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Sample records for rna ligase activity

  1. T4 RNA Ligase 2 truncated active site mutants: improved tools for RNA analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background T4 RNA ligases 1 and 2 are useful tools for RNA analysis. Their use upstream of RNA analyses such as high-throughput RNA sequencing and microarrays has recently increased their importance. The truncated form of T4 RNA ligase 2, comprising amino acids 1-249 (T4 Rnl2tr), is an attractive tool for attachment of adapters or labels to RNA 3'-ends. Compared to T4 RNA ligase 1, T4 Rnl2tr has a decreased ability to ligate 5'-PO4 ends in single-stranded RNA ligations, and compared to the full-length T4 Rnl2, the T4 Rnl2tr has an increased activity for joining 5'-adenylated adapters to RNA 3'-ends. The combination of these properties allows adapter attachment to RNA 3'-ends with reduced circularization and concatemerization of substrate RNA. Results With the aim of further reducing unwanted side ligation products, we substituted active site residues, known to be important for adenylyltransferase steps of the ligation reaction, in the context of T4 Rnl2tr. We characterized the variant ligases for the formation of unwanted ligation side products and for activity in the strand-joining reaction. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that lysine 227 is a key residue facilitating adenylyl transfer from adenylated ligation donor substrates to the ligase. This reversal of the second step of the ligation reaction correlates with the formation of unwanted ligation products. Thus, T4 Rn2tr mutants containing the K227Q mutation are useful for reducing undesired ligation products. We furthermore report optimal conditions for the use of these improved T4 Rnl2tr variants. PMID:21722378

  2. Structurally complex and highly active RNA ligases derived from random RNA sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekland, E. H.; Szostak, J. W.; Bartel, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    Seven families of RNA ligases, previously isolated from random RNA sequences, fall into three classes on the basis of secondary structure and regiospecificity of ligation. Two of the three classes of ribozymes have been engineered to act as true enzymes, catalyzing the multiple-turnover transformation of substrates into products. The most complex of these ribozymes has a minimal catalytic domain of 93 nucleotides. An optimized version of this ribozyme has a kcat exceeding one per second, a value far greater than that of most natural RNA catalysts and approaching that of comparable protein enzymes. The fact that such a large and complex ligase emerged from a very limited sampling of sequence space implies the existence of a large number of distinct RNA structures of equivalent complexity and activity.

  3. Archaeal RNA ligase from thermoccocus kodakarensis for template dependent ligation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Tripathi, Anubhav

    2017-01-02

    Nicking-sealing RNA ligases play a significant biological role in host defense and cellular repair, and have become an important molecular tool in biomedical engineering. Due to the propensity for RNA to form secondary structures, RNA modifying enzymes with elevated optimum temperatures are highly desired. Current characterized double stranded RNA ligases, such as the bacteriophage T4 RNA ligase 2, while possessing good template dependency, are not active at elevated temperatures. The few characterized RNA ligases from thermophiles exhibit high template independency. We synthesize and characterize here, KOD RNA ligase (KOD1Rnl), a thermostable and template dependent RNA ligase from the archaeon, Thermoccocus Kodakarensis. We disclose that a 13 time reduction in template independent ligation can be achieved with the addition of a single stranded DNase, such as RecJ. We also elucidate the effects of the presence of blood proteins on the activity of KOD1Rnl. Template dependent and thermostable RNA ligases, such as KOD RNA ligase, can be utilized in RNA detection, modification and sequencing.

  4. New Insights into the RNA-Binding and E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activities of Roquins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Fan, Lixin; Hou, Feng; Dong, Aiping; Wang, Yun-Xing; Tong, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Roquins are a family of highly conserved RNA-binding proteins that also contain a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase domain. They repress constitutive decay elements containing mRNAs and play a critical role in RNA homeostasis and immunological self-tolerance. Here we present the crystal structures of the RNA-binding region of Roquin paralog RC3H2 in both apo- and RNA-bound forms. The RNA-binding region has a bipartite architecture composed of ROQ and HEPN domains, and can bind to stem-loop and double-stranded RNAs simultaneously. The two domains undergo a large orientation change to accommodate RNA duplex binding. We profiled E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes that pair with Roquins and found that RC3H1 and RC3H2 interact with two sets of overlapping but not identical E2 enzymes to drive the assembly of polyubiquitin chains of different linkages. Crystal structures, small-angle X-ray scattering, and E2 profiling revealed that while the two paralogs are highly homologous, RC3H2 and RC3H1 are different in their structures and functions. We also demonstrated that RNA duplex binding to RC3H2 cross-talks with its E3 ubiquitin ligase function using an in vitro auto-ubiquitination assay. PMID:26489670

  5. A novel high-throughput activity assay for the Trypanosoma brucei editosome enzyme REL1 and other RNA ligases

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Stephan; Hall, Laurence; Riley, Sean; Sørensen, Jesper; Amaro, Rommie E.; Schnaufer, Achim

    2016-01-01

    The protist parasite Trypanosoma brucei causes Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), which threatens millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa. Without treatment the infection is almost always lethal. Current drugs for HAT are difficult to administer and have severe side effects. Together with increasing drug resistance this results in urgent need for new treatments. T. brucei and other trypanosomatid pathogens require a distinct form of post-transcriptional mRNA modification for mitochondrial gene expression. A multi-protein complex called the editosome cleaves mitochondrial mRNA, inserts or deletes uridine nucleotides at specific positions and re-ligates the mRNA. RNA editing ligase 1 (REL1) is essential for the re-ligation step and has no close homolog in the mammalian host, making it a promising target for drug discovery. However, traditional assays for RELs use radioactive substrates coupled with gel analysis and are not suitable for high-throughput screening of compound libraries. Here we describe a fluorescence-based REL activity assay. This assay is compatible with a 384-well microplate format and sensitive, satisfies statistical criteria for high-throughput methods and is readily adaptable for other polynucleotide ligases. We validated the assay by determining kinetic properties of REL1 and by identifying REL1 inhibitors in a library of small, pharmacologically active compounds. PMID:26400159

  6. Polynucleotide 3'-terminal phosphate modifications by RNA and DNA ligases.

    PubMed

    Zhelkovsky, Alexander M; McReynolds, Larry A

    2014-11-28

    RNA and DNA ligases catalyze the formation of a phosphodiester bond between the 5'-phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl ends of nucleic acids. In this work, we describe the ability of the thermophilic RNA ligase MthRnl from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum to recognize and modify the 3'-terminal phosphate of RNA and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). This ligase can use an RNA 3'p substrate to generate an RNA 2',3'-cyclic phosphate or convert DNA3'p to ssDNA(3')pp(5')A. An RNA ligase from the Thermus scotoductus bacteriophage TS2126 and a predicted T4 Rnl1-like protein from Thermovibrio ammonificans, TVa, were also able to adenylate ssDNA 3'p. These modifications of RNA and DNA 3'-phosphates are similar to the activities of RtcA, an RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase. The initial step involves adenylation of the enzyme by ATP, which is then transferred to either RNA 3'p or DNA 3'p to generate the adenylated intermediate. For RNA (3')pp(5')A, the third step involves attack of the adjacent 2' hydroxyl to generate the RNA 2',3'-cyclic phosphate. These steps are analogous to those in classical 5' phosphate ligation. MthRnl and TS2126 RNA ligases were not able to modify a 3'p in nicked double-stranded DNA. However, T4 DNA ligase and RtcA can use 3'-phosphorylated nicks in double-stranded DNA to produce a 3'-adenylated product. These 3'-terminal phosphate-adenylated intermediates are substrates for deadenylation by yeast 5'Deadenylase. Our findings that classic ligases can duplicate the adenylation and phosphate cyclization activity of RtcA suggests that they have an essential role in metabolism of nucleic acids with 3'-terminal phosphates. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Viroid RNA redirects host DNA ligase 1 to act as an RNA ligase.

    PubMed

    Nohales, María-Ángeles; Flores, Ricardo; Daròs, José-Antonio

    2012-08-21

    Viroids are a unique class of noncoding RNAs: composed of only a circular, single-stranded molecule of 246-401 nt, they manage to replicate, move, circumvent host defenses, and frequently induce disease in higher plants. Viroids replicate through an RNA-to-RNA rolling-circle mechanism consisting of transcription of oligomeric viroid RNA intermediates, cleavage to unit-length strands, and circularization. Though the host RNA polymerase II (redirected to accept RNA templates) mediates RNA synthesis and a type-III RNase presumably cleavage of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) and closely related members of the family Pospiviroidae, the host enzyme catalyzing the final circularization step, has remained elusive. In this study we propose that PSTVd subverts host DNA ligase 1, converting it to an RNA ligase, for the final step. To support this hypothesis, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) DNA ligase 1 specifically and efficiently catalyzes circularization of the genuine PSTVd monomeric linear replication intermediate opened at position G95-G96 and containing 5'-phosphomonoester and 3'-hydroxyl terminal groups. Moreover, we also show a decreased PSTVd accumulation and a reduced ratio of monomeric circular to total monomeric PSTVd forms in Nicotiana benthamiana Domin plants in which the endogenous DNA ligase 1 was silenced. Thus, in a remarkable example of parasitic strategy, viroids reprogram for their replication the template and substrate specificity of a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase and a DNA ligase to act as RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and RNA ligase, respectively.

  8. Active site of the mRNA-capping enzyme guanylyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: similarity to the nucleotidyl attachment motif of DNA and RNA ligases.

    PubMed Central

    Fresco, L D; Buratowski, S

    1994-01-01

    Nascent mRNA chains are capped at the 5' end by the addition of a guanylyl residue to form a G(5')ppp(5')N ... structure. During the capping reaction, the guanylyltransferase (GTP:mRNA guanylyltransferase, EC 2.7.7.50) is reversibly and covalently guanylylated. In this enzyme-GMP (E-GMP) intermediate, GMP is linked to the epsilon-amino group of a lysine residue via a phosphoamide bond. Lys-70 was identified as the GMP attachment site of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae guanylyltransferase (encoded by the CEG1 gene) by guanylylpeptide sequencing. CEG1 genes with substitutions at Lys-70 were unable to support viability in yeast and produced proteins that were not guanylylated in vitro. The CEG1 active site exhibits sequence similarity to the active sites of viral guanylyltransferases and polynucleotide ligases, suggesting similarity in the mechanisms of nucleotidyl transfer catalyzed by these enzymes. Images PMID:8022828

  9. DNA and RNA ligases: structural variations and shared mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pascal, John M

    2008-02-01

    DNA and RNA ligases join 3' OH and 5' PO4 ends in polynucleotide substrates using a three-step reaction mechanism that involves covalent modification of both the ligase enzyme and the polynucleotide substrate with AMP. In the past three years, several polynucleotide ligases have been crystallized in complex with nucleic acid, providing the introductory views of ligase enzymes engaging their substrates. Crystal structures for two ATP-dependent DNA ligases, an NAD+-dependent DNA ligase, and an ATP-dependent RNA ligase demonstrate how ligases utilize the AMP group and their multi-domain architectures to manipulate nucleic acid structure and catalyze the end-joining reaction. Together with unliganded crystal structures of DNA and RNA ligases, a more comprehensive and dynamic understanding of the multi-step ligation reaction mechanism has emerged.

  10. Viroid RNA redirects host DNA ligase 1 to act as an RNA ligase

    PubMed Central

    Nohales, María-Ángeles; Flores, Ricardo; Daròs, José-Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Viroids are a unique class of noncoding RNAs: composed of only a circular, single-stranded molecule of 246–401 nt, they manage to replicate, move, circumvent host defenses, and frequently induce disease in higher plants. Viroids replicate through an RNA-to-RNA rolling-circle mechanism consisting of transcription of oligomeric viroid RNA intermediates, cleavage to unit-length strands, and circularization. Though the host RNA polymerase II (redirected to accept RNA templates) mediates RNA synthesis and a type-III RNase presumably cleavage of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) and closely related members of the family Pospiviroidae, the host enzyme catalyzing the final circularization step, has remained elusive. In this study we propose that PSTVd subverts host DNA ligase 1, converting it to an RNA ligase, for the final step. To support this hypothesis, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) DNA ligase 1 specifically and efficiently catalyzes circularization of the genuine PSTVd monomeric linear replication intermediate opened at position G95–G96 and containing 5′-phosphomonoester and 3′-hydroxyl terminal groups. Moreover, we also show a decreased PSTVd accumulation and a reduced ratio of monomeric circular to total monomeric PSTVd forms in Nicotiana benthamiana Domin plants in which the endogenous DNA ligase 1 was silenced. Thus, in a remarkable example of parasitic strategy, viroids reprogram for their replication the template and substrate specificity of a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase and a DNA ligase to act as RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and RNA ligase, respectively. PMID:22869737

  11. A natural ribozyme with 3′,5′ RNA ligase activity

    PubMed Central

    Vicens, Quentin; Cech, Thomas R

    2010-01-01

    Using electrophoresis, sequencing and enzymatic digestion, we show that the group I intron from the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 catalyzes phosphodiester bond formation using a triphosphate on the 5′-terminal nucleotide, much like protein polymerases and engineered ribozymes. In the process, this ribozyme forms a unique circular RNA that incorporates the exogenous guanosine cofactor added during self-splicing. This finding may have relevance to a prebiotic RNA world and to modern biology. PMID:19125157

  12. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Circular Substrates for an Archaeal RNA ligase.

    PubMed

    Becker, Hubert F; Heliou, Alice; Djaout, Kamel; Lestini, Roxane; Regnier, Mireille; Myllykallio, Hannu

    2017-03-09

    It is only recently that the abundant presence of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in all kingdoms of Life, including the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi, has emerged. This led us to investigate the physiological significance of a previously observed weak intramolecular ligation activity of Pab1020 RNA ligase. Here we demonstrate that this enzyme, despite sharing significant sequence similarity with DNA ligases, is indeed an RNA-specific polynucleotide ligase efficiently acting on physiologically significant substrates. Using a combination of RNA immunoprecipitation assays and RNA-seq, our genome-wide studies revealed 133 individual circRNA loci in P. abyssi. The large majority of these loci interacted with Pab1020 in cells and circularization of selected C/D Box and 5S rRNA transcripts was confirmed biochemically. Altogether these studies revealed that Pab1020 is required for RNA circularization. Our results further suggest the functional speciation of an ancestral NTase domain and/or DNA ligase towards RNA ligase activity and prompt for further characterization of the widespread functions of circular RNAs in prokaryotes. Detailed insight into the cellular substrates of Pab1020 may facilitate the development of new biotechnological applications e.g. in ligation of preadenylated adaptors to RNA molecules.

  13. Splint ligation of RNA with T4 DNA ligase

    PubMed Central

    Kershaw, Christopher J.; O’Keefe, Raymond T.

