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Sample records for rna isolation method

  1. Comparison of RNA isolation methods from insect larvae.

    PubMed

    Ridgeway, J A; Timm, A E

    2014-01-01

    Isolating RNA from insects is becoming increasingly important in molecular entomology. Four methods including three commercial kits RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen), SV Total RNA isolation system (Promega), TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen), and a cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based method were compared regarding their ability to isolate RNA from whole-body larvae of Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick), Thanatophilus micans (F.), Plutella xylostella (L.), and Tenebrio molitor (L.). A difference was observed among the four methods regarding RNA quality but not quantity. However, RNA quality and quantity obtained was not dependent on the insect species. The CTAB-based method produced low-quality RNA and the Trizol reagent produced partially degraded RNA, whereas the RNeasy Mini Kit and SV Total RNA isolation system produced RNA of consistently high quality. However, after reverse transcription to cDNA, RNA produced using all four extraction methods could be used to successfully amplify a 708 bp fragment of the cytochrome oxidase I gene. Of the four methods, the SV Total RNA isolation system showed the least amount of DNA contamination with the highest RNA integrity number and is thus recommended for stringent applications where high-quality RNA is required. This is the first comparison of RNA isolation methods among different insect species and the first to compare RNA isolation methods in insects in the last 20 years.

  2. miRNA Isolation from FFPET Specimen: A Technical Comparison of miRNA and Total RNA Isolation Methods.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Zsófia Brigitta; Wichmann, Barnabás; Kalmár, Alexandra; Barták, Barbara Kinga; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnár, Béla

    2016-07-01

    MiRNA remain stable for detection and PCR-based amplification in FFPE tissue samples. Several miRNA extraction kits are available, however miRNA fraction, as part of total RNA can be isolated using total RNA purification methods, as well. Our primary aim was to compare four different miRNA and total RNA isolation methods from FFPE tissues. Further purposes were to evaluate quantitatively and qualitatively the yield of the isolated miRNA. MiRNAs were isolated from normal colorectal cancer FFPE specimens from the same patients. Two miRNA isolation kits (High Pure miRNA Isolation Kit, miRCURY™ RNA Isolation Kit) and two total RNA isolation kits were compared (High Pure RNA Paraffin Kit, MagNA Pure 96 Cellular RNA LV Kit). Quantity and quality were determined, expression analysis was performed by real-time PCR using qPCR Human Panel I + II (Exiqon) method detecting 742 human miRNAs in parallel. The yield of total RNA was found to be higher than miRNA purification protocols (in CRC: Ex: 0203 ± 0021 μg; HPm: 1,45 ± 0,8 μg; HPp: 21,36 ± 4,98 μg; MP: 8,6 ± 5,1 μg). MiRNAs were detected in lower relative quantity of total RNA compared to the miRNA kits. Higher number of miRNAs could be detected by the miRNA isolation kits in comparison to the total RNA isolation methods. (Ex: 497 ± 16; HPm: 542 ± 11; HPp: 332 ± 36; MP: 295 ± 74). Colon specific miRNAs (miR-21-5p;-34-5p) give satisfying results by miRNA isolation kits. Although miRNA can be detected also after total RNA isolation methods, for reliable and reproducible miRNA expression profiling the use of miRNA isolation kits are more suitable.

  3. A generic plant RNA isolation method suitable for RNA-Seq and suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y Q; Wu, W J; Xiao, H W; Chen, H B; Zheng, Y; Zhang, Y J; Wang, H X; Huang, L Q

    2013-11-18

    A recently developed revolutionary approach to transcriptomics, RNA-Seq, and suppression subtractive hybridization are powerful tools for gene expression research. However, currently, the difficulty of isolating high-quality RNAs from plant tissues bearing abundant complex polysaccharides, polyphenolics, and secondary metabolites is a serious problem that not only limits the application of these technologies but also hinders studies dealing with RNA in general. We have developed a consistent protocol to prepare highly intact and pure RNAs from tissues of a variety of field-grown plant species, with high yields, in 2 to 3 h. Additionally, this method can be readily applied to mammalian, yeast, and bacterial cells.

  4. A simple method for RNA isolation from various tissues of the tree Neolamarckia cadamba

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Kunxi; Li, Juncheng; Huang, Hao; Que, Qingmin; Li, Pei; Chen, Xiaoyang

    2014-01-01

    Plant tissues contain abundant polysaccharides, phenolic compounds and other metabolites, which makes it difficult to isolate high-quality RNA from them. In addition, Neolamarckia cadamba contains large quantities of other components, particularly RNA-binding alkaloids, which makes the isolation even more challenging. Here, we describe a concise and efficient RNA isolation method that combines the cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and Plant RNA Kit (Omega) protocols. Gel electrophoresis showed that RNA extracted from all tissues, using this protocol, was of good integrity and without DNA contamination. Furthermore, the isolated RNA was of high purity, with an A 260/A 280 ratio of 2.1 and an A 260/A 230 ratio of >2.0. The isolated RNA was also suitable for downstream applications, such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). The RNA isolation method was also efficient for recalcitrant plant tissues. PMID:26019587

  5. Evaluation of methods for the isolation of high quality RNA from bovine and cervine hide biopsies.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Jaime L; Holman, Patricia J; Olafson, Pia U; Pruett, John H; Riggs, Penny K

    2013-02-01

    Molecular investigations of the ruminant response to ectoparasites at the parasite-host interface are critically dependent upon the quality of RNA. The complexity of ruminant skin decreases the capacity to obtain high quality RNA from biopsy samples, which directly affects the reliability of data produced by gene expression experiments. Two methods for isolating total RNA from skin were compared and the use of 4M guanidinium isothiocyanate (GITC) during frozen storage of the specimens was evaluated. In addition, the best procedure for RNA isolation from bovine skin punch biopsies was also tested on white-tailed deer skin biopsies. Skin biopsy punches were collected and frozen prior to pulverization for RNA isolation. Total RNA quantity and integrity were determined by spectrophotometry and capillary electrophoresis technology, respectively. Significantly increased total RNA yield (P < 0.05) and higher integrity (P < 0.05) were obtained with a TRI Reagent® isolation method. Freezing and subsequent storage of bovine skin punch biopsies in 4 M GITC did not affect the amount or integrity of total RNA recovered by either RNA isolation method. However, quantity and integrity of total RNA extracted with the TRI Reagent method were again significantly higher than with the alternate technique, confirming it as the superior method. The TRI Reagent isolation method also yielded high quality total RNA from white-tailed deer skin punch biopsies, suggesting the usefulness of this method for obtaining RNA of a quality suitable for gene expression studies in other ruminant species.

  6. A practical examination of RNA isolation methods for European pear (Pyrus communis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With the goal of identifying fast, reliable and broadly applicable RNA isolation methods in European pear fruit for downstream transcriptome analysis, we evaluated several commercially available kit-based RNA isolations methods, plus our modified version of a published cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromi...

  7. Comparison of isolation methods of exosomes and exosomal RNA from cell culture medium and serum.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yue-Ting; Huang, Yi-Yao; Zheng, Lei; Qin, Si-Hua; Xu, Xu-Ping; An, Tai-Xue; Xu, Yong; Wu, Ying-Song; Hu, Xiu-Mei; Ping, Bao-Hong; Wang, Qian

    2017-09-01

    Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles and are abundant in biological fluids; they contain RNA molecules which may serve as potential diagnostic biomarkers in 'precision medicine'. To promote the clinical application of exosomal RNA (exoRNA), many isolation methods must be compared and validated. Exosomes in cell culture medium (CCM) and serum may be isolated using ultracentrifugation (UC), ExoQuick or Total Exosome Isolation Reagent (TEI), and exoRNA may be extracted using TRIzol-LS, SeraMir, Total Exosome RNA Isolation (TER), HiPure Liquid RNA/miRNA kit (HLR), miRNeasy or exoRNeasy. ExoRNA was assessed using NanoDrop, Bioanalyzer 2100, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and high-throughput sequencing. UC showed the lowest recovery of particles, but the highest protein purity for exosome isolation. For isolation of exoRNA, we found that combinations of the TEI and TER methods resulted in high extraction efficiency and purity of small RNA obtained using CCM. High yield and a narrow size distribution pattern of small RNA were shown in exoRNA isolated by exoRNeasy from serum. In RNA profile analysis, the small RNA constituent ratio, miRNA content and amount varied as a result of methodological differences. This study showed that different methods may introduce variations in the concentration, purity and size of exosomes and exoRNA. Herein we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method and their application to different materials, therefore providing a reference according to research design.

  8. Comparison of isolation methods of exosomes and exosomal RNA from cell culture medium and serum

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yue-Ting; Huang, Yi-Yao; Zheng, Lei; Qin, Si-Hua; Xu, Xu-Ping; An, Tai-Xue; Xu, Yong; Wu, Ying-Song; Hu, Xiu-Mei; Ping, Bao-Hong; Wang, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles and are abundant in biological fluids; they contain RNA molecules which may serve as potential diagnostic biomarkers in 'precision medicine'. To promote the clinical application of exosomal RNA (exoRNA), many isolation methods must be compared and validated. Exosomes in cell culture medium (CCM) and serum may be isolated using ultracentrifugation (UC), ExoQuick or Total Exosome Isolation Reagent (TEI), and exoRNA may be extracted using TRIzol-LS, SeraMir, Total Exosome RNA Isolation (TER), HiPure Liquid RNA/miRNA kit (HLR), miRNeasy or exoRNeasy. ExoRNA was assessed using NanoDrop, Bioanalyzer 2100, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and high-throughput sequencing. UC showed the lowest recovery of particles, but the highest protein purity for exosome isolation. For isolation of exoRNA, we found that combinations of the TEI and TER methods resulted in high extraction efficiency and purity of small RNA obtained using CCM. High yield and a narrow size distribution pattern of small RNA were shown in exoRNA isolated by exoRNeasy from serum. In RNA profile analysis, the small RNA constituent ratio, miRNA content and amount varied as a result of methodological differences. This study showed that different methods may introduce variations in the concentration, purity and size of exosomes and exoRNA. Herein we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method and their application to different materials, therefore providing a reference according to research design. PMID:28737826

  9. Modified method for combined DNA and RNA isolation from peanut and other oil seeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Isolation of good quality RNA and DNA from seeds is difficult due to high levels of polysaccharides, polyphenols, and lipids that can degrade or co-precipitate with nucleic acids. Standard RNA extraction methods utilizing guanidinium-phenol-chloroform extraction has not shown to be successful. RNA...

  10. Evaluation of isolation methods for bacterial RNA quantitation in Dickeya dadantii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dickeya dadantii is a difficult source for RNA of a sufficient quality for real-time qRT-PCR analysis of gene expression. Three RNA isolation methods were evaluated for their ability to produce high-quality RNA from this bacterium. Bacterial lysis with Trizol using standard protocols consistently ga...

  11. Modified method for combined DNA and RNA isolation from peanut and other oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Dang, Phat M; Chen, Charles Y

    2013-02-01

    Isolation of good quality RNA and DNA from seeds is difficult due to high levels of polysaccharides, polyphenols, and lipids that can degrade or co-precipitate with nucleic acids. Standard RNA extraction methods utilizing guanidinium-phenol-chloroform extraction has not shown to be successful. RNA isolation from plant seeds is a prerequisite for many seed specific gene expression studies and DNA is necessary in marker-assisted selection and other genetic studies. We describe a modified method to isolate both RNA and DNA from the same seed tissue and have been successful with several oil seeds including peanut, soybean, sunflower, canola, and oil radish. An additional LiCl precipitation step was added to isolate both RNA and DNA from the same seed tissues. High quality nucleic acids were observed based on A(260)/A(280) and A(260)/A(230) ratios above 2.0 and distinct bands on gel-electrophoresis. RNA was shown to be suitable for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction based on actin or 60S ribosomal primer amplification and DNA was shown to have a single band on gel-electrophoresis analysis. This result shows that RNA and DNA isolated using this method can be appropriate for molecular studies in peanut and other oil containing seeds.

  12. High-purity circular RNA isolation method (RPAD) reveals vast collection of intronic circRNAs

    PubMed Central

    De, Supriyo; Grammatikakis, Ioannis; Munk, Rachel; Yang, Xiaoling; Piao, Yulan; Dudekula, Dawood B.; Gorospe, Myriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract High-throughput RNA sequencing methods coupled with specialized bioinformatic analyses have recently uncovered tens of thousands of unique circular (circ)RNAs, but their complete sequences, genes of origin and functions are largely unknown. Given that circRNAs lack free ends and are thus relatively stable, their association with microRNAs (miRNAs) and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) can influence gene expression programs. While exoribonuclease treatment is widely used to degrade linear RNAs and enrich circRNAs in RNA samples, it does not efficiently eliminate all linear RNAs. Here, we describe a novel method for the isolation of highly pure circRNA populations involving RNase R treatment followed by Polyadenylation and poly(A)+ RNA Depletion (RPAD), which removes linear RNA to near completion. High-throughput sequencing of RNA prepared using RPAD from human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells and mouse C2C12 myoblasts led to two surprising discoveries: (i) many exonic circRNA (EcircRNA) isoforms share an identical backsplice sequence but have different body sizes and sequences, and (ii) thousands of novel intronic circular RNAs (IcircRNAs) are expressed in cells. In sum, isolating high-purity circRNAs using the RPAD method can enable quantitative and qualitative analyses of circRNA types and sequence composition, paving the way for the elucidation of circRNA functions. PMID:28444238

  13. Comparative studies of two methods for miRNA isolation from milk whey.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiao-lu; Wei, Zi-hai; Liu, Lan; Liu, Hong-yun; Liu, Jian-xin

    2015-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) from milk whey have been considered for their potential as noninvasive biomarkers for milk quality control and disease diagnosis. However, standard protocols for miRNA isolation and quantification from milk whey are not well established. The objective of this study was to compare two methods for the isolation of miRNAs from milk whey. These two methods were modified phenol-based technique (Trizol LS(®) followed by phenol precipitation, the TP method) and combined phenol and column-based approach (Trizol LS(®) followed by cleanup using the miRNeasy kit, the TM method). Yield and quality of RNA were rigorously measured using a NanoDrop ND-1000 spectrophotometer and then the distribution of RNA was precisely detected in a Bioanalyzer 2100 instrument by microchip gel electrophoresis. Several endogenous miRNAs (bta-miR-141, bta-miR-146a, bta-miR-148a, bta-miR-200c, bta-miR-362, and bta-miR-375) and an exogenous spike-in synthetic control miRNA (cel-miR-39) were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to examine the apparent recovery efficiency of milk whey miRNAs. Both methods could successfully isolate sufficient small RNA (<200 nt) from milk whey, and their yields were quite similar. However, the quantification results show that the total miRNA recovery efficiency by the TM method is superior to that by the TP method. The TM method performed better than the TP for recovery of milk whey miRNA due to its consistency and good repeatability in endogenous and spike-in miRNA recovery. Additionally, quantitative recovery analysis of a spike-in miRNA may be more accurate to reflect the milk whey miRNA recovery efficiency than using traditional RNA quality analysis instruments (NanoDrop or Bioanalyzer 2100).

  14. Rapid and effective method of RNA isolation from green microalga Ankistrodesmus convolutus.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Tran; Omar, Hishamuddin; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Chi, Vu Thi Quynh; Noroozi, Mostafa; Ky, Huynh; Napis, Suhaimi

    2009-10-01

    The rapid and effective method for the isolation of RNA from green microalga Ankistrodesmus convolutus based on homogenization in a simple CTAB buffer and selective precipitation of RNA with lithium chloride is developed. This procedure avoids the use of toxic chaotropic agents and phenol while high concentration of dithiothreitol is used to inhibit RNase activity and prevent oxidative cross-linking of nucleic acids by phenolics. The extraction procedure was able to produce high quality and intact RNA from A. convolutus. The yield of total RNA was 0.69-0.73 mg/g of fresh weight, with A(260)/A(280) ratio of 1.79-1.86. The obtained RNA was of sufficient quality and suitable for downstream application such as RT-PCR and cDNA library construction. The procedure may also have wider applicability for total RNA isolation from other green microalgae species.

  15. A method for isolating RNA from metabolically active bacterial flora associated with octopus.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz-Leyva, M C; Zamudio-Maya, M; Corona-Cruz, A I; González-de la Cruz, J U; Rojas-Herrera, R

    2011-07-01

    Development of a method for the isolation and purification of metagenomic RNA (mgRNA) from the ectopic bacterial flora of octopus. Modifications were made to the methods of Valenzuela-Avendaño et al. (Plant Mol Biol Rep, 2005, 23, 199a) and Chomczynski and Sacchi (Anal Biochem, 1987, 162, 156) to develop a protocol based on chemical lysis with Trizol. This proposed protocol effectively isolated mgRNA. The resulting bacterial RNA transcripts were amplified with universal primers directed to the hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene by complementary DNA synthesis. Protocol efficacy in the study of metabolically active bacterial flora was proven using DGGE, which produced a banding pattern that recovered sequences mainly related to the Vibrionaceae family. The analysed samples were clearly complex, and the proposed protocol was proven to effectively isolate mgRNA from the metabolically active bacterial flora associated with octopus. This is the first protocol proposed for the isolation of bacterial mgRNA that allows identification and study of metabolically active bacterial flora associated with octopus. This is an important step forward in understanding and controlling the microbial community of this economically important fishery resource, aimed at detecting its potentially pathogenic bacteria. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Effect of ribonucleic acid (RNA) isolation methods on putative reference genes messenger RNA abundance in human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Barragán, M; Martínez, A; Llonch, S; Pujol, A; Vernaeve, V; Vassena, R

    2015-07-01

    Although the male gamete participates in a significant proportion of infertility cases, there are currently no proven molecular markers of sperm quality. The search for significant gene expression markers is partially hindered by the lack of a recognized set of reference genes (RGs) to normalize reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) data across studies. The aim of this study is to define a set of RGs in assisted reproduction patients undergoing different sample collection and RNA isolation methods. Twenty-two normozoospermic men were included in the study. From each man, semen was either cryopreserved by slow freezing or analyzed fresh, and, for each, RNA was extracted with either phenol-free or phenol-based methods. In two cases, both methods were used to isolate RNA. Twenty putative RGs were analyzed and their mRNA abundance across samples was estimated by RT-qPCR. To determine the genes whose steady-state mRNA abundance remains unchanged, three different algorithms (geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder) were applied to the qPCR data. We found that RGs such as GAPDH or ACTB, useful in other biological contexts, cannot be used as reference for human spermatozoa. It is possible to compare gene expression from fresh and cryopreserved sperm samples using the same isolation method, while the mRNA abundance of expressed genes becomes different depending on the RNA isolation technique employed. In our conditions, the most appropriate RGs for RT-qPCR analysis were RPLP1, RPL13A, and RPLP2. Published discrepancies in gene expression studies in human spermatozoa may be due in part to inappropriate RGs selection, suggesting a possible different interpretation of PCR data in several reports, which were normalized using unstable RGs.

  17. A rapid and high-quality method for total RNA isolation from Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Q L; Wang, K P; Xiao, K; Wang, C G; Hu, Z L

    2017-04-13

    Haematococcus pluvialis, as the most potential natural source of astaxanthin, which is a powerful antioxidant with high economic value, has attracted more and more scientific attention in recent years. An in-depth understanding of the mechanism for how H. pluvialis produces astaxanthin requires the intensive investigations on its genetic information. In particular, many reported studies were based on a variety of RNA analyses. However, it is difficult to extract RNA with high quality and quantity from H. pluvialis, because of the blockage from its thick cell wall and contamination by a large quantity of pigments, polysaccharides, and lipids. Therefore, we proposed an optimized Trizol-based RNA extraction method for H. pluvialis by investigating the effect of cell wall broken ways, algal strains, and cell growth status on total RNA isolation. Using this rapid, convenient, and cost-saving method, isolated H. pluvialis RNA had high quantity and quality (with an RNA integrity number of 7.0 and a concentration of 1604.1 ng/μL) equivalent to that isolated by commercial kit, enabling its applications into downstream RNA analyses.

  18. Evaluating Methods for Isolating Total RNA and Predicting the Success of Sequencing Phylogenetically Diverse Plant Transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Bruskiewich, Richard; Burris, Jason N.; Carrigan, Charlotte T.; Chase, Mark W.; Clarke, Neil D.; Covshoff, Sarah; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Edger, Patrick P.; Goh, Falicia; Graham, Sean; Greiner, Stephan; Hibberd, Julian M.; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid; Kutchan, Toni M.; Leebens-Mack, James; Melkonian, Michael; Miles, Nicholas; Myburg, Henrietta; Patterson, Jordan; Pires, J. Chris; Ralph, Paula; Rolf, Megan; Sage, Rowan F.; Soltis, Douglas; Soltis, Pamela; Stevenson, Dennis; Stewart, C. Neal; Surek, Barbara; Thomsen, Christina J. M.; Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Wu, Xiaolei; Zhang, Yong; Deyholos, Michael K.; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu

    2012-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing plays a central role in the characterization and quantification of transcriptomes. Although numerous metrics are purported to quantify the quality of RNA, there have been no large-scale empirical evaluations of the major determinants of sequencing success. We used a combination of existing and newly developed methods to isolate total RNA from 1115 samples from 695 plant species in 324 families, which represents >900 million years of phylogenetic diversity from green algae through flowering plants, including many plants of economic importance. We then sequenced 629 of these samples on Illumina GAIIx and HiSeq platforms and performed a large comparative analysis to identify predictors of RNA quality and the diversity of putative genes (scaffolds) expressed within samples. Tissue types (e.g., leaf vs. flower) varied in RNA quality, sequencing depth and the number of scaffolds. Tissue age also influenced RNA quality but not the number of scaffolds ≥1000 bp. Overall, 36% of the variation in the number of scaffolds was explained by metrics of RNA integrity (RIN score), RNA purity (OD 260/230), sequencing platform (GAIIx vs HiSeq) and the amount of total RNA used for sequencing. However, our results show that the most commonly used measures of RNA quality (e.g., RIN) are weak predictors of the number of scaffolds because Illumina sequencing is robust to variation in RNA quality. These results provide novel insight into the methods that are most important in isolating high quality RNA for sequencing and assembling plant transcriptomes. The methods and recommendations provided here could increase the efficiency and decrease the cost of RNA sequencing for individual labs and genome centers. PMID:23185583

  19. Evaluation of Existing Methods for Human Blood mRNA Isolation and Analysis for Large Studies

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Anke; Paroni, Federico; Günther, Kathrin; Dharmadhikari, Gitanjali; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Kelm, Sørge; Maedler, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    Aims Prior to implementing gene expression analyses from blood to a larger cohort study, an evaluation to set up a reliable and reproducible method is mandatory but challenging due to the specific characteristics of the samples as well as their collection methods. In this pilot study we optimized a combination of blood sampling and RNA isolation methods and present reproducible gene expression results from human blood samples. Methods The established PAXgeneTM blood collection method (Qiagen) was compared with the more recent TempusTM collection and storing system. RNA from blood samples collected by both systems was extracted on columns with the corresponding Norgen and PAX RNA extraction Kits. RNA quantity and quality was compared photometrically, with Ribogreen and by Real-Time PCR analyses of various reference genes (PPIA, β-ACTIN and TUBULIN) and exemplary of SIGLEC-7. Results Combining different sampling methods and extraction kits caused strong variations in gene expression. The use of PAXgeneTM and TempusTM collection systems resulted in RNA of good quality and quantity for the respective RNA isolation system. No large inter-donor variations could be detected for both systems. However, it was not possible to extract sufficient RNA of good quality with the PAXgeneTM RNA extraction system from samples collected by TempusTM collection tubes. Comparing only the Norgen RNA extraction methods, RNA from blood collected either by the TempusTM or PAXgeneTM collection system delivered sufficient amount and quality of RNA, but the TempusTM collection delivered higher RNA concentration compared to the PAXTM collection system. The established Pre-analytix PAXgeneTM RNA extraction system together with the PAXgeneTM blood collection system showed lowest CT-values, i.e. highest RNA concentration of good quality. Expression levels of all tested genes were stable and reproducible. Conclusions This study confirms that it is not possible to mix or change sampling or

  20. A column-based rapid method for the simultaneous isolation of DNA, RNA, miRNA and proteins.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Sandeep K; Dave, Vivek P; Rajput, Ankita; Pandey, Hausila P; Datta, Tirtha K; Singh, Rakesh K

    2012-09-01

    In the 21st century, systems biology is a holistic approach to understand life by the cross-talk study between the genome, Rnome and proteome of a cell. We describe a column-based rapid method for the simultaneous extraction of DNA, RNA, miRNA (microRNA) and proteins from the same experimental sample without prior fractionation, which allows a direct correlation between genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic and proteomic data. This method provides a simple and effective way to analyse each of these biomolecules without affecting yield and quality. We also show that isolated biomolecules are of the highest purity and compatible for all the respective downstream applications, such as PCR amplification, RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR), real-time PCR, reverse Northern blotting, SDS/PAGE and Western blot analysis. The buffers and reagents used in this method are optimized extensively to achieve the cost effective and reliable procedure to separate the functional biomolecules of the cell.

  1. Isolation of urinary exosomes for RNA biomarker discovery using a simple, fast, and highly scalable method.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M Lucrecia

    2014-01-01

    Urinary exosomes are nanovesicles (40-100 nm) of endocytic origin that are secreted into the urine when a multivesicular body fuses with the membrane of cells from all nephron segments. Interest in urinary exosomes intensified after the discovery that they contain not only protein and mRNA but also microRNA (miRNA) markers of renal dysfunction and structural injury. Currently, the most widely used protocol for the isolation of urinary exosomes is based on ultracentrifugation, a method that is time consuming, requires expensive equipment, and has low scalability, which limits its applicability in the clinical practice. In this chapter, a simple, fast, and highly scalable step-by-step method for isolation of urinary exosomes is described. This method starts with a 10-min centrifugation of 10 ml urine, then the supernatant is saved (SN1), and the pellet is treated with dithiothreitol and heat to release and recover those exosomes entrapped by polymeric Tamm-Horsfall protein. The treated pellet is then resuspended and centrifuged, and the supernatant obtained (SN2) is combined with the first supernatant, SN1. Next, 3.3 ml of ExoQuick-TC, a commercial exosome precipitation reagent, is added to the total supernatant (SN1 + SN2), mixed well, and saved for at least 12 h at 4 °C. Finally, a pellet of exosomes is obtained after a 30-min centrifugation of the supernatant/ExoQuick-TC mix. We previously compared this method with five others used to isolate urinary exosomes and found that this is the simplest, fastest, and most effective alternative to ultracentrifugation-based protocols if the goal of the study is RNA profiling. A method for isolation and quantification of miRNAs and mRNAs from urinary exosomes is also described here. In addition, we provide a step-by-step description of exosomal miRNA profiling using universal reverse transcription and SYBR qPCR.

  2. Improved Method for Isolation of Microbial RNA from Biofuel Feedstock for Metatranscriptomics

    SciTech Connect

    Piao, Hailan; Markillie, Lye Meng; Culley, David E.; Mackie, Roderick I.; Hess, Matthias

    2013-03-28

    Metatranscriptomics—gene express profiling via DNA sequencing—is a powerful tool to identify genes that are ac- tively expressed and might contribute to the phenotype of individual organisms or the phenome (the sum of several phenotypes) of a microbial community. Furthermore, metatranscriptome studies can result in extensive catalogues of genes that encode for enzymes of industrial relevance. In both cases, a major challenge for generating a high quality metatranscriptome is the extreme lability of RNA and its susceptibility to ubiquitous RNAses. The microbial commu- nity (the microbiome) of the cow rumen efficiently degrades lignocelullosic biomass, generates significant amounts of methane, a greenhouse gas twenty times more potent than carbon dioxide, and is of general importance for the physio- logical wellbeing of the host animal. Metatranscriptomes of the rumen microbiome from animals kept under different conditions and from various types of rumen-incubated biomass can be expected to provide new insights into these highly interesting phenotypes and subsequently provide the framework for an enhanced understanding of this socio- economically important ecosystem. The ability to isolate large amounts of intact RNA will significantly facilitate accu- rate transcript annotation and expression profiling. Here we report a method that combines mechanical disruption with chemical homogenization of the sample material and consistently yields 1 mg of intact RNA from 1 g of rumen-in- cubated biofuel feedstock. The yield of total RNA obtained with our method exceeds the RNA yield achieved with pre- viously reported isolation techniques, which renders RNA isolated with the method presented here as an ideal starting material for metatranscriptomic analyses and other molecular biology applications that require significant amounts of starting material.

  3. Comparative miRNA Analysis of Urine Extracellular Vesicles Isolated through Five Different Methods.

    PubMed

    Royo, Felix; Diwan, Izzuddin; Tackett, Michael R; Zuñiga, Patricia; Sanchez-Mosquera, Pilar; Loizaga-Iriarte, Ana; Ugalde-Olano, Aitziber; Lacasa, Isabel; Perez, Amparo; Unda, Miguel; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Falcon-Perez, Juan M

    2016-12-10

    Urine extracellular vesicles are a valuable low-invasive source of information, especially for the cells of the genitourinary tract. In the search for biomarkers, different techniques have been developed to isolate and characterize the cargo of these vesicles. In the present work, we compare five of these different isolation methods (three commercial isolation kits, ultracentrifugation, and lectin-based purification) and perform miRNA profiling using a multiplex miRNA assay. The results showed high correlation through all isolation techniques, and 48 out of 68 miRNAs were detected above the detection limit at least 10 times. The results obtained by multiplex assay were validated through Taqman qPCR. In addition, using this technique combined with a clinically friendly extracellular vesicle (uEV)-enrichment method, we performed the analysis of selected miRNAs in urine from patients affected with bladder cancer, benign prostate hyperplasia, or prostate cancer. Importantly, we found that those miRNAs could be detected in almost 100% of the samples, and no significant differences were observed between groups. Our results support the feasibility of analyzing exosomes-associated miRNAs using a methodology that requires a small volume of urine and is compatible with a clinical environment and high-throughput analysis.

  4. Comparative miRNA Analysis of Urine Extracellular Vesicles Isolated through Five Different Methods

    PubMed Central

    Royo, Felix; Diwan, Izzuddin; Tackett, Michael R.; Zuñiga, Patricia; Sanchez-Mosquera, Pilar; Loizaga-Iriarte, Ana; Ugalde-Olano, Aitziber; Lacasa, Isabel; Perez, Amparo; Unda, Miguel; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Falcon-Perez, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Urine extracellular vesicles are a valuable low-invasive source of information, especially for the cells of the genitourinary tract. In the search for biomarkers, different techniques have been developed to isolate and characterize the cargo of these vesicles. In the present work, we compare five of these different isolation methods (three commercial isolation kits, ultracentrifugation, and lectin-based purification) and perform miRNA profiling using a multiplex miRNA assay. The results showed high correlation through all isolation techniques, and 48 out of 68 miRNAs were detected above the detection limit at least 10 times. The results obtained by multiplex assay were validated through Taqman qPCR. In addition, using this technique combined with a clinically friendly extracellular vesicle (uEV)-enrichment method, we performed the analysis of selected miRNAs in urine from patients affected with bladder cancer, benign prostate hyperplasia, or prostate cancer. Importantly, we found that those miRNAs could be detected in almost 100% of the samples, and no significant differences were observed between groups. Our results support the feasibility of analyzing exosomes-associated miRNAs using a methodology that requires a small volume of urine and is compatible with a clinical environment and high-throughput analysis. PMID:27973407

  5. A method for isolating high quality RNA from mouse cortical and cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Natalie H; Schimenti, John C; Patrick Ross, F; van der Meulen, Marjolein C H

    2014-11-01

    The high incidence of fragility fractures in cortico-cancellous bone locations, plus the fact that individual skeletal sites exhibit different responsiveness to load and disease, emphasizes the need to document separately gene expression in cortical and cancellous bone. A further confounding factor is marrow contamination since its high cellularity may effect gene expression measurements. We isolated RNA from cortical and cancellous bone of intact mouse tibiae, and also after marrow removal by flushing or centrifugation. RNA isolated from cancellous bone by each method was sufficient for gene expression analysis. Centrifugation removed contaminating cells more efficiently than flushing, as indexed by histology and decreased expression of Icam4, a highly expressed erythroid gene. In contrast, centrifuged cortical bone had 12- and 13- fold higher expression of the bone-related genes Col1a1 and Bglap, while levels in marrow-free cancellous bone were 30- and 31-fold higher when compared to bone where marrow was left intact. Furthermore, cortical bone had higher expression of Col1a1 and Bglap than cancellous bone. Thus, RNA isolated by this novel approach can reveal site-specific changes in gene expression in cortical and cancellous bone sites.

  6. Assessing cellular and circulating miRNA recovery: the impact of the RNA isolation method and the quantity of input material.

    PubMed

    El-Khoury, Victoria; Pierson, Sandrine; Kaoma, Tony; Bernardin, François; Berchem, Guy

    2016-01-20

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as promising cancer biomarkers. However, exploiting their informative potential requires careful optimization of their detection. Here, we compared the efficiency of commonly used RNA extraction kits in miRNA recovery from cells, plasma and urine/plasma-derived exosomes, using single-gene RT-qPCR and miRNA profiling. We used increasing amounts of starting material to investigate the impact of the input material size on miRNA extraction. We showed that miRNA recovery was largely influenced by the isolation method and by the amount of input material. In particular, the miRCURY™ kit provided highly pure RNA. However, its columns poorly recovered miRNAs from limiting amounts of cells and plasma, and rapidly saturated by large RNA species and plasma components, thus impeding miRNA recovery from high input amounts. Overall, the miRNeasy® kit permitted a better miRNA detection despite a less pure extracted RNA. Nevertheless, some miRNAs were preferentially or exclusively isolated by either of the methods. Trizol® LS resulted in very low purity RNA which affected RT-qPCR efficiency. In general, miRCURY™ biofluids kit efficiently extracted miRNAs from plasma. A careful selection of the RNA isolation method and the consideration of the type and size of input material are highly recommended to avoid biased results.

  7. From RNA isolation to microarray analysis: Comparison of methods in FFPE tissues.

    PubMed

    Belder, Nevin; Coskun, Öznur; Doganay Erdogan, Beyza; Ilk, Ozlem; Savas, Berna; Ensari, Arzu; Özdağ, Hilal

    2016-08-01

    Genome-wide gene expression profiling analysis of FFPE tissue samples is indispensable for cancer research and provides the opportunity to evaluate links between molecular and clinical information, however, working with FFPE samples is challenging due to extensive cross-linking, fragmentation and limited quantities of nucleic acid. Thus, processing of FFPE tissue samples from RNA extraction to microarray analysis still needs optimization. In this study, a modified deparaffinization protocol was conducted prior to RNA isolation. Trizol, Qiagen RNeasy FFPE and Arcturus PicoPure RNA Isolation kits were used in parallel to compare their impact on RNA isolation. We also evaluated the effect of two different cRNA/cDNA preparation and labeling protocols with two different array platforms (Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 and U133_X3P) on the percentage of present calls. Our optimization study shows that the Qiagen RNeasy FFPE kit with modified deparaffinization step gives better results (RNA quantity and quality) than the other two isolation kits. The Ribo-SPIA protocol gave a significantly higher percentage of present calls than the 3' IVT cDNA amplification and labeling system. However, no significant differences were found between the two array platforms. Our study paves the way for future high-throughput transcriptional analysis by optimizing FFPE tissue sample processing from RNA isolation to microarray analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation of high quality and yield of RNA from Agaricus bisporus with a simple, inexpensive and reliable method.

    PubMed

    Meng, De-Mei; Shen, Lin; Zhang, Xin-Hua; Sheng, Ji-Ping

    2012-07-01

    A method for isolating high purity and quantity RNA from Agaricus bisporus which is rich in proteins, carbohydrate, fiber and secondary metabolites, is described. RNA was extracted from mycelium, primordia, sporophores at two development stages and two post-harvest storage stages as well as from pileipellis, inner cap, gill and stipe of the mature sporophore. The A(260)/A(230) and A(260)/A(280) ratios of isolated RNA from fruiting bodies were both ~2 and the yield was about 200 μg/g fresh wt (FW). The yield of RNA from mycelium was approx. 100 μg/g FW. High quality RNA was also extracted from fruiting body tissues of Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Flammulina velutipes and Pleurotus eryngii with yields from 130 to 225 μg/g FW. RNA extracted from all samples was intact, as demonstrated by gel electrophoresis and was suitable for downstream molecular applications, including RT-PCR and qPCR.

  9. A single-step method for RNA isolation from tropical crops in the field

    PubMed Central

    Breitler, J.-C.; Campa, C.; Georget, F.; Bertrand, B.; Etienne, H.

    2016-01-01

    The RNAzol RT reagent was used to provide pure RNA from human cells. We develop a protocol using RNAzol RT reagent to extract pure RNA from plants tissues and demonstrate that this RNA extraction method works not only at room temperature but also at elevated temperatures and provides the simplest and most effective single-step method to extract pure and undegraded RNA directly from tropical plants in the field. RNA extraction directly in a complex field environment opens up the way for studying gene-environment interactions at transcriptome level to decipher the complex regulatory network involved in multiple-stress responses. PMID:27922073

  10. A novel method to identify and isolate proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) clusters and to extract high-quality PIA RNA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yibing; Hao, Chao; Fu, Bin; Liu, Weipeng; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Zeng, Tao; Guo, Ju; Wang, Gongxian

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological and histopathological studies have indicated that proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) of the prostate is closely associated with the onset and development of prostate cancer (PCa). However, accurate isolation of PIA still remains a difficult matter, as well as high-quality RNA extraction from isolated PIA. These issues generated a lack of molecular evidence to support the mechanistic explanation proposed for the progression of PIA to PCa. Therefore, the isolation of PIA and the extraction of high-quality RNA from isolated PIA are of great importance to further demonstrate the correlation between PIA and the development of PCa at a molecular level. In this study, clinical samples from radical prostatectomy were stored in liquid nitrogen, PIA was identified by H&E staining of cryosections, PIA clusters were isolated by manual microdissection, total RNA was extracted from the PIA clusters by Trizol, and RNA quality was determined using the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer. Our results showed that PIA might be isolated by manual microdissection of cryosections stored in liquid nitrogen from clinical radical prostatectomy and used for extracting high-quality RNA (RIN > 7.5) by Trizol. Therefore, the present study established a valid method to discover molecular evidence in support of the correlation between PIA and the development of PCa. PMID:26097585

  11. A novel method to identify and isolate proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) clusters and to extract high-quality PIA RNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yibing; Hao, Chao; Fu, Bin; Liu, Weipeng; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Zeng, Tao; Guo, Ju; Wang, Gongxian

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological and histopathological studies have indicated that proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) of the prostate is closely associated with the onset and development of prostate cancer (PCa). However, accurate isolation of PIA still remains a difficult matter, as well as high-quality RNA extraction from isolated PIA. These issues generated a lack of molecular evidence to support the mechanistic explanation proposed for the progression of PIA to PCa. Therefore, the isolation of PIA and the extraction of high-quality RNA from isolated PIA are of great importance to further demonstrate the correlation between PIA and the development of PCa at a molecular level. In this study, clinical samples from radical prostatectomy were stored in liquid nitrogen, PIA was identified by H&E staining of cryosections, PIA clusters were isolated by manual microdissection, total RNA was extracted from the PIA clusters by Trizol, and RNA quality was determined using the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer. Our results showed that PIA might be isolated by manual microdissection of cryosections stored in liquid nitrogen from clinical radical prostatectomy and used for extracting high-quality RNA (RIN > 7.5) by Trizol. Therefore, the present study established a valid method to discover molecular evidence in support of the correlation between PIA and the development of PCa.

  12. Comparison of protein, microRNA, and mRNA yields using different methods of urinary exosome isolation for the discovery of kidney disease biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M Lucrecia; Khosroheidari, Mahdieh; Kanchi Ravi, Rupesh; DiStefano, Johanna K

    2012-11-01

    Urinary exosomes are 40-100 nm vesicles containing protein, mRNA, and microRNA that may serve as biomarkers of renal dysfunction and structural injury. Currently, there is a need for more sensitive and specific biomarkers of renal injury and disease progression. Here we sought to identify the best exosome isolation methods for both proteomic analysis and RNA profiling as a first step for biomarker discovery. We used six different protocols; three were based on ultracentrifugation, one used a nanomembrane concentrator-based approach, and two utilized a commercial exosome precipitation reagent. The highest yield of exosomes was obtained using a modified exosome precipitation protocol, which also yielded the highest quantities of microRNA and mRNA and, therefore, is ideal for subsequent RNA profiling. This method is likewise suitable for downstream proteomic analyses if an ultracentrifuge is not available and/or a large number of samples are to be processed. Two of the ultracentrifugation methods, however, are better options for exosome isolation if an ultracentrifuge is available and few samples will be processed for proteomic analysis. Thus, our modified exosome precipitation method is a simple, fast, highly scalable, and effective alternative for the isolation of exosomes, and may facilitate the identification of exosomal biomarkers from urine.

  13. Characterization of RNA from Exosomes and Other Extracellular Vesicles Isolated by a Novel Spin Column-Based Method

    PubMed Central

    Enderle, Daniel; Spiel, Alexandra; Coticchia, Christine M.; Berghoff, Emily; Mueller, Romy; Schlumpberger, Martin; Sprenger-Haussels, Markus; Shaffer, Jonathan M.; Lader, Eric; Skog, Johan; Noerholm, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes and other extracellular vesicles (commonly referred to as EVs) have generated a lot of attention for their potential applications in both diagnostics and therapeutics. The contents of these vesicles are the subject of intense research, and the relatively recent discovery of RNA inside EVs has raised interest in the biological function of these RNAs as well as their potential as biomarkers for cancer and other diseases. Traditional ultracentrifugation-based protocols to isolate EVs are labor-intensive and subject to significant variability. Various attempts to develop methods with robust, reproducible performance have not yet been completely successful. Here, we report the development and characterization of a spin column-based method for the isolation of total RNA from EVs in serum and plasma. This method isolates highly pure RNA of equal or higher quantity compared to ultracentrifugation, with high specificity for vesicular over non-vesicular RNA. The spin columns have a capacity to handle up to 4 mL sample volume, enabling detection of low-abundance transcripts in serum and plasma. We conclude that the method is an improvement over traditional methods in providing a faster, more standardized way to achieve reliable high quality RNA preparations from EVs in biofluids such as serum and plasma. The first kit utilizing this new method has recently been made available by Qiagen as “exoRNeasy Serum/Plasma Maxi Kit”. PMID:26317354

  14. Lectin-induced agglutination method of urinary exosomes isolation followed by mi-RNA analysis: Application for prostate cancer diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Samsonov, Roman; Shtam, Tatiana; Burdakov, Vladimir; Glotov, Andrey; Tsyrlina, Evgenia; Berstein, Lev; Nosov, Alexander; Evtushenko, Vladimir; Filatov, Michael; Malek, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Prostate-specific antigen has, however, insufficient diagnostic specificity. Novel complementary diagnostic approaches are greatly needed. MiRNAs are small regulatory RNAs which play an important role in tumorogenesis and are being investigated as a cancer biomarker. In addition to their intracellular regulatory functions, miRNAs are secreted into the extracellular space and can be found in various body fluids, including urine. The stability of extracellular miRNAs is defined by association with proteins, lipoprotein particles, and membrane vesicles. Among the known forms of miRNA packaging, tumour-derived exosome-enclosed miRNAs is thought to reflect the vital activity of cancer cells. The assessment of the exosomal fraction of urinary miRNA may present a new and highly specific method for prostate cancer diagnostics; however, this is challenged by the absence of reliable and inexpensive methods for isolation of exosomes. Prostate cancer (PC) cell lines and urine samples collected from 35 PC patients and 35 healthy donors were used in the study. Lectins, phytohemagglutinin, and concanavalin A were used to induce agglutination of exosomes. The efficiency of isolation process was evaluated by AFM and DLS assays. The protein content of isolated exosomes was analysed by western blotting. Exosomal RNA was assayed by automated electrophoresis and expression level of selected miRNAs was evaluated by RT-qPCR. The diagnostic potency of the urinary exosomal miRNA assessment was estimated by the ROC method. The formation of multi-vesicular agglutinates in urine can be induced by incubation with lectin at a final concentration of 2 mg/ml. These agglutinates contain urinary exosomes and may be pelleted by centrifugation with a relatively low G-force. The analysis of PC-related miRNA in urinary exosomes revealed significant up-regulation of miR-574-3p, miR-141-5p, and miR-21-5p associated with PC. Lectin-induced aggregation is a

  15. Comparison of manual and automated nucleic acid isolation methods for HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA assays.

    PubMed

    Yagmur, Gulhan; Altun, Hatice Uludag; Gökahmetoglu, Selma; Basok, Ela

    2015-09-01

    In the diagnosis and monitoring of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, it is important to use methods that can provide rapid and reliable results. The present study aimed to compare the automated and manual extraction methods during the nucleic acid isolation phase for HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA assays. The study included 93 serum samples, 49 of which were for the HBV-DNA assay and 44 for the HCV-RNA assay. DNA and RNA isolation from the samples was performed manually with a "QIAmpMin Elute Kit" (Qiagen, Germany) and the automated isolation system, NucliSens easyMAG (BioMérieux, France). All the extraction products were amplified using the iCycler device (Bio-Rad, USA). With both methods, compliance was found in 21 (42.8%) samples in the HBV-DNA assay; nine (18.3%) samples had a higher amount of viral nucleic acid with the manual method, whereas 19 samples (38.7%) were found to have a higher amount of nucleic acid with the automated system. For the HCV-RNA assay, total compliance was found in 31 (70.4%) samples; 12 (27.2%) samples had a higher amount of viral nucleic acid with the manual method whereas one sample (2.2%) was found to have a higher amount of nucleic acid with the automated system. It was concluded that the NucliSens easyMAG automated isolation system can be used with confidence for nucleic acid extraction due to its higher sensitivity, providing results in a shorter time, and assured standardization.

  16. Fast and Simplified Method for High Through-put Isolation of miRNA from Highly Purified High Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Seneshaw, Mulugeta; Mirshahi, Faridoddin; Min, Hae-Ki; Asgharpour, Amon; Mirshahi, Shervin; Daita, Kalyani; Boyett, Sherry; Santhekadur, Prasanna K.; Fuchs, Michael; Sanyal, Arun J.

    2016-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in a variety of human diseases including metabolic syndromes. They may be utilized as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis or may serve as targets for drug development, respectively. Recently it has been shown that miRNAs are carried in lipoproteins, particularly high density lipoproteins (HDL) and are delivered to recipient cells for uptake. This raises the possibility that miRNAs play a critical and pivotal role in cellular and organ function via regulation of gene expression as well as messenger for cell-cell communications and crosstalk between organs. Current methods for miRNA isolation from purified HDL are impractical when utilizing small samples on a large scale. This is largely due to the time consuming and laborious methods used for lipoprotein isolation. We have developed a simplified approach to rapidly isolate purified HDL suitable for miRNA analysis from plasma samples. This method should facilitate investigations into the role of miRNAs in health and disease and in particular provide new insights into the variety of biological functions, outside of the reverse cholesterol transport, that have been ascribed to HDL. Also, the miRNA species which are present in HDL can provide valuable information of clinical biomarkers for diagnosis of various diseases. PMID:27501005

  17. A quick, efficient, and cost-effective method for isolating high-quality total RNA from tomato fruits, suitable for molecular biology studies.

    PubMed

    Sabzevari, Alireza Ghannad; Hosseini, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the primary model for the study of fleshy fruits, and research on this species has elucidated many aspects of fruit physiology, development, and metabolism. However, for advancing such studies at molecular biology levels, the RNA isolation from fruit tissues is often essential. The RNA isolation from tomato fruits is complicated because of the presence of high levels of polysaccharides, polyphenolics, pigments, and secondary metabolites and also the varying water content during development. Here, we present an optimized protocol for the isolation of total RNA from the fruit tissues at different developmental stages. In comparison to the previous methods described for the RNA isolation from tomato fruit, this method has the advantages that it does not involve the use of guanidine salts, lyophilizers, and commercial reagents, reduces the time and cost of extraction, overcomes the high water content problem, and promotes RNA quality by inhibiting RNA degradation and minimizing the gDNA, polyphenolic and polysaccharide contaminations. Using this method, high yields of high-purity and intact RNA samples were obtained as confirmed by the spectrophotometric readings and the electrophoresis on denaturing agarose gels. The isolated RNA was employed as a robust template for cDNA synthesis, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and temporal gene expression analysis. The functionality of the isolated RNA was further demonstrated through cloning full-length cDNAs encoding β-galactosidase proteins by RT-PCR and sequencing.

  18. A Unique Method for Isolation and Solubilization of Proteins after Extraction of RNA from Tumor Tissue Using Trizol

    PubMed Central

    Likhite, Neah; Warawdekar, Ujjwala M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a systems approach to study tumor tissue. The importance of concurrent extraction of RNA, DNA, and protein is evident when genetic aberrations and the differences in the proteome and transcriptome have to be correlated. The need is magnified, as the tissue available for study is miniscule, is shared amongst investigators, and needs to support the holistic approach. Trizol is a monophasic solution of phenol and guanidine isothiocyanate and can be used to isolate the three biomolecules simultaneously. Trizol solution was used for RNA extraction in an ongoing study about expression of molecular markers in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and breast tumor tissue. After isolation of RNA, the remaining Trizol fraction was stored at −80°C for over 6 months. We have shown the extraction of protein from 17 tumor and adjacent, normal tissue samples and PBMC obtained from four blood samples. The isolation and solubilization of the protein fraction were done according to the product information using isopropanol for precipitation and guanidine hydrochloride and SDS for washing and solubilization, respectively, modifying the time of solubilization. The protein was estimated by the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method and analyzed on polyacrylamide gels. Staining showed a wide repertoire, and Western blotting confirmed extraction of cytokeratins (CK) and DNA repair proteins. Whereas tissue samples in which the RNA was degraded could be assessed by the presence of the protein salvaging the marker analysis, it was seen that nuclear proteins cannot be retrieved and are probably lost with the DNA fraction. PMID:21455480

  19. Comparison of different methods of RNA isolation for plum pox virus detection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Faggioli, F; Pasquini, G; Barba, M

    1998-09-01

    The diagnosis of plum pox virus (PPV) is still considered one of the most important aspects of the "sharka" problem. In fact, different studies demonstrated an uneven distribution of the virus in infected trees due to a high variability in virus concentration. These aspects complicate the PPV diagnosis. To date, biological, serological and molecular assays have been successively developed in order to obtain sensitive and efficient PPV detection techniques. In particular, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique seems to be promising and can be considered the most sensitive and reliable one. Preparation of viral RNA is still a fundamental step in reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) technique, especially when applied to large scale testing, i.e., for certification purposes. In order to find the most rapid and efficient procedure, we have compared three different procedures of extraction of viral RNA to be processed RT-PCR. Their common characteristics is their capacity to extract the RNA from a small amount of plant tissue without organic solvents in the extraction fluid. The procedures were as follows: an immuno-capture (IC) method using a specific antiserum, a silica-capture (SC) method using a non-specific matrix, and a simple and rapid RNA extraction (RE) method. They all were followed by one-tube RT-PCR. The obtained results show that all the three techniques allowed a successful amplification and detection of PPV in tested samples except the SC-PCR method which proved less effective. In fact, the IC-PCR and RE-PCR methods amplified and detected PPV in all isolates tested, while the SC-PCR method was able to reveal the presence of the virus in apricot and infected control samples only.

  20. Nuclear RNA Isolation and Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, Navroop K; Mitchell, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Most transcriptome studies involve sequencing and quantification of steady-state mRNA by isolating and sequencing poly (A) RNA. Although this type of sequencing data is informative to determine steady-state mRNA levels it does not provide information on transcriptional output and thus may not always reflect changes in transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Furthermore, sequencing poly (A) RNA may miss transcribed regions of the genome not usually modified by polyadenylation which includes many long noncoding RNAs. Here, we describe nuclear-RNA sequencing (nucRNA-seq) which investigates the transcriptional landscape through sequencing and quantification of nuclear RNAs which are both unspliced and spliced transcripts for protein-coding genes and nuclear-retained long noncoding RNAs.

  1. A Robust Plant RNA Isolation Method for Affymetrix Genechip® Analysis and Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microarray analysis and quantitative real-time RT-PCR are the major high-throughput techniques that are used to study transcript profiles. One of the major limitations in these technologies is the isolation maximum yield of highly-pure RNA from plant tissues rich in complex polysaccharides, polyphen...

  2. Total rRNA-Seq Analysis Gives Insight into Bacterial, Fungal, Protozoal and Archaeal Communities in the Rumen Using an Optimized RNA Isolation Method.

    PubMed

    Elekwachi, Chijioke O; Wang, Zuo; Wu, Xiaofeng; Rabee, Alaa; Forster, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Advances in high throughput, next generation sequencing technologies have allowed an in-depth examination of biological environments and phenomena, and are particularly useful for culture-independent microbial community studies. Recently the use of RNA for metatranscriptomic studies has been used to elucidate the role of active microbes in the environment. Extraction of RNA of appropriate quality is critical in these experiments and TRIzol reagent is often used for maintaining stability of RNA molecules during extraction. However, for studies using rumen content there is no consensus on (1) the amount of rumen digesta to use or (2) the amount of TRIzol reagent to be used in RNA extraction procedures. This study evaluated the effect of using various quantities of ground rumen digesta and of TRIzol reagent on the yield and quality of extracted RNA. It also investigated the possibility of using lower masses of solid-phase rumen digesta and lower amounts of TRIzol reagent than is used currently, for extraction of RNA for metatranscriptomic studies. We found that high quality RNA could be isolated from 2 g of ground rumen digesta sample, whilst using 0.6 g of ground matter for RNA extraction and using 3 mL (a 5:1 TRIzol : extraction mass ratio) of TRIzol reagent. This represents a significant savings in the cost of RNA isolation. These lower masses and volumes were then applied in the RNA-Seq analysis of solid-phase rumen samples obtained from 6 Angus X Hereford beef heifers which had been fed a high forage diet (comprised of barley straw in a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 70:30) for 102 days. A bioinformatics analysis pipeline was developed in-house that generated relative abundance values of archaea, protozoa, fungi and bacteria in the rumen and also allowed the extraction of individual rRNA variable regions that could be analyzed in downstream molecular ecology programs. The average relative abundances of rRNA transcripts of archaea, bacteria, protozoa and fungi in

  3. Comparative analyses of phenotypic methods and 16S rRNA, khe, rpoB genes sequencing for identification of clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    He, Yanxia; Guo, Xianguang; Xiang, Shifei; Li, Jiao; Li, Xiaoqin; Xiang, Hui; He, Jinlei; Chen, Dali; Chen, Jianping

    2016-07-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate 16S rRNA, khe and rpoB gene sequencing for the identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae in comparison with phenotypic methods. Fifteen clinical isolates were examined, which were initially identified as K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae using the automated VITEK 32 system in two hospitals in Enshi City, China. Their identity was further supported by conventional phenotypic methods on the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics. Using Bayesian phylogenetic analyses and haplotypes network reconstruction, 13 isolates were identified as K. pneumoniae, whereas the other two isolates (K19, K24) were classified as Shigella sp. and Enterobacter sp., respectively. Of the three genes, 16S rRNA and khe gene could discriminate the clinical isolates at the genus level, whereas rpoB could discriminate Klebsiella at the species and even subspecies level. Overall, the gene tree based on rpoB is more compatible with the currently accepted classification of Klebsiella than those based on 16S rRNA and khe genes, showing that rpoB can be a powerful tool for identification of K. pneumoniae isolates. Above all, our study challenges the utility of khe as a species-specific marker for identification of K. pneumoniae.

  4. RNA isolation and fractionation with compaction agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J. C.; Fox, G. E.; Willson, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    A new approach to the isolation of RNA from bacterial lysates employs selective precipitation by compaction agents, such as hexammine cobalt and spermidine. Using 3.5 mM hexammine cobalt, total RNA can be selectively precipitated from a cell lysate. At a concentration of 2 mM hexammine cobalt, rRNA can be fractionated from low molecular weight RNA. The resulting RNA mixture is readily resolved to pure 5S and mixed 16S/23S rRNA by nondenaturing anion-exchange chromatography. Using a second stage of precipitation at 8 mM hexammine cobalt, the low molecular weight RNA fraction can be isolated by precipitation. Compaction precipitation was also applied to the purification of an artificial stable RNA derived from Escherichia coli 5S rRNA and to the isolation of an Escherichia coli-expressed ribozyme. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  5. RNA isolation and fractionation with compaction agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J. C.; Fox, G. E.; Willson, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    A new approach to the isolation of RNA from bacterial lysates employs selective precipitation by compaction agents, such as hexammine cobalt and spermidine. Using 3.5 mM hexammine cobalt, total RNA can be selectively precipitated from a cell lysate. At a concentration of 2 mM hexammine cobalt, rRNA can be fractionated from low molecular weight RNA. The resulting RNA mixture is readily resolved to pure 5S and mixed 16S/23S rRNA by nondenaturing anion-exchange chromatography. Using a second stage of precipitation at 8 mM hexammine cobalt, the low molecular weight RNA fraction can be isolated by precipitation. Compaction precipitation was also applied to the purification of an artificial stable RNA derived from Escherichia coli 5S rRNA and to the isolation of an Escherichia coli-expressed ribozyme. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  6. Focus on RNA isolation: obtaining RNA for microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling analyses of neural tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wang-Xia; Rajeev, Bernard W.; Baldwin, Donald A.; Isett, R. Benjamin; Ren, Na; Stromberg, Arnold; Nelson, Peter T.

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are present in all known plant and animal tissues and appear to be somewhat concentrated in the mammalian nervous system. Many different miRNA expression profiling platforms have been described. However, relatively little research has been published to establish the importance of ‘upstream’ variables in RNA isolation for neural miRNA expression profiling. We tested whether apparent changes in miRNA expression profiles may be associated with tissue processing, RNA isolation techniques, or different cell types in the sample. RNA isolation was performed on a single brain sample using eight different RNA isolation methods, and results were correlated using a conventional miRNA microarray and then cross-referenced to Northern blots. Differing results were seen between samples obtained using different RNA isolation techniques and between microarray and Northern blot results. Another complication of miRNA microarrays is tissue-level heterogeneity of cellular composition. To investigate this phenomenon, miRNA expression profiles were determined and compared between highly-purified primary cerebral cortical cell preparations of rat primary E15–E18 neurons versus rat primary E15–E18 astrocytes. Finally, to assess the importance of dissecting human brain gray matter from subjacent white matter in cerebral cortical studies, miRNA expression profiles were compared between gray matter and immediately contiguous white matter. The results suggest that for microarray studies, cellular composition is important, and dissecting white matter from gray matter improves the specificity of the results. Based on these data, recommendations for miRNA expression profiling in neural tissues, and considerations worthy of further study, are discussed. PMID:18316046

  7. The isolation of RNA from raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruit.

    PubMed

    Jones, C S; Iannetta, P P; Woodhead, M; Davies, H V; McNicol, R J; Taylor, M A

    1997-12-01

    Previous attempts to extract high-quality, total RNA from raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruits using published protocols have proven to be unsuccessful. Even the use of protocols developed for the extraction of RNA from other fruit tissue has resulted in low yields (1) or the isolation of degraded RNA (2). Here, we report on the development of a quick and simple method of extracting total RNA from raspberry fruit. Using this method, high yields of good quality, undegraded RNA were obtained from fruit at all stages of ripening. The RNA is of sufficient quality for northern analysis and cDNA library construction.

  8. New method for RNA isolation from actinomycetes: application to the transcriptional analysis of the alcohol oxidoreductase gene thcE in Rhodococcus and Mycobacterium.

    PubMed

    Nagy, I; Schoofs, G; De Schrijver, A; Vanderleyden, J; De Mot, R

    1997-07-01

    A new protocol for the isolation of RNA from Rhodococcus and other actinomycetes such as Mycobacterium and Amycolatopsis was developed. The method is based on rapid lysis of cells in a high-speed reciprocal shaker using small abrasive particles followed by spin column purification of the lysate. This quick procedure yields RNA preparations suitable for functional studies. This was shown for the thcE gene of R. erythropolis NI86/21, which encodes a N,N'-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline-dependent alcohol oxidoreductase. The thcE transcript was detected by Northern hybridization in R. erythropolis, R. fascians, Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum and Mycobacterium smegmatis. The transcriptional start point of the gene was determined by primer extension of the R. erythropolis mRNA.

  9. Protocol for miRNA isolation from biofluids.

    PubMed

    Lekchnov, Evgeny A; Zaporozhchenko, Ivan A; Morozkin, Evgeny S; Bryzgunova, Olga E; Vlassov, Valentin V; Laktionov, Pavel P

    2016-04-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as promising biomarkers in cancer and other diseases. Packaging of miRNAs into vesicles and complexes with proteins ensures their stability in biological fluids but also complicates their isolation. Conventional protocols used to isolate cell-free RNA are generally successful in overcoming these difficulties; however, they are costly, labor-intensive, or heavily reliant on the use of hazardous chemicals. Here we describe a protocol that is suitable for isolating miRNAs from biofluids, including blood plasma and urine. The protocol is based on precipitation of proteins, denaturation of miRNA-containing complexes with octanoic acid and guanidine isothiocyanate, and subsequent purification of miRNA on spin columns. The efficacy of miRNA extraction by phenol-chloroform extraction, miRCURY RNA isolation kit--biofluids (Exiqon), and the proposed protocol was compared by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR of miR-16 and miR-126. The proposed protocol was slightly more effective for isolating miRNA from plasma and significantly superior to the other two methods for miRNA isolation from urine. Spectrophotometry and SDS-PAGE data suggest that the disparity in performance between miRCURY Biofluids and the proposed protocol can be attributed to differences in precipitation mechanisms, as confirmed by the retention of different proteins in the supernatant.

  10. In situ dissection of RNA functional subunits by domain-specific chromatin isolation by RNA purification (dChIRP).

    PubMed

    Quinn, Jeffrey J; Chang, Howard Y

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe domain-specific chromatin isolation by RNA purification (dChIRP), a technique for dissecting the functional domains of a target RNA in situ. For an RNA of interest, dChIRP can identify domain-level intramolecular and intermolecular RNA-RNA, RNA-protein, and RNA-DNA interactions and maps the RNA's genomic binding sites with higher precision than domain-agnostic methods. We illustrate how this technique has been applied to the roX1 lncRNA to resolve its domain-level architecture, discover its protein- and chromatin-interacting domains, and map its occupancy on the X chromosome.

  11. A waterbath method for preparation of RNA from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Liu, Juan; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Lei; Chen, Qiang; Zhao, Weiming

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a simple and efficient method for the preparation of total RNA from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast cells were incubated at 65 degrees C for 5 min in yeast RNA isolation buffer (10 mM EDTA, 50mM Tris-HCl, 5% SDS, pH 6.0), and the RNA was isolated and purified. The yield and quality of the isolated RNA was consistently high, and the isolated RNA was suitable for downstream applications, such as Northern blot hybridization and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR).

  12. Mycobacterial RNA isolation optimized for non-coding RNA: high fidelity isolation of 5S rRNA from Mycobacterium bovis BCG reveals novel post-transcriptional processing and a complete spectrum of modified ribonucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Hia, Fabian; Chionh, Yok Hian; Pang, Yan Ling Joy; DeMott, Michael S.; McBee, Megan E.; Dedon, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in the study of mycobacterial RNA biology is the lack of a comprehensive RNA isolation method that overcomes the unusual cell wall to faithfully yield the full spectrum of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) species. Here, we describe a simple and robust procedure optimized for the isolation of total ncRNA, including 5S, 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and tRNA, from mycobacteria, using Mycobacterium bovis BCG to illustrate the method. Based on a combination of mechanical disruption and liquid and solid-phase technologies, the method produces all major species of ncRNA in high yield and with high integrity, enabling direct chemical and sequence analysis of the ncRNA species. The reproducibility of the method with BCG was evident in bioanalyzer electrophoretic analysis of isolated RNA, which revealed quantitatively significant differences in the ncRNA profiles of exponentially growing and non-replicating hypoxic bacilli. The method also overcame an historical inconsistency in 5S rRNA isolation, with direct sequencing revealing a novel post-transcriptional processing of 5S rRNA to its functional form and with chemical analysis revealing seven post-transcriptional ribonucleoside modifications in the 5S rRNA. This optimized RNA isolation procedure thus provides a means to more rigorously explore the biology of ncRNA species in mycobacteria. PMID:25539917

  13. Mycobacterial RNA isolation optimized for non-coding RNA: high fidelity isolation of 5S rRNA from Mycobacterium bovis BCG reveals novel post-transcriptional processing and a complete spectrum of modified ribonucleosides.

    PubMed

    Hia, Fabian; Chionh, Yok Hian; Pang, Yan Ling Joy; DeMott, Michael S; McBee, Megan E; Dedon, Peter C

    2015-03-11

    A major challenge in the study of mycobacterial RNA biology is the lack of a comprehensive RNA isolation method that overcomes the unusual cell wall to faithfully yield the full spectrum of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) species. Here, we describe a simple and robust procedure optimized for the isolation of total ncRNA, including 5S, 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and tRNA, from mycobacteria, using Mycobacterium bovis BCG to illustrate the method. Based on a combination of mechanical disruption and liquid and solid-phase technologies, the method produces all major species of ncRNA in high yield and with high integrity, enabling direct chemical and sequence analysis of the ncRNA species. The reproducibility of the method with BCG was evident in bioanalyzer electrophoretic analysis of isolated RNA, which revealed quantitatively significant differences in the ncRNA profiles of exponentially growing and non-replicating hypoxic bacilli. The method also overcame an historical inconsistency in 5S rRNA isolation, with direct sequencing revealing a novel post-transcriptional processing of 5S rRNA to its functional form and with chemical analysis revealing seven post-transcriptional ribonucleoside modifications in the 5S rRNA. This optimized RNA isolation procedure thus provides a means to more rigorously explore the biology of ncRNA species in mycobacteria. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. [RNA isolation from bloodstains collected on FTA cards - application in clinical and forensic genetics].

    PubMed

    Skonieczna, Katarzyna; Styczyński, Jan; Krenska, Anna; Wysocki, Mariusz; Jakubowska, Aneta; Grzybowski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study: In recent years, RNA analysis has been increasingly used in clinical and forensic genetics. Nevertheless, a major limitation of RNA-based applications is very low RNA stability in biological material, due to the RNAse activity. This highlights the need for improving the methods of RNA collection and storage. Technological approaches such as FTA Classic Cards (Whatman) could provide a solution for the problem of RNA degradation. However, different methods of RNA isolation from FTA cards could have diverse effects on RNA quantity and quality. The purpose of this research was to analyze the utility of three different methods of RNA isolation from peripheral blood collected on FTA Classic Cards (Whatman). The study also aimed at assessing RNA stability in bloodstains deposited on FTA cards. Material and methods: The study was performed on peripheral bloodstains collected from 59 individuals on FTA Classic Cards (Whatman). RNA was isolated with High Pure RNA Isolation Kit (Roche Diagnostics), Universal RNA/miRNA Purification (EURx) and TRIzol Reagent (Life Technologies). RNA was subjected to quantitative analysis followed by reverse transcription and Real - Time PCR reaction. Results: The study has shown that FTA Classic Cards (Whatman) are useful tools for storing bloodstains at room temperature for RNA analysis. Moreover, the method of RNA extraction employing TRIzol Reagent (Life Technologies) provides the highest efficiency and reproducibility for samples stored for no more than 2 years. Conclusions: The FTA cards are suitable for collecting and storing bloodstains for RNA analysis in clinical and forensic genetics.

