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  1. RNA Interference

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIGMS Home > Science Education > RNA Interference Fact Sheet RNA Interference Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is RNA interference? RNA interference (RNAi) is a natural process ...

  2. Suppression of Bedbug's Reproduction by RNA Interference of Vitellogenin.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Minoru; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Tanahashi, Masahiko; Nikoh, Naruo; Fukatsu, Takema

    2016-01-01

    Recent resurgence of the bedbug Cimex lectularius is a global problem on the public health. On account of the worldwide rise of insecticide-resistant bedbug populations, exploration of new approaches to the bedbug control and management is anticipated. In this context, gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) has been considered for its potential application to pest control and management, because RNAi enables specific suppression of target genes and thus flexible selection of target traits to be disrupted. In this study, in an attempt to develop a control strategy targeting reproduction of the bedbug, we investigated RNAi-mediated gene silencing of vitellogenin (Vg), a major yolk protein precursor essential for oogenesis. From the bedbug transcriptomes, we identified a typical Vg gene and a truncated Vg gene, which were designated as ClVg and ClVg-like, respectively. ClVg gene was highly expressed mainly in the fat body of adult females, which was more than 100 times higher than the expression level of ClVg-like gene, indicating that ClVg gene is the primary functional Vg gene in the bedbug. RNAi-mediated suppression of ClVg gene expression in adult females resulted in drastically reduced egg production, atrophied ovaries, and inflated abdomen due to hypertrophied fat bodies. These phenotypic consequences are expected not only to suppress the bedbug reproduction directly but also to deteriorate its feeding and survival indirectly via behavioral modifications. These results suggest the potential of ClVg gene as a promising target for RNAi-based population management of the bedbug.

  3. RNA-interference-mediated downregulation of Pin1 suppresses tumorigenicity of malignant melanoma A375 cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, J; Zhang, Y; Li, Y; Zhang, H; Li, H; Yuan, X; Li, X; Zhou, W; Xu, B; Zhang, C; Zhang, Z; Zhu, L; Chen, X

    2013-01-01

    The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 is overexpressed in many human cancers, including melanoma. To investigate its possible role in oncogenesis of melanoma and as a therapeutic target, we suppressed Pin1 expression in the human melanoma cell line A375 by microRNA (miRNA) interference technology. Two stable clones with suppressed Pin1 were established by stable transfection of miRNA plasmid targeting Pin1 into A375 cells. Both clones showed reduced proliferation and invasion in vitro and suppressed tumorigenic potential in athymic mice. Furthermore, Pin1 inhibition also resulted in decreased phosphorylation of Akt and repressed expression of C-Jun N-terminal kinase and pro-matrix metalloproteinase 2, which were associated closely with the development of melanoma. These findings indicate that Pin1 plays an important role in the tumorigenesis of melanoma and might serve as a promising therapeutic target.

  4. Induction and suppression of antiviral RNA interference by influenza A virus in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Basavappa, Megha; Lu, Jinfeng; Dong, Shuwei; Cronkite, D Alexander; Prior, John T; Reinecker, Hans-Christian; Hertzog, Paul; Han, Yanhong; Li, Wan-Xiang; Cheloufi, Sihem; Karginov, Fedor V; Ding, Shou-Wei; Jeffrey, Kate L

    2016-12-05

    Influenza A virus (IAV) causes annual epidemics and occasional pandemics, and is one of the best-characterized human RNA viral pathogens(1). However, a physiologically relevant role for the RNA interference (RNAi) suppressor activity of the IAV non-structural protein 1 (NS1), reported over a decade ago(2), remains unknown(3). Plant and insect viruses have evolved diverse virulence proteins to suppress RNAi as their hosts produce virus-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that direct specific antiviral defence(4-7) by an RNAi mechanism dependent on the slicing activity of Argonaute proteins (AGOs)(8,9). Recent studies have documented induction and suppression of antiviral RNAi in mouse embryonic stem cells and suckling mice(10,11). However, it is still under debate whether infection by IAV or any other RNA virus that infects humans induces and/or suppresses antiviral RNAi in mature mammalian somatic cells(12-21). Here, we demonstrate that mature human somatic cells produce abundant virus-derived siRNAs co-immunoprecipitated with AGOs in response to IAV infection. We show that the biogenesis of viral siRNAs from IAV double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) precursors in infected cells is mediated by wild-type human Dicer and potently suppressed by both NS1 of IAV as well as virion protein 35 (VP35) of Ebola and Marburg filoviruses. We further demonstrate that the slicing catalytic activity of AGO2 inhibits IAV and other RNA viruses in mature mammalian cells, in an interferon-independent fashion. Altogether, our work shows that IAV infection induces and suppresses antiviral RNAi in differentiated mammalian somatic cells.

  5. [Suppression of Aurora-A by RNA interference inhibits laryngeal cancer Hep-2 cell growth].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Chen, Xue-hua; Cai, Chang-ping; Wang, Shi-li; Liu, Bing-ya; Zhou, Liang

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of knockdown of Aurora-A by RNA interference on laryngeal cancer Hep-2 cell growth in vitro and in vivo. A plasmid containing siRNA against Aurora-A was constructed and transfected into human laryngeal cancer cell line Hep-2. Measurements included the CCK-8 assay for viability and proliferation, Transwell assay for invasion, colony formation assay for cell anchorage-independent growth. Western blot and immunohistochemistry assay for protein expression. Tumorigenicity was observed in vivo. In Hep-2 cells transfected by Aurora-A siRNA (designated as siRNA-3), protein expression of Aurora-A was suppressed by 52%. In CCK-8 assay, absorbance value of siRNA-3 cells (3.268 ± 0.106, (x(-) ± s)) was lower than that of Hep-2 cells (3.722 ± 0.152, F = 17.634, P < 0.001). In Transwell assay, the average invasive cells per field in siRNA-3 cells (110.0 ± 18.0) was less than that in Hep-2 cells (236.0 ± 26.0, F = 26.462, P < 0.01). In colony formation assay, the average colony number of siRNA-3 cells (31.0 ± 6.6) was lower than that of Hep-2 cells (104.0 ± 14.0). The average tumor size in siRNA-3 group was (127.77 ± 174.83) mm(3), which was less than Hep-2 cell group (837.26 ± 101.80) mm(3), (F = 28.187, P < 0.001). Silencing of Aurora-A decreased the expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), key regulators in cell adhesion and invasion. The knockdown of Aurora-A inhibits the growth and invasiveness of Hep-2 cells in vitro and in vivo, which may be a promising therapeutic strategy for LSCC.

  6. Suppression of Bedbug’s Reproduction by RNA Interference of Vitellogenin

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Minoru; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Tanahashi, Masahiko; Nikoh, Naruo; Fukatsu, Takema

    2016-01-01

    Recent resurgence of the bedbug Cimex lectularius is a global problem on the public health. On account of the worldwide rise of insecticide-resistant bedbug populations, exploration of new approaches to the bedbug control and management is anticipated. In this context, gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) has been considered for its potential application to pest control and management, because RNAi enables specific suppression of target genes and thus flexible selection of target traits to be disrupted. In this study, in an attempt to develop a control strategy targeting reproduction of the bedbug, we investigated RNAi-mediated gene silencing of vitellogenin (Vg), a major yolk protein precursor essential for oogenesis. From the bedbug transcriptomes, we identified a typical Vg gene and a truncated Vg gene, which were designated as ClVg and ClVg-like, respectively. ClVg gene was highly expressed mainly in the fat body of adult females, which was more than 100 times higher than the expression level of ClVg-like gene, indicating that ClVg gene is the primary functional Vg gene in the bedbug. RNAi-mediated suppression of ClVg gene expression in adult females resulted in drastically reduced egg production, atrophied ovaries, and inflated abdomen due to hypertrophied fat bodies. These phenotypic consequences are expected not only to suppress the bedbug reproduction directly but also to deteriorate its feeding and survival indirectly via behavioral modifications. These results suggest the potential of ClVg gene as a promising target for RNAi-based population management of the bedbug. PMID:27096422

  7. RNA Interference-Mediated Simultaneous Suppression of Seed Storage Proteins in Rice Grains

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyoungwon; Lee, Hye-Jung; Jo, Yeong-Min; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Rakwal, Randeep; Lee, Jong-Yeol; Kim, Young-Mi

    2016-01-01

    Seed storage proteins (SSPs) such as glutelin, prolamin, and globulin are abundant components in some of the most widely consumed food cereals in the world. Synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), SSPs are translocated to the protein bodies. Prolamins are located at the spherical protein body I derived from the ER, whereas, glutelins and globulin are accumulated in the irregularly shaped protein bodies derived from vacuoles. Our previous studies have shown that the individual suppression of glutelins, 13-kDa prolamins and globulin caused the compensative accumulation of other SSPs. Herein, to investigate the phenotypic and molecular features of SSP deficiency transgenic rice plants suppressing all glutelins, prolamins, and globulin were generated using RNA interference (RNAi). The results revealed that glutelin A, cysteine-rich 13-kDa prolamin and globulin proteins were less accumulated but that glutelin B and ER chaperones, such as binding protein 1 (BiP1) and protein disulfide isomerase-like 1-1 (PDIL1-1), were highly accumulated at the transcript and protein levels in seeds of the transformants compared to those in the wild-type seeds. Further, the transcription of starch synthesis-related genes was reduced in immature seeds at 2 weeks after flowering, and the starch granules were loosely packaged with various sphere sizes in seed endosperms of the transformants, resulting in a floury phenotype. Interestingly, the rates of sprouting and reducing sugar accumulation during germination were found to be delayed in the transformants compared to the wild-type. In all, our results provide new insight into the role of SSPs in the formation of intracellular organelles and in germination. PMID:27843443

  8. Suppression of RNA interference on expression of c-myc of SKOV3 ovarian carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Ai, Z-H; Wang, J; Xu, Y-L; Zhu, X-L; Teng, Y-C

    2013-11-01

    To investigate suppression of RNA interference (RNAi) on expression of c-myc of SKOV3 ovarian carcinoma cell line. The c-myc -siRNA was designed and synthesized, then transfected to SKOV3 ovarian carcinoma cell lines. The cell lines were divided into four groups, including the blank control group, the siRNA transfection group, the mock transfection group and the negative control group. The expression level of c-myc mRNA and protein were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The growth and proliferation of SKOV3 ovarian carcinoma cell lines were observed with CCK-8 assay. After transfected with c-myc -siRNA, the expression level of c-myc mRNA and protein were down-regulated, the growth and proliferation of SKOV3 ovarian carcinoma cell line were inhibited in the siRNA transfection group. There were significant differences between the siRNA transfection group and the blank control group (p < 0.05). The silencing efficiency was 77.78%, the protein suppression rate was 67.78%, and the inhibition ratio was 56.35% by CCK-8 assay in siRNA transfection group. The down-regulation of c-myc expression of SKOV3 ovarian carcinoma cell line by c-myc -siRNA can lead to the suppression of cancer cell proliferation. The small interfering RNAs technique can inhibit the proliferation of carcinoma cell by oncogene silencing.

  9. Applications of RNA interference in cancer therapeutics as a powerful tool for suppressing gene expression.

    PubMed

    He, Song; Zhang, Dechun; Cheng, Fang; Gong, Fanghong; Guo, Yanan

    2009-11-01

    Cancer poses a tremendous therapeutic challenge worldwide, highlighting the critical need for developing novel therapeutics. A promising cancer treatment modality is gene therapy, which is a form of molecular medicine designed to introduce into target cells genetic material with therapeutic intent. The history of RNA interference (RNAi) has only a dozen years, however, further studies have revealed that it is a potent method of gene silencing that has developed rapidly over the past few years as a result of its extensive importance in the study of genetics, molecular biology and physiology. RNAi is a natural process by which small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplex directs sequence specific post-transcriptional silencing of homologous genes by binding to its complementary mRNA and triggering its elimination. RNAi has been extensively used as a novel and effective gene silencing tool for the fundamental research of cancer therapeutics, and has displayed great potential in clinical treatment.

  10. Synuclein-γ suppression mediated by RNA interference inhibits the clonogenicity and invasiveness of MCF-7 cells

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, BO; WANG, XIN-JUN; SHEN, PEI-HONG; LI, XUE-YUAN; CHENG, HONG-WEI; SHAN, QIAO; GUO, KUI-YUAN; CAO, YU-WEN; FAN, QING-XIA; ZHENG, RUI-FENG; LI, BEI; ZHANG, WEI; LI, YAN-WEI; YANG, KAI

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of synuclein-γ (SNCG) downregulation by RNA interference (RNAi) on the clonogenicity and invasiveness of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. This study used four pairs of SNCG-specific siRNAs which were designed and cloned into the pGPU6 plasmid for introduction into an MCF-7 cell line. The SNCG knockdown efficacies of the four siRNAs were compared using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemistry. The cells’ clonogenic and invasive phenotypes were examined with clonogenic and Boyden chamber assays. In comparison with the non-specific siRNA and empty vector controls, all four SNCG siRNAs were observed to significantly inhibit SNCG expression at the mRNA and protein levels (F=481.06, P<0.001; F=147.42, P<0.0001). SNCG suppression mediated by RNAi successfully inhibited the clonogenicity (P=0.002) and invasiveness (P<0.001) of transfected MCF-7 cells. According to the results of the present study, we concluded that SNCG suppression mediated by RNAi significantly suppressed SNCG expression at the mRNA and protein levels, suggesting that SNCG suppression mediated by an RNAi strategy may become a novel approach for treating advanced breast cancer. PMID:23599792

  11. A Re-Examination of Global Suppression of RNA Interference by HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Sanghvi, Viraj R.; Steel, Laura F.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of the interaction between replicating HIV-1 and the cellular RNAi pathway has been controversial, but it is clear that it can be complex and multifaceted. It has been proposed that the interaction is bi-directional, whereby cellular silencing pathways can restrict HIV-1 replication, and in turn, HIV-1 can suppress silencing pathways. Overall suppression of RNAi has been suggested to occur via direct binding and inhibition of Dicer by the HIV-1 Tat protein or through sequestration of TRBP, a Dicer co-factor, by the structured TAR element of HIV-1 transcripts. The role of Tat as an inhibitor of Dicer has been questioned and our results support and extend the conclusion that Tat does not inhibit RNAi that is mediated by either exogenous or endogenous miRNAs. Similarly, we find no suppression of silencing pathways in cells with replicating virus, suggesting that viral products such as the TAR RNA elements also do not reduce the efficacy of cellular RNA silencing. However, knockdown of Dicer does allow increased viral replication and this occurs at a post-transcriptional level. These results support the idea that although individual miRNAs can act to restrict HIV-1 replication, the virus does not counter these effects through a global suppression of RNAi synthesis or processing. PMID:21386885

  12. VEGFR-2 silencing by small interference RNA (siRNA) suppresses LPA-induced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) invasion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-qiang; Barfield, Elaine; Dutta, Sonia; Pua, Tarah; Fishman, David A

    2009-12-01

    The VEGF-VEGF receptor (VEGFR) signaling axis has emerged as a promising target for cancer therapy, attributing to its vital role in tumor angiogenesis and growth. We have previously reported the regulation of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) invasion and migration by VEGF and the implication of VEGF-VEGFR-2 axis in lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced EOC invasion. However, the expression profile of VEGF and VEGFRs in EOC, their association with tumor aggressiveness, and their regulation by LPA remain unclear. In this study, we examined the expression of VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, neuropilin-1 (NRP-1), NRP-2, VEGF(121), and VEGF(165) in established EOC cell lines and assessed their correlation with cell invasiveness. Moreover, using an ovarian cancer tissue qPCR array, we analyzed VEGFR-2 expression across a panel of 48 tissues with different disease stages and histological grades. We also tested the effect of LPA on VEGF and VEGFR-2 expression and examined whether blocking VEGFR-2 by RNA interference (RNAi) affects LPA-induced EOC invasion. We show that VEGF and VEGFR-2 expression correlates with cell invasiveness and VEGFR-2 expression in ovarian cancer tissues correlate with tumor grade. In addition, LPA, at 20 muM, significantly induced the expression of VEGF(121), VEGF(165), and VEGFR-2 in SKOV3 and DOV13 cells (P<0.05). VEGFR-2 small interference RNA (siRNA) transfection remarkably decreased LPA's invasion-promoting effect (P<0.001) in SKOV3 cells without significantly decreasing SKOV3 cells' basal invasiveness. In DOV13 cells, VEGFR-2 silencing significantly decreases both the basal level cell invasion and LPA's invasion promoting effect (P<0.001). These results suggest that decreasing VEGFR-2 expression by RNAi may prove to be an effective method to reduce the metastatic potential of EOC cells exposed to elevated levels of LPA.

  13. RNA Interference Screen to Identify Kinases That Suppress Rescue of ΔF508-CFTR*

    PubMed Central

    Trzcińska-Daneluti, Agata M.; Chen, Anthony; Nguyen, Leo; Murchie, Ryan; Jiang, Chong; Moffat, Jason; Pelletier, Lawrence; Rotin, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). ΔF508-CFTR, the most common disease-causing CF mutant, exhibits folding and trafficking defects and is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it is targeted for proteasomal degradation. To identify signaling pathways involved in ΔF508-CFTR rescue, we screened a library of endoribonuclease-prepared short interfering RNAs (esiRNAs) that target ∼750 different kinases and associated signaling proteins. We identified 20 novel suppressors of ΔF508-CFTR maturation, including the FGFR1. These were subsequently validated by measuring channel activity by the YFP halide-sensitive assay following shRNA-mediated knockdown, immunoblotting for the mature (band C) ΔF508-CFTR and measuring the amount of surface ΔF508-CFTR by ELISA. The role of FGFR signaling on ΔF508-CFTR trafficking was further elucidated by knocking down FGFRs and their downstream signaling proteins: Erk1/2, Akt, PLCγ-1, and FRS2. Interestingly, inhibition of FGFR1 with SU5402 administered to intestinal organoids (mini-guts) generated from the ileum of ΔF508-CFTR homozygous mice resulted in a robust ΔF508-CFTR rescue. Moreover, combination of SU5402 and VX-809 treatments in cells led to an additive enhancement of ΔF508-CFTR rescue, suggesting these compounds operate by different mechanisms. Chaperone array analysis on human bronchial epithelial cells harvested from ΔF508/ΔF508-CFTR transplant patients treated with SU5402 identified altered expression of several chaperones, an effect validated by their overexpression or knockdown experiments. We propose that FGFR signaling regulates specific chaperones that control ΔF508-CFTR maturation, and suggest that FGFRs may serve as important targets for therapeutic intervention for the treatment of CF. PMID:25825526

  14. Transgene-mediated suppression of the RNA interference pathway in Aedes aegypti interferes with gene silencing and enhances Sindbis virus and dengue virus type 2 replication.

    PubMed

    Khoo, C C H; Doty, J B; Heersink, M S; Olson, K E; Franz, A W E

    2013-02-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is the major innate antiviral pathway in Aedes aegypti that responds to replicating arboviruses such as dengue virus (DENV) and Sindbis virus (SINV). On the one hand, the mosquito's RNAi machinery is capable of completely eliminating DENV2 from Ae. aegypti. On the other, transient silencing of key genes of the RNAi pathway increases replication of SINV and DENV2, allowing the viruses to temporally overcome dose-dependent midgut infection and midgut escape barriers (MEB) more efficiently. Here we expressed Flock house virus B2 (FHV-B2) from the poly-ubiquitin (PUb) promoter in Ae. aegypti using the ΦC31 site-directed recombination system to investigate the impact of transgene-mediated RNAi pathway suppression on infections with SINV-TR339eGFP and DENV2-QR94, the latter of which has been shown to be confronted with a strong MEB in Ae. aegypti. FHV-B2 was constitutively expressed in midguts of sugar- and blood-fed mosquitoes of transgenic line PUbB2 P61. B2 over-expression suppressed RNA silencing of carboxypeptidase A-1 (AeCPA-1) in midgut tissue of PUbB2 P61 mosquitoes. Following oral challenge with SINV-TR339eGFP or DENV2-QR94, mean titres in midguts of PUbB2 P61 females were significantly higher at 7 days post-bloodmeal (pbm) than in those of nontransgenic control mosquitoes. At 14 days pbm, infection rates of carcasses were significantly increased in PubB2 P61 mosquitoes infected with SINV-TR339eGFP. Following infection with DENV2-QR94, midgut infection rates were significantly increased in the B2-expressing mosquitoes at 14 days pbm. However, B2 expression in PUbB2 P61 did not increase the DENV2-QR94 dissemination rate, indicating that the infection phenotype was not primarily controlled by RNAi. © 2013 Royal Entomological Society.

  15. Silencing of CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression by RNA interference suppresses human endometrial carcinoma growth in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu; Ye, Yuanying; Long, Ping; Zhao, Shuping; Zhang, Lei; A, Yanni

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of silencing the expression of CXCR4 and CXCR7 by RNAi on the growth of endometrial carcinoma (EC), in vivo, was evaluated. To establish endometrial carcinoma model, thirty nude mice were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 × 107 Ishikawa cells. All tumor-bearing mice were randomly assigned to five groups (six mice in each group) when the tumor xenografts reached 5-7 mm in diameter, and treated with CXCR4-siRNA (5 nmol), CXCR7-siRNA (5 nmol), CXCR4-siRNA (5 nmol) plus CXCR7-siRNA (5 nmol), negative-siRNA (5 nmol) and normal saline, respectively. Following intra-tumor injection, the growth rate of tumor xenografts in the three treatment groups was significantly delayed compared with those in Ne-si and NS group (P<0.05). The results of QRT-PCR and immunohistochemical assessment showed that the expression levels of CXCR4 and CXCR7 could be down regulated by RNA interference. We also observed that treatment with CXCR4-siRNA and CXCR7-siRNA reduced cell proliferation, but there was no significant difference in apoptosis among the five groups. CXCR4 and CXCR7 silencing by RNAi inhibit the growth of human endometrial carcinoma xenografts by inhibiting cancer cell proliferation, in vivo. These results indicate that CXCR4 and CXCR7 could serve as potential alternative targets for gene therapy in endometrial carcinoma. PMID:28469794

  16. Silencing of CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression by RNA interference suppresses human endometrial carcinoma growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Ye, Yuanying; Long, Ping; Zhao, Shuping; Zhang, Lei; A, Yanni

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of silencing the expression of CXCR4 and CXCR7 by RNAi on the growth of endometrial carcinoma (EC), in vivo, was evaluated. To establish endometrial carcinoma model, thirty nude mice were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 × 10(7) Ishikawa cells. All tumor-bearing mice were randomly assigned to five groups (six mice in each group) when the tumor xenografts reached 5-7 mm in diameter, and treated with CXCR4-siRNA (5 nmol), CXCR7-siRNA (5 nmol), CXCR4-siRNA (5 nmol) plus CXCR7-siRNA (5 nmol), negative-siRNA (5 nmol) and normal saline, respectively. Following intra-tumor injection, the growth rate of tumor xenografts in the three treatment groups was significantly delayed compared with those in Ne-si and NS group (P<0.05). The results of QRT-PCR and immunohistochemical assessment showed that the expression levels of CXCR4 and CXCR7 could be down regulated by RNA interference. We also observed that treatment with CXCR4-siRNA and CXCR7-siRNA reduced cell proliferation, but there was no significant difference in apoptosis among the five groups. CXCR4 and CXCR7 silencing by RNAi inhibit the growth of human endometrial carcinoma xenografts by inhibiting cancer cell proliferation, in vivo. These results indicate that CXCR4 and CXCR7 could serve as potential alternative targets for gene therapy in endometrial carcinoma.

  17. Suppression of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) by RNA interference inhibits proliferation of EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mei; Murai, Yoshihiro; Kutsuna, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Nomoto, Kazuhiro; Cheng, Chun-Mei; Ishizawa, Shin; Zhao, Qing-Li; Ogawa, Ryohei; Harmon, Brian V; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Takano, Yasuo

    2006-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with the development of several lymphoid and epithelial malignancies, including Burkitt's lymphoma. The EBV latent protein, EBV Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1), is detectable in almost all types of EBV-associated tumors and is essential for replication and maintenance of the latent episome of EBV. We here examined whether the RNA interference (RNAi) technique could be employed to suppress expression of EBNA1 in EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphoma cells. A Raji cell line expressing small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) against EBNA1 was established and EBNA1 mRNA level was determined by real-time RT-PCR analysis. We investigated the effects of EBNA1 silence on lymphoma cell growth and cell cycle progression. Transfection of an EBNA1 RNAi plasmid resulted in substantial loss of EBNA1 mRNA and significantly inhibited proliferation of Raji cells relative to the control plasmid case. Suppression of EBNA1 was also associated with downregulation of EBV oncogene EBNA2, a decreased PCNA labeling index and increased G0/G1 fraction in cell cycle analysis. These findings point to potential therapeutic applications for vector-mediated siRNA delivery to control EBV-associated malignant disorders.

  18. Stable RNA interference of ErbB-2 gene synergistic with epirubicin suppresses breast cancer growth in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Xiaoqu; Su Fengxi; Qin Li; Jia Weijuan; Gong Chang; Yu Fengyan; Guo Jujiang; Song Erwei . E-mail: songerwei02@yahoo.com.cn

    2006-08-04

    Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (Her2, ErbB-2) contributes to the progression and metastasis of breast cancer, implying that Her2 gene is a suitable target of RNA interference (RNAi) for breast cancer therapy. Here, we employed plasmid-mediated expression of 2 different Her2-shRNAs (pU6-Her2shRNAs) efficiently silenced the target gene expression on Her2 expressing SKBR-3 breast cancer cells in both mRNA and protein levels. Consequently, pU6-Her2shRNA increased apoptosis and reduced proliferation of SKBR-3 cells assayed by TUNEL and MTT, respectively. In vivo, intra-tumor injection of pU6-Her2shRNA inhibited the growth of SKBR-3 tumors inoculated subcutaneously in nude mice. Furthermore, pU6-Her2shRNA synergized the tumor suppression effect of epirubicin to SKBR-3 cells in vitro and implanted subcutaneously in nude mice. Therefore, we concluded that stable silencing of Her2 gene expression with plasmid expressing shRNA may hold great promise as a novel therapy for Her2 expressing breast cancers alone or in combination with anthracycline chemotherapy.

  19. RNA interference suppression of the receptor tyrosine kinase Torso gene impaired pupation and adult emergence in Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tao-Tao; Meng, Qing-Wei; Guo, Wen-Chao; Li, Guo-Qing

    2015-12-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster prothoracic gland (PG) cells, Torso mediates prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH)-triggered mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway (consisting of four core components Ras, Raf, MEK and ERK) to stimulate ecdysteroidogenesis. In this study, LdTorso, LdRas, LdRaf and LdERK were cloned in Leptinotarsa decemlineata. The four genes were highly or moderately expressed in the larval prothoracic glands. At the first- to third-instar stages, their expression levels were higher just before and right after the molt, and were lower in the mid instars. At the fourth-instar stage, their transcript levels were higher before prepupal stage. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of LdTorso delayed larval development, increased pupal weight, and impaired pupation and adult emergence. Moreover, knockdown of LdTorso decreased the mRNA levels of LdRas, LdRaf and LdERK, repressed the transcription of two ecdysteroidogenesis genes (LdPHM and LdDIB), lowered 20E titer, and downregulated the expression of several 20E-response genes (LdEcR, LdUSP, LdHR3 and LdFTZ-F1). Furthermore, silencing of LdTorso induced the expression of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT, increased JH titer, and activated the transcription of a JH early-inducible gene LdKr-h1. Thus, our results suggest that Torso transduces PTTH-triggered MAPK signal to regulate ecdysteroidogenesis in the PGs in a non-drosophiline insect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. RNA interference (RNAi)-induced suppression of nicotine demethylase activity reduces levels of a key carcinogen in cured tobacco leaves.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ramsey S; Jack, Anne M; Morris, Jerry W; Robert, Vincent J M; Gavilano, Lily B; Siminszky, Balazs; Bush, Lowell P; Hayes, Alec J; Dewey, Ralph E

    2008-05-01

    Technologies for reducing the levels of tobacco product constituents that may contribute to unwanted health effects are desired. Target compounds include tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), a class of compounds generated through the nitrosation of pyridine alkaloids during the curing and processing of tobacco. Studies have reported the TSNA N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. NNN is formed via the nitrosation of nornicotine, a secondary alkaloid produced through enzymatic N-demethylation of nicotine. Strategies to lower nornicotine levels in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) could lead to a corresponding decrease in NNN accumulation in cured leaves. The major nicotine demethylase gene of tobacco has recently been isolated. In this study, a large-scale field trial was conducted to evaluate transgenic lines of burley tobacco carrying an RNA interference (RNAi) construct designed to inhibit the expression of this gene. Selected transgenic lines exhibited a six-fold decrease in nornicotine content relative to untransformed controls. Analysis of cured leaves revealed a commensurate decrease in NNN and total TSNAs. The inhibition of nicotine demethylase activity is an effective means of decreasing significantly the level of a key defined animal carcinogen present in tobacco products.

  1. RNA interference: unraveling a mystery.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Mary K

    2006-12-01

    Andrew Fire and Craig Mello have won the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology for their discovery of RNA interference. Mary K. Montgomery, then a postdoc in the Fire laboratory, participated in some of the key experiments.

  2. Structural insights into RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Sashital, Dipali G; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2010-02-01

    Virtually all animals and plants utilize small RNA molecules to control protein expression during different developmental stages and in response to viral infection. Structural and mechanistic studies have begun to illuminate three fundamental aspects of these pathways: small RNA biogenesis, formation of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs), and targeting of complementary mRNAs. Here we review exciting recent progress in understanding how regulatory RNAs are produced and how they trigger specific destruction of mRNAs during RNA interference (RNAi).

  3. Suppression of BCRP expression and restoration of sensitivity to chemotherapy in multidrug-resistant HCC cell line HEPG2/ADM by RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyang; Zhou, Shiji; Li, Tao; Liu, Zuojin; Wu, Jinfeng; Zeng, Guili; Liu, Changan; Gong, Jianping

    2012-10-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is an ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter that confers resistance to various anticancer drugs like Adriamycin. Overexpression of BCRP confers multidrug resistance (MDR) in hepatocellular carcinoma cells and is a frequent impediment to successful chemotherapy. We evaluated a new approach using RNA interference for the specific knockdown of BCRP in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. To overcome the BCRP-mediated atypical multidrug drug resistance, one small interfering RNA construct (RNAi) targeting one special region of BCRP gene were designed to inhibit the atypical MDR expression by transfecting them into HepG2/ADM cell lines. We found that the overexpression of BCRP gene was suppressed efficiently by the introduction of small interfering RNA, which caused sequence specific gene silence. The level of BCRP mRNA reduced to 22.55% after transfected by pSUPER-BCRPs compared with those of the controls. Similarly, the level of BCRP decreased too. Furthermore, the sensitivity to Adriamycin of pSUPER-BCRPs-treated HEPG2/ADM cells is increased 3.55-fold compared to their control (p<0.05). The relative reverse rate of HepG2/ADM cell to Adriamycin is 72.2%. These data indicated that pSUPER-BCRPs could modulate MDR and may present a new approach to overcome BCRP-mediated drug resistance in HEPG2/ADM cells. It may reverse multidrug resistance phenotype and therefore provide promising therapeutic modalities in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  4. Caenorhabditis elegans P5B-type ATPase CATP-5 operates in polyamine transport and is crucial for norspermidine-mediated suppression of RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Heinick, Alexander; Urban, Katja; Roth, Stefan; Spies, Danica; Nunes, Frank; Phanstiel, Otto; Liebau, Eva; Lüersen, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Physiological polyamines are required in various biological processes. In the current study, we used norspermidine, a structural analog of the natural polyamine spermidine, to investigate polyamine uptake in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Norspermidine was found to have two remarkable effects: it is toxic for the nematode, without affecting its food, Escherichia coli; and it hampers RNA interference. By characterizing a norspermidine-resistant C. elegans mutant strain that has been isolated in a genetic screen, we demonstrate that both effects, as well as the uptake of a fluorescent polyamine-conjugate, depend on the transporter protein CATP-5, a novel P5B-type ATPase. To our knowledge, CATP-5 represents the first P5-type ATPase that is associated with the plasma membrane, being expressed in the apical membrane of intestinal cells and the excretory cell. Moreover, genetic interaction studies using C. elegans polyamine synthesis mutants indicate that CATP-5 has a function redundant to polyamine synthesis and link reduced polyamine levels to retarded postembryonic development, reduced brood size, shortened life span, and small body size. We suggest that CATP-5 represents a crucial component of the pharmacologically important polyamine transport system, the molecular nature of which has not been identified so far in metazoa.—Heinick, A., Urban, K., Roth, S., Spies, D., Nunes, F., Phanstiel IV, O., Liebau, E., Lüersen, K. Caenorhabditis elegans P5B-type ATPase CATP-5 operates in polyamine transport and is crucial for norspermidine-mediated suppression of RNA interference. PMID:19762559

  5. RNA interference suppression of lignin biosynthesis increases fermentable sugar yields for biofuel production from field-grown sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Jung, Je Hyeong; Vermerris, Wilfred; Gallo, Maria; Fedenko, Jeffrey R; Erickson, John E; Altpeter, Fredy

    2013-08-01

    The agronomic performance, cell wall characteristics and enzymatic saccharification efficiency of transgenic sugarcane plants with modified lignin were evaluated under replicated field conditions. Caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) was stably suppressed by RNAi in the field, resulting in transcript reduction of 80%-91%. Along with COMT suppression, total lignin content was reduced by 6%-12% in different transgenic lines. Suppression of COMT also altered lignin composition by reducing syringyl units and p-coumarate incorporation into lignin. Reduction in total lignin by 6% improved saccharification efficiency by 19%-23% with no significant difference in biomass yield, plant height, stalk diameter, tiller number, total structural carbohydrates or brix value when compared with nontransgenic tissue culture-derived or transgenic control plants. Lignin reduction of 8%-12% compromised biomass yield, but increased saccharification efficiency by 28%-32% compared with control plants. Biomass from transgenic sugarcane lines that have 6%-12% less lignin requires approximately one-third of the hydrolysis time or 3- to 4-fold less enzyme to release an equal or greater amount of fermentable sugar than nontransgenic plants. Reducing the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass to saccharification by modifying lignin biosynthesis is expected to greatly benefit the economic competitiveness of sugarcane as a biofuel feedstock.

  6. Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus Infection Leads to an Enhanced RNA Interference Response and Not Its Suppression in the Bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    PubMed Central

    Cappelle, Kaat; Smagghe, Guy; Dhaenens, Maarten; Meeus, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is the primary antiviral defense system in insects and its importance for pollinator health is indisputable. In this work, we examined the effect of Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) infection on the RNAi process in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, and whether the presence of possible functional viral suppressors could alter the potency of the host’s immune response. For this, a two-fold approach was used. Through a functional RNAi assay, we observed an enhancement of the RNAi system after IAPV infection instead of its suppression, despite only minimal upregulation of the genes involved in RNAi. Besides, the presence of the proposed suppressor 1A and the predicted OrfX protein in IAPV could not be confirmed using high definition mass spectrometry. In parallel, when bumblebees were infected with cricket paralysis virus (CrPV), known to encode a suppressor of RNAi, no increase in RNAi efficiency was seen. For both viruses, pre-infection with the one virus lead to a decreased replication of the other virus, indicating a major effect of competition. These results are compelling in the context of Dicistroviridae in multi-virus/multi-host networks as the effect of a viral infection on the RNAi machinery may influence subsequent virus infections. PMID:27999371

  7. Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus Infection Leads to an Enhanced RNA Interference Response and Not Its Suppression in the Bumblebee Bombus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Cappelle, Kaat; Smagghe, Guy; Dhaenens, Maarten; Meeus, Ivan

    2016-12-19

    RNA interference (RNAi) is the primary antiviral defense system in insects and its importance for pollinator health is indisputable. In this work, we examined the effect of Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) infection on the RNAi process in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, and whether the presence of possible functional viral suppressors could alter the potency of the host's immune response. For this, a two-fold approach was used. Through a functional RNAi assay, we observed an enhancement of the RNAi system after IAPV infection instead of its suppression, despite only minimal upregulation of the genes involved in RNAi. Besides, the presence of the proposed suppressor 1A and the predicted OrfX protein in IAPV could not be confirmed using high definition mass spectrometry. In parallel, when bumblebees were infected with cricket paralysis virus (CrPV), known to encode a suppressor of RNAi, no increase in RNAi efficiency was seen. For both viruses, pre-infection with the one virus lead to a decreased replication of the other virus, indicating a major effect of competition. These results are compelling in the context of Dicistroviridae in multi-virus/multi-host networks as the effect of a viral infection on the RNAi machinery may influence subsequent virus infections.

  8. Using RNA interference to identify genes required for RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Nathaniel R.; Labbé, Jean-Claude; Goldstein, Bob

    2002-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a phenomenon in which double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) silences endogenous gene expression. By injecting pools of dsRNAs into Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified a dsRNA that acts as a potent suppressor of the RNAi mechanism. We have used coinjection of dsRNAs to identify four additional candidates for genes involved in the RNAi mechanism in C. elegans. Three of the genes are C. elegans mes genes, some of which encode homologs of the Drosophila chromatin-binding Polycomb-group proteins. We have used loss-of-function mutants to confirm a role for mes-3, -4, and -6 in RNAi. Interestingly, introducing very low levels of dsRNA can bypass a requirement for these genes in RNAi. The finding that genes predicted to encode proteins that associate with chromatin are involved in RNAi in C. elegans raises the possibility that chromatin may play a role in RNAi in animals, as it does in plants. PMID:11904378

  9. RNA interference suppression of genes in glycosyl transferase families 43 and 47 in wheat starchy endosperm causes large decreases in arabinoxylan content.

    PubMed

    Lovegrove, Alison; Wilkinson, Mark D; Freeman, Jackie; Pellny, Till K; Tosi, Paola; Saulnier, Luc; Shewry, Peter R; Mitchell, Rowan A C

    2013-09-01

    The cell walls of wheat (Triticum aestivum) starchy endosperm are dominated by arabinoxylan (AX), accounting for 65% to 70% of the polysaccharide content. Genes within two glycosyl transferase (GT) families, GT43 (IRREGULAR XYLEM9 [IRX9] and IRX14) and GT47 (IRX10), have previously been shown to be involved in the synthesis of the xylan backbone in Arabidopsis, and close homologs of these have been implicated in the synthesis of xylan in other species. Here, homologs of IRX10 TaGT47_2 and IRX9 TaGT43_2, which are highly expressed in wheat starchy endosperm cells, were suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi) constructs driven by a starchy endosperm-specific promoter. The total amount of AX was decreased by 40% to 50% and the degree of arabinosylation was increased by 25% to 30% in transgenic lines carrying either of the transgenes. The cell walls of starchy endosperm in sections of grain from TaGT43_2 and TaGT47_2 RNAi transgenics showed decreased immunolabeling for xylan and arabinoxylan epitopes and approximately 50% decreased cell wall thickness compared with controls. The proportion of AX that was water soluble was not significantly affected, but average AX polymer chain length was decreased in both TaGT43_2 and TaGT47_2 RNAi transgenics. However, the long AX chains seen in controls were absent in TaGT43_2 RNAi transgenics but still present in TaGT47_2 RNAi transgenics. The results support an emerging picture of IRX9-like and IRX10-like proteins acting as key components in the xylan synthesis machinery in both dicots and grasses. Since AX is the main component of dietary fiber in wheat foods, the TaGT43_2 and TaGT47_2 genes are of major importance to human nutrition.

  10. RNA Interference Suppression of Genes in Glycosyl Transferase Families 43 and 47 in Wheat Starchy Endosperm Causes Large Decreases in Arabinoxylan Content1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lovegrove, Alison; Wilkinson, Mark D.; Freeman, Jackie; Pellny, Till K.; Tosi, Paola; Saulnier, Luc; Shewry, Peter R.; Mitchell, Rowan A.C.

    2013-01-01

    The cell walls of wheat (Triticum aestivum) starchy endosperm are dominated by arabinoxylan (AX), accounting for 65% to 70% of the polysaccharide content. Genes within two glycosyl transferase (GT) families, GT43 (IRREGULAR XYLEM9 [IRX9] and IRX14) and GT47 (IRX10), have previously been shown to be involved in the synthesis of the xylan backbone in Arabidopsis, and close homologs of these have been implicated in the synthesis of xylan in other species. Here, homologs of IRX10 TaGT47_2 and IRX9 TaGT43_2, which are highly expressed in wheat starchy endosperm cells, were suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi) constructs driven by a starchy endosperm-specific promoter. The total amount of AX was decreased by 40% to 50% and the degree of arabinosylation was increased by 25% to 30% in transgenic lines carrying either of the transgenes. The cell walls of starchy endosperm in sections of grain from TaGT43_2 and TaGT47_2 RNAi transgenics showed decreased immunolabeling for xylan and arabinoxylan epitopes and approximately 50% decreased cell wall thickness compared with controls. The proportion of AX that was water soluble was not significantly affected, but average AX polymer chain length was decreased in both TaGT43_2 and TaGT47_2 RNAi transgenics. However, the long AX chains seen in controls were absent in TaGT43_2 RNAi transgenics but still present in TaGT47_2 RNAi transgenics. The results support an emerging picture of IRX9-like and IRX10-like proteins acting as key components in the xylan synthesis machinery in both dicots and grasses. Since AX is the main component of dietary fiber in wheat foods, the TaGT43_2 and TaGT47_2 genes are of major importance to human nutrition. PMID:23878080

  11. Cardiospecific CD36 suppression by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference prevents cardiac hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction in high-fat-diet induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yijie; Bao, Mingwei; Dai, Mingyan; Wang, Xin; He, Wenbo; Tan, Tuantuan; Lin, Dandan; Wang, Wei; Wen, Ying; Zhang, Rui

    2015-06-03

    Fatty acid (FA) catabolism abnormality has been proved to play an important role in obesity-related cardiomyopathy. We hypothesized that cardiospecific suppression of CD36, the predominant membrane FA transporter, would protect against obesity-related cardiomyopathy. Four-wk-old male C57BL/6 J mice were fed with either high-fat-diet (HFD) or control-normal-diet for 2 wk. Then they were subjected to intramyocardial injection with recombinant lentiviral vectors containing short hairpin RNAs to selectively downregulate the expression of either cardiac CD36 or irrelevant gene by RNA interference. After a 10-wk continuation of the diet, biochemical, functional, morphological, histological, metabolic and molecular profiles were assessed. HFD administration elicited obesity, cardiac hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction accompanied with elevated serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, fasting serum glucose (FSG), total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride. Additionally, HFD consumption promoted lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the cardiomyocytes. Cardiospecific CD36 inhibition protected against HFD induced cardiac remodeling by decreasing heart/body weight ratio, increasing left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction and fractional shortening as well as normalizing LV diameter, without influencing body weight gain. Inhibition of cardiac CD36 also mitigated obesity induced alteration in BUN, creatinine and triglyceride, but had no effect on FSG or TC. Moreover, cardiospecific CD36 deficiency corrected myocardial lipid overaccumulation and intracellular ROS overproduction that were induced by HFD feeding. Cardiospecific CD36 inhibition protects against the aggravation of cardiac functional and morphological changes associated with HFD induced obesity. CD36 represents a potential therapeutic target for obesity cardiomyopathy.

  12. Suppression of hLRH-1 mediated by a DNA vector-based RNA interference results in cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cell BEL-7402

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shuiliang; Lan Fenghua; Huang Lianghu; Dong Lihong; Zhu Zhongyong; Li Zonghai; Xie Youhua; Fu Jiliang . E-mail: fu825@mail.tongji.edu.cn

    2005-08-05

    RNA interference (RNAi) is the process by which double-stranded RNA directs sequence-specific degradation of mRNA. A DNA vector-based approach has been shown to be able to trigger RNA interference in mammalian cells successfully. LRH-1 is an orphan nuclear receptor predominantly expressed in tissues of endodermal origin, where it controls development and cholesterol homeostasis. In the present study, we demonstrated that the expression of hLRH-1 and cyclin E1 in BEL-7402 cells could be suppressed by up to {approx}80% via DNA vector-based RNA interference. The suppression of hLRH-1 resulted in cell cycle arrest mediated by the down-regulation of cyclin E1. Induction of apoptosis and down-regulation of Gadd45{beta} were also shown in hLRH-1 knock down BEL-7402 cells. These results, together with the findings that Gadd45{beta} remained unchanged in cyclin E1 RNAi cells, suggested that the induction of apoptosis by knock down of hLRH-1 was closely related to the down-regulation of Gadd45{beta}.

  13. Methods of suppressing automotive interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taggart, H. E.

    1981-11-01

    Automotive manufacturers utilize several techniques to reduce EMI emanating from the vehicle. The techniques include resistor spark plugs, resistor spark plug cables, use of silicone lubricant in the distributor, use of capacitors as filters, placement of grounding straps at key locations, conductive fan belt discharge, and tire static-charge reduction. If even further reduction is needed to obtain the maximum capability of a specific mobile communication system, additional suppression techniques are discussed which are effective at frequencies from approximately 30 to 1000 MHz. Measurement results show that the EMI from a new production-line automobile, measured in accordance with SAE Standard J551g, can be reduced as much as 10 to 15 dB by employing these suppression techniques. The amount of degradation to a mobile narrow-band FM receiver, such as the type used by law enforcement agencies, can be measured using the measurement technique described. This same technique can then be used as a tool to further reduce EMI from the vehicle components.

  14. Suppression of the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α by RNA interference alleviates hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Shi, Bo; Huang, Liping; Wang, Xin; Yu, Xiaona; Guo, Baosheng; Ren, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, the potential clinical value of HIF-1α as a therapeutic target in the treatment of PH has not yet been evaluated. In this study, an animal model of hypoxia-induced PH was established by exposing adult rats to 10% O2 for 3 weeks, and the effects of the lentivirus-mediated delivery of HIF-1α short hairpin RNA (shRNA) by intratracheal instillation prior to exposure to hypoxia on the manifestations of hypoxia-induced PH were assessed. The successful delivery of HIF-1α shRNA into the pulmonary arteries effectively suppressed the hypoxia-induced upregulation of HIF-1α, accompanied by the prominent attenuation the symptoms associated with hypoxia-induced PH, including the elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), as well as the muscularization of pulmonary arterioles. In addition, the knockdown of HIF-1α in cultured rat primary PASMCs significantly inhibited the hypoxia-induced acceleration of the cell cycle and the proliferation of the PASMCs, suggesting that HIF-1α may be a direct mediator of PASMC hyperplasia in hypoxia-induced PH. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the potent suppressive effects of HIF-1α shRNA on hypoxia-induced PH and PASMC hyperplasia, providing evidence for the potential application of HIF-1α shRNA in the treatment of hypoxic PH. PMID:27748831

  15. Transcriptional interference by RNA polymerase pausing and dislodgement of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Adam C; Egan, J Barry; Shearwin, Keith E

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptional interference is the in cis suppression of one transcriptional process by another. Mathematical modeling shows that promoter occlusion by elongating RNA polymerases cannot produce strong interference. Interference may instead be generated by (1) dislodgement of slow-to-assemble pre-initiation complexes and transcription factors and (2) prolonged occlusion by paused RNA polymerases.

  16. [Immunoregulation by interference RNA (iRNA) - mechanisms, role, perspective].

    PubMed

    Sikora, Emilia; Ptak, Włodzimierz; Bryniarski, Krzysztof

    2011-08-05

    The functioning of an organism depends on the precise control mechanisms, constantly adjusted to the actual state. Therefore, there is a need for efficient communication between both adjacent and distant cells, which may be executed by proteins such as hormones, neurotransmitters and cytokines. Recently another means of regulation has emerged - short regulatory RNAs (srRNAs). Although discovered only a couple of years ago, the mechanism of RNA interference has already become a topic of thousands of publications, defining its roles in both physiological and pathological processes, such as cancerogenesis and autoimmunization. RNAs regulating cell function may be coded in its genome (both exons and introns) or be introduced from the external environment. In mammals microRNAs (miRNAs) cooperate with proteins from the Ago/PIWI family to form effector ribonucleoprotein complexes, and owing to their complementarity to the target mRNA, control genes' expression at the posttranscriptional level, either through the suppression of mRNA translation or through mRNA degradation. SrRNAs are crucial regulators throughout the development of immune cells, starting from hematopoietic stem cells, up to the effector cells of the adaptive immune response. Moreover, some of the regulatory cells perform their function by releasing miRNAs, which are then transported to the target cells, possibly enclosed in the exosomes.

  17. RNA interference suppression of mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) reduces the adhesive and invasive capacity of human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yamazoe, Sadaaki; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Sawada, Tetsuji; Amano, Ryosuke; Yamada, Nobuya; Ohira, Masaichi; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2010-05-23

    MUC5AC is a secretory mucin normally expressed in the surface muconous cells of stomach and bronchial tract. It has been known that MUC5AC de novo expression occurred in the invasive ductal carcinoma and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm with no detectable expression in normal pancreas, however, its function remains uncertain. Here, we report the impact of MUC5AC on the adhesive and invasive ability of pancreatic cancer cells. We used two MUC5AC expressing cell lines derived from human pancreatic cancer, SW1990 and BxPC3. Small-interfering (si) RNA directed against MUC5AC were used to assess the effects of MUC5AC on invasion and adhesion of pancreas cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We compared parental cells (SW1990 and BxPC3) with MUC5AC suppressed cells by si RNA (si-SW1990 and si-BxPC3). MUC5AC was found to express in more than 80% of pancreatic ductal carcinoma specimens. Next we observed that both of si-SW1990 and si-BxPC3 showed significantly lower adhesion and invasion to extracellular matrix components compared with parental cell lines. Expression of genes associated with adhesion and invasion including several integerins, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -3 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were down-regulated in both MUC5AC suppressed cells. Furthermore, production of VEGF and phosphorylation of VEGFR-1 were significantly reduced by MUC5AC down regulation. Both of si-SW1990 and si-BxPC3 attenuated activation of Erk1/2. In vivo, si-SW1990 did not establish subcutaneous tumor in nude mice. Knockdown of MUC5AC reduced the ability of pancreatic cancer cells to adhesion and invasion, suggesting that MUC5AC might contribute to the invasive motility of pancreatic cancer cells by enhancing the expression of integrins, MMP-3, VEGF and activating Erk pathway.

  18. Molecular mechanisms of RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ross C; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    Small RNA molecules regulate eukaryotic gene expression during development and in response to stresses including viral infection. Specialized ribonucleases and RNA-binding proteins govern the production and action of small regulatory RNAs. After initial processing in the nucleus by Drosha, precursor microRNAs (pre-miRNAs) are transported to the cytoplasm, where Dicer cleavage generates mature microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). These double-stranded products assemble with Argonaute proteins such that one strand is preferentially selected and used to guide sequence-specific silencing of complementary target mRNAs by endonucleolytic cleavage or translational repression. Molecular structures of Dicer and Argonaute proteins, and of RNA-bound complexes, have offered exciting insights into the mechanisms operating at the heart of RNA-silencing pathways.

  19. Caenorhabditis elegans P5B-type ATPase CATP-5 operates in polyamine transport and is crucial for norspermidine-mediated suppression of RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Heinick, Alexander; Urban, Katja; Roth, Stefan; Spies, Danica; Nunes, Frank; Phanstiel, Otto; Liebau, Eva; Lüersen, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Physiological polyamines are required in various biological processes. In the current study, we used norspermidine, a structural analog of the natural polyamine spermidine, to investigate polyamine uptake in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Norspermidine was found to have two remarkable effects: it is toxic for the nematode, without affecting its food, Escherichia coli; and it hampers RNA interference. By characterizing a norspermidine-resistant C. elegans mutant strain that has been isolated in a genetic screen, we demonstrate that both effects, as well as the uptake of a fluorescent polyamine-conjugate, depend on the transporter protein CATP-5, a novel P(5B)-type ATPase. To our knowledge, CATP-5 represents the first P(5)-type ATPase that is associated with the plasma membrane, being expressed in the apical membrane of intestinal cells and the excretory cell. Moreover, genetic interaction studies using C. elegans polyamine synthesis mutants indicate that CATP-5 has a function redundant to polyamine synthesis and link reduced polyamine levels to retarded postembryonic development, reduced brood size, shortened life span, and small body size. We suggest that CATP-5 represents a crucial component of the pharmacologically important polyamine transport system, the molecular nature of which has not been identified so far in metazoa.

  20. RNA interference suppression of mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) reduces the adhesive and invasive capacity of human pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background MUC5AC is a secretory mucin normally expressed in the surface muconous cells of stomach and bronchial tract. It has been known that MUC5AC de novo expression occurred in the invasive ductal carcinoma and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm with no detectable expression in normal pancreas, however, its function remains uncertain. Here, we report the impact of MUC5AC on the adhesive and invasive ability of pancreatic cancer cells. Methods We used two MUC5AC expressing cell lines derived from human pancreatic cancer, SW1990 and BxPC3. Small-interfering (si) RNA directed against MUC5AC were used to assess the effects of MUC5AC on invasion and adhesion of pancreas cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We compared parental cells (SW1990 and BxPC3) with MUC5AC suppressed cells by si RNA (si-SW1990 and si-BxPC3). Results MUC5AC was found to express in more than 80% of pancreatic ductal carcinoma specimens. Next we observed that both of si-SW1990 and si-BxPC3 showed significantly lower adhesion and invasion to extracellular matrix components compared with parental cell lines. Expression of genes associated with adhesion and invasion including several integerins, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -3 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were down-regulated in both MUC5AC suppressed cells. Furthermore, production of VEGF and phosphorylation of VEGFR-1 were significantly reduced by MUC5AC down regulation. Both of si-SW1990 and si-BxPC3 attenuated activation of Erk1/2. In vivo, si-SW1990 did not establish subcutaneous tumor in nude mice. Conclusions Knockdown of MUC5AC reduced the ability of pancreatic cancer cells to adhesion and invasion, suggesting that MUC5AC might contribute to the invasive motility of pancreatic cancer cells by enhancing the expression of integrins, MMP-3, VEGF and activating Erk pathway. PMID:20492722

  1. Generation of siRNA Nanosheets for Efficient RNA Interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyejin; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Jong Bum

    2016-04-01

    After the discovery of small interference RNA (siRNA), nanostructured siRNA delivery systems have been introduced to achieve an efficient regulation of the target gene expression. Here we report a new siRNA-generating two dimensional nanostructure in a formation of nanosized sheet. Inspired by tunable mechanical and functional properties of the previously reported RNA membrane, siRNA nanosized sheets (siRNA-NS) with multiple Dicer cleavage sites were prepared. The siRNA-NS has two dimensional structure, providing a large surface area for Dicer to cleave the siRNA-NS for the generation of functional siRNAs. Furthermore, downregulation of the cellular target gene expression was achieved by delivery of siRNA-NS without chemical modification of RNA strands or conjugation to other substances.

  2. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful interference...

  3. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful interference...

  4. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful interference...

  5. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful interference...

  6. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful interference...

  7. Origins and evolution of eukaryotic RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Shabalina, Svetlana A.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2009-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and genome-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) silence genes via complementary interactions with mRNAs. With thousands of miRNA genes identified and genome sequences of diverse eukaryotes available for comparison, the opportunity emerges for insights into origin and evolution of RNA interference (RNAi). The miRNA repertoires of plants and animals appear to have evolved independently. However, conservation of the key proteins involved in RNAi suggests that the last common ancestor of modern eukaryotes possessed siRNA-based mechanisms. Prokaryotes have a RNAi-like defense system that is functionally analogous but not homologous to eukaryotic RNAi. The protein machinery of eukaryotic RNAi seems to have been pieced together from ancestral proteins of archaeal, bacterial and phage origins that are involved in DNA repair and RNA-processing pathways. PMID:18715673

  8. Knockdown of the AKT3 (PKBγ), PI3KCA, and VEGFR2 genes by RNA interference suppresses glioblastoma multiforme T98G cells invasiveness in vitro.

    PubMed

    Paul-Samojedny, Monika; Pudełko, Adam; Suchanek-Raif, Renata; Kowalczyk, Małgorzata; Fila-Daniłow, Anna; Borkowska, Paulina; Kowalski, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain malignancy, having a very poor prognosis and is characterized by extensive brain invasion as well as resistance to the therapy. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/PTEN signaling pathway is deregulated in GBM. Besides, florid vascularization and aberrantly elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) occur very often. The present study was designed to examine the inhibitory effect of AKT3, PI3KCA, and VEGFR2 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) on GBM cell invasiveness. T98G cells were transfected with AKT3, PI3KCA, and/or VEGFR2 siRNAs. VEGFR2 protein-positive cells were identified by flow cytometry using specific monoclonal anti-VEGFR2 antibodies. Alterations in messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of VEGF, VEGFR2, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) (MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-13, MMP-14), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) (TIMP-1, TIMP-3), c-Fos, c-Jun, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), ObRa, and cathepsin D genes were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Cells treated with specific siRNA were also analyzed for invasion using the Matrigel invasion assay. We have found significantly lower mRNA levels of MMPs, cathepsin D, VEGF, VEGFR2, HIF-1α, and c-Fos/c-Jun ratio, as well as significantly higher mRNA level of TIMPs in AKT3 and PI3KCA siRNA transfected cells compared to untransfected cells, while significantly lower mRNA levels of MMPs (MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-14) and TIMP-1, as well as significantly higher mRNA level of TIMP-3, were shown only in cells transfected with VEGFR2 siRNA. The positive correlation between MMP-13 and ObRa mRNA copy number has been found. Summarizing, transfection of T98G cells with AKT3, PI3KCA, or VEGFR2 siRNAs leads to a significant reduction in cell invasiveness. The siRNA-induced AKT3, PI3KCA, and VEGFR2 mRNA knockdown may offer a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce the invasiveness of GBM cells.

  9. RNA interference spreading in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    May, Robin C; Plasterk, Ronald H A

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of RNA interference (RNAi) occurs in eukaryotic organisms from across the boundaries of taxonomic kingdoms. In all cases, the basic mechanism of RNAi appears to be conserved--an initial trigger [double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) containing perfect homology over at least 19-21/bp with an endogenous gene] is processed into short interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules and these siRNAs stimulate degradation of the homologous mRNA. In the vast majority of species, RNAi can only be initiated following the deliberate introduction of dsRNA into a cell by microinjection, electroporation, or transfection. However, in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, RNAi can be simply initiated by supplying dsRNA in the surrounding medium or in the diet. Following uptake, this dsRNA triggers a systemic effect, initiating RNAi against the corresponding target gene in tissues that are not in direct contact with the external milieu. This phenomenon of systemic RNAi, or RNAi spreading, is notably absent from mammalian species, a fact that is likely to prove a substantial barrier to the wider use of RNAi as a clinical therapy. An understanding of the mechanism of systemic RNAi is therefore of considerable importance, and several advances of the last few years have begun to shed light on this process. Here we review our current understanding of systemic RNAi in C. elegans and draw comparisons with systemic RNAi pathways in other organisms.

  10. Symbiont-mediated RNA interference in insects.

    PubMed

    Whitten, Miranda M A; Facey, Paul D; Del Sol, Ricardo; Fernández-Martínez, Lorena T; Evans, Meirwyn C; Mitchell, Jacob J; Bodger, Owen G; Dyson, Paul J

    2016-02-24

    RNA interference (RNAi) methods for insects are often limited by problems with double-stranded (ds) RNA delivery, which restricts reverse genetics studies and the development of RNAi-based biocides. We therefore delegated to insect symbiotic bacteria the task of: (i) constitutive dsRNA synthesis and (ii) trauma-free delivery. RNaseIII-deficient, dsRNA-expressing bacterial strains were created from the symbionts of two very diverse pest species: a long-lived blood-sucking bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and a short-lived globally invasive polyphagous agricultural pest, western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). When ingested, the manipulated bacteria colonized the insects, successfully competed with the wild-type microflora, and sustainably mediated systemic knockdown phenotypes that were horizontally transmissible. This represents a significant advance in the ability to deliver RNAi, potentially to a large range of non-model insects.

  11. RNA interference in neuroscience: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Miller, Victor M; Paulson, Henry L; Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro

    2005-12-01

    1.RNA interference (RNAi) is a recently discovered biological pathway that mediates post-transcriptional gene silencing. The process of RNAi is orchestrated by an increasingly well-understood cellular machinery. 2. The common entry point for both natural and engineered RNAi are double stranded RNA molecules known as short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), that mediate the sequence-specific identification and degradation of the targeted messenger RNA (mRNA). The study and manipulation of these siRNAs has recently revolutionized biomedical research. 3. In this review, we first provide a brief overview of the process of RNAi, focusing on its potential role in brain function and involvement in neurological disease. We then describe the methods developed to manipulate RNAi in the laboratory and its applications to neuroscience. Finally, we focus on the potential therapeutic application of RNAi to neurological disease.

  12. Symbiont-mediated RNA interference in insects

    PubMed Central

    Whitten, Miranda M. A.; Facey, Paul D.; Del Sol, Ricardo; Fernández-Martínez, Lorena T.; Evans, Meirwyn C.; Mitchell, Jacob J.; Bodger, Owen G.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) methods for insects are often limited by problems with double-stranded (ds) RNA delivery, which restricts reverse genetics studies and the development of RNAi-based biocides. We therefore delegated to insect symbiotic bacteria the task of: (i) constitutive dsRNA synthesis and (ii) trauma-free delivery. RNaseIII-deficient, dsRNA-expressing bacterial strains were created from the symbionts of two very diverse pest species: a long-lived blood-sucking bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and a short-lived globally invasive polyphagous agricultural pest, western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). When ingested, the manipulated bacteria colonized the insects, successfully competed with the wild-type microflora, and sustainably mediated systemic knockdown phenotypes that were horizontally transmissible. This represents a significant advance in the ability to deliver RNAi, potentially to a large range of non-model insects. PMID:26911963

  13. Fluorescence microscopy-based RNA interference screening.

    PubMed

    Gunkel, Manuel; Beil, Nina; Beneke, Jürgen; Reymann, Jürgen; Erfle, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Using RNAi interference (RNAi), it is possible to study the effect of specific gene knockdowns in mammalian cells. In this protocol we present the automated preparation of "ready to transfect" multiwell plates and cell arrays, on which cells can be grown which are then reversely transfected with one type of siRNA in every individual well or spot. Additionally, different microscope types for screening approaches are compared and considerations about the information workflow are made.

  14. Suppression: sound and light interference with targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanMeenen, Kirsten M.; Short, Kenneth R.; DeMarco, Robert M.; Chua, Florence B.; Janal, Malvin N.; Servatius, Richard J.

    2006-05-01

    Civilian law enforcement and military operations on urban terrain (MOUT) regularly enter into unknown situations where some unidentified subset of the populace may possess armaments that may be used against them. Ultimately, the most relevant test of the effectiveness of non-lethal energies in these situations is their ability to interfere with the targeting of those weapons on the friendly forces. It is also the test that offers the most immediate and tangible reward in the prevention of personnel injuries. Perceptual interference (e.g., light-induced flash blindness) or distractions from loud noises may contribute to targeting interference. How much do various energies or perceptual interventions actually interfere with targeting? We have devised a program of experimentation that allows for the pure and precise measurement of interference with the targeting process by any of a broad range of energies and stimuli. Our primary focus has been on sound and light interference with targeting, and experiments toward that purpose are described here. As expected, targeting accuracy decreased and targeting latency increased as the distance from fixation point to the target increased. The light flash interfered more with shots at more distant targets. Furthermore, as the angle between the fixation point and the flash increased, targeting latency increased but targeting accuracy was unaffected. Thus, light interference is greatest when the flash is not at the point of fixation. These studies suggest that foveal flashes are less disruptive than peripheral flashes, and that disruption increases as targeting task demands increase.

  15. The roles of aerobic exercise training and suppression IL-6 gene expression by RNA interference in the development of insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hui; Xie, Min-hao; Lei, Yu; Zhou, Liang; Xu, Yu-ping; Cai, Jian-guang

    2013-02-01

    To demonstrate the hypothesis that aerobic exercise training inhibits the development of insulin resistance through IL-6 and probe into the possible molecular mechanism about it. Rats were raised with high-fat diets for 8 weeks to develop insulin resistance, and glucose infusion rates (GIRs) were determined by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamping to confirm the development of insulin resistance. Aerobic exercise training (the speed and duration time in the first week were respectively 16 m/min and 50 min, and speed increased 1m/min and duration time increased 5 min every week following it) and/or IL-6shRNA plasmid injection (rats received IL-6shRNA injection via the tail vein every two weeks) were adopted during the development of insulin resistance. The serum IL-6, leptin, adiponectin, fasting blood glucose, fasting serum insulin, GIR, IL-6 gene expression levels, p-p38 in various tissues and p-STAT3/t-STAT3 ratio in the liver were measured. Rats fed with high-fat diets for 8 weeks were developed insulin resistance and the IL-6mRNA levels of IL-6shRNA injection groups in various tissues were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05), respectively. The development of insulin resistance in exercise rats significantly decreased, however, compared with that, the GIR of exercise rats injected by IL-6shRNA was lower (P<0.05). The IL-6mRNA levels were highest in the fat tissue and lowest in the skeletal muscles in all the rats. The serum adiponectin levels decreased (P<0.05) following the development of insulin resistance, and it increased (P<0.05) when the rats were intervened by aerobic exercise training for 8 weeks at the same time. However, there were not significant differences when serum leptin concentrations were compared (P>0.05). The p-p38 significantly increased in the rats fed with high-fat diets, however, p-p38 of the exercise high-fat diets rats in the liver and fat tissues significantly decreased than that (P<0.05). The changes of p-p38 in

  16. RNA interference in designing transgenic crops.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nusrat; Datta, Swapan K; Datta, Karabi

    2010-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a sequence specific gene silencing mechanism, triggered by the introduction of dsRNA leading to mRNA degradation. It helps in switching on and off the targeted gene, which might have significant impact in developmental biology. Discovery of RNAi represents one of the most promising and rapidly advancing frontiers in plant functional genomics and in crop improvement by plant metabolic engineering and also plays an important role in reduction of allergenicity by silencing specific plant allergens. In plants the RNAi technology has been employed successfully in improvement of several plant species- by increasing their nutritional value, overall quality and by conferring resistance against pathogens and diseases. The review gives an insight to the perspective use of the technology in designing crops with innovation, to bring improvement to crop productivity and quality.

  17. RNA interference in head and neck oncology

    PubMed Central

    Sobecka, Agnieszka; Barczak, Wojciech; Suchorska, Wiktoria Maria

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth leading cause of cancer worldwide. The treatment of choice in case of head and neck cancer is surgery, followed by chemo- or/and radiotherapy. A potentially effective instrument to improve the outcome of numerous diseases, including viral infections, diabetes and cancer, is RNA interference (RNAi). It has been demonstrated that small interfering RNA and microRNA molecules are strongly involved in the regulation of various different pathological processes in cancer development. RNAi has become a valuable research tool allowing a better understanding of the mechanisms regulating cancer pathogenesis. Considering those advantages over other current therapeutics (including specificity and high efficacy), RNAi appears to be a potentially useful tool in cancer treatment. The present review discusses the current knowledge about the possibility of using RNAi in HNSCC therapy. PMID:27899959

  18. RNA interference targeting against S100A4 suppresses cell growth and motility and induces apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tabata, Takahiro; Tsukamoto, Nobukazu; Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani; Yamanaka, Sumitaka; Furukawa, Toru; Ishida, Masaharu; Sato, Daisuke; Gu, Zhaodi; Nagase, Hiroki; Egawa, Shinichi; Sunamura, Makoto; Horii, Akira

    2009-12-18

    S100A4 protein belongs to the S100 subfamily, which has grown to be one of the large subfamilies of the EF-hand Ca{sup 2+}-binding proteins, and overexpression of S100A4 is suggested to associate with cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. We observed frequent overexpression of S100A4 in pancreatic cancer cell lines and further analyzed RNAi-mediated knockdown to address the possibility of its use as a therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer. The specific knockdown of S100A4 strongly suppressed cell growth, induced G2 arrest and eventual apoptosis, and decreased cell migration. Furthermore, microarray analyses revealed that knockdown of S100A4 induced expression of the tumor suppressor genes PRDM2 and VASH1. Our present results suggest the possibility that the inhibition of S100A4 can be utilized in antitumor applications for patients with pancreatic cancer.

  19. RNA Interference: Biology, Mechanism, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Neema; Dasaradhi, P. V. N.; Mohmmed, Asif; Malhotra, Pawan; Bhatnagar, Raj K.; Mukherjee, Sunil K.

    2003-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) is a simple and rapid method of silencing gene expression in a range of organisms. The silencing of a gene is a consequence of degradation of RNA into short RNAs that activate ribonucleases to target homologous mRNA. The resulting phenotypes either are identical to those of genetic null mutants or resemble an allelic series of mutants. Specific gene silencing has been shown to be related to two ancient processes, cosuppression in plants and quelling in fungi, and has also been associated with regulatory processes such as transposon silencing, antiviral defense mechanisms, gene regulation, and chromosomal modification. Extensive genetic and biochemical analysis revealed a two-step mechanism of RNAi-induced gene silencing. The first step involves degradation of dsRNA into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), 21 to 25 nucleotides long, by an RNase III-like activity. In the second step, the siRNAs join an RNase complex, RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex), which acts on the cognate mRNA and degrades it. Several key components such as Dicer, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, helicases, and dsRNA endonucleases have been identified in different organisms for their roles in RNAi. Some of these components also control the development of many organisms by processing many noncoding RNAs, called micro-RNAs. The biogenesis and function of micro-RNAs resemble RNAi activities to a large extent. Recent studies indicate that in the context of RNAi, the genome also undergoes alterations in the form of DNA methylation, heterochromatin formation, and programmed DNA elimination. As a result of these changes, the silencing effect of gene functions is exercised as tightly as possible. Because of its exquisite specificity and efficiency, RNAi is being considered as an important tool not only for functional genomics, but also for gene-specific therapeutic activities that target the mRNAs of disease-related genes. PMID:14665679

  20. Salmonella VNP20009-mediated RNA interference of ABCB5 moderated chemoresistance of melanoma stem cell and suppressed tumor growth more potently

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoxin; Cheng, Xiawei; Lai, Yueyang; Zhou, Yuqiang; Cao, Wenmin; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance remains an obstacle hindering the success of chemotherapy. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been recently found to confer resistance to chemotherapy. Therefore functional markers of CSCs should be discovered and specific therapies targeting these cells should be developed. In our investigation, a small population of B16F10 cells which was positive for ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 5 (ABCB5) was isolated. This population displayed characteristics similar to those of CSCs and ABCB5 was identified to confer tumor growth and drug resistance in B16F10 cell line. Although targeting ABCB5 by small short interfering RNA delivered by VNP20009 failed to inhibit tumor growth, the combined treatment of VNP-shABCB5 and chemotherapy can act synergistically to delay tumor growth and enhance survival time in a primary B16F10 mice model. Results suggest that the combined treatment of VNP-shABCB5 and chemotherapy can improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. Therefore, this combination therapy is of potential significance for melanoma treatment. PMID:26910836

  1. Salmonella VNP20009-mediated RNA interference of ABCB5 moderated chemoresistance of melanoma stem cell and suppressed tumor growth more potently.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxin; Cheng, Xiawei; Lai, Yueyang; Zhou, Yuqiang; Cao, Wenmin; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2016-03-22

    Drug resistance remains an obstacle hindering the success of chemotherapy. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been recently found to confer resistance to chemotherapy. Therefore functional markers of CSCs should be discovered and specific therapies targeting these cells should be developed. In our investigation, a small population of B16F10 cells which was positive for ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 5 (ABCB5) was isolated. This population displayed characteristics similar to those of CSCs and ABCB5 was identified to confer tumor growth and drug resistance in B16F10 cell line. Although targeting ABCB5 by small short interfering RNA delivered by VNP20009 failed to inhibit tumor growth, the combined treatment of VNP-shABCB5 and chemotherapy can act synergistically to delay tumor growth and enhance survival time in a primary B16F10 mice model. Results suggest that the combined treatment of VNP-shABCB5 and chemotherapy can improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. Therefore, this combination therapy is of potential significance for melanoma treatment.

