measurements form core recovered from the SB-15D, reported in this volume in a series of papers, have been made to better understand water storage and to relate water content and distribution to observable geophysical properties such as electrical conductivity and seismic velocities. A principal objective here is to report new interpretations of x-ray scans made within 72 hours of core recovery from SB-15D, which suggest, taking advantage of preliminary measurements of capillary suction for metagraywacke, that water content was low in much of the preserved core.

  5. Measurement of resistant starch content in cooked rice and analysis of gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nakayoshi, Yuuki; Nakamura, Sumiko; Kameo, Yoji; Shiiba, Daisuke; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2015-01-01

    Digestion-resistant starch (RS) has many physiologic functions. The RS content is measured by enzymatically degrading flour samples according to the method of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Experiments have been performed with wheat, corn, and other grains, but there are no data for cooked rice grains in the form ingested by humans. Thus, we investigated a method to measure RS that is suitable for cooked rice grains using rice cultivars that are reported to differentially increase postprandial blood glucose in humans. Using a method for cooking individual rice grains and optimized enzyme reaction conditions, we established an RS measurement method. We also found that the amylopectin crystal condition affects the RS content measured using our method.

  6. Impact of stone content on soil moisture measurement with capacitive sensors 10HS (Decagon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deraedt, Deborah; Bernard, Julien; Bietlot, Louise; Clerbois, Laura; Rosière, Clément; Starren, Amandine; Colinet, Gilles; Mercatoris, Benoit; Degré, Aurore

    2015-04-01

    Lot of soil survey focused on agricultural soils. For practical reasons, those soils have a low stone content. So, most of the soil water content sensors are placed on low stone content soils and the calibration equations are developed for them. Yet some researches take an interest in forest soils that are often much different from the previous ones. The differences lie in their stone content and their slope. Lots of studies have proved the importance of making soil specific calibration of the soil water content sensor. As our lab use regularly the 10HS sensors (Decagon Devices, United States) in forested soil, we decided to evaluate the importance of the stone content in the soil moisture measurement. The soil used for this experimentation comes from Gembloux (50°33'54.9''N, 4°42'11.3''E). It is silt that has been sieved at 2 mm to remove the gravel. The stones used to form the samples come from an experimental site located in the Belgian Ardennes (50°1'52.6''N, 4°53'22.5''E). They are mainly composed of schist with some quartz and sandstone elements. Initially, only five samples were constructed with three replications each. The size and the proportion of stones were the variables. Stones were classified in two groups, the first contains gravels whose size is less than 1,5 cm and a the second contains gravels whose size is comprised between 2 and 3 cm. The proportions of stone selected for the experiment are 0, 20 and 40%. In order to generate validation data, two more samples were constructed with intermediate proportion of stone content (30%). The samples were built in PVC container which dimensions are slightly bigger than the sensor volume of influence (1.1-1.3l). The soil samples were saturated and then dried on a thermal chamber set at about 32°C. During at least 14 days, the samples soil water content was determined by the sensor measurement with the Procheck read-out system (Decagon Devices, United State) and by weighting the samples thrice a day

  7. The complete nucleotide sequence and RNA editing content of the mitochondrial genome of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.): comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes of rapeseed and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Handa, Hirokazu

    2003-10-15

    The entire mitochondrial genome of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) was sequenced and compared with that of Arabidopsis thaliana. The 221 853 bp genome contains 34 protein-coding genes, three rRNA genes and 17 tRNA genes. This gene content is almost identical to that of Arabidopsis: However the rps14 gene, which is a pseudo-gene in Arabidopsis, is intact in rapeseed. On the other hand, five tRNA genes are missing in rapeseed compared to Arabidopsis, although the set of mitochondrially encoded tRNA species is identical in the two Cruciferae. RNA editing events were systematically investigated on the basis of the sequence of the rapeseed mitochondrial genome. A total of 427 C to U conversions were identified in ORFs, which is nearly identical to the number in Arabidopsis (441 sites). The gene sequences and intron structures are mostly conserved (more than 99% similarity for protein-coding regions); however, only 358 editing sites (83% of total editings) are shared by rapeseed and Arabidopsis: Non-coding regions are mostly divergent between the two plants. One-third (about 78.7 kb) and two-thirds (about 223.8 kb) of the rapeseed and Arabidopsis mitochondrial genomes, respectively, cannot be aligned with each other and most of these regions do not show any homology to sequences registered in the DNA databases. The results of the comparative analysis between the rapeseed and Arabidopsis mitochondrial genomes suggest that higher plant mitochondria are extremely conservative with respect to coding sequences and somewhat conservative with respect to RNA editing, but that non-coding parts of plant mitochondrial DNA are extraordinarily dynamic with respect to structural changes, sequence acquisition and/or sequence loss.

  8. Monitoring compliance with sulfur content regulations of shipping fuel by in situ measurements of ship emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattner, L.; Mathieu-Üffing, B.; Burrows, J. P.; Richter, A.; Schmolke, S.; Seyler, A.; Wittrock, F.

    2015-09-01

    In 1997 the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) adopted MARPOL Annex VI to prevent air pollution by shipping emissions. It regulates, among other issues, the sulfur content in shipping fuels, which is transformed into the air pollutant sulfur dioxide (SO2) during combustion. Within designated Sulfur Emission Control Areas (SECA), the sulfur content was limited to 1 %, and on 1 January 2015, this limit was further reduced to 0.1 %. Here we present the set-up and measurement results of a permanent ship emission monitoring site near Hamburg harbour in the North Sea SECA. Trace gas measurements are conducted with in situ instruments and a data set from September 2014 to January 2015 is presented. By combining measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and SO2 with ship position data, it is possible to deduce the sulfur fuel content of individual ships passing the measurement station, thus facilitating the monitoring of compliance of ships with the IMO regulations. While compliance is almost 100 % for the 2014 data, it decreases only very little in 2015 to 95.4 % despite the much stricter limit. We analysed more than 1400 ship plumes in total and for months with favourable conditions, up to 40 % of all ships entering and leaving Hamburg harbour could be checked for their sulfur fuel content.

  9. A Turn toward Specifying Validity Criteria in the Measurement of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Robert F.; Koehler, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    The impetus for this paper stems from a concern about directions and progress in the measurement of the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework for effective technology integration. In this paper, we develop the rationale for using a seven-criterion lens, based upon contemporary validity theory, for critiquing empirical…

  10. Using Content Acquisition Podcasts to Improve Teacher Candidate Knowledge of Curriculum-Based Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Michael J.; Wagner, Dana; Stegall, Joanna; Lembke, Erica; Miciak, Jeremy; Alves, Kat D.; Brown, Tiara; Driver, Melissa K.; Hirsch, Shanna Eisner

    2016-01-01

    Given the significant literature supporting the use of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) for data-based decision making, it is critical that teacher candidates learn about it prior to student teaching and entry into the field as full-time teachers. The authors of this study used a content acquisition podcast (CAP), a multimedia-based…

  11. Evaluation of a root zone TDR sensor for soil water content measurement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is a well-established dielectric technique of measuring the soil volumetric water content (VWC). However, it is expensive and difficult to determine the depth-averaged VWC in the root zone using conventional TDR probes. The objectives of this study are to develop a lo...

  12. New method for moisture content measurement using phase shifts at two microwave frequencies.

    PubMed

    Okamura, S; Zhang, Y

    2000-01-01

    A new method to measure moisture content of material is described in this paper. The method is based on two phase shifts of transmitted microwave signal at two different frequencies. The result using this method for moisture measurement of timber indicates this method being effective. The maximum error and mean value of error in moisture range from 2 to 30% on dry basis are 4.1% and 1.9%, respectively. PMID:11098442

  13. Measuring stem water content in four deciduous hardwoods with a time-domain reflectometer.

    PubMed

    Wullschleger, S D; Hanson, P J; Todd, D E

    1996-10-01

    New technologies in time-domain reflectometry offer a reliable means of measuring soil water content. Whether these same technologies can be used or adapted to estimate the water content of other porous media, such as the woody tissue of forest trees, has not been thoroughly addressed. Therefore, curves relating the apparent dielectric constant (K(a)) to volumetric water content (g cm(-3)) were constructed for large-diameter stems of red maple (Acer rubrum L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), chestnut oak (Q. prinus L.), and black gum (Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.). This information was combined with previously published data and a proposed "universal" calibration equation for wood was derived. Stainless-steel rods (15-cm wave guides) were inserted into 160 trees (30 to 49 per species) growing in an upland oak-hickory forest and stem water contents estimated monthly during 1994 and 1995 with a time-domain reflectometer (TDR). Volumetric water contents in April ranged from 0.28 g cm(-3) for red maple to 0.43 g cm(-3) for black gum, with no evidence that water content changed as a function of stem diameter. Stem water contents estimated during 1994 (a wet year) increased from May to July, reached a maximum in midsummer (0.41 to 0.50 g cm(-3)), and then decreased in November. During 1995 (a dry year), stem water contents for red maple and black gum (two diffuse-porous species) decreased from May to August, reached a minimum in September (0.29 to 0.37 g cm(-3)), slightly increased in October and November, and then decreased in December. A different trend was observed during 1995 for white oak and chestnut oak (two ring-porous species), with water contents remaining fairly stable from May to August, but decreasing abruptly in September and again in December. Stem water contents estimated with a TDR broadly agreed with gravimetric analyses of excised stem segments and increment cores, although there was evidence that overestimation of water content was possible with TDR as a

  14. Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of blood oxygenation content and its application in sports practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guodong; Gong, Hui; Ge, Xinfa; Luo, Qingming

    2003-12-01

    To research the change characteristics of blood oxygenation content in skeletal muscle, the change regularity between blood oxygenation content and exercise intensity as well as HbO2 and blood lactate acid while taking incremental exercises, we took an in vivo, real-time and continuous measurement on the blood oxygenation content of eight sportsmen when they did incremental exercises of five degrees on a power bicycle using a portable tissue oximeter which is based on the principle of near-infrared spectroscopy(NIRS), simultaneously, we detected the blood lactate acid of subjects after each degree of incremental physical load instantly using a blood lactate analysis equipment. The results showed that the content of HbO2 descended regularly while that of Hb ascended; blood volume decreased; and the density of lactate increased as the intensity of exercises was heightened. The statistics analyses showed that the relationship between HbO2 and blood lactate is rather close (correlation coefficient r=-0.918). With this discovery, a theoretical basis in measuring the relative change of blood oxygenation content non-invasively was evidenced, and a novel technology for assessing the physical situation of sportsman, grasping sports density and evaluating the training effect could be imported.

  15. Measurement of Synechococcus in situ growth rates using flow cytometry and rRNA-targeted probes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, S.W.; Binder, B.J.

    1998-02-18

    The overall goal of this project was the development of methods for the estimation of in situ Synechococcus growth rates using flow cytometrically-measured cellular properties. As an important picoplanktonic primary producer, Synechococcus can be expected to significantly influence the cycling of carbon in coastal marine environments. Traditional methods for estimating growth rates in natural populations of these and other phytoplankton have relied upon bottle incubations, which take a long time to perform and are subject to a well known suite of artifactual bottle effects. The analytical approach the authors are developing would obviate the need for such incubations, thus avoiding bottle effects and allowing much higher sample through-put. Application of this approach to field populations of Synechococcus would contribute significantly to an understanding of the population dynamics of these organisms, and ultimately to an understanding of carbon cycling in coastal marine environments. The first step toward developing the proposed method for in situ growth rate determination is to establish the relationships between growth rate and cellular properties (e.g., cellular rRNA and DNA content) in Synechococcus strains growing under a variety of conditions. Establishing these relationships has been the focus of this project.

  16. Antioxidants in food: content, measurement, significance, action, cautions, caveats, and research needs.

    PubMed

    Benzie, Iris F F; Choi, Siu-Wai

    2014-01-01

    There are a multitude of antioxidants in foods, especially in foods of plant origin. Higher intake of antioxidant-rich foods is clearly associated with better health and functional longevity. The specific agents and mechanisms responsible are not yet clear, but there is convincing evidence that including more plant-based, antioxidant-rich foods, herbs, and beverages in the diet is effective in promoting health and lowering risk of various age-related diseases. The content of some individual antioxidants, such as vitamin C, in food can be measured, but it is not feasible to attempt to measure each antioxidant separately, and methods have been developed to assess the "total antioxidant content" of foods. One of the most widely used methods is the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, which is relatively simple, quick, sensitive, and inexpensive to perform. There are many published studies that have used the FRAP assay, and these have generated a very large database of total antioxidant content of foods that can help guide food choices for increased antioxidant intake. The FRAP assay has also been used to assess the bioavailability of antioxidants in foods and to investigate the effects of growing conditions, storage, processing, and cooking method on the total antioxidant content of food. The test can be employed as a quality control check device, and to detect adulteration of food. Furthermore, in a modified form (FRASC), the assay can measure ascorbic acid content almost simultaneously with the total antioxidant content of the sample. In this chapter, basic concepts of oxidation and the role of antioxidants, as well as the types and action of different antioxidants in foods will be reviewed briefly, and the underpinning concepts and evidence for health benefits of increased intake of dietary antioxidants will be discussed, with some focus on vitamin C, and also in the context of our evolutionary development. The basic concepts and limitations of measuring

  17. Antioxidants in food: content, measurement, significance, action, cautions, caveats, and research needs.

    PubMed

    Benzie, Iris F F; Choi, Siu-Wai

    2014-01-01

    There are a multitude of antioxidants in foods, especially in foods of plant origin. Higher intake of antioxidant-rich foods is clearly associated with better health and functional longevity. The specific agents and mechanisms responsible are not yet clear, but there is convincing evidence that including more plant-based, antioxidant-rich foods, herbs, and beverages in the diet is effective in promoting health and lowering risk of various age-related diseases. The content of some individual antioxidants, such as vitamin C, in food can be measured, but it is not feasible to attempt to measure each antioxidant separately, and methods have been developed to assess the "total antioxidant content" of foods. One of the most widely used methods is the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, which is relatively simple, quick, sensitive, and inexpensive to perform. There are many published studies that have used the FRAP assay, and these have generated a very large database of total antioxidant content of foods that can help guide food choices for increased antioxidant intake. The FRAP assay has also been used to assess the bioavailability of antioxidants in foods and to investigate the effects of growing conditions, storage, processing, and cooking method on the total antioxidant content of food. The test can be employed as a quality control check device, and to detect adulteration of food. Furthermore, in a modified form (FRASC), the assay can measure ascorbic acid content almost simultaneously with the total antioxidant content of the sample. In this chapter, basic concepts of oxidation and the role of antioxidants, as well as the types and action of different antioxidants in foods will be reviewed briefly, and the underpinning concepts and evidence for health benefits of increased intake of dietary antioxidants will be discussed, with some focus on vitamin C, and also in the context of our evolutionary development. The basic concepts and limitations of measuring

  18. UV differential optical absorption method for measuring sulfur content in coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Feihu; Xu, Chuanlong; Wang, Shimin

    2012-02-01

    Determining the sulfur content in coal rapidly and accurately can provide a technical basis for the enterprises and the environmental administration departments. A novel method for measuring the sulfur content in coal based on UV differential optical absorption is presented in this paper. However, compared with the applications in atmosphere monitoring, the UV differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) for the sulfur content measurement in coal has the problems that the concentration range of SO2 in the flue gas is wider and the optical path-length of the gas cell is shorter. To solve these problems, an improved DOAS algorithm based on a finite impulse response (FIR) filter and a nonlinear compensation technique is proposed. An experimental measurement system based on the modified DOAS is designed and established. The standard SO2 gas and five kinds of standard coals are experimentally tested. Theoretical and experimental results show that the lower detection limit of the system is better than 0.014%, and the repeatability of the measurement system fairly meets the national standard of China. The system has advantages of low maintenance and shorter measurement duration (4 min).

  19. A new fast response instrument for measuring total water content from aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, S.; Leighton, J.; Barker, R.

    1990-10-01

    A device for measuring the total water content of a parcel of air from an aircraft has been developed. The total water of a parcel of air is a conserved quantity, independent of phase changes, provided there is no transport of water through the parcel boundaries. Current airborne hygrometers normally attempt to measure the water content in individual phases and the presence of other phases invariably influences the quality of the data. However, any liquid water or ice entering this new probe is efficiently evaporated and the resultant water vapor measured using a Lyman-alpha hygrometer. In airborne trials the device was calibrated against a cooled-mirror dewpoint device. Runs were conducted in warm stratocumulus tops, through small cumulus, in mixed-phase precipitation and cirrus cloud. In all cases the device was found to produce high quality, fast response data.

  20. Measurement of water content in polymer electrolyte membranes using high resolution neutron imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Spernjak, Dusan; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L; Davey, John; Mukherjee, Partha P; Hussey, Daniel S; Jacobson, David

    2010-01-01

    Sufficient water content within a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) is necessary for adequate ionic conductivity. Membrane hydration is therefore a fundamental requirement for fuel cell operation. The hydration state of the membrane affects the water transport within, as both the diffusion coefficient and electro-osmotic drag depend on the water content. Membrane's water uptake is conventionally measured ex situ by weighing free-swelling samples equilibrated at controlled water activity. In the present study, water profiles in Nafion{reg_sign} membranes were measured using the high-resolution neutron imaging. The state-of-the-art, 10 {micro}m resolution neutron detector is capable of resolving water distributions across N1120, N1110 and N117 membranes. It provides a means to measure the water uptake and transport properties of fuel cell membranes in situ.

  1. Measurement of Water Content in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes using High Resolution Neutron Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Partha P

    2010-01-01

    Sufficient water content within a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) is necessary for adequate ionic conductivity. Membrane hydration is therefore a fundamental requirement for fuel cell operation. The hydration state of the membrane affects the water transport within, as both the diffusion coefficient and electroosmotic drag depend on the water content. Membrane s water uptake is conventionally measured ex situ by weighing freeswelling samples equilibrated at controlled water activity. In the present study, water profiles in Nafion membranes were measured using high-resolution neutron imaging. The state-of-theart, 13 m resolution neutron detector is capable of resolving water distributions across N1120, N1110 and N117 membranes. It provides a means to measure the water uptake and transport properties of fuel cell membranes in situ.

  2. Measure the Semantic Similarity of GO Terms Using Aggregate Information Content.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuebo; Li, Lin; Srimani, Pradip K; Yu, Philip S; Wang, James Z

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of gene ontology (GO) and huge amount of biomedical data annotated by GO terms necessitate computation of semantic similarity of GO terms and, in turn, measurement of functional similarity of genes based on their annotations. In this paper we propose a novel and efficient method to measure the semantic similarity of GO terms. The proposed method addresses the limitations in existing GO term similarity measurement techniques; it computes the semantic content of a GO term by considering the information content of all of its ancestor terms in the graph. The aggregate information content (AIC) of all ancestor terms of a GO term implicitly reflects the GO term's location in the GO graph and also represents how human beings use this GO term and all its ancestor terms to annotate genes. We show that semantic similarity of GO terms obtained by our method closely matches the human perception. Extensive experimental studies show that this novel method also outperforms all existing methods in terms of the correlation with gene expression data. We have developed web services for measuring semantic similarity of GO terms and functional similarity of genes using the proposed AIC method and other popular methods. These web services are available at http://bioinformatics.clemson.edu/G-SESAME.

  3. Measure the Semantic Similarity of GO terms Using Aggregate Information Content.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuebo; Li, Lin; Srimani, Pradip K; Yu, Philip S; Wang, James Z

    2013-12-11

    The rapid development of Gene Ontology (GO) and huge amount of biomedical data annotated by GO terms necessitate computation of semantic similarity of GO terms and, in turn, measurement of functional similarity of genes based on their annotations. In this paper we propose a novel and efficient method to measure the semantic similarity of GO terms. The proposed method addresses the limitations in existing GO term similarity measurement techniques; it computes the semantic content of a GO term by considering the information content of all of its ancestor terms in the graph. The aggregate information content (AIC) of all ancestor terms of a GO term implicitly reflects the GO term's location in the GO graph and also represents how human beings use this GO term and all its ancestor terms to annotate genes. We show that semantic similarity of GO terms obtained by our method closely matches the human perception. Extensive experimental studies show that this novel method also outperforms all existing methods in terms of the correlation with gene expression data. We have developed Web services for measuring semantic similarity of GO terms and functional similarity of genes using the proposed AIC method and other popular methods. These Web services are available at http://bioinformatics.clemson.edu/G-SESAME.

  4. Method and apparatus for measuring butterfat and protein content using microwave absorption techniques

    DOEpatents

    Fryer, Michael O.; Hills, Andrea J.; Morrison, John L.

    2000-01-01

    A self calibrating method and apparatus for measuring butterfat and protein content based on measuring the microwave absorption of a sample of milk at several microwave frequencies. A microwave energy source injects microwave energy into the resonant cavity for absorption and reflection by the sample undergoing evaluation. A sample tube is centrally located in the resonant cavity passing therethrough and exposing the sample to the microwave energy. A portion of the energy is absorbed by the sample while another portion of the microwave energy is reflected back to an evaluation device such as a network analyzer. The frequency at which the reflected radiation is at a minimum within the cavity is combined with the scatter coefficient S.sub.11 as well as a phase change to calculate the butterfat content in the sample. The protein located within the sample may also be calculated in a likewise manner using the frequency, S.sub.11 and phase variables. A differential technique using a second resonant cavity containing a reference standard as a sample will normalize the measurements from the unknown sample and thus be self-calibrating. A shuttered mechanism will switch the microwave excitation between the unknown and the reference cavities. An integrated apparatus for measuring the butterfat content in milk using microwave absorption techniques is also presented.

  5. Measure the Semantic Similarity of GO Terms Using Aggregate Information Content.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuebo; Li, Lin; Srimani, Pradip K; Yu, Philip S; Wang, James Z

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of gene ontology (GO) and huge amount of biomedical data annotated by GO terms necessitate computation of semantic similarity of GO terms and, in turn, measurement of functional similarity of genes based on their annotations. In this paper we propose a novel and efficient method to measure the semantic similarity of GO terms. The proposed method addresses the limitations in existing GO term similarity measurement techniques; it computes the semantic content of a GO term by considering the information content of all of its ancestor terms in the graph. The aggregate information content (AIC) of all ancestor terms of a GO term implicitly reflects the GO term's location in the GO graph and also represents how human beings use this GO term and all its ancestor terms to annotate genes. We show that semantic similarity of GO terms obtained by our method closely matches the human perception. Extensive experimental studies show that this novel method also outperforms all existing methods in terms of the correlation with gene expression data. We have developed web services for measuring semantic similarity of GO terms and functional similarity of genes using the proposed AIC method and other popular methods. These web services are available at http://bioinformatics.clemson.edu/G-SESAME. PMID:26356015

  6. Karyotype characterization and nuclear DNA content measurement in Bromeliaceae: state of the art and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Andrei C P; Clarindo, Wellington R

    2014-12-01

    In Bromeliaceae, cytogenetic and flow cytometry analyses have been performed to clarify systematic and evolutionary aspects. Karyotyping approaches have shown the relatively high chromosome number, similar morphology and small size of the chromosomes. These facts have prevented a correct chromosome counting and characterization. Authors have established a basic chromosome number of x = 25 for Bromeliaceae. Recently, one karyomorphological analysis revealed that x = 25 is no longer the basic chromosome number, whose genome may have a polyploid origin. Besides cytogenetic characterization, the 2C DNA content of bromeliads has been measured. Nuclear DNA content has varied from 2C = 0.60 to 2C = 3.34 picograms. Thus, in relation to most angiosperms, the 2C DNA content of Bromeliaceae species as well as their chromosome size can be considered relatively small. In spite of some advances, cytogenetic and flow cytometry data are extremely scarce in this group. In this context, this review reports the state of the art in karyotype characterization and nuclear DNA content measurement in Bromeliaceae, emphasizing the main problems and suggesting prospective solutions and ideas for future research. PMID:25590721

  7. Implications of rRNA Operon Copy Number and Ribosome Content in the Marine Oligotrophic Ultramicrobacterium Sphingomonas sp. Strain RB2256

    PubMed Central

    Fegatella, Fitri; Lim, Julianne; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    1998-01-01

    Sphingomonas sp. strain RB2256 is a representative of the dominant class of ultramicrobacteria that are present in marine oligotrophic waters. In this study we examined the rRNA copy number and ribosome content of RB2256 to identify factors that may be associated with the relatively low rate of growth exhibited by the organism. It was found that RB2256 contains a single copy of the rRNA operon, in contrast to Vibrio spp., which contain more than eight copies. The maximum number of ribosomes per cell was observed during mid-log phase; however, this maximum content was low compared to those of faster-growing, heterotrophic bacteria (approximately 8% of the maximum ribosome content of Escherichia coli with a growth rate of 1.5 h−1). The low number of ribosomes per cell appears to correlate with the low rate of growth (0.16 to 0.18 h−1) and the presence of a single copy of the rRNA operon. However, on the basis of cell volume, RB2256 appears to have a higher concentration of ribosomes than E. coli (approximately double that of E. coli with a growth rate of 1.5 h−1). Ribosome numbers reached maximum levels during mid-log-phase growth but decreased rapidly to 10% of maximum during late log phase through 7 days of starvation. The cells in late log phase and at the onset of starvation displayed an immediate response to a sudden addition of excess glucose (3 mM). This result demonstrates that a ribosome content 10% of maximum is sufficient to allow cells to immediately respond to nutrient upshift and achieve maximum rates of growth. These data indicate that the bulk of the ribosome pool is not required for protein synthesis and that ribosomes are not the limiting factor contributing to a low rate of growth. Our findings show that the regulation of ribosome content, the number of ribosomes per cell, and growth rate responses in RB2256 are fundamentally different from those characteristics in fast-growing heterotrophs like E. coli and that they may be characteristics

  8. Soil Water Content Sensors as a Method of Measuring Ice Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, E.; Reed, D. E.; Desai, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Lake ice depth provides important information about local and regional climate change, weather patterns, and recreational safety, as well as impacting in situ ecology and carbon cycling. However, it is challenging to measure ice depth continuously from a remote location, as existing methods are too large, expensive, and/or time-intensive. Therefore, we present a novel application that reduces the size and cost issues by using soil water content reflectometer sensors. Analysis of sensors deployed in an environmental chamber using a scale model of a lake demonstrated their value as accurate measures of the change in ice depth over any time period, through measurement of the liquid-to-solid phase change. A robust correlation exists between volumetric water content in time as a function of environmental temperature. This relationship allows us to convert volumetric water content into ice depth. An array of these sensors will be placed in Lake Mendota, Madison, Wisconsin in winter 2015-2016, to create a temporally high-resolution ice depth record, which will be used for ecological or climatological studies while also being transmitted to the public to increase recreational safety.

  9. Exploration of tektite formation processes through water and metal content measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, Nigel; Bouchet, Romain A.; Lee, Cin-Ty A.

    2011-07-01

    Impact events are a significant surface-modifying process on solar system objects lacking frequent resurfacing by atmospheric or igneous processes. To better explore the effects of impacts on surface materials, we measured the water and trace element compositions of tektites from Da Lat, Vietnam. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for water measurements and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used for trace element measurements. Consistent with previous investigations of tektites, we found that the samples are depleted in volatile metals (e.g., Zn, Pb) as well as in water compared with the average continental crust, although water contents are still extremely high for rocks melted at atmospheric pressure. While Zn and Pb concentrations are linearly correlated with each other, there is no correlation between H2O and Zn or Pb contents. Combined with water contents of other tektites in the Australasian strewn field, our results demonstrate that the source impact occurred at a wet site in or off the coast of the Indochina peninsula.

  10. Measurement of broiler litter production rates and nutrient content using recycled litter.

    PubMed

    Coufal, C D; Chavez, C; Niemeyer, P R; Carey, J B

    2006-03-01

    It is important for broiler producers to know litter production rates and litter nutrient content when developing nutrient management plans. Estimation of broiler litter production varies widely in the literature due to factors such as geographical region, type of housing, size of broiler produced, and number of flocks reared on the same litter. Published data for N, P, and K content are also highly variable. In addition, few data are available regarding the rate of production, characteristics, and nutrient content of caked litter (cake). In this study, 18 consecutive flocks of broilers were reared on the same litter in experimental pens under simulated commercial conditions. The mass of litter and cake produced was measured after each flock. Samples of all litter materials were analyzed for pH, moisture, N, P, and K. Average litter and cake moisture content were 26.4 and 46.9%, respectively. Significant variation in litter and cake nutrient content was observed and can largely be attributed to ambient temperature differences. Average litter, cake, and total litter (litter plus cake) production rates were 153.3, 74.8, and 228.2 g of dry litter material per kg of live broiler weight (g/kg) per flock, respectively. Significant variation in litter production rates among flocks was also observed. Cumulative litter, cake, and total litter production rates after 18 flocks were 170.3, 78.7, and 249.0 g/kg, respectively. The data produced from this research can be used by broiler producers to estimate broiler litter and cake production and the nutrient content of these materials.

  11. Uncertainty quantification for nuclear density functional theory and information content of new measurements

    DOE PAGES

    McDonnell, J. D.; Schunck, N.; Higdon, D.; Sarich, J.; Wild, S. M.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2015-03-24

    Statistical tools of uncertainty quantification can be used to assess the information content of measured observables with respect to present-day theoretical models, to estimate model errors and thereby improve predictive capability, to extrapolate beyond the regions reached by experiment, and to provide meaningful input to applications and planned measurements. To showcase new opportunities offered by such tools, we make a rigorous analysis of theoretical statistical uncertainties in nuclear density functional theory using Bayesian inference methods. By considering the recent mass measurements from the Canadian Penning Trap at Argonne National Laboratory, we demonstrate how the Bayesian analysis and a direct least-squaresmore » optimization, combined with high-performance computing, can be used to assess the information content of the new data with respect to a model based on the Skyrme energy density functional approach. Employing the posterior probability distribution computed with a Gaussian process emulator, we apply the Bayesian framework to propagate theoretical statistical uncertainties in predictions of nuclear masses, two-neutron dripline, and fission barriers. Overall, we find that the new mass measurements do not impose a constraint that is strong enough to lead to significant changes in the model parameters. In addition, the example discussed in this study sets the stage for quantifying and maximizing the impact of new measurements with respect to current modeling and guiding future experimental efforts, thus enhancing the experiment-theory cycle in the scientific method.« less

  12. Uncertainty quantification for nuclear density functional theory and information content of new measurements

    SciTech Connect

    McDonnell, J. D.; Schunck, N.; Higdon, D.; Sarich, J.; Wild, S. M.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2015-03-24

    Statistical tools of uncertainty quantification can be used to assess the information content of measured observables with respect to present-day theoretical models, to estimate model errors and thereby improve predictive capability, to extrapolate beyond the regions reached by experiment, and to provide meaningful input to applications and planned measurements. To showcase new opportunities offered by such tools, we make a rigorous analysis of theoretical statistical uncertainties in nuclear density functional theory using Bayesian inference methods. By considering the recent mass measurements from the Canadian Penning Trap at Argonne National Laboratory, we demonstrate how the Bayesian analysis and a direct least-squares optimization, combined with high-performance computing, can be used to assess the information content of the new data with respect to a model based on the Skyrme energy density functional approach. Employing the posterior probability distribution computed with a Gaussian process emulator, we apply the Bayesian framework to propagate theoretical statistical uncertainties in predictions of nuclear masses, two-neutron dripline, and fission barriers. Overall, we find that the new mass measurements do not impose a constraint that is strong enough to lead to significant changes in the model parameters. As a result, the example discussed in this study sets the stage for quantifying and maximizing the impact of new measurements with respect to current modeling and guiding future experimental efforts, thus enhancing the experiment-theory cycle in the scientific method.

  13. Uncertainty quantification for nuclear density functional theory and information content of new measurements

    SciTech Connect

    McDonnell, J. D.; Schunck, N.; Higdon, D.; Sarich, J.; Wild, S. M.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2015-03-24

    Statistical tools of uncertainty quantification can be used to assess the information content of measured observables with respect to present-day theoretical models, to estimate model errors and thereby improve predictive capability, to extrapolate beyond the regions reached by experiment, and to provide meaningful input to applications and planned measurements. To showcase new opportunities offered by such tools, we make a rigorous analysis of theoretical statistical uncertainties in nuclear density functional theory using Bayesian inference methods. By considering the recent mass measurements from the Canadian Penning Trap at Argonne National Laboratory, we demonstrate how the Bayesian analysis and a direct least-squares optimization, combined with high-performance computing, can be used to assess the information content of the new data with respect to a model based on the Skyrme energy density functional approach. Employing the posterior probability distribution computed with a Gaussian process emulator, we apply the Bayesian framework to propagate theoretical statistical uncertainties in predictions of nuclear masses, two-neutron dripline, and fission barriers. Overall, we find that the new mass measurements do not impose a constraint that is strong enough to lead to significant changes in the model parameters. In addition, the example discussed in this study sets the stage for quantifying and maximizing the impact of new measurements with respect to current modeling and guiding future experimental efforts, thus enhancing the experiment-theory cycle in the scientific method.

  14. Uncertainty quantification for nuclear density functional theory and information content of new measurements.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, J D; Schunck, N; Higdon, D; Sarich, J; Wild, S M; Nazarewicz, W

    2015-03-27

    Statistical tools of uncertainty quantification can be used to assess the information content of measured observables with respect to present-day theoretical models, to estimate model errors and thereby improve predictive capability, to extrapolate beyond the regions reached by experiment, and to provide meaningful input to applications and planned measurements. To showcase new opportunities offered by such tools, we make a rigorous analysis of theoretical statistical uncertainties in nuclear density functional theory using Bayesian inference methods. By considering the recent mass measurements from the Canadian Penning Trap at Argonne National Laboratory, we demonstrate how the Bayesian analysis and a direct least-squares optimization, combined with high-performance computing, can be used to assess the information content of the new data with respect to a model based on the Skyrme energy density functional approach. Employing the posterior probability distribution computed with a Gaussian process emulator, we apply the Bayesian framework to propagate theoretical statistical uncertainties in predictions of nuclear masses, two-neutron dripline, and fission barriers. Overall, we find that the new mass measurements do not impose a constraint that is strong enough to lead to significant changes in the model parameters. The example discussed in this study sets the stage for quantifying and maximizing the impact of new measurements with respect to current modeling and guiding future experimental efforts, thus enhancing the experiment-theory cycle in the scientific method.

  15. Prediction of Arc Magma Water Contents via Measurement of H2O in Clinopyroxene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, J. A.; Plank, T.; Hauri, E.; Roggensack, K.; Kelley, K.

    2006-12-01

    Water is fundamental to arc magma genesis, evolution, and eruption, but most models make predictions that have yet to be tested against actual pre-eruptive H2O measurements. This is because few direct measurements of H2O have been made in arc volcanoes, as rocks found at the surface have extensively degassed upon eruption. We present here a new method for calculating pre-eruptive magmatic H2O, which corresponds closely to water contents measured directly in olivine-hosted melt inclusions. We picked clinopyroxene (cpx) phenocrysts from ash/lapilli samples from 4 volcanoes whose magmatic H2O contents span the global range: Galunggung (Java), Irazu (Costa Rica), Arenal (Costa Rica), and Cerro Negro (Nicaragua). Nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM's) such as pyroxene and olivine can incorporate non-trivial amounts of water into their crystal structures, and water contents in these arc cpx range from ~ 40 - 900 ppm (measured by SIMS ion microprobe). Transects across several grains reveal high H2O in the cores, which decreases towards the rim along with Mg#, Al, and Ca. For example, Irazu cpx range from > 300 ppm H2O at Mg# 88 to < 150 ppm wt% H2O at Mg# 72. These features are most likely the result of growth zoning that develops during degassing and fractionation, giving insight into magmatic evolution during ascent that neither whole rocks nor melt inclusions typically yield. In order to quantify water concentrations of liquids in equilibrium with the cpx, we have used the Al(IV)-dependent partitioning relationship described by Hauri et al. (2006). In all 4 volcanoes, calculated maximum magmatic H2O contents agree remarkably well with melt inclusion data from the same samples: 0.45, 3.4, 4.3, and 6.5 wt% H2O in Galunggung, Irazu, Arenal, and Cerro Negro, respectively. In the Central American samples, water contents also correlate with Sr/Nd in the cpx (measured by LA-ICP-MS), as predicted by models for slab fluid compositions. The H2O-Sr/Nd trend preserved in the cpx

  16. A new TDR multiplexing system for reliable electrical conductivity and soil water content measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihermueller, Lutz; Huisman, Sander; Hermes, Normen; Pickel, Stefanie; Vereecken, Harry

    2013-04-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is a standard method to estimate soil water content and bulk soil electrical conductivity. In many applications, several TDR probes are installed in soil columns or field setups, and they are measured using a multiplexing system. It has been reported that commercially available multiplexers share a common ground, which might lead to inaccurate TDR measurements when probes are installed close together or at sites with high electromagnetic noise. Therefore, a new eight-channel differential multiplexer (50C81-SDM) was developed that allows communication with standard TDR equipment. The 50C81-SDM multiplexer was tested using measurement in electrolyte solutions and a sand tank. In contrast to multiplexers with a common ground, they showed no interference of closely spaced TDR probes. Measurements at a test site also showed the applicability of the 50C81-SDM multiplexer in an environment contaminated with high electromagnetic noise.

  17. Precise measurement method for ionospheric total electron content using signals from GPS satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imae, Michito; Kiuchi, Hitoshi; Kaneko, Akihiro; Hama, Shinichi; Miki, Chihiro

    1990-01-01

    A GPS codeless receiver called GTR-2 was for measuring total electron content (TEC) along the line of sight to the GPS satellite by using the cross correlation amplitude of the received P-code signals carried by L1(1575.42 MHz) and L2(1227.6 MHz). This equipment has the performance of uncertainty in the measurement of TEC of about 2 X 10(exp 16) electrons/sq m when a 10 dBi gain antenna was used. To increase the measurement performance, an upper version of GTR-2 called GTR-3 is planned which uses the phase information of the continuous signals obtained by making a cross correlation or multiplication of the received L1 and L2 P-code signals. By using the difference of these measured phases values, the ionospheric delay with the ambiguities of the periods of L1+L2 and L1-L2 signals can be estimated.

  18. DAPI-fluorescent fading: a problem in microscopy or a way to measure nuclear DNA content?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué; Kober, V.; del Río-Portilla, Miguel Á.

    2006-01-01

    In observation by confocal or conventional fluorescence microscopy, the retardation of the lost in fluorescence, from highest signal of fluorescence to lowest intensity are important factors in order to obtain accurate images. This problem is very common in fluorochromes for nuclear DNA and especially for DAPI stain. The fluorescence of DAPI is rapidly lost when it is exposure to excitation by ultra violet (UV) light, and especially under optimal condition of observation. Although the fading process could be retardate by using of mounting medium with antifading solutions, the photochemical process underlying the fluorescence decay has not yet been fully explained. In addiction, neither relationship has been tested between the fluorescence fading and nuclear DNA content. However, the capacity of the DNA to absorb UV light is knows. In order to test this relationship we measured by means of image analysis the fluorescence intensity in several nuclei types during a fading period. The analysis was performed by an algorithm specifically built in MATLAB software. The relationship between nuclear DNA content and DAPI-fluorescence fading was found equal to 99%. This study demonstrates the feasibility for estimates genome size by quantification of fluorescence fading. In this context, the present method allows to measure nuclear DNA content in several medical applications (cancer, HIV, organ transplants, etc). Nowadays, for measuring DNA content, flow cytometry is widely used; however, with the flow cytometry method it is not possible to select a specific group of cells, such as from a specific region of a tumor. Moreover, the using of image analysis allows automatizing diagnostics procedures.

  19. Modification of tumor cell exosome content by transfection with wt-p53 and microRNA-125b expressing plasmid DNA and its effect on macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, M; Talekar, M; Shah, P; Ouyang, Q; Amiji, M

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are responsible for intercellular communication between tumor cells and others in the tumor microenvironment. These microvesicles promote oncogensis and can support towards metastasis by promoting a pro-tumorogenic environment. Modifying the exosomal content and exosome delivery are emerging novel cancer therapies. However, the clinical translation is limited due to feasibility of isolating and delivery of treated exosomes as well as an associated immune response in patients. In this study, we provide proof-of-concept for a novel treatment approach for manipulating exosomal content by genetic transfection of tumor cells using dual-targeted hyaluronic acid-based nanoparticles. Following transfection with plasmid DNA encoding for wild-type p53 (wt-p53) and microRNA-125b (miR-125b), we evaluate the transgene expression in the SK-LU-1 cells and in the secreted exosomes. Furthermore, along with modulation of wt-p53 and miR-125b expression, we also show that the exosomes (i.e., wt-p53/exo, miR-125b/exo and combination/exo) have a reprogramed global miRNA profile. The miRNAs in the exosomes were mainly related to the activation of genes associated with apoptosis as well as p53 signaling. More importantly, these altered miRNA levels in the exosomes could mediate macrophage repolarization towards a more pro-inflammatory/antitumor M1 phenotype. However, further studies, especially in vivo studies, are warranted to assess the direct influence of such macrophage reprogramming on cancer cells and oncogenesis post-treatment. The current study provides a novel platform enabling the development of therapeutic strategies affecting not only the cancer cells but also the tumor microenvironment by utilizing the 'bystander effect' through genetic transfer with secreted exosomes. Such modification could also support antitumor environment leading to decreased oncogenesis. PMID:27500388

  20. Modification of tumor cell exosome content by transfection with wt-p53 and microRNA-125b expressing plasmid DNA and its effect on macrophage polarization

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, M; Talekar, M; Shah, P; Ouyang, Q; Amiji, M

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are responsible for intercellular communication between tumor cells and others in the tumor microenvironment. These microvesicles promote oncogensis and can support towards metastasis by promoting a pro-tumorogenic environment. Modifying the exosomal content and exosome delivery are emerging novel cancer therapies. However, the clinical translation is limited due to feasibility of isolating and delivery of treated exosomes as well as an associated immune response in patients. In this study, we provide proof-of-concept for a novel treatment approach for manipulating exosomal content by genetic transfection of tumor cells using dual-targeted hyaluronic acid-based nanoparticles. Following transfection with plasmid DNA encoding for wild-type p53 (wt-p53) and microRNA-125b (miR-125b), we evaluate the transgene expression in the SK-LU-1 cells and in the secreted exosomes. Furthermore, along with modulation of wt-p53 and miR-125b expression, we also show that the exosomes (i.e., wt-p53/exo, miR-125b/exo and combination/exo) have a reprogramed global miRNA profile. The miRNAs in the exosomes were mainly related to the activation of genes associated with apoptosis as well as p53 signaling. More importantly, these altered miRNA levels in the exosomes could mediate macrophage repolarization towards a more pro-inflammatory/antitumor M1 phenotype. However, further studies, especially in vivo studies, are warranted to assess the direct influence of such macrophage reprogramming on cancer cells and oncogenesis post-treatment. The current study provides a novel platform enabling the development of therapeutic strategies affecting not only the cancer cells but also the tumor microenvironment by utilizing the ‘bystander effect' through genetic transfer with secreted exosomes. Such modification could also support antitumor environment leading to decreased oncogenesis. PMID:27500388

  1. Information Content and Sensitivity of the 3β+2α Lidar Measurement System for Microphysical Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, S. P.; Liu, X.; Chemyakin, E.; Hostetler, C. A.; Stamnes, S.; Moore, R.; Sawamura, P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Knobelspiesse, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    There is considerable interest in retrieving aerosol effective radius, number concentration and refractive index from lidar measurements of extinction and backscatter at several wavelengths. The 3 backscatter + 2 extinction (3β+2α) combination is particularly important since the planned NASA Aerosol-Clouds-Ecosystem (ACE) mission recommends this combination of measurements. The 2nd-generation NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2) has been making 3β+2α measurements since 2012. Here we develop a deeper understanding of the information content and sensitivities of the 3β+2α system in terms of aerosol microphysical parameters of interest. We determine best case results using a retrieval-free methodology. We calculate information content and uncertainty metrics from Optimal Estimation techniques using only a simplified forward model look-up table, with no explicit inversion. Simplifications include spherical particles, mono-modal log-normal size distributions, and wavelength-independent refractive indices. Since we only use the forward model with no retrieval, our results are applicable as a best case for all existing retrievals. Retrieval-dependent errors due to mismatch between the assumptions and true atmospheric aerosols are not included. The sensitivity metrics allow for identifying (1) information content of the measurements versus a priori information; (2) best-case error bars on the retrieved parameters; and (3) potential sources of cross-talk or "compensating" errors wherein different retrieval parameters are not independently captured by the measurements. These results suggest that even in the best case, this retrieval system is underdetermined. Recommendations are given for addressing cross-talk between effective radius and number concentration. A potential solution to the under-determination problem is a combined active (lidar) and passive (polarimeter) retrieval, which is the subject of a new funded NASA project by our team.