  15. New quick method for isolating RNA from laser captured cells stained by immunofluorescent immunohistochemistry; RNA suitable for direct use in fluorogenic TaqMan one-step real-time RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Kenji; Lucero, Ginger; Ackermann, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a new approach for reliably isolating one-step real-time quantitative RT-PCR-quality RNA from laser captured cells retrieved from frozen sections previously subjected to immunofluorescent immunohistochemistry (IF-IHC) and subsequently subjected to fluorogenic one-step real-time RT-PCR analysis without the need for costly, time-consuming linear amplification. One cell’s worth of RNA can now be interrogated with confidence. This approach represents an amalgam of technologies already offered commercially by Applied Biosystems, Arcturus and Invitrogen. It is the primary focus of this communication to expose the details and execution of an important new LCM RNA isolation technique, but also provide a detailed account of the IF-IHC procedure preceding RNA isolation, and provide information regarding our approach to fluorogenic one-step real-time RT-PCR in general. Experimental results shown here are meant to supplement the primary aim and are not intended to represent a complete scientific study. It is important to mention, that since LCM-RT-PCR is still far less expensive than micro-array analysis, we feel this approach to isolating RNA from LCM samples will be of continuing use to many researchers with limited budgets in the years ahead. PMID:16136226

  16. Optimization and comparison of different methods for RNA isolation for cDNA library construction from the reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina.

    PubMed

    Junttila, Sini; Lim, Kean-Jin; Rudd, Stephen

    2009-10-05

    The reindeer lichen is the product of a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and an algae. Lichen demonstrate a remarkable capacity to tolerate dehydration. This tolerance is driven by a variety of biochemical processes and the accumulation of specific secondary metabolites that may be of relevance to the pharmaceutical, biotechnology and agriculture industries. These protective metabolites hinder in vitro enzymatic reactions required in cDNA synthesis. Along with the low concentrations of RNA present within lichen tissues, the process of creating a cDNA library is technically challenging. An evaluation of existing commercial and published protocols for RNA extraction from plant or fungal tissues has been performed and experimental conditions have been optimised to balance the need for the highest quality total ribonucleotides and the constraints of budget, time and human resources. We present a protocol that balances inexpensive RNA extraction methods with commercial RNA clean-up kits to yield sufficient RNA for cDNA library construction. Evaluation of the protocol and the construction of, and sampling from, a cDNA library is used to demonstrate the suitability of the RNA extraction method for expressed sequence tag production.

  17. Optimization and comparison of different methods for RNA isolation for cDNA library construction from the reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina

    PubMed Central

    Junttila, Sini; Lim, Kean-Jin; Rudd, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Background The reindeer lichen is the product of a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and an algae. Lichen demonstrate a remarkable capacity to tolerate dehydration. This tolerance is driven by a variety of biochemical processes and the accumulation of specific secondary metabolites that may be of relevance to the pharmaceutical, biotechnology and agriculture industries. These protective metabolites hinder in vitro enzymatic reactions required in cDNA synthesis. Along with the low concentrations of RNA present within lichen tissues, the process of creating a cDNA library is technically challenging. Findings An evaluation of existing commercial and published protocols for RNA extraction from plant or fungal tissues has been performed and experimental conditions have been optimised to balance the need for the highest quality total ribonucleotides and the constraints of budget, time and human resources. Conclusion We present a protocol that balances inexpensive RNA extraction methods with commercial RNA clean-up kits to yield sufficient RNA for cDNA library construction. Evaluation of the protocol and the construction of, and sampling from, a cDNA library is used to demonstrate the suitability of the RNA extraction method for expressed sequence tag production. PMID:19804636

  18. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  19. [Identification of 23 mycobacterial species by Invader assay with targeting 16S rRNA gene and ITS-1 region--comparison with DDH method in clinical isolates].

    PubMed

    Nagano, Makoto; Ichimura, Sadahiro; Ito, Nobuko; Tomii, Takayuki; Kazumi, Yuko; Takei, Katsuaki; Abe, Chiyoji; Sugawara, Isamu

    2008-07-01

    The Invader assay was developed to identify 23 mycobacterial species using probes derived from the species-specific region of the 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region, with minor modifications of our previous study. In the present study, we compared the identification capability between the Invader assay and DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) method. DDH is commonly used to identify non-tuberculosis mycobacterium in Japan and 636 clinical mycobacterial strains cultured on Ogawa slants were tested. The Invader assay could identify 615 (96.7%) of the 636 strains. The results contained 14 M.lentiflavum, 3 M. parascrofulaceum and 1 M. intermedium, which were undetectable with DDH method. On the other hand, DDH method could identify 580 (91.2%) strains with duplicate assay. Of 628 strains except 8 strains identified as a few species by Invader assay, 551 (87.7%) strains were identified as the same species by two methods. Discordant results were mainly recognized for the identification of M. gordonae, M. avium, M. lentiflavum and M. intracellurare. The results of other methods targeting 16S rRNA indicated correctness of the Invader assay. These results indicate that Invader assay could identify more correctly than DDH method and could identify about 97% of clinically important mycobacterium.

  20. An RNA isolation system for plant tissues rich in secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Ghawana, Sanjay; Paul, Asosii; Kumar, Hitesh; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Harsharan; Bhardwaj, Pardeep K; Rani, Arti; Singh, Ravi S; Raizada, Jyoti; Singh, Kashmir; Kumar, Sanjay

    2011-03-28

    Secondary metabolites are reported to interfere with the isolation of RNA particularly with the recipes that use guanidinium-based salt. Such interference was observed in isolation of RNA with medicinal plants rheum (Rheum australe) and arnebia (Arnebia euchroma). A rapid and less cumbersome system for isolation of RNA was essential to facilitate any study related to gene expression. An RNA isolation system free of guanidinium salt was developed that successfully isolated RNA from rheum and arnebia. The method took about 45 min and was successfully evaluated on twenty one tissues with varied secondary metabolites. The A260/280 ratio ranged between 1.8 - 2.0 with distinct 28 S and 18 S rRNA bands visible on a formaldehyde-agarose gel. The present manuscript describes a rapid protocol for isolation of RNA, which works well with all the tissues examined so far. The remarkable feature was the success in isolation of RNA with those tissues, wherein the most commonly used methods failed. Isolated RNA was amenable to downstream applications such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), differential display (DD), suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library construction, and northern hybridization.

  1. An RNA isolation system for plant tissues rich in secondary metabolites

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Secondary metabolites are reported to interfere with the isolation of RNA particularly with the recipes that use guanidinium-based salt. Such interference was observed in isolation of RNA with medicinal plants rheum (Rheum australe) and arnebia (Arnebia euchroma). A rapid and less cumbersome system for isolation of RNA was essential to facilitate any study related to gene expression. Findings An RNA isolation system free of guanidinium salt was developed that successfully isolated RNA from rheum and arnebia. The method took about 45 min and was successfully evaluated on twenty one tissues with varied secondary metabolites. The A260/280 ratio ranged between 1.8 - 2.0 with distinct 28 S and 18 S rRNA bands visible on a formaldehyde-agarose gel. Conclusions The present manuscript describes a rapid protocol for isolation of RNA, which works well with all the tissues examined so far. The remarkable feature was the success in isolation of RNA with those tissues, wherein the most commonly used methods failed. Isolated RNA was amenable to downstream applications such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), differential display (DD), suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library construction, and northern hybridization. PMID:21443767

  2. An alternative cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-based protocol for RNA isolation from blackberry (Rubus L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Q; Yu, H W; Wang, X R; Xie, X L; Yue, X Y; Tang, H R

    2012-06-29

    Isolation of high-quality RNA free of contaminants, such as polyphenols, proteins, plant secondary metabolites, and genomic DNA from plant tissues, is usually a challenging but crucial step for molecular analysis. We developed a novel protocol based on the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide method to isolate high-quality RNA from blackberry plant tissues, especially fruits. Most DNA was removed when acetic acid was utilized, before RNA precipitation. Thus, lithium chloride, a reagent widely used for RNA purification, was not needed. The isolation time was shortened to less than 3 h. The RNA was quite pure, with little DNA contamination. The quality of the RNA was assessed by spectrophotometric readings and electrophoresis on agarose gels. It was good enough for downstream enzymatic reactions, such as reverse transcription-PCR, cloning and real-time PCR assay. The method yielded an amount of total RNA comparable to previously described protocols.

  3. A new affinity approach to isolate Escherichia coli 6S RNA with histidine-chromatography.

    PubMed

    Martins, R; Queiroz, J A; Sousa, F

    2010-01-01

    6S RNA is an abundant non-coding RNA in Escherichia coli (E. coli), but its function has not been discovered until recently. The first advance on 6S RNA function was the demonstration of its ability to bind the σ(70)-holoenzyme form of RNA polymerase, inhibiting its activity and consequently the transcription process. The growing interest in the investigation of non-coding small RNAs (sRNA) calls for the development of new methods for isolation and purification of RNA. This work presents an optimized RNA extraction procedure and describes a new affinity chromatography method using a histidine support to specifically purify 6S RNA from other E. coli sRNA species. The RNA extraction procedure was optimized, and a high yield was obtained in the separation of sRNA and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) from total RNA (RNAt). This improved method takes advantage of its simplicity and significant cost reduction, since some complex operations have been eliminated. A purification strategy was also developed to separate 6S RNA from an sRNA mixture. Pure RNA can be advantageously obtained using the histidine-affinity chromatography method, aiming at its application to structural or functional studies. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Development of an efficient protocol of RNA isolation from recalcitrant tree tissues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuchu; Tian, Weimin; Li, Yinxin

    2008-01-01

    Isolation of RNA from recalcitrant tree tissues has been problematic due to large amounts of secondary metabolites and interfering compounds in their cells. We have developed an efficient RNA extraction method, which yielded high-quality RNA preparations from tissues of the lychee tree. The method reported here utilized EDTA, LSS, and CTAB to successfully inhibit RNase activities. It was found that a high ionic strength brought about by 2 M NaCl was necessary. In addition, secondary metabolites and other interfering compounds were effectively removed using sodium borate and PVPP under a deoxidized condition. The quality of purified RNA was tested by both RACE and Northern blotting analysis, ensuring that the RNA could be used for subsequent gene expression analysis. This method has been successfully applied to purify RNA from 15 other plant species. In conclusion, the protocol reported here is expected to have excellent applications for RNA isolation from recalcitrant plant tissues.

  5. Evaluation of DNA and RNA extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Edwin Shiaw, C S; Shiran, M S; Cheah, Y K; Tan, G C; Sabariah, A R

    2010-06-01

    This study was done to evaluate various DNA and RNA extractions from archival FFPE tissues. A total of 30 FFPE blocks from the years of 2004 to 2006 were assessed with each modified and adapted method. Extraction protocols evaluated include the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A), Chelex-100 extraction method (Method B), heat-induced retrieval in alkaline solution extraction method (Methods C and D) and one commercial FFPE DNA Extraction kit (Qiagen, Crawley, UK). For RNA extraction, 2 extraction protocols were evaluated including the enzymatic extraction method (Method 1), and Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2). Results show that the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A) is an efficient DNA extraction protocol, while for RNA extraction, the enzymatic method (Method 1) and the Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2) are equally efficient RNA extraction protocols.

  6. General screening procedure for RNA modificationless mutants: isolation of Escherichia coli strains with specific defects in RNA methylation.

    PubMed Central

    Björk, G R; Kjellin-Stråby, K

    1978-01-01

    A general method for the isolation of mutants of Escherichia coli that are defective in RNA modification is described. The method is based on the fact that RNA with specific undermodifications accumulates under nonpermissive growth conditions and that such a defect can be detected by remodification either in vivo at permissive conditions or in vitro. The method provides a means by which to study mutations affecting essential modification reactions. The usefulness of the method was demonstrated by the isolation of two rRNA and two tRNA methylation defective mutants. Both rRNA mutants accept methyl groups into their 23S rRNA in vitro. Analyses of in vitro methylated 23S rRNA from one of the mutants revealed the presence of several methylated nucleosides, of which 6-methyladenosine was the most abundant (40% of recovered radioactivity). In 23S rRNA from the other mutant, the only product formed in vitro was 5-methylcytidine. The tRNA mutants are characterized in the accompanying paper. Images PMID:342494

  7. Isolation of hepatitis C virus RNA from serum for reverse transcription-PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, F S; Thurmond, C; Mitchell, P S

    1994-01-01

    Standard multistep extraction and isolation of RNA for hepatitis C virus (HCV) reverse transcription (RT)-PCR are impractical for routine use in clinical laboratories. We compared three simple commercially available methods for RNA isolation (RNAzol B, TRISOLV, and ULTRASPEC; Biotecx Laboratories, Houston, Tex.) and a total nucleic acid isolation method (IsoQuick; MicroProbe Corp., Garden Grove, Calif.) for the recovery of HCV RNA from sera obtained from 12 viremic patients for RT-PCR. RNAzol B, TRISOLV, ULTRASPEC, and IsoQuick extraction methods detected 87.5, 79.2, 33.3, and 58.3% of the paired positive samples, respectively. The method used for isolation of RNA is an important concern when optimizing HCV RT-PCR. Images PMID:8150964

  8. RNA-protein interaction methods to study viral IRES elements.

    PubMed

    Francisco-Velilla, Rosario; Fernandez-Chamorro, Javier; Lozano, Gloria; Diaz-Toledano, Rosa; Martínez-Salas, Encarnación

    2015-12-01

    Translation control often takes place through the mRNA untranslated regions, involving direct interactions with RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Internal ribosome entry site elements (IRESs) are cis-acting RNA regions that promote translation initiation using a cap-independent mechanism. A subset of positive-strand RNA viruses harbor IRESs as a strategy to ensure efficient viral protein synthesis. IRESs are organized in modular structural domains with a division of functions. However, viral IRESs vary in nucleotide sequence, secondary RNA structure, and transacting factor requirements. Therefore, in-depth studies are needed to understand how distinct types of viral IRESs perform their function. In this review we describe methods to isolate and identify RNA-binding proteins important for IRES activity, and to study the impact of RNA structure and RNA-protein interactions on IRES activity.

  9. Improvements in immunoprecipitation of specific messenger RNA. Isolation of highly purified conalbumin mRNA in high yield.

    PubMed

    Payvar, F; Schimke, R T

    1979-11-01

    We have described previously procedures for the isolation of specific mRNA employing immunoprecipitation of polysomes. In spite of our success with ovalbumin mRNA in the chicken oviduct, we have had considerable difficulties in applying these same published techniques to the immunopurification of conalbumin mRNA, despite the fact that the chicken oviduct synthesizes up to 10% of protein as conalbumin. Here we describe a number of modifications and refinements which have proved essential in obtaining intact conalbumin mRNA in high purity and high yields. These refinements include: (a) improved purification of conalbumin in order to remove contaminating proteins that result in impure antibodies; (b) improved isolation of specific conalbumin antibody in high yields; (c) improved methods for reducing contamination by non-specific polysomes; (d) improved techniques for isolation of RNA from immunoprecipitates resulting in less degradation and higher recovery of conalbumin mRNA; (E) improved techniques for efficient translation of conalbumin mRNA involving treatment of the RNA with methylmercury prior to translation. We conclude that problems involved in the immunoprecipitation of different mRNAs may differ, and that various refinements in techniques may be required for obtaining highly purified preparations of intact mRNA in high yields.

  10. TU-tagging: cell type specific RNA isolation from intact complex tissues

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michael R.; Robinson, Kristin J.; Cleary, Michael D.; Doe, Chris Q.

    2009-01-01

    We show that the combination of spatially restricted uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) expression with 4-thiouracil (4TU) delivery can be used to label and purify cell type specific RNA from intact complex tissues in Drosophila melanogaster. This method is useful for isolating RNA from cell types that are difficult to isolate by dissection or dissociation methods and should work in many organisms, including mammals and other vertebrates. PMID:19430475

  11. Rapid isolation of mycoviral double-stranded RNA from Botrytis cinerea and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In most of the infected fungi, the mycoviruses are latent or cryptic, the infected fungus does not show disease symptoms, and it is phenotypically identical to a non-infected strain of the same species. Because of these properties, the initial stage in the search for fungi infected with mycoviruses is the detection of their viral genome, which in most of the described cases corresponds to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). So to analyze a large number of fungal isolates it is necessary to have a simple and rapid method to detect dsRNA. Results A rapid method to isolate dsRNA from a virus-infected filamentous fungus, Botrytis cinerea, and from a killer strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using commercial minicolumns packed with CF11 cellulose was developed. In addition to being a rapid method, it allows to use small quantities of yeasts or mycelium as starting material, being obtained sufficient dsRNA quantity that can later be analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, treated with enzymes for its partial characterization, amplified by RT-PCR and cloned in appropriate vectors for further sequencing. Conclusions The method yields high quality dsRNA, free from DNA and ssRNA. The use of nucleases to degrade the DNA or the ssRNA is not required, and it can be used to isolate dsRNA from any type of fungi or any biological sample that contains dsRNA. PMID:21262001

  12. Rapid isolation of mycoviral double-stranded RNA from Botrytis cinerea and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Antonio; Cottet, Luis; Castro, Miguel; Sepúlveda, Felipe

    2011-01-25

    In most of the infected fungi, the mycoviruses are latent or cryptic, the infected fungus does not show disease symptoms, and it is phenotypically identical to a non-infected strain of the same species. Because of these properties, the initial stage in the search for fungi infected with mycoviruses is the detection of their viral genome, which in most of the described cases corresponds to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). So to analyze a large number of fungal isolates it is necessary to have a simple and rapid method to detect dsRNA. A rapid method to isolate dsRNA from a virus-infected filamentous fungus, Botrytis cinerea, and from a killer strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using commercial minicolumns packed with CF11 cellulose was developed. In addition to being a rapid method, it allows to use small quantities of yeasts or mycelium as starting material, being obtained sufficient dsRNA quantity that can later be analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, treated with enzymes for its partial characterization, amplified by RT-PCR and cloned in appropriate vectors for further sequencing. The method yields high quality dsRNA, free from DNA and ssRNA. The use of nucleases to degrade the DNA or the ssRNA is not required, and it can be used to isolate dsRNA from any type of fungi or any biological sample that contains dsRNA.

  13. Rapid Isolation and Detection for RNA Biomarkers for TBI Diagnostics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    isolated exosomes ( red fluorescence), ccf-RNA (green fluorescence) and ccf-DNA (blue fluorescence). Glioblastoma-specific EGFRvIII mRNA from exosomes...AlexaFluor 594 or 488-conjugated secondary antibodies were incubated for an additional 90 minutes at room temperature (RT). Following the final wash...EGFR. 7 Figure 1 - DEP isolates PKH ( red )-dyed glioblastoma exosomes spiked into normal plasma and identified for the brain-specific

  14. Isolation of High-Quality Total RNA from Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhihui; Huang, Binlong; Xu, Shanshan; Chen, Yu; Li, Shubin; Lin, Sizu

    2015-01-01

    RNA isolation with RNA in a high quantity is a basic analytical method in plant genetics, molecular biology and related physiological investigations. To understand the genetic and molecular biology of Chinese fir, sufficient high-quality total RNA must be obtained for cDNA library construction and other downstream molecular applications. However, extracting RNA from Chinese fir is difficult and often requires the modification of existing protocols. Chinese fir tissues containing large amounts of polysaccharides and polyphenol compounds and are one of the most difficult plant tissues for RNA isolation. Therefore, we developed a simple method for extracting high-quality RNA from Chinese fir tissues. RNA isolations were performed within two hours, RNA quality was measured for yield and purity. Total RNA obtained from this procedure was successfully used for cDNA library construction, RT-PCR and transcriptome sequencing. It was proven that extracted RNA was intact and suitable for downstream molecular applications, including RT-PCR and qPCR, and other downstream molecular applications. Thus, this protocol represents a simple, efficient, and low-cost method. PMID:26083257

  15. Evaluations of methods for the isolation of high quality RNA from bovine and cervine hide biopsies for use in gene expression studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Molecular investigations of the ruminant response to ectoparasites at the parasite-host interface are critically dependent upon the quality of RNA. The complexity of ruminant skin decreases the capacity to obtain high quality RNA from biopsy samples, which directly affects the reliability of data pr...

  16. Immobilization of microalgae cells in alginate facilitates isolation of DNA and RNA.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Blanca R; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2017-04-01

    Isolation of nucleic acids from Chlorella is difficult, given the chemically complex nature of their cell walls and variable production of metabolites. Immobilization of microalgae in polymers adds additional difficulty. Here, we modified, amended, and standardized methods for isolation of nucleic acids and compared the yield of DNA and RNA from free-living and encapsulated microalgae C. sorokiniana. Isolation of nucleic acids from immobilized cells required two steps in dissolving the alginate matrix, releasing the cells, and mechanical disruption with glass beads. For DNA extraction, we used modified versions of a commercial kit along with the hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method. For RNA extraction, we used the commercial TRI reagent procedure and the CTAB-dithiotreitol method. Quantity and quality of nucleic acids in extracts varied with growth conditions, isolation procedures, and time of incubation of the original culture. There were consistently higher amounts of DNA and RNA in extracts from immobilized cells. Quantitatively, the modified procedure with the commercial Promega kit was the most reliable procedure for isolating DNA and a modified commercial TRI reagent procedure was the choice for isolating RNA. All four procedures eliminated proteins efficiently and had low levels of contamination from residual polysaccharides from the matrices and/or metabolites naturally produced by the microalgae. All DNA extracts under both growth conditions, time of incubation, and two isolation methods successfully amplified the 18S ribosomal RNA by PCR and quantitative reverse transcription (RT-qPCR).

  17. Isolation of microRNA from conjunctival impression cytology.

    PubMed

    Pilson, Qistina; Jefferies, Caroline A; Gabhann, Joan Ní; Murphy, Conor C

    2015-03-01

    Impression cytology (IC) is an easy and safe technique that has been used in the past for harvesting epithelial cells from the cornea and conjunctiva for various applications including histology, immunohistology and molecular studies. Previous investigations have shown the usage of different types of membranes for the purpose of investigating pathophysiology and staging of diseases. This contributes to a better understanding of ocular surface conditions and helps to provide information for diagnosis, therapeutic options and prognosis. Recently, there has been a shift of focus in research towards understanding the contribution of microRNAs (miRs) to ocular disease. Thus far, impression cytology has been explored for measuring gene expression but not for quantifying miR expression. This study describes how miRs and mRNA can be isolated from conjunctival epithelial cells obtained by impression cytology and determines the optimum membrane and technique for this purpose. The IC technique was optimized using Biopore, Immobilon-P(SQ) and Millicell Hanging Cell Culture Insert membranes on healthy controls. miRs and mRNAs were isolated from the conjunctival epithelial cells (CEC) obtained and measured. Biopore membrane provided the optimum yield of miRs (38.8 ng/μL ± 10.8) and mRNA (155.3 ng/μL ± 20.1) as well as subjectively found to be best tolerated with minimum discomfort. Appreciable levels of miRs and mRNAs were detected from the CEC from healthy controls, confirming that it is possible to isolate miR and mRNA from CEC. Here, we give a detailed description of the application of conjunctival impression cytology to isolate miRs and the convenience of the technique by using the best membrane available. This method can be readily adopted in both clinical and laboratory settings. This technique will facilitate the measurement of miRs to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of ocular surface conditions as well as potentially identifying novel therapeutic

  18. RNA isolation from loquat and other recalcitrant woody plants with high quality and yield.

    PubMed

    Morante-Carriel, Jaime; Sellés-Marchart, Susana; Martínez-Márquez, Ascensión; Martínez-Esteso, María José; Luque, Ignacio; Bru-Martínez, Roque

    2014-05-01

    RNA isolation is difficult in plants that contain large amounts of polysaccharides and polyphenol compounds. To date, no commercial kit has been developed for the isolation of high-quality RNA from tissues with these characteristics, especially for fruit. The common protocols for RNA isolation are tedious and usually result in poor yields when applied to recalcitrant plant tissues. Here an efficient RNA isolation protocol based on cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and two successive precipitations with 10 M lithium chloride (LiCl) was developed specifically for loquat fruits, but it was proved to work efficiently in other tissues of loquat and woody plants. The RNA isolated by this improved protocol was not only of high purity and integrity (A260/A280 ratios ranged from 1.90 to 2.04 and A260/A230 ratios were>2.0) but also of high yield (up to 720 μg on average [coefficient of variation=21%] total RNA per gram fresh tissue). The protocol was tested on loquat fruit (different stages of development, postharvest, ripening, and bruising), leaf, root, flower, stem, and bud; quince fruit and root; grapevine cells in liquid culture; and rose petals. The RNA obtained with this method is amenable to enzymatic treatments and can be efficiently applied for research on gene characterization, expression, and function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Release, Identification, and Isolation of Messenger RNA from Mammalian Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Blobel, Günter

    1971-01-01

    The puromycin-induced dissociation, at high ionic strength, of active ribosomes from reticulocytes resulted in the release of protein-free, apparently undegraded, messenger RNA for globin, which was identified by centrifugation on a sucrose density gradient. This procedure should make messenger RNA from various cells available for isolation on a large scale, and has several advantages over procedures that use detergents or magnesium chelators. PMID:5279524

  20. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing and molecular serotyping of Avibacterium paragallinarum isolated from Indian field conditions.

    PubMed

    Patil, Vihang Vithalrao; Mishra, Debendranath; Mane, Dilip Vithalrao

    2017-08-01

    This study was aimed at identifying Indian field isolates of Avibacterium paragallinarum on both molecular as well as serological levels that cause infectious coryza in chickens. Species-specific polymerase chain reaction (HPG-2 PCR), and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing were employed for molecular identification. Whereas, multiplex PCR technique was used for serological identification of Indian field isolates of A. paragallinarum. All three field isolates were identified as A. paragallinarum using HPG-2 PCR. The species-specific PCR results were validated using 16S rRNA sequencing. The partial 16S rRNA sequences obtained from all three isolates showed 96-99% homology with the NCBI database reference strains of A. paragallinarum. The aligned partial sequences of 16S rRNA were submitted to GenBank, and accession numbers were obtained. Multiplex PCR-based molecular serotyping showed that there are three serotypes of field isolates of A. paragallinarum, namely, strain IND101 is serovar A, strain IND102 is serovar B, and strain IND103 is serovar C. HPG-2 PCR, 16S rRNA sequencing, and multiplex PCR are proved to be more accurate, sensitive, and reliable diagnostic tools for molecular and serological identification of A. paragallinarum field isolates. These diagnostic methods can substitute conventional cultural characterization and would be much valuable to formulate quick and correct prevention and control measures against this detrimental poultry pathogen.

  1. Development of a simplified RT-PCR without RNA isolation for rapid detection of RNA viruses in a single small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén).

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiufang; Liu, Haoqiu; Yuan, Pingping; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Chen, Qingqing; Jiang, Xuanli; Zhou, Yijun

    2017-05-03

    The small brown planthopper (SBPH) is an important pest of cereal crops and acts as a transmission vector for multiple RNA viruses. Rapid diagnosis of virus in the vector is crucial for efficient forecast and control of viral disease. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for virus detection. The traditional RT-PCR contains a RNA isolation step and is widely used for virus detection in insect. However, using the traditional RT-PCR for detecting RNA virus in individual SBPHs becomes challenging because of the expensive reagents and laborious procedure associated with RNA isolation when processing a large number of samples. We established a simplified RT-PCR method without RNA isolation for RNA virus detection in a single SBPH. This method is achieved by grinding a single SBPH in sterile water and using the crude extract directly as the template for RT-PCR. The crude extract containing the virus RNA can be prepared in approximately two minutes. Rice stripe virus (RSV), rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) and Himetobi P virus (HiPV) were successfully detected using this simplified method. The detection results were validated by sequencing and dot immunobinding assay, indicating that this simplified method is reliable for detecting different viruses in insects. The evaluation of the sensitivity of this method showed that both RSV and HiPV can be detected when the cDNA from the crude extract was diluted up to 10(3) fold. Compared to the traditional RT-PCR with RNA isolation, the simplified RT-PCR method greatly reduces the sample processing time, decreases the detection cost, and improves the efficiency by avoiding RNA isolation. A simplified RT-PCR method is developed for rapid detection of RNA virus in a single SBPH without the laborious RNA isolation step. It offers a convenient alternative to the traditional RT-PCR method.

  2. Polyadenylated RNA isolated from the archaebacterium Halobacterium halobium

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.W.; Reeve, J.N.

    1986-05-01

    Polyadenylated (poly(A)/sup +/) RNA has been isolated from the halophilic archaebacterium Halobacterium halobium by binding, at 4/sup 0/C, to oligo(dT)-cellulose. H. halobium contains approximately 12 times more poly(A) per unit of RNA than does the methanogenic archaebacterium Methanococcus vannielii. The 3' poly(A) tracts in poly(A)/sup +/ RNA molecules are approximately twice as long (average length of 20 nucleotides) in H. halobium as in M. vannielii. In both archaebacterial species, poly(A)/sup +/ RNAs are unstable.

  3. Rapid Isolation and Detection for RNA Biomarkers for TBI Diagnostics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Our project work is focused on using a new dielectrophoresis (DEP) microarray technology for rapid isolation and detection of brain -specific RNA and... brain -specific mRNAs, miRNAs and other biomarkers. We have been successful in demonstrating DEP isolation of glioblastoma exosomes from 50 L of un...for detection and accurate diagnosis of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in point-of-care (POC) settings pose an ongoing capability gap. For soldiers in

  4. Isolation and characterization of RNA from low-biomass deep-subsurface sediments.

    PubMed Central

    Ogram, A; Sun, W; Brockman, F J; Fredrickson, J K

    1995-01-01

    Three methods for the isolation of microbial RNA from low-biomass deep-subsurface sediments have been developed and evaluated. RNA was isolated from samples taken from depths ranging from 173 to 217 m, and samples represented a variety of lithologies, including lacustrine, fluvial sand, and paleosol sediments. Cell numbers in these samples were estimated to be between log 4.0 and log 5.1/g on the basis of phospholipid fatty acid analysis. The most efficient method examined is based on the direct lysis of microbial cells followed by the extraction of RNA with alkaline phosphate buffers and subsequent inactivation of nucleases by extraction with guanidinium isothiocyanate. Estimated recoveries of mRNA for this method are approximately 26%. The recovered RNA included both mRNA and rRNA, as evidenced by the detection of sequences homologous to transcripts from the toluene-4-monooxygenase gene of Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic rRNA. An unexpectedly high relative concentration of archaeal rRNA (22 to 40%) was observed for these samples. PMID:7574612

  5. Techniques for the isolation of high-quality RNA from cells encapsulated in chitosan hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Yu, Claire; Young, Stuart; Russo, Valerio; Amsden, Brian G; Flynn, Lauren E

    2013-11-01

    Extracting high-quality RNA from hydrogels containing polysaccharide components is challenging, as traditional RNA isolation techniques designed for cells and tissues can have limited yields and purity due to physiochemical interactions between the nucleic acids and the biomaterials. In this study, a comparative analysis of several different RNA isolation methods was performed on human adipose-derived stem cells photo-encapsulated within methacrylated glycol chitosan hydrogels. The results demonstrated that RNA isolation methods with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) buffer followed by purification with an RNeasy® mini kit resulted in low yields of RNA, except when the samples were preminced directly within the buffer. In addition, genomic DNA contamination during reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was observed in the hydrogels processed with the CTAB-based methods. Isolation methods using TRIzol® in combination with one of a Qiaex® gel extraction kit, an RNeasy® mini kit, or an extended solvent purification method extracted RNA suitable for gene amplification, with no evidence of genomic contamination. The latter two methods yielded the best results in terms of yield and amplification efficiency. Predigestion of the scaffolds with lysozyme was investigated as a possible means of enhancing RNA extraction from the polysaccharide gels, with no improvements observed in terms of the purity, yield, or amplification efficiency. Overall, this work highlights the application of a TRIzol®+extended solvent purification method for optimizing RNA extraction that can be applied to obtain reliable and accurate gene expression data in studies investigating cells seeded in chitosan-based scaffolds.

  6. Isolation of high quality RNA from cereal seeds containing high levels of starch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guifeng; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wang, Fang; Song, Rentao

    2012-01-01

    Cereals are an important source of food, feed and fuel with a rapidly increasing global demand. However, cereal seeds contain high levels of starch and polysaccharides, making the isolation of high quality RNA extremely difficult. To develop a novel method for extracting high quality total RNA from various starch- and polysaccharides-rich cereal seeds, such as maize, rice, sorghum and wheat. We developed a modified sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)/TRIzol method. The combined use of a Tris buffer (pH 9.0) and SDS before TRIzol extraction effectively resolved the problem of seed homogenate solidification in such a buffer. A high concentration of SDS was used separately, not only to promote cell lysis but also to effectively dissolve seed sample containing high levels of starch. Moreover, acid phenol saturated with 0.1  M citrate buffer (pH 4.3) was used to separate RNA from DNAs, proteins and high levels of starch. This rapid protocol was compared with other RNA isolation methods preferentially used for plants rich in polysaccharides and secondary metabolites. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that the extracted total RNA had good integrity without apparent DNA contamination. Furthermore, an A₂₆₀/₂₈₀ ratio of approximately 2.0, an A₂₆₀/₂₃₀ ratio of more than 2.0 and RIN values of more than 8.6 indicated that the isolated RNA was of high purity. The isolated RNA was suitable for subsequent molecular manipulations, such as reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and real-time PCR. The study has described an easy, efficient and highly reproducible method for RNA isolation from various cereal seeds. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Riboprinting and 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing for Identification of Brewery Pediococcus Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Barney, Michael; Volgyi, Antonia; Navarro, Alfonso; Ryder, David

    2001-01-01

    A total of 46 brewery and 15 ATCC Pediococcus isolates were ribotyped using a Qualicon RiboPrinter. Of these, 41 isolates were identified as Pediococcus damnosus using EcoRI digestion. Three ATCC reference strains had patterns similar to each other and matched 17 of the brewery isolates. Six other brewing isolates were similar to ATCC 25249. The other 18 P. damnosus brewery isolates had unique patterns. Of the remaining brewing isolates, one was identified as P. parvulus, two were identified as P. acidilactici, and two were identified as unique Pediococcus species. The use of alternate restriction endonucleases indicated that PstI and PvuII could further differentiate some strains having identical EcoRI profiles. An acid-resistant P. damnosus isolate could be distinguished from non-acid-resistant varieties of the same species using PstI instead of EcoRI. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was compared to riboprinting for identifying pediococci. The complete 16S rRNA gene was PCR amplified and sequenced from seven brewery isolates and three ATCC references with distinctive riboprint patterns. The 16S rRNA gene sequences from six different brewery P. damnosus isolates were homologous with a high degree of similarity to the GenBank reference strain but were identical to each other and one ATCC strain with the exception of 1 bp in one strain. A slime-producing, beer spoilage isolate had 16S rRNA gene sequence homology to the P. acidilactici reference strain, in agreement with the riboprint data. Although 16S rRNA gene sequencing correctly identified the genus and species of the test Pediococcus isolates, riboprinting proved to be a better method for subspecies differentiation. PMID:11157216

  8. RNA expression profiling from FACS-isolated cells of the Drosophila intestine.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Devanjali; Xiang, Jinyi; Edgar, Bruce A

    2013-11-13

    This unit describes a protocol for the isolation of Drosophila intestinal cell populations for the purpose of cell type-specific transcriptome profiling. A method to select a cell type of interest labeled with green or yellow fluorescent protein (GFP, YFP) by making use of the GAL4-UAS bipartite system and fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) is presented. Total RNA is isolated from the sorted cells and linear RNA amplification is used to obtain sufficient amounts of high-quality RNA for analysis by microarray, RT-PCR, or RNA sequencing. This method will be useful for quantitative transcriptome comparison across intestinal cell types under normal and various experimental conditions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. Direct isolation of specific RNA-interacting proteins using a novel affinity medium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ding-Gan; Sun, Li

    2005-08-26

    Isolation of proteins that specifically interact with a given RNA or RNA regulation element is essential for studies on the molecular mechanisms of gene expression. Here, a novel method for direct isolation of such interacting proteins is described. It uses an affinity medium that consists of an interacting RNA with an artificially added 'tail', which is annealed to one end of a DNA 'arm', the other end of which is fixed covalently on the surface of aminosilanized glass powder. Thus the RNA itself is fully suspending, facilitating its interactions with proteins in its natural conformation. The proteins bound on the interacting RNA are eluted and subjected to SDS-PAGE, and the Coomassie-stained protein bands are cut and subjected to mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Using this method, three proteins specifically interacting with the C/EBPbeta 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) RNA were isolated and identified. This method is simple and convenient, and the DNA-glass powder medium can be used repeatedly.

  10. Broad application of a simple and affordable protocol for isolating plant RNA.

    PubMed

    Couto, Daniel; Stransfeld, Lena; Arruabarrena, Ana; Zipfel, Cyril; Lozano-Durán, Rosa

    2015-04-16

    Standard molecular biological methods involve the analysis of gene expression in living organisms under diverse environmental and developmental conditions. One of the most direct approaches to quantify gene expression is the isolation of RNA. Most techniques used to quantify gene expression require the isolation of RNA, usually from a large number of samples. While most published protocols, including those for commercial reagents, are either labour intensive, use hazardous chemicals and/or are costly, a previously published protocol for RNA isolation in Arabidopsis thaliana yields high amounts of good quality RNA in a simple, safe and inexpensive manner. We have tested this protocol in tomato and wheat leaves, as well as in Arabidopsis leaves, and compared the resulting RNA to that obtained using a commercial phenol-based reagent. Our results demonstrate that this protocol is applicable to other plant species, including monocots, and offers yield and purity at least comparable to those provided by commercial phenol-based reagents. Here, we show that this previously published RNA isolation protocol can be easily extended to other plant species without further modification. Due to its simplicity and the use of inexpensive reagents, this protocol is accessible and affordable and can be easily implemented to work on different plant species in laboratories worldwide.

  11. Efficient isolation of high-quality RNA from lotus Nelumbo nucifera ssp nucifera tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y J; Hao, X Y; Liang, Z S; Ke, W D; Guo, H B

    2013-01-24

    Nelumbo nucifera is widely used as food, as an ornamental, in medicine, and as packing material; it is also reported to have anti-HIV effects and antioxidant capacity. We sought an improved method for extracting high-quality total RNA from different tissues of N. nucifera. Four methods for RNA extraction were assessed for their ability to recover high-quality RNA applicable for evaluation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene expression profiles. The recovery and quality of the RNA obtained from five different tissues by the best CTAB-LiCl method were evaluated through UV light absorbance. Both A(260)/A(280) and A(260)/A(230) absorbance ratios were more than 2.0; the yield ranged from 59.87 to 163.75 μg/g fresh weight. The brightness of the 28S band was approximately twice that of 18S; the latter was also considered as high-quality RNA. The PPO gene fragment (606 bp) was successfully amplified by RT-PCR, demonstrating the integrity of the isolated RNA. The relative expression levels of the PPO gene based on RT-PCR in five tissues of lotus were: rhizome buds (2.66), young leaves (2.42), fresh cut rhizome (2.02), petals (1.80), and petiole (1.65), using housekeeping gene β-actin as an internal control. We concluded that the total RNA isolated by this protocol is of sufficient quality for molecular applications.

  12. Isolation of functional RNA from plant tissues rich in phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Schneiderbauer, A; Sandermann, H; Ernst, D

    1991-08-15

    A method for the isolation of RNA from different tissues of trees (seedlings, saplings, and adult trees) is described. Using this procedure it is possible to remove large amounts of disturbing polyphenolic compounds from nucleic acids. The method involves an acetone treatment of the freeze-dried and powdered plant material, the use of high salt concentrations in the extraction buffer and an aqueous two-phase system. These steps were combined with the conventional phenol/chloroform extraction and CsCl centrifugation. The method has been successfully applied to the isolation and purification of RNA from pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus mugo Turr.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). The functional quality of RNA extracted by this procedure has been characterized by its uv spectrum, by agarose gel electrophoresis with ethidium bromide staining, Northern blot hybridization, and in vitro translation.

  13. High Quality RNA in Semen and Sperm: Isolation, Analysis and Potential Application in Clinical Testing

    PubMed Central

    Georgiadis, Andrew P.; Kishore, Archana; Zorrilla, Michelle; Jaffe, Thomas M.; Sanfilippo, Joseph S.; Volk, Etta; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Yatsenko, Alexander N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Male infertility is a complex health condition. To our knowledge there are no molecular biomarkers of male infertility. Sperm RNA is a potential biomarker for detecting sperm abnormalities and viability at infertility clinics. However, RNA use is hindered by its inconsistent quantity, quality, multiple cell types in semen and condensed sperm structure. Materials and Methods We tested the usefulness of high quality RNA isolated from mature sperm and whole semen by our protocol, which reduces RNA degradation by maintaining semen and protocol components at 37C and decreasing processing time. We isolated RNA from 83 whole semen samples, 18 samples of motile sperm prepared by the swim-up protocol and 18 of sperm prepared by the standard Percoll gradient method. Results Electrophoretic and spectral analysis of RNA revealed high quality 18S and 28S rRNAs in 71 of 83 whole semen samples (86%) and 15 of 18 mature sperm swim-up samples (83%). However, high quality RNA was isolated from only 7 of 18 Percoll gradient sperm samples (39%). Interestingly quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of 4 somatic and 10 germ cell markers showed that whole semen and swim-up samples had similar RNA profiles. RNA sequencing revealed that most encoded proteins were involved in mature sperm function, regulation of DNA replication, transcription, translation, cell cycle and embryo development. Conclusions We believe that semen and sperm specific RNAs are highly informative biomarkers for germ cell stages and somatic cell contribution. Therefore, these RNAs could be valuable diagnostic indicators of sperm survival, fertilization and early embryogenesis, and could serve as a predictor of the in vitro fertilization prognosis. PMID:25088949

  14. A modified precipitation method to isolate urinary exosomes.

    PubMed

    Kanchi Ravi, Rupesh; Khosroheidari, Mahdieh; DiStefano, Johanna K

    2015-01-16

    Identification of biomarkers that allow early detection of kidney diseases in urine and plasma has been an area of active interest for several years. Urinary exosome vesicles, 40-100 nm in size, are released into the urine under normal conditions by cells from all nephron segments and may contain protein, mRNA and microRNA representative of their cell type of origin. Under conditions of renal dysfunction or injury, exosomes may contain altered proportions of these components, which may serve as biomarkers for disease. There are currently several methods available for isolation of urinary exosomes, and we have previously conducted an experimental comparison of each of these approaches, including three based on ultracentrifugation, one using a nanomembrane ultrafiltration concentrator, one using a commercial precipitation reagent and one using a modification of the precipitation technique using ExoQuick reagent that we developed in our laboratory. We found the modified precipitation method produced the highest yield of exosome particles, miRNA, and mRNA, making this approach suitable for the isolation of exosomes for subsequent RNA profiling. We conclude that the modified exosome precipitation method offers a quick, scalable, and effective alternative for the isolation of exosomes from urine. In this report, we describe our modified precipitation technique using ExoQuick reagent for isolating exosomes from human urine.

  15. Simultaneous isolation of DNA, RNA, and proteins for genetic, epigenetic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Radpour, Ramin; Sikora, Michal; Grussenmeyer, Thomas; Kohler, Corina; Barekati, Zeinab; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Lefkovits, Ivan; Zhong, Xiao Yan

    2009-11-01

    Analysis of DNA, RNA, and proteins for downstream genetic, epigenetic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analysis holds an important place in the field of medical care and life science. This is often hampered by the limited availability of sample material. For this reason, there exists an increasing interest for simultaneous isolation of DNA, RNA and proteins from a single sample aliquot. Several kit-systems allowing such a procedure have been introduced to the market. We present an approach using the AllPrep method for simultaneous isolation of DNA, RNA and proteins from several human specimens, such as whole blood, buffy coat, serum, plasma and tissue samples. The quantification and qualification of the isolated molecular species were assessed by different downstream methods: NanoDrop for measuring concentration and purity of all molecular species; DNA and RNA LabChip for fractionation analysis of nucleic acids; quantitative PCR for quantification analysis of DNA and RNA; thymidine-specific cleavage mass array on MALDI-TOF silico-chip for epigenetic analysis; Protein LabChip and two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis for proteomic analysis. With our modified method, we can simultaneously isolate DNA, RNA and/or proteins from one single sample aliquot. We could overcome to some method limitations like low quality or DNA fragmentation using reamplification strategy for performing high-throughput downstream assays. Fast and easy performance of the procedure makes this method interesting for all fields of downstream analysis, especially when using limited sample resources. The cost-effectiveness of the procedure when material is abundantly available has not been addressed. This methodological improvement enables to execute such experiments that were not performable with standard procedure, and ensures reproducible outcome.

  16. Torsional vibration isolator and method

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, C.A.; Durrett, V.D.

    1986-10-21

    This patent describes a multicylinder internal combustion engine having a rotatable crankshaft and a rotatable flywheel which together define an inertial system rotating about a predetermined axis of rotation. An improvement is described here which facilitates avoiding destructive effects on the crankshaft of stress induced by torsional vibration. The method comprises an elastomeric annulus coupling means operatively interposed between the crankshaft and flywheel for coupling the crankshaft and flywheel together for rotation of the flywheel with the crankshaft. The coupling means has a torsional spring rate of less than 20,000 in lb/radian effective to permit substantial angular displacement between the flywheel and the crankshaft for isolating the rotating inertia of the flywheel from the rotating inertia of the crankshaft after engine startup. The coupling means avoids dampening while preventing torsional vibration from being transferred between the flywheel and the crankshaft.

  17. Increased sensitivity of RT-PCR for Potato virus Y detection using RNA isolated by a procedure with differential centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhua; Nie, Xianzhou; Boquel, Sébastien; Al-Daoud, Fadi; Pelletier, Yvan

    2015-12-01

    The sensitivity of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for virus detection is influenced by many factors such as specificity of primers and quality of templates. These factors become extremely important for successful detection when virus concentration is low. Total RNA isolated from Potato virus Y (PVY)-infected potato plants using the sodium sulfite RNA isolation method or RNeasy plant mini kit contains a high proportion of host RNA and may also contain trace amount of phenolic and polysaccharide residues, which may inhibit RT-PCR. The goal of this study was to enhance the sensitivity of PVY detection by reducing host RNA in the extract by differential centrifugation followed by extraction using an RNeasy mini kit (DCR method). One-step RT-PCR had relatively low amplification efficiency for PVY RNA when a high proportion of plant RNA was present. SYBR Green-based real time RT-PCR showed that the RNA isolated by the DCR method had a higher cycle threshold value (Ct) for the elongation factor 1-α mRNA (Ef1α) of potato than the Ct value of the RNA extracted using the RNeasy plant mini kit, indicating that the DCR method significantly reduced the proportion of potato RNA in the extract. The detectable amount of RNA extracted using the DCR method was <0.001ng when plant sap from 10 PVY-infected and PVY-free potato leaflets in a 1.5:100 fresh weight ratio was extracted, compared with 0.01 and 0.02ng of RNA using the RNeasy plant mini kit and sodium sulfite RNA isolation methods, respectively.

  18. Global Array-Based Transcriptomics from Minimal Input RNA Utilising an Optimal RNA Isolation Process Combined with SPIA cDNA Probes

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Valerie; Howie, Jacqueline; Dennis, Helen; Crowther, Daniel; Struthers, Allan; Goddard, Catharine; Feuerstein, Giora; Lang, Chim; Miele, Gino

    2011-01-01

    Background Technical advances in the collection of clinical material, such as laser capture microdissection and cell sorting, provide the advantage of yielding more refined and homogenous populations of cells. However, these attractive advantages are counter balanced by the significant difficultly in obtaining adequate nucleic acid yields to allow transcriptomic analyses. Established technologies are available to carry out global transcriptomics using nanograms of input RNA, however, many clinical samples of low cell content would be expected to yield RNA within the picogram range. To fully exploit these clinical samples the challenge of isolating adequate RNA yield directly and generating sufficient microarray probes for global transcriptional profiling from this low level RNA input has been addressed in the current report. We have established an optimised RNA isolation workflow specifically designed to yield maximal RNA from minimal cell numbers. This procedure obtained RNA yield sufficient for carrying out global transcriptional profiling from vascular endothelial cell biopsies, clinical material not previously amenable to global transcriptomic approaches. In addition, by assessing the performance of two linear isothermal probe generation methods at decreasing input levels of good quality RNA we demonstrated robust detection of a class of low abundance transcripts (GPCRs) at input levels within the picogram range, a lower level of RNA input (50 pg) than previously reported for global transcriptional profiling and report the ability to interrogate the transcriptome from only 10 pg of input RNA. By exploiting an optimal RNA isolation workflow specifically for samples of low cell content, and linear isothermal RNA amplification methods for low level RNA input we were able to perform global transcriptomics on valuable and potentially informative clinically derived vascular endothelial biopsies here for the first time. These workflows provide the ability to robustly

  19. Multiscale methods for computational RNA enzymology.

    PubMed

    Panteva, Maria T; Dissanayake, Thakshila; Chen, Haoyuan; Radak, Brian K; Kuechler, Erich R; Giambaşu, George M; Lee, Tai-Sung; York, Darrin M

    2015-01-01

    RNA catalysis is of fundamental importance to biology and yet remains ill-understood due to its complex nature. The multidimensional "problem space" of RNA catalysis includes both local and global conformational rearrangements, changes in the ion atmosphere around nucleic acids and metal ion binding, dependence on potentially correlated protonation states of key residues, and bond breaking/forming in the chemical steps of the reaction. The goal of this chapter is to summarize and apply multiscale modeling methods in an effort to target the different parts of the RNA catalysis problem space while also addressing the limitations and pitfalls of these methods. Classical molecular dynamics simulations, reference interaction site model calculations, constant pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD) simulations, Hamiltonian replica exchange molecular dynamics, and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations will be discussed in the context of the study of RNA backbone cleavage transesterification. This reaction is catalyzed by both RNA and protein enzymes, and here we examine the different mechanistic strategies taken by the hepatitis delta virus ribozyme and RNase A. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiscale methods for computational RNA enzymology

    PubMed Central

    Panteva, Maria T.; Dissanayake, Thakshila; Chen, Haoyuan; Radak, Brian K.; Kuechler, Erich R.; Giambaşu, George M.; Lee, Tai-Sung; York, Darrin M.

    2016-01-01

    RNA catalysis is of fundamental importance to biology and yet remains ill-understood due to its complex nature. The multi-dimensional “problem space” of RNA catalysis includes both local and global conformational rearrangements, changes in the ion atmosphere around nucleic acids and metal ion binding, dependence on potentially correlated protonation states of key residues and bond breaking/forming in the chemical steps of the reaction. The goal of this article is to summarize and apply multiscale modeling methods in an effort to target the different parts of the RNA catalysis problem space while also addressing the limitations and pitfalls of these methods. Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, reference interaction site model (RISM) calculations, constant pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD) simulations, Hamiltonian replica exchange molecular dynamics (HREMD) and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations will be discussed in the context of the study of RNA backbone cleavage transesterification. This reaction is catalyzed by both RNA and protein enzymes, and here we examine the different mechanistic strategies taken by the hepatitis delta virus ribozyme (HDVr) and RNase A. PMID:25726472

  1. New procedure for isolation of Rous sarcoma virus-specific RNA from infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bromley, P A; Spahr, P F; Darlix, J L

    1979-01-01

    The use of mercurated "strong stop" complementary DNA (complementary to the 5'-terminal 101 nucleotides of Rous sarcoma virus RNA) in the isolation of virus-specific RNA from infected chicken embryo fibroblasts is described. Strong stop Rous sarcoma virus complementary DNA was mercurated chemically, and, as a result of the low complexity of this DNA, short hybridization times (up to 15 min) and heating in the absence of formamide were found to be adequate conditions for the isolation of virus-specific RNA. The purity of the isolated RNA was demonstrated by analysis of labeled RNase T1-resistant oligonucleotides by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isolated RNA could be translated in the in vitro protein synthesis system derived from rabbit reticulocytes, and an analysis of polypeptides programmed by isolated RNA before and after immunoprecipitation further demonstrated both the purity of the isolated mRNA and the quantitative nature of the isolation procedure. Images PMID:228062

  2. Methods for Characterization of Alternative RNA Splicing.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Samuel E; Cheng, Chonghui

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of alternative splicing to detect the abundance of differentially spliced isoforms of a gene in total RNA can be accomplished via RT-PCR using both quantitative real-time and semi-quantitative PCR methods. These methods require careful PCR primer design to ensure specific detection of particular splice isoforms. We also describe analysis of alternative splicing using a splicing "minigene" in mammalian cell tissue culture to facilitate investigation of the regulation of alternative splicing of a particular exon of interest.

  3. An improved method for extraction of high-quality total RNA from oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Rayani, Azadeh; Dehghan Nayeri, Fatemeh

    2015-04-01

    Seeds of oilseed plants that contain large amounts of oil, polysaccharides, proteins and polyphenols are not amenable to conventional RNA isolation protocols. The presence of these substances affects the quality and quantity of isolated nucleic acids. Here, a rapid and efficient RNA isolation protocol that, in contrast to other methods tested, allows high purify, integrity and yield of total RNA from seeds of sesame, corn, sunflower, flax and rapeseed was developed. The average yields of total RNA from 70 mg oil seeds ranged from 84 to 310 µg with A260/A280 between 1.9 and 2.08. The RNA isolated with this protocol was verified to be suitable for PCR, quantitative real-time PCR, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, cDNA synthesis and expression analysis.

  4. An effective method for extracting total RNA from Dioscorea opposita Thunb.

    PubMed

    Liao, C M; Li, J; Liu, X H; Zhang, Y S

    2014-01-21

    Dioscorea opposita Thunb., included in the genus Dioscorea of the family Dioscoreaceae, is an important herb with great edible and medicinal value. In this study, the total RNA from leaves of Lichuan Dioscorea opposita Thunb. was isolated by an improved Trizol method. The results showed that the RNA extracted by the improved Trizol method had good integrity, and the RNA could be used for down-stream molecular biology operations including reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

  5. Assessing Social Isolation: Pilot Testing Different Methods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Harry Owen; Herbers, Stephanie; Talisman, Samuel; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    Social isolation is a significant public health problem among many older adults; however, most of the empirical knowledge about isolation derives from community-based samples. There has been less attention given to isolation in senior housing communities. The objectives of this pilot study were to test two methods to identify socially isolated residents in low-income senior housing and compare findings about the extent of isolation from these two methods. The first method, self-report by residents, included 47 out of 135 residents who completed in-person interviews. To determine self-report isolation, residents completed the Lubben Social Network Scale 6 (LSNS-6). The second method involved a staff member who reported the extent of isolation on all 135 residents via an online survey. Results indicated that 26% of residents who were interviewed were deemed socially isolated by the LSNS-6. Staff members rated 12% of residents as having some or a lot of isolation. In comparing the two methods, staff members rated 2% of interviewed residents as having a lot of isolation. The combination of self-report and staff report could be more informative than just self-report alone, particularly when participation rates are low. However, researchers should be aware of the potential discrepancy between these two methods.

  6. Isolation of high quality RNA from pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) and other woody plants high in secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Moazzam Jazi, Maryam; Rajaei, Saideh; Seyedi, Seyed Mahdi

    2015-10-01

    The quality and quantity of RNA are critical for successful downstream transcriptome-based studies such as microarrays and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). RNA isolation from woody plants, such as Pistacia vera, with very high amounts of polyphenols and polysaccharides is an enormous challenge. Here, we describe a highly efficient protocol that overcomes the limitations posed by poor quality and low yield of isolated RNA from pistachio and various recalcitrant woody plants. The key factors that resulted in a yield of 150 μg of high quality RNA per 200 mg of plant tissue include the elimination of phenol from the extraction buffer, raising the concentration of β-mercaptoethanol, long time incubation at 65 °C, and nucleic acid precipitation with optimized volume of NaCl and isopropyl alcohol. Also, the A260/A280 and A260/A230 of extracted RNA were about 1.9-2.1and 2.2-2.3, respectively, revealing the high purity. Since the isolated RNA passed highly stringent quality control standards for sensitive reactions, including RNA sequencing and real-time PCR, it can be considered as a reliable and cost-effective method for RNA extraction from woody plants.

  7. [Isolation of tyrosyl-tRNA-synthetase from Thermus thermophilus HB-27].

    PubMed

    Iaremchuk, A D; Tukalo, M A; Egorova, S P; Konovalenko, A V; Matsuka, G Kh

    1990-01-01

    A method for isolating tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase from Thermus thermophilus is described, including ammonium sulfate fractionation, chromatography on DEAE-sepharose, hydroxyapatite, heparin-sepharose and hydrophobic chromatography on Toyopearl HW-65. The yield of the purified enzyme was 1.6 mg per 1 kg of T. thermophilus cells. The enzyme is a dimer protein of the alpha 2 type with molecular weight of 100 kDa.

  8. Detection Methods for Archaeal RNA Virus Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolduc, B.; Roberto, F.; Young, M.

    2010-04-01

    We have a poor understanding in the relationship between cellular and viral evolution. We have successfully amplified archaeal, viral-enriched samples shown to be RNA-rich showing similarity to reverse transcriptases and RNA-directed RNA polymerases.

  9. Regional Cell Specific RNA Expression Profiling of FACS Isolated Drosophila Intestinal Cell Populations.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Devanjali; Buchon, Nicolas; Xiang, Jinyi; Edgar, Bruce A

    2015-08-03

    The adult Drosophila midgut is built of five distinct cell types, including stem cells, enteroblasts, enterocytes, enteroendocrine cells, and visceral muscles, and is divided into five major regions (R1 to R5), which are morphologically and functionally distinct from each other. This unit describes a protocol for the isolation of Drosophila intestinal cell populations for the purpose of cell type-specific transcriptome profiling from the five different regions. A method to select a cell type of interest labeled with green or yellow fluorescent protein (GFP, YFP) by making use of the GAL4-UAS bipartite system and fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) is presented. Total RNA is isolated from the sorted cells of each region, and linear RNA amplification is used to obtain sufficient amounts of high-quality RNA for analysis by microarray, RT-PCR, or RNA sequencing. This method will be useful for quantitative transcriptome comparison across intestinal cell types in the different regions under normal and various experimental conditions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Characterization of the partial RNA1 and RNA2 3' untranslated region of tomato ringspot virus isolates from North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 3' non-translated regions (NTRs) of RNA1 and RNA2 of Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) are long and virtually identical. In this study, sequences containing most of the 3’ NTRs (1168-1265 bp) were determined from 18 ToRSV isolates collected from fruit trees, small fruits, and grapevines in North Am...

  11. The paraffin-embedded RNA metric (PERM) for RNA isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joon-Yong; Cho, Hanbyoul; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2016-01-01

    RNA isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is commonly evaluated in both investigative and diagnostic pathology. However, the quality of the data is directly impacted by RNA quality. The RNA integrity number (RIN), an algorithm based on a combination of electrophoretic features, is widely applied to RNA isolated from paraffin-embedded tissue, but it is a poor indicator of the quality of that RNA. Here we describe the novel paraffin-embedded RNA metric (PERM) for quantifying the quality of RNA from FFPE tissue. The PERM is based on a formula that approximates a weighted area-under-the-curve analysis of an electropherogram of the extracted RNA. Using biochemically degraded RNAs prepared from experimentally fixed mouse kidney specimens, we demonstrate that PERM values correlate with mRNA transcript measurements determined using the QuantiGene system. Furthermore, PERM values correlate with real-time PCR data. Our results demonstrate that the PERM can be used to qualify RNA for different end-point studies and may be a valuable tool for molecular studies using RNA extracted from FFPE tissue.

  12. Isolation of RNA from field-grown jute (Corchorus capsularis) plant in different developmental stages for effective downstream molecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Pradipta; Sadhukhan, Sanjoy; Das, Subrata; Joshi, Alpana; Sen, Soumitra K; Basu, Asitava

    2011-10-01

    Jute (Corchorus capsularis), as a natural fibre producing plant species, ranks next to cotton only. Today, biotechnological approach has been considered as most accepted means for any genetic improvement of plant species. However, genetic control of the fibre development in jute has not yet been explored sufficiently for desired genetic improvement. One of the major impediments in exploring the genetic architecture in this crop at molecular level is the availability of good quality RNA from field-grown plant tissues mostly due to the presence of high amount of mucilage and phenolics. Development of a suitable RNA isolation method is becoming essential for deciphering developmental stage-specific gene expression pattern related to fibre formation in this crop species. A combination of modified hot borate buffer followed by isopycnic centrifugation (termed as HBIC) was adopted and found to be the best isolation method yielding sufficient quantity (~350-500 μg/gm fresh tissue) and good quality (A(260/280) ratio 1.88 to 1.91) RNA depending on the developmental stage of stem tissue from field-grown jute plant. The poly A(+) RNA purified from total RNA isolated by the present method was found amenable to efficient RT-PCR and cDNA library construction. The present development of RNA isolation was found to be appropriate for gene expression analysis related to fibre formation in this economically important jute plant in near future.

  13. Rapid and reliable method of extracting DNA and RNA from sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L). Lam.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Hyung; Hamada, Tatsuro

    2005-12-01

    A quick, simple and reliable method of extracting DNA from sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) has been developed. The method was applied successfully for extraction of total DNA from leaves and total RNA from leaves and various tissues. The yield of DNA extracted by this procedure was high (about 1 mg/g leaf tissue). The extracted DNA was completely digested by restriction endonucleases indicating the absence of common contaminating compounds. The absorbancy ratios of A260/A230 and A260/A280 of isolated RNA were approx. 2 and the yield was about 0.2 mg/g fresh wt. CIPK and tublin genes were successfully amplified by RT-PCR, suggesting the integrity of isolated RNA. The total DNA and RNA isolated by this method was of sufficient quality for subsequent molecular analysis.

  14. Step-by-step protocol to perfuse and dissect the mouse parotid gland and isolation of high-quality RNA from murine and human parotid tissue.

    PubMed

    Watermann, Christoph; Valerius, Klaus Peter; Wagner, Steffen; Wittekindt, Claus; Klussmann, Jens Peter; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline; Karnati, Srikanth

    2016-04-01

    Macroscopic identification and surgical removal of the mouse parotid gland is demanding because of its anatomic location and size. Moreover, the mouse parotid gland contains high concentrations of RNases, making it difficult to isolate high-quality RNA. So far, appropriate methods for optimal perfusion-fixation and dissection of mouse parotid glands, as well as the isolation of high quality RNA from this tissue, are not available. Here we present a simple, optimized, step-by-step surgical method to perfuse and isolate murine parotid glands. We also compared two common RNA extraction methods (RNeasy Mini Kit versus TRIzol) for their yields of high-quality, intact RNA from human and murine parotid gland tissues that were either snap-frozen or immersed in RNAlater stabilization solution. Mouse parotid tissue that was perfused and immersed in RNAlater and human samples immersed in RNAlater exhibited the best RNA quality, independent of the isolation method.

  15. Comparative evaluation of different extraction and quantification methods for forensic RNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Grabmüller, Melanie; Madea, Burkhard; Courts, Cornelius

    2015-05-01

    Since about 2005, there is increasing interest in forensic RNA analysis whose versatility may very favorably complement traditional DNA profiling in forensic casework. There is, however, no method available specifically dedicated for extraction of RNA from forensically relevant sample material. In this study we compared five commercially available and commonly used RNA extraction kits and methods (mirVana™ miRNA Isolation Kit Ambion; Trizol® Reagent, Invitrogen; NucleoSpin® miRNA Kit Macherey-Nagel; AllPrep DNA/RNA Mini Kit and RNeasy® Mini Kit both Qiagen) to assess their relative effectiveness of yielding RNA of good quality and their compatibility with co-extraction of DNA amenable to STR profiling. We set up samples of small amounts of dried blood, liquid saliva, semen and buccal mucosa that were aged for different time intervals for co-extraction of RNA and DNA. RNA quality was assessed by determination of 'RNA integrity number' (RIN) and quantitative PCR based expression analysis. DNA quality was assessed via monitoring STR typing success rates. By comparison, the different methods exhibited considerable differences between RNA and DNA yields, RNA quality values and expression levels, and STR profiling success, with the AllPrep DNA/RNA Mini Kit and the NucleoSpin® miRNA Kit excelling at DNA co-extraction and RNA results, respectively. Overall, there was no 'best' method to satisfy all demands of comprehensible co-analysis of RNA and DNA and it appears that each method has specific merits and flaws. We recommend to cautiously choose from available methods and align its characteristics with the needs of the experimental setting at hand.

  16. FLDS: A Comprehensive dsRNA Sequencing Method for Intracellular RNA Virus Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Urayama, Syun-ichi; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Nunoura, Takuro

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the distribution and diversity of RNA viruses is still limited in spite of their possible environmental and epidemiological impacts because RNA virus-specific metagenomic methods have not yet been developed. We herein constructed an effective metagenomic method for RNA viruses by targeting long double-stranded (ds)RNA in cellular organisms, which is a hallmark of infection, or the replication of dsRNA and single-stranded (ss)RNA viruses, except for retroviruses. This novel dsRNA targeting metagenomic method is characterized by an extremely high recovery rate of viral RNA sequences, the retrieval of terminal sequences, and uniform read coverage, which has not previously been reported in other metagenomic methods targeting RNA viruses. This method revealed a previously unidentified viral RNA diversity of more than 20 complete RNA viral genomes including dsRNA and ssRNA viruses associated with an environmental diatom colony. Our approach will be a powerful tool for cataloging RNA viruses associated with organisms of interest. PMID:26877136

  17. Current methods for the isolation of extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Balaj, Leonora; Alian, Sara; Mantel, Pierre-Yves; Halleck, Allison E; Trachtenberg, Alexander J; Soria, Cesar E; Oquin, Shanice; Bonebreak, Christina M; Saracoglu, Elif; Skog, Johan; Kuo, Winston Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles and exosomes, are nano- to micron-sized vesicles, which may deliver bioactive cargos that include lipids, growth factors and their receptors, proteases, signaling molecules, as well as mRNA and non-coding RNA, released from the cell of origin, to target cells. EVs are released by all cell types and likely induced by mechanisms involved in oncogenic transformation, environmental stimulation, cellular activation, oxidative stress, or death. Ongoing studies investigate the molecular mechanisms and mediators of EVs-based intercellular communication at physiological and oncogenic conditions with the hope of using this information as a possible source for explaining physiological processes in addition to using them as therapeutic targets and disease biomarkers in a variety of diseases. A major limitation in this evolving discipline is the hardship and the lack of standardization for already challenging techniques to isolate EVs. Technical advances have been accomplished in the field of isolation with improving knowledge and emerging novel technologies, including ultracentrifugation, microfluidics, magnetic beads and filtration-based isolation methods. In this review, we will discuss the latest advances in methods of isolation methods and production of clinical grade EVs as well as their advantages and disadvantages, and the justification for their support and the challenges that they encounter.