  2. Inhibition of Henipavirus infection by RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Mungall, Bruce A; Schopman, Nick C T; Lambeth, Luke S; Doran, Tim J

    2008-12-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) are recently emerged zoonotic paramyxoviruses exclusively grouped within a new genus, Henipavirus. These viruses cause fatal disease in a wide range of species, including humans. Both NiV and HeV have continued to re-emerge sporadically in Bangladesh and Australia, respectively. There are currently no therapeutics or vaccines available to treat Henipavirus infection and both are classified as BSL4 pathogens. RNA interference (RNAi) is a process by which double-stranded RNA directs sequence-specific degradation of messenger RNA in animal and plant cells. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) mediate RNAi by inhibiting gene expression of homologous mRNA and our preliminary studies suggest RNAi may be a useful approach to developing novel therapies for these highly lethal pathogens. Eight NiV siRNA molecules (four L and four N gene specific), two HeV N gene specific, and two non-specific control siRNA molecules were designed and tested for their ability to inhibit a henipavirus minigenome replication system (which does not require the use of live virus) in addition to live virus infections in vitro. In the minigenome assay three out of the four siRNAs that targeted the L gene of NiV effectively inhibited replication. In contrast, only NiV N gene siRNAs were effective in reducing live NiV replication, suggesting inhibition of early, abundantly expressed gene transcripts may be more effective than later, less abundant transcripts. Additionally, some of the siRNAs effective against NiV infection were only partially effective inhibitors of HeV infection. An inverse correlation between the number of nucleotide mismatches and the efficacy of siRNA inhibition was observed. The demonstration that RNAi effectively inhibits henipavirus replication in vitro, is a novel approach and may provide an effective therapy for these highly lethal, zoonotic pathogens.

  3. Noncoding flavivirus RNA displays RNA interference suppressor activity in insect and Mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Schnettler, Esther; Sterken, Mark G; Leung, Jason Y; Metz, Stefan W; Geertsema, Corinne; Goldbach, Rob W; Vlak, Just M; Kohl, Alain; Khromykh, Alexander A; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2012-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV) are highly pathogenic, mosquito-borne flaviviruses (family Flaviviridae) that cause severe disease and death in humans. WNV and DENV actively replicate in mosquitoes and human hosts and thus encounter different host immune responses. RNA interference (RNAi) is the predominant antiviral response against invading RNA viruses in insects and plants. As a countermeasure, plant and insect RNA viruses encode RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) proteins to block the generation/activity of small interfering RNA (siRNA). Enhanced flavivirus replication in mosquitoes depleted for RNAi factors suggests an important biological role for RNAi in restricting virus replication, but it has remained unclear whether or not flaviviruses counteract RNAi via expression of an RSS. First, we established that flaviviral RNA replication suppressed siRNA-induced gene silencing in WNV and DENV replicon-expressing cells. Next, we showed that none of the WNV encoded proteins displayed RSS activity in mammalian and insect cells and in plants by using robust RNAi suppressor assays. In contrast, we found that the 3'-untranslated region-derived RNA molecule known as subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) efficiently suppressed siRNA- and miRNA-induced RNAi pathways in both mammalian and insect cells. We also showed that WNV sfRNA inhibits in vitro cleavage of double-stranded RNA by Dicer. The results of the present study suggest a novel role for sfRNA, i.e., as a nucleic acid-based regulator of RNAi pathways, a strategy that may be conserved among flaviviruses.

  4. RNA interference as therapeutics for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuanrui; Lee, Susie A; Chen, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a major form of primary liver cancer, is one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths worldwide. Hepatitis B and C infections are major risk factors for the development of HCC. Currently, the treatment options are rather limited, and the prognosis for this malignancy is poor for most of these patients. RNA interference has emerged as an innovative technology for gene silencing and as a potential therapeutic for various diseases, including cancer. HCC has been widely chosen as a model system for the development of RNAi therapy due to the convenience and availability of effective delivery of RNA molecules into liver tissues. Targets for HCC treatment include HBV and HCV viruses, oncogenes, as well as cellular genes mediating angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we summarized the progress of RNAi therapeutics in HCC treatment, relevant patents, potential challenges and prospects in the future.

  5. Regulation of Human Adenovirus Replication by RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Nikitenko, N. A.; Speiseder, T.; Lam, E.; Rubtsov, P. M.; Tonaeva, Kh. D.; Borzenok, S. A.; Dobner, T.; Prassolov, V. S.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses cause a wide variety of human infectious diseases. Adenoviral conjunctivitis and epidemic keratoconjunctivitis are commonly associated with human species D adenoviruses. Currently, there is no sufficient or appropriate treatment to counteract these adenovirus infections. Thus, there is an urgent need for new etiology-directed therapies with selective activity against human adenoviruses. To address this problem, the adenoviral early genes E1A and E2B (viral DNA polymerase) seem to be promising targets. Here, we propose an effective approach to downregulate the replication of human species D adenoviruses by means of RNA interference. We generated E1A expressing model cell lines enabling fast evaluation of the RNA interference potential. Small interfering RNAs complementary to the E1A mRNA sequences of human species D adenoviruses mediate significant suppression of the E1A expression in model cells. Furthermore, we observed a strong downregulation of replication of human adenoviruses type D8 and D37 by small hairpin RNAs complementary to the E1A or E2B mRNA sequences in primary human limbal cells. We believe that our results will contribute to the development of efficient anti-adenoviral therapy. PMID:26483965

  6. Regulation of Human Adenovirus Replication by RNA Interference.

    PubMed

    Nikitenko, N A; Speiseder, T; Lam, E; Rubtsov, P M; Tonaeva, Kh D; Borzenok, S A; Dobner, T; Prassolov, V S

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses cause a wide variety of human infectious diseases. Adenoviral conjunctivitis and epidemic keratoconjunctivitis are commonly associated with human species D adenoviruses. Currently, there is no sufficient or appropriate treatment to counteract these adenovirus infections. Thus, there is an urgent need for new etiology-directed therapies with selective activity against human adenoviruses. To address this problem, the adenoviral early genes E1A and E2B (viral DNA polymerase) seem to be promising targets. Here, we propose an effective approach to downregulate the replication of human species D adenoviruses by means of RNA interference. We generated E1A expressing model cell lines enabling fast evaluation of the RNA interference potential. Small interfering RNAs complementary to the E1A mRNA sequences of human species D adenoviruses mediate significant suppression of the E1A expression in model cells. Furthermore, we observed a strong downregulation of replication of human adenoviruses type D8 and D37 by small hairpin RNAs complementary to the E1A or E2B mRNA sequences in primary human limbal cells. We believe that our results will contribute to the development of efficient anti-adenoviral therapy.

  7. RNA interference Pathways in Filamentous Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference is a conserved eukaryotic homology-dependent post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa is one of the first organisms used for RNAi studies. Quelling and Meiotic Silencing by Unpaired DNA (MSUD) are two RNAi related phenomena discovered in Neurospora and their characterizations have contributed significantly to our understanding of RNAi mechanisms in eukaryotes. More recently, a type of DNA damage-induced small RNA, microRNA-like small RNAs and Dicer-independent small silencing RNAs have been discovered in Neurospora crassa which can regulate gene expression. In addition, there are at least six different pathways responsible for the production of these small RNAs, indicating that this fungus is an important model system to study small RNA function and biogenesis. The RNAi studies in other filamentous fungi such as Cryphonectria paracitica and Aspergillus provide evidences that RNAi plays an important role in antiviral defense and RNAi mechanism is widely conserved in filamentous fungi, and RNAi has been commonly used as an efficient tool for studying the gene function. The discovery of the endogenous small RNAs from M. circinelloides further indicates the richness and complex of the RNAi field in eukaryotes. PMID:20680389

  8. Suppression of Interchannel Interference in FM Receivers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    comprehensive receiver with no unknown inputs. Recalling that in the case of FM, the modulation functions are MI(t) = kI(t) and m 2 (t) = k2 (t) and...r) -- = a.2 [ain(4i1 - cp2) + r sin( I 2 - ) - sin(cp1 - ) h ’r)(10 wher e and t2 denote the phase modulation of the stronger and weaker received FM...reveals a typical result for a first order PLL design with a single CW interferer located at the center of the IF frequency band, i. e., no

  9. Suppression of Biodynamic Interference by Adaptive Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velger, M.; Merhav, S. J.; Grunwald, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary experimental results obtained in moving base simulator tests are presented. Both for pursuit and compensatory tracking tasks, a strong deterioration in tracking performance due to biodynamic interference is found. The use of adaptive filtering is shown to substantially alleviate these effects, resulting in a markedly improved tracking performance and reduction in task difficulty. The effect of simulator motion and of adaptive filtering on human operator describing functions is investigated. Adaptive filtering is found to substantially increase pilot gain and cross-over frequency, implying a more tight tracking behavior. The adaptive filter is found to be effective in particular for high-gain proportional dynamics, low display forcing function power and for pursuit tracking task configurations.

  10. Adaptive Suppression of Interference in HF Surface Wave Radar Using Auxiliary Horizontal Dipole Antennas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    Submatrices and Main Matrix ........... 7 Table IV Ratio of Interference-plus-Noise Powers ( RINP ) before and after Interference Suppression with Fixed...Interference-plus-Noise Powers ( RINP ) before and after Interference Suppression with Sliding Window Method ............................. 21 Table VII...performance. Two performance indicators were used in this report: (i) The ratio of interference-plus-noise powers ( RINP ) before and after interference

  11. Role of RNA interference in plant improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagtap, Umesh Balkrishna; Gurav, Ranjit Gajanan; Bapat, Vishwas Anant

    2011-06-01

    Research to alter crops for their better performance involving modern technology is underway in numerous plants, and achievements in transgenic plants are impacting crop improvements in unparalleled ways. Striking progress has been made using genetic engineering technology over the past two decades in manipulating genes from diverse and exotic sources, and inserting them into crop plants for inducing desirable characteristics. RNA interference (RNAi) has recently been identified as a natural mechanism for regulation of gene expression in all higher organisms from plants to humans and promises greater accuracy and precision to plant improvement. The expression of any gene can be down-regulated in a highly explicit manner exclusive of affecting the expression of any other gene by using RNAi technologies. Additional research in this field has been focused on a number of other areas including microRNAs, hairpin RNA, and promoter methylation. Manipulating new RNAi pathways, which generate small RNA molecules to amend gene expression in crops, can produce new quality traits and having better potentiality of protection against abiotic and biotic stresses. Nutritional improvement, change in morphology, or enhanced secondary metabolite synthesis are some of the other advantages of RNAi technology. In addition to its roles in regulating gene expression, RNAi is also used as a natural defense mechanism against molecular parasites such as jumping genes and viral genetic elements that affect genome stability. Even though much advancement has been made on the field of RNAi over the preceding few years, the full prospective of RNAi for crop improvement remains to be fully realized. The intricacy of RNAi pathway, the molecular machineries, and how it relates to plant development are still to be explained.

  12. Shortcomings of short hairpin RNA-based transgenic RNA interference in mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach to study a gene function. Transgenic RNAi is an adaptation of this approach where suppression of a specific gene is achieved by expression of an RNA hairpin from a transgene. In somatic cells, where a long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) longer than 30 base-pairs can induce a sequence-independent interferon response, short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression is used to induce RNAi. In contrast, transgenic RNAi in the oocyte routinely employs a long RNA hairpin. Transgenic RNAi based on long hairpin RNA, although robust and successful, is restricted to a few cell types, where long double-stranded RNA does not induce sequence-independent responses. Transgenic RNAi in mouse oocytes based on a shRNA offers several potential advantages, including simple cloning of the transgenic vector and an ability to use the same targeting construct in any cell type. Results Here we report our experience with shRNA-based transgenic RNAi in mouse oocytes. Despite optimal starting conditions for this experiment, we experienced several setbacks, which outweigh potential benefits of the shRNA system. First, obtaining an efficient shRNA is potentially a time-consuming and expensive task. Second, we observed that our transgene, which was based on a common commercial vector, was readily silenced in transgenic animals. Conclusions We conclude that, the long RNA hairpin-based RNAi is more reliable and cost-effective and we recommend it as a method-of-choice when a gene is studied selectively in the oocyte. PMID:20939886

  13. Exposure to dsRNA elicits RNA interference in Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera).

    PubMed

    Snell, Terry W; Shearer, Tonya L; Smith, Hilary A

    2011-04-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful technique for functional genomics, yet no studies have reported its successful application to zooplankton. Many zooplankton, particularly microscopic metazoans of phylum Rotifera, have unique life history traits for which genetic investigation has been limited. In this paper, we report the development of RNAi methods for rotifers, with the exogenous introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) through the use of a lipofection reagent. Transfection with dsRNA for heat shock protein 90, the membrane-associated progesterone receptor, and mitogen-activated protein kinase significantly increased the proportion of non-reproductive females. Additionally, a fluorescence-based lectin binding assay confirmed the significant suppression of four of six glycosylation enzymes that were targeted with dsRNA. Suppression of mRNA transcripts was confirmed with quantitative PCR. Development of RNAi for rotifers promises to enhance the ability for assessing genetic regulation of features critical to their life history and represents a key step toward functional genomics research in zooplankton.

  14. Maturation of cognitive control: delineating response inhibition and interference suppression.

    PubMed

    Brydges, Christopher R; Anderson, Mike; Reid, Corinne L; Fox, Allison M

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control is integral to the ability to attend to a relevant task whilst suppressing distracting information or inhibiting prepotent responses. The current study examined the development of these two subprocesses by examining electrophysiological indices elicited during each process. Thirteen 18 year-old adults and thirteen children aged 8-11 years (mean=9.77 years) completed a hybrid Go/Nogo flanker task while continuous EEG data were recorded. The N2 topography for both response inhibition and interference suppression changed with increasing age. The neural activation associated with response inhibition became increasingly frontally distributed with age, and showed decreases of both amplitude and peak latency from childhood to adulthood, possibly due to reduced cognitive demands and myelination respectively occurring during this period. Interestingly, a significant N2 effect was apparent in adults, but not observed in children during trials requiring interference suppression. This could be due to more diffuse activation in children, which would require smaller levels of activation over a larger region of the brain than is reported in adults. Overall, these results provide evidence of distinct maturational processes occurring throughout late childhood and adolescence, highlighting the separability of response inhibition and interference suppression.

  15. Mosquito and Drosophila entomobirnaviruses suppress dsRNA- and siRNA-induced RNAi.

    PubMed

    van Cleef, Koen W R; van Mierlo, Joël T; Miesen, Pascal; Overheul, Gijs J; Fros, Jelke J; Schuster, Susan; Marklewitz, Marco; Pijlman, Gorben P; Junglen, Sandra; van Rij, Ronald P

    2014-07-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a crucial antiviral defense mechanism in insects, including the major mosquito species that transmit important human viruses. To counteract the potent antiviral RNAi pathway, insect viruses encode RNAi suppressors. However, whether mosquito-specific viruses suppress RNAi remains unclear. We therefore set out to study RNAi suppression by Culex Y virus (CYV), a mosquito-specific virus of the Birnaviridae family that was recently isolated from Culex pipiens mosquitoes. We found that the Culex RNAi machinery processes CYV double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into viral small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs). Furthermore, we show that RNAi is suppressed in CYV-infected cells and that the viral VP3 protein is responsible for RNAi antagonism. We demonstrate that VP3 can functionally replace B2, the well-characterized RNAi suppressor of Flock House virus. VP3 was found to bind long dsRNA as well as siRNAs and interfered with Dicer-2-mediated cleavage of long dsRNA into siRNAs. Slicing of target RNAs by pre-assembled RNA-induced silencing complexes was not affected by VP3. Finally, we show that the RNAi-suppressive activity of VP3 is conserved in Drosophila X virus, a birnavirus that persistently infects Drosophila cell cultures. Together, our data indicate that mosquito-specific viruses may encode RNAi antagonists to suppress antiviral RNAi.

  16. Flavivirus RNAi suppression: decoding non-coding RNA.

    PubMed

    Pijlman, Gorben P

    2014-08-01

    Flaviviruses are important human pathogens that are transmitted by invertebrate vectors, mostly mosquitoes and ticks. During replication in their vector, flaviviruses are subject to a potent innate immune response known as antiviral RNA interference (RNAi). This defense mechanism is associated with the production of small interfering (si)RNA that lead to degradation of viral RNA. To what extent flaviviruses would benefit from counteracting antiviral RNAi is subject of debate. Here, the experimental evidence to suggest the existence of flavivirus RNAi suppressors is discussed. I will highlight the putative role of non-coding, subgenomic flavivirus RNA in suppression of RNAi in insect and mammalian cells. Novel insights from ongoing research will reveal how arthropod-borne viruses modulate innate immunity including antiviral RNAi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation and control of miRNA-like off-target repression for RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Seok, Heeyoung; Lee, Haejeong; Jang, Eun-Sook; Chi, Sung Wook

    2017-09-13

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been widely adopted to repress specific gene expression and is easily achieved by designing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) with perfect sequence complementarity to the intended target mRNAs. Although siRNAs direct Argonaute (Ago), a core component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), to recognize and silence target mRNAs, they also inevitably function as microRNAs (miRNAs) and suppress hundreds of off-targets. Such miRNA-like off-target repression is potentially detrimental, resulting in unwanted toxicity and phenotypes. Despite early recognition of the severity of miRNA-like off-target repression, this effect has often been overlooked because of difficulties in recognizing and avoiding off-targets. However, recent advances in genome-wide methods and knowledge of Ago-miRNA target interactions have set the stage for properly evaluating and controlling miRNA-like off-target repression. Here, we describe the intrinsic problems of miRNA-like off-target effects caused by canonical and noncanonical interactions. We particularly focus on various genome-wide approaches and chemical modifications for the evaluation and prevention of off-target repression to facilitate the use of RNAi with secured specificity.

  18. Stroop interference and negative priming (NP) suppression in normal aging.

    PubMed

    Mayas, J; Fuentes, L J; Ballesteros, S

    2012-01-01

    Age-related differences in the reduction of Stroop interference were explored by comparing the performance of 18 younger (of mean age: 30.0±3.9 years) and 18 older healthy adults (of mean age: 75±7.2 years) in a color-word Stroop task. The aim of this study was to determine whether a decrease in the efficiency of inhibitory mechanisms associated with aging could account for age-related differences in the ability to suppress a pre-potent response. Participants performed a Stroop task to assess Stroop interference and NP suppression concurrently. Results showed a greater Stroop interference in older than in young adults. On the other hand, the NP effect was only reliable in the younger group, the older group not showing NP suppression. These findings suggest that the slowing hypothesis alone cannot explain this pattern of results and that the age-related differences must also involve an inhibitory breakdown during aging. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Endogenous RNA interference is driven by copy number

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Cristina; Houseley, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of non-protein coding RNAs are produced throughout eukaryotic genomes, many of which are transcribed antisense to protein-coding genes and could potentially instigate RNA interference (RNAi) responses. Here we have used a synthetic RNAi system to show that gene copy number is a key factor controlling RNAi for transcripts from endogenous loci, since transcripts from multi-copy loci form double stranded RNA more efficiently than transcripts from equivalently expressed single-copy loci. Selectivity towards transcripts from high-copy DNA is therefore an emergent property of a minimal RNAi system. The ability of RNAi to selectively degrade transcripts from high-copy loci would allow suppression of newly emerging transposable elements, but such a surveillance system requires transcription. We show that low-level genome-wide pervasive transcription is sufficient to instigate RNAi, and propose that pervasive transcription is part of a defense mechanism capable of directing a sequence-independent RNAi response against transposable elements amplifying within the genome. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01581.001 PMID:24520161

  20. NONLINEAR-OPTICS PHENOMENA Interference suppression of SRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanov, V. P.

    2011-01-01

    The theory of three-wave SRS is developed, which takes into account nonlinear dispersion of a medium for arbitrary phases of the pump waves at the input to the medium. The effect of interference suppression of SRS is predicted for values of the total phase of the three-wave pump (2n+1)π (n=0, ±1, ±2...), the effect being caused by the destructive interference of polarisations of the nonresonant dipole-allowed transitions. The relation between the contributions of the linear and nonlinear dispersions to the SRS is found. It is shown that at a sufficiently large wave detuning, the anti-Stokes wave amplitude experiences spatial oscillations.

  1. The virion-associated incoming HIV-1 RNA genome is not targeted by RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Westerhout, Ellen M; ter Brake, Olivier; Berkhout, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Background RNA interference (RNAi) has proven to be a powerful tool to suppress gene expression and can be used as a therapeutic strategy against human pathogenic viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Theoretically, RNAi-mediated inhibition can occur at two points in the replication cycle, upon viral entry before reverse transcription of the RNA genome, and on the newly transcribed viral RNA transcripts. There have been conflicting results on whether RNAi can target the RNA genome of infecting HIV-1 particles. We have addressed this issue with HIV-1-based lentiviral vectors. Results We determined the transduction efficiency of a lentiviral vector, as measured by GFP expressing cells, which reflects the number of successful integration events in a cell line stably expressing shNef. We did not observe a difference in the transduction efficiency comparing lentiviral vectors with or without the Nef target sequence in their genome. The results were similar with particles pseudotyped with either the VSV-G or HIV-1 envelope. Additionally, no reduced transduction efficiencies were observed with multiple other shRNAs targeting the vector genome or with synthetic siNef when transiently transfected prior to transduction. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the incoming HIV-1 RNA genome is not targeted by RNAi, probably due to inaccessibility to the RNAi machinery. Thus, therapeutic RNAi strategies aimed at preventing proviral integration should be targeting cellular receptors or co-factors involved in pre-integration events. PMID:16948865

  2. Antisense RNA suppression of peroxidase gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lagrimini, L.M.; Bradford, S.; De Leon, F.D. )

    1989-04-01

    The 5{prime} half the anionic peroxidase cDNA of tobacco was inserted into a CaMV 35S promoter/terminator expression cassette in the antisense configuration. This was inserted into the Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation vector pCIBIO which includes kanamycin selection, transformed into two species of tobacco (N. tabacum and M. sylvestris), and plants were subsequently regenerated on kanamycin. Transgenic plants were analyzed for peroxidase expression and found to have 3-5 fold lower levels of peroxidase than wild-type plants. Isoelectric focusing demonstrated that the antisense RNA only suppressed the anionic peroxidase. Wound-induced peroxidase expression was found not to be affected by the antisense RNA. Northern blots show a greater than 5 fold suppression of anionic peroxidase mRNA in leaf tissue, and the antisense RNA was expressed at a level 2 fold over the endogenous mRNA. Plants were self-pollinated and F1 plants showed normal segregation. N. sylvestris transgenic plants with the lowest level of peroxidase are epinastic, and preliminary results indicate elevated auxin levels. Excised pith tissue from both species of transgenic plants rapidly collapse when exposed to air, while pith tissue from wild-type plants showed little change when exposed to air. Further characterization of these phenotypes is currently being made.

  3. Bringing RNA Interference (RNAi) into the High School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengupta, Sibani

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (abbreviated RNAi) is a relatively new discovery in the field of mechanisms that serve to regulate gene expression (a.k.a. protein synthesis). Gene expression can be regulated at the transcriptional level (mRNA production, processing, or stability) and at the translational level (protein synthesis). RNAi acts in a gene-specific…

  4. Bringing RNA Interference (RNAi) into the High School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengupta, Sibani

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (abbreviated RNAi) is a relatively new discovery in the field of mechanisms that serve to regulate gene expression (a.k.a. protein synthesis). Gene expression can be regulated at the transcriptional level (mRNA production, processing, or stability) and at the translational level (protein synthesis). RNAi acts in a gene-specific…

  5. Suppression of feline calicivirus replication using small interfering RNA targeted to its polymerase gene.

    PubMed

    Taharaguchi, Satoshi; Matsuhiro, Takahisa; Harima, Hayato; Sato, Atsuko; Ohe, Kyoko; Sakai, Sachi; Takahashi, Toshikazu; Hara, Motonobu

    2012-06-01

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a pathogenic microorganism that causes upper respiratory diseases in cats. Recently, an FCV infection with a high mortality rate has been confirmed, and there is need to develop a treatment for cases of acute infection. We evaluated whether the replication of FCV could be prevented by RNA interference. For this study, we designed an siRNA targeted to the polymerase region of the strain FCV-B isolated from a cat that died after exhibiting neurological symptoms. Cells transfected with siR-pol dose-dependently suppressed the replication of FCV-B. siR-pol suppressed its replication by suppressing the target viral RNA.

  6. RNA interference with special reference to combating viruses of crustacea.

    PubMed

    La Fauce, Kathy; Owens, Leigh

    2012-09-01

    RNA interference has evolved from being a nuisance biological phenomenon to a valuable research tool to determine gene function and as a therapeutic agent. Since pioneering observations regarding RNA interference were first reported in the 1990s from the nematode worm, plants and Drosophila, the RNAi phenomenon has since been reported in all eukaryotic organisms investigated from protozoans, plants, arthropods, fish and mammals. The design of RNAi therapeutics has progressed rapidly to designing dsRNA that can specifically and effectively silence disease related genes. Such technology has demonstrated the effective use of short interfering as therapeutics. In the absence of a B cell lineage in arthropods, and hence no long term vaccination strategy being available, the introduction of using RNA interference in crustacea may serve as an effective control and preventative measure for viral diseases for application in aquaculture.

  7. Silencing E1A mRNA by RNA interference inhibits adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Chung, Y-S; Kim, M-K; Lee, W-J; Kang, C

    2007-01-01

    The adenovirus family contains 51 human serotypes, and most human adenoviruses cause widespread respiratory tract infections. Adenovirus infections can result in severe complications in some cases, such as in adenovirus type 11 infection in immunocompromised patients. However, effective treatment methods for adenovirus infections are currently unavailable. This prompted the search for antiviral agents effective against adenovirus infections. In the present study, adenovirus E1A was targeted by RNA interference (RNAi) using synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in an attempt to inhibit viral replication, since adenovirus E1A proteins are known to be involved in the transcriptional activation of the viral and cellular genes necessary for controlling the cell cycle and viral replication. The results indicated that the siRNAs effectively reduced the amount of adenovirus E1A mRNA and the levels of replicative intermediates. Additionally, siRNA-mediated gene silencing inhibited adenovirus replication by suppressing the E1A mRNA. These results suggest that the RNAi-mediated targeting of adenovirus E1A may have a potentially therapeutic effect in controlling adenovirus infections.

  8. The Fascinating World of RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Afsar Raza; Islam, Md. Nazrul; Choudhury, Nirupam Roy; Haq., Qazi Mohd. Rizwanul

    2009-01-01

    Micro- and short-interfering RNAs represent small RNA family that are recognized as critical regulatory species across the eukaryotes. Recent high-throughput sequencing have revealed two more hidden players of the cellular small RNA pool. Reported in mammals and Caenorhabditis elegans respectively, these new small RNAs are named piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and 21U-RNAs. Moreover, small RNAs including miRNAs have been identified in unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, redefining the earlier concept of multi-cellularity restricted presence of these molecules. The discovery of these species of small RNAs has allowed us to understand better the usage of genome and the number of genes present but also have complicated the situation in terms of biochemical attributes and functional genesis of these molecules. Nonetheless, these new pools of knowledge have opened up avenues for unraveling the finer details of the small RNA mediated pathways. PMID:19173032

  9. Silencing of hypoxia inducible factor-1α by RNA interference inhibits growth of SK-NEP-1 Wilms tumour cells in vitro, and suppresses tumourigenesis and angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bo; Li, Ying; Wang, Xiuli; Yang, Yi; Li, Dan; Liu, Xin; Yang, Xianghong

    2016-06-01

    Wilms tumour is the most common tumour of the pediatric kidney. Elevation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) has been detected in 93% to 100% of human Wilms tumour specimens, suggesting a potential value of HIF-1α as a therapeutic target for Wilms tumour. In the present study, a stable HIF-1α-silenced Wilms tumour cell strain was established by introducing HIF-1α short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) into SK-NEP-1 cells. Silencing of HIF-1α significantly reduced single-cell growth capacity, suppressed proliferation and arrested cell cycle of SK-NEP-1 cells. In addition, reduction of HIF-1α expression induced apoptosis in SK-NEP-1 cells, which was accompanied by increased levels of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and Bax as well as downregulation of Bcl-2 in the cells. Furthermore, when inoculated subcutaneously in nude mice, HIF-1α-silenced SK-NEP-1 cells displayed retarded tumour growth and impaired tumour angiogenesis. In summary, the findings of this study suggest that HIF-1α plays a critical role in the development of Wilms tumour, and it may serve as a candidate target of gene therapy for Wilms tumour.

  10. RNA interference-mediated intrinsic antiviral immunity in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Arabinda; Tassetto, Michel; Kunitomi, Mark; Andino, Raul

    2013-01-01

    In invertebrates such as insects and nematodes, RNA interference (RNAi) provides RNA-based protection against viruses. This form of immunity restricts viral replication and dissemination from infected cells and viruses, in turn, have evolved evasion mechanisms or RNAi suppressors to counteract host defenses. Recent advances indicate that, in addition to RNAi, other related small RNA pathways contribute to antiviral functions in invertebrates. This has led to a deeper understanding of fundamental aspects of small RNA-based antiviral immunity in invertebrates and its contribution to viral spread and pathogenesis.

  11. Modulation of Flavivirus Population Diversity by RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Schirtzinger, Erin E.; Harrison, Thomas D.; Ebel, Gregory D.; Hanley, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that RNA interference (RNAi) imposes diversifying selection on RNA virus genomes, we quantified West Nile virus (WNV) quasispecies diversity after passage in Drosophila cells in which RNAi was left intact, depleted, or stimulated against WNV. As predicted, WNV diversity was significantly lower in RNAi-depleted cells and significantly greater in RNAi-stimulated cells relative to that in controls. These findings reveal that an innate immune defense can shape viral population structure. PMID:25631077

  12. Chemical modification: the key to clinical application of RNA interference?

    PubMed Central

    Corey, David R.

    2007-01-01

    RNA interference provides a potent and specific method for controlling gene expression in human cells. To translate this potential into a broad new family of therapeutics, it is necessary to optimize the efficacy of the RNA-based drugs. As discussed in this Review, it might be possible to achieve this optimization using chemical modifications that improve their in vivo stability, cellular delivery, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, potency, and specificity. PMID:18060019

  13. Silencing structural and nonstructural genes in baculovirus by RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Flores-Jasso, C Fabian; Valdes, Victor Julian; Sampieri, Alicia; Valadez-Graham, Viviana; Recillas-Targa, Felix; Vaca, Luis

    2004-06-01

    We review several aspects of RNAi and gene silencing with baculovirus. We show that the potency of RNAi in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) insect cells correlates well with the efficiency of transfection of the siRNA. Using a fluorescein-labeled siRNA we found that the siRNA localized in areas surrounding the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Both long (700 nucleotides long) and small ( approximately 25 nucleotides long) interfering RNAs were equally effective in initiating RNA interference (RNAi), and the duration of the interfering effect was indistinguishable. Even though RNAi in Sf21 cells is very effective, in vitro experiments show that these cells fragment the long dsRNA into siRNA poorly, when compared to HEK cells. Finally, we show that in vivo inhibition of baculovirus infection with dsRNA homologous to genes that are essential for baculovirus infectivity depends strongly on the amount of dsRNA used in the assays. Five hundred nanogram of dsRNA directly injected into the haemolymph of insects prevent animal death to over 95%. In control experiments, over 96% of insects not injected with dsRNA or injected with an irrelevant dsRNA died within a week. These results demonstrate the efficiency of dsRNA for in vivo prevention of a viral infection by virus that is very cytotoxic and lytic in animals.

  14. Study of claudin function by RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jianghui; Gomes, Antonio S; Paul, David L; Goodenough, Daniel A

    2006-11-24

    Claudins are tight junction proteins that play a key selectivity role in the paracellular conductance of ions. Numerous studies of claudin function have been carried out using the overexpression strategy to add new claudin channels to an existing paracellular protein background. Here, we report the systematic knockdown of endogenous claudin gene expression in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and in LLC-PK1 cells using small interfering RNA against claudins 1-4 and 7. In MDCK cells (showing cation selectivity), claudins 2, 4, and 7 are powerful effectors of paracellular Na+ permeation. Removal of claudin-2 depressed the permeation of Na+ and resulted in the loss of cation selectivity. Loss of claudin-4 or -7 expression elevated the permeation of Na+ and enhanced the proclivity of the tight junction for cations. On the other hand, LLC-PK1 cells express little endogenous claudin-2 and show anion selectivity. In LLC-PK1 cells, claudin-4 and -7 are powerful effectors of paracellular Cl- permeation. Knockdown of claudin-4 or -7 expression depressed the permeation of Cl- and caused the tight junction to lose the anion selectivity. In conclusion, claudin-2 functions as a paracellular channel to Na+ to increase the cation selectivity of the tight junction; claudin-4 and -7 function either as paracellular barriers to Na+ or as paracellular channels to Cl-, depending upon the cellular background, to decrease the cation selectivity of the tight junction.

  15. Modeling oncogene addiction using RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, S. Michael; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Le, Sheila; Riese, David J.; Haber, Daniel A.; Settleman, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of selective kinase inhibitors suggests that some cancer cells may become dependent on a single oncogene for survival. RNAi has been increasingly used to understand such “oncogene addiction” and validate new therapeutic targets. However, RNAi approaches suffer from significant off-target effects that limit their utility. Here, we combine carefully titrated lentiviral-mediated short hairpin RNA knockdown of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with heterologous reconstitution by EGFR mutants to rigorously analyze the structural features and signaling activities that determine addiction to the mutationally activated EGFR in human lung cancer cells. EGFR dependence is differentially rescued by distinct EGFR variants and oncogenic mutants, is critically dependent on its heterodimerization partner ErbB-3, and surprisingly, does not require autophosphorylation sites in the cytoplasmic domain. Quantitative “oncogene rescue” analysis allows mechanistic dissection of oncogene addiction, and, when broadly applied, may provide functional validation for potential therapeutic targets identified through large-scale RNAi screens. PMID:18711136

  16. Exploring Fusarium head blight disease control by RNA interference

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    RNA interference (RNAi) technology provides a novel tool to study gene function and plant protection strategies. Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), which reduces crop yield and quality by producing trichothecene mycotoxins including 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol (3-ADO...

  17. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 from Nicotiana tabacum suppresses RNA silencing and enhances viral infection in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Ying, Xiao-Bao; Dong, Li; Zhu, Hui; Duan, Cheng-Guo; Du, Quan-Sheng; Lv, Dian-Qiu; Fang, Yuan-Yuan; Garcia, Juan Antonio; Fang, Rong-Xiang; Guo, Hui-Shan

    2010-04-01

    Endogenous eukaryotic RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) produce double-stranded RNA intermediates in diverse processes of small RNA synthesis in RNA silencing pathways. RDR6 is required in plants for posttranscriptional gene silencing induced by sense transgenes (S-PTGS) and has an important role in amplification of antiviral silencing. Whereas RDR1 is also involved in antiviral defense in plants, this does not necessarily proceed through triggering silencing. In this study, we show that Nicotiana benthamiana transformed with RDR1 from Nicotiana tabacum (Nt-RDR1 plants) exhibits hypersusceptibility to Plum pox potyvirus and other viruses, resembling RDR6-silenced (RDR6i) N. benthamiana. Analysis of transient induction of RNA silencing in N. benthamiana Nt-RDR1 and RDR6i plants revealed that Nt-RDR1 possesses silencing suppression activity. We found that Nt-RDR1 does not interfere with RDR6-dependent siRNA accumulation but turns out to suppress RDR6-dependent S-PTGS. Our results, together with previously published data, suggest that RDR1 might have a dual role, contributing, on one hand, to salicylic acid-mediated antiviral defense, and suppressing, on the other hand, the RDR6-mediated antiviral RNA silencing. We propose a scenario in which the natural loss-of-function variant of RDR1 in N. benthamiana may be the outcome of selective pressure to maintain a high RDR6-dependent antiviral defense, which would be required to face the hypersensitivity of this plant to a large number of viruses.

  18. HSP47 siRNA conjugated with cationized gelatin microspheres suppresses peritoneal fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Obata, Yoko; Nishino, Tomoya; Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Tomoshige, Ryuji; Xia, Zhiyin; Miyazaki, Masanobu; Abe, Katsushige; Koji, Takehiko; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Kohno, Shigeru

    2012-07-01

    Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47), a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, is essential for the biosynthesis and secretion of collagen and is expressed in the fibrotic peritoneum. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of HSP47 small interfering RNA (siRNA) to suppress the development of peritoneal fibrosis induced by chlorhexidine gluconate in mice. We initially confirmed that biodegradable cationized gelatin microspheres (CGMs) containing HSP47 siRNA could continuously release siRNA over 21 days as a result of microsphere degradation. We then determined that a single injection of CGMs incorporating HSP47 siRNA suppressed collagen expression and macrophage infiltration, thereby preventing peritoneal fibrosis. Therefore, we suggest that this controlled-release technology using HSP47 siRNA is a potential treatment for peritoneal fibrosis. Additionally, RNA interference combined with CGMs as a drug-delivery system may lead to new strategies for knocking down specific genes in vivo.

  19. RNA interference, arthropod-borne viruses, and mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Travanty, Emily A; Keene, Kimberly M; Franz, Alexander W E; Beaty, Barry J; Blair, Carol D; Olson, Ken E

    2004-06-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) probably functions as an antiviral mechanism in most eukaryotic organisms. Variations in the activity of this antiviral pathway in mosquitoes could explain, in part, why some mosquitoes are competent vectors of medically important, arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) and others are not. There are three lines of evidence that show the RNAi pathway exists in Aedes species that transmit arboviruses. The first is that recombinant Sindbis viruses expressing a RNA fragment from a genetically unrelated dengue-2 virus (DENV-2) interfere with DENV-2 replication in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by a mechanism similar to virus-induced gene silencing described in plants. The second is that transfection of C6/36 (Aedes albopictus) cells with either double-stranded RNA or synthetic small interfering RNAs derived from an arbovirus genome interferes with replication of the homologous virus. The third is that a hairpin DENV-2-specific RNA transcribed from a plasmid can generate virus-resistant C6/36 cells. We hypothesize that genetically modified mosquitoes can be generated that transcribe a flavivirus-specific dsRNA, triggering the RNAi response soon after ingestion of a blood meal. This could induce the RNAi pathway in the midgut prior to establishment of virus infection and profoundly change vector competence. Towards this goal, we are developing transgenic A. aegypti lines that are refractory to DENV by exploiting the RNAi pathway.

  20. RNA Interference of Human α-Synuclein in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Cho; Miller, Adam; Lins, Livia C. R. F.; Han, Sang-Woo; Keiser, Megan S.; Boudreau, Ryan L.; Davidson, Beverly L.; Narayanan, Nandakumar S.

    2017-01-01

    α-Synuclein is postulated to play a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Aggregates of α-synuclein contribute to neurodegeneration and cell death in humans and in mouse models of PD. Here, we use virally mediated RNA interference to knockdown human α-synuclein in mice. We used an siRNA design algorithm to identify eight siRNA sequences with minimal off-targeting potential. One RNA-interference sequence (miSyn4) showed maximal protein knockdown potential in vitro. We then designed AAV vectors expressing miSyn4 and injected them into the mouse substantia nigra. miSyn4 was robustly expressed and did not detectably change dopamine neurons, glial proliferation, or mouse behavior. We then injected AAV2-miSyn4 into Thy1-hSNCA mice over expressing α-synuclein and found decreased human α-synuclein (hSNCA) in both midbrain and cortex. In separate mice, co-injection of AAV2-hSNCA and AAV2-miSyn4 demonstrated decreased hSNCA expression and rescue of hSNCA-mediated behavioral deficits. These data suggest that virally mediated RNA interference can knockdown hSNCA in vivo, which could be helpful for future therapies targeting human α-synuclein. PMID:28197125

  1. RNA interference: from biology to drugs and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Appasani, Krishnarao

    2004-07-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a newly discovered and popular technology platform among researchers not only in the fields of RNA biology and molecular cell biology. It has created excitement in clinical sciences such as oncology, neurology, endocrinology, infectious diseases and drug discovery. There is an urgent need to educate and connect academic and industry researchers for the purpose of knowledge transfer. Thus, GeneExpression Systems of Waltham organized its Second International Conference in Waltham City (May 2-4, 2004, MA, USA) on the theme of 'RNA interference: From Biology to Drugs & Therapeutics.' About 200 participants and 32 speakers attended this two and half-day event which was arranged in six scientific and three technology sessions and ended with a panel discussion. This report covers a few representative talks from academia, biotech and the drug industry.

  2. Prokaryotic Argonautes - variations on the RNA interference theme

    PubMed Central

    van der Oost, John; Swarts, Daan C.; Jore, Matthijs M.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) has been a major scientific breakthrough. This RNA-guided RNA interference system plays a crucial role in a wide range of regulatory and defense mechanisms in eukaryotes. The key enzyme of the RNAi system is Argonaute (Ago), an endo-ribonuclease that uses a small RNA guide molecule to specifically target a complementary RNA transcript. Two functional classes of eukaryotic Ago have been described: catalytically active Ago that cleaves RNA targets complementary to its guide, and inactive Ago that uses its guide to bind target RNA to down-regulate translation efficiency. A recent comparative genomics study has revealed that Argonaute-like proteins are also encoded by prokaryotic genomes. Interestingly, there is a lot of variation among these prokaryotic Argonaute (pAgo) proteins with respect to domain architecture: some resemble the eukaryotic Ago (long pAgo) containing a complete or disrupted catalytic site, while others are truncated versions (short pAgo) that generally contain an incomplete catalytic site. Prokaryotic Agos with an incomplete catalytic site often co-occur with (predicted) nucleases. Based on this diversity, and on the fact that homologs of other RNAi-related protein components (such as Dicer nucleases) have never been identified in prokaryotes, it has been predicted that variations on the eukaryotic RNAi theme may occur in prokaryotes. PMID:28357239

  3. Antigenic variation in Giardia lamblia is regulated by RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Prucca, César G; Slavin, Ileana; Quiroga, Rodrigo; Elías, Eliana V; Rivero, Fernando D; Saura, Alicia; Carranza, Pedro G; Luján, Hugo D

    2008-12-11

    Giardia lamblia (also called Giardia intestinalis) is one of the most common intestinal parasites of humans. To evade the host's immune response, Giardia undergoes antigenic variation-a process that allows the parasite to develop chronic and recurrent infections. From a repertoire of approximately 190 variant-specific surface protein (VSP)-coding genes, Giardia expresses only one VSP on the surface of each parasite at a particular time, but spontaneously switches to a different VSP by unknown mechanisms. Here we show that regulation of VSP expression involves a system comprising RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, Dicer and Argonaute, known components of the RNA interference machinery. Clones expressing a single surface antigen efficiently transcribe several VSP genes but only accumulate transcripts encoding the VSP to be expressed. Detection of antisense RNAs corresponding to the silenced VSP genes and small RNAs from the silenced but not for the expressed vsp implicate the RNA interference pathway in antigenic variation. Remarkably, silencing of Dicer and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase leads to a change from single to multiple VSP expression in individual parasites.

  4. Use of the giant multinucleate plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum to study RNA interference in the myxomycete.

    PubMed

    Haindl, Markus; Holler, Eggehard

    2005-07-15

    The plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum harbors billions of synchronized nuclei in a single cell of complex structure. Due to its synchrony and extreme size, it is used as a model to study events on a single cell level, such as cell cycle and differentiation. We show here for the first time that this model, despite its enormous size and structural complexity, is accessible to RNA interference by simple injection of dsRNA or siRNA. The targeted gene is that of polymalatase, an intracellular adapter of poly(beta-l-malate) involved in the maintenance of the synchrony and functioning as an extracellular hydrolase of this polymer. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the specific mRNA was knocked down to about 10% of the original level. The suppression of a single injection lasted for approximately 14 cell cycles (144 h) and could be prolonged for any time by repeated dsRNA injections. Western blots indicated that the knockdown of RNA was paralleled by a strong reduction in polymalatase synthesis. However, a change in the phenotype of the plasmodium could not be clearly observed. In principle, the plasmodium offers an easy system for studying gene knockdown by RNA interference.

  5. crRNA and tracrRNA guide Cas9-mediated DNA interference in Streptococcus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Karvelis, Tautvydas; Gasiunas, Giedrius; Miksys, Algirdas; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Horvath, Philippe; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2013-05-01

    The Cas9-crRNA complex of the Streptococcus thermophilus DGCC7710 CRISPR3-Cas system functions as an RNA-guided endonuclease with crRNA-directed target sequence recognition and protein-mediated DNA cleavage. We show here that an additional RNA molecule, tracrRNA (trans-activating CRISPR RNA), co-purifies with the Cas9 protein isolated from the heterologous E. coli strain carrying the S. thermophilus DGCC7710 CRISPR3-Cas system. We provide experimental evidence that tracrRNA is required for Cas9-mediated DNA interference both in vitro and in vivo. We show that Cas9 specifically promotes duplex formation between the precursor crRNA (pre-crRNA) transcript and tracrRNA, in vitro. Furthermore, the housekeeping RNase III contributes to primary pre-crRNA-tracrRNA duplex cleavage for mature crRNA biogenesis. RNase III, however, is not required in the processing of a short pre-crRNA transcribed from a minimal CRISPR array containing a single spacer. Finally, we show that an in vitro-assembled ternary Cas9-crRNA-tracrRNA complex cleaves DNA. This study further specifies the molecular basis for crRNA-based re-programming of Cas9 to specifically cleave any target DNA sequence for precise genome surgery. The processes for crRNA maturation and effector complex assembly established here will contribute to the further development of the Cas9 re-programmable system for genome editing applications.

  6. RNA interference-based nanosystems for inflammatory bowel disease therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jian; Jiang, Xiaojing; Gui, Shuangying

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, is a chronic, recrudescent disease that invades the gastrointestinal tract, and it requires surgery or lifelong medicinal therapy. The conventional medicinal therapies for IBD, such as anti-inflammatories, glucocorticoids, and immunosuppressants, are limited because of their systemic adverse effects and toxicity during long-term treatment. RNA interference (RNAi) precisely regulates susceptibility genes to decrease the expression of proinflammatory cytokines related to IBD, which effectively alleviates IBD progression and promotes intestinal mucosa recovery. RNAi molecules generally include short interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA). However, naked RNA tends to degrade in vivo as a consequence of endogenous ribonucleases and pH variations. Furthermore, RNAi treatment may cause unintended off-target effects and immunostimulation. Therefore, nanovectors of siRNA and miRNA were introduced to circumvent these obstacles. Herein, we introduce non-viral nanosystems of RNAi molecules and discuss these systems in detail. Additionally, the delivery barriers and challenges associated with RNAi molecules will be discussed from the perspectives of developing efficient delivery systems and potential clinical use. PMID:27789943

  7. RNA interference-based nanosystems for inflammatory bowel disease therapy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian; Jiang, Xiaojing; Gui, Shuangying

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is a chronic, recrudescent disease that invades the gastrointestinal tract, and it requires surgery or lifelong medicinal therapy. The conventional medicinal therapies for IBD, such as anti-inflammatories, glucocorticoids, and immunosuppressants, are limited because of their systemic adverse effects and toxicity during long-term treatment. RNA interference (RNAi) precisely regulates susceptibility genes to decrease the expression of proinflammatory cytokines related to IBD, which effectively alleviates IBD progression and promotes intestinal mucosa recovery. RNAi molecules generally include short interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA). However, naked RNA tends to degrade in vivo as a consequence of endogenous ribonucleases and pH variations. Furthermore, RNAi treatment may cause unintended off-target effects and immunostimulation. Therefore, nanovectors of siRNA and miRNA were introduced to circumvent these obstacles. Herein, we introduce non-viral nanosystems of RNAi molecules and discuss these systems in detail. Additionally, the delivery barriers and challenges associated with RNAi molecules will be discussed from the perspectives of developing efficient delivery systems and potential clinical use.

  8. Advances with RNA interference in Alzheimer's disease research.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shun; Ge, Xuemei; Chen, Yinghui; Lv, Nan; Liu, Zhenguo; Yuan, Weien

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized clinically by memory and cognitive dysfunction. Unfortunately, there is no effective therapeutic method for AD treatment or ways to halt disease progression. Many mechanisms are involved in the disease, including genes mutation and protein dysfunction. RNA interference (RNAi) technology may potentially be able to control AD. It can inhibit the protein expression of specific genes by activating a sequence-specific RNA degradation process. This is a powerful tool with which to study gene function, investigate the mechanism of the disease, and validate drug targets. In this review, we highlight the advances in RNAi technology in the investigation and treatment of AD.

  9. Modification of Small RNAs Associated with Suppression of RNA Silencing by Tobamovirus Replicase Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, Hannes; Akbergenov, Rashid; Shivaprasad, Padubidri V.; Dang, Vy; Fasler, Monika; Kwon, Myoung-Ok; Zhanybekova, Saule; Hohn, Thomas; Heinlein, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    Plant viruses act as triggers and targets of RNA silencing and have evolved proteins to suppress this plant defense response during infection. Although Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) triggers the production of virus-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), this does not lead to efficient silencing of TMV nor is a TMV-green fluorescent protein (GFP) hybrid able to induce silencing of a GFP-transgene in Nicotiana benthamiana, indicating that a TMV silencing suppressor is active and acts downstream of siRNA production. On the other hand, TMV-GFP is unable to spread into cells in which GFP silencing is established, suggesting that the viral silencing suppressor cannot revert silencing that is already established. Although previous evidence indicates that the tobamovirus silencing suppressing activity resides in the viral 126-kDa small replicase subunit, the mechanism of silencing suppression by this virus family is not known. Here, we connect the silencing suppressing activity of this protein with our previous finding that Oilseed rape mosaic tobamovirus infection leads to interference with HEN1-mediated methylation of siRNA and micro-RNA (miRNA). We demonstrate that TMV infection similarly leads to interference with HEN1-mediated methylation of small RNAs and that this interference and the formation of virus-induced disease symptoms are linked to the silencing suppressor activity of the 126-kDa protein. Moreover, we show that also Turnip crinkle virus interferes with the methylation of siRNA but, in contrast to tobamoviruses, not with the methylation of miRNA. PMID:17634237

  10. Modification of small RNAs associated with suppression of RNA silencing by tobamovirus replicase protein.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Hannes; Akbergenov, Rashid; Shivaprasad, Padubidri V; Dang, Vy; Fasler, Monika; Kwon, Myoung-Ok; Zhanybekova, Saule; Hohn, Thomas; Heinlein, Manfred

    2007-10-01

    Plant viruses act as triggers and targets of RNA silencing and have evolved proteins to suppress this plant defense response during infection. Although Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) triggers the production of virus-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), this does not lead to efficient silencing of TMV nor is a TMV-green fluorescent protein (GFP) hybrid able to induce silencing of a GFP-transgene in Nicotiana benthamiana, indicating that a TMV silencing suppressor is active and acts downstream of siRNA production. On the other hand, TMV-GFP is unable to spread into cells in which GFP silencing is established, suggesting that the viral silencing suppressor cannot revert silencing that is already established. Although previous evidence indicates that the tobamovirus silencing suppressing activity resides in the viral 126-kDa small replicase subunit, the mechanism of silencing suppression by this virus family is not known. Here, we connect the silencing suppressing activity of this protein with our previous finding that Oilseed rape mosaic tobamovirus infection leads to interference with HEN1-mediated methylation of siRNA and micro-RNA (miRNA). We demonstrate that TMV infection similarly leads to interference with HEN1-mediated methylation of small RNAs and that this interference and the formation of virus-induced disease symptoms are linked to the silencing suppressor activity of the 126-kDa protein. Moreover, we show that also Turnip crinkle virus interferes with the methylation of siRNA but, in contrast to tobamoviruses, not with the methylation of miRNA.

  11. RNA-based drugs: from RNA interference to short interfering RNAs.

    PubMed

    Poliseno, L; Mercatanti, A; Citti, L; Rainaldi, G

    2004-08-01

    RNA interference consists of a sequence specific post-transcriptional gene silencing phenomenon triggered by a double strand RNA molecule homologous to the silenced gene. The dsRNA is cleaved by DICER enzyme in small dsRNA pieces, named short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). These fragments are thereafter associated to RISC complex where the cleavage of target RNA occurs. The observation that siRNAs can trigger the RNA interference mechanism in mammalian cells represents a fundamental discovery that discloses new horizons in genetic researches in that theoretically each gene can be silenced. The relative simplicity by which active short interfering RNAs can be designed and synthesized explains their widespread use in basic and applied researches, even if appropriate controls that exclude off-target effects are strictly required. The findings that siRNAs are active even when expressed in viral vectors open the possibility that they can be very soon used for gene therapy of several human diseases.

  12. A majority of Huntington's disease patients may be treatable by individualized allele-specific RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Maria Stella; Jaspers, Leonie; Spronkmans, Christine; Gellera, Cinzia; Taroni, Franco; Di Maria, Emilio; Donato, Stefano Di; Kaemmerer, William F

    2009-06-01

    Use of RNA interference to reduce huntingtin protein (htt) expression in affected brain regions may provide an effective treatment for Huntington disease (HD), but it remains uncertain whether suppression of both wild-type and mutant alleles in a heterozygous patient will provide more benefit than harm. Previous research has shown suppression of just the mutant allele is achievable using siRNA targeted to regions of HD mRNA containing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). To determine whether more than a minority of patients may be eligible for an allele-specific therapy, we genotyped DNA from 327 unrelated European Caucasian HD patients at 26 SNP sites in the HD gene. Over 86% of the patients were found to be heterozygous for at least one SNP among those tested. Because the sites are genetically linked, one cannot use the heterozygosity rates of the individual SNPs to predict how many sites (and corresponding allele-specific siRNA) would be needed to provide at least one treatment possibility for this percentage of patients. By computing all combinations, we found that a repertoire of allele-specific siRNA corresponding to seven sites can provide at least one allele-specific siRNA treatment option for 85.6% of our sample. Moreover, we provide evidence that allele-specific siRNA targeting these sites are readily identifiable using a high throughput screening method, and that allele-specific siRNA identified using this method indeed show selective suppression of endogenous mutant htt protein in fibroblast cells from HD patients. Therefore, allele-specific siRNA are not so rare as to be impractical to find and use therapeutically.

  13. Cardiovascular RNA interference therapy: the broadening tool and target spectrum.

    PubMed

    Poller, Wolfgang; Tank, Juliane; Skurk, Carsten; Gast, Martina

    2013-08-16

    Understanding of the roles of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) within complex organisms has fundamentally changed. It is increasingly possible to use ncRNAs as diagnostic and therapeutic tools in medicine. Regarding disease pathogenesis, it has become evident that confinement to the analysis of protein-coding regions of the human genome is insufficient because ncRNA variants have been associated with important human diseases. Thus, inclusion of noncoding genomic elements in pathogenetic studies and their consideration as therapeutic targets is warranted. We consider aspects of the evolutionary and discovery history of ncRNAs, as far as they are relevant for the identification and selection of ncRNAs with likely therapeutic potential. Novel therapeutic strategies are based on ncRNAs, and we discuss here RNA interference as a highly versatile tool for gene silencing. RNA interference-mediating RNAs are small, but only parts of a far larger spectrum encompassing ncRNAs up to many kilobasepairs in size. We discuss therapeutic options in cardiovascular medicine offered by ncRNAs and key issues to be solved before clinical translation. Convergence of multiple technical advances is highlighted as a prerequisite for the translational progress achieved in recent years. Regarding safety, we review properties of RNA therapeutics, which may immunologically distinguish them from their endogenous counterparts, all of which underwent sophisticated evolutionary adaptation to specific biological contexts. Although our understanding of the noncoding human genome is only fragmentary to date, it is already feasible to develop RNA interference against a rapidly broadening spectrum of therapeutic targets and to translate this to the clinical setting under certain restrictions.

  14. MicroRNA-Containing T-Regulatory-Cell-Derived Exosomes Suppress Pathogenic T Helper 1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Okoye, Isobel S.; Coomes, Stephanie M.; Pelly, Victoria S.; Czieso, Stephanie; Papayannopoulos, Venizelos; Tolmachova, Tanya; Seabra, Miguel C.; Wilson, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Foxp3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells prevent inflammatory disease but the mechanistic basis of suppression is not understood completely. Gene silencing by RNA interference can act in a cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous manner, providing mechanisms of intercellular regulation. Here, we demonstrate that non-cell-autonomous gene silencing, mediated by miRNA-containing exosomes, is a mechanism employed by Treg cells to suppress T-cell-mediated disease. Treg cells transferred microRNAs (miRNA) to various immune cells, including T helper 1 (Th1) cells, suppressing Th1 cell proliferation and cytokine secretion. Use of Dicer-deficient or Rab27a and Rab27b double-deficient Treg cells to disrupt miRNA biogenesis or the exosomal pathway, respectively, established a requirement for miRNAs and exosomes for Treg-cell-mediated suppression. Transcriptional analysis and miRNA inhibitor studies showed that exosome-mediated transfer of Let-7d from Treg cell to Th1 cells contributed to suppression and prevention of systemic disease. These studies reveal a mechanism of Treg-cell-mediated suppression mediated by miRNA-containing exosomes. PMID:25035954

  15. RNA interference in the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica reveals the function of the Brachyury gene.

    PubMed

    Omotezako, Tatsuya; Nishino, Atsuo; Onuma, Takeshi A; Nishida, Hiroki

    2013-07-01

    The appendicularian Oikopleura dioica is a chordate that has a remarkably simple adult body with small cell number. Its transparency, stereotyped cell lineages, short life cycle, and small genome make it a promising new experimental model of chordate developmental biology. However, the functions of its various genes are still poorly understood due to lack of a tool for suppression of gene expression. Here, we applied a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-based-RNA interference (RNAi) method in O. dioica. For introducing dsRNA into eggs and embryos, we injected dsRNAs into the ovary. dsRNA, which is specific to EGFP or mCherry mRNA, decreased the exogenous mRNA-derived fluorescence in both eggs and embryos. dsRNA specific to the Brachyury gene of O. dioica, which is a homologous gene of a key notochord transcriptional factor in ascidians, triggered degradation of endogenous Brachyury mRNA and induced malformation or loss of the notochord in the tail. This effect was Brachyury sequence specific, as three dsRNAs covering different sequences produced the same phenotype. The result is in accordance with its expression site and also with the key regulatory function of Brachyury in notochord formation in other chordates. RNAi in O. dioica would be a useful tool for gaining insight into the oogenesis and early developmental processes in chordates.

  16. Antiviral RNA silencing suppression activity of Tomato spotted wilt virus NSs protein.

    PubMed

    Ocampo Ocampo, T; Gabriel Peralta, S M; Bacheller, N; Uiterwaal, S; Knapp, A; Hennen, A; Ochoa-Martinez, D L; Garcia-Ruiz, H

    2016-06-17

    In addition to regulating gene expression, RNA silencing is an essential antiviral defense system in plants. Triggered by double-stranded RNA, silencing results in degradation or translational repression of target transcripts. Viruses are inducers and targets of RNA silencing. To condition susceptibility, most plant viruses encode silencing suppressors that interfere with this process, such as the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) NSs protein. The mechanism by which NSs suppresses RNA silencing and its role in viral infection and movement remain to be determined. We cloned NSs from the Hawaii isolate of TSWV and using two independent assays show for the first time that this protein restored pathogenicity and supported the formation of local infection foci by suppressor-deficient Turnip mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus. Demonstrating the suppression of RNA silencing directed against heterologous viruses establishes the foundation to determine the means used by NSs to block this antiviral process.

  17. Self-assembled RNA interference microsponges for efficient siRNA delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong Bum; Hong, Jinkee; Bonner, Daniel K.; Poon, Zhiyong; Hammond, Paula T.

    2012-04-01

    The encapsulation and delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA) has been realized using lipid nanoparticles, cationic complexes, inorganic nanoparticles, RNA nanoparticles and dendrimers. Still, the instability of RNA and the relatively ineffectual encapsulation process of siRNA remain critical issues towards the clinical translation of RNA as a therapeutic. Here we report the synthesis of a delivery vehicle that combines carrier and cargo: RNA interference (RNAi) polymers that self-assemble into nanoscale pleated sheets of hairpin RNA, which in turn form sponge-like microspheres. The RNAi-microsponges consist entirely of cleavable RNA strands, and are processed by the cell’s RNA machinery to convert the stable hairpin RNA to siRNA only after cellular uptake, thus inherently providing protection for siRNA during delivery and transport to the cytoplasm. More than half a million copies of siRNA can be delivered to a cell with the uptake of a single RNAi-microsponge. The approach could lead to novel therapeutic routes for siRNA delivery.

  18. Inducing RNA interference in the arbovirus vector, Culicoides sonorensis

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Mary K.; Nayduch, D.; Michel, K.

    2014-01-01

    Biting midges in the genus Culicoides are important vectors of arboviral diseases, including epizootic hemorrhagic disease, bluetongue, and likely Schmallenberg, which cause significant economic burden worldwide. Research on these vectors has been hindered by the lack of a sequenced genome, the difficulty of consistent culturing of certain species, and the absence of molecular techniques such as RNA interference (RNAi). Here, we report the establishment of RNAi as a research tool for the adult midge, Culicoides sonorensis. Based on previous research and transcriptome analysis, which revealed putative siRNA pathway member orthologs, we hypothesized that adult C. sonorensis midges have the molecular machinery needed to preform RNA silencing. Injection of control dsRNA, dsGFP, into the hemocoel 2–3 day old adult female midges resulted in survival curves that support virus transmission. DsRNA injection targeting the newly identified C. sonorensis inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (CsIAP1) ortholog, resulted in a 40% decrease of transcript levels and 73% shortened median survivals as compared to dsGFP-injected controls. These results reveal the conserved function of IAP1. Importantly, they also demonstrate the feasibility of RNAi by dsRNA injection in adult midges, which will greatly facilitate studies of the underlying mechanisms of vector competence in C. sonorensis. PMID:25293805

  19. Abasic pivot substitution harnesses target specificity of RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Sook; Seok, Heeyoung; Lee, Dong Ha; Ham, Juyoung; Lee, Wooje; Youm, Emilia Moonkyung; Yoo, Jin Seon; Lee, Yong-Seung; Jang, Eun-Sook; Chi, Sung Wook

    2015-12-18

    Gene silencing via RNA interference inadvertently represses hundreds of off-target transcripts. Because small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can function as microRNAs, avoiding miRNA-like off-target repression is a major challenge. Functional miRNA-target interactions are known to pre-require transitional nucleation, base pairs from position 2 to the pivot (position 6). Here, by substituting nucleotide in pivot with abasic spacers, which prevent base pairing and alleviate steric hindrance, we eliminate miRNA-like off-target repression while preserving on-target activity at ∼ 80-100%. Specifically, miR-124 containing dSpacer pivot substitution (6pi) loses seed-mediated transcriptome-wide target interactions, repression activity and biological function, whereas other conventional modifications are ineffective. Application of 6pi allows PCSK9 siRNA to efficiently lower plasma cholesterol concentration in vivo, and abolish potentially deleterious off-target phenotypes. The smallest spacer, C3, also shows the same improvement in target specificity. Abasic pivot substitution serves as a general means to harness the specificity of siRNA experiments and therapeutic applications.

  20. Who Watches the Watchmen: Roles of RNA Modifications in the RNA Interference Pathway.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Samantha B; Reinsborough, Calder; Xhemalce, Blerta

    2016-07-01

    RNA levels are widely thought to be predictive of RNA function. However, the existence of more than a hundred chemically distinct modifications of RNA alone is a major indication that these moieties may impart distinct functions to subgroups of RNA molecules that share a primary sequence but display distinct RNA "epigenetic" marks. RNAs can be modified on many sites, including 5' and 3' ends, the sugar phosphate backbone, or internal bases, which collectively provide many opportunities for posttranscriptional regulation through a variety of mechanisms. Here, we will focus on how modifications on messenger and microRNAs may affect the process of RNA interference in mammalian cells. We believe that taking RNA modifications into account will not only advance our understanding of this crucial pathway in disease and cancer but will also open the path to exploiting the enzymes that "write" and "erase" them as targets for therapeutic drug development.

  1. Who Watches the Watchmen: Roles of RNA Modifications in the RNA Interference Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xhemalce, Blerta

    2016-01-01

    RNA levels are widely thought to be predictive of RNA function. However, the existence of more than a hundred chemically distinct modifications of RNA alone is a major indication that these moieties may impart distinct functions to subgroups of RNA molecules that share a primary sequence but display distinct RNA “epigenetic” marks. RNAs can be modified on many sites, including 5′ and 3′ ends, the sugar phosphate backbone, or internal bases, which collectively provide many opportunities for posttranscriptional regulation through a variety of mechanisms. Here, we will focus on how modifications on messenger and microRNAs may affect the process of RNA interference in mammalian cells. We believe that taking RNA modifications into account will not only advance our understanding of this crucial pathway in disease and cancer but will also open the path to exploiting the enzymes that “write” and “erase” them as targets for therapeutic drug development. PMID:27441695

  2. RNA Interference in Moths: Mechanisms, Applications, and Progress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jin; Wang, Xia-Fei; Chen, Peng; Liu, Fang-Tao; Zheng, Shuai-Chao; Ye, Hui; Mo, Ming-He

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of lepidopterans, about 90%, are moths. Some moths, particularly their caterpillars, are major agricultural and forestry pests in many parts of the world. However, some other members of moths, such as the silkworm Bombyx mori, are famous for their economic value. Fire et al. in 1998 initially found that exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can silence the homolog endogenous mRNA in organisms, which is called RNA interference (RNAi). Soon after, the RNAi technique proved to be very promising not only in gene function determination but also in pest control. However, later studies demonstrate that performing RNAi in moths is not as straightforward as shown in other insect taxa. Nevertheless, since 2007, especially after 2010, an increasing number of reports have been published that describe successful RNAi experiments in different moth species either on gene function analysis or on pest management exploration. So far, more than 100 peer-reviewed papers have reported successful RNAi experiments in moths, covering 10 families and 25 species. By using classic and novel dsRNA delivery methods, these studies effectively silence the expression of various target genes and determine their function in larval development, reproduction, immunology, resistance against chemicals, and other biological processes. In addition, a number of laboratory and field trials have demonstrated that RNAi is also a potential strategy for moth pest management. In this review, therefore, we summarize and discuss the mechanisms and applications of the RNAi technique in moths by focusing on recent progresses. PMID:27775569

  3. Abasic pivot substitution harnesses target specificity of RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Sook; Seok, Heeyoung; Lee, Dong Ha; Ham, Juyoung; Lee, Wooje; Youm, Emilia Moonkyung; Yoo, Jin Seon; Lee, Yong-Seung; Jang, Eun-Sook; Chi, Sung Wook

    2015-01-01

    Gene silencing via RNA interference inadvertently represses hundreds of off-target transcripts. Because small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can function as microRNAs, avoiding miRNA-like off-target repression is a major challenge. Functional miRNA–target interactions are known to pre-require transitional nucleation, base pairs from position 2 to the pivot (position 6). Here, by substituting nucleotide in pivot with abasic spacers, which prevent base pairing and alleviate steric hindrance, we eliminate miRNA-like off-target repression while preserving on-target activity at ∼80–100%. Specifically, miR-124 containing dSpacer pivot substitution (6pi) loses seed-mediated transcriptome-wide target interactions, repression activity and biological function, whereas other conventional modifications are ineffective. Application of 6pi allows PCSK9 siRNA to efficiently lower plasma cholesterol concentration in vivo, and abolish potentially deleterious off-target phenotypes. The smallest spacer, C3, also shows the same improvement in target specificity. Abasic pivot substitution serves as a general means to harness the specificity of siRNA experiments and therapeutic applications. PMID:26679372

  4. Discovery of midgut genes for the RNA interference control of corn rootworm

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xu; Richtman, Nina M.; Zhao, Jian-Zhou; Duncan, Keith E.; Niu, Xiping; Procyk, Lisa A.; Oneal, Meghan A.; Kernodle, Bliss M.; Steimel, Joseph P.; Crane, Virginia C.; Sandahl, Gary; Ritland, Julie L.; Howard, Richard J.; Presnail, James K.; Lu, Albert L.; Wu, Gusui

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising new technology for corn rootworm control. This paper presents the discovery of new gene targets - dvssj1 and dvssj2, in western corn rootworm (WCR). Dvssj1 and dvssj2 are orthologs of the Drosophila genes snakeskin (ssk) and mesh, respectively. These genes encode membrane proteins associated with smooth septate junctions (SSJ) which are required for intestinal barrier function. Based on bioinformatics analysis, dvssj1 appears to be an arthropod-specific gene. Diet based insect feeding assays using double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting dvssj1 and dvssj2 demonstrate targeted mRNA suppression, larval growth inhibition, and mortality. In RNAi treated WCR, injury to the midgut was manifested by “blebbing” of the midgut epithelium into the gut lumen. Ultrastructural examination of midgut epithelial cells revealed apoptosis and regenerative activities. Transgenic plants expressing dsRNA targeting dvssj1 show insecticidal activity and significant plant protection from WCR damage. The data indicate that dvssj1 and dvssj2 are effective gene targets for the control of WCR using RNAi technology, by apparent suppression of production of their respective smooth septate junction membrane proteins located within the intestinal lining, leading to growth inhibition and mortality. PMID:27464714

  5. Functional annotation of deubiquitinating enzymes using RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Dirac, Annette M G; Nijman, Sebastian M B; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; Bernards, René

    2005-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination is a dynamic process, depending on a tightly regulated balance between the activity of ubiquitin ligases and their antagonists, the ubiquitin-specific proteases or deubiquitinating enzymes. The family of ubiquitin ligases has been studied intensively and it is well established that their deregulation contributes to diverse disease processes, including cancer. Much less is known about the function and regulation of the large group of deubiquitinating enzymes. This chapter describes how RNA interference against deubiquitinating enzymes can be used to elucidate their function. The application of this technology will greatly improve the functional annotation of this family of proteases.