  2. Method for Determining the Coalbed Methane Content with Determination the Uncertainty of Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlązak, Nikodem; Korzec, Marek

    2016-06-01

    Methane has a bad influence on safety in underground mines as it is emitted to the air during mining works. Appropriate identification of methane hazard is essential to determining methane hazard prevention methods, ventilation systems and methane drainage systems. Methane hazard is identified while roadways are driven and boreholes are drilled. Coalbed methane content is one of the parameters which is used to assess this threat. This is a requirement according to the Decree of the Minister of Economy dated 28 June 2002 on work safety and hygiene, operation and special firefighting protection in underground mines. For this purpose a new method for determining coalbed methane content in underground coal mines has been developed. This method consists of two stages - collecting samples in a mine and testing the sample in the laboratory. The stage of determining methane content in a coal sample in a laboratory is essential. This article presents the estimation of measurement uncertainty of determining methane content in a coal sample according to this methodology.

  3. Measuring Adverse Events in Helicopter Emergency Medical Services: Establishing Content Validity

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, P. Daniel; Lave, Judith R.; Martin-Gill, Christian; Weaver, Matthew D.; Wadas, Richard J.; Arnold, Robert M.; Roth, Ronald N.; Mosesso, Vincent N.; Guyette, Francis X.; Rittenberger, Jon C.; Yealy, Donald M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We sought to create a valid framework for detecting Adverse Events (AEs) in the high-risk setting of Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS). Methods We assembled a panel of 10 expert clinicians (n=6 emergency medicine physicians and n=4 prehospital nurses and flight paramedics) affiliated with a large multi-state HEMS organization in the Northeast U.S. We used a modified Delphi technique to develop a framework for detecting AEs associated with the treatment of critically ill or injured patients. We used a widely applied measure, the Content Validity Index (CVI), to quantify the validity of the framework’s content. Results The expert panel of 10 clinicians reached consensus on a common AE definition and four-step protocol/process for AE detection in HEMS. The consensus-based framework is composed of three main components: 1) a trigger tool, 2) a method for rating proximal cause, and 3) a method for rating AE severity. The CVI findings isolate components of the framework considered content valid. Conclusions We demonstrate a standardized process for the development of a content valid framework for AE detection. The framework is a model for the development of a method for AE identification in other settings, including ground-based EMS. PMID:24003951

  4. Elucidating MicroRNA Regulatory Networks Using Transcriptional, Post-transcriptional, and Histone Modification Measurements.

    PubMed

    Gosline, Sara J C; Gurtan, Allan M; JnBaptiste, Courtney K; Bosson, Andrew; Milani, Pamela; Dalin, Simona; Matthews, Bryan J; Yap, Yoon S; Sharp, Phillip A; Fraenkel, Ernest

    2016-01-12

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate diverse biological processes by repressing mRNAs, but their modest effects on direct targets, together with their participation in larger regulatory networks, make it challenging to delineate miRNA-mediated effects. Here, we describe an approach to characterizing miRNA-regulatory networks by systematically profiling transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic activity in a pair of isogenic murine fibroblast cell lines with and without Dicer expression. By RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and CLIP (crosslinking followed by immunoprecipitation) sequencing (CLIP-seq), we found that most of the changes induced by global miRNA loss occur at the level of transcription. We then introduced a network modeling approach that integrated these data with epigenetic data to identify specific miRNA-regulated transcription factors that explain the impact of miRNA perturbation on gene expression. In total, we demonstrate that combining multiple genome-wide datasets spanning diverse regulatory modes enables accurate delineation of the downstream miRNA-regulated transcriptional network and establishes a model for studying similar networks in other systems. PMID:26748710

  5. Comparison of Microarray Platforms for Measuring Differential MicroRNA Expression in Paired Normal/Cancer Colon Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Callari, Maurizio; Dugo, Matteo; Musella, Valeria; Marchesi, Edoardo; Chiorino, Giovanna; Grand, Maurizia Mello; Pierotti, Marco Alessandro; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Canevari, Silvana; De Cecco, Loris

    2012-01-01

    Background Microarray technology applied to microRNA (miRNA) profiling is a promising tool in many research fields; nevertheless, independent studies characterizing the same pathology have often reported poorly overlapping results. miRNA analysis methods have only recently been systematically compared but only in few cases using clinical samples. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the inter-platform reproducibility of four miRNA microarray platforms (Agilent, Exiqon, Illumina, and Miltenyi), comparing nine paired tumor/normal colon tissues. The most concordant and selected discordant miRNAs were further studied by quantitative RT-PCR. Globally, a poor overlap among differentially expressed miRNAs identified by each platform was found. Nevertheless, for eight miRNAs high agreement in differential expression among the four platforms and comparability to qRT-PCR was observed. Furthermore, most of the miRNA sets identified by each platform are coherently enriched in data from the other platforms and the great majority of colon cancer associated miRNA sets derived from the literature were validated in our data, independently from the platform. Computational integration of miRNA and gene expression profiles suggested that anti-correlated predicted target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs are commonly enriched in cancer-related pathways and in genes involved in glycolysis and nutrient transport. Conclusions Technical and analytical challenges in measuring miRNAs still remain and further research is required in order to increase consistency between different microarray-based methodologies. However, a better inter-platform agreement was found by looking at miRNA sets instead of single miRNAs and through a miRNAs – gene expression integration approach. PMID:23028787

  6. Water Calibration Measurements for Neutron Radiography: Application to Water Content Quantification in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Misun; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Voisin, Sophie; Cheng, Chu-lin; Perfect, Edmund; Horita, Juske; Warren, Jeffrey

    2013-04-01

    Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 2 mm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector / scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

  7. Water calibration measurements for neutron radiography: Application to water content quantification in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M.; Bilheux, H. Z.; Voisin, S.; Cheng, C. L.; Perfect, E.; Horita, J.; Warren, J. M.

    2013-04-01

    Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 0.2 cm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector/scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

  8. Research on content measurement of textile mixture by near infrared spectroscopy based on principal component regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Li; Liu, Li

    2010-07-01

    A new method for accurate measurement of content of textile mixture by use of Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy is put forward. The near infrared spectra of 56 samples with different cotton and polyester contents were obtained, in which 41 samples, 10 samples and 5 samples were used for the calibration set, validation set and prediction set respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized for the spectra data compression. Principal component regression (PCR) model was developed. It indicates that the MAE is within 2.9% and the RMSE is less than 3.6% for the validation samples, which is suitable for the prediction of unknown samples. The PCR model was applied to predict unknown samples. Experimental results show that this approach by use of Fourier transform Near Infrared Spectroscopy can be used to quantitative analysis for textile fiber.

  9. Capacitance and phase-angle measurement for estimating moisture content in nuts and grain nondestructively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandala, Chari V.; Butts, Chris L.

    2006-03-01

    The design and performance of an electrical instrument that would be useful in estimating the moisture content (mc) of agricultural products such as grain and nuts nondestructively and rapidly is described here. The instrument, here after called the impedance meter, determines the capacitance and phase angle of a sample of the produce (about 100 g), filling the space between two parallel-plate electrodes, at two frequencies 1 and 5 MHz. The measured values were used in a semi-empirical equation to obtain the mc of the sample. In this paper, capacitance and phase angle were determined for in-shell peanuts in the moisture range between 6 and 25% by the impedance meter, and their moisture contents were calculated. The calculated values were compared with the mc values obtained by the standard air-oven method. The estimated values were in good agreement with the standard values. This method is applicable to produce such as corn, wheat and pecans also.

  10. Determination of Radioisotope Content by Measurement of Waste Package Dose Rates - 13394

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, Daiane Cristini B.; Gimenes Tessaro, Ana Paula; Vicente, Roberto

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this communication is to report the observed correlation between the calculated air kerma rates produced by radioactive waste drums containing untreated ion-exchange resin and activated charcoal slurries with the measured radiation field of each package. Air kerma rates at different distances from the drum surface were calculated with the activity concentrations previously determined by gamma spectrometry of waste samples and the estimated mass, volume and geometry of solid and liquid phases of each waste package. The water content of each waste drum varies widely between different packages. Results will allow determining the total activity of wastes and are intended to complete the previous steps taken to characterize the radioisotope content of wastes packages. (authors)

  11. Method and apparatus for measuring incombustible content of coal mine dust using gamma-ray backscatter

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, Frederick E.

    1976-09-28

    Method and apparatus for measuring incombustible content of particulate material, particularly coal mine dust, includes placing a sample of the particulate material in a container to define a pair of angularly oriented surfaces of the sample, directing an incident gamma-ray beam from a radiation source at one surface of the sample and detecting gamma-ray backscatter from the other surface of the sample with a radiation detector having an output operating a display to indicate incombustible content of the sample. The positioning of the source and detector along different surfaces of the sample permits the depth of the scattering volume defined by intersection of the incident beam and a detection cone from the detector to be selected such that variations in scattered radiation produced by variations in density of the sample are compensated by variations in the attenuation of the incident beam and the gamma-ray backscatter.

  12. Fast Measurement of Soluble Solid Content in Mango Based on Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiajia; He, Yong

    Mango is a kind of popular tropical fruit, and the soluble solid content is an important in this study visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/SWNIR) technique was applied. For sake of investigating the feasibility of using VIS/SWNIR spectroscopy to measure the soluble solid content in mango, and validating the performance of selected sensitive bands, for the calibration set was formed by 135 mango samples, while the remaining 45 mango samples for the prediction set. The combination of partial least squares and backpropagation artificial neural networks (PLS-BP) was used to calculate the prediction model based on raw spectrum data. Based on PLS-BP, the determination coefficient for prediction (Rp) was 0.757 and root mean square and the process is simple and easy to operate. Compared with the Partial least squares (PLS) result, the performance of PLS-BP is better.

  13. Direct Measurement of Intranuclear Strain Distributions and RNA Synthesis in Single Cells Embedded within Native Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Jonathan T.; Shannon, Garrett; Veress, Alexander I.; Neu, Corey P.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear structure and mechanics play a critical role in diverse cellular functions, such as organizing direct access of chromatin to transcriptional regulators. Here, we use a new, to our knowledge, hybrid method, based on microscopy and hyperelastic warping, to determine three-dimensional strain distributions inside the nuclei of single living cells embedded within their native extracellular matrix. During physiologically relevant mechanical loading to tissue samples, strain was transferred to individual nuclei, resulting in submicron distributions of displacements, with compressive and tensile strain patterns approaching a fivefold magnitude increase in some locations compared to tissue-scale stimuli. Moreover, nascent RNA synthesis was observed in the interchromatin regions of the cells studied and spatially corresponded to strain patterns. Our ability to measure large strains in the interchromatin space, which reveals that movement of chromatin in the nucleus may not be due to random or biochemical mechanisms alone, but may result from the transfer of mechanical force applied at a distant tissue surface. PMID:24268137

  14. Non-invasive measurements of soil water content using a pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most current techniques of setting crop irrigation schedules use invasive, labor-intensive soil-water content measurements. We developed a cart-mounted neutron probe capable of non-invasive measurements of volumetric soil moisture contents. The instrument emits neutrons which are captured by hydroge...

  15. Time-domain reflectometry: Simultaneous measurement of soil water content and electrical conductivity with a single probe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalton, F.N.; Herkelrath, W.N.; Rawlins, D.S.; Rhoades, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Two parallel metallic rods were used as a wave guide to measure the dielectric constant and electrical conductivity of soils having different electrical conductivities but the same water content. Measurements showed that the two parameters were sufficiently independent to permit simultaneous determinations of water content and bulk electrical conductivity.

  16. NASA Glenn Research Center, Propulsion Systems Laboratory: Plan to Measure Engine Core Flow Water Vapor Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will be made at the 92nd AIAA Turbine Engine Testing Working Group (TETWoG), a semi-annual technical meeting of turbine engine testing professionals. The objective is to describe an effort by NASA to measure the water vapor content on the core airflow in a full scale turbine engine ice crystal icing test and to open a discussion with colleagues how to accurately conduct the measurement based on any previous collective experience with the procedure, instruments and nature of engine icing testing within the group. The presentation lays out the schematics of the location in the flow path from which the sample will be drawn, the plumbing to get it from the engine flow path to the sensor and several different water vapor measurement technologies that will be used: Tunable diode laser and infrared spectroscopy.

  17. C-14 content of ten meteorites measured by tandem accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. M.; Andrews, H. R.; Ball, G. C.; Burn, N.; Imahori, Y.; Milton, J. C. D.; Fireman, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of C-14 in three North American and seven Antarctic meteorites show in most cases that this cosmogenic isotope, which is tightly bound, was separated from absorbed atmospheric radiocarbon by stepwise heating extractions. The present upper limit to age determination by the accelerator method varies from 50,000 to 70,000 years, depending on the mass and carbon content of the sample. The natural limit caused by cosmic ray production of C-14 in silicate rocks at 2000 m elevation is estimated to be 55,000 + or - 5000 years. An estimation is also made of the 'weathering ages' of the Antarctic meteorites from the specific activity of loosely bound CO2 which is thought to be absorbed from the terrestrial atmosphere. Accelerator measurements are found to agree with previous low level counting measurements, but are more sensitive and precise.

  18. Improved COD Measurements for Organic Content in Flowback Water with High Chloride Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Isabel; Park, Ho Il; Lin, Lian-Shin

    2016-03-01

    An improved method was used to determine chemical oxygen demand (COD) as a measure of organic content in water samples containing high chloride content. A contour plot of COD percent error in the Cl(-)-Cl(-):COD domain showed that COD errors increased with Cl(-):COD. Substantial errors (>10%) could occur in low Cl(-):COD regions (<300) for samples with low (<10 g/L) and high chloride concentrations (>25 g/L). Applying the method to flowback water samples resulted in COD concentrations ranging in 130 to 1060 mg/L, which were substantially lower than the previously reported values for flowback water samples from Marcellus Shale (228 to 21 900 mg/L). It is likely that overestimations of COD in the previous studies occurred as result of chloride interferences. Pretreatment with mercuric sulfate, and use of a low-strength digestion solution, and the contour plot to correct COD measurements are feasible steps to significantly improve the accuracy of COD measurements. PMID:26931531

  19. Improved COD Measurements for Organic Content in Flowback Water with High Chloride Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Isabel; Park, Ho Il; Lin, Lian-Shin

    2016-03-01

    An improved method was used to determine chemical oxygen demand (COD) as a measure of organic content in water samples containing high chloride content. A contour plot of COD percent error in the Cl(-)-Cl(-):COD domain showed that COD errors increased with Cl(-):COD. Substantial errors (>10%) could occur in low Cl(-):COD regions (<300) for samples with low (<10 g/L) and high chloride concentrations (>25 g/L). Applying the method to flowback water samples resulted in COD concentrations ranging in 130 to 1060 mg/L, which were substantially lower than the previously reported values for flowback water samples from Marcellus Shale (228 to 21 900 mg/L). It is likely that overestimations of COD in the previous studies occurred as result of chloride interferences. Pretreatment with mercuric sulfate, and use of a low-strength digestion solution, and the contour plot to correct COD measurements are feasible steps to significantly improve the accuracy of COD measurements.

  20. Measurement of liquid water content in a melting snowpack using cold calorimeter techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.; Jones, E. B.; Howell, S.

    1980-01-01

    Liquid water in a snowpack is a quantifiable parameter of hydrological significance. It is also important in the interpretation of snowpack remote sensing data using microwave techniques. One acceptable approach to measuring liquid water content of a snowpack (by weight) is the cold calorimeter. This technique is presented from theory through application. Silicon oil was used successfully as the freezing agent. Consistent results can be obtained even when using operators with a minimum of training. Data can be obtained approximately every 15 minutes by using two calorimeters and three operators. Accuracy within one to two percent can be achieved under reasonable field conditions.

  1. Estimation of Canopy Water Content in Konza Parry Grasslands Using Synthetic Aperture Radar Measurements During FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, Sasan S.; van Zyl, Jacob J.; Asrar, Ghassem

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an algorithm to retrieve the canopy water contents of natural grasslands and pasture from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements. The development on this algorithm involves three interrelated steps: (1) calibration of SAR data for ground topographic variations, (2) development and validation of backscatter model for cross-polarized ratio. The polarimetric radar data acquired by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory AIRSAR system during the 1989 First International Satellite land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) used for this study. The SAR data have been calibrated and corrected for the topographical effects by using the digital elevation map of the study area.

  2. Measurement of humerus and radius bone mineral content in the term and preterm infant

    SciTech Connect

    Vyhmeister, N.R.; Linkhart, T.A.

    1988-07-01

    We compared two anatomic sites for single-photon absorptiometric measurement of bone mineral content (BMC) in term and preterm infants. The distal one third of the radius and the midportion of the humerus were evaluated for measurements of BMC with an unmodified, commercially available bone densitometer. We assessed reproducibility of BMC and bone width (BW) measurements and defined normal at-birth ranges of BMC, BW, and BMC/BW ratio for infants with gestational ages of 24 to 42 weeks. Humerus BMC correlated with gestational age, birth weight, and BW of patients and did not differ from humerus BMC values determined over the same range of gestational ages at another center. Representative serial measurements of two very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of using humerus BMC in longitudinal studies to assess changes in bone mineralization. We conclude that bone densitometer measurements of mid-humerus BMC can be successfully performed and are preferable to similar measurements of the radius for VLBW infants. Normal humerus BMC values were defined for use in diagnosis and evaluation of the efficacy of treatment in VLBW infants who are at high risk of developing osteopenia of prematurity.

  3. Comparison of different methods for the in situ measurement of forest litter moisture content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunk, C.; Ruth, B.; Leuchner, M.; Wastl, C.; Menzel, A.

    2015-06-01

    Dead fine fuel (e.g. litter) moisture content is an important parameter for both forest fire and ecological applications as it is related to ignitability, fire behavior as well as soil respiration. However, the comprehensive literature review in this paper shows that there is no easy-to-use method for automated measurements available. This study investigates the applicability of four different sensor types (permittivity and electrical resistance measuring principles) for this measurement. Comparisons were made to manual gravimetric reference measurements carried out almost daily for one fire season and overall agreement was good (highly significant correlations with 0.792 ≦ r ≦ 0.947). Standard deviations within sensor types were linearly correlated to daily sensor mean values; however, above a certain threshold they became irregular, which may be linked to exceedance of the working ranges. Thus, measurements with irregular standard deviations were considered unusable and calibrations of all individual sensors were compared for useable periods. A large drift in the sensor raw value-litter moisture-relationship became obvious from drought to drought period. This drift may be related to installation effects or settling and decomposition of the litter layer throughout the fire season. Because of the drift and the in situ calibration necessary, it cannot be recommended to use the methods presented here for monitoring purposes. However, they may be interesting for scientific studies when some manual fuel moisture measurements are made anyway. Additionally, a number of potential methodological improvements are suggested.

  4. Karyological Features of Achyrocline (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae): stable karyotypes, low DNA content variation and linkage of rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Mazzella, C; Rodríguez, M; Vaio, M; Gaiero, P; López-Carro, B; Santiñaque, F F; Folle, G A; Guerra, M

    2010-01-01

    Many Achyrocline (Asteraceae, tribe Gnaphalieae) species are widely used in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay as popular medicinal and aromatic plants. Achyrocline flaccida, A. satureioides, A. alata, and A. crassiuscula are distributed in Uruguay and popularly known as 'marcelas'. In order to characterize them, we performed chromosome counts, compared the karyotypes, mapped the 5S and 45S rDNA sites by fluorescent in situ hybridization, and estimated their DNA content. All species were diploid with 2n = 28 chromosomes, this being the first report for A. flaccida and A. crassiuscula. All species showed symmetrical karyotypes composed exclusively of biarmed chromosomes. DNA content estimated by flow cytometry revealed 2C values ranging from 5.73 to 6.03 pg, the amounts for A. alata and A. crassiuscula being higher than those for the other species. Cytogenetic mapping of 5S and 45S rDNA sequences in three species, A. flaccida, A. satureioides and A. alata, showed that in these species both sites co-localized in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 10. This site corresponds to the only DAPI(-) and CMA(+) band of their genomes. Southern blot hybridization of 5S and 45S rDNA on BamHI digested genomic DNA confirmed the tight linkage of these rDNA families into a single unit. Cytological data indicate that Achyrocline species are karyologically poorly differentiated, whereas the uncommon distribution of 5S and 45S rDNA suggests a close relationship with other genera of the Anthemidae tribe.

  5. Measurement of effective thermal conductivity of wheat as a function of moisture content

    SciTech Connect

    Tavman, S.; Tavman, I.H.

    1998-07-01

    Grain drying and storage are one of the main activities of agricultural industry. Increasing energy costs have stressed the importance of calculation of heat and mass transfer in a grain bulk in order to be able to optimize drying facilities. Another limitation during drying is the preservation of grain structure and its nutritional values, Muehlbauer and Christ have shown that damage to the grain structure and grain nutritional value is dependent upon grain temperature and drying time. Therefore, proper conditions during drying and storage of cereal grains require the knowledge of the thermophysical properties of the grains. The effective thermal conductivity of two varieties of Triticum durum wheat and a wheat product, bulgur, is determined at different moisture contents and at ambient temperature by the transient lime heat source method. The moisture contents of the samples ranged from 9.17 to 38.65% wet basis and the bulk densities ranged from 675 to 827 kg/m{sup 3}. Under those conditions, the measured effective thermal conductivities ranged from 0.159 to 0.201 W/m.K. The effective thermal conductivity is found to be linearly increasing with moisture content. The results are also in good agreement with literature values.

  6. Overexpression of the maize Corngrass1 microRNA prevents flowering, improves digestibility, and increases starch content of switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    Chuck, George S.; Tobias, Christian; Sun, Lan; Kraemer, Florian; Li, Chenlin; Dibble, Dean; Arora, Rohit; Bragg, Jennifer N.; Vogel, John P.; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A.; Pauly, Markus; Hake, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels developed from biomass crops have the potential to supply a significant portion of our transportation fuel needs. To achieve this potential, however, it will be necessary to develop improved plant germplasm specifically tailored to serve as energy crops. Liquid transportation fuel can be created from the sugars locked inside plant cell walls. Unfortunately, these sugars are inherently resistant to hydrolytic release because they are contained in polysaccharides embedded in lignin. Overcoming this obstacle is a major objective toward developing sustainable bioenergy crop plants. The maize Corngrass1 (Cg1) gene encodes a microRNA that promotes juvenile cell wall identities and morphology. To test the hypothesis that juvenile biomass has superior qualities as a potential biofuel feedstock, the Cg1 gene was transferred into several other plants, including the bioenergy crop Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Such plants were found to have up to 250% more starch, resulting in higher glucose release from saccharification assays with or without biomass pretreatment. In addition, a complete inhibition of flowering was observed in both greenhouse and field grown plants. These results point to the potential utility of this approach, both for the domestication of new biofuel crops, and for the limitation of transgene flow into native plant species. PMID:21987797

  7. Quantitative measurement of delivery and gene silencing activities of siRNA polyplexes containing pyridylthiourea-grafted polyethylenimines.

    PubMed

    Pinel, Sophie; Aman, Emmanuel; Erblang, Felix; Dietrich, Jonathan; Frisch, Benoit; Sirman, Julien; Kichler, Antoine; Sibler, Annie-Paule; Dontenwill, Monique; Schaffner, Florence; Zuber, Guy

    2014-05-28

    The activity of synthetic interfering nucleic acids (siRNAs) relies on the capacity of delivery systems to efficiently transport nucleic acids into the cytosol of target cells. The pyridylthiourea-grafted 25KDa polyethylenimine (πPEI) is an excellent carrier for siRNA delivery into cells and it was extensively investigated in this report. Quantification of the siRNA-mediated gene silencing efficiency indicated that the πPEI specific delivery activity at the cell level may be measured and appears relatively constant in various cell lines. Delivery experiments assaying inhibitors of various entry pathways or concanamycin A, an inhibitor of the H(+)/ATPase vacuolar pump showed that the πPEI/siRNA polyplexes did not require any specific entry mode but strongly relied on vacuolar acidification for functional siRNA delivery. Next, πPEI polyplexes containing a siRNA targeting the transcription factor HIF-1α, known to be involved in tumor progression, were locally injected into mice xenografted with a human glioblastoma. A 55% reduction of the level of the target mRNA was observed at doses comparable to those used in vitro when the πPEI delivery activity was calculated per cell. Altogether, our study underscores the usefulness of "simple"/rough cationic polymers for siRNA delivery despite their intrinsic limitations. The study underscores as well as that bottom-up strategies make sense. The in vitro experiments can precede in vivo administration and be of high value for selection of the carrier with enhanced specific delivery activity and parallel other research aiming at improving synthetic delivery systems for resilience in the blood and for enhanced tissue-targeting capacity. PMID:24631860

  8. Comparison of total electron content measurements made with the ATS-6 radio beacon over the U.S. and Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, K.; Degenhardt, W.; Hartmann, G. K.; Leitinger, R.

    1980-01-01

    The ATS-6 radio beacon measurements made at three stations in the U.S.A. are compared and contrasted with similar measurements made in Europe the following year at two locations. It is shown that over the U.S.A. the winter plasmaspheric content reaches its maximum near 0300 LT whereas in Europe the maximum occurs near noon. The plasmaspheric content decreases with increase of magnetic activity in both continents. Winter night maxima are observed in ionospheric content in both hemispheres. Marked differences occurred in magnetic storm effects and in the day-to-night ratio of ionospheric electron content.

  9. Use of low-frequency electrical impedance measurements to determine phospholipid content in amniotic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, F.; Cametti, C.; Zimatore, G.; Maraviglia, B.; Pachi', A.

    1996-09-01

    In this report we propose a new method for an in vitro test of the foetal lung maturity based on the measurement of the electrical conductivity of the overall amniotic fluid obtained from transabdominal amniocentesis, since this quantity can be linked to a first approximation in a very simple way to the phospholipid content. We have carried out measurements of 85 different samples of amniotic fluid as a function of gestation weeks and we have observed a pronounced change of the electrical conductivity that reflects the increase in the phospholipid concentration occurring at the end of normal pregnancies. The method could be further developed to obtain similar information on in vivo experiments by means of bioelectric impedance tomography, taking advantage of the frequency dependence of the tissue electrical impedance.

  10. The co-induced effects of molybdenum and cadmium on the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and trace element contents in duck kidneys.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huabin; Gao, Feiyan; Xia, Bing; Xiao, Qingyang; Guo, Xiaoquan; Hu, Guoliang; Zhang, Caiying

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study were determining the co-induced effects of dietary Cadmium (Cd) and high intake of Molybdenum (Mo) on renal toxicity in ducks. 240 healthy 11-day-old ducks were randomly divided into 6 groups, which were treated with Mo or/and Cd at different doses added to the basal diet for 120 days. Ducks of control group were fed with basal diet, LMo and HMo groups were fed with 15mg/kg Mo and 100mg/kg Mo respectively; ducks of Cd group were provided with 4mg/kg Cd which was added into basal diet. Two combination groups were treated with 15mg/kg Mo+4mg/kg Cd and 100mg/kg Mo+4mg/kg Cd respectively. On days 30, 60, 90 and 120, the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and contents of trace elements were detected. In addition, transmission electron microscopic examination was used for ultrastructural studies. The results indicated that the mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) showed an upward tendency in treatment groups in comparison with control group, and in the later period of the experiment it showed a significant rise in joint groups compared with the Mo and Cd group (P<0.01); the contents of copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) decreased in joint groups in the later period (P<0.05) while the contents of Mo and Cd significantly increased (P<0.01); zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) concentration had a slight downtrend in treated groups, but showed no significant difference (P>0.05). The ultrastructural analysis showed that kidney tissues were severely injured in joint groups on day 120. These results suggested that the combination of Mo and Cd could aggravate damages to the kidney. In addition, dietary of Mo or/and Cd caused the decrease of Cu, Fe, Zn, and Se contents, inflammatory response and pathological lesions whose mechanism is somehow linked with Mo and Cd deposition in kidney.

  11. The co-induced effects of molybdenum and cadmium on the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and trace element contents in duck kidneys.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huabin; Gao, Feiyan; Xia, Bing; Xiao, Qingyang; Guo, Xiaoquan; Hu, Guoliang; Zhang, Caiying

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study were determining the co-induced effects of dietary Cadmium (Cd) and high intake of Molybdenum (Mo) on renal toxicity in ducks. 240 healthy 11-day-old ducks were randomly divided into 6 groups, which were treated with Mo or/and Cd at different doses added to the basal diet for 120 days. Ducks of control group were fed with basal diet, LMo and HMo groups were fed with 15mg/kg Mo and 100mg/kg Mo respectively; ducks of Cd group were provided with 4mg/kg Cd which was added into basal diet. Two combination groups were treated with 15mg/kg Mo+4mg/kg Cd and 100mg/kg Mo+4mg/kg Cd respectively. On days 30, 60, 90 and 120, the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and contents of trace elements were detected. In addition, transmission electron microscopic examination was used for ultrastructural studies. The results indicated that the mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) showed an upward tendency in treatment groups in comparison with control group, and in the later period of the experiment it showed a significant rise in joint groups compared with the Mo and Cd group (P<0.01); the contents of copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) decreased in joint groups in the later period (P<0.05) while the contents of Mo and Cd significantly increased (P<0.01); zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) concentration had a slight downtrend in treated groups, but showed no significant difference (P>0.05). The ultrastructural analysis showed that kidney tissues were severely injured in joint groups on day 120. These results suggested that the combination of Mo and Cd could aggravate damages to the kidney. In addition, dietary of Mo or/and Cd caused the decrease of Cu, Fe, Zn, and Se contents, inflammatory response and pathological lesions whose mechanism is somehow linked with Mo and Cd deposition in kidney. PMID:27448956

  12. An in-situ electropolymerization based sensor for measuring salt content in crude oil.

    PubMed

    Aleisa, Rashed M; Akmal, Naim

    2015-01-01

    Determining salt content is a vital procedure in the petroleum industry during the process of crude oil transportation, refining and production. Monitoring the salinity value using a fast and direct technique can substantially lower the cost of crude oil in its processing and its production stages. In the present work, a novel analytical method was developed to detect the amount of salt present in crude oil in a quick and reliable manner. The measurement is based on the rate of in-situ electropolymerization of a monomer such as aniline in association with the salt content in the crude oil. The salt dispersed in the hydrocarbon matrix is used as an electrolyte in the electrolytic system to induce an electropolymerization reaction upon the induction of voltages, in which the salt content is measured corresponding to the polymeric film formation on the working electrode surface. Acetonitrile and N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) were used in the electrochemical cell as solvents, and cyclic voltammetry tests were performed for Arabian crude oil solutions in the presence of aniline. The method has shown an excellent detection response for very low concentrations of salt. Four Arabian crude oils with salt concentrations of 34.2, 28.5, 14.3 and 5.71 mg L(-1) have produced current intensity of 180.1, 172.6, 148.1 and 134.2 µA at an applied current potential of 1.75 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), respectively. A Calibration curve was obtained in the range of 5-35 mg L(-1), giving limits of detection and quantitation at 1.98 and 5.95 mg L(-1), respectively. The in-situ electropolymerization based sensor has significant advantages over the existing techniques of salt monitoring in crude oil such as fast response, temperature independency, electrode stability, and minimum sample preparation.

  13. Electronmagnetic induction probe calibration for electrical conductivity measurements and moisture content determination of Hanford high level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wittekind, W.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-23

    Logic of converting EMI measured electrical conductivity to moisture with expected uncertainty. Estimates from present knowledge, assumptions, and measured data. Archie`s Law has been used since the 1940`s to relate electrical conductivity in porous media to liquid volume fraction. Measured electrical conductivity to moisture content uses: Porosity, Interstitial liquid electrical conductivity, Solid particle density,Interstitial liquid density, and interstitial liquid water content. The uncertainty of assumed values is calculated to determine the final moisture wt.% result uncertainty.

  14. Laboratory measurements of electrical resistivity versus water content on small soil cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robain, H.; Camerlynck, C.; Bellier, G.; Tabbagh, A.

    2003-04-01

    concentration in water may be neglected during the sewage of macro voids as it corresponds to a small quantity of water for the studied samples. Soil solid components are generally electrical insulators, the conduction of electrical current only lies on two phenomenon occurring in water : (i) volume conduction controlled by the electrolyte concentration in water and the geometrical characteristics of macro voids network ; (ii) surface conduction controlled by the double diffuse layer that depends on the solid-liquid interactions, the specific surface of clay minerals and the geometry of particles contacts. For the water contained in macro voids the preeminent phenomenon seems to be volume conduction while for the water contained in micro voids, it seems to be surface conduction. This hypothesis satisfyingly explains the shape of the electrical resistivity versus water content curves obtained for three different oxisols with clayey, clayey-sandy and sandy-clayey texture. [1] Archie G.E. 1942. The electrical resistivity log as an aid in determining some reservoirs characteristics. Trans. AIME, 146, 54-67. [2] Braudeau E. et al. 1999. New device and method for soil shrinkage curve measurement and characterization. S.S.S.A.J., 63(3), 525-535.

  15. Comparison of different methods for the in situ measurement of forest litter moisture content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunk, C.; Ruth, B.; Leuchner, M.; Wastl, C.; Menzel, A.

    2016-02-01

    Dead fine fuel (e.g., litter) moisture content is an important parameter for both forest fire and ecological applications as it is related to ignitability, fire behavior and soil respiration. Real-time availability of this value would thus be a great benefit to fire risk management and prevention. However, the comprehensive literature review in this paper shows that there is no easy-to-use method for automated measurements available. This study investigates the applicability of four different sensor types (permittivity and electrical resistance measuring principles) for this measurement. Comparisons were made to manual gravimetric reference measurements carried out almost daily for one fire season and overall agreement was good (highly significant correlations with 0.792 < = r < = 0.947, p < 0.001). Standard deviations within sensor types were linearly correlated to daily sensor mean values; however, above a certain threshold they became irregular, which may be linked to exceedance of the working ranges. Thus, measurements with irregular standard deviations were considered unusable and relationships between gravimetric and automatic measurements of all individual sensors were compared only for useable periods. A large drift in these relationships became obvious from drought to drought period. This drift may be related to installation effects or settling and decomposition of the litter layer throughout the fire season. Because of the drift and the in situ calibration necessary, it cannot be recommended to use the methods presented here for monitoring purposes and thus operational hazard management. However, they may be interesting for scientific studies when some manual fuel moisture measurements are made anyway. Additionally, a number of potential methodological improvements are suggested.

  16. Cardiac calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor) in control and cardiomyopathic human hearts: mRNA and protein contents are differentially regulated.

    PubMed

    Sainte Beuve, C; Allen, P D; Dambrin, G; Rannou, F; Marty, I; Trouvé, P; Bors, V; Pavie, A; Gandgjbakch, I; Charlemagne, D

    1997-04-01

    Abnormal intracellular calcium handling in cardiomyopathic human hearts has been associated with an impaired function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, but previous reports on the gene expression of the ryanodine receptors (Ry2) are contradictory. We measured the mRNA levels, the protein levels and the number of high affinity [3H]ryanodine binding sites in the left ventricle of non-failing (n = 9) and failing human hearts [idiopathic dilated (IDCM n = 16), ischemic (ICM n = 7) or mixed (MCM n = 8) cardiomyopathies]. Ry2 mRNA levels were significantly reduced in IDCM (-30%) and unchanged in MCM and ICM and Ry2 protein levels were similar. In contrast, we observed a two-fold increase in the number of high affinity Ry2 (B(max) = 0.43 +/- 0.11 v 0.22 +/- 0.13 pmol/mg protein, respectively; P<0.01) and an unchanged K(d). Furthermore, levels of myosin heavy chain mRNA and protein per g of tissue were similar in failing and non-failing hearts, suggesting that the observed differences in Ry2 are not caused by the increase in fibrosis in failing heart. Therefore, the dissociation between the two-fold increase in the number of high affinity ryanodine receptors observed in all failing hearts and the slightly decreased mRNA level or unchanged protein level suggests that the ryanodine binding properties are affected in failing myocardium and that such modifications rather than a change in gene expression alter the channel activity and could contribute to abnormalities in intracellular Ca2+ handling. PMID:9160875

  17. [Research on accurate measurement of oxygen content in coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in air environment].

    PubMed

    Yin, Wang-bao; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Le; Dong, Lei; Ma, Wei-guang; Jia, Suo-tang

    2012-01-01

    A technique about accurate measurement of oxygen content in coal in air environment using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is introduced in the present paper. Coal samples were excited by the laser, and plasma spectra were obtained. Combining internal standard method, temperature correction method and multi-line methods, the oxygen content of coal samples was precisely measured. The measurement precision is not less than 1.37% for oxygen content in coal analysis, so is satisfied for the requirement of coal-fired power plants in coal analysis. This method can be used in surveying, environmental protection, medicine, materials, archaeological and food safety, biochemical and metallurgy application.

  18. [Research on accurate measurement of oxygen content in coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in air environment].

    PubMed

    Yin, Wang-bao; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Le; Dong, Lei; Ma, Wei-guang; Jia, Suo-tang

    2012-01-01

    A technique about accurate measurement of oxygen content in coal in air environment using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is introduced in the present paper. Coal samples were excited by the laser, and plasma spectra were obtained. Combining internal standard method, temperature correction method and multi-line methods, the oxygen content of coal samples was precisely measured. The measurement precision is not less than 1.37% for oxygen content in coal analysis, so is satisfied for the requirement of coal-fired power plants in coal analysis. This method can be used in surveying, environmental protection, medicine, materials, archaeological and food safety, biochemical and metallurgy application. PMID:22497159

  19. Measuring snow liquid water content with low-cost GPS receivers.

    PubMed

    Koch, Franziska; Prasch, Monika; Schmid, Lino; Schweizer, Jürg; Mauser, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    The amount of liquid water in snow characterizes the wetness of a snowpack. Its temporal evolution plays an important role for wet-snow avalanche prediction, as well as the onset of meltwater release and water availability estimations within a river basin. However, it is still a challenge and a not yet satisfyingly solved issue to measure the liquid water content (LWC) in snow with conventional in situ and remote sensing techniques. We propose a new approach based on the attenuation of microwave radiation in the L-band emitted by the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS). For this purpose, we performed a continuous low-cost GPS measurement experiment at the Weissfluhjoch test site in Switzerland, during the snow melt period in 2013. As a measure of signal strength, we analyzed the carrier-to-noise power density ratio (C/N0) and developed a procedure to normalize these data. The bulk volumetric LWC was determined based on assumptions for attenuation, reflection and refraction of radiation in wet snow. The onset of melt, as well as daily melt-freeze cycles were clearly detected. The temporal evolution of the LWC was closely related to the meteorological and snow-hydrological data. Due to its non-destructive setup, its cost-efficiency and global availability, this approach has the potential to be implemented in distributed sensor networks for avalanche prediction or basin-wide melt onset measurements. PMID:25384007

  20. Measurement of moisture content in photovoltaic panel encapsulants using spectroscopic optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashtchi, Shabnam; Ruiz, Pablo D.; Wildman, Ricky; Ashcroft, Ian

    2012-10-01

    EVA, a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate, is a common encapsulant material used in silicon-based PV modules. It contributes to the structural integrity of the modules, provides electrical insulation and also acts as an environmental barrier. However, water can diffuse through EVA into the modules, leading to swelling and chemical degradation, which can impact interfacial bonds, leading to delamination and allowing more ingress to occur that can eventually end up in accelerated corrosion and device failure. Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gravimetric techniques have been used to quantify water concentration and the diffusion coefficient in free standing EVA films. However, these techniques cannot be applied to measure water content in PV modules deployed in the field, as the encapsulant is usually between a glass front sheet and a back sheet made of glass or multilayered films. In this paper we study the feasibility of combining FTIR and spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (SOCT) to measure water concentration of the EVA layer inside the modules. SOCT provides depth resolved spectral information and thus has the potential of measuring water absorption at different layers in the PV module. These depth-resolved measurements are necessary to inform predictive models developed to study the structural integrity, stability and durability of PV modules. The fundamental principle of the technique is explained, the optimum spectral ranges are identified and the feasibility of a SOCT system is discussed based on light source and detector characteristics. Other strategies are also considered.

  1. Measuring Snow Liquid Water Content with Low-Cost GPS Receivers

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Franziska; Prasch, Monika; Schmid, Lino; Schweizer, Jürg; Mauser, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    The amount of liquid water in snow characterizes the wetness of a snowpack. Its temporal evolution plays an important role for wet-snow avalanche prediction, as well as the onset of meltwater release and water availability estimations within a river basin. However, it is still a challenge and a not yet satisfyingly solved issue to measure the liquid water content (LWC) in snow with conventional in situ and remote sensing techniques. We propose a new approach based on the attenuation of microwave radiation in the L-band emitted by the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS). For this purpose, we performed a continuous low-cost GPS measurement experiment at the Weissfluhjoch test site in Switzerland, during the snow melt period in 2013. As a measure of signal strength, we analyzed the carrier-to-noise power density ratio (C/N0) and developed a procedure to normalize these data. The bulk volumetric LWC was determined based on assumptions for attenuation, reflection and refraction of radiation in wet snow. The onset of melt, as well as daily melt-freeze cycles were clearly detected. The temporal evolution of the LWC was closely related to the meteorological and snow-hydrological data. Due to its non-destructive setup, its cost-efficiency and global availability, this approach has the potential to be implemented in distributed sensor networks for avalanche prediction or basin-wide melt onset measurements. PMID:25384007

  2. Deriving content-specific measures of room acoustic perception using a binaural, nonlinear auditory model.

    PubMed

    van Dorp Schuitman, Jasper; de Vries, Diemer; Lindau, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    Acousticians generally assess the acoustic qualities of a concert hall or any other room using impulse response-based measures such as the reverberation time, clarity index, and others. These parameters are used to predict perceptual attributes related to the acoustic qualities of the room. Various studies show that these physical measures are not able to predict the related perceptual attributes sufficiently well under all circumstances. In particular, it has been shown that physical measures are dependent on the state of occupation, are prone to exaggerated spatial fluctuation, and suffer from lacking discrimination regarding the kind of acoustic stimulus being presented. Accordingly, this paper proposes a method for the derivation of signal-based measures aiming at predicting aspects of room acoustic perception from content specific signal representations produced by a binaural, nonlinear model of the human auditory system. Listening tests were performed to test the proposed auditory parameters for both speech and music. The results look promising; the parameters correlate with their corresponding perceptual attributes in most cases. PMID:23464027

  3. Determination of optimal dead sea salt content in a cosmetic emulsion using rheology and stability measurements.

    PubMed

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Mohameed, Hazim A; Bsoul, Abeer

    2008-01-01

    Dead Sea mud and salts are known for their therapeutic and cosmetic properties. The presence of Dead Sea (DS) salts in different types of cosmetics has affected the stability and the flow properties of the finished products. In this study, an attempt was made to find the optimum Dead Sea salt content in a cosmetic emulsion (model of body cream) using both rheology and stability measurements. The rheological properties were tested during a four-month storage period at three different storage temperatures: 8 degrees C, room temperature, and 45 degrees C. In addition to rheological measurements and centrifuge tests, the conductivities of the emulsion samples were also determined. The centrifuge tests showed that the cream samples containing more than 0.25 wt% of DS salt showed phase separation. The addition of DS salt to the cosmetic emulsion led to two maxima in the emulsion viscosity at salt contents of 0.07 wt% and 0.15 wt%. However, the emulsion samples containing 0.15% of DS salt was considered the optimum sample since it contained the maximum amount of salt and exhibited the maximum viscosity at all tested conditions. It was found that the viscosity of the emulsion is increased with storage time and storage temperature. This behavior was accompanied by a decrease in conductivity. This behavior was explained by water evaporation from the emulsion. However, it has been shown that the presence of DS salt in the cosmetic emulsion significantly reduces the rate of water evaporation. The conductivity measurements reflect the rate of water evaporation, and the presence of DS salt reduces the rate of conductivity. Conductivity is observed to decrease with storage time and temperature. PMID:18350231

  4. High-content image-based screening of a signal transduction pathway inhibitor small-molecule library against highly pathogenic RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Mudhasani, Rajini; Kota, Krishna P; Retterer, Cary; Tran, Julie P; Tritsch, Sarah R; Zamani, Rouzbeh; Whitehouse, Chris A; Bavari, Sina

    2015-01-01

    High-content image-based screening was developed as an approach to test a small-molecule library of compounds targeting signal transduction pathways for antiviral activity against multiple highly pathogenic RNA viruses. Of the 2843 compounds screened, 120 compounds exhibited ≥60% antiviral activity. Four compounds (E225-0969, E528-0039, G118-0778, and G544-0735), which were most active against Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and showed broad-spectrum antiviral activity, were selected for further evaluation for their concentration-response profile and cytotoxicity. These compounds did not show any visible cytotoxicity at the highest concentration of compound tested (200 µM). All four of these compounds were more active than ribavirin against several viruses. One compound, E225-0969, had the lowest effective concentration (EC50 = 1.9-8.92 µM) for all the viruses tested. This compound was 13- and 43-fold more inhibitory against RVFV and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), respectively, than ribavirin. The highest selectivity index (>106.2) was for E225-0969 against CHIKV. Time-of-addition assays suggested that all four lead compounds targeted early steps in the viral life cycle (entry and/or replication) but not virus egress. Overall, this work demonstrates that high-content image analysis can be used to screen chemical libraries for new antivirals against highly pathogenic viruses.