  18. [An efficient method for isolation of mitochondrial DNA in wheat].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Qiang; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Wang, Kui; Niu, Na; Pan, Dong-Liang

    2007-06-01

    An efficient method for isolation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from etiolated tissues of wheat was developed. The protocol consists of mitochondria isolation with differential centrifugation, Dnase I treatment, lysis with SDS and proteinase K, removing protein by TE-saturated phenol/chloroform extraction and a final RNase A treatment for obtaining mtDNA. The mtDNA samples were tested using spectrophotometry and agarose gel electrophoresis. It was proved that the mtDNA isolated by this method not only have the high yield but also structural complete, and contains no impurities, such as nuclear DNA, RNA and protein. The result showed that this high quality mtDNA can be successfully used in PCR and other genetic studies. In addition, it was found that adjusting the lysis temperature has a noticeable effect on the mtDNA yield.

  19. A novel method of plasmid isolation using laundry detergent.

    PubMed

    Yadav, P; Yadav, A; Garg, V; Datta, T K; Goswami, S L; De, S

    2011-07-01

    Since the discovery of plasmid, various methods have been developed to isolate plasmid DNA. All the methods have one common and important target of isolating plasmid DNA of high quality and quantity in less time. These methods are not completely safe because of use of toxic chemicals compounds. The developed protocol for plasmid extraction is based on the alkaline lysis method of plasmid preparation (extraction atpH 8.0) with slight modifications. Cell lysis reagent sodium dodecyl sulfate is replaced by lipase enzyme present in laundry detergent. A good plasmid preparation can be made, which is well suited for subsequent molecular biology applications. By taking safety measures on count, contaminants like, RNA and protein can be completely avoided with maximized plasmid yield. The resultant plasmid quality and quantity can be well comparable to other prevalent methods.

  20. [Efficiency of three commercial kits dedicated to DNA and RNA isolation from various clinical and forensic materials using the Janus automated workstation].

    PubMed

    Małodobra, Małgorzata; Jonkisz, Anna; Kowalczyk, Elzbieta; Lebioda, Arleta; Bartnik, Beata; Swiatek, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Isolation of genetic material is a crucial stage in molecular biology. Increasing needs for DNA analysis cause continuous improving of genetic material isolation methods toward higher accuracy and output. Automatization in molecular biology is widely seen, especially in clinical and forensic medicine. The objective of this research was optimization of methods for automatic nucleic acid isolation using the Janus automated workstation, Perkin Elmer. The efficiency and purity of isolated DNA was satisfactory. Despite numerous attempts at achieving automatic RNA isolation, we did not succeed in obtaining RNA working in other applications, such as RT-PCR or Real-Time PCR.

  1. Isolation of high quality RNA from Phyllanthus emblica and its evaluation by downstream applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Avneesh; Singh, Kashmir

    2012-11-01

    Next generation sequencing is a high-throughput technique widely used for transcriptome profiling. Isolation of high quality RNA is a prerequisite for such large scale transcriptome analysis. Phyllanthus emblica is an important medicinal plant having high amount of metabolites like vitamin C, flavonoids, polyphenolic compounds, tannins, which are responsible for its wondered medicinal properties. High concentration of secondary metabolites like polysaccharides and polyphenols proved to be an obstacle in isolating RNA of good quality. Any compromise with quality of RNA affects the downstream applications and requires extra cleaning steps that further reduce RNA quantity. We have developed a protocol for isolation of high quality RNA from P. embilca. RNA was successfully assessed for downstream applications like reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, rapid amplification of cDNA ends, mRNA library preparation, and sequencing using HiSeq(™) 2000 sequencing technology. The protocol is simple and can be completed in 4-5 h.

  2. Intraspecific 16S rRNA gene diversity among clinical isolates of Neisseria species.

    PubMed

    Mechergui, Arij; Achour, Wafa; Hassen, Assia Ben

    2014-05-01

    In the present work, nearly the entire 16S rRNA gene sequences of 46 clinical samples of Neisseria spp. were determined, and the aligned sequences were analyzed to investigate the diversity of 16S rRNA genes in each commensal Neisseria species. Two 16S rRNA types were identified in two Neisseria sicca strains, three 16S rRNA types in five Neisseria macacae strains, fourteen 16S rRNA types in twenty Neisseria flavescens isolates, and fourteen 16S rRNA types in nineteen Neisseria mucosa isolates. The number of nucleotides that were different between 16S rRNA sequences within specie ranged from 1 to 15. We found high intraspecific sequence variation in 16S rRNA genes of Neisseria spp. strains. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Prevalence of 16S rRNA methylase genes among β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Sheikh, Yazeed A; Marie, Mohammed Ali M; John, James; Krishnappa, Lakshmana Gowda; Dabwab, Khaled Homoud M

    2014-01-01

    Background Co production of 16S rRNA methylases gene and β-Lactamase gene among Enterobacteriaceae isolates conferring resistance to both therapeutic options has serious implications for clinicians worldwide. Methods To study co existence of 16S rRNA methylases (armA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD, and npmA) and β-Lactamase (blaTEM-1, blaSHV-12, blaCTX-M-14) genes, we screened all phenotypic positive β-Lactamase producing enterobacteriaceae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting above genes. A total of 330 enterobacteriaceae strains were collected during study period out of that 218 isolates were identified phenotypically as β-Lactamase producers, which include 50 (22.9%) Escherichia coli; 92 (42.2%) Klebsiella pneumoniae, 44 (20.2%), Citrobactor freundii and 32 (14.7%) Enterobacter spp. Results Among this 218, only 188 isolates harbored the resistant gene for β-Lactamase production. Major β-Lactamase producing isolates were blaTEM-1 type. 122 (56 %) isolates were found to produce any one of the 16S rRNA methylase genes. A total of 116 isolates co produced β-Lactamase and at least one 16S rRNA methylases gene Co production of armA gene was found in 26 isolates with rmtB and in 4 isolates with rmtC. The rmtA and rmtD genes were not detected in any of the tested isolates. Six isolates were positive for a 16S rRNA methylase gene alone. Conclusion β-Lactamase producing isolates appears to coexist with 16S rRNA methylase predominantly armA and rmtB genes in the same isolate. We conclude the major β-Lactamase and 16S rRNA methylases co-producer was K. pneumoniae followed by E. coli. We suggest further work on evaluating other β-lactamases types and novel antibiotic resistance mechanisms among Enterobacteriaceae.

  4. RNA metabolism in isolated nuclei: processing and transport of immunoglobulin light chain sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Otegui, C; Patterson, R J

    1981-01-01

    Transport of prelabeled RNA from isolated myeloma nuclei is studied using conditions that permit RNA synthesis. Cytosol and spermidine are not required to maintain nuclear stability and inhibited RNA release. Omission of ATP or GTP decreased release 25 to 40%. The stimulatory effect of ATP or GTP is not due to hydrolysis of the triphosphates by the nuclear envelope NTPase, since addition of quercetin (an inhibitor of this NTPase) has no effect on the quantity of RNA released. The size distribution and percentage of poly A-containing species released from nuclei incubated with or without ATP or the other rNTPs are identical. Hybridization analysis of nuclear RNA before the transport assay revealed mature and precursor k light chain mRNA sequences. Following the transport assay, a significant fraction of k mRNA precursors is chased into mature k mRNA which is found both in nuclear-retained and released RNA. PMID:6795596

  5. Mercurated nucleotides: assessment of a new tool to study RNA synthesis and processing in isolated nuclei.

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, K P

    1977-01-01

    Mercurated pyrimidine nucleotides have been used to study RNA synthesis and processing in isolated nuclei from mouse L cells. 5-mercuridine triphosphate (5-Hg-UTP) or 5-Hg-CTP are accepted as substrates by the purified RNA polymerases (I+III) and (II) from mouse cells, respectively, as well as by the enzymes still bound to the nuclear chromatin. In nuclei, RNA synthesis in the presence of Hg-UTP is reduced to 60-70% of a control. 30-60% of RNA labeled in vitro with (3H)UTP in isolated nuclei is not retained on sulfhydryl sepharose columns. Sucrose gradient analysis reveals a size distribution of the non-bound RNA similar to non-mercurated control RNA. Hg-RNA is found in a single peak from 4-10S. Chase experiments indicate that this RNA is the original transcript. It is argued that Hg-nucleotides may cause premature chain termination. Methylation of RNA in vitro by S-adenosyl methionine ((3H)SAM) is reduced to 75% of controls in the presence of Hg-UTP. Only 6% of the methyl groups appear in Hg-RNA. Polyadenylation is reduced as well. 15% of poly(A) (+)RNA are found in control assays whereas only 1% of Hg-RNA carries a poly(A) end added in vitro. These results limit the use of mercurated nucleotides for studies of nuclear RNA synthesis and processing. PMID:600804

  6. A comparison of commercially-available automated and manual extraction kits for the isolation of total RNA from small tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Sellin Jeffries, Marlo K; Kiss, Andor J; Smith, Austin W; Oris, James T

    2014-11-14

    This study compared the performance of five commercially available kits in extracting total RNA from small eukaryotic tissue samples (<15 mg). Total RNA was isolated from fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) tissues (spleen, blood, kidney, embryo, and larvae) using the Qiagen RNeasy® Plus Mini, Qiagen RNeasy® Plus Universal, Promega Maxwell® 16 LEV simplyRNA, Ambion MagMAX™-96 and Promega SimplyRNA HT kits. Kit performance was evaluated via measures of RNA quantity (e.g., total RNA amount) and quality (e.g., ratio of absorbance at 260 and 280 nm, RNA integrity number (RIN), presence of gDNA). With the exception of embryos, each kit generally extracted ≥5 μg of total RNA from each sample. With regard to RNA quality, the RINs of RNA samples isolated via the Plus Mini and Maxwell® 16 kits were consistently higher than those of samples extracted via the remaining three kits and for all tissues, these kits produced intact RNA with average RIN values ≥7. The Plus Universal and SimplyRNA HT kits produced moderately degraded (RIN values <7, but ≥5), while the RNA recovered via the MagMAX™ kit tended to exhibit a high degree of degradation (RIN values <5). Each kit was generally capable of extracting the amount of RNA required for most downstream gene expression applications suggesting that RNA yield is unlikely to be a limiting factor for any of the kits evaluated. However, differences in the quality of RNA extracted via each of the kits indicate that these kits may differ in their ability to yield RNA acceptable for some applications. Overall, the findings of this study demonstrate that there are practical differences between commercially available RNA extraction kits that should be taken into account when selecting extraction methods to be used for isolating RNA designated for gene expression analysis.

  7. Isolation of high-quality RNA from stented blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Christophe J; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Fransen, Erik; Vrints, Christiaan J; Hoymans, Vicky Y

    2013-09-01

    Stents have become a standard of care for the treatment of coronary artery disease. A series of cellular and molecular processes contribute to the vascular response following stent placement. For the purpose of local gene expression studies, metallic stent struts are usually removed from the vessel wall with forceps under a dissection microscope prior to RNA extraction. Main drawbacks of the manual dissection are that it may cause additional tissue damage and compromise the quality of RNA through prolonged tissue handling. In this technical note, we report the recovery of high-quality RNA from atherosclerotic vessels with stent struts left in situ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation of a cDNA clone for human threonyl-tRNA synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Kontis, K.J.; Arfin, S.M.

    1989-05-01

    A cDNA for threonyl-tRNA synthetase was isolated from a human placental cDNA /lambda/gt11 expression library by immunological screening, and its identity was confirmed by hybrid-selected mRNA translation. With this cDNA used as a hybridization probe, borrelidin-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cells that overproduced threonyl-tRNA synthetase were shown to have increased levels of threonyl-tRNA synthetase mRNA and gene sequences. Amplification of the gene did not appear to have been accompanied by any major structural reorganizations.

  9. Clinical Fusobacterium mortiferum Isolates Cluster with Undifferentiated Clostridium rectum Species Based on 16S rRNA Gene Phylogenetic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yangsoon; Eun, Chang Soo; Han, Dong Soo

    2016-05-01

    The most commonly encountered clinical Fusobacterium species are F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum; other Fusobacteria, such as F. mortiferum and F. varium, have occasionally been isolated from human specimens. Clostridium rectum is a gram-positive species characterized as a straight bacillus with oval sub-terminal spores. The close 16S rRNA gene sequence relationship of C. rectum with the genus Fusobacterium is unexpected given their very different phenotypic characteristics. Between 2014 and 2015, a total of 19 Fusobacterium isolates were recovered from the colonic tissue of 10 patients at a university hospital. All isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The phylogenetic relationship among these isolates was estimated using the neighbor-joining method and the Molecular Evolutionary Genetic Analysis (MEGA) version 6. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the F. mortiferum isolates clustered into two groups - F. mortiferum DSM 19809 (group I) and F. mortiferum ATCC 25557 (group II) - even though they are of the same species. Furthermore, the F. mortiferum DSM 19809 (group I) showed a close phylogenetic relationship with C. rectum, even though C. rectum is classified as a gram-positive spore-producing bacillus. C. rectum is clearly unrelated to the genus Clostridium as it shows highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with species from the genus Fusobacterium Therefore, additional methods such as Gram staining and other biochemical methods should be performed for Fusobacterium identification. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  10. Characterization of Rhizobial Isolates of Phaseolus vulgaris by Staircase Electrophoresis of Low-Molecular-Weight RNA

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez, Encarna; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Rodríguez-Navarro, Dulce Nombre; Trujillo, Martha E.; Daza, Antonio; Mateos, Pedro F.; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; van Berkum, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight (LMW) RNA molecules were analyzed to characterize rhizobial isolates that nodulate the common bean growing in Spain. Since LMW RNA profiles, determined by staircase electrophoresis, varied across the rhizobial species nodulating beans, we demonstrated that bean isolates recovered from Spanish soils presumptively could be characterized as Rhizobium etli, Rhizobium gallicum, Rhizobium giardinii, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and bv. trifolii, and Sinorhizobium fredii. PMID:11157280

  11. Gold Nanoparticle Interference Study during the Isolation, Quantification, Purity and Integrity Analysis of RNA

    PubMed Central

    Sanabria, Natasha M.; Vetten, Melissa; Andraos, Charlene; Boodhia, Kailen; Gulumian, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Investigations have been conducted regarding the interference of nanoparticles (NPs) with different toxicological assay systems, but there is a lack of validation when conducting routine tests for nucleic acid isolation, quantification, integrity, and purity analyses. The interference of citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was investigated herein. The AuNPs were added to either BEAS-2B bronchial human cells for 24 h, the isolated pure RNA, or added during the isolation procedure, and the resultant interaction was assessed. Total RNA that was isolated from untreated BEAS-2B cells was spiked with various concentrations (v/v%) of AuNPs and quantified. A decrease in the absorbance spectrum (220–340 nm) was observed in a concentration-dependent manner. The 260 and 280 nm absorbance ratios that traditionally infer RNA purity were also altered. Electrophoresis was performed to determine RNA integrity, but could not differentiate between AuNP-exposed samples. However, the spiked post-isolation samples did produce differences in spectra (190–220 nm), where shifts were observed at a shorter wavelength. These shifts could be due to alterations to chromophores found in nucleic acids. The co-isolation samples, spiked with 100 µL AuNP during the isolation procedure, displayed a peak shift to a longer wavelength and were similar to the results obtained from a 24 h AuNP treatment, under non-cytotoxic test conditions. Moreover, hyperspectral imaging using CytoViva dark field microscopy did not detect AuNP spectral signatures in the RNA isolated from treated cells. However, despite the lack of AuNPs in the final RNA product, structural changes in RNA could still be observed between 190–220 nm. Consequently, full spectral analyses should replace the traditional ratios based on readings at 230, 260, and 280 nm. These are critical points of analyses, validation, and optimization for RNA-based techniques used to assess AuNPs effects. PMID:25470814

  12. Gold nanoparticle interference study during the isolation, quantification, purity and integrity analysis of RNA.

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Natasha M; Vetten, Melissa; Andraos, Charlene; Boodhia, Kailen; Gulumian, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Investigations have been conducted regarding the interference of nanoparticles (NPs) with different toxicological assay systems, but there is a lack of validation when conducting routine tests for nucleic acid isolation, quantification, integrity, and purity analyses. The interference of citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was investigated herein. The AuNPs were added to either BEAS-2B bronchial human cells for 24 h, the isolated pure RNA, or added during the isolation procedure, and the resultant interaction was assessed. Total RNA that was isolated from untreated BEAS-2B cells was spiked with various concentrations (v/v%) of AuNPs and quantified. A decrease in the absorbance spectrum (220-340 nm) was observed in a concentration-dependent manner. The 260 and 280 nm absorbance ratios that traditionally infer RNA purity were also altered. Electrophoresis was performed to determine RNA integrity, but could not differentiate between AuNP-exposed samples. However, the spiked post-isolation samples did produce differences in spectra (190-220 nm), where shifts were observed at a shorter wavelength. These shifts could be due to alterations to chromophores found in nucleic acids. The co-isolation samples, spiked with 100 µL AuNP during the isolation procedure, displayed a peak shift to a longer wavelength and were similar to the results obtained from a 24 h AuNP treatment, under non-cytotoxic test conditions. Moreover, hyperspectral imaging using CytoViva dark field microscopy did not detect AuNP spectral signatures in the RNA isolated from treated cells. However, despite the lack of AuNPs in the final RNA product, structural changes in RNA could still be observed between 190-220 nm. Consequently, full spectral analyses should replace the traditional ratios based on readings at 230, 260, and 280 nm. These are critical points of analyses, validation, and optimization for RNA-based techniques used to assess AuNPs effects.

  13. Isolation of high-quality total RNA from leaves of Myrciaria dubia "CAMU CAMU".

    PubMed

    Gómez, Juan Carlos Castro; Reátegui, Alina Del Carmen Egoavil; Flores, Julián Torres; Saavedra, Roberson Ramírez; Ruiz, Marianela Cobos; Correa, Sixto Alfredo Imán

    2013-01-01

    Myrciaria dubia is a main source of vitamin C for people in the Amazon region. Molecular studies of M. dubia require high-quality total RNA from different tissues. So far, no protocols have been reported for total RNA isolation from leaves of this species. The objective of this research was to develop protocols for extracting high-quality total RNA from leaves of M. dubia. Total RNA was purified following two modified protocols developed for leaves of other species (by Zeng and Yang, and by Reid et al.) and one modified protocol developed for fruits of the studied species (by Silva). Quantity and quality of purified total RNA were assessed by spectrophotometric and electrophoretic analysis. Additionally, quality of total RNA was evaluated with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). With these three modified protocols we were able to isolate high-quality RNA (A260nm/A280nm >1.9 and A260nm/A230nm >2.0). Highest yield was produced with the Zeng and Yang modified protocol (384±46µg ARN/g fresh weight). Furthermore, electrophoretic analysis showed the integrity of isolated RNA and the absence of DNA. Another proof of the high quality of our purified RNA was the successful cDNA synthesis and amplification of a segment of the M. dubia actin 1 gene. We report three modified protocols for isolation total RNA from leaves of M. dubia. The modified protocols are easy, rapid, low in cost, and effective for high-quality and quantity total RNA isolation suitable for cDNA synthesis and polymerase chain reaction.

  14. Turbo FISH: A Method for Rapid Single Molecule RNA FISH

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Sydney M.; Wu, Min-Tzu; Levesque, Marshall J.; Raj, Arjun

    2013-01-01

    Advances in RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (RNA FISH) have allowed practitioners to detect individual RNA molecules in single cells via fluorescence microscopy, enabling highly accurate and sensitive quantification of gene expression. However, current methods typically employ hybridization times on the order of 2–16 hours, limiting its potential in applications like rapid diagnostics. We present here a set of conditions for RNA FISH (dubbed Turbo RNA FISH) that allow us to make accurate measurements with no more than 5 minutes of hybridization time and 3 minutes of washing, and show that hybridization times can go as low as 30 seconds while still producing quantifiable images. We further show that rapid hybridization is compatible with our recently developed iceFISH and SNP FISH variants of RNA FISH that enable chromosome and single base discrimination, respectively. Our method is simple and cost effective, and has the potential to dramatically increase the throughput and realm of applicability of RNA FISH. PMID:24066168

  15. Identification of extracellular miRNA in archived serum samples by next-generation sequencing from RNA extracted using multiple methods.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Aarti; Kumar, Raina; Dimitrov, George; Hoke, Allison; Hammamieh, Rasha; Jett, Marti

    2016-10-01

    miRNAs act as important regulators of gene expression by promoting mRNA degradation or by attenuating protein translation. Since miRNAs are stably expressed in bodily fluids, there is growing interest in profiling these miRNAs, as it is minimally invasive and cost-effective as a diagnostic matrix. A technical hurdle in studying miRNA dynamics is the ability to reliably extract miRNA as small sample volumes and low RNA abundance create challenges for extraction and downstream applications. The purpose of this study was to develop a pipeline for the recovery of miRNA using small volumes of archived serum samples. The RNA was extracted employing several widely utilized RNA isolation kits/methods with and without addition of a carrier. The small RNA library preparation was carried out using Illumina TruSeq small RNA kit and sequencing was carried out using Illumina platform. A fraction of five microliters of total RNA was used for library preparation as quantification is below the detection limit. We were able to profile miRNA levels in serum from all the methods tested. We found out that addition of nucleic acid based carrier molecules had higher numbers of processed reads but it did not enhance the mapping of any miRBase annotated sequences. However, some of the extraction procedures offer certain advantages: RNA extracted by TRIzol seemed to align to the miRBase best; extractions using TRIzol with carrier yielded higher miRNA-to-small RNA ratios. Nuclease free glycogen can be carrier of choice for miRNA sequencing. Our findings illustrate that miRNA extraction and quantification is influenced by the choice of methodologies. Addition of nucleic acid- based carrier molecules during extraction procedure is not a good choice when assaying miRNA using sequencing. The careful selection of an extraction method permits the archived serum samples to become valuable resources for high-throughput applications.

  16. Identification of Aeromonas clinical isolates by restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes.

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, N; Acinas, S G; Figueras, M J; Martínez-Murcia, A J

    1997-01-01

    Identification of Aeromonas species, emergent pathogens for humans, has long been controversial due to their phenotypic and genomic heterogeneities. Computer analysis of the published 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that restriction fragment length polymorphism of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene is a good and rapid way of assessing the identities of all known species of Aeromonas. The method was evaluated with the reference strains of all species (or DNA homology groups) and 76 clinical isolates of diverse origin. Most results from the two approaches were in agreement, but some discrepancies were discerned. Advantages over previous phenotypic and genetic methods are discussed. PMID:9196171

  17. Isolation and amplification of mRNA within a simple microfluidic lab on a chip.

    PubMed

    Reinholt, Sarah J; Behrent, Arne; Greene, Cassandra; Kalfe, Ayten; Baeumner, Antje J

    2014-01-07

    The major modules for realizing molecular biological assays in a micro-total analysis system (μTAS) were developed for the detection of pathogenic organisms. The specific focus was the isolation and amplification of eukaryotic mRNA within a simple, single-channel device for very low RNA concentrations that could then be integrated with detection modules. The hsp70 mRNA from Cryptosporidium parvum was used as a model analyte. Important points of study were surface chemistries within poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic channels that enabled specific and sensitive mRNA isolation and amplification reactions for very low mRNA concentrations. Optimal conditions were achieved when the channel surface was carboxylated via UV/ozone treatment followed by the immobilization of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers on the surface, thus increasing the immobilization efficiency of the thymidine oligonucleotide, oligo(dT)25, and providing a reliable surface for the amplification reaction, importantly, without the need for blocking agents. Additional chemical modifications of the remaining active surface groups were studied to avoid nonspecific capturing of nucleic acids and hindering of the mRNA amplification at low RNA concentrations. Amplification of the mRNA was accomplished using nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), an isothermal, primer-dependent technique. Positive controls consisting of previously generated NASBA amplicons could be diluted 10(15) fold and still result in successful on-chip reamplification. Finally, the successful isolation and amplification of mRNA from as few as 30 C. parvum oocysts was demonstrated directly on-chip and compared to benchtop devices. This is the first proof of successful mRNA isolation and NASBA-based amplification of mRNA within a simple microfluidic device in relevant analytical volumes.

  18. Methods and compositions for controlling gene expression by RNA processing

    DOEpatents

    Doudna, Jennifer A.; Qi, Lei S.; Haurwitz, Rachel E.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2017-08-29

    The present disclosure provides nucleic acids encoding an RNA recognition sequence positioned proximal to an insertion site for the insertion of a sequence of interest; and host cells genetically modified with the nucleic acids. The present disclosure also provides methods of modifying the activity of a target RNA, and kits and compositions for carrying out the methods.

  19. End-targeting proteomics of isolated chromatin segments of a mammalian ribosomal RNA gene promoter

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Satoru; Dejardin, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    The unbiased identification of proteins associated with specific loci is crucial for understanding chromatin-based processes. The proteomics of isolated chromatin fragment (PICh) method has previously been developed to purify telomeres and identify associated proteins. This approach is based on the affinity capture of endogenous chromatin segments by hybridization with oligonucleotide containing locked nucleic acids. However, PICh is only efficient with highly abundant genomic targets, limiting its applicability. Here we develop an approach for identifying factors bound to the promoter region of the ribosomal RNA genes that we call end-targeting PICh (ePICh). Using ePICh, we could specifically enrich the RNA polymerase I pre-initiation complex, including the selectivity factor 1. The high purity of the ePICh material allowed the identification of ZFP106, a novel factor regulating transcription initiation by targeting RNA polymerase I to the promoter. Our results demonstrate that ePICh can uncover novel proteins controlling endogenous regulatory elements in mammals. PMID:25812914

  20. Isolation and detection of microRNA from the egg of chickens.

    PubMed

    Wade, Ben; Cummins, Michelle; Keyburn, Anthony; Crowley, Tamsyn M

    2016-05-23

    The egg is a vital part of the chicken developmental process and an important protein source for humans. Despite the chicken egg being a subject of intense research little attention has been given to the role of microRNAs within the egg. We report a method for the reproducible and reliable isolation of miRNA from the albumen and yolk of chicken eggs. We also report the detection via real-time PCR of a number of miRNAs from both of these biological fluids. These findings provide an interesting look into the chicken egg and raise questions as to the role that miRNAs maybe playing in the chicken egg. This method of detecting miRNAs in chicken eggs will allow researchers to investigate the presence of an additional level of epigenetic programming in chick development previously unknown and also how this impacts the nutritional value of eggs for human consumption.

  1. [New isolation methods and phylogenetic diversity of actinobacteria from hypersaline beach in Aksu].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao; Xia, Zhanfeng; Cao, Xinbo; Li, Jun; Zhang, Lili

    2013-08-04

    We explored 4 new methods to improve the isolation of actinobacterial resources from high salt areas. Optimized media based on 4 new strategies were used for isolating actinobacteria from hypersaline beaches. Glycerin-arginine, trehalose-creatine, glycerol-asparticacid, mannitol-casein, casein-mannitol, mannitol-alanine, chitosan-asparagineand GAUZE' No. 1 were used as basic media. New isolation strategy includes 4 methods: ten-fold dilution culture, simulation of the original environment, actinobacterial culture guided by uncultured molecular technology detected, and reference of actinobacterial media for brackish marine environment. The 16S rRNA genes of the isolates were amplified with bacterial universal primers. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequences were compared with sequences obtained from GenBank databases. We constructed phylogenetic tree with the neighbor-joining method. No actinobacterial strains were isolated by 8 media of control group, while 403 strains were isolated by new strategies. The isolates by new methods were members of 14 genera (Streptomyces, Streptomonospora, Saccharomonospora, Plantactinospora, Nocardia, Amycolatopsis, Glycomyces, Micromonospora, Nocardiopsis, Isoptericola, Nonomuraea, Thermobifida, Actinopolyspora, Actinomadura) of 10 families in 8 suborders. The most abundant and diverse isolates were the two suborders of Streptomycineae (69.96%) and Streptosporangineaesuborder (9.68%) within the phylum Actinobacteria, including 9 potential novel species. New isolation methods significantly improved the actinobacterial culturability of hypersaline areas, and obtained many potential novel species, which provided a new and more effective way to isolate actinobacteria resources in hypersaline environments.

  2. Isolation and properties of poly(A)-containing RNA from the cytoplasm of rat liver cells.

    PubMed

    Brysch, B; Chorazy, M

    1975-01-01

    1. The described technique for preparative isolation of poly(A)-containing RNA by complexing with poly(U)-cellulose and elution at 45 degrees C, is simple, reproducible, and the poly(U)-cellulose preparation is suitable for repeated use. 2. The poly(A)-containing RNA isolated from the poly(U)-cellulose complex is still contaminated by ribosomal RNA which can be removed by recomplexing. The purified preparation is heterogeneous on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and is located over the region from 5-6S to 28S. Poly(A) segments of cytoplasmic RNA show heterogeneous size distribution. 3. In acidic medium, the poly(A) segments form ordered double-stranded structure. 4. The rapid labelling of rat liver and fibroblast cytoplasmic poly(A)-containing RNAs and their base composition resemble closely the corresponding properties of mRNA.

  3. Formamide-based RNA isolation at above zero temperatures from high starch cassava tubers.

    PubMed

    Bowrin, Valerie; Rouse-Miller, Judy; Sutton, Fedora; Sirju-Charran, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) tubers are a main source of carbohydrate for a large percentage of people in the tropics. However, obtaining RNA from such high starch tubers proves problematic because gelation occurs during standard isolation procedures. In preliminary studies, formamide was used to homogenise tubers at room temperature and no gelation was observed. To develop a simple, reproducible formamide-based procedure for RNA isolation from high starch tissues without the initial use of liquid nitrogen or lyophilisation. A second objective was to determine the impact of storage of formamide homogenates at 4°C on RNA integrity. Tubers were homogenised in 100% formamide at room temperature and stored for 1, 4 or 7 days at 4°C. Homogenates were centrifuged at 14000 × g for 10 min and RNA recovered from the supernatants by isopropanol precipitation followed by dissolution in guanidinium buffer. Protein was removed by standard phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol extraction and RNA recovered by isopropanol precipitation. For immediate RNA isolation, formamide homogenates can be processed without incubation at 4°C. In formamide homogenates a non-gelatinous white pellet was observed which was identified as starch by Lugol's staining. Intact RNA was observed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The RNA was successfully used in downstream RT-PCR reactions. Formamide maintained the integrity of the RNA during tissue processing at 25 ± 2°C and storage at 4°C. This room temperature formamide-based RNA isolation procedure met the criteria of simplicity, low-cost, reproducibility and addressed gelation problems associated with high starch tissues. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. TARDIS, a targeted RNA directional sequencing method for rare RNA discovery.

    PubMed

    Portal, Maximiliano M; Pavet, Valeria; Erb, Cathie; Gronemeyer, Hinrich

    2015-12-01

    High-throughput transcriptional analysis has unveiled a myriad of novel RNAs. However, technical constraints in RNA sequencing library preparation and platform performance hamper the identification of rare transcripts contained within the RNA repertoire. Herein we present targeted-RNA directional sequencing (TARDIS), a hybridization-based method that allows subsets of RNAs contained within the transcriptome to be interrogated independently of transcript length, function, the presence or absence of poly-A tracts, or the mechanism of biogenesis. TARDIS is a modular protocol that is subdivided into four main phases, including the generation of random DNA traps covering the region of interest, purification of input RNA material, DNA trap-based RNA capture, and finally RNA-sequencing library construction. Importantly, coupling RNA capture to strand-specific RNA sequencing enables robust identification and reconstruction of novel transcripts, the definition of sense and antisense RNA pairs and, by the concomitant analysis of long and natural small RNA pools, it allows the user to infer potential precursor-product relations. TARDIS takes ∼10 d to implement.

  5. Description of an Unusual Neisseria meningitidis Isolate Containing and Expressing Neisseria gonorrhoeae-Specific 16S rRNA Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Skvoretz, Rhonda; Montgomery-Fullerton, Megan; Jonas, Vivian; Brentano, Steve

    2013-01-01

    An apparently rare Neisseria meningitidis isolate containing one copy of a Neisseria gonorrhoeae 16S rRNA gene is described herein. This isolate was identified as N. meningitidis by biochemical identification methods but generated a positive signal with Gen-Probe Aptima assays for the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Direct 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the purified isolate revealed mixed bases in signature regions that allow for discrimination between N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae. The mixed bases were resolved by sequencing individually PCR-amplified single copies of the genomic 16S rRNA gene. A total of 121 discrete sequences were obtained; 92 (76%) were N. meningitidis sequences, and 29 (24%) were N. gonorrhoeae sequences. Based on the ratio of species-specific sequences, the N. meningitidis strain seems to have replaced one of its four intrinsic 16S rRNA genes with the gonococcal gene. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes specific for meningococcal and gonococcal rRNA were used to demonstrate the expression of the rRNA genes. Interestingly, the clinical isolate described here expresses both N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae 16S rRNA genes, as shown by positive FISH signals with both probes. This explains why the probes for N. gonorrhoeae in the Gen-Probe Aptima assays cross-react with this N. meningitidis isolate. The N. meningitidis isolate described must have obtained N. gonorrhoeae-specific DNA through interspecies recombination. PMID:23863567

  6. CompaRNA: a server for continuous benchmarking of automated methods for RNA secondary structure prediction

    PubMed Central

    Puton, Tomasz; Kozlowski, Lukasz P.; Rother, Kristian M.; Bujnicki, Janusz M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a continuous benchmarking approach for the assessment of RNA secondary structure prediction methods implemented in the CompaRNA web server. As of 3 October 2012, the performance of 28 single-sequence and 13 comparative methods has been evaluated on RNA sequences/structures released weekly by the Protein Data Bank. We also provide a static benchmark generated on RNA 2D structures derived from the RNAstrand database. Benchmarks on both data sets offer insight into the relative performance of RNA secondary structure prediction methods on RNAs of different size and with respect to different types of structure. According to our tests, on the average, the most accurate predictions obtained by a comparative approach are generated by CentroidAlifold, MXScarna, RNAalifold and TurboFold. On the average, the most accurate predictions obtained by single-sequence analyses are generated by CentroidFold, ContextFold and IPknot. The best comparative methods typically outperform the best single-sequence methods if an alignment of homologous RNA sequences is available. This article presents the results of our benchmarks as of 3 October 2012, whereas the rankings presented online are continuously updated. We will gladly include new prediction methods and new measures of accuracy in the new editions of CompaRNA benchmarks. PMID:23435231

  7. A simple and efficient method for isolating small RNAs from different plant species

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Small RNAs emerged over the last decade as key regulators in diverse biological processes in eukaryotic organisms. To identify and study small RNAs, good and efficient protocols are necessary to isolate them, which sometimes may be challenging due to the composition of specific tissues of certain plant species. Here we describe a simple and efficient method to isolate small RNAs from different plant species. Results We developed a simple and efficient method to isolate small RNAs from different plant species by first comparing different total RNA extraction protocols, followed by streamlining the best one, finally resulting in a small RNA extraction method that has no need of first total RNA extraction and is not based on the commercially available TRIzol® Reagent or columns. This small RNA extraction method not only works well for plant tissues with high polysaccharide content, like cactus, agave, banana, and tomato, but also for plant species like Arabidopsis or tobacco. Furthermore, the obtained small RNA samples were successfully used in northern blot assays. Conclusion Here we provide a simple and efficient method to isolate small RNAs from different plant species, such as cactus, agave, banana, tomato, Arabidopsis, and tobacco, and the small RNAs from this simplified and low cost method is suitable for downstream handling like northern blot assays. PMID:21349188

  8. Method of vibration isolating an aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Stanley I. (Inventor); Butler, Lawrence (Inventor); Dawes, Peter W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method for coupling an engine to a support frame for mounting to a fuselage of an aircraft using a three point vibration isolating mounting system in which the load reactive forces at each mounting point are statically and dynamically determined. A first vibration isolating mount pivotably couples a first end of an elongated support beam to a stator portion of an engine with the pivoting action of the vibration mount being oriented such that it is pivotable about a line parallel to a center line of the engine. An aft end of the supporting frame is coupled to the engine through an additional pair of vibration isolating mounts with the mounts being oriented such that they are pivotable about a circumference of the engine. The aft mounts are symmetrically spaced to each side of the supporting frame by 45 degrees. The relative orientation between the front mount and the pair of rear mounts is such that only the rear mounts provide load reactive forces parallel to the engine center line, in support of the engine to the aircraft against thrust forces. The forward mount is oriented so as to provide only radial forces to the engine and some lifting forces to maintain the engine in position adjacent a fuselage. Since each mount is connected to provide specific forces to support the engine, forces required of each mount are statically and dynamically determinable.

  9. Isolation of an Asymmetric RNA Uncoating Intermediate for a Single-Stranded RNA Plant Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Saskia E.; Ford, Robert J.; Barker, Amy M.; Robottom, Janice; Saunders, Keith; Pearson, Arwen R.; Ranson, Neil A.; Stockley, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    We have determined the three-dimensional structures of both native and expanded forms of turnip crinkle virus (TCV), using cryo-electron microscopy, which allows direct visualization of the encapsidated single-stranded RNA and coat protein (CP) N-terminal regions not seen in the high-resolution X-ray structure of the virion. The expanded form, which is a putative disassembly intermediate during infection, arises from a separation of the capsid-forming domains of the CP subunits. Capsid expansion leads to the formation of pores that could allow exit of the viral RNA. A subset of the CP N-terminal regions becomes proteolytically accessible in the expanded form, although the RNA remains inaccessible to nuclease. Sedimentation velocity assays suggest that the expanded state is metastable and that expansion is not fully reversible. Proteolytically cleaved CP subunits dissociate from the capsid, presumably leading to increased electrostatic repulsion within the viral RNA. Consistent with this idea, electron microscopy images show that proteolysis introduces asymmetry into the TCV capsid and allows initial extrusion of the genome from a defined site. The apparent formation of polysomes in wheat germ extracts suggests that subsequent uncoating is linked to translation. The implication is that the viral RNA and its capsid play multiple roles during primary infections, consistent with ribosome-mediated genome uncoating to avoid host antiviral activity. PMID:22306464

  10. Optimization of RNA isolation from Brittle Leaf Disease affected date palm leaves and construction of a subtractive cDNA library.

    PubMed

    Saïdi, Mohammed Najib; Gargouri-Bouzid, Radhia; Rayanni, Mariem; Drira, Noureddine

    2009-01-01

    A simple and efficient method was described here for the isolation of high-quality RNA from date palm leaves affected with Brittle Leaf Disease (BLD) and containing high amount of phenolic compounds. The procedure was based on the use of a non-ionic detergent Nonidet-P40 (NP-40), Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and beta-mercaptoethanol in the extraction buffer in order to isolate cytoplasmic RNA and to prevent the oxidation of phenolic compounds. This method allowed the isolation of intact RNA, suitable for cDNA synthesis and library construction. Differential screening of the subtractive cDNA library from affected leaf RNA led to the identification of some BLD-induced genes.

  11. A Raspberry bushy dwarf virus isolate from Ecuadorean Rubus glaucus contains an additional RNA that is a rearrangement of RNA 2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new Raspberry bushy dwarf virus isolate was found in commercial blackberry (Rubus glaucus) in Azuay, province of Ecuador and named RBDV-Ec-Az. The complete bipartite genome was sequenced using dsRNA as initial template. RNA 1 was 5449 nucleotides (nt) long and the normal RBDV RNA 2 was 2231 nt lon...

  12. Intra-Genomic Heterogeneity in 16S rRNA Genes in Strictly Anaerobic Clinical Isolates from Periodontal Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiazhen; Miao, Xinyu; Xu, Meng; He, Junlin; Xie, Yi; Wu, Xingwen; Chen, Gang; Yu, Liying; Zhang, Wenhong

    2015-01-01

    Background Members of the genera Prevotella, Veillonella and Fusobacterium are the predominant culturable obligate anaerobic bacteria isolated from periodontal abscesses. When determining the cumulative number of clinical anaerobic isolates from periodontal abscesses, ambiguous or overlapping signals were frequently encountered in 16S rRNA gene sequencing chromatograms, resulting in ambiguous identifications. With the exception of the genus Veillonella, the high intra-chromosomal heterogeneity of rrs genes has not been reported. Methods The 16S rRNA genes of 138 clinical, strictly anaerobic isolates and one reference strain were directly sequenced, and the chromatograms were carefully examined. Gene cloning was performed for 22 typical isolates with doublet sequencing signals for the 16S rRNA genes, and four copies of the rrs-ITS genes of 9 Prevotella intermedia isolates were separately amplified by PCR, sequenced and compared. Five conserved housekeeping genes, hsp60, recA, dnaJ, gyrB1 and rpoB from 89 clinical isolates of Prevotella were also amplified by PCR and sequenced for identification and phylogenetic analysis along with 18 Prevotella reference strains. Results Heterogeneity of 16S rRNA genes was apparent in clinical, strictly anaerobic oral bacteria, particularly in the genera Prevotella and Veillonella. One hundred out of 138 anaerobic strains (72%) had intragenomic nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in multiple locations, and 13 strains (9.4%) had intragenomic insertions or deletions in the 16S rRNA gene. In the genera Prevotella and Veillonella, 75% (67/89) and 100% (19/19) of the strains had SNPs in the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Gene cloning and separate amplifications of four copies of the rrs-ITS genes confirmed that 2 to 4 heterogeneous 16S rRNA copies existed. Conclusion Sequence alignment of five housekeeping genes revealed that intra-species nucleotide similarities were very high in the genera Prevotella, ranging from 94.3–100%. However, the

  13. A raspberry bushy dwarf virus isolate from Ecuadorean Rubus glaucus contains an additional RNA that is a rearrangement of RNA-2.

    PubMed

    Quito-Avila, D F; Ibarra, M A; Alvarez, R; Peralta, E L; Martin, R R

    2014-09-01

    Sequencing of the complete genome of a raspberry bushy dwarf virus isolate from Rubus glaucus in Ecuador revealed that its RNA-1 and RNA-2 were 5449 and 2231 nucleotides (nt) long, respectively, and phylogenetically closest to isolates from Sweden and Slovenia. In dsRNA analysis of infected plants, an additional band of 3 kbp was observed. Sequencing of this band revealed that it was 3279 nt long. BLAST searches revealed that this band contained a modified version of RNA-2, which consisted of RNA-2 (2231 nt) plus an additional 1048-nt fragment that was concatenated in a reverse-complement fashion to its 5' terminus.

  14. Rotaviruses: Extraction and Isolation of RNA, Reassortant Strains, and NSP4 Protein.

    PubMed

    Yakshe, Krystle A; Franklin, Zachary D; Ball, Judith M

    2015-05-01

    Rotavirus (RV) contains 11 double-stranded RNA segments that encode for twelve structural and nonstructural proteins. The separation and isolation of viral RNA is a necessary precursor for many experimental techniques and can be useful for rapid RV RNA typing and sequencing of different rotavirus strains. The segmented genome enables RV to recombine easily. These recombinant viruses are essential for many purposes, including generation of potential vaccine strains. Rotavirus gene 10 expresses the viral enterotoxin, NSP4, which has been the focus of several studies due to the influence of NSP4 on rotavirus replication, morphogenesis, and pathogenesis. This unit will describe the isolation and separation of viral RNAs, the production characterization of recombinant RV in culture, and the expression and isolation of NSP4 in mammalian and insect cells.

  15. The RNA 3D Motif Atlas: Computational methods for extraction, organization and evaluation of RNA motifs.

    PubMed

    Parlea, Lorena G; Sweeney, Blake A; Hosseini-Asanjan, Maryam; Zirbel, Craig L; Leontis, Neocles B

    2016-07-01

    RNA 3D motifs occupy places in structured RNA molecules that correspond to the hairpin, internal and multi-helix junction "loops" of their secondary structure representations. As many as 40% of the nucleotides of an RNA molecule can belong to these structural elements, which are distinct from the regular double helical regions formed by contiguous AU, GC, and GU Watson-Crick basepairs. With the large number of atomic- or near atomic-resolution 3D structures appearing in a steady stream in the PDB/NDB structure databases, the automated identification, extraction, comparison, clustering and visualization of these structural elements presents an opportunity to enhance RNA science. Three broad applications are: (1) identification of modular, autonomous structural units for RNA nanotechnology, nanobiology and synthetic biology applications; (2) bioinformatic analysis to improve RNA 3D structure prediction from sequence; and (3) creation of searchable databases for exploring the binding specificities, structural flexibility, and dynamics of these RNA elements. In this contribution, we review methods developed for computational extraction of hairpin and internal loop motifs from a non-redundant set of high-quality RNA 3D structures. We provide a statistical summary of the extracted hairpin and internal loop motifs in the most recent version of the RNA 3D Motif Atlas. We also explore the reliability and accuracy of the extraction process by examining its performance in clustering recurrent motifs from homologous ribosomal RNA (rRNA) structures. We conclude with a summary of remaining challenges, especially with regard to extraction of multi-helix junction motifs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Isolation of RNA of high quality and yield from Ginkgo biloba leaves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Nianhui; Du, Lingfang

    2005-05-01

    An improved protocol was developed to isolate total RNA in good yield and integrity from Ginkgo biloba leaves containing high levels of flavonoid glycosides, terpene lactones, carbohydrates and polyphenolic secondary metabolites. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone at 2% and beta-mercaptoethanol at 4% were added to the standard CTAB extraction buffer and, after chloroform and phenol extraction, the pellet obtained by ethanol/acetate precipitation was washed and a second phenol/chloroform extraction was introduced to remove co-precipitated polysaccharides. Both A(260)/A(230) and A(260)/A(280) absorbancy ratios of isolated RNA were around 2 and the yield was about 0.4 mg g(--1) fresh weight. At least seven distinct rRNA bands were detected by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Sharp hybridization signals were obtained from Northern blots with both nuclear and plastid gene probes. Two gene fragments: nuclear-encoded cab and chloroplast encoded rbcL were successfully amplified by RT-PCR, suggesting the integrity of isolated RNA. The total RNA isolated by this protocol is of sufficient quality for subsequent molecular applications.

  17. Validation of two ribosomal RNA removal methods for microbial metatranscriptomics

    SciTech Connect

    He, Shaomei; Wurtzel, Omri; Singh, Kanwar; Froula, Jeff L; Yilmaz, Suzan; Tringe, Susannah G; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Feng; Lindquist, Erika A; Sorek, Rotem; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2010-10-01

    The predominance of rRNAs in the transcriptome is a major technical challenge in sequence-based analysis of cDNAs from microbial isolates and communities. Several approaches have been applied to deplete rRNAs from (meta)transcriptomes, but no systematic investigation of potential biases introduced by any of these approaches has been reported. Here we validated the effectiveness and fidelity of the two most commonly used approaches, subtractive hybridization and exonuclease digestion, as well as combinations of these treatments, on two synthetic five-microorganism metatranscriptomes using massively parallel sequencing. We found that the effectiveness of rRNA removal was a function of community composition and RNA integrity for these treatments. Subtractive hybridization alone introduced the least bias in relative transcript abundance, whereas exonuclease and in particular combined treatments greatly compromised mRNA abundance fidelity. Illumina sequencing itself also can compromise quantitative data analysis by introducing a G+C bias between runs.

  18. Phenotypic characterisation and 16S rRNA sequence analysis of veterinary isolates of Streptococcus pluranimalium.

    PubMed

    Twomey, D F; Carson, T; Foster, G; Koylass, M S; Whatmore, A M

    2012-05-01

    Forty-two isolates of Streptococcus pluranimalium were identified from cattle (n=38), sheep (n=2), an alpaca (n=1) and a pheasant (n=1) in the United Kingdom. The isolates were confirmed as S. pluranimalium by 16S rRNA sequence analysis but could not be differentiated reliably from Streptococcus acidominimus by phenotypic characterisation using commercial kits routinely used in veterinary laboratories. The alanyl-phenylalanyl-proline arylamidase reaction could be used to differentiate S. pluranimalium (positive) from Aerococcus urinae (negative).

  19. An optimised protocol for isolation of RNA from small sections of laser-capture microdissected FFPE tissue amenable for next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Amini, Parisa; Ettlin, Julia; Opitz, Lennart; Clementi, Elena; Malbon, Alexandra; Markkanen, Enni

    2017-08-23

    Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue constitutes a vast treasury of samples for biomedical research. Thus far however, extraction of RNA from FFPE tissue has proved challenging due to chemical RNA-protein crosslinking and RNA fragmentation, both of which heavily impact on RNA quantity and quality for downstream analysis. With very small sample sizes, e.g. when performing Laser-capture microdissection (LCM) to isolate specific subpopulations of cells, recovery of sufficient RNA for analysis with reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) or next-generation sequencing (NGS) becomes very cumbersome and difficult. We excised matched cancer-associated stroma (CAS) and normal stroma from clinical specimen of FFPE canine mammary tumours using LCM, and compared the commonly used protease-based RNA isolation procedure with an adapted novel technique that additionally incorporates a focused ultrasonication step. We successfully adapted a protocol that uses focused ultrasonication to isolate RNA from small amounts of deparaffinised, stained, clinical LCM samples. Using this approach, we found that total RNA yields could be increased by 8- to 12-fold compared to a commonly used protease-based extraction technique. Surprisingly, RNA extracted using this new approach was qualitatively at least equal if not superior compared to the old approach, as Cq values in RT-qPCR were on average 2.3-fold lower using the new method. Finally, we demonstrate that RNA extracted using the new method performs comparably in NGS as well. We present a successful isolation protocol for extraction of RNA from difficult and limiting FFPE tissue samples that enables successful analysis of small sections of clinically relevant specimen. The possibility to study gene expression signatures in specific small sections of archival FFPE tissue, which often entail large amounts of highly relevant clinical follow-up data, unlocks a new dimension of hitherto difficult-to-analyse samples which now

  20. Isolation of novel ribozymes that ligate AMP-activated RNA substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, A. J.; Szostak, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The protein enzymes RNA ligase and DNA ligase catalyze the ligation of nucleic acids via an adenosine-5'-5'-pyrophosphate 'capped' RNA or DNA intermediate. The activation of nucleic acid substrates by adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) may be a vestige of 'RNA world' catalysis. AMP-activated ligation seems ideally suited for catalysis by ribozymes (RNA enzymes), because an RNA motif capable of tightly and specifically binding AMP has previously been isolated. RESULTS: We used in vitro selection and directed evolution to explore the ability of ribozymes to catalyze the template-directed ligation of AMP-activated RNAs. We subjected a pool of 10(15) RNA molecules, each consisting of long random sequences flanking a mutagenized adenosine triphosphate (ATP) aptamer, to ten rounds of in vitro selection, including three rounds involving mutagenic polymerase chain reaction. Selection was for the ligation of an oligonucleotide to the 5'-capped active pool RNA species. Many different ligase ribozymes were isolated; these ribozymes had rates of reaction up to 0.4 ligations per hour, corresponding to rate accelerations of approximately 5 x10(5) over the templated, but otherwise uncatalyzed, background reaction rate. Three characterized ribozymes catalyzed the formation of 3'-5'-phosphodiester bonds and were highly specific for activation by AMP at the ligation site. CONCLUSIONS: The existence of a new class of ligase ribozymes is consistent with the hypothesis that the unusual mechanism of the biological ligases resulted from a conservation of mechanism during an evolutionary replacement of a primordial ribozyme ligase by a more modern protein enzyme. The newly isolated ligase ribozymes may also provide a starting point for the isolation of ribozymes that catalyze the polymerization of AMP-activated oligonucleotides or mononucleotides, which might have been the prebiotic analogs of nucleoside triphosphates.

  1. Isolation of novel ribozymes that ligate AMP-activated RNA substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, A. J.; Szostak, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The protein enzymes RNA ligase and DNA ligase catalyze the ligation of nucleic acids via an adenosine-5'-5'-pyrophosphate 'capped' RNA or DNA intermediate. The activation of nucleic acid substrates by adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) may be a vestige of 'RNA world' catalysis. AMP-activated ligation seems ideally suited for catalysis by ribozymes (RNA enzymes), because an RNA motif capable of tightly and specifically binding AMP has previously been isolated. RESULTS: We used in vitro selection and directed evolution to explore the ability of ribozymes to catalyze the template-directed ligation of AMP-activated RNAs. We subjected a pool of 10(15) RNA molecules, each consisting of long random sequences flanking a mutagenized adenosine triphosphate (ATP) aptamer, to ten rounds of in vitro selection, including three rounds involving mutagenic polymerase chain reaction. Selection was for the ligation of an oligonucleotide to the 5'-capped active pool RNA species. Many different ligase ribozymes were isolated; these ribozymes had rates of reaction up to 0.4 ligations per hour, corresponding to rate accelerations of approximately 5 x10(5) over the templated, but otherwise uncatalyzed, background reaction rate. Three characterized ribozymes catalyzed the formation of 3'-5'-phosphodiester bonds and were highly specific for activation by AMP at the ligation site. CONCLUSIONS: The existence of a new class of ligase ribozymes is consistent with the hypothesis that the unusual mechanism of the biological ligases resulted from a conservation of mechanism during an evolutionary replacement of a primordial ribozyme ligase by a more modern protein enzyme. The newly isolated ligase ribozymes may also provide a starting point for the isolation of ribozymes that catalyze the polymerization of AMP-activated oligonucleotides or mononucleotides, which might have been the prebiotic analogs of nucleoside triphosphates.

  2. 16SrRNA sequencing of Dye decolorizing bacteria isolated from Soil

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Avnish; Asthana, Monika; Gupta, Poonam; Yadav, Shweta; Sharma, Deepti; Singh, Km Neeraj; Kumar, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Dye׳s residues in textile effluents are hazardous for humans and animals health. Such pollutants can be degraded into non-harmful molecules using biological approaches that are considered cheaper and ecologically safer. Isolated 15 bacterial cultures from soil that could be used in biological system were showed decolorization capacity for Acid Green dye (33.9% to 94.0%) using thin layer chromatography and broth culture method. The most promising cultures (AMC3) to decolorize Acid green Dye (94.6%) was re-coded as NSDSUAM for submitting at IMTECH, Chandigarh for sequencing. The 16SrRNA sequencing suggested that it can be a variant of Pseudomonas geniculata (99.85% identical similarity) with difference of 2 base pairs to reference strain Pseudomonas geniculata ATCC 19374(T). Thus present study proposed dye decolorizing efficiency of the isolated strain of Pseudomonas geniculata that was previously unnoticed. The sequence is deposited in NCBI GenBank with the accession number KP238100. PMID:25780272

  3. Modified RNA-seq method for microbial community and diversity analysis using rRNA in different types of environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yong-Wei; Zou, Bin; Zhu, Ting; Hozzein, Wael N; Quan, Zhe-Xue

    2017-01-01

    RNA-seq-based SSU (small subunit) rRNA (ribosomal RNA) analysis has provided a better understanding of potentially active microbial community within environments. However, for RNA-seq library construction, high quantities of purified RNA are typically required. We propose a modified RNA-seq method for SSU rRNA-based microbial community analysis that depends on the direct ligation of a 5' adaptor to RNA before reverse-transcription. The method requires only a low-input quantity of RNA (10-100 ng) and does not require a DNA removal step. The method was initially tested on three mock communities synthesized with enriched SSU rRNA of archaeal, bacterial and fungal isolates at different ratios, and was subsequently used for environmental samples of high or low biomass. For high-biomass salt-marsh sediments, enriched SSU rRNA and total nucleic acid-derived RNA-seq datasets revealed highly consistent community compositions for all of the SSU rRNA sequences, and as much as 46.4%-59.5% of 16S rRNA sequences were suitable for OTU (operational taxonomic unit)-based community and diversity analyses with complete coverage of V1-V2 regions. OTU-based community structures for the two datasets were also highly consistent with those determined by all of the 16S rRNA reads. For low-biomass samples, total nucleic acid-derived RNA-seq datasets were analyzed, and highly active bacterial taxa were also identified by the OTU-based method, notably including members of the previously underestimated genus Nitrospira and phylum Acidobacteria in tap water, members of the phylum Actinobacteria on a shower curtain, and members of the phylum Cyanobacteria on leaf surfaces. More than half of the bacterial 16S rRNA sequences covered the complete region of primer 8F, and non-coverage rates as high as 38.7% were obtained for phylum-unclassified sequences, providing many opportunities to identify novel bacterial taxa. This modified RNA-seq method will provide a better snapshot of diverse microbial

  4. Comparison of ribosomal RNA removal methods for transcriptome sequencing workflows in teleost fish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is becoming the standard for transcriptome analysis. Removal of contaminating ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a priority in the preparation of libraries suitable for sequencing. rRNAs are commonly removed from total RNA via either mRNA selection or rRNA depletion. These methods have...

  5. System and Method for Isolation of Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye (Inventor); Wu, Honglu (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods for isolating samples are provided. The system comprises a first membrane and a second membrane disposed within an enclosure. First and second reservoirs can also be disposed within the enclosure and adapted to contain one or more reagents therein. A first valve can be disposed within the enclosure and in fluid communication with the first reservoir, the second reservoir, or both. The first valve can also be in fluid communication with the first or second membranes or both. The first valve can be adapted to selectively regulate the flow of the reagents from the first reservoir, through at least one of the first and second membranes, and into the second reservoir.

  6. A method for extracting and characterizing RNA from urine: For downstream PCR and RNAseq analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kun; Spillman, Monique A; Behbakht, Kian; Komatsu, Julia M; Abrahante, Juan E; Hicks, Douglas; Schotl, Brent; Odean, Evan; Jones, Kenneth L; Graner, Michael W; Bemis, Lynne T

    2017-08-10

    Readily accessible samples such as urine or blood are seemingly ideal for differentiating and stratifying patients; however, it has proven a daunting task to identify reliable biomarkers in such samples. Noncoding RNA holds great promise as a source of biomarkers distinguishing physiologic wellbeing or illness. Current methods to isolate and characterize RNA molecules in urine are limited. In this proof of concept study, we present a method to extract and identify small noncoding RNAs in urine. Initially, quantitative reverse transcription PCR was applied to confirm the presence of microRNAs in total RNA extracted from urine. Once the presence of micro RNA in urine was confirmed, we developed a method to scale up RNA extraction to provide adequate amounts of RNA for next generation sequence analysis. The method described in this study is applicable to detecting a broad range of small noncoding RNAs in urine; thus, they have wide applicability for health and disease analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An Optimized Method for Extracting Bacterial RNA from Mouse Skin Tissue Colonized by Mycobacterium ulcerans.

    PubMed

    Robbe-Saule, Marie; Babonneau, Jérémie; Sismeiro, Odile; Marsollier, Laurent; Marion, Estelle

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial transcriptome analyses during host colonization are essential to decipher the complexity of the relationship between the bacterium and its host. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is a promising approach providing valuable information about bacterial adaptation, the host response and, in some cases, mutual tolerance underlying crosstalk, as recently observed in the context of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection. Buruli ulcer is caused by M. ulcerans. This neglected disease is the third most common mycobacterial disease worldwide. Without treatment, M. ulcerans provokes massive skin ulcers. A healing process may be observed in 5% of Buruli ulcer patients several months after the initiation of disease. This spontaneous healing process suggests that some hosts can counteract the development of the lesions caused by M. ulcerans. Deciphering the mechanisms involved in this process should open up new treatment possibilities. To this end, we recently developed the first mouse model for studies of the spontaneous healing process. We have shown that the healing process is based on mutual tolerance between the bacterium and its host. In this context, RNA-seq seems to be the most appropriate method for deciphering bacterial adaptation. However, due to the low bacterial load in host tissues, the isolation of mycobacterial RNA from skin tissue for RNA-seq analysis remains challenging. We developed a method for extracting and purifying mycobacterial RNA whilst minimizing the amount of host RNA in the sample. This approach was based on the extraction of bacterial RNA by a differential lysis method. The challenge in the development of this method was the choice of a lysis system favoring the removal of host RNA without damage to the bacterial cells. We made use of the thick, resistant cell wall of M. ulcerans to achieve this end.

  8. An Optimized Method for Extracting Bacterial RNA from Mouse Skin Tissue Colonized by Mycobacterium ulcerans

    PubMed Central

    Robbe-Saule, Marie; Babonneau, Jérémie; Sismeiro, Odile; Marsollier, Laurent; Marion, Estelle

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial transcriptome analyses during host colonization are essential to decipher the complexity of the relationship between the bacterium and its host. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is a promising approach providing valuable information about bacterial adaptation, the host response and, in some cases, mutual tolerance underlying crosstalk, as recently observed in the context of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection. Buruli ulcer is caused by M. ulcerans. This neglected disease is the third most common mycobacterial disease worldwide. Without treatment, M. ulcerans provokes massive skin ulcers. A healing process may be observed in 5% of Buruli ulcer patients several months after the initiation of disease. This spontaneous healing process suggests that some hosts can counteract the development of the lesions caused by M. ulcerans. Deciphering the mechanisms involved in this process should open up new treatment possibilities. To this end, we recently developed the first mouse model for studies of the spontaneous healing process. We have shown that the healing process is based on mutual tolerance between the bacterium and its host. In this context, RNA-seq seems to be the most appropriate method for deciphering bacterial adaptation. However, due to the low bacterial load in host tissues, the isolation of mycobacterial RNA from skin tissue for RNA-seq analysis remains challenging. We developed a method for extracting and purifying mycobacterial RNA whilst minimizing the amount of host RNA in the sample. This approach was based on the extraction of bacterial RNA by a differential lysis method. The challenge in the development of this method was the choice of a lysis system favoring the removal of host RNA without damage to the bacterial cells. We made use of the thick, resistant cell wall of M. ulcerans to achieve this end. PMID:28392785

  9. Isolated pseudo–RNA-recognition motifs of SR proteins can regulate splicing using a noncanonical mode of RNA recognition

    PubMed Central

    Cléry, Antoine; Sinha, Rahul; Anczuków, Olga; Corrionero, Anna; Moursy, Ahmed; Daubner, Gerrit M.; Valcárcel, Juan; Krainer, Adrian R.; Allain, Frédéric H.-T.

    2013-01-01

    Serine/arginine (SR) proteins, one of the major families of alternative-splicing regulators in Eukarya, have two types of RNA-recognition motifs (RRMs): a canonical RRM and a pseudo-RRM. Although pseudo-RRMs are crucial for activity of SR proteins, their mode of action was unknown. By solving the structure of the human SRSF1 pseudo-RRM bound to RNA, we discovered a very unusual and sequence-specific RNA-binding mode that is centered on one α-helix and does not involve the β-sheet surface, which typically mediates RNA binding by RRMs. Remarkably, this mode of binding is conserved in all pseudo-RRMs tested. Furthermore, the isolated pseudo-RRM is sufficient to regulate splicing of about half of the SRSF1 target genes tested, and the bound α-helix is a pivotal element for this function. Our results strongly suggest that SR proteins with a pseudo-RRM frequently regulate splicing by competing with, rather than recruiting, spliceosome components, using solely this unusual RRM. PMID:23836656

  10. Comparative Analysis of Single-Cell RNA Sequencing Methods.

    PubMed

    Ziegenhain, Christoph; Vieth, Beate; Parekh, Swati; Reinius, Björn; Guillaumet-Adkins, Amy; Smets, Martha; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Heyn, Holger; Hellmann, Ines; Enard, Wolfgang

    2017-02-16

    Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) offers new possibilities to address biological and medical questions. However, systematic comparisons of the performance of diverse scRNA-seq protocols are lacking. We generated data from 583 mouse embryonic stem cells to evaluate six prominent scRNA-seq methods: CEL-seq2, Drop-seq, MARS-seq, SCRB-seq, Smart-seq, and Smart-seq2. While Smart-seq2 detected the most genes per cell and across cells, CEL-seq2, Drop-seq, MARS-seq, and SCRB-seq quantified mRNA levels with less amplification noise due to the use of unique molecular identifiers (UMIs). Power simulations at different sequencing depths showed that Drop-seq is more cost-efficient for transcriptome quantification of large numbers of cells, while MARS-seq, SCRB-seq, and Smart-seq2 are more efficient when analyzing fewer cells. Our quantitative comparison offers the basis for an informed choice among six prominent scRNA-seq methods, and it provides a framework for benchmarking further improvements of scRNA-seq protocols.

  11. Meeting report: discussions and preliminary findings on extracellular RNA measurement methods from laboratories in the NIH Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Louise C.; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B.; Adelson, P. David; Arango, Jorge; Balaj, Leonora; Breakefield, Xandra; Carlson, Elizabeth; Carter, Bob S.; Majem, Blanca; Chen, Clark C.; Cocucci, Emanuele; Danielson, Kirsty; Courtright, Amanda; Das, Saumya; Elmageed, Zakaria Y. Abd; Enderle, Daniel; Ezrin, Alan; Ferrer, Marc; Freedman, Jane; Galas, David; Gandhi, Roopali; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall; Kalani, Yashar; Kim, Yong; Krichevsky, Anna M.; Lai, Charles; Lal-Nag, Madhu; Laurent, Clara D.; Leonardo, Trevor; Li, Feng; Malenica, Ivana; Mondal, Debasis; Nejad, Parham; Patel, Tushar; Raffai, Robert L.; Rubio, Renee; Skog, Johan; Spetzler, Robert; Sun, Jie; Tanriverdi, Kahraman; Vickers, Kasey; Wang, Liang; Wang, Yaoyu; Wei, Zhiyun; Weiner, Howard L.; Wong, David; Yan, Irene K.; Yeri, Ashish; Gould, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) have been identified in all tested biofluids and have been associated with a variety of extracellular vesicles, ribonucleoprotein complexes and lipoprotein complexes. Much of the interest in exRNAs lies in the fact that they may serve as signalling molecules between cells, their potential to serve as biomarkers for prediction and diagnosis of disease and the possibility that exRNAs or the extracellular particles that carry them might be used for therapeutic purposes. Among the most significant bottlenecks to progress in this field is the lack of robust and standardized methods for collection and processing of biofluids, separation of different types of exRNA-containing particles and isolation and analysis of exRNAs. The Sample and Assay Standards Working Group of the Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium is a group of laboratories funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health to develop such methods. In our first joint endeavour, we held a series of conference calls and in-person meetings to survey the methods used among our members, placed them in the context of the current literature and used our findings to identify areas in which the identification of robust methodologies would promote rapid advancements in the exRNA field. PMID:26320937

  12. Meeting report: discussions and preliminary findings on extracellular RNA measurement methods from laboratories in the NIH Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Louise C; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Adelson, P David; Arango, Jorge; Balaj, Leonora; Breakefield, Xandra; Carlson, Elizabeth; Carter, Bob S; Majem, Blanca; Chen, Clark C; Cocucci, Emanuele; Danielson, Kirsty; Courtright, Amanda; Das, Saumya; Abd Elmageed, Zakaria Y; Enderle, Daniel; Ezrin, Alan; Ferrer, Marc; Freedman, Jane; Galas, David; Gandhi, Roopali; Huentelman, Matthew J; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall; Kalani, Yashar; Kim, Yong; Krichevsky, Anna M; Lai, Charles; Lal-Nag, Madhu; Laurent, Clara D; Leonardo, Trevor; Li, Feng; Malenica, Ivana; Mondal, Debasis; Nejad, Parham; Patel, Tushar; Raffai, Robert L; Rubio, Renee; Skog, Johan; Spetzler, Robert; Sun, Jie; Tanriverdi, Kahraman; Vickers, Kasey; Wang, Liang; Wang, Yaoyu; Wei, Zhiyun; Weiner, Howard L; Wong, David; Yan, Irene K; Yeri, Ashish; Gould, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) have been identified in all tested biofluids and have been associated with a variety of extracellular vesicles, ribonucleoprotein complexes and lipoprotein complexes. Much of the interest in exRNAs lies in the fact that they may serve as signalling molecules between cells, their potential to serve as biomarkers for prediction and diagnosis of disease and the possibility that exRNAs or the extracellular particles that carry them might be used for therapeutic purposes. Among the most significant bottlenecks to progress in this field is the lack of robust and standardized methods for collection and processing of biofluids, separation of different types of exRNA-containing particles and isolation and analysis of exRNAs. The Sample and Assay Standards Working Group of the Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium is a group of laboratories funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health to develop such methods. In our first joint endeavour, we held a series of conference calls and in-person meetings to survey the methods used among our members, placed them in the context of the current literature and used our findings to identify areas in which the identification of robust methodologies would promote rapid advancements in the exRNA field.