    2014-01-01

    Splint ligation of RNA, whereby specific RNA molecules are ligated together, can be carried out using T4 DNA ligase and a bridging DNA oligonucleotide complementary to the RNAs. This method takes advantage of the property of T4 DNA ligase to join RNA molecules when they are in an RNA:DNA hybrid. Splint ligation is a useful tool for the introduction of modified nucleotides into RNA molecules, insertion of a radiolabel into a specific position within an RNA and for the assembly of smaller synthetic RNAs into longer RNA molecules. Such modifications enable a wide range of experiments to be carried out with the modified RNA including structural studies, co-immunoprecipitations, and the ability to map sites of RNA:RNA and RNA:protein interactions. PMID:23065567

  14. Mutational analysis of Trypanosoma brucei RNA editing ligase reveals regions critical for interaction with KREPA2.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vaibhav; Sen, Rajashree; Moshiri, Houtan; Salavati, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The Trypanosoma brucei parasite causes the vector-borne disease African sleeping sickness. Mitochondrial mRNAs of T. brucei undergo posttranscriptional RNA editing to make mature, functional mRNAs. The final step of this process is catalyzed by the essential ligase, T. brucei RNA Editing Ligase 1 (TbREL1) and the closely related T. brucei RNA Editing Ligase 2 (TbREL2). While other ligases such as T7 DNA ligase have both a catalytic and an oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB)-fold domain, T. brucei RNA editing ligases contain only the catalytic domain. The OB-fold domain, which is required for interaction with the substrate RNA, is provided in trans by KREPA2 (for TbREL1) and KREPA1 (for TbREL2). KREPA2 enhancement of TbREL1 ligase activity is presumed to occur via an OB-fold-mediated increase in substrate specificity and catalysis. We characterized the interaction between TbREL1 and KREPA2 in vitro using full-length, truncated, and point-mutated ligases. As previously shown, our data indicate strong, specific stimulation of TbREL1 catalytic activity by KREPA2. We narrowed the region of contact to the final 59 C-terminal residues of TbREL1. Specifically, the TbREL1 C-terminal KWKE (441-444) sequence appear to coordinate the KREPA2-mediated enhancement of TbREL1 activities. N-terminal residues F206, T264 and Y275 are crucial for the overall activity of TbREL1, particularly for F206, a mutation of this residue also disrupts KREPA2 interaction. Thus, we have identified the critical TbREL1 regions and amino acids that mediate the KREPA2 interaction.

  15. Polynucleotide 3′-terminal Phosphate Modifications by RNA and DNA Ligases

    PubMed Central

    Zhelkovsky, Alexander M.; McReynolds, Larry A.

    2014-01-01

    RNA and DNA ligases catalyze the formation of a phosphodiester bond between the 5′-phosphate and 3′-hydroxyl ends of nucleic acids. In this work, we describe the ability of the thermophilic RNA ligase MthRnl from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum to recognize and modify the 3′-terminal phosphate of RNA and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). This ligase can use an RNA 3′p substrate to generate an RNA 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate or convert DNA3′p to ssDNA3′pp5′A. An RNA ligase from the Thermus scotoductus bacteriophage TS2126 and a predicted T4 Rnl1-like protein from Thermovibrio ammonificans, TVa, were also able to adenylate ssDNA 3′p. These modifications of RNA and DNA 3′-phosphates are similar to the activities of RtcA, an RNA 3′-phosphate cyclase. The initial step involves adenylation of the enzyme by ATP, which is then transferred to either RNA 3′p or DNA 3′p to generate the adenylated intermediate. For RNA 3′pp5′A, the third step involves attack of the adjacent 2′ hydroxyl to generate the RNA 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate. These steps are analogous to those in classical 5′ phosphate ligation. MthRnl and TS2126 RNA ligases were not able to modify a 3′p in nicked double-stranded DNA. However, T4 DNA ligase and RtcA can use 3′-phosphorylated nicks in double-stranded DNA to produce a 3′-adenylated product. These 3′-terminal phosphate-adenylated intermediates are substrates for deadenylation by yeast 5′Deadenylase. Our findings that classic ligases can duplicate the adenylation and phosphate cyclization activity of RtcA suggests that they have an essential role in metabolism of nucleic acids with 3′-terminal phosphates. PMID:25324547

  16. Cullin E3 Ligase Activity Is Required for Myoblast Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Blondelle, Jordan; Shapiro, Paige; Domenighetti, Andrea A; Lange, Stephan

    2017-04-07

    The role of cullin E3-ubiquitin ligases for muscle homeostasis is best known during muscle atrophy, as the cullin-1 substrate adaptor atrogin-1 is among the most well-characterized muscle atrogins. We investigated whether cullin activity was also crucial during terminal myoblast differentiation and aggregation of acetylcholine receptors for the establishment of neuromuscular junctions in vitro. The activity of cullin E3-ligases is modulated through post-translational modification with the small ubiquitin-like modifier nedd8. Using either the Nae1 inhibitor MLN4924 (Pevonedistat) or siRNA against nedd8 in early or late stages of differentiation on C2C12 myoblasts, and primary satellite cells from mouse and human, we show that cullin E3-ligase activity is necessary for each step of the muscle cell differentiation program in vitro. We further investigate known transcriptional repressors for terminal muscle differentiation, namely ZBTB38, Bhlhe41, and Id1. Due to their identified roles for terminal muscle differentiation, we hypothesize that the accumulation of these potential cullin E3-ligase substrates may be partially responsible for the observed phenotype. MLN4924 is currently undergoing clinical trials in cancer patients, and our experiments highlight concerns on the homeostasis and regenerative capacity of muscles in these patients who often experience cachexia.

  17. Structural Studies of Trypanosoma brucei RNA Editing Ligases and Their Binding Partner Proteins.

    PubMed

    Shaneh, Alireza; Purisima, Enrico O; Salavati, Reza; Sulea, Traian

    2016-04-26

    To study the mechanism of ligating nicked RNA strands, we conducted molecular dynamics simulations of Trypanosoma brucei RNA editing ligases L1 and L2 complexed with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) fragments. In each resulting model, a Mg(2+) ion coordinates the 5'-PO4 of the nicked nucleotide and the 3'-OH of the terminal nucleotide for a nucleophilic reaction consistent with the postulated step 3 chemistry of the ligation mechanism. Moreover, coordination of the 3'-OH to the Mg(2+) ion may lower its pKa, thereby rendering it a more effective nucleophile as an oxyanion. Thus, Mg(2+) may play a twofold role: bringing the reactants into the proximity of each other and activating the nucleophile. We also conducted solvated interaction energy calculations to explore whether ligation specificities can be correlated to ligase-dsRNA binding affinity changes. The calculated dsRNA binding affinities are stronger for both L1 and L2 when the terminal nucleotide is changed from cytosine to guanine, in line with their experimentally measured ligation specificities. Because the ligation mechanism is also influenced by interactions of the ligase with partner proteins from the editosome subcomplex, we also modeled the structure of the RNA-bound L2 in complex with the oligonucleotide binding (OB) domain of largest editosome interacting protein A1. The resulting L2-dsRNA-A1 model, which is consistent with mutagenesis and binding data recorded to date, provides the first atomic-level glimpse of plausible interactions around the RNA ligation site in the presence of an OB domain presented in-trans to a nucleic acid ligase.

  18. Engineered DNA ligases with improved activities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert H; Morton, Susan K; Deiderick, Heather; Gerth, Monica L; Paul, Hayden A; Gerber, Ilana; Patel, Ankita; Ellington, Andrew D; Hunicke-Smith, Scott P; Patrick, Wayne M

    2013-07-01

    The DNA ligase from bacteriophage T4 is one of the most widely used enzymes in molecular biology. It has evolved to seal single-stranded nicks in double-stranded DNA, but not to join double-stranded fragments with cohesive or blunt ends. Its poor activity in vitro, particularly with blunt-ended substrates, can lead to failed or sub-optimal experimental outcomes. We have fused T4 DNA ligase to seven different DNA-binding proteins, including eukaryotic transcription factors, bacterial DNA repair proteins and archaeal DNA-binding domains. Representatives from each of these classes improved the activity of T4 DNA ligase, by up to 7-fold, in agarose gel-based screens for cohesive- and blunt-ended fragment joining. Overall, the most active variants were p50-ligase (i.e. NF-κB p50 fused to T4 DNA ligase) and ligase-cTF (T4 DNA ligase fused to an artificial, chimeric transcription factor). Ligase-cTF out-performed T4 DNA ligase by ∼160% in blunt end 'vector + insert' cloning assays, and p50-ligase showed an improvement of a similar magnitude when it was used to construct a library for Illumina sequencing. The activity of the Escherichia coli DNA ligase was also enhanced by fusion to p50. Together, these results suggest that our protein design strategy is a generalizable one for engineering improved DNA ligases.

  19. Reconciling Ligase Ribozyme Activity with Fatty Acid Vesicle Stability

    PubMed Central

    Anella, Fabrizio; Danelon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The “RNA world” and the “Lipid world” theories for the origin of cellular life are often considered incompatible due to the differences in the environmental conditions at which they can emerge. One obstacle resides in the conflicting requirements for divalent metal ions, in particular Mg2+, with respect to optimal ribozyme activity, fatty acid vesicle stability and protection against RNA strand cleavage. Here, we report on the activity of a short L1 ligase ribozyme in the presence of myristoleic acid (MA) vesicles at varying concentrations of Mg2+. The ligation rate is significantly lower at low-Mg2+ conditions. However, the loss of activity is overcompensated by the increased stability of RNA leading to a larger amount of intact ligated substrate after long reaction periods. Combining RNA ligation assays with fatty acid vesicles we found that MA vesicles made of 5 mM amphiphile are stable and do not impair ligase ribozyme activity in the presence of approximately 2 mM Mg2+. These results provide a scenario in which catalytic RNA and primordial membrane assembly can coexist in the same environment. PMID:25513761

  20. Functional analysis of the mammalian RNA ligase for IRE1 in the unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Poothong, Juthakorn; Tirasophon, Witoon; Kaufman, Randal J

    2017-04-30

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a conserved signalling pathway activated on the accumulation of unfolded proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), termed ER stress. Upon ER stress, HAC1/XBP1 undergoes exon/intron-specific excision by inositol requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) to remove an intron and liberate the 5' and 3' exons. In yeast, the 5' and 3' HAC1 exons are subsequently ligated by tRNA ligase (Rlg1p), whereas XBP1 ligation in mammalian cells is catalysed by a recently identified ligase, RtcB. In the present study, RNA ligase activity of the human RtcB (hRtcB) involved in the unconventional splicing of XBP1/HAC1 mRNA was explored in an rlg1-100 mutant yeast strain. Distinct from Escherichia coli RtcB and Rlg1p, expression of hRtcB alone inefficiently complemented HAC1/XBP1 splicing and the hRtcB cofactor (archease) was required to promote enzymatic activity of hRtcB to catalyse RNA ligation.

  1. Mutational analysis of bacteriophage T4 RNA ligase 1. Different functional groups are required for the nucleotidyl transfer and phosphodiester bond formation steps of the ligation reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li Kai; Ho, C Kiong; Pei, Yi; Shuman, Stewart

    2003-08-08

    T4 RNA ligase 1 (Rnl1) exemplifies an ATP-dependent RNA ligase family that includes fungal tRNA ligase (Trl1) and a putative baculovirus RNA ligase. Rnl1 acts via a covalent enzyme-AMP intermediate generated by attack of Lys-99 N zeta on the alpha phosphorus of ATP. Mutation of Lys-99 abolishes ligase activity. Here we tested the effects of alanine mutations at 19 conserved positions in Rnl1 and thereby identified 9 new residues essential for ligase activity: Arg-54, Lys-75, Phe-77, Gly-102, Lys-119, Glu-227, Gly-228, Lys-240, and Lys-242. Seven of the essential residues are located within counterparts of conserved nucleotidyltransferase motifs I (99KEDG102), Ia (118SK119), IV (227EGYVA231), and V (238HFKIK242) that comprise the active sites of DNA ligases, RNA capping enzymes, and T4 RNA ligase 2. Three other essential residues, Arg-54, Lys-75 and Phe-77, are located upstream of the AMP attachment site within a conserved domain unique to the Rnl1-like ligase family. We infer a shared evolutionary history and active site architecture in Rnl1 (a tRNA repair enzyme) and Trl1 (a tRNA splicing enzyme). We determined structure-activity relationships via conservative substitutions and examined mutational effects on the isolated steps of Rnl1 adenylylation (step 1) and phosphodiester bond formation (step 3). Lys-75, Lys-240, and Lys-242 were found to be essential for step 1 and overall ligation of 5'-phosphorylated RNA but not for phosphodiester bond formation. These results suggest that the composition of the Rnl1 active site is different during steps 1 and 3. Mutations at Arg-54 and Lys-119 abolished the overall RNA ligation reaction without affecting steps 1 and 3. Arg-54 and Lys-119 are thereby implicated as specific catalysts of the RNA adenylation reaction (step 2) of the ligation pathway.

  2. Cleavage of 3'-terminal adenosine by archaeal ATP-dependent RNA ligase.

    PubMed

    Yoshinari, Shigeo; Liu, Yancheng; Gollnick, Paul; Ho, C Kiong

    2017-09-14

    Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus RNA ligase (MthRnl) catalyzes formation of phosphodiester bonds between the 5'-phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl termini of single-stranded RNAs. It can also react with RNA with a 3'-phosphate end to generate a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate. Here, we show that MthRnl can additionally remove adenosine from the 3'-terminus of the RNA to produce 3'-deadenylated RNA, RNA(3'-rA). This 3'-deadenylation activity is metal-dependent and requires a 2'-hydroxyl at both the terminal adenosine and the penultimate nucleoside. Residues that contact the ATP/AMP in the MthRnl crystal structures are essential for the 3'-deadenylation activity, suggesting that 3'-adenosine may occupy the ATP-binding pocket. The 3'-end of cleaved RNA(3'-rA) consists of 2',3'-cyclic phosphate which protects RNA(3'-rA) from ligation and further deadenylation. These findings suggest that ATP-dependent RNA ligase may act on a specific set of 3'-adenylated RNAs to regulate their processing and downstream biological events.

  3. Purification of histidine-tagged T4 RNA ligase from E. coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing S; Unrau, Peter J

    2002-12-01

    Here we report the construction of a histidine-tagged T4 RNA ligase expression plasmid (pRHT4). The construct, when overexpressed in BL21 (DE3) cells, allows the preparation of large quantities of T4 RNA ligase in high purity using only a single purification column. The histidine affinity tag does not inhibit enzyme function, and we were able to purify 1-3 mg pure protein/g cell pellet. A simple purification procedure ensures that the enzyme is de-adenylated to levels comparable to those found for many commercial preparations. The purified protein has very low levels of RNase contamination and functioned normally in a variety of activity assays.

  4. Efficient DNA ligation in DNA–RNA hybrid helices by Chlorella virus DNA ligase

    PubMed Central

    Lohman, Gregory J. S.; Zhang, Yinhua; Zhelkovsky, Alexander M.; Cantor, Eric J.; Evans, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA molecules (ssDNA) annealed to an RNA splint are notoriously poor substrates for DNA ligases. Herein we report the unexpectedly efficient ligation of RNA-splinted DNA by Chlorella virus DNA ligase (PBCV-1 DNA ligase). PBCV-1 DNA ligase ligated ssDNA splinted by RNA with kcat ≈ 8 x 10−3 s−1 and KM < 1 nM at 25°C under conditions where T4 DNA ligase produced only 5′-adenylylated DNA with a 20-fold lower kcat and a KM ≈ 300 nM. The rate of ligation increased with addition of Mn2+, but was strongly inhibited by concentrations of NaCl >100 mM. Abortive adenylylation was suppressed at low ATP concentrations (<100 µM) and pH >8, leading to increased product yields. The ligation reaction was rapid for a broad range of substrate sequences, but was relatively slower for substrates with a 5′-phosphorylated dC or dG residue on the 3′ side of the ligation junction. Nevertheless, PBCV-1 DNA ligase ligated all sequences tested with 10-fold less enzyme and 15-fold shorter incubation times than required when using T4 DNA ligase. Furthermore, this ligase was used in a ligation-based detection assay system to show increased sensitivity over T4 DNA ligase in the specific detection of a target mRNA. PMID:24203707

  5. Efficient DNA ligation in DNA-RNA hybrid helices by Chlorella virus DNA ligase.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Gregory J S; Zhang, Yinhua; Zhelkovsky, Alexander M; Cantor, Eric J; Evans, Thomas C

    2014-02-01

    Single-stranded DNA molecules (ssDNA) annealed to an RNA splint are notoriously poor substrates for DNA ligases. Herein we report the unexpectedly efficient ligation of RNA-splinted DNA by Chlorella virus DNA ligase (PBCV-1 DNA ligase). PBCV-1 DNA ligase ligated ssDNA splinted by RNA with kcat ≈ 8 x 10(-3) s(-1) and K(M) < 1 nM at 25 °C under conditions where T4 DNA ligase produced only 5'-adenylylated DNA with a 20-fold lower kcat and a K(M) ≈ 300 nM. The rate of ligation increased with addition of Mn(2+), but was strongly inhibited by concentrations of NaCl >100 mM. Abortive adenylylation was suppressed at low ATP concentrations (<100 µM) and pH >8, leading to increased product yields. The ligation reaction was rapid for a broad range of substrate sequences, but was relatively slower for substrates with a 5'-phosphorylated dC or dG residue on the 3' side of the ligation junction. Nevertheless, PBCV-1 DNA ligase ligated all sequences tested with 10-fold less enzyme and 15-fold shorter incubation times than required when using T4 DNA ligase. Furthermore, this ligase was used in a ligation-based detection assay system to show increased sensitivity over T4 DNA ligase in the specific detection of a target mRNA.