  5. Remote estimation of canopy nitrogen content in winter wheat using airborne hyperspectral reflectance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xianfeng; Huang, Wenjiang; Kong, Weiping; Ye, Huichun; Luo, Juhua; Chen, Pengfei

    2016-11-01

    Timely and accurate assessment of canopy nitrogen content (CNC) provides valuable insight into rapid and real-time nitrogen status monitoring in crops. A semi-empirical approach based on spectral index was extensively used for nitrogen content estimation. However, in many cases, due to specific vegetation types or local conditions, the applicability and robustness of established spectral indices for nitrogen retrieval were limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the optimal spectral index for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) CNC estimation using Pushbroom Hyperspectral Imager (PHI) airborne hyperspectral data. Data collected from two different field experiments that were conducted during the major growth stages of winter wheat in 2002 and 2003 were used. Our results showed that a significant linear relationship existed between nitrogen and chlorophyll content at the canopy level, and it was not affected by cultivars, growing conditions and nutritional status of winter wheat. Nevertheless, it varied with growth stages. Periods around heading stage mainly worsened the relationship and CNC estimation, and CNC assessment for growth stages before and after heading could improve CNC retrieval accuracy to some extent. CNC assessment with PHI airborne hyperspectra suggested that spectral indices based on red-edge band including narrowband and broadband CIred-edge, NDVI-like and ND705 showed convincing results in CNC retrieval. NDVI-like and ND705 were sensitive to detect CNC changes less than 5 g/m2, narrowband and broadband CIred-edge were sensitive to a wide range of CNC variations. Further evaluation of CNC retrieval using field measured hyperspectra indicated that NDVI-like was robust and exhibited the highest accuracy in CNC assessment, and spectral indices (CIred-edge and CIgreen) that established on narrow or broad bands showed no obvious difference in CNC assessment. Overall, our study suggested that NDVI-like was the optimal indicator for winter

  6. Sensor for measuring alcohol content of alcohol/gasoline fuel mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.J.; Swarin, S.J.; Sultan, M.F.; Lambert, D.K.; Jack, M.D.

    1993-08-31

    A sensing device is described for determining the alcohol content of an alcohol/gasoline mixture comprising: a light source emitting a light beam containing at least a first and a second wavelengths within the near-infrared spectrum, said light beam being transmitted through the alcohol/gasoline fuel mixture; means for switching the current through said light source between at least two fixed values, so as to correspondingly switch the light intensity at said first and second wavelengths which is emitted by said light source; first and second detectors which are disposed so as to receive said emitted light beam after its transmission through the alcohol/gasoline fuel mixture, said first detector determines a first amount of absorption by the alcohol/gasoline fuel mixture at said first wavelength for each of said fixed values of current, and said second detector determines a second amount of absorption by the alcohol/gasoline fuel mixture at said second wavelength for each of said fixed values of current; means for separately measuring the output voltage from said first and second detectors for each of said power settings; and computational means for determining, from said output voltages, the ratio of said first and second absorbances by the alcohol/gasoline fuel mixture at said first and said second wavelengths for each of said fixed values of current such that said ratio of absorbances provide an output indicative of the alcohol content within the alcohol/gasoline mixture.

  7. Dynamic Measurements of the Position, Orientation, and DNA Content of Individual Unlabeled Bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Goldfain, Aaron M; Garmann, Rees F; Jin, Yan; Lahini, Yoav; Manoharan, Vinothan N

    2016-07-01

    A complete understanding of the cellular pathways involved in viral infections will ultimately require a diverse arsenal of experimental techniques, including methods for tracking individual viruses and their interactions with the host. Here we demonstrate the use of holographic microscopy to track the position, orientation, and DNA content of unlabeled bacteriophages (phages) in solution near a planar, functionalized glass surface. We simultaneously track over 100 individual λ phages at a rate of 100 Hz across a 33 μm × 33 μm portion of the surface. The technique determines the in-plane motion of the phage to nanometer precision, and the height of the phage above the surface to 100 nm precision. Additionally, we track the DNA content of individual phages as they eject their genome following the addition of detergent-solubilized LamB receptor. The technique determines the fraction of DNA remaining in the phage to within 10% of the total 48.5 kilobase pairs. Analysis of the data reveals that under certain conditions, λ phages move along the surface with their heads down and intermittently stick to the surface by their tails, causing them to stand up. Furthermore, we find that in buffer containing high concentrations of both monovalent and divalent salts, λ phages eject their entire DNA in about 7 s. Taken together, these measurements highlight the potential of holographic microscopy to resolve the fast kinetics of the early stages of phage infection.

  8. Measurement of the muon content in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veberič, Darko

    2016-07-01

    The muon content of extensive air showers produced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays is an observable sensitive to the composition of primary particles and to the properties of hadronic interactions governing the evolution of air-shower cascades. We present different methods for estimation of the number of muons at the ground and the muon production depth. These methods use measurements of the longitudinal, lateral, and temporal distribution of particles in air showers recorded by the detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The results, obtained at about 140 TeV center-of-mass energy for proton primaries, are compared to the predictions of LHC-tuned hadronic-interaction models used in simulations with different primary masses. The models exhibit a deficitin the predicted muon content. The combination of these results with other independent mass composition analyses, such as those involving the depth of shower maximum observablemax, provide additional constraints on hadronic-interaction models for energies beyond the reach of the LHC.

  9. Measurement of sialic acid content is insufficient to assess bioactivity of recombinant human erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Shigehiro; Taniguchi, Yuya; Hosono, Mareto; Yoshioka, Eiji; Ishikawa, Rika; Shimada, Yoshihiro; Kadoya, Toshihiko; Kutsukake, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of biological potency and its comparison with clinical effects are important in the quality control of therapeutic glycoproteins. Animal models are usually used for evaluating bioactivity of these compounds. However, alternative methods are required to simplify the bioassay and avoid ethical issues associated with animal studies. Negatively charged sialic acid residues are known to be critical for in vivo bioactivity of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). In this study, we used capillary zone electrophoresis, a charge-based separation method, to estimate the sialic acid content for predicting in vivo bioactivity of rhEPO. In vivo bioactivities of rhEPO subfractions were measured and compared with sialylation levels. The results obtained indicated that in vivo bioactivity of rhEPO is not simply correlated with the sialylation level, which suggests that it is difficult to predict biological potency from the sialic acid content alone. N-Glycan moieties as well as sialic acid residues may have a significant impact on in vivo bioactivity of rhEPO. PMID:20823580

  10. Gas content measurements and log based correlations in the antrim shale. Topical report, July 1991-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, A.D.; Wicks, D.E.; Coates, J.M.

    1993-07-01

    A cost-effective method to determine gas content in the Antrim Shale from logs has been developed. The new procedures shorten the time required to obtain data needed for gas-in-place calculations and, ultimately, field reserves. A side-by-side comparison of gas content measurements from rotary sidewall core and whole core demonstrated that the measurements from both core sampling types are of equal accuracy. From the standpoint of cost, sample homogeneity and sampling selection, rotary sidewall cores are preferred over whole core. The total gas contained in the shale can be completely released as a single measurement by crushing the core upon retrieval. Utilizing the on-site gas content measurements, density/gas content relationship and density log it is possible for the first time to locate and quantify gas bearing Antrim shale intervals from well logs.

  11. T7 RNA polymerase studied by force measurements varying cofactor concentration.

    PubMed

    Thomen, P; Lopez, P J; Bockelmann, U; Guillerez, J; Dreyfus, M; Heslot, F

    2008-09-01

    RNA polymerases carry out the synthesis of an RNA copy from a DNA template. They move along DNA, incorporate nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) at the end of the growing RNA chain, and consume chemical energy. In a single-molecule assay using the T7 RNA polymerase, we study how a mechanical force opposing the forward motion of the enzyme along DNA affects the translocation rate. We also study the influence of nucleotide and magnesium concentration on this process. The experiment shows that the opposing mechanical force is a competitive inhibitor of nucleotide binding. Also, the single-molecule data suggest that magnesium ions are involved in a step that does not depend on the external load force. These kinetic results associated with known biochemical and mutagenic data, along with the static information obtained from crystallographic structures, shape a very coherent view of the catalytic cycle of the enzyme: translocation does not take place upon NTP binding nor upon NTP cleavage, but rather occurs after PPi release and before the next nucleotide binding event. Furthermore, the energetic bias associated with the forward motion of the enzyme is close to kT and represents only a small fraction of the free energy of nucleotide incorporation and pyrophosphate hydrolysis.

  12. Thyroid iodine content measured by x-ray fluorescence in amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Leger, A.F.; Fragu, P.; Rougier, P.; Laurent, M.F.; Tubiana, M.; Savole, J.C.

    1983-07-01

    Iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis (IiT) is characterized by (a) a low radioiodine uptake, increased by exogenous TSH, and (b) a spontaneous evolution towards cure within a few months. An hypothetical pathogenesis of IiT is an initial inflation in the stores of thyroid hormones during iodine excess, followed by their sudden discharge into the circulation. Thyroid iodine content was measured by fluorescent scanning in 10 patients with amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis and in various control groups. Results were found to be high at the onset of the disease and to decrease during its course. The data agree with the hypothetical pathogenesis. Furthermore they may permit exclusion of a painless subacute thyroiditis, which is the main differential diagnosis of IiT.

  13. Improved process control through real-time measurement of mineral content

    SciTech Connect

    Turler, Daniel; Karaca, Murat; Davis, William B.; Giauque, Robert D.; Hopkins, Deborah

    2001-11-02

    In a highly collaborative research and development project with mining and university partners, sensors and data-analysis tools are being developed for rock-mass characterization and real-time measurement of mineral content. Determining mineralogy prior to mucking in an open-pit mine is important for routing the material to the appropriate processing stream. A possible alternative to lab assay of dust and cuttings obtained from drill holes is continuous on-line sampling and real-time x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. Results presented demonstrate that statistical analyses combined with XRF data can be employed to identify minerals and, possibly, different rock types. The objective is to create a detailed three-dimensional mineralogical map in real time that would improve downstream process efficiency.

  14. In situ changes in the moisture content of heated, welded tuff based on thermal neutron measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.L.; Carlson, R.C.; Buscheck, T.A.

    1991-07-01

    Thermal neutron logs were collected to monitor changes in moisture content within a welded tuff rock mass heated from a borehole containing an electrical heater which remained energized for 195 days. Thermal neutron measurements were made in sampling boreholes before, during and after heating. The results generally corroborated our conceptual understanding of hydrothermal flow as well as most of the numerical modeling conducting for this study. Conceptual models have been developed in conjunction with the numerical model calculations to explain differences in the drying and re-wetting behavior above and below the heater. Numerical modeling indicated that the re-wetting of the dried-out zone was dominated by the binary diffusion of water vapor through fractures. Saturation gradients in the rock matrix resulted in relative humidity gradients which drove water vapor (primarily along fractures) back to the dried-out zone where it condensed along the fracture walls and was imbibed by the matrix. 4 refs., 28 figs.

  15. A multi-frequency radiometric measurement of soil moisture content over bare and vegetated fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Schmugge, T. J.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III; Gould, W. I.; Glazar, W. S.; Fuchs, J. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A USDA Beltsville Agricultural Research Center site was used for an experiment in which soil moisture remote sensing over bare, grass, and alfalfa fields was conducted over a three-month period using 0.6 GHz, 1.4 GHz, and 10.6 GHz Dicke-type microwave radiometers mounted on mobile towers. Ground truth soil moisture content and ambient air and sil temperatures were obtained concurrently with the radiometric measurements. Biomass of the vegetation cover was sampled about once a week. Soil density for each of the three fields was measured several times during the course of the experiment. Results of the radiometric masurements confirm the frequency dependence of moisture sensing sensitivity reduction reported earlier. Observations over the bare, wet field show that the measured brightness temperature is lowest at 5.0 GHz and highest of 0.6 GHz frequency, a result contrary to expectation based on the estimated dielectric permittivity of soil water mixtures and current radiative transfer model in that frequency range.

  16. Prediction of magmatic water contents via measurement of H2O in clinopyroxene phenocrysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Jennifer A.; Plank, Terry; Hauri, Erik H.; Kelley, Katherine A.; Roggensack, Kurt; Zimmer, Mindy

    2008-10-01

    Water is fundamental to magma genesis, evolution, and eruption.Few direct measurements of magmatic H2O exist, however, becauserocks found at the surface have extensively degassed upon eruption.Olivine-hosted melt inclusions provide a standard approach tomeasuring volatiles in undegassed magma, but many volcanic depositsdo not contain melt inclusions large enough for analysis (>30μm), or olivine at all. Here we use an AlIV-dependentpartitioning relationship to calculate magmatic H2O from directmeasurements of H2O in clinopyroxene phenocrysts. We test thisapproach using phenocrysts from four arc volcanoes (Galunggung,Irazú, Arenal, and Augustine) that span the global rangein H2O contents as measured in olivine-hosted melt inclusions(from 0.1 to 7 wt% H2O). The average and maximum magmatic H2Ocontents calculated from the clinopyroxene measurements agreewithin 15% of the melt inclusion values for most of the samples.The evolutionary paths recorded in H2O-Mg# variations overlapin some clinopyroxene and olivine-hosted melt inclusion populations,and in others, the clinopyroxenes record a larger portion ofthe liquid line of descent or a different portion of the magmasystem. Thus, the use of phenocrysts to estimate magmatic H2Ocontents creates a new and powerful tool in igneous petrologyand volcanology.

  17. Measurements of formaldehyde total content in troposphere using DOAS technique in Moscow Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovski, A. N.; Dzhola, A. V.; Grechko, E. I.; Postylyakov, O. V.; Ivanov, V. A.; Kanaya, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) in the atmosphere is a product of oxidation of methane and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and so its content is an important index of air pollution by VOCs. HCHO has strong absorption cross-section in the UV spectral region and, hence, HCHO vertical column density (VCD) can be measured by remote optical methods including differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). Spectral measurements of scattered solar radiation are performed at Zvenigorod Scientific Station (ZSS, 55°41'49''N, 36°46'29''E) located in 38 km west from Moscow Ring Road by MAX-DOAS instrument since 2008. For analysis of the HCHO variability we selected spectra taken in cloud free conditions. Version 1.2 of retrieval algorithm is used. It uses information on the surface albedo and the height of the atmospheric boundary layer inferred from a model. Data screening using color index was implemented. The obtained data quantify the Moscow megapolis influence on air quality at Zvenigorod by comparison of HCHO VCD for east and west wind directions. HCHO VCD for east winds is grater one for west winds for 0.5×1016 mol×cm-2 in average. Strong dependence of HCHO VCD on air temperature is noticeable in our data for air temperatures from +5 to +35°C. In different conditions of the atmosphere gradient of the temperature effect is about 1.1-1.2×1015 mol×cm-2×°C-1. The increase of the formaldehyde content with the increase of the air temperature can be caused by the HCHO formation from non-methane biogenic volatile organic compounds for which more emission is expected at higher temperatures.

  18. Measuring expression levels of small regulatory RNA molecules from body fluids and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples.

    PubMed

    Gyongyosi, Adrienn; Docs, Otto; Czimmerer, Zsolt; Orosz, Laszlo; Horvath, Attila; Török, Olga; Mehes, Gabor; Nagy, Laszlo; Balint, Balint L

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are involved in the regulation of various pathophysiological processes such as immune regulation and cancer. Next-generation sequencing methods enable us to monitor their presence in various types of samples but we need flexible methods for validating datasets generated by high-throughput methods. Here we describe the detailed protocols to be used with our MiRNA Primer Design Tool assay design system. The presented methods allow the flexible design of the oligonucleotides needed for the RT-qPCR detection of any variant of small regulatory RNA molecules from virtually any species. This method can be used to measure miRNA levels from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples and various body fluids. As an example, we show the results of the hsa-miR-515-3p, hsa-miR-325, and hsa-miR-155 quantification using a specific UPL probe (Universal Probe Library) and a stem-loop RT-qPCR assay. The small nucleolar RNA RNU43 is used as endogenous control for normalization of the results. Urine from healthy pregnant women and FFPE samples from patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer and treated with antibody-based anti-EGFR monotherapy were used as samples.

  19. Sensitive measurement of water content in dry material based on low-frequency terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Takeshi; Araki, Tsutomu

    2005-12-01

    We proposed sensitive measurement of water content in dry material using low-frequency THz-TDS method. Simultaneous use of bowtie-type photoconductive antennas as a THz emitter and a THz detector achieves specific sensitivity in sub-THz region of ~0.3 THz, in which THz absorption of water is considerably decreased. Effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through water content measurement in instant coffee powder in a glass bottle. The proposed system will be a powerful tool for extract quality control of water content in dry foods.

  20. Regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase mRNA contents in human hepatoma cell line Hep G2 by distinct classes of mevalonate-derived metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, L H; Griffioen, M

    1988-01-01

    Hep G2 cells were incubated under conditions known to influence the HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA) reductase activity, e.g. in the presence of compactin (a competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase itself) and U18666A (a squalene-2,3-epoxide cyclase inhibitor). We studied the effects of these conditions both on the HMG-CoA reductase activity and on the reductase mRNA content. In the presence of compactin the mRNA content increased, but less than the enzyme activity, as determined after removal of the inhibitor. The increase in mRNA could be prevented by addition of mevalonate or by a combination of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plus a low concentration of mevalonate. LDL alone prevented the compactin-induced increases in mRNA and activity only partially. The effect of U18666A on reductase mRNA content and activity was biphasic, i.e. a slight decrease at low (0.3-0.5 microM) concentrations, with a concomitant formation of polar sterols [Boogaard, Griffioen & Cohen (1987) Biochem. J. 241, 345-351], and an increase at high (20-30 microM) concentrations, with complete blockage of sterol formation. At these high concentrations of U18666A, additional compactin (2 microM) increased the reductase activity, but not the mRNA content. We conclude that non-sterol metabolites of mevalonate regulate exclusively at the enzyme level, whereas sterol metabolites regulate at the reductase mRNA level. In the latter group of regulators we distinguish mevalonate metabolites which can, and metabolites which cannot, be replaced by exogenous LDL. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2848511

  1. The relationship between third-codon position nucleotide content, codon bias, mRNA secondary structure and gene expression in the drosophilid alcohol dehydrogenase genes Adh and Adhr.

    PubMed Central

    Carlini, D B; Chen, Y; Stephan, W

    2001-01-01

    To gain insights into the relationship between codon bias, mRNA secondary structure, third-codon position nucleotide distribution, and gene expression, we predicted secondary structures in two related drosophilid genes, Adh and Adhr, which differ in degree of codon bias and level of gene expression. Individual structural elements (helices) were inferred using the comparative method. For each gene, four types of randomization simulations were performed to maintain/remove codon bias and/or to maintain or alter third-codon position nucleotide composition (N3). In the weakly expressed, weakly biased gene Adhr, the potential for secondary structure formation was found to be much stronger than in the highly expressed, highly biased gene Adh. This is consistent with the observation of approximately equal G and C percentages in Adhr ( approximately 31% across species), whereas in Adh the N3 distribution is shifted toward C (42% across species). Perturbing the N3 distribution to approximately equal amounts of A, G, C, and T increases the potential for secondary structure formation in Adh, but decreases it in Adhr. On the other hand, simulations that reduce codon bias without changing N3 content indicate that codon bias per se has only a weak effect on the formation of secondary structures. These results suggest that, for these two drosophilid genes, secondary structure is a relatively independent, negative regulator of gene expression. Whereas the degree of codon bias is positively correlated with level of gene expression, strong individual secondary structural elements may be selected for to retard mRNA translation and to decrease gene expression. PMID:11606539

  2. TTL cirrus ice water content--extinction relationships from ATTREX measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornberry, Troy; Rollins, Andrew; Woods, Sarah; Bui, Thaopaul; Gao, Ru-Shan

    2016-04-01

    Cirrus clouds cover a large fraction of the globe and play a significant role in the radiative balance of the Earth system, but remain a source of uncertainty since their net radiative effect varies depending on their microphysical properties. Cirrus are particularly prevalent in the tropical central and western Pacific, where they form at the extremely cold temperatures in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and result in dehydration of air as it rises into the stratosphere. TTL cirrus typically exhibit low ice number concentrations and small particles relative to mid-latitude cirrus, resulting in significantly lower ice water contents (IWC). Lidar observations of TTL cirrus produce measurements of volume extinction (σ) and rely on empirically derived relationships to calculate cloud IWC. To date, TTL cirrus σ-IWC relationships have been extrapolated from measurements of mid-latitude, higher temperature clouds, or based on a limited number of observations within TTL cirrus. In this analysis we use measurements of cirrus extinction and IWC acquired during the Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) mission in the TTL over the western Pacific to derive new relationships between these parameters for TTL cirrus that can be used to improve the determination of TTL IWC from satellite, airborne and ground-based lidar. ATTREX yielded more than 24 hours of sampling in TTL cirrus at temperatures below 203 K (-70° C). Cirrus clouds were encountered at altitudes between 14.5 km and 17.5 km with IWC down to the ˜2 μg m-3 detection limit of the NOAA Water instrument and water vapor mixing ratios as low as 1.5 ppm. Most TTL cirrus sampled had ice number concentrations (INC) less than 100 L-1, and very few had INC of more than 1000 L-1. σ values measured by the in situ cloud probes ranged from < 10-6 m-1 to ˜10-3 m-1.

  3. Measurements of formaldehyde total content using DOAS technique: a new retrieval method for overcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postylyakov, Oleg; Borovski, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a significant constituent of the atmospheric chemistry involved in a lot of chemical reactions, which principal global source is the intermediate oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Taking into account that HCHO basically undergo by photolysis and reaction with hydroxyl radical within a few hours, isoprene together with other short-lived VOCs and direct HCHO emissions can cause local HCHO enhancement over certain areas, and, hence, cases with HCHO, that exceed some background level, can be examined as local pollution of the atmosphere by VOCs. HCHO has significant specific features in spectral structure of UV absorption cross-section to be measured using the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. Several retrieval algorithms applicable for DOAS measurements in cloudless were previously developed. A new algorithm applicable for overcast and cloudless sky and its error analysis is briefly presented in this paper. In case we know the cloud base height, but don't know cloud optical depth, the error of HCHO total content retrieval is about 10-20% for winter season, about 5% for summer season, and about 30-40% for transition season when the ABL is below the cloud base. In case we know both the cloud base height and cloud optical depth, the error is about 5-10% for winter season, less than 5% for summer season, and about 25-35% for transition season when the ABL is below the cloud base. The errors dramatically increase when clouds penetrate into ABL in both cases.

  4. Measuring ice and liquid water content in moderately supercooled clouds with Cloudnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühl, Johannes; Seifert, Patric; Myagkov, Alexander; Albert, Ansmann

    2016-04-01

    The interaction between ice nuclei and clouds is an important topic in weather and climate research. Recent laboratory experiments and field in-situ field campaigns present more and more detailed measurements of ice nucleating particles (INP) at temperatures close to 0°C. This brings moderately supercooled mixed-phase clouds into the focus of current cloud research. One current example is the European Union BACCHUS project. A major goal of BACCHUS is the analysis of the anthropogenic impact on ice nucleation. Within this project, we use the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Remote Observations System (LACROS) and the Cloudnet framework in order to get quantitative insight into the formation of ice in mixed-phase layered clouds with cloud top temperature (CTT) from -40 to 0°C. Depolarization measurements from lidar and radar show a clear dependence between particle shape and the temperature under which the particles have been formed. The special focus of this work is on the CTT range from -10 to 0°C. An algorithm is presented to decide between ice and liquid water precipitation falling from the clouds showing that between 10% and 30% of all layered clouds show ice precipitation with CTT between -5 and 0°C. For these slightly supercooled clouds an average ice-water-content between 10e-7 and 10e-8 [kg per cubic meter] is found.

  5. Water vapor content in the polar atmosphere measured by Lyman-alpha/OH fluorescence method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwasaka, Y.; Saitoh, S.; Ono, A.

    1985-01-01

    The water vapor of the polar stratosphere possibly plays an important role in various aeronomical processes; for example, OH radical formation through photodissociation of H2O, formation of water cluster ions, radiative energy transfer in the lower stratosphere, condensation onto particulate matter, and so on. In addition to these, it has been speculated, from the viewpoint of global transport and/or budget of water vapor, that the polar stratosphere functions as an active sink. STANFORD (1973) emphasized the existence of the stratospheric Cist cloud in the polar stratosphere which brought a large loss rate of stratospheric water vapor through a so-called freeze-out of cloud particles from the stratosphere into the troposphere. However, these geophysically interesting problems unfortunately remain to be solved, owing to the lack of measurements on water vapor distribution and its temporal variation in the polar stratosphere. The water vapor content measured at Syowa Station (69.00 deg S, 39.35 deg E), Antarctica using a balloon-borne hygrometer (Lyman - alpha/OH fluorescence type) is discussed.

  6. In-Line Measurement of Water Contents in Ethanol Using a Zeolite-Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byoung Chul; Yamamoto, Takuji; Kim, Young Han

    2015-01-01

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) was utilized to measure the water content in ethanol. For the improvement of measurement sensitivity, the QCM was modified by applying zeolite particles on the surface with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) binder. The measurement performance was examined with ethanol of 1% to 5% water content in circulation. The experimental results showed that the frequency drop of the QCM was related with the water content though there was some deviation. The sensitivity of the zeolite-coated QCM was sufficient to be implemented in water content determination, and a higher ratio of silicon to aluminum in the molecular structure of the zeolite gave better performance. The coated surface was inspected by microscopy to show the distribution of zeolite particles and PMMA spread. PMID:26516859

  7. Luciferase mRNA Transfection of Antigen Presenting Cells Permits Sensitive Nonradioactive Measurement of Cellular and Humoral Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Omokoko, Tana A; Luxemburger, Uli; Bardissi, Shaheer; Simon, Petra; Utsch, Magdalena; Breitkreuz, Andrea; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy is rapidly evolving as an effective treatment option for many cancers. With the emerging fields of cancer vaccines and adoptive cell transfer therapies, there is an increasing demand for high-throughput in vitro cytotoxicity assays that efficiently analyze immune effector functions. The gold standard (51)Cr-release assay is very accurate but has the major disadvantage of being radioactive. We reveal the development of a versatile and nonradioactive firefly luciferase in vitro transcribed (IVT) RNA-based assay. Demonstrating high efficiency, consistency, and excellent target cell viability, our optimized luciferase IVT RNA is used to transfect dividing and nondividing primary antigen presenting cells. Together with the long-lasting expression and minimal background, the direct measurement of intracellular luciferase activity of living cells allows for the monitoring of killing kinetics and displays paramount sensitivity. The ability to cotransfect the IVT RNA of the luciferase reporter and the antigen of interest into the antigen presenting cells and its simple read-out procedure render the assay high-throughput in nature. Results generated were comparable to the (51)Cr release and further confirmed the assay's ability to measure antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The assay's combined simplicity, practicality, and efficiency tailor it for the analysis of antigen-specific cellular and humoral effector functions during the development of novel immunotherapies. PMID:27057556

  8. Luciferase mRNA Transfection of Antigen Presenting Cells Permits Sensitive Nonradioactive Measurement of Cellular and Humoral Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Omokoko, Tana A.; Luxemburger, Uli; Bardissi, Shaheer; Simon, Petra; Utsch, Magdalena; Breitkreuz, Andrea; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy is rapidly evolving as an effective treatment option for many cancers. With the emerging fields of cancer vaccines and adoptive cell transfer therapies, there is an increasing demand for high-throughput in vitro cytotoxicity assays that efficiently analyze immune effector functions. The gold standard 51Cr-release assay is very accurate but has the major disadvantage of being radioactive. We reveal the development of a versatile and nonradioactive firefly luciferase in vitro transcribed (IVT) RNA-based assay. Demonstrating high efficiency, consistency, and excellent target cell viability, our optimized luciferase IVT RNA is used to transfect dividing and nondividing primary antigen presenting cells. Together with the long-lasting expression and minimal background, the direct measurement of intracellular luciferase activity of living cells allows for the monitoring of killing kinetics and displays paramount sensitivity. The ability to cotransfect the IVT RNA of the luciferase reporter and the antigen of interest into the antigen presenting cells and its simple read-out procedure render the assay high-throughput in nature. Results generated were comparable to the 51Cr release and further confirmed the assay's ability to measure antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The assay's combined simplicity, practicality, and efficiency tailor it for the analysis of antigen-specific cellular and humoral effector functions during the development of novel immunotherapies. PMID:27057556

  9. Integral measurements of mass transport and heat content in the Strait of Gibraltar from acoustic transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Send, Uwe; Worcester, Peter F.; Cornuelle, Bruce D.; Tiemann, Christopher O.; Baschek, Burkard

    those derived from current-meter data. The fractional uncertainty variance for the lower layer tidal transport from a single tomographic path was estimated to be 0.017 (i.e. 98% of the a priori tidal transport variance was resolved). The spatial scales of the sub-tidal flow are thought to be significantly shorter than those of the tidal flow, however, which means that a more elaborate monitoring network is required to achieve the same performance for sub-tidal variability. Finally, sum travel times from the reciprocal transmissions were found to provide good measurements of the temperature and heat content in the lower layer.

  10. Retrieval of aerosol microphysical properties from AERONET photopolarimetric measurements: 1. Information content analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Jun

    2015-07-01

    This paper is the first part of a two-part study that aims to retrieve aerosol particle size distribution (PSD) and refractive index from the multispectral and multiangular polarimetric measurements taken by the new-generation Sun photometer as part of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). It provides theoretical analysis and guidance to the companion study in which we have developed an inversion algorithm for retrieving 22 aerosol microphysical parameters associated with a bimodal PSD function from real AERONET measurements. Our theoretical analysis starts with generating the synthetic measurements at four spectral bands (440, 675, 870, and 1020 nm) with a Unified Linearized Vector Radiative Transfer Model for various types of spherical aerosol particles. Subsequently, the quantitative information content for retrieving aerosol parameters is investigated in four observation scenarios, i.e., I1, I2, P1, and P2. Measurements in the scenario (I1) comprise the solar direct radiances and almucantar radiances that are used in the current AERONET operational inversion algorithm. The other three scenarios include different additional measurements: (I2) the solar principal plane radiances, (P1) the solar principal plane radiances and polarization, and (P2) the solar almucantar polarization. Results indicate that adding polarization measurements can increase the degree of freedom for signal by 2-5 in the scenario P1, while not as much of an increase is found in the scenarios I2 and P2. Correspondingly, smallest retrieval errors are found in the scenario P1: 2.3% (2.9%) for the fine-mode (coarse-mode) aerosol volume concentration, 1.3% (3.5%) for the effective radius, 7.2% (12%) for the effective variance, 0.005 (0.035) for the real-part refractive index, and 0.019 (0.068) for the single-scattering albedo. These errors represent a reduction from their counterparts in scenario I1 of 79% (57%), 76% (49%), 69% (52%), 66% (46%), and 49% (20%), respectively. We further

  11. The HI Content of Galaxies in Groups and Clusters as Measured by ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odekon, Mary Crone; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Finn, Rose A.; McGowan, Christopher; Micula, Adina; Reed, Lyle; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory

    2016-06-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 systems at distances between 70 and 160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5<' {log} M/{M}⊙ < 15.0, for a total of 1986 late-type galaxies. We find that late-type galaxies in the centers of groups lack HI at fixed stellar mass relative to the regions surrounding them. Larger groups show evidence of a stronger dependence of HI properties on environment, despite a similar dependence of color on environment at fixed stellar mass. We compare several environment variables to determine which is the best predictor of galaxy properties; group-centric distance r and r/{R}200 are similarly effective predictors, while local density is slightly more effective and group size and halo mass are slightly less effective. While both central and satellite galaxies in the blue cloud exhibit a significant dependence of HI content on local density, only centrals show a strong dependence on stellar mass, and only satellites show a strong dependence on halo mass. Finally, we see evidence that HI is deficient for blue cloud galaxies in denser environments even when both stellar mass and color are fixed. This is consistent with a picture where HI is removed or destroyed, followed by reddening within the blue cloud. Our results support the existence of pre-processing in isolated groups, along with an additional rapid mechanism for gas removal within larger groups and clusters, perhaps ram-pressure stripping.

  12. Evaluating portable infrared spectrometers for measuring the silica content of coal dust

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Pamela L.; Murphy, Nathaniel C.; Noll, James D.; Volkwein, Jon C.

    2015-01-01

    Miners face a variety of respiratory hazards while on the job, including exposure to silica dust which can lead to silicosis, a potentially fatal lung disease. Currently, field-collected filter samples of silica are sent for laboratory analysis and the results take weeks to be reported. Since the mining workplace is constantly moving into new and often different geological strata with changing silica levels, more timely data on silica levels in mining workplaces could help reduce exposures. Improvements in infrared (IR) spectroscopy open the prospect for end-of-shift silica measurements at mine sites. Two field-portable IR spectrometers were evaluated for their ability to quantify the mass of silica on filter samples loaded with known amounts of either silica or silica-bearing coal dust (silica content ranging from 10–200 µg/ filter). Analyses included a scheme to correct for the presence of kaolin, which is a confounder for IR analysis of silica. IR measurements of the samples were compared to parallel measurements derived using the laboratory-based U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration P7 analytical method. Linear correlations between Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and P7 data yielded slopes in the range of 0.90–0.97 with minimal bias. Data from a variable filter array spectrometer did not correlate as well, mainly due to poor wavelength resolution compared to the FTIR instrument. This work has shown that FTIR spectrometry has the potential to reasonably estimate the silica exposure of miners if employed in an end-of-shift method. PMID:22130611

  13. Theoretical and functional aspects of measuring insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA expression in myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Arkins, S; Liu, Q; Kelley, K W

    1994-08-01

    This article presents a detailed overview of the conceptual and technical considerations involved in the measurement of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) mRNAs in leukocytes. Two different quantitative techniques that take advantage of the in vitro synthesis of antisense and sense synthetic IGF-I RNA, respectively, are described: the ribonuclease protection assay (commonly referred to as solution hybridization) and competitive RT-PCR. We have improved the ribonuclease protection assay by constructing tandem, cassette riboprobes to generate multigene antisense RNAs of varying sizes. This approach permits the simultaneous quantitation of two or more mRNAs in a single RNA sample, one of which can serve as an internal standard for comparison of IGF-I transcripts among various treatments. The second approach of competitive RT-PCR represents an improvement in previous technologies by cloning a competing IGF-I sequence into an RNA expression vector. The resulting synthetic sense competitor IGF-I RNA (1.1 kb) serves as an internal standard during both the reverse transcription and amplification steps. We have used both the ribonuclease protection assay and competitive RT-PCR to define the macrophage as the major cellular source of leukocyte-derived IGF-I and to characterize these macrophage-derived mRNAs as being derived almost exclusively from exon 1. In addition, these techniques have allowed us to study the ontogeny of IGF-I expression in differentiating bone marrow macrophages and show that hematopoietic progenitors are induced to express abundant IGF-I transcripts as they differentiate into macrophages in the presence of CSF-1. These techniques can be readily adapted for measuring steady-state transcripts for a variety of leukocyte-derived hormones.

  14. Sapflow+: a four-needle heat-pulse sap flow sensor enabling nonempirical sap flux density and water content measurements.

    PubMed

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy

    2012-10-01

    • To our knowledge, to date, no nonempirical method exists to measure reverse, low or high sap flux density. Moreover, existing sap flow methods require destructive wood core measurements to determine sapwood water content, necessary to convert heat velocity to sap flux density, not only damaging the tree, but also neglecting seasonal variability in sapwood water content. • Here, we present a nonempirical heat-pulse-based method and coupled sensor which measure temperature changes around a linear heater in both axial and tangential directions after application of a heat pulse. By fitting the correct heat conduction-convection equation to the measured temperature profiles, the heat velocity and water content of the sapwood can be determined. • An identifiability analysis and validation tests on artificial and real stem segments of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) confirm the applicability of the method, leading to accurate determinations of heat velocity, water content and hence sap flux density. • The proposed method enables sap flux density measurements to be made across the entire natural occurring sap flux density range of woody plants. Moreover, the water content during low flows can be determined accurately, enabling a correct conversion from heat velocity to sap flux density without destructive core measurements.

  15. Heated fiber optic distributed temperature sensing: a tool for measuring soil water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Zubelzu, Sergio; Sánchez-Calvo, Raúl; Horcajo, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The use of Distributed Fiber Optic Temperature Measurement (DFOT) method for estimating temperature variation along a cable of fiber optic has been assessed in multiple environmental applications. Recently, the application of DFOT combined with an active heating pulses technique has been reported as a sensor to estimate soil moisture. This method applies a known amount of heat to the soil and monitors the temperature evolution, which mainly depends on the soil moisture content . This study presents the application of the Active Heated DFOT method to determine the soil water retention curve under experimental conditions. The experiment was conducted in a rectangular methacrylate box of 2.5 m x 0.25 m x 0.25 m which was introduced in a larger box 2.8 m x 0.3 m x 0.3 m of the same material. The inner box was filled with a sandy loamy soil collected from the nearest garden and dried under ambient temperature for 30 days. Care was taking to fill up the box maintaining the soil bulk density determined "in-situ". The cable was deployed along the box at 10 cm depth. At the beginning of the experiment, the box was saturated bottom-up, by filling the outer box with water, and then it kept dried for two months. The circulation of heated air at the bottom box accelerated the drying process. In addition, fast growing turf was also sowed to dry it fast. The DTS unit was a SILIXA ULTIMA SR (Silixa Ltd, UK) and has spatial and temporal resolution of 0.29 m and 5 s, respectively. In this study, heat pulses of 7 W/m for 2 1/2 min were applied uniformly along the fiber optic cable and the thermal response on an adjacent cable was monitored in different soil water status. Then, the heating and drying phase integer (called Tcum) was determined following the approach of Sayde et al., (2010). For each water status,  was measured by the gravimetric method in several soil samples collected in three box locations at the same depth that the fiber optic cable and after each heat pulse

  16. A TWO-PROBE METHOD FOR MEASURING WATER CONTENT OF THIN FOREST FLOOR LITTER LAYERS USING TIME DOMAIN REFLECTOMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Few methods exist that allow non-destructive in situ measurement of the water content of forest floor litter layers (Oa,Oe, and Oi horizons). Continuous non-destructive measurement is needed in studies of ecosystem processes because of the relationship between physical structure ...

  17. A Differential Word Use Measure for Content Analysis in Automated Essay Scoring. Research Report. ETS RR-11-36

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an alternative content measure for essay scoring, based on the "difference" in the relative frequency of a word in high-scored versus low-scored essays. The "differential word use" (DWU) measure is the average of these differences across all words in the essay. A positive value indicates the essay is using vocabulary more…

  18. Muscle Glycogen Depletion Following 75-km of Cycling Is Not Linked to Increased Muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 mRNA Expression and Protein Content

    PubMed Central

    Nieman, David C.; Zwetsloot, Kevin A.; Lomiwes, Dominic D.; Meaney, Mary P.; Hurst, Roger D.

    2016-01-01

    The cytokine response to heavy exertion varies widely for unknown reasons, and this study evaluated the relative importance of glycogen depletion, muscle damage, and stress hormone changes on blood and muscle cytokine measures. Cyclists (N = 20) participated in a 75-km cycling time trial (168 ± 26.0 min), with blood and vastus lateralis muscle samples collected before and after. Muscle glycogen decreased 77.2 ± 17.4%, muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 mRNA increased 18.5 ± 2.8−, 45.3 ± 7.8−, and 8.25 ± 1.75-fold, and muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 protein increased 70.5 ± 14.1%, 347 ± 68.1%, and 148 ± 21.3%, respectively (all, P < 0.001). Serum myoglobin and cortisol increased 32.1 ± 3.3 to 242 ± 48.3 mg/mL, and 295 ± 27.6 to 784 ± 63.5 nmol/L, respectively (both P < 0.001). Plasma IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 increased 0.42 ± 0.07 to 18.5 ± 3.8, 4.07 ± 0.37 to 17.0 ± 1.8, and 96.5 ± 3.7 to 240 ± 21.6 pg/mL, respectively (all P < 0.001). Increases in muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 mRNA were unrelated to any of the outcome measures. Muscle glycogen depletion was related to change in plasma IL-6 (r = 0.462, P = 0.040), with change in myoglobin related to plasma IL-8 (r = 0.582, P = 0.007) and plasma MCP-1 (r = 0.457, P = 0.043), and muscle MCP-1 protein (r = 0.588, P = 0.017); cortisol was related to plasma IL-8 (r = 0.613, P = 0.004), muscle IL-8 protein (r = 0.681, P = 0.004), and plasma MCP-1 (r = 0.442, P = 0.050). In summary, this study showed that muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 mRNA expression after 75-km cycling was unrelated to glycogen depletion and muscle damage, with change in muscle glycogen related to plasma IL-6, and changes in serum myoglobin and cortisol related to the chemotactic cytokines IL-8 and MCP-1. PMID:27729872

  19. Non-invasive Field Measurements of Soil Water Content Using a Pulsed 14 MeV Neutron Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra S.; Wielopolski L.; Omonode, R.; Novak, J.; Frederick, J.; Chan, A.

    2012-01-26

    Current techniques of soil water content measurement are invasive and labor-intensive. Here, we demonstrate that an in situ soil carbon (C) analyzer with a multi-elemental analysis capability, developed for studies of terrestrial C sequestration, can be used concurrently to non-invasively measure the water content of large-volume ({approx}0.3 m{sup 3}) soil samples. Our objectives were to investigate the correlations of the hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) signals with water to the changes in the soil water content in laboratory experiments, and in an agricultural field. Implementing prompt gamma neutron activation analyses we showed that in the field, the signal from the H nucleus better indicates the soil water content than does that from the O nucleus. Using a field calibration, we were able to use the H signal to estimate a minimum detectable change of {approx}2% volumetric water in a 0-30 cm depth of soil.

  20. Measurement of total electron content with a geostationary satellite during the solar eclipse of March 7, 1970.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rangaswamy, S.; Schmid, P. E.

    1971-01-01

    This note deals with the measurement of the total electron content of the ionosphere at the Goddard Space Flight Center, looking towards the geostationary satellite ATS 3 during the solar eclipse of Mar. 7, 1970. Obscuration at this site was nearly total. Faraday rotation was measured with a stationary circularly polarized antenna and a dual-channel phase-lock receiver tuned to 137.350 MHz. By comparing the electrical phase of the two opposite circularly polarized components, a continuous chart recording was made of Faraday rotation vs local time. A depletion of about 25% in electron content was observed from first contact to the time of minimum electron content. The time variations of the electron content during the eclipse are briefly examined in the light of current theories of ionospheric processes.