  13. Simple and efficient isolation of high-quality total RNA from Hibiscus tiliaceus, a mangrove associate and its relatives.

    PubMed

    Yang, G; Zhou, R; Tang, T; Shi, S

    2008-01-01

    Hibiscus tiliaceus, one of the mangrove associates, is an ideal plant for the study of ecological adaptation and salt tolerance as it may give clues to the evolutionary pathway by which the highly specialized adaptive syndrome of mangrove has been achieved. This species has extremely high contents of polysaccharides, secondary metabolites and especially polyphenolics in its various tissues, such as leaves and roots. So it is extremely difficult for RNA extraction from its various tissues, which prevents following molecular operations and expression-level studies like microarray and RT-PCR. Traditional methods based on CTAB can produce high-quality RNA from specific species or tissue, but they don't work well in H. tiliaceus. We describe here a modified CTAB-based method using PVP and PVPP with sequential extraction of chlorophorm and acid phenol and then selective salt precipitation, which can constantly isolate high-quality RNA from various tissues of H. tiliaceus within short time. RNA quality was assessed through reverse transcription and RT-PCR experiments, indicating that it could be suitable for a number of downstream purposes. We have already constructed a full-length cDNA library with total RNA isolated through the modified method and successfully used it in the following microarray experiments, which is aimed to unravel ecological adaptation and salt tolerance of H. tiliaceus. Moreover, we showed that this method could also be successfully applied to other plants in Malvaceae sensu lato (including Sida, Pachira, Sterculia, Urena, and Abelmoschus) with very abundant polyphenols and polysaccharides.

  14. Methods and composition for the production of orthogonal tRNA-aminoacyltRNA synthetase pairs

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA; Anderson, John Christopher [San Diego, CA; Chin, Jason [Cambridge, GB; Liu, David R [Lexington, MA; Magliery, Thomas J [North Haven, CT; Meggers, Eric L [Philadelphia, PA; Mehl, Ryan Aaron [Lancaster, PA; Pastrnak, Miro [San Diego, CA; Santoro, Steven William [Cambridge, MA; Zhang, Zhiwen [San Diego, CA

    2008-04-08

    This invention provides compositions and methods for generating components of protein biosynthetic machinery including orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases. Methods for identifying orthogonal pairs are also provided. These components can be used to incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo.

  15. Methods and composition for the production of orthogonal tRNA-aminoacyltRNA synthetase pairs

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA; Anderson, John Christopher [San Diego, CA; Chin, Jason [Cambridge, GB; Liu, David R [Lexington, MA; Magliery, Thomas J [North Haven, CT; Meggers, Eric L [Philadelphia, PA; Mehl, Ryan Aaron [Lancaster, PA; Pastrnak, Miro [San Diego, CA; Santoro, Steven William [Cambridge, MA; Zhang, Zhiwen [San Diego, CA

    2012-05-22

    This invention provides compositions and methods for generating components of protein biosynthetic machinery including orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases. Methods for identifying orthogonal pairs are also provided. These components can be used to incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo.

  16. Methods and compositions for the production of orthogonal tRNA-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pairs

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA; Anderson, John Christopher [San Diego, CA; Chin, Jason W [San Diego, CA; Liu, David R [Lexington, MA; Magliery, Thomas J [North Haven, CT; Meggers, Eric L [Philadelphia, PA; Mehl, Ryan Aaron [San Diego, CA; Pastrnak, Miro [San Diego, CA; Santoro, Stephen William [San Diego, CA; Zhang, Zhiwen [San Diego, CA

    2011-09-06

    This invention provides compositions and methods for generating components of protein biosynthetic machinery including orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases. Methods for identifying orthogonal pairs are also provided. These components can be used to incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo.

  17. Novel phenotype of RNA synthesis expressed by vesicular stomatitis virus isolated from persistent infection.

    PubMed Central

    Frey, T K; Youngner, J S

    1982-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) stocks isolated from two persistently infected mouse L-cell lines (designated VSV-PI stocks) express an altered phenotype of RNA synthesis. This phenotype is different from the RNA synthesis phenotype expressed by the viruses used to initiate the persistently infected lines, wild-type VSV and VSV ts-0-23 (a group III, ts-, RNA+ mutant). At 34 and 37 degrees C in L cells productively infected with VSV-PI stocks derived from the two cell lines, transcription of virus mRNA was significantly reduced, whereas replication of the 40S genomic RNA species was enhanced compared with wild-type VSV or ts-0-23. At 34 and 37 degrees C, both VSV-PI stocks replicated with equal or greater efficiency than wild-type VSV; 37 degrees C was the temperature at which the persistently infected cultures were maintained. At 40 degrees C, both VSV-PI stocks were temperature sensitive, and clonal VSV-PI isolates from both cell lines belong to complementation group I (RNA-). Standard ts- mutants (derived by mutagenesis of wild-type VSV) belonging to RNA- complementation groups I, II, and IV do not express the VSV-PI RNA synthesis phenotype at the permissive temperature, making this phenotype distinctive to persistent infection. Since the two VSV-PI populations from persistently infected cell lines initiated with different viruses both evolved this unique phenotype of RNA synthesis, the expression of this phenotype may play an important role in the maintenance of persistence. Images PMID:6292483

  18. RNA-Skim: a rapid method for RNA-Seq quantification at transcript level.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaojun; Wang, Wei

    2014-06-15

    RNA-Seq technique has been demonstrated as a revolutionary means for exploring transcriptome because it provides deep coverage and base pair-level resolution. RNA-Seq quantification is proven to be an efficient alternative to Microarray technique in gene expression study, and it is a critical component in RNA-Seq differential expression analysis. Most existing RNA-Seq quantification tools require the alignments of fragments to either a genome or a transcriptome, entailing a time-consuming and intricate alignment step. To improve the performance of RNA-Seq quantification, an alignment-free method, Sailfish, has been recently proposed to quantify transcript abundances using all k-mers in the transcriptome, demonstrating the feasibility of designing an efficient alignment-free method for transcriptome quantification. Even though Sailfish is substantially faster than alternative alignment-dependent methods such as Cufflinks, using all k-mers in the transcriptome quantification impedes the scalability of the method. We propose a novel RNA-Seq quantification method, RNA-Skim, which partitions the transcriptome into disjoint transcript clusters based on sequence similarity, and introduces the notion of sig-mers, which are a special type of k-mers uniquely associated with each cluster. We demonstrate that the sig-mer counts within a cluster are sufficient for estimating transcript abundances with accuracy comparable with any state-of-the-art method. This enables RNA-Skim to perform transcript quantification on each cluster independently, reducing a complex optimization problem into smaller optimization tasks that can be run in parallel. As a result, RNA-Skim uses <4% of the k-mers and <10% of the CPU time required by Sailfish. It is able to finish transcriptome quantification in <10 min per sample by using just a single thread on a commodity computer, which represents >100 speedup over the state-of-the-art alignment-based methods, while delivering comparable or higher

  19. RNA-Skim: a rapid method for RNA-Seq quantification at transcript level

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaojun; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: RNA-Seq technique has been demonstrated as a revolutionary means for exploring transcriptome because it provides deep coverage and base pair-level resolution. RNA-Seq quantification is proven to be an efficient alternative to Microarray technique in gene expression study, and it is a critical component in RNA-Seq differential expression analysis. Most existing RNA-Seq quantification tools require the alignments of fragments to either a genome or a transcriptome, entailing a time-consuming and intricate alignment step. To improve the performance of RNA-Seq quantification, an alignment-free method, Sailfish, has been recently proposed to quantify transcript abundances using all k-mers in the transcriptome, demonstrating the feasibility of designing an efficient alignment-free method for transcriptome quantification. Even though Sailfish is substantially faster than alternative alignment-dependent methods such as Cufflinks, using all k-mers in the transcriptome quantification impedes the scalability of the method. Results: We propose a novel RNA-Seq quantification method, RNA-Skim, which partitions the transcriptome into disjoint transcript clusters based on sequence similarity, and introduces the notion of sig-mers, which are a special type of k-mers uniquely associated with each cluster. We demonstrate that the sig-mer counts within a cluster are sufficient for estimating transcript abundances with accuracy comparable with any state-of-the-art method. This enables RNA-Skim to perform transcript quantification on each cluster independently, reducing a complex optimization problem into smaller optimization tasks that can be run in parallel. As a result, RNA-Skim uses <4% of the k-mers and <10% of the CPU time required by Sailfish. It is able to finish transcriptome quantification in <10 min per sample by using just a single thread on a commodity computer, which represents >100 speedup over the state-of-the-art alignment-based methods, while delivering

  20. Isolation of retro-transcribed RNA from in vitro Mycosphaerella fijiensis-infected banana leaves.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, C M; Peraza-Echeverría, L; Islas-Flores, I R; Canto-Canché, B B; Grijalva-Arango, R

    2010-07-27

    High polyphenol and polysaccharide levels in plant tissues such as banana fruit and leaves constitute a significant challenge to the extraction of sufficient amounts of high-quality RNA required for cDNA library synthesis and molecular analysis. To determine their comparative effectiveness at eliminating polyphenols, polysaccharides and proteins, three protocols for RNA extraction from in vitro banana plantlet leaves were tested: Concert(TM) Plant RNA isolation kit, a small-scale protocol based on Valderrama-Cháirez, and a modified version of the Valderrama-Cháirez protocol. RNA quantity and purity were evaluated by UV-spectrophotometry using DEPC-treated water and Tris-HCl, pH 7.5. Purity was greater using Tris-HCl. The Concert(TM) Plant protocol produced the poorest quality RNA. Reverse transcription into cDNAs from RNA isolated from in vitro banana plantlet leaves infected with Mycosphaerella fijiensis using the modified Valderrama-Cháirez protocol, followed by PCR using primers designed against gamma-actin from banana and M. fijiensis, yielded products of the anticipated size. In addition, this protocol reduced the processing time, lowered costs, used less expensive equipment, and could be used for other plants that have the same problems with high polyphenol and polysaccharide levels.

  1. Transfection of RNA from organ samples of infected animals represents a highly sensitive method for virus detection and recovery of classical swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Denise; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Postel, Alexander; Becher, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Translation and replication of positive stranded RNA viruses are directly initiated in the cellular cytoplasm after uncoating of the viral genome. Accordingly, infectious virus can be generated by transfection of RNA genomes into susceptible cells. In the present study, efficiency of conventional virus isolation after inoculation of cells with infectious sample material was compared to virus recovery after transfection of total RNA derived from organ samples of pigs infected with Classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Compared to the conventional method of virus isolation applied in three different porcine cell lines used in routine diagnosis of CSF, RNA transfection showed a similar efficiency for virus rescue. For two samples, recovery of infectious virus was only possible by RNA transfection, but not by the classical approach of virus isolation. Therefore, RNA transfection represents a valuable alternative to conventional virus isolation in particular when virus isolation is not possible, sample material is not suitable for virus isolation or when infectious material is not available. To estimate the potential risk of RNA prepared from sample material for infection of pigs, five domestic pigs were oronasally inoculated with RNA that was tested positive for virus rescue after RNA transfection. This exposure did not result in viral infection or clinical disease of the animals. In consequence, shipment of CSFV RNA can be regarded as a safe alternative to transportation of infectious virus and thereby facilitates the exchange of virus isolates among authorized laboratories with appropriate containment facilities.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of Mexican Babesia bovis isolates using msa and ssrRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Genis, Alma D; Mosqueda, Juan J; Borgonio, Verónica M; Falcón, Alfonso; Alvarez, Antonio; Camacho, Minerva; de Lourdes Muñoz, Maria; Figueroa, Julio V

    2008-12-01

    Variable merozoite surface antigens of Babesia bovis are exposed glycoproteins having a role in erythrocyte invasion. Members of this gene family include msa-1 and msa-2 (msa-2c, msa-2a(1), msa-2a(2), and msa-2b). Small subunit ribosomal (ssr)RNA gene is subject to evolutive pressure and has been used in phylogenetic studies. To determine the phylogenetic relationship among B. bovis Mexican isolates using different genetic markers, PCR amplicons, corresponding to msa-1, msa-2c, msa-2b, and ssrRNA genes, were cloned and plasmids carrying the corresponding inserts were sequenced. Comparative analysis of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences revealed distinct degrees of variability and identity among the coding gene sequences obtained from 12 geographically different B. bovis isolates and a reference strain. Overall sequence identities of 47.7%, 72.3%, 87.7%, and 94% were determined for msa-1, msa-2b, msa-2c, and ssrRNA, respectively. A robust phylogenetic tree was obtained with msa-2b sequences. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that Mexican B. bovis isolates group in clades not concordant with the Mexican geography. However, the Mexican isolates group together in an American clade separated from the Australian clade. Sequence heterogeneity in msa-1, msa-2b, and msa-2c coding regions of Mexican B. bovis isolates present in different geographical regions can be a result of either differential evolutive pressure or cattle movement from commercial trade.

  3. RNA isolation from precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) from different species.

    PubMed

    Niehof, Monika; Hildebrandt, Tobias; Danov, Olga; Arndt, Kirsten; Koschmann, Jeannette; Dahlmann, Franziska; Hansen, Tanja; Sewald, Katherina

    2017-03-09

    Functional 3D organ models such as precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) have recently captured the attention of biomedical research. To enable wider implementation in research and development, these new biologically relevant organ models are being constantly refined. A very important issue is to improve the preparation of high-quality RNA (ribonucleic acid) from PCLS for drug discovery and development of new therapies. Gene expression analysis at different levels is used as an important experimental readout. Genome-wide analysis using microarrays is mostly applied for biomarker selection in disease models or in comprehensive toxicological studies. Specific biomarker testing by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTqPCR) is often used in efficacy studies. Both applications require high-quality RNA as starting material for the generation of reliable data. Additionally, a small number of slices should be sufficient for satisfactory RNA isolation to allow as many experimental conditions as possible to be covered with a given tissue sample. Unfortunately, the vast amount of agarose in PCLS impedes RNA extraction according to the standard procedures. We established an optimized protocol for RNA isolation from PCLS from humans, rats, mice, marmosets, and rhesus macaques based on the separation of lysis and precipitation steps and a magnetic-bead cleanup procedure. The resulting RNA is of high purity and possesses a high degree of integrity. There are no contaminations affecting RTqPCR efficiency or any enzymatic step in sample preparation for microarray analysis. In summary, we isolated RNA from PCLS from different species that is well suited for RTqPCR and for microarray analysis as downstream applications.

  4. The embryonic kidney: isolation, organ culture, immunostaining and RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jamie A

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic mouse kidneys develop well in organ culture. This, coupled with the fact that renal organogenesis includes a range of developmental processes, has made cultured kidney rudiments a popular model for the study of organogenesis. Although cultured kidneys do not replicate every event that takes place in vivo, they do allow close observation of events as they happen and they allow easy access for experiments that use drugs, antibodies, exogenous growth factors and interfering RNAs. Renal organ culture therefore offers a much quicker method to address certain problems than would the generation of transgenic mice. Requiring only material from freshly killed healthy animals, it also avoids some ethical problems connected with subjecting living animals to treatments (or the effect of mutations) that are harmful.

  5. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    DOEpatents

    Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Moyzis, R.K.; Ratliff, R.L.; Shera, E.B.; Stewart, C.C.

    1990-10-09

    A method is provided for the rapid base sequencing of DNA or RNA fragments wherein a single fragment of DNA or RNA is provided with identifiable bases and suspended in a moving flow stream. An exonuclease sequentially cleaves individual bases from the end of the suspended fragment. The moving flow stream maintains the cleaved bases in an orderly train for subsequent detection and identification. In a particular embodiment, individual bases forming the DNA or RNA fragments are individually tagged with a characteristic fluorescent dye. The train of bases is then excited to fluorescence with an output spectrum characteristic of the individual bases. Accordingly, the base sequence of the original DNA or RNA fragment can be reconstructed. 2 figs.

  6. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    DOEpatents

    Jett, James H.; Keller, Richard A.; Martin, John C.; Moyzis, Robert K.; Ratliff, Robert L.; Shera, E. Brooks; Stewart, Carleton C.

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for the rapid base sequencing of DNA or RNA fragments wherein a single fragment of DNA or RNA is provided with identifiable bases and suspended in a moving flow stream. An exonuclease sequentially cleaves individual bases from the end of the suspended fragment. The moving flow stream maintains the cleaved bases in an orderly train for subsequent detection and identification. In a particular embodiment, individual bases forming the DNA or RNA fragments are individually tagged with a characteristic fluorescent dye. The train of bases is then excited to fluorescence with an output spectrum characteristic of the individual bases. Accordingly, the base sequence of the original DNA or RNA fragment can be reconstructed.

  7. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    DOEpatents

    Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Moyzis, R.K.; Ratliff, R.L.; Shera, E.B.; Stewart, C.C.

    1987-10-07

    A method is provided for the rapid base sequencing of DNA or RNA fragments wherein a single fragment of DNA or RNA is provided with identifiable bases and suspended in a moving flow stream. An exonuclease sequentially cleaves individual bases from the end of the suspended fragment. The moving flow stream maintains the cleaved bases in an orderly train for subsequent detection and identification. In a particular embodiment, individual bases forming the DNA or RNA fragments are individually tagged with a characteristic fluorescent dye. The train of bases is then excited to fluorescence with an output spectrum characteristic of the individual bases. Accordingly, the base sequence of the original DNA or RNA fragment can be reconstructed. 2 figs.

  8. Isolation and molecular characterization of mRNA transport mutants in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed Central

    Azad, A K; Tani, T; Shiki, N; Tsuneyoshi, S; Urushiyama, S; Ohshima, Y

    1997-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic transport of mRNA is essential for eukaryotic gene expression. However, how mRNA is exported from the nucleus is mostly unknown. To elucidate the mechanisms of mRNA transport, we took a genetic approach to identify genes, the products of which play a role in that process. From about 1000 temperature -sensitive (ts- or cs-) mutants, we identified five ts- mutants that are defective in poly(A)+ RNA transport by using a situ hybridization with an oligo(dT)50 as a probe. These mutants accumulate poly(A)+ RNA in the nuclei when shifted to a nonpermissive temperature. All five mutations are tightly linked to the ts- growth defects, are recessive, and fall into four different groups designated as ptr 1-4 (poly(A)+ RNA transport). Interestingly, each group of mutants has a differential localization pattern of poly(A)+ RNA in the nuclei at the nonpermissive temperature, suggesting that they have defects at different steps of the mRNA transport pathway. Localization of a nucleoplasmin-green fluorescent protein fusion suggests that ptr2 and ptr3 have defects also in nuclear protein import. Among the isolated mutants, only ptr2 showed a defect in pre-mRNA splicing. We cloned the ptr2+ and ptr3+ genes and found that they encode Schizosaccharomyces pombe homologues of the mammalian RCC1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for RAN/TC4, and the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 involved in ubiquitin conjugation, respectively. The ptr3+ gene is essential for cell viability, and Ptr3p tagged with green fluorescent protein was localized in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. This is the first report suggesting that the ubiquitin system plays a role in mRNA export. Images PMID:9168469

  9. Identification of Lactobacillus isolates from the gastrointestinal tract, silage, and yoghurt by 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer region sequence comparisons.

    PubMed

    Tannock, G W; Tilsala-Timisjarvi, A; Rodtong, S; Ng, J; Munro, K; Alatossava, T

    1999-09-01

    Lactobacillus isolates were identified by PCR amplification and sequencing of the region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes (spacer region). The sequences obtained from the isolates were compared to those of reference strains held in GenBank. A similarity of 97.5% or greater was considered to provide identification. To check the reliability of the method, the V2-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced in the case of isolates whose spacer region sequences were less than 99% similar to that of a reference strain. Confirmation of identity was obtained in all instances. Spacer region sequencing provided rapid and accurate identification of Lactobacillus isolates obtained from gastrointestinal, yoghurt, and silage samples. It had an advantage over 16S V2-V3 sequence comparisons because it distinguished between isolates of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

  10. Modified 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region restriction endonuclease analysis for species identification of Enterococcus strains isolated from pigs, compared with identification using classical methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Ziółkowska, Grażyna; Zięba, Przemysław; Trościańczyk, Aleksandra; Banach, Tomasz; Kowalski, Cezary

    2015-03-01

    Fast and reliable identification of bacteria to at least the species level is currently the basis for correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment of infections. This is particularly important in the case of bacteria of the genus Enterococcus, whose resistance profile is often correlated with their species (e.g. resistance to vancomycin). In this study, we evaluated restriction endonuclease analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region for species identification of Enterococcus. The utility of the method was compared with that of phenotypic methods [biochemical profile evaluation and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)]. Identification was based on 21 Enterococcus reference strains, of the species E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, E. durans, E. casseliflavus, E. gallinarum, E. avium, E. cecorum and E. columbae, and 47 Enterococcus field strains isolated from pigs. Restriction endonuclease analysis of the ITS-PCR product using HinfI, RsaI and MboI, in the order specified, enabled species differentiation of the Enterococcus reference and field strains, and in the case of the latter, the results of species identification were identical (47/47) to those obtained by MALDI-TOF MS. Moreover, as a result of digestion with MboI, a unique restriction profile was also obtained for the strains (3/3) identified by MALDI-TOF MS as E. thailandicus. In our opinion, restriction endonuclease analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS region of Enterococcus may be a simple and relatively fast (less than 4 h) alternative method for identifying the species occurring most frequently in humans and animals. © 2015 The Authors.

  11. Electroporation of DNA into Physarum polycephalum Mitochondria: Effects on Transcription and RNA Editing in Isolated Organelles.

    PubMed

    Gott, Jonatha M; Naegele, Gregory M; Howell, Scott J

    2016-12-14

    Mitochondrial RNAs in the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum contain nucleotides that are not encoded in the mitochondrial genes from which they are transcribed. These site-specific changes are quite extensive, comprising ~4% of the residues within mRNAs and ~2% of rRNAs and tRNAs. These "extra" nucleotides are added co-transcriptionally, but the means by which this is accomplished have not been elucidated. The cox1 mRNA also contains four sites of C to U changes, which occur post-transcriptionally, most likely via targeted deamination. The currently available in vitro systems for studying P. polycephalum editing are limited in that the template is the entire ~63,000 bp mitochondrial genome. This presents a significant challenge when trying to define the signals that specify editing sites. In an attempt to overcome this issue, a method for introducing DNA into isolated P. polycephalum mitochondria via electroporation has been developed. Exogenous DNA is expressed, but the transcripts synthesized from these templates are not edited under the conditions tested. However, transcripts derived from the mitochondrial genome are accurately edited after electroporation, indicating that the editing machinery is still functional. These findings suggest that this method may ultimately provide a feasible approach to elucidating editing signals.

  12. Electroporation of DNA into Physarum polycephalum Mitochondria: Effects on Transcription and RNA Editing in Isolated Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Gott, Jonatha M.; Naegele, Gregory M.; Howell, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial RNAs in the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum contain nucleotides that are not encoded in the mitochondrial genes from which they are transcribed. These site-specific changes are quite extensive, comprising ~4% of the residues within mRNAs and ~2% of rRNAs and tRNAs. These “extra” nucleotides are added co-transcriptionally, but the means by which this is accomplished have not been elucidated. The cox1 mRNA also contains four sites of C to U changes, which occur post-transcriptionally, most likely via targeted deamination. The currently available in vitro systems for studying P. polycephalum editing are limited in that the template is the entire ~63,000 bp mitochondrial genome. This presents a significant challenge when trying to define the signals that specify editing sites. In an attempt to overcome this issue, a method for introducing DNA into isolated P. polycephalum mitochondria via electroporation has been developed. Exogenous DNA is expressed, but the transcripts synthesized from these templates are not edited under the conditions tested. However, transcripts derived from the mitochondrial genome are accurately edited after electroporation, indicating that the editing machinery is still functional. These findings suggest that this method may ultimately provide a feasible approach to elucidating editing signals. PMID:27983641

  13. Application of a simple and affordable protocol for isolating plant total nucleic acids for RNA and DNA virus detection.

    PubMed

    Arruabarrena, Ana; Benítez-Galeano, María José; Giambiasi, Mario; Bertalmío, Ana; Colina, Rodney; Hernández-Rodríguez, Lester

    2016-11-01

    Standard molecular methods for plant virus diagnosis require the purification of RNA or DNA extracts from a large number of samples, with sufficient concentration and quality for their use in PCR, RT-PCR, or qPCR analysis. Most methods are laborious and use either hazardous and/or costly chemicals. A previously published protocol for RNA isolation from several plant species yields high amounts of good quality RNA-DNA mixture in a simple, safe and inexpensive manner. In the present work, this method was tested to obtain RNA-DNA extracts from leaves of tomato, potato and three species of citrus, and was compared with two commercial kits. The results demonstrated that this protocol offers at least comparable nucleic acid quality, quantity and purity to those provided by commercial phenol-based or spin column systems and that are suitable to be used in PCR, RT-PCR and qPCR for virus and viroid detection. Because of its easy implementation and the use of safe and inexpensive reagents, it can be easily implemented to work in plant virus and viroid detection in different plant species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Satellite RNA of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Mitovirus 3a in Hypovirulent Isolates of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa.

    PubMed

    Deng, F; Boland, G J

    2004-09-01

    ABSTRACT Two genetically distinct double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) elements were identified in hypovirulent isolates of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, the causal agent of dollar spot of turfgrass. The large dsRNA (L-dsRNA) was consistently present in all hypovirulent isolates, whereas the small dsRNA (S-dsRNA) was found only in some hypovirulent isolates. Virulence comparisons revealed that there was no significant difference between isolates containing one or both dsRNAs. Therefore, the L-dsRNA appears to be the genetic determinant of hypovirulence, while the S-dsRNA is not essential for hypovirulence in S. homoeocarpa. The L-dsRNA in hypovirulent isolate Sh12B of S. homoeocarpa was previously characterized as a fungal mitochondrial virus and designated Ophiostoma novo-ulmi mitovirus 3a-Sh12B (OnuMV3a-Sh12B) because it was conspecific with O. novo-ulmi mitovirus 3a-Ld from O. novo-ulmi, the causal agent of Dutch elm disease. In the present study, the nucleotide sequences of the S-dsRNAs (738 to 767 nucleotides) in hypovirulent isolates Sh12B, Sh279B, and Sh286B were determined. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicated that the S-dsRNA was not derived from the OnuMV3a dsRNA and it could not encode an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. These results are consistent with biological data that the S-dsRNA was always associated with the L-dsRNA and was never found independently. Therefore, the S-dsRNA can be regarded as a satellite RNA of OnuMV3a in S. homoeocarpa. Northern blotting analysis indicated that nucleic acid extracts from isolate Sh12B of S. homoeocarpa contained more single (+) stranded RNA than dsRNA for this satellite RNA. The 5'- and 3'-terminal sequences of the positive strand of the S-dsRNA each could be folded into a stem-loop structure and the terminal 21 nucleotides were complementary to each other, potentially forming a panhandle structure.

  15. Small RNA Detection by in Situ Hybridization Methods

    PubMed Central

    Urbanek, Martyna O.; Nawrocka, Anna U.; Krzyzosiak, Wlodzimierz J.

    2015-01-01

    Small noncoding RNAs perform multiple regulatory functions in cells, and their exogenous mimics are widely used in research and experimental therapies to interfere with target gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the most thoroughly investigated representatives of the small RNA family, which includes short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), PIWI-associated RNA (piRNAs), and others. Numerous methods have been adopted for the detection and characterization of small RNAs, which is challenging due to their short length and low level of expression. These include molecular biology methods such as real-time RT-PCR, northern blotting, hybridization to microarrays, cloning and sequencing, as well as single cell miRNA detection by microscopy with in situ hybridization (ISH). In this review, we focus on the ISH method, including its fluorescent version (FISH), and we present recent methodological advances that facilitated its successful adaptation for small RNA detection. We discuss relevant technical aspects as well as the advantages and limitations of ISH. We also refer to numerous applications of small RNA ISH in basic research and molecular diagnostics. PMID:26068454

  16. Inverse PCR-based method for isolating novel SINEs from genome.

    PubMed

    Han, Yawei; Chen, Liping; Guan, Lihong; He, Shunping

    2014-04-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are moderately repetitive DNA sequences in eukaryotic genomes. Although eukaryotic genomes contain numerous SINEs copy, it is very difficult and laborious to isolate and identify them by the reported methods. In this study, the inverse PCR was successfully applied to isolate SINEs from Opsariichthys bidens genome in Eastern Asian Cyprinid. A group of SINEs derived from tRNA(Ala) molecular had been identified, which were named Opsar according to Opsariichthys. SINEs characteristics were exhibited in Opsar, which contained a tRNA(Ala)-derived region at the 5' end, a tRNA-unrelated region, and AT-rich region at the 3' end. The tRNA-derived region of Opsar shared 76 % sequence similarity with tRNA(Ala) gene. This result indicated that Opsar could derive from the inactive or pseudogene of tRNA(Ala). The reliability of method was tested by obtaining C-SINE, Ct-SINE, and M-SINEs from Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Megalobrama amblycephala, and Cyprinus carpio genomes. This method is simpler than the previously reported, which successfully omitted many steps, such as preparation of probes, construction of genomic libraries, and hybridization.

  17. Isolation of an endogenous C-type RNA virus from Mus musculus molossinus.

    PubMed

    Bedigian, H G; Meier, H

    1975-10-01

    We isolated a type-C RNA virus from the Japanese field mouse, Mus musculus molossinus. M. musculus musculus and M. musculus molossinus are two different subspecies of Mus and thus only distantly related. The virus grew only on cells foreign to the host, was xenotropic, and readily rescued the murine sarcoma (MuSV) genome from a normal rat kidney cell line transformed nonproductively by the Harvey strain of MuSV. The virus banded at a density of 1.16 g/ml and contained an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase.

  18. Isolation and characterization of an RNA aptamer for the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Toscano-Garibay, Julia D; Benítez-Hess, María L; Alvarez-Salas, Luis M

    2011-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a common neoplastic disease affecting women worldwide. Expression of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6/E7 genes is frequently associated with cervical cancer, representing ideal targets for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Aptamers are oligonucleotide ligands capable of binding with high affinity and specificity to relevant markers in therapeutics and disease detection. The aim of the study was to isolate an RNA aptamer specific for the HPV-16 E7 protein. Aptamers were selected from a randomized oligonucleotide library using a modified SELEX method and recombinant HPV-16 E7 protein. Isolated aptamers were cloned and sequenced for in silico analysis. Interaction and electromobility shift assays (EMSA) were performed to establish aptamer specificity and affinity for E7. RNase footprinting and serial deletions of the aptamer and the E7 protein were made to characterize the aptamer-protein complex. Sandwich slot-blot assays were used for K(D) determination. After several rounds of SELEX, an aptamer (G5α3N.4) exhibited specificity for E7 using cell-free and protein extracts. G5α3N.4 binding yielded a K(D) comparable to aptamers directed to other small targets. Enzymatic and genetic analysis of G5α3N.4 binding showed a secondary structure with two stem-loop domains joined by single-stranded region contacting E7 in a clamp-like manner. The G5α3N.4 aptamer also produced specific complexes in HPV-positive cervical carcinoma cells. The affinity and specificity of G5α3N.4 binding domains for the HPV-16 E7 protein may be used for the detection of papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer. Copyright © 2011 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolating Influenza RNA from Clinical Samples Using Microfluidic Oil-Water Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Francis R.; Wang, Jingjing; Opal, Steven M.; Tripathi, Anubhav

    2016-01-01

    The effective and robust separation of biomolecules of interest from patient samples is an essential step in diagnostic applications. We present a platform for the fast extraction of nucleic acids from clinical specimens utilizing paramagnetic PMPs, an oil-water interface, a small permanent magnet and a microfluidic channel to separate and purify captured nucleic acids from lysate in less than one minute, circumventing the need for multiple washing steps and greatly simplifying and expediting the purification procedure. Our device was able to isolate influenza RNA from clinical nasopharyngeal swab samples with high efficiency when compared to the Ambion® MagMAXTM Viral RNA Isolation Kit, sufficiently separating nucleic acid analytes from PCR-inhibiting contaminants within the lysate while also critically maintaining high integrity of the viral genome. We find that this design has great potential for rapid, efficient and sensitive nucleic acid separation from patient sample. PMID:26886007

  20. Isolating Influenza RNA from Clinical Samples Using Microfluidic Oil-Water Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Cui, Francis R; Wang, Jingjing; Opal, Steven M; Tripathi, Anubhav

    2016-01-01

    The effective and robust separation of biomolecules of interest from patient samples is an essential step in diagnostic applications. We present a platform for the fast extraction of nucleic acids from clinical specimens utilizing paramagnetic PMPs, an oil-water interface, a small permanent magnet and a microfluidic channel to separate and purify captured nucleic acids from lysate in less than one minute, circumventing the need for multiple washing steps and greatly simplifying and expediting the purification procedure. Our device was able to isolate influenza RNA from clinical nasopharyngeal swab samples with high efficiency when compared to the Ambion® MagMAXTM Viral RNA Isolation Kit, sufficiently separating nucleic acid analytes from PCR-inhibiting contaminants within the lysate while also critically maintaining high integrity of the viral genome. We find that this design has great potential for rapid, efficient and sensitive nucleic acid separation from patient sample.

  1. Computational methods and evaluation of RNA stabilization reagents for genome-wide expression studies.

    PubMed

    Bhagwat, Arvind A; Phadke, Ravindra P; Wheeler, David; Kalantre, Sagar; Gudipati, Mohanram; Bhagwat, Medha

    2003-11-01

    Gene expression studies require high quality messenger RNA (mRNA) in addition to other factors such as efficient primers and labeling reagents. To prevent RNA degradation and to improve the quality of gene array expression data, several commercial reagents have become available. We examined a conventional hot-phenol lysis method and RNA stabilization reagents, and generated comparative gene expression profiles from Escherichia coli cells grown on minimal medium. Our data indicate that certain RNA stabilization reagents induce stress responses and proper caution must be exercised during their use. We observed that the laboratory reagent (phenol/EtOH, 5:95, v/v) worked efficiently in isolating high quality mRNA and reproducibility was such that reliable gene expression profiles were generated. To assist in the analysis of gene expression data, we wrote a number of macros that use the most recent gene annotation and process data in accordance with gene function. Scripts were also written to examine the occurrence of artifacts, based on GC content, length of the individual open reading frame (ORF), its distribution on plus and minus DNA strands, and the distance from the replication origin.

  2. Effects of social isolation on mRNA expression for corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptors in prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein; Partoo, Leila; Yee, Jason; Stevenson, Jennifer; Sanzenbacher, Lisa; Kenkel, William; Mohsenpour, Seyed Ramezan; Hashimoto, Kozo; Carter, C Sue

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that various type of stressors modulate messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) for type 1 corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptor (CRH-R1 mRNA) and type 2 CRH receptor (CRH-R2 mRNA). The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of social isolation stress of varying durations on the CRH, CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 mRNAs expression in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and pituitary of socially monogamous female and male prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Isolation for 1h (single isolation) or 1h of isolation every day for 4 weeks (repeated isolation) was followed by a significant increase in plasma corticosterone levels. Single or repeated isolation increased hypothalamic CRH mRNA expression, but no changes in CRH-R1 mRNA in the hypothalamus were observed. Continuous isolation for 4 weeks (chronic isolation) showed no effect on hypothalamic CRH or CRH-R1 mRNAs in female or male animals. However, hypothalamic CRH-R2 mRNA was significantly reduced in voles exposed to chronic isolation. Single or repeated isolation, but not chronic isolation, significantly increased CRH-R1 mRNA and decreased CRH-R2 mRNA in the pituitary. Despite elevated CRH mRNA expression, CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 mRNAs were not modulated in the hippocampus following single or repeated isolation. Although, chronic isolation did not affect hippocampal CRH or CRH-R1 mRNAs, it did increase CRH-R2 mRNA expression in females and males. The results of the present study in prairie voles suggest that social isolation has receptor subtype and species-specific consequences for the modulation of gene expression for CRH and its receptors in brain and pituitary. Previous studies have revealed a female-biased increase in oxytocin in response to chronic isolation; however, we did not find a sex difference in CRH or its receptors following single, repeated or chronic social isolation, suggesting that sexually dimorphic processes beyond the CRH system, possibly involving vasopressin, might

  3. RNA interference inhibits herpes simplex virus type 1 isolated from saliva samples and mucocutaneous lesions.

    PubMed

    Silva, Amanda Perse da; Lopes, Juliana Freitas; Paula, Vanessa Salete de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of RNA interference to inhibit herpes simplex virus type-1 replication in vitro. For herpes simplex virus type-1 gene silencing, three different small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the herpes simplex virus type-1 UL39 gene (sequence si-UL 39-1, si-UL 39-2, and si-UL 39-3) were used, which encode the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, an essential enzyme for DNA synthesis. Herpes simplex virus type-1 was isolated from saliva samples and mucocutaneous lesions from infected patients. All mucocutaneous lesions' samples were positive for herpes simplex virus type-1 by real-time PCR and by virus isolation; all herpes simplex virus type-1 from saliva samples were positive by real-time PCR and 50% were positive by virus isolation. The levels of herpes simplex virus type-1 DNA remaining after siRNA treatment were assessed by real-time PCR, whose results demonstrated that the effect of siRNAs on gene expression depends on siRNA concentration. The three siRNA sequences used were able to inhibit viral replication, assessed by real-time PCR and plaque assays and among them, the sequence si-UL 39-1 was the most effective. This sequence inhibited 99% of herpes simplex virus type-1 replication. The results demonstrate that silencing herpes simplex virus type-1 UL39 expression by siRNAs effectively inhibits herpes simplex virus type-1 replication, suggesting that siRNA based antiviral strategy may be a potential therapeutic alternative.

  4. Isolation of the Tumor-Inducing RNA from Oncogenic and Nononcogenic Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Beljanski, M.; Cunha, M. I. Aaron-Da; Beljanski, M. S.; Manigault, P.; Bourgarel, P.

    1974-01-01

    Two RNA fractions have been isolated and purified from both oncogenic and nononcogenic strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Both RNAs are capable of inducing the formation of transplantable tumors when introduced at wound sites in stems of Datura stramonium plants. One of these RNA fractions was found to be bound to an RNA-directed DNA polymerase, while the other was associated with the bacterial DNA. Physical evidence suggests that both are single stranded and small in size; linear sucrose gradients show that their size corresponds to a value of 5-6 S. A concentration of 4-5 μg of the RNAs dissolved in 0.01 ml of water is effective in initiating the formation of transplantable tumors in Datura plants. Images PMID:4525450

  5. Separation and isolation of BTV dsRNA segments and viral proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Joseph K-K; Huang, I-Jen; Hayama, Emiko

    2012-05-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) genome contains ten double-stranded RNA segments. The sequence of the plus strand of each of the BTV genomic double-stranded RNAs is the same as that of its mRNA, which encodes for a single viral protein, except the smallest S4 segment which can encode for two nonstructural proteins, primarily for the release assistance of the viral progeny. The separation and isolation of each BTV dsRNA segment and viral protein have provided extensive data related to its viral infection, pathology, suppression of host cellular functions, and eventual apoptosis of the infected host cells. This cytoplasmic virus is also an animal killer that costs the U.S. livestock industry at least $125 million yearly. However, this virus has no known effect on humans. Thus, it is very safe to carry out investigation with the virus, preferably in a BSL-2 laboratory.

  6. RNA Isolation from Cell Specific Subpopulations Using Laser-capture Microdissection Combined with Rapid Immunolabeling

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) allows the isolation of specific cells from thin tissue sections with high spatial resolution. Effective LCM requires precise identification of cells subpopulations from a heterogeneous tissue. Identification of cells of interest for LCM is usually based on morphological criteria or on fluorescent protein reporters. The combination of LCM and rapid immunolabeling offers an alternative and efficient means to visualize specific cell types and to isolate them from surrounding tissue. High-quality RNA can then be extracted from a pure cell population and further processed for downstream applications, including RNA-sequencing, microarray or qRT-PCR. This approach has been previously performed and briefly described in few publications. The goal of this article is to illustrate how to perform rapid immunolabeling of a cell population while keeping RNA integrity, and how to isolate these specific cells using LCM. Herein, we illustrated this multi-step procedure by immunolabeling and capturing dopaminergic cells in brain tissue from one-day-old mice. We highlight key critical steps that deserve special consideration. This protocol can be adapted to a variety of tissues and cells of interest. Researchers from different fields will likely benefit from the demonstration of this approach. PMID:25939046

  7. The Kernel Energy Method: application to a tRNA.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lulu; Massa, Lou; Karle, Jerome

    2006-01-31

    The Kernel Energy Method (KEM) may be used to calculate quantum mechanical molecular energy by the use of several model chemistries. Simplification is obtained by mathematically breaking a large molecule into smaller parts, called kernels. The full molecule is reassembled from calculations carried out on the kernels. KEM is as yet untested for RNA, and such a test is the purpose here. The basic kernel for RNA is a nucleotide that in general may differ from those of DNA. RNA is a single strand rather than the double helix of DNA. KEM energy has been calculated for a tRNA, whose crystal structure is known, and which contains 2,565 atoms. The energy is calculated to be E = -108,995.1668 (a.u.), in the Hartree-Fock approximation, using a limited basis. Interaction energies are found to be consistent with the hydrogen-bonding scheme previously found. In this paper, the range of biochemical molecules, susceptible of quantum studies by means of the KEM, have been broadened to include RNA.

  8. Characterization of RNA isolated from eighteen different human tissues: results from a rapid human autopsy program.

    PubMed

    Walker, Douglas G; Whetzel, Alexis M; Serrano, Geidy; Sue, Lucia I; Lue, Lih-Fen; Beach, Thomas G

    2016-09-01

    Many factors affect the integrity of messenger RNA from human autopsy tissues including postmortem interval (PMI) between death and tissue preservation and the pre-mortem agonal and disease states. In this communication, we describe RNA isolation and characterization of 389 samples from 18 different tissues from elderly donors who were participants in a rapid whole-body autopsy program located in Sun City, Arizona ( www.brainandbodydonationprogram.org ). Most tissues were collected within a PMI of 2-6 h (median 3.15 h; N = 455), but for this study, tissue from cases with longer PMIs (1.25-29.25 h) were included. RNA quality was assessed by RNA integrity number (RIN) and total yield (ng RNA/mg tissue). RIN correlated with PMI for heart (r = -0.531, p = 0.009) and liver (r = -558, p = 0.0017), while RNA yield correlated with PMI for colon (r = -485, p = 0.016) and skin (r = -0.460, p = 0.031). RNAs with the lowest integrity were from skin and cervix where 22.7 and 31.4 % of samples respectively failed to produce intact RNA; by contrast all samples from esophagus, lymph node, jejunum, lung, stomach, submandibular gland and kidney produced RNA with measurable RINs. Expression levels in heart RNA of 4 common housekeeping normalization genes showed significant correlations of Ct values with RIN, but only one gene, glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase, showed a correlation of Ct with PMI. There were no correlations between RIN values obtained for liver, adrenal, cervix, esophagus and lymph node and those obtained from corresponding brain samples. We show that high quality RNA can be produced from most human autopsy tissues, though with significant differences between tissues and donors. The RNA stability and yield did not depend solely on PMI; other undetermined factors are involved, but these do not include the age of the donor.

  9. Emergence of Multidrug-Resistant Campylobacter Species Isolates with a Horizontally Acquired rRNA Methylase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Maojun; Deng, Fengru; Shen, Zhangqi; Wu, Congming; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter constitutes a serious threat to public health, and resistance to macrolides is of particular concern, as this class of antibiotics is the drug of choice for clinical therapy of campylobacteriosis. Very recently, a horizontally transferrable macrolide resistance mediated by the rRNA methylase gene erm(B) was reported in a Campylobacter coli isolate, but little is known about the dissemination of erm(B) among Campylobacter isolates and the association of erm(B)-carrying isolates with clinical disease. To address this question and facilitate the control of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter, we determined the distribution of erm(B) in 1,554 C. coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolates derived from food-producing animals and clinically confirmed human diarrheal cases. The results revealed that 58 of the examined isolates harbored erm(B) and exhibited high-level resistance to macrolides, and most were recent isolates, derived in 2011-2012. In addition, the erm(B)-positive isolates were all resistant to fluoroquinolones, another clinically important antibiotic used for treating campylobacteriosis. The erm(B) gene is found to be associated with chromosomal multidrug resistance genomic islands (MDRGIs) of Gram-positive origin or with plasmids of various sizes. All MDRGIs were transferrable to macrolide-susceptible C. jejuni by natural transformation under laboratory conditions. Molecular typing of the erm(B)-carrying isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) identified diverse genotypes and outbreak-associated diarrheal isolates. Molecular typing also suggested zoonotic transmission of erm(B)-positive Campylobacter. These findings reveal an emerging and alarming trend of dissemination of erm(B) and MDRGIs in Campylobacter and underscore the need for heightened efforts to control their further spread. PMID:24982085

  10. Echinococcus multilocularis primary cells: improved isolation, small-scale cultivation and RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Spiliotis, Markus; Mizukami, Chiaki; Oku, Yuzaburo; Kiss, Ferenc; Brehm, Klaus; Gottstein, Bruno

    2010-11-01

    In this study we demonstrate RNA interference mediated knock-down of target gene expression in Echinococcus multilocularis primary cells on both the transcriptional and translational level. In addition, we report on an improved method for generating E. multilocularis primary cell mini-aggregates from in vitro cultivated metacestode vesicles, and on the cultivation of small numbers of small interfering RNA-transfected cells in vitro over an extended period of time. This allows assessments on the effects of RNA interference performed on Echinococcus primary cells with regard to growth, proliferation, differentiation of the parasite and the formation of novel metacestode vesicles in vitro.

  11. Pathogenic mitochondrial mt-tRNA(Ala) variants are uniquely associated with isolated myopathy.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Diana; Schubert, Kathrin; Joshi, Pushpa R; Hardy, Steven A; Tuppen, Helen A L; Baty, Karen; Blakely, Emma L; Bamberg, Christian; Zierz, Stephan; Deschauer, Marcus; Taylor, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations are associated with a wide range of clinical phenotypes, often involving multiple organ systems. We report two patients with isolated myopathy owing to novel mt-tRNA(Ala) variants. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive histopathological findings including cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-deficient fibres. Pyrosequencing confirmed mtDNA heteroplasmy for both mutations (m.5631G>A and m.5610G>A) whilst single-muscle fibre segregation studies (revealing statistically significant higher mutation loads in COX-deficient fibres than in COX-positive fibres), hierarchical mutation segregation within patient tissues and decreased steady-state mt-tRNA(Ala) levels all provide compelling evidence of pathogenicity. Interestingly, both patients showed very high-mutation levels in all tissues, inferring that the threshold for impairment of oxidative phosphorylation, as evidenced by COX deficiency, appears to be extremely high for these mt-tRNA(Ala) variants. Previously described mt-tRNA(Ala) mutations are also associated with a pure myopathic phenotype and demonstrate very high mtDNA heteroplasmy thresholds, inferring at least some genotype:phenotype correlation for mutations within this particular mt-tRNA gene.

  12. Hepatitis C virus RNA and core protein in kidney glomerular and tubular structures isolated with laser capture microdissection.

    PubMed

    Sansonno, D; Lauletta, G; Montrone, M; Grandaliano, G; Schena, F P; Dammacco, F

    2005-06-01

    The role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the production of renal injury has been extensively investigated, though with conflicting results. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was performed to isolate and collect glomeruli and tubules from 20 consecutive chronically HCV-infected patients, namely 6 with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, 4 with membranous glomerulonephritis, 7 with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and 3 with IgA-nephropathy. RNA for amplification of specific viral sequences was provided by terminal continuation methodology and compared with the expression profile of HCV core protein. For each case two glomeruli and two tubular structures were microdissected and processed. HCV RNA sequences were demonstrated in 26 (65%) of 40 glomeruli, but in only 4 (10%) of the tubules (P < 0.05). HCV core protein was concomitant with viral sequences in the glomeruli and present in 31 of the 40 tubules. HCV RNA and/or HCV core protein was found in all four disease types. The immunohistochemical picture of HCV core protein was compared with the LCM-based immunoassays of the adjacent tissue sections. Immune deposits were detected in 7 (44%) of 16 biopsy samples shown to be positive by extraction methods. The present study indicates that LCM is a reliable method for measuring both HCV RNA genomic sequences and HCV core protein in kidney functional structures from chronically HCV-infected patients with different glomerulopathies and provides a useful baseline estimate to define the role of HCV in the production of renal injury. The different distribution of HCV RNA and HCV-related proteins may reflect a peculiar 'affinity' of kidney microenvironments for HCV and point to distinct pathways of HCV-related damage in glomeruli and tubules.

  13. Hepatitis C virus RNA and core protein in kidney glomerular and tubular structures isolated with laser capture microdissection

    PubMed Central

    Sansonno, D; Lauletta, G; Montrone, M; Grandaliano, G; Schena, F P; Dammacco, F

    2005-01-01

    The role of hepatits C virus (HCV) in the production of renal injury has been extensively investigated, though with conflicting results. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was performed to isolate and collect glomeruli and tubules from 20 consecutive chronically HCV-infected patients, namely 6 with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, 4 with membranous glomerulonephritis, 7 with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and 3 with IgA-nephropathy. RNA for amplification of specific viral sequences was provided by terminal continuation methodology and compared with the expression profile of HCV core protein. For each case two glomeruli and two tubular structures were microdissected and processed. HCV RNA sequences were demonstrated in 26 (65%) of 40 glomeruli, but in only 4 (10%) of the tubules (P < 0·05). HCV core protein was concomitant with viral sequences in the glomeruli and present in 31 of the 40 tubules. HCV RNA and/or HCV core protein was found in all four disease types. The immunohistochemical picture of HCV core protein was compared with the LCM-based immunoassays of the adjacent tissue sections. Immune deposits were detected in 7 (44%) of 16 biopsy samples shown to be positive by extraction methods. The present study indicates that LCM is a reliable method for measuring both HCV RNA genomic sequences and HCV core protein in kidney functional structures from chronically HCV-infected patients with different glomerulopathies and provides a useful baseline estimate to define the role of HCV in the production of renal injury. The different distribution of HCV RNA and HCV-related proteins may reflect a peculiar ‘affinity’ of kidney microenvironments for HCV and point to distinct pathways of HCV-related damage in glomeruli and tubules. PMID:15932511

  14. Drop-on-Demand Single Cell Isolation and Total RNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sangjun; Kim, Yun-Gon; Dong, Lingsheng; Lombardi, Michael; Haeggstrom, Edward; Jensen, Roderick V.; Hsiao, Li-Li; Demirci, Utkan

    2011-01-01

    Technologies that rapidly isolate viable single cells from heterogeneous solutions have significantly contributed to the field of medical genomics. Challenges remain both to enable efficient extraction, isolation and patterning of single cells from heterogeneous solutions as well as to keep them alive during the process due to a limited degree of control over single cell manipulation. Here, we present a microdroplet based method to isolate and pattern single cells from heterogeneous cell suspensions (10% target cell mixture), preserve viability of the extracted cells (97.0±0.8%), and obtain genomic information from isolated cells compared to the non-patterned controls. The cell encapsulation process is both experimentally and theoretically analyzed. Using the isolated cells, we identified 11 stem cell markers among 1000 genes and compare to the controls. This automated platform enabling high-throughput cell manipulation for subsequent genomic analysis employs fewer handling steps compared to existing methods. PMID:21412416

  15. The isolation of an RNA aptamer targeting to p53 protein with single amino acid mutation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Rashid, Farooq; Shah, Abdullah; Awan, Hassaan M.; Wu, Mingming; Liu, An; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Tao; Luo, Zhaofeng; Shan, Ge

    2015-01-01

    p53, known as a tumor suppressor, is a DNA binding protein that regulates cell cycle, activates DNA repair proteins, and triggers apoptosis in multicellular animals. More than 50% of human cancers contain a mutation or deletion of the p53 gene, and p53R175 is one of the hot spots of p53 mutation. Nucleic acid aptamers are short single-stranded oligonucleotides that are able to bind various targets, and they are typically isolated from an experimental procedure called systematic evolution of ligand exponential enrichment (SELEX). Using a previously unidentified strategy of contrast screening with SELEX, we have isolated an RNA aptamer targeting p53R175H. This RNA aptamer (p53R175H-APT) has a significantly stronger affinity to p53R175H than to the wild-type p53 in both in vitro and in vivo assays. p53R175H-APT decreased the growth rate, weakened the migration capability, and triggered apoptosis in human lung cancer cells harboring p53R175H. Further analysis actually indicated that p53R175H-APT might partially rescue or correct the p53R175H to function more like the wild-type p53. In situ injections of p53R175H-APT to the tumor xenografts confirmed the effects of this RNA aptamer on p53R175H mutation in mice. PMID:26216949

  16. The isolation of an RNA aptamer targeting to p53 protein with single amino acid mutation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Rashid, Farooq; Shah, Abdullah; Awan, Hassaan M; Wu, Mingming; Liu, An; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Tao; Luo, Zhaofeng; Shan, Ge

    2015-08-11

    p53, known as a tumor suppressor, is a DNA binding protein that regulates cell cycle, activates DNA repair proteins, and triggers apoptosis in multicellular animals. More than 50% of human cancers contain a mutation or deletion of the p53 gene, and p53R175 is one of the hot spots of p53 mutation. Nucleic acid aptamers are short single-stranded oligonucleotides that are able to bind various targets, and they are typically isolated from an experimental procedure called systematic evolution of ligand exponential enrichment (SELEX). Using a previously unidentified strategy of contrast screening with SELEX, we have isolated an RNA aptamer targeting p53R175H. This RNA aptamer (p53R175H-APT) has a significantly stronger affinity to p53R175H than to the wild-type p53 in both in vitro and in vivo assays. p53R175H-APT decreased the growth rate, weakened the migration capability, and triggered apoptosis in human lung cancer cells harboring p53R175H. Further analysis actually indicated that p53R175H-APT might partially rescue or correct the p53R175H to function more like the wild-type p53. In situ injections of p53R175H-APT to the tumor xenografts confirmed the effects of this RNA aptamer on p53R175H mutation in mice.

  17. A rapid silica spin column-based method of RNA extraction from fruit trees for RT-PCR detection of viruses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Guoping; Xu, Wenxing; Hong, Ni

    2017-09-01

    Efficient recovery of high quality RNA is very important for successful RT-PCR detection of plant RNA viruses. High levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides in plant tissues can irreversibly bind to and/or co-precipitate with RNA, which influences RNA isolation. In this study, a silica spin column-based RNA isolation method was developed by using commercially available silica columns combined with the application of a tissue lysis solution, and binding and washing buffers with high concentration guanidinium thiocyanate (GuSCN, 50% w/v), which helps remove plant proteins, polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds. The method was successfully used to extract high quality RNA from citrus (Citrus aurantifolia), grapevine (Vitis vinifera), peach (Prunus persica), pear (Pyrus spp.), taro (Colocosia esculenta) and tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) samples. The method was comparable to conventional CTAB method in RNA isolation efficiency, but it was more sample-adaptable and cost-effective than commercial kits. High quality RNA isolated using silica spin column-based method was successfully used for the RT-PCR and/or multiplex RT-PCR amplification of woody fruit tree viruses and a viroid. The study provided a useful tool for the detection and characterization of plant viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it failed in case of Azadirachta indica and several other medicinal and aromatic plants. Findings Here we report the use of adsorption property of activated charcoal (0.03%–0.1%) in RNA isolation procedures to remove complex secondary metabolites and polyphenolics to yield good quality RNA from Azadirachta indica. We tested and validated our modified RNA isolation method across 21 different plants including Andrographis paniculata, Aloe vera, Rosa damascena, Pelargonium graveolens, Phyllanthus amarus etc. from 13 other different families, many of which are considered as tough system for isolating RNA. The A260/280 ratio of the extracted RNA ranged between 1.8-2.0 and distinct 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA bands were observed in denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. Analysis using Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer revealed intact total RNA yield with very good RNA Integrity Number. Conclusions The RNA isolated by our modified method was found to be of high quality and amenable for sensitive downstream molecular applications like subtractive library construction and RT-PCR. This modified RNA isolation procedure would aid and accelerate the biotechnological studies in complex medicinal and aromatic plants which are extremely rich in secondary metabolic compounds. PMID:23537338

  19. Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds.

    PubMed

    Rajakani, Raja; Narnoliya, Lokesh; Sangwan, Neelam Singh; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Gupta, Vikrant

    2013-03-28

    High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it failed in case of Azadirachta indica and several other medicinal and aromatic plants. Here we report the use of adsorption property of activated charcoal (0.03%-0.1%) in RNA isolation procedures to remove complex secondary metabolites and polyphenolics to yield good quality RNA from Azadirachta indica. We tested and validated our modified RNA isolation method across 21 different plants including Andrographis paniculata, Aloe vera, Rosa damascena, Pelargonium graveolens, Phyllanthus amarus etc. from 13 other different families, many of which are considered as tough system for isolating RNA. The A260/280 ratio of the extracted RNA ranged between 1.8-2.0 and distinct 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA bands were observed in denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. Analysis using Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer revealed intact total RNA yield with very good RNA Integrity Number. The RNA isolated by our modified method was found to be of high quality and amenable for sensitive downstream molecular applications like subtractive library construction and RT-PCR. This modified RNA isolation procedure would aid and accelerate the biotechnological studies in complex medicinal and aromatic plants which are extremely rich in secondary metabolic compounds.

  20. Topology of mRNA chain in isolated eukaryotic double-row polyribosomes.

    PubMed

    Afonina, Zh A; Myasnikov, A G; Khabibullina, N F; Belorusova, A Yu; Menetret, J-F; Vasiliev, V D; Klaholz, B P; Shirokov, V A; Spirin, A S

    2013-05-01

    In the process of protein synthesis, the translating ribosomes of eukaryotic cells form polyribosomes that are found to be multiplex functional complexes possessing elements of ordered spatial organization. As revealed by a number of electron microscopy studies, the predominant visible configurations of the eukaryotic polyribosomes are circles (circular polyribosomes) and two-stranded formations (so-called double-row polyribosomes). The "long" (i.e. heavy loaded) polyribosomes are usually represented by double-row structures, which can be interpreted as either topologically circular ("collapsed rings"), or topologically linear (zigzags or helices). In the present work we have analyzed the mRNA path within the eukaryotic polyribosomes, isolated from a wheat germ cell-free translation system, by integrating two approaches: the visualization of mRNA ends in polyribosomes by marking them with gold nanoparticles (3'-end) and initiating 40S subunits (5'-end), as well as by the cryoelectron tomography. Examination of the location of the mRNA markers in polyribosomes and mutual orientation of ribosomes in them has shown that the double-row polyribosomes of the same sample can have both circular and linear arrangements of their mRNA.

  1. Introduction to statistical methods for microRNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Zararsiz, Gökmen; Coşgun, Erdal

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNA profiling is an important task to investigate miRNA functions and recent technologies such as microarray, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and next-generation sequencing (NGS) have played a major role for miRNA analysis. In this chapter, we give an overview on statistical approaches for gene expressions, SNP, qPCR, and NGS data including preliminary analyses (pre-processing, differential expression, classification, clustering, exploration of interactions, and the use of ontologies). Our goal is to outline the key approaches with a brief discussion of problems avenues for their solutions and to give some examples for real-world use. Readers will be able to understand the different data formats (expression levels, sequences etc.) and they will be able to choose appropriate methods for their own research and application. On the other hand, we give brief notes on most popular tools/packages for statistical genetic analysis. This chapter aims to serve as a brief introduction to different kinds of statistical methods and also provides an extensive source of references.

  2. Accurate identification of fastidious Gram-negative rods: integration of both conventional phenotypic methods and 16S rRNA gene analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Accurate identification of fastidious Gram-negative rods (GNR) by conventional phenotypic characteristics is a challenge for diagnostic microbiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of molecular methods, e.g., 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis for identification of fastidious GNR in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Results A total of 158 clinical isolates covering 20 genera and 50 species isolated from 1993 to 2010 were analyzed by comparing biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis based identification. 16S rRNA gene homology analysis identified 148/158 (94%) of the isolates to species level, 9/158 (5%) to genus and 1/158 (1%) to family level. Compared to 16S rRNA gene sequencing as reference method, phenotypic identification correctly identified 64/158 (40%) isolates to species level, mainly Aggregatibacter aphrophilus, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, Pasteurella multocida, and 21/158 (13%) isolates correctly to genus level, notably Capnocytophaga sp.; 73/158 (47%) of the isolates were not identified or misidentified. Conclusions We herein propose an efficient strategy for accurate identification of fastidious GNR in the clinical microbiology laboratory by integrating both conventional phenotypic methods and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. We conclude that 16S rRNA gene sequencing is an effective means for identification of fastidious GNR, which are not readily identified by conventional phenotypic methods. PMID:23855986

  3. RNA synthesis and turnover in the molluscan nervous system studied by Click-iT method.

    PubMed

    Ierusalimsky, Victor N; Balaban, Pavel M

    2016-02-15

    RNA synthesis can be detected by means of the in vivo incorporation of 5-ethynyluridine (EU) in newly-synthesized RNA with the relatively simple Click-iT method. We used this method to study the RNA synthesis in the CNS tissue of adult and juvenile terrestrial snails Helix lucorum L. Temporally, first labeled neurons were detected in the adult CNS after 4-h of isolated CNS incubation in EU solution, while 12-h of incubation led to extensive labeling of most CNS neurons. The EU labeling was present as the nuclear and nucleolar staining. The cytoplasm staining was observed after 2-3 days of CNS washout following the EU exposure for 16 h. In juvenile CNS, the first staining reaction was apparent as the staining of apical region in the procerebral lobe of cerebral ganglia after 1h of CNS incubation in EU, while the maximum pattern of staining was obtained after 4h of CNS incubation. Thus, age-related differences in RNA synthesis are present. Activation of neurons elicited by serotonin and caffeine applications noticeably increased the intensity of staining. EU readily penetrates into the bodies of juvenile snails immersed in the EU solution. When the intact juvenile animals were immersed in the EU solution for 1h, the procerebrum staining, similar to the one detected in the incubated juvenile CNS, was observed.

  4. Application of an RNA amplification method for reliable single-cell transcriptome analysis

    PubMed Central

    Suslov, Oleg; Silver, Daniel J.; Siebzehnrubl, Florian A.; Orjalo, Arturo; Ptitsyn, Andrey; Steindler, Dennis A.

    2016-01-01

    Diverse cell types have unique transcriptional signatures that are best interrogated at single-cell resolution. Here we describe a novel RNA amplification approach that allows for high fidelity gene profiling of individual cells. This technique significantly diminishes the problem of 3′ bias, enabling detection of all regions of transcripts, including the recognition of mRNA with short or completely absent poly(A) tails, identification of noncoding RNAs, and discovery of the full array of splice isoforms from any given gene product. We assess this technique using statistical and bioinformatics analyses of microarray data to establish the limitations of the method. To demonstrate applicability, we profiled individual cells isolated from the mouse subventricular zone (SVZ)—a well-characterized, discrete yet highly heterogeneous neural structure involved in persistent neurogenesis. Importantly, this method revealed multiple splice variants of key germinal zone gene products within individual cells, as well as an unexpected coexpression of several mRNAs considered markers of distinct and separate SVZ cell types. These findings were independently confirmed using RNA-fluorescence in situ hybridization (RNA-FISH), contributing to the utility of this new technology that offers genomic and transcriptomic analysis of small numbers of dynamic and clinically relevant cells. PMID:26345506

  5. Defective minor spliceosome mRNA processing results in isolated familial growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Argente, Jesús; Flores, Raquel; Gutiérrez-Arumí, Armand; Verma, Bhupendra; Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Cuscó, Ivon; Oghabian, Ali; Chowen, Julie A; Frilander, Mikko J; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2014-03-01

    The molecular basis of a significant number of cases of isolated growth hormone deficiency remains unknown. We describe three sisters affected with severe isolated growth hormone deficiency and pituitary hypoplasia caused by biallelic mutations in the RNPC3 gene, which codes for a minor spliceosome protein required for U11/U12 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) formation and splicing of U12-type introns. We found anomalies in U11/U12 di-snRNP formation and in splicing of multiple U12-type introns in patient cells. Defective transcripts include preprohormone convertases SPCS2 and SPCS3 and actin-related ARPC5L genes, which are candidates for the somatotroph-restricted dysfunction. The reported novel mechanism for familial growth hormone deficiency demonstrates that general mRNA processing defects of the minor spliceosome can lead to very narrow tissue-specific consequences.

  6. Defective minor spliceosome mRNA processing results in isolated familial growth hormone deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Argente, Jesús; Flores, Raquel; Gutiérrez-Arumí, Armand; Verma, Bhupendra; Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Cuscó, Ivon; Oghabian, Ali; Chowen, Julie A; Frilander, Mikko J; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2014-01-01

    The molecular basis of a significant number of cases of isolated growth hormone deficiency remains unknown. We describe three sisters affected with severe isolated growth hormone deficiency and pituitary hypoplasia caused by biallelic mutations in the RNPC3 gene, which codes for a minor spliceosome protein required for U11/U12 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) formation and splicing of U12-type introns. We found anomalies in U11/U12 di-snRNP formation and in splicing of multiple U12-type introns in patient cells. Defective transcripts include preprohormone convertases SPCS2 and SPCS3 and actin-related ARPC5L genes, which are candidates for the somatotroph-restricted dysfunction. The reported novel mechanism for familial growth hormone deficiency demonstrates that general mRNA processing defects of the minor spliceosome can lead to very narrow tissue-specific consequences. Subject Categories Genetics, Gene Therapy ' Genetic Disease; Metabolism PMID:24480542

  7. Method for nucleic acid isolation using supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Nivens, David E.; Applegate, Bruce M.

    1999-01-01

    A method for detecting the presence of a microorganism in an environmental sample involves contacting the sample with a supercritical fluid to isolate nucleic acid from the microorganism, then detecting the presence of a particular sequence within the isolated nucleic acid. The nucleic acid may optionally be subjected to further purification.

  8. Method for nucleic acid isolation using supercritical fluids

    DOEpatents

    Nivens, D.E.; Applegate, B.M.

    1999-07-13

    A method is disclosed for detecting the presence of a microorganism in an environmental sample involves contacting the sample with a supercritical fluid to isolate nucleic acid from the microorganism, then detecting the presence of a particular sequence within the isolated nucleic acid. The nucleic acid may optionally be subjected to further purification. 4 figs.

  9. Isolation and characterization of the heterogeneous nuclear RNA-ribonucleoprotein complex

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Y.D.