  6. RtcB, a novel RNA ligase, can catalyze tRNA splicing and HAC1 mRNA splicing in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naoko; Meineke, Birthe; Shuman, Stewart

    2011-09-02

    RtcB enzymes are novel RNA ligases that join 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and 5'-OH ends. The phylogenetic distribution of RtcB points to its candidacy as a tRNA splicing/repair enzyme. Here we show that Escherichia coli RtcB is competent and sufficient for tRNA splicing in vivo by virtue of its ability to complement growth of yeast cells that lack the endogenous "healing/sealing-type" tRNA ligase Trl1. RtcB also protects yeast trl1Δ cells against a fungal ribotoxin that incises the anticodon loop of cellular tRNAs. Moreover, RtcB can replace Trl1 as the catalyst of HAC1 mRNA splicing during the unfolded protein response. Thus, RtcB is a bona fide RNA repair enzyme with broad physiological actions. Biochemical analysis of RtcB highlights the uniqueness of its active site and catalytic mechanism. Our findings draw attention to tRNA ligase as a promising drug target.

  7. Structure and two-metal mechanism of a eukaryal nick-sealing RNA ligase

    PubMed Central

    Unciuleac, Mihaela-Carmen; Goldgur, Yehuda; Shuman, Stewart

    2015-01-01

    ATP-dependent RNA ligases are agents of RNA repair that join 3′-OH and 5′-PO4 RNA ends. Naegleria gruberi RNA ligase (NgrRnl) exemplifies a family of RNA nick-sealing enzymes found in bacteria, viruses, and eukarya. Crystal structures of NgrRnl at three discrete steps along the reaction pathway—covalent ligase-(lysyl-Nζ)–AMP•Mn2+ intermediate; ligase•ATP•(Mn2+)2 Michaelis complex; and ligase•Mn2+ complex—highlight a two-metal mechanism of nucleotidyl transfer, whereby (i) an enzyme-bound “catalytic” metal coordination complex lowers the pKa of the lysine nucleophile and stabilizes the transition state of the ATP α phosphate; and (ii) a second metal coordination complex bridges the β- and γ-phosphates. The NgrRnl N domain is a distinctively embellished oligonucleotide-binding (OB) fold that engages the γ-phosphate and associated metal complex and orients the pyrophosphate leaving group for in-line catalysis with stereochemical inversion at the AMP phosphate. The unique domain architecture of NgrRnl fortifies the theme that RNA ligases have evolved many times, and independently, by fusions of a shared nucleotidyltransferase domain to structurally diverse flanking modules. The mechanistic insights to lysine adenylylation gained from the NgrRnl structures are likely to apply broadly to the covalent nucleotidyltransferase superfamily of RNA ligases, DNA ligases, and RNA capping enzymes. PMID:26512110

  8. Structure and two-metal mechanism of a eukaryal nick-sealing RNA ligase.

    PubMed

    Unciuleac, Mihaela-Carmen; Goldgur, Yehuda; Shuman, Stewart

    2015-11-10

    ATP-dependent RNA ligases are agents of RNA repair that join 3'-OH and 5'-PO4 RNA ends. Naegleria gruberi RNA ligase (NgrRnl) exemplifies a family of RNA nick-sealing enzymes found in bacteria, viruses, and eukarya. Crystal structures of NgrRnl at three discrete steps along the reaction pathway-covalent ligase-(lysyl-Nζ)-AMP•Mn(2+) intermediate; ligase•ATP•(Mn(2+))2 Michaelis complex; and ligase•Mn(2+) complex-highlight a two-metal mechanism of nucleotidyl transfer, whereby (i) an enzyme-bound "catalytic" metal coordination complex lowers the pKa of the lysine nucleophile and stabilizes the transition state of the ATP α phosphate; and (ii) a second metal coordination complex bridges the β- and γ-phosphates. The NgrRnl N domain is a distinctively embellished oligonucleotide-binding (OB) fold that engages the γ-phosphate and associated metal complex and orients the pyrophosphate leaving group for in-line catalysis with stereochemical inversion at the AMP phosphate. The unique domain architecture of NgrRnl fortifies the theme that RNA ligases have evolved many times, and independently, by fusions of a shared nucleotidyltransferase domain to structurally diverse flanking modules. The mechanistic insights to lysine adenylylation gained from the NgrRnl structures are likely to apply broadly to the covalent nucleotidyltransferase superfamily of RNA ligases, DNA ligases, and RNA capping enzymes.

  9. Three-dimensional structure model and predicted ATP interaction rewiring of a deviant RNA ligase 2.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Sandrine; Noutahi, Emmanuel; Lamoureux, Guillaume; Burger, Gertraud

    2015-10-09

    RNA ligases 2 are scarce and scattered across the tree of life. Two members of this family are well studied: the mitochondrial RNA editing ligase from the parasitic trypanosomes (Kinetoplastea), a promising drug target, and bacteriophage T4 RNA ligase 2, a workhorse in molecular biology. Here we report the identification of a divergent RNA ligase 2 (DpRNL) from Diplonema papillatum (Diplonemea), a member of the kinetoplastids' sister group. We identified DpRNL with methods based on sensitive hidden Markov Model. Then, using homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, we established a three dimensional structure model of DpRNL complexed with ATP and Mg2+. The 3D model of Diplonema was compared with available crystal structures from Trypanosoma brucei, bacteriophage T4, and two archaeans. Interaction of DpRNL with ATP is predicted to involve double π-stacking, which has not been reported before in RNA ligases. This particular contact would shift the orientation of ATP and have considerable consequences on the interaction network of amino acids in the catalytic pocket. We postulate that certain canonical amino acids assume different functional roles in DpRNL compared to structurally homologous residues in other RNA ligases 2, a reassignment indicative of constructive neutral evolution. Finally, both structure comparison and phylogenetic analysis show that DpRNL is not specifically related to RNA ligases from trypanosomes, suggesting a unique adaptation of the latter for RNA editing, after the split of diplonemids and kinetoplastids. Homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations strongly suggest that DpRNL is an RNA ligase 2. The predicted innovative reshaping of DpRNL's catalytic pocket is worthwhile to be tested experimentally.

  10. Adenylylation of small RNA sequencing adapters using the TS2126 RNA ligase I.

    PubMed

    Lama, Lodoe; Ryan, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Many high-throughput small RNA next-generation sequencing protocols use 5' preadenylylated DNA oligonucleotide adapters during cDNA library preparation. Preadenylylation of the DNA adapter's 5' end frees from ATP-dependence the ligation of the adapter to RNA collections, thereby avoiding ATP-dependent side reactions. However, preadenylylation of the DNA adapters can be costly and difficult. The currently available method for chemical adenylylation of DNA adapters is inefficient and uses techniques not typically practiced in laboratories profiling cellular RNA expression. An alternative enzymatic method using a commercial RNA ligase was recently introduced, but this enzyme works best as a stoichiometric adenylylating reagent rather than a catalyst and can therefore prove costly when several variant adapters are needed or during scale-up or high-throughput adenylylation procedures. Here, we describe a simple, scalable, and highly efficient method for the 5' adenylylation of DNA oligonucleotides using the thermostable RNA ligase 1 from bacteriophage TS2126. Adapters with 3' blocking groups are adenylylated at >95% yield at catalytic enzyme-to-adapter ratios and need not be gel purified before ligation to RNA acceptors. Experimental conditions are also reported that enable DNA adapters with free 3' ends to be 5' adenylylated at >90% efficiency. © 2015 Lama and Ryan; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  11. A kinetic framework for tRNA ligase and enforcement of a 2'-phosphate requirement for ligation highlights the design logic of an RNA repair machine.

    PubMed

    Remus, Barbara S; Shuman, Stewart

    2013-05-01

    tRNA ligases are essential components of informational and stress-response pathways entailing repair of RNA breaks with 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and 5'-OH ends. Plant and fungal tRNA ligases comprise three catalytic domains. Phosphodiesterase and kinase modules heal the broken ends to generate the 3'-OH, 2'-PO₄, and 5'-PO₄ required for sealing by the ligase. We exploit RNA substrates with different termini to define rates of individual steps or subsets of steps along the repair pathway of plant ligase AtRNL. The results highlight rate-limiting transactions, how repair is affected by active-site mutations, and how mutations are bypassed by RNA alterations. We gain insights to 2'-PO₄ specificity by showing that AtRNL is deficient in transferring AMP to pRNAOH to form AppRNAOH but proficient at sealing pre-adenylylated AppRNAOH. This strategy for discriminating 2'-PO₄ versus 2'-OH ends provides a quality-control checkpoint to ensure that only purposeful RNA breaks are sealed and to avoid nonspecific "capping" of 5'-PO₄ ends.

  12. Sensitive and specific miRNA detection method using SplintR Ligase.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jingmin; Vaud, Sophie; Zhelkovsky, Alexander M; Posfai, Janos; McReynolds, Larry A

    2016-07-27

    We describe a simple, specific and sensitive microRNA (miRNA) detection method that utilizes Chlorella virus DNA ligase (SplintR(®) Ligase). This two-step method involves ligation of adjacent DNA oligonucleotides hybridized to a miRNA followed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). SplintR Ligase is 100X faster than either T4 DNA Ligase or T4 RNA Ligase 2 for RNA splinted DNA ligation. Only a 4-6 bp overlap between a DNA probe and miRNA was required for efficient ligation by SplintR Ligase. This property allows more flexibility in designing miRNA-specific ligation probes than methods that use reverse transcriptase for cDNA synthesis of miRNA. The qPCR SplintR ligation assay is sensitive; it can detect a few thousand molecules of miR-122. For miR-122 detection the SplintR qPCR assay, using a FAM labeled double quenched DNA probe, was at least 40× more sensitive than the TaqMan assay. The SplintR method, when coupled with NextGen sequencing, allowed multiplex detection of miRNAs from brain, kidney, testis and liver. The SplintR qPCR assay is specific; individual let-7 miRNAs that differ by one nucleotide are detected. The rapid kinetics and ability to ligate DNA probes hybridized to RNA with short complementary sequences makes SplintR Ligase a useful enzyme for miRNA detection. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Sensitive and specific miRNA detection method using SplintR Ligase

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jingmin; Vaud, Sophie; Zhelkovsky, Alexander M.; Posfai, Janos; McReynolds, Larry A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a simple, specific and sensitive microRNA (miRNA) detection method that utilizes Chlorella virus DNA ligase (SplintR® Ligase). This two-step method involves ligation of adjacent DNA oligonucleotides hybridized to a miRNA followed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). SplintR Ligase is 100X faster than either T4 DNA Ligase or T4 RNA Ligase 2 for RNA splinted DNA ligation. Only a 4–6 bp overlap between a DNA probe and miRNA was required for efficient ligation by SplintR Ligase. This property allows more flexibility in designing miRNA-specific ligation probes than methods that use reverse transcriptase for cDNA synthesis of miRNA. The qPCR SplintR ligation assay is sensitive; it can detect a few thousand molecules of miR-122. For miR-122 detection the SplintR qPCR assay, using a FAM labeled double quenched DNA probe, was at least 40× more sensitive than the TaqMan assay. The SplintR method, when coupled with NextGen sequencing, allowed multiplex detection of miRNAs from brain, kidney, testis and liver. The SplintR qPCR assay is specific; individual let-7 miRNAs that differ by one nucleotide are detected. The rapid kinetics and ability to ligate DNA probes hybridized to RNA with short complementary sequences makes SplintR Ligase a useful enzyme for miRNA detection. PMID:27154271

  14. Discovery and design of DNA and RNA ligase inhibitors in infectious microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Robert V.; Amaro, Rommie E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Members of the nucleotidyltransferase superfamily known as DNA and RNA ligases carry out the enzymatic process of polynucleotide ligation. These guardians of genomic integrity share a three-step ligation mechanism, as well as common core structural elements. Both DNA and RNA ligases have experienced a surge of recent interest as chemotherapeutic targets for the treatment of a range of diseases, including bacterial infection, cancer, and the diseases caused by the protozoan parasites known as trypanosomes. Objective In this review, we will focus on efforts targeting pathogenic microorganisms; specifically, bacterial NAD+-dependent DNA ligases, which are promising broad-spectrum antibiotic targets, and ATP-dependent RNA editing ligases from Trypanosoma brucei, the species responsible for the devastating neurodegenerative disease, African sleeping sickness. Conclusion High quality crystal structures of both NAD+-dependent DNA ligase and the Trypanosoma brucei RNA editing ligase have facilitated the development of a number of promising leads. For both targets, further progress will require surmounting permeability issues and improving selectivity and affinity. PMID:20354588

  15. ATM kinase activity modulates ITCH E3-ubiquitin ligase activity

    PubMed Central

    Santini, Simonetta; Stagni, Venturina; Giambruno, Roberto; Fianco, Giulia; Di Benedetto, Anna; Mottolese, Marcella; Pellegrini, Manuela; Barilà, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) kinase, a central regulator of the DNA damage response regulates the activity of several E3-ubiquitin ligases and the ubiquitination-proteasome system is a consistent target of ATM. ITCH is an E3-ubiquitin ligase that modulates the ubiquitination of several targets, therefore participating to the regulation of several cellular responses, among which the DNA damage response, TNFα, Notch and Hedgehog signalling and T cell development. Here we uncover ATM as a novel positive modulator of ITCH E3-ubiquitin ligase activity. A single residue on ITCH protein, S161, which is part of an ATM SQ consensus motif, is required for ATM-dependent activation of ITCH. ATM activity enhances ITCH enzymatic activity, which in turn drives the ubiquitination and degradation of c-FLIP-L and c-Jun, previously identified as ITCH substrates. Importantly, Atm deficient mice show resistance to hepatocyte cell death, similarly to Itch deficient animals, providing in vivo genetic evidence for this circuit. Our data identify ITCH as a novel component of the ATM-dependent signaling pathway and suggest that the impairment of the correct functionality of ITCH caused by Atm deficiency may contribute to the complex clinical features linked to Ataxia Telangiectasia. PMID:23435430

  16. The structure of the C-terminal domain of the largest editosome interaction protein and its role in promoting RNA binding by RNA-editing ligase L2.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Jun; Budiarto, Tanya; Wu, Meiting; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Hol, Wim G J

    2012-08-01

    Trypanosomatids, such as the sleeping sickness parasite Trypanosoma brucei, contain a ∼ 20S RNA-editing complex, also called the editosome, which is required for U-insertion/deletion editing of mitochondrial mRNAs. The editosome contains a core of 12 proteins including the large interaction protein A1, the small interaction protein A6, and the editing RNA ligase L2. Using biochemical and structural data, we identified distinct domains of T. brucei A1 which specifically recognize A6 and L2. We provide evidence that an N-terminal domain of A1 interacts with the C-terminal domain of L2. The C-terminal domain of A1 appears to be required for the interaction with A6 and also plays a key role in RNA binding by the RNA-editing ligase L2 in trans. Three crystal structures of the C-terminal domain of A1 have been elucidated, each in complex with a nanobody as a crystallization chaperone. These structures permitted the identification of putative dsRNA recognition sites. Mutational analysis of conserved residues of the C-terminal domain identified Arg703, Arg731 and Arg734 as key requirements for RNA binding. The data show that the editing RNA ligase activity is modulated by a novel mechanism, i.e. by the trans-acting RNA binding C-terminal domain of A1.