  1. Measuring the Cold Dust Content of Broad and Narrow-Line Optically Luminous QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petric, Andreea

    2015-08-01

    Coevolution of galaxies and their central black holes (BH) has been the central theme of much of recent extragalactic astronomical research. Observations of the dynamics of stars and gas in the nuclear regions of nearby galaxies suggest that the overwhelming majority of spheroidal glaxies in the local Universe contain massive BHs and that, wiht some important caveats, the masses of those central BH correlate with the velocity dispersions of the stars in the sheroid and the bulge luminosities. An impressive body of research has been dedicated to understanding the mechanisms responsible for such a fundamental perhaps causal relation.An important component pertinent to those investigations is an accurate census of the basic properties of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in AGN hosts. The motivation for this is that the cold molecular gas is the basic fuel for star-formation and black hole growth.We present high sensitivity observations taken with the Herschel Space Observatory to measure the cold dust content in a sample of 85 nearby (z ≤ 0.5) QSOs chosen from the optically luminous broad-line PG QSOs sample and in a complementary sample of 85 narrow-line QSOs chosen to match the redshift and optical luminosity distribution of the broad-line targets.The FIR data are combined with near-infrared and mid-infrared measurements from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer to determine their IR spectral energy distributions which we use to assess aggregate dust properties. We estimate dust temperatures that range between ~20 and 70 K with a median temperature of 45 K respectively, and dust masses between 9 × 10 4M⊙ and 5 × 10 8M⊙ with a median mass of 3 × 10 7M⊙. We investigate the relation between star-formation rates (SFRs) estimated from the IR luminosities and SFRs determined from measurements of the 11.3 micron PAH. We also compare indicators of AGN strength such as the [OIII] 5007 Angstroms and 5100 Angstroms luminosities

  2. Investigation of the plasmasphere electron content on the base of radio-measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, I.; Zakharenkova, I.; Krankowski, A.

    2013-12-01

    The electron densities in plasmasphere are several orders of magnitude less than in ionosphere and the plasmasphere is often ignored at analysis and estimation of GPS TEC data, however the plasmaspheric contribution to the GPS TEC can became significant under certain conditions. This paper presents results of study of the plasmaspheric electron content variations for such cases - period of very low solar activity and during strong geomagnetic storm. Estimates of IEC can be retrieved as a result of integration of ionospheric electron density profiles (EDP). For this aim one can use EDPs derived from satellite radio occultation (RO) or ground-based radio-physical measurements. For case of the extended solar minimum of 23/24 cycle, 2009 the PEC was estimated by combination of GPS TEC observations and FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC RO measurements. It was analyzed the monthly medians of TEC and PEC for different seasons (equinoxes and solstices). Results shows that for mid-latitudinal points PEC estimates varied weakly with the time of a day and reached the value of several TECU for the condition of solar minimum. Percentage contribution of PEC to GPS TEC indicated the clear dependence from the time with maximal values (more than 50-60%) during night-time and lesser values (25-45%) during day-time. The variations of PEC during strong geomagnetic storms at November 2004 were estimated by combining of mid-latitude Kharkov Incoherent Scatter Radar observations and GPS TEC data. The comparison between two independent measurements was performed by analysis of the height-temporal distribution for specific point corresponded to the mid-latitudes of Europe. Percentage contribution of PEC to GPS TEC indicated the clear dependence from the time with maximal values (more than 70%) during night-time and smaller values (30-45%) during day-time for weak disturbance and quite time and rather high values during strong negative storm (up to 90%) with small changes in time. These changes can be

  3. High content image-based screening of a protease inhibitor library reveals compounds broadly active against Rift Valley fever virus and other highly pathogenic RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Mudhasani, Rajini; Kota, Krishna P; Retterer, Cary; Tran, Julie P; Whitehouse, Chris A; Bavari, Sina

    2014-08-01

    High content image-based screening was developed as an approach to test a protease inhibitor small molecule library for antiviral activity against Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and to determine their mechanism of action. RVFV is the causative agent of severe disease of humans and animals throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Of the 849 compounds screened, 34 compounds exhibited ≥ 50% inhibition against RVFV. All of the hit compounds could be classified into 4 distinct groups based on their unique chemical backbone. Some of the compounds also showed broad antiviral activity against several highly pathogenic RNA viruses including Ebola, Marburg, Venezuela equine encephalitis, and Lassa viruses. Four hit compounds (C795-0925, D011-2120, F694-1532 and G202-0362), which were most active against RVFV and showed broad-spectrum antiviral activity, were selected for further evaluation for their cytotoxicity, dose response profile, and mode of action using classical virological methods and high-content imaging analysis. Time-of-addition assays in RVFV infections suggested that D011-2120 and G202-0362 targeted virus egress, while C795-0925 and F694-1532 inhibited virus replication. We showed that D011-2120 exhibited its antiviral effects by blocking microtubule polymerization, thereby disrupting the Golgi complex and inhibiting viral trafficking to the plasma membrane during virus egress. While G202-0362 also affected virus egress, it appears to do so by a different mechanism, namely by blocking virus budding from the trans Golgi. F694-1532 inhibited viral replication, but also appeared to inhibit overall cellular gene expression. However, G202-0362 and C795-0925 did not alter any of the morphological features that we examined and thus may prove to be good candidates for antiviral drug development. Overall this work demonstrates that high-content image analysis can be used to screen chemical libraries for new antivirals and to determine their mechanism of action and

  4. Trabecular mineral content of the spine in women with hip fracture: CT measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Firooznia, H.; Rafii, M.; Golimbu, C.; Schwartz, M.S.; Ort, P.

    1986-06-01

    The trabecular bone mineral content (BMC) of the spine was measured by computed tomography in 185 women aged 47-84 years with vertebral fracture (n = 74), hip fracture (n = 83), and both vertebral and hip fracture (n = 28). Eighty-seven percent of vertebral-fracture patients, 38% of hip-fracture patients, and 82% of vertebral- and hip-fracture patients had spinal BMC values below the fifth percentile for healthy premenopausal women and values 64%, 9%, and 68% below the fifth percentile for age-matched control subjects. No significant loss of spinal trabecular bone was seen in patients with hip fracture. If it is assumed that the rate of trabecular bone loss is the same in the spine and femoral neck, then hip fracture (unlike osteoporotic vertebral fracture) is not associated with disproportionate loss of trabecular bone. Hip fracture occurs secondary to weakening of bone and increased incidence of falls. Bone weakening may be due to disproportionate loss of trabecular or cortical bone, proportionate loss of both, or other as yet undetermined qualitative changes in bone.

  5. Measurement of carbon storage in landfills from the biogenic carbon content of excavated waste samples.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz, Florentino B; Chanton, Jeffrey P; Barlaz, Morton A

    2013-10-01

    Landfills are an anaerobic ecosystem and represent the major disposal alternative for municipal solid waste (MSW) in the U.S. While some fraction of the biogenic carbon, primarily cellulose (Cel) and hemicellulose (H), is converted to carbon dioxide and methane, lignin (L) is essentially recalcitrant. The biogenic carbon that is not mineralized is stored within the landfill. This carbon storage represents a significant component of a landfill carbon balance. The fraction of biogenic carbon that is not reactive in the landfill environment and therefore stored was derived for samples of excavated waste by measurement of the total organic carbon, its biogenic fraction, and the remaining methane potential. The average biogenic carbon content of the excavated samples was 64.6±18.0% (average±standard deviation), while the average carbon storage factor was 0.09±0.06g biogenic-C stored per g dry sample or 0.66±0.16g biogenic-C stored per g biogenic C.

  6. Evidence of students' content reasoning in relation to measure of reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghanikar, Mojgan Matloob; Murphy, Sytil; Zollman, Dean

    2012-02-01

    As part of a study of the science preparation of elementary school teachers, we investigated the quality of students' reasoning and explored the relationship between sophistication of reasoning and the degree to which the courses are considered inquiry oriented. First, we devised written content questions, which were open ended with the distinguishing feature of applying recently learned concepts in a new context. All the questions developed were based on a common template that required students to recognize and generalize the relevant facts or concepts and their interrelationships to suggest an applicable or plausible theory. To evaluate students' answers, we developed a rubric based on Bloom's taxonomy as revised and expanded by Anderson. Along with analyzing students' reasoning, we visited 20 universities and observed the courses in which the students were enrolled. We ranked the courses with respect to characteristics that are valued for the inquiry courses. With the large amount of collected data, we found that the likelihood of the higher cognitive processes are in favor of classes with higher measures of inquiry.

  7. Ground penetrating radar for determining volumetric soil water content; results of comparative measurements at two test sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Overmeeren, R. A.; Sariowan, S. V.; Gehrels, J. C.

    1997-10-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) can provide information on the soil water content of the unsaturated zone in sandy deposits via measurements from the surface, and so avoids drilling. Proof of this was found from measurements of radar wave velocities carried out ten times over 13 months at two test sites in the Netherlands. At these same locations and on the same dates, soil water content was measured in access tubes using a capacitance probe. Comparison of GPR and capacitance probe observations revealed that: the inferred absolute values of soil water content agree well. This is remarkable because the soil water content is deduced entirely differently for the two methods. Seasonal fluctuations in soil water content established for different (general) depth zones of radar waves correlate well with the fluctuations observed in the access tubes. The various methods to determine the propagation velocities of radar waves are complementary; together they produce a realistic and reasonably complete image of the vertical distribution of the soil water content of the entire unsaturated zone. High-frequency (200 MHz) direct groundwaves and refracted waves constitute a particularly attractive complementary combination, which provides information on consecutive shallow zones in the underground, i.e. the zones of major soil water content fluctuations. Lateral variations established at one of the test sites where several access tubes have been placed in a transect also follow from the GPR measurements along that profile; this non-destructive determination of soil water content in practically continuous and detailed sections is one of the great assets of GPR, opening the way to mapping preferential soil water flow paths.

  8. Determination of threshold value of soil water content for field and vegetable plants with lysimeter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoblauch, S.

    2009-04-01

    Both the potential water consumption of plants and their ability to withdraw soil water are necessary in order to estimate actual evapotranspiration and to predict irrigation timing and amount. In relating to root water uptake the threshold value at which plants reducing evapotranspiration is an important parameter. Since transpiration is linearly correlated to dry matter production, under the condition that the AET/PET-Quotient is smaller than 1.0 (de Wit 1958, Tanner & Sinclair 1983), the dry matter production begins to decline too. Plants respond to drought with biochemical, physiological and morphological modifications in order to avoid damages, for instance by increasing the root water uptake. The objective of the study is to determine threshold values of soil water content and pressure head respectively for different field and vegetable plants with lysimeter measurements and to derive so called reduction functions. Both parameter, potenzial water demand in several growth stages and threshold value of soil water content or pressure head can be determined with weighable field lysimeter. The threshold value is reached, when the evapotranspiration under natural rainfall condition (AET) drop clearly (0.8 PET) below the value under well watered condition (PET). Basis for the presented results is the lysimeter plant Buttelstedt of the Thuringian State Institute of Agriculture. It consist of two lysimeter cellars, each with two weighable monolithic lysimeters. The lysimeter are 2.5 m deep with a surface area of 2 m2 to allow a non-restrictive root growth and to arrange a representative number of plants. The weighing accuracy amounts to 0.05 mm. The percolating water is collected by ceramic suction cups with suction up to 0.3 MPa at a depth of 2.3 m. The soil water content is measured by using neutron probe. One of the two lysimeter cellars represents the will irrigated, the other one the non irrigated and/or reduced irrigated part of field. The soil is a Haplic

  9. A Method for Helical RNA Global Structure Determination in Solution Using Small Angle X-ray Scattering and NMR Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinbu; Zuo, Xiaobing; Yu, Ping; Xu, Huan; Starich, Mary R.; Tiede, David M.; Shapiro, Bruce A.; Schwieters, Charles D.; Wang, Yun-Xing

    2009-01-01

    We report a “top-down” method that uses mainly duplexes' global orientations and overall molecular dimension and shape restraints, which were extracted from experimental NMR and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data respectively, to determine global architectures of RNA molecules consisting of mostly A-form like duplexes. The method is implemented in the G2G (from Global measurement to Global Structure) toolkit of programs. We demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the method by determining the global structure of a 71-nucleotide RNA using experimental data. The backbone root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD) of the ensemble of the calculated global structures relative to the X-ray crystal structure using the experimental data is 3.0 ± 0.3 Å, and the RMSD is only 2.5 ± 0.2 Å for the three duplexes that were orientation-restrained during the calculation. The global structure simplifies interpretation of multi-dimensional nuclear Overhauser spectra for high resolution structure determination. The potential general application of the method for RNA structure determination is discussed. PMID:19666030

  10. Improved Ribosome-Footprint and mRNA Measurements Provide Insights into Dynamics and Regulation of Yeast Translation.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, David E; Shah, Premal; Eichhorn, Stephen W; Hussmann, Jeffrey A; Plotkin, Joshua B; Bartel, David P

    2016-02-23

    Ribosome-footprint profiling provides genome-wide snapshots of translation, but technical challenges can confound its analysis. Here, we use improved methods to obtain ribosome-footprint profiles and mRNA abundances that more faithfully reflect gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results support proposals that both the beginning of coding regions and codons matching rare tRNAs are more slowly translated. They also indicate that emergent polypeptides with as few as three basic residues within a ten-residue window tend to slow translation. With the improved mRNA measurements, the variation attributable to translational control in exponentially growing yeast was less than previously reported, and most of this variation could be predicted with a simple model that considered mRNA abundance, upstream open reading frames, cap-proximal structure and nucleotide composition, and lengths of the coding and 5' UTRs. Collectively, our results provide a framework for executing and interpreting ribosome-profiling studies and reveal key features of translational control in yeast. PMID:26876183

  11. Non-invasive prostate cancer detection by measuring miRNA variants (isomiRs) in urine extracellular vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Koppers-Lalic, Danijela; Hackenberg, Michael; de Menezes, Renee; Misovic, Branislav; Wachalska, Magda; Geldof, Albert; Zini, Nicoletta; de Reijke, Theo; Wurdinger, Thomas; Vis, Andre; van Moorselaar, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    In many cancer types, the expression and function of ∼22 nucleotide-long microRNAs (miRNA) is deregulated. Mature miRNAs can be stably detected in extracellular vesicles (EVs) in biofluids, therefore they are considered to have great potential as biomarkers. In the present study, we investigated whether miRNAs have a distinct expression pattern in urine-EVs of prostate cancer (PCa) patients compared to control males. By next generation sequencing, we determined the miRNA expression in a discovery cohort of 4 control men and 9 PCa patients. miRNAs were validated by using a stemloop RT-PCR in an independent cohort of 74 patients (26 control and 48 PCa-patients). Whereas standard mapping protocols identified > 10 PCa associated miRNAs in urinary EVs, miR-21, miR-375 and miR-204 failed to robustly discriminate for disease in a validation study with RT-PCR-detection of mature miRNA sequences. In contrast, we observed that miRNA isoforms (isomiRs) with 3′ end modifications were highly discriminatory between samples from control men and PCa patients. Highly differentially expressed isomiRs of miR-21, miR-204 and miR-375 were subsequently validated in an independent group of 74 patients. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of three isomiRs, resulting in a 72.9% sensitivity with a high (88%) specificity and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.866. In comparison, prostate specific antigen had an AUC of 0.707 and measuring the mature form of these miRNAs yielded a lower 70.8% sensitivity and 72% specificity (AUC 0.766). We propose that isomiRs may carry discriminatory information which is useful to generate stronger biomarkers. PMID:26992225

  12. Examining an Online Content General Outcome Measure: Technical Features of the Static Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Paul; McCarter, Kevin S.; Russo, Robert J., Jr.; Blackwood, Danielle L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate technical adequacy features of an online adaptation of vocabulary matching known as critical content monitoring. Validity and reliability studies were conducted with a sample of 106 students from one school in fifth-grade science content. Participants were administered 20 parallel forms of the general…

  13. 40 CFR 63.5390 - How do I measure the HAP content of a finish?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determine the HAP content of a finish, the reference method is EPA Method 311 of appendix A of 40 CFR part..., but are not limited to, a material safety data sheet (MSDS) or a manufacturer's hazardous air pollutant data sheet. If the HAP content is provided on a MSDS or a manufacturer's data sheet as a range...

  14. 40 CFR 63.5390 - How do I measure the HAP content of a finish?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determine the HAP content of a finish, the reference method is EPA Method 311 of appendix A of 40 CFR part..., but are not limited to, a material safety data sheet (MSDS) or a manufacturer's hazardous air pollutant data sheet. If the HAP content is provided on a MSDS or a manufacturer's data sheet as a range...

  15. 40 CFR 63.5390 - How do I measure the HAP content of a finish?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determine the HAP content of a finish, the reference method is EPA Method 311 of appendix A of 40 CFR part..., but are not limited to, a material safety data sheet (MSDS) or a manufacturer's hazardous air pollutant data sheet. If the HAP content is provided on a MSDS or a manufacturer's data sheet as a range...

  16. 40 CFR 63.5390 - How do I measure the HAP content of a finish?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the HAP content of a finish, the reference method is EPA Method 311 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 63..., but are not limited to, a material safety data sheet (MSDS) or a manufacturer's hazardous air pollutant data sheet. If the HAP content is provided on a MSDS or a manufacturer's data sheet as a range...

  17. Evaluation of Lunar small animal software for measuring bone mineral content in excised rat bones.

    PubMed

    Kiebzak, G M; Meyer, M H; Meyer, R A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate software from Lunar Corporation (Madison, WI) designed for the measurement of bone mineral content ([BMC],g) in excised rat femurs using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Femurs were harvested from intact 2- to 12-mo-old female Sprague-Dawley rats, stripped of soft tissues, wrapped in saline-soaked gauze, and frozen at -20 degrees F. Thawed bones were scanned in air on a 1.7-cm-thick Lucite plate that was laid on the manufacturer's supplied Delrin platform. Bones were in an anteroposterior position and scanned in a proximal-to-distal manner. Small animal software version 1.0d was used with a Lunar DPX-L densitometer. Regions of interest (ROIs) were the middle one-third of the diaphysis, a small central area of the distal metaphysis, and the total bone. Precision (n = 6 femurs) was calculated for each region of interest. After DXA scanning, one group of bones (n = 10 femurs) was dried and incinerated in a muffle furnace to obtain bone ash. The ash was then digested in acid and aliquots assayed for calcium using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. This group of bones was used to correlate BMC with ash weight and areal bone mineral density (BMD) with calcium concentration. A second group of bones (n = 14 femurs) was used to correlate BMC with maximal load to failure (N), a biomechanical variable that provides information about bone strength. Precision of repetitive measurements for the three ROIs was 1.2, 3.0, and 0.65%, respectively. Total femur BMC and total femur ash weights were significantly correlated (r = 0.974, p <0.0001). Total femur area BMD (g/cm2) was significantly correlated with calcium concentration (microM) of the bone hydrolysate (r = 0.686, p = 0.029). Total femur BMC and maximum load to midshaft fracture were also significantly correlated (r = 0.914, p<0.0001). The greatest problem with the software was with edge detection: operator intervention was necessary to place edges manually during scan

  18. Use of the Rasch measurement model to explore the relationship between content knowledge and topic-specific pedagogical content knowledge for organic chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidowitz, Bette; Potgieter, Marietjie

    2016-06-01

    Research has shown that a high level of content knowledge (CK) is necessary but not sufficient to develop the special knowledge base of expert teachers known as pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). This study contributes towards research to quantify the relationship between CK and PCK in science. In order to determine the proportion of the variance in PCK accounted for by the variance in CK, instruments are required which are valid and reliable as well as being unidimensional to measure person abilities for CK and PCK. An instrument consisting of two paper-and-pencil tests was designed to assess Grade 12 teachers CK and PCK in organic chemistry. We used the Rasch measurement model to convert raw score data into interval measures and to provide empirical evidence for the validity, reliability and unidimensionality of the tests. The correlation between CK and PCK was estimated as r = .66 (p < .001). We found evidence to suggest that while topic-specific PCK (TSPCK) develops with increasing teaching experience, high levels of CK can be acquired with limited teaching experience. These findings support the hypothesis that CK is a requirement for the development of TSPCK; proficiency in CK is, however, not necessarily associated with high levels of TSPCK.

  19. A new method using evaporation for high-resolution measurements of soil thermal conductivity at changing water contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markert, A.; Trinks, S.; Facklam, M.; Wessolek, G.

    2012-04-01

    The thermal conductivity of soils is a key parameter to know if their use as heat source or sink is planned. It is required to calculate the efficiency of ground-source heat pump systems in combination with soil heat exchangers. Apart from geothermal energy, soil thermal conductivity is essential to estimate the ampacity for buried power cables. The effective thermal conductivity of saturated and unsaturated soils, as a function of water transport, water vapour transport and heat conduction, mainly depends on the soil water content, its bulk density and texture. The major objectives of this study are (i) to describe the thermal conductivity of soil samples with a non-steady state measurement at changing water contents and for different bulk densities. Based on that it is (ii) tested if available soil thermal conductivity models are able to describe the measured data for the whole range of water contents. The new method allows a continuous measurement of thermal conductivity for soil from full water saturation to air-dryness. Thermal conductivity is measured with a thermal needle probe in predefined time intervals while the change of water content is controlled by evaporation. To relate the measured thermal conductivity to the current volumetric water content, the decrease in weight of the sample, due to evaporation, is logged with a lab scale. Soil texture of the 11 soil substrates tested in this study range between coarse sand and silty clay. To evaluate the impact of the bulk density on heat transport processes, thermal conductivity at 20°C was measured at 1.5g/cm3; 1.7g/cm3 and 1.9g/cm3 for each soil substrate. The results correspond well to literature values used to describe heat transport in soils. Due to the high-resolution and non-destructive measurements, the specific effects of the soil texture and bulk density on thermal conductivity could be proved. Decreasing water contents resulted in a non-linear decline of the thermal conductivity for all samples

  20. RNA interference of the nicotine demethylase gene CYP82E4v1 reduces nornicotine content and enhances Myzus persicae resistance in Nicotiana tabacum L.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dan; Qin, Li-Jun; Zhao, De-Gang

    2016-10-01

    The CYP82E4v1 gene was identified to encode nicotine demethylase, which catalyzed the conversion of nicotine to nornicotine. In this study, we constructed CYP82E4v1-RNAi vector and genetically transformed tobacco variety K326. The determination results of nicotine and nornicotine content via HPLC demonstrated that there was significant increase of nicotine content and reduction of nornicotine content in transgenic plants compared with those in wild-type plants. Exogenous application of IAA or GA3 could reduce the nicotine content in tobaccos, while ABA or 6-BA could increase the content of nicotine. And the more significant difference of nicotine content change in transgenic plants. Aphid-inoculation experiment demonstrated the number of aphid population in transgenic plants was significantly lower than wild-type plants at 12 d after aphid-inoculation. Meanwhile, the activity of AOEs and PAL in transgenic and wild-type tobacco plants after aphid-inoculation was measured. At 3 d after aphid-inoculation, both AOEs and PAL activity were significantly higher than controls, including wild-type plants with aphid-inoculation and transgenic plants with mock-inoculation. Also, the relative expression of these genes involved in salicylic acid/jasmonic acid (SA/JA) signaling pathways was analyzed at different stages after aphid-inoculation and the results demonstrated that there was significantly higher expression of JA-induced LOX gene in both transgenic and wild-type plants inoculated by aphid than the non-inoculated ones while no significant difference in the expression of SA-induced PR-1a gene among them was found, which indicated the JA-mediated resistance response was activated during aphid infestation. Moreover, although the expression level of BGL (another JA-induced gene) was less significant between the two inoculated tobaccos, it was significantly higher than the plant without inoculation, which was 1.4 and 2.2 folds higher than the non-inoculated controls

  1. Effects of amiodarone therapy on thyroid iodine content as measured by x-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Fragu, P.; Schlumberger, M.; Davy, J.M.; Slama, M.; Berdeaux, A.

    1988-04-01

    Thyroid iodine content (TIC) was measured by x-ray fluorescence in 68 patients who had received amiodarone treatment for varying intervals (1 g/week for 1-120 months). Thirty-six patients were euthyroid; the mean TIC of the patients (n = 15), who had been treated for less than 12 months was 30 +/- 19 (+/- SD) mg, twice the normal mean value (14.6 +/- 5.0 mg), and it was 39 +/- 17 mg in those (n = 16) who had been treated for 12-60 months and 29 +/- 6 mg in those (n = 5) who had been treated longer (greater than 60 months). Nineteen patients were hyperthyroid and had elevated TIC values. Of them, 6 patients had a goiter; their TIC (50 +/- 19 mg) was not significantly different from that of the hyperthyroid patients with no goiter (55 +/- 29 mg), but they became hyperthyroid more rapidly. Thirteen patients were hypothyroid; none had TIC values above the normal range, and it was below 2.5 mg in 5 patients. A sequential study was undertaken in 11 euthyroid patients who had no detectable antithyroid antibodies. TIC did not increase during treatment in 2 patients; both developed hypothyroidism, which was transient in 1 despite continuation of amiodarone treatment. The TIC initially increased during amiodarone treatment in the other 9 patients, leveling off at the end of the first year. The TIC rose well above the upper limit of the normal range in 4 patients, of whom 2 became hyperthyroid during the second year of treatment. TIC remained within the normal range in the other 5 patients, of whom 3 became hypothyroid after 12-24 months of treatment (1 subclinical, 2 overt). Although the TIC was significantly higher in the patients with hyperthyroidism than in the patients who remained euthyroid, the TIC test cannot be used to predict the occurrence of hyperthyroidism.

  2. Knowledge-based method for determining the meaning of ambiguous biomedical terms using information content measures of similarity.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Bridget T; Pedersen, Ted; Liu, Ying; Melton, Genevieve B; Pakhomov, Serguei V

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel knowledge-based word sense disambiguation method that determines the sense of an ambiguous word in biomedical text using semantic similarity or relatedness measures. These measures quantify the degree of similarity between concepts in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). The objective of this work was to develop a method that can disambiguate terms in biomedical text by exploiting similarity information extracted from the UMLS and to evaluate the efficacy of information content-based semantic similarity measures, which augment path-based information with probabilities derived from biomedical corpora. We show that information content-based measures obtain a higher disambiguation accuracy than path-based measures because they weight the path based on where it exists in the taxonomy coupled with the probability of the concepts occurring in a corpus of text.

  3. Measurement of sugar content of watermelon using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy in comparison with dielectric property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Xuemei; Bao, Yidan

    2006-09-01

    The sugar content of watermelon is important to its taste thus influences the market. It's difficult to know whether the melon is sweet or not for consumers. We tried to develop a convenient meter to determine the sugar of watermelon. The first objective of this paper was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a near-infrared reflectance spectrometer (NIRS) to investigate the relationship between sugar content of watermelon and absorption spectra. The NIRS reflectance of nondestructive watermelon was measured with a Visible/NIR spectrophotometer in 325-1075nm range. The sugar content of watermelon was obtained with a handhold sugar content meter. The second objective was to measure the watermelon's dielectric property, such as dielectric resistance, capacitance, quality factor and dielectric loss. A digital electric bridge instrument was used to get the dielectric property. The experimental results show that they were related to watermelon's sugar content. A comparison between the two methods was made in the paper. The model derived from NIRS reflection is useful for class identification of Zaochun Hongyu watermelon though it's not quite accurate in sweetness prediction (the max. deviation is 0.7). Electric property bears little relation to sugar content of watermelon at this experiment and it couldn't be used as non-destructive inspection method.

  4. Quantitative assessment of ratiometric bimolecular beacons as a tool for imaging single engineered RNA transcripts and measuring gene expression in living cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemei; Song, Yang; Shah, Akash Y; Lekova, Virzhiniya; Raj, Arjun; Huang, Ling; Behlke, Mark A; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    Recently, we developed an oligonucleotide-based probe, ratiometric bimolecular beacon (RBMB), which generates a detectable fluorescent signal in living cells that express the target RNA. Here, we show that RBMBs can also be used to image single RNA transcripts in living cells, when the target RNA is engineered to contain as few as four hybridization sites. Moreover, comparison with single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed that RBMBs could be used to accurately quantify the number of RNA transcripts within individual cells. Measurements of gene expression could be acquired within 30 min and using a wide range of RBMB concentrations. The ability to acquire accurate measurements of RNA copy number in both HT-1080 cells and CHO cells also suggests that RBMBs can be used to image and quantify single RNA transcripts in a wide range of cell lines. Overall, these findings highlight the robustness and versatility of RBMBs as a tool for imaging RNA in live cells. We envision that the unique capabilities of RBMBs will open up new avenues for RNA research.

  5. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetic resonance measurements of the moisture content and hydration condition of a magnetic mixture material

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukada, K. Kusaka, T.; Saari, M. M.; Takagi, R.; Sakai, K.; Kiwa, T.; Bito, Y.

    2014-05-07

    We developed a magnetic measurement method to measure the moisture content and hydration condition of mortar as a magnetic mixture material. Mortar is a mixture of Portland cement, sand, and water, and these materials exhibit different magnetic properties. The magnetization–magnetic field curves of these components and of mortars with different moisture contents were measured, using a specially developed high-temperature-superconductor superconducting quantum interference device. Using the differences in magnetic characteristics, the moisture content of mortar was measured at the ferromagnetic saturation region over 250 mT. A correlation between magnetic susceptibility and moisture content was successfully established. After Portland cement and water are mixed, hydration begins. At the early stage of the hydration/gel, magnetization strength increased over time. To investigate the magnetization change, we measured the distribution between bound and free water in the mortar in the early stage by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI results suggest that the amount of free water in mortar correlates with the change in magnetic susceptibility.

  6. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetic resonance measurements of the moisture content and hydration condition of a magnetic mixture material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, K.; Kusaka, T.; Saari, M. M.; Takagi, R.; Sakai, K.; Kiwa, T.; Bito, Y.

    2014-05-01

    We developed a magnetic measurement method to measure the moisture content and hydration condition of mortar as a magnetic mixture material. Mortar is a mixture of Portland cement, sand, and water, and these materials exhibit different magnetic properties. The magnetization-magnetic field curves of these components and of mortars with different moisture contents were measured, using a specially developed high-temperature-superconductor superconducting quantum interference device. Using the differences in magnetic characteristics, the moisture content of mortar was measured at the ferromagnetic saturation region over 250 mT. A correlation between magnetic susceptibility and moisture content was successfully established. After Portland cement and water are mixed, hydration begins. At the early stage of the hydration/gel, magnetization strength increased over time. To investigate the magnetization change, we measured the distribution between bound and free water in the mortar in the early stage by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI results suggest that the amount of free water in mortar correlates with the change in magnetic susceptibility.

  7. 40 CFR 63.5390 - How do I measure the HAP content of a finish?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the HAP content of a finish, the reference method is EPA Method 311 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 63... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Leather Finishing Operations Testing...

  8. Measurement of arsenic and gallium content of gallium arsenide semiconductor waste streams by ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Torrance, Keith W; Keenan, Helen E; Hursthouse, Andrew S; Stirling, David

    2010-01-01

    The chemistry of semiconductor wafer processing liquid waste, contaminated by heavy metals, was investigated to determine arsenic content. Arsenic and gallium concentrations were determined for waste slurries collected from gallium arsenide (GaAs) wafer processing at three industrial sources and compared to slurries prepared under laboratory conditions. The arsenic and gallium content of waste slurries was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) and it is reported that the arsenic content of the waste streams was related to the wafer thinning process, with slurries from wafer polishing having the highest dissolved arsenic content at over 1,900 mgL(-1). Lapping slurries had much lower dissolved arsenic (< 90 mgL(-1)) content, but higher particulate contents. It is demonstrated that significant percentage of GaAs becomes soluble during wafer lapping. Grinding slurries had the lowest dissolved arsenic content at 15 mgL(-1). All three waste streams are classified as hazardous waste, based on their solids content and dissolved arsenic levels and treatment is required before discharge or disposal. It is calculated that as much as 93% of material is discarded through the entire GaAs device manufacturing process, with limited recycling. Although gallium can be economically recovered from waste slurries, there is little incentive to recover arsenic, which is mostly landfilled. Options for treating GaAs processing waste streams are reviewed and some recommendations made for handling the waste. Therefore, although the quantities of hazardous waste generated are miniscule in comparison to other industries, sustainable manufacturing practices are needed to minimize the environmental impact of GaAs semiconductor device fabrication.

  9. Mature clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats RNA (crRNA) length is measured by a ruler mechanism anchored at the precursor processing site.

    PubMed

    Hatoum-Aslan, Asma; Maniv, Inbal; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2011-12-27

    Precise RNA processing is fundamental to all small RNA-mediated interference pathways. In prokaryotes, clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci encode small CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that protect against invasive genetic elements by antisense targeting. CRISPR loci are transcribed as a long precursor that is cleaved within repeat sequences by CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins. In many organisms, this primary processing generates crRNA intermediates that are subject to additional nucleolytic trimming to render mature crRNAs of specific lengths. The molecular mechanisms underlying this maturation event remain poorly understood. Here, we defined the genetic requirements for crRNA primary processing and maturation in Staphylococcus epidermidis. We show that changes in the position of the primary processing site result in extended or diminished maturation to generate mature crRNAs of constant length. These results indicate that crRNA maturation occurs by a ruler mechanism anchored at the primary processing site. We also show that maturation is mediated by specific cas genes distinct from those genes involved in primary processing, showing that this event is directed by CRISPR/Cas loci.

  10. [Nondestructive measurement of sugar content of Hami melon based on diffuse reflectance hyperspectral imaging technique].

    PubMed

    Ma, Ben-Xue; Xiao, Wen-Dong; Qi, Xiang-Xiang; He, Qing-Hai; Li, Feng-Xia

    2012-11-01

    The research on nondestructive test for detecting the sugar content of Hami melon by the technology of hyperspectral imaging was put forward. The research used the hyperspectral imaging system to get the diffuse reflective spectrum information (400 - 1 000 nm) of anilox class Hami melon sugar content, chose effective whole wavelength (500 - 820 nm)to do the modeling regression analysis the sugar content of Hami melon. The research compared the correction method of MSC and SNV, and also compared the influence of accuracy of modeling in terms of the spectrum pretreatment methods of original spectrum, first order differential, second order differential; Using the methods of PLS, SMLR and PCR, the comparative analysis of sugar content detection model effect with skin Hami melon and peel Hami melon was conducted. The results showed that after the original spectrum being processed by MSC and first order differential spectrum, modeling effect could be very good using the method of PLS and SMLR. Synthesizing correction set correlation coefficient and forecast modeling effect, it's feasible to detect the sugar content of skin Hami melon by the PLS method, with a correction sample correlation coefficient (R(c)) of 0.861 and the lower root mean square errors of correction (RMSEC) of 0.627, and a prediction sample correlation coefficient (R(p)) of 0.706 and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.873. The best effect to detecti the sugar content of peel Hami melon was obtained by the SMLR method with a correction sample correlation coefficient (R(c)) of 0.928 and the lower root mean square errors of correction (RMSEC) of 0.458, with a Prediction sample correlation coefficient (R(p)) of 0.818 and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.727. The results of this study indicate that the technology of hyperspectral imaging can be used to predict the sugar content of Hami melon.

  11. Optical diffusion property of cerumen from ear canal and correlation to metal content measured by synchrotron x-ray absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Todd; Dehipawala, Sumudu; Cheung, E.; Golebiewska, U.; Schneider, P.; Tremberger, G., Jr.; Kokkinos, D.; Lieberman, D.; Dehipawala, Sunil; Cheung, T.

    2012-03-01

    Human (and other mammals) would secrete cerumen (ear wax) to protect the skin of the ear canal against pathogens and insects. The studies of biodiversity of pathogen in human include intestine microbe colony, belly button microbe colony, etc. Metals such as zinc and iron are essentials to bio-molecular pathways and would be related to the underlying pathogen vitality. This project studies the biodiversity of cerumen via its metal content and aims to develop an optical probe for metal content characterization. The optical diffusion mean free path and absorption of human cerumen samples dissolved in solvent have been measured in standard transmission measurements. EXFAS and XANES have been measured at Brookhaven Synchrotron Light Source for the determination of metal contents, presumably embedded within microbes/insects/skin cells. The results show that a calibration procedure can be used to correlate the optical diffusion parameters to the metal content, thus expanding the diagnostic of cerumen in the study of human pathogen biodiversity without the regular use of a synchrotron light source. Although biodiversity measurements would not be seriously affected by dead microbes and absorption based method would do well, the scattering mean free path method would have potential to further study the cell based scattering centers (dead or live) via the information embedded in the speckle pattern in the deep-Fresnel zone.

  12. Measuring soil moisture content non-invasively at intermediate spatial scale using cosmic-ray neutrons 1986

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil moisture content on a horizontal scale of hectometers and at depths of decimeters can be inferred from measurements of low-energy cosmic-ray neutrons that are generated within soil, moderated mainly by hydrogen atoms, and diffused back to the atmosphere. These neutrons are sensitive to water co...

  13. Phase angle and impedance measurements for nondestructive moisture content determination of in-shell peanuts using a cylindrical sample holder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, low cost instrument that measures impedance and phase angle was used along with a parallel-plate capacitance system to estimate the moisture content (MC) of yellow corn. A sample of corn weighing about 100g was placed between the parallel-plate electrodes and the impedance and phase angle...

  14. An Objective Method of Measuring Psychological States Associated With Changes in Neural Function: Content Analysis of Verbal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottschalk, Louis A.

    This paper examines the use of content analysis of speech in the objective recording and measurement of changes in emotional and cognitive function of humans in whom natural or experimental changes in neural status have occurred. A brief description of the data gathering process, details of numerous physiological effects, an anxiety scale, and a…

  15. Comparison of intracellular water content measurements by dark-field imaging and EELS in medium voltage TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terryn, C.; Michel, J.; Kilian, L.; Bonhomme, P.; Balossier, G.

    2000-09-01

    Knowledge of the water content at the subcellular level is important to evaluate the intracellular concentration of either diffusible or non-diffusible elements in the physiological state measured by the electron microprobe methods. Water content variations in subcellular compartments are directly related to secretion phenomena and to transmembrane exchange processes, which could be attributed to pathophysiological states. In this paper we will describe in details and compare two local water measurement methods using analytical electron microscopy. The first one is based on darkfield imaging. It is applied on freeze-dried biological cryosections; it allows indirect measurement of the water content at the subcellular level from recorded maps of darkfield intensity. The second method uses electron energy loss spectroscopy. It is applied to hydrated biological cryosections. It is based on the differences that appear in the electron energy loss spectra of macromolecular assemblies and vitrified ice in the 0-30 eV range. By a multiple least squares (MLS) fit between an experimental energy loss spectrum and reference spectra of both frozen-hydrated ice and macromolecular assemblies we can deduce directly the local water concentration in biological cryosections at the subcellular level. These two methods are applied to two test specimens: human erythrocytes in plasma, and baker's yeast (Saccharomyses Cerevisiae) cryosections. We compare the water content measurements obtained by these two methods and discuss their advantages and drawbacks.

  16. Measurement Invariance of the Pay Satisfaction Questionnaire across Gender: Explaining the "Contented Female Worker Paradox" More Thoroughly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Gieter, S.; Hofmans, J.; De Cooman, R.; Pepermans, R.

    2009-01-01

    Although women tend to earn less for doing similar jobs, research indicates that they are at least as satisfied with their pay as their male colleagues. In examining explanations for this "paradox of the contented female worker," the Pay Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ) is often used to measure and compare the pay satisfaction of both gender…

  17. Measurement of hair iron concentration as a marker of body iron content

    PubMed Central

    SAHIN, CEM; PALA, CIGDEM; KAYNAR, LEYLAGUL; TORUN, YASEMIN ALTUNER; CETIN, AYSUN; KURNAZ, FATIH; SIVGIN, SERDAR; SAHIN, FATIH SERDAR

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to define the possible association between blood parameters and hair iron concentration in patient groups showing a difference in body iron content. The study population comprised subjects with iron deficiency anaemia and transfusion-related anaemia with different body iron contents and a healthy control group. All the cases included in the study were examined with respect to hair iron concentration, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation and erythrocyte markers in the total blood count with ferritin values. Differences in hair iron concentration were evaluated between the groups. Correlation analysis was applied to define the association between the laboratory values used as markers of body iron content and hair iron concentration. A statistically significant difference was determined in hair iron 56Fe and 57Fe concentrations between the group with transfusion-related anaemia, the iron deficiency anaemia group and the healthy control group (P<0.001). In addition, a positive correlation was determined between hair iron 56Fe and 57Fe concentrations and serum iron, ferritin level, transferrin saturation, mean erythrocyte volume and mean erythrocyte haemoglobin values and a negative correlation with TIBC. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed a statistically significant difference in the hair iron concentrations of the patient groups with different body iron content and these values were correlated to the laboratory markers of body iron content. PMID:26137241

  18. Media multitasking: Issues posed in measuring the effects of television sexual content exposure

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Rebecca L.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents who see more sexual content on television are more likely to initiate intercourse over the subsequent year. The present study hypothesized that use of the internet while watching television would moderate this relationship. Internet use might either strengthen or weaken the association between television-viewing and sex; various theories conflict in their predictions. A national sample of 1,762 12–17 year olds completed a telephone survey at baseline and one year later. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, baseline exposure to sexual content on television was used to predict intercourse initiation by follow-up among baseline virgins. The equation controlled for potentially confounding characteristics and tested for an interaction between sexual content exposure and self-reported multitasking. Half of youth reported using the internet while watching television. The interaction between multitasking and sexual content exposure was significant; exposure to sexual content on television was more strongly related to sexual initiation among multitaskers. Divided attention may allow television messages to “slip past the radar” of viewers who would reject these messages if they devoted cognitive resources to critically examining them. Media multitasking is likely to become more prevalent as new media continue to be introduced. Future studies of television-viewing effects may need to assess multitasking to avoid missing effects in this important subgroup of viewers. PMID:20390045

  19. Complexities of bloom dynamics in the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense revealed through DNA measurements by imaging flow cytometry coupled with species-specific rRNA probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosnahan, Michael L.; Farzan, Shahla; Keafer, Bruce A.; Sosik, Heidi M.; Olson, Robert J.; Anderson, Donald M.

    2014-05-01

    Measurements of the DNA content of different protist populations can shed light on a variety of processes, including cell division, sex, prey ingestion, and parasite invasion. Here, we modified an Imaging FlowCytobot (IFCB), a custom-built flow cytometer that records images of microplankton, to measure the DNA content of large dinoflagellates and other high-DNA content species. The IFCB was also configured to measure fluorescence from Cy3-labeled rRNA probes, aiding the identification of Alexandrium fundyense (syn. A. tamarense Group I), a photosynthetic dinoflagellate that causes paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). The modified IFCB was used to analyze samples from the development, peak and termination phases of an inshore A. fundyense bloom (Salt Pond, Eastham, MA, USA), and from a rare A. fundyense ‘red tide’ that occurred in the western Gulf of Maine, offshore of Portsmouth, NH (USA). Diploid or G2 phase (‘2C’) A. fundyense cells were frequently enriched at the near-surface, suggesting an important role for aggregation at the air-sea interface during sexual events. Also, our analysis showed that large proportions of A. fundyense cells in both the Salt Pond and red tide blooms were planozygotes during bloom decline, highlighting the importance of sexual fusion to bloom termination. At Salt Pond, bloom decline also coincided with a dramatic rise in infections by the parasite genus Amoebophrya. The samples that were most heavily infected contained many large cells with higher DNA-associated fluorescence than 2C vegetative cells, but these cells' nuclei were also frequently consumed by Amoebophrya trophonts. Neither large cell size nor increased DNA-associated fluorescence could be replicated by infecting an A. fundyense culture of vegetative cells. Therefore, we attribute these characteristics of the large Salt Pond cells to planozygote maturation rather than Amoebophrya infection, though an interaction between infection and planozygote maturation may

  20. Modelling of total electron content measured by the ATS-6 radio beacon experiment. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Grimolizzi, O.

    1982-04-01

    The following conclusions can be reached through the model study: A physically realistic model, when used in conjunction with foF2 and Faraday content observations can be used to infer information on neutral winds and electron density profiles. The resulting profiles are in reasonable agreement in summer and equinox with those from a semi-empirical model. The agreement is not good in winter, be cause the assumptions in the semi-empirical night model are unreliable. Nevertheless, the input quantities to the semi-empirical model, when calculated from the results, are more consistent; Neutral winds can sustain the ionization at F-layer peak altitudes in summer, but they cannot account for the Faraday content at night in equinox and winter; and Discrepancies between calculated and observed electron content values can be reduced by a downward proton flux. A small proton flux suffices to explain the discrepancies.