    1985-01-01

    Exposure of cells to UV light of sufficient intensity brings about crosslinking of RNA to proteins which are in direct contact with it in vivo. The major (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled proteins which become crosslinked to poly(A)/sup +/hnRNA in HeLa cells are of 120K, 68K, 53K, 43K, 41K, 38K, and 36K (K = kilodaltons). By immunizing mice with UV crosslinked complexes two monoclonal antibodies (2B12 and 4F4) against the C proteins (41K and 43K) and one (3G6) against the 120K protein of the hnRNP complex were obtained. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrates that the C proteins and 120K are segregated to the nucleus and are not associated with nucleoli or chromatin. The two C proteins are highly related to each other antigenically. Monoclonal antibody 4F4 identifies the C proteins of the hnRNP complex in widely divergent species from human to lizard. The C proteins are phosphorylated and are in contact with hnRNA in vivo. The hnRNP complex was isolated from vertebrate cell nuclei by immunoprecipitation with these monoclonal antibodies. This complex contains proteins and hnRNA of up to approx.10 kb. The major steady state labeled (/sup 35/S)methionine labeled proteins of the isolated complex from HeLa cells are of 34K, 36K, 36K (A1 and A2), 37K, 38K (B1 and B2), 41K, 43K (C1 and C2) and doublets at 68K and at 120K. These proteins are organized into a 30S particle. Large hnRNP complexes are composed of multiples of 30S particles which are connected by highly nuclease sensitive stretches of hnRNA. It it concluded that the hnRNP structure is an integral component of the mRNA formation pathway in the eukaryotic cell.

  10. RNA synthesis in isolated brian nuclei after administration of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, I R

    1975-01-01

    RNA synthesis in isolated brain nuclei was analyzed 2.5 hr after the intravenous administration of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) to young rabbits. The drug stimulated transcription by 54% in brain stem nuclei and by 13% in cerebral hemisphere nuclei expressed over saline controls. Both nucleoplasmic and nucleolar RNA synthesis were increased. The main activity in the isolated nuclei assay was due to nucleoplasmic RNA polymerase, since alpha-amanitin reduced synthesis by over 70% in either drug or control treatments. PMID:1055380

  11. Assessment of six different collagenase-based methods to isolate feline pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Zini, Eric; Franchini, Marco; Guscetti, Franco; Osto, Melania; Kaufmann, Karin; Ackermann, Mathias; Lutz, Thomas A; Reusch, Claudia E

    2009-12-01

    Isolation of pancreatic islets is necessary to study the molecular mechanisms underlying beta-cell demise in diabetic cats. Six collagenase-based methods of isolation were compared in 10 cat pancreata, including single and double course of collagenase, followed or not by Ficoll centrifugation or accutase, and collagenase plus accutase. Morphometric analysis was performed to measure the relative area of islet and exocrine tissue. Islet specific mRNA transcripts were quantified in isolates by real-time PCR. The single and double course of collagenase digestion was successful in each cat and provided similar islet-to-exocrine tissue ratio. Quantities of insulin mRNA did not differ between the two methods. However, on histological examination either method yielded only approximately 2% of pure islets. The other methods provided disrupted islets or insufficient samples in 1-7 cats. Although pancreas digestion with single and double course of collagenase was superior, further studies are needed to improve islet isolation in cats.

  12. Method for rapid isolation of sensitive mutants

    DOEpatents

    Freyer, James P.

    1997-01-01

    Sensitive mammalian cell mutants are rapidly isolated using flow cytometry. A first population of clonal spheroids is established to contain both normal and mutant cells. The population may be naturally occurring or may arise from mutagenized cells. The first population is then flow sorted by size to obtain a second population of clonal spheroids of a first uniform size. The second population is then exposed to a DNA-damaging agent that is being investigated. The exposed second population is placed in a growth medium to form a third population of clonal spheroids comprising spheroids of increased size from the mammalian cells that are resistant to the DNA-damaging agent and spheroids of substantially the first uniform size formed from the mammalian cells that are sensitive to the DNA-damaging agent. The third population is not flow sorted to differentiate the spheroids formed from resistant mammalian cells from spheroids formed from sensitive mammalian cells. The spheroids formed from sensitive mammalian cells are now treated to recover viable sensitive cells from which a sensitive cell line can be cloned.

  13. Method for rapid isolation of sensitive mutants

    DOEpatents

    Freyer, J.P.

    1997-07-29

    Sensitive mammalian cell mutants are rapidly isolated using flow cytometry. A first population of clonal spheroids is established to contain both normal and mutant cells. The population may be naturally occurring or may arise from mutagenized cells. The first population is then flow sorted by size to obtain a second population of clonal spheroids of a first uniform size. The second population is then exposed to a DNA-damaging agent that is being investigated. The exposed second population is placed in a growth medium to form a third population of clonal spheroids comprising spheroids of increased size from the mammalian cells that are resistant to the DNA-damaging agent and spheroids of substantially the first uniform size formed from the mammalian cells that are sensitive to the DNA-damaging agent. The third population is not flow sorted to differentiate the spheroids formed from resistant mammalian cells from spheroids formed from sensitive mammalian cells. The spheroids formed from sensitive mammalian cells are now treated to recover viable sensitive cells from which a sensitive cell line can be cloned. 15 figs.

  14. Complete nucleotide sequence of a South African isolate of Grapevine fanleaf virus and its associated satellite RNA.

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, Renate L; Spaltman, Monique; Stephan, Dirk; Wetzel, Thierry; Burger, Johan T

    2013-07-17

    The complete sequences of RNA1, RNA2 and satellite RNA have been determined for a South African isolate of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV-SACH44). The two RNAs of GFLV-SACH44 are 7,341 nucleotides (nt) and 3,816 nt in length, respectively, and its satellite RNA (satRNA) is 1,104 nt in length, all excluding the poly(A) tail. Multiple sequence alignment of these sequences showed that GFLV-SACH44 RNA1 and RNA2 were the closest to the South African isolate, GFLV-SAPCS3 (98.2% and 98.6% nt identity, respectively), followed by the French isolate, GFLV-F13 (87.3% and 90.1% nt identity, respectively). Interestingly, the GFLV-SACH44 satRNA is more similar to three Arabis mosaic virus satRNAs (85%-87.4% nt identity) than to the satRNA of GFLV-F13 (81.8% nt identity) and was most distantly related to the satRNA of GFLV-R2 (71.0% nt identity). Full-length infectious clones of GFLV-SACH44 satRNA were constructed. The infectivity of the clones was tested with three nepovirus isolates, GFLV-NW, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV)-NW and GFLV-SAPCS3. The clones were mechanically inoculated in Chenopodium quinoa and were infectious when co-inoculated with the two GFLV helper viruses, but not when co-inoculated with ArMV-NW.

  15. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of a South African Isolate of Grapevine Fanleaf Virus and Its Associated Satellite RNA

    PubMed Central

    Lamprecht, Renate L.; Spaltman, Monique; Stephan, Dirk; Wetzel, Thierry; Burger, Johan T.

    2013-01-01

    The complete sequences of RNA1, RNA2 and satellite RNA have been determined for a South African isolate of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV-SACH44). The two RNAs of GFLV-SACH44 are 7,341 nucleotides (nt) and 3,816 nt in length, respectively, and its satellite RNA (satRNA) is 1,104 nt in length, all excluding the poly(A) tail. Multiple sequence alignment of these sequences showed that GFLV-SACH44 RNA1 and RNA2 were the closest to the South African isolate, GFLV-SAPCS3 (98.2% and 98.6% nt identity, respectively), followed by the French isolate, GFLV-F13 (87.3% and 90.1% nt identity, respectively). Interestingly, the GFLV-SACH44 satRNA is more similar to three Arabis mosaic virus satRNAs (85%–87.4% nt identity) than to the satRNA of GFLV-F13 (81.8% nt identity) and was most distantly related to the satRNA of GFLV-R2 (71.0% nt identity). Full-length infectious clones of GFLV-SACH44 satRNA were constructed. The infectivity of the clones was tested with three nepovirus isolates, GFLV-NW, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV)-NW and GFLV-SAPCS3. The clones were mechanically inoculated in Chenopodium quinoa and were infectious when co-inoculated with the two GFLV helper viruses, but not when co-inoculated with ArMV-NW. PMID:23867805

  16. Methods for Extracellular Vesicles Isolation in a Hospital Setting

    PubMed Central

    Sáenz-Cuesta, Matías; Arbelaiz, Ander; Oregi, Amaia; Irizar, Haritz; Osorio-Querejeta, Iñaki; Muñoz-Culla, Maider; Banales, Jesus M.; Falcón-Pérez, Juan M.; Olascoaga, Javier; Otaegui, David

    2015-01-01

    The research in extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been rising during the last decade. However, there is no clear consensus on the most accurate protocol to isolate and analyze them. Besides, most of the current protocols are difficult to implement in a hospital setting due to being very time-consuming or to requirements of specific infrastructure. Thus, our aim is to compare five different protocols (comprising two different medium-speed differential centrifugation protocols; commercially polymeric precipitation – exoquick – acid precipitation; and ultracentrifugation) for blood and urine samples to determine the most suitable one for the isolation of EVs. Nanoparticle tracking analysis, flow cytometry, western blot (WB), electronic microscopy, and spectrophotometry were used to characterize basic aspects of EVs such as concentration, size distribution, cell-origin and transmembrane markers, and RNA concentration. The highest EV concentrations were obtained using the exoquick protocol, followed by both differential centrifugation protocols, while the ultracentrifugation and acid-precipitation protocols yielded considerably lower EV concentrations. The five protocols isolated EVs of similar characteristics regarding markers and RNA concentration; however, standard protocol recovered only small EVs. EV isolated with exoquick presented difficult to be analyzed with WB. The RNA concentrations obtained from urine-derived EVs were similar to those obtained from blood-derived ones, despite the urine EV concentration being 10–20 times lower. We consider that a medium-speed differential centrifugation could be suitable to be applied in a hospital setting as it requires the simplest infrastructure and recovers higher concentration of EV than standard protocol. A workflow from sampling to characterization of EVs is proposed. PMID:25762995

  17. A method for isolation of cone photoreceptors from adult zebrafish retinae.

    PubMed

    Glaviano, Antonino; Smith, Andrew J; Blanco, Alfonso; McLoughlin, Sarah; Cederlund, Maria L; Heffernan, Theresa; Sapetto-Rebow, Beata; Alvarez, Yolanda; Yin, Jun; Kennedy, Breandán N

    2016-11-07

    Cone photoreceptors are specialised sensory retinal neurons responsible for photopic vision, colour perception and visual acuity. Retinal degenerative diseases are a heterogeneous group of eye diseases in which the most severe vision loss typically arises from cone photoreceptor dysfunction or degeneration. Establishing a method to purify cone photoreceptors from retinal tissue can accelerate the identification of key molecular determinants that underlie cone photoreceptor development, survival and function. The work herein describes a new method to purify enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labelled cone photoreceptors from adult retina of Tg(3.2gnat2:EGFP) zebrafish. Methods for dissecting adult zebrafish retinae, cell dissociation, cell sorting, RNA isolation and RNA quality control were optimised. The dissociation protocol, carried out with ~30 retinae from adult zebrafish, yielded approximately 6 × 10(6) cells. Flow cytometry cell sorting subsequently distinguished 1 × 10(6) EGFP(+) cells and 4 × 10(6) EGFP(-) cells. Electropherograms confirmed downstream isolation of high-quality RNA with RNA integrity number (RIN) >7.6 and RNA concentration >5.7 ng/µl obtained from both populations. Reverse Transcriptase-PCR confirmed that the EGFP-positive cell populations express known genetic markers of cone photoreceptors that were not expressed in the EGFP-negative cell population whereas a rod opsin amplicon was only detected in the EGFP-negative retinal cell population. This work describes a valuable adult zebrafish cone photoreceptor isolation methodology enabling future identification of cone photoreceptor-enriched genes, proteins and signalling networks responsible for their development, survival and function. In addition, this advancement facilitates the identification of novel candidate genes for inherited human blindness.

  18. Evaluation of different pulverisation methods for RNA extraction in squash fruit: lyophilisation, cryogenic mill and mortar grinding.

    PubMed

    Román, Belén; González-Verdejo, Clara I; Peña, Francisco; Nadal, Salvador; Gómez, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Quality and integrity of RNA are critical for transcription studies in plant molecular biology. In squash fruit and other high water content crops, the grinding of tissue with mortar and pestle in liquid nitrogen fails to produce a homogeneous and fine powered sample desirable to ensure a good penetration of the extraction reagent. To develop an improved pulverisation method to facilitate the homogenisation process of squash fruit tissue prior to RNA extraction without reducing quality and yield of the extracted RNA. Three methods of pulverisation, each followed by the same extraction protocol, were compared. The first approach consisted of the lyophilisation of the sample in order to remove the excess of water before grinding, the second one used a cryogenic mill and the control one a mortar grinding of frozen tissue. The quality of the isolated RNA was tested by carrying out a quantitative real time downstream amplification. In the three situations considered, mean values for A(260) /A(280) indicated minimal interference by proteins and RNA quality indicator (RQI) values were considered appropriate for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) amplification. Successful qRT-PCR amplifications were obtained with cDNA isolated with the three protocols. Both apparatus can improve and facilitate the grinding step in the RNA extraction process in zucchini, resulting in isolated RNA of high quality and integrity as revealed by qRT-PCR downstream application. This is apparently the first time that a cryogenic mill has been used to prepare fruit samples for RNA extraction, thereby improving the sampling strategy because the fine powder obtained represents a homogeneous mix of the organ tissue. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Genetic mapping of the compatibility between a lily isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus and a satellite RNA.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Naoya; Seshimo, Yuko; Yoshimoto, Eri; Ahn, Hong Il; Ryu, Ki Hyun; Choi, Jang Kyung; Masuta, Chikara

    2005-08-01

    Five isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from Lilium sp. (lily), which were isolated from specimens in Japan, Korea and Taiwan, were unable to support satellite RNA (satRNA) accumulation. In order to map the CMV sequences that are involved in satRNA support, HL-CMV (Japanese lily isolate), Y-CMV (ordinary strain) and Y-satellite RNA (Y-sat) were used as the source material. The pseudorecombinants between Y-CMV and HL-CMV revealed that RNA1 was essential for satRNA replication in lily. The results of chimeric constructs and various mutations showed that two amino acid residues (at positions 876 and 891) in the 1a protein were the determinants for the inability of HL-CMV to support a satRNA. Specifically, Thr at position 876 had a more pronounced effect than Met at position 891. Specific changes in RNA sequence were also detected in the 3' terminus of Y-sat and these particular alterations allowed it to be supported by HL-CMV. It is believed that, through evolution, the adaptation of CMV to lily resulted in the introduction of amino acid changes in the 1a protein, changes that coincidentally affected the ability of lily CMV to support satRNAs.

  20. Isolation of a hyperthermophilic archaeum predicted by in situ RNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Huber, R; Burggraf, S; Mayer, T; Barns, S M; Rossnagel, P; Stetter, K O

    1995-07-06

    A variety of hyperthermophilic bacteria and archaea have been isolated from high-temperature environments by plating and serial dilutions. However, these techniques allow only the small percentage of organisms able to form colonies, or those that are predominant within environmental samples, to be obtained in pure culture. Recently, in situ 16S ribosomal RNA analyses of samples from the Obsidian hot pool at Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, revealed a variety of archaeal sequences, which were all different from those of previously isolated species. This suggests substantial diversity of archaea with so far unknown morphological, physiological and biochemical features, which may play an important part within high-temperature ecosystems. Here we describe a procedure to obtain pure cultures of unknown organisms harbouring specific 16S rRNA sequences identified previously within the environment. It combines visual recognition of single cells by phylogenetic staining and cloning by 'optical tweezers'. Our result validates polymerase chain reaction data on the existence of large archael communities.

  1. Method for RNA extraction and cDNA library construction from microbes in crop rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Fang, Changxun; Xu, Tiecheng; Ye, Changliang; Huang, Likun; Wang, Qingshui; Lin, Wenxiong

    2014-02-01

    Techniques to analyze the transcriptome of the soil rhizosphere are essential to reveal the interactions and communications between plants and microorganisms in the soil ecosystem. In this study, different volumes of Al₂(SO₄)₃ were added to rhizosphere soil samples to precipitate humic substances, which interfere with most procedures of RNA and DNA analyses. After humic substances were precipitated, cells of soil microorganisms were broken by vortexing with glass beads, and then DNA and RNA were recovered using Tris-HCl buffer with LiCl, SDS, and EDTA. The crude extract was precipitated and dissolved in RNAse-free water, and then separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. We determined the optimum volume of Al₂(SO₄)₃ for treating rhizosphere soil of rice, tobacco, sugarcane, Rehmannia glutinosa, and Pseudostellaria heterophylla. The crude nucleic acids extract from rice soil was treated with DNase I and then RNA was purified using a gel filtration column. The purified RNA was reverse-transcribed into single-strand cDNA and then ligated with an adaptor at each end before amplifying ds cDNA. The ds cDNA was sub-cloned for subsequent gene sequence analysis. We conducted qPCR to amplify 16S ribosomal DNA and observed highly efficient amplification. These results show that the extraction method can be optimized to isolate and obtain high-quality nucleic acids from microbes in different rhizosphere soils, suitable for genomic and post-genomic analyses.

  2. Prevalence of 16S rRNA methylase genes among β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Sheikh, Yazeed A; Marie, Mohammed Ali M; John, James; Krishnappa, Lakshmana Gowda; Dabwab, Khaled Homoud M

    2014-01-01

    Co production of 16S rRNA methylases gene and β-Lactamase gene among Enterobacteriaceae isolates conferring resistance to both therapeutic options has serious implications for clinicians worldwide. To study co existence of 16S rRNA methylases (armA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD, and npmA) and β-Lactamase (blaTEM-1, blaSHV-12, blaCTX-M-14) genes, we screened all phenotypic positive β-Lactamase producing enterobacteriaceae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting above genes. A total of 330 enterobacteriaceae strains were collected during study period out of that 218 isolates were identified phenotypically as β-Lactamase producers, which include 50 (22.9%) Escherichia coli; 92 (42.2%) Klebsiella pneumoniae, 44 (20.2%), Citrobactor freundii and 32 (14.7%) Enterobacter spp. Among this 218, only 188 isolates harbored the resistant gene for β-Lactamase production. Major β-Lactamase producing isolates were blaTEM-1 type. 122 (56 %) isolates were found to produce any one of the 16S rRNA methylase genes. A total of 116 isolates co produced b-Lactamase and at least one 16S rRNA methylases gene Co production of armA gene was found in 26 isolates with rmtB and in 4 isolates with rmtC. The rmtA and rmtD genes were not detected in any of the tested isolates. Six isolates were positive for a 16S rRNA methylase gene alone. β-Lactamase producing isolates appears to coexist with 16S rRNA methylase predominantly armA and rmtB genes in the same isolate. We conclude the major β-Lactamase and 16S rRNA methylases co-producer was K. pneumoniae followed by E. coli. We suggest further work on evaluating other β-lactamases types and novel antibiotic resistance mechanisms among Enterobacteriaceae.

  3. The complete S RNA and M RNA nucleotide sequences of a hippeastrum chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRV) isolate from Hymenocallis littoralis (Jacq.) Salisb in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ye; Lou, Shi-gao; Li, Xiao-lin; Zheng, Yuan-xian; Wang, Wen-cheng; Liu, Ya-ting

    2013-12-01

    An isolate of hippeastrum chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRV) named HLS1-2, causing necrotic spots on leaves of spider lily, was obtained and characterized in China. The complete S RNA and M RNAs of the HLS1-2 isolate are 2724 nt and 4741 nt in length, respectively. The HLS1-2 S RNA sequence is most closely related to that of HCRV, with 99 % identity. Viral proteins encoded by the M RNA are closely related to those of tomato yellow ring virus (TYRV), polygonum ringspot virus (PolRSV) and iris yellow spot virus (IYSV). Phylogenetic trees for the four viral proteins encoded by the S and M RNAs placed HCRV-HLS1-2 in a distinct cluster with IYSV, TYRV and PolRSV and provided further support for the subdivision of tospoviruses into American and Eurasian groups.

  4. Identification of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Species Isolated from Water Samples Using Phenotypic and Molecular Methods and Determination of their Antibiotic Resistance Patterns by E- Test Method, in Isfahan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Moghim, Sharareh; Sarikhani, Ensieh; Nasr Esfahani, Bahram; Faghri, Jamshid

    2012-09-01

    Many studies have shown epidemiological links between strains isolated in tap water, and those isolated from patients. Molecular methods linked to PCR are more reliable and faster for identification of non- tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). In this study molecular methods were used for identification and typing of NTM. Five hundred ml of 85 water samples was passed through 0.45 μm filters. The filters were transferred directly onto 7H10 Middle Brook solid media, containing 15% OADC. PCR for 16S rRNA was done and the PCR product (1500 bp) was sequenced. PRA of the hsp65 gene was investigated to identify the species of isolates. For evaluation of susceptibility of NTM to antimycobacterial agents, E-test method was used. The genus of 26 isolated NTM was confirmed by 16s rRNA sequence based method. Nineteen isolates of Mycobacteria were differentiated using hsp65 genes PRA. The dominant isolates were M. fortuitum (26.7%), M. chelonae like organism (13.3%) and M. mucogenicum (13.3%). Seventy one percent of NTM species were resistant to isoniazid, 64% to rifampin, 57% to ethambutol, 35% to tetracycline, 14 % to azithromycin and 7.1 % to amikacin. The results showed that E-test method is not a proper technique for antimycobacterial assay because some NTM species are slow in growing and have no growth on Muller Hinton agar. Regarding the 16S rRNA sequence analysis, the identification of isolates was restricted to the genus level, because 99% similarity within 16S rRNA of two isolates may or may not determine the same species.

  5. RNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darnell, James E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) converts genetic information into protein and usually must be processed to serve its function. RNA types, chemical structure, protein synthesis, translation, manufacture, and processing are discussed. Concludes that the first genes might have been spliced RNA and that humans might be closer than bacteria to primitive…

  6. RNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darnell, James E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) converts genetic information into protein and usually must be processed to serve its function. RNA types, chemical structure, protein synthesis, translation, manufacture, and processing are discussed. Concludes that the first genes might have been spliced RNA and that humans might be closer than bacteria to primitive…

  7. Overview of methods in RNA nanotechnology: synthesis, purification, and characterization of RNA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Haque, Farzin; Guo, Peixuan

    2015-01-01

    RNA nanotechnology encompasses the use of RNA as a construction material to build homogeneous nanostructures by bottom-up self-assembly with defined size, structure, and stoichiometry; this pioneering concept demonstrated in 1998 (Guo et al., Molecular Cell 2:149-155, 1998; featured in Cell) has emerged as a new field that also involves materials engineering and synthetic structural biology (Guo, Nature Nanotechnology 5:833-842, 2010). The field of RNA nanotechnology has skyrocketed over the last few years, as evidenced by the burst of publications in prominent journals on RNA nanostructures and their applications in nanomedicine and nanotechnology. Rapid advances in RNA chemistry, RNA biophysics, and RNA biology have created new opportunities for translating basic science into clinical practice. RNA nanotechnology holds considerable promise in this regard. Increased evidence also suggests that substantial part of the 98.5 % of human genome (Lander et al. Nature 409:860-921, 2001) that used to be called "junk DNA" actually codes for noncoding RNA. As we understand more on how RNA structures are related to function, we can fabricate synthetic RNA nanoparticles for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. This chapter provides a brief overview of the field regarding the design, construction, purification, and characterization of RNA nanoparticles for diverse applications in nanotechnology and nanomedicince.

  8. A method for isolating beta-casein.

    PubMed

    Ward, L S; Bastian, E D

    1996-08-01

    A new method was developed for obtaining pure beta-CN. Calcium caseinate (3%) was reconstituted, renneted to form a gel, cooled (4 degrees C) to allow beta-CN dissociation from the caseinate gel, and centrifuged. The supernatant was warmed to 30 degrees C, precipitating pure beta-CN from solution. Large quantities of beta-CN were recovered by scaling-up this procedure, but these beta-CN preparations were less pure than the beta-CN that was prepared on a smaller scale. Chromatography (FPLC) and urea-PAGE showed beta-CN to be the main component in the precipitate. Chymosin, used to form the caseinate gel, did not extensively hydrolyze beta-CN under the conditions of these experiments. Calcium concentration, cooling time, and caseinate concentration influenced the recovery of beta-CN. Maximum recovery of beta-CN, under the experimental conditions used, occurred at 10 mM calcium, 48 h of cooling, and 3% caseinate concentration.

  9. PROmiRNA: a new miRNA promoter recognition method uncovers the complex regulation of intronic miRNAs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of intragenic miRNAs by their own intronic promoters is one of the open problems of miRNA biogenesis. Here, we describe PROmiRNA, a new approach for miRNA promoter annotation based on a semi-supervised statistical model trained on deepCAGE data and sequence features. We validate our results with existing annotation, PolII occupancy data and read coverage from RNA-seq data. Compared to previous methods PROmiRNA increases the detection rate of intronic promoters by 30%, allowing us to perform a large-scale analysis of their genomic features, as well as elucidate their contribution to tissue-specific regulation. PROmiRNA can be downloaded from http://promirna.molgen.mpg.de. PMID:23958307

  10. Isolation and characterization of a complementary DNA specific for human aromatase-system cytochrome P-450 mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, C T; Ledesma, D B; Schulz, T Z; Simpson, E R; Mendelson, C R

    1986-01-01

    A cloned complementary DNA sequence has been isolated from a human placental cDNA library in the bacteriophage expression vector lambda gt11 after screening with polyclonal antibodies against human placental aromatase-system cytochrome P-450 (P-450Arom). A single recombinant clone, lambda hAROM1, was characterized by its ability to generate a beta-galactosidase fusion protein that reacted independently with polyclonal antibodies raised against beta-galactosidase and cytochrome P-450Arom and with monoclonal antibodies specific for cytochrome P-450Arom. The cDNA insert, which was found to be 1.8 kilobases in length, was radiolabeled and used to analyze poly(A)+ RNA isolated from human placenta and total RNA isolated from human adipose stromal cells cultured in the absence or presence of regulatory factors. The radiolabeled cDNA hybridized to several size species of mRNA in both placental and adipose stromal cell RNA fractions. Changes in the levels of adipose stromal cell RNA that hybridized to the cDNA insert were associated with comparable changes in the levels of translatable cytochrome P-450Arom mRNA and aromatase system activity. These findings are indicative that lambda hAROM1 contains DNA sequences complementary to human cytochrome P-450Arom mRNA and are suggestive that regulatory factors affect aromatase activity by altering the transcriptional activity of the cytochrome P-450Arom gene. Images PMID:3018730

  11. miRge - A Multiplexed Method of Processing Small RNA-Seq Data to Determine MicroRNA Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jason R.; Gupta, Simone; Weng, Lien-Chun; Ashton, John M.; Cornish, Toby C.; Pandey, Akhilesh; Halushka, Marc K.

    2015-01-01

    Small RNA RNA-seq for microRNAs (miRNAs) is a rapidly developing field where opportunities still exist to create better bioinformatics tools to process these large datasets and generate new, useful analyses. We built miRge to be a fast, smart small RNA-seq solution to process samples in a highly multiplexed fashion. miRge employs a Bayesian alignment approach, whereby reads are sequentially aligned against customized mature miRNA, hairpin miRNA, noncoding RNA and mRNA sequence libraries. miRNAs are summarized at the level of raw reads in addition to reads per million (RPM). Reads for all other RNA species (tRNA, rRNA, snoRNA, mRNA) are provided, which is useful for identifying potential contaminants and optimizing small RNA purification strategies. miRge was designed to optimally identify miRNA isomiRs and employs an entropy based statistical measurement to identify differential production of isomiRs. This allowed us to identify decreasing entropy in isomiRs as stem cells mature into retinal pigment epithelial cells. Conversely, we show that pancreatic tumor miRNAs have similar entropy to matched normal pancreatic tissues. In a head-to-head comparison with other miRNA analysis tools (miRExpress 2.0, sRNAbench, omiRAs, miRDeep2, Chimira, UEA small RNA Workbench), miRge was faster (4 to 32-fold) and was among the top-two methods in maximally aligning miRNAs reads per sample. Moreover, miRge has no inherent limits to its multiplexing. miRge was capable of simultaneously analyzing 100 small RNA-Seq samples in 52 minutes, providing an integrated analysis of miRNA expression across all samples. As miRge was designed for analysis of single as well as multiple samples, miRge is an ideal tool for high and low-throughput users. miRge is freely available at http://atlas.pathology.jhu.edu/baras/miRge.html. PMID:26571139

  12. miRge - A Multiplexed Method of Processing Small RNA-Seq Data to Determine MicroRNA Entropy.

    PubMed

    Baras, Alexander S; Mitchell, Christopher J; Myers, Jason R; Gupta, Simone; Weng, Lien-Chun; Ashton, John M; Cornish, Toby C; Pandey, Akhilesh; Halushka, Marc K

    2015-01-01

    Small RNA RNA-seq for microRNAs (miRNAs) is a rapidly developing field where opportunities still exist to create better bioinformatics tools to process these large datasets and generate new, useful analyses. We built miRge to be a fast, smart small RNA-seq solution to process samples in a highly multiplexed fashion. miRge employs a Bayesian alignment approach, whereby reads are sequentially aligned against customized mature miRNA, hairpin miRNA, noncoding RNA and mRNA sequence libraries. miRNAs are summarized at the level of raw reads in addition to reads per million (RPM). Reads for all other RNA species (tRNA, rRNA, snoRNA, mRNA) are provided, which is useful for identifying potential contaminants and optimizing small RNA purification strategies. miRge was designed to optimally identify miRNA isomiRs and employs an entropy based statistical measurement to identify differential production of isomiRs. This allowed us to identify decreasing entropy in isomiRs as stem cells mature into retinal pigment epithelial cells. Conversely, we show that pancreatic tumor miRNAs have similar entropy to matched normal pancreatic tissues. In a head-to-head comparison with other miRNA analysis tools (miRExpress 2.0, sRNAbench, omiRAs, miRDeep2, Chimira, UEA small RNA Workbench), miRge was faster (4 to 32-fold) and was among the top-two methods in maximally aligning miRNAs reads per sample. Moreover, miRge has no inherent limits to its multiplexing. miRge was capable of simultaneously analyzing 100 small RNA-Seq samples in 52 minutes, providing an integrated analysis of miRNA expression across all samples. As miRge was designed for analysis of single as well as multiple samples, miRge is an ideal tool for high and low-throughput users. miRge is freely available at http://atlas.pathology.jhu.edu/baras/miRge.html.

  13. Identification of Atypical Rhodococcus-Like Clinical Isolates as Dietzia spp. by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing▿

    PubMed Central

    Pilares, Lilian; Agüero, Jesús; Vázquez-Boland, José A.; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Navas, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi and Dietzia spp. are closely related actinomycetes that show similar phenotypic properties. In humans, R. equi is an opportunistic pathogen associated with severe immunodeficiency. Dietzia spp. are environmental bacteria that have been isolated recently from clinical material and are presumptively associated with human infections. During the last 5 years, 15 bacterial isolates from human clinical samples collected at the Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Spain, were identified as R. equi by the API Coryne test. 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed seven isolates to be true R. equi strains, whereas the other eight were identified as members of the genus Dietzia, including Dietzia maris (four isolates), Dietzia natronolimnaea (two isolates), and Dietzia timorensis and Dietzia sp. (one isolate each). The eight Dietzia isolates were highly sensitive to 12 antimicrobial compounds. PMID:20220156

  14. Methods of Isolation and Characterization of Oligogalacturonide Elicitors.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Manuel; Mattei, Benedetta; Pontiggia, Daniela; Salvi, Gianni; Savatin, Daniel Valentin; Ferrari, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Oligogalacturonides (OGs) are pectic fragments derived from the partial degradation of homogalacturonan in the plant cell wall and able to elicit plant defence responses. Recent methodological advances in the isolation of OGs from plant tissues and their characterization have confirmed their role as bona fide plant Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns. Here, we describe the methods for the isolation of OGs from Arabidopsis leaf tissues and for the characterization of OG structure and biological activity.

  15. Compressed sensing methods for DNA microarrays, RNA interference, and metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Rao, Aditya; P, Deepthi; Renumadhavi, C H; Chandra, M Girish; Srinivasan, Rajgopal

    2015-02-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) is a sparse signal sampling methodology for efficiently acquiring and reconstructing a signal from relatively few measurements. Recent work shows that CS is well-suited to be applied to problems in genomics, including probe design in microarrays, RNA interference (RNAi), and taxonomic assignment in metagenomics. The principle of using different CS recovery methods in these applications has thus been established, but a comprehensive study of using a wide range of CS methods has not been done. For each of these applications, we apply three hitherto unused CS methods, namely, l1-magic, CoSaMP, and l1-homotopy, in conjunction with CS measurement matrices such as randomly generated CS m matrix, Hamming matrix, and projective geometry-based matrix. We find that, in RNAi, the l1-magic (the standard package for l1 minimization) and l1-homotopy methods show significant reduction in reconstruction error compared to the baseline. In metagenomics, we find that l1-homotopy as well as CoSaMP estimate concentration with significantly reduced time when compared to the GPSR and WGSQuikr methods.

  16. Isolation from Tobacco Mosaic Virus-Infected Tobacco of a Solubilized Template-Specific RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Containing a 126K/183K Protein Heterodimer

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takato; Honda, Ayae; Iwata, Akira; Ueda, Susumu; Hibi, Tadaaki; Ishihama, Akira

    1999-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence was determined for the putative RNA polymerase (183K protein) gene of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) OM strain, which differed from the related strain, vulgare, by 51 positions in its nucleotide sequence and 6 residues in its amino acid sequence. Three segments of this 183K protein, each containing the sequence motif of methyltransferase (M), helicase (H), or RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (P), were expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with hexahistidine tags, and domain-specific antibodies were raised against purified His-tagged M and P polypeptides. By immunoaffinity purification, a template-specific RNA-dependent RNA polymerase containing a heterodimer of the full-length 183K and 126K (an amino-terminal-proximal portion of the 183K protein) viral proteins was isolated. We propose that the TMV RNA polymerase for minus-strand RNA synthesis is composed of one molecule each of the 183- and 126-kDa proteins, possibly together with two or more host proteins. PMID:10074108

  17. Tumor-Initiating Cells: Emerging Biophysical Methods of Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Cermeño, Efraín A.; García, Andrés J.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery and subsequent isolation of tumor-initiating cells (TICs), a small population of highly tumorigenic and drug-resistant cancer cells also called cancer stem cells (CSCs), have revolutionized our understanding of cancer. TICs are isolated using various methodologies, including selection of surface marker expression, ALDH activity, suspension culture, and chemotherapy/drug resistance. These methods have several drawbacks, including their variability, lack of robustness and scalability, and low specificity. Alternative methods of purification take advantage of biophysical properties of TICs including their adhesion and stiffness. This review will provide a brief overview of TIC biology as well as review the most important methods of TIC isolation with a focus on biophysical methods of TIC purification. PMID:27141429

  18. A method for in vivo identification of bacterial small RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Jonathan; Djapgne, Louise; Tran, Bao Quoc; Goo, Young Ah; Oglesby-Sherrouse, Amanda G

    2014-12-01

    Small bacterial regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) have gained immense appreciation over the last decade for their roles in mediating posttranscriptional gene regulation of numerous physiological processes. Several proteins contribute to sRNA stability and regulation, most notably the Hfq RNA-binding protein. However, not all sRNAs rely on Hfq for their stability. It is therefore likely that other proteins contribute to the stability and function of certain bacterial sRNAs. Here, we describe a methodology for identifying in vivo-binding proteins of sRNAs, developed using the iron-responsive PrrF and PrrH sRNAs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. RNA was isolated from iron-depleted cultures, which were irradiated to cross-link nucleoprotein complexes. Subsequently, PrrF- and PrrH-protein complexes were enriched using cDNA "bait", and enriched RNA-protein complexes were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry to identify PrrF and PrrH associated proteins. This method identified Hfq as a potential PrrF- and PrrH-binding protein. Interestingly, Hfq was identified more often in samples probed with the PrrF cDNA "bait" as compared to the PrrH cDNA "bait", suggesting Hfq has a stronger binding affinity for the PrrF sRNAs in vivo. Hfq binding to the PrrF and PrrH sRNAs was validated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays with purified Hfq protein from P. aeruginosa. As such, this study demonstrates that in vivo cross-linking coupled with sequence-specific affinity chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (SSAC-MS/MS) is an effective methodology for unbiased identification of bacterial sRNA-binding proteins.

  19. Exploring the molecular basis of RNA recognition by the dimeric RNA-binding protein via molecular simulation methods.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shan; Zhang, Da-Wei; Xu, Lei; Wan, Hua; Hou, Ting-Jun; Kong, Ren

    2016-11-01

    RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS) is critical for axon guidance, smooth muscle plasticity, and regulation of cancer cell proliferation and migration. Recently, different states of the RNA-recognition motif (RRM) of RBPMS, one in its free form and another in complex with CAC-containing RNA, were determined by X-ray crystallography. In this article, the free RRM domain, its wild type complex and 2 mutant complex systems are studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Through comparison of free RRM domain and complex systems, it's found that the RNA binding facilitates stabilizing the RNA-binding interface of RRM domain, especially the C-terminal loop. Although both R38Q and T103A/K104A mutations reduce the binding affinity of RRM domain and RNA, the underlining mechanisms are different. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) methods were used to explore the dynamical and recognition mechanisms of RRM domain and RNA. R38Q mutation is positioned on the homodimerization interface and mainly induces the large fluctuations of RRM domains. This mutation does not directly act on the RNA-binding interface, but some interfacial hydrogen bonds are weakened. In contrast, T103A/K104A mutations are located on the RNA-binding interface of RRM domain. These mutations obviously break most of high occupancy hydrogen bonds in the RNA-binding interface. Meanwhile, the key interfacial residues lose their favorable energy contributions upon RNA binding. The ranking of calculated binding energies in 3 complex systems is well consistent with that of experimental binding affinities. These results will be helpful in understanding the RNA recognition mechanisms of RRM domain.

  20. Biological activities of some Acacia spp. (Fabaceae) against new clinical isolates identified by ribosomal RNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud Fawzy; Alrumman, Sulaiman Abdullah; Hesham, Abd El-Latif

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays,most of the pathogenic bacteria become resistant to antibiotics. Therefore,the pharmaceutical properties of the natural plant extracts have become of interest to researchers as alternative antimicrobial agents. In this study,antibacterial activities of extract gained from Acacia etbaica, Acacia laeta, Acacia origena and Acacia pycnantha have been evaluated against isolated pathogenic bacteria (Strains MFM-01, MFM-10 and AH-09) using agar well diffusion methods.The bacterial strains were isolated from infected individuals,and their exact identification was detected on the basis of 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequence determination. Alignment results and the comparison of 16 SrRN A gene sequences of the isolates to 16 SrRN A gene sequences available in Gen Bank data base as well as the phylogenetic analysis confirmed the accurate position of the isolates as Klebsiella oxytoca strain MFM-01, Staphylococcus aureus strain MFM-10 and Klebsiella pneumoniae strain AH-09. Except for cold water, all tested solvents (Chloroform, petroleum ether, methanol, diethyl ether, and acetone) showed variation in their activity against studied bacteria. GC-MS analysis of ethanol extracts showed that four investigated Acacia species have different phyto components. Eight important pharmaceutical components were found in the legume of Acacia etbaica, seven in the legume of Acacia laeta, fifteen in the legume of Acacia origena and nine in the leaves of Acacia pycnantha. A dendrogram was constructed based on chemical composition, revealed that Acacia laeta is more closely related to Acacia etbaica forming on eclade, whereas Acacia origena less similar to other species. Our results demonstrated that, investigated plants and chemical compounds present could be used as promising antibacterial agents.

  1. Methods to Study Long Noncoding RNA Biology in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Man-Li

    Thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been discovered in recent years. The functions of lncRNAs range broadly from regulating chromatin structure and gene expression in the nucleus to controlling messenger RNA (mRNA) processing, mRNA posttranscriptional regulation, cellular signaling, and protein activity in the cytoplasm. Experimental and computational techniques have been developed to characterize lncRNAs in high-throughput scale, to study the lncRNA function in vitro and in vivo, to map lncRNA binding sites on the genome, and to capture lncRNA-protein interactions with the identification of lncRNA-binding partners, binding sites, and interaction determinants. In this chapter, we will discuss these technologies and their applications in decoding the functions of lncRNAs. Understanding these techniques including their advantages and disadvantages and developing them in the future will be essential to elaborate the roles of lncRNAs in cancer and other diseases.

  2. Non-viral Methods for siRNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Kun; Huang, Leaf

    2009-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) as a mechanism to selectively degrade messenger RNA (mRNA) expression has emerged as a potential novel approach for drug target validation and the study of functional genomics. Small interfering RNAs (siRNA) therapeutics has developed rapidly and already there are clinical trials ongoing or planned. Although other challenges remain, delivery strategies for siRNA become the main hurdle that must be resolved prior to the full-scale clinical development of siRNA therapeutics. This article provides an overview of the current delivery strategies for synthetic siRNA, focusing on the targeted, self-assembled nanoparticles which show potential to become a useful and efficient tool in cancer therapy. PMID:19115957

  3. Characterization of Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates carrying bla(OXA-23) carbapenemase and 16S rRNA methylase armA genes in Yemen.

    PubMed

    Bakour, Sofiane; Alsharapy, Samer Ahmed; Touati, Abdelaziz; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular support of resistance to carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates collected from Yemen hospital. Three A. baumannii were isolated in February 2013 from three patients hospitalized at Al-Thawra University Hospital in Sana'a, Yemen. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion and E-test methods. Carbapenemase production was carried out by the modified Hodge test (MHT) and imipenem-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) methods. Carbapenem, aminoglycoside, and fluoroquinolone resistance determinants were studied by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. The epidemiological relatedness of the three strains was studied using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The isolates were resistant to almost all antibiotics tested with very high imipenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentrations (>32, >256, and >32 mg/L, respectively). The microbiological tests showed that the three A. baumannii were MHT positive, besides, the activity of β-lactamases was not inhibited by EDTA. All the three isolates contained the naturally occurring bla(OXA-51)-like gene and the bla(OXA-23)-like carbapenemase-encoding gene. The 16S rRNA methylase armA gene was detected in the three isolates. In addition, screening for genes encoding the aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) demonstrated that one isolate contained the acetyltransferase gene aac(6')-Ib. Fluoroquinolone resistance was associated with a single mutation Ser83Leu in the quinolone resistance determining region of the gyrA gene in all isolates. The MLST showed that the sequence type (ST) obtained corresponds to ST2 for the three strains. Here we report the first identification of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolates harboring the bla(OXA-23)-like gene, AMEs [aac(6')-Ib], and the 16S rRNA methylase (armA) in the Yemen hospital.

  4. Development of a Novel Self-Enclosed Sample Preparation Device for DNA/RNA Isolation in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Mehta, Satish K.; Pensinger, Stuart J.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    Modern biology techniques present potentials for a wide range of molecular, cellular, and biochemistry applications in space, including detection of infectious pathogens and environmental contaminations, monitoring of drug-resistant microbial and dangerous mutations, identification of new phenotypes of microbial and new life species. However, one of the major technological blockades in enabling these technologies in space is a lack of devices for sample preparation in the space environment. To overcome such an obstacle, we constructed a prototype of a DNA/RNA isolation device based on our novel designs documented in the NASA New Technology Reporting System (MSC-24811-1/3-1). This device is self-enclosed and pipette free, purposely designed for use in the absence of gravity. Our design can also be modified easily for preparing samples in space for other applications, such as flowcytometry, immunostaining, cell separation, sample purification and separation according to its size and charges, sample chemical labeling, and sample purification. The prototype of our DNA/RNA isolation device was tested for efficiencies of DNA and RNA isolation from various cell types for PCR analysis. The purity and integrity of purified DNA and RNA were determined as well. Results showed that our developed DNA/RNA isolation device offers similar efficiency and quality in comparison to the samples prepared using the standard protocol in the laboratory.

  5. Differential cytokine mRNA expression in heterophils isolated from Salmonella-resistant and -susceptible chickens

    PubMed Central

    Swaggerty, Christina L; Kogut, Michael H; Ferro, Pamela J; Rothwell, Lisa; Pevzner, Igal Y; Kaiser, Pete

    2004-01-01

    We recently showed that increased in vitro heterophil functional efficiency translates to increased in vivo resistance to a systemic Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infection utilizing a parental pair of broiler chickens (lines A and B) and the F1 reciprocal crosses (C and D). Heterophils produce cytokines and modulate acute protection against Salmonella in young poultry. Therefore, we hypothesize that heterophils from SE-resistant chickens (A and D) have the ability to produce an up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokine response compared to that of heterophils from SE-susceptible chickens (B and C). In this study, heterophils were isolated from day-old chickens and treated with either RPMI-1640 (as the control), or phagocytic agonists (SE, or SE opsonized with either normal chicken serum or immune serum against SE) and cytokine mRNA expression assessed using real-time quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Heterophils from SE-resistant chickens (A and D) had significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-18) mRNA expression upon treatment with all agonists compared to heterophils from SE-susceptible lines (B and C). Further, heterophils from SE-resistant chickens had significantly decreased mRNA expression levels of transforming growth factor-β4, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, when compared to heterophils from SE-susceptible chickens. These data indicate cytokine gene expression in heterophils may be a useful parameter in determining resistance to Salmonella, as indicated by our previous in vivo SE studies. Therefore, heterophil functional efficiency and cytokine production may be useful biomarkers for poultry breeders to consider when developing new immunocompetent lines of birds. PMID:15312145

  6. Isolation of Endogenously Assembled RNA-Protein Complexes Using Affinity Purification Based on Streptavidin Aptamer S1

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yangchao; Yang, Jing; Ye, Wei; Wang, Yuan; Ye, Chuantao; Weng, Daihui; Gao, Huan; Zhang, Fanglin; Xu, Zhikai; Lei, Yingfeng

    2015-01-01

    Efficient isolation of endogenously assembled viral RNA-protein complexes is essential for understanding virus replication mechanisms. We have developed an affinity purification strategy based on an RNA affinity tag that allows large-scale preparation of native viral RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). The streptavidin-binding aptamer S1 sequence was inserted into the 3′ end of dengue virus (DENV) 5′–3′ UTR RNA, and the DENV RNA UTR fused to the S1 RNA aptamer was expressed in living mammalian cells. This allowed endogenous viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) assembly and isolation of RNPs from whole cell extract, through binding the S1 aptamer to streptavidin magnetic beads. Several novel host DENV RBPs were subsequently identified by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), including RPS8, which we further implicate in DENV replication. We proposed efficient S1 aptamer-based isolation of viral assembled RNPs from living mammalian cells will be generally applicable to the purification of high- and low-affinity RBPs and RNPs under endogenous conditions. PMID:26389898

  7. An automatic and effective tooth isolation method for dental radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, P.-L.; Huang, P.-W.; Cho, Y. S.; Kuo, C.-H.

    2013-03-01

    Tooth isolation is a very important step for both computer-aided dental diagnosis and automatic dental identification systems, because it will directly affect the accuracy of feature extraction and, thereby, the final results of both types of systems. This paper presents an effective and fully automatic tooth isolation method for dental X-ray images, which contains up-per-lower jaw separation, single tooth isolation, over-segmentation verification, and under-segmentation detection. The upper-lower jaw separation mechanism is based on a gray-scale integral projection to avoid possible information loss and incorporates with the angle adjustment to handle skewed images. In a single tooth isolation, an adaptive windowing scheme for locating gap valleys is proposed to improve the accuracy. In over-segmentation, an isolation-curve verification scheme is proposed to remove excessive curves; and in under-segmentation, a missing-teeth detection scheme is proposed. The experimental results demonstrate that our method achieves the accuracy rates of 95.63% and 98.71% for the upper and lower jaw images, respectively, from the test database of 60 bitewing dental radiographs, and performs better for images with severe teeth occlusion, excessive dental works, and uneven illumination than that of Nomir and Abdel-Mottaleb's method. The method without upper-lower jaw separation step also works well for panoramic and periapical images.

  8. Well fluid isolation and sample apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Schalla, Ronald; Smith, Ronald M.; Hall, Stephen H.; Smart, John E.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention specifically permits purging and/or sampling of a well but only removing, at most, about 25% of the fluid volume compared to conventional methods and, at a minimum, removing none of the fluid volume from the well. The invention is an isolation assembly that is inserted into the well. The isolation assembly is designed so that only a volume of fluid between the outside diameter of the isolation assembly and the inside diameter of the well over a fluid column height from the bottom of the well to the top of the active portion (lower annulus) is removed. A seal may be positioned above the active portion thereby sealing the well and preventing any mixing or contamination of inlet fluid with fluid above the packer. Purged well fluid is stored in a riser above the packer. Ports in the wall of the isolation assembly permit purging and sampling of the lower annulus along the height of the active portion.

  9. Simultaneous isolation of high-quality DNA, RNA, miRNA and proteins from tissues for genomic applications

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Llopis, Samuel; Brugarolas, James

    2014-01-01

    Genomic technologies have revolutionized our understanding of complex Mendelian diseases and cancer. Solid tumors present several challenges for genomic analyses, such as tumor heterogeneity and tumor contamination with surrounding stroma and infiltrating lymphocytes. We developed a protocol to (i) select tissues of high cellular purity on the basis of histological analyses of immediately flanking sections and (ii) simultaneously extract genomic DNA (gDNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), noncoding RNA (ncRNA; enriched in microRNA (miRNA)) and protein from the same tissues. After tissue selection, about 12–16 extractions of DNA/RNA/protein can be obtained per day. Compared with other similar approaches, this fast and reliable methodology allowed us to identify mutations in tumors with remarkable sensitivity and to perform integrative analyses of whole-genome and exome data sets, DNA copy numbers (by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays), gene expression data (by transcriptome profiling and quantitative PCR (qPCR)) and protein levels (by western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis) from the same samples. Although we focused on renal cell carcinoma, this protocol may be adapted with minor changes to any human or animal tissue to obtain high-quality and high-yield nucleic acids and proteins. PMID:24136348

  10. Antigenic characterization of type C RNA virus isolates of gibbon apes.

    PubMed Central

    Tronick, S R; Stephenson, J R; Aaronson, S A; Kawakami, T G

    1975-01-01

    Type C RNA viruses initially isolated from a lymphosarcoma of a gibbon ape and from a fibrosarcoma of a woolly monkey are very closely related immunologically. However, recent studies have shown that these viruses are distinguishable in a radioimmunoassay for the 12,000-molecular-weight polypeptide (p12) of the woolly monkey virus. In the present report, an immunoassay has been developed for the p12 polypeptide of the gibbon ape type C virus. This assay is shown to further distinguish the woolly monkey and gibbon ape viruses. In type-specific assays for the p12 polypeptides of these viruses, two new type C viruses isolated from gibbons in a second colony, characterized by high incidence of hemopoietic neoplasia, are immunologically distinguishable from the original gibbon ape virus. The p12 type-specific immunoassays described in the present report may be of importance in studying the natural history of these viruses and their relationship to tumors of primates. PMID:46280

  11. Methods for isolation and cultivation of filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Nevalainen, Helena; Kautto, Liisa; Te'o, Junior

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are important organisms for basic discovery, industry, and human health. Their natural growth environments are extremely variable, a fact reflected by the numerous methods developed for their isolation and cultivation. Fungal culture in the laboratory is usually carried out on agar plates, shake flasks, and bench top fermenters starting with an inoculum that typically features fungal spores. Here we discuss the most popular methods for the isolation and cultivation of filamentous fungi for various purposes with the emphasis on enzyme production and molecular microbiology.

  12. Study of microRNA in diabetic nephropathy: isolation, quantification and biological function.

    PubMed

    Kantharidis, Phillip; Hagiwara, Shinji; Brennan, Eoin; McClelland, Aaron D

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, several studies have reported dysregulation of microRNA expression in disease with a growing interest focussed on targeting microRNAs as a novel therapy for human disease. This is especially true in diabetic nephropathy where the expression of several microRNAs is dysregulated, contributing to the increased expression and accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins and increased pro-fibrotic signalling, ultimately resulting in renal fibrosis. The development of various techniques and microRNA reagents has enabled work to progress very rapidly in this area. In the present article, the authors describe the methods they have used that have enabled them to contribute to our current understanding of the role of microRNAs in diabetic nephropathy.

  13. Isolation and characterization of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Nicotiana clevelandii plants infected with red clover necrotic mosaic dianthovirus.

    PubMed

    Bates, H J; Farjah, M; Osman, T A; Buck, K W

    1995-06-01

    A template-bound RNA polymerase was isolated from Nicotiana clevelandii plants infected with red clover necrotic mosaic dianthovirus (RCNMV) by differential centrifugation, solubilization with dodecyl beta-D-maltopyranoside, and chromatography on columns of Sephacryl S-400 and Q-Sepharose. Analysis of the purified polymerase by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by silver staining or immunoblotting, showed that it contained virus-encoded proteins of molecular masses 27 kDa and 88 kDa together with several minor proteins possibly of host origin. After removal of endogenous RNA with micrococcal nuclease, the polymerase became template-dependent. It was also template-specific, being able to utilize as templates RNA of two strains of RCNMV, but not RNAs of three viruses in different taxonomic groups, namely cucumber mosaic cucumovirus, tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus and tomato mosaic tobamovirus. The products of RNA polymerase reactions were double-stranded RNAs corresponding to RCNMV RNAs 1 and 2. The ability of the template-dependent RNA polymerase to synthesize RNA was completely inhibited by antibodies to a peptide containing the GDD motif, whereas the activity of the template-bound enzyme was unaffected by these antibodies.

  14. New method for isolating antibiotic-producing fungi.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Mio; Nonaka, Kenichi; Masuma, Rokuro; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    A convenient and efficient method was established for isolating antifungal antibiotic-producing fungi from soil samples. In this method, soil samples were diluted and directly plated in agar medium by the standard fungi-isolating method, and the plates were cultured at 27 °C for 2-3 days to permit the growth of fungal colonies. Then, the suspension of pathogenic Candida albicans in saline (40 μl, 5-10 × 10⁵ CFU ml⁻¹) was overlaid by spraying on the plates under controlled conditions in the safety cabinet. After 1-day incubation, fungal colonies showing an antagonistic effect with the inhibition zone against sprayed C. albicans were selected. Among 151 isolates, 26 strains were found to reproduce anti-C. albicans activity in liquid medium, yielding a higher selection rate (17.2%) than that (3.1%) by the traditional method. This new method can be applied for isolation of microorganisms (fungi and actinomycetes) that produce antibiotics active against pathogenic microorganisms.

  15. The partial sequencing of the genomic RNA of a UK isolate of Pepino mosaic virus and the comparison of the coat protein sequence with other isolates from Europe and Peru.

    PubMed

    Mumford, R A; Metcalfe, E J

    2001-12-01

    A 3599 nucleotide portion of the genomic RNA of a UK isolate of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV), isolated from tomato, has been sequenced (Accession No. AF340024). The region sequenced includes the 3'-end of the RNA polymerase, the triple gene block (TGB), the coat protein (CP) and 3' untranslated region (UTR). In addition, the CP sequences of another 15 PepMV isolates, including 14 European tomato isolates and a Peruvian pepino isolate, have been determined and compared. This analysis shows that all the tomato isolates share over 99% identity, but only between 96-97% identity with the Peruvian pepino isolate.

  16. Modified Method of rRNA Structure Analysis Reveals Novel Characteristics of Box C/D RNA Analogues.

    PubMed

    Filippova, J A; Stepanov, G A; Semenov, D V; Koval, O A; Kuligina, E V; Rabinov, I V; Richter, V A

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) maturation is a complex process that involves chemical modifications of the bases or sugar residues of specific nucleotides. One of the most abundant types of rRNA modifications, ribose 2'-O-methylation, is guided by ribonucleoprotein complexes containing small nucleolar box C/D RNAs. Since the majority of 2'-O-methylated nucleotides are located in the most conserved regions of rRNA that comprise functionally important centers of the ribosome, an alteration in a 2'-O-methylation profile can affect ribosome assembly and function. One of the key approaches for localization of 2'-O-methylated nucleotides in long RNAs is a method based on the termination of reverse transcription. The current study presents an adaptation of this method for the use of fluorescently labeled primers and analysis of termination products by capillary gel electrophoresis on an automated genetic analyzer. The developed approach allowed us to analyze the influence of the synthetic analogues of box C/D RNAs on post-transcriptional modifications of human 28S rRNA in MCF-7 cells. It has been established that the transfection of MCF-7 cells with a box C/D RNA analogue leads to an enhanced modification level of certain native sites of 2'-O-methylation in the target rRNA. The observed effect of synthetic RNAs on the 2'-O-methylation of rRNA in human cells demonstrates a path towards targeted regulation of rRNA post-transcriptional maturation. The described approach can be applied in the development of novel diagnostic methods for detecting diseases in humans.

  17. Sequence analysis of zein cDNAs obtained by an efficient mRNA cloning method.

    PubMed Central

    Heidecker, G; Messing, J

    1983-01-01

    A cDNA library was generated from mRNA isolated from the developing endosperm of W22 maize inbred. cDNA clones for zein, the maize storage protein family, were isolated and analyzed by DNA sequencing. The DNA sequences of four clones containing cDNA copies of mRNAs belonging to one zein subfamily were determined. The data support the following conclusions: a) genes encoding the larger of the two zein species contain eleven instead of nine repeat units within the coding sequence of the gene; b) transcription can be terminated at either of the two polyadenlation signals and c) transcription starts 31 basepairs downstream from the first T in the TATA box. To facilitate this analysis a new method for the construction of cDNA libraries was developed. The mRNA was annealed to linearized and oligo-dT tailed pUC9 plasmid DNA, which then primed synthesis of the first strand of the cDNA. Oligo-dG tails were added to the cDNA-plasmid molecules, which were then centrifuged through an alkaline sucrose gradient. The gradient step removed small molecules and separated the two cDNAs which were formerly attached to the same double stranded plasmid molecule. An excess of oligo-dC tailed denatured pUC9 DNA was added and the DNA was renatured under conditions that favor the circularization of monomers by the oligo-dC and oligo-dG tails. The oligo-dC tail served as primer for the synthesis of the second strand of the cDNA. The library was screened by colony hybridization using 32P-labelled cDNA and DNA from genomic zein clones as probes. We obtained 20,000 clones hybridizing total cDNA starting with 1 microgram of plasmid DNA and 1 microgram of mRNA. Images PMID:6688299

  18. RNA 3D Structure Modeling by Combination of Template-Based Method ModeRNA, Template-Free Folding with SimRNA, and Refinement with QRNAS.

    PubMed

    Piatkowski, Pawel; Kasprzak, Joanna M; Kumar, Deepak; Magnus, Marcin; Chojnowski, Grzegorz; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2016-01-01

    RNA encompasses an essential part of all known forms of life. The functions of many RNA molecules are dependent on their ability to form complex three-dimensional (3D) structures. However, experimental determination of RNA 3D structures is laborious and challenging, and therefore, the majority of known RNAs remain structurally uncharacterized. To address this problem, computational structure prediction methods were developed that either utilize information derived from known structures of other RNA molecules (by way of template-based modeling) or attempt to simulate the physical process of RNA structure formation (by way of template-free modeling). All computational methods suffer from various limitations that make theoretical models less reliable than high-resolution experimentally determined structures. This chapter provides a protocol for computational modeling of RNA 3D structure that overcomes major limitations by combining two complementary approaches: template-based modeling that is capable of predicting global architectures based on similarity to other molecules but often fails to predict local unique features, and template-free modeling that can predict the local folding, but is limited to modeling the structure of relatively small molecules. Here, we combine the use of a template-based method ModeRNA with a template-free method SimRNA. ModeRNA requires a sequence alignment of the target RNA sequence to be modeled with a template of the known structure; it generates a model that predicts the structure of a conserved core and provides a starting point for modeling of variable regions. SimRNA can be used to fold small RNAs (<80 nt) without any additional structural information, and to refold parts of models for larger RNAs that have a correctly modeled core. ModeRNA can be either downloaded, compiled and run locally or run through a web interface at http://genesilico.pl/modernaserver/ . SimRNA is currently available to download for local use as a precompiled

  19. SimRNA: a coarse-grained method for RNA folding simulations and 3D structure prediction

    PubMed Central

    Boniecki, Michal J.; Lach, Grzegorz; Dawson, Wayne K.; Tomala, Konrad; Lukasz, Pawel; Soltysinski, Tomasz; Rother, Kristian M.; Bujnicki, Janusz M.

    2016-01-01

    RNA molecules play fundamental roles in cellular processes. Their function and interactions with other biomolecules are dependent on the ability to form complex three-dimensional (3D) structures. However, experimental determination of RNA 3D structures is laborious and challenging, and therefore, the majority of known RNAs remain structurally uncharacterized. Here, we present SimRNA: a new method for computational RNA 3D structure prediction, which uses a coarse-grained representation, relies on the Monte Carlo method for sampling the conformational space, and employs a statistical potential to approximate the energy and identify conformations that correspond to biologically relevant structures. SimRNA can fold RNA molecules using only sequence information, and, on established test sequences, it recapitulates secondary structure with high accuracy, including correct prediction of pseudoknots. For modeling of complex 3D structures, it can use additional restraints, derived from experimental or computational analyses, including information about secondary structure and/or long-range contacts. SimRNA also can be used to analyze conformational landscapes and identify potential alternative structures. PMID:26687716

  20. Methods of RNA preparation affect mRNA abundance quantification of reference genes in pig maturing oocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y-K; Li, X; Song, Z-Q; Yang, C-X

    2017-10-01

    To ensure accurate normalization and quantification of target RNA transcripts using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), most studies focus on the identification of stably expressed gene(s) as internal reference. However, RNA preparation methods could also be an important factor, especially for test samples of limited quantity (e.g. oocytes). In this study, we aimed to select appropriate reference gene(s), and evaluate the effect of RNA preparation methods on gene expression quantification in porcine oocytes and cumulus cells during in vitro maturation. Expression profiles of seven genes (GAPDH, 18S, YWHAG, BACT, RPL4, HPRT1 and PPIA) were examined, on RNA samples extracted from cumulus cells (RNeasy Kit) and oocytes (RNeasy Kit and Lysis Kit) during in vitro maturation, respectively. Interestingly, different RNA preparation methods were found to potentially affect the quantification of reference gene expression in pig oocytes cultured in vitro. After geNorm analyses, the most suitable genes for normalization were identified, GAPDH/18S for cumulus cells and YWHAG/BACT for oocytes, respectively. Thus, our results provide useful data and information on the selection of better reference genes and RNA preparation method for related functional studies. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. RNA-Seq analysis of isolate- and growth phase-specific differences in the global transcriptomes of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli prototype isolates

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Tracy H.; Daugherty, Sean C.; Shetty, Amol; Mahurkar, Anup A.; White, Owen; Kaper, James B.; Rasko, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are a leading cause of diarrheal illness among infants in developing countries. E. coli isolates classified as typical EPEC are identified by the presence of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) and the bundle-forming pilus (BFP), and absence of the Shiga-toxin genes, while the atypical EPEC also encode LEE but do not encode BFP or Shiga-toxin. Comparative genomic analyses have demonstrated that EPEC isolates belong to diverse evolutionary lineages and possess lineage- and isolate-specific genomic content. To investigate whether this genomic diversity results in significant differences in global gene expression, we used an RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) approach to characterize the global transcriptomes of the prototype typical EPEC isolates E2348/69, B171, C581-05, and the prototype atypical EPEC isolate E110019. The global transcriptomes were characterized during laboratory growth in two different media and three different growth phases, as well as during adherence of the EPEC isolates to human cells using in vitro tissue culture assays. Comparison of the global transcriptomes during these conditions was used to identify isolate- and growth phase-specific differences in EPEC gene expression. These analyses resulted in the identification of genes that encode proteins involved in survival and metabolism that were coordinately expressed with virulence factors. These findings demonstrate there are isolate- and growth phase-specific differences in the global transcriptomes of EPEC prototype isolates, and highlight the utility of comparative transcriptomics for identifying additional factors that are directly or indirectly involved in EPEC pathogenesis. PMID:26124752

  2. [Method of isolating isoflavone aglycones from soya beans].

    PubMed

    Levyts'kyĭ, A P; Bohatov, V V

    2002-01-01

    The method of isolating isoflavone aglycones from soya beans has been proposed. The procedure includes the extraction by hot water, glycosides oxidative hydrolysis, aglycones extracting by ethyl acetate and removing the lipophilic substances by means of hexanic extraction. The aglycones outcome is not less than 80%. The preparation obtained contains over 50% of soya bean aglycones.

  3. Rapid preparation of RNA samples using DNA-affinity chromatography and DNAzyme methods.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Hae-Kap; Hwang, Eunha; Cheong, Chaejoon

    2012-01-01

    Milligram quantities of RNA are commonly synthesized by in vitro transcription from a DNA template with T7 RNA polymerase. However, the run-off transcription method results in heterogeneity at the RNA 3'-terminus. RNA purification requires single-nucleotide resolution to separate the transcript of the correct length from the aborted or add-on transcripts that are usually present in comparable amounts. Here, we describe an RNA preparation method that uses a trans-acting DNAzyme and sequence-specific affinity column chromatography. This purification method is simple, fast, and suited for high throughput.

  4. Chemoenzymatic method for glycomics: isolation, identification, and quantitation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuang; Rubin, Abigail; Eshghi, Shadi Toghi; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, considerable progress has been made with respect to the analytical methods for analysis of glycans from biological sources. Regardless of the specific methods that are used, glycan analysis includes isolation, identification, and quantitation. Derivatization is indispensable to increase their identification. Derivatization of glycans can be performed by permethylation or carbodiimide coupling / esterification. By introducing a fluorophore or chromophore at their reducing end, glycans can be separated by electrophoresis or chromatography. The fluorogenically labeled glycans can be quantitated using fluorescent detection. The recently developed approaches using solid-phase such as glycoprotein immobilization for glycan extraction and on-tissue glycan mass spectrometry imaging demonstrate advantages over methods performed in solution. Derivatization of sialic acids is favorably implemented on the solid support using carbodiimide coupling, and the released glycans can be further modified at the reducing end or permethylated for quantitative analysis. In this review, methods for glycan isolation, identification, and quantitation are discussed. PMID:26390280

  5. New Rapid Method of DNA Isolation from Milk Somatic Cells.

    PubMed

    Pokorska, Joanna; Kułaj, Dominika; Dusza, Magdalena; Żychlińska-Buczek, Justyna; Makulska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Isolation of genomic DNA is one of the basic steps in many different molecular analyses. There are a few reports on methods of DNA isolation from milk, but many of them are time consuming and expensive, and require relatively large volumes of raw milk. In this study a rapid, sensitive, and efficient method of DNA extraction from milk somatic cells of various mammals (cattle, sheep, goats, horses) is presented. It was found that milk is a good source of genomic DNA, and to obtain a sufficient amount and quality of DNA, suitable for molecular analysis such as PCR, 10 mL of raw milk is sufficient. Thanks to this method, stress in animals can be reduced during collection of researched material. Therefore, this method could be widely used in molecular analyses.