  17. Regulation of Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase activity.

    PubMed

    Walden, Helen; Martinez-Torres, R Julio

    2012-09-01

    Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase mutated in autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson's disease. In addition, it is a putative tumour suppressor, and has roles outside its enzymatic activity. It is critical for mitochondrial clearance through mitophagy, and is an essential protein in most eukaryotes. As such, it is a tightly controlled protein, regulated through an array of external interactions with multiple proteins, posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation and S-nitrosylation, and self-regulation through internal associations. In this review, we highlight some of the recent studies into Parkin regulation and discuss future challenges for gaining a full molecular understanding of the regulation of Parkin E3 ligase activity.

  18. E3-ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 determines the fate of AID-associated RNA polymerase II in B cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianbo; Keim, Celia D; Wang, Jiguang; Kazadi, David; Oliver, Paula M; Rabadan, Raul; Basu, Uttiya

    2013-08-15

    Programmed mutagenesis of the immunoglobulin locus of B lymphocytes during class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation requires RNA polymerase II (polII) transcription complex-dependent targeting of the DNA mutator activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). AID deaminates cytidine residues on substrate sequences in the immunoglobulin (Ig) locus via a transcription-dependent mechanism, and this activity is stimulated by the RNA polII stalling cofactor Spt5 and the 11-subunit cellular noncoding RNA 3'-5' exonucleolytic processing complex RNA exosome. The mechanism by which the RNA exosome recognizes immunoglobulin locus RNA substrates to stimulate AID DNA deamination activity on its in vivo substrate sequences is an important question. Here we report that E3-ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 destabilizes AID-associated RNA polII by a ubiquitination event, leading to generation of 3' end free RNA exosome RNA substrates at the Ig locus and other AID target sequences genome-wide. We found that lack of Nedd4 activity in B cells leads to accumulation of RNA exosome substrates at AID target genes and defective CSR. Taken together, our study links noncoding RNA processing following RNA polII pausing with regulation of the mutator AID protein. Our study also identifies Nedd4 as a regulator of noncoding RNAs that are generated by stalled RNA polII genome-wide.

  19. A Simple Template-Dependent Ligase Ribozyme as the RNA Replicase Emerging First in the RNA World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wentao; Yu, Chunwu; Zhang, Wentao; Hu, Jiming

    2010-05-01

    The "RNA world" hypothesis has offered a framework for both experimental and theoretical work in the field of the origin of life. An important concern about the hypothesis is how the RNA world could originate. It has long been speculated that a template-dependent RNA synthetase ribozyme, which catalyzed its own replication (thus, an "RNA replicase"), should have emerged first. However, experimental searches for such a replicase have so far been unsuccessful. This is primarily because of the large sequence length of candidate ribozymes, which mainly work in a polymerase-like way. Here, we propose that the replicase that emerged first would be a simple template-dependent ligase ribozyme, which loosely binds to template RNA and has a relatively low efficiency of catalyzing the formation of phosphodiester bonds between adjacently aligned nucleotides or oligonucleotides. We conducted a computer simulation to support this proposal and considered the factors that might affect the emergence of the ribozyme based on the parameter analysis in the simulation. We conclude that (1) a template-dependent ligase may be more likely than a template-dependent polymerase as an early replicase in the emergence of RNA-based replication; (2) such a ligase ribozyme could emerge and be stable against parasites under a broad range of parameters in our model; (3) the conditions shown to favor the initial appearance of a template-dependent ligase ribozyme do not favor its spread.

  20. Allosteric Interactions by p53 mRNA Govern HDM2 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Specificity under Different Conditions.

    PubMed

    Medina-Medina, Ixaura; García-Beltrán, Paola; de la Mora-de la Mora, Ignacio; Oria-Hernández, Jesús; Millot, Guy; Fahraeus, Robin; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Sampedro, José G; Olivares-Illana, Vanesa

    2016-08-15

    HDM2 and HDMX are key negative regulatory factors of the p53 tumor suppressor under normal conditions by promoting its degradation or preventing its trans activity, respectively. It has more recently been shown that both proteins can also act as positive regulators of p53 after DNA damage. This involves phosphorylation by ATM on serine residues HDM2(S395) and HDMX(S403), promoting their respective interaction with the p53 mRNA. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of how these phosphorylation events switch HDM2 and HDMX from negative to positive regulators of p53 is not known. Our results show that these phosphorylation events reside within intrinsically disordered domains and change the conformation of the proteins. The modifications promote the exposition of N-terminal interfaces that support the formation of a new HDMX-HDM2 heterodimer independent of the C-terminal RING-RING interaction. The E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of this complex toward p53 is prevented by the p53 mRNA ligand but, interestingly, does not affect the capacity to ubiquitinate HDMX and HDM2. These results show how ATM-mediated modifications of HDMX and HDM2 switch HDM2 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity away from p53 but toward HDMX and itself and illustrate how the substrate specificity of HDM2 E3 ligase activity is regulated.

  1. Allosteric Interactions by p53 mRNA Govern HDM2 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Specificity under Different Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Medina, Ixaura; García-Beltrán, Paola; de la Mora-de la Mora, Ignacio; Oria-Hernández, Jesús; Millot, Guy; Fahraeus, Robin; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Sampedro, José G.

    2016-01-01

    HDM2 and HDMX are key negative regulatory factors of the p53 tumor suppressor under normal conditions by promoting its degradation or preventing its trans activity, respectively. It has more recently been shown that both proteins can also act as positive regulators of p53 after DNA damage. This involves phosphorylation by ATM on serine residues HDM2(S395) and HDMX(S403), promoting their respective interaction with the p53 mRNA. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of how these phosphorylation events switch HDM2 and HDMX from negative to positive regulators of p53 is not known. Our results show that these phosphorylation events reside within intrinsically disordered domains and change the conformation of the proteins. The modifications promote the exposition of N-terminal interfaces that support the formation of a new HDMX-HDM2 heterodimer independent of the C-terminal RING-RING interaction. The E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of this complex toward p53 is prevented by the p53 mRNA ligand but, interestingly, does not affect the capacity to ubiquitinate HDMX and HDM2. These results show how ATM-mediated modifications of HDMX and HDM2 switch HDM2 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity away from p53 but toward HDMX and itself and illustrate how the substrate specificity of HDM2 E3 ligase activity is regulated. PMID:27215386

  2. 2'-Phosphate cyclase activity of RtcA: a potential rationale for the operon organization of RtcA with an RNA repair ligase RtcB in Escherichia coli and other bacterial taxa.

    PubMed

    Das, Ushati; Shuman, Stewart

    2013-10-01

    RNA terminal phosphate cyclase catalyzes the ATP-dependent conversion of a 3'-phosphate RNA end to a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate via covalent enzyme-(histidinyl-Nε)-AMP and RNA(3')pp(5')A intermediates. Here, we report that Escherichia coli RtcA (and its human homolog Rtc1) are capable of cyclizing a 2'-phosphate RNA end in high yield. The rate of 2'-phosphate cyclization by RtcA is five orders of magnitude slower than 3'-phosphate cyclization, notwithstanding that RtcA binds with similar affinity to RNA3'p and RNA2'p substrates. These findings expand the functional repertoire of RNA cyclase and suggest that phosphate geometry during adenylate transfer to RNA is a major factor in the kinetics of cyclization. RtcA is coregulated in an operon with an RNA ligase, RtcB, that splices RNA 5'-OH ends to either 3'-phosphate or 2',3'-cyclic phosphate ends. Our results suggest that RtcA might serve an end healing function in an RNA repair pathway, by converting RNA 2'-phosphates, which cannot be spliced by RtcB, to 2',3'-cyclic phosphates that can be sealed. The rtcBA operon is controlled by the σ(54) coactivator RtcR encoded by an adjacent gene. This operon arrangement is conserved in diverse bacterial taxa, many of which have also incorporated the RNA-binding protein Ro (which is implicated in RNA quality control under stress conditions) as a coregulated component of the operon.

  3. 2′-Phosphate cyclase activity of RtcA: a potential rationale for the operon organization of RtcA with an RNA repair ligase RtcB in Escherichia coli and other bacterial taxa

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ushati; Shuman, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    RNA terminal phosphate cyclase catalyzes the ATP-dependent conversion of a 3′-phosphate RNA end to a 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate via covalent enzyme-(histidinyl-Nϵ)-AMP and RNA(3′)pp(5′)A intermediates. Here, we report that Escherichia coli RtcA (and its human homolog Rtc1) are capable of cyclizing a 2′-phosphate RNA end in high yield. The rate of 2′-phosphate cyclization by RtcA is five orders of magnitude slower than 3′-phosphate cyclization, notwithstanding that RtcA binds with similar affinity to RNA3′p and RNA2′p substrates. These findings expand the functional repertoire of RNA cyclase and suggest that phosphate geometry during adenylate transfer to RNA is a major factor in the kinetics of cyclization. RtcA is coregulated in an operon with an RNA ligase, RtcB, that splices RNA 5′-OH ends to either 3′-phosphate or 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate ends. Our results suggest that RtcA might serve an end healing function in an RNA repair pathway, by converting RNA 2′-phosphates, which cannot be spliced by RtcB, to 2′,3′-cyclic phosphates that can be sealed. The rtcBA operon is controlled by the σ54 coactivator RtcR encoded by an adjacent gene. This operon arrangement is conserved in diverse bacterial taxa, many of which have also incorporated the RNA-binding protein Ro (which is implicated in RNA quality control under stress conditions) as a coregulated component of the operon. PMID:23945037

  4. Tyrosine phosphorylation of NEDD4 activates its ubiquitin ligase activity.

    PubMed

    Persaud, Avinash; Alberts, Philipp; Mari, Sara; Tong, Jiefei; Murchie, Ryan; Maspero, Elena; Safi, Frozan; Moran, Michael F; Polo, Simona; Rotin, Daniela

    2014-10-07

    Ligand binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor 1 (FGFR1) causes dimerization and activation by transphosphorylation of tyrosine residues in the kinase domain. FGFR1 is ubiquitylated by the E3 ligase NEDD4 (also known as NEDD4-1), which promotes FGFR1 internalization and degradation. Although phosphorylation of FGFR1 is required for NEDD4-dependent endocytosis, NEDD4 directly binds to a nonphosphorylated region of FGFR1. We found that activation of FGFR1 led to activation of c-Src kinase-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of NEDD4, enhancing the ubiquitin ligase activity of NEDD4. Using mass spectrometry, we identified several FGF-dependent phosphorylated tyrosines in NEDD4, including Tyr(43) in the C2 domain and Tyr(585) in the HECT domain. Mutating these tyrosines to phenylalanine to prevent phosphorylation inhibited FGF-dependent NEDD4 activity and FGFR1 endocytosis and enhanced cell proliferation. Mutating the tyrosines to glutamic acid to mimic phosphorylation enhanced NEDD4 activity. Moreover, the NEDD4 C2 domain bound the HECT domain, and the presence of phosphomimetic mutations inhibited this interaction, suggesting that phosphorylation of NEDD4 relieves an inhibitory intra- or intermolecular interaction. Accordingly, activation of FGFR1 was not required for activation of NEDD4 that lacked its C2 domain. Activation of c-Src by epidermal growth factor (EGF) also promoted tyrosine phosphorylation and enhanced the activity of NEDD4. Thus, we identified a feedback mechanism by which receptor tyrosine kinases promote catalytic activation of NEDD4 and that may represent a mechanism of receptor crosstalk. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. In vitro selection of optimal DNA substrates for T4 RNA ligase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harada, Kazuo; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1993-01-01

    We have used in vitro selection techniques to characterize DNA sequences that are ligated efficiently by T4 RNA ligase. We find that the ensemble of selected sequences ligated about 10 times as efficiently as the random mixture of sequences used as the input for selection. Surprisingly, the majority of the selected sequences approximated a well-defined consensus sequence.

  6. In vitro selection of optimal DNA substrates for T4 RNA ligase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harada, Kazuo; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1993-01-01

    We have used in vitro selection techniques to characterize DNA sequences that are ligated efficiently by T4 RNA ligase. We find that the ensemble of selected sequences ligated about 10 times as efficiently as the random mixture of sequences used as the input for selection. Surprisingly, the majority of the selected sequences approximated a well-defined consensus sequence.

  7. Molecular trade-offs in RNA ligases affected the modular emergence of complex ribozymes at the origin of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Nisha; Weinberg, Marc S.; Michod, Richard E.; Durand, Pierre M.

    2017-09-01

    In the RNA world hypothesis complex, self-replicating ribozymes were essential. For the emergence of an RNA world, less is known about the early processes that accounted for the formation of complex, long catalysts from small passively formed molecules. The functional role of small sequences has not been fully explored and, here, a possible role for smaller ligases is demonstrated. An established RNA polymerase model, the R18, was truncated from the 3' end to generate smaller molecules. All the molecules were investigated for self-ligation functions with a set of oligonucleotide substrates without predesigned base pairing. The smallest molecule that exhibited self-ligation activity was a 40-nucleotide RNA. It also demonstrated the greatest functional flexibility as it was more general in the kinds of substrates it ligated to itself although its catalytic efficiency was the lowest. The largest ribozyme (R18) ligated substrates more selectively and with greatest efficiency. With increase in size and predicted structural stability, self-ligation efficiency improved, while functional flexibility decreased. These findings reveal that molecular size could have increased from the activity of small ligases joining oligonucleotides to their own end. In addition, there is a size-associated molecular-level trade-off that could have impacted the evolution of RNA-based life.

  8. Circularization of linear viroid RNA via 2'-phosphomonoester, 3', 5'-phosphodiester bonds by a novel type of RNA ligase from wheat germ and Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Y; Tyc, K; Filipowicz, W; Sänger, H L; Gross, H J

    1982-12-11

    A novel type of RNA ligase activity in extracts of wheat germ or Chlamydomonas requires 2', 3'-cyclic phosphate and 5'-phosphate ends for ligation to form a 2'-phosphomonoester, 3',5'-phosphodiester bond. Using 5'-3 2P-labeled linear PSTV, we demonstrate that RNase T1-nicked viroid predominantly forms (formula; see text) U-bonds. Natural linear PSTV, however, forms mainly (formula; see text) A-bonds upon enzymatic circularization. We show that natural linear PSTV RNA has nicks between C181 and A182, or between C348 and A349, and that consequently C181 and C348 carry 2',3'-cyclophosphate termini.

  9. The Effect of Cytidine on the Structure and Function of an RNA Ligase Ribozyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jeff; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2001-01-01

    A cytidine-free ribozyme with RNA ligase activity was obtained by in vitro evolution, starting from a pool of random- sequence RNAs that contained only guanosine, adenosine, and uridine. This ribozyme contains 74 nt and catalyzes formation of a 3',5' -phosphodiester linkage with a catalytic rate of 0.016/min. The RNA adopts a simple secondary structure based on a three-way junction motif, with ligation occurring at the end of a stem region located several nucleotides away from the junction. Cytidine was introduced to the cytidine-free ribozyme in a combinatorial fashion and additional rounds of in vitro evolution were carried out to allow the molecule to adapt to this added component. The resulting cytidine-containing ribozyme formed a 3',5' linkage with a catalytic rate of 0.32/min. The improved rate of the cytidine-containing ribozyme was the result of 12 mutations, including seven added cytidines, that remodeled the internal bulge loops located adjacent to the three-way junction and stabilized the peripheral stem regions.