  1. Construction of Models for Nondestructive Prediction of Ingredient Contents in Blueberries by Near-infrared Spectroscopy Based on HPLC Measurements.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wenming; Yoshimura, Norio; Takayanagi, Masao; Che, Jingai; Horiuchi, Naomi; Ogiwara, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Nondestructive prediction of ingredient contents of farm products is useful to ship and sell the products with guaranteed qualities. Here, near-infrared spectroscopy is used to predict nondestructively total sugar, total organic acid, and total anthocyanin content in each blueberry. The technique is expected to enable the selection of only delicious blueberries from all harvested ones. The near-infrared absorption spectra of blueberries are measured with the diffuse reflectance mode at the positions not on the calyx. The ingredient contents of a blueberry determined by high-performance liquid chromatography are used to construct models to predict the ingredient contents from observed spectra. Partial least squares regression is used for the construction of the models. It is necessary to properly select the pretreatments for the observed spectra and the wavelength regions of the spectra used for analyses. Validations are necessary for the constructed models to confirm that the ingredient contents are predicted with practical accuracies. Here we present a protocol to construct and validate the models for nondestructive prediction of ingredient contents in blueberries by near-infrared spectroscopy. PMID:27404089

  2. Mustiscaling Analysis applied to field Water Content through Distributed Fiber Optic Temperature sensing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez Buelga, Javier; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Sanchez, Raul; Gil, Maria; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    signal variation, or to see at which scales signals are most correlated. This can give us an insight into the dominant processes An alternative to both of the above methods has been described recently. Relative entropy and increments in relative entropy has been applied in soil images (Bird et al., 2006) and in soil transect data (Tarquis et al., 2008) to study scale effects localized in scale and provide the information that is complementary to the information about scale dependencies found across a range of scales. We will use them in this work to describe the spatial scaling properties of a set of field water content data measured in an extension of a corn field, in a plot of 500 m2 and an spatial resolution of 25 cm. These measurements are based on an optics cable (BruggSteal) buried on a ziz-zag deployment at 30cm depth. References Bird, N., M.C. Díaz, A. Saa, and A.M. Tarquis. 2006. A review of fractal and multifractal analysis of soil pore-scale images. J. Hydrol. 322:211-219. Kravchenko, A.N., R. Omonode, G.A. Bollero, and D.G. Bullock. 2002. Quantitative mapping of soil drainage classes using topographical data and soil electrical conductivity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66:235-243. Lark, R.M., A.E. Milne, T.M. Addiscott, K.W.T. Goulding, C.P. Webster, and S. O'Flaherty. 2004. Scale- and location-dependent correlation of nitrous oxide emissions with soil properties: An analysis using wavelets. Eur. J. Soil Sci. 55:611-627. Lark, R.M., S.R. Kaffka, and D.L. Corwin. 2003. Multiresolution analysis of data on electrical conductivity of soil using wavelets. J. Hydrol. 272:276-290. Lark, R. M. and Webster, R. 1999. Analysis and elucidation of soil variation using wavelets. European J. of Soil Science, 50(2): 185-206. Mandelbrot, B.B. 1982. The fractal geometry of nature. W.H. Freeman, New York. Percival, D.B., and A.T. Walden. 2000. Wavelet methods for time series analysis. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK. Tarquis, A.M., N.R. Bird, A.P. Whitmore, M.C. Cartagena, and

  3. Mustiscaling Analysis applied to field Water Content through Distributed Fiber Optic Temperature sensing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez Buelga, Javier; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Sanchez, Raul; Gil, Maria; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    signal variation, or to see at which scales signals are most correlated. This can give us an insight into the dominant processes An alternative to both of the above methods has been described recently. Relative entropy and increments in relative entropy has been applied in soil images (Bird et al., 2006) and in soil transect data (Tarquis et al., 2008) to study scale effects localized in scale and provide the information that is complementary to the information about scale dependencies found across a range of scales. We will use them in this work to describe the spatial scaling properties of a set of field water content data measured in an extension of a corn field, in a plot of 500 m2 and an spatial resolution of 25 cm. These measurements are based on an optics cable (BruggSteal) buried on a ziz-zag deployment at 30cm depth. References Bird, N., M.C. Díaz, A. Saa, and A.M. Tarquis. 2006. A review of fractal and multifractal analysis of soil pore-scale images. J. Hydrol. 322:211-219. Kravchenko, A.N., R. Omonode, G.A. Bollero, and D.G. Bullock. 2002. Quantitative mapping of soil drainage classes using topographical data and soil electrical conductivity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66:235-243. Lark, R.M., A.E. Milne, T.M. Addiscott, K.W.T. Goulding, C.P. Webster, and S. O'Flaherty. 2004. Scale- and location-dependent correlation of nitrous oxide emissions with soil properties: An analysis using wavelets. Eur. J. Soil Sci. 55:611-627. Lark, R.M., S.R. Kaffka, and D.L. Corwin. 2003. Multiresolution analysis of data on electrical conductivity of soil using wavelets. J. Hydrol. 272:276-290. Lark, R. M. and Webster, R. 1999. Analysis and elucidation of soil variation using wavelets. European J. of Soil Science, 50(2): 185-206. Mandelbrot, B.B. 1982. The fractal geometry of nature. W.H. Freeman, New York. Percival, D.B., and A.T. Walden. 2000. Wavelet methods for time series analysis. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK. Tarquis, A.M., N.R. Bird, A.P. Whitmore, M.C. Cartagena, and

  4. Photon absorptiometry for non-invasive measurement of bone mineral content

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Luna, E.; Belsky, J.; Gelfman, N.; Miller, K.; Davies, T.

    1984-08-01

    Bone mineral content of the distal radius was determined in 106 patients by single photon absorptiometry using iodine-125 monochromatic source. The technique provided a reliable means to assess the degree of mineral loss in conditions such as osteoporosis, renal osteodystrophy in patients on chronic maintenance dialysis, subjects on long-term steroid therapy, and those with diabetes mellitus. It is more sensitive than conventional radiography and completely noninvasive compared to bone biopsy. It is suggested that photon absorptiometry is a simple, sensitive, and reliable technique for assessment and follow-up of the bone mineral content in a host of disorders associated with bone demineralization.

  5. Development of formulae for estimating amylose content and resistant starch content based on the pasting properties measured by RVA of Japonica polished rice and starch.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Katsura, Junji; Kato, Kiyoko; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2016-01-01

    We searched for the easy and simple method to measure the novel indicators which reflect not only AAC, but also (RS) based on pasting properties using RVA. Novel indexes such as SB/Con and Max/Fin (Maximum viscosity/Minimum viscosity) ratios had a very high correlation with proportion of intermediate and long chains of amylopectin; Fb1+2+3 (DP ≧ 13). In Japonica polished rice, estimation formulae for AAC and RS content were developed using novel indexes based on pasting properties by RVA, and these equations showed determination coefficients of 0.89 and 0.80 for calibration and 0.71 and 0.75 for validation test. We developed the estimation formulae for AAC and RS content for Japonica starch samples. These equations showed determination coefficients of 0.86 and 1.00 for calibration and 0.76 and 0.83 for validation test, which showed that these equations can be applied to the unknown rice samples.

  6. Methodological Choices in the Content Analysis of Textbooks for Measuring Alignment with Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polikoff, Morgan S.; Zhou, Nan; Campbell, Shauna E.

    2015-01-01

    With the recent adoption of the Common Core standards in many states, there is a need for quality information about textbook alignment to standards. While there are many existing content analysis procedures, these generally have little, if any, validity or reliability evidence. One exception is the Surveys of Enacted Curriculum (SEC), which has…

  7. 46 CFR 164.009-19 - Measurement of moisture and volatile matter content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to a previously weighed wide mouth weighing bottle that has a glass stopper. With the stopper removed, the bottle, stopper, and specimen are heated at 105 °C. ±5 °C. for four hours. After four hours, the stopper is inserted in the bottle and the bottle and sample are cooled and weighed. (c) The content...

  8. Use of Water Content Reflectometers in Bioinfiltration/Bioretention to Measure Water Movement and Estimate Evapotranspiration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most bioinfiltration/bioretention models assume runoff is evenly distributed across the surface area and after the engineered fill media is no longer saturated, the volumetric water content (VWC) is constant throughout the media profile and at field capacity. Four to nine water ...

  9. A nonintrusive nuclear monitor for measuring liquid contents in sealed vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Mall, G. H.

    1984-01-01

    A nonintrusive nuclear technique for monitoring fluid contents in sealed vessels, regardless of the fluid distribution inside the vessels is described. The technique is applicable to all-g environments. It is based on the differences in Cesium-137 gamma ray attenuation coefficients in air and the test liquids.

  10. Pivot Points: Direct Measures of the Content and Process of Community-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickersham, Carol; Westerberg, Charles; Jones, Karen; Cress, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This research is an initial investigation into the ways community-based learning increase the cognitive skills central to the exercise of the sociological imagination. In addition to identifying a means to reveal that learning had occurred, we looked for evidence that the students were mastering sociological content, especially the concepts and…

  11. Measuring beyond Content: A Rubric Bank for Assessing Skills in Authentic Research Assignments in the Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishbaugh, Tara L. S.; Cessna, Stephen; Horst, S. Jeanne; Leaman, Lori; Flanagan, Toni; Neufeld, Doug Graber; Siderhurst, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Herein we report the development of an analytic rubric bank to assess non-content learning, namely higher order cognitive skills, the understanding of the nature of science, and effective scientific communication skills in student research projects. Preliminary findings indicate that use of this tool enhances our students' learning in these areas,…

  12. A Nonradioactive Assay to Measure Production and Processing of Ribosomal RNA by 4sU-Tagging.

    PubMed

    Burger, Kaspar; Eick, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    In vivo metabolic pulse labeling is a classical approach to assess production and processing of ribosomal RNA (rRNA). However, conventional labeling techniques can be indirect and require work with radioactivity. Here, we describe in detail a protocol for in vivo metabolic labeling, purification, and readout of nascent rRNA by 4-thiouridine (4sU). We propose 4sU labeling as standard nonradioactive technique for the analysis of rRNA metabolism during ribosome biogenesis. PMID:27576715

  13. Organic and inorganic content of fluorotic rat incisors measured by FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porto, Isabel Maria; Saiani, Regina Aparecida; Chan, K. L. Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G.; Gerlach, Raquel Fernanda; Bachmann, Luciano

    2010-09-01

    Details on how fluoride interferes in enamel mineralization are still controversial. Therefore, this study aimed at analyzing the organic contents of fluorosis-affected teeth using Fourier Transformation Infrared spectroscopy. To this end, 10 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one received 45 ppm fluoride in distilled water for 60 days; the other received distilled water only. Then, the lower incisors were removed and prepared for analysis by two FTIR techniques namely, transmission and micro-ATR. For the first technique, the enamel was powdered, whereas in the second case one fluorotic incisor was cut longitudinally for micro-ATR. Using transmission and powdered samples, FTIR showed a higher C-H content in the fluorotic enamel compared with control enamel ( p < 0.05, n = 4 in the flurotic, and n = 5 in the control group). Results from the micro-ATR-FTIR spectroscopic analysis on one longitudinally cut incisor carried out at six points reveal a higher C-H bond content at the surface of the enamel, with values decreasing toward the dentine-enamel junction, and reaching the lowest values at the subsuperficial enamel. These results agree with the morphological data, which indicate that in the rat incisor the fluorotic lesion is superficial, rather than subsuperficial, as in the case of human enamel. The results also suggest that the increased C-H bond content may extend toward the more basal enamel (intraosseous), indicating that fluorotic enamel may intrinsically contain more protein. Finally, particularly when coupled to ATR, FTIR is a suitable tool to study the rat incisor enamel, which is a largely used model of normal and abnormal amelogenesis. Further studies along this line may definitely answer some questions regarding protein content in fluorotic enamel as well as their origin.

  14. Organic and inorganic content of fluorotic rat incisors measured by FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Porto, Isabel Maria; Saiani, Regina Aparecida; Chan, K L Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G; Gerlach, Raquel Fernanda; Bachmann, Luciano

    2010-09-15

    Details on how fluoride interferes in enamel mineralization are still controversial. Therefore, this study aimed at analyzing the organic contents of fluorosis-affected teeth using Fourier Transformation Infrared spectroscopy. To this end, 10 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one received 45 ppm fluoride in distilled water for 60 days; the other received distilled water only. Then, the lower incisors were removed and prepared for analysis by two FTIR techniques namely, transmission and micro-ATR. For the first technique, the enamel was powdered, whereas in the second case one fluorotic incisor was cut longitudinally for micro-ATR. Using transmission and powdered samples, FTIR showed a higher C-H content in the fluorotic enamel compared with control enamel (p<0.05, n=4 in the flurotic, and n=5 in the control group). Results from the micro-ATR-FTIR spectroscopic analysis on one longitudinally cut incisor carried out at six points reveal a higher C-H bond content at the surface of the enamel, with values decreasing toward the dentine-enamel junction, and reaching the lowest values at the subsuperficial enamel. These results agree with the morphological data, which indicate that in the rat incisor the fluorotic lesion is superficial, rather than subsuperficial, as in the case of human enamel. The results also suggest that the increased C-H bond content may extend toward the more basal enamel (intraosseous), indicating that fluorotic enamel may intrinsically contain more protein. Finally, particularly when coupled to ATR, FTIR is a suitable tool to study the rat incisor enamel, which is a largely used model of normal and abnormal amelogenesis. Further studies along this line may definitely answer some questions regarding protein content in fluorotic enamel as well as their origin.

  15. Aircraft Measurements of Temperature and Liquid Water Content in Entrainment Interface Layer of Stratocumulus Clouds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haman, K. E.; Gerber, H.; Kumala, W.; Malinowski, S. P.

    2009-09-01

    Entrainment of dry, warm air from above the cloud and its mixing with the colder cloudy air is an important process in dynamics of inversion topped stratocumulus, leading to formation of a transition layer of complex structure - Entrainment Interface Layer (EIL). It consists of mutual filaments if cloudy and clear air of various thickness at different stages of stirring, mixing and homogenization. Borders between these filaments are often very sharp, with temperature jumps of few kelvins and liquid water content (LWC) jumps of up to 0.5 gmE-3 over distance of few centimeters, which cannot be resolved by means of standard aircraft instrumentation. This layer is an area of various specific dynamic and thermodynamic phenomena; in particular it is a source of downdrafts penetrating the cloud as the so called "cloud holes". Small scale structure of EIL has been investigated in 2001 during DYCOMS II campaign in marine stratocumulus over Eastern Pacific, by means of Ultrafast Aircraft Thermometer (UFT-F) from University of Warsaw and PVM-100A LWC-meter from Gerber Scientific, Inc. Some results of this research has been published in 2007 in Quarterly Journal of RMS. UFT-F has a thermoresistive sensing element protected against impact of cloud droplets and response time constant of order 10E-4s. PVM-100A is an optical instrument and has spatial resolution of order 10 cm. For recording a sampling rate of 1kHz has been typically applied with 10 kHz (for UFT-F only) on selected fragments of flights. Unfortunately, for some technical reasons, these two instruments, installed on the NCAR C-130 aircraft, were separated by about 6 meters what limited possibilities and precision of comparing their indications. There were also some failures during the flights due to which many potentially interesting measurements and observations have been lost. Opportunity to get improved observations of EIL appeared in 2008 at POST (Physics of Stratocumulus Top) Project. During POST a number of

  16. Soil water content and evaporation determined by thermal parameters obtained from ground-based and remote measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Vedder, J. F.; Blanchard, M. B.; Goettelman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Soil water contents from both smooth and rough bare soil were estimated from remotely sensed surface soil and air temperatures. An inverse relationship between two thermal parameters and gravimetric soil water content was found for Avondale loam when its water content was between air-dry and field capacity. These parameters, daily maximum minus minimum surface soil temperature and daily maximum soil minus air temperature, appear to describe the relationship reasonably well. These two parameters also describe relative soil water evaporation (actual/potential). Surface soil temperatures showed good agreement among three measurement techniques: in situ thermocouples, a ground-based infrared radiation thermometer, and the thermal infrared band of an airborne multispectral scanner.

  17. The Measurement of Total Inclusion Content in Nickel-Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sczerzenie, Frank; Vergani, Giorgio; Belden, Clarence

    2012-12-01

    Inclusion content is important for the properties of high performance alloys used in fatigue rated devices. A method to analyze the total inclusion content of NiTi alloys was applied to vacuum induction melted vacuum arc remelted hot rolled coil and cold drawn wire. Carbides and oxides populations were analyzed separately. Pursuant to ASTM standards, a definition for stringers was formulated and applied to cold drawn wire. It was shown that changes in melting and hot working result in changes in the amount and size of carbides and oxide inclusions. The inclusion size distributions are highly skewed. It is hypothesized that the statistics of extreme values must be applied to these populations in order to predict a maximum inclusion size.

  18. Identification of cytokine-induced modulation of microRNA expression and secretion as measured by a novel microRNA specific qPCR assay

    PubMed Central

    Benes, Vladimir; Collier, Paul; Kordes, Claus; Stolte, Jens; Rausch, Tobias; Muckentaler, Martina U.; Häussinger, Dieter; Castoldi, Mirco

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs are an abundant class of small non-coding RNAs that control gene expression post-transcriptionally. Importantly, microRNA activity participates in the regulation of cellular processes and is a potentially valuable source of biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of human diseases. Here we introduce miQPCR, an innovative method to quantify microRNAs expression by using Real-Time PCR. miQPCR exploits T4 RNA ligase activities to extend uniformly microRNAs’ 3′-ends by addition of a linker-adapter. The adapter is then used as ‘anchor’ to prime cDNA synthesis and throughout qPCR to amplify specifically target amplicons. miQPCR is an open, adaptable and cost-effective procedure, which offers the following advantages; i) universal elongation and reverse transcription of all microRNAs; ii) Tm-adjustment of microRNA-specific primers; iii) high sensitivity and specificity in discriminating among closely related sequences and; iv) suitable for the analysis of cellular and cell-free circulating microRNAs. Analysis of cellular and cell-free circulating microRNAs secreted by rat primary hepatocytes stimulated with cytokines and growth factors identifies for the first time a widespread modulation of both microRNAs expression and secretion. Altogether, our findings suggest that the pleiotropic activity of humoral factors on microRNAs may extensively affect liver function in response to injury and regeneration. PMID:26108880

  19. Information Content-Based Gene Ontology Functional Similarity Measures: Which One to Use for a Given Biological Data Type?

    PubMed Central

    Mazandu, Gaston K.; Mulder, Nicola J.

    2014-01-01

    The current increase in Gene Ontology (GO) annotations of proteins in the existing genome databases and their use in different analyses have fostered the improvement of several biomedical and biological applications. To integrate this functional data into different analyses, several protein functional similarity measures based on GO term information content (IC) have been proposed and evaluated, especially in the context of annotation-based measures. In the case of topology-based measures, each approach was set with a specific functional similarity measure depending on its conception and applications for which it was designed. However, it is not clear whether a specific functional similarity measure associated with a given approach is the most appropriate, given a biological data set or an application, i.e., achieving the best performance compared to other functional similarity measures for the biological application under consideration. We show that, in general, a specific functional similarity measure often used with a given term IC or term semantic similarity approach is not always the best for different biological data and applications. We have conducted a performance evaluation of a number of different functional similarity measures using different types of biological data in order to infer the best functional similarity measure for each different term IC and semantic similarity approach. The comparisons of different protein functional similarity measures should help researchers choose the most appropriate measure for the biological application under consideration. PMID:25474538

  20. A Primer for Developing Measures of Science Content Knowledge for Small-Scale Research and Instructional Use

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Kristin M.; Drits-Esser, Dina; Stark, Louisa A.

    2016-01-01

    The credibility of conclusions made about the effectiveness of educational interventions depends greatly on the quality of the assessments used to measure learning gains. This essay, intended for faculty involved in small-scale projects, courses, or educational research, provides a step-by-step guide to the process of developing, scoring, and validating high-quality content knowledge assessments. We illustrate our discussion with examples from our assessments of high school students’ understanding of concepts in cell biology and epigenetics. Throughout, we emphasize the iterative nature of the development process, the importance of creating instruments aligned to the learning goals of an intervention or curricula, and the importance of collaborating with other content and measurement specialists along the way. PMID:27055776

  1. Certain Results of Measurements of Characteristics of Stratospheric Aerosol Layer and Total Ozone Content at Siberian Lidar Station in Tomsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevzorov, Aleksey; Bazhenov, Oleg; Burlakov, Vladimir; Dolgii, Sergey

    2016-06-01

    We consider the results of long-term remote optical monitoring, obtained at the Siberian Lidar Station of Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences in Tomsk (56.5°N, 85.0°E). The scattering characteristics of stratospheric aerosol layer, obtained according to data of lidar measurements since 1986, are presented. We analyze the trends of changes in the total ozone (TO) content over Tomsk for the period 1996-2013 according to data of spectrophotometric measurements with employment of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data for the period 1979-1994. We determined the periods of elevated content of stratospheric aerosol over Tomsk aftera series of explosive eruptions of volcanoes of Pacific Ring of Fire and Iceland in 2006-2011. Since the second half of 1990s, we record an increasing TO trend, equaling 0.65 DU/yr for the period 1996-2013.

  2. Estimation of chlorophyll contents in leaves and canopy of steppe vegetation using hyperspectral measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Dandan; Xiao, Chenchao; Zhang, Zhenhua; Wei, Hongyan; Shang, Kun

    2016-04-01

    As an important part of the Eurasian Steppe, the temperate typical steppe in Inner Mongolia is highly representative of the Eurasian vegetation. Compared to multispectral remote sensing, hyperspectral remote sensing is more sensitive in monitoring some characteristics of vegetation. However, the research on the typical temperate steppe in Inner Mongolia is still not perfect, so we selected three sampling zones with different dominant species on the typical steppe in Xilinhot of Inner Mongolia. We collected spectrum of leaves and canopy separately to estimate content of chlorophyll of steppe vegetation. In addition, we compared and analyzed the advantage and feasibility of different estimation methods in estimating chlorophyll contents of meadows which have different dominant species through cross validation. The conclusions drawn in this research are as follows: Due to significant discontinuity, maximum first derivative method and Lagrange interpolation method are not suitable for estimation of chlorophyll of typical steppe. Compared with other methods, the red edge position calculated with four points linear interpolation obviously migrates to long wave direction. Inverted Gaussian model and four points linear interpolation both show low sensitivity for Stipa grandis steppe zone (with Stipa grandis as dominant species) where chlorophyll concentration is low and there is saturation phenomenon and weak stability (obvious variation of R2) for Leymus chinensis steppe (with Leymus chinensis as dominant species) where chlorophyll concentration is high, so they are also not the best choice. Linear extrapolation and polynomial fitting show certain saturation for high concentration of chlorophyll and also high correlation coefficient for both leaves and canopy, so they are suitable for estimation of chlorophyll concentration of leaves and canopy on the steppe. The different methods of extracting red edge are better at estimating chlorophyll of leaves than canopy and the

  3. Optimal reference genes for normalization of qRT-PCR data from archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast tumors controlling for tumor cell content and decay of mRNA.

    PubMed

    Tramm, Trine; Sørensen, Brita S; Overgaard, Jens; Alsner, Jan

    2013-09-01

    Reliable determination of gene-expression levels from qRT-PCR requires accurate normalization of target genes to reference genes in order to remove nonbiological variation. Reference genes are ideally constitutively expressed in every cell, but many genes used for normalization has been shown to vary with tissue type, cellular proliferation, cancer progression, and degradation of nucleic acids. Gene-expression analysis is increasingly performed on degraded mRNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE), giving the option of examining retrospective cohorts. The aim of this study was to select robust reference genes showing stable expression over time in FFPE, controlling for various content of tumor tissue and decay of mRNA because of variable length of storage of the tissue. Sixteen reference genes were quantified by qRT-PCR in 40 FFPE breast tumor samples, stored for 1 to 29 years. Samples included 2 benign lesions and 38 carcinomas with varying tumor content. Stability of the reference genes were determined by the geNorm algorithm. mRNA was successfully extracted from all samples, and the 16 genes quantified in the majority of samples. Results showed 14% loss of amplifiable mRNA per year, corresponding to a half-life of 4.6 years. The 4 most stable expressed genes were CALM2, RPL37A, ACTB, and RPLP0. Several of the other examined genes showed considerably instability over time (GAPDH, PSMC4, OAZ1, IPO8). In conclusion, we identified 4 genes robustly expressed over time and independent of neoplastic tissue content in the FFPE block. Other widely used reference genes were concluded to be less suited for retrospective analysis of FFPE breast samples.

  4. Odor active compounds content in spices and their microencapsulated powders measured by SPME.

    PubMed

    Wojtowicz, Elżbieta; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, Renata; Adamiec, Janusz; Wąsowicz, Erwin; Przygoński, Krzysztof; Remiszewski, Marian

    2010-10-01

    Within this study, main odorants of marjoram and thyme (linalool and thymol) were determined in spices and microencapsulated powders using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Analyses were conducted on selected batches of spices before and after decontamination and on microencapsulated powders prepared for technological purposes (improvement of aroma in decontaminated spices). Conditions of SPME analyses were determined for individual compounds and matrices. Determination of total and surface contents of compounds and the percentage dependencies between encapsulated and surface aroma made it possible to identify the best powders in terms of their quality.

  5. Columnar content measurements of the solar-wind turbulence near the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    Turbulence in the solar wind near the sun is investigated using records of changes in the integrated electron columnar content along the line of sight to Mariners 6, 7, and 9. The comoving turbulence spectrum is found to be well represented by a power law with an index of about 3.9. The turbulence is shown to decline with heliocentric distance, and the data suggest a region of enhanced turbulence near the sun. The Mariner-9 spectral amplitudes are found to correspond with Zurich sunspot numbers. Implications of the present observations are discussed for contemporary theories on solar-wind heating.

  6. Odor active compounds content in spices and their microencapsulated powders measured by SPME.

    PubMed

    Wojtowicz, Elżbieta; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, Renata; Adamiec, Janusz; Wąsowicz, Erwin; Przygoński, Krzysztof; Remiszewski, Marian

    2010-10-01

    Within this study, main odorants of marjoram and thyme (linalool and thymol) were determined in spices and microencapsulated powders using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Analyses were conducted on selected batches of spices before and after decontamination and on microencapsulated powders prepared for technological purposes (improvement of aroma in decontaminated spices). Conditions of SPME analyses were determined for individual compounds and matrices. Determination of total and surface contents of compounds and the percentage dependencies between encapsulated and surface aroma made it possible to identify the best powders in terms of their quality. PMID:21535518

  7. Effects of gut sediment contents on measurements of metal levels in benthic invertebrates - a cautionary note

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, P.M.

    1985-09-01

    Studies of heavy metal levels in benthic organisms typically do not correct for gut sediment metal levels other than by allowing a period of depuration in clean water. The effectiveness of depuration has recently been questioned in British Columbia in the particular case of the marine clam Yoldia. In light of this controversy, it appears appropriate to present data from a study of heavy metal levels in sediments and benthic organisms in the Lower Fraser River, BC, regarding the effects of gut sediment contents.

  8. Directly measuring single molecule heterogeneity in proteins and RNA using force spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinczewski, Michael; Hyeon, Changbong; Thirumalai, Devarajan

    One of the most intriguing results of single molecule experiments on proteins and nucleic acids is the discovery of functional heterogeneity: the observation that complex cellular machines exhibit multiple, biologically active conformations. The structural differences between these conformations may be subtle, but each distinct state can be remarkably long-lived, with stochastic interconversions occurring only at macroscopic timescales, fractions of a second or longer. Though we now have proof of functional heterogeneity in a handful of systems--enzymes, motors, adhesion complexes--identifying and measuring it remains a formidable challenge. We show that evidence of this phenomenon is more widespread than previously known, encoded in data collected from some of the most well-established single molecule techniques: AFM or optical tweezer pulling experiments. We present a theoretical procedure for analyzing distributions of rupture/unfolding forces recorded at different pulling speeds. This results in a single parameter, quantifying the degree of heterogeneity, and also leads to bounds on the equilibration and conformational interconversion timescales. Our work suggests experimental approaches for estimating the timescales of these fluctuations with unprecedented accuracy.

  9. Leptin in Whales: Validation and Measurement of mRNA Expression by Absolute Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Hope C.; Holmes, Robert K.; Londraville, Richard L.; Thewissen, Johannes G. M.; Duff, Robert Joel

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is the primary hormone in mammals that regulates adipose stores. Arctic adapted cetaceans maintain enormous adipose depots, suggesting possible modifications of leptin or receptor function. Determining expression of these genes is the first step to understanding the extreme physiology of these animals, and the uniqueness of these animals presents special challenges in estimating and comparing expression levels of mRNA transcripts. Here, we compare expression of two model genes, leptin and leptin-receptor gene-related product (OB-RGRP), using two quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods: “relative” and “absolute”. To assess the expression of leptin and OB-RGRP in cetacean tissues, we first examined how relative expression of those genes might differ when normalized to four common endogenous control genes. We performed relative expression qPCR assays measuring the amplification of these two model target genes relative to amplification of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), ubiquitously expressed transcript (Uxt), ribosomal protein 9 (Rs9) and ribosomal protein 15 (Rs15) endogenous controls. Results demonstrated significant differences in the expression of both genes when different control genes were employed; emphasizing a limitation of relative qPCR assays, especially in studies where differences in physiology and/or a lack of knowledge regarding levels and patterns of expression of common control genes may possibly affect data interpretation. To validate the absolute quantitative qPCR methods, we evaluated the effects of plasmid structure, the purity of the plasmid standard preparation and the influence of type of qPCR “background” material on qPCR amplification efficiencies and copy number determination of both model genes, in multiple tissues from one male bowhead whale. Results indicate that linear plasmids are more reliable than circular plasmid standards, no significant differences in copy number estimation based upon background material used, and

  10. Leptin in whales: validation and measurement of mRNA expression by absolute quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Ball, Hope C; Holmes, Robert K; Londraville, Richard L; Thewissen, Johannes G M; Duff, Robert Joel

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is the primary hormone in mammals that regulates adipose stores. Arctic adapted cetaceans maintain enormous adipose depots, suggesting possible modifications of leptin or receptor function. Determining expression of these genes is the first step to understanding the extreme physiology of these animals, and the uniqueness of these animals presents special challenges in estimating and comparing expression levels of mRNA transcripts. Here, we compare expression of two model genes, leptin and leptin-receptor gene-related product (OB-RGRP), using two quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods: "relative" and "absolute". To assess the expression of leptin and OB-RGRP in cetacean tissues, we first examined how relative expression of those genes might differ when normalized to four common endogenous control genes. We performed relative expression qPCR assays measuring the amplification of these two model target genes relative to amplification of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), ubiquitously expressed transcript (Uxt), ribosomal protein 9 (Rs9) and ribosomal protein 15 (Rs15) endogenous controls. Results demonstrated significant differences in the expression of both genes when different control genes were employed; emphasizing a limitation of relative qPCR assays, especially in studies where differences in physiology and/or a lack of knowledge regarding levels and patterns of expression of common control genes may possibly affect data interpretation. To validate the absolute quantitative qPCR methods, we evaluated the effects of plasmid structure, the purity of the plasmid standard preparation and the influence of type of qPCR "background" material on qPCR amplification efficiencies and copy number determination of both model genes, in multiple tissues from one male bowhead whale. Results indicate that linear plasmids are more reliable than circular plasmid standards, no significant differences in copy number estimation based upon background material used, and that the use of

  11. Evaluating the Information Content of Newly Retrieved SAGEII NO2 Measurements in the Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newchurch, Michael J.; Cunnold, Derek M.; Zawodny, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this research project is: to calculate ozone trends in the stratosphere from Dobson Umkehr measurements, to determine the vertical profile of trends at Arosa by using a sophisticated statistical model (MARCH) to separate solar, aerosol, and QBO effects on Dobson Umkehr measurements, and to compare Umkehr trends with SBUV and SAGE I/II trends in the stratosphere.

  12. Spectroscopic measurements of atmospheric gas content: latitudinal distributions, seasonal variations, and long-period trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galtsev, A. P.; Grechko, Evgeny I.; Dzhola, A. V.; Elansky, Nikolay F.; Malkov, Igor P.; Pugachev, Nikita S.

    1993-11-01

    The results of spectroscopic measurements of the total vertical column abundance of minor atmospheric components (CO, CH4, C2H6, NO2, O3) are presented. Measurements were carried out in Russia, in the Arctic and Antarctic regions and over the Atlantic Ocean.

  13. Detecting protein-induced folding of the U4 snRNA kink-turn by single-molecule multiparameter FRET measurements

    PubMed Central

    WOŹNIAK, ANNA K.; NOTTROTT, STEPHANIE; KÜHN-HÖLSKEN, EVA; SCHRÖDER, GUNNAR F.; GRUBMÜLLER, HELMUT; LÜHRMANN, REINHARD; SEIDEL, CLAUS A.M.; OESTERHELT, FILIPP

    2005-01-01

    The kink-turn (k-turn), a new RNA structural motif found in the spliceosome and the ribosome, serves as a specific protein recognition element and as a structural building block. While the structure of the spliceosomal U4 snRNA k-turn/15.5K complex is known from a crystal structure, it is unclear whether the k-turn also exists in this folded conformation in the free U4 snRNA. Thus, we investigated the U4 snRNA k-turn by single-molecule FRET measurements in the absence and presence of the 15.5K protein and its dependence on the Na+ and Mg2+ ion concentration. We show that the unfolded U4 snRNA k-turn introduces a kink of 85° ± 15° in an RNA double helix. While Na+ and Mg2+ ions induce this more open conformation of the k-turn, binding of the 15.5K protein was found to induce the tightly kinked conformation in the RNA that increases the kink to 52° ± 15°. By comparison of the measured FRET distances with a computer-modeled structure, we show that this strong kink is due to the k-turn motif adopting its folded conformation. Thus, in the free U4 snRNA, the k-turn exists only in an unfolded conformation, and its folding is induced by binding of the 15.5K protein. PMID:16199764

  14. Geochemical Rate/RNA Integration Study (GRIST): A Pilot Field Experiment for Inter-Calibration of Biogeochemistry and Nucleic Acid Measurements Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bronk, Deborah

    2007-01-08

    The Geochemical Rate/RNA Integration Study (GRIST) project sought to correlate biogeochemical flux rates with measurements of gene expression and mRNA abundance to demonstrate the application of molecular approaches to estimate the presence and magnitude of a suite of biogeochemical processes. The study was headed by Lee Kerkhoff of Rutgers University. In this component of the GRIST study, we characterized ambient nutrient concentrations and measured uptake rates for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, ammonium, nitrate and nitrite) and dissolved organic nitrogen (urea and dissolved free amino acids) during two diel studies at the Long-Term Ecosystem Observatory (LEO-15) on the New Jersey continental shelf.

  15. Development of a comprehensive near infrared spectroscopy calibration model for rapid measurements of moisture content in multiple pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Dipak; Li, Jane; Yehl, Peter; Chetwyn, Nicholas

    2014-07-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been widely used for the determination of water content in a wide variety of samples. With few exceptions, all methods employ a calibration model developed and applicable for a single product. The current study describes a NIR method using a single, comprehensive calibration model to predict the water content in tablets containing different active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). The calibration model was developed for water content range of 2-13% (w/w) using tablets containing three different APIs and different formulation compositions. To develop a robust comprehensive model, individual calibration models were sequentially developed starting from a simple model for one product to including tablets from all three projects in the final model using partial least square analysis method. Data pretreatments and spectral region selections were performed during the method development to optimize the number of factors and the correlation coefficients for cross-validation and prediction by the comprehensive model. The model reliably predicted the water content in tablet samples of these three products, and can be updated for water measurements of new drug products by adding to the model two samples of the new product for calibration purpose.

  16. Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjong; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Won, Seunggun; Ahn, Heekwon

    2016-01-01

    Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull) and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdust; BR, Beef cattle manure+rice hull) were determined based on oxygen uptake rate measured by a pressure sensor method. A broad range of oxygen uptake rates (0.3 to 33.3 mg O2/g VS d) were monitored as a function of moisture level and composting feedstock type. The maximum oxygen consumption of each material was observed near the saturated condition, which ranged from 75% to 98% of water holding capacity. The optimum moisture content of BS and BR were 70% and 57% on a wet basis, respectively. Although BS’s optimum moisture content was near saturated state, its free air space kept a favorable level (above 30%) for aerobic composting due to the sawdust’s coarse particle size and bulking effect. PMID:26954138

  17. Measurements of non-uniform water content in hydroxypropyl-methyl-cellulose based matrices via texture analysis.

    PubMed

    Cascone, Sara; Lamberti, Gaetano; Titomanlio, Giuseppe; d'Amore, Matteo; Barba, Anna Angela

    2014-03-15

    The use of hydrogels in the preparation of controlled release pharmaceutical forms is extensively diffused. The main feature of these polymers is their ability to swell forming a gel layer when they enter in contact with fluids. Once the gel layer is formed, the drug contained in the matrix can easily diffuse ensuring a controlled release from the tablet. Measurement of water content within a hydrating matrix based on hydrogels is a key topic in the study of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. The aim of this work is to evaluate the water content of swollen matrices composed by HPMC and theophylline both in axial and in radial direction, as a function of time, using a texture analysis. A relationship between water content and slope of the force-penetration curves has been obtained using a simplified system in which the water uptake is allowed only in radial direction, obtaining thus partially hydrated matrices with the water content varying only along the radial direction. Once the relationship has been validated, it has been applied in a more complex system in which the polymer swelling takes place in both axial and radial direction. Thus, using the texture analysis it has been possible to determine the water in each position within the hydrated matrices.

  18. Bone mineral content in early-postmenopausal and postmenopausal osteoporotic women: comparison of measurement methods

    SciTech Connect

    Reinbold, W.D.; Genant, H.K.; Reiser, U.J.; Harris, S.T.; Ettinger, B.

    1986-08-01

    To investigate associations among methods for noninvasive measurement of skeletal bone mass, we studied 40 healthy early postmenopausal women and 68 older postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Methods included single- and dual-energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) of the lumbar spine, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of the distal third of the radius, and combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the second metacarpal shaft. Lateral thoracolumbar radiography was performed, and a spinal fracture index was calculated. There was good correlation between QCT and DPA methods in early postmenopausal women and modest correlation in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Correlations between spinal measurements (QCT or DPA) and appendicular cortical measurements (SPA or CCT) were modest in healthy women and poor in osteoporotic women. Measurements resulting from one method are not predictive of those by another method for the individual patient. The strongest correlation with severity of vertebral fracture is provided by QCT; the weakest, by SPA. There was a high correlation between single- and dual-energy QCT results, indicating that errors due to vertebral fat are not substantial in these postmenopausal women. Single-energy QCT may be adequate and perhaps preferable for assessing postmenopausal women. The measurement of spinal trabecular bone density by QCT discriminates between osteoporotic women and younger healthy women with more sensitivity than measurements of spinal integral bone by DPA or of appendicular cortical bone by SPA or CCT.

  19. Simultaneous measurement of the silicon content and physiological parameters by FTIR spectroscopy in diatoms with siliceous cell walls.

    PubMed

    Jungandreas, Anne; Wagner, Heiko; Wilhelm, Christian

    2012-12-01

    Diatoms are the most successful biomass producers worldwide. Therefore, physiological and chemical methods to measure the cell response to a variety of abiotic factors are the focus of recent research. We used the two model diatoms Cyclotella meneghiniana and Skeletonema costatum for the development of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy-based methods to measure simultaneously the elemental composition of the cells and their cell-specific physiological properties. The cells were grown in chemostat cultures to study the response of Si limitation. The model organisms showed different reactions in terms of their cell properties. Si limitation was accompanied by a drop in the growth rate, a reduced content in Si per cell and a decreased Si : C ratio. Furthermore, the C allocation pattern was changed in both diatoms under Si limitation, as shown by FTIR spectroscopy. Moreover, we used FTIR spectra to develop PLS (partial least square) regression methods to predict the Si content and the Si : C ratio for single as well as multiple species. All PLS regression models were validated by standard chemical methods and showed good prediction accuracy, with the coefficient of determination R(2) being ≥0.93. We could show that it is possible to monitor phytoplankton properties such as C allocation, the Si content and the Si : C ratio at the same time via FTIR spectroscopy. PMID:23104763

  20. NeQuick and IRI-Plas model performance on topside electron content representation: Spaceborne GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, Iurii; Zakharenkova, Irina

    2016-06-01

    The correct representation of the topside ionosphere is still an open question for the empirical ionospheric models. We presents new results of the concurrent analysis of the topside electron content values derived from the GPS measurements on board the GOCE and TerraSAR-X satellites with two empirical ionospheric models: NeQuick 2 and IRI-Plas. Two periods of low (2009/2010) and moderate (2012) solar activities were analyzed. It is found that the IRI-Plas model overestimates the electron content in the 250-500 km altitude interval for low solar activity and the topside total electron content (TEC) for the 500-20,000 km altitude range during daytime local time at low and moderate solar activities. The NeQuick 2 model demonstrates very similar to the IRI-Plas results for the 250-500 km region and the opposite behavior for the region above 500 km with underestimated values for all considered seasons and local time. The most important region for the model/model differences was found to be within the altitude range of 500-2000 km. The observed understatement in the NeQuick 2 topside TEC results can be related to the simplified extension of the electron density profile toward the GPS orbit altitude without adjustment of the specific plasmasphere model. However, the plasmasphere model included into the IRI-Plas leads to the noticeable overestimation of the TEC values derived from the spaceborne GPS measurements.

  1. Nitric oxide content measured by ESR-spectroscopy in the rat brain is increased during pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Bashkatova, V; Vitskova, G; Narkevich, V; Vanin, A; Mikoyan, V; Rayevsky, K

    2000-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) content in rat cerebral cortex was measured using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. A nearly fivefold elevation in NO content was found at the peak time of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. The administration of N-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), a competitive inhibitor of NO-synthase, at the dose of 250 mg/kg, completely prevented the NO increase induced by PTZ, although clonic convulsions in the animals have been observed. L-NNA (10 mg/kg) was shown to delay the onset of clonic seizures as well as to shorten the latency of the first convulsive twitch. The level of lipid peroxidation secondary products measured as the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) was increased in the cerebral cortex of PTZ-treated rats. L-NNA (250 mg/kg) failed to prevent the increased TBARS level produced by PTZ. The results support the notion that NO may play a trigger role in the pathophysiology of convulsive seizures. PMID:10984194

  2. RNA content in motor and sensory neurons and surrounding neuroglia of mouse spinal cord under conditions of hypodynamia and following normalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumberg, V. A.; Pevzner, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    The differences in the dynamics of reparative processes in RNA metabolism within the neuron-neuroglia unit after the cessation of hyper- and hypodynamia is dicussed. The role of neuroglia is stressed in compensatory, reparative and trophic processes in the nervous system as well as the possibility in an adaptation at the cellular level.

  3. Microbiome characterization using SMRT sequencing on 16S rRNA genes across a range of amplicon sizes and variable region content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sequence of variable regions along the 16S ribosomal RNA gene is often used to conduct metagenomic surveys of bacterial populations in specific habitats, because of the inter-species variability in these regions and because it is possible to design amplification primers in sections of the gene t...

  4. A comparison of optical measurements of liquid water content and drop size distribution in adiabatic regions of Florida cumuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, R. Paul; Blyth, Alan M.

    Airborne measurements of liquid water content (LWC) and drop size distribution were made in adiabatic regions of small, growing cumulus clouds during the Small Cumulus Microphysics Study (SCMS). A new instrument, the cloud drop spectrometer (CDS), which measures LWC and also drop size from an ensemble of drops, was flown for the first time in the field. Measurements from other sensors, including a Particle Measuring Systems (PMS) forward scattering spectrometer probe (FSSP), the `fast' FSSP (FFSSP) developed by the Centre National De Recherches Meteorologiques (CNRM), and a Gerber Scientific airborne particulate volume monitor (PVM-100A), are compared with the CDS data collected in adiabatic and other regions. The CDS appeared to reliably measure very close to the predicted value of LWC in regions identified as being adiabatic. In addition, the drop size distribution measured by the CDS compared very well with the FSSP and FFSSP measurements, except where the 3-200 μm range of the CDS allowed it to measure larger drops than the nominal 3-45 μm range of the FSSP, and the 2.7 to 38.4 μm range of the FFSSP.

  5. Using micromechanical resonators to measure rheological properties and alcohol content of model solutions and commercial beverages.

    PubMed

    Paxman, Rosemary; Stinson, Jake; Dejardin, Anna; McKendry, Rachel A; Hoogenboom, Bart W

    2012-01-01

    Micromechanic resonators provide a small-volume and potentially high-throughput method to determine rheological properties of fluids. Here we explore the accuracy in measuring mass density and viscosity of ethanol-water and glycerol-water model solutions, using a simple and easily implemented model to deduce the hydrodynamic effects on resonating cantilevers of various length-to-width aspect ratios. We next show that these measurements can be extended to determine the alcohol percentage of both model solutions and commercial beverages such as beer, wine and liquor. This demonstrates how micromechanical resonators can be used for quality control of every-day drinks.