  6. Minimizing off-target effects by using diced siRNAs for RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jason W; Chi, Jen-Tsan; Gong, Delquin; Schaner, Marci E; Brown, Patrick O; Ferrell, James E

    2006-01-01

    Microarray studies have shown that individual synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can have substantial off-target effects. Pools of siRNAs, produced by incubation of dsRNAs with recombinant Dicer or RNase III, can also be used to silence genes. Here we show that diced siRNA pools are highly complex, containing hundreds of different individual siRNAs. This high complexity could either compound the problem of off-target effects, since the number of potentially problematic siRNAs is high, or it could diminish the problem, since the concentration of any individual problematic siRNA is low. We therefore compared the off-target effects of diced siRNAs to chemically synthesized siRNAs. In agreement with previous reports, we found that two chemically synthesized siRNAs targeted against p38α MAPK (MAPK14) induced off-target changes in the abundance of hundreds of mRNAs. In contrast, three diced siRNA pools against p38α MAPK had almost no off-target effects. The off-target effects of a synthetic siRNA were reduced when the siRNA was diluted 3-fold in a diced pool and completely alleviated when it was diluted 30- or 300-fold, suggesting that when problematic siRNAs are present within a diced pool, their absolute concentration is too low to result in significant off-target effects. These data rationalize the observed high specificity of RNA interference in C. elegans and D. melanogaster, where gene suppression is mediated by endogenously-generated diced siRNA pools, and provide a strategy for improving the specificity of RNA interference experiments and screens in mammalian cells. PMID:19771225

  7. Rp-phosphorothioate modifications in RNase P RNA that interfere with tRNA binding.

    PubMed Central

    Hardt, W D; Warnecke, J M; Erdmann, V A; Hartmann, R K

    1995-01-01

    We have used Rp-phosphorothioate modifications and a binding interference assay to analyse the role of phosphate oxygens in tRNA recognition by Escherichia coli ribonuclease P (RNase P) RNA. Total (100%) Rp-phosphorothioate modification at A, C or G positions of RNase P RNA strongly impaired tRNA binding and pre-tRNA processing, while effects were less pronounced at U positions. Partially modified E. coli RNase P RNAs were separated into tRNA binding and non-binding fractions by gel retardation. Rp-phosphorothioate modifications that interfered with tRNA binding were found 5' of nucleotides A67, G68, U69, C70, C71, G72, A130, A132, A248, A249, G300, A317, A330, A352, C353 and C354. Manganese rescue at positions U69, C70, A130 and A132 identified, for the first time, sites of direct metal ion coordination in RNase P RNA. Most sites of interference are at strongly conserved nucleotides and nine reside within a long-range base-pairing interaction present in all known RNase P RNAs. In contrast to RNase P RNA, 100% Rp-phosphorothioate substitutions in tRNA showed only moderate effects on binding to RNase P RNAs from E. coli, Bacillus subtilis and Chromatium vinosum, suggesting that pro-Rp phosphate oxygens of mature tRNA contribute relatively little to the formation of the tRNA-RNase P RNA complex. Images PMID:7540978

  8. RNA silencing suppression by plant pathogens: defence, counter-defence and counter-counter-defence.

    PubMed

    Pumplin, Nathan; Voinnet, Olivier

    2013-11-01

    RNA silencing is a central regulator of gene expression in most eukaryotes and acts both at the transcriptional level through DNA methylation and at the post-transcriptional level through direct mRNA interference mediated by small RNAs. In plants and invertebrates, the same pathways also function directly in host defence against viruses by targeting viral RNA for degradation. Successful viruses have consequently evolved diverse mechanisms to avoid silencing, most notably through the expression of viral suppressors of RNA silencing. RNA silencing suppressors have also been recently identified in plant pathogenic bacteria and oomycetes, suggesting that disruption of host silencing is a general virulence strategy across several kingdoms of plant pathogens. There is also increasing evidence that plants have evolved specific defences against RNA-silencing suppression by pathogens, providing yet another illustration of the never-ending molecular arms race between plant pathogens and their hosts.

  9. Biological mechanisms determining the success of RNA interference in insects.

    PubMed

    Wynant, Niels; Santos, Dulce; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    Insects constitute the largest group of animals on this planet, having a huge impact on our environment, as well as on our quality of life. RNA interference (RNAi) is a posttranscriptional gene silencing mechanism triggered by double-stranded (ds)RNA fragments. This process not only forms the basis of a widely used reverse genetics research method in many different eukaryotes but also holds great promise to contribute to the species-specific control of agricultural pests and to combat viral infections in beneficial and disease vectoring insects. However, in many economically important insect species, such as flies, mosquitoes, and caterpillars, systemic delivery of naked dsRNA does not trigger effective gene silencing. Although many components of the RNAi pathway have initially been deciphered in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, it will be of major importance to investigate this process in a wider variety of species, including dsRNA-sensitive insects such as locusts and beetles, to elucidate the factors responsible for the remarkable variability in RNAi efficiency, as observed in different insects. In this chapter, we review the current knowledge on the RNAi pathway, as well as the most recent insights into the mechanisms that might determine successful RNAi in insects.

  10. Efficient implementation of RNA interference in the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Indrani; Doering, Tamara L.

    2011-01-01

    An improved method has been developed for RNA interference in Cryptococcus neoformans, using opposing promoters to facilitate cloning and RNA interference targeting URA5 to allow selection of cells in which silencing is most effective. These advances significantly reduce the variability of silencing and the effort required for interference plasmid construction. PMID:21554906

  11. RNA interference targets arbovirus replication in Culicoides cells.

    PubMed

    Schnettler, Esther; Ratinier, Maxime; Watson, Mick; Shaw, Andrew E; McFarlane, Melanie; Varela, Mariana; Elliott, Richard M; Palmarini, Massimo; Kohl, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Arboviruses are transmitted to vertebrate hosts by biting arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, and midges. These viruses replicate in both arthropods and vertebrates and are thus exposed to different antiviral responses in these organisms. RNA interference (RNAi) is a sequence-specific RNA degradation mechanism that has been shown to play a major role in the antiviral response against arboviruses in mosquitoes. Culicoides midges are important vectors of arboviruses, known to transmit pathogens of humans and livestock such as bluetongue virus (BTV) (Reoviridae), Oropouche virus (Bunyaviridae), and likely the recently discovered Schmallenberg virus (Bunyaviridae). In this study, we investigated whether Culicoides cells possess an antiviral RNAi response and whether this is effective against arboviruses, including those with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes, such as BTV. Using reporter gene-based assays, we established the presence of a functional RNAi response in Culicoides sonorensis-derived KC cells which is effective in inhibiting BTV infection. Sequencing of small RNAs from KC and Aedes aegypti-derived Aag2 cells infected with BTV or the unrelated Schmallenberg virus resulted in the production of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (viRNAs) of 21 nucleotides, similar to the viRNAs produced during arbovirus infections of mosquitoes. In addition, viRNA profiles strongly suggest that the BTV dsRNA genome is accessible to a Dicer-type nuclease. Thus, we show for the first time that midge cells target arbovirus replication by mounting an antiviral RNAi response mainly resembling that of other insect vectors of arboviruses.

  12. RNA Interference Targets Arbovirus Replication in Culicoides Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schnettler, Esther; Ratinier, Maxime; Watson, Mick; Shaw, Andrew E.; McFarlane, Melanie; Varela, Mariana; Elliott, Richard M.; Palmarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Arboviruses are transmitted to vertebrate hosts by biting arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, and midges. These viruses replicate in both arthropods and vertebrates and are thus exposed to different antiviral responses in these organisms. RNA interference (RNAi) is a sequence-specific RNA degradation mechanism that has been shown to play a major role in the antiviral response against arboviruses in mosquitoes. Culicoides midges are important vectors of arboviruses, known to transmit pathogens of humans and livestock such as bluetongue virus (BTV) (Reoviridae), Oropouche virus (Bunyaviridae), and likely the recently discovered Schmallenberg virus (Bunyaviridae). In this study, we investigated whether Culicoides cells possess an antiviral RNAi response and whether this is effective against arboviruses, including those with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes, such as BTV. Using reporter gene-based assays, we established the presence of a functional RNAi response in Culicoides sonorensis-derived KC cells which is effective in inhibiting BTV infection. Sequencing of small RNAs from KC and Aedes aegypti-derived Aag2 cells infected with BTV or the unrelated Schmallenberg virus resulted in the production of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (viRNAs) of 21 nucleotides, similar to the viRNAs produced during arbovirus infections of mosquitoes. In addition, viRNA profiles strongly suggest that the BTV dsRNA genome is accessible to a Dicer-type nuclease. Thus, we show for the first time that midge cells target arbovirus replication by mounting an antiviral RNAi response mainly resembling that of other insect vectors of arboviruses. PMID:23269795

  13. Versatile RNA Interference Nanoplatform for Systemic Delivery of RNAs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Development of nontoxic, tumor-targetable, and potent in vivo RNA delivery systems remains an arduous challenge for clinical application of RNAi therapeutics. Herein, we report a versatile RNAi nanoplatform based on tumor-targeted and pH-responsive nanoformulas (NFs). The NF was engineered by combination of an artificial RNA receptor, Zn(II)-DPA, with a tumor-targetable and drug-loadable hyaluronic acid nanoparticle, which was further modified with a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating by in situ mineralization. The NF can encapsulate small-molecule drugs within its hydrophobic inner core and strongly secure various RNA molecules (siRNAs, miRNAs, and oligonucleotides) by utilizing Zn(II)-DPA and a robust CaP coating. We substantiated the versatility of the RNAi nanoplatform by demonstrating effective delivery of siRNA and miRNA for gene silencing or miRNA replacement into different human types of cancer cells in vitro and into tumor-bearing mice in vivo by intravenous administration. The therapeutic potential of NFs coloaded with an anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) and multidrug resistance 1 gene target siRNA (siMDR) was also demonstrated in this study. NFs loaded with Dox and siMDR could successfully sensitize drug-resistant OVCAR8/ADR cells to Dox and suppress OVCAR8/ADR tumor cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. This gene/drug delivery system appears to be a highly effective nonviral method to deliver chemo- and RNAi therapeutics into host cells. PMID:24779637

  14. Multiple Functions of Rice Dwarf Phytoreovirus Pns10 in Suppressing Systemic RNA Silencing▿

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Bo; Guo, Yuanyuan; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Peng; Wu, Feng; Meng, Zheng; Wei, Chunhong; Li, Yi

    2010-01-01

    RNA silencing is a potent mechanism of antiviral defense response in plants and other organisms. For counterdefense, viruses have evolved a variety of suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) that can inhibit distinct steps of a silencing pathway. We previously identified Pns10 encoded by Rice dwarf phytoreovirus (RDV) as a VSR, the first of its kind from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses. In this study we investigated the mechanisms of Pns10 function in suppressing systemic RNA silencing in the widely used Nicotiana benthamiana model plant. We report that Pns10 suppresses local and systemic RNA silencing triggered by sense mRNA, enhances viral replication and/or viral RNA stability in inoculated leaves, accelerates the systemic spread of viral infection, and enables viral invasion of shoot apices. Mechanistically, Pns10 interferes with the perception of silencing signals in recipient tissues, binds double-stranded small interfering RNA (siRNAs) with two-nucleotide 3′ overhangs, and causes the downregulated expression of RDR6. These results significantly deepen our mechanistic understanding of the VSR functions encoded by a dsRNA virus and contribute additional evidence that binding siRNAs and interfering with RDR6 expression are broad mechanisms of VSR functions encoded by diverse groups of viruses. PMID:20926568

  15. Polycistronic RNA polymerase II expression vectors for RNA interference based on BIC/miR-155

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kwan-Ho; Hart, Christopher C.; Al-Bassam, Sarmad; Avery, Adam; Taylor, Jennifer; Patel, Paresh D.; Vojtek, Anne B.; Turner, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Vector-based RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a valuable tool for analysis of gene function. We have developed new RNA polymerase II expression vectors for RNAi, designated SIBR vectors, based upon the non-coding RNA BIC. BIC contains the miR-155 microRNA (miRNA) precursor, and we find that expression of a short region of the third exon of mouse BIC is sufficient to produce miR-155 in mammalian cells. The SIBR vectors use a modified miR-155 precursor stem–loop and flanking BIC sequences to express synthetic miRNAs complementary to target RNAs. Like RNA polymerase III driven short hairpin RNA vectors, the SIBR vectors efficiently reduce target mRNA and protein expression. The synthetic miRNAs can be expressed from an intron, allowing coexpression of a marker or other protein with the miRNAs. In addition, intronic expression of a synthetic miRNA from a two intron vector enhances RNAi. A SIBR vector can express two different miRNAs from a single transcript for effective inhibition of two different target mRNAs. Furthermore, at least eight tandem copies of a synthetic miRNA can be expressed in a polycistronic transcript to increase the inhibition of a target RNA. The SIBR vectors are flexible tools for a variety of RNAi applications. PMID:16614444

  16. Chemical Modification of siRNA Bases to Probe and Enhance RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Hayden; Kannan, Arunkumar; Beal, Peter A.; Burrows, Cynthia J.

    2011-01-01

    Considerable attention has focused on the use of alternatives to the native ribose and phosphate backbone of small interfering RNAs for therapeutic applications of the RNA interference pathway. In this synopsis, we highlight the less common chemical modifications, namely those of the RNA nucleobases. Base modifications have the potential to lend insight into the mechanism of gene silencing and to lead to novel methods to overcome off-target effects that arise due to deleterious protein binding or mis-targeting of mRNA. PMID:21834582

  17. Scavenger receptor mediates systemic RNA interference in ticks.

    PubMed

    Aung, Kyaw Min; Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Umemiya-Shirafuji, Rika; Liao, Min; Xuenan, Xuan; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Galay, Remil Linggatong; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference is an efficient method to silence gene and protein expressions. Here, the class B scavenger receptor CD36 (SRB) mediated the uptake of exogenous dsRNAs in the induction of the RNAi responses in ticks. Unfed female Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks were injected with a single or a combination of H. longicornis SRB (HlSRB) dsRNA, vitellogenin-1 (HlVg-1) dsRNA, and vitellogenin receptor (HlVgR) dsRNA. We found that specific and systemic silencing of the HlSRB, HlVg-1, and HlVgR genes was achieved in ticks injected with a single dsRNA of HlSRB, HlVg-1, and HlVgR. In ticks injected first with HlVg-1 or HlVgR dsRNA followed 96 hours later with HlSRB dsRNA (HlVg-1/HlSRB or HlVgR/HlSRB), gene silencing of HlSRB was achieved in addition to first knockdown in HlVg-1 or HlVgR, and prominent phenotypic changes were observed in engorgement, mortality, and hatchability, indicating that a systemic and specific double knockdown of target genes had been simultaneously attained in these ticks. However, in ticks injected with HlSRB dsRNA followed 96 hours later with HlVg-1 or HlVgR dsRNAs, silencing of HlSRB was achieved, but no subsequent knockdown in HlVgR or HlVg-1 was observed. The Westernblot and immunohistochemical examinations revealed that the endogenous HlSRB protein was fully abolished in midguts of ticks injected with HlSRB/HlVg-1 dsRNAs but HlVg-1 was normally expressed in midguts, suggesting that HlVg-1 dsRNA-mediated RNAi was fully inhibited by the first knockdown of HlSRB. Similarly, the abolished localization of HlSRB protein was recognized in ovaries of ticks injected with HlSRB/HlVgR, while normal localization of HlVgR was observed in ovaries, suggesting that the failure to knock-down HlVgR could be attributed to the first knockdown of HlSRB. In summary, we demonstrated for the first time that SRB may not only mediate the effective knock-down of gene expression by RNAi but also play essential roles for systemic RNAi of ticks.

  18. Scavenger Receptor Mediates Systemic RNA Interference in Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Kyaw Min; Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Umemiya-Shirafuji, Rika; Liao, Min; Xuenan, Xuan; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Linggatong Galay, Remil; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference is an efficient method to silence gene and protein expressions. Here, the class B scavenger receptor CD36 (SRB) mediated the uptake of exogenous dsRNAs in the induction of the RNAi responses in ticks. Unfed female Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks were injected with a single or a combination of H. longicornis SRB (HlSRB) dsRNA, vitellogenin-1 (HlVg-1) dsRNA, and vitellogenin receptor (HlVgR) dsRNA. We found that specific and systemic silencing of the HlSRB, HlVg-1, and HlVgR genes was achieved in ticks injected with a single dsRNA of HlSRB, HlVg-1, and HlVgR. In ticks injected first with HlVg-1 or HlVgR dsRNA followed 96 hours later with HlSRB dsRNA (HlVg-1/HlSRB or HlVgR/HlSRB), gene silencing of HlSRB was achieved in addition to first knockdown in HlVg-1 or HlVgR, and prominent phenotypic changes were observed in engorgement, mortality, and hatchability, indicating that a systemic and specific double knockdown of target genes had been simultaneously attained in these ticks. However, in ticks injected with HlSRB dsRNA followed 96 hours later with HlVg-1 or HlVgR dsRNAs, silencing of HlSRB was achieved, but no subsequent knockdown in HlVgR or HlVg-1 was observed. The Westernblot and immunohistochemical examinations revealed that the endogenous HlSRB protein was fully abolished in midguts of ticks injected with HlSRB/HlVg-1 dsRNAs but HlVg-1 was normally expressed in midguts, suggesting that HlVg-1 dsRNA-mediated RNAi was fully inhibited by the first knockdown of HlSRB. Similarly, the abolished localization of HlSRB protein was recognized in ovaries of ticks injected with HlSRB/HlVgR, while normal localization of HlVgR was observed in ovaries, suggesting that the failure to knock-down HlVgR could be attributed to the first knockdown of HlSRB. In summary, we demonstrated for the first time that SRB may not only mediate the effective knock-down of gene expression by RNAi but also play essential roles for systemic RNAi of ticks. PMID:22145043

  19. Reversal of chemoresistance with small interference RNA (siRNA) in etoposide resistant acute myeloid leukemia cells (HL-60).

    PubMed

    Kachalaki, Saeed; Baradaran, Behzad; Majidi, Jafar; Yousefi, Mehdi; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Mohammadinejad, Sina; Mansoori, Behzad

    2015-10-01

    Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters is a major barrier in the success of cancer chemotherapy. One way to overcome overexpression of ABC drug transporter-mediated chemoresistance in acute myeloid leukemia is to suppress ABC drug transporter genes expression by small interference RNA (siRNA). In this study was assessed the involvement of ABCB1 gene in the mechanisms of resistance to etoposide in AML cells. The etoposide-resistant HL-60 cells were generated by stepwise exposure increasing concentrations of etoposide. The etoposide-resistant HL-60 cells were transfected with siRNAs using Transfection Reagent. The ABCB1 mRNA expression were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. The MDR1/P-gp levels were measured by Western blotting. The sensitivity of resistant HL-60 cells to etoposide after transfection was determined using MTT assay. Apoptosis of resistant HL-60 cells after transfection was detected by flow cytometer. It was found that siRNA effectively inhibited ABCB1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Knockdown of the ABCB1 gene correlated with increased sensitivity of the resistant HL-60 cells to etoposide and was observed to lower the cytotoxic index (IC50 etoposide value) after transfection. Our results indicate that product of the ABCB1 gene have effective role in resistance to etoposide in acute myeloid leukemia cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Prediction of effective RNA interference targets and pathway-related genes in lepidopteran insects by RNA sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ruo-Bing; Li, Hai-Chao; Miao, Xue-Xia

    2017-01-06

    When using RNA interference (RNAi) to study gene functions in Lepidoptera insects, we discovered that some genes could not be suppressed; instead, their expression levels could be up-regulated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). To predict which genes could be easily silenced, we treated the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) with dsGFP (green fluorescent protein) and dsMLP (muscle lim protein). A transcriptome sequence analysis was conducted using the cDNAs 6 h after treatment with dsRNA. The results indicated that 160 genes were up-regulated and 44 genes were down-regulated by the two dsRNAs. Then, 50 co-up-regulated, 25 co-down-regulated and 43 unaffected genes were selected to determine their RNAi responses. All the 25 down-regulated genes were knocked down by their corresponding dsRNA. However, several of the up-regulated and unaffected genes were up-regulated when treated with their corresponding dsRNAs instead of being knocked down. The genes up-regulated by the dsGFP treatment may be involved in insect immune responses or the RNAi pathway. When the immune-related genes were excluded, only seven genes were induced by dsGFP, including ago-2 and dicer-2. These results not only provide a reference for efficient RNAi target predications, but also provide some potential RNAi pathway-related genes for further study.

  1. Suppression of RNAi by dsRNA-Degrading RNaseIII Enzymes of Viruses in Animals and Plants

    PubMed Central

    Matilainen, Olli; Kallijärvi, Jukka; Cuellar, Wilmer J.; Lu, Rui; Saarma, Mart; Holmberg, Carina I.; Jäntti, Jussi; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

    2015-01-01

    Certain RNA and DNA viruses that infect plants, insects, fish or poikilothermic animals encode Class 1 RNaseIII endoribonuclease-like proteins. dsRNA-specific endoribonuclease activity of the RNaseIII of rock bream iridovirus infecting fish and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt crinivirus (SPCSV) infecting plants has been shown. Suppression of the host antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) pathway has been documented with the RNaseIII of SPCSV and Heliothis virescens ascovirus infecting insects. Suppression of RNAi by the viral RNaseIIIs in non-host organisms of different kingdoms is not known. Here we expressed PPR3, the RNaseIII of Pike-perch iridovirus, in the non-hosts Nicotiana benthamiana (plant) and Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode) and found that it cleaves double-stranded small interfering RNA (ds-siRNA) molecules that are pivotal in the host RNA interference (RNAi) pathway and thereby suppresses RNAi in non-host tissues. In N. benthamiana, PPR3 enhanced accumulation of Tobacco rattle tobravirus RNA1 replicon lacking the 16K RNAi suppressor. Furthermore, PPR3 suppressed single-stranded RNA (ssRNA)—mediated RNAi and rescued replication of Flock House virus RNA1 replicon lacking the B2 RNAi suppressor in C. elegans. Suppression of RNAi was debilitated with the catalytically compromised mutant PPR3-Ala. However, the RNaseIII (CSR3) produced by SPCSV, which cleaves ds-siRNA and counteracts antiviral RNAi in plants, failed to suppress ssRNA-mediated RNAi in C. elegans. In leaves of N. benthamiana, PPR3 suppressed RNAi induced by ssRNA and dsRNA and reversed silencing; CSR3, however, suppressed only RNAi induced by ssRNA and was unable to reverse silencing. Neither PPR3 nor CSR3 suppressed antisense-mediated RNAi in Drosophila melanogaster. These results show that the RNaseIII enzymes of RNA and DNA viruses suppress RNAi, which requires catalytic activities of RNaseIII. In contrast to other viral silencing suppression proteins, the RNaseIII enzymes are homologous in

  2. RNA interference by feeding in vitro synthesized double-stranded RNA to planarians: methodology and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rouhana, Labib; Weiss, Jennifer A.; Forsthoefel, David J.; Lee, Hayoung; King, Ryan S.; Inoue, Takeshi; Shibata, Norito; Agata, Kiyokazu; Newmark, Phillip A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to assess gene function is essential for understanding biological processes. Currently, RNA interference (RNAi) is the only technique available to assess gene function in planarians, in which it has been induced via injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), soaking, or ingestion of bacteria expressing dsRNA. Results We describe a simple and robust RNAi protocol, involving in vitro synthesis of dsRNA that is fed to the planarians. Advantages of this protocol include the ability to produce dsRNA from any vector without subcloning, resolution of ambiguities in quantity and quality of input dsRNA, as well as time, and ease of application. We have evaluated the logistics of inducing RNAi in planarians using this methodology in careful detail, from the ingestion and processing of dsRNA in the intestine, to timing and efficacy of knockdown in neoblasts, germline, and soma. We also present systematic comparisons of effects of amount, frequency, and mode of dsRNA delivery. Conclusions This method gives robust and reproducible results and is amenable to high-throughput studies. Overall, this RNAi methodology provides a significant advance by combining the strengths of current protocols available for dsRNA delivery in planarians and has the potential to benefit RNAi methods in other systems. PMID:23441014

  3. Lingo-1 inhibited by RNA interference promotes functional recovery of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Juan; Qu, Chuan-Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Fu, Pei-Cai; Guo, Shou-Gang; Tang, Rong-Hua

    2014-12-01

    Lingo-1 is a negative regulator of myelination. Repairment of demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS)/experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), requires activation of the myelination program. In this study, we observed the effect of RNA interference on Lingo-1 expression, and the impact of Lingo-1 suppression on functional recovery and myelination/remyelination in EAE mice. Lentiviral vectors encoding Lingo-1 short hairpin RNA (LV/Lingo-1-shRNA) were constructed to inhibit Lingo-1 expression. LV/Lingo-1-shRNA of different titers were transferred into myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced EAE mice by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection. Meanwhile, lentiviral vectors carrying nonsense gene sequence (LVCON053) were used as negative control. The Lingo-1 expression was detected and locomotor function was evaluated at different time points (on days 1,3,7,14,21, and 30 after ICV injection). Myelination was investigated by luxol fast blue (LFB) staining.LV/Lingo-1-shRNA administration via ICV injection could efficiently down-regulate the Lingo-1 mRNA and protein expression in EAE mice on days 7,14,21, and 30 (P < 0.01), especially in the 5 × 10(8) TU/mL and 5 × 10(9) TU/mL LV/Lingo-1-shRNA groups. The locomotor function score in the LV/Lingo-1-shRNA treated groups were significantly lower than the untreated or LVCON053 group from day 7 on. The 5 × 10(8) TU/mL LV/Lingo-1-shRNA group achieved the best functional improvement (0.87 ± 0.11 vs. 3.05 ± 0.13, P < 0.001). Enhanced myelination/remyelination was observed in the 5 × 10(7) , 5 × 10(8) , 5 × 10(9) TU/mL LV/Lingo-1-shRNA groups by LFB staining (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.05).The data showed that administering LV/Lingo-1-shRNA by ICV injection could efficiently knockdown Lingo-1 expression in vivo, improve functional recovery and enhance myelination/remyelination. Antagonism of Lingo-1 by RNA interference is, therefore, a promising approach for the

  4. An Adaptive Kalman Filter Excisor for Suppressing Narrowband Interference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    smoothing is being used ....... .. 14 Figure 9: Profile of the frequency deviation constant d used in the phase- and envelope - tracking tests...varied according to the profile in Fig. 9 ........................................... 16 Figure 11: An example of the envelope - tracking capability of the... envelope - tracking tests. As an example, Fig. 9 illustrates a time-varying frequency deviation constant d. The interference for this case was

  5. Delivery strategies: RNA interference in agriculture and human health.

    PubMed

    Heidebrecht, Richard W

    2017-04-01

    Crop protection through expression of introduced insecticidal proteins is a well-established technique. Modifications of endogenous gene expression have also been used successfully to produce safe and effective agrochemical products. The existing gene expression regulatory apparatus can be employed to alter messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) stability in the host species through a ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) mechanism. Such solutions are currently delivered by incorporation of new genes into the host plant. Direct delivery of RNAi is being extensively explored in the clinic to treat selected human diseases and could be advantageous in agriculture. What are the unifying characteristics of successful delivery agents, and how can we project those observations into the future? © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. RNA interference for the identification of ectoparasite vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Marr, E J; Sargison, N D; Nisbet, A J; Burgess, S T G

    2014-11-01

    Ectoparasites present a major challenge for disease management globally. With drug resistance increasingly observed in many disease-causing species, the need for novel control measures is pressing. Ever-expanding genomic resources from 'next generation' sequencing are now available for a number of arthropod ectoparasites, necessitating an effective means of screening these data for novel candidates for vaccine antigens or targets for chemotherapeutics. Such in vitro screening methods must be developed if we are to make discoveries in a timely and cost-effective manner. This review will discuss the potential that RNA interference (RNAi) has demonstrated thus far in the context of arthropod ectoparasites and the potential roles for this technology in the development of novel methods for parasite control.

  7. Emerging strategies for RNA interference (RNAi) applications in insects.

    PubMed

    Nandety, Raja Sekhar; Kuo, Yen-Wen; Nouri, Shahideh; Falk, Bryce W

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) in insects is a gene regulatory process that also plays a vital role in the maintenance and in the regulation of host defenses against invading viruses. Small RNAs determine the specificity of the RNAi through precise recognition of their targets. These small RNAs in insects comprise small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi interacting RNAs (piRNAs) of various lengths. In this review, we have explored different forms of the RNAi inducers that are presently in use, and their applications for an effective and efficient fundamental and practical RNAi research with insects. Further, we reviewed trends in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and their importance for insect RNAi, including the identification of novel insect targets as well as insect viruses. Here we also describe a rapidly emerging trend of using plant viruses to deliver the RNAi inducer molecules into insects for an efficient RNAi response.

  8. Emerging strategies for RNA interference (RNAi) applications in insects

    PubMed Central

    Nandety, Raja Sekhar; Kuo, Yen-Wen; Nouri, Shahideh; Falk, Bryce W

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) in insects is a gene regulatory process that also plays a vital role in the maintenance and in the regulation of host defenses against invading viruses. Small RNAs determine the specificity of the RNAi through precise recognition of their targets. These small RNAs in insects comprise small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi interacting RNAs (piRNAs) of various lengths. In this review, we have explored different forms of the RNAi inducers that are presently in use, and their applications for an effective and efficient fundamental and practical RNAi research with insects. Further, we reviewed trends in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and their importance for insect RNAi, including the identification of novel insect targets as well as insect viruses. Here we also describe a rapidly emerging trend of using plant viruses to deliver the RNAi inducer molecules into insects for an efficient RNAi response. PMID:25424593

  9. RNA Interference in Insect Vectors for Plant Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Kanakala, Surapathrudu; Ghanim, Murad

    2016-01-01

    Insects and other arthropods are the most important vectors of plant pathogens. The majority of plant pathogens are disseminated by arthropod vectors such as aphids, beetles, leafhoppers, planthoppers, thrips and whiteflies. Transmission of plant pathogens and the challenges in managing insect vectors due to insecticide resistance are factors that contribute to major food losses in agriculture. RNA interference (RNAi) was recently suggested as a promising strategy for controlling insect pests, including those that serve as important vectors for plant pathogens. The last decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the functional analysis of insect genes, especially those whose silencing results in mortality or interference with pathogen transmission. The identification of such candidates poses a major challenge for increasing the role of RNAi in pest control. Another challenge is to understand the RNAi machinery in insect cells and whether components that were identified in other organisms are also present in insect. This review will focus on summarizing success cases in which RNAi was used for silencing genes in insect vector for plant pathogens, and will be particularly helpful for vector biologists. PMID:27973446

  10. RNA Interference in Insect Vectors for Plant Viruses.

    PubMed

    Kanakala, Surapathrudu; Ghanim, Murad

    2016-12-12

    Insects and other arthropods are the most important vectors of plant pathogens. The majority of plant pathogens are disseminated by arthropod vectors such as aphids, beetles, leafhoppers, planthoppers, thrips and whiteflies. Transmission of plant pathogens and the challenges in managing insect vectors due to insecticide resistance are factors that contribute to major food losses in agriculture. RNA interference (RNAi) was recently suggested as a promising strategy for controlling insect pests, including those that serve as important vectors for plant pathogens. The last decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the functional analysis of insect genes, especially those whose silencing results in mortality or interference with pathogen transmission. The identification of such candidates poses a major challenge for increasing the role of RNAi in pest control. Another challenge is to understand the RNAi machinery in insect cells and whether components that were identified in other organisms are also present in insect. This review will focus on summarizing success cases in which RNAi was used for silencing genes in insect vector for plant pathogens, and will be particularly helpful for vector biologists.

  11. Role of RNA Interference (RNAi) in the Moss Physcomitrella patens

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Muhammad Asif; Frank, Wolfgang; Khraiwesh, Basel

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism that regulates genes by either transcriptional (TGS) or posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS), required for genome maintenance and proper development of an organism. Small non-coding RNAs are the key players in RNAi and have been intensively studied in eukaryotes. In plants, several classes of small RNAs with specific sizes and dedicated functions have evolved. The major classes of small RNAs include microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which differ in their biogenesis. miRNAs are synthesized from a short hairpin structure while siRNAs are derived from long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA). Both miRNA and siRNAs control the expression of cognate target RNAs by binding to reverse complementary sequences mediating cleavage or translational inhibition of the target RNA. They also act on the DNA and cause epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation and histone modifications. In the last years, the analysis of plant RNAi pathways was extended to the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, a non-flowering, non-vascular ancient land plant that diverged from the lineage of seed plants approximately 450 million years ago. Based on a number of characteristic features and its phylogenetic key position in land plant evolution P. patens emerged as a plant model species to address basic as well as applied topics in plant biology. Here we summarize the current knowledge on the role of RNAi in P. patens that shows functional overlap with RNAi pathways from seed plants, and also unique features specific to this species. PMID:23344055

  12. Suppression of biodynamic interference in head-tracked teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lifshitz, S.; Merhav, S. J.; Grunwald, A. J.; Tucker, G. E.; Tischler, M. B.

    1991-01-01

    The utility of helmet-tracked sights to provide pointing commands for teleoperation of cameras, lasers, or antennas in aircraft is degraded by the presence of uncommanded, involuntary heat motion, referred to as biodynamic interference. This interference limits the achievable precision required in pointing tasks. The noise contributions due to biodynamic interference consists of an additive component which is correlated with aircraft vibration and an uncorrelated, nonadditive component, referred to as remnant. An experimental simulation study is described which investigated the improvements achievable in pointing and tracking precision using dynamic display shifting in the helmet-mounted display. The experiment was conducted in a six degree of freedom motion base simulator with an emulated helmet-mounted display. Highly experienced pilot subjects performed precision head-pointing tasks while manually flying a visual flight-path tracking task. Four schemes using adaptive and low-pass filtering of the head motion were evaluated to determine their effects on task performance and pilot workload in the presence of whole-body vibration characteristic of helicopter flight. The results indicate that, for tracking tasks involving continuously moving targets, improvements of up to 70 percent can be achieved in percent on-target dwelling time and of up to 35 percent in rms tracking error, with the adaptive plus low-pass filter configuration. The results with the same filter configuration for the task of capturing randomly-positioned, stationary targets show an increase of up to 340 percent in the number of targets captured and an improvement of up to 24 percent in the average capture time. The adaptive plus low-pass filter combination was considered to exhibit the best overall display dynamics by each of the subjects.

  13. Suppression of AC railway power-line interference in ECG signals recorded by public access defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Dotsinsky, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Background Public access defibrillators (PADs) are now available for more efficient and rapid treatment of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest. PADs are used normally by untrained people on the streets and in sports centers, airports, and other public areas. Therefore, automated detection of ventricular fibrillation, or its exclusion, is of high importance. A special case exists at railway stations, where electric power-line frequency interference is significant. Many countries, especially in Europe, use 16.7 Hz AC power, which introduces high level frequency-varying interference that may compromise fibrillation detection. Method Moving signal averaging is often used for 50/60 Hz interference suppression if its effect on the ECG spectrum has little importance (no morphological analysis is performed). This approach may be also applied to the railway situation, if the interference frequency is continuously detected so as to synchronize the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) for introducing variable inter-sample intervals. A better solution consists of rated ADC, software frequency measuring, internal irregular re-sampling according to the interference frequency, and a moving average over a constant sample number, followed by regular back re-sampling. Results The proposed method leads to a total railway interference cancellation, together with suppression of inherent noise, while the peak amplitudes of some sharp complexes are reduced. This reduction has negligible effect on accurate fibrillation detection. Conclusion The method is developed in the MATLAB environment and represents a useful tool for real time railway interference suppression. PMID:16309558

  14. Signal enhancement and background suppression using interference and entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Kastella, Keith; Conti, Ralph S.

    2011-01-15

    We describe two-photon absorption processes excited by entangled pairs but not by nonentangled pairs of the same energy and polarization. Photon states are selected for destructive interference in the nonentangled process between different sequences of absorption via multiple intermediate states. A nonzero entangled absorption cross section is obtained by varying the entanglement time and pair delay parameters. Detailed energy and polarization requirements are derived for Rb 5S{sub 1/2}-5D{sub 3/2} transitions. Applications to quantum steganography, quantum illumination, and quantum key distribution are discussed.

  15. Inhibition of pds gene expression via the RNA interference approach in Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Sun, Guohua; Zhang, Xuecheng; Sui, Zhenghong; Mao, Yunxiang

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the potential of double-stranded RNA interferencing with gene expression in Dunaliella salina, a plasmid pBIRNAI-Dsa was constructed to express hairpin RNA (hpRNA) containing sequences homologous to phytoene desaturase gene (pds), a key gene in carotenoid biosynthesis, and transformed into D. salina by electroporation. The relative transcription level of pds in pBIRNAI-Dsa-treated cells to nontreated cells was quantitated and the gene silencing efficiency by RNAi was evaluated via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The transcriptions of pds of the pBIRNAI-Dsa-treated group changed compared to those of the control group, and the 2(-delta deltaC)(T) was lowest on the 7th day, corresponding to 0.281265-fold of the relative pds control transcript; a relatively strong gene inhibition effect was therefore deduced. The transcript of pds may be modulated in a wide range, and a reduced transcription even to 28% of the normal level may be tolerated for its survival. This study shows that dsRNA-mediated genetic interference can induce sequence-specific inhibition of gene expression and pBIRNAI-Dsa can be used for transient suppression of gene expression in D. salina. The aim of this study was to exploit dsRNA-mediated gene silencing and to provide a foundation for gene function research in D. salina.

  16. A Comparative Study of Co-Channel Interference Suppression Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon; Satorius, Ed; Paparisto, Gent; Polydoros, Andreas

    1997-01-01

    We describe three methods of combatting co-channel interference (CCI): a cross-coupled phase-locked loop (CCPLL); a phase-tracking circuit (PTC), and joint Viterbi estimation based on the maximum likelihood principle. In the case of co-channel FM-modulated voice signals, the CCPLL and PTC methods typically outperform the maximum likelihood estimators when the modulation parameters are dissimilar. However, as the modulation parameters become identical, joint Viterbi estimation provides for a more robust estimate of the co-channel signals and does not suffer as much from "signal switching" which especially plagues the CCPLL approach. Good performance for the PTC requires both dissimilar modulation parameters and a priori knowledge of the co-channel signal amplitudes. The CCPLL and joint Viterbi estimators, on the other hand, incorporate accurate amplitude estimates. In addition, application of the joint Viterbi algorithm to demodulating co-channel digital (BPSK) signals in a multipath environment is also discussed. It is shown in this case that if the interference is sufficiently small, a single trellis model is most effective in demodulating the co-channel signals.

  17. A Comparative Study of Co-Channel Interference Suppression Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon; Satorius, Ed; Paparisto, Gent; Polydoros, Andreas

    1997-01-01

    We describe three methods of combatting co-channel interference (CCI): a cross-coupled phase-locked loop (CCPLL); a phase-tracking circuit (PTC), and joint Viterbi estimation based on the maximum likelihood principle. In the case of co-channel FM-modulated voice signals, the CCPLL and PTC methods typically outperform the maximum likelihood estimators when the modulation parameters are dissimilar. However, as the modulation parameters become identical, joint Viterbi estimation provides for a more robust estimate of the co-channel signals and does not suffer as much from "signal switching" which especially plagues the CCPLL approach. Good performance for the PTC requires both dissimilar modulation parameters and a priori knowledge of the co-channel signal amplitudes. The CCPLL and joint Viterbi estimators, on the other hand, incorporate accurate amplitude estimates. In addition, application of the joint Viterbi algorithm to demodulating co-channel digital (BPSK) signals in a multipath environment is also discussed. It is shown in this case that if the interference is sufficiently small, a single trellis model is most effective in demodulating the co-channel signals.

  18. A small molecule enhances RNA interference and promotes microRNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Ge; Li, Yujing; Zhang, Junliang; Li, Wendi; Szulwach, Keith E; Duan, Ranhui; Faghihi, Mohammad A; Khalil, Ahmad M; Lu, Lianghua; Paroo, Zain; Chan, Anthony W S; Shi, Zhangjie; Liu, Qinghua; Wahlestedt, Claes; He, Chuan; Jin, Peng

    2010-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are sequence-specific post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Although major components of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway have been identified, regulatory mechanisms for this pathway remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the RNAi pathway can be modulated intracellularly by small molecules. We have developed a cell-based assay to monitor the activity of the RNAi pathway and find that the small-molecule enoxacin (Penetrex) enhances siRNA-mediated mRNA degradation and promotes the biogenesis of endogenous miRNAs. We show that this RNAi-enhancing activity depends on the trans-activation-responsive region RNA-binding protein. Our results provide a proof-of-principle demonstration that small molecules can be used to modulate the activity of the RNAi pathway. RNAi enhancers may be useful in the development of research tools and therapeutics. PMID:18641635

  19. Specific RNA Interference in Caenorhabditis elegans by Ingested dsRNA Expressed in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Lezzerini, Marco; van de Ven, Koen; Veerman, Martijn; Brul, Stanley; Budovskaya, Yelena V.

    2015-01-01

    In nematodes, genome-wide RNAi-screening has been widely used as a rapid and efficient method to identify genes involved in the aging processes. By far the easiest way of inducing RNA interference (RNAi) in Caenorhabditis elegans is by feeding Escherichia coli that expresses specific double stranded RNA (dsRNA) to knockdown translation of targeted mRNAs. However, it has been shown that E. coli is mildly pathogenic to C. elegans and this pathogenicity might influence aging and the accuracy of the RNAi-screening during aging may as well be affected. Here, we describe a novel system that utilizes the non-pathogenic bacterium Bacillus subtilis, to express dsRNA and therefore eliminates the effects of bacterial pathogenicity from the genetic analysis of aging. PMID:25928543

  20. RNA interference: concept to reality in crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Saurabh, Satyajit; Vidyarthi, Ambarish S; Prasad, Dinesh

    2014-03-01

    The phenomenon of RNA interference (RNAi) is involved in sequence-specific gene regulation driven by the introduction of dsRNA resulting in inhibition of translation or transcriptional repression. Since the discovery of RNAi and its regulatory potentials, it has become evident that RNAi has immense potential in opening a new vista for crop improvement. RNAi technology is precise, efficient, stable and better than antisense technology. It has been employed successfully to alter the gene expression in plants for better quality traits. The impact of RNAi to improve the crop plants has proved to be a novel approach in combating the biotic and abiotic stresses and the nutritional improvement in terms of bio-fortification and bio-elimination. It has been employed successfully to bring about modifications of several desired traits in different plants. These modifications include nutritional improvements, reduced content of food allergens and toxic compounds, enhanced defence against biotic and abiotic stresses, alteration in morphology, crafting male sterility, enhanced secondary metabolite synthesis and seedless plant varieties. However, crop plants developed by RNAi strategy may create biosafety risks. So, there is a need for risk assessment of GM crops in order to make RNAi a better tool to develop crops with biosafety measures. This article is an attempt to review the RNAi, its biochemistry, and the achievements attributed to the application of RNAi in crop improvement.

  1. A kinetic model for RNA-interference of focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Focal adhesions are integrin-based cell-matrix contacts that transduce and integrate mechanical and biochemical cues from the environment. They develop from smaller and more numerous focal complexes under the influence of mechanical force and are key elements for many physiological and disease-related processes, including wound healing and metastasis. More than 150 different proteins localize to focal adhesions and have been systematically classified in the adhesome project (http://www.adhesome.org). First RNAi-screens have been performed for focal adhesions and the effect of knockdown of many of these components on the number, size, shape and location of focal adhesions has been reported. Results We have developed a kinetic model for RNA interference of focal adhesions which represents some of its main elements: a spatially layered structure, signaling through the small GTPases Rac and Rho, and maturation from focal complexes to focal adhesions under force. The response to force is described by two complementary scenarios corresponding to slip and catch bond behavior, respectively. Using estimated and literature values for the model parameters, three time scales of the dynamics of RNAi-influenced focal adhesions are identified: a sub-minute time scale for the assembly of focal complexes, a sub-hour time scale for the maturation to focal adhesions, and a time scale of days that controls the siRNA-mediated knockdown. Our model shows bistability between states dominated by focal complexes and focal adhesions, respectively. Catch bonding strongly extends the range of stability of the state dominated by focal adhesions. A sensitivity analysis predicts that knockdown of focal adhesion components is more efficient for focal adhesions with slip bonds or if the system is in a state dominated by focal complexes. Knockdown of Rho leads to an increase of focal complexes. Conclusions The suggested model provides a kinetic description of the effect of RNA-interference

  2. Applicability of RNA interference in cancer therapy: Current status.

    PubMed

    Maduri, S

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a manifestation of dysregulated gene function arising from a complex interplay of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes present in our body. Cancer has been constantly chased using various therapies but all in vain as most of them are highly effective only in the early stages of cancer. Recently, RNA interference (RNAi) therapy, a comparatively new entrant is evolving as a promising player in the battle against cancer due to its post-transcriptional gene silencing ability. The most alluring feature of this non-invasive technology lies in its utility in the cancer detection and the cancer treatment at any stage. Once this technology is fully exploited it can bring a whole new era of therapeutics capable of curing cancer at any stage mainly due to its ability to target the vital processes required for cell proliferation such as response to growth factors, nutrient uptake/synthesis, and energy generation. This therapy can also be used to treat stage IV cancer, the most difficult to treat till date, by virtue of its metastasis inhibiting capability. Recent research has also proved that cancer can even be prevented by proper modulation of physiological RNAi pathways and researchers have found that many nutrients, which are a part of routine diet, can effectively modulate these pathways and prevent cancer. Even after having all these advantages the potential of RNAi therapy could not be fully tapped earlier, due to many limitations associated with the administration of RNAi based therapeutics. However, recent advancements in this direction, such as the development of small interfering RNA (siRNA) tolerant to nucleases and the development of non-viral vectors such as cationic liposomes and nanoparticles, can overcome this obstacle and facilitate the clinical use of RNAi based therapeutics in the treatment of cancer. The present review focuses on the current status of RNAi therapeutics and explores their potential as future diagnostics and therapeutics against

  3. Enhancement and suppression in a lexical interference fMRI-paradigm.

    PubMed

    Abel, Stefanie; Dressel, Katharina; Weiller, Cornelius; Huber, Walter

    2012-03-01

    Previous picture-word interference (PWI) fMRI-paradigms revealed ambiguous mechanisms underlying facilitation and inhibition in healthy subjects. Lexical distractors revealed increased (enhancement) or decreased (suppression) activation in language and monitoring/control areas. Performing a secondary examination and data analysis, we aimed to illuminate the relation between behavioral and neural interference effects comparing target-related distractors (REL) with unrelated distractors (UNREL). We hypothesized that interference involves both (A) suppression due to priming and (B) enhancement due to simultaneous distractor and target processing. Comparisons to UNREL should remain distractor unspecific even at a low threshold. (C) Distractor types with common characteristics should reveal overlapping brain areas. In a 3T MRI scanner, participants were asked to name pictures while auditory words were presented (stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] = -200 msec). Associatively and phonologically related distractors speeded responses (facilitation), while categorically related distractors slowed them down (inhibition) compared to UNREL. As a result, (A) reduced brain activations indeed resembled previously reported patterns of neural priming. Each target-related distractor yielded suppressions at least in areas associated with vision and conflict/competition monitoring (anterior cingulate cortex [ACC]), revealing least priming for inhibitors. (B) Enhancements concerned language-related but distractor-unspecific regions. (C) Some wider brain regions were commonly suppressed for combinations of distractor types. Overlapping areas associated with conceptual priming were found for facilitatory distractors (inferior frontal gyri), and areas related to phonetic/articulatory processing (precentral gyri and left parietal operculum/insula) for distractors sharing feature overlap. Each distractor with semantic relatedness revealed nonoverlapping suppressions in lexical

  4. dsRNA interference on expression of a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene of Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhong-Hua; Gao, Kun; Hou, Cheng-Xiang; Wu, Ping; Qin, Guang-Xing; Geng, Tao; Guo, Xi-Jie

    2015-07-01

    Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) is one of the major viral pathogens in silkworm. Its infection often results in significant losses to sericulture. Studies have demonstrated that RNAi is one of the important anti-viral mechanisms in organisms. In this study, three dsRNAs targeting the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP) gene of BmCPV were designed and synthesized with 2'-F modification to explore their interference effects on BmCPV replication in silkworm larvae. The results showed that injecting dsRNA in the dosage of 4-6 ng per mg body weight into the 5th instar larvae can interfere with the BmCPV-RDRP expression by 93% after virus infection and by 99.9% before virus infection. In addition, the expression of two viral structural protein genes (genome RNA segments 1 and 5) was also decreased with the decrease of RDRP expression, suggesting that RNAi interference of BmCPV-RDRP expression could affect viral replication. The study provides an effective method for investigating virus replication as well as the virus-host interactions in the silkworm larvae using dsRNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. lncRNA in the liver: Prospects for fundamental research and therapy by RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Smekalova, Elena M; Kotelevtsev, Yuri V; Leboeuf, Dominique; Shcherbinina, Evgeniya Y; Fefilova, Anna S; Zatsepin, Timofei S; Koteliansky, Victor

    2016-12-01

    Long non-coding RNAs constitute the most abundant part of the transcribed mammalian genome. lncRNAs affect all essential processes in the living cell including transcription, splicing, translation, replication, shaping of chromatin and post translational modification of proteins. Alterations in lncRNA expression have been linked to a number of diseases; thus, modulation of lncRNA expression holds a huge potential for gene-based therapy. In this review we summarize published data about lncRNAs in the context of hepatic carcinogenesis and liver fibrosis, and the corresponding potential targets for gene therapy. Recent advancements in targeted delivery to the liver made RNA interference an invaluable tool to decipher hepatic lncRNA function and to develop lncRNA-oriented therapies for liver-involved diseases in the future. Different approaches for RNA delivery that can be used for functional studies in the lab and for clinical lncRNA based applications are critically discussed in this review.

  6. Antireflection effects at nanostructured material interfaces and the suppression of thin-film interference.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiaoyin; Zhang, Xu A; Bagal, Abhijeet; Guo, Wei; Chang, Chih-Hao

    2013-06-14

    Thin-film interference is a well-known effect, and it is commonly observed in the colored appearance of many natural phenomena. Caused by the interference of light reflected from the interfaces of thin material layers, such interference effects can lead to wavelength and angle-selective behavior in thin-film devices. In this work, we describe the use of interfacial nanostructures to eliminate interference effects in thin films. Using the same principle inspired by moth-eye structures, this approach creates an effective medium where the index is gradually varying between the neighboring materials. We present the fabrication process for such nanostructures at a polymer-silicon interface, and experimentally demonstrate its effectiveness in suppressing thin-film interference. The principle demonstrated in this work can lead to enhanced efficiency and reduce wavelength/angle sensitivity in multilayer optoelectronic devices.

  7. RNA Interference (RNAi) Induced Gene Silencing: A Promising Approach of Hi-Tech Plant Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Younis, Adnan; Siddique, Muhammad Irfan; Kim, Chang-Kil; Lim, Ki-Byung

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising gene regulatory approach in functional genomics that has significant impact on crop improvement which permits down-regulation in gene expression with greater precise manner without affecting the expression of other genes. RNAi mechanism is expedited by small molecules of interfering RNA to suppress a gene of interest effectively. RNAi has also been exploited in plants for resistance against pathogens, insect/pest, nematodes, and virus that cause significant economic losses. Keeping beside the significance in the genome integrity maintenance as well as growth and development, RNAi induced gene syntheses are vital in plant stress management. Modifying the genes by the interference of small RNAs is one of the ways through which plants react to the environmental stresses. Hence, investigating the role of small RNAs in regulating gene expression assists the researchers to explore the potentiality of small RNAs in abiotic and biotic stress management. This novel approach opens new avenues for crop improvement by developing disease resistant, abiotic or biotic stress tolerant, and high yielding elite varieties. PMID:25332689

  8. Inhibition of Marek's disease virus replication by retroviral vector-based RNA interference

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising antiviral methodology. We recently demonstrated that retroviral vectors expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNA-mirs) in the context of a modified endogenous micro-RNA (miRNA) can be effective in reducing replication of other retroviruses in chicken cells. In thi...

  9. RNA interference in nematodes and the chance that favored Sydney Brenner

    PubMed Central

    Félix, Marie-Anne

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of RNA interference varies between different organisms, even among nematodes. A recent report of successful RNA interference in the nematode Panagrolaimus superbus in BMC Molecular Biology has implications for the comparative study of the functional genomics of nematode species, and prompts reflections on the choice of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. PMID:19014674

  10. RNA interference-based resistance against a legume mastrevirus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background RNA interference (RNAi) is a homology-dependant gene silencing mechanism and has been widely used to engineer resistance in plants against RNA viruses. However, its usefulness in delivering resistance against plant DNA viruses belonging to family Geminiviridae is still being debated. Although the RNAi approach has been shown, using a transient assay, to be useful in countering monocotyledonous plant-infecting geminiviruses of the genus Mastrevirus, it has yet to be investigated as a means of delivering resistance to dicot-infecting mastreviruses. Chickpea chlorotic dwarf Pakistan virus (CpCDPKV) is a legume-infecting mastrevirus that affects chickpea and other leguminous crops in Pakistan. Results Here a hairpin (hp)RNAi construct containing sequences encompassing part of replication-associated protein gene, intergenic region and part of the movement protein gene of CpCDPKV under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter has been produced and stably transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana. Plants harboring the hairpin construct were challenged with CpCDPKV. All non-transgenic N. benthamiana plants developed symptoms of CpCDPKV infection within two weeks post-inoculation. In contrast, none of the inoculated transgenic plants showed symptoms of infection and no viral DNA could be detected by Southern hybridization. A real-time quantitative PCR analysis identified very low-level accumulation of viral DNA in the inoculated transgenic plants. Conclusions The results presented show that the RNAi-based resistance strategy is useful in protecting plants from a dicot-infecting mastrevirus. The very low levels of virus detected in plant tissue of transgenic plants distal to the inoculation site suggest that virus movement and/or viral replication was impaired leading to plants that showed no discernible signs of virus infection. PMID:22047503

  11. RNA Interference for Mosquito and Mosquito-Borne Disease Control

    PubMed Central

    Airs, Paul M.; Bartholomay, Lyric C.

    2017-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool to silence endogenous mosquito and mosquito-borne pathogen genes in vivo. As the number of studies utilizing RNAi in basic research grows, so too does the arsenal of physiological targets that can be developed into products that interrupt mosquito life cycles and behaviors and, thereby, relieve the burden of mosquitoes on human health and well-being. As this technology becomes more viable for use in beneficial and pest insect management in agricultural settings, it is exciting to consider its role in public health entomology. Existing and burgeoning strategies for insecticide delivery could be adapted to function as RNAi trigger delivery systems and thereby expedite transformation of RNAi from the lab to the field for mosquito control. Taken together, development of RNAi-based vector and pathogen management techniques & strategies are within reach. That said, tools for successful RNAi design, studies exploring RNAi in the context of vector control, and studies demonstrating field efficacy of RNAi trigger delivery have yet to be honed and/or developed for mosquito control. PMID:28067782

  12. RNA interference and its role in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Mansoori, Behzad; Sandoghchian Shotorbani, Siamak; Baradaran, Behzad

    2014-12-01

    In todays' environment, it is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the role of cancer in social health. Although a huge budget is allocated on cancer research every year, cancer remains the second global cause of death. And, exclusively, less than 50% of patients afflicted with advanced cancer live one year subsequent to standard cancer treatments. RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism for gene silencing. Such mechanism possesses uncanny ability in targeting cancer-related genes. A majority of gene products involved in tumorigenesis have recently been utilized as targets in RNAi based therapy. The evidence from these studies indicates that RNAi application for targeting functional carcinogenic molecules, tumor resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy is required in today's cancer treatment. Knock downing of gene products by RNAi technology exerts antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects upon cell culture systems, animal models and in clinical trials in the most studies. The recognition of RNAi mechanism and the progress in this field leaded several new RNAi-based drugs to Clinical Trial phases. This has also developed genome based personalized cancer therapeutics. Hopefully, this type of treatment will work as one of the efficient one for cancer patients.

  13. Discovery of novel targets with high throughput RNA interference screening.

    PubMed

    Kassner, Paul D

    2008-03-01

    High throughput technologies have the potential to affect all aspects of drug discovery. Considerable attention is paid to high throughput screening (HTS) for small molecule lead compounds. The identification of the targets that enter those HTS campaigns had been driven by basic research until the advent of genomics level data acquisition such as sequencing and gene expression microarrays. Large-scale profiling approaches (e.g., microarrays, protein analysis by mass spectrometry, and metabolite profiling) can yield vast quantities of data and important information. However, these approaches usually require painstaking in silico analysis and low-throughput basic wet-lab research to identify the function of a gene and validate the gene product as a potential therapeutic drug target. Functional genomic screening offers the promise of direct identification of genes involved in phenotypes of interest. In this review, RNA interference (RNAi) mediated loss-of-function screens will be discussed and as well as their utility in target identification. Some of the genes identified in these screens should produce similar phenotypes if their gene products are antagonized with drugs. With a carefully chosen phenotype, an understanding of the biology of RNAi and appreciation of the limitations of RNAi screening, there is great potential for the discovery of new drug targets.

  14. Metabolic engineering of cottonseed oil biosynthesis pathway via RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhongping; Li, Jingwen; Guo, Xiaoping; Jin, Shuangxia; Zhang, Xianlong

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed oil is recognized as an important oil in food industry for its unique characters: low flavor reversion and the high level of antioxidants (VitaminE) as well as unsaturated fatty acid. However, the cottonseed oil content of cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is only around 20%. In this study, we modified the accumulation of oils by the down-regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase 1 (GhPEPC1) via RNA interference in transgenic cotton plants. The qRT-PCR and enzyme activity assay revealed that the transcription and expression of GhPEPC1 was dramatically down-regulated in transgenic lines. Consequently, the cottonseed oil content in several transgenic lines showed a significant (P < 0.01) increase (up to 16.7%) without obvious phenotypic changes under filed condition when compared to the control plants. In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism of GhPEPC1 in the regulation of seed oil content, we quantified the expression of the carbon metabolism related genes of transgenic GhPEPC1 RNAi lines by transcriptome analysis. This analysis revealed the decrease of GhPEPC1 expression led to the increase expression of triacylglycerol biosynthesis-related genes, which eventually contributed to the lipid biosynthesis in cotton. This result provides a valuable information for cottonseed oil biosynthesis pathway and shows the potential of creating high cottonseed oil germplasm by RNAi strategy for cotton breeding. PMID:27620452

  15. Compressed sensing methods for DNA microarrays, RNA interference, and metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Rao, Aditya; P, Deepthi; Renumadhavi, C H; Chandra, M Girish; Srinivasan, Rajgopal

    2015-02-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) is a sparse signal sampling methodology for efficiently acquiring and reconstructing a signal from relatively few measurements. Recent work shows that CS is well-suited to be applied to problems in genomics, including probe design in microarrays, RNA interference (RNAi), and taxonomic assignment in metagenomics. The principle of using different CS recovery methods in these applications has thus been established, but a comprehensive study of using a wide range of CS methods has not been done. For each of these applications, we apply three hitherto unused CS methods, namely, l1-magic, CoSaMP, and l1-homotopy, in conjunction with CS measurement matrices such as randomly generated CS m matrix, Hamming matrix, and projective geometry-based matrix. We find that, in RNAi, the l1-magic (the standard package for l1 minimization) and l1-homotopy methods show significant reduction in reconstruction error compared to the baseline. In metagenomics, we find that l1-homotopy as well as CoSaMP estimate concentration with significantly reduced time when compared to the GPSR and WGSQuikr methods.

  16. RNA interference targeting raptor inhibits proliferation of gastric cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, William Ka Kei; Lee, Chung Wa; Cho, Chi Hin; Chan, Francis Ka Leung; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu

    2011-06-10

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is dysregulated in gastric cancer. The biologic function of mTORC1 in gastric carcinogenesis is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that disruption of mTORC1 function by RNA interference-mediated downregulation of raptor substantially inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation through induction of G{sub 0}/G{sub 1}-phase cell cycle arrest. The anti-proliferative effect was accompanied by concomitant downregulation of activator protein-1 and upregulation of Smad2/3 transcriptional activities. In addition, the expression of cyclin D{sub 3} and p21{sup Waf1}, which stabilizes cyclin D/cdk4 complex for G{sub 1}-S transition, was reduced by raptor knockdown. In conclusion, disruption of mTORC1 inhibits gastric cancer cell proliferation through multiple pathways. This discovery may have an implication in the application of mTORC1-directed therapy for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  17. RNA Interference for Mosquito and Mosquito-Borne Disease Control.

    PubMed

    Airs, Paul M; Bartholomay, Lyric C

    2017-01-05

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool to silence endogenous mosquito and mosquito-borne pathogen genes in vivo. As the number of studies utilizing RNAi in basic research grows, so too does the arsenal of physiological targets that can be developed into products that interrupt mosquito life cycles and behaviors and, thereby, relieve the burden of mosquitoes on human health and well-being. As this technology becomes more viable for use in beneficial and pest insect management in agricultural settings, it is exciting to consider its role in public health entomology. Existing and burgeoning strategies for insecticide delivery could be adapted to function as RNAi trigger delivery systems and thereby expedite transformation of RNAi from the lab to the field for mosquito control. Taken together, development of RNAi-based vector and pathogen management techniques & strategies are within reach. That said, tools for successful RNAi design, studies exploring RNAi in the context of vector control, and studies demonstrating field efficacy of RNAi trigger delivery have yet to be honed and/or developed for mosquito control.

  18. Distinct Neural Correlates for Two Types of Inhibition in Bilinguals: Response Inhibition versus Interference Suppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luk, Gigi; Anderson, John A. E.; Craik, Fergus I. M.; Grady, Cheryl; Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effects of bilingualism on cognitive control, we studied monolingual and bilingual young adults performing a flanker task with functional MRI. The trial types of primary interest for this report were incongruent and no-go trials, representing interference suppression and response inhibition, respectively. Response times were similar…

  19. Distinct Neural Correlates for Two Types of Inhibition in Bilinguals: Response Inhibition versus Interference Suppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luk, Gigi; Anderson, John A. E.; Craik, Fergus I. M.; Grady, Cheryl; Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effects of bilingualism on cognitive control, we studied monolingual and bilingual young adults performing a flanker task with functional MRI. The trial types of primary interest for this report were incongruent and no-go trials, representing interference suppression and response inhibition, respectively. Response times were similar…

  20. RNA Interference in the Age of CRISPR: Will CRISPR Interfere with RNAi?

    PubMed Central

    Unniyampurath, Unnikrishnan; Pilankatta, Rajendra; Krishnan, Manoj N.

    2016-01-01

    The recent emergence of multiple technologies for modifying gene structure has revolutionized mammalian biomedical research and enhanced the promises of gene therapy. Over the past decade, RNA interference (RNAi) based technologies widely dominated various research applications involving experimental modulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recently, a new gene editing technology, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and the CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) (CRISPR/Cas9) system, has received unprecedented acceptance in the scientific community for a variety of genetic applications. Unlike RNAi, the CRISPR/Cas9 system is bestowed with the ability to introduce heritable precision insertions and deletions in the eukaryotic genome. The combination of popularity and superior capabilities of CRISPR/Cas9 system raises the possibility that this technology may occupy the roles currently served by RNAi and may even make RNAi obsolete. We performed a comparative analysis of the technical aspects and applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 system and RNAi in mammalian systems, with the purpose of charting out a predictive picture on whether the CRISPR/Cas9 system will eclipse the existence and future of RNAi. The conclusion drawn from this analysis is that RNAi will still occupy specific domains of biomedical research and clinical applications, under the current state of development of these technologies. However, further improvements in CRISPR/Cas9 based technology may ultimately enable it to dominate RNAi in the long term. PMID:26927085

  1. FOXO regulates RNA interference in Drosophila and protects from RNA virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Spellberg, Michael J.; Marr, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Small RNA pathways are important players in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. These pathways play important roles in all aspects of cellular physiology from development to fertility to innate immunity. However, almost nothing is known about the regulation of the central genes in these pathways. The forkhead box O (FOXO) family of transcription factors is a conserved family of DNA-binding proteins that responds to a diverse set of cellular signals. FOXOs are crucial regulators of cellular homeostasis that have a conserved role in modulating organismal aging and fitness. Here, we show that Drosophila FOXO (dFOXO) regulates the expression of core small RNA pathway genes. In addition, we find increased dFOXO activity results in an increase in RNA interference (RNAi) efficacy, establishing a direct link between cellular physiology and RNAi. Consistent with these findings, dFOXO activity is stimulated by viral infection and is required for effective innate immune response to RNA virus infection. Our study reveals an unanticipated connection among dFOXO, stress responses, and the efficacy of small RNA-mediated gene silencing and suggests that organisms can tune their gene silencing in response to environmental and metabolic conditions. PMID:26553999

  2. RNAimmuno: A database of the nonspecific immunological effects of RNA interference and microRNA reagents

    PubMed Central

    Olejniczak, Marta; Galka-Marciniak, Paulina; Polak, Katarzyna; Fligier, Andrzej; Krzyzosiak, Wlodzimierz J.

    2012-01-01

    The RNAimmuno database was created to provide easy access to information regarding the nonspecific effects generated in cells by RNA interference triggers and microRNA regulators. Various RNAi and microRNA reagents, which differ in length and structure, often cause non-sequence-specific immune responses, in addition to triggering the intended sequence-specific effects. The activation of the cellular sensors of foreign RNA or DNA may lead to the induction of type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokine release. Subsequent changes in the cellular transcriptome and proteome may result in adverse effects, including cell death during therapeutic treatments or the misinterpretation of experimental results in research applications. The manually curated RNAimmuno database gathers the majority of the published data regarding the immunological side effects that are caused in investigated cell lines, tissues, and model organisms by different reagents. The database is accessible at http://rnaimmuno.ibch.poznan.pl and may be helpful in the further application and development of RNAi- and microRNA-based technologies. PMID:22411954

  3. Root-Knot Nematode Parasitism Suppresses Host RNA Silencing.

    PubMed

    Walsh, E; Elmore, J M; Taylor, C G

    2017-04-12

    Root-knot nematodes damage crops around the world by developing complex feeding sites from normal root cells of their hosts. The ability to initiate and maintain this feeding site (composed of individual "giant cells") is essential to their parasitism process. RNA silencing pathways in plants serve a diverse set of functions, from directing growth and development to defending against invading pathogens. Influencing a host's RNA silencing pathways as a pathogenicity strategy has been well-documented for viral plant pathogens, but recently, it has become clear that silencing pathways also play an important role in other plant pathosystems. To determine if RNA silencing pathways play a role in nematode parasitism, we tested the susceptibility of plants that express a viral suppressor of RNA silencing. We observed an increase in susceptibility to nematode parasitism in plants expressing viral suppressors of RNA silencing. Results from studies utilizing a silenced reporter gene suggest that active suppression of RNA silencing pathways may be occurring during nematode parasitism. With these studies, we provide further evidence to the growing body of plant-biotic interaction research that suppression of RNA silencing is important in the successful interaction between a plant-parasitic animal and its host.

  4. RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase 1 from Nicotiana tabacum Suppresses RNA Silencing and Enhances Viral Infection in Nicotiana benthamiana[W

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Xiao-Bao; Dong, Li; Zhu, Hui; Duan, Cheng-Guo; Du, Quan-Sheng; Lv, Dian-Qiu; Fang, Yuan-Yuan; Garcia, Juan Antonio; Fang, Rong-Xiang; Guo, Hui-Shan

    2010-01-01

    Endogenous eukaryotic RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) produce double-stranded RNA intermediates in diverse processes of small RNA synthesis in RNA silencing pathways. RDR6 is required in plants for posttranscriptional gene silencing induced by sense transgenes (S-PTGS) and has an important role in amplification of antiviral silencing. Whereas RDR1 is also involved in antiviral defense in plants, this does not necessarily proceed through triggering silencing. In this study, we show that Nicotiana benthamiana transformed with RDR1 from Nicotiana tabacum (Nt-RDR1 plants) exhibits hypersusceptibility to Plum pox potyvirus and other viruses, resembling RDR6-silenced (RDR6i) N. benthamiana. Analysis of transient induction of RNA silencing in N. benthamiana Nt-RDR1 and RDR6i plants revealed that Nt-RDR1 possesses silencing suppression activity. We found that Nt-RDR1 does not interfere with RDR6-dependent siRNA accumulation but turns out to suppress RDR6-dependent S-PTGS. Our results, together with previously published data, suggest that RDR1 might have a dual role, contributing, on one hand, to salicylic acid–mediated antiviral defense, and suppressing, on the other hand, the RDR6-mediated antiviral RNA silencing. We propose a scenario in which the natural loss-of-function variant of RDR1 in N. benthamiana may be the outcome of selective pressure to maintain a high RDR6-dependent antiviral defense, which would be required to face the hypersensitivity of this plant to a large number of viruses. PMID:20400679

  5. Potent microRNA suppression by RNA Pol II-transcribed 'Tough Decoy' inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bak, Rasmus O; Hollensen, Anne Kruse; Primo, Maria Nascimento; Sørensen, Camilla Darum; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

    2013-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression and modulators of diverse biological pathways. Analyses of miRNA function as well as therapeutic managing of miRNAs rely on cellular administration of miRNA inhibitors which may be achieved by the use of viral vehicles. This study explores the miRNA-suppressive capacity of inhibitors expressed intracellularly from lentivirus-derived gene vectors. Superior activity of two decoy-type inhibitors, a "Bulged Sponge" with eight miRNA recognition sites and a hairpin-shaped "Tough Decoy" containing two miRNA recognition sites, is demonstrated in a side-by-side comparison of seven types of miRNA inhibitors transcribed as short RNAs from an RNA Pol III promoter. We find that lentiviral vectors expressing Tough Decoy inhibitors are less vulnerable than Bulged Sponge-encoding vectors to targeting by the cognate miRNA and less prone, therefore, to reductions in transfer efficiency. Importantly, it is demonstrated that Tough Decoy inhibitors retain their miRNA suppression capacity in the context of longer RNA transcripts expressed from an RNA Pol II promoter. Such RNA Pol II-transcribed Tough Decoy inhibitors are new tools in managing of miRNAs and may have potential for temporal and spatial regulation of miRNA activity as well as for therapeutic targeting of miRNAs that are aberrantly expressed in human disease.