  10. DNA ligases.

    PubMed

    Tabor, S

    2001-05-01

    DNA ligases catalyze the formation of phosphodiester bonds between juxtaposed 5' phosphate and a 3'-hydroxyl terminus in duplex DNA. This activity can repair single-stranded nicks in duplex DNA and join duplex DNA restriction fragments having either blunt ends or homologous cohesive ends. Two ligases are used for nucleic acid research and their reaction conditions and applications are described in this unit: E. coli ligase and T4 ligase. These enzymes differ in two important properties. One is the source of energy: T4 ligase uses ATP, while E. coli ligase uses NAD. Another important difference is their ability to ligate blunt ends; under normal reaction conditions, only T4 DNA ligase will ligate blunt ends.

  11. Self-replication reactions dependent on tertiary interaction motifs in an RNA ligase ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Rei; Saito, Hirohide; Ikawa, Yoshiya; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Inoue, Tan

    2011-10-01

    RNA can function both as an informational molecule and as a catalyst in living organisms. This duality is the premise of the RNA world hypothesis. However, one flaw in the hypothesis that RNA was the most essential molecule in primitive life is that no RNA self-replicating system has been found in nature. To verify whether RNA has the potential for self-replication, we constructed a new RNA self-assembling ribozyme that could have conducted an evolvable RNA self-replication reaction. The artificially designed, in vitro selected ligase ribozyme was employed as a prototype for a self-assembling ribozyme. The ribozyme is composed of two RNA fragments (form R1·Z1) that recognize another R1·Z1 molecule as their substrate and perform the high turnover ligation reaction via two RNA tertiary interaction motifs. Furthermore, the substrate recognition of R1·Z1 is tolerant of mutations, generating diversity in the corresponding RNA self-replicating network. Thus, we propose that our system implies the significance of RNA tertiary motifs in the early RNA molecular evolution of the RNA world.

  12. Novel Naphthalene-Based Inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei RNA Editing Ligase 1

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Robert V.; Landon, Melissa; Schnaufer, Achim; Amaro, Rommie E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Neglected tropical diseases, including diseases caused by trypanosomatid parasites such as Trypanosoma brucei, cost tens of millions of disability-adjusted life-years annually. As the current treatments for African trypanosomiasis and other similar infections are limited, new therapeutics are urgently needed. RNA Editing Ligase 1 (REL1), a protein unique to trypanosomes and other kinetoplastids, was identified recently as a potential drug target. Methodology/Principal Findings Motivated by the urgent need for novel trypanocidal therapeutics, we use an ensemble-based virtual-screening approach to discover new naphthalene-based TbREL1 inhibitors. The predicted binding modes of the active compounds are evaluated within the context of the flexible receptor model and combined with computational fragment mapping to determine the most likely binding mechanisms. Ultimately, four new low-micromolar inhibitors are presented. Three of the four compounds may bind to a newly revealed cleft that represents a putative druggable site not evident in any crystal structure. Conclusions/Significance Pending additional optimization, the compounds presented here may serve as precursors for future novel therapies useful in the fight against several trypanosomatid pathogens, including human African trypanosomiasis, a devastating disease that afflicts the vulnerable patient populations of sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:20808768

  13. Knockdown of DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 by RNA interference inhibits herpes simplex virus type I DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Muylaert, Isabella; Elias, Per

    2007-04-13

    Herpes simplex virus has a linear double-stranded DNA genome with directly repeated terminal sequences needed for cleavage and packaging of replicated DNA. In infected cells, linear genomes rapidly become endless. It is currently a matter of discussion whether the endless genomes are circles supporting rolling circle replication or arise by recombination of linear genomes forming concatemers. Here, we have examined the role of mammalian DNA ligases in the herpes simplex virus, type I (HSV-1) life cycle by employing RNA interference (RNAi) in human 1BR.3.N fibroblasts. We find that RNAi-mediated knockdown of DNA ligase IV and its co-factor XRCC4 causes a hundred-fold reduction of virus yield, a small plaque phenotype, and reduced DNA synthesis. The effect is specific because RNAi against DNA ligase I or DNA ligase III fail to reduce HSV-1 replication. Furthermore, RNAi against DNA ligase IV and XRCC4 does not affect replication of adenovirus. In addition, high multiplicity infections of HSV-1 in human DNA ligase IV-deficient cells reveal a pronounced delay of production of infectious virus. Finally, we demonstrate that formation of endless genomes is inhibited by RNAi-mediated depletion of DNA ligase IV and XRCC4. Our results suggests that DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 serves an important role in the replication cycle of herpes viruses and is likely to be required for the formation of the endless genomes early during productive infection.

  14. Heterogeneity of mammalian DNA ligase detected on activity and DNA sequencing gels.

    PubMed Central

    Mezzina, M; Sarasin, A; Politi, N; Bertazzoni, U

    1984-01-01

    A new method to detect DNA ligase activity in situ after NaDodSO4 polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis has been developed. After renaturation of active polypeptides the ligase reaction occurs in situ by incubating the intact gel in the presence of Mg++ and ATP. Further treatment with alkaline phosphatase removes the unligated 5'-32P-end of oligo (dT) used as a substrate and active polypeptides having ligase activity are identified by autoradiography. Analysis on DNA sequencing gels of the oligo (dT) reaction products present in the activity bands ensures that the radioactive material detected in activity gels or in standard in vitro ligase assays corresponds unambiguously to a ligase activity. Using these methods, we have analysed the purified phage T4 DNA ligase, and the activities present in crude extracts and in purified fractions from monkey kidney (CV1-P) cells. The purified T4 enzyme yields one or two active peptides with Mr values of 60,000 and 70,000. Crude extracts from CV1-P cells contain several polypeptides having DNA ligase activity. Partial purification of these extracts shows that DNA ligase I isolated from hydroxylapatite column is enriched in polypeptides with Mr 200,000, 150,000 and 120,000, while DNA ligase II is enriched in those with Mr 60,000 and 70,000. Images PMID:6377238

  15. Prebiotic Factors Influencing the Activity of a Ligase Ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Anella, Fabrizio; Danelon, Christophe

    2017-04-06

    An RNA-lipid origin of life scenario provides a plausible route for compartmentalized replication of an informational polymer and subsequent division of the container. However, a full narrative to form such RNA protocells implies that catalytic RNA molecules, called ribozymes, can operate in the presence of self-assembled vesicles composed of prebiotically relevant constituents, such as fatty acids. Hereby, we subjected a newly engineered truncated variant of the L1 ligase ribozyme, named tL1, to various environmental conditions that may have prevailed on the early Earth with the objective to find a set of control parameters enabling both tL1-catalyzed ligation and formation of stable myristoleic acid (MA) vesicles. The separate and concurrent effects of temperature, concentrations of Mg(2+), MA, polyethylene glycol and various solutes were investigated. The most favorable condition tested consists of 100 mM NaCl, 1 mM Mg(2+), 5 mM MA, and 4 °C temperature, whereas the addition of Mg(2+)-chelating solutes, such as citrate, tRNAs, aspartic acid, and nucleoside triphosphates severely inhibits the reaction. These results further solidify the RNA-lipid world hypothesis and stress the importance of using a systems chemistry approach whereby a wide range of prebiotic factors interfacing with ribozymes are considered.

  16. Synthesis of ATP derivatives of compounds of the mevalonate pathway (isopentenyl di- and triphosphate; geranyl di- and triphosphate, farnesyl di- and triphosphate, and dimethylallyl diphosphate) catalyzed by T4 RNA ligase, T4 DNA ligase and other ligases Potential relationship with the effect of bisphosphonates on osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Sillero, Maria A Günther; de Diego, Anabel; Tavares, Janeth E F; Silva, Joana A D Catanho da; Pérez-Zúñiga, Francisco J; Sillero, Antonio

    2009-08-15

    Compounds of the mevalonate pathway containing a terminal di- or triphosphate (mev-PP or mev-PPP) were tested as substrates of several enzyme ligases (T4 RNA ligase, T4 DNA ligase, firefly luciferase and other ligases) for the synthesis of ATP derivatives of the mev-pppA or mev-ppppA type. T4 RNA ligase, in the presence of ATP and the substrates: geranyl, farnesyl or isopentenyl triphosphates, and geranyl, farnesyl, dimethylallyl or isopentenyl diphosphates, all at 0.3 mM concentration, catalyzed the synthesis of the corresponding ATP derivatives at a relative rate of activity of: 7.6+/-1.4 mU/mg or 100%; 39%; 42%; 24%; 18%; 12% and 6%, respectively. Inhibition (%) of the synthesis by excess of substrate (0.8 mM vs. 0.3 mM) was observed with farnesyl diphosphate (99%); farnesyl triphosphate (96%) and geranyl triphosphate (32%). V(max), K(m), K(cat) and K(cat)/K(m) values were also determined. The K(cat)/K(m) values calculated were for: farnesyl triphosphate, 166; geranyl triphosphate, 52.2; farnesyl diphosphate, 12.1; geranyl diphosphate, 8.6; isopentenyl triphosphate, 6.7; dimethylallyl diphosphate, 3.1 and isopentenyl diphosphate, 0.9. Similar results were obtained with T4 DNA ligase. The above-mentioned compounds were also substrates of firefly luciferase synthesizing the mev-pppA or mev-ppppA derivatives. In our hands, neither the acyl- or acetyl-CoA synthetases nor the ubiquiting activating enzyme (E1) catalyzed the synthesis of ATP derivatives of these compounds. The results here presented could be related with the mechanism of action of bisphosphonates on osteoclasts or tumor cells.

  17. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is essential for sulfur mustard-induced DNA damage repair, but has no role in DNA ligase activation.

    PubMed

    Bhat, K Ramachandra; Benton, Betty J; Ray, Radharaman

    2006-01-01

    Concurrent activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and DNA ligase was observed in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) exposed to the DNA alkylating compound sulfur mustard (SM), suggesting that DNA ligase activation could be due to its modification by PARP. Using HEK, intracellular 3H-labeled NAD+ (3H-adenine) was metabolically generated and then these cells were exposed to SM (1 mM). DNA ligase I isolated from these cells was not 3H-labeled, indicating that DNA ligase I is not a substrate for (ADP-ribosyl)ation by PARP. In HEK, when PARP was inhibited by 3-amino benzamide (3-AB, 2 mM), SM-activated DNA ligase had a half-life that was four-fold higher than that observed in the absence of 3-AB. These results suggest that DNA repair requires PARP, and that DNA ligase remains activated until DNA damage repair is complete. The results show that in SM-exposed HEK, DNA ligase I is activated by phosphorylation catalysed by DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). Therefore, the role of PARP in DNA repair is other than that of DNA ligase I activation. By using the DNA ligase I phosphorylation assay and decreasing PARP chemically as well as by PARP anti-sense mRNA expression in the cells, it was confirmed that PARP does not modify DNA ligase I. In conclusion, it is proposed that PARP is essential for efficient DNA repair; however, PARP participates in DNA repair by altering the chromosomal structure to make the DNA damage site(s) accessible to the repair enzymes.

  18. Pharmacophore-based screening and identification of novel human ligase I inhibitors with potential anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Shagun; Singh, Deependra Kumar; Meena, Sanjeev; Datta, Dipak; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Banerjee, Dibyendu

    2014-03-24

    Human DNA ligases are enzymes that are indispensable for DNA replication and repair processes. Among the three human ligases, ligase I is attributed to the ligation of thousands of Okazaki fragments that are formed during lagging strand synthesis during DNA replication. Blocking ligation therefore can lead to the accumulation of thousands of single strands and subsequently double strand breaks in the DNA, which is lethal for the cells. The reports of the high expression level of ligase I protein in several cancer cells (versus the low ligase expression level and the low rate of division of most normal cells in the adult body) support the belief that ligase I inhibitors can target cancer cells specifically with minimum side effects to normal cells. Recent publications showing exciting data for a ligase IV inhibitor exhibiting antitumor activity in mouse models also strengthens the argument for ligases as valid antitumor targets. Keeping this in view, we performed a pharmacophore-based screening for potential ligase inhibitors in the Maybridge small molecule library and procured some of the top-ranking compounds for enzyme-based and cell-based in vitro screening. We report here the identification of novel ligase I inhibitors with potential anticancer activity against a colon cancer cell line.

  19. ZYGOTE-ARREST 3 that encodes the tRNA ligase is essential for zygote division in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke-Jin; Guo, Lei; Hou, Xiu-Li; Gong, Hua-Qin; Liu, Chun-Ming

    2017-09-01

    In sexual organisms, division of the zygote initiates a new life cycle. Although several genes involved in zygote division are known in plants, how the zygote is activated to start embryogenesis has remained elusive. Here, we showed that a mutation in ZYGOTE-ARREST 3 (ZYG3) in Arabidopsis led to a tight zygote-lethal phenotype. Map-based cloning revealed that ZYG3 encodes the transfer RNA (tRNA) ligase AtRNL, which is a single-copy gene in the Arabidopsis genome. Expression analyses showed that AtRNL is expressed throughout zygotic embryogenesis, and in meristematic tissues. Using pAtRNL::cAtRNL-sYFP-complemented zyg3/zyg3 plants, we showed that AtRNL is localized exclusively in the cytoplasm, suggesting that tRNA splicing occurs primarily in the cytoplasm. Analyses using partially rescued embryos showed that mutation in AtRNL compromised splicing of intron-containing tRNA. Mutations of two tRNA endonuclease genes, SEN1 and SEN2, also led to a zygote-lethal phenotype. These results together suggest that tRNA splicing is critical for initiating zygote division in Arabidopsis. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Rad18 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity mediates Fanconi anemia pathway activation and cell survival following DNA Topoisomerase 1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Palle, Komaraiah; Vaziri, Cyrus

    2011-05-15

    Camptothecin (CPT) and related chemotherapeutic drugs induce formation of DNA Topoisomerase I (Top1) covalent or cleavage complexes (Top1ccs) that block leading-strand DNA synthesis and elicit DNA Double Stranded Breaks (DSB) during S phase. The Fanconi Anemia (FA) pathway is implicated in tolerance of CPT-induced DNA damage yet the mechanism of FA pathway activation by Top1 poisons has not been studied. We show here that the FA core complex protein FANCA and monoubiquitinated FANCD2 (an effector of the FA pathway) are rapidly mobilized to chromatin in response to CPT treatment in several human cancer cell lines and untransformed primary human dermal fibroblasts. FANCD2 depletion using siRNA leads to impaired recovery from CPT-induced inhibition or DNA synthesis, persistence of γH2AX (a DSB marker) and reduced cell survival following CPT treatment. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Rad18 is necessary for CPT-induced recruitment of FANCA and FANCD2 to chromatin. Moreover, Rad18-depletion recapitulates the DNA synthesis and survival defects of FANCD2-deficiency in CPT-treated cells. It is well-established that Rad18 promotes FA pathway activation and DNA damage tolerance in response to bulky DNA lesions via a mechanism involving PCNA monoubiquitination. In contrast, PCNA monoubiquitination is not involved in Rad18-mediated FA pathway activation or cell survival following acquisition of CPT-induced DSB. Moreover, while Rad18 is implicated in recombinational repair of DSB via an E3 ligase-independent mechanism, we demonstrate that Rad18 E3 ligase activity is essential for appropriate FA pathway activation and DNA damage tolerance after CPT treatment. Taken together, our results define a novel pathway of Rad18-dependent DSB repair that is dissociable from known Rad18-mediated DNA repair mechanisms based on its independence from PCNA ubiquitination and requirement for E3 ligase activity.