  6. A Daphnane Diterpenoid Isolated from Wikstroemia polyantha Induces an Inflammatory Response and Modulates miRNA Activity

    PubMed Central

    Khong, Anthony; Forestieri, Roberto; Williams, David E.; Patrick, Brian O.; Olmstead, Andrea; Svinti, Victoria; Schaeffer, Emily; Jean, François; Roberge, Michel; Andersen, Raymond J.; Jan, Eric

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously expressed single-stranded ∼21–23 nucleotide RNAs that inhibit gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding imperfectly to elements usually within the 3′untranslated region (3′UTR) of mRNAs. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) mediate site-specific cleavage by binding with perfect complementarity to RNA. Here, a cell-based miRNA reporter system was developed to screen for compounds from marine and plant extracts that inhibit miRNA or siRNA activity. The daphnane diterpenoid genkwanine M (GENK) isolated from the plant Wikstroemia polyantha induces an early inflammatory response and can moderately inhibit miR-122 activity in the liver Huh-7 cell line. GENK does not alter miR-122 levels nor does it directly inhibit siRNA activity in an in vitro cleavage assay. Finally, we demonstrate that GENK can inhibit HCV infection in Huh-7 cells. In summary, the development of the cell-based miRNA sensor system should prove useful in identifying compounds that affect miRNA/siRNA activity. PMID:22761847

  7. Simultaneous Identification of Two Cyclohexanone Oxidation Genes from an Environmental Brevibacterium Isolate Using mRNA Differential Display

    PubMed Central

    Brzostowicz, Patricia C.; Gibson, Katharine L.; Thomas, Stuart M.; Blasko, Mary Sue; Rouvière, Pierre E.

    2000-01-01

    The technique of mRNA differential display was used to identify simultaneously two metabolic genes involved in the degradation of cyclohexanone in a new halotolerant Brevibacterium environmental isolate. In a strategy based only on the knowledge that cyclohexanone oxidation was inducible in this strain, the mRNA population of cells exposed to cyclohexanone was compared to that of control cells using reverse transcription-PCR reactions primed with a collection of 81 arbitrary oligonucleotides. Three DNA fragments encoding segments of flavin monooxygenases were isolated with this technique, leading to the identification of the genes of two distinct cyclohexanone monooxygenases, the enzymes responsible for the oxidation of cyclohexanone. Each monooxygenase was expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. This work validates the application of mRNA differential display for the discovery of new microbial metabolic genes. PMID:10894733

  8. Modern Methods for Isolation, Purification, and Cultivation of Soil Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Temraleeva, A D; Dronova, S A; Moskalenko, S V; Didovich, S V

    2016-07-01

    Up-to-date methods for isolation of cyanobacteria from soil samples, removal of accompanying microflora, obtaining axenic strains, and -conditions and media for subsequnt cultivation are reviewed. Char acterization of soil as a specific habitat for cyanobacteria is provided. Comparative analysis of pH and ele- mental composition of the liquid phase of most soil types with the media for cultivating cyanobacteria is car- ried out. The functional role of the major components required for the cultivation of cyanobacteria is de- scribed. The problems associated with isolation, purification, and cultivation of soil cyanobacteria, as well as the relevant solutions, are discussed.

  9. Computational RNA secondary structure design: empirical complexity and improved methods

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre-Hernández, Rosalía; Hoos, Holger H; Condon, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Background We investigate the empirical complexity of the RNA secondary structure design problem, that is, the scaling of the typical difficulty of the design task for various classes of RNA structures as the size of the target structure is increased. The purpose of this work is to understand better the factors that make RNA structures hard to design for existing, high-performance algorithms. Such understanding provides the basis for improving the performance of one of the best algorithms for this problem, RNA-SSD, and for characterising its limitations. Results To gain insights into the practical complexity of the problem, we present a scaling analysis on random and biologically motivated structures using an improved version of the RNA-SSD algorithm, and also the RNAinverse algorithm from the Vienna package. Since primary structure constraints are relevant for designing RNA structures, we also investigate the correlation between the number and the location of the primary structure constraints when designing structures and the performance of the RNA-SSD algorithm. The scaling analysis on random and biologically motivated structures supports the hypothesis that the running time of both algorithms scales polynomially with the size of the structure. We also found that the algorithms are in general faster when constraints are placed only on paired bases in the structure. Furthermore, we prove that, according to the standard thermodynamic model, for some structures that the RNA-SSD algorithm was unable to design, there exists no sequence whose minimum free energy structure is the target structure. Conclusion Our analysis helps to better understand the strengths and limitations of both the RNA-SSD and RNAinverse algorithms, and suggests ways in which the performance of these algorithms can be further improved. PMID:17266771

  10. Methods and compositions for the production of orthogonal tRNA-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase pairs

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason W.; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric L.; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Stephen William; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2015-10-20

    This invention provides compositions and methods for generating components of protein biosynthetic machinery including orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases. Methods for identifying orthogonal pairs are also provided. These components can be used to incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo.

  11. Methods and composition for the production of orthogonal tRNA-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase pairs

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA; Anderson, John Christopher [San Diego, CA; Chin, Jason W [San Diego, CA; Liu, David R [Lexington, MA; Magliery, Thomas J [North Haven, CT; Meggers, Eric L [Philadelphia, PA; Mehl, Ryan Aaron [San Diego, CA; Pastrnak, Miro [San Diego, CA; Santoro, Stephen William [San Diego, CA; Zhang, Zhiwen [San Diego, CA

    2012-05-08

    This invention provides compositions and methods for generating components of protein biosynthetic machinery including orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases. Methods for identifying orthogonal pairs are also provided. These components can be used to incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo.

  12. Methods and compositions for the production of orthogonal tRNA-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric L.; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Stephen William; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2006-08-01

    This invention provides compositions and methods for generating components of protein biosynthetic machinery including orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases. Methods for identifying orthogonal pairs are also provided. These components can be used to incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo.

  13. Identification of species of viridans group streptococci in clinical blood culture isolates by sequence analysis of the RNase P RNA gene, rnpB.

    PubMed

    Westling, Katarina; Julander, Inger; Ljungman, Per; Vondracek, Martin; Wretlind, Bengt; Jalal, Shah

    2008-03-01

    Viridans group streptococci (VGS) cause severe diseases such as infective endocarditis and septicaemia. Genetically, VGS species are very close to each other and it is difficult to identify them to species level with conventional methods. The aims of the present study were to use sequence analysis of the RNase P RNA gene (rnpB) to identify VGS species in clinical blood culture isolates, and to compare the results with the API 20 Strep system that is based on phenotypical characteristics. Strains from patients with septicaemia or endocarditis were analysed with PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the rnpB gene. Clinical data were registered as well. One hundred and thirty two VGS clinical blood culture isolates from patients with septicaemia (n=95) or infective endocarditis (n=36) were analysed; all but one were identified by rnpB. Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii strains were most common in the patients with infective endocarditis. In the isolates from patients with haematological diseases, Streptococcus mitis and S. oralis dominated. In addition in 76 of the isolates it was possible to compare the results from rnpB analysis and the API 20 Strep system. In 39/76 (51%) of the isolates the results were concordant to species level; in 55 isolates there were no results from API 20 Strep. Sequence analysis of the RNase P RNA gene (rnpB) showed that almost all isolates could be identified. This could be of importance for evaluation of the portal of entry in patients with septicaemia or infective endocarditis.

  14. Detection and isolation of circulating tumor cells: principles and methods.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilsabzali, Hadi; Beischlag, Timothy V; Cox, Michael E; Parameswaran, Ash M; Park, Edward J

    2013-11-15

    Efforts to improve the clinical management of several cancers include finding better methods for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). However, detection and isolation of CTCs from the blood circulation is not a trivial task given their scarcity and the lack of reliable markers to identify these cells. With a variety of emerging technologies, a thorough review of the exploited principles and techniques as well as the trends observed in the development of these technologies can assist researchers to recognize the potential improvements and alternative approaches. To help better understand the related biological concepts, a simplified framework explaining cancer formation and its spread to other organs as well as how CTCs contribute to this process has been presented first. Then, based on their basic working-principles, the existing methods for detection and isolation of CTCs have been classified and reviewed as nucleic acid-based, physical properties-based and antibody-based methods. The review of literature suggests that antibody-based methods, particularly in conjunction with a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip setting, offer the highest overall performance for detection and isolation of CTCs. Further biological and engineering-related research is required to improve the existing methods. These include finding more specific markers for CTCs as well as enhancing the throughput, sensitivity, and analytic functionality of current devices.

  15. Effect of Soil Clay Content on RNA Isolation and on Detection and Quantification of Bacterial Gene Transcripts in Soil by Quantitative Reverse Transcription-PCR ▿†

    PubMed Central

    Novinscak, A.; Filion, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of soil clay content on RNA isolation and on quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) quantification of microbial gene transcripts. The amount of clay significantly altered RNA isolation yields and qRT-PCR analyses. Recommendations are made for quantifying microbial gene transcripts in soil samples varying in clay content. PMID:21724880

  16. Intra-Genomic Heterogeneity in 16S rRNA Genes in Strictly Anaerobic Clinical Isolates from Periodontal Abscesses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiazhen; Miao, Xinyu; Xu, Meng; He, Junlin; Xie, Yi; Wu, Xingwen; Chen, Gang; Yu, Liying; Zhang, Wenhong

    2015-01-01

    Members of the genera Prevotella, Veillonella and Fusobacterium are the predominant culturable obligate anaerobic bacteria isolated from periodontal abscesses. When determining the cumulative number of clinical anaerobic isolates from periodontal abscesses, ambiguous or overlapping signals were frequently encountered in 16S rRNA gene sequencing chromatograms, resulting in ambiguous identifications. With the exception of the genus Veillonella, the high intra-chromosomal heterogeneity of rrs genes has not been reported. The 16S rRNA genes of 138 clinical, strictly anaerobic isolates and one reference strain were directly sequenced, and the chromatograms were carefully examined. Gene cloning was performed for 22 typical isolates with doublet sequencing signals for the 16S rRNA genes, and four copies of the rrs-ITS genes of 9 Prevotella intermedia isolates were separately amplified by PCR, sequenced and compared. Five conserved housekeeping genes, hsp60, recA, dnaJ, gyrB1 and rpoB from 89 clinical isolates of Prevotella were also amplified by PCR and sequenced for identification and phylogenetic analysis along with 18 Prevotella reference strains. Heterogeneity of 16S rRNA genes was apparent in clinical, strictly anaerobic oral bacteria, particularly in the genera Prevotella and Veillonella. One hundred out of 138 anaerobic strains (72%) had intragenomic nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in multiple locations, and 13 strains (9.4%) had intragenomic insertions or deletions in the 16S rRNA gene. In the genera Prevotella and Veillonella, 75% (67/89) and 100% (19/19) of the strains had SNPs in the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Gene cloning and separate amplifications of four copies of the rrs-ITS genes confirmed that 2 to 4 heterogeneous 16S rRNA copies existed. Sequence alignment of five housekeeping genes revealed that intra-species nucleotide similarities were very high in the genera Prevotella, ranging from 94.3-100%. However, the inter-species similarities were

  17. A simple method for construction of artificial microRNA vector in plant.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Li, Yang; Zhao, Sunping; Zhong, Sheng; Wang, Zhaohai; Ding, Bo; Li, Yangsheng

    2014-10-01

    Artificial microRNA (amiRNA) is a powerful tool for silencing genes in many plant species. Here we provide an easy method to construct amiRNA vectors that reinvents the Golden Gate cloning approach and features a novel system called top speed amiRNA construction (TAC). This speedy approach accomplishes one restriction-ligation step in only 5 min, allowing easy and high-throughput vector construction. Three primers were annealed to be a specific adaptor, then digested and ligated on our novel vector pTAC. Importantly, this method allows the recombined amiRNA constructs to maintain the precursor of osa-miR528 with exception of the desired amiRNA/amiRNA* sequences. Using this method, our results showed the expected decrease of targeted genes in Nicotiana benthamiana and Oryza sativa.

  18. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for RNA species induced by substituted benzenesulfonamides in corn.

    PubMed

    Hershey, H P; Stoner, T D

    1991-10-01

    A search of compounds capable of inducing specific gene expression in plants without affecting growth and development led to the examination of changes in the pattern of gene expression in corn after treatment with substituted benzenesulfonamide herbicide safeners. Following hydroponic treatment of corn with the safener N-(aminocarbonyl)-2-chlorobenzenesulfonamide (2-CBSU), the specific induction of new translatable mRNA species was observed. Replicate copies of a cDNA library made using RNA from 2-CBSU-treated corn roots were differentially screened with cDNA probes made from either the same mRNA fraction used for library construction or mRNA isolated from roots treated with 2-chlorobenzenesulfonamide (2-CBSA), an inactive analog of the safener. Colonies showing hybridization only with the probe made using mRNA from 2-CBSU-treated roots were further characterized to assess the specificity of the induction and decay of the corresponding induced RNA species. RNA blot analyses showed two clones, designated In2-1 and In2-2, contained plasmids that hybridized to RNAs that were induced from an undetectable background in corn roots within 30 minutes after treatment with 2-CBSU. Leaf and meristem tissues showed similar inductions of the In2-1 and In2-2 RNA species after a delay of several hours. In addition, both RNA species were induced in corn by foliar application of 2-CBSU. In contrast, neither RNA species was induced following stress treatments of plants. These results indicate a substituted benzenesulfonamide safener might be used with the promoters from the In2-1 and In2-2 genes to develop a new inducible gene expression system for plants.

  19. Relative Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Clinical Isolates of Elizabethkingia Species Based on 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Han, Mi-Soon; Kim, Hyunsoo; Lee, Yangsoon; Kim, Myungsook; Ku, Nam Su; Choi, Jun Yong; Yong, Dongeun; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop

    2017-01-01

    Some of the previously reported clinical isolates of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica may be later named species of Elizabethkingia We determined the accuracy of species identification (with two matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry [MALDI-TOF MS] systems and the Vitek 2 GN card), relative prevalence of three Elizabethkingia spp. in clinical specimens, and antimicrobial susceptibility of the species identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Specimens for culture were collected from patients in a university hospital in Seoul, South Korea, between 2009 and 2015. All 3 Elizabethkingia spp. were detected in patients; among the 86 isolates identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, 17 (19.8%) were E. meningoseptica, 18 (20.9%) were Elizabethkingia miricola, and 51 (59.3%) were Elizabethkingia anophelis Only the MALDI-TOF Vitek MS system with an amended database correctly identified all of the isolates. The majority (76.7%) of the isolates were from the lower respiratory tract, and 8 (9.3%) were from blood. Over 90% of E. meningoseptica and E. anophelis isolates were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam and rifampin. In contrast, all E. miricola isolates were susceptible to fluoroquinolones except ciprofloxacin. Further studies are urgently needed to determine the optimal antimicrobial agents for the treatment of infections due to each individual Elizabethkingia species.

  20. An improved method for isolating viruses from asymptomatic carrier fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, Donald F.; Pietsch, John P.

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes a method using elevated levels of penicillin, streptomycin, and nystatin instead of filters to control bacteria and mold contaminants in specimens processed for virus isolation. Filters were shown to significantly reduce the virus concentration. Virus and tissue cultures were not affected by this procedure. In field tests nearly three times more specimens were positive for virus with this method than with the widely used filter technique. Moreover, the cost of materials was less. This method is recommended for inspection and certification purposes.

  1. Comparison of two methods for RNA extraction from the nucleus pulposus of intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Gan, M F; Yang, H L; Qian, J L; Wu, C S; Yuan, C X; Li, X F; Zou, J

    2016-06-03

    RNA extraction from the nucleus pulposus of intervertebral discs has been extensively used in orthopedic studies. We compared two methods for extracting RNA from the nucleus pulposus: liquid nitrogen grinding and enzyme digestion. The RNA was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis, and the purity was evaluated by absorbance ratio using a spectrophotometer. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) expression was assayed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Thirty human lumbar intervertebral discs were used in this study. The liquid nitrogen-grinding method was used for RNA extraction from 15 samples, and the mean RNA concentration was 491.04 ± 44.16 ng/mL. The enzyme digestion method was used on 15 samples, and the mean RNA concentration was 898.42 ± 38.64 ng/mL. The statistical analysis revealed that there was a significant difference in concentration between the different methods. Apparent 28S, 18S, and 5S bands were detectable in RNA extracted using the enzyme digestion method, whereas no 28S or 18S bands were detected in RNA extracted using the liquid nitrogen-grinding method. The GAPDH band was visible, and no non-specific band was detected in the RT-PCR assay by the enzyme digestion method. Therefore, the enzyme digestion method is an efficient and easy method for RNA extraction from the nucleus pulposus of intervertebral discs for further intervertebral disc degeneration-related studies.

  2. An optimized method for the extraction of bacterial mRNA from plant roots infected with Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Ashleigh; Birse, Louise; Jackson, Robert W.; Holden, Nicola J.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of microbial gene expression during host colonization provides valuable information on the nature of interaction, beneficial or pathogenic, and the adaptive processes involved. Isolation of bacterial mRNA for in planta analysis can be challenging where host nucleic acid may dominate the preparation, or inhibitory compounds affect downstream analysis, e.g., quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qPCR), microarray, or RNA-seq. The goal of this work was to optimize the isolation of bacterial mRNA of food-borne pathogens from living plants. Reported methods for recovery of phytopathogen-infected plant material, using hot phenol extraction and high concentration of bacterial inoculation or large amounts of infected tissues, were found to be inappropriate for plant roots inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. The bacterial RNA yields were too low and increased plant material resulted in a dominance of plant RNA in the sample. To improve the yield of bacterial RNA and reduce the number of plants required, an optimized method was developed which combines bead beating with directed bacterial lysis using SDS and lysozyme. Inhibitory plant compounds, such as phenolics and polysaccharides, were counteracted with the addition of high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol and hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide. The new method increased the total yield of bacterial mRNA substantially and allowed assessment of gene expression by qPCR. This method can be applied to other bacterial species associated with plant roots, and also in the wider context of food safety. PMID:25018749

  3. Isolation and Translation of mRNA Encoded by a Specific Region of the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Genome

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kevin P.; Holland, Louis E.; Gaylord, Beverley H.; Wagner, Edward K.

    1980-01-01

    We have examined in detail the major mRNA species encoded by the region of the herpes simplex virus type 1 genome encoded by HindIII fragment K (0.53-0.59 from the left end of the prototype arrangement of the genome) by using this restriction fragment bound to cellulose as a reagent for isolation of this mRNA. Before viral DNA replication in infected cells (early), a major species of viral mRNA 5.2 kilobases (kb) in length is abundant. After the onset of viral DNA replication (late), four mRNA species are abundant: 7, 5.2, 3.8, and 1.8 kb in size. We have used reverse transcriptase from avian myeloblastosis virus to make DNA complementary to these RNA species and their 3′ ends. We have shown by hybridization of this complementary DNA to Southern blots of herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA that the 7-, 5.2-, and 1.8-kb mRNA species have their 3′ ends to the right of 0.59 and are at least partially colinear. The 3.8-kb mRNA has a 3′ end mapping to the left of the 3′ ends of these other species. In vitro translation of HindIII fragment K-specific mRNA in a reticulocyte lysate system yielded three major polypeptide products: 140,000, 122,000, and 54,000 daltons (d). Less prominent species of 86,000 and 65,000 d also were produced. Translation of size-fractionated HindIII fragment K-specific mRNA showed that the 7-, 5.2-, and 3.8-kb mRNA's encoded the 54,000-, 140,000-, and 122,000-d polypeptides, respectively. The 140,000-d polypeptide was the major polypeptide translated using early HindIII fragment K-specific mRNA as a template. The 3.8-kb mRNA also encoded the 86,000-d polypeptide, whereas the 1.8-kb mRNA encoded a polypeptide that was indistinguishable from the 54,000-d polypeptide encoded by the 7-kb mRNA, in addition to the 65,000-d polypeptide. The implications of the data are discussed. Images PMID:6251246

  4. Identification of Bacillus strains isolated from milk and cream with classical and nucleic acid hybridization methods.

    PubMed

    Tatzel, R; Ludwig, W; Schleifer, K H; Wallnöfer, P R

    1994-11-01

    A total of 529 bacterial strains have been isolated from milk and cream sampled at different sites in a dairy production plant under conditions selective for aerobic sporeforming bacteria. Identification with classical methods based on morphological, physiological and biochemical criteria showed Bacillus licheniformis to be the most frequently occurring Bacillus sp. The investigation also revealed 62 unidentified strains. Classical identification methods were time consuming (3-7 d), lacked specificity and--because of their dependence on phenotypic gene expression--sometimes produced ambiguous results. Consequently, a colony hybridization method developed for the identification of B. licheniformis strains and using nonradioactive labelled 23S rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes was also used. Identification of B. licheniformis with both classical and hybridization methods revealed diverging identification results for 70 strains.

  5. Isolation, expression and functional analysis of a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene from maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    He, Junguang; Dong, Zhigang; Jia, Zhiwei; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Guoying

    2010-02-01

    RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs) in plants have been reported to be involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) and antiviral defense. In this report, an RdRP gene from maize (ZmRdRP1) was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and RT-PCR. The mRNA of ZmRdRP1 was composed of 3785 nucleotides, including a 167 nt 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 291 nt 3'UTR and a 3327 nt open reading frame (ORF), which encodes a putative protein of 1108 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 126.9 kDa and a predicated isoelectric point (pI) of 8.37. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that ZmRdRP1 was elicited by salicylic acid (SA) treatment, methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment and sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) infection. We silenced ZmRdRP1 by constitutively expressing an inverted-repeat fragment of ZmRdRP1 (ir-RdRP1) in transgenic maize plants. Further studies revealed that the ir-RdRP1 transgenic plants were more susceptible to SCMV infection than wild type plants. Virus-infected transgenic maize plants developed more serious disease symptoms and accumulated more virus than wild type plants. These findings suggested that ZmRdRP1 was involved in antiviral defense in maize.

  6. Benchmark comparison of ab initio microRNA identification methods and software.

    PubMed

    Hu, L L; Huang, Y; Wang, Q C; Zou, Q; Jiang, Y

    2012-12-19

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNA molecules that play an important role in the world of genes, especially in regulating the gene expression of target messenger RNAs through cleavage or translational repression of messenger RNA. Ab initio methods have become popular in computational miRNA detection. Most software tools are designed to distinguish miRNA precursors from pseudo-hairpins, but a few can mine miRNA from genome or expressed sequence tag sequences. We prepared novel testing datasets to measure and compare the performance of various software tools. Furthermore, we summarized the miRNA mining methods that study next-generation sequencing data for bioinformatics researchers who are analyzing these data. Because secondary structure is an important feature in the identification of miRNA, we analyzed the influence of various secondary structure prediction software tools on miRNA identification. MiPred was the most effective for classifying real-/pseudo-pre-miRNA sequences, and miRAbela performed relatively better for mining miRNA precursors from genome or expressed sequence tag sequences. RNA-fold performed better than m-fold for extracting secondary structure features of miRNA precursors.

  7. DNA and RNA isolated from tissues processed by microwave-accelerated apparatus MFX-800-3 are suitable for subsequent PCR and Q-RT-PCR amplification.

    PubMed

    Bödör, Csaba; Schmidt, Otto; Csernus, Balázs; Rajnai, Hajnalka; Szende, Béla

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, methods of molecular biology have appeared in diagnostic pathology and are routinely applied on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded histological samples, processed via conventional embedding methods. Due to its reagent- and cost-effectiveness, embedding techniques that utilize microwave acceleration in one or more steps of histoprocessing are increasingly used by numerous laboratories. The demand arises that tissues processed this way should also be suitable for the requirements of molecular pathology. In this study, both conventionally embedded and MFX-800-3 machine-processed tissue samples from the same source were used for isolation of DNA and RNA and for performing PCR and real-time PCR. PCR amplification of the beta-globin gene, as well as the real-time PCR amplification of the ABL mRNA was successful in all cases. Our conclusion is that samples processed by the vacuum assisted automatic microwave histoprocessor MFX-800-3 are perfectly applicable for DNA and RNA isolation and provide appropriate templates for further PCR and realtime PCR studies.

  8. A modified efficient method for dental pulp stem cell isolation

    PubMed Central

    Raoof, Maryam; Yaghoobi, Mohammad Mehdi; Derakhshani, Ali; Kamal-abadi, Ali Mohammadi; Ebrahimi, Behnam; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Shokouhinejad, Noushin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental pulp stem cells can be used in regenerative endodontic therapy. The aim of this study was to introduce an efficient method for dental pulp stem cells isolation. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, 60 extracted human third molars were split and pulp tissue was extracted. Dental pulp stem cells were isolated by the following three different methods: (1) digestion of pulp by collagenase/dispase enzyme and culture of the released cells; (2) outgrowth of the cells by culture of undigested pulp pieces; (3) digestion of pulp tissue pieces and fixing them. The cells were cultured in minimum essential medium alpha modification (αMEM) medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum(FBS) in humid 37°C incubator with 5% CO 2. The markers of stem cells were studied by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The student t-test was used for comparing the means of independent groups. P <0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results indicated that by the first method a few cell colonies with homogenous morphology were detectable after 4 days, while in the outgrowth method more time was needed (10-12 days) to allow sufficient numbers of heterogeneous phenotype stem cells to migrate out of tissue. Interestingly, with the improved third method, we obtained stem cells successfully with about 60% efficiency after 2 days. The results of RT-PCR suggested the expression of Nanog, Oct-4, and Nucleostemin markers in the isolated cells from dental pulps. Conclusion: This study proposes a new method with high efficacy to obtain dental pulp stem cells in a short time. PMID:24932197

  9. Comparative RNA-seq analysis of the Tritrichomonas foetus PIG30/1 isolate from pigs reveals close association with Tritrichomonas foetus BP-4 isolate 'bovine genotype'.

    PubMed

    Morin-Adeline, Victoria; Mueller, Kai; Conesa, Ana; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-09-15

    Tritrichomonas foetus was described as a commensal of the stomach, caecum and nasal cavity of pigs before it was recognised as the cause of reproductive tract disease of cattle. T. foetus also causes chronic large bowel diarrhoea in domestic cats. Multi-locus genotyping and comparative transcriptome analysis has previously revealed that T. foetus isolated from cat and cattle hosts are genetically distinct, referred to as the 'feline genotype' and 'bovine genotype', respectively. Conversely, multi-locus genotyping has grouped porcine T. foetus with the 'bovine genotype'. To compare the extent of the similarity between porcine T. foetus and cattle 'bovine genotype' isolates, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to produce the first cell-wide transcriptome library of porcine T. foetus PIG30/1. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the PIG30/1 with the published bovine (BP-4) and feline (G10/1) transcriptomes revealed that the porcine T. foetus shares a 4.7 fold greater number of orthologous genes with the bovine T. foetus than with the feline T. foetus. Comparing transcription of the virulence factors, cysteine proteases (CP) between the three isolates, the porcine T. foetus was found to preferentially transcribe CP8 like the 'bovine genotype' T. foetus, compared to thehigh transcription of CP7 seen for 'feline genotype' T. foetus. At the cell-wide transcriptome level, the porcine T. foetus isolate (PIG30/1) groups closer with the 'bovine genotype' T. foetus rather than the 'feline genotype' T. foetus.

  10. An active vibration isolation system using adaptive proportional control method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun-Hui; Hsieh, Hung-En; Wu, Wei-Hao

    2014-03-01

    This paper is concerned with a six-degree-of-freedom active vibration isolation system using voice coil actuators with absolute velocity feedback control for highly sensitive measurement equipment, e.g. atomic force microscopes, suffering from building vibration. The main differences between this type of system and traditional isolator, is that there are no isolator resonance. The absolute vibration velocity signal acquired from an accelerator and being processed through an integrator is input to the controller as a feedback signal, and the controller output signal drives the voice coil actuator to produce a sky-hook damper force. In practice, the phase response of integrator at low frequency such as 2~6 Hz deviate from the 90 degree which is the exact phase difference between the vibration velocity and acceleration. Therefore, an adaptive filter is used to compensate the phase error in this paper. An analysis of this active vibration isolation system is presented, and model predictions are compared to experimental results. The results show that the proposed method significantly reduces transmissibility at resonance without the penalty of increased transmissibility at higher frequencies.

  11. Deciphering the protein-RNA recognition code: combining large-scale quantitative methods with structural biology.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Janosch; Sattler, Michael

    2015-08-01

    RNA binding proteins (RBPs) are key factors for the regulation of gene expression by binding to cis elements, i.e. short sequence motifs in RNAs. Recent studies demonstrate that cooperative binding of multiple RBPs is important for the sequence-specific recognition of RNA and thereby enables the regulation of diverse biological activities by a limited set of RBPs. Cross-linking immuno-precipitation (CLIP) and other recently developed high-throughput methods provide comprehensive, genome-wide maps of protein-RNA interactions in the cell. Structural biology gives detailed insights into molecular mechanisms and principles of RNA recognition by RBPs, but has so far focused on single RNA binding proteins and often on single RNA binding domains. The combination of high-throughput methods and detailed structural biology studies is expected to greatly advance our understanding of the code for protein-RNA recognition in gene regulation, as we review in this article. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Methods to enable the design of bioactive small molecules targeting RNA

    PubMed Central

    Disney, Matthew D.; Yildirim, Ilyas; Childs-Disney, Jessica L.

    2014-01-01

    RNA is an immensely important target for small molecule therapeutics or chemical probes of function. However, methods that identify, annotate, and optimize RNA-small molecule interactions that could enable the design of compounds that modulate RNA function are in their infancies. This review describes recent approaches that have been developed to understand and optimize RNA motif-small molecule interactions, including Structure-Activity Relationships Through Sequencing (StARTS), quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR), chemical similarity searching, structure-based design and docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Case studies described include the design of small molecules targeting RNA expansions, the bacterial A-site, viral RNAs, and telomerase RNA. These approaches can be combined to afford a synergistic method to exploit the myriad of RNA targets in the transcriptome. PMID:24357181

  13. Methods to enable the design of bioactive small molecules targeting RNA.

    PubMed

    Disney, Matthew D; Yildirim, Ilyas; Childs-Disney, Jessica L

    2014-02-21

    RNA is an immensely important target for small molecule therapeutics or chemical probes of function. However, methods that identify, annotate, and optimize RNA-small molecule interactions that could enable the design of compounds that modulate RNA function are in their infancies. This review describes recent approaches that have been developed to understand and optimize RNA motif-small molecule interactions, including structure-activity relationships through sequencing (StARTS), quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR), chemical similarity searching, structure-based design and docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Case studies described include the design of small molecules targeting RNA expansions, the bacterial A-site, viral RNAs, and telomerase RNA. These approaches can be combined to afford a synergistic method to exploit the myriad of RNA targets in the transcriptome.

  14. An integrated miRNA functional screening and target validation method for organ morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rebustini, Ivan T; Vlahos, Maryann; Packer, Trevor; Kukuruzinska, Maria A; Maas, Richard L

    2016-03-16

    The relative ease of identifying microRNAs and their increasing recognition as important regulators of organogenesis motivate the development of methods to efficiently assess microRNA function during organ morphogenesis. In this context, embryonic organ explants provide a reliable and reproducible system that recapitulates some of the important early morphogenetic processes during organ development. Here we present a method to target microRNA function in explanted mouse embryonic organs. Our method combines the use of peptide-based nanoparticles to transfect specific microRNA inhibitors or activators into embryonic organ explants, with a microRNA pulldown assay that allows direct identification of microRNA targets. This method provides effective assessment of microRNA function during organ morphogenesis, allows prioritization of multiple microRNAs in parallel for subsequent genetic approaches, and can be applied to a variety of embryonic organs.

  15. RNA1-Independent Replication and GFP Expression from Tomato marchitez virus Isolate M Cloned cDNA.

    PubMed

    Ferriol, I; Turina, M; Zamora-Macorra, E J; Falk, B W

    2016-05-01

    Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV; synonymous with Tomato apex necrosis virus) is a positive-strand RNA virus in the genus Torradovirus within the family Secoviridae. ToMarV is an emergent whitefly-transmitted virus that causes important diseases in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in Mexico. Here, the genome sequence of the ToMarV isolate M (ToMarV-M) was determined. We engineered full-length cDNA clones of the ToMarV-M genomic RNA (RNA1 and RNA2), separately, into a binary vector. Coinfiltration of both triggered systemic infections in Nicotiana benthamiana, tomato, and tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica) plants and recapitulated the biological activity of the wild-type virus. The viral progeny generated from tomato and tomatillo plants were transmissible by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B. Also, we assessed whether these infectious clones could be used for screening tomato cultivars for resistance to ToMarV and our results allowed us to differentiate resistant and susceptible tomato lines. We demonstrated that RNA1 of ToMarV-M is required for the replication of RNA2, and it can replicate independently of RNA2. From this, ToMarV-M RNA2 was used to express the green fluorescent protein in N. benthamiana plants, which allowed us to track cell-to-cell movement. The construction of full-length infectious cDNA clones of ToMarV-M provides an excellent tool to investigate virus-host-vector interactions and elucidate the functions of torradovirus-encoded proteins or the mechanisms of replication of torradovirus genomic RNA.

  16. Methods for equine preantral follicles isolation: quantitative aspects.

    PubMed

    Leonel, E C R; Bento-Silva, V; Ambrozio, K S; Luna, H S; Costa e Silva, E V; Zúccari, C E S N

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test the use of mechanical and mechanical-enzymatic methods, saline solution (SS), and PBS solution for the manipulation and isolation of mare ovarian preantral follicles (PAFs). The ovaries were subjected to mechanical isolation (mixer) alone or in association with enzymatic digestion (collagenase). Incubation times of 10 and 20 min were employed. In the first group, 4.1 ± 4.9 PAFs were harvested with the mechanical-enzymatic method vs 71.1 ± 19.2 with the mechanical procedure, showing a significant difference between methods; using SS and PBS, these numbers were 35.7 ± 34.3 and 39.6 ± 39.6, respectively, with no significant difference between solutions. In the second group, there was significant difference between methods, with 7.1 ± 10.6 follicles harvested with the mechanical-enzymatic method vs 63.2 ± 22.9 with the mechanical procedure; using SS and PBS, means were 35.5 ± 36.4 and 34.9 ± 31.1, respectively. The mechanical method proved more effective than the mechanical-enzymatic approach. Both SS and PBS can be used as a media for equine PAFs preparation.

  17. Multi-disciplinary methods to define RNA-protein interactions and regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Ascano, Manuel; Gerstberger, Stefanie; Tuschl, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    The advent of high-throughput technologies including deep-sequencing and protein mass spectrometry is facilitating the acquisition of large and precise data sets toward the definition of post-transcriptional regulatory networks. While early studies that investigated specific RNA-protein interactions in isolation laid the foundation for our understanding of the existence of molecular machines to assemble and process RNAs, there is a more recent appreciation of the importance of individual RNA-protein interactions that contribute to post-transcriptional gene regulation. The multitude of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and their many RNA targets has only been captured experimentally in recent times. In this review, we will examine current multidisciplinary approaches toward elucidating RNA-protein networks and their regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High rates of double-stranded RNA viruses and Mycoplasma hominis in Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates in South Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Luz Becker, Débora; dos Santos, Odelta; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiological agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) in world, with 276.4 million new cases each year. T. vaginalis can be naturally infected with Mycoplasma hominis and Trichomonasvirus species. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of T. vaginalis infected with four distinct T. vaginalis viruses (TVVs) and M. hominis among isolates from patients in Porto Alegre city, South Brazil. An additional goal of this study was to investigate whether there is association between metronidazole resistance and the presence of M. hominis during TVV infection. The RNA expression level of the pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) gene was also evaluated among metronidazole-resistant and metronidazole-sensitive T. vaginalis isolates. A total of 530 urine samples were evaluated, and 5.7% samples were positive for T. vaginalis infection. Among them, 4.51% were isolated from female patients and 1.12% were from male patients. Remarkably, the prevalence rates of M. hominis and TVV-positive T. vaginalis isolates were 56.7% and 90%, respectively. Most of the T. vaginalis isolates were metronidazole-sensitive (86.7%), and only four isolates (13.3%) were resistant. There is no statistically significant association between infection by M. hominis and infection by TVVs. Our results refute the hypothesis that the presence of the M. hominis and TVVs is enough to confer metronidazole resistance to T. vaginalis isolates. Additionally, the role of PFOR RNA expression levels in metronidazole resistance as the main mechanism of resistance to metronidazole could not be established. This study is the first report of the T. vaginalis infection by M. hominis and TVVs in a large collection of isolates from South Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Actinomycetes Diversity among rRNA Gene Clones and Cellular Isolates from Sambhar Salt Lake, India

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, A. K.; Vardhan, S.; Kashyap, S.; Yandigeri, M.; Arora, D. K.

    2013-01-01

    The vertical stratification of actinomycetes diversity in Sambhar salt lake (India's largest salt lake) was investigated by using cultivable and uncultivable approaches. The isolates from cultured approaches were clustered on the basis of cultural, morphological, biochemical, and cell wall characteristics, and results were further strengthened by 16S rDNA-RFLP into five major groups. 16S rDNA sequencing of the representative isolates from each clusters was identified as belonging to Streptomyces, Actinopolyspora, Microbispora, Saccharopolyspora, and Actinoplanes genera, while culture independent group was established as Streptomyces (130 clones, 20 OTUs), Micromonospora (96 clones, 7 OTUs), Streptosporangium (79 clones, 9 OTUs), Thermomonospora (46 clones, 8 OTUs), and Dactylosporangium (58 clones, 8 OTUs). The diversity assessment using Shannon and Wiener index was found to be 1.55, 1.52, 1.55, and 1.49 from surface lake water, at depth of 1.5 m, shallow layer of water with algal population, and finally at depth of 2.5 m, respectively. We observed diversity in terms of the species richness as Streptomyces is dominant genus in both culture dependent and culture independent techniques followed by Microbispora (culture dependent methods) and Micromonospora (culture independent method) genera, respectively. PMID:24307879

  20. Isolation of Cognate Cellular and Viral Ribonucleoprotein Complexes of HIV-1 RNA Applicable to Proteomic Discovery and Molecular Investigations.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deepali; Boeras, Ioana; Singh, Gatikrushna; Boris-Lawrie, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    All decisions affecting the life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) RNA are executed by ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs). HIV-1 RNA cycles through a progression of host RNPs composed of RNA-binding proteins regulating all stages of synthesis, processing, nuclear transport, translation, decay, and co-localization with assembling virions. RNA affinity chromatography is a versatile method to identify RNA-binding proteins to investigate the molecular basis of viral and cellular posttranscriptional control of gene expression. The bait is a HIV-1 RNA motif immobilized on a solid support, typically magnetic or Sepharose beads. The prey is pre-formed RNPs admixed in lysate from cells or concentrated virus particles. The methodology distinguishes high-affinity RNA-protein interactions from low-affinity complexes by increases in ionic strength during progressive elution cycles. Here, we describe RNA affinity chromatography of the 5' untranslated region of HIV-1, obtaining mixtures of high-affinity RNA binding proteins suitable for mass spectrometry and proteome identification.

  1. Collagenase production and hemolytic activity related to 16S rRNA variability among Parvimonas micra oral isolates.

    PubMed

    Ota-Tsuzuki, Claudia; Alves Mayer, Marcia Pinto

    2010-02-01

    Parvimonas micra are gram positive anaerobic cocci isolated from the oral cavity and frequently related to polymicrobial infections in humans. Despite reports about phenotypic differences, the genotypic variation of P. micra and its role in virulence are still not elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypic diversity of P. micra isolates obtained from the subgingival biofilm of subjects with different periodontal conditions and to correlate these findings with phenotypic traits. Three reference strains and 35 isolates of P. micra were genotyped by 16S rRNA PCR-RFLP and phenotypic traits such as collagenase production, elastolytic and hemolytic activities were evaluated. 16S rRNA PCR-RFLP showed that P. micra could be grouped into two main clusters: C1 and C2; cluster C1 harbored three genotypes (HG1259-like, HG1467-like and ICBMO583-like) while cluster C2 harbored two genotypes (ATCC33270-like and ICBMO36). A wide variability in collagenolytic activity intensities was observed among all isolates, while elastolytic activity was detected in only two isolates. There was an association between hemolytic activity in rabbit erythrocytes and cluster C2. There was an association between hemolytic activity in rabbit erythrocytes and cluster C1. Although these data suggest a possible association between P. micra genetic diversity and their pathogenic potential, further investigations are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  2. Error baseline rates of five sample preparation methods used to characterize RNA virus populations.

    PubMed

    Kugelman, Jeffrey R; Wiley, Michael R; Nagle, Elyse R; Reyes, Daniel; Pfeffer, Brad P; Kuhn, Jens H; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Palacios, Gustavo F

    2017-01-01

    Individual RNA viruses typically occur as populations of genomes that differ slightly from each other due to mutations introduced by the error-prone viral polymerase. Understanding the variability of RNA virus genome populations is critical for understanding virus evolution because individual mutant genomes may gain evolutionary selective advantages and give rise to dominant subpopulations, possibly even leading to the emergence of viruses resistant to medical countermeasures. Reverse transcription of virus genome populations followed by next-generation sequencing is the only available method to characterize variation for RNA viruses. However, both steps may lead to the introduction of artificial mutations, thereby skewing the data. To better understand how such errors are introduced during sample preparation, we determined and compared error baseline rates of five different sample preparation methods by analyzing in vitro transcribed Ebola virus RNA from an artificial plasmid-based system. These methods included: shotgun sequencing from plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a basic "no amplification" method, amplicon sequencing from the plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a "targeted" amplification method, sequence-independent single-primer amplification (SISPA) as a "random" amplification method, rolling circle reverse transcription sequencing (CirSeq) as an advanced "no amplification" method, and Illumina TruSeq RNA Access as a "targeted" enrichment method. The measured error frequencies indicate that RNA Access offers the best tradeoff between sensitivity and sample preparation error (1.4-5) of all compared methods.

  3. Simple methods for the 3' biotinylation of RNA.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Bodo; Wahle, Elmar

    2014-03-01

    Biotinylation of RNA allows its tight coupling to streptavidin and is thus useful for many types of experiments, e.g., pull-downs. Here we describe three simple techniques for biotinylating the 3' ends of RNA molecules generated by chemical or enzymatic synthesis. First, extension with either the Schizosaccharomyces pombe noncanonical poly(A) polymerase Cid1 or Escherichia coli poly(A) polymerase and N6-biotin-ATP is simple, efficient, and generally applicable independently of the 3'-end sequences of the RNA molecule to be labeled. However, depending on the enzyme and the reaction conditions, several or many biotinylated nucleotides are incorporated. Second, conditions are reported under which splint-dependent ligation by T4 DNA ligase can be used to join biotinylated and, presumably, other chemically modified DNA oligonucleotides to RNA 3' ends even if these are heterogeneous as is typical for products of enzymatic synthesis. Third, we describe the use of 29 DNA polymerase for a template-directed fill-in reaction that uses biotin-dUTP and, thanks to the enzyme's proofreading activity, can cope with more extended 3' heterogeneities.

  4. RNA-Based Methods Increase the Detection of Fecal Bacteria and Fecal Identifiers in Environmental Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the use of qPCR RNA-based methods in the detection of fecal bacteria in environmental waters. We showed that RNA methods can increase the detection of fecal bacteria in multiple water matrices. The data suggest that this is a viable alternative for the detection of a...

  5. RNA-Based Methods Increase the Detection of Fecal Bacteria and Fecal Identifiers in Environmental Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the use of qPCR RNA-based methods in the detection of fecal bacteria in environmental waters. We showed that RNA methods can increase the detection of fecal bacteria in multiple water matrices. The data suggest that this is a viable alternative for the detection of a...

  6. Use of 16S rRNA Sequencing for Identification of Actinobacillus ureae Isolated from a Cerebrospinal Fluid Sample

    PubMed Central

    Whitelaw, A. C.; Shankland, I. M.; Elisha, B. G.

    2002-01-01

    Actinobacillus ureae, previously Pasteurella ureae, has on rare occasions been described as a cause of human infection. Owing to its rarity, it may not be easily identified in clinical microbiology laboratories by standard tests. This report describes a patient with acute bacterial meningitis due to A. ureae. The identity of the isolate was determined by means of DNA sequence analysis of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. PMID:11825992

  7. A method for whole protein isolation from human cranial bone.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Sarah M; Mayampurath, Anoop; Rogers, M Rose; Wolfgeher, Donald J; Fisher, Sean M; Volchenboum, Samuel L; He, Tong-Chuan; Reid, Russell R

    2016-12-15

    The presence of the dense hydroxyapatite matrix within human bone limits the applicability of conventional protocols for protein extraction. This has hindered the complete and accurate characterization of the human bone proteome thus far, leaving many bone-related disorders poorly understood. We sought to refine an existing method of protein extraction from mouse bone to extract whole proteins of varying molecular weights from human cranial bone. Whole protein was extracted from human cranial suture by mechanically processing samples using a method that limits protein degradation by minimizing heat introduction to proteins. The presence of whole protein was confirmed by western blotting. Mass spectrometry was used to sequence peptides and identify isolated proteins. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003215. Extracted proteins were characterized as both intra- and extracellular and had molecular weights ranging from 9.4 to 629 kDa. High correlation scores among suture protein spectral counts support the reproducibility of the method. Ontology analytics revealed proteins of myriad functions including mediators of metabolic processes and cell organelles. These results demonstrate a reproducible method for isolation of whole protein from human cranial bone, representing a large range of molecular weights, origins and functions.

  8. A mitochondrial tRNA aspartate mutation causing isolated mitochondrial myopathy.

    PubMed

    Seneca, Sara; Goemans, Nathalie; Van Coster, Rudy; Givron, Patrice; Reybrouck, Tony; Sciot, Raf; Meulemans, Ann; Smet, Joel; Van Hove, Johan L K

    2005-08-30

    Several mutations in mitochondrial transfer RNA (tRNA) genes can cause mitochondrial myopathy. We describe a young girl who presented with pronounced exercise intolerance. The anaerobic threshold and the maximal oxygen consumption were decreased. She had decreased complex I and IV enzyme activity and ragged red fibers on muscle biopsy. An A to G transition at nucleotide position 7526 in tRNA Aspartate (tRNA(Asp)) gene was heteroplasmic in several of the patient's tissues. We were unable to detect the mutation in muscle tissue from the patient's mother. This case adds a new genetic etiology for mitochondrial myopathy. It also illustrates for patients with combined deficiency of the complex I and IV enzyme activity the value of sequencing in the affected tissue muscle, and not only in blood, all mitochondrial tRNA genes including those not commonly affected, such as in this case mt tRNA(Asp).

  9. Complete ecological isolation and cryptic diversity in Polynucleobacter bacteria not resolved by 16S rRNA gene sequences

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Martin W; Jezberová, Jitka; Koll, Ulrike; Saueressig-Beck, Tanja; Schmidt, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation experiments and genome comparisons were used to determine if lineages of planktonic Polynucleobacter almost indistinguishable by their 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences differ distinctively in their ecophysiological and genomic traits. The results of three transplantation experiments differing in complexity of biotic interactions revealed complete ecological isolation between some of the lineages. This pattern fits well to the previously detected environmental distribution of lineages along chemical gradients, as well as to differences in gene content putatively providing adaptation to chemically distinct habitats. Patterns of distribution of iron transporter genes across 209 Polynucleobacter strains obtained from freshwater systems and representing a broad pH spectrum further emphasize differences in habitat-specific adaptations. Genome comparisons of six strains sharing ⩾99% 16S rRNA similarities suggested that each strain represents a distinct species. Comparison of sequence diversity among genomes with sequence diversity among 240 cultivated Polynucleobacter strains indicated a large cryptic species complex not resolvable by 16S rRNA sequences. The revealed ecological isolation and cryptic diversity in Polynucleobacter bacteria is crucial in the interpretation of diversity studies on freshwater bacterioplankton based on ribosomal sequences. PMID:26943621

  10. A magnetic micropore chip for rapid (<1 hour) unbiased circulating tumor cell isolation and in situ RNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jina; Bhagwat, Neha; Yee, Stephanie S; Black, Taylor; Redlinger, Colleen; Romeo, Janae; O'Hara, Mark; Raj, Arjun; Carpenter, Erica L; Stanger, Ben Z; Issadore, David

    2017-09-12

    The use of microtechnology for the highly selective isolation and sensitive detection of circulating tumor cells has shown enormous promise. One challenge for this technology is that the small feature sizes - which are the key to this technology's performance - can result in low sample throughput and susceptibility to clogging. Additionally, conventional molecular analysis of CTCs often requires cells to be taken off-chip for sample preparation and purification before analysis, leading to the loss of rare cells. To address these challenges, we have developed a microchip platform that combines fast, magnetic micropore based negative immunomagnetic selection (>10 mL h(-1)) with rapid on-chip in situ RNA profiling (>100× faster than conventional RNA labeling). This integrated chip can isolate both rare circulating cells and cell clusters directly from whole blood and allow individual cells to be profiled for multiple RNA cancer biomarkers, achieving sample-to-answer in less than 1 hour for 10 mL of whole blood. To demonstrate the power of this approach, we applied our device to the circulating tumor cell based diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. We used a genetically engineered lineage-labeled mouse model of pancreatic cancer (KPCY) to validate the performance of our chip. We show that in a cohort of patient samples (N = 25) that this device can detect and perform in situ RNA analysis on circulating tumor cells in patients with pancreatic cancer, even in those with extremely sparse CTCs (<1 CTC mL(-1) of whole blood).

  11. Sequencing of variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene for identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from the intestinal microbiota of healthy salmonids.

    PubMed

    Balcázar, José Luis; de Blas, Ignacio; Ruiz-Zarzuela, Imanol; Vendrell, Daniel; Gironés, Olivia; Muzquiz, José Luis

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Thirteen LAB strains were isolated from the intestinal microbiota of healthy salmonids. A approximately 500-bp region of the highly conserved 16S rRNA gene was PCR-amplified and following this, a portion of the amplicon (272-bp) including the V1 and V2 variable regions was sequenced. The sequence containing both the V1 and V2 region provided strong evidence for the identification of LAB. The LAB strains were identified as Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The method described was found to be a very simple, rapid, specific, and low-cost tool for the identification of unknown strains of LAB.

  12. Characterisation by molecular hybridization of RNA fragments isolated from ancient (1400 B.C.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Rollo, F

    1985-12-01

    The analysis of cress seeds from Thebes dated approximately 1400 years B.C. showed that fragments of RNA up to 10 bases in length were still present in the ancient seeds. After having been made radioactive at the 5'OH terminus, the RNA fragments were used as probes in a spot hybridization experiment. They were shown to hybridize to cress DNA and, to a lesser extent, to that of phylogenetically distant species. When fixed onto nitrocellulose and probed with different cloned genes, the RNA fragments were shown to originate from breakage of the 25 and 18s cytoplasmic rRNA.

  13. An alternate method for DNA and RNA extraction from clotted blood.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Z; Umi, S H; Mokhtar, S S; Mokhtar, U; Zaiharina, M Z; Aziz, A T A; Hoh, B P

    2013-02-04

    We developed an alternative method to extract DNA and RNA from clotted blood for genomic and molecular investigations. A combination of the TRIzol method and the QIAamp spin column were used to extract RNA from frozen clotted blood. Clotted blood was sonicated and then the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit was used for DNA extraction. Extracted DNA and RNA were adequate for gene expression analysis and copy number variation (CNV) genotyping, respectively. The purity of the extracted RNA and DNA was in the range of 1.8-2.0, determined by absorbance ratios of A(260):A(280). Good DNA and RNA integrity were confirmed using gel electrophoresis and automated electrophoresis. The extracted DNA was suitable for qPCR and microarrays for CNV genotyping, while the extracted RNA was adequate for gene analysis using RT-qPCR.

  14. Lupin protein isolate versus casein modifies cholesterol excretion and mRNA expression of intestinal sterol transporters in a pig model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lupin proteins exert hypocholesterolemic effects in man and animals, although the underlying mechanism remains uncertain. Herein we investigated whether lupin proteins compared to casein modulate sterol excretion and mRNA expression of intestinal sterol transporters by use of pigs as an animal model with similar lipid metabolism as humans, and cellular cholesterol-uptake by Caco-2 cells. Methods Two groups of pigs were fed cholesterol-containing diets with either 230 g/kg of lupin protein isolate from L. angustifolius or 230 g/kg casein, for 4 weeks. Faeces were collected quantitatively over a 5 d period for analysis of neutral sterols and bile acids by gas chromatographically methods. The mRNA abundances of intestinal lipid transporters were analysed by real-time RT-PCR. Cholesterol-uptake studies were performed with Caco-2 cells that were incubated with lupin conglutin γ, phytate, ezetimibe or albumin in the presence of labelled [4-14C]-cholesterol. Results Pigs fed the lupin protein isolate revealed lower cholesterol concentrations in total plasma, LDL and HDL than pigs fed casein (P < 0.05). Analysis of faeces revealed a higher output of cholesterol in pigs that were fed lupin protein isolate compared to pigs that received casein (+57.1%; P < 0.05). Relative mRNA concentrations of intestinal sterol transporters involved in cholesterol absorption (Niemann-Pick C1-like 1, scavenger receptor class B, type 1) were lower in pigs fed lupin protein isolate than in those who received casein (P < 0.05). In vitro data showed that phytate was capable of reducing the uptake of labelled [4-14C]-cholesterol into the Caco-2 cells to the same extend as ezetimibe when compared to control (−20.5% vs. −21.1%; P < 0.05). Conclusions Data reveal that the cholesterol-lowering effect of lupin protein isolate is attributable to an increased faecal output of cholesterol and a reduced intestinal uptake of cholesterol. The findings indicate phytate as a

  15. A Tool Preference Choice Method for RNA Secondary Structure Prediction by SVM with Statistical Tests

    PubMed Central

    Hor, Chiou-Yi; Yang, Chang-Biau; Chang, Chia-Hung; Tseng, Chiou-Ting; Chen, Hung-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    The Prediction of RNA secondary structures has drawn much attention from both biologists and computer scientists. Many useful tools have been developed for this purpose. These tools have their individual strengths and weaknesses. As a result, based on support vector machines (SVM), we propose a tool choice method which integrates three prediction tools: pknotsRG, RNAStructure, and NUPACK. Our method first extracts features from the target RNA sequence, and adopts two information-theoretic feature selection methods for feature ranking. We propose a method to combine feature selection and classifier fusion in an incremental manner. Our test data set contains 720 RNA sequences, where 225 pseudoknotted RNA sequences are obtained from PseudoBase, and 495 nested RNA sequences are obtained from RNA SSTRAND. The method serves as a preprocessing way in analyzing RNA sequences before the RNA secondary structure prediction tools are employed. In addition, the performance of various configurations is subject to statistical tests to examine their significance. The best base-pair accuracy achieved is 75.5%, which is obtained by the proposed incremental method, and is significantly higher than 68.8%, which is associated with the best predictor, pknotsRG. PMID:23641141

  16. Comparative analysis of RNA sequencing methods for degraded or low-input samples.

    PubMed

    Adiconis, Xian; Borges-Rivera, Diego; Satija, Rahul; DeLuca, David S; Busby, Michele A; Berlin, Aaron M; Sivachenko, Andrey; Thompson, Dawn Anne; Wysoker, Alec; Fennell, Timothy; Gnirke, Andreas; Pochet, Nathalie; Regev, Aviv; Levin, Joshua Z

    2013-07-01

    RNA-seq is an effective method for studying the transcriptome, but it can be difficult to apply to scarce or degraded RNA from fixed clinical samples, rare cell populations or cadavers. Recent studies have proposed several methods for RNA-seq of low-quality and/or low-quantity samples, but the relative merits of these methods have not been systematically analyzed. Here we compare five such methods using metrics relevant to transcriptome annotation, transcript discovery and gene expression. Using a single human RNA sample, we constructed and sequenced ten libraries with these methods and compared them against two control libraries. We found that the RNase H method performed best for chemically fragmented, low-quality RNA, and we confirmed this through analysis of actual degraded samples. RNase H can even effectively replace oligo(dT)-based methods for standard RNA-seq. SMART and NuGEN had distinct strengths for measuring low-quantity RNA. Our analysis allows biologists to select the most suitable methods and provides a benchmark for future method development.

  17. RNA-seq mixology: designing realistic control experiments to compare protocols and analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Holik, Aliaksei Z; Law, Charity W; Liu, Ruijie; Wang, Zeya; Wang, Wenyi; Ahn, Jaeil; Asselin-Labat, Marie-Liesse; Smyth, Gordon K; Ritchie, Matthew E

    2017-03-17

    Carefully designed control experiments provide a gold standard for benchmarking different genomics research tools. A shortcoming of many gene expression control studies is that replication involves profiling the same reference RNA sample multiple times. This leads to low, pure technical noise that is atypical of regular studies. To achieve a more realistic noise structure, we generated a RNA-sequencing mixture experiment using two cell lines of the same cancer type. Variability was added by extracting RNA from independent cell cultures and degrading particular samples. The systematic gene expression changes induced by this design allowed benchmarking of different library preparation kits (standard poly-A versus total RNA with Ribozero depletion) and analysis pipelines. Data generated using the total RNA kit had more signal for introns and various RNA classes (ncRNA, snRNA, snoRNA) and less variability after degradation. For differential expression analysis, voom with quality weights marginally outperformed other popular methods, while for differential splicing, DEXSeq was simultaneously the most sensitive and the most inconsistent method. For sample deconvolution analysis, DeMix outperformed IsoPure convincingly. Our RNA-sequencing data set provides a valuable resource for benchmarking different protocols and data pre-processing workflows. The extra noise mimics routine lab experiments more closely, ensuring any conclusions are widely applicable. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. RNA-seq mixology: designing realistic control experiments to compare protocols and analysis methods

    PubMed Central

    Holik, Aliaksei Z.; Law, Charity W.; Liu, Ruijie; Wang, Zeya; Wang, Wenyi; Ahn, Jaeil; Asselin-Labat, Marie-Liesse; Smyth, Gordon K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Carefully designed control experiments provide a gold standard for benchmarking different genomics research tools. A shortcoming of many gene expression control studies is that replication involves profiling the same reference RNA sample multiple times. This leads to low, pure technical noise that is atypical of regular studies. To achieve a more realistic noise structure, we generated a RNA-sequencing mixture experiment using two cell lines of the same cancer type. Variability was added by extracting RNA from independent cell cultures and degrading particular samples. The systematic gene expression changes induced by this design allowed benchmarking of different library preparation kits (standard poly-A versus total RNA with Ribozero depletion) and analysis pipelines. Data generated using the total RNA kit had more signal for introns and various RNA classes (ncRNA, snRNA, snoRNA) and less variability after degradation. For differential expression analysis, voom with quality weights marginally outperformed other popular methods, while for differential splicing, DEXSeq was simultaneously the most sensitive and the most inconsistent method. For sample deconvolution analysis, DeMix outperformed IsoPure convincingly. Our RNA-sequencing data set provides a valuable resource for benchmarking different protocols and data pre-processing workflows. The extra noise mimics routine lab experiments more closely, ensuring any conclusions are widely applicable. PMID:27899618

  19. A nonalkaline method for isolating sequencing-ready plasmids.

    PubMed

    Paul, Bonnie; Cloninger, Cheri; Felton, Marilyn; Khachatoorian, Ronik; Metzenberg, Stan

    2008-06-15

    We describe a simple method of isolating plasmid DNA directly from Escherichia coli culture medium by addition of lithium acetate and Sodium dodecyl sulphate, followed by centrifugation and alcohol precipitation. The plasmid is sufficiently pure that it can be used in many enzyme-based reactions, including DNA sequencing and restriction analysis. Chromosomal DNA contamination is significantly reduced by pretreatment of the culture with DNase I, suggesting that much of the contaminant is associated with permeable dead cells. Chromosomal DNA contaminant can also be selectively denatured without damage to the supercoiled plasmid by alkaline denaturation in an arginine buffer or heat treatment in the presence of urea or N,N-dimethylformamide.

  20. Genotypic heterogeneity based on 18S-rRNA gene sequences among Acanthamoeba isolates from clinical samples in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Cave, David; D' Alfonso, Rossella; Dussey Comlavi, Kodjo A; D' Orazi, Carlo; Monno, Rosa; Berrilli, Federica

    2014-11-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is an ocular disease caused by members of a genus of free-living amoebae and it is associated predominantly with contact lens (CL) use. This study reports 55 cases of AK diagnosed in Italy. Genotype identification was carried out by PCR assay followed by sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene using the genus specific primers JDP1 and JDP2. Genotype assignment was based on phenetic analysis of the ASA.S1 subset of the small-subunit rRNA gene sequences. The material has been collected at the Polyclinic Tor Vergata of Rome for a total of 19 isolates and at the Polyclinic Hospital of Bari (36 isolates). Thirty-three out of the 55 genetically characterized isolates were assigned to the genotype T4. Ten isolates were identified as belonging to the genotype T15 thus confirming the first association between the genotype T15 and human amoebic keratitis previously described from the same area. We underline the occurrence of the genotype T3 and T11 identified for the first time in the country. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Comparison of MALDI-TOF and 16S rRNA methods in identification of viridans group streptococci].

    PubMed

    Süzük Yıldız, Serap; Kaşkatepe, Banu; Altınok, Salih; Çetin, Mustafa; Karagöz, Alper; Savaş, Sümeyra

    2017-01-01

    Accurate identification of viridans group streptococci (VGS) frequently encountered as a causative agent of infective endocarditis is always a challenge for the clinical microbiology laboratory. Clinical microbiology laboratories generally use semi automatic/full automatic systems, molecular methods and also conventional methods for the identification of these bacteria. There are recent published studies that have used MALDI-TOF (Matrix Assisted Laser Ionization Mass Spectrometry-Time of Flight) systems in the identification of VGS. The aim of the study was to compare the performance of the conventional methods, semi automatic and MALDI-TOF MS system used in identification of VGS in oral microbiota of persons under the risk of infective endocarditis, with the gold standard method 16S rRNA sequence analysis and to create a diagnosis algorithm for the identification of VGS in clinical microbiology laboratories according to the obtained data.The study was conducted with 51 VGS strains isolated from oral microbiota of the patients with rheumatologic cardiac, valve and/or prosthetic valve diseases, under the risk of development of infective endocarditis, who have admitted to Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Department of Cardiology, between February-June 2015. Standard microbiology procedures, optochin susceptibility and bile solubility tests were done for the isolation of bacteria. Bacteria were also identified with APISTREP (bioMérieux, France) and MALDI-TOF MS Bruker Microflex (Bruker Biotyper; Bruker Daltonics, Bremen, Germany) methods. BSF-8 (5´-AGAGTTTGATCCTGGCTCAG-3´) and BSR-534(5´-ATTACCGCGGCTGCTGGC-3´) primers were used in the 16S rRNA sequence analysis of bacteria. ABI PRISM 3100 Avan t Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biossytems, Foster City, CA, USA) were used for the sequence analysis. Electropherograms were analyzed in SeqScape Software (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) and compared with the reference sequences in GenBank with BLASTN

  2. Comprehensive comparative analysis of RNA sequencing methods for degraded or low input samples

    PubMed Central

    Adiconis, Xian; Borges-Rivera, Diego; Satija, Rahul; DeLuca, David S.; Busby, Michele A.; Berlin, Aaron M.; Sivachenko, Andrey; Thompson, Dawn Anne; Wysoker, Alec; Fennell, Timothy; Gnirke, Andreas; Pochet, Nathalie; Regev, Aviv; Levin, Joshua Z.

    2013-01-01

    RNA-Seq is an effective method to study the transcriptome, but can be difficult to apply to scarce or degraded RNA from fixed clinical samples, rare cell populations, or cadavers. Recent studies have proposed several methods for RNA-Seq of low quality and/or low quantity samples, but their relative merits have not been systematically analyzed. Here, we compare five such methods using metrics relevant to transcriptome annotation, transcript discovery, and gene expression. Using a single human RNA sample, we constructed and sequenced ten libraries with these methods and two control libraries. We find that the RNase H method performed best for low quality RNA, and confirmed this with actual degraded samples. RNase H can even effectively replace oligo (dT) based methods for standard RNA-Seq. SMART and NuGEN had distinct strengths for low quantity RNA. Our analysis allows biologists to select the most suitable methods and provides a benchmark for future method development. PMID:23685885

  3. Prediction of MicroRNA-Disease Associations Based on Social Network Analysis Methods.

    PubMed

    Zou, Quan; Li, Jinjin; Hong, Qingqi; Lin, Ziyu; Wu, Yun; Shi, Hua; Ju, Ying

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs constitute an important class of noncoding, single-stranded, ~22 nucleotide long RNA molecules encoded by endogenous genes. They play an important role in regulating gene transcription and the regulation of normal development. MicroRNAs can be associated with disease; however, only a few microRNA-disease associations have been confirmed by traditional experimental approaches. We introduce two methods to predict microRNA-disease association. The first method, KATZ, focuses on integrating the social network analysis method with machine learning and is based on networks derived from known microRNA-disease associations, disease-disease associations, and microRNA-microRNA associations. The other method, CATAPULT, is a supervised machine learning method. We applied the two methods to 242 known microRNA-disease associations and evaluated their performance using leave-one-out cross-validation and 3-fold cross-validation. Experiments proved that our methods outperformed the state-of-the-art methods.