  6. A probabilistic algorithm for robust interference suppression in bioelectromagnetic sensor data.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Srikantan S; Attias, Hagai T; Hild, Kenneth E; Sekihara, Kensuke

    2007-09-20

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) sensor measurements are often contaminated by several interferences such as background activity from outside the regions of interest, by biological and non-biological artifacts, and by sensor noise. Here, we introduce a probabilistic graphical model and inference algorithm based on variational-Bayes expectation-maximization for estimation of activity of interest through interference suppression. The algorithm exploits the fact that electromagnetic recording data can often be partitioned into baseline periods, when only interferences are present, and active time periods, when activity of interest is present in addition to interferences. This algorithm is found to be robust and efficient and significantly superior to many other existing approaches on real and simulated data.

  7. Suppression of Strong Background Interference on E-Nose Sensors in an Open Country Environment

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fengchun; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Simon X.; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Liang, Zhifang; Liu, Yan; Wang, Di

    2016-01-01

    The feature extraction technique for an electronic nose (e-nose) applied in tobacco smell detection in an open country/outdoor environment with periodic background strong interference is studied in this paper. Principal component analysis (PCA), Independent component analysis (ICA), re-filtering and a priori knowledge are combined to separate and suppress background interference on the e-nose. By the coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC), it can be verified that a better separation of environmental temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure variation related background interference factors can be obtained with ICA. By re-filtering according to the on-site interference characteristics a composite smell curve was obtained which is more related to true smell information based on the tobacco curer’s experience. PMID:26891302

  8. Control of Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) Reproduction through Plant-Mediated RNA Interference.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiping; Kassa, Adane; Hu, Xu; Robeson, Jonathan; McMahon, Mollie; Richtman, Nina M; Steimel, Joseph P; Kernodle, Bliss M; Crane, Virginia C; Sandahl, Gary; Ritland, Julie L; Presnail, James K; Lu, Albert L; Wu, Gusui

    2017-10-03

    RNA interference (RNAi) in transgenic maize has recently emerged as an alternative mode of action for western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) control which can be combined with protein-based rootworm control options for improved root protection and resistance management. Currently, transgenic RNAi-based control has focused on suppression of genes that when silenced lead to larval mortality. We investigated control of western corn rootworm reproduction through RNAi by targeting two reproductive genes, dvvgr and dvbol, with the goal of reducing insect fecundity as a new tool for pest management. The results demonstrated that exposure of adult beetles, as well as larvae to dvvgr or dvbol dsRNA in artificial diet, caused reduction of fecundity. Furthermore, western corn rootworm beetles that emerged from larval feeding on transgenic maize roots expressing dvbol dsRNA also showed significant fecundity reduction. This is the first report of reduction of insect reproductive fitness through plant-mediated RNAi, demonstrating the feasibility of reproductive RNAi as a management tool for western corn rootworm.

  9. RNA Interference: A Novel Source of Resistance to Combat Plant Parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sagar; Banerjee, Anamika; Gill, Sarvajeet S.; Gupta, Om P.; Dahuja, Anil; Jain, Pradeep K.; Sirohi, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes cause severe damage and yield loss in major crops all over the world. Available control strategies include use of insecticides/nematicides but these have proved detrimental to the environment, while other strategies like crop rotation and resistant cultivars have serious limitations. This scenario provides an opportunity for the utilization of technological advances like RNA interference (RNAi) to engineer resistance against these devastating parasites. First demonstrated in the model free living nematode, Caenorhabtidis elegans; the phenomenon of RNAi has been successfully used to suppress essential genes of plant parasitic nematodes involved in parasitism, nematode development and mRNA metabolism. Synthetic neurotransmitants mixed with dsRNA solutions are used for in vitro RNAi in plant parasitic nematodes with significant success. However, host delivered in planta RNAi has proved to be a pioneering phenomenon to deliver dsRNAs to feeding nematodes and silence the target genes to achieve resistance. Highly enriched genomic databases are exploited to limit off target effects and ensure sequence specific silencing. Technological advances like gene stacking and use of nematode inducible and tissue specific promoters can further enhance the utility of RNAi based transgenics against plant parasitic nematodes. PMID:28580003

  10. RNA Interference: A Novel Source of Resistance to Combat Plant Parasitic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sagar; Banerjee, Anamika; Gill, Sarvajeet S; Gupta, Om P; Dahuja, Anil; Jain, Pradeep K; Sirohi, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes cause severe damage and yield loss in major crops all over the world. Available control strategies include use of insecticides/nematicides but these have proved detrimental to the environment, while other strategies like crop rotation and resistant cultivars have serious limitations. This scenario provides an opportunity for the utilization of technological advances like RNA interference (RNAi) to engineer resistance against these devastating parasites. First demonstrated in the model free living nematode, Caenorhabtidis elegans; the phenomenon of RNAi has been successfully used to suppress essential genes of plant parasitic nematodes involved in parasitism, nematode development and mRNA metabolism. Synthetic neurotransmitants mixed with dsRNA solutions are used for in vitro RNAi in plant parasitic nematodes with significant success. However, host delivered in planta RNAi has proved to be a pioneering phenomenon to deliver dsRNAs to feeding nematodes and silence the target genes to achieve resistance. Highly enriched genomic databases are exploited to limit off target effects and ensure sequence specific silencing. Technological advances like gene stacking and use of nematode inducible and tissue specific promoters can further enhance the utility of RNAi based transgenics against plant parasitic nematodes.

  11. RNA Interference against Animal Viruses: How Morbilliviruses Generate Extended Diversity To Escape Small Interfering RNA Control

    PubMed Central

    Holz, Carine L.; Albina, Emmanuel; Minet, Cécile; Lancelot, Renaud; Kwiatek, Olivier; Libeau, Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    Viruses are serious threats to human and animal health. Vaccines can prevent viral diseases, but few antiviral treatments are available to control evolving infections. Among new antiviral therapies, RNA interference (RNAi) has been the focus of intensive research. However, along with the development of efficient RNAi-based therapeutics comes the risk of emergence of resistant viruses. In this study, we challenged the in vitro propensity of a morbillivirus (peste des petits ruminants virus), a stable RNA virus, to escape the inhibition conferred by single or multiple small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against conserved regions of the N gene. Except with the combination of three different siRNAs, the virus systematically escaped RNAi after 3 to 20 consecutive passages. The genetic modifications involved consisted of single or multiple point nucleotide mutations and a deletion of a stretch of six nucleotides, illustrating that this virus has an unusual genomic malleability. PMID:22072768

  12. Interference suppression for code-division multiple-access communications in an underwater acoustic channel.

    PubMed

    Yang, T C; Yang, Wen-Bin

    2009-07-01

    In a code-division multiple-access communications network, the signal from a nearby user often creates a strong interference for the signal from a distant user. This is known as the near-far problem. Power control of source levels is ineffective in an underwater acoustic channel due to the slow sound speed. Interference rejection based on code orthogonality is ineffective using matched-filter processing due to the fact that multipath arrivals effectively destroy the code orthogonality and that the signal arrival times between different users are not synchronized. An algorithm, called hyperspace cancellation by coordinate zeroing, is used in this paper to remove/suppress interference. Using a fast Walsh-Hadamard transform (FWHT) based on the interferer's code sequence, the interference signal is enhanced and removed by coordinate zeroing. The residual signal is transformed back using an inverse FWHT. The filtered data, with the interference signal largely removed, are processed using the desired signal code sequence. Two methods previously developed for direct-sequence spread-spectrum communications in an underwater channel are used to extract the transmitted symbols. Low bit error rate (<10(-2)) is found with the at-sea data for signal-to-interference ratio as low as -8 to -11 dB.

  13. Time-Varying Channel Estimation Using Superimposed Training Based on Self-Interference Suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Gaoqi; He, Chunquan; Gao, Jun

    2013-03-01

    Time-varying channel estimation for single carrier systems using superimposed training is considered. The variation of a wireless channel is well approximated by a discrete prolate spheroidal basis expansion model (DPS-BEM) as basis functions. A periodic training sequence is superimposed at low power on the information sequence as opposed to being time-multiplexed (TM) with it at the transmitter. A two-step approach is adopted, where, in the first step, we estimate the channel by using only the first-order statistics of the received data. The unknown information sequence acts as interference resulting in a poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We then proposed a low complexity receiving self-interference suppression (RSIS) scheme in the second step where the information interference (termed self-interference) is estimated from detected symbols and iteratively suppressed at the receiver to enhance estimation performance. The RSIS scheme avoids the compromise between self-interference elimination and information integrity of data-dependent superimposed training (DDST) scheme in time-varying channel estimation. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is better than DDST schemes and competitive with the TM training in term of BER.

  14. Active suppression of salient-but-irrelevant stimuli does not underlie resistance to visual interference.

    PubMed

    Barras, Caroline; Kerzel, Dirk

    2016-12-01

    In visual search for a shape target, interference from salient-but-irrelevant color singletons can be resisted in feature search mode, but not in singleton detection mode. In singleton detection mode, we observed a contralateral positivity (PD) after 260-340ms, suggesting that the salient distractor was suppressed. Because RTs in singleton detection mode increased when a distractor was present, we conclude that active suppression of distractors takes time. In feature search mode, no increase in RTs and no PD to the distractor was observed, showing that resistance to interference was not accomplished by suppression. Rather, the smaller N2pc to the target in feature search than in singleton detection mode suggests that enhancement of target features avoided interference. Thus, the strong top-down set in feature search mode eliminated the need to suppress the early attend-to-me signal (corresponding to the Ppc, from 160 to 210ms) that was generated by salient stimuli independently of search mode.

  15. A SELEX-Screened Aptamer of Human Hepatitis B Virus RNA Encapsidation Signal Suppresses Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hui; Beck, Jürgen; Nassal, Michael; Hu, Kang-hong

    2011-01-01

    Background The specific interaction between hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase (P protein) and the ε RNA stem-loop on pregenomic (pg) RNA is crucial for viral replication. It triggers both pgRNA packaging and reverse transcription and thus represents an attractive antiviral target. RNA decoys mimicking ε in P protein binding but not supporting replication might represent novel HBV inhibitors. However, because generation of recombinant enzymatically active HBV polymerase is notoriously difficult, such decoys have as yet not been identified. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we used a SELEX approach, based on a new in vitro reconstitution system exploiting a recombinant truncated HBV P protein (miniP), to identify potential ε decoys in two large ε RNA pools with randomized upper stem. Selection of strongly P protein binding RNAs correlated with an unexpected strong enrichment of A residues. Two aptamers, S6 and S9, displayed particularly high affinity and specificity for miniP in vitro, yet did not support viral replication when part of a complete HBV genome. Introducing S9 RNA into transiently HBV producing HepG2 cells strongly suppressed pgRNA packaging and DNA synthesis, indicating the S9 RNA can indeed act as an ε decoy that competitively inhibits P protein binding to the authentic ε signal on pgRNA. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates the first successful identification of human HBV ε aptamers by an in vitro SELEX approach. Effective suppression of HBV replication by the S9 aptamer provides proof-of-principle for the ability of ε decoy RNAs to interfere with viral P-ε complex formation and suggests that S9-like RNAs may further be developed into useful therapeutics against chronic hepatitis B. PMID:22125633

  16. Knockdown of RNA Interference Pathway Genes in Western Corn Rootworms (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte) Demonstrates a Possible Mechanism of Resistance to Lethal dsRNA.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Ana María; Khajuria, Chitvan; Wang, Haichuan; Narva, Kenneth E; Siegfried, Blair D

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is being developed as a potential tool for insect pest management. Increased understanding of the RNAi pathway in target insect pests will provide information to use this technology effectively and to inform decisions related to resistant management strategies for RNAi based traits. Dicer 2 (Dcr2), an endonuclease responsible for formation of small interfering RNA's and Argonaute 2 (Ago2), an essential catalytic component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) have both been associated with the RNAi pathway in a number of different insect species including the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). We identified both genes from a transcriptome library generated from different tissues and developmental stages of the western corn rootworm, an important target pest for transgenic plants expressing dsRNA targeting essential genes. The expression of these genes was suppressed by more than 90% after injecting gene specific dsRNA into adult rootworms. The injected beetles were then fed vATPase A dsRNA which has previously been demonstrated to cause mortality in western corn rootworm adults. The suppression of both RNAi pathway genes resulted in reduced mortality after subsequent exposure to lethal concentrations of vATPase A dsRNA as well as increased vATPase A expression relative to control treatments. Injections with dsRNA for a non-lethal target sequence (Laccase 2) did not affect mortality or expression caused by vATPase A dsRNA indicating that the results observed with Argo and Dicer dsRNA were not caused by simple competition among different dsRNA's. These results confirm that both genes play an important role in the RNAi pathway for western corn rootworms and indicate that selection pressures that potentially affect the expression of these genes may provide a basis for future studies to understand potential mechanisms of resistance.

  17. Double strand RNA-mediated RNA interference through feeding in larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    RNA interference (RNAi) has gained popularity in several fields of research, silencing targeted genes by degradation of RNA. The objective of this study was to develop RNAi for use as a molecular tool in the control of the invasive pest Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), gypsy moth, which ha...

  18. Suppression of HIV-1 replication by microRNA effectors

    PubMed Central

    Chable-Bessia, Christine; Meziane, Oussama; Latreille, Daniel; Triboulet, Robinson; Zamborlini, Alessia; Wagschal, Alexandre; Jacquet, Jean-Marc; Reynes, Jacques; Levy, Yves; Saib, Ali; Bennasser, Yamina; Benkirane, Monsef

    2009-01-01

    The rate of HIV-1 gene expression is a key step that determines the kinetics of virus spread and AIDS progression. Viral entry and gene expression were described to be the key determinants for cell permissiveness to HIV. Recent reports highlighted the involvement of miRNA in regulating HIV-1 replication post-transcriptionally. In this study we explored the role of cellular factors required for miRNA-mediated mRNA translational inhibition in regulating HIV-1 gene expression. Here we show that HIV-1 mRNAs associate and co-localize with components of the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC), and we characterize some of the proteins required for miRNA-mediated silencing (miRNA effectors). RCK/p54, GW182, LSm-1 and XRN1 negatively regulate HIV-1 gene expression by preventing viral mRNA association with polysomes. Interestingly, knockdown of RCK/p54 or DGCR8 resulted in virus reactivation in PBMCs isolated from HIV infected patients treated with suppressive HAART. PMID:19272132

  19. Suppression of Interference in Quantum Hall Mach-Zehnder Geometry by Upstream Neutral Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Moshe; Gefen, Yuval

    2016-12-01

    Mach-Zehnder interferometry has been proposed as a probe for detecting the statistics of anyonic quasiparticles in fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states. Here, we focus on interferometers made of multimode edge states with upstream modes. We find that the interference visibility is suppressed due to downstream-upstream mode entanglement; the latter serves as a "which path" detector to the downstream interfering trajectories. Our analysis tackles a concrete realization of a filling factor of ν =2 /3 , but its applicability goes beyond that specific case, and encompasses the recent observation of the ubiquitous emergence of upstream neutral modes in FQH states. The latter, according to our analysis, goes hand in hand with the failure to observe Mach-Zehnder anyonic interference in fractional states. We point out how charge-neutral mode disentanglement will resuscitate the interference signal.

  20. RNA Interference Is Responsible for Reduction of Transgene Expression after Sleeping Beauty Transposase Mediated Somatic Integration

    PubMed Central

    Rauschhuber, Christina; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Background Integrating non-viral vectors based on transposable elements are widely used for genetically engineering mammalian cells in functional genomics and therapeutic gene transfer. For the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase system it was demonstrated that convergent transcription driven by the SB transposase inverted repeats (IRs) in eukaryotic cells occurs after somatic integration. This could lead to formation of double-stranded RNAs potentially presenting targets for the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery and subsequently resulting into silencing of the transgene. Therefore, we aimed at investigating transgene expression upon transposition under RNA interference knockdown conditions. Principal Findings To establish RNAi knockdown cell lines we took advantage of the P19 protein, which is derived from the tomato bushy stunt virus. P19 binds and inhibits 21 nucleotides long, small-interfering RNAs and was shown to sufficiently suppress RNAi. We found that transgene expression upon SB mediated transposition was enhanced, resulting into a 3.2-fold increased amount of colony forming units (CFU) after transposition. In contrast, if the transgene cassette is insulated from the influence of chromosomal position effects by the chicken-derived cHS4 insulating sequences or when applying the Forg Prince transposon system, that displays only negligible transcriptional activity, similar numbers of CFUs were obtained. Conclusion In summary, we provide evidence for the first time that after somatic integration transposon derived transgene expression is regulated by the endogenous RNAi machinery. In the future this finding will help to further improve the molecular design of the SB transposase vector system. PMID:22570690

  1. From The Cover: Genome-wide RNA interference screen identifies previously undescribed regulators of polyglutamine aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nollen, Ellen A. A.; Garcia, Susana M.; van Haaften, Gijs; Kim, Soojin; Chavez, Alejandro; Morimoto, Richard I.; Plasterk, Ronald H. A.

    2004-04-01

    Protein misfolding and the formation of aggregates are increasingly recognized components of the pathology of human genetic disease and hallmarks of many neurodegenerative disorders. As exemplified by polyglutamine diseases, the propensity for protein misfolding is associated with the length of polyglutamine expansions and age-dependent changes in protein-folding homeostasis, suggesting a critical role for a protein homeostatic buffer. To identify the complement of protein factors that protects cells against the formation of protein aggregates, we tested transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strains expressing polyglutamine expansion yellow fluorescent protein fusion proteins at the threshold length associated with the age-dependent appearance of protein aggregation. We used genome-wide RNA interference to identify genes that, when suppressed, resulted in the premature appearance of protein aggregates. Our screen identified 186 genes corresponding to five principal classes of polyglutamine regulators: genes involved in RNA metabolism, protein synthesis, protein folding, and protein degradation; and those involved in protein trafficking. We propose that each of these classes represents a molecular machine collectively comprising the protein homeostatic buffer that responds to the expression of damaged proteins to prevent their misfolding and aggregation. protein misfolding | neurodegenerative diseases

  2. A new opaque variant of maize by a single dominant RNA-interference-inducing transgene.

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Gregorio; Song, Rentao; Messing, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    In maize, alpha-zeins, the main protein components of seed stores, are major determinants of nutritional imbalance when maize is used as the sole food source. Mutations like opaque-2 (o2) are used in breeding varieties with improved nutritional quality. However, o2 works in a recessive fashion by affecting the expression of a subset of 22-kD alpha-zeins, as well as additional endosperm gene functions. Thus, we sought a dominant mutation that could suppress the storage protein genes without interrupting O2 synthesis. We found that maize transformed with RNA interference (RNAi) constructs derived from a 22-kD zein gene could produce a dominant opaque phenotype. This phenotype segregates in a normal Mendelian fashion and eliminates 22-kD zeins without affecting the accumulation of other zein proteins. A system for regulated transgene expression generating antisense RNA also reduced the expression of 22-kD zein genes, but failed to give an opaque phenotype. Therefore, it appears that small interfering RNAs not only may play an important regulatory role during plant development, but also are effective genetic tools for dissecting the function of gene families. Since the dominant phenotype is also correlated with increased lysine content, the new mutant illustrates an approach for creating more nutritious crop plants. PMID:14504244

  3. piggyBac transposon-derived targeting shRNA interference against the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fang; Chen, Rui-ting; Lu, Yan; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Mei-xian; Miao, Yun-gen

    2014-12-01

    The Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is one of the most destructive diseases in silkworm, which has caused the main damage to sericulture industry. In this study, we developed a system of RNAi to prevent the BmNPV infection using the piggyBac transposon-derived targeting short hairpin RNA (shRNA) interference. The shRNAs targeting the genes of i.e.-1, lef-1, lef-2 and lef-3 of BmNPV were designed and used to inhibit the intracellular replication or multiplication of BmNPV in Bm cells. The highest activity was presented in the shRNA targeting the i.e.-1c of BmNPV, of which the inhibition rate reached 94.5 % in vitro. Further a stable Bm cell line of piggyBac transposon-derived targeting shRNA interference against BmNPV was established, which has a highly efficacious suppression on virus proliferation. These results indicated that the recombinant shRNA expression system was a useful tool for resistance to BmNPV in vitro. The approach by recombinant shRNAs opens a door of RNAi technology as a strategy that offering technically simpler, cheaper, and quicker gene knockdown for promising research and biotechnology application on silkworm lethal diseases.

  4. Global microRNA depletion suppresses tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sidi; Xue, Yuan; Wu, Xuebing; Le, Cong; Bhutkar, Arjun; Bell, Eric L.; Zhang, Feng; Langer, Robert; Sharp, Phillip A.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs delicately regulate the balance of angiogenesis. Here we show that depletion of all microRNAs suppresses tumor angiogenesis. We generated microRNA-deficient tumors by knocking out Dicer1. These tumors are highly hypoxic but poorly vascularized, suggestive of deficient angiogenesis signaling. Expression profiling revealed that angiogenesis genes were significantly down-regulated as a result of the microRNA deficiency. Factor inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), FIH1, is derepressed under these conditions and suppresses HIF transcription. Knocking out FIH1 using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering reversed the phenotypes of microRNA-deficient cells in HIF transcriptional activity, VEGF production, tumor hypoxia, and tumor angiogenesis. Using multiplexed CRISPR/Cas9, we deleted regions in FIH1 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) that contain microRNA-binding sites, which derepresses FIH1 protein and represses hypoxia response. These data suggest that microRNAs promote tumor responses to hypoxia and angiogenesis by repressing FIH1. PMID:24788094

  5. RNA Quality Control as a Key to Suppressing RNA Silencing of Endogenous Genes in Plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Chen, Xuemei

    2016-06-06

    RNA quality control of endogenous RNAs is an integral part of eukaryotic gene expression and often relies on exonucleolytic degradation to eliminate dysfunctional transcripts. In parallel, exogenous and selected endogenous RNAs are degraded through RNA silencing, which is a genome defense mechanism used by many eukaryotes. In plants, RNA silencing is triggered by the production of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) by RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASEs (RDRs) and proceeds through small interfering (si) RNA-directed, ARGONAUTE (AGO)-mediated cleavage of homologous transcripts. Many studies revealed that plants avert inappropriate posttranscriptional gene silencing of endogenous coding genes by using RNA surveillance mechanisms as a safeguard to protect their transcriptome profiles. The tug of war between RNA surveillance and RNA silencing ensures the appropriate partitioning of endogenous RNA substrates among these degradation pathways. Here we review recent advances on RNA quality control and its role in the suppression of RNA silencing at endogenous genes and discuss the mechanisms underlying the crosstalk among these pathways.

  6. RNA Quality Control as a Key to Suppressing RNA Silencing of Endogenous Genes in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lin; Chen, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    RNA quality control of endogenous RNAs is an integral part of eukaryotic gene expression and often relies on exonucleolytic degradation to eliminate dysfunctional transcripts. In parallel, exogenous and selected endogenous RNAs are degraded through RNA silencing, which is a genome defense mechanism used by many eukaryotes. In plants, RNA silencing is triggered by the production of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) by RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASEs (RDRs) and proceeds through small interfering (si) RNA-directed, ARGONAUTE (AGO)-mediated cleavage of homologous transcripts. Many studies revealed that plants avert inappropriate PTGS of endogenous coding genes by using RNA surveillance mechanisms as a safeguard to protect their transcriptome. The tug-of-war between RNA surveillance and RNA silencing ensures the appropriate partitioning of endogenous RNA substrates among these degradation pathways. Here we review recent advances on RNA quality control and its role in the suppression of RNA silencing at endogenous genes and discuss the mechanisms underlying the crosstalk among these pathways. PMID:27045817

  7. Knockdown of RNA Interference Pathway Genes in Western Corn Rootworms (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte) Demonstrates a Possible Mechanism of Resistance to Lethal dsRNA

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Ana María; Khajuria, Chitvan; Wang, Haichuan; Narva, Kenneth E.; Siegfried, Blair D.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is being developed as a potential tool for insect pest management. Increased understanding of the RNAi pathway in target insect pests will provide information to use this technology effectively and to inform decisions related to resistant management strategies for RNAi based traits. Dicer 2 (Dcr2), an endonuclease responsible for formation of small interfering RNA’s and Argonaute 2 (Ago2), an essential catalytic component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) have both been associated with the RNAi pathway in a number of different insect species including the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). We identified both genes from a transcriptome library generated from different tissues and developmental stages of the western corn rootworm, an important target pest for transgenic plants expressing dsRNA targeting essential genes. The expression of these genes was suppressed by more than 90% after injecting gene specific dsRNA into adult rootworms. The injected beetles were then fed vATPase A dsRNA which has previously been demonstrated to cause mortality in western corn rootworm adults. The suppression of both RNAi pathway genes resulted in reduced mortality after subsequent exposure to lethal concentrations of vATPase A dsRNA as well as increased vATPase A expression relative to control treatments. Injections with dsRNA for a non-lethal target sequence (Laccase 2) did not affect mortality or expression caused by vATPase A dsRNA indicating that the results observed with Argo and Dicer dsRNA were not caused by simple competition among different dsRNA’s. These results confirm that both genes play an important role in the RNAi pathway for western corn rootworms and indicate that selection pressures that potentially affect the expression of these genes may provide a basis for future studies to understand potential mechanisms of resistance. PMID:27310918

  8. Comparative analysis of RNA silencing suppression activities between viral suppressors and an endogenous plant RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Han, Kyoung-Sik; Park, Han-Yong; Choi, Seung-Kook

    2012-06-01

    RNA silencing is an evolutionarily conserved system that functions as an antiviral mechanism in eukaryotes, including higher plants. To counteract this, several plant viruses express silencing suppressors that inhibit RNA silencing in host plants. Here, we show that both 2b protein from peanut stunt virus (PSV) and a hairpin construct (designated hp-RDR6) that silences endogenous RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) strongly suppress RNA silencing. The Agrobacterium infiltration system was used to demonstrate that both PSV 2b and hp-RDR6 suppressed local RNA silencing as strongly as helper component (HC-Pro) from potato virus Y (PVY) and P19 from tomato bush stunt virus (TBSV). The 2b protein from PSV eliminated the small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) associated with RNA silencing and prevented systemic silencing, similar to 2b protein from cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). On the other hand, hp-RDR6 suppressed RNA silencing by inhibiting the generation of secondary siRNAs. The small coat protein (SCP) of squash mosaic virus (SqMV) also displayed weak suppression activity of RNA silencing. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer was used to investigate whether viral silencing suppressors or hp-RDR6 enhanced accumulations of green fluorescence protein (GFP) and β-glucuronidase (GUS) as markers of expression in leaf tissues of Nicotina benthamiana. Expression of both GFP and GUS was significantly enhanced in the presence of PSV 2b or CMV 2b, compared to no suppression or the weak SqMV SCP suppressor. Co-expression with hp-RDR6 also significantly increased the expression of GFP and GUS to levels similar to those induced by PVY HC-Pro and TBSV P19.

  9. Down-regulation of Mcl-1 by small interference RNA induces apoptosis and sensitizes HL-60 leukemia cells to etoposide.

    PubMed

    Karami, Hadi; Baradaran, Behzad; Esfehani, Ali; Sakhinia, Masoud; Sakhinia, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a fatal hematological malignancy which is resistant to a variety of chemotherapy drugs. Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1), a death-inhibiting protein that regulates apoptosis, has been shown to be overexpressed in numerous malignancies. In addition, it has been demonstrated that the expression level of the Mcl-1 gene increases at the time of leukemic relapse following chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to target Mcl-1 by small interference RNA (siRNA) and analyze its effects on survival and chemosensitivity of acute myeloid leukemia cell line HL-60. siRNA transfection was performed with a liposome approach. The expression levels of mRNA and protein were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Trypan blue assays were performed to evaluate tumor cell growth after siRNA transfection. The cytotoxic effects of Mcl-1 siRNA (siMcl-1) and etoposide were determined using MTT assay on their own and in combination. Apoptosis was quantified using a DNA-histone ELISA assay. Transfection with siMcl-1 significantly suppressed the expression of Mcl-1 mRNA and protein in a time- dependent manner, resulting in strong growth inhibition and spontaneous apoptosis. Surprisingly, pretreatment with siMcl-1 synergistically enhanced the cytotoxic effect of etoposide. Furthermore, Mcl-1 down-regulation significantly increased apoptosis sensitivity to etoposide. No significant biological effects were observed with negative control siRNA treatment. Our results suggest that specific suppression of Mcl-1 by siRNA can effectively induce apoptosis and overcome chemoresistance of leukemic cells. Therefore, siMcl-1 may be a potent adjuvant in leukemia chemotherapy.

  10. Cationized gelatin delivery of a plasmid DNA expressing small interference RNA for VEGF inhibits murine squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Goichi; Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Kinoshita, Yukihiko; Lee, Ushaku; Omi, Yasushi; Kubota, Eiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2006-04-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) plays a major role in RNA interference (RNAi), a process in which segments of dsRNA are initially cleaved by the Dicer into shorter segments (21-23 nt) called small interfering RNA (siRNA). These siRNA then specifically target homologous mRNA molecules causing them to be degraded by cellular ribonucleases. RNAi down regulates endogenous gene expression in mammalian cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key molecule in vasculogenesis as well as in angiogenesis. Tumor growth is an angiogenesis-dependent process, and therapeutic strategies aimed at inhibiting angiogenesis are theoretically attractive. To investigate the feasibility of using siRNA for VEGF in the specific knockdown of VEGF mRNA, thereby inhibiting angiogenesis, we have performed experiments with a DNA vector based on a siRNA system that targets VEGF (siVEGF). It almost completely inhibited the expression of three different isoforms (VEGF120, VEGF164 and VEGF188) of VEGF mRNA and the secretion of VEGF protein in mouse squamous cell carcinoma NRS-1 cells. The siVEGF released from cationized gelatin microspheres suppressed tumor growth in vivo. A marked reduction in vascularity accompanied the inhibition of a siVEGF-transfected tumor. Fluorescent microscopic study showed that the complex of siVEGF with cationized gelatin microspheres was still present around the tumor 10 days after injection, while free siVEGF had vanished by that time. siVEGF gene therapy increased the fraction of vessels covered by pericytes and induced expression of angiopoietin-1 by pericytes. These data suggest that cationized-gelatin microspheres containing siVEGF can be used to normalize tumor vasculature and inhibit tumor growth in a NRS-1 squamous cell carcinoma xenograft model.

  11. Use of lanthanum and sulphuric acid to suppress interferences in the flame photometric determination of calcium m soil extracts.

    PubMed

    Evans, C C; Grimshaw, H M

    1968-04-01

    Interference by iron, aluminium and phosphate in the flame photometric determination of calcium in soil extracts is not fully suppressed by lanthanum unless dilute sulphuric acid is also present. The investigation was restricted to the oxy-acetylene flame.

  12. Metabolic engineering of the baculovirus-expression system via inverse "shotgun" genomic analysis and RNA interference (dsRNA) increases product yield and cell longevity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jeong; Kramer, Shannon F; Hebert, Colin G; Valdes, James J; Bentley, William E

    2007-10-15

    RNA interference (RNAi) is as powerful tool for characterizing gene function in eukaryotic organisms and cultured cell lines. Its use in metabolic engineering has been limited and few reports have targeted protein expression systems to increase yield. In this work, we examine the use of in vitro synthesized double stranded RNA (dsRNA) in the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS), using commercially relevant cultured cells (Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf-9) and larvae (Trichoplusia ni) as hosts. First, we employed an inverse "shotgun" genomic analysis to "find" an array of 16 putative insect gene targets. We then synthesized dsRNA in vitro targeting these genes and investigated the effects of injected dsRNA on larval growth, development, and product yield. Growth and development was at times stunted and in several cases, the effects were lethal. However, dsRNA targeting an acidic juvenile hormone-suppressible protein (AJHSP1), and translational elongation factor 2 (Ef-2) resulted in significantly increased yield of model product, GFP. Next, we targeted known genes, v-cath and apoptosis inducer, sf-caspase 1, in cultured Sf-9 cells. We confirm RNAi-mediated sf-caspase 1 suppression in Sf-9 cells, but not in baculovirus-infected cells, likely due to the overriding effects of inhibitor of apoptosis protein, p35. We also demonstrate suppression of v-cath in infected cells, which leads to a approximately 3-fold increase in product yield. Overall, our results support the application of RNAi in metabolic engineering, specifically for enhancing protein productivity in the baculovirus expression vector system. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Echinococcus multilocularis primary cells: improved isolation, small-scale cultivation and RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Spiliotis, Markus; Mizukami, Chiaki; Oku, Yuzaburo; Kiss, Ferenc; Brehm, Klaus; Gottstein, Bruno

    2010-11-01

    In this study we demonstrate RNA interference mediated knock-down of target gene expression in Echinococcus multilocularis primary cells on both the transcriptional and translational level. In addition, we report on an improved method for generating E. multilocularis primary cell mini-aggregates from in vitro cultivated metacestode vesicles, and on the cultivation of small numbers of small interfering RNA-transfected cells in vitro over an extended period of time. This allows assessments on the effects of RNA interference performed on Echinococcus primary cells with regard to growth, proliferation, differentiation of the parasite and the formation of novel metacestode vesicles in vitro.

  14. Viral interference of the bacterial RNA metabolism machinery.

    PubMed

    Dendooven, Tom; Van den Bossche, An; Hendrix, Hanne; Ceyssens, Pieter-Jan; Voet, Marleen; Bandyra, K J; De Maeyer, Marc; Aertsen, Abram; Noben, Jean-Paul; Hardwick, Steven W; Luisi, Ben F; Lavigne, Rob

    2017-01-02

    In a recent publication, we reported a unique interaction between a protein encoded by the giant myovirus phiKZ and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa RNA degradosome. Crystallography, site-directed mutagenesis and interactomics approaches revealed this 'degradosome interacting protein' or Dip, to adopt an 'open-claw' dimeric structure that presents acidic patches on its outer surface which hijack 2 conserved RNA binding sites on the scaffold domain of the RNase E component of the RNA degradosome. This interaction prevents substrate RNAs from being bound and degraded by the RNA degradosome during the virus infection cycle. In this commentary, we provide a perspective into the biological role of Dip, its structural analysis and its mysterious evolutionary origin, and we suggest some therapeutic and biotechnological applications of this distinctive viral protein.

  15. Facilitation of tactile working memory by top-down suppression from prefrontal to primary somatosensory cortex during sensory interference.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, Petri; Carlson, Synnöve; Boldt, Robert; Neuvonen, Tuomas; Hannula, Henri; Hiltunen, Jaana; Salonen, Oili; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Pertovaara, Antti

    2011-06-01

    Tactile working memory (WM) is improved by increasing top-down suppression of interfering sensory processing in S1 via a link from the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) to S1. Here we studied in healthy subjects whether the efficacy of top-down suppression varies with submodality of sensory interference. Navigated stimulation of the MFG-S1 link significantly improved tactile WM performance when accompanied by tactile but not visual interference of memory maintenance.

  16. Cytorhabdovirus P protein suppresses RISC-mediated cleavage and RNA silencing amplification in planta.

    PubMed

    Mann, Krin S; Johnson, Karyn N; Carroll, Bernard J; Dietzgen, Ralf G

    2016-03-01

    Plant viruses have evolved to undermine the RNA silencing pathway by expressing suppressor protein(s) that interfere with one or more key components of this antiviral defense. Here we show that the recently identified RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) of lettuce necrotic yellows virus (LNYV), phosphoprotein P, binds to RNA silencing machinery proteins AGO1, AGO2, AGO4, RDR6 and SGS3 in protein-protein interaction assays when transiently expressed. In planta, we demonstrate that LNYV P inhibits miRNA-guided AGO1 cleavage and translational repression, and RDR6/SGS3-dependent amplification of silencing. Analysis of LNYV P deletion mutants identified a C-terminal protein domain essential for both local RNA silencing suppression and interaction with AGO1, AGO2, AGO4, RDR6 and SGS3. In contrast to other viral RSS known to disrupt AGO activity, LNYV P sequence does not contain any recognizable GW/WG or F-box motifs. This suggests that LNYV P may represent a new class of AGO binding proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modulation of alpha oscillations is required for the suppression of semantic interference.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Natalia; Mapelli, Igor; Özkurt, Tolga Esat

    2017-10-01

    Recent findings on alpha band oscillations suggest their important role in memory consolidation and suppression of external distractors such as environmental noise. However, less attention was given to the phenomenon of internal distracting information being solely inherent to the stimuli content. Human memory may be prone to internal distractions caused by semantic relatedness between the meaning of words (e.g., atom, neutron, nucleus, etc.) to be encoded, i.e., semantic interference. Our study investigates the brain oscillatory dynamics behind the semantic interference phenomenon, whose possible outcome is known as false memories. In this direction, Deese-Roediger-McDermott word lists were appropriated for a modified Sternberg paradigm in auditory modality. Participants received semantically related and unrelated word lists via headphones while EEG data were acquired. Semantic interference triggered the false memory rates to be higher than those of other types of memory errors. Analysis demonstrated that the upper part of alpha band (∼10-12Hz) power decreases on parieto-occipital channels in the retention interval, prior to the probe item for semantically related condition. Our study elucidates the oscillatory mechanisms behind semantic interference by relying on alpha functional inhibition theory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. RF interference suppression in a cardiac synchronization system operating in a high magnetic field NMR imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Damji, A.A.; Snyder, R.E.; Ellinger, D.C.; Witkowski, F.X.; Allen, P.S.

    1988-11-01

    An electrocardiographic (ECG) unit suitable for cardiac-synchronized nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in high magnetic fields is presented. The unit includes lossy transmission lines as ECG leads in order to suppress radio frequency (RF) interference in the electrocardiogram. The unit's immunity to RF interference is demonstrated.

  19. High-amylose wheat generated by RNA interference improves indices of large-bowel health in rats

    PubMed Central

    Regina, Ahmed; Bird, Anthony; Topping, David; Bowden, Sarah; Freeman, Judy; Barsby, Tina; Kosar-Hashemi, Behjat; Li, Zhongyi; Rahman, Sadequr; Morell, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Foods high in resistant starch have the potential to improve human health and lower the risk of serious noninfectious diseases. RNA interference was used to down-regulate the two different isoforms of starch-branching enzyme (SBE) II (SBEIIa and SBEIIb) in wheat endosperm to raise its amylose content. Suppression of SBEIIb expression alone had no effect on amylose content; however, suppression of both SBEIIa and SBEIIb expression resulted in starch containing >70% amylose. When the >70% amylose wheat grain was fed to rats in a diet as a wholemeal, several indices of large-bowel function, including short-chain fatty acids, were improved relative to standard wholemeal wheat. These results indicate that this high-amylose wheat has a significant potential to improve human health through its resistant starch content. PMID:16537443

  20. [Perspectives of RNA interference application in the therapy of diseases associated with defects in alternative RNA splicing].

    PubMed

    Wysokiński, Daniel; Błasiak, Janusz

    2012-09-18

    The primary transcript of an eukaryotic gene (pre-mRNA) is composed of coding regions--exons intervened by non-coding introns--which are removed in the RNA splicing process, leading to the formation of mature, intron-free mRNA. Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA is responsible for high complexity of the cellular proteome and expresses effective use of genetic information contained in genomic DNA. Alternative splicing plays important roles in the organism, including apoptosis regulation or development and plasticity of the nervous system. The main role of alternative splicing is differential, dependent on conditions and the cell type, splicing of mRNA, generating diverse transcripts from one gene, and, after the translation, different isoforms of a particular protein. Because of the high complexity of this mechanism, alternative splicing is particularly prone to errors. The perturbations resulting from mutations in the key sequences for splicing regulations are especially harmful. The pathogenesis of numerous diseases results from disturbed alternative RNA splicing, and those include cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. The treatment of these conditions is problematic due to their genetic background and currently RNA interference, which is a common mechanism of eukaryotic gene regulation, is being studied. Initial successes in the attempts of silencing the expression of faulty protein isoforms support the idea of using RNA interference in targeting disease related to disturbances in alternative splicing of RNA.

  1. Targeted suppression of Has2 mRNA in mouse cumulus cell-oocyte complexes by adenovirus-mediated short-hairpin RNA expression

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Koji; Su, You-Qiang; Eppig, John J.

    2008-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an effective tool for studying gene function in oocytes, but no studies have targeted somatic cells of primary cultured cumulus cell-oocyte complexes (COCs). This is probably due to difficulty in introducing RNAi-inducing molecules, such as a short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) gene, into COCs by commonly used transfection reagents. We therefore tested whether a developmental process of intact COCs could be suppressed by adenovirus-mediated shRNA expression. Has2, encoding hyaluronan synthase 2, was selected as the target transcript, because the process of cumulus expansion depends upon expression of Has2 mRNA and this process is easily evaluated in vitro. Intact COCs were infected with replication-incompetent adenoviruses containing an expression sequence of shRNA targeting either Has2 (Has2 shRNA) or a control transcript not expressed in cumulus cells, and the effects on epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated cumulus expansion were determined. Has2 shRNA expression suppressed Has2 mRNA levels in COCs by more than 70%, without affecting expression levels of Ptgs2, Ptx3, Tnfaip6 mRNAs, which are also required for cumulus expansion, or other transcripts not related to expansion. Interestingly, levels of Areg and Ereg mRNAs were decreased in COCs expressing Has2 shRNA when compared with those in controls, while Btc mRNA levels remained unaffected. Furthermore, the degree of cumulus expansion by Has2 shRNA-expressing COCs was significantly less than that of controls. Thus adenovirus-mediated introduction of shRNA produces specific gene silencing and a phenotype in intact COCs, providing proof of principle that this method will be a helpful tool for understanding mechanisms of COC development. PMID:18951380

  2. Small RNAs tackle large viruses: RNA interference-based antiviral defense against DNA viruses in insects.

    PubMed

    Bronkhorst, Alfred W; Miesen, Pascal; van Rij, Ronald P

    2013-01-01

    The antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) pathway processes viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into viral small interfering RNAs (vsiRNA) that guide the recognition and cleavage of complementary viral target RNAs. In RNA virus infections, viral replication intermediates, dsRNA genomes or viral structured RNAs have been implicated as Dicer-2 substrates. In a recent publication, we demonstrated that a double-stranded DNA virus, Invertebrate iridescent virus 6, is a target of the Drosophila RNAi machinery, and we proposed that overlapping converging transcripts base pair to form the dsRNA substrates for vsiRNA biogenesis. Here, we discuss the role of RNAi in antiviral defense to DNA viruses in Drosophila and other invertebrate model systems.

  3. Transgenic RNA interference (RNAi)-derived field resistance to cassava brown streak disease.

    PubMed

    Ogwok, Emmanuel; Odipio, John; Halsey, Mark; Gaitán-Solís, Eliana; Bua, Anton; Taylor, Nigel J; Fauquet, Claude M; Alicai, Titus

    2012-12-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), caused by the Ipomoviruses Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan Cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), is considered to be an imminent threat to food security in tropical Africa. Cassava plants were transgenically modified to generate small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from truncated full-length (894-bp) and N-terminal (402-bp) portions of the UCBSV coat protein (ΔCP) sequence. Seven siRNA-producing lines from each gene construct were tested under confined field trials at Namulonge, Uganda. All nontransgenic control plants (n = 60) developed CBSD symptoms on aerial tissues by 6 months after planting, whereas plants transgenic for the full-length ΔCP sequence showed a 3-month delay in disease development, with 98% of clonal replicates within line 718-001 remaining symptom free over the 11-month trial. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) diagnostics indicated the presence of UCBSV within the leaves of 57% of the nontransgenic controls, but in only two of 413 plants tested (0.5%) across the 14 transgenic lines. All transgenic plants showing CBSD were PCR positive for the presence of CBSV, except for line 781-001, in which 93% of plants were confirmed to be free of both pathogens. At harvest, 90% of storage roots from nontransgenic plants were severely affected by CBSD-induced necrosis. However, transgenic lines 718-005 and 718-001 showed significant suppression of disease, with 95% of roots from the latter line remaining free from necrosis and RT-PCR negative for the presence of both viral pathogens. Cross-protection against CBSV by siRNAs generated from the full-length UCBSV ΔCP confirms a previous report in tobacco. The information presented provides proof of principle for the control of CBSD by RNA interference-mediated technology, and progress towards the potential control of this damaging disease.

  4. Evaluation of potential RNA-interference-target genes to control cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcuidae).

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif M; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Khan, Azhar A; Naseem, Muhammad T; Mansoor, Shahid

    2017-03-18

    RNA interference (RNAi) of vital insect genes is a potential tool for targeted pest control. However, selection of the right target genes is a challenge because the RNAi efficacy is known to vary among insect species. Cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, is a phloem-feeding economically important crop pest. We evaluated the RNAi of two vital genes, Bursicon (PsBur) and V-ATPase (PsV-ATPase) as potential targets in P. solenopsis for its control. PCR fragments of PsBur and PsV-ATPase were amplified using cDNA synthesized from the total RNA. The PCR amplicons were cloned into Potato virus X (PVX) to develop recombinant PVX for the inoculation of Nicotiana tabacum plants for bioassays with healthy P. solenopsis. Reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to validate the expression of transgenes in the recombinant-PVX-inoculated plants (treated), and suppression of the target genes in the mealybugs exposed to them. The RT-PCR confirmed the expression of transgenes in the treated plants. Mealybug individuals on treated plants either died or showed physical deformities. Further, the population of mealybug was significantly reduced by feeding on N. tabacum expressing RNAi triggers against PsBur and PsV-ATPase. The results conclude that RNAi is activated in P. solenopsis by feeding on N. tabacum expressing RNAi triggering elements of PsBur and PsV-ATPase genes through recombinant PVX vector. Further, V-ATPase and Bursicon genes are potential targets for RNAi mediated control of P. solenopsis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. The Maturation of Interference Suppression and Response Inhibition: ERP Analysis of a Cued Go/Nogo Task

    PubMed Central

    Szücs, Denes; Whitebread, David

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control is a core function that allows us to resist interference from our surroundings and to stop an ongoing action. To date, it is not clear whether inhibitory control is a single process or whether it is composed of different processes. Further, whether these processes are separate or clustered in childhood is under debate. In this study, we investigated the existence and development of two hypothesized component processes of inhibitory control–interference suppression and response inhibition–using a single task and event related potential components. Twenty 8-year-old children and seventeen adults performed a spatially cued Go/Nogo task while their brain activity was recorded using electroencephalography. Mean N2 amplitudes confirmed the expected pattern for response inhibition with both the children and the adults showing more negative N2 for Nogo vs. Go trials. The interference suppression N2 effect was only present in adults and appeared as a more negative N2 in response to Go trials with a congruent cue than Go trials with an incongruent cue. Contrary to previous findings, there was no evidence that the interference suppression N2 effect was later occurring than the response inhibition N2 effect. Overall, response inhibition was present in both the children and the adults whereas interference suppression was only present in the adults. These results provide evidence of distinct maturational processes for both component processes of inhibitory control, with interference suppression probably continuing to develop into late childhood. PMID:27814356

  6. The Maturation of Interference Suppression and Response Inhibition: ERP Analysis of a Cued Go/Nogo Task.

    PubMed

    Vuillier, Laura; Bryce, Donna; Szücs, Denes; Whitebread, David

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control is a core function that allows us to resist interference from our surroundings and to stop an ongoing action. To date, it is not clear whether inhibitory control is a single process or whether it is composed of different processes. Further, whether these processes are separate or clustered in childhood is under debate. In this study, we investigated the existence and development of two hypothesized component processes of inhibitory control-interference suppression and response inhibition-using a single task and event related potential components. Twenty 8-year-old children and seventeen adults performed a spatially cued Go/Nogo task while their brain activity was recorded using electroencephalography. Mean N2 amplitudes confirmed the expected pattern for response inhibition with both the children and the adults showing more negative N2 for Nogo vs. Go trials. The interference suppression N2 effect was only present in adults and appeared as a more negative N2 in response to Go trials with a congruent cue than Go trials with an incongruent cue. Contrary to previous findings, there was no evidence that the interference suppression N2 effect was later occurring than the response inhibition N2 effect. Overall, response inhibition was present in both the children and the adults whereas interference suppression was only present in the adults. These results provide evidence of distinct maturational processes for both component processes of inhibitory control, with interference suppression probably continuing to develop into late childhood.

  7. SUMOylation of Argonaute-2 regulates RNA interference activity

    PubMed Central

    Josa-Prado, Fernando; Henley, Jeremy M.; Wilkinson, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modification of substrate proteins by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) regulates a vast array of cellular processes. SUMOylation occurs through three sequential enzymatic steps termed E1, E2 and E3. Substrate selection can be determined through interactions between the target protein and the SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme Ubc9 and specificity can be enhanced by substrate interactions with E3 ligase enzymes. We used the putative substrate recognition (PINIT) domain from the SUMO E3 PIAS3 as bait to identify potential SUMO substrates. One protein identified was Argonaute-2 (Ago2), which mediates RNA-induced gene silencing through binding small RNAs and promoting degradation of complimentary target mRNAs. We show that Ago2 can be SUMOylated in mammalian cells by both SUMO1 and SUMO2. SUMOylation occurs primarily at K402, and mutation of the SUMO consensus site surrounding this lysine reduces Ago2-mediated siRNA-induced silencing in a luciferase-based reporter assay. These results identify SUMOylation as a potential regulator of Ago2 activity and open new avenues for research into the mechanisms underlying the regulation of RNA-induced gene silencing. PMID:26188511

  8. CRISPR interference: RNA-directed adaptive immunity in bacteria and archaea

    PubMed Central

    Marraffini, Luciano A.; Sontheimer, Erik J.

    2010-01-01

    Sequence-directed genetic interference pathways control gene expression and preserve genome integrity in all kingdoms of life. The importance of such pathways is highlighted by the extensive study of RNA interference (RNAi) and related processes in eukaryotes. In many bacteria and most archaea, clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) are involved in a more recently discovered interference pathway that protects cells from bacteriophages and conjugative plasmids. CRISPR sequences provide an adaptive, heritable record of past infections and express CRISPR RNAs — small RNAs that target invasive nucleic acids. Here, we review the mechanisms of CRISPR interference and its roles in microbial physiology and evolution. We also discuss potential applications of this novel interference pathway. PMID:20125085

  9. Enhancing Singlet Fission Dynamics by Suppressing Destructive Interference between Charge-Transfer Pathways.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Maria A; Huo, Pengfei

    2017-06-01

    We apply a real-time path-integral approach to investigate the charge-transfer (CT)-mediated singlet fission quantum dynamics in a model pentacene dimer. Our path-integral method gives reliable fission dynamics across various reaction regimes as well as a broad range of reorganization energies and temperatures. With this method, we investigated the destructive interference between the two CT-mediated fission pathways and discovered two mechanisms that can suppress this deleterious effect. First, increasing the energy gap between the two CT states effectively shuts down the high-lying CT pathway, leaving a better functioning low-lying CT pathway with a minimum amount of destructive interference. Second, intermolecular vibrations induce electronic coupling fluctuations, such that the destructive cancellations due to the different signs in static electronic couplings are suppressed. Our numerical results suggest that these two effects can enhance the fission rate up to three times. These findings reveal promising design principles for more efficient singlet fission materials.

  10. A generic plant RNA isolation method suitable for RNA-Seq and suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y Q; Wu, W J; Xiao, H W; Chen, H B; Zheng, Y; Zhang, Y J; Wang, H X; Huang, L Q

    2013-11-18

    A recently developed revolutionary approach to transcriptomics, RNA-Seq, and suppression subtractive hybridization are powerful tools for gene expression research. However, currently, the difficulty of isolating high-quality RNAs from plant tissues bearing abundant complex polysaccharides, polyphenolics, and secondary metabolites is a serious problem that not only limits the application of these technologies but also hinders studies dealing with RNA in general. We have developed a consistent protocol to prepare highly intact and pure RNAs from tissues of a variety of field-grown plant species, with high yields, in 2 to 3 h. Additionally, this method can be readily applied to mammalian, yeast, and bacterial cells.

  11. STAR RNA-binding protein Quaking suppresses cancer via stabilization of specific miRNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, An-Jou; Paik, Ji-Hye; Zhang, Hailei; Shukla, Sachet A; Mortensen, Richard; Hu, Jian; Ying, Haoqiang; Hu, Baoli; Hurt, Jessica; Farny, Natalie; Dong, Caroline; Xiao, Yonghong; Wang, Y Alan; Silver, Pamela A; Chin, Lynda; Vasudevan, Shobha; Depinho, Ronald A

    2012-07-01

    Multidimensional cancer genome analysis and validation has defined Quaking (QKI), a member of the signal transduction and activation of RNA (STAR) family of RNA-binding proteins, as a novel glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumor suppressor. Here, we establish that p53 directly regulates QKI gene expression, and QKI protein associates with and leads to the stabilization of miR-20a; miR-20a, in turn, regulates TGFβR2 and the TGFβ signaling network. This pathway circuitry is substantiated by in silico epistasis analysis of its components in the human GBM TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas Project) collection and by their gain- and loss-of-function interactions in in vitro and in vivo complementation studies. This p53-QKI-miR-20a-TGFβ pathway expands our understanding of the p53 tumor suppression network in cancer and reveals a novel tumor suppression mechanism involving regulation of specific cancer-relevant microRNAs.

  12. RNA interference can target pre-mRNA: consequences for gene expression in a Caenorhabditis elegans operon.

    PubMed Central

    Bosher, J M; Dufourcq, P; Sookhareea, S; Labouesse, M

    1999-01-01

    In nematodes, flies, trypanosomes, and planarians, introduction of double-stranded RNA results in sequence-specific inactivation of gene function, a process termed RNA interference (RNAi). We demonstrate that RNAi against the Caenorhabditis elegans gene lir-1, which is part of the lir-1/lin-26 operon, induced phenotypes very different from a newly isolated lir-1 null mutation. Specifically, lir-1(RNAi) induced embryonic lethality reminiscent of moderately strong lin-26 alleles, whereas the lir-1 null mutant was viable. We show that the lir-1(RNAi) phenotypes resulted from a severe loss of lin-26 gene expression. In addition, we found that RNAi directed against lir-1 or lin-26 introns induced similar phenotypes, so we conclude that lir-1(RNAi) targets the lir-1/lin-26 pre-mRNA. This provides direct evidence that RNA interference can prevent gene expression by targeting nuclear transcripts. Our results highlight that caution may be necessary when interpreting RNA interference without the benefit of mutant alleles. PMID:10545456

  13. Orthogonal on-off control of radar pulses for the suppression of mutual interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Cheol

    1998-10-01

    Intelligent vehicles of the future will be guided by radars and other sensors to avoid obstacles. When multiple vehicles move simultaneously in autonomous navigational mode, mutual interference among car radars becomes a serious problem. An obstacle is illuminated with electromagnetic pulses from several radars. The signal at a radar receiver is actually a mixture of the self-reflection and the reflection of interfering pulses emitted by others. When standardized pulse- type radars are employed on vehicles for obstacle avoidance and so self-pulse and interfering pulses have identical pulse repetition interval, this SI (synchronous Interference) is very difficult to separate from the true reflection. We present a method of suppressing such a synchronous interference. By controlling the pulse emission of a radar in a binary orthogonal ON, OFF pattern, the true self-reflection can be separated from the false one. Two range maps are generated, TRM (true-reflection map) and SIM (synchronous- interference map). TRM is updated for every ON interval and SIM is updated for every OFF interval of the self-radar. SIM represents the SI of interfering radars while TRM keeps a record of a mixture of the true self-reflection and SI. Hence the true obstacles can be identified by the set subtraction operation. The performance of the proposed method is compared with that of the conventional M of N method. Bayesian analysis shows that the probability of false alarm is improved by order of 103 to approximately 106 while the deterioration in the probability of detection is negligible.

  14. The development of RNA interference (RNAi) in gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Selkirk, Murray E; Huang, Stanley C; Knox, David P; Britton, Collette

    2012-04-01

    Despite the utility of RNAi for defining gene function in Caenorhabditis elegans and early successes reported in parasitic nematodes, RNAi has proven to be stubbornly inconsistent or ineffective in the animal parasitic nematodes examined to date. Here, we summarise some of our experiences with RNAi in parasitic nematodes affecting animals and discuss the available data in the context of our own unpublished work, taking account of mode of delivery, larval activation, site of gene transcription and the presence/absence of essential RNAi pathway genes as defined by comparisons to C. elegans. We discuss future directions briefly including the evaluation of nanoparticles as a means to enhance delivery of interfering RNA to the target worm tissue.

  15. Exosomes: Nanoparticulate tools for RNA interference and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Shahabipour, Fahimeh; Barati, Nastaran; Johnston, Thomas P; Derosa, Giuseppe; Maffioli, Pamela; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2017-07-01

    Exosomes are naturally occurring extracellular vesicles released by most mammalian cells in all body fluids. Exosomes are known as key mediators in cell-cell communication and facilitate the transfer of genetic and biochemical information between distant cells. Structurally, exosomes are composed of lipids, proteins, and also several types of RNAs which enable these vesicles to serve as important disease biomarkers. Moreover, exosomes have emerged as novel drug and gene delivery tools owing to their multiple advantages over conventional delivery systems. Recently, increasing attention has been focused on exosomes for the delivery of drugs, including therapeutic recombinant proteins, to various target tissues. Exosomes are also promising vehicles for the delivery of microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, which is usually hampered by rapid degradation of these RNAs, as well as inefficient tissue specificity of currently available delivery strategies. This review highlights the most recent accomplishments and trends in the use of exosomes for the delivery of drugs and therapeutic RNA molecules.

  16. RNA interference in mosquito: understanding immune responses, double-stranded RNA delivery systems and potential applications in vector control.

    PubMed

    Balakrishna Pillai, A; Nagarajan, U; Mitra, A; Krishnan, U; Rajendran, S; Hoti, S L; Mishra, R K

    2017-04-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) refers to the process of post-transcriptional silencing of cellular mRNA by the application of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). RNAi strategies have been widely employed to regulate gene expression in plants and animals including insects. With the availability of the full genome sequences of major vector mosquitoes, RNAi has been increasingly used to conduct genetic studies of human pathogens in mosquito vectors and to study the evolution of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. This review summarizes the recent progress in our understanding of mosquito-pathogen interactions using RNAi and various methods of dsRNA delivery in mosquitoes at different stages. We also discuss potential applications of this technology to develop novel tools for vector control.

  17. Using RNA Interference to Reveal Genetic: Vulnerabilities in Human Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    insights can be obtained through RNAi (RNA interference) genetic studies RNAi is a cellular process that regulates gene expression in a sequence ... sequence -verified more than 200,000 shRNAs covering almost all of the predicted genes in the mouse and human genomes15. Our shRNA library can function...barcodes to custom microarrays that contain the complement of these sequences . One can assess cellular response to different treatments by

  18. Improving model predictions for RNA interference activities that use support vector machine regression by combining and filtering features

    PubMed Central

    Peek, Andrew S

    2007-01-01

    Background RNA interference (RNAi) is a naturally occurring phenomenon that results in the suppression of a target RNA sequence utilizing a variety of possible methods and pathways. To dissect the factors that result in effective siRNA sequences a regression kernel Support Vector Machine (SVM) approach was used to quantitatively model RNA interference activities. Results Eight overall feature mapping methods were compared in their abilities to build SVM regression models that predict published siRNA activities. The primary factors in predictive SVM models are position specific nucleotide compositions. The secondary factors are position independent sequence motifs (N-grams) and guide strand to passenger strand sequence thermodynamics. Finally, the factors that are least contributory but are still predictive of efficacy are measures of intramolecular guide strand secondary structure and target strand secondary structure. Of these, the site of the 5' most base of the guide strand is the most informative. Conclusion The capacity of specific feature mapping methods and their ability to build predictive models of RNAi activity suggests a relative biological importance of these features. Some feature mapping methods are more informative in building predictive models and overall t-test filtering provides a method to remove some noisy features or make comparisons among datasets. Together, these features can yield predictive SVM regression models with increased predictive accuracy between predicted and observed activities both within datasets by cross validation, and between independently collected RNAi activity datasets. Feature filtering to remove features should be approached carefully in that it is possible to reduce feature set size without substantially reducing predictive models, but the features retained in the candidate models become increasingly distinct. Software to perform feature prediction and SVM training and testing on nucleic acid sequences can be found at

  19. Dihydroartemisinin suppresses pancreatic cancer cells via a microRNA-mRNA regulatory network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yilong; Wang, Yongwei; Kong, Rui; Xue, Dongbo; Pan, Shangha; Chen, Hua; Sun, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Despite improvements in surgical procedures and chemotherapy, pancreatic cancer remains one of the most aggressive and fatal human malignancies, with a low 5-year survival rate of only 8%. Therefore, novel strategies for prevention and treatment are urgently needed. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the anti-pancreatic cancer effects dihydroartemisinin (DHA). Microarray and systematic analysis showed that DHA suppressed proliferation, inhibited angiogenesis and promoted apoptosis in two different human pancreatic cancer cell lines, and that 5 DHA-regulated microRNAs and 11 of their target mRNAs were involved in these effects via 19 microRNA-mRNA interactions. Four of these microRNAs, 9 of the mRNAs and 17 of the interactions were experimentally verified. Furthermore, we found that the anti-pancreatic caner effects of DHA in vivo involved 4 microRNAs, 9 mRNAs and 17 microRNA-mRNA interactions. These results improve the understanding of the mechanisms by which DHA suppresses proliferation and angiogenesis and promotes apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells and indicate that DHA, an effective antimalarial drug, might improve pancreatic cancer treatments. PMID:27613829

  20. Adapting rice anther culture to gene transformation and RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Caiyan; Xiao, Han; Zhang, Wenli; Wang, Aiju; Xia, Zhihui; Li, Xiaobing; Zhai, Wenxue; Cheng, Zhukuan; Zhu, Lihuang

    2006-10-01

    Anther culture offers a rapid method of generating homozygous lines for breeding program and genetic analysis. To produce homozygous transgenic lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in one step, we developed an efficient protocol of anther-callus-based transformation mediated by Agrobacterium after optimizing several factors influencing efficient transformation, including callus induction and Agrobacterium density for co-cultivation. Using this protocol, we obtained 145 independent green transformants from five cultivars of japonica rice by transformation with a binary vector pCXK1301 bearing the rice gene, Xa21 for resistance to bacterial blight, of which 140 were further confirmed by PCR and Southern hybridization analysis, including haploids (32.1%), diploids (62.1%) and mixoploids (7.5%). Fifteen diploids were found to be doubled haploids, which accounted for 10.7% of the total positive lines. Finally, by including 28 from colchicine induced or spontaneous diploidization of haploids later after transformation, a total of 43 doubled haploids (30.7%) of Xa21 transgenic lines were obtained. We also generated two RNAi transgenic haploids of the rice OsMADS2 gene, a putative redundant gene of OsMADS4 based on their sequence similarity, to investigate its possible roles in rice flower development by this method. Flowers from the two OsMADS2 RNAi transgenic haploids displayed obvious homeotic alternations, in which lodicules were transformed into palea/lemma-like tissues, whereas identities of other floral organs were maintained. The phenotypic alternations were proved to result from specific transcriptional suppression of OsMADS2 gene by the introduced RNAi transgene. The results confirmed that OsMADS2 is involved in lodicule development of rice flower and functionally redundant with OsMADS4 gene. Our results demonstrated that rice anther culture could be adapted to gene transformation and RNAi analysis in rice.

  1. Identification of giant Mimivirus protein functions using RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Sobhy, Haitham; Scola, Bernard La; Pagnier, Isabelle; Raoult, Didier; Colson, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Genomic analysis of giant viruses, such as Mimivirus, has revealed that more than half of the putative genes have no known functions (ORFans). We knocked down Mimivirus genes using short interfering RNA as a proof of concept to determine the functions of giant virus ORFans. As fibers are easy to observe, we targeted a gene encoding a protein absent in a Mimivirus mutant devoid of fibers as well as three genes encoding products identified in a protein concentrate of fibers, including one ORFan and one gene of unknown function. We found that knocking down these four genes was associated with depletion or modification of the fibers. Our strategy of silencing ORFan genes in giant viruses opens a way to identify its complete gene repertoire and may clarify the role of these genes, differentiating between junk DNA and truly used genes. Using this strategy, we were able to annotate four proteins in Mimivirus and 30 homologous proteins in other giant viruses. In addition, we were able to annotate >500 proteins from cellular organisms and 100 from metagenomic databases. PMID:25972846

  2. Identification of giant Mimivirus protein functions using RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Sobhy, Haitham; Scola, Bernard La; Pagnier, Isabelle; Raoult, Didier; Colson, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Genomic analysis of giant viruses, such as Mimivirus, has revealed that more than half of the putative genes have no known functions (ORFans). We knocked down Mimivirus genes using short interfering RNA as a proof of concept to determine the functions of giant virus ORFans. As fibers are easy to observe, we targeted a gene encoding a protein absent in a Mimivirus mutant devoid of fibers as well as three genes encoding products identified in a protein concentrate of fibers, including one ORFan and one gene of unknown function. We found that knocking down these four genes was associated with depletion or modification of the fibers. Our strategy of silencing ORFan genes in giant viruses opens a way to identify its complete gene repertoire and may clarify the role of these genes, differentiating between junk DNA and truly used genes. Using this strategy, we were able to annotate four proteins in Mimivirus and 30 homologous proteins in other giant viruses. In addition, we were able to annotate >500 proteins from cellular organisms and 100 from metagenomic databases.

  3. Efficient delivery of RNA interference oligonucleotides to polarized airway epithelia in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Shyam; Krishnamurthy, Sateesh; Jacobi, Ashley M.; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine; Behlke, Mark A.; Davidson, Beverly L.

    2013-01-01

    Polarized and pseudostratified primary airway epithelia present barriers that significantly reduce their transfection efficiency and the efficacy of RNA interference oligonucleotides. This creates an impediment in studies of the airway epithelium, diminishing the utility of loss-of-function as a research tool. Here we outline methods to introduce RNAi oligonucleotides into primary human and porcine airway epithelia grown at an air-liquid interface and difficult-to-transfect transformed epithelial cell lines grown on plastic. At the time of plating, we reverse transfect small-interfering RNA (siRNA), Dicer-substrate siRNA, or microRNA oligonucleotides into cells by use of lipid or peptide transfection reagents. Using this approach we achieve significant knockdown in vitro of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, IL-8, and CFTR expression at the mRNA and protein levels in 1–3 days. We also attain significant reduction of secreted IL-8 in polarized primary pig airway epithelia 3 days posttransfection and inhibition of CFTR-mediated Cl− conductance in polarized air-liquid interface cultures of human airway epithelia 2 wk posttransfection. These results highlight an efficient means to deliver RNA interference reagents to airway epithelial cells and achieve significant knockdown of target gene expression and function. The ability to reliably conduct loss-of-function assays in polarized primary airway epithelia offers benefits to research in studies of epithelial cell homeostasis, candidate gene function, gene-based therapeutics, microRNA biology, and targeting the replication of respiratory viruses. PMID:23624792

  4. RNA interference for functional genomics and improvement of cotton (Gossypium species)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    RNA interference (RNAi), is a powerful new technology in the discovery of genetic sequence functions, and has become a valuable tool for functional genomics of cotton (Gossypium ssp.). The rapid adoption of RNAi has replaced previous antisense technology. RNAi has aided in the discovery of function ...

  5. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive ex...

  6. How Golden Is Silence? Teaching Undergraduates the Power and Limits of RNA Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuldell, Natalie H.

    2006-01-01

    It is hard and getting harder to strike a satisfying balance in teaching. Time dedicated to student-generated models or ideas is often sacrificed in an effort to "get through the syllabus." I describe a series of RNA interference (RNAi) experiments for undergraduate students that simultaneously explores fundamental concepts in gene regulation,…

  7. A Simple Laboratory Practical to Illustrate RNA Mediated Gene Interference Using Drosophila Cell Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buluwela, Laki; Kamalati, Tahereh; Photiou, Andy; Heathcote, Dean A.; Jones, Michael D.; Ali, Simak

    2010-01-01

    RNA mediated gene interference (RNAi) is now a key tool in eukaryotic cell and molecular biology research. This article describes a five session laboratory practical, spread over a seven day period, to introduce and illustrate the technique. During the exercise, students working in small groups purify PCR products that encode "in vitro"…

  8. How Golden Is Silence? Teaching Undergraduates the Power and Limits of RNA Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuldell, Natalie H.

    2006-01-01

    It is hard and getting harder to strike a satisfying balance in teaching. Time dedicated to student-generated models or ideas is often sacrificed in an effort to "get through the syllabus." I describe a series of RNA interference (RNAi) experiments for undergraduate students that simultaneously explores fundamental concepts in gene regulation,…

  9. A Simple Laboratory Practical to Illustrate RNA Mediated Gene Interference Using Drosophila Cell Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buluwela, Laki; Kamalati, Tahereh; Photiou, Andy; Heathcote, Dean A.; Jones, Michael D.; Ali, Simak

    2010-01-01

    RNA mediated gene interference (RNAi) is now a key tool in eukaryotic cell and molecular biology research. This article describes a five session laboratory practical, spread over a seven day period, to introduce and illustrate the technique. During the exercise, students working in small groups purify PCR products that encode "in vitro"…

  10. [Deficit in suppression of interference in visual information processing by schizophrenic subjects].