  1. DNA-ligase activities appear normal in the CHO mutant EM9.

    PubMed

    Chan, J Y; Thompson, L H; Becker, F F

    1984-01-01

    The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutant strain EM9 was previously shown to be hypersensitive to killing by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), to have a 12-fold increased baseline incidence of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE), and to be defective in rejoining DNA strand breaks after treatment with EMS, MMS, or X-rays. A study was performed to determine if the primary biochemical defect might be a DNA ligase. DNA-ligase activities were assayed and compared after separation of the multiple forms of ligase by AcA 34 gel-filtration chromatography of total cellular extracts. In EM9 cells the levels of the presumptive replicative forms, DNA ligase Ia (480 kd) and ligase Ib (240 kd) were about 50% and 60%, respectively, of those in the parental AA8 cells, whereas DNA ligase II (80 kd) was unaltered in EM9 . In a phenotypic revertant line ( 9R1 ) ligases Ia, Ib and II levels were 35%, 37% and 100%, respectively, of those in AA8 . The reduced levels of ligases Ia and Ib in EM9 and 9R1 cells are apparently not related directly to the mutant phenotype and may be attributable to the somewhat slower growth rates of these strains compared with those of AA8 . To determine if the repair defect in EM9 might reside in the ability to induce DNA-ligase activity after treatment with a DNA-damaging agent, AA8 and EM9 cells were treated with MMS at 30 micrograms/ml for 60 min before preparing fractions for ligase assays. Under these conditions the activities of ligases Ia and Ib decreases 70-80% in both cell lines, but ligase II increased 2.0- and 2.6-fold, respectively, in AA8 and EM9 . As a further test of defective ligase activities in EM9 , assays were performed in the presence of 0.1 M NaCl or after heating the fractions for 10 min at 50 degrees C. Although all 3 forms of ligase showed altered activity under both of these conditions, there were no significant differences between EM9 and AA8 cells. These data combined with the above results provide strong

  2. Parkin-phosphoubiquitin complex reveals cryptic ubiquitin-binding site required for RBR ligase activity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Atul; Chaugule, Viduth K; Condos, Tara E C; Barber, Kathryn R; Johnson, Clare; Toth, Rachel; Sundaramoorthy, Ramasubramanian; Knebel, Axel; Shaw, Gary S; Walden, Helen

    2017-05-01

    RING-between-RING (RBR) E3 ligases are a class of ubiquitin ligases distinct from RING or HECT E3 ligases. An important RBR ligase is Parkin, mutations in which lead to early-onset hereditary Parkinsonism. Parkin and other RBR ligases share a catalytic RBR module but are usually autoinhibited and activated via distinct mechanisms. Recent insights into Parkin regulation predict large, unknown conformational changes during Parkin activation. However, current data on active RBR ligases reflect the absence of regulatory domains. Therefore, it remains unclear how individual RBR ligases are activated, and whether they share a common mechanism. We now report the crystal structure of a human Parkin-phosphoubiquitin complex, which shows that phosphoubiquitin binding induces movement in the 'in-between RING' (IBR) domain to reveal a cryptic ubiquitin-binding site. Mutation of this site negatively affects Parkin's activity. Furthermore, ubiquitin binding promotes cooperation between Parkin molecules, which suggests a role for interdomain association in the RBR ligase mechanism.

  3. Itch WW Domains Inhibit Its E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity by Blocking E2-E3 Ligase Trans-thiolation.

    PubMed

    Riling, Christopher; Kamadurai, Hari; Kumar, Suresh; O'Leary, Claire E; Wu, Kuen-Phon; Manion, Erica E; Ying, Mingjie; Schulman, Brenda A; Oliver, Paula M

    2015-09-25

    Nedd4-family E3 ubiquitin ligases regulate an array of biologic processes. Autoinhibition maintains these catalytic ligases in an inactive state through several mechanisms. However, although some Nedd4 family members are activated by binding to Nedd4 family-interacting proteins (Ndfips), how binding activates E3 function remains unclear. Our data reveal how these two regulatory processes are linked functionally. In the absence of Ndfip1, the Nedd4 family member Itch can bind an E2 but cannot accept ubiquitin onto its catalytic cysteine. This is because Itch is autoinhibited by an intramolecular interaction between its HECT (homologous to the E6-AP carboxy terminus domain) and two central WW domains. Ndfip1 binds these WW domains to release the HECT, allowing trans-thiolation and Itch catalytic activity. This molecular switch also regulates the closely related family member WWP2. Importantly, multiple PY motifs are required for Ndfip1 to activate Itch, functionally distinguishing Ndfips from single PY-containing substrates. These data establish a novel mechanism for control of the function of a subfamily of Nedd4 E3 ligases at the level of E2-E3 trans-thiolation.

  4. Kinetic characterization of lipid II-Ala:alanyl-tRNA ligase (MurN) from Streptococcus pneumoniae using semisynthetic aminoacyl-lipid II substrates.

    PubMed

    De Pascale, Gianfranco; Lloyd, Adrian J; Schouten, James A; Gilbey, Andrea M; Roper, David I; Dowson, Christopher G; Bugg, Timothy D H

    2008-12-12

    MurM and MurN are tRNA-dependent ligases that catalyze the addition of the first (L-Ala/L-Ser) and second (L-Ala) amino acid onto lipid II substrates in the biosynthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of Streptococcus pneumoniae. We have previously characterized the first ligase, MurM (Lloyd, A. J., Gilbey, A. M., Blewett, A. M., De Pascale, G., El Zoeiby, A., Levesque, R. C., Catherwood, A. C., Tomasz, A., Bugg, T. D., Roper, D. I., and Dowson, C. G. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283, 6402-6417). In order to characterize the second ligase MurN, we have developed a chemoenzymatic route to prepare the lipid II-Ala and lipid II-Ser substrates. Recombinant MurN enzymes from penicillin-resistant (159) and -sensitive (Pn16) S. pneumoniae were expressed and purified as MBP fusion proteins and reconstituted using a radiochemical assay. MurN ligases from strains 159 and Pn16 both showed a 20-fold higher catalytic efficiency for lipid II-L-Ala over lipid II-l-Ser, with no activity against unmodified lipid II, and similar kinetic parameters were measured for MurN from penicillin-resistant and penicillin-sensitive strains. These results concur with the peptidoglycan analysis of S. pneumoniae, in which the major cross-link observed is L-Ala-L-Ala. The combined action of ligases MurM and MurN is therefore required in order to rationalize the high level of dipeptide cross-links in penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, with ligase MurM showing the major difference between penicillin-resistant and penicillin-sensitive strains.

  5. Circularization of linear viroid RNA via 2'-phosphomonoester, 3', 5'-phosphodiester bonds by a novel type of RNA ligase from wheat germ and Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Y; Tyc, K; Filipowicz, W; Sänger, H L; Gross, H J

    1982-01-01

    A novel type of RNA ligase activity in extracts of wheat germ or Chlamydomonas requires 2', 3'-cyclic phosphate and 5'-phosphate ends for ligation to form a 2'-phosphomonoester, 3',5'-phosphodiester bond. Using 5'-3 2P-labeled linear PSTV, we demonstrate that RNase T1-nicked viroid predominantly forms (formula; see text) U-bonds. Natural linear PSTV, however, forms mainly (formula; see text) A-bonds upon enzymatic circularization. We show that natural linear PSTV RNA has nicks between C181 and A182, or between C348 and A349, and that consequently C181 and C348 carry 2',3'-cyclophosphate termini. Images PMID:6760127

  6. Activation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Thomas R; Fiesel, Fabienne C; Springer, Wolfdieter

    2015-04-01

    The PINK1 (phosphatase and tensin homologue-induced putative kinase 1)/Parkin-dependent mitochondrial quality control pathway mediates the clearance of damaged organelles, but appears to be disrupted in Parkinson's disease (PD) [Springer and Kahle (2011) Autophagy 7, 266-278]. Upon mitochondrial stress, PINK1 activates the E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase Parkin through phosphorylation of the Ub-like (UBL) domain of Parkin and of the small modifier Ub itself at a conserved residue [Sauvé and Gehring (2014) Cell Res. 24, 1025-1026]. Recently resolved partial crystal structures of Parkin showed a 'closed', auto-inhibited conformation, consistent with its notoriously weak enzymatic activity at steady state [Wauer and Komander (2013) EMBO J. 32, 2099-2112; Riley et al. (2013) Nat. Commun. 4, 1982; Trempe et al. (2013) Science 340, 1451-1455; Spratt et al. (2013) Nat. Commun. 4, 1983]. It has thus become clear that Parkin must undergo major structural rearrangements in order to unleash its catalytic functions. Recent published findings derived from X-ray structures and molecular modelling present a complete structural model of human Parkin at an all-atom resolution [Caulfield et al. (2014) PLoS Comput. Biol. 10, e1003935]. The results of the combined in silico simulations-based and experimental assay-based study indicates that PINK1-dependent Ser65 phosphorylation of Parkin is required for its activation and triggering of 'opening' conformations. Indeed, the obtained structures showed a sequential release of Parkin's intertwined domains and allowed docking of an Ub-charged E2 coenzyme, which could enable its enzymatic activity. In addition, using cell-based screening, select E2 enzymes that redundantly, cooperatively or antagonistically regulate Parkin's activation and/or enzymatic functions at different stages of the mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) process were identified [Fiesel et al. (2014) J. Cell Sci. 127, 3488-3504]. Other work that aims to pin-point the particular

  7. RNA 3'-terminal phosphate cyclase activity and RNA ligation in HeLa cell extract.

    PubMed Central

    Filipowicz, W; Konarska, M; Gross, H J; Shatkin, A J

    1983-01-01

    HeLa cell extract contains RNA ligase activity that converts linear polyribonucleotides to covalently closed circles. RNA substrates containing 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and 5'-hydroxyl termini are circularized by formation of a normal 3',5' phosphodiester bond. This activity differs from a previously described wheat germ RNA ligase which circularizes molecules with 2',3'-cyclic and 5' phosphate ends by a 2'-phosphomonester, 3',5'-phosphodiester linkage (Konarska et al., Nature 293, 112-116, 1981; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 1474-1478, 1982). The HeLa cell ligase can also utilize molecules with 3'-phosphate ends. However, in this case ligation is preceded by an ATP-dependent conversion of the 3'-terminal phosphate to the 2',3' cyclic form by a novel activity, RNA 3'-terminal phosphate cyclase. Both RNA ligase and RNA 3'-terminal phosphate cyclase activities are also present in extract of Xenopus oocyte nuclei, consistent with a role in RNA processing. Images PMID:6828385

  8. Development of a Functionally Minimized Mutant of the R3C Ligase Ribozyme Offers Insight into the Plausibility of the RNA World Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Kurihara, Eri; Uchida, Sayuri; Umehara, Takuya; Tamura, Koji

    2014-01-01

    The R3C ligase ribozyme is an artificial ligase ribozyme produced by modification of the ribozyme that lacks cytidine. Here, we attempted to modify the original R3C ribozyme (73 nucleotides) by reducing the number of nucleotides while maintaining the maximum possible catalytic efficiency. By partially deleting both the “grip” (P4 + P5) and “hammer” (P3) stem-loops, we found the critical border to retain activity comparable to that of full-length R3C. The three-way junction structure was necessary to maintain enzymatic function and the stability of the “grip” (P4 + P5) stem had a large influence on the catalytic activity of R3C. The final minimized ribozyme we obtained comprised ~50 nucleotides, comparable to the estimated length of prebiotically synthesized RNA. Our findings suggest that the autocatalytic function in ribozymes is indeed possible to obtain using sequence lengths achievable with prebiotic synthesis. PMID:25256424

  9. Role of Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase in biogenesis of rRNA, mRNA and tRNA in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Domanska, Anna; Kaminska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase is required for ubiquitination of a wide variety of proteins involved in essential processes. Rsp5 was shown to be involved in regulation of lipid biosynthesis, intracellular trafficking of proteins, response to various stresses, and many other processes. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the nuclear and cytoplasmic functions of Rsp5 with a focus on biogenesis of different RNAs. We also briefly describe the participation of Rsp5 in the regulation of the RNA polymerase II complex, and its potential role in the regulation of other RNA polymerases. Moreover, we emphasize the function of Rsp5 in the coordination of the different steps of rRNA, mRNA and tRNA metabolism in the context of protein biosynthesis. Finally, we highlight the involvement of Rsp5 in controlling diverse cellular mechanisms at multiple levels and in adaptation of the cell to changing growth conditions. PMID:26403176

  10. SUMO E3 ligase activity of TRIM proteins.

    PubMed

    Chu, Y; Yang, X

    2011-03-03

    SUMOylation governs numerous cellular processes and is essential to most eukaryotic life. Despite increasing recognition of the importance of this process, an extremely limited number of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein ligases (E3s) have been identified. Here we show that at least some members of the functionally diverse tripartite motif (TRIM) superfamily are SUMO E3s. These TRIM proteins bind both the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 and substrates and strongly enhance transfer of SUMOs from Ubc9 to these substrates. Among the substrates of TRIM SUMO E3s are the tumor suppressor p53 and its principal antagonist Mdm2. The E3 activity depends on the TRIM motif, suggesting it to be the first widespread SUMO E3 motif. Given the large number of TRIM proteins, our results may greatly expand the identified SUMO E3s. Furthermore, TRIM E3 activity may be an important contributor to SUMOylation specificity and the versatile functions of TRIM proteins.

  11. A zebrafish (Danio rerio) bloodthirsty member 20 with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity involved in immune response against bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinshang; Zhao, Heng; Chen, Yeyu; Luo, Huiying; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2015-01-30

    The tripartite motif (TRIM)-containing proteins exhibit various activities and play important roles in the immune system through regulating signaling pathways. Bloodthirsty gene is a multigene subset of TRIM genes. In this study we identified and characterized a new member of the bloodthirsty subset of TRIM genes, btr20, in zebrafish (Danio rerio). The gene is located on chromosome 19 and forms a cluster with btr18, btr21, btr22 and an E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM39-like gene. Deduced btr20 represents a RBCC-B30.2 TRIM protein containing 544 amino acids. The mRNA expression level of btr20 was highest in intestine and gill, followed by in spleen and kidney. Challenge experiment with Aeromonas hydrophila strain NJ-1 showed that the levels of btr20 and NF-κB mRNA were remarkably upregulated in the four tissues mentioned above. btr20 was localized in the cytoplasm and formed aggregate in human embryonic kidney cell line 293T. In vitro self-ubiquitylation experiment demonstrated that btr20 has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that can be self-ubiquitylated with most E2 enzymes, especially UbcH6. The results suggested that btr20 may involve in the anti-microbial activity in the immune system as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Involvement of the Chloroplastic Isoform of tRNA Ligase in the Replication of Viroids Belonging to the Family Avsunviroidae

    PubMed Central

    Nohales, María-Ángeles; Molina-Serrano, Diego; Flores, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Avocado sunblotch viroid, peach latent mosaic viroid, chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid, and eggplant latent viroid (ELVd), the four recognized members of the family Avsunviroidae, replicate through the symmetric pathway of an RNA-to-RNA rolling-circle mechanism in chloroplasts of infected cells. Viroid oligomeric transcripts of both polarities contain embedded hammerhead ribozymes that, during replication, mediate their self-cleavage to monomeric-length RNAs with 5′-hydroxyl and 2′,3′-phosphodiester termini that are subsequently circularized. We report that a recombinant version of the chloroplastic isoform of the tRNA ligase from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) efficiently catalyzes in vitro circularization of the plus [(+)] and minus [(−)] monomeric linear replication intermediates from the four Avsunviroidae. We also show that while this RNA ligase specifically recognizes the genuine monomeric linear (+) ELVd replication intermediate, it does not do so with five other monomeric linear (+) ELVd RNAs with their ends mapping at different sites along the molecule, despite containing the same 5′-hydroxyl and 2′,3′-phosphodiester terminal groups. Moreover, experiments involving transient expression of a dimeric (+) ELVd transcript in Nicotiana benthamiana Domin plants preinoculated with a tobacco rattle virus-derived vector to induce silencing of the plant endogenous tRNA ligase show a significant reduction of ELVd circularization. In contrast, circularization of a viroid replicating in the nucleus occurring through a different pathway is unaffected. Together, these results support the conclusion that the chloroplastic isoform of the plant tRNA ligase is the host enzyme mediating circularization of both (+) and (−) monomeric linear intermediates during replication of the viroids belonging to the family Avsunviroidae. PMID:22623792

  13. Enzyme-regulated activation of DNAzyme: a novel strategy for a label-free colorimetric DNA ligase assay and ligase-based biosensing.