  4. Prediction of MicroRNA-Disease Associations Based on Social Network Analysis Methods

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Quan; Li, Jinjin; Hong, Qingqi; Lin, Ziyu; Wu, Yun; Shi, Hua; Ju, Ying

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs constitute an important class of noncoding, single-stranded, ~22 nucleotide long RNA molecules encoded by endogenous genes. They play an important role in regulating gene transcription and the regulation of normal development. MicroRNAs can be associated with disease; however, only a few microRNA-disease associations have been confirmed by traditional experimental approaches. We introduce two methods to predict microRNA-disease association. The first method, KATZ, focuses on integrating the social network analysis method with machine learning and is based on networks derived from known microRNA-disease associations, disease-disease associations, and microRNA-microRNA associations. The other method, CATAPULT, is a supervised machine learning method. We applied the two methods to 242 known microRNA-disease associations and evaluated their performance using leave-one-out cross-validation and 3-fold cross-validation. Experiments proved that our methods outperformed the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26273645

  5. Isolation and properties of an RNA fraction present in Brucella culture supernatants.

    PubMed Central

    Corbel, M. J.; Brewer, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The supernatant fluids of batch and continuous cultures of Brucella strains contained up to 100 mg/l of soluble RNA which could be recovered by precipitation with lysozyme, This RNA fraction had many of the properties of ribosomal RNA and was single-stranded, sensitive to ribonuclease, with an approximate sedimentation constant of 5S, a molecular weight of about 35000 daltons and an adenine; guanine; cytosine; uracil content of 17.5; 26.5; 33; 23 mol% respectively. RNA fractions from lysozyme precipitates evoked high titres of Brucella agglutinins on injection into rabbits and induced acute inflammatory responses in guinea-pig skin. Highly purified RNA fractions prepared by phenol extraction of lysozyme precipitates did not evoke antibodies to Brucella abortus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6153668

  6. Isolation of a 5S RNA-Protein Complex from Mammalian Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Blobel, Günter

    1971-01-01

    5S RNA is removed from the large ribosomal subunit of both rat liver and rabbit reticulocyte ribosomes by treatment with EDTA to remove magnesium ions. The RNA is removed not as a naked molecule, but in association with a single ribosomal protein (molecular weight about 35,000) as a ribonucleoprotein, sedimenting at about 7 S. Conditions for the exclusive removal of the 5S RNA-protein complex have been established. Both ribosomal subunits undergo distinct changes in their sedimentation rate, concomitant with the loss of their biological activity, when sedimented into sucrose gradients containing high concentrations of monovalent ions and low concentrations of magnesium. Under these conditions the large subunit loses 5S RNA, the 5S RNA-associated protein, and several more proteins. Images PMID:5001943

  7. New computational methods reveal tRNA identity element divergence between Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Freyhult, Eva; Cui, Yuanyuan; Nilsson, Olle; Ardell, David H

    2007-10-01

    There are at least 21 subfunctional classes of tRNAs in most cells that, despite a very highly conserved and compact common structure, must interact specifically with different cliques of proteins or cause grave organismal consequences. Protein recognition of specific tRNA substrates is achieved in part through class-restricted tRNA features called tRNA identity determinants. In earlier work we used TFAM, a statistical classifier of tRNA function, to show evidence of unexpectedly large diversity among bacteria in tRNA identity determinants. We also created a data reduction technique called function logos to visualize identity determinants for a given taxon. Here we show evidence that determinants for lysylated isoleucine tRNAs are not the same in Proteobacteria as in other bacterial groups including the Cyanobacteria. Consistent with this, the lysylating biosynthetic enzyme TilS lacks a C-terminal domain in Cyanobacteria that is present in Proteobacteria. We present here, using function logos, a map estimating all potential identity determinants generally operational in Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria. To further isolate the differences in potential tRNA identity determinants between Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria, we created two new data reduction visualizations to contrast sequence and function logos between two taxa. One, called Information Difference logos (ID logos), shows the evolutionary gain or retention of functional information associated to features in one lineage. The other, Kullback-Leibler divergence Difference logos (KLD logos), shows recruitments or shifts in the functional associations of features, especially those informative in both lineages. We used these new logos to specifically isolate and visualize the differences in potential tRNA identity determinants between Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria. Our graphical results point to numerous differences in potential tRNA identity determinants between these groups. Although more differences in

  8. Method for investigating nursing behaviors related to isolation care.

    PubMed

    Beam, Elizabeth L; Gibbs, Shawn G; Hewlett, Angela L; Iwen, Peter C; Nuss, Suzanne L; Smith, Philip W

    2014-11-01

    Although an emphasis has been placed on protecting patients by improving health care worker compliance with infection control techniques, challenges associated with patient isolation do exist. To address these issues, a more consistent mechanism to evaluate specific clinical behaviors safely is needed. The research method described in this study used a high fidelity simulation using a live standardized patient recorded by small cameras. Immediately after the simulation experience, nurses were asked to view and comment on their performance. A demographic survey and a video recorded physical evaluation provided participant description. A questionnaire component 1 month after the simulation experience offered insight into the timing of behavior change in clinical practice. Errors in behaviors related to donning and doffing equipment for isolation care were noted among the nurses in the study despite knowing they were being video recorded. This simulation-based approach to clinical behavior analysis provided rich data on patient care delivery. Standard educational techniques have not led to ideal compliance, and this study demonstrated the potential for using video feedback to enhance learning and ultimately reduce behaviors, which routinely increase the likelihood of disease transmission. This educational research method could be applied to many complicated clinical skills. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Highly purified spermatozoal RNA obtained by a novel method indicates an unusual 28S/18S rRNA ratio and suggests impaired ribosome assembly.

    PubMed

    Cappallo-Obermann, Heike; Schulze, Wolfgang; Jastrow, Holger; Baukloh, Vera; Spiess, Andrej-Nikolai

    2011-11-01

    Human spermatozoal RNA features special characteristics such as a significantly reduced quantity within spermatozoa compared with somatic cells is described as being devoid of ribosomal RNAs and is difficult to isolate due to a massive excess of genomic DNA in the lysates. Using a novel two-round column-based protocol for human ejaculates delivering highly purified spermatozoal RNA, we uncovered a heterogeneous, but specific banding pattern in microelectrophoresis with 28S ribosomal RNA being indicative for the amount of round cell contamination. Ejaculates with different round cell quantities and density-purified spermatozoa revealed that 18S rRNA but not 28S rRNA is inherent to a pure spermatozoal fraction. Transmission electron microscopy showed monoribosomes and polyribosomes in spermatozoal cytoplasm, while immunohistochemical results suggest the presence of proteins from small and large ribosomal subunits in retained spermatozoal cytoplasm irrespective of 28S rRNA absence.

  10. An efficient method for purifying high quality RNA from wheat pistils.

    PubMed

    Manickavelu, A; Kambara, Kumiko; Mishina, Kohei; Koba, Takato

    2007-02-15

    Many methods are available for total RNA extraction from plants, except the floral organs like wheat pistils containing high levels of polysaccharides that bind/or co-precipitate with RNA. In this protocol, a simple and effective method for extracting total RNA from small and feathery wheat pistils has been developed. Lithium chloride (LiCl) and phenol:chloroform:isoamylalcohol (PCI) were employed and the samples were ground in microcentrifuge tube using plastic pestle. A jacket of liquid nitrogen and simplified procedures were applied to ensure thorough grinding of the pistils and to minimize the samples loss. These measures substantially increased the recovery of total RNA (approximately 50%) in the extraction process. Reliable differential display by cDNA-AFLP was successfully achieved with the total RNA after DNase treatment and reverse transcription. This method is also practicable for gene expression and gene regulation studies in floral parts of other plants.

  11. Method for localizing and isolating an errant process step

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth W.; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Ferrell, Regina K.

    2003-01-01

    A method for localizing and isolating an errant process includes the steps of retrieving from a defect image database a selection of images each image having image content similar to image content extracted from a query image depicting a defect, each image in the selection having corresponding defect characterization data. A conditional probability distribution of the defect having occurred in a particular process step is derived from the defect characterization data. A process step as a highest probable source of the defect according to the derived conditional probability distribution is then identified. A method for process step defect identification includes the steps of characterizing anomalies in a product, the anomalies detected by an imaging system. A query image of a product defect is then acquired. A particular characterized anomaly is then correlated with the query image. An errant process step is then associated with the correlated image.

  12. An efficient and high fidelity method for amplification, cloning and sequencing of complete tospovirus genomic RNA segments.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Spencer H; Adegbola, Raphael O; Adkins, Scott; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2017-04-01

    Tospoviruses (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) are responsible for major losses in an extensive range of crops worldwide. New species of these single-stranded, ambisense RNA viruses regularly emerge and have been shown to maintain heterogeneous populations with individual isolates having quite variable biological and virulence characteristics. Most tospovirus phylogenetic studies have focused on analysis of a single gene, most often the nucleocapsid protein gene. Complete genomic RNA segment amplification as a single fragment would facilitate more detailed analyses of genome-wide sequence variability, but obtaining such sequences for a large number of tospovirus isolates using traditional methods of amplification and cloning of small overlapping fragments is tedious, time consuming and expensive. In this study, protocols were optimized to amplify, clone and sequence full-length M- and S-RNA genome segments of Tomato spotted wilt virus and Impatiens necrotic spot virus. The strategy presented here is straightforward, scalable and offers several advantages over the previously commonplace and overlapping amplicon-based approach. Use of whole genome segments, instead of individual gene sequences or defined portions of genome segments, will facilitate a better understanding of the underlying molecular diversity of tospoviruses in mixed infections.

  13. Next-Generation Sequencing of RNA and DNA Isolated from Paired Fresh-Frozen and Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Samples of Human Cancer and Normal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Hedegaard, Jakob; Thorsen, Kasper; Lund, Mette Katrine; Hein, Anne-Mette K.; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen Jacques; Vang, Søren; Nordentoft, Iver; Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Hager, Henrik; Knudsen, Bjarne; Andersen, Claus Lindbjerg; Sørensen, Karina Dalsgaard; Pedersen, Jakob Skou; Ørntoft, Torben Falck; Dyrskjøt, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are an invaluable resource for clinical research. However, nucleic acids extracted from FFPE tissues are fragmented and chemically modified making them challenging to use in molecular studies. We analysed 23 fresh-frozen (FF), 35 FFPE and 38 paired FF/FFPE specimens, representing six different human tissue types (bladder, prostate and colon carcinoma; liver and colon normal tissue; reactive tonsil) in order to examine the potential use of FFPE samples in next-generation sequencing (NGS) based retrospective and prospective clinical studies. Two methods for DNA and three methods for RNA extraction from FFPE tissues were compared and were found to affect nucleic acid quantity and quality. DNA and RNA from selected FFPE and paired FF/FFPE specimens were used for exome and transcriptome analysis. Preparations of DNA Exome-Seq libraries was more challenging (29.5% success) than that of RNA-Seq libraries, presumably because of modifications to FFPE tissue-derived DNA. Libraries could still be prepared from RNA isolated from two-decade old FFPE tissues. Data were analysed using the CLC Bio Genomics Workbench and revealed systematic differences between FF and FFPE tissue-derived nucleic acid libraries. In spite of this, pairwise analysis of DNA Exome-Seq data showed concordance for 70–80% of variants in FF and FFPE samples stored for fewer than three years. RNA-Seq data showed high correlation of expression profiles in FF/FFPE pairs (Pearson Correlations of 0.90 +/- 0.05), irrespective of storage time (up to 244 months) and tissue type. A common set of 1,494 genes was identified with expression profiles that were significantly different between paired FF and FFPE samples irrespective of tissue type. Our results are promising and suggest that NGS can be used to study FFPE specimens in both prospective and retrospective archive-based studies in which FF specimens are not available. PMID:24878701

  14. Next-generation sequencing of RNA and DNA isolated from paired fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of human cancer and normal tissue.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, Jakob; Thorsen, Kasper; Lund, Mette Katrine; Hein, Anne-Mette K; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen Jacques; Vang, Søren; Nordentoft, Iver; Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Hager, Henrik; Knudsen, Bjarne; Andersen, Claus Lindbjerg; Sørensen, Karina Dalsgaard; Pedersen, Jakob Skou; Ørntoft, Torben Falck; Dyrskjøt, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are an invaluable resource for clinical research. However, nucleic acids extracted from FFPE tissues are fragmented and chemically modified making them challenging to use in molecular studies. We analysed 23 fresh-frozen (FF), 35 FFPE and 38 paired FF/FFPE specimens, representing six different human tissue types (bladder, prostate and colon carcinoma; liver and colon normal tissue; reactive tonsil) in order to examine the potential use of FFPE samples in next-generation sequencing (NGS) based retrospective and prospective clinical studies. Two methods for DNA and three methods for RNA extraction from FFPE tissues were compared and were found to affect nucleic acid quantity and quality. DNA and RNA from selected FFPE and paired FF/FFPE specimens were used for exome and transcriptome analysis. Preparations of DNA Exome-Seq libraries was more challenging (29.5% success) than that of RNA-Seq libraries, presumably because of modifications to FFPE tissue-derived DNA. Libraries could still be prepared from RNA isolated from two-decade old FFPE tissues. Data were analysed using the CLC Bio Genomics Workbench and revealed systematic differences between FF and FFPE tissue-derived nucleic acid libraries. In spite of this, pairwise analysis of DNA Exome-Seq data showed concordance for 70-80% of variants in FF and FFPE samples stored for fewer than three years. RNA-Seq data showed high correlation of expression profiles in FF/FFPE pairs (Pearson Correlations of 0.90 +/- 0.05), irrespective of storage time (up to 244 months) and tissue type. A common set of 1,494 genes was identified with expression profiles that were significantly different between paired FF and FFPE samples irrespective of tissue type. Our results are promising and suggest that NGS can be used to study FFPE specimens in both prospective and retrospective archive-based studies in which FF specimens are not available.

  15. Rehydration conditions for isolation of high quality RNA from the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The poikilohydric nature of lichens enables them to survive repeated episodes of desiccation by utilizing water when it becomes available. During rehydration, RNA-degrading endonucleases may be released, reducing RNA quantity and quality. Re-generation of a steady-state condition where RNA quantity and quality no longer fluctuate establishes a framework for development of new hypotheses for future investigations. Using Lobaria pulmonaria as a model species, the objective of this study was to compare the effect of different rehydration conditions on the quantity and quality of RNA from the rehydrated thallus. Findings Spectrophotometric measurements of total RNA and cDNA were performed for samples prepared from dry lichen or lichen after rehydration (0.5 h, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h or 24 h), with limited light and dark conditions, and at three temperatures (15°C, 20°C or 32°C) for some of these conditions. The results showed that rehydration of the thallus for 4 h at 20°C in light yielded the highest concentration and quality of RNA. A higher RNA concentration was obtained in light than in dark conditions, but the RNA quality was unaffected. Conclusions This study suggests that allowance of 4 h for thallus rehydration should be adequate to ensure complete recovery of transcription. After 4 h at 20°C further studies can be carried out on the RNA in this model species. PMID:25011382

  16. An efficient RNA extraction method for estimating gut microbial diversity by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seungha; Denman, Stuart E; Morrison, Mark; Yu, Zhongtang; McSweeney, Chris S

    2009-05-01

    An extraction method was developed to recover high-quality RNA from rumen digesta and mouse feces for phylogenetic analysis of metabolically active members of the gut microbial community. Four extraction methods were tested on different amounts of the same samples and compared for efficiency of recovery and purity of RNA. Trizol extraction after bead beating produced a higher quantity and quality of RNA than a similar method using phenol/chloroform. Dissociation solution produced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in RNA recovery compared with phosphate-buffered saline during the dissociation of microorganisms from rumen digesta or fecal particles. The identity of metabolically active bacteria in the samples was analyzed by sequencing 87 amplicons produced using bacteria-specific 16S rDNA primers, with cDNA synthesized from the extracted RNA as the template. Amplicons representing the major phyla encountered in the rumen (Firmicutes, 43.7%; Proteobacteria, 28.7%; Bacteroidetes, 25.3%; Spirochea, 1.1%, and Synergistes, 1.1%) were recovered, showing that development of the RNA extraction method enables RNA-based analysis of metabolically active bacterial groups from the rumen and other environments. Interestingly, in rumen samples, about 30% of the sequenced random 16S rRNA amplicons were related to the Proteobacteria, providing the first evidence that this group may have greater importance in rumen metabolism than previously attributed by DNA-based analysis.

  17. Recent patents in RNA silencing in plants: constructs, methods and applications in plant biotechnology.

    PubMed

    López-Gomollón, Sara; Dalmay, Tamas

    2010-11-01

    RNA silencing is a recently discovered mechanism to regulate gene expression at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. It is based on the recognition and methylation of target genes or cleavage of target mRNAs by small RNA molecules, with length varying from 21 to 24 nucleotides. RNA silencing plays an important role modulating most of the important cell processes, such as growth, development or stress response. During the past few years, diverse strategies have been applied to exploit RNA silencing as a tool to create plants with enhanced economical properties or able to cope with pathogens or abiotic stress. This review describes the most important patents related to RNA silencing in plants, which disclose vectors designed to induce RNA silencing by hairpin RNAs, amplicons or virus-based plasmids, methods for detection and quantification of silencing as well as general uses in plant biotechnology.

  18. Differential amplicons (ΔAmp)—a new molecular method to assess RNA integrity

    PubMed Central

    Björkman, J.; Švec, D.; Lott, E.; Kubista, M.; Sjöback, R.

    2015-01-01

    Integrity of the mRNA in clinical samples has major impact on the quality of measured expression levels. This is independent of the measurement technique being next generation sequencing (NGS), Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) or microarray profiling. If mRNA is highly degraded or damaged, measured data will be very unreliable and the whole study is likely a waste of time and money. It is therefore common strategy to test the quality of RNA in samples before conducting large and costly studies. Most methods today to assess the quality of RNA are ignorant to the nature of the RNA and, therefore, reflect the integrity of ribosomal RNA, which is the dominant species, rather than of mRNAs, microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs, which usually are the species of interest. Here, we present a novel molecular approach to assess the quality of the targeted RNA species by measuring the differential amplification (ΔAmp) of an Endogenous RNase Resistant (ERR) marker relative to a reference gene, optionally combined with the measurement of two amplicons of different lengths. The combination reveals any mRNA degradation caused by ribonucleases as well as physical, chemical or UV damage. ΔAmp has superior sensitivity to common microfluidic electrophoretic methods, senses the integrity of the actual targeted RNA species, and allows for a smoother and more cost efficient workflow. PMID:27077042

  19. Preparation of SiO2 nanowires from rice husks by hydrothermal method and the RNA purification performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Meiyan; Cao, Jianping; Meng, Xing; Liu, Yangsi; Ke, Wei; Wang, Jialiang; Sun, Ling

    2016-10-01

    In this study, SiO2 nanowires were prepared by using rice husks as silicon source via a hydrothermal method. The microstructure, thermal stability and morphology of SiO2 nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscope. SiO2 nanowires with a diameter of 30-100 nm were obtained and the formation mechanism of SiO2 nanowires during the hydrothermal reaction was proposed. The SiO2 nanowires were introduced into membrane spin columns to isolate RNA and the values of A260/280 and A260/230 were 2.0-2.1 and 1.8-2.0, respectively, which shows the SiO2 nanowires were effective for RNA purification.

  20. Development of a RAPD-PCR method for identification of Bacillus species isolated from Cheonggukjang.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Gun-Hee; Lee, Hwang-A; Park, Jae-Young; Kim, Jong Sang; Lim, Jinkyu; Park, Cheon-Seok; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Yong-Suk; Kim, Jeong Hwan

    2009-02-28

    A RAPD-PCR (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR) method was developed for rapid identification of Bacillus species, especially B. subtilis, B. licheniformis, and B. amyloliquefaciens, the most frequently isolated organisms from fermented soy foods such as Cheonggukjang, a Korean traditional food. A RAPD-PCR using a 10-mer (S-30) produced species specific bands reproducibly. All B. subtilis strains tested produced common bands of 0.5 and 0.88 kb in size. All B. amyloliquefaciens strains generated 1.1 and 1.5 kb bands together with 0.5 kb fragment whereas B. licheniformis strains produced 1.25, 1.70, and 1.9 kb bands with an occasional 0.5 kb band. Using the RAPD-PCR protocol, six bacilli strains isolated from Cheonggukjang were identified to the species level, which was difficult by 16S rRNA gene and recA gene sequencing for some isolates. The 0.5 kb fragment, the major band for B. subtilis strains, was an internal part of a ytcP gene encoding a hypothetical ABC-type transporter. A B. subtilis species specific primer pair was designed based on ytcP sequences and PCR using the primer pair produced a 0.46 kb fragment only from B. subtilis strains.

  1. Analysis of 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer regions in Pasteurellaceae isolated from laboratory rodents.

    PubMed

    Benga, Laurentiu; Benten, W Peter M; Engelhardt, Eva; Christensen, Henrik; Sager, Martin

    2012-09-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of members of Pasteurellaceae isolated from rodents, including the [Pasteurella] pneumotropica biotypes Jawetz and Heyl, [Actinobacillus] muris, "Hemophilus influenzaemurium" and Bisgaard taxon 17 were studied and their feasibility to discriminate these species was analyzed. The reference strains of all species analyzed showed unique species-specific ITS patterns which were further present in 49 clinical isolates of [P.] pneumotropica biotypes Jawetz and Heyl and [A.] muris allowing their identification by comparison to the reference strains pattern. Sequence analysis of the amplified fragments revealed in all species, with exception of "H. influenzaemurium", a larger ITS(ile+ala) which contained the genes for tRNA(Ile(GAU)) and tRNA(Ala(UGC)) and a smaller ITS(glu) with the tRNA(Glu(UUC)) gene. "H. influenzaemurium" revealed two each of the larger and respectively the smaller ITS fragments. Both the length and the sequence of each ITS type were highly conserved within the [P.] pneumotropica biotypes Jawetz and Heyl and [A.] muris strains tested. On the contrary, ITS sequences revealed significant interspecies variations with identity levels ranging from 61.2 to 89.5% for ITS(ile+ala) and 56.5 to 86.8% for ITS(glu). Sequences regions with significant interspecies variation but highly conserved within the species were identified and might be used to design probes for the identification of rodent Pasteurellaceae to the species level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. ADVANCED SEISMIC BASE ISOLATION METHODS FOR MODULAR REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    E. Blanford; E. Keldrauk; M. Laufer; M. Mieler; J. Wei; B. Stojadinovic; P.F. Peterson

    2010-09-20

    Advanced technologies for structural design and construction have the potential for major impact not only on nuclear power plant construction time and cost, but also on the design process and on the safety, security and reliability of next generation of nuclear power plants. In future Generation IV (Gen IV) reactors, structural and seismic design should be much more closely integrated with the design of nuclear and industrial safety systems, physical security systems, and international safeguards systems. Overall reliability will be increased, through the use of replaceable and modular equipment, and through design to facilitate on-line monitoring, in-service inspection, maintenance, replacement, and decommissioning. Economics will also receive high design priority, through integrated engineering efforts to optimize building arrangements to minimize building heights and footprints. Finally, the licensing approach will be transformed by becoming increasingly performance based and technology neutral, using best-estimate simulation methods with uncertainty and margin quantification. In this context, two structural engineering technologies, seismic base isolation and modular steel-plate/concrete composite structural walls, are investigated. These technologies have major potential to (1) enable standardized reactor designs to be deployed across a wider range of sites, (2) reduce the impact of uncertainties related to site-specific seismic conditions, and (3) alleviate reactor equipment qualification requirements. For Gen IV reactors the potential for deliberate crashes of large aircraft must also be considered in design. This report concludes that base-isolated structures should be decoupled from the reactor external event exclusion system. As an example, a scoping analysis is performed for a rectangular, decoupled external event shell designed as a grillage. This report also reviews modular construction technology, particularly steel-plate/concrete construction using

  3. Optimal device and method for transportation of isolated porcine islet.

    PubMed

    Kim, T-S; Lee, H-S; Oh, S-H; Moon, H; Lee, S; Song, S; Shin, M; Park, J B; Kim, S-J; Joh, J-W; Lee, S-K

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the optimal method for transportation of isolated porcine islets from an isolation facility to a transplant hospital or research center in terms of temperature, oxygen supply, and shaking effect. Commercially available insulator boxes with thermoregulators exposed for 5 hours under two external temperatures (4°C and 37°C) were monitored using HOBO temperature loggers. To find the optimal transport device, we compared islet counts, viability, quality, and function in conical tubes, gas-permeable bags (GPB) and gas-permeable flasks (GPF) after 1, 3 and 5 hours. To evaluate the effects of shaking on islets, we also analyzed the difference between a control and a shaking group in each device with time. Commercially available Styrofoam insulators with thermoregulators maintained the internal temperature near the target. Islet recovery rate for GPF, which was higher than other devices, was maintained, while those decreased with time for conical tube and GPB containers adenosine diphosphate/adenosine triphosphate (ADP/ATP) ratio for GPF was lower than other devices, albeit not significantly fluoroscein acrimide/propidium iodide (AO/PI) ratio for GPF was higher than other devices after 5 hours. Glucose stimulated index was not different among the devices. In comparison with the control group, shaking yielded comparable islet survival, viability and function. Our study demonstrated that the use of commercially available insulator boxes with thermoregulators maintained internal temperature close to the target value and that GPF was more favorable for islet oxygenation during transportation. This study also suggested negligible impact of shaking on isolated porcine islets during transportation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental evaluation of sand fly collection and storage methods for the isolation and molecular detection of Phlebotomus-borne viruses.

    PubMed

    Remoli, Maria Elena; Bongiorno, Gioia; Fortuna, Claudia; Marchi, Antonella; Bianchi, Riccardo; Khoury, Cristina; Ciufolini, Maria Grazia; Gramiccia, Marina

    2015-11-09

    Several viruses have been recently isolated from Mediterranean phlebotomine sand flies; some are known to cause human disease while some are new to science. To monitor the Phlebotomus-borne viruses spreading, field studies are in progress using different sand fly collection and storage methods. Two main sampling techniques consist of CDC light traps, an attraction method allowing collection of live insects in which the virus is presumed to be fairly preserved, and sticky traps, an interception method suitable to collect dead specimens in high numbers, with a risk for virus viability or integrity. Sand flies storage requires a "deep cold chain" or specimen preservation in ethanol. In the present study the influence of sand fly collection and storage methods on viral isolation and RNA detection performances was evaluated experimentally. Specimens of laboratory-reared Phlebotomus perniciosus were artificially fed with blood containing Toscana virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus). Various collection and storage conditions of blood-fed females were evaluated to mimic field procedures using single and pool samples. Isolation on VERO cell cultures, quantitative Real time-Retro-transcriptase (RT)-PCR and Nested-RT-PCR were performed according to techniques commonly used in surveillance studies. Live engorged sand flies stored immediately at -80 °C were the most suitable sample for phlebovirus identification by both virus isolation and RNA detection. The viral isolation rate remained very high (26/28) for single dead engorged females frozen after 1 day, while it was moderate (10/30) for specimens collected by sticky traps maintained up to 3 days at room temperature and then stored frozen without ethanol. Opposed to viral isolation, molecular RNA detection kept very high on dead sand flies collected by sticky traps when left at room temperature up to 6 days post blood meal and then stored frozen in presence (88/95) or absence (87/88) of ethanol. Data were

  5. Identification of Bacillus Probiotics Isolated from Soil Rhizosphere Using 16S rRNA, recA, rpoB Gene Sequencing and RAPD-PCR.

    PubMed

    Mohkam, Milad; Nezafat, Navid; Berenjian, Aydin; Mobasher, Mohammad Ali; Ghasemi, Younes

    2016-03-01

    Some Bacillus species, especially Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus groups, have highly similar 16S rRNA gene sequences, which are hard to identify based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. To conquer this drawback, rpoB, recA sequence analysis along with randomly amplified polymorphic (RAPD) fingerprinting was examined as an alternative method for differentiating Bacillus species. The 16S rRNA, rpoB and recA genes were amplified via a polymerase chain reaction using their specific primers. The resulted PCR amplicons were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was employed by MEGA 6 software. Identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing was underpinned by rpoB and recA gene sequencing as well as RAPD-PCR technique. Subsequently, concatenation and phylogenetic analysis showed that extent of diversity and similarity were better obtained by rpoB and recA primers, which are also reinforced by RAPD-PCR methods. However, in one case, these approaches failed to identify one isolate, which in combination with the phenotypical method offsets this issue. Overall, RAPD fingerprinting, rpoB and recA along with concatenated genes sequence analysis discriminated closely related Bacillus species, which highlights the significance of the multigenic method in more precisely distinguishing Bacillus strains. This research emphasizes the benefit of RAPD fingerprinting, rpoB and recA sequence analysis superior to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis for suitable and effective identification of Bacillus species as recommended for probiotic products.

  6. Genome sequence analysis of five Canadian isolates of strawberry mottle virus reveals extensive intra-species diversity and a longer RNA2 with increased coding capacity compared to a previously characterized European isolate.

    PubMed

    Bhagwat, Basdeo; Dickison, Virginia; Ding, Xinlun; Walker, Melanie; Bernardy, Michael; Bouthillier, Michel; Creelman, Alexa; DeYoung, Robyn; Li, Yinzi; Nie, Xianzhou; Wang, Aiming; Xiang, Yu; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we report the genome sequence of five isolates of strawberry mottle virus (family Secoviridae, order Picornavirales) from strawberry field samples with decline symptoms collected in Eastern Canada. The Canadian isolates differed from the previously characterized European isolate 1134 in that they had a longer RNA2, resulting in a 239-amino-acid extension of the C-terminal region of the polyprotein. Sequence analysis suggests that reassortment and recombination occurred among the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Canadian isolates are diverse, grouping in two separate branches along with isolates from Europe and the Americas.

  7. Effect of RNA Integrity Determined With the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer on Bacterial RNA Quantification with RT-PCR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    RNA integrity is critical for successful RNA quantification. The level of integrity required differs among sources and extraction procedures and has not been determined for bacterial RNA. Three RNA isolation methods were evaluated for their ability to produce high quality RNA from D. dadantii. The i...

  8. Numerical integration methods and layout improvements in the context of dynamic RNA visualization.

    PubMed

    Shabash, Boris; Wiese, Kay C

    2017-05-30

    RNA visualization software tools have traditionally presented a static visualization of RNA molecules with limited ability for users to interact with the resulting image once it is complete. Only a few tools allowed for dynamic structures. One such tool is jViz.RNA. Currently, jViz.RNA employs a unique method for the creation of the RNA molecule layout by mapping the RNA nucleotides into vertexes in a graph, which we call the detailed graph, and then utilizes a Newtonian mechanics inspired system of forces to calculate a layout for the RNA molecule. The work presented here focuses on improvements to jViz.RNA that allow the drawing of RNA secondary structures according to common drawing conventions, as well as dramatic run-time performance improvements. This is done first by presenting an alternative method for mapping the RNA molecule into a graph, which we call the compressed graph, and then employing advanced numerical integration methods for the compressed graph representation. Comparing the compressed graph and detailed graph implementations, we find that the compressed graph produces results more consistent with RNA drawing conventions. However, we also find that employing the compressed graph method requires a more sophisticated initial layout to produce visualizations that would require minimal user interference. Comparing the two numerical integration methods demonstrates the higher stability of the Backward Euler method, and its resulting ability to handle much larger time steps, a high priority feature for any software which entails user interaction. The work in this manuscript presents the preferred use of compressed graphs to detailed ones, as well as the advantages of employing the Backward Euler method over the Forward Euler method. These improvements produce more stable as well as visually aesthetic representations of the RNA secondary structures. The results presented demonstrate that both the compressed graph representation, as well as the Backward

  9. Computational methods toward accurate RNA structure prediction using coarse-grained and all-atom models.

    PubMed

    Krokhotin, Andrey; Dokholyan, Nikolay V

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods can provide significant insights into RNA structure and dynamics, bridging the gap in our understanding of the relationship between structure and biological function. Simulations enrich and enhance our understanding of data derived on the bench, as well as provide feasible alternatives to costly or technically challenging experiments. Coarse-grained computational models of RNA are especially important in this regard, as they allow analysis of events occurring in timescales relevant to RNA biological function, which are inaccessible through experimental methods alone. We have developed a three-bead coarse-grained model of RNA for discrete molecular dynamics simulations. This model is efficient in de novo prediction of short RNA tertiary structure, starting from RNA primary sequences of less than 50 nucleotides. To complement this model, we have incorporated additional base-pairing constraints and have developed a bias potential reliant on data obtained from hydroxyl probing experiments that guide RNA folding to its correct state. By introducing experimentally derived constraints to our computer simulations, we are able to make reliable predictions of RNA tertiary structures up to a few hundred nucleotides. Our refined model exemplifies a valuable benefit achieved through integration of computation and experimental methods.

  10. Molecular Methods for Identification of Acinetobacter Species by Partial Sequencing of the rpoB and 16S rRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Azar Dokht; Shahraki, Abdolrazagh Hashemi; Heidarieh, Parvin; Sheikhi, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Background Acinetobacter spp. is a diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria which are ubiquitous in soil and water, and an important cause of nosocomial infections. The purpose of this study was to identify a collection of Acinetobacter spp. clinical isolates accurately and to investigate their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Materials and Methods A total of 197 non-duplicate clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. isolates identified using conventional biochemical tests. The molecular technique of PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis of rpoB and 16S rRNA genes was applied for species identification. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed with a disk diffusion assay. Results Based on 16S rRNA and rpoB genes analysis separately, most of clinical isolates can be identified with high bootstrap values. However, the identity of the isolate 555T was uncertain due to high similarity of A. grimontii and A. junii. Identification by concatenation of 16S rRNA and rpoB confirmed the identity of clinical isolates of Acenitobacer to species level confidently. Accordingly, the isolate 555T assigned as A. grimontii due to 100% similarity to A. grimontii. Moreover, this isolate showed 98.64% to A. junii. Besides, the identity of the isolates 218T and 364T was confirmed as Genomic species 3 and A. calcoaceticus respectively. So, the majority of Acinetobacter spp. isolates, were identified as: A. baumannii (131 isolates, 66%), A. calcoaceticus (9 isolates, 4.5%), and A. genomosp 16 (8 isolates, 4%). The rest of identified species showed the lower frequencies. In susceptibility test, 105 isolates (53%), presented high antibiotic resistance of 90% to ceftriaxone, piperacillin, piperacillin tazobactam, amikacin, and 81% to ciprofloxacin. Conclusion Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and rpoB spacer simultaneously was able to do identification of Acinetobacter spp. to species level. A.baumannii was identified as the most prevalent species with high antibiotic resistance. Other

  11. Isolation and purification method of mouse fetal hepatoblasts.

    PubMed

    Gailhouste, Luc

    2012-01-01

    During development, liver precursors constitute a valuable source of pluripotent stem cells that present the ability to differentiate into both a hepatic and biliary lineage. In the present chapter, we report an experimental procedure developed by our group to isolate mouse fetal hepatoblasts (MFHs) with high purity. The method is based on a selective harvesting of the hepatic parenchymal cells from fetuses (E 14.5), followed by the sorting of E-cadherin(+) progenitors through the use of magnetic beads and specific antibodies. This protocol allows the isolation of bipotent liver stem cells expressing both hepatic and biliary markers. Primary cultures of purified MFHs can be maintained under proliferation until confluence, leading to promotion of the differentiation process in the presence of hepatotrophic factors. By using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction approach, we show the hepatospecific phenotype and the progressive maturation of MFHs, delineating early (α-fetoprotein), mid (albumin), and late (glucose-6-phosphatase) hepatic markers. Consequently, the model appears to be a valuable cell system for the study of molecular and cellular aspects occurring in hepatic differentiation.

  12. Illustration of a fingerprinting method to isolate Gold King ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Detecting the Gold King Mine metals as the release plume passed was difficult once it entered the San Juan River on August 8, 2015. Plume metals concentrations were relatively low after 200 km of travel and deposition in the Animas River while background concentrations of the same metals were high due to high sediment load in the San Juan River. A metal fingerprinting technique was used to isolate metals in the Gold King release from background using the measured concentrations of the 23 TAL metals (Metal/Cynaide Target Analyte List) available with most water samples. The method associates the concentration of trace metals to that of aluminum or iron as representative of the dominant metals in the geologic substrate. Metal concentrations can be plotted together, as in Figure 1A, or the ratio can be computed for each sample for use as a value, such as plotted in time in Figure 1B. The correlation technique allowed maximum use of typically available water sample data to isolate Gold King metals as contaminants within the varying background concentrations associated with the natural sediments of the San Juan River. To be presented at the New Mexico Water Institute Symposium, 2nd Annual Conference on Environmental Conditionsof the Animas and San Juan Watersheds with Emphasis on Gold King Mine and Other Mine Waste Issues.

  13. Differential pattern of Xist RNA accumulation in single blastomeres isolated from 8-cell stage mouse embryos following laser zona drilling.

    PubMed

    Hartshorn, Cristina; Rice, John E; Wangh, Lawrence J

    2003-01-01

    Xist gene expression begins at the late 2-cell stage in female mouse embryos and by the third division results in the accumulation of an average 100 copies of Xist RNA per cell, as measured by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the blastocyst, the trophectoderm maintains the paternally imprinted pattern of Xist expression present during early development, while either the maternal or the paternal X chromosome can express Xist among cells of the inner mass. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) has previously established that Xist transcripts are localized on the silenced X chromosome, forming aggregates of variable dimensions in blastomeres of 8-cell embryos. This observation and the fact that Xist RNA accumulation per cell sharply decreases after morula stage raise the possibility that cells of cleaving embryos contain different levels of Xist RNA, perhaps linked to their subsequent developmental fates. We show here that Xist RNA is efficiently recovered from single blastomeres isolated from 8-cell embryos following laser zona drilling. Sexing of the samples and simultaneous quantification of Xist RNA in individual cells is achieved with a multiplex Xist/Sry real-time RT-PCR assay sensitive to the single-copy level. This analysis reveals that Xist RNA is indeed accumulated to substantially different levels in individual blastomeres of the same 8-cell embryo and that two blastomeres contain most of the molecules per embryo. These results support the conclusion that cells of the early mammalian embryo are not all functionally equivalent. Differential Xist gene expression could arise from differences in DNA methylation, or the order in which cells divide. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Evolutionary and phenotypic analysis of live virus isolates suggests arthropod origin of a pathogenic RNA virus family

    PubMed Central

    Marklewitz, Marco; Zirkel, Florian; Kurth, Andreas; Drosten, Christian; Junglen, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary origins of arboviruses are unknown because their typical dual host tropism is paraphyletic within viral families. Here we studied one of the most diversified and medically relevant RNA virus families, the Bunyaviridae, in which four of five established genera are transmitted by arthropods. We define two cardinally novel bunyavirus groups based on live isolation of 26 viral strains from mosquitoes (Jonchet virus [JONV], eight strains; Ferak virus [FERV], 18 strains). Both viruses were incapable of replicating at vertebrate-typical temperatures but replicated efficiently in insect cells. Replication involved formation of virion-sense RNA (vRNA) and mRNA, including cap-snatching activity. SDS/PAGE, mass spectrometry, and Edman degradation identified translation products corresponding to virion-associated RNA-dependent RNA polymerase protein (RdRp), glycoprotein precursor protein, glycoproteins Gn and Gc, as well as putative nonstructural proteins NSs and NSm. Distinct virion morphologies suggested ancient evolutionary divergence, with bunyavirus-typical morphology for FERV (spheres of 60–120 nm) as opposed to an unusual bimorphology for JONV (tubular virions of 60 × 600 nm and spheres of 80 nm). Both viruses were genetically equidistant from all other bunyaviruses, showing <15% amino acid identity in the RdRp palm domain. Both had different and unique conserved genome termini, as in separate bunyavirus genera. JONV and FERV define two novel sister taxons to the superclade of orthobunyaviruses, tospoviruses, and hantaviruses. Phylogenetic ancestral state reconstruction with probabilistic hypothesis testing suggested ancestral associations with arthropods at deep nodes throughout the bunyavirus tree. Our findings suggest an arthropod origin of bunyaviruses. PMID:26038576

  15. Simple method of isolating humic acids from organic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, O.

    2009-04-01

    Humic substances particularly humic acids (HA) play a major role in soil conditioning e.g. erosion control, soil cation exchange capacity, complexation of heavy metal ions and pesticides, carbon and nitrogen cycles, plant growth and reduction of ammonia volatilization from urea. Humified substances such as coal, composts, and peat soils have substantial amounts of HA but the isolation of these acids is expensive, laborious, and time consuming. Factors that affect the quality and yield of HA isolated from these materials include extraction, fractionation, and purification periods. This work developed a simple, rapid, and cost effective method of isolating HA from peat soils. There was a quadratic relationship between extraction period and HA yield. Optimum extraction period was estimated at 4 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 48 h. There was no relationship between fractionation period and HA yield. As such 2 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 24 h fractionation period could be considered optimum. Low ash content (5%), remarkable reduction in K, coupled with the fact that organic C, E4/E6, carboxylic COOH, phenolic OH, and total acidity values of the HA were consistent with those reported by other authors suggest that the HA dealt with were free from mineral matter. This was possible because the distilled water used to purify the HA served as Bronsted-Lowry acid during the purification process of the HA. Optimum purification period using distilled waster was 1 h instead of the usual range of 1 and 7 days (uses HF and HCl and dialysis). Humic acids could be isolated from tropical peat soils within 7 h (i.e. 4 h extraction, 2 h fractionation, and 1 h purification) instead of the existing period of 2 and 7 days. This could facilitate the idea of producing organic fertilizers such as ammonium-humate and potassium-humate from humified substances since techniques devised in this study did not alter the true nature of the HA. Besides, the technique is rapid, simple

  16. Simple method of isolating humic acids from organic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, O. H.; Susilawati, K.; Nik Muhamad, A. B.; Khanif, M. Y.

    2009-04-01

    Humic substances particularly humic acids (HA) play a major role in soil conditioning e.g. erosion control, soil cation exchange capacity, complexation of heavy metal ions and pesticides, carbon and nitrogen cycles, plant growth and reduction of ammonia volatilization from urea. Humified substances such as coal, composts, and peat soils have substantial amounts of HA but the isolation of these acids is expensive, laborious, and time consuming. Factors that affect the quality and yield of HA isolated from these materials include extraction, fractionation, and purification periods. This work developed a simple, rapid, and cost effective method of isolating HA from peat soils. There was a quadratic relationship between extraction period and HA yield. Optimum extraction period was estimated at 4 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 48 h. There was no relationship between fractionation period and HA yield. As such 2 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 24 h fractionation period could be considered optimum. Low ash content (5%), remarkable reduction in K, coupled with the fact that organic C, E4/E6, carboxylic COOH, phenolic OH, and total acidity values of the HA were consistent with those reported by other authors suggest that the HA dealt with were free from mineral matter. This was possible because the distilled water used to purify the HA served as Bronsted-Lowry acid during the purification process of the HA. Optimum purification period using distilled waster was 1 h instead of the usual range of 1 and 7 days (uses HF and HCl and dialysis). Humic acids could be isolated from tropical peat soils within 7 h (i.e. 4 h extraction, 2 h fractionation, and 1 h purification) instead of the existing period of 2 and 7 days. This could facilitate the idea of producing organic fertilizers such as ammonium-humate and potassium-humate from humified substances since techniques devised in this study did not alter the true nature of the HA. Besides, the technique is rapid, simple

  17. A Meta-Path-Based Prediction Method for Human miRNA-Target Association

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cong; Ding, Pingjian

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that play important roles in regulating gene expressing, and the perturbed miRNAs are often associated with development and tumorigenesis as they have effects on their target mRNA. Predicting potential miRNA-target associations from multiple types of genomic data is a considerable problem in the bioinformatics research. However, most of the existing methods did not fully use the experimentally validated miRNA-mRNA interactions. Here, we developed RMLM and RMLMSe to predict the relationship between miRNAs and their targets. RMLM and RMLMSe are global approaches as they can reconstruct the missing associations for all the miRNA-target simultaneously and RMLMSe demonstrates that the integration of sequence information can improve the performance of RMLM. In RMLM, we use RM measure to evaluate different relatedness between miRNA and its target based on different meta-paths; logistic regression and MLE method are employed to estimate the weight of different meta-paths. In RMLMSe, sequence information is utilized to improve the performance of RMLM. Here, we carry on fivefold cross validation and pathway enrichment analysis to prove the performance of our methods. The fivefold experiments show that our methods have higher AUC scores compared with other methods and the integration of sequence information can improve the performance of miRNA-target association prediction. PMID:27703979

  18. Direct-methods structure determination of a trypanosome RNA-editing substrate fragment with translational pseudosymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Mooers, Blaine H. M.

    2016-03-24

    Using direct methods starting from random phases, the crystal structure of a 32-base-pair RNA (675 non-H RNA atoms in the asymmetric unit) was determined using only the native diffraction data (resolution limit 1.05 Å) and the computer programSIR2014. The almost three helical turns of the RNA in the asymmetric unit introduced partial or imperfect translational pseudosymmetry (TPS) that modulated the intensities when averaged by thelMiller indices but still escaped automated detection. Almost six times as many random phase sets had to be tested on average to reach a correct structure compared with a similar-sized RNA hairpin (27 nucleotides, 580 non-H RNA atoms) without TPS. Lastly, more sensitive methods are needed for the automated detection of partial TPS.

  19. Direct-methods structure determination of a trypanosome RNA-editing substrate fragment with translational pseudosymmetry

    DOE PAGES

    Mooers, Blaine H. M.

    2016-03-24

    Using direct methods starting from random phases, the crystal structure of a 32-base-pair RNA (675 non-H RNA atoms in the asymmetric unit) was determined using only the native diffraction data (resolution limit 1.05 Å) and the computer programSIR2014. The almost three helical turns of the RNA in the asymmetric unit introduced partial or imperfect translational pseudosymmetry (TPS) that modulated the intensities when averaged by thelMiller indices but still escaped automated detection. Almost six times as many random phase sets had to be tested on average to reach a correct structure compared with a similar-sized RNA hairpin (27 nucleotides, 580 non-Hmore » RNA atoms) without TPS. Lastly, more sensitive methods are needed for the automated detection of partial TPS.« less

  20. Direct-methods structure determination of a trypanosome RNA-editing substrate fragment with translational pseudosymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Mooers, Blaine H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Using direct methods starting from random phases, the crystal structure of a 32-base-pair RNA (675 non-H RNA atoms in the asymmetric unit) was determined using only the native diffraction data (resolution limit 1.05 Å) and the computer program SIR2014. The almost three helical turns of the RNA in the asymmetric unit introduced partial or imperfect translational pseudosymmetry (TPS) that modulated the intensities when averaged by the l Miller indices but still escaped automated detection. Almost six times as many random phase sets had to be tested on average to reach a correct structure compared with a similar-sized RNA hairpin (27 nucleotides, 580 non-H RNA atoms) without TPS. More sensitive methods are needed for the automated detection of partial TPS. PMID:27050127

  1. Phylogenetic relationships among Linguatula serrata isolates from Iran based on 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Ghorashi, Seyed Ali; Tavassoli, Mousa; Peters, Andrew; Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Hajipour, Naser

    2016-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among seven Linguatula serrata (L. serrata) isolates collected from cattle, goats, sheep, dogs and camels in different geographical locations of Iran were investigated using partial 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequences. The nucleotide sequences were analysed in order to determine the phylogenetic relationships between the isolates. Higher sequence diversity and intraspecies variation was observed in the cox1 gene compared to 18S rRNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the cox1 gene placed all L. serrata isolates in a sister clade to L. arctica. The Mantel regression analysis revealed no association between genetic variations and host species or geographical location, perhaps due to the small sample size. However, genetic variations between L. serrata isolates in Iran and those isolated in other parts of the world may exist and could reveal possible evolutionary relationships.

  2. Short Communication An efficient method for simultaneous extraction of high-quality RNA and DNA from various plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R R; Viana, A J C; Reátegui, A C E; Vincentz, M G A

    2015-12-29

    Determination of gene expression is an important tool to study biological processes and relies on the quality of the extracted RNA. Changes in gene expression profiles may be directly related to mutations in regulatory DNA sequences or alterations in DNA cytosine methylation, which is an epigenetic mark. Correlation of gene expression with DNA sequence or epigenetic mark polymorphism is often desirable; for this, a robust protocol to isolate high-quality RNA and DNA simultaneously from the same sample is required. Although commercial kits and protocols are available, they are mainly optimized for animal tissues and, in general, restricted to RNA or DNA extraction, not both. In the present study, we describe an efficient and accessible method to extract both RNA and DNA simultaneously from the same sample of various plant tissues, using small amounts of starting material. The protocol was efficient in the extraction of high-quality nucleic acids from several Arabidopsis thaliana tissues (e.g., leaf, inflorescence stem, flower, fruit, cotyledon, seedlings, root, and embryo) and from other tissues of non-model plants, such as Avicennia schaueriana (Acanthaceae), Theobroma cacao (Malvaceae), Paspalum notatum (Poaceae), and Sorghum bicolor (Poaceae). The obtained nucleic acids were used as templates for downstream analyses, such as mRNA sequencing, quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction, bisulfite treatment, and others; the results were comparable to those obtained with commercial kits. We believe that this protocol could be applied to a broad range of plant species, help avoid technical and sampling biases, and facilitate several RNA- and DNA-dependent analyses.

  3. Impact of preanalytical handling and timing for peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolation and RNA studies: the experience of the Interinstitutional Multidisciplinary BioBank (BioBIM).

    PubMed

    Palmirotta, Raffaele; De Marchis, Maria Laura; Ludovici, Giorgia; Leone, Barbara; Savonarola, Annalisa; Ialongo, Cristiano; Spila, Antonella; De Angelis, Francesco; Ferroni, Patrizia; Della-Morte, David; Guadagni, Fiorella

    2012-07-19

    Multicenter studies and biobanking projects require blood transportation from the participating center to a central collection or diagnostic laboratory. The impact of time delays between venous blood collection and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolation prior to RNA extraction may affect the quality and quantity of isolated nucleic acids for genomic applications. Thus, standard operating procedure (SOP) optimization for the treatment of biological samples before RNA extraction is crucial in a biological repository. In order to define SOPs for whole blood preservation prior to RNA extraction, we sought to determine whether different blood storage times (0, 3, 6, 10, 24, and 30 hours) prior to PBMCs isolation and storage at -80°C, could affect the quality and quantity of extracted RNA. After spectrophotometric quantification, the quality and integrity of RNA were assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis, RNA integrity number and real time-PCR (RT-PCR).
Across the different time points we did not observe significant differences within the first 24 hours of blood storage at room temperature, while a significant loss in RNA yield and integrity was detected between 24 and 30 hours. We conclude that time delays before PBMCs isolation prior to RNA extraction may have a significant impact on downstream molecular biological applications.

  4. Identification of virulence factors in 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer genotyped Staphylococcus aureus isolated from water buffaloes and small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Cremonesi, P; Zottola, T; Locatelli, C; Pollera, C; Castiglioni, B; Scaccabarozzi, L; Moroni, P

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human and animal pathogen, and is regarded as an important cause of intramammary infection (IMI) in ruminants. Staphylococcus aureus genetic variability and virulence factors have been well studied in veterinary medicine, especially in cows as support for control and management of IMI. The aim of the present study was to genotype 71 Staph. aureus isolates from the bulk tank and foremilk of water buffaloes (n=40) and from udder tissue (n=7) and foremilk (n=24) from small ruminants. The method used was previously applied to bovine Staph. aureus and is based on the amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. The technique applied was able to identify different Staph. aureus genotypes isolated from dairy species other than the bovine species, and cluster the genotypes according to species and herds. Virulence gene distribution was consistent with genotype differentiation. The isolates were also characterized through determination of the presence of 19 virulence-associated genes by specific PCR. Enterotoxins A, C, D, G, I, J, and L were associated with Staph. aureus isolates from buffaloes, whereas enterotoxins C and L were linked to small ruminants. Genes coding for methicillin resistance, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, exfoliative toxins A and B, and enterotoxins B, E, and H were undetected. These findings indicate that RNA template-specific PCR is a valid technique for typing Staph. aureus from buffaloes and small ruminants and is a useful tool for understanding udder infection epidemiology. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensitive and specific miRNA detection method using SplintR Ligase.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jingmin; Vaud, Sophie; Zhelkovsky, Alexander M; Posfai, Janos; McReynolds, Larry A

    2016-07-27

    We describe a simple, specific and sensitive microRNA (miRNA) detection method that utilizes Chlorella virus DNA ligase (SplintR(®) Ligase). This two-step method involves ligation of adjacent DNA oligonucleotides hybridized to a miRNA followed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). SplintR Ligase is 100X faster than either T4 DNA Ligase or T4 RNA Ligase 2 for RNA splinted DNA ligation. Only a 4-6 bp overlap between a DNA probe and miRNA was required for efficient ligation by SplintR Ligase. This property allows more flexibility in designing miRNA-specific ligation probes than methods that use reverse transcriptase for cDNA synthesis of miRNA. The qPCR SplintR ligation assay is sensitive; it can detect a few thousand molecules of miR-122. For miR-122 detection the SplintR qPCR assay, using a FAM labeled double quenched DNA probe, was at least 40× more sensitive than the TaqMan assay. The SplintR method, when coupled with NextGen sequencing, allowed multiplex detection of miRNAs from brain, kidney, testis and liver. The SplintR qPCR assay is specific; individual let-7 miRNAs that differ by one nucleotide are detected. The rapid kinetics and ability to ligate DNA probes hybridized to RNA with short complementary sequences makes SplintR Ligase a useful enzyme for miRNA detection. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Sensitive and specific miRNA detection method using SplintR Ligase

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jingmin; Vaud, Sophie; Zhelkovsky, Alexander M.; Posfai, Janos; McReynolds, Larry A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a simple, specific and sensitive microRNA (miRNA) detection method that utilizes Chlorella virus DNA ligase (SplintR® Ligase). This two-step method involves ligation of adjacent DNA oligonucleotides hybridized to a miRNA followed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). SplintR Ligase is 100X faster than either T4 DNA Ligase or T4 RNA Ligase 2 for RNA splinted DNA ligation. Only a 4–6 bp overlap between a DNA probe and miRNA was required for efficient ligation by SplintR Ligase. This property allows more flexibility in designing miRNA-specific ligation probes than methods that use reverse transcriptase for cDNA synthesis of miRNA. The qPCR SplintR ligation assay is sensitive; it can detect a few thousand molecules of miR-122. For miR-122 detection the SplintR qPCR assay, using a FAM labeled double quenched DNA probe, was at least 40× more sensitive than the TaqMan assay. The SplintR method, when coupled with NextGen sequencing, allowed multiplex detection of miRNAs from brain, kidney, testis and liver. The SplintR qPCR assay is specific; individual let-7 miRNAs that differ by one nucleotide are detected. The rapid kinetics and ability to ligate DNA probes hybridized to RNA with short complementary sequences makes SplintR Ligase a useful enzyme for miRNA detection. PMID:27154271

  7. A METHOD FOR DETERMINING TOTAL PROTEIN OF ISOLATED CELLULAR ELEMENTS AND CORRESPONDING TRITIUM RADIOACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Edward

    1968-01-01

    A method is described for the microanalysis of protein, obtained from isolated tissue elements, in the range of 500 µµg-500 mµg. The method entails solubilization of cellular protein with phosphoric acid and heat after extraction of acid-soluble compounds, lipids, and RNA. A procedure for the extraction and recovery of cellular RNA by the use of 40% trichloroacetic acid is presented. The solubilized protein, in the form of a microdroplet, is photomicrographed with monochromatic light at 230 mµ. Total density in the microdroplet is determined from calibrated photographic plates by microdensitometry, and is converted to protein mass by using an experimentally determined average specific absorbance value. A solubilized protein labeled with tritium can be recovered after photomicrography, combusted, and reduced to generate tritiated gas for high-efficiency tritium radiometry. Total protein was analyzed in (a) nerve cells of three different sizes from Deiters' nucleus of the rabbit; and the whole rod cell and rod cell nucleus of the rabbit retina. PMID:5664225

  8. Error baseline rates of five sample preparation methods used to characterize RNA virus populations

    PubMed Central

    Kugelman, Jeffrey R.; Wiley, Michael R.; Nagle, Elyse R.; Reyes, Daniel; Pfeffer, Brad P.; Kuhn, Jens H.; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Palacios, Gustavo F.

    2017-01-01

    Individual RNA viruses typically occur as populations of genomes that differ slightly from each other due to mutations introduced by the error-prone viral polymerase. Understanding the variability of RNA virus genome populations is critical for understanding virus evolution because individual mutant genomes may gain evolutionary selective advantages and give rise to dominant subpopulations, possibly even leading to the emergence of viruses resistant to medical countermeasures. Reverse transcription of virus genome populations followed by next-generation sequencing is the only available method to characterize variation for RNA viruses. However, both steps may lead to the introduction of artificial mutations, thereby skewing the data. To better understand how such errors are introduced during sample preparation, we determined and compared error baseline rates of five different sample preparation methods by analyzing in vitro transcribed Ebola virus RNA from an artificial plasmid-based system. These methods included: shotgun sequencing from plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a basic “no amplification” method, amplicon sequencing from the plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a “targeted” amplification method, sequence-independent single-primer amplification (SISPA) as a “random” amplification method, rolling circle reverse transcription sequencing (CirSeq) as an advanced “no amplification” method, and Illumina TruSeq RNA Access as a “targeted” enrichment method. The measured error frequencies indicate that RNA Access offers the best tradeoff between sensitivity and sample preparation error (1.4−5) of all compared methods. PMID:28182717

  9. Method for isolating two aquifers in a single borehole

    DOEpatents

    Burklund, P.W.

    1984-01-20

    A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole is disclosed. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and lower sections separated by a coupling collar, is lowered into the borehole. The borehole is grouted in the vicinity of the lower section of the casing. A borehole is then drilled through the grout plug and into a lower aquifer. After the lower aquifer is instrumented, the borehole is grouted back into the lower portion of the casing. Then the upper section of the casing is unscrewed via the coupling collar and removed from the borehole. Finally, instrumentation is added to the upper aquifer and the borehole is appropriately grouted. The coupling collar is designed to have upper right-hand screw threads and lower left-hand screw thread, whereby the sections of the casing can be readily separated.

  10. Method for isolating two aquifers in a single borehole

    DOEpatents

    Burklund, Patrick W.

    1985-10-22

    A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and lower sections separated by a coupling collar, is lowered into the borehole. The borehole is grouted in the vicinity of the lower section of the casing. A borehole is then drilled through the grout plug and into a lower aquifer. After the lower aquifer is instrumented, the borehole is grouted back into the lower portion of the casing. Then the upper section of the casing is unscrewed via the coupling collar and removed from the borehole. Finally, instrumentation is added to the upper aquifer and the borehole is appropriately grouted. The coupling collar is designed to have upper right-hand screw threads and lower left-hand screw thread, whereby the sections of the casing can be readily separated.

  11. A Method for Measuring RNA N6-methyladenosine Modifications in Cells and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao-Yung; Lin, Mei-Hsiu; Su, Hui-Ting

    2016-01-01

    N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) modifications of RNA are diverse and ubiquitous amongst eukaryotes. They occur in mRNA, rRNA, tRNA, and microRNA. Recent studies have revealed that these reversible RNA modifications affect RNA splicing, translation, degradation, and localization. Multiple physiological processes, like circadian rhythms, stem cell pluripotency, fibrosis, triglyceride metabolism, and obesity are also controlled by m6A modifications. Immunoprecipitation/sequencing, mass spectrometry, and modified northern blotting are some of the methods commonly employed to measure m6A modifications. Herein, we present a northeastern blotting technique for measuring m6A modifications. The current protocol provides good size separation of RNA, better accommodation and standardization for various experimental designs, and clear delineation of m6A modifications in various sources of RNA. While m6A modifications are known to have a crucial impact on human physiology relating to circadian rhythms and obesity, their roles in other (patho)physiological states are unclear. Therefore, investigations on m6A modifications have immense possibility to provide key insights into molecular physiology. PMID:28060253

  12. DNA and RNA Synthesis in Animal Cells in Culture--Methods for Use in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godsell, P. M.; Balls, M.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the experimental procedures used for detecting DNA and RNA synthesis in xenopus cells by autoradiography. The method described is suitable for senior high school laboratory classes or biology projects, if supervised by a teacher qualified to handle radioisotopes. (JR)

  13. DNA and RNA Synthesis in Animal Cells in Culture--Methods for Use in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godsell, P. M.; Balls, M.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the experimental procedures used for detecting DNA and RNA synthesis in xenopus cells by autoradiography. The method described is suitable for senior high school laboratory classes or biology projects, if supervised by a teacher qualified to handle radioisotopes. (JR)

  14. Isolation and identification methods of Rothia species in oral cavities.

    PubMed

    Tsuzukibashi, Osamu; Uchibori, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Taira; Umezawa, Koji; Mashimo, Chiho; Nambu, Takayuki; Saito, Masanori; Hashizume-Takizawa, Tomomi; Ochiai, Tomoko

    2017-03-01

    Rothia dentocariosa and Rothia mucilaginosa which are Gram-positive bacteria are part of the normal flora in the human oral cavity and pharynx. Furthermore, Rothia aeria, which was first isolated from air samples in the Russian space station Mir, is predicted to be an oral inhabitant. Immunocompromised patients are often infected by these organisms, leading to various systemic diseases. The involvement of these organisms in oral infections has attracted little attention, and their distribution in the oral cavity has not been fully clarified because of difficulties in accurately identifying these organisms. A suitable selective medium for oral Rothia species, including R. aeria, is necessary to assess the veritable prevalence of these organisms in the oral cavity. To examine the bacterial population in the oral cavity, a novel selective medium (ORSM) was developed for isolating oral Rothia species in this study. ORSM consists of tryptone, sodium gluconate, Lab-Lemco powder, sodium fluoride, neutral acriflavin, lincomycin, colistin, and agar. The average growth recovery of oral Rothia species on ORSM was 96.7% compared with that on BHI-Y agar. Growth of other representative oral bacteria, i.e. genera Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Neisseria, and Corynebacterium, was remarkably inhibited on the selective medium. PCR primers were designed based on partial sequences of the 16S rDNA genes of oral Rothia species. These primers reacted to each organism and did not react to other non-oral Rothia species or representative oral bacteria. These results indicated that these primers are useful for identifying oral Rothia species. A simple multiplex PCR procedure using these primers was a reliable method of identifying oral Rothia species. The proportion of oral Rothia species in saliva samples collected from 20 subjects was examined by culture method using ORSM. Rothia dentocariosa, Rothia mucilaginosa, and R. aeria accounted for 1.3%, 5.9%, and 0.8% of the total cultivable

  15. Transition mutations in the 23S rRNA of erythromycin-resistant isolates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Lucier, T S; Heitzman, K; Liu, S K; Hu, P C

    1995-01-01

    Erythromycin is the drug of choice for treatment of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections due to its susceptibility to low levels of this antibiotic. After exposure of susceptible strains to erythromycin in vitro and in vivo, mutants resistant to erythromycin and other macrolides were isolated. Their phenotypes have been characterized, but the genetic basis for resistance has never been determined. We isolated two resistant mutants (M129-ER1 and M129-ER2) by growing M. pneumoniae M129 on agar containing different amounts of erythromycin. In broth dilution tests both strains displayed resistance to high levels of several macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS) antibiotics. In binding studies, ribosomes isolated from the resistant strains exhibited significantly lower affinity for [14C]erythromycin than did ribosomes from the M129 parent strain. Sequencing of DNA amplified from the region of the 2S rRNA gene encoding domain V revealed an A-to-G transition in the central loop at position 2063 of M129-ER1 and a similar A-to-G transition at position 2064 in M129-ER2. Transitions at homologous locations in the 23S rRNA from other organisms have been shown to result in resistance to MLS antibiotics. Thus, MLS-like resistance can occur in M. pneumoniae as the result of point mutations in the 23S rRNA gene which reduce the affinity of these antibiotics for the ribosome. Since they involve only single-base changes, development of resistance to erythromycin in vivo by these mechanisms could be relatively frequent event. PMID:8593017

  16. Identification to the species level of Lactobacillus isolated in probiotic prospecting studies of human, animal or food origin by 16S-23S rRNA restriction profiling

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, João Luiz S; Mota, Rodrigo M; Horta, Maria F; Teixeira, Santuza MR; Neumann, Elisabeth; Nicoli, Jacques R; Nunes, Álvaro C

    2005-01-01

    Background The accurate identification of Lactobacillus and other co-isolated bacteria during microbial ecological studies of ecosystems such as the human or animal intestinal tracts and food products is a hard task by phenotypic methods requiring additional tests such as protein and/or lipids profiling. Results Bacteria isolated in different probiotic prospecting studies, using de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium (MRS), were typed at species level by PCR amplification of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers using universal primers that anneal within 16S and 23S genes, followed by restriction digestion analyses of PCR products. The set of enzymes chosen differentiates most species of Lactobacillus genus and also co-isolated bacteria such as Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Weissella, Staphylococcus, and Escherichia species. The in silico predictions of restriction patterns generated by the Lactobacillus shorter spacers digested with 11 restriction enzymes with 6 bp specificities allowed us to distinguish almost all isolates at the species level but not at the subspecies one. Simultaneous theoretical digestions of the three spacers (long, medium and short) with the same set of enzymes provided more complex patterns and allowed us to distinguish the species without purifying and cloning of PCR products. Conclusion Lactobacillus isolates and several other strains of bacteria co-isolated on MRS medium from gastrointestinal ecosystem and fermented food products could be identified using DNA fingerprints generated by restriction endonucleases. The methodology based on amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) is easier, faster and more accurate than the current methodologies based on fermentation profiles, used in most laboratories for the purpose of identification of these bacteria in different prospecting studies. PMID:15788104

  17. Identification of microRNA profile specific to cancer stem-like cells directly isolated from human larynx cancer specimens.

    PubMed

    Karatas, Omer Faruk; Suer, Ilknur; Yuceturk, Betul; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Oz, Buge; Guven, Gulgun; Cansiz, Harun; Creighton, Chad J; Ittmann, Michael; Ozen, Mustafa

    2016-11-05

    Emerging evidences proposed that microRNAs are associated with regulation of distinct physio-pathological processes including development of normal stem cells and carcinogenesis. In this study we aimed to investigate microRNA profile of cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) isolated form freshly resected larynx cancer (LCa) tissue samples. CD133 positive (CD133(+)) stem-like cells were isolated from freshly resected LCa tumor specimens. MicroRNA profile of 12 pair of CD133(+) and CD133(-) cells was determined using microRNA microarray and differential expressions of selvected microRNAs were validated by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). MicroRNA profiling of CD133(+) and CD133(-) LCa samples with microarray revealed that miR-26b, miR-203, miR-200c, and miR-363-3p were significantly downregulated and miR-1825 was upregulated in CD133(+) larynx CSLCs. qRT-PCR analysis in a total of 25 CD133(+)/CD133(-) sample pairs confirmed the altered expressions of these five microRNAs. Expressions of miR-26b, miR-200c, and miR-203 were significantly correlated with miR-363-3p, miR-203, and miR-363-3p expressions, respectively. Furthermore, in silico analysis revealed that these microRNAs target both cancer and stem-cell associated signaling pathways. Our results showed that certain microRNAs in CD133(+) cells could be used as cancer stem cell markers. Based on these results, we propose that this panel of microRNAs might carry crucial roles in LCa pathogenesis through regulating stem cell properties of tumor cells.

  18. Pepino mosaic virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase POL Domain Is a Hypersensitive Response-Like Elicitor Shared by Necrotic and Mild Isolates.

    PubMed

    Sempere, Raquel N; Gómez-Aix, Cristina; Ruíz-Ramón, Fabiola; Gómez, Pedro; Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Beata; Sánchez-Pina, María Amelia; Aranda, Miguel A

    2016-04-01

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is an emerging pathogen that represents a serious threat to tomato production worldwide. PepMV-induced diseases manifest with a wide range of symptoms, including systemic necrosis. Our results showed that PepMV accumulation depends on the virus isolate, tomato cultivar, and environmental conditions, and associates with the development of necrosis. Substitution of lysine for glutamic acid at position 67 in the triple gene block 3 (TGB3) protein, previously described as a necrosis determinant, led to increased virus accumulation and was necessary but not sufficient to induce systemic necrosis. Systemic necrosis both in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana shared hypersensitive response (HR) features, allowing the assessment of the role of different genomic regions on necrosis induction. Overexpression of both TGB3 and the polymerase domain (POL) of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) resulted in necrosis, although only local expression of POL triggered HR-like symptoms. Our results also indicated that the necrosis-eliciting activity of POL resides in its highly conserved "palm" domain, and that necrosis was jasmonic acid-dependent but not salicylic acid-dependent. Altogether, our data suggest that the RdRp-POL domain plays an important role in PepMV necrosis induction, with necrosis development depending on the virus accumulation level, which can be modulated by the nature of TGB3, host genotype and environmental conditions.

  19. Characterizing a novel and sensitive method to measure dsRNA in soil.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Joshua R; Zapata, Fatima; Dubelman, Samuel; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Jensen, Peter D; Levine, Steven L

    2016-10-01

    Performing environmental assessments for double-stranded RNA-based agricultural products require the development of sensitive and selective methods to measure biodegradation rates of dsRNAs. We developed and characterized a novel analytical procedure that uses a molecular hybridization assay (QuantiGene(®)) to accurately measure dsRNA extracted from diverse soils. In this report, we utilize this method to demonstrate that two dsRNAs with distinct size, structure, and sequence degrade rapidly in soil with indistinguishable kinetics.