    PubMed

    Gagnon, J F; Everett, J; LaJeunesse, C; Gosselin, N; Lavoie, K

    2000-01-01

    Although many studies have indicated information processing deficits in schizophrenic patients, the precise nature and underlying causes of these deficits remain largely uncertain. One prominent hypothesis is that these patients show insufficient attentional inhibition. This deficit to inhibition has been linked to certain cognitive disorders in schizophrenic patients, including attention deficits, as well as to some clinical symptoms, especially those involving delusional thought, hallucinations,and poor contact with reality. The hypothesis of deficient attentional inhibition, although attractive in some ways, is difficult to work with, because it is not easy to directly measure "attentional inhibition". Several studies involving normal subjects have linked attentional inhibition with performance on a task demanding the suppression of distracting information: the presumption is that efficient attentional inhibition will permit rapid responses because the distracting information will be quickly suppressed, allowing undistracted processing of the target information. The present study measures schizophrenic patients' performance on a task demanding suppression of rapidly-presented visual information. An important methodological feature of this study is that performance is measured in terms of "percent correct responses" rather than the reaction time measures typically used in tasks demanding distractor suppression, such as Stroop-like selective attention tasks. Since reaction times are not considered, the results cannot be interpreted in terms of deficient response organization and execution. Schizophrenic (18) and normal (18) subjects underwent trials in which a visual target was the second of two stimuli presented in rapid succession. Interference produced by a non-target significantly impaired perception of the target for schizophrenic patients. This effect persisted longer in the schizophrenic subjects possibly because of deficient attentional inhibition.

  11. siRNA-Mediated RNA Interference in Precision-Cut Tissue Slices Prepared from Mouse Lung and Kidney.

    PubMed

    Ruigrok, Mitchel J R; Maggan, Nalinie; Willaert, Delphine; Frijlink, Henderik W; Melgert, Barbro N; Olinga, Peter; Hinrichs, Wouter L J

    2017-09-11

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated RNAi interference (RNAi) is a powerful post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism which can be used to study the function of genes in vitro (cell cultures) and in vivo (animal models). However, there is a translational gap between these models. Hence, there is a need for novel experimental models that combine the advantages of in vitro and in vivo models (e.g., simplicity, flexibility, throughput, and representability) to study the effects of siRNA. This need may be addressed by precision-cut tissue slices (PCTS), which represent an ex vivo model that mimics the structural and functional characteristics of a whole organ. The goal of this study was to investigate whether self-deliverable siRNA (Accell siRNA) can be used in precision-cut lung slices (PCLuS) and precision-cut kidney slices (PCKS) to achieve RNAi ex vivo. PCLuS and PCKS were prepared from mouse tissue, and they were subsequently incubated up to 48 h with no siRNA (untransfected), non-targeting Accell siRNA, or Gapdh-targeting Accell siRNA. Significant Gapdh mRNA silencing was achieved (PCLuS ~ 55%; PCKS ~ 40%) without compromising the viability and morphology of slices. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed that Accell siRNA diffused into PCLuS and PCKS. Spontaneous inflammation upon incubation was observed in PCLuS and PCKS as shown by a higher mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines Il1b, Il6, and Tnfa, although Accell siRNA appeared to diminish this response in PCLuS after 24 h. In conclusion, this ex vivo transfection model can be used to evaluate the effects of siRNA in relevant biological environments.

  12. Accumulation of dsRNA in endosomes contributes to inefficient RNA interference in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda.

    PubMed

    Yoon, June-Sun; Gurusamy, Dhandapani; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2017-09-23

    RNA interference (RNAi) efficiency varies among insects studied. The barriers for successful RNAi include the presence of double-stranded ribonucleases (dsRNase) in the lumen and hemolymph that could potentially digest double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and the variability in the transport of dsRNA into and within the cells. We recently showed that the dsRNAs are transported into lepidopteran cells, but they are not processed into small interference RNAs (siRNAs) because they are trapped in acidic bodies. In the current study, we focused on the identification of acidic bodies in which dsRNAs accumulate in Sf9 cells. Time-lapse imaging studies showed that dsRNAs enter Sf9 cells and accumulate in acidic bodies within 20 min after their addition to the medium. CypHer-5E-labeled dsRNA also accumulated in the midgut and fat body dissected from Spodoptera frugiperda larvae with similar patterns observed in Sf9 cells. Pharmacological inhibitor assays showed that the dsRNAs use clathrin mediated endocytosis pathway for transport into the cells. We investigated the potential dsRNA accumulation sites employing LysoTracker and double labeling experiments using the constructs to express a fusion of green fluorescence protein with early or late endosomal marker proteins and CypHer-5E-labeled dsRNA. Interestingly, CypHer-5E-labeled dsRNA accumulated predominantly in early and late endosomes. These data suggest that entrapment of internalized dsRNA in endosomes is one of the major factors contributing to inefficient RNAi response in lepidopteran insects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Targeting of EWS/FLI-1 by RNA interference attenuates the tumor phenotype of Ewing's sarcoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chansky, Howard A; Barahmand-Pour, Fariba; Mei, Qi; Kahn-Farooqi, Waqqar; Zielinska-Kwiatkowska, Anna; Blackburn, Michael; Chansky, Kari; Conrad, Ernest U; Bruckner, James D; Greenlee, Theodore K; Yang, Liu

    2004-07-01

    The defining cytogenetic abnormality of Ewing's sarcoma is the presence of a balanced t(11;22) translocation expressing the EWS/FLI-1 chimeric fusion protein. The effect of EWS/FLI-1 appears to be dominant negative since over-expression of EWS does not overcome the sarcoma phenotype. Previous studies have shown that EWS/FLI-1 as well as related sarcoma fusion proteins are necessary and sufficient to induce transformation both in vitro and in vivo. In this study we report that synthetic small interfering RNA (siRNA) specifically suppresses EWS/FLI-1 fusion gene expression in SK-ES Ewing's sarcoma cells. Knockdown of the EWS/FLI-1 fusion protein is correlated with decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. We demonstrate that Ewing's sarcoma tumors as well as Ewing's sarcoma cell lines predominantly express the CXCR4 chemokine receptor. Using an in vitro invasion assay, the SDF-1 ligand of CXCR4 was shown to be a potent stimulus of invasion by SK-ES cells. Knockdown of EWS/FLI-1 by RNA interference abrogates the invasiveness of SK-ES cells. These experiments suggest that targeted silencing of the EWS/FLI-1 fusion gene by siRNA represents a promising strategy to study the loss of EWS/FLI-1 protein in Ewing's sarcoma cells of otherwise identical genetic background.

  14. RNA Interference based Approach to Down Regulate Osmoregulators of Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci): Potential Technology for the Control of Whitefly.

    PubMed

    Raza, Amir; Malik, Hassan Jamil; Shafiq, Muhammad; Amin, Imran; Scheffler, Jodi A; Scheffler, Brian E; Mansoor, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade RNA interference (RNAi) technology has emerged as a successful tool not only for functional genomics, but in planta expression of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that could offer great potential for insect pest management. The diet of insects feeding exclusively on phloem sieves contains water and sugars as main components, and the uptake of the liquid food greatly depends on the osmotic pressure within the insect body. Based on this physiological mechanism, transgenic plants of Nicotiana tabacum were generated expressing double stranded RNA (dsRNA) against both aquaporin (AQP) and a sucrase gene, alpha glucosidase (AGLU). These two genes are involved in osmotic pressure maintenance particularly in sap sucking insects, and the aim was to disrupt osmoregulation within the insect ultimately leading to mortality. Real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to assess the suppression of gene expression in Bemisia tabaci (B. tabaci) and mortality was recorded during transgenic tobacco feeding bioassays. Feeding of insects on plants expressing dsRNA significantly reduced the transcript level of the target genes in B. tabaci after six days of feeding and more than 70% mortality was observed in B. tabaci fed on transgenic plants compared to the control plants. Our data shows that down-regulation of genes related to osmoregulation may find practical applications for the control of this important pest in cotton and other crops.

  15. RNA Interference based Approach to Down Regulate Osmoregulators of Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci): Potential Technology for the Control of Whitefly

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Amir; Malik, Hassan Jamil; Shafiq, Muhammad; Amin, Imran; Scheffler, Jodi A.; Scheffler, Brian E.; Mansoor, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade RNA interference (RNAi) technology has emerged as a successful tool not only for functional genomics, but in planta expression of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that could offer great potential for insect pest management. The diet of insects feeding exclusively on phloem sieves contains water and sugars as main components, and the uptake of the liquid food greatly depends on the osmotic pressure within the insect body. Based on this physiological mechanism, transgenic plants of Nicotiana tabacum were generated expressing double stranded RNA (dsRNA) against both aquaporin (AQP) and a sucrase gene, alpha glucosidase (AGLU). These two genes are involved in osmotic pressure maintenance particularly in sap sucking insects, and the aim was to disrupt osmoregulation within the insect ultimately leading to mortality. Real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to assess the suppression of gene expression in Bemisia tabaci (B. tabaci) and mortality was recorded during transgenic tobacco feeding bioassays. Feeding of insects on plants expressing dsRNA significantly reduced the transcript level of the target genes in B. tabaci after six days of feeding and more than 70% mortality was observed in B. tabaci fed on transgenic plants compared to the control plants. Our data shows that down-regulation of genes related to osmoregulation may find practical applications for the control of this important pest in cotton and other crops. PMID:27105353

  16. Advances in RNA interference technology and its impact on nutritional improvement, disease and insect control in plants.

    PubMed

    Katoch, Rajan; Thakur, Neelam

    2013-03-01

    This review highlights the advances in the knowledge of RNA interference (RNAi) and discusses recent progress on the functionality of different components RNAi machinery operating in the organisms. The silencing of genes by RNA interference has become the technology of choice for investigation of gene functions in different organisms. The refinement in the knowledge of the endogenous RNAi pathways in plants along with the development of new strategies and applications for the improvement of nutritional value of important agricultural crops through suppression of genes in different plants have opened new vistas for nutritional security. The improvement in the nutritional status of the plants and reduction in the level of toxins or antinutrients was desired for long, but the available technology was not completely successful in achieving the tissue specific regulation of some genes. In the recent years, a number of economically important crop plants have been tested successfully for improving plant nutritional value through metabolic engineering using RNAi. The implications of this technology for crop improvement programs, including nutritional enrichment, reduction of antinutrients, disease, and insect control have been successfully tested in variety of crops with commercial considerations. The enhancement of the nutraceutical traits for the desired health benefits in common crop plants through manipulation of gene expression has been elaborated in this article. The tremendous potential with RNAi technology is expected to revolutionize the modern agriculture for meeting the growing challenges is discussed.

  17. Inhibition of vemurafenib-resistant melanoma by interference with pre-mRNA splicing

    PubMed Central

    Salton, Maayan; Kasprzak, Wojciech K.; Voss, Ty; Shapiro, Bruce A.; Poulikakos, Poulikos I.; Misteli, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the serine/threonine kinase BRAF are found in more than 60% of melanomas. The most prevalent melanoma mutation is BRAF(V600E), which constitutively activates downstream MAPK signaling. Vemurafenib is a potent RAF kinase inhibitor with remarkable clinical activity in BRAF(V600E)-positive melanoma tumors. However, patients rapidly develop resistance to vemurafenib treatment. One resistance mechanism is the emergence of BRAF alternative splicing isoforms leading to elimination of the RAS-binding domain. Here we identify interference with pre-mRNA splicing as a mechanism to combat vemurafenib resistance. We find that small molecule pre-mRNA splicing modulators reduce BRAF3-9 production and limit in-vitro cell growth of vemurafenib-resistant cells. In xenograft models, interference with pre-mRNA splicing prevents tumor formation and slows growth of vemurafenib-resistant tumors. Our results identify an intronic mutation as a molecular basis for RNA splicing-mediated RAF inhibitor resistance and we identify pre-mRNA splicing interference as a potential therapeutic strategy for drug resistance in BRAF melanoma. PMID:25971842

  18. Inhibition of vemurafenib-resistant melanoma by interference with pre-mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Salton, Maayan; Kasprzak, Wojciech K; Voss, Ty; Shapiro, Bruce A; Poulikakos, Poulikos I; Misteli, Tom

    2015-05-14

    Mutations in the serine/threonine kinase BRAF are found in more than 60% of melanomas. The most prevalent melanoma mutation is BRAF(V600E), which constitutively activates downstream MAPK signalling. Vemurafenib is a potent RAF kinase inhibitor with remarkable clinical activity in BRAF(V600E)-positive melanoma tumours. However, patients rapidly develop resistance to vemurafenib treatment. One resistance mechanism is the emergence of BRAF alternative splicing isoforms leading to elimination of the RAS-binding domain. Here we identify interference with pre-mRNA splicing as a mechanism to combat vemurafenib resistance. We find that small-molecule pre-mRNA splicing modulators reduce BRAF3-9 production and limit in-vitro cell growth of vemurafenib-resistant cells. In xenograft models, interference with pre-mRNA splicing prevents tumour formation and slows growth of vemurafenib-resistant tumours. Our results identify an intronic mutation as the molecular basis for a RNA splicing-mediated RAF inhibitor resistance mechanism and we identify pre-mRNA splicing interference as a potential therapeutic strategy for drug resistance in BRAF melanoma.

  19. Tag-to-Tag Interference Suppression Technique Based on Time Division for RFID

    PubMed Central

    Khadka, Grishma; Hwang, Suk-Seung

    2017-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is a tracking technology that enables immediate automatic object identification and rapid data sharing for a wide variety of modern applications using radio waves for data transmission from a tag to a reader. RFID is already well established in technical areas, and many companies have developed corresponding standards and measurement techniques. In the construction industry, effective monitoring of materials and equipment is an important task, and RFID helps to improve monitoring and controlling capabilities, in addition to enabling automation for construction projects. However, on construction sites, there are many tagged objects and multiple RFID tags that may interfere with each other’s communications. This reduces the reliability and efficiency of the RFID system. In this paper, we propose an anti-collision algorithm for communication between multiple tags and a reader. In order to suppress interference signals from multiple neighboring tags, the proposed algorithm employs the time-division (TD) technique, where tags in the interrogation zone are assigned a specific time slot so that at every instance in time, a reader communicates with tags using the specific time slot. We present representative computer simulation examples to illustrate the performance of the proposed anti-collision technique for multiple RFID tags. PMID:28045440

  20. Tag-to-Tag Interference Suppression Technique Based on Time Division for RFID.

    PubMed

    Khadka, Grishma; Hwang, Suk-Seung

    2017-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is a tracking technology that enables immediate automatic object identification and rapid data sharing for a wide variety of modern applications using radio waves for data transmission from a tag to a reader. RFID is already well established in technical areas, and many companies have developed corresponding standards and measurement techniques. In the construction industry, effective monitoring of materials and equipment is an important task, and RFID helps to improve monitoring and controlling capabilities, in addition to enabling automation for construction projects. However, on construction sites, there are many tagged objects and multiple RFID tags that may interfere with each other's communications. This reduces the reliability and efficiency of the RFID system. In this paper, we propose an anti-collision algorithm for communication between multiple tags and a reader. In order to suppress interference signals from multiple neighboring tags, the proposed algorithm employs the time-division (TD) technique, where tags in the interrogation zone are assigned a specific time slot so that at every instance in time, a reader communicates with tags using the specific time slot. We present representative computer simulation examples to illustrate the performance of the proposed anti-collision technique for multiple RFID tags.

  1. Digital Terrestrial Video Broadcast Interference Suppression in Forward-Looking Ground Penetrating Radar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rial, F. I.; Mendez-Rial, Roi; Lawadka, Lukasz; Gonzalez-Huici, Maria A.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we show how radio frequency interference (RFI) generated by digital video broadcasting terrestrial and digital audio broadcasting transmitters can be an important noise source for forward-looking ground penetrating radar (FLGPR) systems. Even in remote locations the average interference power sometimes exceeds ultra-wideband signals by many dB, becoming the limiting factor in the system sensitivity. The overall problem of RFI and its impact in GPR systems is briefly described and several signal processing approaches to removal of RFI are discussed. These include spectral estimation and coherent subtraction algorithms and various filter approaches which have been developed and applied by the research community in similar contexts. We evaluate the performance of these methods by simulating two different scenarios submitted to real RFI acquired with a FLGPR system developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques (FHR), (GER). The effectiveness of these algorithms in removing RFI is presented using some performance indices after suppression.

  2. Optimization of a yeast RNA interference system for controlling gene expression and enabling rapid metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Crook, Nathan C; Schmitz, Alexander C; Alper, Hal S

    2014-05-16

    Reduction of endogenous gene expression is a fundamental operation of metabolic engineering, yet current methods for gene knockdown (i.e., genome editing) remain laborious and slow, especially in yeast. In contrast, RNA interference allows facile and tunable gene knockdown via a simple plasmid transformation step, enabling metabolic engineers to rapidly prototype knockdown strategies in multiple strains before expending significant cost to undertake genome editing. Although RNAi is naturally present in a myriad of eukaryotes, it has only been recently implemented in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a heterologous pathway and so has not yet been optimized as a metabolic engineering tool. In this study, we elucidate a set of design principles for the construction of hairpin RNA expression cassettes in yeast and implement RNA interference to quickly identify routes for improvement of itaconic acid production in this organism. The approach developed here enables rapid prototyping of knockdown strategies and thus accelerates and reduces the cost of the design-build-test cycle in yeast.

  3. Potential applications of RNA interference-based therapeutics in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ali

    2006-06-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) in eukaryotes is a recently identified phenomenon in which small double stranded RNA molecules called short interfering RNA (siRNA) interact with messenger RNA (mRNA) containing homologous sequences in a sequence-specific manner. Ultimately, this interaction results in degradation of the target mRNA. Because of the high sequence specificity of the RNAi process, and the apparently ubiquitous expression of the endogenous protein components necessary for RNAi, there appears to be little limitation to the genes that can be targeted for silencing by RNAi. Thus, RNAi has enormous potential, both as a research tool and as a mode of therapy. Several recent patents have described advances in RNAi technology that are likely to lead to new treatments for cardiovascular disease. These patents have described methods for increased delivery of siRNA to cardiovascular target tissues, chemical modifications of siRNA that improve their pharmacokinetic characteristics, and expression vectors capable of expressing RNAi effectors in situ. Though RNAi has only recently been demonstrated to occur in mammalian tissues, work has advanced rapidly in the development of RNAi-based therapeutics. Recently, therapeutic silencing of apoliporotein B, the ligand for the low density lipoprotein receptor, has been demonstrated in adult mice by systemic administration of chemically modified siRNA. This demonstrates the potential for RNAi-based therapeutics, and suggests that the future for RNAi in the treatment of cardiovascular disease is bright.

  4. RNA interference of three up-regulated transcripts associated with insecticide resistance in an imidacloprid resistant population of Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    PubMed

    Clements, Justin; Schoville, Sean; Peterson, Nathan; Huseth, Anders S; Lan, Que; Groves, Russell L

    2017-01-01

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is a major agricultural pest of potatoes in the Central Sands production region of Wisconsin. Previous studies have shown that populations of L. decemlineata have become resistant to many classes of insecticides, including the neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid. Furthermore, L. decemlineata has multiple mechanisms of resistance to deal with a pesticide insult, including enhanced metabolic detoxification by cytochrome p450s and glutathione S-transferases. With recent advances in the transcriptomic analysis of imidacloprid susceptible and resistant L. decemlineata populations, it is possible to investigate the role of candidate genes involved in imidacloprid resistance. A recently annotated transcriptome analysis of L. decemlineata was obtained from select populations of L. decemlineata collected in the Central Sands potato production region, which revealed a subset of mRNA transcripts constitutively up-regulated in resistant populations. We hypothesize that a portion of the up-regulated transcripts encoding for genes within the resistant populations also encode for pesticide resistance and can be suppressed to re-establish a susceptible phenotype. In this study, a discrete set of three up-regulated targets were selected for RNA interference experiments using a resistant L. decemlineata population. Following the successful suppression of transcripts encoding for a cytochrome p450, a cuticular protein, and a glutathione synthetase protein in a select L. decemlineata population, we observed reductions in measured resistance to imidacloprid that strongly suggest these genes control essential steps in imidacloprid metabolism in these field populations.

  5. A virus-encoded inhibitor that blocks RNA interference in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Christopher S; Ganem, Don

    2005-06-01

    Nodamura virus (NoV) is a small RNA virus that is infectious for insect and mammalian hosts. We have developed a highly sensitive assay of RNA interference (RNAi) in mammalian cells that shows that the NoV B2 protein functions as an inhibitor of RNAi triggered by either short hairpin RNAs or small interfering RNAs. In the cell, NoV B2 binds to pre-Dicer substrate RNA and RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-processed RNAs and inhibits the Dicer cleavage reaction and, potentially, one or more post-Dicer activities. In vitro, NoV B2 inhibits Dicer-mediated RNA cleavage in the absence of any other host factors and specifically binds double-stranded RNAs corresponding in structure to Dicer substrates and products. Its abilities to bind to Dicer precursor and post-Dicer RISC-processed RNAs suggest a mechanism of inhibition that is unique among known viral inhibitors of RNAi.

  6. Recent advances in exosome-based nanovehicles as RNA interference therapeutic carriers.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Rahul; Tekade, Muktika; Gondaliya, Piyush; Kalia, Kiran; D'Emanuele, Antony; Tekade, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-09-29

    RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics (siRNA, miRNA, etc.) represent an emerging medicinal remedy for a variety of ailments. However, their low serum stability and low cellular uptake significantly restrict their clinical applications. Exosomes are biologically derived nanodimensional vesicle ranging from a few nanometers to a hundred. In the last few years, several reports have been published demonstrating the emerging applications of these exogenous membrane vesicles, particularly in carrying different RNAi therapeutics to adjacent or distant targeted cells. In this report, we explored the numerous aspects of exosomes from structure to clinical implications with special emphasis on their application in delivering RNAi-based therapeutics. siRNA and miRNA have attracted great interest in recent years due to their specific application in treating many complex diseases including cancer. We highlight strategies to obviate the challenges of their low bioavailability for gene therapy.

  7. MicroRNA-33 suppresses CCL2 expression in chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Meng; Xie, Qingyun; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Fan; Cheng, Yue; Guo, Dongyang; Wang, Ying; Mo, Liweng; Wang, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    CCL2-mediated macrophage infiltration in articular tissues plays a pivotal role in the development of the osteoarthritis (OA). miRNAs regulate the onset and progression of diseases via controlling the expression of a series of genes. How the CCL2 gene was regulated by miRNAs was still not fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrated that the binding sites of miR-33 in the 3′UTR of CCL2 gene were conserved in human, mouse and rat species. By performing gain- or loss-of-function studies, we verified that miR-33 suppressed CCL2 expression in the mRNA and protein levels. We also found that miR-33 suppressed the CCL2 levels in the supernatant of cultured primary mouse chondrocytes. With reporter gene assay, we demonstrated that miR-33 targeted at AAUGCA in the 3′UTR of CCL2 gene. In transwell migration assays, we demonstrated that the conditional medium (CM) from miR-33 deficient chondrocytes potentiated the monocyte chemotaxis in a CCL2 dependent manner. Finally, we demonstrated that the level of miR-33 was decreased, whereas the CCL2 level was increased in the articular cartilage from the OA patients compared with the control group. In summary, we identified miR-33 as a novel suppressor of CCL2 in chondrocytes. The miR-33/CCL2 axis in chondrocytes regulates monocyte chemotaxis, providing a potential mechanism of macrophage infiltration in OA. PMID:27129293

  8. Chemical interference with iron transport systems to suppress bacterial growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Bin; Zhang, Liang; Li, Nan; Han, Junlong; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Xuesong; He, Qing-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for the growth of most bacteria. To obtain iron, bacteria have developed specific iron-transport systems located on the membrane surface to uptake iron and iron complexes such as ferrichrome. Interference with the iron-acquisition systems should be therefore an efficient strategy to suppress bacterial growth and infection. Based on the chemical similarity of iron and ruthenium, we used a Ru(II) complex R-825 to compete with ferrichrome for the ferrichrome-transport pathway in Streptococcus pneumoniae. R-825 inhibited the bacterial growth of S. pneumoniae and stimulated the expression of PiuA, the iron-binding protein in the ferrichrome-uptake system on the cell surface. R-825 treatment decreased the cellular content of iron, accompanying with the increase of Ru(II) level in the bacterium. When the piuA gene (SPD_0915) was deleted in the bacterium, the mutant strain became resistant to R-825 treatment, with decreased content of Ru(II). Addition of ferrichrome can rescue the bacterial growth that was suppressed by R-825. Fluorescence spectral quenching showed that R-825 can bind with PiuA in a similar pattern to the ferrichrome-PiuA interaction in vitro. These observations demonstrated that Ru(II) complex R-825 can compete with ferrichrome for the ferrichrome-transport system to enter S. pneumoniae, reduce the cellular iron supply, and thus suppress the bacterial growth. This finding suggests a novel antimicrobial approach by interfering with iron-uptake pathways, which is different from the mechanisms used by current antibiotics.

  9. eIF1A augments Ago2-mediated Dicer-independent miRNA biogenesis and RNA interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Tingfang; Arthanari, Haribabu; Akabayov, Barak; Song, Huaidong; Papadopoulos, Evangelos; Qi, Hank H.; Jedrychowski, Mark; Güttler, Thomas; Guo, Cuicui; Luna, Rafael E.; Gygi, Steven P.; Huang, Stephen A.; Wagner, Gerhard

    2015-05-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and miRNA-guided RNA interference (RNAi) are essential for gene expression in eukaryotes. Here we report that translation initiation factor eIF1A directly interacts with Ago2 and promotes Ago2 activities in RNAi and miR-451 biogenesis. Biochemical and NMR analyses demonstrate that eIF1A binds to the MID domain of Ago2 and this interaction does not impair translation initiation. Alanine mutation of the Ago2-facing Lys56 in eIF1A impairs RNAi activities in human cells and zebrafish. The eIF1A-Ago2 assembly facilitates Dicer-independent biogenesis of miR-451, which mediates erythrocyte maturation. Human eIF1A (heIF1A), but not heIF1A(K56A), rescues the erythrocyte maturation delay in eif1axb knockdown zebrafish. Consistently, miR-451 partly compensates erythrocyte maturation defects in zebrafish with eif1axb knockdown and eIF1A(K56A) expression, supporting a role of eIF1A in miRNA-451 biogenesis in this model. Our results suggest that eIF1A is a novel component of the Ago2-centred RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) and augments Ago2-dependent RNAi and miRNA biogenesis.

  10. Establishing an In Vivo Assay System to Identify Components Involved in Environmental RNA Interference in the Western Corn Rootworm

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Keita; Ramaseshadri, Parthasarathy; Zhang, Yuanji; Segers, Gerrit; Bolognesi, Renata; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of environmental RNA interference (RNAi), in which gene expression is suppressed via feeding with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules, opened the door to the practical application of RNAi-based techniques in crop pest management. The western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) is one of the most devastating corn pests in North America. Interestingly, WCR displays a robust environmental RNAi response, raising the possibility of applying an RNAi-based pest management strategy to this pest. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the WCR environmental RNAi process will allow for determining the rate limiting steps involved with dsRNA toxicity and potential dsRNA resistance mechanisms in WCR. In this study, we have established a two-step in vivo assay system, which allows us to evaluate the involvement of genes in environmental RNAi in WCR. We show that laccase 2 and ebony, critical cuticle pigmentation/tanning genes, can be used as marker genes in our assay system, with ebony being a more stable marker to monitor RNAi activity. In addition, we optimized the dsRNA dose and length for the assay, and confirmed that this assay system is sensitive to detect well-known RNAi components such as Dicer-2 and Argonaute-2. We also evaluated two WCR sid1- like (sil) genes with this assay system. This system will be useful to quickly survey candidate systemic RNAi genes in WCR, and also will be adaptable for a genome-wide RNAi screening to give us an unbiased view of the environmental/systemic RNAi pathway in WCR. PMID:25003334

  11. Establishing an in vivo assay system to identify components involved in environmental RNA interference in the western corn rootworm.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Keita; Ramaseshadri, Parthasarathy; Zhang, Yuanji; Segers, Gerrit; Bolognesi, Renata; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of environmental RNA interference (RNAi), in which gene expression is suppressed via feeding with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules, opened the door to the practical application of RNAi-based techniques in crop pest management. The western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) is one of the most devastating corn pests in North America. Interestingly, WCR displays a robust environmental RNAi response, raising the possibility of applying an RNAi-based pest management strategy to this pest. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the WCR environmental RNAi process will allow for determining the rate limiting steps involved with dsRNA toxicity and potential dsRNA resistance mechanisms in WCR. In this study, we have established a two-step in vivo assay system, which allows us to evaluate the involvement of genes in environmental RNAi in WCR. We show that laccase 2 and ebony, critical cuticle pigmentation/tanning genes, can be used as marker genes in our assay system, with ebony being a more stable marker to monitor RNAi activity. In addition, we optimized the dsRNA dose and length for the assay, and confirmed that this assay system is sensitive to detect well-known RNAi components such as Dicer-2 and Argonaute-2. We also evaluated two WCR sid1- like (sil) genes with this assay system. This system will be useful to quickly survey candidate systemic RNAi genes in WCR, and also will be adaptable for a genome-wide RNAi screening to give us an unbiased view of the environmental/systemic RNAi pathway in WCR.

  12. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference of DC-SIGN expression inhibits human immunodeficiency virus transmission from dendritic cells to T cells.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Jean-François; Pion, Marjorie; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B; Garcia, Eduardo; Abraham, Shahnaz; Leuba, Florence; Dutoit, Valérie; Ducrey-Rundquist, Odile; van Kooyk, Yvette; Trono, Didier; Piguet, Vincent

    2004-10-01

    In the early events of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, immature dendritic cells (DCs) expressing the DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) receptor capture small amounts of HIV-1 on mucosal surfaces and spread viral infection to CD4(+) T cells in lymph nodes (22, 34, 45). RNA interference has emerged as a powerful tool to gain insight into gene function. For this purpose, lentiviral vectors that express short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for the delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) into mammalian cells represent a powerful tool to achieve stable gene silencing. In order to interfere with DC-SIGN function, we developed shRNA-expressing lentiviral vectors capable of conditionally suppressing DC-SIGN expression. Selectivity of inhibition of human DC-SIGN and L-SIGN and chimpanzee and rhesus macaque DC-SIGN was obtained by using distinct siRNAs. Suppression of DC-SIGN expression inhibited the attachment of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 to DC-SIGN transfectants, as well as transfer of HIV-1 to target cells in trans. Furthermore, shRNA-expressing lentiviral vectors were capable of efficiently suppressing DC-SIGN expression in primary human DCs. DC-SIGN-negative DCs were unable to enhance transfer of HIV-1 infectivity to T cells in trans, demonstrating an essential role for the DC-SIGN receptor in transferring infectious viral particles from DCs to T cells. The present system should have broad applications for studying the function of DC-SIGN in the pathogenesis of HIV as well as other pathogens also recognized by this receptor.

  13. Mannosylated bioreducible nanoparticle-mediated macrophage-specific TNF-α RNA interference for IBD therapy

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Bo; Laroui, Hamed; Ayyadurai, Saravanan; Viennois, Emilie; Charania, Moiz A.; Zhang, Yuchen; Merlin, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The application of RNA interference (RNAi) for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) therapy has been limited by the lack of non-cytotoxic, efficient and targetable small interfering RNA (siRNA) carriers. TNF-α is the major pro-inflammatory cytokine mainly secreted by macrophages during IBD. Here, a mannosylated bioreducible cationic polymer (PPM) was synthesized and further spontaneously assembled nanoparticles (NPs) assisted by sodium triphosphate (TPP). The TPP-PPM/siRNA NPs exhibited high uniformity (polydispersity index = 0.004), a small particle size (211–275 nm), excellent bioreducibility, and enhanced cellular uptake. Additionally, the generated NPs had negative cytotoxicity compared to control NPs fabricated by branched polyethylenimine (bPEI, 25 kDa) or Oligofectamine (OF) and siRNA. In vitro gene silencing experiments revealed that TPP-PPM/TNF-α siRNA NPs with a weight ratio of 40:1 showed the most efficient inhibition of the expression and secretion of TNF-α (approximately 69.9%, which was comparable to the 71.4% obtained using OF/siRNA NPs), and its RNAi efficiency was highly inhibited in the presence of mannose (20 mM). Finally, TPP-PPM/siRNA NPs showed potential therapeutic effects on colitis tissues, remarkably reducing TNF-α level. Collectively, these results suggest that non-toxic TPP-PPM/siRNA NPs can be exploited as efficient, macrophage-targeted carriers for IBD therapy. PMID:23820013

  14. Mannosylated bioreducible nanoparticle-mediated macrophage-specific TNF-α RNA interference for IBD therapy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo; Laroui, Hamed; Ayyadurai, Saravanan; Viennois, Emilie; Charania, Moiz A; Zhang, Yuchen; Merlin, Didier

    2013-10-01

    The application of RNA interference (RNAi) for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) therapy has been limited by the lack of non-cytotoxic, efficient and targetable small interfering RNA (siRNA) carriers. TNF-α is the major pro-inflammatory cytokine mainly secreted by macrophages during IBD. Here, a mannosylated bioreducible cationic polymer (PPM) was synthesized and further spontaneously assembled nanoparticles (NPs) assisted by sodium triphosphate (TPP). The TPP-PPM/siRNA NPs exhibited high uniformity (polydispersity index = 0.004), a small particle size (211-275 nm), excellent bioreducibility, and enhanced cellular uptake. Additionally, the generated NPs had negative cytotoxicity compared to control NPs fabricated by branched polyethylenimine (bPEI, 25 kDa) or Oligofectamine (OF) and siRNA. In vitro gene silencing experiments revealed that TPP-PPM/TNF-α siRNA NPs with a weight ratio of 40:1 showed the most efficient inhibition of the expression and secretion of TNF-α (approximately 69.9%, which was comparable to the 71.4% obtained using OF/siRNA NPs), and its RNAi efficiency was highly inhibited in the presence of mannose (20 mm). Finally, TPP-PPM/siRNA NPs showed potential therapeutic effects on colitis tissues, remarkably reducing TNF-α level. Collectively, these results suggest that non-toxic TPP-PPM/siRNA NPs can be exploited as efficient, macrophage-targeted carriers for IBD therapy.

  15. New perspectives on the diversification of the RNA interference system: insights from comparative genomics and small RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Burroughs, Alexander Maxwell; Ando, Yoshinari; Aravind, L

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the pervasive involvement of small RNAs in regulating diverse biological processes has been greatly augmented by recent application of deep-sequencing technologies to small RNA across diverse eukaryotes. We review the currently known small RNA classes and place them in context of the reconstructed evolutionary history of the RNA interference (RNAi) protein machinery. This synthesis indicates that the earliest versions of eukaryotic RNAi systems likely utilized small RNA processed from three types of precursors: (1) sense-antisense transcriptional products, (2) genome-encoded, imperfectly complementary hairpin sequences, and (3) larger noncoding RNA precursor sequences. Structural dissection of PIWI proteins along with recent discovery of novel families (including Med13 of the Mediator complex) suggest that emergence of a distinct architecture with the N-terminal domains (also occurring separately fused to endoDNases in prokaryotes) formed via duplication of an ancestral unit was key to their recruitment as primary RNAi effectors and use of small RNAs of certain preferred lengths. Prokaryotic PIWI proteins are typically components of several RNA-directed DNA restriction or CRISPR/Cas systems. However, eukaryotic versions appear to have emerged from a subset that evolved RNA-directed RNAi. They were recruited alongside RNaseIII domains and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) domains, also from prokaryotic systems, to form the core eukaryotic RNAi system. Like certain regulatory systems, RNAi diversified into two distinct but linked arms concomitant with eukaryotic nucleocytoplasmic compartmentalization. Subsequent elaboration of RNAi proceeded via diversification of the core protein machinery through lineage-specific expansions and recruitment of new components from prokaryotes (nucleases and small RNA-modifying enzymes), allowing for diversification of associating small RNAs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. RNA interference against aldehyde dehydrogenase-2: development of tools for alcohol research.

    PubMed

    Cortínez, Gabriel; Sapag, Amalia; Israel, Yedy

    2009-03-01

    Liver alcohol dehydrogenase oxidizes ethanol to acetaldehyde, which is further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2*1). Individuals who carry a low-activity ALDH2 (ALDH2*2) display high blood acetaldehyde levels after ethanol consumption, which leads to dysphoric effects, such as facial flushing, nausea, dizziness, and headache ("Asian alcohol phenotype"), which result in an aversion to alcohol and protection against alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Mimicking this phenotype may reduce alcohol consumption in alcoholics. RNA interference (RNAi) is a cell process in which a short interfering RNA (siRNA) of 21-25 bp guides the degradation of a complementary target mRNA. Thus, siRNAs may be useful in mimicking the Asian phenotype by inhibiting ALDH2 gene expression. We determined the inhibitory effect of three chemically synthesized siRNAs targeted against rat ALDH2 mRNA in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293 cell lines) transfected with a plasmid carrying the rat ALDH2 cDNA. Two of the three siRNAs were active, yielding a 65-75% reduction of ALDH2 activity. Based on the most promising siRNA sequence, three short hairpin RNA (shRNA) genes driven by the human U6 RNA promoter were designed and cloned in a plasmid. After transfection of HEK-293 cells, one of the genes was shown to be active, yielding a 50% reduction of ALDH2 activity. This effect is consistent with a 50% reduction in ALDH2 mRNA, whereas neither beta-actin mRNA nor the interferon-inducible transmembrane protein-1 mRNA levels were affected. This study describes chemically synthesized siRNAs and an endogenously synthesized shRNA, which reduce ALDH2 activity and constitute tools that should be of value for further alcohol research.

  17. The Role of RNA Interference (RNAi) in Arbovirus-Vector Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Carol D.; Olson, Ken E.

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) was shown over 18 years ago to be a mechanism by which arbovirus replication and transmission could be controlled in arthropod vectors. During the intervening period, research on RNAi has defined many of the components and mechanisms of this antiviral pathway in arthropods, yet a number of unexplored questions remain. RNAi refers to RNA-mediated regulation of gene expression. Originally, the term described silencing of endogenous genes by introduction of exogenous double-stranded (ds)RNA with the same sequence as the gene to be silenced. Further research has shown that RNAi comprises three gene regulation pathways that are mediated by small RNAs: the small interfering (si)RNA, micro (mi)RNA, and Piwi-interacting (pi)RNA pathways. The exogenous (exo-)siRNA pathway is now recognized as a major antiviral innate immune response of arthropods. More recent studies suggest that the piRNA and miRNA pathways might also have important roles in arbovirus-vector interactions. This review will focus on current knowledge of the role of the exo-siRNA pathway as an arthropod vector antiviral response and on emerging research into vector piRNA and miRNA pathway modulation of arbovirus-vector interactions. Although it is assumed that arboviruses must evade the vector’s antiviral RNAi response in order to maintain their natural transmission cycles, the strategies by which this is accomplished are not well defined. RNAi is also an important tool for arthropod gene knock-down in functional genomics studies and in development of arbovirus-resistant mosquito populations. Possible arbovirus strategies for evasion of RNAi and applications of RNAi in functional genomics analysis and arbovirus transmission control will also be reviewed. PMID:25690800

  18. RNA interference in the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata: Identification of key contributors.

    PubMed

    Yoon, June-Sun; Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Gong, Zhong Jun; Mogilicherla, Kanakachari; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2016-11-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a useful reverse genetics tool for investigation of gene function as well as for practical applications in many fields including medicine and agriculture. RNAi works very well in coleopteran insects including the Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata. We used a cell line (Lepd-SL1) developed from CPB to identify genes that play key roles in RNAi. We screened 50 genes with potential functions in RNAi by exposing Lepd-SL1 cells to dsRNA targeting one of the potential RNAi pathway genes followed by incubation with dsRNA targeting inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP, silencing of this gene induces apoptosis). Out of 50 genes tested, silencing of 29 genes showed an effect on RNAi. Silencing of five genes (Argonaute-1, Argonaute-2a, Argonaute-2b, Aubergine and V-ATPase 16 kDa subunit 1, Vha16) blocked RNAi suggesting that these genes are essential for functioning of RNAi in Lepd-SL1 cells. Interestingly, Argonaute-1 and Aubergine which are known to function in miRNA and piRNA pathways respectively are also critical to siRNA pathway. Using (32)P labeled dsRNA, we showed that these miRNA and piRNA Argonautes but not Argonaute-2 are required for processing of dsRNA to siRNA. Transfection of pIZT/V5 constructs containing these five genes into Sf9 cells (the cells where RNAi does not work well) showed that expression of all genes tested, except the Argonaute-2a, improved RNAi in these cells. Results from Vha16 gene silencing and bafilomycin-A1 treatment suggest that endosomal escape plays an important role in dsRNA-mediated RNAi in Lepd-SL1 cells.

  19. Global effects of the CSR-1 RNA interference pathway on the transcriptional landscape.

    PubMed

    Cecere, Germano; Hoersch, Sebastian; O'Keeffe, Sean; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Grishok, Alla

    2014-04-01

    Argonaute proteins and their small RNA cofactors short interfering RNAs are known to inhibit gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the Argonaute CSR-1 binds thousands of endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs) that are antisense to germline transcripts. However, its role in gene expression regulation remains controversial. Here we used genome-wide profiling of nascent RNA transcripts and found that the CSR-1 RNA interference pathway promoted sense-oriented RNA polymerase II transcription. Moreover, a loss of CSR-1 function resulted in global increase in antisense transcription and ectopic transcription of silent chromatin domains, which led to reduced chromatin incorporation of centromere-specific histone H3. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the CSR-1 pathway helps maintain the directionality of active transcription, thereby propagating the distinction between transcriptionally active and silent genomic regions.

  20. Several Grassland Soil Nematode Species Are Insensitive to RNA-Mediated Interference

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, David; Darby, Brian J.; Todd, Timothy C.; Herman, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Phenotypic analysis of defects caused by RNA mediated interference (RNAi) in Caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be a powerful tool for determining gene function. In this study we investigated the effectiveness of RNAi in four non-model grassland soil nematodes, Oscheius sp FVV-2., Rhabditis sp, Mesorhabditis sp., and Acrobeloides sp. In contrast to reference experiments performed using C. elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae, feeding bacteria expressing dsRNA and injecting dsRNA into the gonad did not produce the expected RNAi knockdown phenotypes in any of the grassland nematodes. Quantitative reverse-transcribed PCR (qRT-PCR) assays did not detect a statistically significant reduction in the mRNA levels of endogenous genes targeted by RNAi in Oscheius sp., and Mesorhabditis sp. From these studies we conclude that due to low effectiveness and inconsistent reproducibility, RNAi knockdown phenotypes in non-Caenorhabditis nematodes should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:23483038

  1. Identification of nonviable genes affecting touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans using neuronally enhanced feeding RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyin; Cuadros, Margarete Diaz; Chalfie, Martin

    2015-01-09

    Caenorhabditis elegans senses gentle touch along the body via six touch receptor neurons. Although genetic screens and microarray analyses have identified several genes needed for touch sensitivity, these methods miss pleiotropic genes that are essential for the viability, movement, or fertility of the animals. We used neuronally enhanced feeding RNA interference to screen genes that cause lethality or paralysis when mutated, and we identified 61 such genes affecting touch sensitivity, including five positive controls. We confirmed 18 genes by using available alleles, and further studied one of them, tag-170, now renamed txdc-9. txdc-9 preferentially affects anterior touch response but is needed for tubulin acetylation and microtubule formation in both the anterior and posterior touch receptor neurons. Our results indicate that neuronally enhanced feeding RNA interference screens complement traditional mutageneses by identifying additional nonviable genes needed for specific neuronal functions.

  2. Therapeutic potentials of gene silencing by RNA interference: principles, challenges, and new strategies.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yan; Wang, Chi Chiu; Choy, Kwong Wai; Du, Quan; Chen, Jiao; Wang, Qin; Li, Lu; Chung, Tony Kwok Hung; Tang, Tao

    2014-04-01

    During recent decades there have been remarkable advances in biology, in which one of the most important discoveries is RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi is a specific post-transcriptional regulatory pathway that can result in silencing gene functions. Efforts have been done to translate this new discovery into clinical applications for disease treatment. However, technical difficulties restrict the development of RNAi, including stability, off-target effects, immunostimulation and delivery problems. Researchers have attempted to surmount these barriers and improve the bioavailability and safety of RNAi-based therapeutics by optimizing the chemistry and structure of these molecules. This paper aimed to describe the principles of RNA interference, review the therapeutic potential in various diseases and discuss the new strategies for in vivo delivery of RNAi to overcome the challenges.

  3. Tobamovirus-resistant tobacco generated by RNA interference directed against host genes.

    PubMed

    Asano, Momoko; Satoh, Rena; Mochizuki, Atsuko; Tsuda, Shinya; Yamanaka, Takuya; Nishiguchi, Masamichi; Hirai, Katsuyuki; Meshi, Tetsuo; Naito, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2005-08-15

    Two homologous Nicotiana tabacum genes NtTOM1 and NtTOM3 have been identified. These genes encode polypeptides with amino acid sequence similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana TOM1 and TOM3, which function in parallel to support tobamovirus multiplication. Simultaneous RNA interference against NtTOM1 and NtTOM3 in N. tabacum resulted in nearly complete inhibition of the multiplication of Tomato mosaic virus and other tobamoviruses, but did not affect plant growth or the ability of Cucumber mosaic virus to multiply. As TOM1 and TOM3 homologues are present in a variety of plant species, their inhibition via RNA interference should constitute a useful method for generating tobamovirus-resistant plants.

  4. Novel siRNA-loaded Bubble Liposomes with Ultrasound Exposure for RNA Interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo-Takahashi, Yoko; Negishi, Yoichi; Suzuki, Ryo; Maruyama, Kazuo; Aramaki, Yukihiko

    2011-09-01

    Recently, we have developed novel polyethyleneglycol (PEG) modified liposomes (Bubble liposomes; BLs) entrapping an ultrasound (US) imaging gas, which can work as a gene delivery tool with US exposure. We have shown that the combination of BLs and US was also useful for the delivery of siRNA. However, for use in intravenous administration, there is room for improvement in the colocalization of BLs and siRNA in blood vessels and the stability of siRNA. In this study, we have attempted to prepare novel siRNA-loaded BLs (si-BLs) using cationic lipid, 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP). As a result, siRNA loaded onto the surface of BLs could be observed. Furthermore, siRNA-loaded BLs were stable even in the presence of serum. The specific gene silencing effect caused by transfection with si-BLs and US could be also observed. Thus, si-BLs with US-exposure may be a useful novel transfection method for siRNA delivery to a target tissue or organ via systemic injection.

  5. Tumor-targeted RNA-interference: functional non-viral nanovectors

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xinghua; Thompson, Rachel; Meng, Xiaojie; Wu, Daocheng; Xu, Liang

    2011-01-01

    While small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) have attracted extensive attention and showed significant promise for the study, diagnosis and treatment of human cancers, delivering siRNA or miRNA specifically and efficiently into tumor cells in vivo remains a great challenge. Delivery barriers, which arise mainly from the routes of administration associated with complex physiochemical microenvironments of the human body and the unique properties of RNAs, hinder the development of RNA-interference (RNAi)-based therapeutics in clinical practice. However, in available delivery systems, non-viral nanoparticle-based gene/RNA-delivery vectors, or nanovectors, are showing powerful delivery capacities and huge potential for improvements in functional nanomaterials, including novel fabrication approaches which would greatly enhance delivery performance. In this review, we summarize the currently recognized RNAi delivery barriers and the anti-barrier requirements related to vectors' properties. Recent efforts and achievements in the development of novel nanomaterials, nanovectors fabrication methods, and delivery approaches are discussed. We also review the outstanding needs in the areas of material synthesis and assembly, multifunction combinations, proper delivery and assisting approaches that require more intensive investigation for the comprehensive and effective delivery of RNAi by non-viral nanovectors. PMID:21572539

  6. Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera) gut transcriptome analysis: expression of RNA interference-related genes.

    PubMed

    Swevers, L; Huvenne, H; Menschaert, G; Kontogiannatos, D; Kourti, A; Pauchet, Y; ffrench-Constant, R; Smagghe, G

    2013-12-01

    In the search for new methods of pest control, the potential of RNA interference (RNAi) is being explored. Because the gut is the first barrier for the uptake of double-stranded (ds)RNA, pyrosequencing of the gut transcriptome is a powerful tool for obtaining the necessary sequences for specific dsRNA-mediated pest control. In the present study, a dataset representing the gut transcriptome of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB; Leptinotarsa decemlineata) was generated and analysed for the presence of RNAi-related genes. Almost all selected genes that were implicated in silencing efficiency at different levels in the RNAi pathway (core machinery, associated intracellular factors, dsRNA uptake, antiviral RNAi, nucleases), which uses different types of small RNA (small interfering RNA, microRNA and piwi-RNA), were expressed in the CPB gut. Although the database is of lower quality, the majority of the RNAi genes are also found to be present in the gut transcriptome of the tobacco hornworm [TH; Manduca sexta (19 out of 35 genes analysed)]. The high quality of the CPB transcriptome database will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies regarding the gut and RNAi. © 2013 Royal Entomological Society.

  7. Endocytic pathway mediates refractoriness of insect Bactrocera dorsalis to RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxue; Dong, Xiaolong; Zou, Cong; Zhang, Hongyu

    2015-03-03

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful and convenient tool for sequence-specific gene silencing, and it is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). RNAi can be easily achieved in many eukaryotes by either injecting or feeding dsRNAs. This mechanism has demonstrated its potential in fundamental research on genetics, medicine and agriculture. However, the possibility that insects might develop refractoriness to RNAi remains unexplored. In this study, we report that the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, became refractory to RNAi using orally administered dsRNA targeting endogenous genes. Furthermore, refractoriness to RNAi is not gene-specific, and its duration depends on the dsRNA concentration. RNAi blockage requires the endocytic pathway. Fluorescence microscopy indicated that in RNAi refractory flies, dsRNA uptake is blocked. Genes involved in the entry of dsRNAs into cells, including chc, cog3, light and others, are down-regulated in RNAi refractory flies. Increasing the endocytic capacity by improving F-actin polymerization disrupts RNAi refractoriness after both primary and secondary dsRNA exposures. Our results demonstrate that an insect can become refractory to RNAi by preventing the entry of dsRNA into its cells.

  8. MIMEAnTo: profiling functional RNA in mutational interference mapping experiments.

    PubMed

    Smith, Maureen R; Smyth, Redmond P; Marquet, Roland; von Kleist, Max

    2016-11-01

    The mutational interference mapping experiment (MIME) is a powerful method that, coupled to a bioinformatics analysis pipeline, allows the identification of domains and structures in RNA that are important for its function. In MIME, target RNAs are randomly mutated, selected by function, physically separated and sequenced using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Quantitative effects of each mutation at each position in the RNA can be recovered with statistical certainty using the herein developed user-friendly, cross-platform software MIMEAnTo (MIME Analysis Tool).

  9. Gold Nanoparticle Interference Study during the Isolation, Quantification, Purity and Integrity Analysis of RNA

    PubMed Central

    Sanabria, Natasha M.; Vetten, Melissa; Andraos, Charlene; Boodhia, Kailen; Gulumian, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Investigations have been conducted regarding the interference of nanoparticles (NPs) with different toxicological assay systems, but there is a lack of validation when conducting routine tests for nucleic acid isolation, quantification, integrity, and purity analyses. The interference of citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was investigated herein. The AuNPs were added to either BEAS-2B bronchial human cells for 24 h, the isolated pure RNA, or added during the isolation procedure, and the resultant interaction was assessed. Total RNA that was isolated from untreated BEAS-2B cells was spiked with various concentrations (v/v%) of AuNPs and quantified. A decrease in the absorbance spectrum (220–340 nm) was observed in a concentration-dependent manner. The 260 and 280 nm absorbance ratios that traditionally infer RNA purity were also altered. Electrophoresis was performed to determine RNA integrity, but could not differentiate between AuNP-exposed samples. However, the spiked post-isolation samples did produce differences in spectra (190–220 nm), where shifts were observed at a shorter wavelength. These shifts could be due to alterations to chromophores found in nucleic acids. The co-isolation samples, spiked with 100 µL AuNP during the isolation procedure, displayed a peak shift to a longer wavelength and were similar to the results obtained from a 24 h AuNP treatment, under non-cytotoxic test conditions. Moreover, hyperspectral imaging using CytoViva dark field microscopy did not detect AuNP spectral signatures in the RNA isolated from treated cells. However, despite the lack of AuNPs in the final RNA product, structural changes in RNA could still be observed between 190–220 nm. Consequently, full spectral analyses should replace the traditional ratios based on readings at 230, 260, and 280 nm. These are critical points of analyses, validation, and optimization for RNA-based techniques used to assess AuNPs effects. PMID:25470814

  10. Gold nanoparticle interference study during the isolation, quantification, purity and integrity analysis of RNA.

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Natasha M; Vetten, Melissa; Andraos, Charlene; Boodhia, Kailen; Gulumian, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Investigations have been conducted regarding the interference of nanoparticles (NPs) with different toxicological assay systems, but there is a lack of validation when conducting routine tests for nucleic acid isolation, quantification, integrity, and purity analyses. The interference of citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was investigated herein. The AuNPs were added to either BEAS-2B bronchial human cells for 24 h, the isolated pure RNA, or added during the isolation procedure, and the resultant interaction was assessed. Total RNA that was isolated from untreated BEAS-2B cells was spiked with various concentrations (v/v%) of AuNPs and quantified. A decrease in the absorbance spectrum (220-340 nm) was observed in a concentration-dependent manner. The 260 and 280 nm absorbance ratios that traditionally infer RNA purity were also altered. Electrophoresis was performed to determine RNA integrity, but could not differentiate between AuNP-exposed samples. However, the spiked post-isolation samples did produce differences in spectra (190-220 nm), where shifts were observed at a shorter wavelength. These shifts could be due to alterations to chromophores found in nucleic acids. The co-isolation samples, spiked with 100 µL AuNP during the isolation procedure, displayed a peak shift to a longer wavelength and were similar to the results obtained from a 24 h AuNP treatment, under non-cytotoxic test conditions. Moreover, hyperspectral imaging using CytoViva dark field microscopy did not detect AuNP spectral signatures in the RNA isolated from treated cells. However, despite the lack of AuNPs in the final RNA product, structural changes in RNA could still be observed between 190-220 nm. Consequently, full spectral analyses should replace the traditional ratios based on readings at 230, 260, and 280 nm. These are critical points of analyses, validation, and optimization for RNA-based techniques used to assess AuNPs effects.

  11. Suppression of diabetic retinopathy with GLUT1 siRNA.

    PubMed

    You, Zhi-Peng; Zhang, Yu-Lan; Shi, Ke; Shi, Lu; Zhang, Yue-Zhi; Zhou, Yue; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2017-08-07

    To investigate the effect of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) inhibition on diabetic retinopathy, we divided forty-eight mice into scrambled siRNA, diabetic scrambled siRNA, and GLUT1 siRNA (intravitreally injected) groups. Twenty-one weeks after diabetes induction, we calculated retinal glucose concentrations, used electroretinography (ERG) and histochemical methods to assess photoreceptor degeneration, and conducted immunoblotting, leukostasis and vascular leakage assays to estimate microangiopathy. The diabetic scrambled siRNA and GLUT1 siRNA exhibited higher glucose concentrations than scrambled siRNA, but GLUT1 siRNA group concentrations were only 50.05% of diabetic scrambled siRNA due to downregulated GLUT1 expression. The diabetic scrambled siRNA and GLUT1 siRNA had lower ERG amplitudes and ONL thicknesses than scrambled siRNA. However, compared with diabetic scrambled siRNA, GLUT1 siRNA group amplitudes and thicknesses were higher. Diabetic scrambled siRNA cones were more loosely arranged and had shorter outer segments than GLUT1 siRNA cones. ICAM-1 and TNF-α expression levels, adherent leukocyte numbers, fluorescence leakage areas and extravasated Evans blue in diabetic scrambled siRNA were higher than those in scrambled siRNA. However, these parameters in the GLUT1 siRNA were lower than diabetic scrambled siRNA. Together, these results demonstrate that GLUT1 siRNA restricted glucose transport by inhibiting GLUT1 expression, which decreased retinal glucose concentrations and ameliorated diabetic retinopathy.

  12. Oligonucleotide Antiviral Therapeutics: Antisense and RNA Interference for Highly Pathogenic RNA Viruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    disrupt RNA virus gene expression as first demonstrated using Rous sarcoma virus and respira- ory syncytial virus, respectively (Stephenson and Zamecnik...specialized lipo - omes can be used to form a stable nucleic acid-lipid particle SNALP) (Geisbert et al., 2006). SNALP-encapsulated siRNAs gainst EBOV L...Dev. 4 (2), 67–69. tephenson, M.L., Zamecnik, P.C., 1978. Inhibition of Rous sarcoma viral RNA translation by a specific oligodeoxyribonucleotide

  13. The conserved SNARE SEC-22 localizes to late endosomes and negatively regulates RNA interference in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yani; Holmgren, Benjamin T.

    2017-01-01

    Small RNA pathways, including RNA interference (RNAi), play crucial roles in regulation of gene expression. Initially considered to be cytoplasmic, these processes have later been demonstrated to associate with membranes. For example, maturation of late endosomes/multivesicular bodies (MVBs) is required for efficient RNAi, whereas fusion of MVBs to lysosomes appears to reduce silencing efficiency. SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) mediate membrane fusion and are thus at the core of membrane trafficking. In spite of this, no SNARE has previously been reported to affect RNAi. Here, we demonstrate that in Caenorhabditis elegans, loss of the conserved SNARE SEC-22 results in enhanced RNAi upon ingestion of double-stranded RNA. Furthermore, SEC-22 overexpression inhibits RNAi in wild-type animals. We find that overexpression of SEC-22 in the target tissue (body wall muscle) strongly suppresses the sec-22(−) enhanced RNAi phenotype, supporting a primary role for SEC-22 in import of RNAi silencing signals or cell autonomous RNAi. A functional mCherry::SEC-22 protein localizes primarily to late endosomes/MVBs and these compartments are enlarged in animals lacking sec-22. SEC-22 interacts with late endosome-associated RNA transport protein SID-5 in a yeast two-hybrid assay and functions in a sid-5-dependent manner. Taken together, our data indicate that SEC-22 reduces RNAi efficiency by affecting late endosome/MVB function, for example, by promoting fusion between late endosomes/MVBs and lysosomes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a SNARE with a function in small RNA-mediated gene silencing. PMID:27974622

  14. The conserved SNARE SEC-22 localizes to late endosomes and negatively regulates RNA interference in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yani; Holmgren, Benjamin T; Hinas, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Small RNA pathways, including RNA interference (RNAi), play crucial roles in regulation of gene expression. Initially considered to be cytoplasmic, these processes have later been demonstrated to associate with membranes. For example, maturation of late endosomes/multivesicular bodies (MVBs) is required for efficient RNAi, whereas fusion of MVBs to lysosomes appears to reduce silencing efficiency. SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) mediate membrane fusion and are thus at the core of membrane trafficking. In spite of this, no SNARE has previously been reported to affect RNAi. Here, we demonstrate that in Caenorhabditis elegans, loss of the conserved SNARE SEC-22 results in enhanced RNAi upon ingestion of double-stranded RNA. Furthermore, SEC-22 overexpression inhibits RNAi in wild-type animals. We find that overexpression of SEC-22 in the target tissue (body wall muscle) strongly suppresses the sec-22(-) enhanced RNAi phenotype, supporting a primary role for SEC-22 in import of RNAi silencing signals or cell autonomous RNAi. A functional mCherry::SEC-22 protein localizes primarily to late endosomes/MVBs and these compartments are enlarged in animals lacking sec-22 SEC-22 interacts with late endosome-associated RNA transport protein SID-5 in a yeast two-hybrid assay and functions in a sid-5-dependent manner. Taken together, our data indicate that SEC-22 reduces RNAi efficiency by affecting late endosome/MVB function, for example, by promoting fusion between late endosomes/MVBs and lysosomes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a SNARE with a function in small RNA-mediated gene silencing.

  15. New perspectives on the diversification of the RNA interference system: insights from comparative genomics and small RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Burroughs, Alexander Maxwell; Ando, Yoshinari; Aravind, L

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the pervasive involvement of small RNAs in regulating diverse biological processes has been greatly augmented by recent application of deep-sequencing technologies to small RNA across diverse eukaryotes. We review the currently-known small RNA classes and place them in context of the reconstructed evolutionary history of the RNAi protein machinery. This synthesis indicates the earliest versions of eukaryotic RNAi systems likely utilized small RNA processed from three types of precursors: 1) sense-antisense transcriptional products, 2) genome-encoded, imperfectly-complementary hairpin sequences, and 3) larger non-coding RNA precursor sequences. Structural dissection of PIWI proteins along with recent discovery of novel families (including Med13 of the Mediator complex) suggest that emergence of a distinct architecture with the N-terminal domains (also occurring separately fused to endoDNases in prokaryotes) formed via duplication of an ancestral unit was key to their recruitment as primary RNAi effectors and use of small RNAs of certain preferred lengths. Prokaryotic PIWI proteins are typically components of several RNA-directed DNA restriction or CRISPR/Cas systems. However, eukaryotic versions appear to have emerged from a subset that evolved RNA-directed RNA interference. They were recruited alongside RNaseIII domains and RdRP domains, also from prokaryotic systems, to form the core eukaryotic RNAi system. Like certain regulatory systems, RNAi diversified into two distinct but linked arms concomitant with eukaryotic nucleo-cytoplasmic compartmentalization. Subsequent elaboration of RNAi proceeded via diversification of the core protein machinery through lineage-specific expansions and recruitment of new components from prokaryotes (nucleases and small RNA-modifying enzymes), allowing for diversification of associating small RNAs. PMID:24311560

  16. A novel approach for inhibition of HIV-1 by RNA interference: counteracting viral escape with a second generation of siRNAs

    PubMed Central

    ter Brake, Olivier; Berkhout, Ben

    2005-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an evolutionary conserved gene silencing mechanism in which small interfering RNA (siRNA) mediates the sequence specific degradation of mRNA. The recent discovery that exogenously delivered siRNA can trigger RNAi in mammalian cells raises the possibility to use this technology as a therapeutic tool against pathogenic viruses. Indeed, it has been shown that siRNAs can be used effectively to inhibit virus replication. The focus of this review is on RNA interference strategies against HIV-1 and how this new technology may be developed into a new successful therapy. One of the hallmarks of RNAi, its sequence specificity, also presents a way out for the virus, as single nucleotide substitutions in the target region can abolish the suppression. Strategies to prevent the emergence of resistant viruses have been suggested and involve the targeting of conserved sequences and the simultaneous use of multiple siRNAs, similar to current highly active antiretroviral therapy. We present an additional strategy aimed at preventing viral escape by using a second generation of siRNAs that recognize the mutated target sites. PMID:19771206

  17. A Novel Complex-Coefficient In-Band Interference Suppression Algorithm for Cognitive Ultra-Wide Band Wireless Sensors Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Hailiang; Zhang, Wensheng; Xu, Hongji; Du, Zhengfeng; Tang, Huaibin; Li, Jing

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of wireless communication systems and electronic techniques, the limited frequency spectrum resources are shared with various wireless devices, leading to a crowded and challenging coexistence circumstance. Cognitive radio (CR) and ultra-wide band (UWB), as sophisticated wireless techniques, have been considered as significant solutions to solve the harmonious coexistence issues. UWB wireless sensors can share the spectrum with primary user (PU) systems without harmful interference. The in-band interference of UWB systems should be considered because such interference can severely affect the transmissions of UWB wireless systems. In order to solve the in-band interference issues for UWB wireless sensor networks (WSN), a novel in-band narrow band interferences (NBIs) elimination scheme is proposed in this paper. The proposed narrow band interferences suppression scheme is based on a novel complex-coefficient adaptive notch filter unit with a single constrained zero-pole pair. Moreover, in order to reduce the computation complexity of the proposed scheme, an adaptive complex-coefficient iterative method based on two-order Taylor series is designed. To cope with multiple narrow band interferences, a linear cascaded high order adaptive filter and a cyclic cascaded high order matrix adaptive filter (CCHOMAF) interference suppression algorithm based on the basic adaptive notch filter unit are also presented. The theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed CCHOMAF algorithm can achieve better performance in terms of average bit error rate for UWB WSNs. The proposed in-band NBIs elimination scheme can significantly improve the reception performance of low-cost and low-power UWB wireless systems. PMID:28587085

  18. A genetic strategy to treat sickle cell anemia by coregulating globin transgene expression and RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Samakoglu, Selda; Lisowski, Leszek; Budak-Alpdogan, Tulin; Usachenko, Yelena; Acuto, Santina; Di Marzo, Rosalba; Maggio, Aurelio; Zhu, Ping; Tisdale, John F; Rivière, Isabelle; Sadelain, Michel

    2006-01-01

    The application of RNA interference (RNAi) to stem cell-based therapies will require highly specific and lineage-restricted gene silencing. Here we show the feasibility and therapeutic potential of coregulating transgene expression and RNAi in hematopoietic stem cells. We encoded promoterless small-hairpin RNA (shRNA) within the intron of a recombinant gamma-globin gene. Expression of both gamma-globin and the lariat-embedded small interfering RNA (siRNA) was induced upon erythroid differentiation, specifically downregulating the targeted gene in tissue- and differentiation stage-specific fashion. The position of the shRNA within the intron was critical to concurrently achieve high-level transgene expression, effective siRNA generation and minimal interferon induction. Lentiviral transduction of CD34(+) cells from patients with sickle cell anemia led to erythroid-specific expression of the gamma-globin transgene and concomitant reduction of endogenous beta(S) transcripts, thus providing proof of principle for therapeutic strategies that require synergistic gene addition and gene silencing in stem cell progeny.

  19. RNA Interference Induced by the Cationic Lipid Delivery of siRNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouxsein, Nathan

    2005-03-01

    Recent discoveries demonstrate that the introduction of synthetically prepared duplexes of 19-21 bp short interfering RNAs (siRNA) into mammalian cells results in the cleavage of target mRNA leading to post transcriptional gene silencing [1]. Our work focuses on the cationic-lipid (CL) mediated delivery of siRNA into mammalian cell lines in an approach similar to CL based gene delivery [2]. Co-transfection of a target and a non-target reporter plasmid followed by the CL delivery of a sequence specific siRNA allows us to probe the silencing efficiency (SE) of the target plasmid relative to non-specific silencing of both plasmids. We have created a phase diagram for SE as a function of the complex membrane charge density and as a function of the CL:siRNA charge ratio. X-ray diffraction was performed to probe the structure of the complexes at points along the phase diagram. Funding provided by NIH AI-12520, AI-20611 and GM-59288. [1] Elbashir et. al., Nature, 411 494-498 (2001) [2] Ewert et. al., Curr. Med. Chem. 11 133-149 (2004)

  20. Viral RNA silencing suppressors (RSS): novel strategy of viruses to ablate the host RNA interference (RNAi) defense system.

    PubMed

    Bivalkar-Mehla, Shalmali; Vakharia, Janaki; Mehla, Rajeev; Abreha, Measho; Kanwar, Jagat Rakesh; Tikoo, Akshay; Chauhan, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Pathogenic viruses have developed a molecular defense arsenal for their survival by counteracting the host anti-viral system known as RNA interference (RNAi). Cellular RNAi, in addition to regulating gene expression through microRNAs, also serves as a barrier against invasive foreign nucleic acids. RNAi is conserved across the biological species, including plants, animals and invertebrates. Viruses in turn, have evolved mechanisms that can counteract this anti-viral defense of the host. Recent studies of mammalian viruses exhibiting RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) activity have further advanced our understanding of RNAi in terms of host-virus interactions. Viral proteins and non-coding viral RNAs can inhibit the RNAi (miRNA/siRNA) pathway through different mechanisms. Mammalian viruses having dsRNA-binding regions and GW/WG motifs appear to have a high chance of conferring RSS activity. Although, RSSs of plant and invertebrate viruses have been well characterized, mammalian viral RSSs still need in-depth investigations to present the concrete evidences supporting their RNAi ablation characteristics. The information presented in this review together with any perspective research should help to predict and identify the RSS activity-endowed new viral proteins that could be the potential targets for designing novel anti-viral therapeutics.

  1. Effects of chemokine receptor 3 gene silencing by RNA interference on eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuehui; Zhu, Xinhua; Zhang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to use RNA interference (RNAi) to silence chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) and observe the effects on eosinophils (EOS) in mice with allergic rhinitis (AR). CCR3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) lentiviral vectors were transduced into purified EOS cells cultured in vitro. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses were also used to detect the efficiency of silencing, and flow cytometry was used to detect the EOS apoptosis rates. Experimental mice were grouped for nasal administration, and the lentivirus was then dispensed to AR mice. RT-PCR and western blots were performed to detect the expression levels of CCR3 mRNA and protein in EOS extracted from bone marrow, peripheral blood and nasal mucosa. Furthermore, flow cytometry was performed to detect changes to CD34-positive (CD34+) cells in each group. The CCR3 siRNA lentiviral vector exhibited high efficiency in silencing CCR3 mRNA and protein expression, inhibited growth and promoted apoptosis of EOS. In addition, the expression of CCR3 mRNA and protein in the bone marrow, peripheral blood and nasal mucosa of mice in the CCR3 siRNA treatment group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05), whereas the number of CD34+ cells in the CCR3 siRNA treatment group was not significantly different compared with that in the control group (P>0.05). CCR3 RNAi could effectively silence the expression of CCR3 mRNA and protein both in vitro and in vivo, thus promoting apoptosis of EOS and inhibiting its growth, migration and invasion. PMID:28123492

  2. Importance of translation and nonnucleolytic ago proteins for on-target RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ligang; Fan, Jihua; Belasco, Joel G

    2008-09-09

    In animals, both siRNAs and miRNAs are thought to diminish protein synthesis from transcripts that are perfectly complementary by directing endonucleolytic cleavage where they anneal, thereby triggering rapid degradation of the entire message [1-4]. By contrast, partially complementary messages are downregulated by a combination of translational repression and accelerated decay caused by rapid poly(A) tail removal [3, 5-12]. Here we present evidence that translational repression can also make a substantial contribution to the downregulation of fully complementary messages by RNA interference. Unlike mRNA destabilization, this inhibitory effect on translation is greater for perfectly complementary elements located in the 3' untranslated region rather than in the protein-coding region. In addition to known disparities in their endonucleolytic activity [13, 14], the four Ago proteins with which siRNAs associate in humans differ significantly in their capacity to direct translational repression. As a result, the relative effect of siRNA on targets that are fully versus partially complementary is influenced by the comparative abundance of the three nonnucleolytic Ago proteins, causing this on-target/off-target ratio to vary in a cell-type-dependent manner because of the dissimilar tissue distribution of these proteins. These findings have important implications for the efficacy and specificity of RNA interference.