  6. Using Micromechanical Resonators to Measure Rheological Properties and Alcohol Content of Model Solutions and Commercial Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Paxman, Rosemary; Stinson, Jake; Dejardin, Anna; McKendry, Rachel A.; Hoogenboom, Bart W.

    2012-01-01

    Micromechanic resonators provide a small-volume and potentially high-throughput method to determine rheological properties of fluids. Here we explore the accuracy in measuring mass density and viscosity of ethanol-water and glycerol-water model solutions, using a simple and easily implemented model to deduce the hydrodynamic effects on resonating cantilevers of various length-to-width aspect ratios. We next show that these measurements can be extended to determine the alcohol percentage of both model solutions and commercial beverages such as beer, wine and liquor. This demonstrates how micromechanical resonators can be used for quality control of every-day drinks. PMID:22778654

  7. Direct measurement of the association constant of HER2/neu antisense oligonucleotide to its target RNA sequence using a molecular beacon.

    PubMed

    Vijayanathan, Veena; Thomas, Thresia; Sigal, Leonard H; Thomas, T J

    2002-08-01

    A molecular beacon approach was developed to directly determine the association constant of RNA-DNA hybrid formation. The molecular beacon was composed of a 15-nt loop structure containing the antisense sequence that can hybridize with the AUG translational start site of the HER2/neu gene, which is overexpressed in a significant proportion of breast, ovarian, and lung tumors. The equilibrium association constant (Ka) of DNA binding to the RNA oligonucleotide was 6.4 +/- 0.14 x 10(7) M(-1) in the presence of 150 mM NaCl at 22 degrees C. The free energy change (AG) associated with RNA-DNA hybrid formation was -10.7 kcal/mole. The melting temperature (Tm) of RNA-DNA hybrid was 64.4 degrees C +/- 1 degree C in the presence of 150 mM NaCl. The RNA-DNA hybrid was more stable than the corresponding DNA-DNA duplex in 150 mM NaCl, as judged by both Ka and Tm data. We also determined the Ka, deltaG, and Tm values of RNA-DNA and DNA-DNA duplex formation in the presence of three monovalent cations, Li+, K+, and Cs+. The feasibility of this method was also investigated using a phosphorothioate molecular beacon. The information generated through this new approach for thermodynamic measurements might be useful for the design of oligonucleotides for antisense therapeutics.

  8. Use of the Rasch Measurement Model to Explore the Relationship between Content Knowledge and Topic-Specific Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidowitz, Bette; Potgieter, Marietjie

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that a high level of content knowledge (CK) is necessary but not sufficient to develop the special knowledge base of expert teachers known as pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). This study contributes towards research to quantify the relationship between CK and PCK in science. In order to determine the proportion of the…

  9. Nondestructive Determination of Moisture Content in Dry Fruits by Impedance and Phase angle measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impedance (Z), and phase angle (') of a cylindrical parallel-plate capacitor with dry fruits between the plates was measured using a CI meter (Chari’s Impedance meter), at 1 and 9 MHz . Capacitance, C was derived from Z and ', and using the C, ', and Z values of a set of cherries whose moisture con...

  10. Prediction of sugarcane sucrose content with high resolution, hyperspectral leaf reflectance measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to determine if leaf reflectance measurements could be used to predict theoretically recoverable sugar (TRS) levels in sugarcane prior to harvest. Leaf and stalk samples were collected from multi-variety first-ratoon (FR) sugarcane maturity studies in 2005 at three sample ...

  11. Prediction of sugarcane sucrose content with high resolution, hyperspectral leaf reflectance measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing for crop maturity parameters may offer sugarcane producers a method to develop harvest schedules that maximize sucrose production. Several tests were conducted to determine if leaf reflectance measurements could be used to predict theoretically recoverable sugar (TRS) levels (crop mat...

  12. Measuring Job Content: Skills, Technology, and Management Practices. Discussion Paper No. 1357-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handel, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The conceptualization and measurement of key job characteristics has not changed greatly for most social scientists since the Dictionary of Occupational Titles and Quality of Employment surveys were created, despite their recognized limitations. However, debates over the roles of job skill requirements, technology, and new management practices in…

  13. Measuring Reading Comprehension of Content Area Texts Using an Assessment of Knowledge Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Marcia H.; Guthrie, John T.

    2015-01-01

    The authors outline results of 3 studies conducted to examine the structure of disciplinary knowledge from reading measured through proximity data. In Study 1, 168 third-grade students were asked to read a science text and rate the relationships of keywords from the passage. From these ratings, comprehension scores were calculated that related…

  14. Advanced in-situ measurement of soil carbon content using inelastic neutron scattering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurement and mapping of natural and anthropogenic variations in soil carbon stores is a critical component of any soil resource evaluation process. Emerging modalities for soil carbon analysis in the field is the registration of gamma rays from soil under neutron irradiation. The inelastic neutro...

  15. Using measures of information content and complexity of time series as hydrologic metrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The information theory has been previously used to develop metrics that allowed to characterize temporal patterns in soil moisture dynamics, and to evaluate and to compare performance of soil water flow models. The objective of this study was to apply information and complexity measures to characte...

  16. Measuring Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juice Using a Pencil Lead Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, David; Friend, Jeffrey; Kariuki, James

    2010-01-01

    A pencil lead successfully served as an electrode for the determination of ascorbic acid in commercial orange juice. Cyclic voltammetry was used as an electrochemical probe to measure the current produced from the oxidation of ascorbic acid with a variety of electrodes. The data demonstrate that the less expensive pencil lead electrode gives…

  17. Nondestructive measurement of moisture content of different types of wheat using a single calibration with a parallel-plate capacitance sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, low cost instrument that measures impedance and phase angle was used along with a parallel-plate capacitance system to estimate the moisture content (MC) of six types of wheat. Moisture content of grain is important and is measured at various stages of their processing and storage. A sampl...

  18. Correlating optical coherence elastography based strain measurements with collagen content of the human ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Sreyankar; Salehi, Hassan S; Wang, Tianheng; Wang, Xiaohong; Sanders, Melinda; Kueck, Angela; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2015-10-01

    In this manuscript, the initial feasibility of a catheter based phase stabilized swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system was studied for characterization of the strain inside different human ovarian tissue groups. The ovarian tissue samples were periodically compressed with 500 Hz square wave signal along the axial direction between the surface of an unfocused transducer and a glass cover slide. The displacement and corresponding strain were calculated during loading from different locations for each tissue sample. A total of 27 ex vivo ovaries from 16 patients were investigated. Statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) was observed between the average displacement and strain of the normal and malignant tissue groups. A sensitivity of 93.2% and a specificity of 83% were achieved using 25 microstrain (με) as the threshold. The collagen content of the tissues was quantified from the Sirius Red stained histological sections. The average collagen area fraction (CAF) obtained from the tissue groups were found to have a strong negative correlation (R = -0.75, p < 0.0001) with the amount of strain inside the tissue. This indicates much softer and degenerated tissue structure for the malignant ovaries as compared to the dense, collagen rich structure of the normal ovarian tissue. The initial results indicate that the swept source OCT system can be useful for estimating the elasticity of the human ovarian tissue. PMID:26504631

  19. Comparison of the antioxidant content of fruits, vegetables and teas measured as vitamin C equivalents.

    PubMed

    du Toit, R; Volsteedt, Y; Apostolides, Z

    2001-09-14

    Most of the health benefits of black, green and oolong teas made from Camellia sinensis are attributed to their antioxidant content. Many plants and spices have been used to make infusions that are erroneously referred to as 'teas'. The term 'rich in antioxidants' is often used to describe such infusions, often without scientific support. We have used the DPPH method to quantify the total radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of a wide range of 'teas', fruits and vegetables. The results are presented as vitamin C equivalents. These results are compared to the RSC of the recommended portions of fruits and vegetables in the food guide pyramid for a healthy and balanced diet. The EC(50) results show that there are no statistically significant differences in the RSC of black, green and oolong teas. However, the RSC of 'teas' made from other species of plants are significantly lower. Our results show that one or two cups of tea would provide a similar amount of RSC as five potions of fruits and vegetables or 400 mg vitamin C equivalents. This would be comparable to two capsules (200 mg) of vitamin C. Caution is advised in extrapolating these in vitro results to humans due to bioavailability. PMID:11518612

  20. Development of an Amperometric-Based Glucose Biosensor to Measure the Glucose Content of Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Lee Fung; Por, Lip Yee; Yam, Mun Fei

    2015-01-01

    An amperometric enzyme-electrode was introduced where glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized on chitosan membrane via crosslinking, and then fastened on a platinum working electrode. The immobilized enzyme showed relatively high retention activity. The activity of the immobilized enzyme was influenced by its loading, being suppressed when more than 0.6 mg enzyme was used in the immobilization. The biosensor showing the highest response to glucose utilized 0.21 ml/cm2 thick chitosan membrane. The optimum experimental conditions for the biosensors in analysing glucose dissolved in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) were found to be 35°C and 0.6 V applied potential. The introduced biosensor reached a steady-state current at 60 s. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (KMapp) of the biosensor was 14.2350 mM, and its detection limit was 0.05 mM at s/n > 3, determined experimentally. The RSD of repeatability and reproducibility of the biosensor were 2.30% and 3.70%, respectively. The biosensor was showed good stability; it retained ~36% of initial activity after two months of investigation. The performance of the biosensors was evaluated by determining the glucose content in fruit homogenates. Their accuracy was compared to that of a commercial glucose assay kit. There was no significance different between two methods, indicating the introduced biosensor is reliable. PMID:25789757

  1. Measurement of Aluminum Content In Reflector Materials For The PICO Dark Matter Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsodi, Haley; PICO Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The PICO collaboration uses a bubble chamber technique to search for dark matter particles. Bubbles are registered with cameras, pressure sensors and acoustic transducers. To increase the visual contrast between bubbles and liquid, retro-reflectors are used to diffuse light from LEDs evenly throughout the inner chamber. One must, however, be careful that reflector materials not contribute radioactive background. Light nuclei, such as aluminum, can absorb alpha particles from radioactive contaminants and produce high energy neutron background in the inner volume of the chamber. Since aluminum oxides are a common reflector material and since commercial compositions are trade secrets, we had to demonstrate that the amounts of aluminum in the reflectors was small enough to allow them to be used in the chambers. After acid digesting candidate material strips, they were analyzed using Microwave Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. All of the proposed materials were found to have less than 1% Aluminum content (by mass), making them safe for use by the experiment. Indiana University South Bend.

  2. Measurements of the muon content of air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiño, I.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory offers a unique window to study cosmic rays and particle physics at energies above 3 EeV (corresponding to a centre-of-mass energy of 75 TeV in proton-proton collisions) inaccessible to accelerator experiments. We discuss the different methods of estimating the number of muons in showers recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, which is an observable sensitive to primary mass composition and to properties of the hadronic interactions in the shower. The muon content, derived from data with these methods, is presented and compared to predictions from the post-LHC hadronic interaction models for different primary composition. We find that models do not reproduce well the Auger observations, displaying a deficit of muons at the ground. In the light of these results, a better understanding of ultra-high energy extensive air showers and hadronic interactions is crucial to determine the composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We report on the upgrade plans of the Pierre Auger Observatory to achieve this science goal.

  3. Development of an amperometric-based glucose biosensor to measure the glucose content of fruit.

    PubMed

    Ang, Lee Fung; Por, Lip Yee; Yam, Mun Fei

    2015-01-01

    An amperometric enzyme-electrode was introduced where glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized on chitosan membrane via crosslinking, and then fastened on a platinum working electrode. The immobilized enzyme showed relatively high retention activity. The activity of the immobilized enzyme was influenced by its loading, being suppressed when more than 0.6 mg enzyme was used in the immobilization. The biosensor showing the highest response to glucose utilized 0.21 ml/cm2 thick chitosan membrane. The optimum experimental conditions for the biosensors in analysing glucose dissolved in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) were found to be 35°C and 0.6 V applied potential. The introduced biosensor reached a steady-state current at 60 s. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant ([Formula: see text]) of the biosensor was 14.2350 mM, and its detection limit was 0.05 mM at s/n > 3, determined experimentally. The RSD of repeatability and reproducibility of the biosensor were 2.30% and 3.70%, respectively. The biosensor was showed good stability; it retained ~36% of initial activity after two months of investigation. The performance of the biosensors was evaluated by determining the glucose content in fruit homogenates. Their accuracy was compared to that of a commercial glucose assay kit. There was no significance different between two methods, indicating the introduced biosensor is reliable. PMID:25789757

  4. Ship-borne measurements of erythemal UV irradiance and ozone content in various climate zones.

    PubMed

    Wuttke, Sigrid; El Naggar, Saad; Bluszcz, Thaddäus; Schrems, Otto

    2007-10-01

    Ship-borne measurements of spectral as well as biologically effective UV irradiance have been performed on the German research vessel Polarstern during the Atlantic transect from Bremerhaven, Germany (53.5 degrees N, 8.5 degrees E), to Cape Town, South Africa (33.6 degrees S, 18.3 degrees E), from 13 October to 17 November 2005. Such measurements are required to study UV effects on marine organisms. They are also necessary to validate satellite-derived surface UV irradiance. Cloud free radiative transfer calculations support the investigation of this latitudinal dependence. Input parameters, such as total ozone column and aerosol optical depth have been measured on board as well. Using these measured parameters, the modelled cloudless noontime UVA irradiance (320-400 nm) shows the expected dependence on varying minimum solar zenith angles (SZA) at different latitudes. The modelled cloudless noontime UVB irradiance (290-320 nm) does not show this clear dependence on SZA due to the strong influence of ozone absorption in this spectral range. The maximum daily dose of erythemal irradiance of 5420 J m(-1) was observed on 14 November 2005, when the ship was in the tropical Atlantic south of the equator. The expected UV maximum should have been observed with the sun in the zenith during local noon (11 November). Stratiform clouds reduced the dose to 3835 J m(-1). In comparison, the daily erythemal doses in the mid-latitudinal Bay of Biscay only reached values between 410 and 980 J m(-1) depending on cloud conditions. The deviation in daily erythemal dose derived from different instruments is around 5%. The feasibility to perform ship-borne measurements of spectral UV irradiance is demonstrated.

  5. Catching a glimpse of working memory: top-down capture as a tool for measuring the content of the mind.

    PubMed

    Lange, Nicholas D; Thomas, Rick P; Buttaccio, Daniel R; Davelaar, Eddy J

    2012-11-01

    This article outlines a methodology for probing working memory (WM) content in high-level cognitive tasks (e.g., decision making, problem solving, and memory retrieval) by capitalizing on attentional and oculomotor biases evidenced in top-down capture paradigms. This method would be of great use, as it could measure the information resident in WM at any point in a task and, hence, track information use over time as tasks dynamically evolve. Above and beyond providing a measure of information occupancy in WM, such a method would benefit from sensitivity to the specific activation levels of individual items in WM. This article additionally forwards a novel fusion of standard free recall and visual search paradigms in an effort to assess the sensitivity of eye movements in top-down capture, on which this new measurement technique relies, to item-specific memory activation (ISMA). The results demonstrate eye movement sensitivity to ISMA in some, but not all, cases.

  6. Aerosol Measurements of the Fine and Ultrafine Particle Content of Lunar Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Chen, Da-Ren; Smith, Sally A.

    2007-01-01

    We report the first quantitative measurements of the ultrafine (20 to 100 nm) and fine (100 nm to 20 m) particulate components of Lunar surface regolith. The measurements were performed by gas-phase dispersal of the samples, and analysis using aerosol diagnostic techniques. This approach makes no a priori assumptions about the particle size distribution function as required by ensemble optical scattering methods, and is independent of refractive index and density. The method provides direct evaluation of effective transport diameters, in contrast to indirect scattering techniques or size information derived from two-dimensional projections of high magnification-images. The results demonstrate considerable populations in these size regimes. In light of the numerous difficulties attributed to dust exposure during the Apollo program, this outcome is of significant importance to the design of mitigation technologies for future Lunar exploration.

  7. Cloud-base water content measurement using single wavelength laser-radar data.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A

    1975-12-01

    Monochromatic backscattering laser-radar data are used for the determination on the number density of cloud droplets within a cumulus cloud base. The method is based upon general properties of a cloud base as derived from in situ measurements in a large variety of continental cumulus clouds. The backscatter laser profile from the cloud base is analyzed, and points with equal optical-depth values are detected in each profile. The method of detection requires no knowledge of the multiple scattering contribution, even though its effect is not neglected and is allowed to vary as a function of the optical depth. Corrections for general clouds are suggested based upon lidar measurements and analysis of the backscattering profile characteristics.

  8. A multi-frequency radiometric measurement of soil moisture content over bare and vegetated fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Schmugge, T. J.; Gould, W. I.; Glazar, W. S.; Fuchs, J. E.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1982-01-01

    An experiment on soil moisture remote sensing was conducted during July to September 1981 on bare, grass, and alfalfa fields at frequencies of 0.6, 1.4, 5.0, and 10.6 GHz with radiometers mounted on mobile towers. The results confirm the frequency dependence of sensitivity reduction due to the presence of vegetation cover. For the type of vegetated fields reported here, the vegetation effect is appreciable even at 0.6 GHz. Measurements over bare soil show that when the soil is wet, the measured brightness temperature is lowest at 5.0 GHz and highest at 0.6 GHz, a result contrary to the expectation based on the estimated dielectric permittivity of soil-water mixtures and the current radiative transfer model in that frequency range.

  9. Comparing contents of outcome measures in cerebral palsy using the International Classification of Functioning (ICF-CY): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schiariti, Veronica; Klassen, Anne F; Cieza, Alarcos; Sauve, Karen; O'Donnell, Maureen; Armstrong, Robert; Mâsse, Louise C

    2014-01-01

    The International Classification of Functioning children and youth version (ICF-CY) provides a universal framework for defining and classifying functioning and disability in children worldwide. To facilitate the application of the ICF in practice, ICF based-tools like the "ICF Core Sets" are being developed. In the context of the development of the ICF-CY Core Sets for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP), the aims of this study were as follows: to identify and compare the content of outcome measures used in studies of children with CP using the ICF-CY coding system; and to describe the most frequently addressed areas of functioning in those studies. We searched multiple databases likely to capture studies involving children with CP from January 1998 to March 2012. We included all English language articles that studied children aged 2-18 years and described an interventional or observational study. Constructs of the outcome measures identified in studies were linked to the ICF-CY by two trained professionals. We found 231 articles that described 238 outcome measures. The outcome measures contained 2193 concepts that were linked to the ICF-CY and covered 161 independent ICF-CY categories. Out of the 161 categories, 53 (33.5%) were related to body functions, 75 (46%) were related to activities/participation, 26 (16.1%) were related to environmental factors, and 7 (4.3%) were related to body structures. This systematic review provides information about content of measures that may guide researchers and clinicians in their selection of an outcome measure for use in a study and/or clinical practice with children with CP.

  10. Measuring mRNA copy-number in individual Escherichia coli cells using single-molecule fluorescent in situ hybridization (smFISH)

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Samuel O.; Sepúlveda, Leonardo A.; Xu, Heng; Golding, Ido

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for measuring the absolute number of mRNA molecules from a gene of interest in individual, chemically fixed Escherichia coli cells. A set of fluorescently-labeled oligonucleotide probes are hybridized to the target mRNA, so that each mRNA molecule is decorated by a known number of fluorescent dyes. Cells are then imaged using fluorescence microscopy. The number of target mRNA is estimated from the total intensity of fluorescent foci in the cell, rather than from counting discrete “spots” as in other currently available protocols. Image analysis is performed using an automated algorithm. The measured mRNA copy-number distribution obtained from many individual cells can be used to extract the parameters of stochastic gene activity, namely the frequency and size of transcription bursts from the gene of interest. The experimental procedure takes 2 days, with another 2-3 days typically required for image and data analysis. PMID:23680982

  11. Direct measurement of tubulin and bulk message distributions on polysomes of growing, starved and deciliated Tetrahymena using RNA gel blots of sucrose gradients containing acrylamide.

    PubMed

    Calzone, F J; Callahan, R; Gorovsky, M A

    1988-10-25

    A method was developed using sucrose gradients containing acrylamide which greatly simplifies the measurement of the polysomal distribution of messages. After centrifugation, the acrylamide was polymerized, forming a "polysome gel". RNA gel blots of polysome gels were used to determine the polysomal distributions of alpha-tubulin and total polyadenylated mRNA in growing, starved (nongrowing) and starved-deciliated Tetrahymena and the number of messages loaded onto polysomes was calculated. These measurements indicated that the translational efficiencies of alpha-tubulin mRNA and total polyadenylated mRNA are largely unaffected when the rates of tubulin and total protein synthesis vary dramatically. Thus, differential regulation of alpha-tubulin mRNA translation initiation does not contribute to the greater than 100-fold induction of tubulin synthesis observed during cilia regeneration and in growing cells. The major translation-level process regulating tubulin synthesis in Tetrahymena appears to be a change in message loading mediated by a non-specific message recruitment or unmasking factor.

  12. Clarifying the Content Coverage of Differing Psychopathy Inventories through Reference to the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure

    PubMed Central

    Drislane, Laura E.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Arsal, Güler

    2014-01-01

    The Triarchic Model of psychopathy (Patrick, Fowles, and Krueger, 2009) was formulated as an integrative framework for reconciling differing conceptions of psychopathy. The model characterizes psychopathy in terms of three distinguishable phenotypic components: boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. Data from a large mixed-gender undergraduate sample (N = 618) were used to examine relations of several of the best-known measures for assessing psychopathic traits with scores on the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM), an inventory developed to operationalize the Triarchic Model through separate facet scales. Analyses revealed that established inventories of psychopathy index components of the model as indexed by the TriPM to varying degrees. While each inventory provided effective coverage of meanness and disinhibition components, instruments differed in their representation of boldness. Current results demonstrate the heuristic value of the Triarchic Model for delineating commonalities and differences among alternative measures of psychopathy, and provide support for the utility of the Triarchic Model as a framework for reconciling alternative conceptions of psychopathy. PMID:24320762

  13. X-ray fluorescence analysis (XFA) of thyroidal iodine content (TIC) with an improved measuring system.

    PubMed

    Reiners, C; Hänscheid, H; Lassmann, M; Tiemann, M; Kreissl, M; Rendl, J; Bier, D

    1998-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis is based on the principal that the electron structure of stable iodine in the thyroid is excited by Americium-241 gamma rays to emit a characteristic fluorescence radiation which is proportional to the amount of iodine present in the gland. A stationary measuring system consisting of a 11.1 GBq Am-241 source and a high-purity Germanium detector with spectrum analyser has been improved by a PC guided method for sonographic definition of the measuring volume. The lower limit of detectibility of the system corresponds to 0.01 mg of Iodine per ml of thyroid volume; the in vivo precision given as coefficient of variation amounts to 15%. The thyroid is exposed with a radiation dose of 6 microSv per measurement. First studies with this improved system carried out in 50 female volunteers between 20 and 40 years of age with normal thyroid volumes resulted in a mean iodine concentration of the thyroid of 0.665 +/- 0.304 mg/ml. The mean iodine excretion in urine was normal with 10.8 +/- 10.4 microg/dl. PMID:9865551

  14. Method and apparatus for measuring mass flow and energy content using a differential pressure meter

    SciTech Connect

    Vander Heyden, W.H.

    1993-07-13

    An apparatus is described for measuring a ratio of a mass flow rate of a pipeline gas flowing through a pipeline compared to a mass flow rate of a sample gas tapped from the pipeline, the pipeline having a first device means for producing a pipeline gas pressure differential, the apparatus comprising: a second device means for producing a sample gas pressure differential while maintaining the sample gas at substantially the same temperature as the pipeline gas; means for routing the sample gas to the second device means; means for measuring the pipeline gas pressure differential as the pipeline gas flows through the first device means; means for measuring the sample gas pressure differential as the sample gas flows through the second device means; a flow controlling means located downstream of the second device means for maintaining a sample gas flow rate through the second device means independent of the pipeline gas pressure differential; and a control means for comparing the sample gas pressure differential with the pipeline gas pressure differential in order to obtain the mass flow rate ratio. A method is described for using the above apparatus.

  15. Rapid measurement of 3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazine content of winegrapes to predict levels in resultant wines.

    PubMed

    Ryona, Imelda; Pan, Bruce S; Sacks, Gavin L

    2009-09-23

    We describe an optimized protocol for analysis of the herbaceous smelling 3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines (MPs) in whole berries that predicts MPs in resultant red wines. Berries are homogenized by bead-milling with a deuterated standard prior to headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and quantification by two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry (GCxGC-TOF-MS). In the case of 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP), GCxGC-TOF-MS successfully resolved interferences that coeluted with the analyte in the first dimension. HS-SPME parameters (pH, queue time, incubation time, extraction time, extraction temperature) were optimized by a statistical experimental design. Good method accuracy was observed (consistent ratio of unlabeled analyte to labeled standard) at 10 min extraction times when 80 degrees C extraction temperatures were employed, although increasing sensitivity was observed for longer extraction times (up to 140 min). Standard addition of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) and IPMP into preveraison and harvest ripe berry matrices showed good linearity (r(2) >0.99 in all cases), with limits of detection ranging from 0.6 to 1.8 pg/g. The protocol was validated by comparing IBMP in 16 lots of Cabernet Franc berries (range = undetectable to 18.4 pg/g) to the resulting wines (range = undetectable to 14.5 pg/g). Berry and wine MP content were strongly correlated, (r(2) = 0.97, p < 0.0001). Following correction for CO(2) loss, the observed concentration of IBMP in wines was 67 +/- 13% of the IBMP concentration observed in berries.

  16. Flight Instrument for Measurement of Liquid-Water Content in Clouds at Temperatures Above and Below Freezing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Porter J.

    1951-01-01

    A principle formerly used in an instrument for cloud detection was further investigated to provide a simple and rapid means for measuring the liquid-water content of clouds at temperatures above and below freezing. The instrument consists of a small cylindrical element so operated at high surface temperatures that the impingement of cloud droplets creates a significant drop in the surface temperature. ? The instrument is sensitive to a wide range of liquid-water content and was calibrated at one set of fixed conditions against rotating multicylinder measurements. The limited conditions of the calibration Included an air temperature of 20 F, an air velocity of 175 miles per hour, and a surface temperature in clear air of 475 F. The results obtained from experiments conducted with the instrument indicate that the principle can be used for measurements in clouds at temperatures above and below freezing. Calibrations for ranges of airspeed, air temperature, and air density will be necessary to adapt the Instrument for general flight use.

  17. High-resolution measurement of beryllium-10 content in the Dome Fuji shallow ice core during the Maunder Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, H.; Yokoyama, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.; Horiuchi, K.; Motoyama, H.

    2007-12-01

    The production rate of the beryllium-10 in the atmosphere is basically proportional to the intensity of incoming galactic cosmic rays which show 11 year periodicity associated with the state of solar magnetic field. In order to examine the feasibility of detecting the 11 year solar cycle in the Dome Fuji shallow ice core covering over 3000 years, we measured the Be-10 content with high temporal resolution of 0.7-1.0 years. The Be-10/Be-9 ratio is measured by the Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) at the Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator (MALT), at the University of Tokyo. We report the preliminary data of the Be-10 concentration in the Dome Fuji shallow ice core around the 17th and the 18th century including the era of the Maunder Minimum. The average content of Be-10 in the ice core for this period is about 105 atoms/g. The 11 year periodicity is clearly detected with amplitude of about 30 %. We compare the obtained Be-10 data with the sunspot data and the other beryllium-10 data to evaluate the validity of our measurement and to examine the accuracy of the dating of the ice sheets for this period. Based on the results, we discuss the variation of solar cycle and the magnetic polarity during the Maunder Minimum.

  18. Calibration procedures to test the feasibility of heated fiber optics for measuring soil water content in field conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benítez, Javier; Sayde, Chadi; Rodríguez Sinobas, Leonor; Sánchez, Raúl; Gil, María; Selker, John

    2013-04-01

    This research provides insights of the calibration procedures carried out at the agricultural field of La Nava de Arévalo (Spain). The suitability of the heat pulse theory applied to fiber optics for measuring soil water content, in field conditions, is here analyzed. In addition, it highlights the major findings obtained and the weakness to be addressed in future studies. Within a corn field, in a plot of 500 m2 of bare soil, 600 m of fiber optic cable (BruggSteal) were buried on a ziz-zag deployment at two depths, 30cm and 60cm. Various electrical heat pulses of 20W/m were applied to the stainless steel shield of the fiber optic cable during 2 minutes. The resulting thermal response was captured by means of Distributed Fiber Optic Temperature sensing (DFOT), within a spatial and temporal resolution up to 25 cm and 1 s, respectively. The soil thermal response was then correlated to the soil water content by using undisturbed soil samples and soil moisture sensors (Decagon ECHO 5TM). The process was also modeled by applying the numerical methods software Hydrus 2D. Also, the soil thermal properties were measured in situ by using a dual heat pulse probe (Decagon Kd2Pro). For an ongoing process, first results obtained show the suitability of heated fiber optics for measuring soil water content, in real field conditions. Also, they highlight the usefulness of Hydrus 2D as a complementary tool for calibration purposes and for reducing uncertainty in addressing soil spatial variability.

  19. Pseudouridine at position 55 in tRNA controls the contents of other modified nucleotides for low-temperature adaptation in the extreme-thermophilic eubacterium Thermus thermophilus

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Kazuo; Kunibayashi, Takashi; Tomikawa, Chie; Ochi, Anna; Kanai, Tamotsu; Hirata, Akira; Iwashita, Chikako; Hori, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Pseudouridine at position 55 (Ψ55) in eubacterial tRNA is produced by TruB. To clarify the role of the Ψ55 modification, we constructed a truB gene disruptant (ΔtruB) strain of Thermus thermophilus which is an extreme-thermophilic eubacterium. Unexpectedly, the ΔtruB strain exhibited severe growth retardation at 50°C. We assumed that these phenomena might be caused by lack of RNA chaperone activity of TruB, which was previously hypothetically proposed by others. To confirm this idea, we replaced the truB gene in the genome with mutant genes, which express TruB proteins with very weak or no enzymatic activity. However the growth retardation at 50°C was not rescued by these mutant proteins. Nucleoside analysis revealed that Gm18, m5s2U54 and m1A58 in tRNA from the ΔtruB strain were abnormally increased. An in vitro assay using purified tRNA modification enzymes demonstrated that the Ψ55 modification has a negative effect on Gm18 formation by TrmH. These experimental results show that the Ψ55 modification is required for low-temperature adaptation to control other modified. 35S-Met incorporation analysis showed that the protein synthesis activity of the ΔtruB strain was inferior to that of the wild-type strain and that the cold-shock proteins were absence in the ΔtruB cells at 50°C. PMID:21097467

  20. Pseudouridine at position 55 in tRNA controls the contents of other modified nucleotides for low-temperature adaptation in the extreme-thermophilic eubacterium Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kazuo; Kunibayashi, Takashi; Tomikawa, Chie; Ochi, Anna; Kanai, Tamotsu; Hirata, Akira; Iwashita, Chikako; Hori, Hiroyuki

    2011-03-01

    Pseudouridine at position 55 (Ψ55) in eubacterial tRNA is produced by TruB. To clarify the role of the Ψ55 modification, we constructed a truB gene disruptant (ΔtruB) strain of Thermus thermophilus which is an extreme-thermophilic eubacterium. Unexpectedly, the ΔtruB strain exhibited severe growth retardation at 50 °C. We assumed that these phenomena might be caused by lack of RNA chaperone activity of TruB, which was previously hypothetically proposed by others. To confirm this idea, we replaced the truB gene in the genome with mutant genes, which express TruB proteins with very weak or no enzymatic activity. However the growth retardation at 50 °C was not rescued by these mutant proteins. Nucleoside analysis revealed that Gm18, m(5)s(2)U54 and m(1)A58 in tRNA from the ΔtruB strain were abnormally increased. An in vitro assay using purified tRNA modification enzymes demonstrated that the Ψ55 modification has a negative effect on Gm18 formation by TrmH. These experimental results show that the Ψ55 modification is required for low-temperature adaptation to control other modified. (35)S-Met incorporation analysis showed that the protein synthesis activity of the ΔtruB strain was inferior to that of the wild-type strain and that the cold-shock proteins were absence in the ΔtruB cells at 50°C.

  1. Analytical methods and apparatus for measuring the oil content of sponge core

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; DiFoggio, R.; Tutunjian, P.N.

    1989-09-19

    This patent describes a method for use in determining the oil saturation of an earth formation by means of sponge coring, using polyurethane sponge. It comprises: dissolving substantially all of the oil and substantially none of the sponge, in a sponge core sample, into a solvent having a Hansen solubility parameter of different than that of the sponge and selected from the class consisting of: solvents having no protons in their structure, deuterated solvents, and solvents having no C-H bonds in their structure; extracting the solvent and solutes from the core sample; and measuring the resultant oil concentration in the solvent and solutes extracted from the core sample.

  2. Measuring Technological and Content Knowledge of Undergraduate Primary Teachers in Mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doukakis, Spyros; Chionidou-Moskofoglou, Maria; Mangina-Phelan, Eleni; Roussos, Petros

    Twenty-five final-year undergraduate students of primary education who were attending a course on mathematics education participated in a research project during the 2009 spring semester. A repeated measures experimental design was used. Quantitative data on students' computer attitudes, self-efficacy in ICT, attitudes toward educational software, and self-efficacy in maths were collected. Data analysis showed a statistically non-significant improvement on participants' computer attitudes and self-efficacy in ICT and ES, but a significant improvement of self-efficacy in mathematics.

  3. Measurement of heme efflux and heme content in isolated developing chloroplasts. [Cucumis sativus, cv. Sumter

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.; Weinstein, J.D. )

    1990-11-01

    Hemes destined for cytosolic hemoproteins must originate in one of the cellular compartments which have the capacity for heme synthesis, namely the chloroplast or the mitochondria. Since developing chloroplasts from greening cucumber (Cucumis sativus, cv. Sumter) cotyledons are known to contain complete heme and chlorophyll biosynthetic pathways, they were tested for their capacity export hemes. Picomole quantities of heme were measured by reconstitution of the heme with apo-peroxidase and subsequent determination of peroxidase activity. The assay method was sensitive (as little as 0.7 picomole of heme could be detected in a volume of 100 microliters) and was linear with heme concentration. When intact plastids were incubated with apo-peroxidase, a steady-state rate of efflux between 0.12 and 0.45 picomole heme/minute/milligram plastid protein was measured. The efflux rate was not due to plastid breakage and could be enhanced by incubating with the heme precursor, {delta}-aminolevulinic acid. Cold acetone extraction removed 47 {plus minus} 17 picomoles heme/milligram plastid protein from the total b-type heme pool in the chloroplasts (166 {plus minus} 9 picomoles heme/milligram protein, by acid-acetone extraction). The reconstitution technique provided a similar estimate of readily exchangeable heme in the plastid, 37 {plus minus} 8 picomoles heme/milligram protein (or 6 micromolar in the plastids). These values may be indicative of a free heme pool which exists in the chloroplast.

  4. Winter-spring anomalies in the stratospheric content of NO2 from ground-based measurement results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageyeva, V. Yu.; Gruzdev, A. N.; Elokhov, A. S.; Grishaev, M. V.

    2015-07-01

    According to the results of ground-based spectrometric measurements, significant negative anomalies in the stratospheric content of NO2 were observed at a number of stations in the Northern Hemisphere during winter and spring 2011. These anomalies were accompanied by those in total ozone content (TOC) and stratospheric temperature and were caused by the transport of air masses from the region of the arctic ozone hole. The results of analysis of vertical NO2 profiles obtained at the Zvenigorod Scientific Station showed that a certain contribution to the 2011 negative anomalies of NO2 was made due to a denitrification of the polar stratosphere in the ozone-hole region. The relation between variations in the total content of NO2 and those in the TOC and temperature was analyzed for both the Northern and Southern hemispheres during winter-spring periods. It was found that this relation depends on the phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation in the stratospheric equatorial wind. Such a correlation usually intensifies if only the episodes of negative anomalies caused by the transport of stratospheric air masses from the ozone-hole region are taken into consideration.

  5. Inferring brown carbon content from UV aerosol absorption measurements during biomass burning season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Arola, A. T.; Torres, O.; Jethva, H. T.; Andrade, M.; Labow, G. J.; Eck, T. F.; Li, Z.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stenchikov, G. L.; Osipov, S.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring spectral dependence of light absorption by colored organic or "brown" carbon (BrC) is important, because of its effects on photolysis rates of ozone and surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Enhanced UV spectral absorption by BrC can in turn be exploited for simultaneous retrievals of BrC and black carbon (BC) column amounts in field campaigns. We present an innovative ground-based retrieval of BC and BrC volume fractions and their mass absorption efficiencies during the biomass burning season in Santa Cruz, Bolivia in September-October 2007. Our method combines retrieval of BC volume fraction using AERONET inversion in visible wavelengths with the inversion of total BC+BrC absorption (i.e., column effective imaginary refractive index, kmeas) using Diffuse/Direct irradiance measurements in UV wavelengths. First, we retrieve BrC volume fraction by fitting kmeas at 368nm using Maxwell-Garnett (MG) mixing rules assuming: (1) flat spectral dependence of kBC, (2) known value of kBrC at 368nm from laboratory absorption measurements or smoke chamber experiments, and (3) known BC volume fraction from AERONET inversion. Next, we derive kBrC in short UVB wavelengths by fitting kmeas at 305nm, 311nm, 317nm, 325nm, and 332nm using MG mixing rules and fixed volume fractions of BC and BrC. Our retrievals show larger than expected spectral dependence of kBrC in UVB wavelengths, implying reduced surface UVB irradiance and inhibited photolysis rates of surface ozone destruction. We use a one-dimensional chemical box model to show that the observed strong wavelength dependence of BrC absorption leads to inhibited photolysis of ozone to O(1D), a loss mechanism, while having little impact or even accelerating photolysis of NO2, an ozone production mechanism. Although BC only absorption in biomass burning aerosols is important for climate radiative forcing in the visible wavelengths, additional absorption by BrC is important because of its impact on surface UVB radiation

  6. Measurement of 210Po atoms content in glass as an indicator of long-term exposure to radon.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, J; Olszewski, J; Skubalski, J

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of exposure to radon are performed using numerous research methods which register either temporary or periodic radon concentrations. The method presented below allows for the estimation of average radon concentration in the past. This is possible due to indirect measurement of the contents of 210Pb embedded in glass structure. The half-life of 210Pb is about 22 years. A number of exposures of window glass to radon have been carried out in laboratory conditions (radon chamber) and the obtained results were used to calculate the coefficient that renders it possible to define global indoor exposure to radon. The registration was made using a track detector CR-39, which records alpha particles resulting from the disintegration of 210Po, one of 222Rn decay products.

  7. Measuring cloud droplet effective radius and liquid water content using changes in degree of linear polarization along cloud depth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dukhyeon; Lee, Jeongsoon

    2014-06-15

    Two important parameters of liquid clouds are the cloud effective size (CES) and liquid water content (LWC). To measure these parameters, we have used two multiple scattering depolarization effects: (1) the slope of the degree of linear polarization (SLDLP) at the cloud base, and (2) the saturated degree of linear polarization (SADLP) at infinite altitude. We used Monte Carlo simulation to validate this method, with the assumption that the water cloud droplet size follows a Gamma distribution. From our calculation, we find that although the SADLP varies with both extinction coefficient (or LWC) and the CES, the SLDLP varies only with the extinction coefficient. After extracting the extinction coefficient using the SLDLP, we can easily obtain the CES using the SADLP. As a result, we found that the CES and the LWC can be extracted from the experimental parameters of SLDLP and SADLP, which can be easily measured using a single wavelength depolarization LIDAR.

  8. Measurement by radioimmunoassay of casein content in rabbit mammary gland during pregnancy and after prolactin stimulation in organ culture

    SciTech Connect

    Jahn, G.; Dusanter-Fourt, I.; Kelly, P.A.; Houdebine, L.M.; Djiane, J.

    1987-01-01

    A specific homologous radioimmunoassay was developed to measure rabbit ..beta..-casein in rabbit mammary gland with a sensitivity of 0.5 ng/ml protein. It was used to measure casein concentration during pregnancy and in organ culture of mammary gland explants. Casein was detectable in virgin mammary glands, showed a small increase during the first half of pregnancy, increased more than 20-fold between Days 21 and 27, and diminished somewhat on the first days of lactation. After 24 hr of culture, mammary gland explants had no detectable casein, but the addition of increasing concentrations of prolactin to a culture medium which contained insulin (5 ..mu..g/ml) and cortisol (0.5 ..mu..g/ml) induced a regular increase in the casein content of the tissue. Casein started to increase when 10 ng/ml of prolactin was present and maximal values were achieved for 100 ng/ml of the hormone.

  9. Quantitative measurement of alternatively spliced amyloid precursor protein mRNA expression in Alzheimer's disease and normal brain by S1 nuclease protection analysis.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, J S; Blume, A J; Vitek, M P

    1991-01-01

    We have used an S1 nuclease protection strategy to measure alternatively spliced amyloid precursor protein (APP) mRNAs associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) to determine whether the expression of either one or more of the transcripts correlate with observed amyloid plaque pathology. Comparison of AD with normal cortex reveals that increasing plaque density parallels an increase in the fraction of APP-695 and a corresponding decrease in APP-770 and 751 mRNA fractions. A specific increase of APP-695, the protease inhibitor-lacking APP RNA form, in those brain regions most involved with amyloid plaque formation, suggests that an imbalance in the protease inhibitor is potentially significant in the disease. These data are consistent with cellular/tissue region-specific regulation of alternative splicing accounting for AD-related changes in the expression of APP mRNA forms.

  10. Information content of measurements from tracer microlysimeter experiments designed for parameter identification in dual-permeability models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsbo, Mats; Jarvis, Nicholas

    2006-06-01

    Parameters regulating the degree of preferential flow in the dual-permeability water flow and solute transport model MACRO are difficult or impossible to derive from direct measurements. The objectives were (i) to find an improved temporal measurement scheme for identification of these parameters using laboratory microlysimeter experiments and (ii) to evaluate the possibilities of parameter identification in the MACRO model. Artificial data from laboratory microlysimeter experiments consisting of high time-resolution 'measurements' of percolation rate, effluent concentration and resident concentrations at six depths were used with PIMLI (parameter identification method using the localisation of information). The data contained enough information to successfully reduce the uncertainty in the parameter governing mass exchange between pore domains, the saturated micropore hydraulic conductivity and the dispersivity for two hypothetical soils representing one typical clay and one loam. Parameters governing water flow in the macropores were shown to be sensitive in a screening analysis with the Morris method and the uncertainty in these parameters was also reduced by PIMLI. However, some of these parameters did not converge towards their true values probably because of parameter interdependence. In all cases, 'measurements' with large information content were found early in the experiments where less than 0.2 pore volumes of water had passed through the column. For successful identification of parameters determining the degree of preferential flow, efforts should be made to perform high time-resolution measurements during the first irrigations following solute application.

  11. Measurements of the Ice Water Content of Cirrus in the Tropics and Subtropics. I; Instrument Details and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstock, E. M.; Smith, J. B.; Sayres, D.; Pittman, J. V.; Allen, N.; Demusz, J.; Greenberg, M.; Rivero, M.; Anderson, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe an instrument mounted in a pallet on the NASA WB-57 aircraft that is designed to measure the sum of gas phase and solid phase water, or total water, in cirrus clouds. Using an isokinetic inlet, a 600-watt heater mounted directly in the flow, and Lyman-alpha photofragment fluorescence technique for detection, accurate measurements of total water have been made over almost three orders of magnitude. Isokinetic flow is achieved with an actively controlled roots pump by referencing aircraft pressure, temperature, and true air speed, together with instrument flow velocity, temperature, and pressure. During CRYSTAL FACE, the instrument operated at duct temperatures sufficiently warm to completely evaporate particles up to 150 microns diameter. In flight diagnostics, intercomparison with water measured by absorption in flight, as well as intercomparisons in clear air with water vapor measured by the Harvard water vapor instrument and the JPL infrared tunable diode laser hygrometer validate the detection sensitivity of the instrument and illustrate minimal hysteresis from instrument surfaces. The simultaneous measurement of total water and water vapor in cirrus clouds yields their ice water content.