  20. From clinical sample to complete genome: Comparing methods for the extraction of HIV-1 RNA for high-throughput deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Marion; Gall, Astrid; Vink, Monique; Zorgdrager, Fokla; Binter, Špela; Edwards, Stephanie; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Bakker, Margreet; Ong, Swee Hoe; Gras, Luuk; van Sighem, Ard; Bezemer, Daniela; de Wolf, Frank; Reiss, Peter; Kellam, Paul; Berkhout, Ben; Fraser, Christophe; van der Kuyl, Antoinette C

    2016-08-04

    The BEEHIVE (Bridging the Evolution and Epidemiology of HIV in Europe) project aims to analyse nearly-complete viral genomes from >3000 HIV-1 infected Europeans using high-throughput deep sequencing techniques to investigate the virus genetic contribution to virulence. Following the development of a computational pipeline, including a new de novo assembler for RNA virus genomes, to generate larger contiguous sequences (contigs) from the abundance of short sequence reads that characterise the data, another area that determines genome sequencing success is the quality and quantity of the input RNA. A pilot experiment with 125 patient plasma samples was performed to investigate the optimal method for isolation of HIV-1 viral RNA for long amplicon genome sequencing. Manual isolation with the QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit (Qiagen) was superior over robotically extracted RNA using either the QIAcube robotic system, the mSample Preparation Systems RNA kit with automated extraction by the m2000sp system (Abbott Molecular), or the MagNA Pure 96 System in combination with the MagNA Pure 96 Instrument (Roche Diagnostics). We scored amplification of a set of four HIV-1 amplicons of ∼1.9, 3.6, 3.0 and 3.5kb, and subsequent recovery of near-complete viral genomes. Subsequently, 616 BEEHIVE patient samples were analysed to determine factors that influence successful amplification of the genome in four overlapping amplicons using the QIAamp Viral RNA Kit for viral RNA isolation. Both low plasma viral load and high sample age (stored before 1999) negatively influenced the amplification of viral amplicons >3kb. A plasma viral load of >100,000 copies/ml resulted in successful amplification of all four amplicons for 86% of the samples, this value dropped to only 46% for samples with viral loads of <20,000 copies/ml.

  1. A protocol for exosome isolation and characterization: evaluation of ultracentrifugation, density-gradient separation, and immunoaffinity capture methods.

    PubMed

    Greening, David W; Xu, Rong; Ji, Hong; Tauro, Bow J; Simpson, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are 40-150 nm extracellular vesicles that are released from a multitude of cell types, and perform diverse cellular functions including intercellular communication, antigen presentation, and transfer of tumorigenic proteins, mRNA and miRNA. Exosomes are important regulators of the cellular niche, and their altered characteristics in many diseases, such as cancer, suggest their importance for diagnostic and therapeutic applications, and as drug delivery vehicles. Exosomes have been purified from biological fluids and in vitro cell cultures using a variety of strategies and techniques. In this chapter, we reveal the protocol and key insights into the isolation, purification and characterization of exosomes, distinct from shed microvesicles and apoptotic blebs. Using the colorectal cancer cell line LIM1863 as a cell model, a comprehensive evaluation of exosome isolation methods including ultracentrifugation (UC-Exos), OptiPrep™ density-based separation (DG-Exos), and immunoaffinity capture using anti-EpCAM-coated magnetic beads (IAC-Exos) were examined. All exosome isolation methodologies contained 40-150 nm vesicles based on electron microscopy, and positive for exosome markers (Alix, TSG101, HSP70) based on immunoblotting. This protocol employed a proteomic profiling approach to characterize the protein composition of exosomes, and label-free spectral counting to evaluate the effectiveness of each method in exosome isolation. Based on the number of MS/MS spectra identified for exosome markers and proteins associated with their biogenesis, trafficking, and release, IAC-Exos was shown to be the most effective method to isolate exosomes. However, the use of density-based separation (DG-Exos) provides significant advantages for exosome isolation when the use of immunoaffinity capture is limited (due to antibody availability and suitability of exosome markers).

  2. Feature selection methods for identifying genetic determinants of host species in RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Aguas, Ricardo; Ferguson, Neil M

    2013-01-01

    Despite environmental, social and ecological dependencies, emergence of zoonotic viruses in human populations is clearly also affected by genetic factors which determine cross-species transmission potential. RNA viruses pose an interesting case study given their mutation rates are orders of magnitude higher than any other pathogen--as reflected by the recent emergence of SARS and Influenza for example. Here, we show how feature selection techniques can be used to reliably classify viral sequences by host species, and to identify the crucial minority of host-specific sites in pathogen genomic data. The variability in alleles at those sites can be translated into prediction probabilities that a particular pathogen isolate is adapted to a given host. We illustrate the power of these methods by: 1) identifying the sites explaining SARS coronavirus differences between human, bat and palm civet samples; 2) showing how cross species jumps of rabies virus among bat populations can be readily identified; and 3) de novo identification of likely functional influenza host discriminant markers.

  3. Improvement on the extraction method of RNA in mites and its quality test.

    PubMed

    Zhao, YaE; Hu, Li; Yang, Yuan Jun; Niu, Dong Ling; Wang, Rui Ling; Li, Wen Hao; Ma, Si Jia; Cheng, Juan

    2016-02-01

    To solve the long-existing difficult problems in extracting RNA and constructing a complementary DNA (cDNA) library for trace mites, we conducted a further comparative experiment among three RNA extraction methods (TRIzol method, Omega method, and Azanno method) based on our previous attempts at the construction of cDNA library of mites, with Psoroptes cuniculi still used as the experimental subject. By subsequently decreasing the number of mites, the least number of mites needed for RNA extraction of each method were found by criteria of completeness, concentration, and purity of the extracted RNA. Specific primers were designed according to the allergen Pso c1, Pso c2, and Actin gene sequences of Psoroptes to test the reliability of cDNA library. The results showed that Azanno method needed only 10 mites with sensitivity 204 times higher than previously used TRIzol method and 20 times higher than Omega method; clear RNA band was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis; and ultraviolet spectrophotometer determination showed that RNA concentration, 260/280, and 260/230 were in the range of 102 to 166 ng/μl, 1.83 to 1.99, and 1.49 to 1.72, respectively. Finally, specific primers detection showed that the amplified sequences had 98.33, 98.19, and 99.52% identities with those of P. cuniculi or Psoroptes ovis in GenBank, respectively, indicating that the cDNA library constructed using 10 mites was successful and it could meet the requirements for molecular biology research. Therefore, we concluded that Azanno method was more effective than TRIzol method and Omega method in RNA extraction and cDNA library construction of trace mites.

  4. RNA Preservation Agents and Nucleic Acid Extraction Method Bias Perceived Bacterial Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Ann; Chiang, Edna; Schmidt, Marian L.; Denef, Vincent J.

    2015-01-01

    Bias is a pervasive problem when characterizing microbial communities. An important source is the difference in lysis efficiencies of different populations, which vary depending on the extraction protocol used. To avoid such biases impacting comparisons between gene and transcript abundances in the environment, the use of one protocol that simultaneously extracts both types of nucleic acids from microbial community samples has gained popularity. However, knowledge regarding tradeoffs to combined nucleic acid extraction protocols is limited, particularly regarding yield and biases in the observed community composition. Here, we evaluated a commercially available protocol for simultaneous extraction of DNA and RNA, which we adapted for freshwater microbial community samples that were collected on filters. DNA and RNA yields were comparable to other commonly used, but independent DNA and RNA extraction protocols. RNA protection agents benefited RNA quality, but decreased DNA yields significantly. Choice of extraction protocol influenced the perceived bacterial community composition, with strong method-dependent biases observed for specific phyla such as the Verrucomicrobia. The combined DNA/RNA extraction protocol detected significantly higher levels of Verrucomicrobia than the other protocols, and those higher numbers were confirmed by microscopic analysis. Use of RNA protection agents as well as independent sequencing runs caused a significant shift in community composition as well, albeit smaller than the shift caused by using different extraction protocols. Despite methodological biases, sample origin was the strongest determinant of community composition. However, when the abundance of specific phylogenetic groups is of interest, researchers need to be aware of the biases their methods introduce. This is particularly relevant if different methods are used for DNA and RNA extraction, in addition to using RNA protection agents only for RNA samples. PMID:25798612

  5. RNA preservation agents and nucleic acid extraction method bias perceived bacterial community composition.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Ann; Chiang, Edna; Schmidt, Marian L; Denef, Vincent J

    2015-01-01

    Bias is a pervasive problem when characterizing microbial communities. An important source is the difference in lysis efficiencies of different populations, which vary depending on the extraction protocol used. To avoid such biases impacting comparisons between gene and transcript abundances in the environment, the use of one protocol that simultaneously extracts both types of nucleic acids from microbial community samples has gained popularity. However, knowledge regarding tradeoffs to combined nucleic acid extraction protocols is limited, particularly regarding yield and biases in the observed community composition. Here, we evaluated a commercially available protocol for simultaneous extraction of DNA and RNA, which we adapted for freshwater microbial community samples that were collected on filters. DNA and RNA yields were comparable to other commonly used, but independent DNA and RNA extraction protocols. RNA protection agents benefited RNA quality, but decreased DNA yields significantly. Choice of extraction protocol influenced the perceived bacterial community composition, with strong method-dependent biases observed for specific phyla such as the Verrucomicrobia. The combined DNA/RNA extraction protocol detected significantly higher levels of Verrucomicrobia than the other protocols, and those higher numbers were confirmed by microscopic analysis. Use of RNA protection agents as well as independent sequencing runs caused a significant shift in community composition as well, albeit smaller than the shift caused by using different extraction protocols. Despite methodological biases, sample origin was the strongest determinant of community composition. However, when the abundance of specific phylogenetic groups is of interest, researchers need to be aware of the biases their methods introduce. This is particularly relevant if different methods are used for DNA and RNA extraction, in addition to using RNA protection agents only for RNA samples.

  6. Isolation of small interfering RNAs using viral suppressors of RNA interference.

    PubMed

    van den Beek, Marius; Antoniewski, Christophe; Carré, Clément

    2014-01-01

    The tombusvirus P19 VSR (viral suppressor of RNA interference) binds siRNAs with high affinity, whereas the Flockhouse Virus (FHV) B2 VSR binds both long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Both VSRs are small proteins and function in plant and animal cells. Fusing a Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS) to the N-terminus shifts the localization of the VSR from cytoplasmic to nuclear, allowing researchers to specifically probe the subcellular distribution of siRNAs, and to investigate the function of nuclear and cytoplasmic siRNAs. This chapter provides a detailed protocol for the immunoprecipitation of siRNAs bound to epitope-tagged VSR and subsequent analysis by 3'-end-labeling using cytidine-3',5'-bis phosphate ([5'-(32)P]pCp) and northern blotting.

  7. RNA extraction method is crucial for human papillomavirus E6/E7 oncogenes detection.

    PubMed

    Fontecha, Nerea; Nieto, Maria Carmen; Andía, Daniel; Cisterna, Ramón; Basaras, Miren

    2017-03-09

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing plays a main role in the management of cervical cancer, however to improve the specificity in cervical screening, there is a need to develop and validate different approaches that can identify women at risk for progressive disease. Nowadays, mRNA expression of viral E6 and E7 HPV oncogenes stands up as a potential biomarker to improve cervical screening. We aimed to validate a method for RNA extraction, detect HPV mRNA expression and, assess the relationship between E6/E7 mRNA expression and pathology of patients' lesions and progression. This study included 50 specimens that had been previously genotyped as HPV16, 18, 31, 33 and/or 45. Cervical swabs were extracted with three different RNA extraction methods -Nuclisens manual extraction kit (bioMérieux), High Pure Viral RNA Kit (Roche) and RNeasy Plus Mini kit (Qiagen)-, and mRNA was detected with NucliSens EasyQ HPV version 1 test (bioMérieux) afterwards. Association of oncogene expression with pathology and lesion progression was analyzed for each extraction method. E6/E7 mRNA positivity rate was higher in samples analyzed with bioMérieux (62%), followed by Roche (24%) and Qiagen (6%). Women with lesions and lesion progression showed a higher prevalence of viral RNA expression than women that had not lesions or with lesion persistence. While bioMérieux revealed a higher sensitivity (77.27%), Roche presented a higher PPV (75%) and an increased specificity (89.28%). Extraction methods based on magnetic beads provided better RNA yield than those based in columns. Both Nuclisens manual extraction kit (bioMérieux) and High Pure Viral RNA Kit (Roche) seemed to be adequate for E6/E7 mRNA detection. However, none of them revealed both high sensitivity and specificity values. Further studies are needed to obtain and validate a standard gold method for RNA expression detection, to be included as part of the routine cervical screening program.

  8. Four methods of preparing mRNA 5' end libraries using the Illumina sequencing platform.

    PubMed

    Machida, Ryuji J; Lin, Ya-Ying

    2014-01-01

    The 5' untranslated regions of mRNA play an important role in their translation. Here, we describe the development of four methods of profiling mRNA 5' ends using the Illumina sequencing platform; the first method utilizes SMART (Switching Mechanism At 5' end of RNA Transcript) technology, while the second involves replacing the 5' cap structure with RNA oligomers via ligation. The third and fourth methods are modifications of SMART, and involve enriching mRNA molecules with (nuclear transcripts) and without (mitochondrial transcripts) 5' end cap structures, respectively. Libraries prepared using SMART technology gave more reproducible results, but the ligation method was advantageous in that it only sequenced mRNAs with a cap structure at the 5' end. These methods are suitable for global mapping of mRNA 5' ends, both with and without cap structures, at a single molecule resolution. In addition, comparison of the present results obtained using different methods revealed the presence of abundant messenger RNAs without a cap structure.

  9. Four Methods of Preparing mRNA 5′ End Libraries Using the Illumina Sequencing Platform

    PubMed Central

    Machida, Ryuji J.; Lin, Ya-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Background The 5′ untranslated regions of mRNA play an important role in their translation. Results Here, we describe the development of four methods of profiling mRNA 5′ ends using the Illumina sequencing platform; the first method utilizes SMART (Switching Mechanism At 5′ end of RNA Transcript) technology, while the second involves replacing the 5′ cap structure with RNA oligomers via ligation. The third and fourth methods are modifications of SMART, and involve enriching mRNA molecules with (nuclear transcripts) and without (mitochondrial transcripts) 5′ end cap structures, respectively. Libraries prepared using SMART technology gave more reproducible results, but the ligation method was advantageous in that it only sequenced mRNAs with a cap structure at the 5′ end. Conclusions These methods are suitable for global mapping of mRNA 5′ ends, both with and without cap structures, at a single molecule resolution. In addition, comparison of the present results obtained using different methods revealed the presence of abundant messenger RNAs without a cap structure. PMID:25003736

  10. Genetic characterization of clinical acanthamoeba isolates from Japan using nuclear and mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Moshiur; Yagita, Kenji; Kobayashi, Akira; Oikawa, Yosaburo; Hussein, Amjad I A; Matsumura, Takahiro; Tokoro, Masaharu

    2013-08-01

    Because of an increased number of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) along with associated disease burdens, medical professionals have become more aware of this pathogen in recent years. In this study, by analyzing both the nuclear 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) and mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene loci, 27 clinical Acanthamoeba strains that caused AK in Japan were classified into 3 genotypes, T3 (3 strains), T4 (23 strains), and T5 (one strain). Most haplotypes were identical to the reference haplotypes reported from all over the world, and thus no specificity of the haplotype distribution in Japan was found. The T4 sub-genotype analysis using the 16S rRNA gene locus also revealed a clear sub-conformation within the T4 cluster, and lead to the recognition of a new sub-genotype T4i, in addition to the previously reported sub-genotypes T4a-T4h. Furthermore, 9 out of 23 strains in the T4 genotype were identified to a specific haplotype (AF479533), which seems to be a causal haplotype of AK. While heterozygous nuclear haplotypes were observed from 2 strains, the mitochondrial haplotypes were homozygous as T4 genotype in the both strains, and suggested a possibility of nuclear hybridization (mating reproduction) between different strains in Acanthamoeba. The nuclear 18S rRNA gene and mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene loci of Acanthamoeba spp. possess different unique characteristics usable for the genotyping analyses, and those specific features could contribute to the establishment of molecular taxonomy for the species complex of Acanthamoeba.

  11. Analysis of partial sequences of genes coding for 16S rRNA of actinomycetes isolated from Casuarina equisetifolia nodules in Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Niner, B M; Brandt, J P; Villegas, M; Marshall, C R; Hirsch, A M; Valdés, M

    1996-01-01

    Filamentous bacteria isolated from surface-sterilized nodules of Casuarina equisetifolia trees in México were capable of reducing acetylene, a diagnostic test for nitrogenase, but were unable to nodulate their host. Analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences suggests that the Mexican isolates are not Frankia strains but members of a novel clade. PMID:8702297

  12. Tandem repeat-tRNA (TRtRNA) PCR method for the molecular typing of non-Saccharomyces subspecies.

    PubMed

    Barquet, Marianne; Martín, Valentina; Medina, Karina; Pérez, Gabriel; Carrau, Francisco; Gaggero, Carina

    2012-01-01

    There is a worldwide trend to understand the impact of non-Saccharomyces yeast species on the process of winemaking. Although the predominant species at the end of the fermentation is Saccharomyces cerevisiae, several non-Saccharomyces species present during the first days of the process can produce and/or release aromas that improve the bouquet and complexity of the final wine. Since no genomic sequences are available for the predominant non-Saccharomyces species selected from grapes or musts (Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora vineae, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Candida zemplinina), a reproducible PCR method was devised to discriminate strains at the subspecies level. The method combines different oligonucleotides based on tandem repeats with a second oligonucleotide based on a conserved tRNA region, specific for ascomycetes. Tandem repeats are randomly dispersed in all eukaryotic genomes and tRNA genes are conserved and present in several copies in different chromosomes. As an example, the method was applied to discriminate native M. pulcherrima strains but it could be extended to differentiate strains from other non-Saccharomyces species. The biodiversity of species and strains found in the grape ecosystem is a potential source of new enzymes, fungicides and/or novel sustainable methods for biological control of phytopathogens.

  13. A comprehensive comparison of general RNA–RNA interaction prediction methods

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Daniel; Meyer, Irmtraud M.

    2016-01-01

    RNA–RNA interactions are fast emerging as a major functional component in many newly discovered non-coding RNAs. Basepairing is believed to be a major contributor to the stability of these intermolecular interactions, much like intramolecular basepairs formed in RNA secondary structure. As such, using algorithms similar to those for predicting RNA secondary structure, computational methods have been recently developed for the prediction of RNA–RNA interactions. We provide the first comprehensive comparison comprising 14 methods that predict general intermolecular basepairs. To evaluate these, we compile an extensive data set of 54 experimentally confirmed fungal snoRNA–rRNA interactions and 102 bacterial sRNA–mRNA interactions. We test the performance accuracy of all methods, evaluating the effects of tool settings, sequence length, and multiple sequence alignment usage and quality. Our results show that—unlike for RNA secondary structure prediction—the overall best performing tools are non-comparative energy-based tools utilizing accessibility information that predict short interactions on this data set. Furthermore, we find that maintaining high accuracy across biologically different data sets and increasing input lengths remains a huge challenge, causing implications for de novo transcriptome-wide searches. Finally, we make our interaction data set publicly available for future development and benchmarking efforts. PMID:26673718

  14. Isolation and characterization of a novel single-stranded RNA virus infecting the bloom-forming diatom Rhizosolenia setigera.

    PubMed

    Nagasaki, Keizo; Tomaru, Yuji; Katanozaka, Noriaki; Shirai, Yoko; Nishida, Kensho; Itakura, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Mineo

    2004-02-01

    A novel single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) virus specifically infecting the bloom-forming diatom Rhizosolenia setigera (R. setigera RNA virus [RsRNAV]) was isolated from Ariake Sea, Japan. Viral replication occurred within the cytoplasm, and the virus particle was icosahedral, lacked a tail, and was 32 nm in diameter on average. The major nucleic acid extracted from the RsRNAV particles was an ssRNA molecule 11.2 kb in length, although smaller RNA molecules (0.6, 1.2, and 1.5 kb) were occasionally observed. The major structural proteins of RsRNAV were 41.5, 41.0, and 29.5 kDa. Inter- and intraspecies host specificity tests revealed that RsRNAV is not only species specific but also strain specific and that its intraspecies host specificity is diverse among virus clones. The latent period of RsRNAV was 2 days, and the burst sizes were 3,100 and 1,010 viruses per host cell when viruses were inoculated into the host culture at the exponential and stationary growth phases, respectively, at 15 degrees C under a 12-h-12-h light-dark cycle of ca. 110 micro mol of photons m(-2) s(-1) with cool white fluorescent illumination. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the biological properties of a virus infecting a diatom. Further studies on RsRNAV will be helpful in understanding the ecological relationship between diatoms and viruses in nature.

  15. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Single-Stranded RNA Virus Infecting the Bloom-Forming Diatom Rhizosolenia setigera

    PubMed Central

    Nagasaki, Keizo; Tomaru, Yuji; Katanozaka, Noriaki; Shirai, Yoko; Nishida, Kensho; Itakura, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Mineo

    2004-01-01

    A novel single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) virus specifically infecting the bloom-forming diatom Rhizosolenia setigera (R. setigera RNA virus [RsRNAV]) was isolated from Ariake Sea, Japan. Viral replication occurred within the cytoplasm, and the virus particle was icosahedral, lacked a tail, and was 32 nm in diameter on average. The major nucleic acid extracted from the RsRNAV particles was an ssRNA molecule 11.2 kb in length, although smaller RNA molecules (0.6, 1.2, and 1.5 kb) were occasionally observed. The major structural proteins of RsRNAV were 41.5, 41.0, and 29.5 kDa. Inter- and intraspecies host specificity tests revealed that RsRNAV is not only species specific but also strain specific and that its intraspecies host specificity is diverse among virus clones. The latent period of RsRNAV was 2 days, and the burst sizes were 3,100 and 1,010 viruses per host cell when viruses were inoculated into the host culture at the exponential and stationary growth phases, respectively, at 15°C under a 12-h-12-h light-dark cycle of ca. 110 μmol of photons m−2 s−1 with cool white fluorescent illumination. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the biological properties of a virus infecting a diatom. Further studies on RsRNAV will be helpful in understanding the ecological relationship between diatoms and viruses in nature. PMID:14766545

  16. Comparisons of complete RNA-2 sequences, pathological and serological features among three Japanese isolates of Arabis mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Imura, Yoshiyuki; Oka, Hiroko; Kimata, Kosuke; Nasu, Morimasa; Nakahama, Katsuhiko; Maeda, Takanori

    2008-12-01

    Arabis mosaic virus lily and narcissus isolates (ArMV-Li and ArMV-Na) induced severe necrotic spots on Chenopodium quinoa, whereas ArMV butterbur isolate (ArMV-Bu) caused symptomless infection in the plant. The accumulation level of ArMV-Bu in upper non-inoculated leaves of C. quinoa was comparable to that of ArMV-Li or -Na. The agar gel double-diffusion test using an antiserum against ArMV-Li showed ArMV-Li was closely related to ArMV-Na, but not to ArMV-Bu. The RNAs-2 of ArMV-Li, -Na, and -Bu consist of 3707, 3709, and 3789 nucleotides, and they contain one open reading frame encoding a putative polyprotein of 1083, 1084, and 1122 amino acids, respectively. The overall identity of RNA-2 of ArMV-Li displayed more than 90% with ArMV-Na, but less than 70% with ArMV-Bu. A phylogenetic analysis of 2A sequences from ArMV isolates revealed ArMV-Bu was not categorized in any cluster. ArMV-Bu is a unique isolate from the point of view of pathological and serological features, and nucleotide sequence.

  17. Tethered particle motion method for studying transcript elongation by a single RNA polymerase molecule.

    PubMed Central

    Yin, H; Landick, R; Gelles, J

    1994-01-01

    Schafer et al. (Nature 352:444-448 (1991)) devised the tethered particle motion (TPM) method to detect directly the movement of single, isolated molecules of a processive nucleic acid polymerase along a template DNA molecule. In TPM studies, the polymerase molecule is immobilized on a glass surface, and a particle (e.g., a 0.23 microns diameter polystyrene bead) is attached to one end of the enzyme-bound DNA molecule. Time-resolved measurements of the DNA contour length between the particle and the immobilized enzyme (the "tether length") are made by determining the magnitude of the Brownian motion of the DNA-tethered particle using light microscopy and digital image processing. We report here improved sample preparation methods that permit TPM data collection on transcript elongation by the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase at rates (approximately 10(2)-fold higher than those previously obtained) sufficient for practical use of microscopic kinetics techniques to analyze polymerase reaction mechanisms. In earlier TPM experiments, calculation of tether length from the observed Brownian motion was based on an untested numerical simulation of tethered bead Brownian motion. Using the improved methods, we have now empirically validated the TPM technique for tether lengths of 308-1915 base pairs (bp) using calibration specimens containing particles tethered by individual DNA molecules of known lengths. TPM analysis of such specimens yielded a linear calibration curve relating observed Brownian motion to tether length and allowed determination of the accuracy of the technique and measurement of how temporal bandwidth, tether length, and other experimental variables affect measurement precision. Under a standard set of experimental conditions (0.23 microns diameter bead, 0.23 Hz bandwidth, 23 degrees), accuracy is 108 and 258 bp r.m.s. at tether lengths of 308 and 1915 bp, respectively. Precision improves linearly with decreasing tether length to an extrapolated

  18. A conditional random fields method for RNA sequence-structure relationship modeling and conformation sampling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiyong; Xu, Jinbo

    2011-07-01

    Accurate tertiary structures are very important for the functional study of non-coding RNA molecules. However, predicting RNA tertiary structures is extremely challenging, because of a large conformation space to be explored and lack of an accurate scoring function differentiating the native structure from decoys. The fragment-based conformation sampling method (e.g. FARNA) bears shortcomings that the limited size of a fragment library makes it infeasible to represent all possible conformations well. A recent dynamic Bayesian network method, BARNACLE, overcomes the issue of fragment assembly. In addition, neither of these methods makes use of sequence information in sampling conformations. Here, we present a new probabilistic graphical model, conditional random fields (CRFs), to model RNA sequence-structure relationship, which enables us to accurately estimate the probability of an RNA conformation from sequence. Coupled with a novel tree-guided sampling scheme, our CRF model is then applied to RNA conformation sampling. Experimental results show that our CRF method can model RNA sequence-structure relationship well and sequence information is important for conformation sampling. Our method, named as TreeFolder, generates a much higher percentage of native-like decoys than FARNA and BARNACLE, although we use the same simple energy function as BARNACLE. zywang@ttic.edu; j3xu@ttic.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  19. Isolation of RNA striped bass Monrone saxatilis spermatozoa: Implications for teleost male fertility and beyond?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vertebrate sperm has been shown to provide more than paternal genomic material to the oocyte. For example, specific transcripts have been identified in bull sperm associated with fertility and with motility in boar sperm. Very little is currently known about functional, residual RNA in spermatozoa a...

  20. Isolation of RNA from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) spermatozoa: implications for teleost male fertility and beyond?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vertebrate sperm has been shown to provide more than paternal genomic material to the oocyte. For example, specific transcripts have been identified in bull sperm associated with fertility and with motility in boar sperm. Very little is currently known about functional, residual RNA in spermatozoa a...

  1. Specific isolation of RNA from the grape powdery mildew pathogen Erysiphe necator, an epiphytic, obligate parasite

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    RNA expression profiling of obligately parasitic plant microbes is hampered by the requisite interaction of host and parasite. For superficial pathogens like grape powdery mildew as well as for epiphytic saprophytes, growth along the outside surface of the plant allows separation from the host and ...

  2. [Modified TRIzol method for RNA and DNA co-extraction from blood].

    PubMed

    Qin, Juan-Juan; Lu, Zhi-Yong; Jiao, Zhang-Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Ying-Xi; Tang, Hui

    2013-06-01

    To establish a new method for RNA and DNA co-extraction from the same sample by TRIzol reagent. After the aqueous phase which contained total RNA was removed by traditional TRIzol method, the values of pH of the interphase phase and organic phase were adjusted. The DNA was precipitated with ethanol and purified with DNA IQ system. The purified DNA was measured in quality and quantity. As the template, it was amplified and typed by PCR-STR. The data was compared with that extracted by traditional TRIzol method. The DNA extracted by this modified method showed a better result of quality and quantity than that by traditional TRIzol method and a good STR typing. The modified TRIzol method is advisable and reliable to simultaneously extract both DNA and RNA from the same sample. It could be used for individual identification and paternity testing to satisfy the need of forensic science.

  3. Evaluation of an anion exchange resin-based method for concentration of F-RNA coliphages (enteric virus indicators) from water samples.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Méndez, A; Chandler, J C; Bisha, B; Goodridge, L D

    2014-08-01

    Enteric viral contaminants in water represent a public health concern, thus methods for detecting these viruses or their indicator microorganisms are needed. Because enteric viruses and their viral indicators are often found at low concentrations in water, their detection requires upfront concentration methods. In this study, a strong basic anion exchange resin was evaluated as an adsorbent material for the concentration of F-RNA coliphages (MS2, Qβ, GA, and HB-P22). These coliphages are recognized as enteric virus surrogates and fecal indicator organisms. Following adsorption of the coliphages from 50ml water samples, direct RNA isolation and real time RT-PCR detection were performed. In water samples containing 10(5)pfu/ml of the F-RNA coliphages, the anion exchange resin (IRA-900) adsorbed over 96.7% of the coliphages present, improving real time RT-PCR detection by 5-7 cycles compared to direct testing. F-RNA coliphage RNA recovery using the integrated method ranged from 12.6% to 77.1%. Resin-based concentration of samples with low levels of the F-RNA coliphages allowed for 10(0)pfu/ml (MS2 and Qβ) and 10(-1)pfu/ml (GA and HB-P22) to be detected. The resin-based method offers considerable advantages in cost, speed, simplicity and field adaptability.

  4. A sequential co-extraction method for DNA, RNA and protein recovery from soil for future system-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Gunnigle, Eoin; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Frossard, Aline; Seeley, Mary; Cowan, Don

    2014-08-01

    A co-extraction protocol that sequentially isolates core biopolymer fractions (DNA, RNA, protein) from edaphic microbial communities is presented. In order to confirm compatibility with downstream analyses, bacterial T-RFLP profiles were generated from the DNA- and RNA-derived fractions of an arid-based soil, with metaproteomics undertaken on the corresponding protein fraction.

  5. Affinity isolation and I-DIRT mass spectrometric analysis of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 Sakai RNA polymerase complex.

    PubMed

    Lee, David J; Busby, Stephen J W; Westblade, Lars F; Chait, Brian T

    2008-02-01

    Bacteria contain a single multisubunit RNA polymerase that is responsible for the synthesis of all RNA. Previous studies of the Escherichia coli K-12 laboratory strain identified a group of effector proteins that interact directly with RNA polymerase to modulate the efficiency of transcription initiation, elongation, or termination. Here we used a rapid affinity isolation technique to isolate RNA polymerase from the pathogenic Escherichia coli strain O157:H7 Sakai. We analyzed the RNA polymerase enzyme complex using mass spectrometry and identified associated proteins. Although E. coli O157:H7 Sakai contains more than 1,600 genes not present in the K-12 strain, many of which are predicted to be involved in transcription regulation, all of the identified proteins in this study were encoded on the "core" E. coli genome.

  6. Primary structure of the. cap alpha. -subunit of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase. II. Isolation, reverse transcription, and cloning of messenger RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Petrukhin, K.E.; Broude, N.E.; Arsenyan, S.G.; Grishin, A.V.; Dzhandzhugazyan, K.N.; Modyanov, N.N.

    1986-10-01

    The messenger RNA coding the ..cap alpha..-subunit of Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase has been isolated from the outer medullary layer of porcine kidneys. The mRNA gives a specific hybridization band in the 25S-26S region with three oligonucleotide probes synthesized on the basis of information on the structure of three peptides isolated from a tryptic hydrolyzate of the ..cap alpha..-subunit of Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase. The translation of the mRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes followed by immunochemical identification of the products of synthesis confirmed the presence of the mRNA of the ..cap alpha..-subunit of Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase in an enriched fraction of poly(A/sup +/)-RNA. This preparation has been used for the synthesis of cloning of double-stranded cDNA.

  7. Affinity Isolation and I-DIRT Mass Spectrometric Analysis of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 Sakai RNA Polymerase Complex▿

    PubMed Central

    Lee, David J.; Busby, Stephen J. W.; Westblade, Lars F.; Chait, Brian T.

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria contain a single multisubunit RNA polymerase that is responsible for the synthesis of all RNA. Previous studies of the Escherichia coli K-12 laboratory strain identified a group of effector proteins that interact directly with RNA polymerase to modulate the efficiency of transcription initiation, elongation, or termination. Here we used a rapid affinity isolation technique to isolate RNA polymerase from the pathogenic Escherichia coli strain O157:H7 Sakai. We analyzed the RNA polymerase enzyme complex using mass spectrometry and identified associated proteins. Although E. coli O157:H7 Sakai contains more than 1,600 genes not present in the K-12 strain, many of which are predicted to be involved in transcription regulation, all of the identified proteins in this study were encoded on the “core” E. coli genome. PMID:18083804

  8. A Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization Method To Quantify mRNA Translation by Visualizing Ribosome–mRNA Interactions in Single Cells

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH) is a simple and widely used method to measure mRNA transcript abundance and localization in single cells. A comparable single-molecule in situ method to measure mRNA translation would enable a more complete understanding of gene regulation. Here we describe a fluorescence assay to detect ribosome interactions with mRNA (FLARIM). The method adapts smFISH to visualize and characterize translation of single molecules of mRNA in fixed cells. To visualize ribosome–mRNA interactions, we use pairs of oligonucleotide probes that bind separately to ribosomes (via rRNA) and to the mRNA of interest, and that produce strong fluorescence signals via the hybridization chain reaction (HCR) when the probes are in close proximity. FLARIM does not require genetic manipulation, is applicable to practically any endogenous mRNA transcript, and provides both spatial and temporal information. We demonstrate that FLARIM is sensitive to changes in ribosome association with mRNA upon inhibition of global translation with puromycin. We also show that FLARIM detects changes in ribosome association with an mRNA whose translation is upregulated in response to increased concentrations of iron. PMID:28573204

  9. Niemeyer Virus: A New Mimivirus Group A Isolate Harboring a Set of Duplicated Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase Genes

    PubMed Central

    Boratto, Paulo V. M.; Arantes, Thalita S.; Silva, Lorena C. F.; Assis, Felipe L.; Kroon, Erna G.; La Scola, Bernard; Abrahão, Jônatas S.

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognized that gene duplication/acquisition is a key factor for molecular evolution, being directly related to the emergence of new genetic variants. The importance of such phenomena can also be expanded to the viral world, with impacts on viral fitness and environmental adaptations. In this work we describe the isolation and characterization of Niemeyer virus, a new mimivirus isolate obtained from water samples of an urban lake in Brazil. Genomic data showed that Niemeyer harbors duplicated copies of three of its four aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes (cysteinyl, methionyl, and tyrosyl RS). Gene expression analysis showed that such duplications allowed significantly increased expression of methionyl and tyrosyl aaRS mRNA by Niemeyer in comparison to APMV. Remarkably, phylogenetic data revealed that Niemeyer duplicated gene pairs are different, each one clustering with a different group of mimivirus strains. Taken together, our results raise new questions about the origins and selective pressures involving events of aaRS gain and loss among mimiviruses. PMID:26635738

  10. A method to convert mRNA into a gRNA library for CRISPR/Cas9 editing of any organism

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspersed palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) system is a powerful tool for genome editing that can be used to construct a guide RNA (gRNA) library for genetic screening. For gRNA design, one must know the sequence of the 20-mer flanking the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), which seriously impedes experimentally making gRNA. I describe a method to construct a gRNA library via molecular biology techniques without relying on bioinformatics. Briefly, one synthesizes complementary DNA from the mRNA sequence using a semi-random primer containing a PAM complementary sequence and then cuts out the 20-mer adjacent to the PAM using type IIS and type III restriction enzymes to create a gRNA library. The described approach does not require prior knowledge about the target DNA sequences, making it applicable to any species. PMID:27574704

  11. Opportunities and methods for studying alternative splicing in cancer with RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Feng, Huijuan; Qin, Zhiyi; Zhang, Xuegong

    2013-11-01

    The biogenesis, development and metastases of cancer are associated with many variations in the transcriptome. Alternative splicing of genes is a major post-transcriptional regulation mechanism that is involved in many types of cancer. The next-generation sequencing applied on RNAs (RNA-Seq) provides a new technology for studying transcriptomes. It provides an unprecedented opportunity for quantitatively studying alternative splicing in a systematic way. This mini-review summarizes the current RNA-Seq studies on cancer transcriptomes especially studies on cancer-related alternative splicing, and discusses the strategy for quantitative study of alternative splicing in cancers with RNA-Seq, the bioinformatics methods available and existing questions.

  12. Isolation method (direct plating or enrichment) does not affect antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter from chicken carcasses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine if Campylobacter isolation method influenced antimicrobial susceptibility results, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of nine antimicrobials were compared for 291 pairs of Campylobacter isolates recovered from chicken carcass rinse samples using direct plating and an enrichment...

  13. Comparative Resistance of Phage Isolates of Four Genotypes of F-Specific RNA Bacteriophages to Various Inactivation Processes

    PubMed Central

    Schaper, M.; Durán, A. E.; Jofre, J.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of natural inactivation in freshwater, chlorination, ammonia, extreme pHs, temperature, and salt content on phage inactivation was evaluated on mixtures of F-specific RNA bacteriophage isolates belonging to genotypes I, II, III, and IV. The bacteriophages studied were previously but recently isolated from natural samples, characterized as F-specific RNA bacteriophages and genotyped by plaque hybridization with genotype-specific probes. Natural inactivation in river water was modeled by in situ incubation of bacteriophages inside submerged dialysis tubes. After several days bacteriophages of genotype I showed the highest persistence, which was significantly different from that of bacteriophages of genotype II, IV, or III. The pattern of resistance of phages belonging to the various genotypes to extreme pHs, ammonia, temperature, salt concentration, and chlorination was similar. In all cases, phages of genotype I showed the highest persistence, followed by the phages of genotypes II, III, and IV. The phages of genotypes III and IV were the least resistant to all treatments, and resistance of genotypes III and IV to the treatments was similar. Bacteriophages of genotype II showed intermediate resistance to some of the treatments. The resistance of four phages of genotype I to natural inactivation and chlorination did not differ significantly. These results indicate that genotypes III and IV are much more sensitive to environmental stresses and to treatments than the other genotypes, especially than genotype I. This should be taken into consideration in future studies aimed at using genotypes of F-specific RNA bacteriophages to fingerprint the origin of fecal pollution. PMID:12147462

  14. An improved method to isolate lichen algae by gel filtration.

    PubMed

    Pérez, M J; Vicente, C; Legaz, M E

    1985-08-01

    Photobiont cells of the lichen Evernia prunastri have completely been separated from their fungal partner by filtration through a bed of Sepharose 2B. Both mannitol and ribitol have been quantified by gas-liquid chromatography in the different steps of the isolation procedure. Absence of mannitol, which is exclusively produced by the mycobiont, has been used as the best probe to monitor isolation.

  15. Improved RNA extraction method using the BioMasher and BioMasher power-plus.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takuji; Nakashima, Kentaro; Maruta, Yukio; Kiriyama, Tomomi; Sasaki, Michi; Sugiyama, Shunpei; Suzuki, Kana; Fujisaki, Hitomi; Sasaki, Jun; Kaku-Ushiki, Yuko; Tanida, Masatoshi; Irie, Shinkichi; Hattori, Shunji

    2012-12-01

    The BioMasher is a disposable homogenizer that was developed to homogenize bovine brain tissue for bovine spongiform encephalopathy diagnosis. Capable of preventing the biohazard risk from infectious samples, it also prevents cross-contamination among samples. The BioMasher is thus widely used in biochemical research, especially for RNA extraction. Here, we tested a novel BioMasher application for RNA extraction from animal and plant tissues. We also developed a grinding machine specific for the BioMasher, named the BioMasher Power-Plus. We developed RNA extraction protocols using the BioMasher combined with the BioMasher Power-Plus. We compared RNA extraction efficiency of the BioMasher with that of the FastPrep and the glass homogenizer. Though the RNA extraction efficiency by the BioMasher was nearly equivalent to that of the FastPrep and the glass homogenizer, sample preparation time was shorter for the BioMasher. The utility of RNA extraction by the BioMasher was examined in mouse, rat, and tomato tissue samples. In the rodent tissues, the highest extraction efficiency of total RNA was from liver, with lowest efficiency from fibrous tissues such as muscle. The quality of extracted total RNA was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis which produced highly visible clear bands of 18S and 28S rRNAs. Reproducibility among different operators in RNA extraction from tomato roots was improved by using the BioMasher Power-Plus. The BioMasher and BioMasher Power-Plus provide an effective and easy homogenization method for total RNA extraction from some rodent and plant tissues.

  16. An efficient and cost effective method of RNA extraction from mucilage, phenol and secondary metabolite rich bark tissue of tossa jute (C. olitorius L.) actively developing phloem fiber.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, S B; Kumar, M; Chowdhury, I; Singh, R K; Pandey, S P; Sharma, H K; Karmakar, P G

    2016-06-01

    Tossa jute is an important natural fiber crop of Southeast Asian countries including India, Bangladesh, China, Thailand, Myanmar etc. Traditional industrial application of jute fiber is limited to the packaging products like hessians, sacks, etc. and the fiber found unsuitable for textile industries largely due to significantly high lignin content. Therefore, understanding genetic factors underlying lignin biosynthesis in tossa jute holds promise for jute based product diversification. The major limiting factor in undertaking such study is unavailability of efficient protocol for RNA extraction at secondary growth active stage of tossa jute. Here we report a simplified, swift and cost effective protocol for isolating fairly good quality RNA from bark tissue of 65-days-old field grown tossa jute plant with active secondary growth. The purity, concentration and integrity of extracted RNA ascertained. To confirm downstream amenability, isolated RNA samples were reverse transcribed and PCR analysis done by using CCoAMT1 primer. Results established that method of RNA extraction presented here is an improvement over the other methods, particularly for bark tissue of field grown tossa jute at advance developmental stage. Therefore, present study will enhance our ability to understand expression pattern of fiber formation and maturation related genes in mature bark tissue that holds key for much talked genetic manipulation of fiber quality via lignin optimisation in the crop.

  17. Unfolding single RNA molecules by mechanical force: A stochastic kinetic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fei; Ou-Yang, Zhong-Can

    2004-10-01

    Using simple polymer elastic theory and known RNA free energies, we study the single RNA folding and unfolding on the secondary structure level under mechanical constant force by stochastic kinetic simulation. As a primary application, this method is used to simulate the experiment performed by Liphardt [Science 292, 733 (2001)]. The extension-force curves in equilibrium and kinetic reaction rate constants for folding and unfolding are calculated. Our results show that the agreement between simulation and experimental measurements is satisfactory.

  18. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two base labeling

    DOEpatents

    Jett, James H.; Keller, Richard A.; Martin, John C.; Posner, Richard G.; Marrone, Babetta L.; Hammond, Mark L.; Simpson, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Method for rapid-base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two-base labeling and employing fluorescent detection of single molecules at two wavelengths. Bases modified to accept fluorescent labels are used to replicate a single DNA or RNA strand to be sequenced. The bases are then sequentially cleaved from the replicated strand, excited with a chosen spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, and the fluorescence from individual, tagged bases detected in the order of cleavage from the strand.

  19. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two base labeling

    DOEpatents

    Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Posner, R.G.; Marrone, B.L.; Hammond, M.L.; Simpson, D.J.

    1995-04-11

    A method is described for rapid-base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two-base labeling and employing fluorescent detection of single molecules at two wavelengths. Bases modified to accept fluorescent labels are used to replicate a single DNA or RNA strand to be sequenced. The bases are then sequentially cleaved from the replicated strand, excited with a chosen spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, and the fluorescence from individual, tagged bases detected in the order of cleavage from the strand. 4 figures.

  20. Simple Method for Constructing RNA Triangle, Square, Pentagon by Tuning Interior RNA 3WJ Angle from 60° to 90° or 108°.

    PubMed

    Khisamutdinov, Emil F; Bui, My Nguyen Hoan; Jasinski, Daniel; Zhao, Zhengyi; Cui, Zheng; Guo, Peixuan

    2015-01-01

    Precise shape control of architectures at the nanometer scale is an intriguing but extremely challenging facet. RNA has recently emerged as a unique material and thermostable building block for use in nanoparticle construction. Here, we describe a simple method from design to synthesis of RNA triangle, square, and pentagon by stretching RNA 3WJ native angle from 60° to 90° and 108°, using the three-way junction (3WJ) of the pRNA from bacteriophage phi29 dsDNA packaging motor. These methods for the construction of elegant polygons can be applied to other RNA building blocks including the utilization and application of RNA 4-way, 5-way, and other multi-way junctions.

  1. Uncultivated microbial eukaryotic diversity: a method to link ssu rRNA gene sequences with morphology.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Marissa B; Kita, Kelley N; Dawson, Scott C

    2011-01-01

    Protists have traditionally been identified by cultivation and classified taxonomically based on their cellular morphologies and behavior. In the past decade, however, many novel protist taxa have been identified using cultivation independent ssu rRNA sequence surveys. New rRNA "phylotypes" from uncultivated eukaryotes have no connection to the wealth of prior morphological descriptions of protists. To link phylogenetically informative sequences with taxonomically informative morphological descriptions, we demonstrate several methods for combining whole cell rRNA-targeted fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with cytoskeletal or organellar immunostaining. Either eukaryote or ciliate-specific ssu rRNA probes were combined with an anti-α-tubulin antibody or phalloidin, a common actin stain, to define cytoskeletal features of uncultivated protists in several environmental samples. The eukaryote ssu rRNA probe was also combined with Mitotracker® or a hydrogenosomal-specific anti-Hsp70 antibody to localize mitochondria and hydrogenosomes, respectively, in uncultivated protists from different environments. Using rRNA probes in combination with immunostaining, we linked ssu rRNA phylotypes with microtubule structure to describe flagellate and ciliate morphology in three diverse environments, and linked Naegleria spp. to their amoeboid morphology using actin staining in hay infusion samples. We also linked uncultivated ciliates to morphologically similar Colpoda-like ciliates using tubulin immunostaining with a ciliate-specific rRNA probe. Combining rRNA-targeted FISH with cytoskeletal immunostaining or stains targeting specific organelles provides a fast, efficient, high throughput method for linking genetic sequences with morphological features in uncultivated protists. When linked to phylotype, morphological descriptions of protists can both complement and vet the increasing number of sequences from uncultivated protists, including those of novel lineages

  2. Screening, Isolation and Identification of Probiotic Producing Lactobacillus acidophilus Strains EMBS081 & EMBS082 by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Chandok, Harshpreet; Shah, Pratik; Akare, Uday Raj; Hindala, Maliram; Bhadoriya, Sneha Singh; Ravi, G V; Sharma, Varsha; Bandaru, Srinivas; Rathore, Pragya; Nayarisseri, Anuraj

    2015-09-01

    16S rDNA sequencing which has gained wide popularity amongst microbiologists for the molecular characterization and identification of newly discovered isolates provides accurate identification of isolates down to the level of sub-species (strain). Its most important advantage over the traditional biochemical characterization methods is that it can provide an accurate identification of strains with atypical phenotypic characters as well. The following work is an application of 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach to identify a novel species of Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus. The sample was collected from pond water samples of rural and urban areas of Krishna district, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subsequently, the sample was serially diluted and the aliquots were incubated for a suitable time period following which the suspected colony was subjected to 16S rDNA sequencing. The sequence aligned against other species was concluded to be a novel, Probiotic L. acidophilus bacteria, further which were named L. acidophilus strain EMBS081 & EMBS082. After the sequence characterization, the isolate was deposited in GenBank Database, maintained by the National Centre for Biotechnology Information NCBI. The sequence can also be retrieve from EMBL and DDBJ repositories with accession numbers JX255677 and KC150145.

  3. Helium nanodroplet isolation rovibrational spectroscopy: Methods and recent results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callegari, Carlo; Lehmann, Kevin K.; Schmied, Roman; Scoles, Giacinto

    2001-12-01

    In this article, recent developments in helium nanodroplet isolation (HENDI) spectroscopy are reviewed, with an emphasis on the infrared region of the spectrum. We discuss how molecular beam spectroscopy and matrix isolation spectroscopy can be usefully combined into a method that provides a unique tool to tackle physical and chemical problems which had been outside our experimental possibilities. Next, in reviewing the experimental methodology, we present design criteria for droplet beam formation and its seeding with the chromophore(s) of interest, followed by a discussion of the merits and shortcomings of radiation sources currently used in this type of spectroscopy. In a second, more conceptual part of the review, we discuss several HENDI issues which are understood by the community to a varied level of depth and precision. In this context, we show first how a superfluid helium cluster adopts the symmetry of the molecule or complex seeded in it and discuss the nature of the potential well (and its anisotropy) that acts on a solute inside a droplet, and of the energy levels that arise because of this confinement. Second, we treat the question of the homogeneous versus inhomogeneous broadening of the spectral profiles, moving after this to a discussion of the rotational dynamics of the molecules and of the surrounding superfluid medium. The change in rotational constants from their gas phase values, and their dependence on the angular velocity and vibrational quantum number are discussed. Finally, the spectral shifts generated by this very gentle matrix are analyzed and shown to be small because of a cancellation between the opposing action of the attractive and repulsive parts of the potential of interaction between molecules and their solvent. The review concludes with a discussion of three recent applications to (a) the synthesis of far-from-equilibrium molecular aggregates that could hardly be prepared in any other way, (b) the study of the influence of a

  4. PSRna: Prediction of small RNA secondary structures based on reverse complementary folding method.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Xu, Chengzhen; Wang, Lei; Liang, Hong; Feng, Weixing; Cai, Zhongxi; Wang, Ying; Cong, Wang; Liu, Yunlong

    2016-08-01

    Prediction of RNA secondary structures is an important problem in computational biology and bioinformatics, since RNA secondary structures are fundamental for functional analysis of RNA molecules. However, small RNA secondary structures are scarce and few algorithms have been specifically designed for predicting the secondary structures of small RNAs. Here we propose an algorithm named "PSRna" for predicting small-RNA secondary structures using reverse complementary folding and characteristic hairpin loops of small RNAs. Unlike traditional algorithms that usually generate multi-branch loops and 5[Formula: see text] end self-folding, PSRna first estimated the maximum number of base pairs of RNA secondary structures based on the dynamic programming algorithm and a path matrix is constructed at the same time. Second, the backtracking paths are extracted from the path matrix based on backtracking algorithm, and each backtracking path represents a secondary structure. To improve accuracy, the predicted RNA secondary structures are filtered based on their free energy, where only the secondary structure with the minimum free energy was identified as the candidate secondary structure. Our experiments on real data show that the proposed algorithm is superior to two popular methods, RNAfold and RNAstructure, in terms of sensitivity, specificity and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC).

  5. Improved method for analysis of RNA present in long-term preserved thyroid cancer tissue of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hamatani, Kiyohiro; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Mukai, Mayumi; Koyama, Kazuaki; Taga, Masataka; Ito, Reiko; Hayashi, Yuzo; Nakachi, Kei

    2010-01-01

    Since many thyroid cancer tissue samples from atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have been preserved for several decades as unbuffered formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens, molecular oncological analysis of such archival specimens is indispensable for clarifying the mechanisms of thyroid carcinogenesis in A-bomb survivors. Although RET gene rearrangements are the most important targets, it is a difficult task to examine all of the 13 known types of RET gene rearrangements with the use of the limited quantity of RNA that has been extracted from invaluable paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of A-bomb survivors. In this study, we established an improved 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method using a small amount of RNA extracted from archival thyroid cancer tissue specimens. Three archival thyroid cancer tissue specimens from three different patients were used as in-house controls to determine the conditions for an improved switching mechanism at 5' end of RNA transcript (SMART) RACE method; one tissue specimen with RET/PTC1 rearrangement and one with RET/PTC3 rearrangement were used as positive samples. One other specimen, used as a negative sample, revealed no detectable expression of the RET gene tyrosine kinase domain. We established a 5' RACE method using an amount of RNA as small as 10 ng extracted from long-term preserved, unbuffered formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded thyroid cancer tissue by application of SMART technology. This improved SMART RACE method not only identified common RET gene rearrangements, but also isolated a clone containing a 93-bp insert of rare RTE/PTC8 in RNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded thyroid cancer specimens from one A-bomb survivor who had been exposed to a high radiation dose. In addition, in the papillary thyroid cancer of another high-dose A-bomb survivor, this method detected one novel type of RET gene rearrangement whose partner gene is acyl coenzyme A binding domain 5, located on chromosome 10p

  6. Molecular identification of coliform bacteria isolated from drinking water reservoirs with traditional methods and the Colilert-18 system.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Nienhüser, Anita; Packroff, Gabriele; Wernicke, Frank; Mehling, Arnd; Nixdorf, Katja; Fiedler, Stefanie; Kolauch, Claudia; Esser, Michael

    2008-07-01

    The accuracy of a traditional method (lactose utilization with acid and gas production) for the detection of coliform bacteria and E. coli was tested in comparison with method ISO 9308-1 (based on acid formation from lactose) and the Colilert-18 system (detection of beta-galactosidase). A total of 345 isolates were identified after isolation from water samples using API 20E strips. The Colilert-18 led to the highest number of positive findings (95% of the isolates were assigned to coliforms), whereas the ISO-9308-1 method resulted only in 29% coliform findings. With the traditional method only 15% were rated positive. Most of the isolates were identified by the API 20E system as Enterobacter spp. (species of the Enterobacter cloacae complex), Serratia spp., Citrobacter spp.and Klebsiella spp.; but species identification remained vague in several cases. A more detailed identification of 126 pure cultures by using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and analysis of the hsp60 gene resulted in the identification of Enterobacter nimipressuralis, E. amnigenus, E. asburiae, E. hormaechei, and Serratia fonticola as predominat coliforms. These species are beta-galactosidase positive, but show acid formation from lactose often after a prolonged incubation time. They are often not of fecal origin and may interfere with the ability to accurately detect coliforms of fecal origin.

  7. A highly efficient method for extracting next-generation sequencing quality RNA from adipose tissue of recalcitrant animal species.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Davinder; Golla, Naresh; Singh, Dheer; Onteru, Suneel Kumar

    2017-04-13

    The next-generation sequencing (NGS) based RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and transcriptome profiling offers an opportunity to unveil complex evolutionary processes. Successful RNA-Seq and transcriptome profiling requires a large amount of high-quality RNA. However, NGS-quality RNA isolation is extremely difficult from recalcitrant adipose tissue (AT) with high lipid content and low cell numbers. Further, the amount and biochemical composition of AT lipid varies depending upon the animal species which can pose different degree of resistance to RNA extraction. Currently available approaches may work effectively in one species but can be almost unproductive in another species. Herein, we report a two step protocol for the extraction of NGS quality RNA from AT across a broad range of animal species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Identifying human microRNA-disease associations by a new diffusion-based method.

    PubMed

    Liao, Bo; Ding, Sumei; Chen, Haowen; Li, Zejun; Cai, Lijun

    2015-08-01

    Identifying the microRNA-disease relationship is vital for investigating the pathogenesis of various diseases. However, experimental verification of disease-related microRNAs remains considerable challenge to many researchers, particularly for the fact that numerous new microRNAs are discovered every year. As such, development of computational methods for disease-related microRNA prediction has recently gained eminent attention. In this paper, first, we construct a miRNA functional network and a disease similarity network by integrating different information sources. Then, we further introduce a new diffusion-based method (NDBM) to explore global network similarity for miRNA-disease association inference. Even though known miRNA-disease associations in the database are rare, NDBM still achieves an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 85.62% in the leave-one-out cross-validation in improving the prediction accuracy of previous methods significantly. Moreover, our method is applicable to diseases with no known related miRNAs as well as new miRNAs with unknown target diseases. Some associations who strongly predicted by our method are confirmed by public databases. These superior performances suggest that NDBM could be an effective and important tool for biomedical research.

  9. Biclustering as a method for RNA local multiple sequence alignment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu; Gutell, Robin R; Miranker, Daniel P

    2007-12-15

    Biclustering is a clustering method that simultaneously clusters both the domain and range of a relation. A challenge in multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is that the alignment of sequences is often intended to reveal groups of conserved functional subsequences. Simultaneously, the grouping of the sequences can impact the alignment; precisely the kind of dual situation biclustering is intended to address. We define a representation of the MSA problem enabling the application of biclustering algorithms. We develop a computer program for local MSA, BlockMSA, that combines biclustering with divide-and-conquer. BlockMSA simultaneously finds groups of similar sequences and locally aligns subsequences within them. Further alignment is accomplished by dividing both the set of sequences and their contents. The net result is both a multiple sequence alignment and a hierarchical clustering of the sequences. BlockMSA was tested on the subsets of the BRAliBase 2.1 benchmark suite that display high variability and on an extension to that suite to larger problem sizes. Also, alignments were evaluated of two large datasets of current biological interest, T box sequences and Group IC1 Introns. The results were compared with alignments computed by ClustalW, MAFFT, MUCLE and PROBCONS alignment programs using Sum of Pairs (SPS) and Consensus Count. Results for the benchmark suite are sensitive to problem size. On problems of 15 or greater sequences, BlockMSA is consistently the best. On none of the problems in the test suite are there appreciable differences in scores among BlockMSA, MAFFT and PROBCONS. On the T box sequences, BlockMSA does the most faithful job of reproducing known annotations. MAFFT and PROBCONS do not. On the Intron sequences, BlockMSA, MAFFT and MUSCLE are comparable at identifying conserved regions. BlockMSA is implemented in Java. Source code and supplementary datasets are available at http://aug.csres.utexas.edu/msa/

  10. Method and Apparatus for Automated Isolation of Nucleic Acids from Small Cell Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaram, Shivshankar; Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar; Pant, Kapil; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    RNA isolation is a ubiquitous need, driven by current emphasis on microarrays and miniaturization. With commercial systems requiring 100,000 to 1,000,000 cells for successful isolation, there is a growing need for a small-footprint, easy-to-use device that can harvest nucleic acids from much smaller cell samples (1,000 to 10,000 cells). The process of extraction of RNA from cell cultures is a complex, multi-step one, and requires timed, asynchronous operations with multiple reagents/buffers. An added complexity is the fragility of RNA (subject to degradation) and its reactivity to surface. A novel, microfluidics-based, integrated cartridge has been developed that can fully automate the complex process of RNA isolation (lyse, capture, and elute RNA) from small cell culture samples. On-cartridge cell lysis is achieved using either reagents or high-strength electric fields made possible by the miniaturized format. Traditionally, silica-based, porous-membrane formats have been used for RNA capture, requiring slow perfusion for effective capture. In this design, high efficiency capture/elution are achieved using a microsphere-based "microfluidized" format. Electrokinetic phenomena are harnessed to actively mix microspheres with the cell lysate and capture/elution buffer, providing important advantages in extraction efficiency, processing time, and operational flexibility. Successful RNA isolation was demonstrated using both suspension (HL-60) and adherent (BHK-21) cells. Novel features associated with this development are twofold. First, novel designs that execute needed processes with improved speed and efficiency were developed. These primarily encompass electric-field-driven lysis of cells. The configurations include electrode-containing constructs, or an "electrode-less" chip design, which is easy to fabricate and mitigates fouling at the electrode surface; and the "fluidized" extraction format based on electrokinetically assisted mixing and contacting of microbeads

  11. The enhanced rate of transcription of methyl mercury-exposed DNA by RNA polymerase is not sufficient to explain the stimulatory effect of methyl mercury on RNA synthesis in isolated nuclei.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, G D; Ducote, J

    1987-10-01

    Previous work demonstrated two stimulatory effects of methyl mercury on nucleic acid synthesis: (1) in isolated nuclei, methyl mercury stimulates RNA synthesis which is catalyzed by RNA polymerase II [Frenkel and Randles, J. Biol. Chem. 257, 6275-6279 (1982)]. (2) Brief exposure of purified DNA to methyl mercury increases the rate of its transcription by purified RNA polymerase II [Frenkel, Cain, and Chao, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 127, 849-856 (1985)]. The latter effect was considered as a possible mechanism of the former. Two lines of evidence are presented here which demonstrate that the latter effect is not a sufficient explanation for the former. (1) Mercuric perchlorate has been found to increase the rate of DNA transcription by purified polymerase and the template properties of the mercuric perchlorate-exposed DNA have been found to resemble those of methyl mercury-exposed DNA. Nevertheless, mercuric perchlorate has been shown not to stimulate RNA synthesis in isolated HeLa nuclei. (2) In isolated nuclei of the B50 rat neuroblastoma cell line, RNA synthesis has been found to be stimulated only minimally by methyl mercury. Nevertheless, RNA polymerase II purified from the B50 cells has been found to transcribe methyl mercury-exposed DNA at a higher rate than unexposed control DNA.

  12. Influence of the Isolation Method on the Technofunctional Properties of Protein Isolates from Lupinus angustifolius L.

    PubMed

    Muranyi, Isabel S; Otto, Clemens; Pickardt, Claudia; Osen, Raffael; Koehler, Peter; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute

    2016-10-05

    The technofunctional properties of 2 protein isolates from Lupinus angustifolius L. Vitabor isolated by different procedures were investigated. The lupin protein isolate prepared by aqueous alkaline extraction with subsequent isoelectric precipitation (ILP) showed a significantly higher degree of protein denaturation and lower denaturation temperatures than the one obtained by aqueous salt-induced extraction followed by dilutive precipitation (MLP) as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Rheological investigations revealed higher firmness and a viscoelastic solid-like behavior of ILP, in contrast to MLP that showed viscoelastic, liquid-like properties. Protein solubility of MLP was higher compared to ILP and solubility minima were slightly different for both lupin protein isolates. The protein isolates exhibited different technofunctional properties with ILP showing higher water binding capacity, lower oil binding capacity and lower emulsifying capacity than MLP. This reflects the different putative application of both lupin protein isolates as food ingredients, for example for ILP as a moisture enhancer and for MLP as a "natural" emulsifier in mixed food systems.

  13. A cost-effective method for Illumina small RNA-Seq library preparation using T4 RNA ligase 1 adenylated adapters

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Deep sequencing is a powerful tool for novel small RNA discovery. Illumina small RNA sequencing library preparation requires a pre-adenylated 3’ end adapter containing a 5’,5’-adenyl pyrophosphoryl moiety. In the absence of ATP, this adapter can be ligated to the 3’ hydroxyl group of small RNA, while RNA self-ligation and concatenation are repressed. Pre-adenylated adapters are one of the most essential and costly components required for library preparation, and few are commercially available. Results We demonstrate that DNA oligo with 5’ phosphate and 3’ amine groups can be enzymatically adenylated by T4 RNA ligase 1 to generate customized pre-adenylated adapters. We have constructed and sequenced a small RNA library for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) using the T4 RNA ligase 1 adenylated adapter. Conclusion We provide an efficient and low-cost method for small RNA sequencing library preparation, which takes two days to complete and costs around $20 per library. This protocol has been tested in several plant species for small RNA sequencing including sweet potato, pepper, watermelon, and cowpea, and could be readily applied to any RNA samples. PMID:22995534

  14. SnapShot-Seq: A Method for Extracting Genome-Wide, In Vivo mRNA Dynamics from a Single Total RNA Sample

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, Sarah A.; Cloonan, Nicole; Mullen, Thomas E.; Ling, Joseph J.; Miller, Nimrod; Kuersten, Scott; Ma, Yong-Chao; McCarroll, Steven A.; Grimmond, Sean M.; Springer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    mRNA synthesis, processing, and destruction involve a complex series of molecular steps that are incompletely understood. Because the RNA intermediates in each of these steps have finite lifetimes, extensive mechanistic and dynamical information is encoded in total cellular RNA. Here we report the development of SnapShot-Seq, a set of computational methods that allow the determination of in vivo rates of pre-mRNA synthesis, splicing, intron degradation, and mRNA decay from a single RNA-Seq snapshot of total cellular RNA. SnapShot-Seq can detect in vivo changes in the rates of specific steps of splicing, and it provides genome-wide estimates of pre-mRNA synthesis rates comparable to those obtained via labeling of newly synthesized RNA. We used SnapShot-Seq to investigate the origins of the intrinsic bimodality of metazoan gene expression levels, and our results suggest that this bimodality is partly due to spillover of transcriptional activation from highly expressed genes to their poorly expressed neighbors. SnapShot-Seq dramatically expands the information obtainable from a standard RNA-Seq experiment. PMID:24586954

  15. Mass isotopomer analysis of nucleosides isolated from RNA and DNA using GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Santos, Ines; Gramacho, Silvia; Pineiro, Marta; Martinez-Gomez, Karla; Fritz, Michel; Hollemeyer, Klaus; Salvador, Armindo; Heinzle, Elmar

    2015-01-06

    Nucleosides are biosynthesized from metabolites that are at key nodes of intermediary metabolism. Therefore, (13)C labeling patterns in nucleosides from ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in suitably designed isotopic tracer studies provide information on metabolic flux distributions of proliferating cells. Here, we present a gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS)-based approach that permits one to exploit that potential. In order to elucidate positional isotopomers of nucleosides from RNA and DNA, we screened the fragmentation spectra of their trimethylsilyl derivatives. We identified the molecular ion moieties retained in the respective fragment ions, focusing particularly on the carbon backbone. Nucleosides fragmented at the N-glycosidic bond provide nucleobase and/or ribose or 2'-deoxyribose fragment ions and fragments thereof. Nucleoside fragments composed of the nucleobase plus some carbons of the ribose ring were also observed. In total, we unequivocally assigned 31 fragments. The mass-isotopic distribution of the assigned fragments provides valuable information for later (13)C metabolic flux analysis as indicated by a labeling experiment applying [1-(13)C]glucose in a yeast culture.

  16. Prevalence of 16S rRNA methylase genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from a Chinese teaching hospital: coexistence of rmtB and armA genes in the same isolate.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fangyou; Wang, Liangxing; Pan, Jingye; Yao, Dan; Chen, Chan; Zhu, Tao; Lou, Qiang; Hu, Jian; Wu, Yang; Zhang, Xueqing; Chen, Zengqiang; Qu, Di

    2009-05-01

    16S rRNA methylase-mediated high-level resistance to aminoglycosides has been reported recently in clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacilli from several countries. Twenty-one (6.2%, 21/337) of 337 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae from a teaching hospital in Wenzhou, China, were positive for 16S rRNA methylase genes (3 for armA, 13 for rmtB, 5 for both armA and rmtB) and highly resistant to gentamicin, amikacin, and tobramycin (MICs, > or =256 microg/mL). Nineteen of 21 isolates harboring 16S rRNA methyalse genes were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers. The plasmids harboring 16S rRNA methylase genes from 14 of 21 donors were transferred into the recipients, Escherichia coli J53. The armA and the rmtB usually coexisted with ESBL genes in the same isolate in clinical isolates a