  3. VPg of Potato virus A alone does not suppress RNA silencing but affects virulence of a heterologous virus.

    PubMed

    Germundsson, Anna; Savenkov, Eugene I; Ala-Poikela, Marjo; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2007-06-01

    The viral genome-linked protein (VPg) is a well-known virulence factor in potyviruses (genus Potyvirus), including Potato virus A (PVA). Its ability to suppress onset and signalling of transgene-mediated RNA silencing and accumulation of small interfering RNA (siRNA) was studied using cross-protection and Agrobacterium infiltration assays and green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PVA VPg protein-expressing transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants. N. benthamiana plants were also transformed with a transgene comprising the cylindrical inclusion protein (CI), nuclear inclusion protein a (NIa) and coat protein (CP) encoding regions of PVA. This transgene mRNA was expressed in the T1 progeny of the transgenic lines but all were susceptible to PVA. This result contrasted the plants transformed with the PVA P1, VPg (N-proximal part of NIa) or CP encoding regions that expressed various forms of resistance. There was little evidence for direct involvement of VPg in suppression of silencing, while other mechanisms by which VPg might interfere with transgenic resistance could not be excluded. Expression of the wild-type PVA VPg from the genome of Potato virus X (PVX, genus Potexvirus) increased symptom severity in N. benthamiana, whereas a single point mutation introduced to the VPg enhanced accumulation of the PVX chimera. These data demonstrated previously unknown virulence functions controlled by the VPg of a potyvirus.

  4. RNA Interference Restricts Rift Valley Fever Virus in Multiple Insect Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Stephanie; Fall, Gamou; Lorenzen, Stephan; Rudolf, Martin; Huber, Katrin; Heitmann, Anna; Schicht, Sabine; Ndiaye, El Hadji; Watson, Mick; Castelli, Ilaria; Elliott, Richard M.; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou A.; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Schnettler, Esther

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The emerging bunyavirus Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is transmitted to humans and livestock by a large number of mosquito species. RNA interference (RNAi) has been characterized as an important innate immune defense mechanism used by mosquitoes to limit replication of positive-sense RNA flaviviruses and togaviruses; however, little is known about its role against negative-strand RNA viruses such as RVFV. We show that virus-specific small RNAs are produced in infected mosquito cells, in Drosophila melanogaster cells, and, most importantly, also in RVFV vector mosquitoes. By addressing the production of small RNAs in adult Aedes sp. and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes, we showed the presence of virus-derived Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) not only in Aedes sp. but also in C. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes, indicating that antiviral RNA interference in C. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes is similar to the described activities of RNAi in Aedes sp. mosquitoes. We also show that these have antiviral activity, since silencing of RNAi pathway effectors enhances viral replication. Moreover, our data suggest that RVFV does not encode a suppressor of RNAi. These findings point toward a significant role of RNAi in the control of RVFV in mosquitoes. IMPORTANCE Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae) is an emerging zoonotic mosquito-borne pathogen of high relevance for human and animal health. Successful strategies of intervention in RVFV transmission by its mosquito vectors and the prevention of human and veterinary disease rely on a better understanding of the mechanisms that govern RVFV-vector interactions. Despite its medical importance, little is known about the factors that govern RVFV replication, dissemination, and transmission in the invertebrate host. Here we studied the role of the antiviral RNA interference immune pathways in the defense against RVFV in natural vector mosquitoes and mosquito cells and draw comparisons to the model insect

  5. RNA Interference Restricts Rift Valley Fever Virus in Multiple Insect Systems.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Isabelle; Jansen, Stephanie; Fall, Gamou; Lorenzen, Stephan; Rudolf, Martin; Huber, Katrin; Heitmann, Anna; Schicht, Sabine; Ndiaye, El Hadji; Watson, Mick; Castelli, Ilaria; Brennan, Benjamin; Elliott, Richard M; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou A; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Schnettler, Esther; Kohl, Alain; Becker, Stefanie C

    2017-01-01

    The emerging bunyavirus Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is transmitted to humans and livestock by a large number of mosquito species. RNA interference (RNAi) has been characterized as an important innate immune defense mechanism used by mosquitoes to limit replication of positive-sense RNA flaviviruses and togaviruses; however, little is known about its role against negative-strand RNA viruses such as RVFV. We show that virus-specific small RNAs are produced in infected mosquito cells, in Drosophila melanogaster cells, and, most importantly, also in RVFV vector mosquitoes. By addressing the production of small RNAs in adult Aedes sp. and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes, we showed the presence of virus-derived Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) not only in Aedes sp. but also in C. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes, indicating that antiviral RNA interference in C. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes is similar to the described activities of RNAi in Aedes sp. mosquitoes. We also show that these have antiviral activity, since silencing of RNAi pathway effectors enhances viral replication. Moreover, our data suggest that RVFV does not encode a suppressor of RNAi. These findings point toward a significant role of RNAi in the control of RVFV in mosquitoes. IMPORTANCE Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae) is an emerging zoonotic mosquito-borne pathogen of high relevance for human and animal health. Successful strategies of intervention in RVFV transmission by its mosquito vectors and the prevention of human and veterinary disease rely on a better understanding of the mechanisms that govern RVFV-vector interactions. Despite its medical importance, little is known about the factors that govern RVFV replication, dissemination, and transmission in the invertebrate host. Here we studied the role of the antiviral RNA interference immune pathways in the defense against RVFV in natural vector mosquitoes and mosquito cells and draw comparisons to the model insect Drosophila

  6. Suppression among alleles encoding nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich repeat resistance proteins interferes with resistance in F1 hybrid and allele-pyramided wheat plants.

    PubMed

    Stirnweis, Daniel; Milani, Samira D; Brunner, Susanne; Herren, Gerhard; Buchmann, Gabriele; Peditto, David; Jordan, Tina; Keller, Beat

    2014-09-01

    The development of high-yielding varieties with broad-spectrum durable disease resistance is the ultimate goal of crop breeding. In plants, immune receptors of the nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) class mediate race-specific resistance against pathogen attack. When employed in agriculture this type of resistance is often rapidly overcome by newly adapted pathogen races. The stacking of different resistance genes or alleles in F1 hybrids or in pyramided lines is a promising strategy for achieving more durable resistance. Here, we identify a molecular mechanism which can negatively interfere with the allele-pyramiding approach. We show that pairwise combinations of different alleles of the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm3 in F1 hybrids and stacked transgenic wheat lines can result in suppression of Pm3-based resistance. This effect is independent of the genetic background and solely dependent on the Pm3 alleles. Suppression occurs at the post-translational level, as levels of RNA and protein in the suppressed alleles are unaffected. Using a transient expression system in Nicotiana benthamiana, the LRR domain was identified as the domain conferring suppression. The results of this study suggest that the expression of closely related NB-LRR resistance genes or alleles in the same genotype can lead to dominant-negative interactions. These findings provide a molecular explanation for the frequently observed ineffectiveness of resistance genes introduced from the secondary gene pool into polyploid crop species and mark an important step in overcoming this limitation.

  7. Potent and Specific Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication by RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Coburn, Glen A.; Cullen, Bryan R.

    2002-01-01

    Synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been shown to induce the degradation of specific mRNA targets in human cells by inducing RNA interference (RNAi). Here, we demonstrate that siRNA duplexes targeted against the essential Tat and Rev regulatory proteins encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can specifically block Tat and Rev expression and function. More importantly, we show that these same siRNAs can effectively inhibit HIV-1 gene expression and replication in cell cultures, including those of human T-cell lines and primary lymphocytes. These observations demonstrate that RNAi can effectively block virus replication in human cells and raise the possibility that RNAi could provide an important innate protective response, particularly against viruses that express double-stranded RNAs as part of their replication cycle. PMID:12186906

  8. Development of RNA interference-based therapeutics and application of multi-target small interfering RNAs.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiejun; Wu, Meihua; Zhu, York Yuanyuan; Chen, Jianxin; Chen, Li

    2014-08-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been proven in recent years to be a newly advanced and powerful tool for development of therapeutic agents toward various unmet medical needs such as cancer, in particular, a great attention has been paid to the development of antineoplastic agents. Recent success in clinical trials related to RNAi-based therapeutics on cancer and ocular disease has validated that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) constitute a new promising class of therapeutics. Currently, a great wealth of multi-target based siRNA structural modifications is available for promoting siRNA-mediated gene silencing with low side effects. Here, the latest developments in RNAi-based therapeutics and novel structural modifications described for siRNAs--in particular multi-target siRNAs--are reviewed.

  9. Interference of hepatitis C virus RNA replication by short interfering RNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapadia, Sharookh B.; Brideau-Andersen, Amy; Chisari, Francis V.

    2003-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease, which can lead to the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current therapy of patients with chronic HCV infection includes treatment with IFN in combination with ribavirin. Because most treated patients do not resolve the infection, alternative treatment is essential. RNA interference (RNAi) is a recently discovered antiviral mechanism present in plants and animals that induces double-stranded RNA degradation. Using a selectable subgenomic HCV replicon cell culture system, we have shown that RNAi can specifically inhibit HCV RNA replication and protein expression in Huh-7 cells that stably replicate the HCV genome, and that this antiviral effect is independent of IFN. These results suggest that RNAi may represent a new approach for the treatment of persistent HCV infection.

  10. [Silencing HSV1 gD expression in cultured cells by RNA interference].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qin-Chang; Ren, Zhe; Zhang, Chun-Long; Zhang, Mei-Ying; Liao, Hong-Juan; Liu, Qiu-Ying; Zhang, Pei-Zhuo; Li, Jiu-Xiang; Hu, Chao-Feng; Wang, Hua-Dong; Wang, Yi-Fei

    2007-01-01

    To explore the anti-HSV-1 effect of silencing gD gene expression by RNA interference, five 21-nucleotide duplex small interfering RNAs(siRNAs) targeting the HSV1 gD sequence were designed and the gD-EGFP fusion gene expression vector was constructed, then co-transfected into Vero cell, and screened the effective siRNA through analyzing the intensity of the EGFP fluorescence. Finally, the anti-HSV1 effect was confirmed by plaque reduction assay, real-time PCR and daughter virus titration of HSV1 infected Vero cells transfected with siRNAs. The study demonstrated that siRNAs could effectively and specifically inhibit gD gene expression in HSV1-infected cells, but only had a little effect on HSV1 infection, so taking gD as the target of siRNA against HSV1 needs further study.

  11. Functional analysis of the cellulose gene of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, using RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Ma, H B; Lu, Q; Liang, J; Zhang, X Y

    2011-08-30

    Cellulases are pathogenic substances suspected to be responsible for the development of the early symptoms of nematode disease. The pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Parasitaphelenchidae), is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, which kills millions of pine trees. We used RNA interference (RNAi), a reverse genetic tool, to analyze the function of the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene of B. xylophilus, which causes the most serious forest tree disease in China and the rest of eastern Asia. Silencing of this gene was detected through real-time PCR and cellulase activity assays after soaking for 24 h in dsRNA. The cellulase gene silencing effects differed among various siRNAs. The propagation and dispersal ability of these nematodes decreased when the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene was silenced. It is important to select an effective siRNA before performing an RNAi test.

  12. Isolation of small interfering RNAs using viral suppressors of RNA interference.

    PubMed

    van den Beek, Marius; Antoniewski, Christophe; Carré, Clément

    2014-01-01

    The tombusvirus P19 VSR (viral suppressor of RNA interference) binds siRNAs with high affinity, whereas the Flockhouse Virus (FHV) B2 VSR binds both long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Both VSRs are small proteins and function in plant and animal cells. Fusing a Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS) to the N-terminus shifts the localization of the VSR from cytoplasmic to nuclear, allowing researchers to specifically probe the subcellular distribution of siRNAs, and to investigate the function of nuclear and cytoplasmic siRNAs. This chapter provides a detailed protocol for the immunoprecipitation of siRNAs bound to epitope-tagged VSR and subsequent analysis by 3'-end-labeling using cytidine-3',5'-bis phosphate ([5'-(32)P]pCp) and northern blotting.

  13. Development of patatin knockdown potato tubers using RNA interference (RNAi) technology, for the production of human-therapeutic glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon-Sik; Lee, Yong-Hwa; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Kim, Mi-Sun; Hahn, Kyu-Woong; Ko, Jeong-Heon; Joung, Hyouk; Jeon, Jae-Heung

    2008-01-01

    Background Patatins encoded by a multi-gene family are one of the major storage glycoproteins in potato tubers. Potato tubers have recently emerged as bioreactors for the production of human therapeutic glycoproteins (vaccines). Increasing the yield of recombinant proteins, targeting the produced proteins to specific cellular compartments, and diminishing expensive protein purification steps are important research goals in plant biotechnology. In the present study, potato patatins were eliminated almost completely via RNA interference (RNAi) technology to develop potato tubers as a more efficient protein expression system. The gene silencing effect of patatins in the transgenic potato plants was examined at individual isoform levels. Results Based upon the sequence similarity within the multi-gene family of patatins, a highly conserved target sequence (635 nts) of patatin gene pat3-k1 [GenBank accession no. DQ114421] in potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) was amplified for the construction of a patatin-specific hairpin RNAi (hpRNAi) vector. The CaMV 35S promoter-driven patatin hpRNAi vector was transformed into the potato cultivar Desiree by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Ten transgenic potato lines bearing patatin hpRNA were generated. The effects of RNA interference were characterized at both the protein and mRNA levels using 1D and 2D SDS/PAGE and quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. Dependent upon the patatin hpRNAi line, patatins decreased by approximately 99% at both the protein and mRNA levels. However, the phenotype (e.g. the number and size of potato tuber, average tuber weight, growth pattern, etc.) of hpRNAi lines was not distinguishable from wild-type potato plants under both in vitro and ex vitro growth conditions. During glycoprotein purification, patatin-knockdown potato tubers allowed rapid purification of other potato glycoproteins with less contamination of patatins. Conclusion Patatin-specific hpRNAi effectively suppressed the

  14. Engineering RNA interference-based resistance to dengue virus type 2 in genetically modified Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Franz, Alexander W E; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Adelman, Zach N; Blair, Carol D; Beaty, Barry J; James, Anthony A; Olson, Ken E

    2006-03-14

    Mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) were genetically modified to exhibit impaired vector competence for dengue type 2 viruses (DENV-2). We exploited the natural antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in the mosquito midgut by constructing an effector gene that expresses an inverted-repeat (IR) RNA derived from the premembrane protein coding region of the DENV-2 RNA genome. The A. aegypti carboxypeptidase A promoter was used to express the IR RNA in midgut epithelial cells after ingestion of a bloodmeal. The promoter and effector gene were inserted into the genome of a white-eye Puerto Rico Rexville D (Higgs' white eye) strain by using the nonautonomous mariner MosI transformation system. A transgenic family, Carb77, expressed IR RNA in the midgut after a bloodmeal. Carb77 mosquitoes ingesting an artificial bloodmeal containing DENV-2 exhibited marked reduction of viral envelope antigen in midguts and salivary glands after infection. DENV-2 titration of individual mosquitoes showed that most Carb77 mosquitoes poorly supported virus replication. Transmission in vitro of virus from the Carb77 line was significantly diminished when compared to control mosquitoes. The presence of DENV-2-derived siRNAs in RNA extracts from midguts of Carb77 and the loss of the resistance phenotype when the RNAi pathway was interrupted proved that DENV-2 resistance was caused by a RNAi response. Engineering of transgenic A. aegypti that show a high level of resistance against DENV-2 provides a powerful tool for developing population replacement strategies to control transmission of dengue viruses.

  15. Darwin's "Abominable Mystery": the role of RNA interference in the evolution of flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Cibrián-Jaramillo, A; Martienssen, R A

    2009-01-01

    Darwin was famously concerned that the sudden appearance and rapid diversification of flowering plants in the mid-Cretaceous could not have occurred by gradual change. Here, we review our attempts to resolve the relationships among the major seed plant groups, i.e., cycads, ginkgo, conifers, gnetophytes, and flowering plants, and to provide a pipeline in which these relationships can be used as a platform for identifying genes of functional importance in plant diversification. Using complete gene sets and unigenes from 16 plant species, genes with positive partitioned Bremer support at major nodes were used to identify overrepresented gene ontology (GO) terms. Posttranscriptional silencing via RNA interference (RNAi) was overrepresented at several major nodes, including between monocots and dicots during early angiosperm divergence. One of these genes, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6, is required for the biogenesis of trans-acting small interfering RNA (tasiRNA), confers heteroblasty and organ polarity, and restricts maternal specification of the germline. Processing of small RNA and transfer between neighboring cells underlies these roles and may have contributed to distinct mutant phenotypes in plants, and in particular in the early split of the monocots and eudicots.

  16. Ingestion of genetically modified yeast symbiont reduces fitness of an insect pest via RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Katherine A.; Tabuloc, Christine A.; Cervantes, Kevin R.; Chiu, Joanna C.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference has had major advances as a developing tool for pest management. In laboratory experiments, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is often administered to the insect by genetic modification of the crop, or synthesized in vitro and topically applied to the crop. Here, we engineered genetically modified yeast that express dsRNA targeting y-Tubulin in Drosophila suzukii. Our design takes advantage of the symbiotic interactions between Drosophila, yeast, and fruit crops. Yeast is naturally found growing on the surface of fruit crops, constitutes a major component of the Drosophila microbiome, and is highly attractive to Drosophila. Thus, this naturally attractive yeast biopesticide can deliver dsRNA to an insect pest without the need for genetic crop modification. We demonstrate that this biopesticide decreases larval survivorship, and reduces locomotor activity and reproductive fitness in adults, which are indicative of general health decline. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that yeast can be used to deliver dsRNA to an insect pest. PMID:26931800

  17. Long-term effect of systemic RNA interference on circadian clock genes in hemimetabolous insects.

    PubMed

    Uryu, Outa; Kamae, Yuichi; Tomioka, Kenji; Yoshii, Taishi

    2013-04-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) strategy, which enables gene-specific knock-down of transcripts, has been spread across a wide area of insect studies for investigating gene function without regard to model and non-model insects. This technique is of particular benefit to promote molecular studies on non-model insects. However, the optimal conditions for RNAi are still not well understood because of its variable efficiency depending on the species, target genes, and experimental conditions. To apply RNAi technique to long-running experiments such as chronobiological studies, the effects of RNAi have to persist throughout the experiment. In this study, we attempted to determine the optimal concentration of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) for systemic RNAi and its effective period in two different insect species, the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus and the firebrat Thermobia domestica. In both species, higher concentrations of dsRNA principally yielded a more efficient knock-down of mRNA levels of tested clock genes, although the effect depended on the gene and the species. Surprisingly, the effect of the RNAi reached its maximum effect 1-2 weeks and 1 month after the injection of dsRNA in the crickets and the firebrats, respectively, suggesting a slow but long-term effect of RNAi. Our study provides fundamental information for utilizing RNAi technique in any long-running experiment.

  18. Ingestion of genetically modified yeast symbiont reduces fitness of an insect pest via RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Katherine A; Tabuloc, Christine A; Cervantes, Kevin R; Chiu, Joanna C

    2016-03-02

    RNA interference has had major advances as a developing tool for pest management. In laboratory experiments, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is often administered to the insect by genetic modification of the crop, or synthesized in vitro and topically applied to the crop. Here, we engineered genetically modified yeast that express dsRNA targeting y-Tubulin in Drosophila suzukii. Our design takes advantage of the symbiotic interactions between Drosophila, yeast, and fruit crops. Yeast is naturally found growing on the surface of fruit crops, constitutes a major component of the Drosophila microbiome, and is highly attractive to Drosophila. Thus, this naturally attractive yeast biopesticide can deliver dsRNA to an insect pest without the need for genetic crop modification. We demonstrate that this biopesticide decreases larval survivorship, and reduces locomotor activity and reproductive fitness in adults, which are indicative of general health decline. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that yeast can be used to deliver dsRNA to an insect pest.

  19. Therapeutic impact of systemic AAV-mediated RNA interference in a mouse model of myotonic dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Bisset, Darren R.; Stepniak-Konieczna, Ewa A.; Zavaljevski, Maja; Wei, Jessica; Carter, Gregory T.; Weiss, Michael D.; Chamberlain, Joel R.

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) offers a promising therapeutic approach for dominant genetic disorders that involve gain-of-function mechanisms. One candidate disease for RNAi therapy application is myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), which results from toxicity of a mutant mRNA. DM1 is caused by expansion of a CTG repeat in the 3′ UTR of the DMPK gene. The expression of DMPK mRNA containing an expanded CUG repeat (CUGexp) leads to defects in RNA biogenesis and turnover. We designed miRNA-based RNAi hairpins to target the CUGexp mRNA in the human α-skeletal muscle actin long-repeat (HSALR) mouse model of DM1. RNAi expression cassettes were delivered to HSALR mice using recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors injected intravenously as a route to systemic gene therapy. Vector delivery significantly reduced disease pathology in muscles of the HSALR mice, including a reduction in the CUGexp mRNA, a reduction in myotonic discharges, a shift toward adult pre-mRNA splicing patterns, reduced myofiber hypertrophy and a decrease in myonuclear foci containing the CUGexp mRNA. Significant reversal of hallmarks of DM1 in the rAAV RNAi-treated HSALR mice indicate that defects characteristic of DM1 can be mitigated with a systemic RNAi approach targeting the nuclei of terminally differentiated myofibers. Efficient rAAV-mediated delivery of RNAi has the potential to provide a long-term therapy for DM1 and other dominant muscular dystrophies. PMID:26082468

  20. Disruption of amylase genes by RNA interference affects reproduction in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Huvet, Arnaud; Béguel, Jean-Philippe; Cavaleiro, Nathalia Pereira; Thomas, Yoann; Quillien, Virgile; Boudry, Pierre; Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; Fabioux, Caroline

    2015-06-01

    Feeding strategies and digestive capacities can have important implications for variation in energetic pathways associated with ecological and economically important traits, such as growth or reproduction in bivalve species. Here, we investigated the role of amylase in the digestive processes of Crassostrea gigas, using in vivo RNA interference. This approach also allowed us to investigate the relationship between energy intake by feeding and gametogenesis in oysters. Double-stranded (ds)RNA designed to target the two α-amylase genes A and B was injected in vivo into the visceral mass of oysters at two doses. These treatments caused significant reductions in mean mRNA levels of the amylase genes: -50.7% and -59% mRNA A, and -71.9% and -70.6% mRNA B in 15 and 75 µg dsRNA-injected oysters, respectively, relative to controls. Interestingly, reproductive knock-down phenotypes were observed for both sexes at 48 days post-injection, with a significant reduction of the gonad area (-22.5% relative to controls) and germ cell under-proliferation revealed by histology. In response to the higher dose of dsRNA, we also observed reductions in amylase activity (-53%) and absorption efficiency (-5%). Based on these data, dynamic energy budget modeling showed that the limitation of energy intake by feeding that was induced by injection of amylase dsRNA was insufficient to affect gonadic development at the level observed in the present study. This finding suggests that other driving mechanisms, such as endogenous hormonal modulation, might significantly change energy allocation to reproduction, and increase the maintenance rate in oysters in response to dsRNA injection. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Transgenic Sugarcane Resistant to Sorghum mosaic virus Based on Coat Protein Gene Silencing by RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jinlong; Gao, Shiwu; Lin, Qinliang; Wang, Hengbo; Que, Youxiong; Xu, Liping

    2015-01-01

    As one of the critical diseases of sugarcane, sugarcane mosaic disease can lead to serious decline in stalk yield and sucrose content. It is mainly caused by Potyvirus sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and/or Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), with additional differences in viral strains. RNA interference (RNAi) is a novel strategy for producing viral resistant plants. In this study, based on multiple sequence alignment conducted on genomic sequences of different strains and isolates of SrMV, the conserved region of coat protein (CP) genes was selected as the target gene and the interference sequence with size of 423 bp in length was obtained through PCR amplification. The RNAi vector pGII00-HACP with an expression cassette containing both hairpin interference sequence and cp4-epsps herbicide-tolerant gene was transferred to sugarcane cultivar ROC22 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. After herbicide screening, PCR molecular identification, and artificial inoculation challenge, anti-SrMV positive transgenic lines were successfully obtained. SrMV resistance rate of the transgenic lines with the interference sequence was 87.5% based on SrMV challenge by artificial inoculation. The genetically modified SrMV-resistant lines of cultivar ROC22 provide resistant germplasm for breeding lines and can also serve as resistant lines having the same genetic background for study of resistance mechanisms. PMID:25685813

  2. Adenovirus-mediated shRNA interference against HSV-1 replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Song, Bo; Liu, Xinjing; Wang, Qingzhi; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Ting; Han, Zhiqiang; Xu, Yuming

    2016-12-01

    The UL29 and UL28 proteins encoded by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) are critical for its replication and packaging, respectively. Research has demonstrated that synthesized siRNA molecules targeting the UL29 gene are able to suppress HSV-2 replication and the UL28-null HSV-1 gene cannot form infectious viruses in vitro. Silencing the UL28 and UL29 genes by RNAi might lead to the development of novel antiviral agents for the treatment of HSV-1 infections. Two kinds of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting the UL29 and UL28 genes were chemically synthesized and then delivered into cells by a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Adv5) vector. (-) shRNAs targeting none of the genome of HSV-1 were used as the control. Vero cells were inoculated with Ad-UL28shRNA or Ad-UL29shRNA at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 100 and challenged 24 h later with HSV-1 at an MOI of 0.01 to inhibit HSV-1 replication, as measured by the level of the corresponding RNA and proteins. In addition, the amount of progeny virus was assessed at daily intervals. The antiviral effects of Ad-shRNAs at ongoing HSV-1 infection were explored at 12 h after inoculation of the HSV-1. The results showed that the shRNAs delivered by Adv5 significantly suppressed HSV-1 replication in vitro, as determined by the levels of viral RNA transcription, viral protein synthesis, and viral production. The Ad-UL28shRNA and Ad-UL29shRNA suppressed the replication of HSV-1, respectively, compared with the control group (P < 0.001). When Ad-UL28shRNA and Ad-UL29shRNA were combined, a synergistic effect was observed. The antiviral effects could sustain for at least 4 days after the HSV-1 infection (P < 0.001). Furthermore, antiviral effects were achieved 12 h prior to inoculation of Adv5-shRNAs (P < 0.001). Our data demonstrated comparable antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus by shRNAs targeting either UL29 or UL28 sites in vitro and the effectiveness of using the Adv5

  3. TGF-β Suppression of HBV RNA through AID-Dependent Recruitment of an RNA Exosome Complex

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Kouichi; Wang, Zhe; Chowdhury, Sajeda; Monjurul, Ahasan Md; Wakae, Kousho; Koura, Miki; Shimadu, Miyuki; Kinoshita, Kazuo; Muramatsu, Masamichi

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β inhibits hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication although the intracellular effectors involved are not determined. Here, we report that reduction of HBV transcripts by TGF-β is dependent on AID expression, which significantly decreases both HBV transcripts and viral DNA, resulting in inhibition of viral replication. Immunoprecipitation reveals that AID physically associates with viral P protein that binds to specific virus RNA sequence called epsilon. AID also binds to an RNA degradation complex (RNA exosome proteins), indicating that AID, RNA exosome, and P protein form an RNP complex. Suppression of HBV transcripts by TGF-β was abrogated by depletion of either AID or RNA exosome components, suggesting that AID and the RNA exosome involve in TGF-β mediated suppression of HBV RNA. Moreover, AID-mediated HBV reduction does not occur when P protein is disrupted or when viral transcription is inhibited. These results suggest that induced expression of AID by TGF-β causes recruitment of the RNA exosome to viral RNP complex and the RNA exosome degrades HBV RNA in a transcription-coupled manner. PMID:25836330

  4. An RNA aptamer that interferes with the DNA binding of the HSF transcription activator.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoching; Shi, Hua; Sevilimedu, Aarti; Liachko, Nicole; Nelson, Hillary C M; Lis, John T

    2006-01-01

    Heat shock factor (HSF) is a conserved and highly potent transcription activator. It is involved in a wide variety of important biological processes including the stress response and specific steps in normal development. Reagents that interfere with HSF function would be useful for both basic studies and practical applications. We selected an RNA aptamer that binds to HSF with high specificity. Deletion analysis defined the minimal binding motif of this aptamer to be two stems and one stem-loop joined by a three-way junction. This RNA aptamer interferes with normal interaction of HSF with its DNA element, which is a key regulatory step for HSF function. The DNA-binding domain plus a flanking linker region on the HSF (DL) is essential for the RNA binding. Additionally, this aptamer inhibits HSF-induced transcription in vitro in the complex milieu of a whole cell extract. In contrast to the previously characterized NF-kappaB aptamer, the HSF aptamer does not simply mimic DNA binding, but rather binds to HSF in a manner distinct from DNA binding to HSF.

  5. Identification of chemosensory receptor genes in Manduca sexta and knockdown by RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Insects detect environmental chemicals via a large and rapidly evolving family of chemosensory receptor proteins. Although our understanding of the molecular genetic basis for Drosophila chemoreception has increased enormously in the last decade, similar understanding in other insects remains limited. The tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, has long been an important model for insect chemosensation, particularly from ecological, behavioral, and physiological standpoints. It is also a major agricultural pest on solanaceous crops. However, little sequence information and lack of genetic tools has prevented molecular genetic analysis in this species. The ability to connect molecular genetic mechanisms, including potential lineage-specific changes in chemosensory genes, to ecologically relevant behaviors and specializations in M. sexta would be greatly beneficial. Results Here, we sequenced transcriptomes from adult and larval chemosensory tissues and identified chemosensory genes based on sequence homology. We also used dsRNA feeding as a method to induce RNA interference in larval chemosensory tissues. Conclusions We report identification of new chemosensory receptor genes including 17 novel odorant receptors and one novel gustatory receptor. Further, we demonstrate that systemic RNA interference can be used in larval olfactory neurons to reduce expression of chemosensory receptor transcripts. Together, our results further the development of M. sexta as a model for functional analysis of insect chemosensation. PMID:22646846

  6. Reversal of pathology in CHMP2B-mediated frontotemporal dementia patient cells using RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Troels Tolstrup; Mizielinska, Sarah; Hasholt, Lis; Isaacs, Adrian M; Nielsen, Jørgen E

    2012-08-01

    Frontotemporal dementia is the second most common form of young-onset dementia after Alzheimer's disease, and several genetic forms of frontotemporal dementia are known. A rare genetic variant is caused by a point mutation in the CHMP2B gene. CHMP2B is a component of the ESCRT-III complex, which is involved in endosomal trafficking of proteins targeted for degradation in lysosomes. Mutations in CHMP2B result in abnormal endosomal structures in patient fibroblasts and patient brains, probably through a gain-of-function mechanism, suggesting that the endosomal pathway plays a central role in the pathogenesis of the disease. In the present study, we used lentiviral vectors to efficiently knockdown CHMP2B by delivering microRNA embedded small hairpin RNAs. We show that CHMP2B can be efficiently knocked down in patient fibroblasts using an RNA interference approach and that the knockdown causes reversal of the abnormal endosomal phenotype observed in patient fibroblasts. This is the first description of a treatment that reverses the cellular pathology caused by mutant CHMP2B and suggests that RNA interference might be a feasible therapeutic strategy. Furthermore, it provides the first proof of a direct link between the disease-causing mutation and the cellular phenotype in cells originating from CHMP2B mutation patients. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Suppression of RNA silencing by Flock house virus B2 protein is mediated through its interaction with the PAZ domain of Dicer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gatikrushna; Popli, Sonam; Hari, Yukti; Malhotra, Pawan; Mukherjee, Sunil; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2009-06-01

    RNA silencing is a conserved pathway that functions as an antiviral mechanism. The majority of viruses encode silencing suppressors that interfere with siRNA- and miRNA-guided silencing pathways. The insect flock house virus B2 protein (FHVB2) functions as an RNAi silencing suppressor that inhibits siRNA biogenesis. Here, we describe the generation of a GFP silent sensor line (Sf21) and a GFP sensor line expressing FHVB2 to study RNAi suppression mechanisms. Overexpression of FHVB2 resulted in suppression of GFP-RNAi and resumption of GFP expression. Protein fractionation studies with FHVB2-transfected cells showed that FHVB2 associates with a high-molecular-weight complex of Dicer and dsRNA/siRNAs. Yeast two-hybrid and pulldown assays revealed an interaction between FHVB2 and Drosophila Dicer proteins that appeared to involve PAZ domains. To map the FHVB2 domains interacting with Dicer, we used a 17-residue C-terminal deletion mutant. RNAi suppression was reversed in cells transfected with the FHVB2 mutant as revealed by loss of GFP. Additional yeast two-hybrid and in vitro pulldown assays confirmed that the C-terminal region of FHVB2 was involved in the interaction with the PAZ domains of Dicers. These results thus reveal a novel interaction between FHVB2 and Dicer that leads to suppression of siRNA biogenesis.

  8. Stilbene derivatives promote Ago2-dependent tumour-suppressive microRNA activity

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Keitaro; Kosaka, Nobuyoshi; Yoshioka, Yusuke; Takahashi, Ryou-u; Takeshita, Fumitaka; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that natural products are a rich source of compounds for applications in medicine, pharmacy, and biology. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of natural agents in human health have not been clearly defined. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the polyphenolic phytoalexin resveratrol promotes expression and activity of Argonaute2 (Ago2), a central RNA interference (RNAi) component, which thereby inhibits breast cancer stem-like cell characteristics by increasing the expression of a number of tumour-suppressive miRNAs, including miR-16, -141, -143, and -200c. Most importantly, resveratrol-induced Ago2 resulted in a long-term gene silencing response. We also found that pterostilbene, which is a natural dimethylated resveratrol analogue, is capable of mediating Ago2-dependent anti-cancer activity in a manner mechanistically similar to that of resveratrol. These findings suggest that the dietary intake of natural products contributes to the prevention and treatment of diseases by regulating the RNAi pathway. PMID:22423322

  9. Non-Target Effects of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-Derived Double-Stranded RNA (dsRNA-GFP) Used in Honey Bee RNA Interference (RNAi) Assays.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Francis M F; Aleixo, Aline C; Barchuk, Angel R; Bomtorin, Ana D; Grozinger, Christina M; Simões, Zilá L P

    2013-01-04

    RNA interference has been frequently applied to modulate gene function in organisms where the production and maintenance of mutants is challenging, as in our model of study, the honey bee, Apis mellifera. A green fluorescent protein (GFP)-derived double-stranded RNA (dsRNA-GFP) is currently commonly used as control in honey bee RNAi experiments, since its gene does not exist in the A. mellifera genome. Although dsRNA-GFP is not expected to trigger RNAi responses in treated bees, undesirable effects on gene expression, pigmentation or developmental timing are often observed. Here, we performed three independent experiments using microarrays to examine the effect of dsRNA-GFP treatment (introduced by feeding) on global gene expression patterns in developing worker bees. Our data revealed that the expression of nearly 1,400 genes was altered in response to dsRNA-GFP, representing around 10% of known honey bee genes. Expression changes appear to be the result of both direct off-target effects and indirect downstream secondary effects; indeed, there were several instances of sequence similarity between putative siRNAs generated from the dsRNA-GFP construct and genes whose expression levels were altered. In general, the affected genes are involved in important developmental and metabolic processes associated with RNA processing and transport, hormone metabolism, immunity, response to external stimulus and to stress. These results suggest that multiple dsRNA controls should be employed in RNAi studies in honey bees. Furthermore, any RNAi studies involving these genes affected by dsRNA-GFP in our studies should use a different dsRNA control.

  10. fMiRNA-192 and miRNA-204 Directly Suppress lncRNA HOTTIP and Interrupt GLS1-Mediated Glutaminolysis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xinyu; Yu, Xiang; Zhou, Liqing; Han, Sichong; Yuan, Qipeng; Yang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated evidence demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis. However, it is still largely unknown how these lncRNAs were regulated by small ncRNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), at the post-transcriptional level. We here use lncRNA HOTTIP as an example to study how miRNAs impact lncRNAs expression and its biological significance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). LncRNA HOTTIP is a vital oncogene in HCC, one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. In the current study, we identified miR-192 and miR-204 as two microRNAs (miRNAs) suppressing HOTTIP expression via the Argonaute 2 (AGO2)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in HCC. Interaction between miR-192 or miR-204 and HOTTIP were further confirmed using dual luciferase reporter gene assays. Consistent with this notion, a significant negative correlation between these miRNAs and HOTTIP exists in HCC tissue specimens. Interestingly, the dysregulation of the three ncRNAs was associated with overall survival of HCC patients. In addition, the posttranscriptional silencing of HOTTIP by miR-192, miR-204 or HOTTIP siRNAs could significantly suppress viability of HCC cells. On the contrary, antagonizing endogenous miR-192 or miR-204 led to increased HOTTIP expression and stimulated cell proliferation. In vivo mouse xenograft model also support the tumor suppressor role of both miRNAs. Besides the known targets (multiple 5’ end HOX A genes, i.e. HOXA13), glutaminase (GLS1) was identified as a potential downstream target of the miR-192/-204-HOTTIP axis in HCC. Considering glutaminolysis as a crucial hallmark of cancer cells and significantly inhibited cell viability after silencingGLS1, we speculate that the miR-192/-204-HOTTIP axis may interrupt HCC glutaminolysis through GLS1 inhibition. These results elucidate that the miR-192/-204-HOTTIP axis might be an important molecular pathway during hepatic cell tumorigenesis. Our data in clinical HCC samples highlight miR-192, mi

  11. MiRNA-192 [corrected] and miRNA-204 Directly Suppress lncRNA HOTTIP and Interrupt GLS1-Mediated Glutaminolysis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yunxia; Yan, Xiaodan; Jin, Yiguang; Yang, Xinyu; Yu, Xiang; Zhou, Liqing; Han, Sichong; Yuan, Qipeng; Yang, Ming

    2015-12-01

    Accumulated evidence demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis. However, it is still largely unknown how these lncRNAs were regulated by small ncRNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), at the post-transcriptional level. We here use lncRNA HOTTIP as an example to study how miRNAs impact lncRNAs expression and its biological significance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). LncRNA HOTTIP is a vital oncogene in HCC, one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. In the current study, we identified miR-192 and miR-204 as two microRNAs (miRNAs) suppressing HOTTIP expression via the Argonaute 2 (AGO2)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in HCC. Interaction between miR-192 or miR-204 and HOTTIP were further confirmed using dual luciferase reporter gene assays. Consistent with this notion, a significant negative correlation between these miRNAs and HOTTIP exists in HCC tissue specimens. Interestingly, the dysregulation of the three ncRNAs was associated with overall survival of HCC patients. In addition, the posttranscriptional silencing of HOTTIP by miR-192, miR-204 or HOTTIP siRNAs could significantly suppress viability of HCC cells. On the contrary, antagonizing endogenous miR-192 or miR-204 led to increased HOTTIP expression and stimulated cell proliferation. In vivo mouse xenograft model also support the tumor suppressor role of both miRNAs. Besides the known targets (multiple 5' end HOX A genes, i.e. HOXA13), glutaminase (GLS1) was identified as a potential downstream target of the miR-192/-204-HOTTIP axis in HCC. Considering glutaminolysis as a crucial hallmark of cancer cells and significantly inhibited cell viability after silencingGLS1, we speculate that the miR-192/-204-HOTTIP axis may interrupt HCC glutaminolysis through GLS1 inhibition. These results elucidate that the miR-192/-204-HOTTIP axis might be an important molecular pathway during hepatic cell tumorigenesis. Our data in clinical HCC samples highlight miR-192, miR-204

  12. Molecular mechanism of RNA silencing suppression mediated by p19 protein of tombusviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lakatos, Lóránt; Szittya, György; Silhavy, Dániel; Burgyán, József

    2004-01-01

    RNA silencing is an evolutionarily conserved surveillance system that occurs in a broad range of eukaryotic organisms. In plants, RNA silencing acts as an antiviral system; thus, successful virus infection requires suppression of gene silencing. A number of viral suppressors have been identified so far; however, the molecular bases of silencing suppression are still poorly understood. Here we show that p19 of Cymbidium ringspot virus (CymRSV) inhibits RNA silencing via its small RNA-binding activity in vivo. Small RNAs bound by p19 in planta are bona fide double-stranded siRNAs and they are silencing competent in the in vitro RNA-silencing system. p19 also suppresses RNA silencing in the heterologous Drosophila in vitro system by preventing siRNA incorporation into RISC. During CymRSV infection, p19 markedly diminishes the amount of free siRNA in cells by forming p19–siRNA complexes, thus making siRNAs inaccessible for effector complexes of RNA-silencing machinery. Furthermore, the obtained results also suggest that the p19-mediated sequestration of siRNAs in virus-infected cells blocks the spread of the mobile, systemic signal of RNA silencing. PMID:14976549

  13. Drosophila oncogene Gas41 is an RNA interference modulator that intersects heterochromatin and the small interfering RNA pathway.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Sumit G; Bag, Indira; Sengupta, Saswati; Pal-Bhadra, Manika; Bhadra, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    Glioma amplified sequence41 (Gas41) is a highly conserved putative transcription factor that is frequently abundant in human gliomas. Gas41 shows oncogenic activity by promoting cell growth and viability. In the present study, we show that Gas41 is required for proper functioning of RNA interference (RNAi) machinery in the nuclei, although three basic structural domains of RNAi components PAZ, PIWI and dsRNA with respect to binding are absent in the structural sequences. Variations of structural domains are highly conserved among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Gas41 interacts with cytological RNase III enzyme Dicer1 both biochemically and genetically. However, Drosophila Gas41 functions as chromatin remodeler and interacts with different heterochromatin markers and repeat-induced transgene silencing by modulating position effect variegation. We also show that transcriptional inactive Gas41 mutant interferes with the functional assembly of heterochromatin-associated proteins, dimethylated lysine 9 of histone H3 and heterochromatic protein 1 in developing embryos. A reduction of heterochromatic markers is accompanied by the mini-w promoter sequence in Gas41 mutants. These findings suggest that Drosophila Gas41 guides the repeat associated gene silencing and the Dicer1 interaction, thereby depicting a new role for Gas41. Gas41 is a critical RNAi component. In Drosophila, Gas41 plays a dual role. On the one hand, it appears to participate with Dicer 1 in the RNAi pathway and, alternatively, it also participates in repeat-induced gene silencing by accumulating heterochromatin proteins at the mini-w array promoters. Therefore, it represents an intriguing and apparently paradoxical new finding in RNA technology with respect to the process of heterochromatin gene silencing.

  14. Enzymatic synthesis and RNA interference of nucleosides incorporating stable isotopes into a base moiety.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Akihiko; Shiraishi, Mitsuya; Terado, Nanae; Tanabe, Atsuhiro; Fukuda, Kenji

    2015-10-15

    Thymidine phosphorylase was used to catalyze the conversion of thymidine (or methyluridine) and uracil incorporating stable isotopes to deoxyuridine (or uridine) with the uracil base incorporating the stable isotope. These base-exchange reactions proceeded with high conversion rates (75-96%), and the isolated yields were also good (64-87%). The masses of all synthetic compounds incorporating stable isotopes were identical to the theoretical molecular weights via EIMS. (13)C NMR spectra showed spin-spin coupling between (13)C and (15)N in the synthetic compounds, and the signals were split, further proving incorporation of the isotopes into the compounds. The RNA interference effects of this siRNA with uridine incorporating stable isotopes were also investigated. A 25mer siRNA had a strong knockdown effect on the MARCKS protein. The insertion position and number of uridine moieties incorporating stable isotopes introduced into the siRNA had no influence on the silencing of the target protein. This incorporation of stable isotopes into RNA and DNA has the potential to function as a chemically benign tracer in cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. RNA interference of timeless gene does not disrupt circadian locomotor rhythms in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Danbara, Yoshiki; Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Uryu, Outa; Tomioka, Kenji

    2010-12-01

    Molecular studies revealed that autoregulatory negative feedback loops consisting of so-called "clock genes" constitute the circadian clock in Drosophila. However, this hypothesis is not fully supported in other insects and is thus to be examined. In the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, we have previously shown that period (per) plays an essential role in the rhythm generation. In the present study, we cloned cDNA of the clock gene timeless (tim) and investigated its role in the cricket circadian oscillatory mechanism using RNA interference. Molecular structure of the cricket tim has rather high similarity to those of other insect species. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that tim mRNA showed rhythmic expression in both LD and DD similar to that of per, peaking during the (subjective) night. When injected with tim double-stranded RNA (dstim), tim mRNA levels were significantly reduced and its circadian expression rhythm was eliminated. After the dstim treatment, however, adult crickets showed a clear locomotor rhythm in DD, with a free-running period significantly shorter than that of control crickets injected with Discosoma sp. Red2 (DsRed2) dsRNA. These results suggest that in the cricket, tim plays some role in fine-tuning of the free-running period but may not be essential for oscillation of the circadian clock.

  16. Direct pharmacological inhibition of β-catenin by RNA interference in tumors of diverse origin

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Shanthi; Koser, Martin; Cyr, Wendy; Chopda, Girish; Tao, Junyan; Shui, Xue; Ying, Bo; Chen, Dongyu; Pandya, Purva; Chipumuro, Edmond; Siddiquee, Zakir; Craig, Kevin; Lai, Chengjung; Dudek, Henryk; Monga, Satdarshan; Wang, Weimin; Brown, Bob D.; Abrams, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is among the most frequently altered signaling networks in human cancers. Despite decades of preclinical and clinical research, efficient therapeutic targeting of Wnt/β-catenin has been elusive. RNA interference (RNAi) technology silences genes at the mRNA level, and therefore can be applied to previously-undruggable targets. Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) represent an elegant solution for delivery of RNAi-triggering oligonucleotides to disease-relevant tissues, but have been mostly restricted to applications in the liver. In this study, we systematically tuned the composition of a prototype LNP to enable tumor-selective delivery of a Dicer-substrate siRNA (DsiRNA) targeting CTNNB1, the gene encoding β-catenin. This formulation, termed EnCore-R, demonstrated pharmacodynamic activity in subcutaneous human tumor xenografts, orthotopic patient-derived xenograft (PDx) tumors, disseminated hematopoietic tumors, genetically induced primary liver tumors, metastatic colorectal tumors, murine metastatic melanoma. DsiRNA delivery was homogeneous in tumor sections, selective over normal liver and independent of apolipoprotein-E binding. Significant tumor growth inhibition was achieved in Wnt-dependent colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma models, but not in Wnt-independent tumors. Finally, no evidence of accelerated blood clearance or sustained liver transaminase elevation was observed after repeated dosing in nonhuman primates. These data support further investigation to gain mechanistic insight, optimize dose regimens and identify efficacious combinations with standard-of-care therapeutics. PMID:27390343

  17. Evolutionarily conserved roles of the dicer helicase domain in regulating RNA interference processing.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Mary Anne; Chan, Jessica M; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2014-10-10

    The enzyme Dicer generates 21-25 nucleotide RNAs that target specific mRNAs for silencing during RNA interference and related pathways. Although their active sites and RNA binding regions are functionally conserved, the helicase domains have distinct activities in the context of different Dicer enzymes. To examine the evolutionary origins of Dicer helicase functions, we investigated two related Dicer enzymes from the thermophilic fungus Sporotrichum thermophile. RNA cleavage assays showed that S. thermophile Dicer-1 (StDicer-1) can process hairpin precursor microRNAs, whereas StDicer-2 can only cleave linear double-stranded RNAs. Furthermore, only StDicer-2 possesses robust ATP hydrolytic activity in the presence of double-stranded RNA. Deletion of the StDicer-2 helicase domain increases both StDicer-2 cleavage activity and affinity for hairpin RNA. Notably, both StDicer-1 and StDicer-2 could complement the distantly related yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe lacking its endogenous Dicer gene but only in their full-length forms, underscoring the importance of the helicase domain. These results suggest an in vivo regulatory function for the helicase domain that may be conserved from fungi to humans.

  18. GENE SILENCING BY PARENTAL RNA INTERFERENCE IN THE GREEN RICE LEAFHOPPER, Nephotettix cincticeps (HEMIPTERA: CICADELLIDAE).

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yukiko; Hattori, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been widely used for investigating gene function in many nonmodel insect species. Parental RNAi causes gene knockdown in the next generation through the administration of double-strand RNA (dsRNA) to the mother generation. In this study, we demonstrate that parental RNAi mediated gene silencing is effective in determining the gene function of the cuticle and the salivary glands in green rice leafhopper (GRH), Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler). Injection of dsRNA of NcLac2 (9 ng/female) to female parents caused a strong knockdown of laccase-2 gene of first instar nymphs, which eventually led to high mortality rates and depigmentation of side lines on the body. The effects of parental RNAi on the mortality of the nymphs were maintained through 12-14 days after the injections. We also confirmed the effectiveness of parental RNAi induced silencing on the gene expressed in the salivary gland, the gene product of which is passed from instar to instar. The parental RNAi method can be used to examine gene function by phenotyping many offspring nymphs with injection of dsRNA into a small number of parent females, and may be applicable to high-efficiency determination of gene functions in this species.

  19. Interference Suppression vs. Response Inhibition: An Explanation for the Absence of a Bilingual Advantage in Preschoolers’ Stroop Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Alena G.; Baker-Ward, Lynne; Mueller, Shane

    2013-01-01

    The well-documented advantage that bilingual speakers demonstrate across the lifespan on measures of controlled attention is not observed in preschoolers’ performance on Stroop task variations. We examined the role of task demands in explaining this discrepancy. Whereas the Color/Word Stroop used with adult participants requires interference suppression, the Stroop task typically used with preschoolers requires only response inhibition. We developed an age-appropriate conflict task that measures interference suppression. Fifty-one preschool children (26 bilinguals) completed this new Color/Shape task and the Day/Night task used in previous research. Bilingual in comparison to monolingual children performed better on incongruent trials of the Color/Shape task, but did not differ on other measures. The results indicate that the discrepancy between preschoolers and older individuals in performance on Stroop task adaptations results from characteristics of the task rather than developmental differences. Further, the findings provide additional support for the importance of interference suppression as a mechanism underlying the bilingual advantage. PMID:24453405

  20. Transcriptional interference by RNA polymerase III affects expression of the Polr3e gene

    PubMed Central

    Yeganeh, Meghdad; Praz, Viviane; Cousin, Pascal; Hernandez, Nouria

    2017-01-01

    Overlapping gene arrangements can potentially contribute to gene expression regulation. A mammalian interspersed repeat (MIR) nested in antisense orientation within the first intron of the Polr3e gene, encoding an RNA polymerase III (Pol III) subunit, is conserved in mammals and highly occupied by Pol III. Using a fluorescence assay, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of the MIR in mouse embryonic stem cells, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we show that the MIR affects Polr3e expression through transcriptional interference. Our study reveals a mechanism by which a Pol II gene can be regulated at the transcription elongation level by transcription of an embedded antisense Pol III gene. PMID:28289142

  1. Transcriptional interference by RNA polymerase III affects expression of the Polr3e gene.

    PubMed

    Yeganeh, Meghdad; Praz, Viviane; Cousin, Pascal; Hernandez, Nouria

    2017-02-15

    Overlapping gene arrangements can potentially contribute to gene expression regulation. A mammalian interspersed repeat (MIR) nested in antisense orientation within the first intron of the Polr3e gene, encoding an RNA polymerase III (Pol III) subunit, is conserved in mammals and highly occupied by Pol III. Using a fluorescence assay, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of the MIR in mouse embryonic stem cells, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we show that the MIR affects Polr3e expression through transcriptional interference. Our study reveals a mechanism by which a Pol II gene can be regulated at the transcription elongation level by transcription of an embedded antisense Pol III gene.

  2. RNA interference in the nucleus: roles for small RNAs in transcription, epigenetics and beyond.

    PubMed

    Castel, Stephane E; Martienssen, Robert A

    2013-02-01

    A growing number of functions are emerging for RNA interference (RNAi) in the nucleus, in addition to well-characterized roles in post-transcriptional gene silencing in the cytoplasm. Epigenetic modifications directed by small RNAs have been shown to cause transcriptional repression in plants, fungi and animals. Additionally, increasing evidence indicates that RNAi regulates transcription through interaction with transcriptional machinery. Nuclear small RNAs include small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and are implicated in nuclear processes such as transposon regulation, heterochromatin formation, developmental gene regulation and genome stability.

  3. Long-term expression of miRNA for RNA interference using a novel vector system based on a negative-strand RNA virus

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Daito, Takuji; Matsumoto, Yusuke; Makino, Akiko; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a promising technique for gene therapy. However, the safe and long-term expression of small RNA molecules is a major concern for the application of RNAi therapies in vivo. Borna disease virus (BDV), a non-segmented, negative-strand RNA virus, establishes a persistent infection without obvious cytopathic effects. Unique among animal non-retroviral RNA viruses, BDV persistently establishes a long-lasting persistent infection in the nucleus. These features make BDV ideal for RNA virus vector persistently expressing small RNAs. Here, we demonstrated that the recombinant BDV (rBDV) containing the miR-155 precursor, rBDV-miR-155, persistently expressed miR-155 and efficiently silenced its target gene. The stem region of the miR-155 precursor in rBDV-miR-155 was replaceable by any miRNA sequences of interest and that such rBDVs efficiently silence the expression of target genes. Collectively, BDV vector would be a novel RNA virus vector enabling the long-term expression of miRNAs for RNAi therapies. PMID:27189575

  4. HIV-1 RNAs are Not Part of the Argonaute 2 Associated RNA Interference Pathway in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Shivendra; Jaskiewicz, Lukasz; Hall, Jonathan; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Metzner, Karin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background MiRNAs and other small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) are key players in post-transcriptional gene regulation. HIV-1 derived small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) have been described in HIV-1 infected cells, but their biological functions still remain to be elucidated. Here, we approached the question whether viral sncRNAs may play a role in the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway or whether viral mRNAs are targeted by cellular miRNAs in human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM). Methods The incorporation of viral sncRNAs and/or their target RNAs into RNA-induced silencing complex was investigated using photoactivatable ribonucleoside-induced cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) as well as high-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by cross-linking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP), which capture Argonaute2-bound miRNAs and their target RNAs. HIV-1 infected monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were chosen as target cells, as they have previously been shown to express HIV-1 sncRNAs. In addition, we applied small RNA deep sequencing to study differential cellular miRNA expression in HIV-1 infected versus non-infected MDMs. Results and Conclusion PAR-CLIP and HITS-CLIP data demonstrated the absence of HIV-1 RNAs in Ago2-RISC, although the presence of a multitude of HIV-1 sncRNAs in HIV-1 infected MDMs was confirmed by small RNA sequencing. Small RNA sequencing revealed that 1.4% of all sncRNAs were of HIV-1 origin. However, neither HIV-1 derived sncRNAs nor putative HIV-1 target sequences incorporated into Ago2-RISC were identified suggesting that HIV-1 sncRNAs are not involved in the canonical RNAi pathway nor is HIV-1 targeted by this pathway in HIV-1 infected macrophages. PMID:26226348

  5. RNA interference as a gene silencing tool to control Tuta absoluta in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Roberto A.; Barbosa, Guilherme O.; Possignolo, Isabella Presotto; Peres, Lazaro E. P.; Lam, Eric; Lima, Joni E.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), a gene-silencing mechanism that involves providing double-stranded RNA molecules that match a specific target gene sequence, is now widely used in functional genetic studies. The potential application of RNAi-mediated control of agricultural insect pests has rapidly become evident. The production of transgenic plants expressing dsRNA molecules that target essential insect genes could provide a means of specific gene silencing in larvae that feed on these plants, resulting in larval phenotypes that range from loss of appetite to death. In this report, we show that the tomato leafminer (Tuta absoluta), a major threat to commercial tomato production, can be targeted by RNAi. We selected two target genes (Vacuolar ATPase-A and Arginine kinase) based on the RNAi response reported for these genes in other pest species. In view of the lack of an artificial diet for T. absoluta, we used two approaches to deliver dsRNA into tomato leaflets. The first approach was based on the uptake of dsRNA by leaflets and the second was based on “in planta-induced transient gene silencing” (PITGS), a well-established method for silencing plant genes, used here for the first time to deliver in planta-transcribed dsRNA to target insect genes. Tuta absoluta larvae that fed on leaves containing dsRNA of the target genes showed an ∼60% reduction in target gene transcript accumulation, an increase in larval mortality and less leaf damage. We then generated transgenic ‘Micro-Tom’ tomato plants that expressed hairpin sequences for both genes and observed a reduction in foliar damage by T. absoluta in these plants. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of RNAi as an alternative method for controlling this critical tomato pest. PMID:27994959

  6. RNA interference as a gene silencing tool to control Tuta absoluta in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Camargo, Roberto A; Barbosa, Guilherme O; Possignolo, Isabella Presotto; Peres, Lazaro E P; Lam, Eric; Lima, Joni E; Figueira, Antonio; Marques-Souza, Henrique

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), a gene-silencing mechanism that involves providing double-stranded RNA molecules that match a specific target gene sequence, is now widely used in functional genetic studies. The potential application of RNAi-mediated control of agricultural insect pests has rapidly become evident. The production of transgenic plants expressing dsRNA molecules that target essential insect genes could provide a means of specific gene silencing in larvae that feed on these plants, resulting in larval phenotypes that range from loss of appetite to death. In this report, we show that the tomato leafminer ( Tuta absoluta ), a major threat to commercial tomato production, can be targeted by RNAi. We selected two target genes (Vacuolar ATPase-A and Arginine kinase) based on the RNAi response reported for these genes in other pest species. In view of the lack of an artificial diet for T. absoluta, we used two approaches to deliver dsRNA into tomato leaflets. The first approach was based on the uptake of dsRNA by leaflets and the second was based on "in planta-induced transient gene silencing" (PITGS), a well-established method for silencing plant genes, used here for the first time to deliver in planta-transcribed dsRNA to target insect genes. Tuta absoluta larvae that fed on leaves containing dsRNA of the target genes showed an ∼60% reduction in target gene transcript accumulation, an increase in larval mortality and less leaf damage. We then generated transgenic 'Micro-Tom' tomato plants that expressed hairpin sequences for both genes and observed a reduction in foliar damage by T. absoluta in these plants. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of RNAi as an alternative method for controlling this critical tomato pest.

  7. RNA interference of carboxyesterases causes nymph mortality in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

    PubMed

    Kishk, Abdelaziz; Anber, Helmy A I; AbdEl-Raof, Tsamoh K; El-Sherbeni, AbdEl-Hakeem D; Hamed, Sobhy; Gowda, Siddarame; Killiny, Nabil

    2017-03-01

    Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is an important pest of citrus. In addition, D. citri is the vector of Huanglongbing, a destructive disease in citrus, also known as citrus greening disease caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Huanglongbing causes huge losses for citrus industries. Insecticide application for D. citri is the major strategy to prevent disease spread. The heavy use of insecticides causes development of insecticide resistance. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to silence genes implicated in pesticide resistance in order to increase the susceptibility. The activity of dsRNA to reduce the expression of carboxyesterases including esterases FE4 (EstFE4) and acetylcholinesterases (AChe) in D. citri was investigated. The dsRNA was applied topically to the fourth and fifth instars of nymphs. We targeted several EstFE4 and AChe genes using dsRNA against a consensus sequence for each of them. Five concentrations (25, 50, 75, 100, 125 ng/μl) from both dsRNAs were used. The treatments with the dsRNA caused concentration dependent nymph mortality. The highest gene expression levels of both AChe and EstFE4 were found in the fourth and fifth nymphal instars. Gene expression analysis showed that AChe genes were downregulated in emerged adults from dsRNA-AChe-treated nymphs compared to controls. However, EstFE4 genes were not affected. In the same manner, treatment with dsRNA-EstFE4 reduced expression level of EstFE4 genes in emerged adults from treated nymphs, but did not affect the expression of AChe genes. In the era of environmentally friendly control strategies, RNAi is a new promising venue to reduce pesticide applications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Gene silencing in non-model insects: Overcoming hurdles using symbiotic bacteria for trauma-free sustainable delivery of RNA interference: Sustained RNA interference in insects mediated by symbiotic bacteria: Applications as a genetic tool and as a biocide.

    PubMed

    Whitten, Miranda; Dyson, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Insight into animal biology and development provided by classical genetic analysis of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster was an incentive to develop advanced genetic tools for this insect. But genetic systems for the over one million other known insect species are largely undeveloped. With increasing information about insect genomes resulting from next generation sequencing, RNA interference is now the method of choice for reverse genetics, although it is constrained by the means of delivery of interfering RNA. A recent advance to ensure sustained delivery with minimal experimental intervention or trauma to the insect is to exploit commensal bacteria for symbiont-mediated RNA interference. This technology not only offers an efficient means for RNA interference in insects in laboratory conditions, but also has potential for use in the control of human disease vectors, agricultural pests and pathogens of beneficial insects. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  9. RNA interference regulates the cell cycle checkpoint through the RNA export factor, Ptr1, in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tetsushi; Iida, Naoko; Tsutsui, Yasuhiro; Yamao, Fumiaki; Kobayashi, Takehiko

    2012-10-12

    Ago1, an effector protein of RNA interference (RNAi), regulates heterochromatin silencing and cell cycle arrest in fission yeast. However, the mechanism by which Ago1 controls cell cycle checkpoint following hydroxyurea (HU) treatment has not been elucidated. In this study, we show that Ago1 and other RNAi factors control cell cycle checkpoint following HU treatment via a mechanism independent of silencing. While silencing requires dcr1(+), the overexpression of ago1(+) alleviated the cell cycle defect in dcr1Δ. Ago1 interacted with the mRNA export factor, Ptr1. The ptr1-1 mutation impaired cell cycle checkpoint but gene silencing was unaffected. Genetic analysis revealed that the regulation of cell cycle checkpoint by ago1(+) is dependent on ptr1(+). Nuclear accumulation of poly(A)(+) RNAs was detected in mutants of ago1(+) and ptr1(+), suggesting there is a functional link between the cell cycle checkpoint and RNAi-mediated RNA quality control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A novel measurement of allele discrimination for assessment of allele-specific silencing by RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masaki; Hohjoh, Hirohiko

    2014-11-01

    Allele-specific silencing by RNA interference (ASP-RNAi) is an atypical RNAi that is capable of discriminating target alleles from non-target alleles, and may be therapeutically useful for specific inhibition of disease-causing alleles without affecting their corresponding normal alleles. However, it is difficult to design and select small interfering RNA (siRNAs) that confer ASP-RNAi. A major problem is that there are few appropriate measures in determining optimal allele-specific siRNAs. Here we show two novel formulas for calculating a new measure of allele-discrimination, named "ASP-score". The formulas and ASP-score allow for an unbiased determination of optimal siRNAs, and may contribute to characterizing such allele-specific siRNAs.

  11. Virus-Derived Gene Expression and RNA Interference Vector for Grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Elizabeth G.; Peremyslov, Valera V.; Prokhnevsky, Alexey I.; Kasschau, Kristin D.; Miller, Marilyn; Carrington, James C.

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of the agricultural and wine-making qualities of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is hampered by adherence to traditional varieties, the recalcitrance of this plant to genetic modifications, and public resistance to genetically modified organism (GMO) technologies. To address these challenges, we developed an RNA virus-based vector for the introduction of desired traits into grapevine without heritable modifications to the genome. This vector expresses recombinant proteins in the phloem tissue that is involved in sugar transport throughout the plant, from leaves to roots to berries. Furthermore, the vector provides a powerful RNA interference (RNAi) capability of regulating the expression of endogenous genes via virus-induced gene-silencing (VIGS) technology. Additional advantages of this vector include superb genetic capacity and stability, as well as the swiftness of technology implementation. The most significant applications of the viral vector include functional genomics of the grapevine and disease control via RNAi-enabled vaccination against pathogens or invertebrate pests. PMID:22438553

  12. Quantitative CRISPR interference screens in yeast identify chemical-genetic interactions and new rules for guide RNA design.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin D; Suresh, Sundari; Schlecht, Ulrich; Wu, Manhong; Wagih, Omar; Peltz, Gary; Davis, Ronald W; Steinmetz, Lars M; Parts, Leopold; St Onge, Robert P

    2016-03-08

    Genome-scale CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) has been used in human cell lines; however, the features of effective guide RNAs (gRNAs) in different organisms have not been well characterized. Here, we define rules that determine gRNA effectiveness for transcriptional repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We create an inducible single plasmid CRISPRi system for gene repression in yeast, and use it to analyze fitness effects of gRNAs under 18 small molecule treatments. Our approach correctly identifies previously described chemical-genetic interactions, as well as a new mechanism of suppressing fluconazole toxicity by repression of the ERG25 gene. Assessment of multiple target loci across treatments using gRNA libraries allows us to determine generalizable features associated with gRNA efficacy. Guides that target regions with low nucleosome occupancy and high chromatin accessibility are clearly more effective. We also find that the best region to target gRNAs is between the transcription start site (TSS) and 200 bp upstream of the TSS. Finally, unlike nuclease-proficient Cas9 in human cells, the specificity of truncated gRNAs (18 nt of complementarity to the target) is not clearly superior to full-length gRNAs (20 nt of complementarity), as truncated gRNAs are generally less potent against both mismatched and perfectly matched targets. Our results establish a powerful functional and chemical genomics screening method and provide guidelines for designing effective gRNAs, which consider chromatin state and position relative to the target gene TSS. These findings will enable effective library design and genome-wide programmable gene repression in many genetic backgrounds.

  13. Crystal methamphetamine injection predicts slower HIV RNA suppression among injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, Nadia; Kerr, Thomas; Milloy, M-J; Zhang, Ruth; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2011-07-01

    We examined the impact of crystal methamphetamine injection on HIV RNA suppression among a prospective cohort of HIV-positive injection drug users initiating antiretroviral therapy. A multivariate Cox regression analysis found crystal methamphetamine injection to be negatively associated with viral load suppression (RH=0.63 [95% CI: 0.40-0.98]; p=0.039). This study is the first to our knowledge to demonstrate an association between crystal methamphetamine use and HIV RNA suppression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The NS3 protein of Rice hoja blanca tenuivirus suppresses RNA silencing in plant and insect hosts by efficiently binding both siRNAs and miRNAs.

    PubMed

    Hemmes, Hans; Lakatos, Lóránt; Goldbach, Rob; Burgyán, József; Prins, Marcel

    2007-07-01

    RNA silencing plays a key role in antiviral defense as well as in developmental processes in plants and insects. Negative strand RNA viruses such as the plant virus Rice hoja blanca tenuivirus (RHBV) replicate in plants and in their insect transmission vector. Like most plant-infecting viruses, RHBV encodes an RNA silencing suppressor, the NS3 protein, and here it is demonstrated that this protein is capable of suppressing RNA silencing in both plants and insect cells. Biochemical analyses showed that NS3 efficiently binds siRNA as well as miRNA molecules. Binding of NS3 is greatly influenced by the size of small RNA molecules, as 21 nucleotide (nt) siRNA molecules are bound > 100 times more efficiently than 26 nt species. Competition assays suggest that the activity of NS3 is based on binding to siRNAs prior to strand separation during the assembly of the RNA-induced silencing complex. In addition, NS3 has a high affinity for miRNA/miRNA* duplexes, indicating that its activity might also interfere with miRNA-regulated gene expression in both insects and plants.

  15. Digoxin Suppresses HIV-1 Replication by Altering Viral RNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Raymond W.; Balachandran, Ahalya; Ostrowski, Mario A.; Cochrane, Alan

    2013-01-01

    To develop new approaches to control HIV-1 replication, we examined the capacity of recently described small molecular modulators of RNA splicing for their effects on viral RNA metabolism. Of the drugs tested, digoxin was found to induce a dramatic inhibition of HIV-1 structural protein synthesis, a response due, in part, to reduced accumulation of the corresponding viral mRNAs. In addition, digoxin altered viral RNA splice site use, resulting in loss of the essential viral factor Rev. Digoxin induced changes in activity of the CLK family of SR protein kinases and modification of several SR proteins, including SRp20 and Tra2β, which could account for the effects observed. Consistent with this hypothesis, overexpression of SRp20 elicited changes in HIV-1 RNA processing similar to those observed with digoxin. Importantly, digoxin was also highly active against clinical strains of HIV-1 in vitro, validating this novel approach to treatment of this infection. PMID:23555254

  16. Transiently expressed short hairpin RNA targeting 126 kDa protein of tobacco mosaic virus interferes with virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming-Min; An, De-Rong; Zhao, Jian; Huang, Guang-Hua; He, Zu-Hua; Chen, Jiang-Ye

    2006-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) silences gene expression by guiding mRNA degradation in a sequence-specific fashion. Small interfering RNA (siRNA), an intermediate of the RNAi pathway, has been shown to be very effective in inhibiting virus infection in mammalian cells and cultured plant cells. Here, we report that Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) could inhibit tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA accumulation by targeting the gene encoding the replication-associated 126 kDa protein in intact plant tissue. Our results indicate that transiently expressed shRNA efficiently interfered with TMV infection. The interference observed is sequence-specific, and time- and site-dependent. Transiently expressed shRNA corresponding to the TMV 126 kDa protein gene did not inhibit cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), an unrelated tobamovirus. In order to interfere with TMV accumulation in tobacco leaves, it is essential for the shRNA constructs to be infiltrated into the same leaves as TMV inoculation. Our results support the view that RNAi opens the door for novel therapeutic procedures against virus diseases. We propose that a combination of the RNAi technique and Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression could be employed as a potent antiviral treatment in plants.nt antiviral treatment in plants.