    PubMed

    He, Kaiyu; Li, Wang; Nie, Zhou; Huang, Yan; Liu, Zhuoliang; Nie, Lihua; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2012-03-26

    The DNA nick repair catalyzed by DNA ligase is significant for fundamental life processes, such as the replication, repair, and recombination of nucleic acids. Here, we have employed ligase to regulate DNAzyme activity and developed a homogeneous, colorimetric, label-free and DNAzyme-based strategy to detect DNA ligase activity. This novel strategy relies on the ligation-trigged activation or production of horseradish peroxidase mimicking DNAzyme that catalyzes the generation of a color change signal; this results in a colorimetric assay of DNA ligase activity. Using T4 DNA ligase as a model, we have proposed two approaches to demonstrate the validity of the DNAzyme strategy. The first approach utilizes an allosteric hairpin-DNAzyme probe specifically responsive to DNA ligation; this approach has a wide detection range from 0.2 to 40 U mL(-1) and a detection limit of 0.2 U mL(-1). Furthermore, the approach was adapted to probe nucleic acid phosphorylation and single nucleotide mismatch. The second approach employs a "split DNA machine" to produce numerous DNAzymes after being reassembled by DNA ligase; this greatly enhances the detection sensitivity by a signal amplification cascade to achieve a detection limit of 0.01 U mL(-1).

  14. 3' RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends for validating viroid induced cleavage at the 3' extremity of the host mRNA.

    PubMed

    Adkar-Purushothama, Charith Raj; Bru, Pierrick; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2017-09-22

    5' RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5' RLM-RACE) is a widely-accepted method for the validation of direct cleavage of a target gene by a microRNA (miRNA) and viroid-derived small RNA (vd-sRNA). However, this method cannot be used if cleavage takes place in the 3' extremity of the target RNA, as this gives insufficient sequence length to design nested PCR primers for 5' RLM RACE. To overcome this hurdle, we have developed 3' RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3' RLM RACE). In this method, an oligonucleotide adapter having 5' adenylated and 3' blocked is ligated to the 3' end of the cleaved RNA followed by PCR amplification using gene specific primers. In other words, in 3' RLM RACE, 3' end is mapped using 5' fragment instead of small 3' fragment. The method developed here was verified by examining the bioinformatics predicted and parallel analysis of RNA ends (PARE) proved cleavage sites of chloride channel protein CLC-b-like mRNA in Potato spindle tuber viroid infected tomato plants. The 3' RLM RACE developed in this study has the potential to validate the miRNA and vd-sRNA mediated cleavage of mRNAs at its 3' untranslated region (3' UTR). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ubiquitylation-dependent oligomerization regulates activity of Nedd4 ligases.

    PubMed

    Attali, Ilan; Tobelaim, William Sam; Persaud, Avinash; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Simpson-Lavy, Kobi J; Mashahreh, Bayan; Levin-Kravets, Olga; Keren-Kaplan, Tal; Pilzer, Inbar; Kupiec, Martin; Wiener, Reuven; Wolf, Dieter A; Rotin, Daniela; Prag, Gali

    2017-02-15

    Ubiquitylation controls protein function and degradation. Therefore, ubiquitin ligases need to be tightly controlled. We discovered an evolutionarily conserved allosteric restraint mechanism for Nedd4 ligases and demonstrated its function with diverse substrates: the yeast soluble proteins Rpn10 and Rvs167, and the human receptor tyrosine kinase FGFR1 and cardiac IKS potassium channel. We found that a potential trimerization interface is structurally blocked by the HECT domain α1-helix, which further undergoes ubiquitylation on a conserved lysine residue. Genetic, bioinformatics, biochemical and biophysical data show that attraction between this α1-conjugated ubiquitin and the HECT ubiquitin-binding patch pulls the α1-helix out of the interface, thereby promoting trimerization. Strikingly, trimerization renders the ligase inactive. Arginine substitution of the ubiquitylated lysine impairs this inactivation mechanism and results in unrestrained FGFR1 ubiquitylation in cells. Similarly, electrophysiological data and TIRF microscopy show that NEDD4 unrestrained mutant constitutively downregulates the IKS channel, thus confirming the functional importance of E3-ligase autoinhibition.

  16. Mammalian DNA ligase III: Molecular cloning, chromosomal localization, and expression in spermatocytes undergoing meiotic recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jingwen; Danehower, S.; Besterman, J.M.; Husain, I.

    1995-10-01

    Three biochemically distinct DNA ligase activities have been identified in mammalian cell extracts. We have recently purified DNA ligase II and DNA ligase III to near homogeneity from bovine liver and testis tissue, respectively. Amino acid sequencing studies indicated that these enzymes are encoded by the same gene. In the present study, human and murine cDNA clones encoding DNA ligase III were isolated with probes based on the peptide sequences. The human DNA ligase III cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 862 amino acids, whose sequence is more closely related to those of the DNA ligases encoded by poxviruses than to replicative DNA ligases, such as human DNA ligase I. In vitro transcription and translation of the cDNA produced a catalytically active DNA ligase similar in size and substrate specificity to the purified bovine enzyme. The DNA ligase III gene was localized to human chromosome 17, which eliminated this gene as a candidate for the cancer-prone disease Bloom syndrome that is associated with DNA joining abnormalities. DNA ligase III is ubiquitously expressed at low levels, except in the testes, in which the steady-state levels of DNA ligase III mRNA are at least 10-fold higher than those detected in other tissues and cells. Since DNA ligase I mRNA is also present at high levels in the testes, we examined the expression of the DNA ligase genes during spermatogenesis. DNA ligase I mRNA expression correlated with the contribution of proliferating supermatogonia cells to the testes, in agreement with the previously defined role of this enzyme in DNA replications. In contrast, elevated levels of DNA ligase III mRNA were observed in primary supermatocytes undergoing recombination prior to the first meiotic division. Therefore, we suggest that DNA ligase III seals DNA strand breaks that arise during the process of meiotic recombination in germ cells and as a consequence of DNA damage in somatic cells. 62 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Base-modified NAD and AMP derivatives and their activity against bacterial DNA ligases.

    PubMed

    Pergolizzi, Giulia; Cominetti, Marco M D; Butt, Julea N; Field, Robert A; Bowater, Richard P; Wagner, Gerd K

    2015-06-14

    We report the chemical synthesis and conformational analysis of a collection of 2-, 6- and 8-substituted derivatives of β-NAD(+) and AMP, and their biochemical evaluation against NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligases from Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Bacterial DNA ligases are validated anti-microbial targets, and new strategies for their inhibition are therefore of considerable scientific and practical interest. Our study includes several pairs of β-NAD(+) and AMP derivatives with the same substitution pattern at the adenine base. This has enabled the first direct comparison of co-substrate and inhibitor behaviour against bacterial DNA ligases. Our results suggest that an additional substituent in position 6 or 8 of the adenine base in β-NAD(+) is detrimental for activity as either co-substrate or inhibitor. In contrast, substituents in position 2 are not only tolerated, but appear to give rise to a new mode of inhibition, which targets the conformational changes these DNA ligases undergo during catalysis. Using a molecular modelling approach, we highlight that these findings have important implications for our understanding of ligase mechanism and inhibition, and may provide a promising starting point for the rational design of a new class of inhibitors against NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligases.

  18. A cost-effective method for Illumina small RNA-Seq library preparation using T4 RNA ligase 1 adenylated adapters

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Deep sequencing is a powerful tool for novel small RNA discovery. Illumina small RNA sequencing library preparation requires a pre-adenylated 3’ end adapter containing a 5’,5’-adenyl pyrophosphoryl moiety. In the absence of ATP, this adapter can be ligated to the 3’ hydroxyl group of small RNA, while RNA self-ligation and concatenation are repressed. Pre-adenylated adapters are one of the most essential and costly components required for library preparation, and few are commercially available. Results We demonstrate that DNA oligo with 5’ phosphate and 3’ amine groups can be enzymatically adenylated by T4 RNA ligase 1 to generate customized pre-adenylated adapters. We have constructed and sequenced a small RNA library for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) using the T4 RNA ligase 1 adenylated adapter. Conclusion We provide an efficient and low-cost method for small RNA sequencing library preparation, which takes two days to complete and costs around $20 per library. This protocol has been tested in several plant species for small RNA sequencing including sweet potato, pepper, watermelon, and cowpea, and could be readily applied to any RNA samples. PMID:22995534

  19. Archaeal Nucleic Acid Ligases and Their Potential in Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Cecilia R.; Patrick, Wayne M.

    2015-01-01

    With their ability to catalyse the formation of phosphodiester linkages, DNA ligases and RNA ligases are essential tools for many protocols in molecular biology and biotechnology. Currently, the nucleic acid ligases from bacteriophage T4 are used extensively in these protocols. In this review, we argue that the nucleic acid ligases from Archaea represent a largely untapped pool of enzymes with diverse and potentially favourable properties for new and emerging biotechnological applications. We summarise the current state of knowledge on archaeal DNA and RNA ligases, which makes apparent the relative scarcity of information on in vitro activities that are of most relevance to biotechnologists (such as the ability to join blunt- or cohesive-ended, double-stranded DNA fragments). We highlight the existing biotechnological applications of archaeal DNA ligases and RNA ligases. Finally, we draw attention to recent experiments in which protein engineering was used to modify the activities of the DNA ligase from Pyrococcus furiosus and the RNA ligase from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, thus demonstrating the potential for further work in this area. PMID:26494982

  20. Archaeal Nucleic Acid Ligases and Their Potential in Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Cecilia R; Patrick, Wayne M

    2015-01-01

    With their ability to catalyse the formation of phosphodiester linkages, DNA ligases and RNA ligases are essential tools for many protocols in molecular biology and biotechnology. Currently, the nucleic acid ligases from bacteriophage T4 are used extensively in these protocols. In this review, we argue that the nucleic acid ligases from Archaea represent a largely untapped pool of enzymes with diverse and potentially favourable properties for new and emerging biotechnological applications. We summarise the current state of knowledge on archaeal DNA and RNA ligases, which makes apparent the relative scarcity of information on in vitro activities that are of most relevance to biotechnologists (such as the ability to join blunt- or cohesive-ended, double-stranded DNA fragments). We highlight the existing biotechnological applications of archaeal DNA ligases and RNA ligases. Finally, we draw attention to recent experiments in which protein engineering was used to modify the activities of the DNA ligase from Pyrococcus furiosus and the RNA ligase from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, thus demonstrating the potential for further work in this area.

  1. Synthesis of bisphosphonate derivatives of ATP by T4 DNA ligase, ubiquitin activating enzyme (E1) and other ligases.

    PubMed

    Günther Sillero, María A; de Diego, Anabel; Pérez-Zúñiga, Francisco J; Sillero, Antonio

    2008-05-15

    T4 DNA ligase and the ubiquitin activating enzyme (E1), catalyze the synthesis of ATP beta,gamma-bisphosphonate derivatives. Concerning T4 DNA ligase: (i) etidronate (pC(OH)(CH(3))p) displaced the AMP moiety of the complex E-AMP in a concentration dependent manner; (ii) the K(m) values and the rate of synthesis k(cat) (s(-1)), determined for the following compounds were, respectively: etidronate, 0.73+/-0.09 mM and (70+/-10)x10(-3) s(-1); clodronate (pCCl(2)p), 0.08+/-0.01 mM and (4.1+/-0.3)x10(-3) s(-1); methylenebisphosphonate (pCH(2)p), 0.024+/-0.001 mM and (0.6+/-0.1)x10(-3) s(-1); tripolyphosphate (P(3)) (in the synthesis of adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate, p(4)A), 1.30+/-0.30 mM and (6.2+/-1.1)x10(-3) s(-1); (iii) in the presence of GTP and ATP, inhibition of the synthesis of Ap(4)G was observed with clodronate but not with pamidronate (pC(OH)(CH(2)-CH(2)-NH(3))p). Concerning the ubiquitin activating enzyme (E1): methylenebisphosphonate was the only bisphosphonate, out of the ones tested, that served as substrate for the synthesis of an ATP derivative (K(m)=0.36+/-0.09 mM and k(cat)=0.15+/-0.02 s(-1)). None of the above bisphosphonates were substrates of the reaction catalyzed by luciferase or by acyl-CoA synthetase. The ability of acetyl-CoA synthetase to use methylenebisphosphonate as substrate depended on the commercial source of the enzyme. In our view this report widens our knowledge of the enzymes able to metabolize bisphosphonates, a therapeutic tool widely used in the treatment of osteoporosis.

  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum Exit of Golgi-resident Defective for SREBP Cleavage (Dsc) E3 Ligase Complex Requires Its Activity.

    PubMed

    Raychaudhuri, Sumana; Espenshade, Peter J

    2015-06-05

    Layers of quality control ensure proper protein folding and complex formation prior to exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. The fission yeast Dsc E3 ligase is a Golgi-localized complex required for sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factor activation that shows architectural similarity to endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation E3 ligases. The Dsc E3 ligase consists of five integral membrane proteins (Dsc1-Dsc5) and functionally interacts with the conserved AAA-ATPase Cdc48. Utilizing an in vitro ubiquitination assay, we demonstrated that Dsc1 has ubiquitin E3 ligase activity that requires the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc4. Mutations that specifically block Dsc1-Ubc4 interaction prevent SREBP cleavage, indicating that SREBP activation requires Dsc E3 ligase activity. Surprisingly, Golgi localization of the Dsc E3 ligase complex also requires Dsc1 E3 ligase activity. Analysis of Dsc E3 ligase complex formation, glycosylation, and localization indicated that Dsc1 E3 ligase activity is specifically required for endoplasmic reticulum exit of the complex. These results define enzyme activity-dependent sorting as an autoregulatory mechanism for protein trafficking.