  12. Prediction of retail beef yield and fat content from live animal and carcass measurements in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, L S; Mercadante, M E Z; Bonilha, S F M; Branco, R H; Bonilha, E F M; Magnani, E

    2014-11-01

    Data from 156 Nellore males were used to develop equations for the prediction of retail beef yield and carcass fat content, expressed as kilograms and as a percentage, from live animal and carcass measurements. Longissimus muscle area and backfat and rump fat thickness were measured by ultrasound up to 5 d before slaughter and fasted live weight was determined 1 d before slaughter. The same traits were obtained after slaughter. The carcass edible portion (CEP in kg and CEP% in percentage; n = 116) was calculated by the sum of the edible portions of primal cuts: hindquarter, forequarter, and spare ribs. Trimmable fat from the carcass boning process, with the standardization of about 3 mm of fat on retail beef, was considered to be representative of carcass fat content. Most of the variation in CEP was explained by fasted live weight or carcass weight (R(2) of 0.92 and 0.96); the same occurred for CEP% (R(2) of 0.15 and 0.13), and for CEP, the inclusion of LM area and fat thickness reduced the equation bias (lower value of Mallow's Cp statistics). For trimmable fat, most variation could be explained by weight or rump fat thickness. In general, the equations developed from live animal measurements showed a predictive power similar to the equations using carcass measurements. In all cases, the traits expressed as kilograms were better predicted (R(2) of 0.39 to 0.96) than traits expressed as a percentage (R(2) of 0.08 to 0.42). PMID:25349365

  13. ePAT: a simple method to tag adenylated RNA to measure poly(A)-tail length and other 3' RACE applications.

    PubMed

    Jänicke, Amrei; Vancuylenberg, John; Boag, Peter R; Traven, Ana; Beilharz, Traude H

    2012-06-01

    The addition of a poly(A)-tail to the 3' termini of RNA molecules influences stability, nuclear export, and efficiency of translation. In the cytoplasm, dynamic changes in the length of the poly(A)-tail have long been recognized as reflective of the switch between translational silence and activation. Thus, measurement of the poly(A)-tail associated with any given mRNA at steady-state can serve as a surrogate readout of its translation-state. Here, we describe a simple new method to 3'-tag adenylated RNA in total RNA samples using the intrinsic property of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I to extend an RNA primer using a DNA template. This tag can serve as an anchor for cDNA synthesis and subsequent gene-specific PCR to assess poly(A)-tail length. We call this method extension Poly(A) Test (ePAT). The ePAT approach is as efficient as traditional Ligation-Mediated Poly(A) Test (LM-PAT) assays, avoids problems of internal priming associated with oligo-dT-based methods, and allows for the accurate analysis of both the poly(A)-tail length and alternate 3' UTR usage in 3' RACE applications.

  14. Simultaneous measurement of genome-wide transcription elongation speeds and rates of RNA polymerase II transition into active elongation with 4sUDRB-seq.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Gilad; Voichek, Yoav; Rabani, Michal; Benjamin, Sima; Gilad, Shlomit; Amit, Ido; Oren, Moshe

    2015-04-01

    4sUDRB-seq separately measures, on a genomic scale, the distinct contributions of transcription elongation speed and rate of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transition into active elongation (TAE) to the overall mRNA production rate. It uses reversible inhibition of transcription elongation with 5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB), combined with a pulse of 4-thiouridine (4sU), to tag newly transcribed RNA. After DRB removal, cells are collected at several time points, and tagged RNA is biotinylated, captured on streptavidin beads and sequenced. 4sUDRB-seq enables the comparison of elongation speeds between different developmental stages or different cell types, and it allows the impact of specific transcription factors on transcription elongation speed versus TAE to be studied. RNA preparation takes ∼4 d to complete, with deep sequencing requiring an additional ∼4-11 d plus 1-3 d for bioinformatics analysis. The experimental protocol requires basic molecular biology skills, whereas data analysis requires knowledge in bioinformatics, particularly MATLAB and the Linux environment.

  15. Analytical limits of total and insoluble collagen content measurements and of type I and III collagen analysis by electrophoresis in bovine muscles.

    PubMed

    Listrat, Anne; Hocquette, Jean-François

    2004-09-01

    Three to 16 animals were necessary to detect a difference of 50-20% in total collagen contents in Longissimus thoracis muscle, between two experimental groups of cattle, using the facilities available in our laboratory. The inter-assay variability was higher for insoluble collagen content than for total collagen content. Consequently differences between two groups are determined less accurately for insoluble collagen content than for total collagen content. This may be partly compensated by repeated measurements (minimum 4) to detect a difference of 40% or even higher. The low reproducibility of type I and type III collagen contents determined by electrophoretic analysis is due to uncontrollable technical parameters. Normalisation of the results is thus necessary for accurate quantification. The recommended procedure is to use total protein content detected and quantified on the gels as a covariable in the statistical model. This procedure induces a 15% reduction in intra-subject variability, and hence in sample size required to detect significant differences.

  16. Retrieval of ice crystals' mass from ice water content and particle distribution measurements: a numerical optimization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutris, Pierre; Leroy, Delphine; Fontaine, Emmanuel; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Strapp, J. Walter

    2016-04-01

    A new method to retrieve cloud water content from in-situ measured 2D particle images from optical array probes (OAP) is presented. With the overall objective to build a statistical model of crystals' mass as a function of their size, environmental temperature and crystal microphysical history, this study presents the methodology to retrieve the mass of crystals sorted by size from 2D images using a numerical optimization approach. The methodology is validated using two datasets of in-situ measurements gathered during two airborne field campaigns held in Darwin, Australia (2014), and Cayenne, France (2015), in the frame of the High Altitude Ice Crystals (HAIC) / High Ice Water Content (HIWC) projects. During these campaigns, a Falcon F-20 research aircraft equipped with state-of-the art microphysical instrumentation sampled numerous mesoscale convective systems (MCS) in order to study dynamical and microphysical properties and processes of high ice water content areas. Experimentally, an isokinetic evaporator probe, referred to as IKP-2, provides a reference measurement of the total water content (TWC) which equals ice water content, (IWC) when (supercooled) liquid water is absent. Two optical array probes, namely 2D-S and PIP, produce 2D images of individual crystals ranging from 50 μm to 12840 μm from which particle size distributions (PSD) are derived. Mathematically, the problem is formulated as an inverse problem in which the crystals' mass is assumed constant over a size class and is computed for each size class from IWC and PSD data: PSD.m = IW C This problem is solved using numerical optimization technique in which an objective function is minimized. The objective function is defined as follows: 2 J(m)=∥P SD.m - IW C ∥ + λ.R (m) where the regularization parameter λ and the regularization function R(m) are tuned based on data characteristics. The method is implemented in two steps. First, the method is developed on synthetic crystal populations in

  17. Retrieval of ice crystals' mass from ice water content and particle distribution measurements: a numerical optimization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutris, Pierre; Leroy, Delphine; Fontaine, Emmanuel; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Strapp, J. Walter

    2016-04-01

    A new method to retrieve cloud water content from in-situ measured 2D particle images from optical array probes (OAP) is presented. With the overall objective to build a statistical model of crystals' mass as a function of their size, environmental temperature and crystal microphysical history, this study presents the methodology to retrieve the mass of crystals sorted by size from 2D images using a numerical optimization approach. The methodology is validated using two datasets of in-situ measurements gathered during two airborne field campaigns held in Darwin, Australia (2014), and Cayenne, France (2015), in the frame of the High Altitude Ice Crystals (HAIC) / High Ice Water Content (HIWC) projects. During these campaigns, a Falcon F-20 research aircraft equipped with state-of-the art microphysical instrumentation sampled numerous mesoscale convective systems (MCS) in order to study dynamical and microphysical properties and processes of high ice water content areas. Experimentally, an isokinetic evaporator probe, referred to as IKP-2, provides a reference measurement of the total water content (TWC) which equals ice water content, (IWC) when (supercooled) liquid water is absent. Two optical array probes, namely 2D-S and PIP, produce 2D images of individual crystals ranging from 50 μm to 12840 μm from which particle size distributions (PSD) are derived. Mathematically, the problem is formulated as an inverse problem in which the crystals' mass is assumed constant over a size class and is computed for each size class from IWC and PSD data: PSD.m = IW C This problem is solved using numerical optimization technique in which an objective function is minimized. The objective function is defined as follows: 2 J(m)=∥P SD.m ‑ IW C ∥ + λ.R (m) where the regularization parameter λ and the regularization function R(m) are tuned based on data characteristics. The method is implemented in two steps. First, the method is developed on synthetic crystal populations in

  18. A Novel Low-Cost Instrumentation System for Measuring the Water Content and Apparent Electrical Conductivity of Soils.

    PubMed

    Rêgo Segundo, Alan Kardek; Martins, José Helvecio; Monteiro, Paulo Marcos de Barros; de Oliveira, Rubens Alves; Freitas, Gustavo Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    The scarcity of drinking water affects various regions of the planet. Although climate change is responsible for the water availability, humanity plays an important role in preserving this precious natural resource. In case of negligence, the likely trend is to increase the demand and the depletion of water resources due to the increasing world population. This paper addresses the development, design and construction of a low cost system for measuring soil volumetric water content (θ), electrical conductivity (σ) and temperature (T), in order to optimize the use of water, energy and fertilizer in food production. Different from the existing measurement instruments commonly deployed in these applications, the proposed system uses an auto-balancing bridge circuit as measurement method. The proposed models to estimate θ and σ and correct them in function of T are compared to the ones reported in literature. The final prototype corresponds to a simple circuit connected to a pair of electrode probes, and presents high accuracy, high signal to noise ratio, fast response, and immunity to stray capacitance. The instrument calibration is based on salt solutions with known dielectric constant and electrical conductivity as reference. Experiments measuring clay and sandy soils demonstrate the satisfactory performance of the instrument. PMID:26445049

  19. A comparison of mapped and measured total ionospheric electron content using global positioning system and beacon satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, Gabor E.; Roth, Titus

    1988-01-01

    Total ionospheric electron contents (TEC) were measured by global positioning system (GPS) dual-frequency receivers developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The measurements included P-code (precise ranging code) and carrier phase data for six GPS satellites during multiple five-hour observing sessions. A set of these GPS TEC measurements were mapped from the GPS lines of sight to the line of sight of a Faraday beacon satellite by statistically fitting the TEC data to a simple model of the ionosphere. The mapped GPS TEC values were compared with the Faraday rotation measurements. Because GPS transmitter offsets are different for each satellite and because some GPS receiver offsets were uncalibrated, the sums of the satellite and receiver offsets were estimated simultaneously with the TEC in a least squares procedure. The accuracy of this estimation procedure is evaluated indicating that the error of the GPS-determined line of sight TEC can be at or below 1 x 10 to the 16th el/sq cm. Consequently, the current level of accuracy is comparable to the Faraday rotation technique; however, GPS provides superior sky coverage.

  20. A Novel Low-Cost Instrumentation System for Measuring the Water Content and Apparent Electrical Conductivity of Soils

    PubMed Central

    Rêgo Segundo, Alan Kardek; Martins, José Helvecio; Monteiro, Paulo Marcos de Barros; de Oliveira, Rubens Alves; Freitas, Gustavo Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    The scarcity of drinking water affects various regions of the planet. Although climate change is responsible for the water availability, humanity plays an important role in preserving this precious natural resource. In case of negligence, the likely trend is to increase the demand and the depletion of water resources due to the increasing world population. This paper addresses the development, design and construction of a low cost system for measuring soil volumetric water content (θ), electrical conductivity (σ) and temperature (T), in order to optimize the use of water, energy and fertilizer in food production. Different from the existing measurement instruments commonly deployed in these applications, the proposed system uses an auto-balancing bridge circuit as measurement method. The proposed models to estimate θ and σ and correct them in function of T are compared to the ones reported in literature. The final prototype corresponds to a simple circuit connected to a pair of electrode probes, and presents high accuracy, high signal to noise ratio, fast response, and immunity to stray capacitance. The instrument calibration is based on salt solutions with known dielectric constant and electrical conductivity as reference. Experiments measuring clay and sandy soils demonstrate the satisfactory performance of the instrument. PMID:26445049

  1. A Novel Low-Cost Instrumentation System for Measuring the Water Content and Apparent Electrical Conductivity of Soils.

    PubMed

    Rêgo Segundo, Alan Kardek; Martins, José Helvecio; Monteiro, Paulo Marcos de Barros; de Oliveira, Rubens Alves; Freitas, Gustavo Medeiros

    2015-10-05

    The scarcity of drinking water affects various regions of the planet. Although climate change is responsible for the water availability, humanity plays an important role in preserving this precious natural resource. In case of negligence, the likely trend is to increase the demand and the depletion of water resources due to the increasing world population. This paper addresses the development, design and construction of a low cost system for measuring soil volumetric water content (θ), electrical conductivity (σ) and temperature (T), in order to optimize the use of water, energy and fertilizer in food production. Different from the existing measurement instruments commonly deployed in these applications, the proposed system uses an auto-balancing bridge circuit as measurement method. The proposed models to estimate θ and σ and correct them in function of T are compared to the ones reported in literature. The final prototype corresponds to a simple circuit connected to a pair of electrode probes, and presents high accuracy, high signal to noise ratio, fast response, and immunity to stray capacitance. The instrument calibration is based on salt solutions with known dielectric constant and electrical conductivity as reference. Experiments measuring clay and sandy soils demonstrate the satisfactory performance of the instrument.

  2. Correlation of lycopene measured by HPLC with the L, a, b color readings of a hydroponic tomato and the relationship of maturity with color and lycopene content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arias, R.; Lee, T. C.; Logendra, L.; Janes, H.

    2000-01-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Laura) were separated, according to the ripening stage, by a sensory panel into seven groups, and color was measured on the tomato surface with a Minolta Chroma meter. The L, a, b, hue, chroma, and lycopene content were plotted against the maturity stages of the tomatoes, and several good correlations were found. The a/b ratio and the lycopene content were the parameters that allowed six of seven maturity groups in the tomato to be statistically distinguished. The lycopene content, measured by HPLC, was also correlated with the color measurements, and the a, a/b, and (a/b)(2) color factors produced the best regressions. An estimation of the lycopene content in tomatoes can be achieved by using a portable chroma meter, with a possible field usage application. Equations to calculate the lycopene content of tomatoes based on the color readings are reported.

  3. Local Kinetic Measures of Macromolecular Structure Reveal Partitioning Among Multiple Parallel Pathways from the Earliest Steps in the Folding of a Large RNA Molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Laederach,A.; Shcherbakova, I.; Liang, M.; Brenowitz, M.; Altman, R.

    2006-01-01

    At the heart of the RNA folding problem is the number, structures, and relationships among the intermediates that populate the folding pathways of most large RNA molecules. Unique insight into the structural dynamics of these intermediates can be gleaned from the time-dependent changes in local probes of macromolecular conformation (e.g. reports on individual nucleotide solvent accessibility offered by hydroxyl radical ({center_dot}OH) footprinting). Local measures distributed around a macromolecule individually illuminate the ensemble of separate changes that constitute a folding reaction. Folding pathway reconstruction from a multitude of these individual measures is daunting due to the combinatorial explosion of possible kinetic models as the number of independent local measures increases. Fortunately, clustering of time progress curves sufficiently reduces the dimensionality of the data so as to make reconstruction computationally tractable. The most likely folding topology and intermediates can then be identified by exhaustively enumerating all possible kinetic models on a super-computer grid. The folding pathways and measures of the relative flux through them were determined for Mg{sup 2+} and Na{sup +}-mediated folding of the Tetrahymena thermophila group I intron using this combined experimental and computational approach. The flux during Mg{sup 2+}-mediated folding is divided among numerous parallel pathways. In contrast, the flux during the Na{sup +}-mediated reaction is predominantly restricted through three pathways, one of which is without detectable passage through intermediates. Under both conditions, the folding reaction is highly parallel with no single pathway accounting for more than 50% of the molecular flux. This suggests that RNA folding is non-sequential under a variety of different experimental conditions even at the earliest stages of folding. This study provides a template for the systematic analysis of the time-evolution of RNA structure

  4. Asphaltene content and composition as a measure of Deepwater Horizon oil spill losses within the first 80 days

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewan, M.D.; Warden, A.; Dias, R.F.; Lowry, Z.K.; Hannah, T.L.; Lillis, P.G.; Kokaly, R.F.; Hoefen, T.M.; Swayze, G.A.; Mills, C.T.; Harris, S.H.; Plumlee, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    The composition and content of asphaltenes in spilled and original wellhead oils from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) incident provide information on the amount of original oil lost and the processes most responsible for the losses within the first 80 days of the active spill. Spilled oils were collected from open waters, coastal waters and coastal sediments during the incident. Asphaltenes are the most refractory component of crude oils but their alteration in the spilled oils during weathering prevents them from being used directly as a conservative component to calculate original oil losses. The alteration is reflected by their increase in oxygen content and depletion in 12C. Reconnaissance experiments involving evaporation, photo-oxidation, microbial degradation, dissolution, dispersion and burning indicate that the combined effects of photo-oxidation and evaporation are responsible for these compositional changes. Based on measured losses and altered asphaltenes from these experiments, a mean of 61 ± 3 vol% of the original oil was lost from the surface spilled oils during the incident. This mean percentage of original oil loss is considerably larger than previous estimates of evaporative losses based on only gas chromatography (GC) amenable hydrocarbons (32–50 vol%), and highlights the importance of using asphaltenes, as well as GC amenable parameters in evaluating original oil losses and the processes responsible for the losses.

  5. Effect of purificatory measures through cow's urine and milk on strychnine and brucine content of Kupeelu (Strychnos nuxvomica Linn.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V J; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2012-01-01

    Strychnos nux vomica Linn.(Loganaceae) commonly known as Nux vomica (Kupeelu), is a poisonous plant and its seeds are used widely in Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial. Ayurveda advocates that nux vomica seeds are to be administered in therapeutics only after going through certain purificatory measures (Shodhana). There are more than six media: cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel), castor oil (Eranda taila) and fresh ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa) etc., which have been reported in different classical texts of Ayurveda for proper processing of nux vomica seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by using three different methods as described in ancient treatise by using cow's urine and cow's milk as media alone and together. This study revealed that all the methods studied reduced the toxicity of strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by HPTLC. Out of these three methods maximum reduction in strychnine and brucine contents was found when the seeds were purified by keeping them in cow's urine for seven days followed by boiling in cow's milk for three hrs. PMID:23983327

  6. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Raman imaging measurement of squalene content and distribution in human hair.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Chen, Guoqiang; Ji, Chengdong; Hoptroff, Michael; Jones, Andrew; Collins, Luisa Z; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2016-03-01

    A sensitive and specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed and validated for the measurement of the squalene content from root to tip, in both Chinese black virgin and bleached hair. Deuterated squalene was used as the internal standard. For quantification, selective ion monitoring (SIM) at m/z 410.0 and 347.0 were monitored for squalene and deuterated squalene, respectively. Different methods for the extraction of squalene from ex vivo human hair were compared including organic solvent extraction and acid/alkali hydrolysis. The best extraction efficiency was obtained by using a mixed solvent consisting of chloroform:methanol = 2:1 (v:v). The linear range of squalene ran from 1.0 to 50.0 μg mL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.10 μg mL(-1) (corresponding to 0.005 mg g(-1) in human hair), which enabled quantification of squalene in human hair at very low level. The recovery of squalene was 96.4 ± 1.46% (n = 3). Using the above-mentioned mixed solvent extraction, squalene content in human hair was successfully quantified from root to tip. Meanwhile, a Raman imaging method was developed to visualize the squalene distribution in Chinese white virgin hair from cuticle to medulla. PMID:26825344

  7. Developing a patient-centered outcome measure for complementary and alternative medicine therapies I: defining content and format

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients receiving complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies often report shifts in well-being that go beyond resolution of the original presenting symptoms. We undertook a research program to develop and evaluate a patient-centered outcome measure to assess the multidimensional impacts of CAM therapies, utilizing a novel mixed methods approach that relied upon techniques from the fields of anthropology and psychometrics. This tool would have broad applicability, both for CAM practitioners to measure shifts in patients' states following treatments, and conventional clinical trial researchers needing validated outcome measures. The US Food and Drug Administration has highlighted the importance of valid and reliable measurement of patient-reported outcomes in the evaluation of conventional medical products. Here we describe Phase I of our research program, the iterative process of content identification, item development and refinement, and response format selection. Cognitive interviews and psychometric evaluation are reported separately. Methods From a database of patient interviews (n = 177) from six diverse CAM studies, 150 interviews were identified for secondary analysis in which individuals spontaneously discussed unexpected changes associated with CAM. Using ATLAS.ti, we identified common themes and language to inform questionnaire item content and wording. Respondents' language was often richly textured, but item development required a stripping down of language to extract essential meaning and minimize potential comprehension barriers across populations. Through an evocative card sort interview process, we identified those items most widely applicable and covering standard psychometric domains. We developed, pilot-tested, and refined the format, yielding a questionnaire for cognitive interviews and psychometric evaluation. Results The resulting questionnaire contained 18 items, in visual analog scale format, in which each line was

  8. Evaluation of mRNA Contents of YBX2 and JHDM2A Genes on Testicular Tissues of Azoospermic Men with Different Classes of Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Najafipour, Reza; Moghbelinejad, Sahar; Samimi Hashjin, Amir; Rajaei, Farzad; Rashvand, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Animal model studies have shown that MSY2 and JHDM2A genes have an important role in spermatogenesis process and fertility of male mice. But the potential role of these genes in human spermatogenesis and fertility is not known yet. Therefore, we evaluated expression ratios of these genes in testis tissues of men with normal and impaired spermatogenesis. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, after RNA extraction and cDNA syn- thesis from 50 non-obstructive azoospermic and 12 normal testis tissues, the expression ratios of genes were evaluated by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Hematoxcylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used for histological classification of testis tissues. For statistical analysis, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was carried out. Results Our results showed a significant reduction in mRNA level of YBX2 in samples with impaired spermatogenesis (p<0.001) compared to samples with qualitatively normal spermatogenesis and normal spermatogenesis; however, in JHDM2A gene, despite sensible reduction in gene expression level in men with impaired spermatogenesis, no significant differences were shown (p>0.05). Furthermore in YBX2, a significant negative correlation was demonstrated between the efficiency score of spermatogenesis and the threshold cycle (CT) (r=-0.7, p<0.0001), whereas in JHDM2A, this negative correlation was not significant (r=-0.4, p=0.06). Conclusion Generally, these data indicated that YBX2 and JHDM2A genes may play an important role in male infertility, and suggested that these molecules can act as useful biomarkers for predicting male infertility. PMID:25870841

  9. Applications of the direct photon absorption technique for measuring bone mineral content in vivo. Determination of body composition in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The bone mineral content, BMC, determined by monoenergetic photon absorption technique, of 29 different locations on the long bones and vertebral columns of 24 skeletons was measured. Compressive tests were made on bone from these locations in which the maximum load and maximum stress were measured. Also the ultimate strain, modulus of elasticity and energy absorbed to failure were determined for compact bone from the femoral diaphysis and cancellous bone from the eighth through eleventh thoracic vertebrae. Correlations and predictive relationships between these parameters were examined to investigate the applicability of using the BMC at sites normally measured in vivo, i.e. radius and ulna in estimating the BMC and/or strength of the spine or femoral neck. It was found that the BMC at sites on the same bone were highly correlated r = 0.95 or better; the BMC at sites on different bones were also highly interrelated, r = 0.85. The BMC at various sites on the long bones could be estimated to between 10 and 15 per cent from the BMC of sites on the radius or ulna.

  10. Measuring soil moisture content using cosmic-ray fast neutrons emitted from soils: a near-field remote sensing tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desilets, Darin; Zreda, Marek; Zweck, Chris; Ferre, Ty

    2010-05-01

    Average soil moisture over a footprint of hectometers and a depth of decimeters can be inferred from measurements of cosmic-ray fast neutrons that are generated in air and soil, moderated mainly by hydrogen atoms present in the soil, and emitted back to the atmosphere, where they travel in all directions and form a well-mixed reservoir of neutrons. The intensity of neutrons above the ground surface depends strongly on soil moisture content, and does not depend on soil chemistry and texture. The measurement with a cosmic-ray soil moisture probe placed above the ground takes minutes to hours, permitting high-resolution, long-term monitoring of undisturbed soil moisture. Neutron transport modeling using the MCNPX code shows that the footprint is approximately 600 m at sea level, and the measurement depth from 15 cm for saturated soils to 70 cm for dry soils. The footprint size has been confirmed empirically using field measurements of neutron intensity along water-land transects. The cosmic-ray soil moisture probe is calibrated using a theoretical calibration function in which one parameter is constrained by gravimetric soil moisture determinations on multiple samples collected within the footprint, If local calibration samples are not available, the same theoretical calibration function can be constrained using the knowledge of cosmic-ray variations, providing less accurate but still reasonable soil moisture estimates. The large footprint makes the method ideal for bridging the gap between remote sensing methods (such as SMOS and SMAP) and point or small-scale measurements on the ground.

  11. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF DIRECT MEASUREMENT TO DETERMINE THYROID 131I CONTENT OF TWO TEPCO WORKERS CONSIDERING INDIVIDUAL TISSUE THICKNESS.

    PubMed

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, the National Institute of Radiological Sciences examined seven heavily exposed emergency workers and performed internal dose estimations. The largest dose contributor was found to be (131)I, which was detected by thyroid monitor with an HPGe detector. Different energy peaks from (131)I were simultaneously identified in the pulse-height spectra of the two subjects with the highest doses regardless of late measurements. A closer look at the spectra indicated that the count ratio of the two peak areas at 80.2 and 365 keV differed somewhat between the individual workers, suggesting a difference in attenuation in the overlaying soft tissue and in the thyroid itself. In this study, the relationship between the count ratio (80.2/365 keV) and the thickness of soft tissue overlying the thyroid was investigated by means of numerical simulations performed using the Japanese Male (JM) phantom varying the thickness of the overlaying tissue. From the measured count ratios, it was possible to estimate that the overlaying tissue was thinner for Worker 1 (difference from the JM phantom: -0.34±1.29 cm) and thicker for Worker 2 (diff.: 2.5±1.2 cm). The thyroid (131)I contents evaluated taking into account the individual thicknesses were 4.3 kBq for Worker 1 and 8.4 kBq for Worker 2, resulting in a significant increase for Worker 2 compared with the content based on the default counting efficiency at 365 keV of the original JM phantom. However, the results have large uncertainty factors of 1.4 for Worker 1 and 1.3 for Worker 2 and should be carefully considered together with other factors influencing the attenuation. PMID:26868011

  12. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF DIRECT MEASUREMENT TO DETERMINE THYROID 131I CONTENT OF TWO TEPCO WORKERS CONSIDERING INDIVIDUAL TISSUE THICKNESS.

    PubMed

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, the National Institute of Radiological Sciences examined seven heavily exposed emergency workers and performed internal dose estimations. The largest dose contributor was found to be (131)I, which was detected by thyroid monitor with an HPGe detector. Different energy peaks from (131)I were simultaneously identified in the pulse-height spectra of the two subjects with the highest doses regardless of late measurements. A closer look at the spectra indicated that the count ratio of the two peak areas at 80.2 and 365 keV differed somewhat between the individual workers, suggesting a difference in attenuation in the overlaying soft tissue and in the thyroid itself. In this study, the relationship between the count ratio (80.2/365 keV) and the thickness of soft tissue overlying the thyroid was investigated by means of numerical simulations performed using the Japanese Male (JM) phantom varying the thickness of the overlaying tissue. From the measured count ratios, it was possible to estimate that the overlaying tissue was thinner for Worker 1 (difference from the JM phantom: -0.34±1.29 cm) and thicker for Worker 2 (diff.: 2.5±1.2 cm). The thyroid (131)I contents evaluated taking into account the individual thicknesses were 4.3 kBq for Worker 1 and 8.4 kBq for Worker 2, resulting in a significant increase for Worker 2 compared with the content based on the default counting efficiency at 365 keV of the original JM phantom. However, the results have large uncertainty factors of 1.4 for Worker 1 and 1.3 for Worker 2 and should be carefully considered together with other factors influencing the attenuation.

  13. Neutron experiments at Portsmouth for measuring flow and {sup 235}U content in UF{sub 6} gas

    SciTech Connect

    Stromswold, D C; Reeder, P L; Peurrung, A J

    1997-04-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant produces enriched uranium for use in commercial power reactors. The plant also aids disposal of excess high-enrichment uranium (HEU) by blending it with lower-enrichment material. Experiments were conducted to test two neutron-based methods for monitoring the down-blending of HEU. Results of the initial experiments showed that gas (on-off) could be detected, but that additional tests and data are needed to quantify the flow velocity and {sup 235}U content. The experiments used a {sup 252}Cf neutron source to induce fission in a small fraction of the {sup 235}U contained in the UF{sub 6} gas. The first method measured the attenuation of neutrons passing through the low-pressure UF{sub 6} gas in a 7.6-cm diameter pipe. The concept was based on the fact that some of the thermal neutrons are absorbed by {sup 235}U, thus changing the observed count rate. The second method, tested on a 20-cm diameter pipe where gas pressure was higher, used a modulated neutron flux to induce fission in the {sup 235}U. Modulation was achieved by moving a neutron source. During both experiments, plant monitoring equipment showed that light gases (freon, oxygen, and nitrogen) were present in widely varying amounts, along with the UF{sub 6} gas. These gases may have affected the experimental results, at least to the extent that they replaced UF{sub 6}. This report also contains results of computer simulations and tests performed on the electronics after the experiments were completed at Portsmouth. Recommendations are made for follow-on work to measure the flow velocity and {sup 235}U content.

  14. Content validity and inter-rater reliability of the Halliwick-concept-based instrument 'Swimming with Independent Measure'.

    PubMed

    Sršen, Katja Groleger; Vidmar, Gaj; Pikl, Maša; Vrečar, Irena; Burja, Cirila; Krušec, Klavdija

    2012-06-01

    The Halliwick concept is widely used in different settings to promote joyful movement in water and swimming. To assess the swimming skills and progression of an individual swimmer, a valid and reliable measure should be used. The Halliwick-concept-based Swimming with Independent Measure (SWIM) was introduced for this purpose. We aimed to determine its content validity and inter-rater reliability. Fifty-four healthy children, 3.5-11 years old, from a mainstream swimming program participated in a content validity study. They were evaluated with SWIM and the national evaluation system of swimming abilities (classifying children into seven categories). To study the inter-rater reliability of SWIM, we included 37 children and youth from a Halliwick swimming program, aged 7-22 years, who were evaluated by two Halliwick instructors independently. The average SWIM score differed between national evaluation system categories and followed the expected order (P<0.001), whereby a ceiling effect was observed in the higher categories. High inter-rater reliability was found for all 11 SWIM items. The lowest reliability was observed for item G (sagittal rotation), although the estimates were still above 0.9. As expected, the highest reliability was observed for the total score (intraclass correlation 0.996). The validity of SWIM with respect to the national evaluation system of swimming abilities is high until the point where a swimmer is well adapted to water and already able to learn some swimming techniques. The inter-rater reliability of SWIM is very high; thus, we believe that SWIM can be used in further research and practice to follow the progress of swimmers.

  15. [In vitro studies on the influence of volatile anaesthetics on cell number, cell volume, and cellular protein, DNA, and RNA content (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hack, G; Karzel, K; Panthong, A; Stein, P

    1981-03-01

    The aim of the present investigations was to see, if halothane (h), enflurane (e), isoflurane (i), and methoxyflurane (m) exert cytostatic or cytotoxic effects. The experiments were performed on suspension cultures of an established line of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, which were gased by a mixture of N2 (78%), O2 (20%), and CO2 (2%) to which the volatile anaesthetics in 5 different concentrations were added by vaporizers. Under standardized conditions (incubation time: 24 or 48 hrs; initial cell density: 2 X 10(5) cells/ml culture medium) the following results were obtained: 1. All anaesthetics exerted dose dependent cytostatic effects, which were reversible up to concentrations of 2.0 vol% (m), 3.0 vol% (h), and 5.0 vol% (e, i). The cytostatic ID50 values (mmol/l) were found to be 0.50 (h), 1.00 (e), 0.72 (i), 1.25 (m). 2. In cell cultures, which were exposed to anaesthetics for 48 hrs cytotoxic effects were observed after doses of 2.0 vol% (m), 3.0 and 4.0 vol% (h), 4.0 and 5.0 vol% (e and i). 3. In contrast to colchicine, which was studied in comparison to the volatile anaesthetics, the mean cell volume of anaesthetic treated cultures showed only minimal deviations from control values. 4. With exception of m, which produced a significant decrease of the cellular protein content in the dose range 1.5-2.0 vol% and of the cellular DNA content in all concentrations applied the 3 other anaesthetics caused an increase of the cellular protein content and a somewhat smaller increase of the cellular nucleic acids content. The obtained results indicate that the effect of anaesthetic agents on dividing cells is not due to the same mode or site of action, but to an influence on different stage of the cell cycle, particularly the interphase. Colchicine-like c-mitosis were not obtained.

  16. Monitoring the production of aflatoxin B1 in wheat by measuring the concentration of nor-1 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Zsuzsanna; Färber, Paul; Geisen, Rolf

    2003-02-01

    A real-time reverse transcription-PCR system has been used to monitor the expression of an aflatoxin biosynthetic gene of Aspergillus flavus in wheat. Therefore, total RNA was isolated from infected wheat samples, reverse transcribed and subjected to real-time PCR. In parallel all samples were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography for aflatoxin B(1) production. The primer-probe system of the real-time PCR was targeted against nor-1, a gene of the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. By application of this method the nor-1 transcription was quantified during the course of incubation. After 4 days of incubation nor-1 mRNA could be detected for the first time. The amount of nor-1 mRNA increased rapidly, and the maximum was achieved after 6 days. Then, starting very slowly, the mRNA was degraded until day 8, and this was followed by a very fast degradation, reaching nondetectable levels at days 9 and 10. First traces of aflatoxin B(1)could be detected between the 5th and 6th day of incubation. The aflatoxin concentration reached its maximum after 9 days of incubation and remained constant for the whole period of observation. To ensure that differences in the nor-1 mRNA concentration were due to different expression levels, the expression of the constitutively expressed beta-tubulin gene (benA56) has also been monitored. The expression of benA56 remained constant during the whole incubation time. As a parameter for fungal growth, the number of nor-1 gene copies was determined during the course of incubation. The numbers of nor-1 gene copies increased at the beginning of the incubation and reached a plateau at day 5. They correlate well with the viable counts albeit at a higher level. PMID:12571042

  17. Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS) for Measurement of Integral Soil Water Content at the Small Catchment Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Villarreyes, C.; Baroni, G.; Oswald, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Soil water content at the plot or hill-slope scale is an important link between local vadose zone hydrology and catchment hydrology. One largest initiative to cover the measuring gap of soil moisture between point scale and remote sensing observations is the COSMOS network (Zreda et al., 2012). Here, cosmic-ray neutron sensing, which may be more precisely named ground albedo neutron sensing (GANS), is applied. The measuring principle is based on the crucial role of hydrogen as neutron moderator compared to others landscape materials. Soil water content contained in a footprint of ca. 600 m diameter and a depth ranging down to a few decimeters is inversely correlated to the neutron flux at the air-ground interface. This approach is now implemented, e.g. in USA (Zreda et al., 2012) and Germany (Rivera Villarreyes et al., 2011), based on its simple installation and integral measurement of soil moisture at the small catchment scale. The present study performed Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing on farmland at two locations in Germany under different vegetative situations (cropped and bare field) and different seasonal conditions (summer, autumn and winter). Ground albedo neutrons were measured at (i) a farmland close to Potsdam and Berlin cropped with corn in 2010, sunflower in 2011 and winter rye in 2012, and (ii) a mountainous farmland catchment (Schaefertal, Harz Mountains) since middle 2011. In order to test this methodology, classical soil moisture devices and meteorological data were used for comparison. Moreover, several calibration approaches, role of vegetation cover and transferability of calibration parameters to different times and locations were also evaluated. Observations suggest that GANS can overcome the lack of data for hydrological processes at the intermediate scale. Soil moisture from GANS compared quantitatively with mean values derived from a network of classical devices under vegetated and non- vegetated conditions. The GANS approach responded well

  18. Assessing dry density and gravimetric water content of soils in geotechnics with complex conductivity measurements : preliminary investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaouane, C.; Beck, Y.; Fauchard, C.; Chouteau, M.

    2012-12-01

    Quality controls of geotechnical works need gravimetric water content (w) and dry density (γd) measurements. Afterwards, results are compared to Proctor tests and referred to soil classification. Depending on the class of soils, different objectives must be achieved. Those measurements are usually carried out with neutron and gamma probes. Combined use of theses probes directly access (w, γd). Theses probes show great disadvantages as: nuclear hazard, heavy on-site, transporation and storage restrictions and low sampling volumes. Last decades showed a strong development of electrical and electromagnetic methods for mapping water content in soils. Still, their use in Geotechnics is limited due to interfacial effects neglected in common models but strong in compacted soils. We first showed that (w, γd) is equivalent to (φ, Sr) assuming density of particles γs=2.7 (g.cm-3). This assumption is true for common soils used in civil engineering. That first relationship allows us to work with meaningful parameters for geophysicists. Revil&Florsh recently adapted Vinegar&Waxman model for Spectal Induced Polarization (SIP) measurements at low frequencies (<50 kHz). This model relates quantitatively the electrical double layer polarization at the surface of grains. It takes into account saturation, porosity and granulometry. Standard granulometry and mineralogy are generally available in geotechnical campaigns. In-phase conductivity would be mostly related to saturation as quadrature conductivity would be related to porosity and surface conductivity. Although this model was developed for oil-bearing sands, we investigated its potential for compacted soils. Former DC-resistivity (ρ) measurements were carried out on a silty fined-grained soil (A1 in GTR classification or ML-CL in USCS) in a cylindrical cell (radius ~4 cm, heigth 7 cm). Median diameter of grain was 50 μm. For each measurement, samples were compacted at Proctor energy. We assessed (w, γd) by weighting and

  19. Application of reflectance colorimeter measurements and infrared spectroscopy methods to rapid and nondestructive evaluation of carotenoids content in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    PubMed

    Ruiz, David; Reich, Maryse; Bureau, Sylvie; Renard, Catherine M G C; Audergon, Jean-Marc

    2008-07-01

    The importance of carotenoid content in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is recognized not only because of the color that they impart but also because of their protective activity against human diseases. Current methods to assess carotenoid content are time-consuming, expensive, and destructive. In this work, the application of rapid and nondestructive methods such as colorimeter measurements and infrared spectroscopy has been evaluated for carotenoid determination in apricot. Forty apricot genotypes covering a wide range of peel and flesh colors have been analyzed. Color measurements on the skin and flesh ( L*, a*, b*, hue, chroma, and a*/ b* ratio) as well as Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) on intact fruits and Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR) on ground flesh were correlated with the carotenoid content measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. A high variability in color values and carotenoid content was observed. Partial least squares regression analyses between beta-carotene content and provitamin A activity and color measurements showed a high fit in peel, flesh, and edible apricot portion (R(2) ranged from 0.81 to 0.91) and low prediction error. Regression equations were developed for predicting carotenoid content by using color values, which appeared as a simple, rapid, reliable, and nondestructive method. However, FT-NIR and FT-MIR models showed very low R(2) values and very high prediction errors for carotenoid content.

  20. Two Measurement Methods of Leaf Dry Matter Content Produce Similar Results in a Broad Range of Species

    PubMed Central

    Vaieretti, María Victoria; Díaz, Sandra; Vile, Denis; Garnier, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf dry matter content (LDMC) is widely used as an indicator of plant resource use in plant functional trait databases. Two main methods have been proposed to measure LDMC, which basically differ in the rehydration procedure to which leaves are subjected after harvesting. These are the ‘complete rehydration’ protocol of Garnier et al. (2001, Functional Ecology 15: 688–695) and the ‘partial rehydration’ protocol of Vendramini et al. (2002, New Phytologist 154: 147–157). Methods To test differences in LDMC due to the use of different methods, LDMC was measured on 51 native and cultivated species representing a wide range of plant families and growth forms from central-western Argentina, following the complete rehydration and partial rehydration protocols. Key Results and Conclusions The LDMC values obtained by both methods were strongly and positively correlated, clearly showing that LDMC is highly conserved between the two procedures. These trends were not altered by the exclusion of plants with non-laminar leaves. Although the complete rehydration method is the safest to measure LDMC, the partial rehydration procedure produces similar results and is faster. It therefore appears as an acceptable option for those situations in which the complete rehydration method cannot be applied. Two notes of caution are given for cases in which different datasets are compared or combined: (1) the discrepancy between the two rehydration protocols is greatest in the case of high-LDMC (succulent or tender) leaves; (2) the results suggest that, when comparing many studies across unrelated datasets, differences in the measurement protocol may be less important than differences among seasons, years and the quality of local habitats. PMID:17353207

  1. RNA Crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  2. Total electron content and l-band amplitude and phase scintillation measurements in the polar-cap ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Klobuchar, J.A.; Bishop, G.J.; Doherty, P.H.

    1987-03-30

    The first measurements of absolute Total Electron Content (TEC) and L-band amplitude and phase scintillation was made from Thule, Greenland, a polar cap station, in early 1984. These measurements were made using signals transmitted from the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. The variability of the TEC, especially during the afternoon to pre-midnight hours, is large, with increases in TEC above the background values of greater than 100% not uncommon. During one disturbed time, quasi-periodic TEC enhancements having periods as short as ten minutes and amplitudes equal to the background TEC were observed for over two hours. The TEC during some of the disturbed periods in the dark Thule ionosphere exceeded mid-latitude daytime values. Amplitude scintillations were small, not exceeding 3 dB peak to peak during the entire observing period, but they were associated with the times of TEC enhancements, with some evidence for stronger scintillation occurring during the negative gradients of the TEC enhancements. Phase scintillations were highest during some of the times of enhanced TEC, and depend critically upon the phase detrend internal used.

  3. Simultaneous Measurement of Polymerization Stress and Curing Kinetics for Photo-polymerized Composites with High Filler Contents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengzhi; Landis, Forrest A.; Giuseppetti, Anthony A.M.; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Chiang, Martin Y.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Photopolymerized composites are used in a broad range of applications with their performance largely directed by reaction kinetics and contraction accompanying polymerization. The present study was to demonstrate an instrument capable of simultaneously collecting multiple kinetics parameters for a wide range of photopolymerizable systems: degree of conversion (DC), reaction exotherm, and polymerization stress (PS). Methods Our system consisted of a cantilever beam-based instrument (tensometer) that has been optimized to capture a large range of stress generated by lightly-filled to highly-filled composites. The sample configuration allows the tensometer to be coupled to a fast near infrared (NIR) spectrometer collecting spectra in transmission mode. Results Using our instrument design, simultaneous measurements of PS and DC are performed, for the first time, on a commercial composite with ≈ 80 % (by mass) silica particle fillers. The in situ NIR spectrometer collects more than 10 spectra per second, allowing for thorough characterization of reaction kinetics. With increased instrument sensitivity coupled with the ability to collect real time reaction kinetics information, we show that the external constraint imposed by the cantilever beam during polymerization could affect the rate of cure and final degree of polymerization. Significance The present simultaneous measurement technique is expected to provide new insights into kinetics and property relationships for photopolymerized composites with high filler content such as dental restorative composites. PMID:25443160

  4. Treating of solid earthen material and a method for measuring moisture content and resistivity of solid earthen material

    DOEpatents

    Heath, William; Richardson, Richard; Goheen, Steven

    1994-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of treating solid earthen material having volatile, semi-volatile and non-volatile contaminants. Six electrodes are inserted into a region of earthen material to be treated in a substantially equilateral hexagonal arrangement. Six phases of voltages are applied to corresponding electrodes. The voltages are adjusted within a first range of voltages to create multiple current paths between pairs of the electrodes. The current paths are evenly distributed throughout the region defined by the electrodes and therefore uniformly heat the region. The region of earthen material is heated to a temperature sufficient to substantially remove volatile and semi-volatile contaminants. This temperature is less than a melting temperature of the earthen material. The voltages are then increased to a second range of voltages effective to create dry regions around the electrodes. The dry regions have a perimeter which define a boundary between the dry regions and the earthen material exterior to the dry regions. Corona discharge occurs at the boundaries of the dry regions. As voltages are increased further, the dry regions move radially outward from the electrodes through the entire region. The corona boundaries decompose the non-volatilized contaminants remaining in the region. The hexagonal arrangement of electrodes is also preferable for measuring resistivity and moisture content of the earthen material. The electric field created between the electrodes is readily discernable and therefore facilitates accurate measurements.