  17. Reverse genetics in the tide pool: knock-down of target gene expression via RNA interference in the copepod Tigriopus californicus.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Felipe S; Schoville, Sean D; Burton, Ronald S

    2015-07-01

    Reverse genetic tools are essential for characterizing phenotypes of novel genes and testing functional hypotheses generated from next-generation sequencing studies. RNA interference (RNAi) has been a widely used technique for describing or quantifying physiological, developmental or behavioural roles of target genes by suppressing their expression. The marine intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus has become an emerging model for evolutionary and physiological studies, but this species is not amenable to most genetic manipulation approaches. As crustaceans are susceptible to RNAi-mediated gene knock-down, we developed a simple method for delivery of gene-specific double-stranded RNA that results in significant suppression of target gene transcription levels. The protocol was examined on five genes of interest, and for each, at least 50% knock-down in expression was achieved. While knock-down levels did not reach 100% in any trial, a well-controlled experiment with one heat-shock gene showed unambiguously that such partial gene suppression may cause dramatic changes in phenotype. Copepods with suppressed expression of heat-shock protein beta 1 (hspb1) exhibited dramatically decreased tolerance to high temperatures, validating the importance of this gene during thermal stress, as proposed by a previous study. The application of this RNAi protocol in T. californicus will be invaluable for examining the role of genes putatively involved in reproductive isolation, mitochondrial function and local adaptation.

  18. RNA interference can be used to disrupt gene function in tardigrades

    PubMed Central

    Tenlen, Jennifer R.; McCaskill, Shaina; Goldstein, Bob

    2012-01-01

    How morphological diversity arises is a key question in evolutionary developmental biology. As a long-term approach to address this question, we are developing the water bear Hypsibius dujardini (Phylum Tardigrada) as a model system. We expect that using a close relative of two well-studied models, Drosophila (Phylum Arthropoda) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Phylum Nematoda), will facilitate identifying genetic pathways relevant to understanding the evolution of development. Tardigrades are also valuable research subjects for investigating how organisms and biological materials can survive extreme conditions. Methods to disrupt gene activity are essential to each of these efforts, but no such method yet exists for the Phylum Tardigrada. We developed a protocol to disrupt tardigrade gene functions by double-stranded RNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi). We show that targeting tardigrade homologs of essential developmental genes by RNAi produced embryonic lethality, whereas targeting green fluorescent protein did not. Disruption of gene functions appears to be relatively specific by two criteria: targeting distinct genes resulted in distinct phenotypes that were consistent with predicted gene functions, and by RT-PCR, RNAi reduced the level of a target mRNA and not a control mRNA. These studies represent the first evidence that gene functions can be disrupted by RNAi in the phylum Tardigrada. Our results form a platform for dissecting tardigrade gene functions for understanding the evolution of developmental mechanisms and survival in extreme environments. PMID:23187800

  19. RNA interference can be used to disrupt gene function in tardigrades.

    PubMed

    Tenlen, Jennifer R; McCaskill, Shaina; Goldstein, Bob

    2013-05-01

    How morphological diversity arises is a key question in evolutionary developmental biology. As a long-term approach to address this question, we are developing the water bear Hypsibius dujardini (Phylum Tardigrada) as a model system. We expect that using a close relative of two well-studied models, Drosophila (Phylum Arthropoda) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Phylum Nematoda), will facilitate identifying genetic pathways relevant to understanding the evolution of development. Tardigrades are also valuable research subjects for investigating how organisms and biological materials can survive extreme conditions. Methods to disrupt gene activity are essential to each of these efforts, but no such method yet exists for the Phylum Tardigrada. We developed a protocol to disrupt tardigrade gene functions by double-stranded RNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi). We showed that targeting tardigrade homologs of essential developmental genes by RNAi produced embryonic lethality, whereas targeting green fluorescent protein did not. Disruption of gene functions appears to be relatively specific by two criteria: targeting distinct genes resulted in distinct phenotypes that were consistent with predicted gene functions and by RT-PCR, RNAi reduced the level of a target mRNA and not a control mRNA. These studies represent the first evidence that gene functions can be disrupted by RNAi in the phylum Tardigrada. Our results form a platform for dissecting tardigrade gene functions for understanding the evolution of developmental mechanisms and survival in extreme environments.

  20. RNA interference mediated in human primary cells via recombinant baculoviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Linda J; Philippe, Marie; Paine, Alan J; Mann, Derek A; Dolphin, Colin T

    2005-04-01

    The success of RNA interference (RNAi) in mammalian cells, mediated by siRNAs or shRNA-generating plasmids, is dependent, to an extent, upon transfection efficiency. This is a particular problem with primary cells, which are often difficult to transfect using cationic lipid vehicles. Effective RNAi in primary cells is thus best achieved with viral vectors, and retro-, adeno-, and lentivirus RNAi systems have been described. However, the use of such human viral vectors is inherently problematic, e.g., Class 2 status and requirement of secondary helper functions. Although insect cells are their natural host, baculoviruses also transduce a range of vertebrate cell lines and primary cells with high efficiency. The inability of baculoviral vectors to replicate in mammalian cells, their Class 1 status, and the simplicity of their construction make baculovirus an attractive alternative gene delivery vector. We have developed a baculoviral-based RNAi system designed to express shRNAs and GFP from U6 and CMV promoters, respectively. Transduction of Saos2, HepG2, Huh7, and primary human hepatic stellate cells with a baculoviral construct expressing shRNAs targeting lamin A/C resulted in effective knockdown of the corresponding mRNA and protein. Development of this baculoviral-based system provides an additional shRNA delivery option for RNAi-based investigations in mammalian cells.

  1. RNA interference of cytosolic leucine aminopeptidase reduces fecundity in the hard tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Takeshi; Umemiya, Rika; Liao, Min; Gong, Haiyan; Harnnoi, Thasaneeya; Tanaka, Miho; Miyoshi, Takeharu; Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Battsetseg, Badgar; Zhou, Jinlin; Xuan, Xuenan; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Taylor, Demar; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2007-03-01

    Ticks are effective vectors of pathogens because of their blood feeding and high fecundity. This high fecundity is related to the size of the blood meal. Therefore, knowledge of how blood proteins are degraded and converted to proteins, including yolk protein, is important for the development of ways to inhibit the utilization of blood proteins by ticks. RNA interference (RNAi) is becoming a powerful post-transcriptional gene silencing technique that provides insight into gene function. We constructed a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) based on a previously cloned Haemaphysalis longicornis leucine aminopeptidase (HlLAP) gene to reevaluate the biological role in tick blood digestion. Gene specific transcriptional, translational, and functional disruptions were achieved by the introduction of dsRNA into the ticks. Significantly delayed onset of egg-laying and reduced egg oviposition resulted from the RNAi for the HlLAP gene. These results suggest that HlLAP actually works as a blood digestive enzyme and affects tick fecundity via unknown mechanisms. The reduction of egg oviposition may be caused by a decrease in nutrients, especially free amino acids generated by HlLAP, from the blood meal. This is the first report of an impact on tick reproduction caused by gene silencing of a blood digestion-related molecule.

  2. Host gene targets for novel influenza therapies elucidated by high-throughput RNA interference screens

    PubMed Central

    Meliopoulos, Victoria A.; Andersen, Lauren E.; Birrer, Katherine F.; Simpson, Kaylene J.; Lowenthal, John W.; Bean, Andrew G. D.; Stambas, John; Stewart, Cameron R.; Tompkins, S. Mark; van Beusechem, Victor W.; Fraser, Iain; Mhlanga, Musa; Barichievy, Samantha; Smith, Queta; Leake, Devin; Karpilow, Jon; Buck, Amy; Jona, Ghil; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2012-01-01

    Influenza virus encodes only 11 viral proteins but replicates in a broad range of avian and mammalian species by exploiting host cell functions. Genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) has proven to be a powerful tool for identifying the host molecules that participate in each step of virus replication. Meta-analysis of findings from genome-wide RNAi screens has shown influenza virus to be dependent on functional nodes in host cell pathways, requiring a wide variety of molecules and cellular proteins for replication. Because rapid evolution of the influenza A viruses persistently complicates the effectiveness of vaccines and therapeutics, a further understanding of the complex host cell pathways coopted by influenza virus for replication may provide new targets and strategies for antiviral therapy. RNAi genome screening technologies together with bioinformatics can provide the ability to rapidly identify specific host factors involved in resistance and susceptibility to influenza virus, allowing for novel disease intervention strategies.—Meliopoulos, V. A., Andersen, L. E., Birrer, K. F., Simpson, K. J., Lowenthal, J. W., Bean, A. G. D., Stambas, J., Stewart, C. R., Tompkins, S. M., van Beusechem, V. W., Fraser, I., Mhlanga, M., Barichievy, S., Smith, Q., Leake, D., Karpilow, J., Buck, A., Jona, G., Tripp, R. A. Host gene targets for novel influenza therapies elucidated by high-throughput RNA interference screens. PMID:22247330

  3. Variant surface glycoprotein RNA interference triggers a precytokinesis cell cycle arrest in African trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Sheader, Karen; Vaughan, Sue; Minchin, James; Hughes, Katie; Gull, Keith; Rudenko, Gloria

    2005-06-14

    Trypanosoma brucei is a protozoan parasite that causes African sleeping sickness. T. brucei multiplies extracellularly in the bloodstream, relying on antigenic variation of a dense variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat to escape antibody-mediated lysis. We investigated the role of VSG in proliferation and pathogenicity by using inducible RNA interference to ablate VSG transcript down to 1-2% normal levels. Inhibiting VSG synthesis in vitro triggers a rapid and specific cell cycle checkpoint blocking cell division. Parasites arrest at a discrete precytokinesis stage with two full-length flagella and opposing flagellar pockets, without undergoing additional rounds of S phase and mitosis. A subset (<10%) of the stalled cells have internal flagella, indicating that the progenitors of these cells were already committed to cytokinesis when VSG restriction was sensed. Although there was no obvious VSG depletion in vitro after 24-h induction of VSG RNA interference, there was rapid clearance of these cells in vivo. We propose that a stringent block in VSG synthesis produces stalled trypanosomes with a minimally compromised VSG coat, which can be targeted by the immune system. Our data indicate that VSG protein or transcript is monitored during cell cycle progression in bloodstream-form T. brucei and describes precise precytokinesis cell cycle arrest. This checkpoint before cell division provides a link between the protective VSG coat and cell cycle progression and could function as a novel parasite safety mechanism, preventing extensive dilution of the protective VSG coat in the absence of VSG synthesis.

  4. Constrained evolvability of interferon suppression in an RNA virus.

    PubMed

    Garijo, Raquel; Cuevas, José M; Briz, Álvaro; Sanjuán, Rafael

    2016-04-21

    Innate immunity responses controlled by interferon (IFN) are believed to constitute a major selective pressure shaping viral evolution. Viruses encode a variety of IFN suppressors, but these are often multifunctional proteins that also play essential roles in other steps of the viral infection cycle, possibly limiting their evolvability. Here, we experimentally evolved a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) mutant carrying a defect in the matrix protein (M∆51) that abolishes IFN suppression and that has been previously used in the context of oncolytic virotherapy. Serial transfers of this virus in normal, IFN-secreting cells led to a modest recovery of IFN blocking capacity and to weak increases in viral fitness. Full-genome ultra-deep sequencing and phenotypic analysis of population variants revealed that the anti-IFN function of the matrix protein was not restored, and that the Mdelta51 defect was instead compensated by changes in the viral phosphoprotein. We also show that adaptation to IFN-secreting cells can be driven by the selection of fast-growing viruses with no IFN suppression capacity, and that these population variants can be trans-complemented by other, IFN-suppressing variants. Our results thus suggest that virus-virus interactions and alternative strategies of innate immunity evasion can determine the evolution of IFN suppression in a virus.

  5. RNA interference (RNAI) as a tool to engineer high nutritional value in chicory (Chicorium intybus).

    PubMed

    Asad, M

    2006-01-01

    The major component of chicory (Chicorium intybus) root is inulin, which is a polymer of fructose. Inulin production from chicory is hampered by the enzyme fructan 1-exohydrolase (1-FEH) that degrades inulin and limits its yield. Increased FEH activity results in massive breakdown of fructan and production of Fructose and inulo-n-oses. The latter phenomena are to be avoided for industrial fructan production. RNA silencing, which is termed post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in plants, is an RNA degradation process through sequence specific nucleotide interactions induced by double-stranded RNA. For genetic improvement of crop plants, RNAi has advantages over antisense-mediated gene silencing and co-suppression, in terms of its efficiency and stability. We are generating a transgenic chicory plants with suppressed FEH (exohydrolas) genes using RNAi resulting in supressed inulin degradation. A small but important part of the construct is a sequence unique for the target gene (exons) or genes,which were cloned. The hairpin constructs were made and chicory was transformed by Agrobacterium tumifaciense, strain (C58C1). The transgenics should be select and check by means of molecular techniques.

  6. Local administration of siRNA through Microneedle: Optimization, Bio-distribution, Tumor Suppression and Toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tao; Deng, Yan; Chen, Jiao; Zhao, Yi; Yue, Ruifeng; Choy, Kwong Wai; Wang, Chi Chiu; Du, Quan; Xu, Yan; Han, Linxiao; Chung, Tony Kwok Hung

    2016-07-01

    Although RNA interference may become a novel therapeutic approach for cancer treatment, target-site accumulation of siRNA to achieve therapeutic dosage will be a major problem. Microneedle represents a better way to deliver siRNAs and we have evaluated for the first time the capability of a silicon microneedle array for delivery of Gapdh siRNA to the skin in vivo and the results showed that the microneedle arrays could effectively deliver siRNA to relevant regions of the skin noninvasively. For the further study in this field, we evaluated the efficacy of the injectable microneedle device for local delivery of siRNA to the mouse xenograft. The results presented here indicate that local administration of siRNA through injectable microneedle could effectively deliver siRNA into the tumor region, and inhibit tumor progression without major adverse effects.

  7. Local administration of siRNA through Microneedle: Optimization, Bio-distribution, Tumor Suppression and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tao; Deng, Yan; Chen, Jiao; Zhao, Yi; Yue, Ruifeng; Choy, Kwong Wai; Wang, Chi Chiu; Du, Quan; Xu, Yan; Han, Linxiao; Chung, Tony Kwok Hung

    2016-01-01

    Although RNA interference may become a novel therapeutic approach for cancer treatment, target-site accumulation of siRNA to achieve therapeutic dosage will be a major problem. Microneedle represents a better way to deliver siRNAs and we have evaluated for the first time the capability of a silicon microneedle array for delivery of Gapdh siRNA to the skin in vivo and the results showed that the microneedle arrays could effectively deliver siRNA to relevant regions of the skin noninvasively. For the further study in this field, we evaluated the efficacy of the injectable microneedle device for local delivery of siRNA to the mouse xenograft. The results presented here indicate that local administration of siRNA through injectable microneedle could effectively deliver siRNA into the tumor region, and inhibit tumor progression without major adverse effects. PMID:27457182

  8. Local administration of siRNA through Microneedle: Optimization, Bio-distribution, Tumor Suppression and Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tao; Deng, Yan; Chen, Jiao; Zhao, Yi; Yue, Ruifeng; Choy, Kwong Wai; Wang, Chi Chiu; Du, Quan; Xu, Yan; Han, Linxiao; Chung, Tony Kwok Hung

    2016-07-26

    Although RNA interference may become a novel therapeutic approach for cancer treatment, target-site accumulation of siRNA to achieve therapeutic dosage will be a major problem. Microneedle represents a better way to deliver siRNAs and we have evaluated for the first time the capability of a silicon microneedle array for delivery of Gapdh siRNA to the skin in vivo and the results showed that the microneedle arrays could effectively deliver siRNA to relevant regions of the skin noninvasively. For the further study in this field, we evaluated the efficacy of the injectable microneedle device for local delivery of siRNA to the mouse xenograft. The results presented here indicate that local administration of siRNA through injectable microneedle could effectively deliver siRNA into the tumor region, and inhibit tumor progression without major adverse effects.

  9. Defining the molecular profile of planarian pluripotent stem cells using a combinatorial RNA-seq, RNA interference and irradiation approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Planarian stem cells, or neoblasts, drive the almost unlimited regeneration capacities of freshwater planarians. Neoblasts are traditionally described by their morphological features and by the fact that they are the only proliferative cell type in asexual planarians. Therefore, they can be specifically eliminated by irradiation. Irradiation, however, is likely to induce transcriptome-wide changes in gene expression that are not associated with neoblast ablation. This has affected the accurate description of their specific transcriptomic profile. Results We introduce the use of Smed-histone-2B RNA interference (RNAi) for genetic ablation of neoblast cells in Schmidtea mediterranea as an alternative to irradiation. We characterize the rapid, neoblast-specific phenotype induced by Smed-histone-2B RNAi, resulting in neoblast ablation. We compare and triangulate RNA-seq data after using both irradiation and Smed-histone-2B RNAi over a time course as means of neoblast ablation. Our analyses show that Smed-histone-2B RNAi eliminates neoblast gene expression with high specificity and discrimination from gene expression in other cellular compartments. We compile a high confidence list of genes downregulated by both irradiation and Smed-histone-2B RNAi and validate their expression in neoblast cells. Lastly, we analyze the overall expression profile of neoblast cells. Conclusions Our list of neoblast genes parallels their morphological features and is highly enriched for nuclear components, chromatin remodeling factors, RNA splicing factors, RNA granule components and the machinery of cell division. Our data reveal that the regulation of planarian stem cells relies on posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms and suggest that planarians are an ideal model for this understudied aspect of stem cell biology. PMID:22439894

  10. A rationally designed nanoparticle for RNA interference therapy in B-lineage lymphoid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Uckun, Fatih M.; Qazi, Sanjive; Ma, Hong; Yin, Lichen; Cheng, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to further evaluate the biologic significance of the CD22ΔE12 molecular lesion and determine if it could serve as a molecular target for RNA interference (RNAi) therapy. We show that both pediatric and adult B-lineage lymphoid malignancies are characterized by a very high incidence of the CD22ΔE12 genetic defect. We provide unprecedented experimental evidence for a previously unrecognized causal link between CD22ΔE12 and aggressive biology of BPL cells by demonstrating that siRNA-mediated knockdown of CD22ΔE12 in primary BPL cells is associated with a marked inhibition of their clonogenicity. These findings provide the preclinical proof-of-concept that siRNA-mediated depletion of CD22ΔE12 may help develop effective treatments for high-risk and relapsed BPL patients who are in urgent need for therapeutic innovations. We also describe a unique polypeptide-based nanoparticle formulation of CD22ΔE12-siRNA as an RNAi therapeutic candidate targeting CD22ΔE12 that is capable of delivering its siRNA cargo into the cytoplasm of leukemia cells causing effective CD22ΔE12 depletion and marked inhibition of leukemic cell growth. Further development and optimization of this nanoparticle or other nanoformulation platforms for CD22ΔE12-siRNA may facilitate the development of an effective therapeutic RNAi strategy against a paradigm shift in therapy of aggressive or chemotherapy-resistant B-lineage lymphoid malignancies. PMID:25599086

  11. Using RNA interference to develop dengue virus resistance in genetically modified Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Travanty, Emily A; Adelman, Zach N; Franz, Alexander W E; Keene, Kimberly M; Beaty, Barry J; Blair, Carol D; James, Anthony A; Olson, Ken E

    2004-07-01

    Diseases caused by arthropod-borne viruses are significant public health problems, and novel methods are needed to control pathogen transmission. We hypothesize that genetic manipulation of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes can profoundly and permanently reduce vector competence and subsequent transmission of dengue viruses (DENV) to human hosts. We have identified RNA interference (RNAi) as a potential anti-viral, intracellular pathway in the vector that can be triggered by expression of virus-specific, double stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) to reduce vector competence to DENV. We identified DENV-derived RNA segments using recombinant Sindbis viruses to trigger RNAi, that when expressed in mosquitoes ablate homologous DENV replication and transmission. We also demonstrated that heritable expression of DENV-derived dsRNA in cultured mosquito cells can silence virus replication. We now have developed a number of transgenic mosquito lines that transcribe the effector dsRNA from constitutive promoters such as immediate early 1 (baculovirus) and polyubiquitin (Drosophila melanogaster). We have detected DENV-specific small interfering RNAs, the hallmark of RNAi, in at least one of these lines. Surprisingly, none of these lines expressed dsRNA in relevant tissues (e.g., midguts) that will ultimately affect transmission. A major challenge now is to express the effector dsRNA from tissue-specific promoters to allow RNAi to silence virus replication at critical sites in the vector such as midguts and salivary glands. If successful, this strategy has the advantage of harnessing a naturally occurring vector response to block DENV infection in a mosquito vector and profoundly affect virus transmission.

  12. Long Noncoding RNA-LET Suppresses Tumor Growth and EMT in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Pan, Chun-Feng; He, Zhi-Cheng; Wang, Jun; Wang, Peng-Li; Ma, Teng; Xia, Yang; Chen, Yi-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Recently, many studies showed that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in tumor progression. It is reported that lncRNA-LET is downregulated and has antitumor effect on several types of cancer. This study focuses on the role of lncRNA-LET on lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) progression. RT-PCR results indicated that frequent downregulation of lncRNA-LET in LAC tissues was related to clinicopathologic factors. lncRNA-LET knockdown significantly promoted LAC cell proliferation, invasion, and migration while lncRNA-LET overexpression obviously inhibited LAC cell proliferation, invasion, and migration, indicating a tumor inhibition of lncRNA-LET in LAC progression. Besides, lncRNA-LET inhibited EMT and negatively regulated Wnt/β-catenin pathway in part. Our study suggests that lncRNA-LET exhibits an important tumor-suppressive effect on LAC progression by inhibiting EMT and Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which provides potential therapeutic targets for LAC.

  13. Monitoring mis-acylated tRNA suppression efficiency in mammalian cells via EGFP fluorescence recovery.

    PubMed

    Ilegems, Erwin; Pick, Horst M; Vogel, Horst

    2002-12-01

    A reporter assay was developed to detect and quantify nonsense codon suppression by chemically aminoacylated tRNAs in mammalian cells. It is based on the cellular expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as a reporter for the site-specific amino acid incorporation in its sequence using an orthogonal suppressor tRNA derived from Escherichia coli. Suppression of an engineered amber codon at position 64 in the EGFP run-off transcript could be achieved by the incorporation of a leucine via an in vitro aminoacylated suppressor tRNA. Microinjection of defined amounts of mutagenized EGFP mRNA and suppressor tRNA into individual cells allowed us to accurately determine suppression efficiencies by measuring the EGFP fluorescence intensity in individual cells using laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Control experiments showed the absence of natural suppression or aminoacylation of the synthetic tRNA by endogenous aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. This reporter assay opens the way for the optimization of essential experimental parameters for expanding the scope of the suppressor tRNA technology to different cell types.

  14. Adaptive suppression of biodynamic interference in helmet mounted and head down displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merhav, Shmuel J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper addresses errors caused by vibrations or turbulence in airborne helmet teleoperation, helmet mounted, and head down displays. A preliminary study is presented which indicates that these errors can be significantly suppressed by adaptive filtering. A modified version of the LMS adaptive noise suppression algorithm facilitates the separation of the voluntary large head movements from the vibration-induced small nonvoluntary head movements. Computer simulations demonstrate the potential of the approach in suppressing both aiming errors and apparent display blurring.

  15. A New Method for Suppressing Periodic Narrowband Interference Based on the Chaotic van der Pol Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jia; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Xiong, Hao

    The chaotic van der Pol oscillator is a powerful tool for detecting defects in electric systems by using online partial discharge (PD) monitoring. This paper focuses on realizing weak PD signal detection in the strong periodic narrowband interference by using high sensitivity to the periodic narrowband interference signals and immunity to white noise and PD signals of chaotic systems. A new approach to removing the periodic narrowband interference by using a van der Pol chaotic oscillator is described by analyzing the motion characteristic of the chaotic oscillator on the basis of the van der Pol equation. Furthermore, the Floquet index for measuring the amplitude of periodic narrowband signals is redefined. The denoising signal processed by the chaotic van der Pol oscillators is further processed by wavelet analysis. Finally, the denoising results verify that the periodic narrowband and white noise interference can be removed efficiently by combining the theory of the chaotic van der Pol oscillator and wavelet analysis.

  16. RNA interference of GGTA1 physiological and immune functions in immortalized porcine aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Zhou, Jingshi; Li, Xiao; Wang, Jianfeng; Li, Junjie; Zhang, Zhuochao; Yang, Zhaoxu; Wang, Desheng; Tao, Kaishan; Dou, Kefeng

    2013-11-01

    Pig organs are commonly used in xenotransplantation, and α-1,3-galactose has been shown to be the main cause of hyperacute rejection. The development of transgenic pigs that lack α-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) has overcome this problem to a certain extent, but transgenic pigs are difficult to maintain, making their usefulness in basic research limited. For this reason, we propose to establish a cell model to study hyperacute rejection. Immortalized primary porcine aortic endothelial cells were transfected with a short hairpin RNA targeted to GGTA1. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, complement C3 activation, and the binding of human immunoglobulins and components of the complement system, including IgM, IgG, C3, and C5b-9, were examined. After RNA interference, GGTA1 was found to be reduced at both the transcript and protein level as assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry, respectively. When cultured in the presence of human serum, the proliferation rate of the transfected cells was higher than that of untransfected cells, and the apoptosis rate was lower. Additionally, activation of C3 and the binding of human immunoglobulins IgM and IgG and complement component C3 and C5b-9 to the transfected cells were lower than in the immortalized group but higher than in untransfected cells. RNA interference of GGTA1 in cultured porcine endothelial cells reduces the reaction of immunoglobulin and complement system with the cells. Therefore, this in vitro cell model could be useful for further study of xenotransplantation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Short Hairpin RNA Suppression of Thymidylate Synthase Produces DNA Mismatches and Results in Excellent Radiosensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, Sheryl A.; Cooper, Kristin S.; Mannava, Sudha; Nikiforov, Mikhail A.; Shewach, Donna S.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA)-mediated suppression of thymidylate synthase (TS) on cytotoxicity and radiosensitization and the mechanism by which these events occur. Methods and Materials: shRNA suppression of TS was compared with 5-fluoro-2 Prime -deoxyuridine (FdUrd) inactivation of TS with or without ionizing radiation in HCT116 and HT29 colon cancer cells. Cytotoxicity and radiosensitization were measured by clonogenic assay. Cell cycle effects were measured by flow cytometry. The effects of FdUrd or shRNA suppression of TS on dNTP deoxynucleotide triphosphate imbalances and consequent nucleotide misincorporations into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography and as pSP189 plasmid mutations, respectively. Results: TS shRNA produced profound ({>=}90%) and prolonged ({>=}8 days) suppression of TS in HCT116 and HT29 cells, whereas FdUrd increased TS expression. TS shRNA also produced more specific and prolonged effects on dNTPs deoxynucleotide triphosphates compared with FdUrd. TS shRNA suppression allowed accumulation of cells in S-phase, although its effects were not as long-lasting as those of FdUrd. Both treatments resulted in phosphorylation of Chk1. TS shRNA alone was less cytotoxic than FdUrd but was equally effective as FdUrd in eliciting radiosensitization (radiation enhancement ratio: TS shRNA, 1.5-1.7; FdUrd, 1.4-1.6). TS shRNA and FdUrd produced a similar increase in the number and type of pSP189 mutations. Conclusions: TS shRNA produced less cytotoxicity than FdUrd but was equally effective at radiosensitizing tumor cells. Thus, the inhibitory effect of FdUrd on TS alone is sufficient to elicit radiosensitization with FdUrd, but it only partially explains FdUrd-mediated cytotoxicity and cell cycle inhibition. The increase in DNA mismatches after TS shRNA or FdUrd supports a causal and sufficient role for the depletion of dTTP thymidine triphosphate and consequent DNA

  18. Viral RNA Silencing Suppression: The Enigma of Bunyavirus NSs Proteins.

    PubMed

    Hedil, Marcio; Kormelink, Richard

    2016-07-23

    The Bunyaviridae is a family of arboviruses including both plant- and vertebrate-infecting representatives. The Tospovirus genus accommodates plant-infecting bunyaviruses, which not only replicate in their plant host, but also in their insect thrips vector during persistent propagative transmission. For this reason, they are generally assumed to encounter antiviral RNA silencing in plants and insects. Here we present an overview on how tospovirus nonstructural NSs protein counteracts antiviral RNA silencing in plants and what is known so far in insects. Like tospoviruses, members of the related vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses classified in the genera Orthobunyavirus, Hantavirus and Phlebovirus also code for a NSs protein. However, for none of them RNA silencing suppressor activity has been unambiguously demonstrated in neither vertebrate host nor arthropod vector. The second part of this review will briefly describe the role of these NSs proteins in modulation of innate immune responses in mammals and elaborate on a hypothetical scenario to explain if and how NSs proteins from vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses affect RNA silencing. If so, why this discovery has been hampered so far.

  19. Viral RNA Silencing Suppression: The Enigma of Bunyavirus NSs Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hedil, Marcio; Kormelink, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The Bunyaviridae is a family of arboviruses including both plant- and vertebrate-infecting representatives. The Tospovirus genus accommodates plant-infecting bunyaviruses, which not only replicate in their plant host, but also in their insect thrips vector during persistent propagative transmission. For this reason, they are generally assumed to encounter antiviral RNA silencing in plants and insects. Here we present an overview on how tospovirus nonstructural NSs protein counteracts antiviral RNA silencing in plants and what is known so far in insects. Like tospoviruses, members of the related vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses classified in the genera Orthobunyavirus, Hantavirus and Phlebovirus also code for a NSs protein. However, for none of them RNA silencing suppressor activity has been unambiguously demonstrated in neither vertebrate host nor arthropod vector. The second part of this review will briefly describe the role of these NSs proteins in modulation of innate immune responses in mammals and elaborate on a hypothetical scenario to explain if and how NSs proteins from vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses affect RNA silencing. If so, why this discovery has been hampered so far. PMID:27455310

  20. Validation of a commercially available anti-REDD1 antibody using RNA interference and REDD1-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Deborah L; Kutzler, Lydia; Rannels, Sharon L; Kimball, Scot R

    2016-01-01

    REDD1 is a transcriptional target gene of p53 and HIF-1, and an inhibitor of mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) complex 1 (mTORC1)-signaling through PP2A-dependent interaction, making it an important convergence point of both tumor suppression and cell growth pathways. In accordance with this positioning, REDD1 levels are transcriptionally upregulated in response to a variety of cellular stress factors such as nutrient deprivation, hypoxia and DNA damage. In the absence of such conditions, and in particular where growth factor signaling is activated, REDD1 expression is typically negligible; therefore, it is necessary to induce REDD1 prior to experimentation or detection in model systems. Here, we evaluated the performance of a commercially available polyclonal antibody recognizing REDD1 by Western blotting in the presence of thapsigargin, a pharmacological inducer of ER stress well known to upregulate REDD1 protein expression. Further, REDD1 antibody specificity was challenged in HEK-293 cells in the presence of RNA interference and with a REDD1 (-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblast knockout cell line. Results showed reproducibility and specificity of the antibody, which was upheld in the presence of thapsigargin treatment. We conclude that this antibody can be used to reliably detect REDD1 endogenous expression in samples of both human and mouse origin.

  1. Exploring systemic RNA interference in insects: a genome-wide survey for RNAi genes in Tribolium

    PubMed Central

    Tomoyasu, Yoshinori; Miller, Sherry C; Tomita, Shuichiro; Schoppmeier, Michael; Grossmann, Daniela; Bucher, Gregor

    2008-01-01

    Background RNA interference (RNAi) is a highly conserved cellular mechanism. In some organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, the RNAi response can be transmitted systemically. Some insects also exhibit a systemic RNAi response. However, Drosophila, the leading insect model organism, does not show a robust systemic RNAi response, necessitating another model system to study the molecular mechanism of systemic RNAi in insects. Results We used Tribolium, which exhibits robust systemic RNAi, as an alternative model system. We have identified the core RNAi genes, as well as genes potentially involved in systemic RNAi, from the Tribolium genome. Both phylogenetic and functional analyses suggest that Tribolium has a somewhat larger inventory of core component genes than Drosophila, perhaps allowing a more sensitive response to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). We also identified three Tribolium homologs of C. elegans sid-1, which encodes a possible dsRNA channel. However, detailed sequence analysis has revealed that these Tribolium homologs share more identity with another C. elegans gene, tag-130. We analyzed tag-130 mutants, and found that this gene does not have a function in systemic RNAi in C. elegans. Likewise, the Tribolium sid-like genes do not seem to be required for systemic RNAi. These results suggest that insect sid-1-like genes have a different function than dsRNA uptake. Moreover, Tribolium lacks homologs of several genes important for RNAi in C. elegans. Conclusion Although both Tribolium and C. elegans show a robust systemic RNAi response, our genome-wide survey reveals significant differences between the RNAi mechanisms of these organisms. Thus, insects may use an alternative mechanism for the systemic RNAi response. Understanding this process would assist with rendering other insects amenable to systemic RNAi, and may influence pest control approaches. PMID:18201385

  2. Broad RNA interference-mediated antiviral immunity and virus-specific inducible responses in Drosophila1

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Cordula; Mueller, Stefanie; Goto, Akira; Barbier, Vincent; Paro, Simona; Bonnay, François; Dostert, Catherine; Troxler, Laurent; Hetru, Charles; Meignin, Carine; Pfeffer, Sébastien; Hoffmann, Jules A.; Imler, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a good model to unravel the molecular mechanisms of innate immunity, and has led to some important discoveries on the sensing and signaling of microbial infections. The response of Drosophila to virus infections remains poorly characterized, and appears to involve two facets. On one hand RNA interference (RNAi) involves the recognition and processing of double stranded (ds) RNA into small interfering (si) RNAs by the host ribonuclease Dicer-2 (Dcr-2), whereas on the other hand an inducible response controlled by the evolutionarily conserved JAK-STAT pathway contributes to the antiviral host defense. In order to clarify the contribution of the siRNA and JAK-STAT pathways to the control of viral infections, we have compared the resistance of flies wild-type and mutant for Dcr-2 or the JAK kinase Hopscotch (Hop) to infections by seven RNA or DNA viruses belonging to different families. Our results reveal a unique susceptibility of hop mutant flies to infection by DCV and CrPV, two members of the Dicistroviridae family, which contrasts with the susceptibility of Dcr-2 mutant flies to many viruses, including the DNA virus IIV-6. Genome-wide microarray analysis confirmed that different sets of genes were induced following infection by DCV or by two unrelated RNA viruses, FHV and SINV. Overall, our data reveal that RNAi is an efficient antiviral mechanism, operating against a large range of viruses, including a DNA virus. By contrast, the antiviral contribution of the JAK-STAT pathway appears to be virus-specific. PMID:23255357

  3. Chromatin-associated RNA interference components contribute to transcriptional regulation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Cernilogar, Filippo M; Onorati, Maria Cristina; Kothe, Greg O; Burroughs, A Maxwell; Parsi, Krishna Mohan; Breiling, Achim; Lo Sardo, Federica; Saxena, Alka; Miyoshi, Keita; Siomi, Haruhiko; Siomi, Mikiko C; Carninci, Piero; Gilmour, David S; Corona, Davide F V; Orlando, Valerio

    2011-11-06

    RNA interference (RNAi) pathways have evolved as important modulators of gene expression that operate in the cytoplasm by degrading RNA target molecules through the activity of short (21-30 nucleotide) RNAs. RNAi components have been reported to have a role in the nucleus, as they are involved in epigenetic regulation and heterochromatin formation. However, although RNAi-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing is well documented, the mechanisms of RNAi-mediated transcriptional gene silencing and, in particular, the role of RNAi components in chromatin dynamics, especially in animal multicellular organisms, are elusive. Here we show that the key RNAi components Dicer 2 (DCR2) and Argonaute 2 (AGO2) associate with chromatin (with a strong preference for euchromatic, transcriptionally active, loci) and interact with the core transcription machinery. Notably, loss of function of DCR2 or AGO2 showed that transcriptional defects are accompanied by the perturbation of RNA polymerase II positioning on promoters. Furthermore, after heat shock, both Dcr2 and Ago2 null mutations, as well as missense mutations that compromise the RNAi activity, impaired the global dynamics of RNA polymerase II. Finally, the deep sequencing of the AGO2-associated small RNAs (AGO2 RIP-seq) revealed that AGO2 is strongly enriched in small RNAs that encompass the promoter regions and other regions of heat-shock and other genetic loci on both the sense and antisense DNA strands, but with a strong bias for the antisense strand, particularly after heat shock. Taken together, our results show that DCR2 and AGO2 are globally associated with transcriptionally active loci and may have a pivotal role in shaping the transcriptome by controlling the processivity of RNA polymerase II.

  4. RNA interference inhibits herpes simplex virus type 1 isolated from saliva samples and mucocutaneous lesions.

    PubMed

    Silva, Amanda Perse da; Lopes, Juliana Freitas; Paula, Vanessa Salete de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of RNA interference to inhibit herpes simplex virus type-1 replication in vitro. For herpes simplex virus type-1 gene silencing, three different small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the herpes simplex virus type-1 UL39 gene (sequence si-UL 39-1, si-UL 39-2, and si-UL 39-3) were used, which encode the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, an essential enzyme for DNA synthesis. Herpes simplex virus type-1 was isolated from saliva samples and mucocutaneous lesions from infected patients. All mucocutaneous lesions' samples were positive for herpes simplex virus type-1 by real-time PCR and by virus isolation; all herpes simplex virus type-1 from saliva samples were positive by real-time PCR and 50% were positive by virus isolation. The levels of herpes simplex virus type-1 DNA remaining after siRNA treatment were assessed by real-time PCR, whose results demonstrated that the effect of siRNAs on gene expression depends on siRNA concentration. The three siRNA sequences used were able to inhibit viral replication, assessed by real-time PCR and plaque assays and among them, the sequence si-UL 39-1 was the most effective. This sequence inhibited 99% of herpes simplex virus type-1 replication. The results demonstrate that silencing herpes simplex virus type-1 UL39 expression by siRNAs effectively inhibits herpes simplex virus type-1 replication, suggesting that siRNA based antiviral strategy may be a potential therapeutic alternative.

  5. CasA mediates Cas3-catalyzed target degradation during CRISPR RNA-guided interference.

    PubMed

    Hochstrasser, Megan L; Taylor, David W; Bhat, Prashant; Guegler, Chantal K; Sternberg, Samuel H; Nogales, Eva; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2014-05-06

    In bacteria, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) DNA-targeting complex Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense) uses CRISPR RNA (crRNA) guides to bind complementary DNA targets at sites adjacent to a trinucleotide signature sequence called the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). The Cascade complex then recruits Cas3, a nuclease-helicase that catalyzes unwinding and cleavage of foreign double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bearing a sequence matching that of the crRNA. Cascade comprises the CasA-E proteins and one crRNA, forming a structure that binds and unwinds dsDNA to form an R loop in which the target strand of the DNA base pairs with the 32-nt RNA guide sequence. Single-particle electron microscopy reconstructions of dsDNA-bound Cascade with and without Cas3 reveal that Cascade positions the PAM-proximal end of the DNA duplex at the CasA subunit and near the site of Cas3 association. The finding that the DNA target and Cas3 colocalize with CasA implicates this subunit in a key target-validation step during DNA interference. We show biochemically that base pairing of the PAM region is unnecessary for target binding but critical for Cas3-mediated degradation. In addition, the L1 loop of CasA, previously implicated in PAM recognition, is essential for Cas3 activation following target binding by Cascade. Together, these data show that the CasA subunit of Cascade functions as an essential partner of Cas3 by recognizing DNA target sites and positioning Cas3 adjacent to the PAM to ensure cleavage.

  6. RNA interference regulates the cell cycle checkpoint through the RNA export factor, Ptr1, in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, Tetsushi; Iida, Naoko; Tsutsui, Yasuhiro; Yamao, Fumiaki; Kobayashi, Takehiko

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RNAi is linked to the cell cycle checkpoint in fission yeast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ptr1 co-purifies with Ago1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ptr1-1 mutation impairs the checkpoint but does not affect gene silencing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ago1{sup +} and ptr1{sup +} regulate the cell cycle checkpoint via the same pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutations in ago1{sup +} and ptr1{sup +} lead to the nuclear accumulation of poly(A){sup +} RNAs. -- Abstract: Ago1, an effector protein of RNA interference (RNAi), regulates heterochromatin silencing and cell cycle arrest in fission yeast. However, the mechanism by which Ago1 controls cell cycle checkpoint following hydroxyurea (HU) treatment has not been elucidated. In this study, we show that Ago1 and other RNAi factors control cell cycle checkpoint following HU treatment via a mechanism independent of silencing. While silencing requires dcr1{sup +}, the overexpression of ago1{sup +} alleviated the cell cycle defect in dcr1{Delta}. Ago1 interacted with the mRNA export factor, Ptr1. The ptr1-1 mutation impaired cell cycle checkpoint but gene silencing was unaffected. Genetic analysis revealed that the regulation of cell cycle checkpoint by ago1{sup +} is dependent on ptr1{sup +}. Nuclear accumulation of poly(A){sup +} RNAs was detected in mutants of ago1{sup +} and ptr1{sup +}, suggesting there is a functional link between the cell cycle checkpoint and RNAi-mediated RNA quality control.

  7. RNA interference in plant parasitic nematodes: a summary of the current status.

    PubMed

    Lilley, C J; Davies, L J; Urwin, P E

    2012-04-01

    SUMMARYRNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as an invaluable gene-silencing tool for functional analysis in a wide variety of organisms, particularly the free-living model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. An increasing number of studies have now described its application to plant parasitic nematodes. Genes expressed in a range of cell types are silenced when nematodes take up double stranded RNA (dsRNA) or short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that elicit a systemic RNAi response. Despite many successful reports, there is still poor understanding of the range of factors that influence optimal gene silencing. Recent in vitro studies have highlighted significant variations in the RNAi phenotype that can occur with different dsRNA concentrations, construct size and duration of soaking. Discrepancies in methodology thwart efforts to reliably compare the efficacy of RNAi between different nematodes or target tissues. Nevertheless, RNAi has become an established experimental tool for plant parasitic nematodes and also offers the prospect of being developed into a novel control strategy when delivered from transgenic plants.

  8. RNA interference is required for normal centromere function in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Tom; Schramke, Vera; Hamilton, Georgina L; White, Sharon A; Teng, Grace; Martienssen, Robert A; Allshire, Robin C

    2003-01-01

    In plants, animals and fungi, active centromeres are associated with arrays of repetitive DNA sequences. The outer repeats at fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) centromeres are heterochromatic and are required for the assembly of an active centromere. Components of the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery process transcripts derived from these repeats and mediate the formation of silent chromatin. A subfragment of the repeat (dg) is known to induce silencing of marker genes at euchromatic sites and is required for centromere formation. We show that the RNAi components, Argonaute (Ago1), Dicer (Dcr1) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Rdp1), are required to maintain silencing, lysine 9 methylation of histone H3 and association of Swi6 via this dg ectopic silencer. Deletion of Ago1, Dcr1 or Rdp1 disrupts chromosome segregation leading to a high incidence of lagging chromosomes on late anaphase spindles and sensitivity to a microtubule poison. Analysis of dg transcription indicates that csp mutants, previously shown to abrogate centromere silencing and chromosome segregation, are also defective in the regulation of non-coding centromeric RNAs. In addition, histone H3 lysine 9 methylation at, and recruitment of Swi6 and cohesin to, centromeric repeats is disrupted in these mutants. Thus the formation of silent chromatin on dg repeats and the development of a fully functional centromere is dependent on RNAi.

  9. RNA Interference-Induced Innate Immunity, Off-Target Effect, or Immune Adjuvant?

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Zhongji; Lu, Mengji

    2017-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a natural cellular mechanism that inhibits gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. In the last decade, RNAi has become a cornerstone in basic biological systems research and drug development efforts. The RNAi-based manipulation of mammalian cells facilitates target identification and validation; assists in identifying human disease etiologies; and expedites the development of treatments for infectious diseases, cancer, and other conditions. Several RNAi-based approaches are currently undergoing assessment in phase I and II clinical trials. However, RNAi-associated immune stimulation might act as a hurdle to safe and effective RNAi, particularly in clinical applications. The induction of innate immunity may originate from small interfering RNA (siRNA) sequence-dependent delivery vehicles and even the RNAi process itself. However, in the case of antagonistic cancers and viral infection, immune activation is beneficial; thus, immunostimulatory small interfering RNAs were designed to create bifunctional small molecules with RNAi and immunostimulatory activities. This review summarizes the research studies of RNAi-associated immune stimulation and the approaches for manipulating immunostimulatory activities. PMID:28386261

  10. Evidence for Dicer-dependent RNA interference in the industrial penicillin producer Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Janus, Danielle; Hoff, Birgit; Kück, Ulrich

    2009-12-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a sequence-specific post-transcriptional gene silencing system that downregulates target gene expression. Here, we provide several lines of evidence for RNA silencing in the industrial beta-lactam antibiotic producer Penicillium chrysogenum using the DsRed reporter gene under the control of the constitutive trpC promoter or the inducible xylP promoter. The functional RNAi system was verified by detection of siRNAs that hybridized exclusively with gene-specific (32)P-labelled RNA probes. Moreover, when RNAi was used to silence the endogenous PcbrlA morphogene that controls conidiophore development, a dramatic reduction in the formation of conidiospores was observed in 47 % of the corresponding transformants. Evidence that RNAi in P. chrysogenum is dependent on a Dicer peptide was provided with a strain lacking Pcdcl2. In the DeltaPcdcl2 background, silencing of the PcbrlA gene was tested. None of the transformants analysed showed a developmental defect. The applicability of the RNAi system in P. chrysogenum was finally demonstrated by silencing the Pcku70 gene to increase homologous recombination frequency. This led to the generation of single and double knockout mutants.

  11. CG dinucleotide suppression enables antiviral defence targeting non-self RNA.

    PubMed

    Takata, Matthew A; Gonçalves-Carneiro, Daniel; Zang, Trinity M; Soll, Steven J; York, Ashley; Blanco-Melo, Daniel; Bieniasz, Paul D

    2017-10-05

    Vertebrate genomes exhibit marked CG suppression-that is, lower than expected numbers of 5'-CG-3' dinucleotides. This feature is likely to be due to C-to-T mutations that have accumulated over hundreds of millions of years, driven by CG-specific DNA methyl transferases and spontaneous methyl-cytosine deamination. Many RNA viruses of vertebrates that are not substrates for DNA methyl transferases mimic the CG suppression of their hosts. This property of viral genomes is unexplained. Here we show, using synonymous mutagenesis, that CG suppression is essential for HIV-1 replication. The deleterious effect of CG dinucleotides on HIV-1 replication was cumulative, associated with cytoplasmic RNA depletion, and was exerted by CG dinucleotides in both translated and non-translated exonic RNA sequences. A focused screen using small inhibitory RNAs revealed that zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP) inhibited virion production by cells infected with CG-enriched HIV-1. Crucially, HIV-1 mutants containing segments whose CG content mimicked random nucleotide sequence were defective in unmanipulated cells, but replicated normally in ZAP-deficient cells. Crosslinking-immunoprecipitation-sequencing assays demonstrated that ZAP binds directly and selectively to RNA sequences containing CG dinucleotides. These findings suggest that ZAP exploits host CG suppression to identify non-self RNA. The dinucleotide composition of HIV-1, and perhaps other RNA viruses, appears to have adapted to evade this host defence.

  12. Cholecystokinin down-regulation by RNA interference impairs Ewing tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Jaime; García-Aragoncillo, Eva; Azorín, Daniel; Agra, Noelia; Sastre, Ana; González-Mediero, Imelda; García-Miguel, Purificación; Pestaña, Angel; Gallego, Soledad; Segura, Dolores; Alonso, Javier

    2007-04-15

    Tumors of the Ewing family are characterized by chromosomal translocations that yield chimeric transcription factors, such as EWS/FLI1, which regulate the expression of specific genes that contribute to the malignant phenotype. In the present study, we show that cholecystokinin (CCK) is a new target of the EWS/FLI1 oncoprotein and assess its functional role in Ewing tumor pathogenesis. Relevant EWS/FLI1 targets were identified using a combination of cell systems with inducible EWS/FLI1 expression, Ewing tumors and cell lines, microarrays, and RNA interference with doxycycline-inducible small hairpin RNA (shRNA) vectors. A doxycycline-inducible CCK-shRNA vector was stably transfected in A673 and SK-PN-DW Ewing cell lines to assess the role of CCK in cell proliferation and tumor growth. Microarray analysis revealed that CCK was up-regulated by EWS/FLI1 in HeLa cells. CCK was overexpressed in Ewing tumors as compared with other pediatric malignancies such as rhabdomyosarcoma and neuroblastoma, with levels close to those detected in normal tissues expressing the highest levels of CCK. Furthermore, EWS/FLI1 knockdown in A673 and SK-PN-DW Ewing cells using two different doxycycline-inducible EWS/FLI1-specific shRNA vectors down-regulated CCK mRNA expression and diminished the levels of secreted CCK, showing that CCK is a EWS/FLI1 specific target gene in Ewing cells. A doxycycline-inducible CCK-specific shRNA vector successfully down-regulated CCK expression, reduced the levels of secreted CCK in Ewing cell lines, and inhibited cell growth and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we show that Ewing cell lines and tumors express CCK receptors and that the growth inhibition produced by CCK silencing can be rescued by culturing the cells with medium containing CCK. Our data support the hypothesis that CCK acts as an autocrine growth factor stimulating the proliferation of Ewing cells and suggest that therapies targeting CCK could be promising in the treatment of

  13. Nonstructural 5A Protein of Hepatitis C Virus Interferes with Toll-Like Receptor Signaling and Suppresses the Interferon Response in Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    Okushin, Kazuya; Enooku, Kenichiro; Fujinaga, Hidetaka; Moriya, Kyoji; Yotsuyanagi, Hiroshi; Aizaki, Hideki; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein NS5A is involved in resistance to the host immune response, as well as the viral lifecycle such as replication and maturation. Here, we established transgenic mice expressing NS5A protein in the liver and examined innate immune responses against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vivo. Intrahepatic gene expression levels of cytokines such as interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ were significantly suppressed after LPS injection in the transgenic mouse liver. Induction of the C-C motif chemokine ligand 2, 4, and 5 was also suppressed. Phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, which is activated by cytokines, was also reduced, and expression levels of interferon-stimulated genes, 2’-5’ oligoadenylate synthase, interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, and myxovirus resistance 1 were similarly suppressed. Since LPS binds to toll-like receptor 4 and stimulates the downstream pathway leading to induction of these genes, we examined the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and IκB-α. The phosphorylation levels of these molecules were reduced in transgenic mouse liver, indicating that the pathway upstream of the molecules was disrupted by NS5A. Further analyses revealed that the interaction between interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 and tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor-6 was dispersed in transgenic mice, suggesting that NS5A may interfere with this interaction via myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, which was shown to interact with NS5A. Since the gut microbiota, a source of LPS, is known to be associated with pathological conditions in liver diseases, our results suggest the involvement of NS5A in the pathogenesis of HCV infected-liver via the suppression of innate immunity. PMID:28107512

  14. Noncoding Subgenomic Flavivirus RNA Is Processed by the Mosquito RNA Interference Machinery and Determines West Nile Virus Transmission by Culex pipiens Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Göertz, G P; Fros, J J; Miesen, P; Vogels, C B F; van der Bent, M L; Geertsema, C; Koenraadt, C J M; van Rij, R P; van Oers, M M; Pijlman, G P

    2016-11-15

    Flaviviruses, such as Zika virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and West Nile virus (WNV), are a serious concern for human health. Flaviviruses produce an abundant noncoding subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) in infected cells. sfRNA results from stalling of the host 5'-3' exoribonuclease XRN1/Pacman on conserved RNA structures in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the viral genomic RNA. sfRNA production is conserved in insect-specific, mosquito-borne, and tick-borne flaviviruses and flaviviruses with no known vector, suggesting a pivotal role for sfRNA in the flavivirus life cycle. Here, we investigated the function of sfRNA during WNV infection of Culex pipiens mosquitoes and evaluated its role in determining vector competence. An sfRNA1-deficient WNV was generated that displayed growth kinetics similar to those of wild-type WNV in both RNA interference (RNAi)-competent and -compromised mosquito cell lines. Small-RNA deep sequencing of WNV-infected mosquitoes indicated an active small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based antiviral response for both the wild-type and sfRNA1-deficient viruses. Additionally, we provide the first evidence that sfRNA is an RNAi substrate in vivo Two reproducible small-RNA hot spots within the 3' UTR/sfRNA of the wild-type virus mapped to RNA stem-loops SL-III and 3' SL, which stick out of the three-dimensional (3D) sfRNA structure model. Importantly, we demonstrate that sfRNA-deficient WNV displays significantly decreased infection and transmission rates in vivo when administered via the blood meal. Finally, we show that transmission and infection rates are not affected by sfRNA after intrathoracic injection, thereby identifying sfRNA as a key driver to overcome the mosquito midgut infection barrier. This is the first report to describe a key biological function of sfRNA for flavivirus infection of the arthropod vector, providing an explanation for the strict conservation of sfRNA production. Understanding the flavivirus transmission

  15. Nucleobase-Modified PNA Suppresses Translation by Forming a Triple Helix with a Hairpin Structure in mRNA In Vitro and in Cells.

    PubMed

    Endoh, Tamaki; Hnedzko, Dziyana; Rozners, Eriks; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2016-01-18

    Compounds that bind specifically to double-stranded regions of RNA have potential as regulators of structure-based RNA function; however, sequence-selective recognition of double-stranded RNA is challenging. The modification of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) with unnatural nucleobases enables the formation of PNA-RNA triplexes. Herein, we demonstrate that a 9-mer PNA forms a sequence-specific PNA-RNA triplex with a dissociation constant of less than 1 nm at physiological pH. The triplex formed within the 5' untranslated region of an mRNA reduces the protein expression levels both in vitro and in cells. A single triplet mismatch destabilizes the complex, and in this case, no translation suppression is observed. The triplex-forming PNAs are unique and potent compounds that hold promise as inhibitors of cellular functions that are controlled by double-stranded RNAs, such as RNA interference, RNA editing, and RNA localization mediated by protein-RNA interactions.

  16. An update on RNA interference-mediated gene silencing in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yi-Jie; Zhang, Yi

    2014-11-01

    Based on our previous review, this article presents the new progress in RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing in cancer therapy, and reviews the hurdles and how they might be overcome. RNAi-mediated gene silencing approaches have been demonstrated in humans, and ongoing clinical trials hold promise for treating cancer or providing alternatives to traditional chemotherapies. Here we describe the broad range of approaches to achieve targeted gene silencing for cancer therapy, discuss the progress made in developing RNAi as therapeutics for cancer and highlight challenges and emerging solutions associated with its clinical development. Although the field of RNAi-based cancer therapy is still an emerging one, we have yet to get solutions for overcoming all obstacles associated with its clinical development. The current rapid advances in development of new targeted delivery strategies and noninvasive imaging methods will be big steps to explore RNAi as a new and potent clinical modality in humans.

  17. RNA Interference for Functional Genomics and Improvement of Cotton (Gossypium sp.).

    PubMed

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y; Ayubov, Mirzakamol S; Ubaydullaeva, Khurshida A; Buriev, Zabardast T; Shermatov, Shukhrat E; Ruziboev, Haydarali S; Shapulatov, Umid M; Saha, Sukumar; Ulloa, Mauricio; Yu, John Z; Percy, Richard G; Devor, Eric J; Sharma, Govind C; Sripathi, Venkateswara R; Kumpatla, Siva P; van der Krol, Alexander; Kater, Hake D; Khamidov, Khakimdjan; Salikhov, Shavkat I; Jenkins, Johnie N; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Pepper, Alan E

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), is a powerful new technology in the discovery of genetic sequence functions, and has become a valuable tool for functional genomics of cotton (Gossypium sp.). The rapid adoption of RNAi has replaced previous antisense technology. RNAi has aided in the discovery of function and biological roles of many key cotton genes involved in fiber development, fertility and somatic embryogenesis, resistance to important biotic and abiotic stresses, and oil and seed quality improvements as well as the key agronomic traits including yield and maturity. Here, we have comparatively reviewed seminal research efforts in previously used antisense approaches and currently applied breakthrough RNAi studies in cotton, analyzing developed RNAi methodologies, achievements, limitations, and future needs in functional characterizations of cotton genes. We also highlighted needed efforts in the development of RNAi-based cotton cultivars, and their safety and risk assessment, small and large-scale field trials, and commercialization.

  18. RNA Interference for Functional Genomics and Improvement of Cotton (Gossypium sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y.; Ayubov, Mirzakamol S.; Ubaydullaeva, Khurshida A.; Buriev, Zabardast T.; Shermatov, Shukhrat E.; Ruziboev, Haydarali S.; Shapulatov, Umid M.; Saha, Sukumar; Ulloa, Mauricio; Yu, John Z.; Percy, Richard G.; Devor, Eric J.; Sharma, Govind C.; Sripathi, Venkateswara R.; Kumpatla, Siva P.; van der Krol, Alexander; Kater, Hake D.; Khamidov, Khakimdjan; Salikhov, Shavkat I.; Jenkins, Johnie N.; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Pepper, Alan E.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), is a powerful new technology in the discovery of genetic sequence functions, and has become a valuable tool for functional genomics of cotton (Gossypium sp.). The rapid adoption of RNAi has replaced previous antisense technology. RNAi has aided in the discovery of function and biological roles of many key cotton genes involved in fiber development, fertility and somatic embryogenesis, resistance to important biotic and abiotic stresses, and oil and seed quality improvements as well as the key agronomic traits including yield and maturity. Here, we have comparatively reviewed seminal research efforts in previously used antisense approaches and currently applied breakthrough RNAi studies in cotton, analyzing developed RNAi methodologies, achievements, limitations, and future needs in functional characterizations of cotton genes. We also highlighted needed efforts in the development of RNAi-based cotton cultivars, and their safety and risk assessment, small and large-scale field trials, and commercialization. PMID:26941765

  19. Analysis of Nuclear RNA Interference (RNAi) in Human Cells by Subcellular Fractionation and Argonaute Loading

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Keith T.; Li, Liande; Janowski, Bethany A.; Corey, David R.

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is well known for its ability to regulate gene expression in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. In mammalian cell nuclei, however, the impact of RNAi has remained more controversial. A key technical hurdle has been a lack of optimized protocols for the isolation and analysis of cell nuclei. Here we describe a simplified protocol for nuclei isolation from cultured cells that incorporates a method for obtaining nucleoplasmic and chromatin fractions and removing cytoplasmic contamination. Cell fractions can then be used to detect the presence and activity of RNAi factors in the nucleus. We present a protocol for investigating an early step in RNAi, Argonaute protein loading with small RNAs, which is enabled by our improved extract preparations. These protocols facilitate characterization of nuclear RNAi and can be applied to the analysis of other nuclear proteins and pathways. From cellular fractionation to analysis of Argonaute loading results, this protocol takes 4–6 d to complete. PMID:25079428

  20. Mutant CAG Repeats Effectively Targeted by RNA Interference in SCA7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fiszer, Agnieszka; Wroblewska, Joanna P.; Nowak, Bartosz M.; Krzyzosiak, Wlodzimierz J.

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is a human neurodegenerative polyglutamine (polyQ) disease caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the open reading frame of the ATXN7 gene. The allele-selective silencing of mutant transcripts using a repeat-targeting strategy has previously been used for several polyQ diseases. Herein, we demonstrate that the selective targeting of a repeat tract in a mutant ATXN7 transcript by RNA interference is a feasible approach and results in an efficient decrease of mutant ataxin-7 protein in patient-derived cells. Oligonucleotides (ONs) containing specific base substitutions cause the downregulation of the ATXN7 mutant allele together with the upregulation of its normal allele. The A2 ON shows high allele selectivity at a broad range of concentrations and also restores UCHL1 expression, which is downregulated in SCA7. PMID:27999335

  1. Illuminating the gateway of gene silencing: perspective of RNA interference technology in clinical therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Annu; Arora, Pooja; Chaudhury, Ashok

    2012-07-01

    A novel laboratory revolution for disease therapy, the RNA interference (RNAi) technology, has adopted a new era of molecular research as the next generation "Gene-targeted prophylaxis." In this review, we have focused on the chief technological challenges associated with the efforts to develop RNAi-based therapeutics that may guide the biomedical researchers. Many non-curable maladies, like neurodegenerative diseases and cancers have effectively been cured using this technology. Rapid advances are still in progress for the development of RNAi-based technologies that will be having a major impact on medical research. We have highlighted the recent discoveries associated with the phenomenon of RNAi, expression of silencing molecules in mammals along with the vector systems used for disease therapeutics.

  2. RNA INTERFERENCE AGAINST CFTR AFFECTS HL60-DERIVED NEUTROPHIL MICROBICIDAL FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Bonvillain, Ryan W.; Painter, Richard G.; Adams, Daniel E.; Viswanathan, Anand; Lanson, Nicholas A.; Wang, Guoshun

    2010-01-01

    Biosynthesis of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a potent anti-microbial oxidant, in phagosomes is one of the chief mechanisms employed by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) to combat infections. This reaction, catalyzed by myeloperoxidase, requires chloride anion (Cl−) as a substrate. Thus, Cl− availability is a rate-limiting factor that affects neutrophil microbicidal function. Our previous research demonstrated that defective CFTR, a cAMP-activated chloride channel, present in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients leads to deficient chloride transport to neutrophil phagosomes and impaired bacterial killing (Painter et al., 2008 & 2010). To confirm this finding, here we used RNA interference against this chloride channel to abate CFTR expression in the neutrophil-like cells derived from HL60 cells, a promyelocytic leukemia cell line, with DMSO. The resultant CFTR deficiency in the phagocytes compromised their bactericidal capability, thereby recapitulating the phenotype seen in CF patient cells. The results provide further evidence suggesting that CFTR plays an important role in phagocytic host defense. PMID:20870018

  3. Advances in CRISPR-Cas9 genome engineering: lessons learned from RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Barrangou, Rodolphe; Birmingham, Amanda; Wiemann, Stefan; Beijersbergen, Roderick L.; Hornung, Veit; Smith, Anja van Brabant

    2015-01-01

    The discovery that the machinery of the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 bacterial immune system can be re-purposed to easily create deletions, insertions and replacements in the mammalian genome has revolutionized the field of genome engineering and re-invigorated the field of gene therapy. Many parallels have been drawn between the newly discovered CRISPR-Cas9 system and the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in terms of their utility for understanding and interrogating gene function in mammalian cells. Given this similarity, the CRISPR-Cas9 field stands to benefit immensely from lessons learned during the development of RNAi technology. We examine how the history of RNAi can inform today's challenges in CRISPR-Cas9 genome engineering such as efficiency, specificity, high-throughput screening and delivery for in vivo and therapeutic applications. PMID:25800748

  4. Exogenous RNA interference exposes contrasting roles for sugar exudation in host-finding by plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Warnock, Neil D; Wilson, Leonie; Canet-Perez, Juan V; Fleming, Thomas; Fleming, Colin C; Maule, Aaron G; Dalzell, Johnathan J

    2016-07-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes (PPN) locate host plants by following concentration gradients of root exudate chemicals in the soil. We present a simple method for RNA interference (RNAi)-induced knockdown of genes in tomato seedling roots, facilitating the study of root exudate composition, and PPN responses. Knockdown of sugar transporter genes, STP1 and STP2, in tomato seedlings triggered corresponding reductions of glucose and fructose, but not xylose, in collected root exudate. This corresponded directly with reduced infectivity and stylet thrusting of the promiscuous PPN Meloidogyne incognita, however we observed no impact on the infectivity or stylet thrusting of the selective Solanaceae PPN Globodera pallida. This approach can underpin future efforts to understand the early stages of plant-pathogen interactions in tomato and potentially other crop plants. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of RNA interference-mediated knockdown of livin and survivin using monomethoxypolyethylene glycol-chitosan nanoparticles in MG-63 osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Guan, Hua-Peng; Sun, Jian-Zhong; Feng, Xiao-Lei; Chen, Jin-Shui; Chen, Fang-Jing; Cheng, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Xin-Wei; Ni, Bin

    2016-02-01

    MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells were transfected with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against livin and survivin using monomethoxypolyethylene glycol‑chitosan (mPEG‑CS) nanoparticles (NPs) as carriers, with the aim of evaluating the effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis. mPEG‑CS NPs sized ~100 nm were prepared by ionic crosslinking. mPEG‑CS‑livin shRNA, mPEG‑CS‑survivin shRNA and mPEG‑CS‑(livin shRNA + survivin shRNA) NPs were constructed by electrostatic adsorption at NP suspension/gene solution ratios of 3:1 to transfect MG‑63 cells. The expression levels of livin and survivin mRNA and protein were measured by reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. The inhibitory effects of downregulated livin and survivin expression on cell proliferation were measured using an MTT assay. The apoptosis‑inducing effects of livin and surivin knockdown were investigated using a Hoechst staining kit. All shRNA groups resulted in reduced expression of livin and survivin mRNA and protein in MG‑63 cells. The MTT assay and Hoechst staining indicated that simultaneous knockdown of livin and survivin genes inhibited the proliferation of MG‑63 cells and promoted their apoptosis, to a greater extent than knocking down either gene individually. The simultaneous interference mediated by mPEG‑CS NPs significantly reduced livin and survivin expression in MG‑63 cells, suppressed proliferation and facilitated apoptosis, to a greater extent than knockdown of either livin or survivin alone were. Thus the results indicate a synergistic effect of livin and survivin.

  6. Bactrocera dorsalis male sterilization by targeted RNA interference of spermatogenesis: empowering sterile insect technique programs

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Zhen-Zhong; Clarke, Anthony R.; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a genetic technique which has novel application for sustainable pest control. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) uses releases of mass-produced, sterile male insects to out-compete wild males for mates to reduce pest populations. RNAi sterilization of SIT males would have several advantages over radiation sterilization, but to achieve this appropriate target genes must first be identified and then targeted with interference technology. With this goal, eight spermatogenesis related candidate genes were cloned and tested for potential activity in Bactrocera dorsalis. The knockdown of candidate genes by oral delivery of dsRNAs did not influence the mating of male flies, but significantly affected the daily average number of eggs laid by females, and reduced egg hatching rate by 16–60%. RNAi negatively affected spermatozoa quantitatively and qualitatively. Following the mating of lola-/topi-/rac-/rho-/upd-/magu-silenced males, we recorded a significant decrease in number and length of spermatozoa in female spermatheca compared to gfp-silenced control group. In a greenhouse trial, the number of damaged oranges and B. dorsalis larvae were significantly reduced in a dsrho-treated group compared with the dsgfp group. This study provides strong evidence for the use RNAi in pest management, especially for the improvement of SIT against B. dorsalis and other species. PMID:27767174

  7. Bactrocera dorsalis male sterilization by targeted RNA interference of spermatogenesis: empowering sterile insect technique programs.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Zhen-Zhong; Clarke, Anthony R; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2016-10-21

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a genetic technique which has novel application for sustainable pest control. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) uses releases of mass-produced, sterile male insects to out-compete wild males for mates to reduce pest populations. RNAi sterilization of SIT males would have several advantages over radiation sterilization, but to achieve this appropriate target genes must first be identified and then targeted with interference technology. With this goal, eight spermatogenesis related candidate genes were cloned and tested for potential activity in Bactrocera dorsalis. The knockdown of candidate genes by oral delivery of dsRNAs did not influence the mating of male flies, but significantly affected the daily average number of eggs laid by females, and reduced egg hatching rate by 16-60%. RNAi negatively affected spermatozoa quantitatively and qualitatively. Following the mating of lola-/topi-/rac-/rho-/upd-/magu-silenced males, we recorded a significant decrease in number and length of spermatozoa in female spermatheca compared to gfp-silenced control group. In a greenhouse trial, the number of damaged oranges and B. dorsalis larvae were significantly reduced in a dsrho-treated group compared with the dsgfp group. This study provides strong evidence for the use RNAi in pest management, especially for the improvement of SIT against B. dorsalis and other species.

  8. In vitro RNA interference targeting the DNA polymerase gene inhibits orf virus replication in primary ovine fetal turbinate cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gaili; He, Wenqi; Song, Deguang; Li, Jida; Bao, Yingfu; Lu, Rongguang; Bi, Jingying; Zhao, Kui; Gao, Feng

    2014-05-01

    Orf, which is caused by orf virus (ORFV), is distributed worldwide and is endemic in most sheep- and/or goat-raising countries. RNA interference (RNAi) pathways have emerged as important regulators of virus-host cell interactions. In this study, the specific effect of RNAi on the replication of ORFV was explored. The application of RNA interference (RNAi) inhibited the replication of ORFV in cell culture by targeting the ORF025 gene of ORFV, which encodes the viral polymerase. Three small interfering RNA (siRNA) (named siRNA704, siRNA1017 and siRNA1388) were prepared by in vitro transcription. The siRNAs were evaluated for antiviral activity against the ORFV Jilin isolate by the observation of cytopathic effects (CPE), virus titration, and real-time PCR. After 48 h of infection, siRNA704, siRNA1017 and siRNA1388 reduced virus titers by 59- to 199-fold and reduced the level of viral replication by 73-89 %. These results suggest that these three siRNAs can efficiently inhibit ORFV genome replication and infectious virus production. RNAi targeting of the DNA polymerase gene is therefore potentially useful for studying the replication of ORFV and may have potential therapeutic applications.

  9. The DEAD-Box RNA Helicase DDX3 Interacts with NF-κB Subunit p65 and Suppresses p65-Mediated Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Song, Feifei; Guo, Liang; Ma, Li; Sun, Guihong; Liu, Dan; Guo, Deyin

    2016-01-01

    RNA helicase family members exhibit diverse cellular functions, including in transcription, pre-mRNA processing, RNA decay, ribosome biogenesis, RNA export and translation. The RNA helicase DEAD-box family member DDX3 has been characterized as a tumour-associated factor and a transcriptional co-activator/regulator. Here, we demonstrate that DDX3 interacts with the nuclear factor (NF)-κB subunit p65 and suppresses NF-κB (p65/p50)-mediated transcriptional activity. The downregulation of DDX3 by RNA interference induces the upregulation of NF-κB (p65/p50)-mediated transcription. The regulation of NF-κB (p65/p50)-mediated transcriptional activity was further confirmed by the expression levels of its downstream cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Moreover, the binding of the ATP-dependent RNA helicase domain of DDX3 to the N-terminal Rel homology domain (RHD) of p65 is involved in the inhibition of NF-κB-regulated gene transcription. In summary, the results suggest that DDX3 functions to suppress the transcriptional activity of the NF-κB subunit p65. PMID:27736973

  10. Research on 3D marine electromagnetic interferometry with synthetic sources for suppressing the airwave interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-Guo; Wu, Xin; Qi, You-Zheng; Huang, Ling; Fang, Guang-You

    2013-12-01

    In order to suppress the airwave noise in marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data, we propose a 3D deconvolution (3DD) interferometry method with a synthetic aperture source and obtain the relative anomaly coefficient (RAC) of the EM field reflection responses to show the degree for suppressing the airwave. We analyze the potential of the proposed method for suppressing the airwave, and compare the proposed method with traditional methods in their effectiveness. A method to select synthetic source length is derived and the effect of the water depth on RAC is examined via numerical simulations. The results suggest that 3DD interferometry method with a synthetic source can effectively suppress the airwave and enhance the potential of marine CSEM to hydrocarbon exploration.