  5. Measurement of contemporary and fossil carbon contents of PM 2.5 aerosols: results from Turtleback Dome, Yosemite National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Bench, G

    2003-10-17

    The impact of aerosol particulate matter of mean mass aerodynamic diameter {le} 2.5 {proportional_to}m (PM 2.5 aerosols), on health, visibility, and compliance with EPA's regional haze regulations is a growing concern. Techniques that can help better characterize particulate matter are required to better understand the constituents, causes and sources of PM 2.5 aerosols. Measurement of the {sup 14}C/C ratio of the PM 2.5 aerosols, the absence of {sup 14}C in fossil carbon materials and the known {sup 14}C/C levels in contemporary carbon materials allows use of a two-component model to derive contemporary and fossil carbon contents of the particulate matter. Such data can be used to estimate the relative contributions of fossil fuels and biogenic aerosols to the total aerosol loading. Here, the methodology for performing such an assessment using total suspended particulate Hi-vol aerosol samplers to collect PM 2.5 aerosols on quartz fiber filters and the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry to measure {sup 14}C/C ratios is presented and illustrated using PM 2.5 aerosols collected at Yosemite National Park.

  6. Shrimp processing assessed by low field nuclear magnetic resonance, near infrared spectroscopy, and physicochemical measurements--the effect of polyphosphate content and length of prebrining on shrimp muscle.

    PubMed

    Gudjónsdóttir, María; Jónsson, Ásbjörn; Bergsson, Arnljótur Bjarki; Arason, Sigurjón; Rustad, Turid

    2011-05-01

    The effect of using polyphosphates during prebrining and the effect of prebrining time of cold water shrimp (Pandalus borealis) was studied with low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) transverse relaxation time measurements (benchtop and unilateral) and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with the aim of improving shrimp processing. Strong calibrations were obtained for moisture content and water-holding capacity (WHC) using the NIR technique. Multivariate analysis indicated significant correlations between benchtop NMR parameters and moisture content and WHC, as measured with physicochemical methods and NIR spectroscopy. Significant correlations were also observed between NMR parameters and muscle pH, protein content, and phosphate content. The study showed that LF-NMR contribute to improved understanding of the shrimp brining process and to improved process control on-line or at-line, especially in combination with NIR measurements. However, optimization of the unilateral device is necessary. PMID:22417356

  7. Raman crystallography of RNA.

    PubMed

    Gong, Bo; Chen, Jui-Hui; Yajima, Rieko; Chen, Yuanyuan; Chase, Elaine; Chadalavada, Durga M; Golden, Barbara L; Carey, Paul R; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2009-10-01

    Raman crystallography is the application of Raman spectroscopy to single crystals. This technique has been applied to a variety of protein molecules where it has provided unique information about biopolymer folding, substrate binding, and catalysis. Here, we describe the application of Raman crystallography to functional RNA molecules. RNA represents unique opportunities and challenges for Raman crystallography. One issue that confounds studies of RNA is its tendency to adopt multiple non-functional folds. Raman crystallography has the advantage that it isolates a single state of the RNA within the crystal and can evaluate its fold, metal ion binding properties (ligand identity, stoichiometry, and affinity), proton binding properties (identity, stoichiometry, and affinity), and catalytic potential. In particular, base-specific stretches can be identified and then associated with the binding of metal ions and protons. Because measurements are carried out in the hanging drop at ambient, rather than cryo, conditions and because RNA crystals tend to be approximately 70% solvent, RNA dynamics and conformational changes become experimentally accessible. This review focuses on experimental setup and procedures, acquisition and interpretation of Raman data, and determination of physicochemical properties of the RNA. Raman crystallographic and solution biochemical experiments on the HDV RNA enzyme are summarized and found to be in excellent agreement. Remarkably, characterization of the crystalline state has proven to help rather than hinder functional characterization of functional RNA, most likely because the tendency of RNA to fold heterogeneously is limited in a crystalline environment. Future applications of Raman crystallography to RNA are briefly discussed.

  8. RNA helicases

    PubMed Central

    Owttrim, George W.

    2013-01-01

    Similar to proteins, RNA molecules must fold into the correct conformation and associate with protein complexes in order to be functional within a cell. RNA helicases rearrange RNA secondary structure and RNA-protein interactions in an ATP-dependent reaction, performing crucial functions in all aspects of RNA metabolism. In prokaryotes, RNA helicase activity is associated with roles in housekeeping functions including RNA turnover, ribosome biogenesis, translation and small RNA metabolism. In addition, RNA helicase expression and/or activity are frequently altered during cellular response to abiotic stress, implying they perform defined roles during cellular adaptation to changes in the growth environment. Specifically, RNA helicases contribute to the formation of cold-adapted ribosomes and RNA degradosomes, implying a role in alleviation of RNA secondary structure stabilization at low temperature. A common emerging theme involves RNA helicases acting as scaffolds for protein-protein interaction and functioning as molecular clamps, holding RNA-protein complexes in specific conformations. This review highlights recent advances in DEAD-box RNA helicase association with cellular response to abiotic stress in prokaryotes. PMID:23093803

  9. Some validation results of orbital and ground based CO and CH4 total content measurements in background and industrial regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakitin, Vadim; Shtabkin, Yury; Elansky, Nikolai; Skorokhod, Andrey; Safronov, Alexandr; Dzhola, Anatoly

    2015-04-01

    The results of ground-based spectroscopic measurements of CO and CH4 total content (TC) in Moscow, Zvenigorod (53 km toward West from the Moscow center), ZOTTO station (Central Siberia) and Beijing (China) during 2010-2014 years for conditions of typical and anomalous emission rates are presented and compared with satellite TC data (the latest versions of MOPITT, AIRS, IASI products). The empiric coefficients and relationships between data of ground-based and satellite CO and CH4 total contents (TC) are discussed. The comparison demonstrated a good agreement (R2 ~ 0.6-0.9) of satellite and ground-based CO TC data in low pollution conditions and systematic underestimation of satellite CO TC (150-300 %) in condition of intense surface emissions (events of wild fires in Siberia in 2011-2012 and strong atmospheric pollutions in Beijing). The best correlation (R2 ~ 0.4) for polluted conditions of Beijing was obtained in summer time-period for averaged AIRS v.6 CO TC data for 1o*1o grid, but K=Ugrb/Ustl = 2.5, where Ugrb and Ustlare ground based and satellite diurnal TC values relatively. Under excluding of the days with low ABL heights (HABL ≥1000m selection) the correlation between satellite and ground based CO TC diurnal data increases (R2 ~ 0.7, K=1.5). Orbital AIRS CH4 total columns good enough correlate with ground-based data (R2 ~0.4-0.7). IASI CH4TC diurnal data have no correlation with AIRS and ground-based TC.

  10. A Versatile Panel of Reference Gene Assays for the Measurement of Chicken mRNA by Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Helena J.; Van Borm, Steven; Young, John R.; Fife, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR assays are widely used for the quantification of mRNA within avian experimental samples. Multiple stably-expressed reference genes, selected for the lowest variation in representative samples, can be used to control random technical variation. Reference gene assays must be reliable, have high amplification specificity and efficiency, and not produce signals from contaminating DNA. Whilst recent research papers identify specific genes that are stable in particular tissues and experimental treatments, here we describe a panel of ten avian gene primer and probe sets that can be used to identify suitable reference genes in many experimental contexts. The panel was tested with TaqMan and SYBR Green systems in two experimental scenarios: a tissue collection and virus infection of cultured fibroblasts. GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms were able to select appropriate reference gene sets in each case. We show the effects of using the selected genes on the detection of statistically significant differences in expression. The results are compared with those obtained using 28s ribosomal RNA, the present most widely accepted reference gene in chicken work, identifying circumstances where its use might provide misleading results. Methods for eliminating DNA contamination of RNA reduced, but did not completely remove, detectable DNA. We therefore attached special importance to testing each qPCR assay for absence of signal using DNA template. The assays and analyses developed here provide a useful resource for selecting reference genes for investigations of avian biology. PMID:27537060

  11. A Versatile Panel of Reference Gene Assays for the Measurement of Chicken mRNA by Quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Staines, Karen; Batra, Ambalika; Mwangi, William; Maier, Helena J; Van Borm, Steven; Young, John R; Fife, Mark; Butter, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR assays are widely used for the quantification of mRNA within avian experimental samples. Multiple stably-expressed reference genes, selected for the lowest variation in representative samples, can be used to control random technical variation. Reference gene assays must be reliable, have high amplification specificity and efficiency, and not produce signals from contaminating DNA. Whilst recent research papers identify specific genes that are stable in particular tissues and experimental treatments, here we describe a panel of ten avian gene primer and probe sets that can be used to identify suitable reference genes in many experimental contexts. The panel was tested with TaqMan and SYBR Green systems in two experimental scenarios: a tissue collection and virus infection of cultured fibroblasts. GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms were able to select appropriate reference gene sets in each case. We show the effects of using the selected genes on the detection of statistically significant differences in expression. The results are compared with those obtained using 28s ribosomal RNA, the present most widely accepted reference gene in chicken work, identifying circumstances where its use might provide misleading results. Methods for eliminating DNA contamination of RNA reduced, but did not completely remove, detectable DNA. We therefore attached special importance to testing each qPCR assay for absence of signal using DNA template. The assays and analyses developed here provide a useful resource for selecting reference genes for investigations of avian biology. PMID:27537060

  12. Content comparison of 115 health status measures in sleep medicine using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a reference.

    PubMed

    Gradinger, Felix; Glässel, Andrea; Bentley, Alison; Stucki, Armin

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this systematic review and content analysis was to identify and quantify the concepts contained in patient-administered health status measures in sleep medicine practice and research using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a reference. Both generic and condition-specific patient-administered measures/questionnaires used in sleep medicine practice and research were identified and selected. A comprehensive search strategy for reviews, National/International Guidelines and Standard References to ensure that all areas of functioning, disability and health were captured was used. The contents of the selected measures were examined and linked to the ICF using established linking rules. The frequencies of ICF categories covering the concepts contained in the 115 patient-administered measures were used for the descriptive analysis and content comparison. Of these, 35 were of a generic nature, 17 were symptom-related, and 63 condition-specific. The concepts identified in the questionnaires' items were predominantly linked to categories of the ICF component related to body functions (61.4%), followed by activities and participation (15.3%), and then environmental factors (9.8%). The measures vary greatly with regard to the number and specificity of the ICF categories covered, as indicated by the proportional indices of content density and content diversity. The ICF provides a useful reference to identify, quantify and compare the concepts contained in health status measures used in sleep medicine practice and research.

  13. Analysis of the fluctuations of the total electron content (TEC) measured at Goose Bay using tools of nonlinear methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K. Satheesh; Kumar, C. V. A.; George, Benny; Renuka, G.; Venugopal, C.

    2004-02-01

    In this paper we report the evidence of a low-dimensional chaos in a set of data observed outside laboratories. The dynamic behavior of the time series of the fluctuations of the total electron content (TEC) measured at Goose Bay, which is a high-latitude station, is analyzed in detail using the tools of nonlinear dynamics. The low-dimensional character of the dynamics is evident from the estimated value of the fraction of false neighbors for various dimensions and the correlation dimension. The deterministic nature of the dynamics is investigated using recurrence plots and spatiotemporal entropy. The chaotic nature of the underlying dynamics of the fluctuations of TEC is shown by the power spectrum indicating exponential decay and the calculated positive value of Lyapunov exponent. This is also supported by the results of the comparison of the chaotic characteristics of the time series of variations of TEC with the pseudochaotic characteristic of the colored noise time series. The results of the tests based on the prediction error and the time reversal asymmetry statistic reject the hypothesis that TEC belongs to the family of linear stochastic signals. The nonlinear non-Gaussian nature of the oscillations of variations of TEC is further investigated by the surrogate data test based on several geometrical and dynamical characteristics of the variations of TEC such as mutual information, the fraction of the false nearest neighbours, the local slopes of the correlation sums, the curves giving Lyapunov exponents, and finally, the value of Lyapunov exponents. The results of this analysis show that low-dimensional chaotic dynamics could be a possible and fruitful concept which can be utilized to study the disturbance in the ionosphere as in the case of magnetospheric dynamics. We feel that the dynamical invariants like Lyapunov exponents and correlation dimension can describe the disturbance in the variations of TEC and thus the disturbance in the ionosphere. Hence the

  14. Development and Evaluation of a Test for Tuberculosis in Live European Badgers (Meles meles) Based on Measurement of Gamma Interferon mRNA by Real-Time PCR▿

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, J.; Mealing, D.; Dalley, D.; Davé, D.; Lesellier, S.; Palmer, S.; Bowen-Davies, J.; Crawshaw, T. R.; Chambers, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay for the measurement of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) mRNA in European badger (Meles meles) blood cultures was developed. The levels of IFN-γ mRNA in blood cultures stimulated with either bovine or avian tuberculin or specific mycobacterial antigens were compared with those in a nonstimulated control blood culture as the basis for determining the tuberculosis (TB) status of live badgers. The assay was validated by testing 247 animals for which there were matching data from postmortem examination and culture of tissues. Relative changes in the levels of IFN-γ mRNA in response to bovine tuberculin and specific antigens were found to be greater among badgers with tissues positive for TB on culture. The test was at its most accurate (87% of test results were correct) by using blood cultures containing bovine tuberculin as the antigen and when the response to avian tuberculin was taken into account by subtracting the avian tuberculin response from the bovine tuberculin response. At a specificity of 90.7%, the test was 70.6% sensitive. At the same specificity, the current serological enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for TB in badgers was only 53% sensitive. This work demonstrates that measurement of IFN-γ mRNA by real-time PCR is a valid method for the detection of TB in live badgers and may provide an alternative to the current serological methods of diagnosis, the Brock test. The testing procedure can be completed within 5 h of receipt of the blood culture samples. In addition, the use of a molecular biology-based test offers the potential to fully automate the testing procedure through the use of robotics. PMID:17537931

  15. Absolute Measurements of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Interleukin-1-β mRNA Levels Accurately Predict Treatment Response in Depressed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Clarissa; Uher, Rudolf; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella; Riva, Marco Andrea; Pariante, Carmine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased levels of inflammation have been associated with a poorer response to antidepressants in several clinical samples, but these findings have had been limited by low reproducibility of biomarker assays across laboratories, difficulty in predicting response probability on an individual basis, and unclear molecular mechanisms. Methods: Here we measured absolute mRNA values (a reliable quantitation of number of molecules) of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and interleukin-1β in a previously published sample from a randomized controlled trial comparing escitalopram vs nortriptyline (GENDEP) as well as in an independent, naturalistic replication sample. We then used linear discriminant analysis to calculate mRNA values cutoffs that best discriminated between responders and nonresponders after 12 weeks of antidepressants. As Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and interleukin-1β might be involved in different pathways, we constructed a protein-protein interaction network by the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins. Results: We identified cutoff values for the absolute mRNA measures that accurately predicted response probability on an individual basis, with positive predictive values and specificity for nonresponders of 100% in both samples (negative predictive value=82% to 85%, sensitivity=52% to 61%). Using network analysis, we identified different clusters of targets for these 2 cytokines, with Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor interacting predominantly with pathways involved in neurogenesis, neuroplasticity, and cell proliferation, and interleukin-1β interacting predominantly with pathways involved in the inflammasome complex, oxidative stress, and neurodegeneration. Conclusion: We believe that these data provide a clinically suitable approach to the personalization of antidepressant therapy: patients who have absolute mRNA values above the suggested cutoffs could be directed toward earlier access to more

  16. Measuring User-Created Content: Implications for the ICT Access and Use by Households and Individuals Surveys. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 139

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beuzekom, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews recent measurement work on User-Created Content (UCC) undertaken in OECD countries. It shows that UCC is emerging as a significant area of economic and social activity worthy of consideration for official measurement and discusses the implications for the OECD Model Survey on ICT Access and Use by Households and Individuals.…

  17. A New Way to Measure Cirrus Ice Water Content by Using Ice Raman Scatter with Raman Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhien; Whiteman, David N.; Demoz, Belay; Veselovskii, Igor

    2004-01-01

    High and cold cirrus clouds mainly contain irregular ice crystals, such as, columns, hexagonal plates, bullet rosettes, and dendrites, and have different impacts on the climate system than low-level clouds, such as stratus, stratocumulus, and cumulus. The radiative effects of cirrus clouds on the current and future climate depend strongly on cirrus cloud microphysical properties including ice water content (IWC) and ice crystal sizes, which are mostly an unknown aspect of cinus clouds. Because of the natural complexity of cirrus clouds and their high locations, it is a challenging task to get them accurately by both remote sensing and in situ sampling. This study presents a new method to remotely sense cirrus microphysical properties by using ice Raman scatter with a Raman lidar. The intensity of Raman scattering is fundamentally proportional to the number of molecules involved. Therefore, ice Raman scattering signal provides a more direct way to measure IWC than other remote sensing methods. Case studies show that this method has the potential to provide essential information of cirrus microphysical properties to study cloud physical processes in cirrus clouds.

  18. A new airborne Ka-band double-antenna microwave radiometer for cloud liquid water content measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jian; Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Tao; Gu, Lingjia

    2013-09-01

    A new type upward-looking airborne double-antenna microwave radiometer (ADAMR) system intended for detecting atmospheric cloud liquid water content (LWC) is developed in this paper. The frequency of this radiometer is 31.65 GHz. For the antenna elevation angle, one is 30°and the other is 90°. In order to detect the signals with low effective noise temperature (<10K) from the LWC, the noise coupling technique is used. Through injecting constant equal noise signal into the two antenna ports respectively, the technique can elevate the small input noise signal power to the detectable range of the square-law detector and thus realize the weak signal detection. Moreover, in order to eliminate the impacts of the system gain fluctuations and obtain a higher sensitivity, an auto-gain compensation method based on the analog-to-digital converter, microcontroller and host computer software techniques is also proposed. Compared with the traditional radiometers, the radiometer topology is greatly simplified and the gain fluctuations can be readily realtime compensated using the compensation method. The laboratory test results show that radiometric sensitivity is better than 0.2 K for 300ms integration time and the instrument is conforming to specifications. Finally, the flight observation experiment results are presented to prove that the designed instrument is able to detect small changes of noise signal in a wide effective range of noise temperature (10-350K) and is a powerful tool for LWC measurement.

  19. Soft Measurement of Water Content in Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow Based on RS-SVM Classifier and GA-NN Predictor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongzhi; Xia, Bokai

    2014-08-01

    Measurement of water content in oil-water mixing flow was restricted by special problems such as narrow measuring range and low accuracy. A simulated multi-sensor measurement system in the laboratory was established, and the influence of multi-factor such as temperature, and salinity content on the measurement was investigated by numerical simulation combined with experimental test. A soft measurement model based on rough set-support vector machine (RS-SVM) classifier and genetic algorithm-neural network (GA-NN) predictors was reported in this paper. Investigation results indicate that RS-SVM classifier effectively realized the pattern identification for water holdup states via fuzzy reasoning and self-learning, and GA-NN predictors are capable of subsection forecasting water content in the different water holdup patterns, as well as adjusting the model parameters adaptively in terms of online measuring range. Compared with the actual laboratory analyzed results, the soft model proposed can be effectively used for estimating the water content in oil-water mixture in all-round measuring range

  20. Comparison of surface NMR with non-invasive and in-situ measurements of soil water content at a floodplain field site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, P.; Werban, U.; Schrön, M.; Walsh, D. O.; Grunewald, E. D.; Pohle, M.; Kathage, S.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of soil water content is a very relevant issue in soil and environmental studies. There is a broad spectrum of methods applied for measuring soil water content in the field either deployed in situ or non-invasively from the surface. For many reasons the latter is preferred in field studies. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is one of the rare methods that measure the water content directly. Whereas others, e.g. geophysical methods, make use of proximal relationships for determination of soil water content. We applied a new single-sided NMR sensor to non-invasively measure in-situ soil moisture profiles at several points along two transects in a floodplain. The field site exhibits variations in soil water content due to morphology, e.g. flood channels and alluvial fan structures. Furthermore we applied at the same transects (1) in situ methods: soil sampling for gravimetrical analysis and TDR and (2) non-invasive methods: electromagnetical induction, mobile cosmic-ray neutron sensing with a rover and gamma-ray spectrometry. We will present results that confirm agreement of NMR and gravimetrical analysis from soil sampling and discuss issues that arise when using non-unique proxy methods and relationships for determination of soil water content.

  1. Comparison of surface NMR with non-invasive and in-situ measurements of soil water content at a floodplain field site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werban, Ulrike; Schrön, Martin; Dietrich, Peter; Walsh, David; Grunewald, Elliot; Pohle, Marco; Kathage, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    Quantification of soil water content is a very relevant issue in soil and environmental studies. There is a broad spectrum of methods applied for measuring soil water content in the field either deployed in situ or non-invasively from the surface. For many reasons the latter is preferred in field studies. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is one of the rare methods that measure the water content directly. Whereas others, e.g. geophysical methods, make use of proximal relationships for determination of soil water content. We applied a new single-sided NMR sensor to non-invasively measure in-situ soil moisture profiles at several points along two transects in a floodplain. The field site exhibits variations in soil water content due to morphology, e.g. flood channels and alluvial fan structures. Furthermore we applied at the same transects (1) in situ methods: soil sampling for gravimetrical analysis and TDR and (2) non-invasive methods: electromagnetical induction, mobile cosmic-ray neutron sensing with a rover and gamma-ray spectrometry. We will present results that confirm agreement of NMR and gravimetrical analysis from soil sampling and discuss issues that arise when using non-unique proxy methods and relationships for determination of soil water content.

  2. A comparison of graphic and visual test accommodations in measuring urban fifth-grade English language learners' science content acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanahan, Therese Boulanger

    This randomized control-group posttest only experimental study investigated the effects of several kinds of test accommodations in measuring English Language Learners' (EL) science content acquisition. These accommodations included embedding contextual clues such as visuals and graphic organizers (i.e., graphs, charts, or tables) in a 20-question multiple choice life science test for 86 urban Fifth-grader English Language Learners. Each of the three randomly distributed parallel test forms contained the same text but each differed in their use of pictures and charts. The results demonstrated that there was no significant difference between the percentages of correct responses for the traditional, visual, and graphic organizer test items when English Learners and Native English Speakers were compared. However, there was a significant but moderate positive correlation between the percentages of visual responses and those of graphic organizers for these students. There was a significant but moderate correlation between the ability to read in another language and the percentage of correct visual responses and the ability to read in another language and the percentage of correct graphic organizer responses. The students' language proficiency level was significantly correlated to the total number of their correct responses as well as to their percentage of correct visual responses. Most students received science instruction in English. There was a significant correlation between the amount of time teachers spent teaching content related to that found on the examination and the percentage of total correct responses by their students regardless of the test accommodation. The results suggest that assessment designers include more questions with visuals to provide context. The results also imply that elementary teachers should incorporate visuals and graphic organizers in their instruction and their own classroom assessments. In addition, because students with higher

  3. Innate immune system activation by viral RNA: How to predict it?

    PubMed

    Kondili, M; Roux, M; Vabret, N; Bailly-Bechet, M

    2016-01-15

    The immune system is able to identify foreign pathogens via different pathways. In the case of viral infection, recognition of the viral RNA is a crucial step, and many efforts have been made to understand which features of viral RNA are detected by the immune system. The biased viral RNA composition, measured as host-virus nucleotidic divergence, or CpG enrichment, has been proposed as salient signal. Peculiar structural features of these RNA could also be related to the immune system activation. Here, we gather multiple datasets and proceed to a meta-analysis to uncover the best predictors of immune system activation by viral RNA. "A" nucleotide content and Minimum Folding Energy are good predictors, and are more easily generalized than more complex indicators suggested previously. As RNA composition and structure are highly correlated, we suggest further experiments on synthetic sequences to identify the viral RNA sensing mechanisms by immune system receptors.

  4. Innate immune system activation by viral RNA: How to predict it?

    PubMed

    Kondili, M; Roux, M; Vabret, N; Bailly-Bechet, M

    2016-01-15

    The immune system is able to identify foreign pathogens via different pathways. In the case of viral infection, recognition of the viral RNA is a crucial step, and many efforts have been made to understand which features of viral RNA are detected by the immune system. The biased viral RNA composition, measured as host-virus nucleotidic divergence, or CpG enrichment, has been proposed as salient signal. Peculiar structural features of these RNA could also be related to the immune system activation. Here, we gather multiple datasets and proceed to a meta-analysis to uncover the best predictors of immune system activation by viral RNA. "A" nucleotide content and Minimum Folding Energy are good predictors, and are more easily generalized than more complex indicators suggested previously. As RNA composition and structure are highly correlated, we suggest further experiments on synthetic sequences to identify the viral RNA sensing mechanisms by immune system receptors. PMID:26650692

  5. A method for helical RNA global structure determination in solution using small-angle x-ray scattering and NMR measurements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinbu; Zuo, Xiaobing; Yu, Ping; Xu, Huan; Starich, Mary R; Tiede, David M; Shapiro, Bruce A; Schwieters, Charles D; Wang, Yun-Xing

    2009-10-30

    We report a "top-down" method that uses mainly duplexes' global orientations and overall molecular dimension and shape restraints, which were extracted from experimental NMR and small-angle X-ray scattering data, respectively, to determine global architectures of RNA molecules consisting of mostly A-form-like duplexes. The method is implemented in the G2G (from global measurement to global structure) toolkit of programs. We demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the method by determining the global structure of a 71-nt RNA using experimental data. The backbone root-mean-square deviation of the ensemble of the calculated global structures relative to the X-ray crystal structure is 3.0+/-0.3 A using the experimental data and is only 2.5+/-0.2 A for the three duplexes that were orientation restrained during the calculation. The global structure simplifies interpretation of multidimensional nuclear Overhauser spectra for high-resolution structure determination. The potential general application of the method for RNA structure determination is discussed. PMID:19666030

  6. Measurement of total electron content of midlatitude ionosphere and protonosphere via Faraday rotation and group relay techniques using transmission from geostationary satellites ATS-3 and ATS-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    Measurement of integrated columnar electron content and total electron content for the local ionosphere and the overlying protonosphere via Faraday rotation and group delay techniques has proven very useful. A field station was established having the geographic location of 31.5 deg N latitude and 91.06 deg W longitude to accomplish these objectives. A polarimeter receiving system was set up in the beginning to measure the Faraday rotation of 137.35 MHz radio signal from geostationary satellite ATS 3 to yield the integrated columnar electron content of the local ionosphere. The measurement was continued regularly, and the analysis of the data thus collected provided a synopsis of the statistical variation of the ionosphere along with the transient variations that occurred during the periods of geomagnetic and other disturbances.

  7. Permissive effect of dexamethasone on the increase of proenkephalin mRNA induced by depolarization of chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Naranjo, J.R.; Mocchetti, I.; Schwartz, J.P.; Costa, E.

    1986-03-01

    In cultured bovine chromaffin cells, changes in the dynamic state of enkephalin stores elicited experimentally were studied by measuring cellular proenkephalin mRNA, as well as enkephalin precursors and authentic enkephalin content of cells and culture media. In parallel, tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and catecholamine cell content were also determined. Low concentrations (0.5-100 pM) of dexamethasone increased the cell contents of proenkephalin mRNA and enkephalin-containing peptides. High concentrations of the hormone(1 ..mu..M) were required to increase the cell contents of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and catecholamines. Depolarization of the cells with 10 ..mu..M veratridine resulted in a depletion of enkephalin and catecholamine stores after 24 hr. The enkephalin, but not the catecholamine, content was restored by 48 hr. An increase in proenkephalin mRNA content might account for the recovery; this increase was curtailed by tetrodotoxin and enhanced by 10 pM dexamethasone. Tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA content was not significantly modified by depolarization, even in the presence of 1 ..mu..M dexamethasone. Aldosterone, progesterone, testosterone, or estradiol (1 ..mu..M) failed to change proenkephalin mRNA. Hence, dexamethasone appears to exert a specific permissive action on the stimulation of the proenkephalin gene elicited by depolarization. Though the catecholamines and enkephalins are localized in the same chromaffin granules and are coreleased by depolarization, the genes coding for the processes that are rate limiting in the production of these neuromodulators can be differentially regulated.

  8. Analytical and biological considerations in the measurement of cell-associated CCR5 and CXCR4 mRNA and protein.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D E; Lai, J P; Tustin, N B; Riedel, E; Tustin, R; Taylor, J; Murray, J; Douglas, S D

    2010-07-01

    The accurate measurement of T cell-associated CC chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) and CXC chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expression, including expression of CCR5 and CXCR4 mRNA as an immune measure of immunologic response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and newer agents, including entry inhibitors, is essential. Previous studies have reported alterations in lymphocyte cell membrane CCR5 expression that were related to blood collection and cell separation media. Clinical trials often require the transport of specimens to central laboratories for evaluation, resulting in significant time delays between specimen procurement and analysis. This study shows that CCR5 expression on naïve and memory T cells is influenced by blood collection media and specimen age. Peripheral blood collected in Streck Vacutainer tubes containing a cell stabilizer and fixative was found to improve detection of CCR5 expression compared to specimens collected in K2 EDTA anticoagulant. The selection of flow cytometry gating strategies for the identification of naïve and memory T-helper cells can also significantly influence the sensitivity of detection of CCR5 expression. Procedural methods are described that allow for the optimal measurement of naïve and memory T-helper cell CCR5 and CXCR4 expression as well as the quantitation of CCR5 and CXCR4 mRNA.

  9. Isolation of the combined water content and salinity effects on ERT measurement to locate the preferential flow pathways in water repellent soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindt, Naaran; Rahav, Matan; Furman, Alex; Wallach, Rony

    2016-04-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has been used for measuring the dynamics of water flow in soils without disturbing the soil, and recently for identifying the preferential flow pathways that are reported to develop in water repellent soils. Since electrical resistivity is affected mainly by soil saturation and salinity, and given that in many cases salinity in the root zone reaches high values, the isolation of spatial and temporal distribution of water content or salinity in the root zone from ERT scans is a challenge. A model for transient variation of soil water content and salinity within a well-mixed soil unit was developed in the frame of this challenge. The model aims to isolate the temporal changes in water content from subsequent ERT scans. The model assumes that four stages of water dynamics occur in the root zone during an irrigation cycle: 1) Soil water content decreases by evapotranspiration - no irrigation, 2) Irrigation with saline water begins, water content increases but remains below field capacity - negligible drainage, 3) Irrigation continues and drainage starts as the water content becomes higher than field capacity, and 4) Irrigation stops, water content is higher than field capacity, and water content decreases by drainage and evapotranspiration. These four stages restart when drainage stops and water content decreases solely by evapotranspiration. The model was solved analytically and successfully applied to a series of sequential ERT scans accomplished during and between subsequent irrigation events for a soil that was rendered hydrophobic by olive trees irrigated with saline water, and a soil in a citrus orchard that was rendered hydrophobic by prolonged effluent irrigation. The suggested model helps in distinguishing between the temporal changes in water content and salinity within a given soil volume, locating the preferential plow pathways, and tracking the spatial and temporal salinity variation within the root zone during and

  10. RNA epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nian; Pan, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mammalian messenger and long non-coding RNA contain tens of thousands of post-transcriptional chemical modifications. Among these, the N6-methyl-adenosine (m6A) modification is the most abundant and can be removed by specific mammalian enzymes. M6A modification is recognized by families of RNA binding proteins that affect many aspects of mRNA function. mRNA/lncRNA modification represents another layer of epigenetic regulation of gene expression, analogous to DNA methylation and histone modification. PMID:24768686

  11. High Variability of the Metal Content of Tree Growth Rings as Measured by Synchrotron Micro X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Martin,R.; Naftel, S.; Macfie, S.; Jones, K.; Feng, H.; Trembley, C.

    2006-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation analysis was used to investigate the metal content of tree rings collected from paper birch, Betula papyrifera Marsh, on transects downwind from two metal smelters (nickel and copper). Individual trees reflected changes in ring metal content with time, which may be presumed to represent changes in local metal bioavailability. However, between-tree variations were large and no statistically significant differences in metal content as a function of time were found within or between sites. Although concentrations of both total and exchangeable copper and nickel in the soil increased with proximity to the respective smelter, this pattern was reflected only in the nickel content of rings near the nickel smelter; copper content did not vary with distance from either smelter. The sites did differ with respect to lead, manganese and zinc content of the rings, which may be related to pH. In conclusion, the variability between trees at each site suggests that dendroanalysis is a poor method for evaluating metal exposure at a large (site) scale. Tree ring metal content may be used to evaluate the metal uptake by individual trees but metal mobility in the stem makes it difficult to establish a reliable chronology.

  12. Accurate measurement of circulating mitochondrial DNA content from human blood samples using real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Ajaz, Saima; Czajka, Anna; Malik, Afshan

    2015-01-01

    We describe a protocol to accurately measure the amount of human mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) in peripheral blood samples which can be modified to quantify MtDNA from other body fluids, human cells, and tissues. This protocol is based on the use of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to quantify the amount of MtDNA relative to nuclear DNA (designated the Mt/N ratio). In the last decade, there have been increasing numbers of studies describing altered MtDNA or Mt/N in circulation in common nongenetic diseases where mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role (for review see Malik and Czajka, Mitochondrion 13:481-492, 2013). These studies are distinct from those looking at genetic mitochondrial disease and are attempting to identify acquired changes in circulating MtDNA content as an indicator of mitochondrial function. However, the methodology being used is not always specific and reproducible. As more than 95 % of the human mitochondrial genome is duplicated in the human nuclear genome, it is important to avoid co-amplification of nuclear pseudogenes. Furthermore, template preparation protocols can also affect the results because of the size and structural differences between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Here we describe how to (1) prepare DNA from blood samples; (2) pretreat the DNA to prevent dilution bias; (3) prepare dilution standards for absolute quantification using the unique primers human mitochondrial genome forward primer (hMitoF3) and human mitochondrial genome reverse primer(hMitoR3) for the mitochondrial genome, and human nuclear genome forward primer (hB2MF1) and human nuclear genome reverse primer (hB2MR1) primers for the human nuclear genome; (4) carry out qPCR for either relative or absolute quantification from test samples; (5) analyze qPCR data; and (6) calculate the sample size to adequately power studies. The protocol presented here is suitable for high-throughput use.

  13. Virus-Specific Messenger RNA and Nascent Polypeptides in Polyribosomes of Cells Replicating Murine Sarcoma-Leukemia Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Vecchio, G.; Tsuchida, N.; Shanmugam, G.; Green, M.

    1973-01-01

    We present evidence that virus-specific RNA is present in polyribosomes of transformed cells replicating the murine sarcoma-leukemia virus complex and that it serves as messenger RNA for the synthesis of viral-coded proteins. Both virus-specific RNA (detected by hybridization with the [3H]DNA product of the viral RNA-directed DNA polymerase) and nascent viral polypeptides (measured by precipitation with antiserum to purified virus) were found in membrane-bound and free polyribosomes. Membrane-bound polyribosomes contained a higher content of both virus-specific RNA and nascent viral polypeptides. From 60 to 70% of viral RNA sequences were released from polyribosomes with EDTA, consistent with a function as messenger RNA. Maximum amounts of both virus-specific RNA and nascent viral polypeptides were found in the polyribosome region sedimenting at about 350 S. PMID:4352969

  14. Retrieval of Ozone Column Content from Airborne Sun Photometer Measurements During SOLVE II: Comparison with SAGE III, POAM III,THOMAS and GOME Measurements. Comparison with SAGE 111, POAM 111, TOMS and GOME Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, J.; Schmid, B.; Russell, P.; Eilers, J.; Kolyer, R.; Redemann, J.; Yee, J.-H.; Trepte, C.; Thomason, L.; Pitts, M.

    2003-01-01

    During the Second SAGE 111 Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II), the 14- channel NASA Ames Airborne Trackmg Sunphotometer (AATS-14) was mounted on the NASA DC-8 and successfully measured spectra of total and aerosol optical depth (TOD and AOD) during the sunlit portions of eight science flights. Values of ozone column content above the aircraft have been derived from the AATS-14 data by using a linear least squares method. For each AATS-14 measured TOD spectrum, this method iteratively finds the ozone column content that yields the best match between measured and calculated TOD. The calculations assume the known Chappuis ozone band shape and a three-parameter AOD shape (quadratic in log-log space). Seven of the AATS-14 channels (each employing an interference filter with a nominal full-width at half maximum bandpass of -5 nm) are within the Chappuis band, with center wavelengths between 452.9 nm and 864.5 nm. One channel (604.4 nm) is near the peak, and three channels (499.4, 519.4 and 675.1 nm) have ozone absorption within 30-40% of that at the peak. For the typical DC-8 SOLVE II cruising altitudes of approx. 8-12 km and the background stratospheric aerosol conditions that prevailed during SOLVE 11, absorption of incoming solar radiation by ozone comprised a significant fraction of the aerosol-plus-ozone optical depth measured in the four AATS-14 channels centered between 499.4 and 675.1 nm. Typical AODs above the DC-8 ranged from 0.003-0.008 in these channels. For comparison, an ozone overburden of 0.3 atm-cm (300 DU) translates to ozone optical depths of 0.009,0.014, 0.041, and 0.012, respectively, at these same wavelengths. In this paper, we compare AATS-14 values of ozone column content with temporally and spatially near-coincident values derived from measurements acquired by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) and the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement 111 (POAM III) satellite sensors. We also compare AATS-14 ozone

  15. Estimating chlorophyll content and photochemical yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) using solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence measurements at different growing stages of attached leaves.

    PubMed

    Tubuxin, Bayaer; Rahimzadeh-Bajgiran, Parinaz; Ginnan, Yusaku; Hosoi, Fumiki; Omasa, Kenji

    2015-09-01

    This paper illustrates the possibility of measuring chlorophyll (Chl) content and Chl fluorescence parameters by the solar-induced Chl fluorescence (SIF) method using the Fraunhofer line depth (FLD) principle, and compares the results with the standard measurement methods. A high-spectral resolution HR2000+ and an ordinary USB4000 spectrometer were used to measure leaf reflectance under solar and artificial light, respectively, to estimate Chl fluorescence. Using leaves of Capsicum annuum cv. 'Sven' (paprika), the relationships between the Chl content and the steady-state Chl fluorescence near oxygen absorption bands of O2B (686nm) and O2A (760nm), measured under artificial and solar light at different growing stages of leaves, were evaluated. The Chl fluorescence yields of ΦF 686nm/ΦF 760nm ratios obtained from both methods correlated well with the Chl content (steady-state solar light: R(2) = 0.73; artificial light: R(2) = 0.94). The SIF method was less accurate for Chl content estimation when Chl content was high. The steady-state solar-induced Chl fluorescence yield ratio correlated very well with the artificial-light-induced one (R(2) = 0.84). A new methodology is then presented to estimate photochemical yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) from the SIF measurements, which was verified against the standard Chl fluorescence measurement method (pulse-amplitude modulated method). The high coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.74) between the ΦPSII of the two methods shows that photosynthesis process parameters can be successfully estimated using the presented methodology.

  16. Estimating chlorophyll content and photochemical yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) using solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence measurements at different growing stages of attached leaves

    PubMed Central

    Tubuxin, Bayaer; Rahimzadeh-Bajgiran, Parinaz; Ginnan, Yusaku; Hosoi, Fumiki; Omasa, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    This paper illustrates the possibility of measuring chlorophyll (Chl) content and Chl fluorescence parameters by the solar-induced Chl fluorescence (SIF) method using the Fraunhofer line depth (FLD) principle, and compares the results with the standard measurement methods. A high-spectral resolution HR2000+ and an ordinary USB4000 spectrometer were used to measure leaf reflectance under solar and artificial light, respectively, to estimate Chl fluorescence. Using leaves of Capsicum annuum cv. ‘Sven’ (paprika), the relationships between the Chl content and the steady-state Chl fluorescence near oxygen absorption bands of O2B (686nm) and O2A (760nm), measured under artificial and solar light at different growing stages of leaves, were evaluated. The Chl fluorescence yields of ΦF 686nm/ΦF 760nm ratios obtained from both methods correlated well with the Chl content (steady-state solar light: R2 = 0.73; artificial light: R2 = 0.94). The SIF method was less accurate for Chl content estimation when Chl content was high. The steady-state solar-induced Chl fluorescence yield ratio correlated very well with the artificial-light-induced one (R2 = 0.84). A new methodology is then presented to estimate photochemical yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) from the SIF measurements, which was verified against the standard Chl fluorescence measurement method (pulse-amplitude modulated method). The high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.74) between the ΦPSII of the two methods shows that photosynthesis process parameters can be successfully estimated using the presented methodology. PMID:26071530

  17. Development, calibration, and performance of a novel biocrust wetness probe (BWP) measuring the water content of biological soil crusts and surface soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Bettina; Berkemeier, Thomas; Ruckteschler, Nina; Caesar, Jennifer; Ritter, Holger; Heintz, Henno; Brass, Henning

    2015-04-01

    The surface layer of soils as transition zone between pedosphere and atmosphere plays a crucial role in exchange processes of nutrients, atmospheric gases and water. In arid and semiarid regions, this uppermost soil layer is commonly colonized by biological soil crusts (biocrusts), which cover about 46 million km2 worldwide being highly relevant in the global terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycles. Their water status is of major concern, as activity of these poikilohydric organisms is directly controlled by their water content. On-site analyses of both bare and crusted soils thus are urgently needed to correctly model exchange processes of water, nutrients and trace gases at the soil surface. In this study we present the biocrust wetness probe (BWP), which is the first low-cost sensor to reliably measure the water content within biocrusts or the uppermost 5 mm of the substrate. Using a weak alternating current, the electrical conductivity is assessed and an automatic calibration routine allows calculating the water content and precipitation equivalent of the surface layer over time. During one year of continuous field measurements, 60 BWPs were installed in different types of biocrusts and bare soil to measure at 5-minute intervals in the Succulent Karroo, South Africa. All sensors worked reliably and responded immediately and individually upon precipitation events. Upon completion of field measurements, soil and biocrust samples were collected from all measurement spots to compile calibration curves in the lab. In most soil and biocrust samples the water content rose linearly with increasing electrical conductivity values and only for few samples an exponential relationship was observed. Measurements revealed characteristic differences in biocrust and soil wetness patterns, which affect both the water regime and physiological processes in desert regions. Thus BWPs turned out to be well suited sensors for spatio-temporal monitoring of soil water content, allowing

  18. The RNA gene information: retroelement-microRNA entangling as the RNA quantum code.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yoichi Robertus

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) and retroelements may be a master of regulator in our life, which are evolutionally involved in the origin of species. To support the Darwinism from the aspect of molecular evolution process, it has tremendously been interested in the molecular information of naive RNA. The RNA wave model 2000 consists of four concepts that have altered from original idea of the miRNA genes for crosstalk among embryonic stem cells, their niche cells, and retroelements as a carrier vesicle of the RNA genes. (1) the miRNA gene as a mobile genetic element induces transcriptional and posttranscriptional silencing via networking-processes (no hierarchical architecture); (2) the RNA information supplied by the miRNA genes expands to intracellular, intercellular, intraorgan, interorgan, intraspecies, and interspecies under the cycle of life into the global environment; (3) the mobile miRNAs can self-proliferate; and (4) cells contain two types information as resident and genomic miRNAs. Based on RNA wave, we have developed an interest in investigation of the transformation from RNA information to quantum bits as physicochemical characters of RNA with the measurement of RNA electron spin. When it would have been given that the fundamental bases for the acquired characters in genetics can be controlled by RNA gene information, it may be available to apply for challenging against RNA gene diseases, such as stress-induced diseases.

  19. Mixing the Emic and Etic Perspectives: A Study Exploring Development of Fixed-Answer Questions to Measure In-Service Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertshaw, M. Brooke

    2013-01-01

    Using a sequential mixed-method methodology, this dissertation study set out to understand the emic and etic perspectives of the knowledge encompassed in the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) framework and to develop fixed-answer questions based on that knowledge. While there have been many studies examining ways to measure TPACK…

  20. A sub-boiling distillation method for the preparation of low carbon content water from urine samples for tritium measurement by liquid scintillation counting.

    PubMed

    Nogawa, N; Makide, Y

    1999-06-01

    A new preparation method was developed for obtaining low carbon content water from urine samples for the measurement of tritium by a liquid scintillation counter. The method uses a simple and convenient subboiling distillation bottle. Many urine samples have been purified by this method and the change of tritium level in a tritium-handling radiation-worker was observed.