  11. MicroRNA 329 Suppresses Angiogenesis by Targeting CD146

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Luo, Yongting; Duan, Hongxia; Xing, Shu; Zhang, Jianlin; Lu, Di; Feng, Jing; Yang, Dongling; Song, Lina

    2013-01-01

    CD146, an endothelial biomarker, has been shown to be aberrantly upregulated during pathological angiogenesis and functions as a coreceptor for vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) to promote disease progression. However, the regulatory mechanisms of CD146 expression during angiogenesis remain unclear. Using a microRNA screening approach, we identified a novel negative regulator of angiogenesis, microRNA 329 (miR-329), that directly targeted CD146 and inhibited CD146-mediated angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Endogenous miR-329 expression was downregulated by VEGF and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), resulting in the elevation of CD146 in endothelial cells. Upregulation of CD146 facilitated an endothelial response to VEGF-induced SRC kinase family (SKF)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/NF-κB activation and consequently promoted endothelial cell migration and tube formation. Our animal experiments showed that treatment with miR-329 repressed excessive CD146 expression on blood vessels and significantly attenuated neovascularization in a mouse model of pathological angiogenesis. Our findings provide the first evidence that CD146 expression in angiogenesis is regulated by miR-329 and suggest that miR-329 could present a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of angiogenic diseases. PMID:23878390

  12. The VP3 factor from viruses of Birnaviridae family suppresses RNA silencing by binding both long and small RNA duplexes.

    PubMed

    Valli, Adrian; Busnadiego, Idoia; Maliogka, Varvara; Ferrero, Diego; Castón, José R; Rodríguez, José Francisco; García, Juan Antonio

    2012-01-01

    RNA silencing is directly involved in antiviral defense in a wide variety of eukaryotic organisms, including plants, fungi, invertebrates, and presumably vertebrate animals. The study of RNA silencing-mediated antiviral defences in vertebrates is hampered by the overlap with other antiviral mechanisms; thus, heterologous systems are often used to study the interplay between RNA silencing and vertebrate-infecting viruses. In this report we show that the VP3 protein of the avian birnavirus Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) displays, in addition to its capacity to bind long double-stranded RNA, the ability to interact with double-stranded small RNA molecules. We also demonstrate that IBDV VP3 prevents the silencing mediated degradation of a reporter mRNA, and that this silencing suppression activity depends on its RNA binding ability. Furthermore, we find that the anti-silencing activity of IBDV VP3 is shared with the homologous proteins expressed by both insect- and fish-infecting birnaviruses. Finally, we show that IBDV VP3 can functionally replace the well-characterized HCPro silencing suppressor of Plum pox virus, a potyvirus that is unable to infect plants in the absence of an active silencing suppressor. Altogether, our results support the idea that VP3 protects the viral genome from host sentinels, including those of the RNA silencing machinery.

  13. Regulatory functions of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase in the chitin biosynthesis pathway in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) revealed by RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q W; Jin, S; Zhang, L; Shen, Q D; Wei, P; Wei, Z M; Wang, S G; Tang, B

    2017-09-18

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a very effective technique for studying gene function and may be an efficient method for controlling pests. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS), which plays a key role in the synthesis of trehalose and insect development, was cloned in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (TcTPS) and the putative functions were studied using RNAi via the injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) corresponding to conserved TPS and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase domains. Expression analyses show that TcTPS is expressed higher in the fat body, while quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results show that the expression of four trehalase isoforms was significantly suppressed by dsTPS injection. Additionally, the expression of six chitin synthesis-related genes, such as hexokinase 2 and glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase, was suppressed at 48 and 72 h post-dsTPS-1 and dsTPS-2 RNA injection, which were two dsTPS fragments that had been designed for two different locations in TcTPS open reading frame, and that trehalose content and trehalase 1 activity decreased significantly at 72 h post-dsRNA injection. Furthermore, T. castaneum injected with dsTPS-1 and dsTPS-2 RNA displayed significantly lower levels of chitin and could not complete the molting process from larvae to pupae, revealing abnormal molting phenotypes. These results demonstrate that silencing TPS gene leads to molting deformities and high mortality rates via regulation of gene expression in the chitin biosynthetic pathway, and may be a promising approach for pest control in the future.

  14. The Baculovirus Antiapoptotic p35 Protein Functions as an Inhibitor of the Host RNA Interference Antiviral Response

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Hussain, Mazhar; Matindoost, Leila

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT RNA interference (RNAi) is considered an ancient antiviral defense in diverse organisms, including insects. Virus infections generate double-strand RNAs (dsRNAs) that trigger the RNAi machinery to process dsRNAs into virus-derived short interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs), which target virus genomes, mRNAs, or replication intermediates. Viruses, in turn, have evolved viral suppressors of RNAi (VSRs) to counter host antiviral RNAi. Following recent discoveries that insects mount an RNAi response against DNA viruses, in this study, we found that Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) infection similarly induces an RNAi response in Spodoptera frugiperda cells by generating a large number of vsiRNAs postinfection. Interestingly, we found that AcMNPV expresses a potent VSR to counter RNAi. The viral p35 gene, which is well known as an inhibitor of apoptosis, was found to be responsible for the suppression of RNAi in diverse insect and mammalian cells. The VSR activity of p35 was further confirmed by a p35-null AcMNPV that did not suppress the response. In addition, our results showed that the VSR activity is not due to inhibition of dsRNA cleavage by Dicer-2 but acts downstream in the RNAi pathway. Furthermore, we found that the VSR activity is not linked to the antiapoptotic activity of the protein. Overall, our results provide evidence for the existence of VSR activity in a double-stranded DNA virus and identify the responsible gene, which is involved in the inhibition of RNAi as well as apoptosis. IMPORTANCE Our findings demonstrate the occurrence of an insect RNAi response against a baculovirus (AcMNPV) that is highly utilized in microbial control, biological and biomedical research, and protein expression. Moreover, our investigations led to the identification of a viral suppressor of RNAi activity and the gene responsible for the activity. Notably, this gene is also a potent inhibitor of apoptosis. The outcomes signify the dual role of a

  15. The Baculovirus Antiapoptotic p35 Protein Functions as an Inhibitor of the Host RNA Interference Antiviral Response.

    PubMed

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Hussain, Mazhar; Matindoost, Leila; Asgari, Sassan

    2015-08-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is considered an ancient antiviral defense in diverse organisms, including insects. Virus infections generate double-strand RNAs (dsRNAs) that trigger the RNAi machinery to process dsRNAs into virus-derived short interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs), which target virus genomes, mRNAs, or replication intermediates. Viruses, in turn, have evolved viral suppressors of RNAi (VSRs) to counter host antiviral RNAi. Following recent discoveries that insects mount an RNAi response against DNA viruses, in this study, we found that Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) infection similarly induces an RNAi response in Spodoptera frugiperda cells by generating a large number of vsiRNAs postinfection. Interestingly, we found that AcMNPV expresses a potent VSR to counter RNAi. The viral p35 gene, which is well known as an inhibitor of apoptosis, was found to be responsible for the suppression of RNAi in diverse insect and mammalian cells. The VSR activity of p35 was further confirmed by a p35-null AcMNPV that did not suppress the response. In addition, our results showed that the VSR activity is not due to inhibition of dsRNA cleavage by Dicer-2 but acts downstream in the RNAi pathway. Furthermore, we found that the VSR activity is not linked to the antiapoptotic activity of the protein. Overall, our results provide evidence for the existence of VSR activity in a double-stranded DNA virus and identify the responsible gene, which is involved in the inhibition of RNAi as well as apoptosis. Our findings demonstrate the occurrence of an insect RNAi response against a baculovirus (AcMNPV) that is highly utilized in microbial control, biological and biomedical research, and protein expression. Moreover, our investigations led to the identification of a viral suppressor of RNAi activity and the gene responsible for the activity. Notably, this gene is also a potent inhibitor of apoptosis. The outcomes signify the dual role of a virus-encoded protein

  16. The influence of lentivirus-mediated CXCR4 RNA interference on hepatic metastasis of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-Bao; Hu, Bao-Guang; Liu, Da-Wei; Shi, Han-Ping; Dong, Wen-Guang

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a lentiviral vector of CXCR4-siRNA (Lenti-CXCR4-siRNA) and investigate whether the vector can inhibit the growth, migration, invasion and hepatic metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). RT-PCR and western blotting were employed to identify the ideal RNA interference sequence. Lenti-CXCR4-siRNA was constructed and transfected into the SW480 cell line. We used RT-PCR and western blotting to measure the expression of CXCR4 RNA and protein, respectively; the MTS assay to assess the proliferation of SW480 cells; transwell chambers to estimate the inhibitory effect on migration and invasion; and the Balb/c nude mouse model of CRC to examine the inhibition of hepatic metastasis. The relative expression of the CXCR4 gene and protein was 5.4 and 18.95%, respectively, in the siCXCR4 group. The genes in the expression plasmid pLenti-CXCR4-siRNA were in the correct order. In the SW480, nonsense control (NC) and the Lenti-CXCR4-siRNA groups CXCR4 RNA levels were, respectively, 0.54±0.06, 1.00±0.03 and 0.11±0.04 (P=0.0001); CXCR4 protein levels were 0.60±0.03, 0.72±0.03 and 0.18±0.02 (P=0.0001); the OD value was 1.38±0.04 (P=0.0050), 1.28±0.05 (P=0.0256) and 0.92±0.06; SW480 cell number in migration test was 32±6.85, 32.63±1.69 and 0.75±0.71 (P=0.0000); SW480 cell number in the invasion test was 29.13±10.3, 30.38±6.09 and 0.63±0.74 (P=0.0000); hepatic metastasis number was 7.10±3.98 (P=0.034), 7.50±4.09 (P=0.019) and (3.50±2.51); hepatic metastasis mean weight (in g) was 2.25±2.51 (P=0.000), 2.11±2.38 (P=0.000) and 1.45±2.07. Lenti-CXCR4-siRNA constructs were correctly constructed and effectively inhibit the expression of CXCR4 RNA and protein, reducing the proliferation, migration, invasion capacity of SW480 cells and hepatic metastasis of CRC.

  17. Effects of chitosan nanoparticle-mediated BRAF siRNA interference on invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Huo, Jian

    2016-08-01

    To observe the changes in invasion capacity of gastric cancer BGC823 cells after being treated with chitosan-encapsulated BRAF siRNA nanoparticles, and to evaluate the effects of the nanoparticle-mediated BRAF siRNA interference on cell invasion and metastasis, BRAF siRNA was encapsulated with chitosan into nanoparticles sized 350 nm to treat gastric cancer cells. Silencing of BRAF was detected by Western blot and PCR, and cell invasion was observed by the Transwell assay. The nanoparticles significantly downregulated BRAF expression in BGC823 cells (P < 0.01) and inhibited their invasion (P < 0.001). Chitosan nanoparticle-mediated BRAF siRNA interference evidently reduced the invasion capacity of gastric cancers.

  18. RNA interference: a promising biopesticide strategy against the African Sweetpotato Weevil Cylas brunneus

    PubMed Central

    Christiaens, Olivier; Prentice, Katterinne; Pertry, Ine; Ghislain, Marc; Bailey, Ana; Niblett, Chuck; Gheysen, Godelieve; Smagghe, Guy

    2016-01-01

    The African sweetpotato weevil Cylas brunneus is one of the most devastating pests affecting the production of sweetpotatoes, an important staple food in Sub-Saharan Africa. Current available control methods against this coleopteran pest are limited. In this study, we analyzed the potential of RNA interference as a novel crop protection strategy against this insect pest. First, the C. brunneus transcriptome was sequenced and RNAi functionality was confirmed by successfully silencing the laccase2 gene. Next, 24 potential target genes were chosen, based on their critical role in vital biological processes. A first screening via injection of gene-specific dsRNAs showed that the dsRNAs were highly toxic for C. brunneus. Injected doses of 200ng/mg body weight led to mortality rates of 90% or higher for 14 of the 24 tested genes after 14 days. The three best performing dsRNAs, targeting prosα2, rps13 and the homolog of Diabrotica virgifera snf7, were then used in further feeding trials to investigate RNAi by oral delivery. Different concentrations of dsRNAs mixed with artificial diet were tested and concentrations as low as 1 μg dsRNA/ mL diet led to significant mortality rates higher than 50%.These results proved that dsRNAs targeting essential genes show great potential to control C. brunneus. PMID:27941836

  19. Effects of downregulating TEAD4 transcripts by RNA interference on early development of bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Kazuki; Emura, Natsuko; Hashizume, Tsutomu; Sawai, Ken

    2017-04-21

    Transcription factor TEA domain family transcription factor 4 (Tead4) is one of the key factors involved in the differentiation of the trophectoderm (TE) in murine embryos. However, knowledge on the roles of TEAD4 in preimplantation development during bovine embryos is currently limited. This study examined the transcript and protein expression patterns of TEAD4 and attempted to elucidate the functions of TEAD4 during bovine preimplantation development using RNA interference. TEAD4 mRNA was found to be upregulated between the 16-cell and morula stages, and nuclear localization of the TEAD4 protein was detected at the morula stage, as well as in subsequent developmental stages. TEAD4 downregulation did not affect embryonic development until the blastocyst stage, and TEAD4-downregulated embryos were capable of forming the TE under both 5% and 21% O2 conditions. Results of gene expression analysis showed that TEAD4 downregulation did not affect the expression levels of POU class 5 transcription factor 1 (OCT-4), NANOG, caudal-type homeobox 2 (CDX2), GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), and interferon-tau (IFNT). In conclusion, TEAD4 might be dispensable for development until the blastocyst stage and TE differentiation in bovine embryos.

  20. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design.

    PubMed

    Terenius, Olle; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Garbutt, Jennie S; Eleftherianos, Ioannis; Huvenne, Hanneke; Kanginakudru, Sriramana; Albrechtsen, Merete; An, Chunju; Aymeric, Jean-Luc; Barthel, Andrea; Bebas, Piotr; Bitra, Kavita; Bravo, Alejandra; Chevalier, François; Collinge, Derek P; Crava, Cristina M; de Maagd, Ruud A; Duvic, Bernard; Erlandson, Martin; Faye, Ingrid; Felföldi, Gabriella; Fujiwara, Haruhiko; Futahashi, Ryo; Gandhe, Archana S; Gatehouse, Heather S; Gatehouse, Laurence N; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M; Gómez, Isabel; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Groot, Astrid T; Hauser, Frank; Heckel, David G; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Hrycaj, Steven; Huang, Lihua; Hull, J Joe; Iatrou, Kostas; Iga, Masatoshi; Kanost, Michael R; Kotwica, Joanna; Li, Changyou; Li, Jianghong; Liu, Jisheng; Lundmark, Magnus; Matsumoto, Shogo; Meyering-Vos, Martina; Millichap, Peter J; Monteiro, Antónia; Mrinal, Nirotpal; Niimi, Teruyuki; Nowara, Daniela; Ohnishi, Atsushi; Oostra, Vicencio; Ozaki, Katsuhisa; Papakonstantinou, Maria; Popadic, Aleksandar; Rajam, Manchikatla V; Saenko, Suzanne; Simpson, Robert M; Soberón, Mario; Strand, Michael R; Tomita, Shuichiro; Toprak, Umut; Wang, Ping; Wee, Choon Wei; Whyard, Steven; Zhang, Wenqing; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Herrero, Salvador; Gordon, Karl; Swevers, Luc; Smagghe, Guy

    2011-02-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive experiments have not been collected in such a way that they are possible to analyze. In this review, we have collected detailed data from more than 150 experiments including all to date published and many unpublished experiments. Despite a large variation in the data, trends that are found are that RNAi is particularly successful in the family Saturniidae and in genes involved in immunity. On the contrary, gene expression in epidermal tissues seems to be most difficult to silence. In addition, gene silencing by feeding dsRNA requires high concentrations for success. Possible causes for the variability of success in RNAi experiments in Lepidoptera are discussed. The review also points to a need to further investigate the mechanism of RNAi in lepidopteran insects and its possible connection to the innate immune response. Our general understanding of RNAi in Lepidoptera will be further aided in the future as our public database at http://insectacentral.org/RNAi will continue to gather information on RNAi experiments.

  1. Mcam Silencing With RNA Interference Using Magnetofection has Antitumor Effect in Murine Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Prosen, Lara; Markelc, Bostjan; Dolinsek, Tanja; Music, Branka; Cemazar, Maja; Sersa, Gregor

    2014-10-28

    The melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) is involved in melanoma development and its progression, including invasiveness, metastatic potential and angiogenesis. Therefore, MCAM represents a potential target for gene therapy of melanoma, whose expression could be hindered with posttranscriptional specific gene silencing with RNA interference technology. In this study, we constructed a plasmid DNA encoding short hairpin RNA against MCAM (pMCAM) to explore the antitumor and antiangiogenic effects. The experiments were performed in vitro on murine melanoma and endothelial cells, as well as in vivo on melanoma tumors in mice. The antiproliferative, antimigratory, antiangiogenic and antitumor effects were examined after gene therapy with pMCAM. Gene delivery was performed by magnetofection, and its efficacy compared to gene electrotransfer. Gene therapy with pMCAM has proved to be an effective approach in reducing the proliferation and migration of melanoma cells, as well as having antiangiogenic effect in endothelial cells and antitumor effect on melanoma tumors. Magnetofection as a developing nonviral gene delivery system was effective in the transfection of melanoma cells and tumors with pMCAM, but less efficient than gene electrotransfer in in vivo tumor gene therapy due to the lack of antiangiogenic effect after silencing Mcam by magnetofection.

  2. RNA interference technology used for the study of aquatic virus infections.

    PubMed

    Reshi, Mohammad Latif; Wu, Jen-Leih; Wang, Hao-Ven; Hong, Jiann-Ruey

    2014-09-01

    Aquaculture is one of the most important economic activities in Asia and is presently the fastest growing sector of food production in the world. Explosive increases in global fish farming have been accompanied by an increase in viral diseases. Viral infections are responsible for huge economic losses in fish farming, and control of these viral diseases in aquaculture remains a serious challenge. Recent advances in biotechnology have had a significant impact on disease reduction in aquaculture. RNAi is one of the most important technological breakthroughs in modern biology, allowing us to directly observe the effects of the loss of specific genes in living systems. RNA interference technology has emerged as a powerful tool for manipulating gene expression in the laboratory. This technology represents a new therapeutic approach for treating aquatic diseases, including viral infections. RNAi technology is based on a naturally occurring post-transcriptional gene silencing process mediated by the formation of dsRNA. RNAi has been proven widely effective for gene knockdown in mammalian cultured cells, but its utility in fish remains unexplored. This review aims to highlight the RNAi technology that has made significant contributions toward the improvement of aquatic animal health and will also summarize the current status and future strategies concerning the therapeutic applications of RNAi to combat viral disease in aquacultured organisms.

  3. Modeling of congenital erythropoietic porphyria by RNA interference: a new tool for preclinical gene therapy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Robert-Richard, Elodie; Lalanne, Magalie; Lamrissi-Garcia, Isabelle; Guyonnet-Duperat, Véronique; Richard, Emmanuel; Pitard, Vincent; Mazurier, Fréderic; Moreau-Gaudry, François; Ged, Cécile; de Verneuil, Hubert

    2010-08-01

    Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a deficiency in uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS), the fourth enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway. We recently demonstrated the definitive cure of a murine model of CEP by lentiviral vector-mediated hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy. In the perspective of a gene therapy clinical trial, human cellular models are required to evaluate the therapeutic potential of lentiviral vectors in UROS-deficient cells. However, the rare incidence of the disease makes difficult the availability of HSCs derived from patients. RNA interference (RNAi) has been used to develop a new human model of the disease from normal cord blood HSCs. Lentivectors were developed for this purpose. We were able to down-regulate the level of human UROS in human cell lines and primary hematopoietic cells. A 97% reduction of UROS activity led to spontaneous uroporphyrin accumulation in human erythroid bone marrow cells of transplanted immune-deficient mice, recapitulating the phenotype of cells derived from patients. A strong RNAi-induced UROS inhibition allowed us to test the efficiency of different lentiviral vectors with the aim of selecting a safer vector. Restoration of UROS activity in these small hairpin RNA-transduced CD34(+) cord blood cells by therapeutic lentivectors led to a partial correction of the phenotype in vivo. The RNAi strategy is an interesting new tool for preclinical gene therapy evaluation. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. RNA interference for glioblastoma therapy: Innovation ladder from the bench to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Lozada-Delgado, Eunice L; Grafals-Ruiz, Nilmary; Vivas-Mejía, Pablo E

    2017-11-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and deadliest type of primary brain tumor with a prognosis of 14months after diagnosis. Current treatment for GBM patients includes "total" tumor resection, temozolomide-based chemotherapy, radiotherapy or a combination of these options. Although, several targeted therapies, gene therapy, and immunotherapy are currently in the clinic and/or in clinical trials, the overall survival of GBM patients has hardly improved over the last two decades. Therefore, novel multitarget modalities are urgently needed. Recently, RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a novel strategy for the treatment of most cancers, including GBM. RNAi-based therapies consist of using small RNA oligonucleotides to regulate protein expression at the post-transcriptional level. Despite the therapeutic potential of RNAi molecules, systemic limitations including short circulatory stability and low release into the tumor tissue have halted their progress to the clinic. The effective delivery of RNAi molecules through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) represents an additional challenge. This review focuses on connecting the translational process of RNAi-based therapies from in vitro evidence to pre-clinical studies. We delineate the effect of RNAi in GBM cell lines, describe their effectiveness in glioma mouse models, and compare the proposed drug carriers for the effective transport of RNAi molecules through the BBB to reach the tumor in the brain. Furthermore, we summarize the most important obstacles to overcome before RNAi-based therapy becomes a reality for GBM treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Specific Silencing of L392V PSEN1 Mutant Allele by RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Sierant, Malgorzata; Paduszynska, Alina; Kazmierczak-Baranska, Julia; Nacmias, Benedetta; Sorbi, Sandro; Bagnoli, Silvia; Sochacka, Elzbieta; Nawrot, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) technology provides a powerful molecular tool to reduce an expression of selected genes in eukaryotic cells. Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are the effector molecules that trigger RNAi. Here, we describe siRNAs that discriminate between the wild type and mutant (1174 C→G) alleles of human Presenilin1 gene (PSEN1). This mutation, resulting in L392V PSEN1 variant, contributes to early onset familial Alzheimer's disease. Using the dual fluorescence assay, flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy we identified positions 8th–11th, within the central part of the antisense strand, as the most sensitive to mismatches. 2-Thiouridine chemical modification introduced at the 3′-end of the antisense strand improved the allele discrimination, but wobble base pairing adjacent to the mutation site abolished the siRNA activity. Our data indicate that siRNAs can be designed to discriminate between the wild type and mutant alleles of genes that differ by just a single nucleotide. PMID:21559198

  6. RNA interference as a resistance mechanism against crop parasites in Africa: a 'Trojan horse' approach.

    PubMed

    Runo, Steven; Alakonya, Amos; Machuka, Jesse; Sinha, Neelima

    2011-02-01

    Biological crop pests cause serious economic losses. In Africa, the most prevalent parasites are insect pests, plant pathogenic root-knot nematodes, viruses and parasitic plants. African smallholder farmers struggle to overcome these parasitic constraints to agricultural production. Crop losses and the host range of these parasites have continued to increase in spite of the use of widely advocated control methods. A sustainable method to overcome biological pests in Africa would be to develop crop germplasm resistant to parasites. This is achievable using either genetic modification (GM) or a non-GM approach. However, there is a paucity of resistant genes available for introduction. Additionally, the biological processes underpinning host parasite resistance are not sufficiently well understood. The authors review a technology platform for using RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) as bioengineered resistance to important crop parasites in Africa. To achieve acquired resistance, a host crop is stably transformed with a transgene that encodes a hairpin RNA targeting essential parasitic genes. The RNAi sequence is chosen in such a way that it shares no homology with the host's genes, so it remains 'inactive' until parasitism. Upon parasitism, the RNAi sequence enters the parasite and post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) mechanisms are activated, leading to the death of the parasite. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. A laboratory-intensive course on RNA interference and model organisms.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joanna A; Witherow, D Scott; Carson, Susan

    2009-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful method to silence gene expression in a variety of organisms and is generating interest not only as a useful tool for research scientists but also as a novel class of therapeutics in clinical trials. Here, we report that undergraduate and graduate students with a basic molecular biology background were able to demonstrate conceptual knowledge and technical skills for using RNAi as a research tool upon completion of an intensive 8-wk RNAi course with a 2-h lecture and 5-h laboratory per week. Students were instructed on design of RNAi experiments in model organisms and perform multiweek laboratory sessions based on journal articles read and discussed in class. Using Nicotiana benthamiana, Caenorhabditis elegans, and mammalian cell culture, students analyzed the extent of silencing using both qualitative assessment of phenotypic variations and quantitative measurements of RNA levels or protein levels. We evaluated the course over two semesters, each with a separate instructor. In both semesters, we show students met expected learning outcomes as demonstrated by successful laboratory experiment results, as well as positive instructor assessments of exams and lab reports. Student self-assessments revealed increased confidence in conceptual knowledge and practical skills. Our data also suggest that the course is adaptable to different instructors with varying expertise.

  8. Development of an efficient RNA interference method by feeding for the microcrustacean Daphnia.

    PubMed

    Schumpert, Charles A; Dudycha, Jeffry L; Patel, Rekha C

    2015-10-07

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an important molecular tool for analysis of gene function in vivo. Daphnia, a freshwater microcrustacean, is an emerging model organism for studying cellular and molecular processes involved in aging, development, and ecotoxicology especially in the context of environmental variation. However, in spite of the availability of a fully sequenced genome of Daphnia pulex, meaningful mechanistic studies have been hampered by a lack of molecular techniques to alter gene expression. A microinjection method for gene knockdown by RNAi has been described but the need for highly specialized equipment as well as technical expertise limits the wider application of this technique. In addition to being expensive and technically challenging, microinjections can only target genes expressed during embryonic stages, thus making it difficult to achieve effective RNAi in adult organisms. In our present study we present a bacterial feeding method for RNAi in Daphnia. We used a melanic Daphnia species (Daphnia melanica) that exhibits dark pigmentation to target phenoloxidase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of melanin. We demonstrate that our RNAi method results in a striking phenotype and that the phenoloxidase mRNA expression and melanin content, as well as survival following UV insults, are diminished as a result of RNAi. Overall, our results establish a new method for RNAi in Daphnia that significantly advances further use of Daphnia as a model organism for functional genomics studies. The method we describe is relatively simple and widely applicable for knockdown of a variety of genes in adult organisms.

  9. Interspecific RNA interference of SHOOT MERISTEMLESS-like disrupts Cuscuta pentagona plant parasitism.

    PubMed

    Alakonya, Amos; Kumar, Ravi; Koenig, Daniel; Kimura, Seisuke; Townsley, Brad; Runo, Steven; Garces, Helena M; Kang, Julie; Yanez, Andrea; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Machuka, Jesse; Sinha, Neelima

    2012-07-01

    Infection of crop species by parasitic plants is a major agricultural hindrance resulting in substantial crop losses worldwide. Parasitic plants establish vascular connections with the host plant via structures termed haustoria, which allow acquisition of water and nutrients, often to the detriment of the infected host. Despite the agricultural impact of parasitic plants, the molecular and developmental processes by which host/parasitic interactions are established are not well understood. Here, we examine the development and subsequent establishment of haustorial connections by the parasite dodder (Cuscuta pentagona) on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. Formation of haustoria in dodder is accompanied by upregulation of dodder KNOTTED-like homeobox transcription factors, including SHOOT MERISTEMLESS-like (STM). We demonstrate interspecific silencing of a STM gene in dodder driven by a vascular-specific promoter in transgenic host plants and find that this silencing disrupts dodder growth. The reduced efficacy of dodder infection on STM RNA interference transgenics results from defects in haustorial connection, development, and establishment. Identification of transgene-specific small RNAs in the parasite, coupled with reduced parasite fecundity and increased growth of the infected host, demonstrates the efficacy of interspecific small RNA-mediated silencing of parasite genes. This technology has the potential to be an effective method of biological control of plant parasite infection.

  10. The Role of RNA Interference in Stem Cell Biology: Beyond the Mutant Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Bodak, Maxime; Cirera-Salinas, Daniel; Luitz, Janina; Ciaudo, Constance

    2017-05-19

    Complex gene regulation systems ensure the maintenance of cellular identity during early development in mammals. Eukaryotic small RNAs have emerged as critical players in RNA interference (RNAi) by mediating gene silencing during embryonic stem cell self-renewal. Most of the proteins involved in the biogenesis of small RNAs are essential for proliferation and differentiation into the three germ layers of mouse embryonic stem cells. In the last decade, new functions for some RNAi proteins, independent of their roles in RNAi pathways, have been demonstrated in different biological systems. In parallel, new concepts in stem cell biology have emerged. Here, we review and integrate the current understanding of how RNAi proteins regulate stem cell identity with the new advances in the stem cell field and the recent non-canonical functions of the RNAi proteins. Finally, we propose a reevaluation of all RNAi mutant phenotypes, as non-canonical (small non-coding RNA independent) functions may contribute to the molecular mechanisms governing mouse embryonic stem cells commitment. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. RNA Interference by Single- and Double-stranded siRNA With a DNA Extension Containing a 3' Nuclease-resistant Mini-hairpin Structure.

    PubMed

    Allison, Simon J; Milner, Jo

    2014-01-07

    Selective gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) involves double-stranded small interfering RNA (ds siRNA) composed of single-stranded (ss) guide and passenger RNAs. siRNA is recognized and processed by Ago2 and C3PO, endonucleases of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). RISC cleaves passenger RNA, exposing the guide RNA for base-pairing with its homologous mRNA target. Remarkably, the 3' end of passenger RNA can accommodate a DNA extension of 19-nucleotides without loss of RNAi function. This construct is termed passenger-3'-DNA/ds siRNA and includes a 3'-nuclease-resistant mini-hairpin structure. To test this novel modification further, we have now compared the following constructs: (I) guide-3'-DNA/ds siRNA, (II) passenger-3'-DNA/ds siRNA, (III) guide-3'-DNA/ss siRNA, and (IV) passenger-3'-DNA/ss siRNA. The RNAi target was SIRT1, a cancer-specific survival factor. Constructs I-III each induced selective knock-down of SIRT1 mRNA and protein in both noncancer and cancer cells, accompanied by apoptotic cell death in the cancer cells. Construct IV, which lacks the SIRT1 guide strand, had no effect. Importantly, the 3'-DNA mini-hairpin conferred nuclease resistance to constructs I and II. Resistance required the double-stranded RNA structure since single-stranded guide-3'-DNA/ss siRNA (construct III) was susceptible to serum nucleases with associated loss of RNAi activity. The potential applications of 3'-DNA/siRNA constructs are discussed.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2014) 2, e141; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.68; published online 7 January 2014.

  12. RNA Interference by Single- and Double-stranded siRNA With a DNA Extension Containing a 3' Nuclease-resistant Mini-hairpin Structure.

    PubMed

    Allison, Simon J; Milner, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Selective gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) involves double-stranded small interfering RNA (ds siRNA) composed of single-stranded (ss) guide and passenger RNAs. siRNA is recognized and processed by Ago2 and C3PO, endonucleases of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). RISC cleaves passenger RNA, exposing the guide RNA for base-pairing with its homologous mRNA target. Remarkably, the 3' end of passenger RNA can accommodate a DNA extension of 19-nucleotides without loss of RNAi function. This construct is termed passenger-3'-DNA/ds siRNA and includes a 3'-nuclease-resistant mini-hairpin structure. To test this novel modification further, we have now compared the following constructs: (I) guide-3'-DNA/ds siRNA, (II) passenger-3'-DNA/ds siRNA, (III) guide-3'-DNA/ss siRNA, and (IV) passenger-3'-DNA/ss siRNA. The RNAi target was SIRT1, a cancer-specific survival factor. Constructs I-III each induced selective knock-down of SIRT1 mRNA and protein in both noncancer and cancer cells, accompanied by apoptotic cell death in the cancer cells. Construct IV, which lacks the SIRT1 guide strand, had no effect. Importantly, the 3'-DNA mini-hairpin conferred nuclease resistance to constructs I and II. Resistance required the double-stranded RNA structure since single-stranded guide-3'-DNA/ss siRNA (construct III) was susceptible to serum nucleases with associated loss of RNAi activity. The potential applications of 3'-DNA/siRNA constructs are discussed.

  13. RNA Interference Technology to Control Pest Sea Lampreys - A Proof-of-Concept

    PubMed Central

    Heath, George; Childs, Darcy; Docker, Margaret F.; McCauley, David W.; Whyard, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) has caused extensive losses to commercial fish stocks of the upper Great Lakes of North America. Methods of controlling the sea lamprey include trapping, barriers to prevent migration, and use of a chemical lampricide (3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol) to kill the filter-feeding larvae. Concerns about the non-specificity of these methods have prompted continued development of species-specific methods to control lampreys outside their native range. In this study, we considered the utility of RNA interference to develop a sea lamprey-specific lampricide. Injection of six different short interfering, double-stranded RNAs (siRNAs) into lamprey embryos first confirmed that the siRNAs could reduce the targeted transcript levels by more than 50%. Two size classes of lamprey larvae were then fed the siRNAs complexed with liposomes, and three of the siRNAs (targeting elongation factor 1α, calmodulin, and α-actinin) reduced transcript levels 2.5, 3.6, and 5.0–fold, respectively, within the lamprey midsections. This is not only the first demonstration of RNAi in lampreys, but it is also the first example of delivery of siRNAs to a non-mammalian vertebrate through feeding formulations. One of the siRNA treatments also caused increased mortality of the larvae following a single feeding of siRNAs, which suggests that prolonged or multiple feedings of siRNAs could be used to kill filter-feeding larvae within streams, following development of a slow-release formulation. The genes targeted in this study are highly conserved across many species, and only serve as a proof-of-concept demonstration that siRNAs can be used in lampreys. Given that RNA interference is a sequence-specific phenomenon, it should be possible to design siRNAs that selectively target gene sequences that are unique to sea lampreys, and thus develop a technology to control these pests without adversely affecting non-target species. PMID:24505485

  14. RNA interference technology to control pest sea lampreys--a proof-of-concept.

    PubMed

    Heath, George; Childs, Darcy; Docker, Margaret F; McCauley, David W; Whyard, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) has caused extensive losses to commercial fish stocks of the upper Great Lakes of North America. Methods of controlling the sea lamprey include trapping, barriers to prevent migration, and use of a chemical lampricide (3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol) to kill the filter-feeding larvae. Concerns about the non-specificity of these methods have prompted continued development of species-specific methods to control lampreys outside their native range. In this study, we considered the utility of RNA interference to develop a sea lamprey-specific lampricide. Injection of six different short interfering, double-stranded RNAs (siRNAs) into lamprey embryos first confirmed that the siRNAs could reduce the targeted transcript levels by more than 50%. Two size classes of lamprey larvae were then fed the siRNAs complexed with liposomes, and three of the siRNAs (targeting elongation factor 1α, calmodulin, and α-actinin) reduced transcript levels 2.5, 3.6, and 5.0-fold, respectively, within the lamprey midsections. This is not only the first demonstration of RNAi in lampreys, but it is also the first example of delivery of siRNAs to a non-mammalian vertebrate through feeding formulations. One of the siRNA treatments also caused increased mortality of the larvae following a single feeding of siRNAs, which suggests that prolonged or multiple feedings of siRNAs could be used to kill filter-feeding larvae within streams, following development of a slow-release formulation. The genes targeted in this study are highly conserved across many species, and only serve as a proof-of-concept demonstration that siRNAs can be used in lampreys. Given that RNA interference is a sequence-specific phenomenon, it should be possible to design siRNAs that selectively target gene sequences that are unique to sea lampreys, and thus develop a technology to control these pests without adversely affecting non-target species.

  15. Design and Construction of Shrimp Antiviral DNA Vaccines Expressing Long and Short Hairpins for Protection by RNA Interference.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Aparna; Pathakota, Gireesh-Babu; Annam, Pavan-Kumar

    2016-01-01

    DNA vaccines present the aquaculture industry with an effective and economically viable method of controlling viral pathogens that drastically affect productivity. Since specific immune response is rudimentary in invertebrates, the presence of RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in shrimps provides a promising new approach to vaccination. Plasmid DNA vaccines that express short or long double stranded RNA in vivo have shown protection against viral diseases. The design, construction and considerations for preparing such vaccines are discussed.

  16. EEG acquisition system based on active electrodes with common-mode interference suppression by Driving Right Leg circuit.

    PubMed

    Guermandi, Marco; Bigucci, Alessandro; Franchi Scarselli, Eleonora; Guerrieri, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for the acquisition of EEG signals based on active electrodes and implementing a Driving Right Leg circuit (DgRL). DgRL allows for single-ended amplification and analog-to-digital conversion, still guaranteeing a common mode rejection in excess of 110 dB. This allows the system to acquire high-quality EEG signals essentially removing network interference for both wet and dry-contact electrodes. The front-end amplification stage is integrated on the electrode, minimizing the system's sensitivity to electrode contact quality, cable movement and common mode interference. The A/D conversion stage can be either integrated in the remote back-end or placed on the head as well, allowing for an all-digital communication to the back-end. Noise integrated in the band from 0.5 to 100 Hz is comprised between 0.62 and 1.3 μV, depending on the configuration. Current consumption for the amplification and A/D conversion of one channel is 390 μA. Thanks to its low noise, the high level of interference suppression and its quick setup capabilities, the system is particularly suitable for use outside clinical environments, such as in home care, brain-computer interfaces or consumer-oriented applications.

  17. RNA interference targeting Bcl-6 ameliorates experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis in mice.

    PubMed

    Xin, Ning; Fu, Linlin; Shao, Zhen; Guo, Mingfeng; Zhang, Xiuying; Zhang, Yong; Dou, Changxin; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Shen, Xia; Yao, Yuanhu; Wang, Jiao; Wang, Jinhua; Cui, Guiyun; Liu, Yonghai; Geng, Deqin; Xiao, Chenghua; Zhang, Zunsheng; Dong, Ruiguo

    2014-01-01

    Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are dedicated to providing help to B cells and are strongly associated with antibody-mediated autoimmune disease. B cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl-6) is a key transcription factor of Tfh cells, and IL-21 is known to be a critical cytokine produced by Tfh cells. We silenced Bcl-6 gene expression using RNA interference (RNAi) delivered by a lentiviral vector, to evaluate the therapeutic role of Bcl-6 short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). Our data demonstrate that CD4(+)CXCR5(+)PD-1(+) Tfh cells, Bcl-6 and IL-21 were significantly increased in EAMG mice, compared with controls. In addition, we found that frequencies of Tfh cells were positively correlated with the levels of serum anti-AChR Ab. In-vivo transduction of lenti-siRNA-Bcl6 ameliorates the severity of ongoing EAMG with decreased Tfh cells, Bcl-6 and IL-21 expression, and leads to decreased anti-AChR antibody levels. Furthermore, we found that siRNA knockdown of Bcl-6 expression increases the expression of Th1(IFN-γ, T-bet) and Th2 markers (IL-4 and GATA3), but failed to alter the expression of Th17-related markers (RORγt, IL-17) and Treg markers (FoxP3). Our study suggests that Tfh cells contribute to the antibody production and could be one of the most important T cell subsets responsible for development and progression of EAMG or MG. Bcl-6 provides a promising therapeutic target for immunotherapy not only for MG, but also for other antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a microinjection system for RNA interference in the water flea Daphnia pulex

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ubiquitous, freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia pulex provides a model system for both human health research and monitoring ecosystem integrity. It is the first crustacean to have a well annotated, reference genome assembly that revealed an unusually high gene count highlighted by a large gene orphanage,-i.e., previously uncharacterized genes. Daphnia are capable of either clonal or sexual reproduction, making them ideally suited for genetic manipulation, but the establishment of gene manipulation techniques is needed to accurately define gene functions. Although previous investigations developed an RNA interference (RNAi) system for one congener D. magna, these methods are not appropriate for D. pulex because of the smaller size of their early embryos. In these studies, we develop RNAi techniques for D. pulex by first determining the optimum culture conditions of their isolated embryos and then applying these conditions to the development of microinjection techniques and proof-of-principle RNAi experiments. Results We found that isolated embryos were best cultured on a 2% agar plate bathed in 60 mM sucrose dissolved in M4 media, providing optimal conditions for microinjections. Then, we injected double-stranded (ds)RNA specific to the Distal-less gene (Dll), which is a homeobox transcription factor essential for limb development in invertebrates and vertebrates. Injected embryos presented with defects in the second antenna and appendage development, and dsRNA induced the degradation of Dll mRNAs, indicating that this technique successfully inhibited transcription of the target gene. Conclusions We developed a microinjection system for RNAi studies in D. pulex. These techniques add to the growing genomic toolbox and enhance the genetic tractability of this important model for environmental, evolutionary, and developmental genomics. PMID:24188141

  19. Development of a microinjection system for RNA interference in the water flea Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Hiruta, Chizue; Toyota, Kenji; Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Ogino, Yukiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Shaw, Joseph R; Iguchi, Taisen

    2013-11-05

    The ubiquitous, freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia pulex provides a model system for both human health research and monitoring ecosystem integrity. It is the first crustacean to have a well annotated, reference genome assembly that revealed an unusually high gene count highlighted by a large gene orphanage,-i.e., previously uncharacterized genes. Daphnia are capable of either clonal or sexual reproduction, making them ideally suited for genetic manipulation, but the establishment of gene manipulation techniques is needed to accurately define gene functions. Although previous investigations developed an RNA interference (RNAi) system for one congener D. magna, these methods are not appropriate for D. pulex because of the smaller size of their early embryos. In these studies, we develop RNAi techniques for D. pulex by first determining the optimum culture conditions of their isolated embryos and then applying these conditions to the development of microinjection techniques and proof-of-principle RNAi experiments. We found that isolated embryos were best cultured on a 2% agar plate bathed in 60 mM sucrose dissolved in M4 media, providing optimal conditions for microinjections. Then, we injected double-stranded (ds)RNA specific to the Distal-less gene (Dll), which is a homeobox transcription factor essential for limb development in invertebrates and vertebrates. Injected embryos presented with defects in the second antenna and appendage development, and dsRNA induced the degradation of Dll mRNAs, indicating that this technique successfully inhibited transcription of the target gene. We developed a microinjection system for RNAi studies in D. pulex. These techniques add to the growing genomic toolbox and enhance the genetic tractability of this important model for environmental, evolutionary, and developmental genomics.

  20. Improvement of resistance to maize dwarf mosaic virus mediated by transgenic RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Lin; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Wang, Han-Guang; Li, Wan-Chen; Fu, Feng-Ling

    2011-05-20

    To overcome the low efficiency of agronomic protection from maize dwarf mosaic disease, susceptible maize inbred line was transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring hpRNA expression vectors containing inverted-repeat sequences of different lengths targeting coat protein gene (CP) of maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV). After PCR screening and Southern blotting, the flanking sequences of the integration sites were amplified by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR) and used for analysis of T-DNA integration patterns. The T₂ plant lines were evaluated for their MDMV resistance in field inoculation trials under two environments. Of the nineteen T₂ plant lines positive in Southern blotting, six were evaluated as resistant to MDMV, and four of them had resistance non-significantly different from the highly resistant control "H9-21", while the resistance of the other eleven was proved to be significantly improved when compared to their non-transformed parent line. These improvements in MDMV resistance were verified by the relative amount of virus CP gene expression measured by quantitative real time PCR. Comparing the results of Southern blotting and TAIL-PCR analysis, different integration patterns of one or two copies of the inverted-repeat sequences were identified from non-repetitive and repetitive sequences of the maize genome. The MDMV resistance mediated by RNA interference is relative to the length of the inverted-repeat sequence, the copy number of T-DNA integration and the repeatability of integration sites. A longer hpRNA expression construct shows more efficiency than a shorter one.

  1. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Suppresses RNA-Induced Gene Silencing in Mammalian Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zetang; Zhu, Yali; Bisaro, David M.; Parris, Deborah S.

    2009-01-01

    RNA-induced silencing is a potent innate antiviral defense strategy in plants, and suppression of silencing is a hallmark of pathogenic plant viruses. However, the impact of silencing as a mammalian antiviral defense mechanism and the ability of mammalian viruses to suppress silencing in natural host cells have remained controversial. The ability of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) to suppress silencing was examined in a transient expression system that employed an imperfect hairpin to target degradation of transcripts encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). HSV-1 infection suppressed EGFP-specific silencing as demonstrated by increased EGFP mRNA levels and an increase in the EGFP mRNA half-life. The increase in EGFP mRNA stability occurred despite the well-characterized host macromolecular shutoff functions of HSV-1 that globally destabilize mRNAs. Moreover, mutant viruses defective in these functions increased the stability of EGFP mRNA even more than did the wild-type virus in silenced cells compared to results in control cells. The importance of RNA silencing to HSV-1 replication was confirmed by a significantly enhanced virus burst size in cells in which silencing was knocked down with small inhibitory RNAs directed to Argonaute 2, an integral component of the silencing complex. Given that HSV-1 encodes several microRNAs, it is possible that a dynamic equilibrium exists between silencing and silencing suppression that is capable of modulating viral gene expression to promote replication, to evade host defenses, and/or to promote latency. PMID:19369325

  2. Suppression of Narrowband Interference in Pseudo-Noise Spread Spectrum Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    unlimited * 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the obetrOct entered in Block 20, It different from Report) Same III. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES RADC Project Engineer...Dr. John T. Gamble (DCCL) IS. KEY WORDS (CauIitue on revers. side If neceseary and idonitfy by block n ber) Algorithms Adaptive Algorithms...Interference Cancellation Spread Spectrum 20. ABSTRACT (Continue an reverse side If necessary and identify by block ntmber) This report describes results of an

  3. Centromeric heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast--balancing transcription, RNA interference and chromatin modification.

    PubMed

    Alper, Benjamin J; Lowe, Brandon R; Partridge, Janet F

    2012-07-01

    Distinct regions of the eukaryotic genome are packaged into different types of chromatin, with euchromatin representing gene rich, transcriptionally active regions and heterochromatin more condensed and gene poor. The assembly and maintenance of heterochromatin is important for many aspects of genome control, including silencing of gene transcription, suppression of recombination, and to ensure proper chromosome segregation. The precise mechanisms underlying heterochromatin establishment and maintenance are still unclear, but much progress has been made towards understanding this process during the last few years, particularly from studies performed in fission yeast. In this review, we hope to provide a conceptual model of centromeric heterochromatin in fission yeast that integrates our current understanding of the competing forces of transcription, replication, and RNA decay that influence its assembly and propagation.

  4. Antisense Transcript and RNA Processing Alterations Suppress Instability of Polyadenylated mRNA in Chlamydomonas Chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Yoshiki; Kikis, Elise A.; Zimmer, Sara L.; Komine, Yutaka; Stern, David B.

    2004-01-01

    In chloroplasts, the control of mRNA stability is of critical importance for proper regulation of gene expression. The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strain Δ26pAtE is engineered such that the atpB mRNA terminates with an mRNA destabilizing polyadenylate tract, resulting in this strain being unable to conduct photosynthesis. A collection of photosynthetic revertants was obtained from Δ26pAtE, and gel blot hybridizations revealed RNA processing alterations in the majority of these suppressor of polyadenylation (spa) strains, resulting in a failure to expose the atpB mRNA 3′ poly(A) tail. Two exceptions were spa19 and spa23, which maintained unusual heteroplasmic chloroplast genomes. One genome type, termed PS+, conferred photosynthetic competence by contributing to the stability of atpB mRNA; the other, termed PS−, was required for viability but could not produce stable atpB transcripts. Based on strand-specific RT-PCR, S1 nuclease protection, and RNA gel blots, evidence was obtained that the PS+ genome stabilizes atpB mRNA by generating an atpB antisense transcript, which attenuates the degradation of the polyadenylated form. The accumulation of double-stranded RNA was confirmed by insensitivity of atpB mRNA from PS+ genome-containing cells to S1 nuclease digestion. To obtain additional evidence for antisense RNA function in chloroplasts, we used strain Δ26, in which atpB mRNA is unstable because of the lack of a 3′ stem-loop structure. In this context, when a 121-nucleotide segment of atpB antisense RNA was expressed from an ectopic site, an elevated accumulation of atpB mRNA resulted. Finally, when spa19 was placed in a genetic background in which expression of the chloroplast exoribonuclease polynucleotide phosphorylase was diminished, the PS+ genome and the antisense transcript were no longer required for photosynthesis. Taken together, our results suggest that antisense RNA in chloroplasts can protect otherwise unstable transcripts from 3′→5

  5. Effect of North Bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane 2'-Deoxypseudosugars on RNA Interference: A Novel Class of siRNA Modification | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The inside cover picture shows how siRNAs modified with North bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane 2'-deoxy-pseudosugars are able to activate the RNA interference machinery. The paper confirms that the North conformation is critical for RNAi activity.

  6. Does the Mutant CAG Expansion in Huntingtin mRNA Interfere with Exonucleolytic Cleavage of its First Exon?

    PubMed

    Liu, Wanzhao; Pfister, Edith L; Kennington, Lori A; Chase, Kathryn O; Mueller, Christian; DiFiglia, Marian; Aronin, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Silencing mutant huntingtin mRNA by RNA interference (RNAi) is a therapeutic strategy for Huntington's disease. RNAi induces specific endonucleolytic cleavage of the target HTT mRNA, followed by exonucleolytic processing of the cleaved mRNA fragments. We investigated the clearance of huntingtin mRNA cleavage products following RNAi, to find if particular huntingtin mRNA sequences persist. We especially wanted to find out if the expanded CAG increased production of a toxic mRNA species by impeding degradation of human mutant huntingtin exon 1 mRNA. Mice expressing the human mutant HTT transgene with 128 CAG repeats (YAC128 mice) were injected in the striatum with self-complementary AAV9 vectors carrying a miRNA targeting exon 48 of huntingtin mRNA (scAAV-U6-miRNA-HTT-GFP). Transgenic huntingtin mRNA levels were measured in striatal lysates after two weeks. For qPCR, we used species specific primer-probe combinations that together spanned 6 positions along the open reading frame and untranslated regions of the human huntingtin mRNA. Knockdown was also measured in the liver following tail vein injection. Two weeks after intrastriatal administration of scAAV9-U6-miRNA-HTT-GFP, we measured transgenic mutant huntingtin in striatum using probes targeting six different sites along the huntingtin mRNA. Real time PCR showed a reduction of 29% to 36% in human HTT. There was no significant difference in knockdown measured at any of the six sites, including exon 1. In liver, we observed a more pronounced HTT mRNA knockdown of 70% to 76% relative to the untreated mice, and there were also no significant differences among sites. Our results demonstrate that degradation is equally distributed across the human mutant huntingtin mRNA following RNAi-induced cleavage.

  7. Does the mutant CAG expansion in huntingtin mRNA interfere with exonucleolytic cleavage of its first exon?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wanzhao; Pfister, Edith L.; Kennington, Lori A.; Chase, Kathryn O.; Mueller, Christian; DiFiglia, Marian; Aronin, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Background Silencing mutant huntingtin mRNA by RNA interference (RNAi) is a therapeutic strategy for Huntington’s disease. RNAi induces specific endonucleolytic cleavage of the target HTT mRNA, followed by exonucleolytic processing of the cleaved mRNA fragments. Objectives We investigated the clearance of huntingtin mRNA cleavage products following RNAi, to find if particular huntingtin mRNA sequences persist. We especially wanted to find out if the expanded CAG increased production of a toxic mRNA species by impeding degradation of human mutant huntingtin exon 1 mRNA. Methods Mice expressing the human mutant HTT transgene with 128 CAG repeats (YAC128 mice) were injected in the striatum with self-complementary AAV9 vectors carrying a miRNA targeting exon 48 of huntingtin mRNA (scAAV-U6-miRNA-HTT-GFP). Transgenic huntingtin mRNA levels were measured in striatal lysates after two weeks. For qPCR, we used species specific primer-probe combinations that together spanned 6 positions along the open reading frame and untranslated regions of the human huntingtin mRNA. Knockdown was also measured in the liver following tail vein injection. Results Two weeks after intrastriatal administration of scAAV9-U6-miRNA-HTT-GFP, we measured transgenic mutant huntingtin in striatum using probes targeting six different sites along the huntingtin mRNA. Real time PCR showed a reduction of 29% to 36% in human HTT. There was no significant difference in knockdown measured at any of the six sites, including exon 1. In liver, we observed a more pronounced HTT mRNA knockdown of 70% to 76% relative to the untreated mice, and there were also no significant differences among sites. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that degradation is equally distributed across the human mutant huntingtin mRNA following RNAi-induced cleavage. PMID:27003665

  8. In vivo silencing of aquaporin-1 by RNA interference inhibits angiogenesis in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay.

    PubMed

    Camerino, G M; Nicchia, G P; Dinardo, M M; Ribatti, D; Svelto, M; Frigeri, A

    2006-10-30

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is a water channel protein mainly expressed in endothelial and epithelial cells of many tissues, including the vasculature where it serves to increase cell membrane water permeability. Previous studies in active multiple myeloma patients and in AQP1 KO mice indicated an involvement of AQP1 in physiological and tumor angiogenesis. To understand the physiological role of AQP1 in angiogenesis, we used a 21-nucleotide small interfering RNA duplexes (siRNA) to knockdown AQP1 in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), a commonly used in vivo assay to study both angiogenic and angiostatic molecules. Chicken AQP1 sequence was identified and utilized to synthesize a siRNA directed to the AQP1 sequence. We then tested the efficiency of the siRNA in vitro, using an AQP1 transfected cell line. The level of AQP1 protein reduction obtained using siRNA was 98 % and 92 % after 1 and 2 day transfection respectively. RNA interference experiments were then performed in vivo by using the CAM assay. Results showed that after 4 days of treatment, AQP1 siRNA was able to strongly inhibit angiogenesis. This is the first study showing the in vivo use of RNA interference technique in the CAM assay. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that AQP1 could have a key role in physiological and pathological angiogenesis.

  9. RNA Interference Based Approach to Down Regulate Osmoregulators of Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci): Potential Technology for the Control of Whitefly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the past decade RNA interference (RNAi) technology has emerged as a successful tool not only for functional genomics, but in planta expression of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) could offer potential for insect pest management. Insects feeding exclusively on plant sap depend on osmotic pressure...

  10. RNA interference as a method for target-site screening in the Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    RNA interference (RNAi) is one of the most powerful and extraordinarily-specific means by which to silence genes. The ability of RNAi to silence genes makes it possible to ascertain function from genomic data, thereby making it an excellent choice for target-site screening. To test the efficacy of...

  11. MicroRNA-302a Suppresses Tumor Cell Proliferation by Inhibiting AKT in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gui-Ming; Bao, Chun-Yang; Wan, Fang-Ning; Cao, Da-Long; Qin, Xiao-Jian; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Zhu, Yao; Dai, Bo; Shi, Guo-Hai; Ye, Ding-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Micro (mi) RNAs are important regulators involved in various physical and pathological processes, including cancer. The miRNA-302 family has been documented as playing a critical role in carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of miRNA-302a in prostate cancer (PCa). MiRNA-302a expression was detected in 44 PCa tissues and 10 normal prostate tissues, and their clinicopathological significance was analyzed. Cell proliferation and cell cycle analysis were performed on PCa cells that stably expressed miRNA-302a. The target gene of miRNA-302a and the downstream pathway were further investigated. Compared with normal prostate tissues, miRNA-302a expression was downregulated in PCa tissues, and was even lower in PCa tissues with a Gleason score ≥8. Overexpression of miRNA-302a induced G1/S cell cycle arrest in PCa cells, and suppressed PCa cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, miRNA-302a inhibits AKT expression by directly binding to its 3΄ untranslated region, resulting in subsequent alterations of the AKT-GSK3β-cyclin D1 and AKT-p27Kip1 pathway. These results reveal miRNA-302a as a tumor suppressor in PCa, suggesting that miRNA-302a may be used as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in PCa. PMID:25922934

  12. MicroRNA-33 promotes the replicative senescence of mouse embryonic fibroblasts by suppressing CDK6.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shun; Huang, Haijiao; Li, Nanhong; Zhang, Bing; Jia, Yubin; Yang, Yukun; Yuan, Yuan; Xiong, Xing-Dong; Wang, Dengchuan; Zheng, Hui-Ling; Liu, Xinguang

    2016-05-13

    MicroRNAs are a large class of tiny noncoding RNAs, which have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression, and thus are involved in multiple cellular processes, including cellular senescence. MicroRNA-33 has previously been established to exert crucial effect on cell proliferation, lipid metabolism and cholesterol metabolism. Nonetheless, the association between microRNA-33 and cellular senescence and its underlying molecular mechanism are far to be elucidated. The present study has attempted to probe into the effect of microRNA-33 on MEFs senescence. Our data unveiled that microRNA-33 was dramatically down-regulated in senescent MEFs compared to the young MEFs, and ectopic expression of microRNA-33 promoted MEFs senescence, while knock-down of microRNA-33 exhibited a protective effect against senescence phenotype. Moreover, we verified CDK6 as a direct target of microRNA-33 in mouse. Silencing of CDK6 induced the premature senescence phenotype of MEFs similarly as microRNA-33, while enforced expression of CDK6 significantly reverse the senescence-induction effect of microRNA-33. Taken together, our results suggested that microRNA-33 enhanced the replicative senescence of MEFs potentially by suppressing CDK6 expression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Interchangeable SF3B1 inhibitors interfere with pre-mRNA splicing at multiple stages.

    PubMed

    Effenberger, Kerstin A; Urabe, Veronica K; Prichard, Beth E; Ghosh, Arun K; Jurica, Melissa S

    2016-03-01

    The protein SF3B1 is a core component of the spliceosome, the large ribonucleoprotein complex responsible for pre-mRNA splicing. Interest in SF3B1 intensified when tumor exome sequencing revealed frequent specific SF3B1 mutations in a variety of neoplasia and when SF3B1 was identified as the target of three different cancer cell growth inhibitors. A better mechanistic understanding of SF3B1's role in splicing is required to capitalize on these discoveries. Using the inhibitor compounds, we probed SF3B1 function in the spliceosome in an in vitro splicing system. Formerly, the inhibitors were shown to block early steps of spliceosome assembly, consistent with a previously determined role of SF3B1 in intron recognition. We now report that SF3B1 inhibitors also interfere with later events in the spliceosome cycle, including exon ligation. These observations are consistent with a requirement for SF3B1 throughout the splicing process. Additional experiments aimed at understanding how three structurally distinct molecules produce nearly identical effects on splicing revealed that inactive analogs of each compound interchangeably compete with the active inhibitors to restore splicing. The competition indicates that all three types of compounds interact with the same site on SF3B1 and likely interfere with its function by the same mechanism, supporting a shared pharmacophore model. It also suggests that SF3B1 inhibition does not result from binding alone, but is consistent with a model in which the compounds affect a conformational change in the protein. Together, our studies reveal new mechanistic insight into SF3B1 as a principal player in the spliceosome and as a target of inhibitor compounds.

  14. Suppression of TAFI by siRNA inhibits invasion and migration of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Luan, Yun; Wang, Zejun; Zhao, Jingjie; Xu, Chengwei

    2017-09-01

    Human thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), also known as carboxypeptidase B2 (CPB2), is a procarboxypeptidase enzyme. The purpose of the present study was to observe the expression of TAFI in breast cancer (BC) and breast cancer cell (BCC) lines and to investigate the effect of TAFI suppression by small interfering (si)RNA gene silencing on invasion and migration of BCC lines. A significant increase in TAFI level was identified by immunohistochemical analysis in BC tissues compared with normal breast tissues. TAFI suppression also inhibited cell viability, invasion and migration ability as demonstrated by MTT, Transwell chamber, and wound scratch assays, respectively (P<0.05). The data suggested that suppression of TAFI by siRNA inhibits invasion and migration of breast cancer cells and that TAFI may be a new target for breast cancer therapy.

  15. [Effects of expression silencing of MAGE3 by RNA interference on location and metastasis of lung carcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-jun; Zhao, Guo-qiang; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Shi-jie

    2006-06-13

    To construct small interfering RNA (siRNA) expression vectors targeting human MAGE3 gene and to observe the effects of gene silencing of MAGE3 by RNA interference on location and metastasis of lung carcinoma cells. MAGE3 mRNA targeted hairpin siRNA was devised and the oligonucleotide strands of DNA fragments encoding the above siRNA were synthesized. After annealing of the complementary strands, the DNA fragments were cloned into pSUPERneoGFP, followed by amplification and DNA sequencing, then transfected into human lung carcinoma NCI-H446. The expression of MAGE3 gene mRNA and protein were examined by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Colony formation assay and Boyden chamber assay were performed to detect the effects of MAGE3 on colony formation and metastasis. The DNA fragments encoding MAGE3-targeted siRNA were cloned into the pSUPERneoGFP and confirmed by restrictive enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing. RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed a strongly decreased expression level of MAGE3. The lung carcinoma cells transfected by siRNA group was significantly lower than others, an effect on its colony formation and invasiveness. The colony formation of lung carcinoma cells transfected by siRNA in soft agar and the number of cells penetrating matrigel both reduced, there is significant difference compared with untransfected group and transfected empty vector. An siRNA vector targeting human MAGE3 gene has been successfully constructed. Expression silencing of MAGE3 by RNA interference could reduce location and metastasis of lung carcinoma cells effectively.

  16. Suppression of adjacent-channel and cochannel FM interference via extended Kalman filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J.N.

    1991-11-01

    A method is discussed for the problem of demodulating an FM signal in the presence of an adjacent-channel or cochannel interferer. State-space descriptions of the underlying message processes and the measurement process are presented which are then incorporated in an extended Kalman filter framework. The extended filter was necessary due to the nonlinearity of the measurement equation. The results of computer simulations are presented which demonstrate the system performance for various selections of the modulation index and signal separation. The derived system is contrasted to the previous state of the art in this area which involved maximum likelihood estimation. 5 refs.

  17. Knockdown of nucleophosmin by RNA interference reverses multidrug resistance in resistant leukemic HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Minhui; Hu, Jianda; Liu, Tingbo; Li, Jing; Chen, Buyuan; Chen, Xinji

    2013-09-01

    Nucleophosmin, a multifunctional nucleolar phosphoprotein, is involved in many cellular activities. However, the role of NPM in drug-resistance of leukemia has not yet been explored. We designed and selected one shRNA targeting on NPM gene transduction into HL-60 and HL-60/ADR cell lines (an adriamycin resistant cell line) by lentivirus. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation were assessed. The expressions of the related genes and proteins were detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed obvious down-regulation of NPM mRNA and protein levels after NPM RNAi. NPM-targeted RNAi also resulted in many cellular changes, such as, suppressing cell proliferation and inducing cell differentiation. Down-regulation of NPM gene could arrest the cell cycle progression, an increase in the proportion of G0/G1 phase in knockdown groups. NPM gene silencing could also induce pro-apoptotic genes and proteins expression, and inhibit anti-apoptotic genes/proteins expression. Furthermore, IC50 of two chemotherapeutic agents (adriamycin and ADR; daunorubicin and DNR) to HL-60 and HL-60/ADR cells decreased, especially more remarkable on HL-60/ADR cells. IC50 of ADR on HL-60/ADR cells was reduced from 12.544 ± 0.851 μmol/L (before NPM RNAi) to 6.331 ± 0.522 μmol/L (after NPM RNAi), IC50 of DNR was reduced from 2.152 ± 0.143 μmol/L (before NPM RNAi) to 1.116 ± 0.093 μmol/L (after NPM RNAi). The relative reversal rate of HL-60/ADR cells on ADR was 50.2%, and on DNR was 48.9%. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that shRNA expression vectors could effectively reduce NPM expression and restore the drug sensitivity of resistant leukemic cells to conventional chemotherapeutic agents.

  18. Systemic RNA-interference in the honeybee Apis mellifera: tissue dependent uptake of fluorescent siRNA after intra-abdominal application observed by laser-scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jarosch, A; Moritz, R F A

    2011-07-01

    RNA interference has been successfully used in adult honeybees, but there are only few reports about abdominal application of dsRNA/siRNA which have reached more distant tissues than the fat body. We studied systemic RNAi in honeybees by injecting fluorescent siRNA of the ubiquitously expressed honeybee homologue of the Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (amGpdh) into the abdomens of adult bees and followed them by laser scanning microscopy and qPCR. The fat body was the sole tissue emitting fluorescence and showing a decreased gene expression, whereas the siRNA had apparently not reached the other tissues. Therefore, we conclude that certain genes in other tissues than the fat body cannot be easily reached by injecting siRNA into the body cavity. In particular, the lack of amGpdh knock down in ovaries after amGpdh dsRNA injection, supports that in some cases it may be particularly difficult to interfere with gene expression in ovaries by intra-abdominal injection. In these cases alternative inhibition techniques may be required to achieve an organismic non-lethal disruption of transcription. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. MicroRNA-33 promotes the replicative senescence of mouse embryonic fibroblasts by suppressing CDK6

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Shun; Huang, Haijiao; Li, Nanhong; Zhang, Bing; Jia, Yubin; Yang, Yukun; Yuan, Yuan; Xiong, Xing-dong; Wang, Dengchuan; Zheng, Hui-ling; Liu, Xinguang

    2016-05-13

    MicroRNAs are a large class of tiny noncoding RNAs, which have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression, and thus are involved in multiple cellular processes, including cellular senescence. MicroRNA-33 has previously been established to exert crucial effect on cell proliferation, lipid metabolism and cholesterol metabolism. Nonetheless, the association between microRNA-33 and cellular senescence and its underlying molecular mechanism are far to be elucidated. The present study has attempted to probe into the effect of microRNA-33 on MEFs senescence. Our data unveiled that microRNA-33 was dramatically down-regulated in senescent MEFs compared to the young MEFs, and ectopic expression of microRNA-33 promoted MEFs senescence, while knock-down of microRNA-33 exhibited a protective effect against senescence phenotype. Moreover, we verified CDK6 as a direct target of microRNA-33 in mouse. Silencing of CDK6 induced the premature senescence phenotype of MEFs similarly as microRNA-33, while enforced expression of CDK6 significantly reverse the senescence-induction effect of microRNA-33. Taken together, our results suggested that microRNA-33 enhanced the replicative senescence of MEFs potentially by suppressing CDK6 expression. -- Highlights: •MicroRNA-33 was dramatically down-regulated in senescent MEF cells. •Altered expression of microRNA-33 exerted a critical role in MEFs senescence. •MicroRNA-33 promoted the replicative senescence of MEFs via targeting of CDK6.

  20. Identification of protective antigens by RNA interference for control of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, José; Manzano-Roman, Raúl; Naranjo, Victoria; Kocan, Katherine M; Zivkovic, Zorica; Blouin, Edmour F; Canales, Mario; Almazán, Consuelo; Galindo, Ruth C; Step, Douglas L; Villar, Margarita

    2010-02-17

    The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, vectors pathogens of emerging diseases of humans and animals in the United States. Currently, measures are not available for effective control of A. americanum infestations. Development of vaccines directed against tick proteins may reduce tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. However, the limiting step in tick vaccine development has been the identification of tick protective antigens. Herein, we report the application of RNA interference (RNAi) for screening an A. americanum cDNA library for discovery of tick protective antigens that reduce tick survival and weights after feeding. Four cDNA clones, encoding for putative threonyl-tRNA synthetase (2C9), 60S ribosomal proteins L13a (2D10) and L13e (2B7), and interphase cytoplasm foci protein 45 (2G7), were selected for vaccine studies in cattle, along with subolesin, a tick protective protein identified previously. In vaccinated cattle, an overall efficacy (E)>30% was obtained when considering the vaccine effect on both nymphs and adults, but only 2D10, 2G7 and subolesin affected both tick stages. The highest efficacy of control for adult ticks (E>55%) was obtained in cattle vaccinated with recombinant 2G7 or subolesin. These collective results demonstrated the feasibility of developing vaccines for the control of lone star tick infestations. The use of RNAi for identification of tick protective antigens proved to be a rapid and cost-effective tool for discovery of candidate vaccine antigens, and this approach could likely be applied to other parasites of veterinary and medical importance.

  1. Computational design of antiviral RNA interference strategies that resist human immunodeficiency virus escape.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Joshua N; Schaffer, David V

    2005-02-01

    Recently developed antiviral strategies based upon RNA interference (RNAi), which harnesses an innate cellular system for the targeted down-regulation of gene expression, appear highly promising and offer alternative approaches to conventional highly active antiretroviral therapy or efforts to develop an AIDS vaccine. However, RNAi is faced with several challenges that must be overcome to fully realize its promise. Specifically, it degrades target RNA in a highly sequence-specific manner and is thus susceptible to viral mutational escape, and there are also challenges in delivery systems to induce RNAi. To aid in the development of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) RNAi therapies, we have developed a novel stochastic computational model that simulates in molecular-level detail the propagation of an HIV infection in cells expressing RNAi. The model provides quantitative predictions on how targeting multiple locations in the HIV genome, while keeping the overall RNAi strength constant, significantly improves efficacy. Furthermore, it demonstrates that delivery systems must be highly efficient to preclude leaving reservoirs of unprotected cells where the virus can propagate, mutate, and eventually overwhelm the entire system. It also predicts how therapeutic success depends upon a relationship between RNAi strength and delivery efficiency and uniformity. Finally, targeting an essential viral element, in this case the HIV TAR region, can be highly successful if the RNAi target sequence is correctly selected. In addition to providing specific predictions for how to optimize a clinical therapy, this system may also serve as a future tool for investigating more fundamental questions of viral evolution.

  2. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA interference in insect pests.

    PubMed

    Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; Fonseca, Fernando Campos de Assis; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; Antonino de Souza, José Dijair; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas-Jr, Georgios Joannis; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Engler, Gilbert; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. c