  3. tRNA Ligase Catalyzes the GTP-Dependent Ligation of RNA with 3′-Phosphate and 5′-Hydroxyl Termini

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Kevin K.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2012-01-01

    The RNA ligase RtcB is conserved in all domains of life, and is essential for tRNA maturation in archaea and metazoa. Here we show that bacterial and archaeal RtcB catalyze the GTP-dependent ligation of RNA with 3′-phosphate and 5′-hydroxyl termini. Reactions with analogues of RNA and GTP suggest a mechanism in which RtcB heals the 3′-phosphate terminus by forming a 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate before joining it to the 5′-hydroxyl group of a second RNA strand. Thus, RtcB can ligate RNA cleaved by RNA endonucleases, which generate 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate and then 3′-phosphate termini on one strand, and a 5′-hydroxyl terminus on another strand. PMID:22320833

  4. Deubiquitinase FAM/USP9X Interacts with the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase SMURF1 Protein and Protects It from Ligase Activity-dependent Self-degradation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yang; Avello, Monika; Schirle, Markus; McWhinnie, Elizabeth; Feng, Yan; Bric-Furlong, Eva; Wilson, Christopher; Nathans, Robin; Zhang, Jing; Kirschner, Marc W.; Huang, Shih-Min A.; Cong, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitination is an essential post-translational modification that mediates diverse cellular functions. SMAD-specific E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (SMURF1) belongs to the Nedd4 family of HECT ubiquitin ligases that directly catalyzes ubiquitin conjugation onto diverse substrates. As a result, SMURF1 regulates a great variety of cellular physiologies including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, cell migration, and planar cell polarity. Structurally, SMURF1 consists of a C2 domain, two WW domain repeats, and a catalytic HECT domain essential for its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. This modular architecture allows for interactions with other proteins, which are either substrates or adaptors of SMURF1. Despite the increasing number of SMURF1 substrates identified, current knowledge regarding regulatory proteins and their modes of action on controlling SMURF1 activity is still limited. In this study, we employed quantitative mass spectrometry to analyze SMURF1-associated cellular complexes, and identified the deubiquitinase FAM/USP9X as a novel interacting protein for SMURF1. Through domain mapping study, we found the second WW domain of SMURF1 and the carboxyl terminus of USP9X critical for this interaction. SMURF1 is autoubiquitinated through its intrinsic HECT E3 ligase activity, and is degraded by the proteasome. USP9X association antagonizes this activity, resulting in deubiquitination and stabilization of SMURF1. In MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, SMURF1 expression is elevated and is required for cellular motility. USP9X stabilizes endogenous SMURF1 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Depletion of USP9X led to down-regulation of SMURF1 and significantly impaired cellular migration. Taken together, our data reveal USP9X as an important regulatory protein of SMURF1 and suggest that the association between deubiquitinase and E3 ligase may serve as a common strategy to control the cellular protein dynamics through modulating E3 ligase stability. PMID:23184937

  5. SHP-1 inhibition by 4-hydroxynonenal activates Jun N-terminal kinase and glutamate cysteine ligase.

    PubMed

    Rinna, Alessandra; Forman, Henry Jay

    2008-07-01

    4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a major lipid peroxidation product, is toxic at high concentrations, but at near-physiological concentrations it induces detoxifying enzymes. Previous data established that in human bronchial epithelial (HBE1) cells, both genes for glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) are induced by HNE through the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. The protein-tyrosine phosphatase SH2 domain containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) is thought to play a role as a negative regulator of cell signaling, and has been implicated as such in the JNK pathway. In the present study, SHP-1 was demonstrated to contribute to HNE-induced-gclc expression via regulation of the JNK pathway in HBE1 cells. Treatment of HBE1 cells with HNE induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4), JNK, and c-Jun. HNE was able to inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase activity of SHP-1 through increased degradation of the protein. Furthermore, transfection with small interference RNA SHP-1 showed an enhancement of JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation, but not of MKK4, leading to increased gclc expression. These results demonstrate that SHP-1 plays a role as a negative regulator of the JNK pathway and that HNE activated the JNK pathway by inhibiting SHP-1. Thus, SHP-1 acts as a sensor for HNE and is responsible for an important adaptive response to oxidative stress.

  6. Inhibition of human DNA ligase I activity by zinc and cadmium and the fidelity of ligation.

    PubMed

    Yang, S W; Becker, F F; Chan, J Y

    1996-01-01

    Heavy metals, including zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd), are potentially important genotoxic agents in our environment. Here we report that human DNA ligase I, the major form of the enzyme in replicative cells, is a target for Zn and Cd ions. ZnCl2 at 0.8 mM caused complete inhibition of DNA ligase I activity, whereas only 0.04 mM CdCl2 was required to achieve a similar effect. Both metals affected all three steps of the reaction, namely, the formation of ligase-AMP intermediate, the transfer of the AMP to DNA and the ligation reaction that succeeds the formation of the AMP-DNA complex. Unlike F-ara-ATP and the natural protein inhibitor of DNA ligase-I, these metals may affect different domains of the enzyme. Moreover, these metal ions did not increase the rate of misligation of F-ara-A-modified DNA or mismatched DNA substrates, but considerable misligation was observed for the T:C mispairing. These data support the notion of high fidelity of the human DNA ligases and that the major action of these metal ions on the enzyme is their inhibitory function.

  7. The human RNA-binding protein and E3 ligase MEX-3C binds the MEX-3-recognition element (MRE) motif with high affinity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lingna; Wang, Chongyuan; Li, Fudong; Zhang, Jiahai; Nayab, Anam; Wu, Jihui; Shi, Yunyu; Gong, Qingguo

    2017-09-29

    MEX-3 is a K-homology (KH) domain-containing RNA-binding protein first identified as a translational repressor in Caenorhabditis elegans, and its four orthologs (MEX-3A-D) in human and mouse were subsequently found to have E3 ubiquitin ligase activity mediated by a RING domain and critical for RNA degradation. Current evidence implicates human MEX-3C in many essential biological processes and suggests a strong connection with immune diseases and carcinogenesis. The highly conserved dual KH domains in MEX-3 proteins enable RNA binding and are essential for the recognition of the 3'-UTR and post-transcriptional regulation of MEX-3 target transcripts. However, the molecular mechanisms of translational repression and the consensus RNA sequence recognized by the MEX-3C KH domain are unknown. Here, using X-ray crystallography and isothermal titration calorimetry, we investigated the RNA-binding activity and selectivity of human MEX-3C dual KH domains. Our high-resolution crystal structures of individual KH domains complexed with a noncanonical U-rich and a GA-rich RNA sequence revealed that the KH1/2 domains of human MEX-3C bound MRE10, a 10-mer RNA (5'-CAGAGUUUAG-3') consisting of an eight-nucleotide MEX-3-recognition element (MRE) motif, with high affinity. Of note, we also identified a consensus RNA motif recognized by human MEX-3C. The potential RNA-binding sites in the 3'-UTR of the human leukocyte antigen serotype (HLA-A2) mRNA were mapped with this RNA-binding motif and further confirmed by fluorescence polarization. The binding motif identified here will provide valuable information for future investigations of the functional pathways controlled by human MEX-3C and for predicting potential mRNAs regulated by this enzyme. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Control of cullin-ring ubiquitin ligase activity by nedd8.

    PubMed

    Deshaies, Raymond J; Emberley, Ethan D; Saha, Anjanabha

    2010-01-01

    The Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL) family, which may number as many as 350 different enzymes, has an enormous impact on cellular regulation. CRL enzymes regulate cell biology by conjugating ubiquitin onto target proteins that are involved in a multitude of processes. In most cases this leads to degradation of the target, but in some cases CRL-dependent ubiquitination acts as a switch to activate or repress target function. The ubiquitin ligase activity of CRLs is controlled by cycles of attachment and removal of the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8. Conjugation of Nedd8 onto the cullin subunit of CRLs promotes assembly of an intact CRL complex and switches on ubiquitin ligase activity. Conversely, removal of Nedd8 switches off ubiquitin ligase activity and initiates CRL disassembly. Continuous maintenance of CRL function in vivo requires the activities of both the Nedd8-conjugating and deconjugating enzymes, pointing to a critical role of complex dynamics in CRL function. Here, we review how the Nedd8 cycle controls CRL activity and how perturbations of this cycle can lead to disease.

  9. TRIAD1 and HHARI bind to and are activated by distinct neddylated Cullin-RING ligase complexes

    PubMed Central

    Kelsall, Ian R; Duda, David M; Olszewski, Jennifer L; Hofmann, Kay; Knebel, Axel; Langevin, Frédéric; Wood, Nicola; Wightman, Melanie; Schulman, Brenda A; Alpi, Arno F

    2013-01-01

    RING (Really Interesting New Gene)-in-between-RING (RBR) enzymes are a distinct class of E3 ubiquitin ligases possessing a cluster of three zinc-binding domains that cooperate to catalyse ubiquitin transfer. The regulation and biological function for most members of the RBR ligases is not known, and all RBR E3s characterized to date are auto-inhibited for in vitro ubiquitylation. Here, we show that TRIAD1 and HHARI, two members of the Ariadne subfamily ligases, associate with distinct neddylated Cullin-RING ligase (CRL) complexes. In comparison to the modest E3 ligase activity displayed by isolated TRIAD1 or HHARI, binding of the cognate neddylated CRL to TRIAD1 or HHARI greatly stimulates RBR ligase activity in vitro, as determined by auto-ubiquitylation, their ability to stimulate dissociation of a thioester-linked UBCH7∼ubiquitin intermediate, and reactivity with ubiquitin-vinyl methyl ester. Moreover, genetic evidence shows that RBR ligase activity impacts both the levels and activities of neddylated CRLs in vivo. Cumulatively, our work proposes a conserved mechanism of CRL-induced Ariadne RBR ligase activation and further suggests a reciprocal role of this special class of RBRs as regulators of distinct CRLs. PMID:24076655

  10. TRIAD1 and HHARI bind to and are activated by distinct neddylated Cullin-RING ligase complexes.

    PubMed

    Kelsall, Ian R; Duda, David M; Olszewski, Jennifer L; Hofmann, Kay; Knebel, Axel; Langevin, Frédéric; Wood, Nicola; Wightman, Melanie; Schulman, Brenda A; Alpi, Arno F

    2013-10-30

    RING (Really Interesting New Gene)-in-between-RING (RBR) enzymes are a distinct class of E3 ubiquitin ligases possessing a cluster of three zinc-binding domains that cooperate to catalyse ubiquitin transfer. The regulation and biological function for most members of the RBR ligases is not known, and all RBR E3s characterized to date are auto-inhibited for in vitro ubiquitylation. Here, we show that TRIAD1 and HHARI, two members of the Ariadne subfamily ligases, associate with distinct neddylated Cullin-RING ligase (CRL) complexes. In comparison to the modest E3 ligase activity displayed by isolated TRIAD1 or HHARI, binding of the cognate neddylated CRL to TRIAD1 or HHARI greatly stimulates RBR ligase activity in vitro, as determined by auto-ubiquitylation, their ability to stimulate dissociation of a thioester-linked UBCH7∼ubiquitin intermediate, and reactivity with ubiquitin-vinyl methyl ester. Moreover, genetic evidence shows that RBR ligase activity impacts both the levels and activities of neddylated CRLs in vivo. Cumulatively, our work proposes a conserved mechanism of CRL-induced Ariadne RBR ligase activation and further suggests a reciprocal role of this special class of RBRs as regulators of distinct CRLs.

  11. A Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Regulates Caspase Activation During Sperm Differentiation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Arama, Eli; Bader, Maya; Rieckhof, Gabrielle E; Steller, Hermann

    2007-01-01

    In both insects and mammals, spermatids eliminate their bulk cytoplasm as they undergo terminal differentiation. In Drosophila, this process of dramatic cellular remodeling requires apoptotic proteins, including caspases. To gain further insight into the regulation of caspases, we screened a large collection of sterile male flies for mutants that block effector caspase activation at the onset of spermatid individualization. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of a testis-specific, Cullin-3–dependent ubiquitin ligase complex that is required for caspase activation in spermatids. Mutations in either a testis-specific isoform of Cullin-3 (Cul3Testis), the small RING protein Roc1b, or a Drosophila orthologue of the mammalian BTB-Kelch protein Klhl10 all reduce or eliminate effector caspase activation in spermatids. Importantly, all three genes encode proteins that can physically interact to form a ubiquitin ligase complex. Roc1b binds to the catalytic core of Cullin-3, and Klhl10 binds specifically to a unique testis-specific N-terminal Cullin-3 (TeNC) domain of Cul3Testis that is required for activation of effector caspase in spermatids. Finally, the BIR domain region of the giant inhibitor of apoptosis–like protein dBruce is sufficient to bind to Klhl10, which is consistent with the idea that dBruce is a substrate for the Cullin-3-based E3-ligase complex. These findings reveal a novel role of Cullin-based ubiquitin ligases in caspase regulation. PMID:17880263

  12. Discovery of bacterial NAD+-dependent DNA ligase inhibitors: optimization of antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Suzanne S; Huynh, Hoan; Gowravaram, Madhusudhan; Albert, Robert; Cavero-Tomas, Marta; Chen, Brendan; Harang, Jenna; Loch, James T; Lu, Min; Mullen, George B; Zhao, Shannon; Liu, Ce-Feng; Mills, Scott D

    2011-08-01

    Optimization of adenosine analog inhibitors of bacterial NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase is discussed. Antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus was improved by modification of the 2-position substituent on the adenine ring and 3'- and 5'-substituents on the ribose. Compounds with logD values 1.5-2.5 maximized potency and maintained drug-like physical properties.

  13. Isolation of novel ribozymes that ligate AMP-activated RNA substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, A. J.; Szostak, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The protein enzymes RNA ligase and DNA ligase catalyze the ligation of nucleic acids via an adenosine-5'-5'-pyrophosphate 'capped' RNA or DNA intermediate. The activation of nucleic acid substrates by adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) may be a vestige of 'RNA world' catalysis. AMP-activated ligation seems ideally suited for catalysis by ribozymes (RNA enzymes), because an RNA motif capable of tightly and specifically binding AMP has previously been isolated. RESULTS: We used in vitro selection and directed evolution to explore the ability of ribozymes to catalyze the template-directed ligation of AMP-activated RNAs. We subjected a pool of 10(15) RNA molecules, each consisting of long random sequences flanking a mutagenized adenosine triphosphate (ATP) aptamer, to ten rounds of in vitro selection, including three rounds involving mutagenic polymerase chain reaction. Selection was for the ligation of an oligonucleotide to the 5'-capped active pool RNA species. Many different ligase ribozymes were isolated; these ribozymes had rates of reaction up to 0.4 ligations per hour, corresponding to rate accelerations of approximately 5 x10(5) over the templated, but otherwise uncatalyzed, background reaction rate. Three characterized ribozymes catalyzed the formation of 3'-5'-phosphodiester bonds and were highly specific for activation by AMP at the ligation site. CONCLUSIONS: The existence of a new class of ligase ribozymes is consistent with the hypothesis that the unusual mechanism of the biological ligases resulted from a conservation of mechanism during an evolutionary replacement of a primordial ribozyme ligase by a more modern protein enzyme. The newly isolated ligase ribozymes may also provide a starting point for the isolation of ribozymes that catalyze the polymerization of AMP-activated oligonucleotides or mononucleotides, which might have been the prebiotic analogs of nucleoside triphosphates.

  14. Isolation of novel ribozymes that ligate AMP-activated RNA substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, A. J.; Szostak, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The protein enzymes RNA ligase and DNA ligase catalyze the ligation of nucleic acids via an adenosine-5'-5'-pyrophosphate 'capped' RNA or DNA intermediate. The activation of nucleic acid substrates by adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) may be a vestige of 'RNA world' catalysis. AMP-activated ligation seems ideally suited for catalysis by ribozymes (RNA enzymes), because an RNA motif capable of tightly and specifically binding AMP has previously been isolated. RESULTS: We used in vitro selection and directed evolution to explore the ability of ribozymes to catalyze the template-directed ligation of AMP-activated RNAs. We subjected a pool of 10(15) RNA molecules, each consisting of long random sequences flanking a mutagenized adenosine triphosphate (ATP) aptamer, to ten rounds of in vitro selection, including three rounds involving mutagenic polymerase chain reaction. Selection was for the ligation of an oligonucleotide to the 5'-capped active pool RNA species. Many different ligase ribozymes were isolated; these ribozymes had rates of reaction up to 0.4 ligations per hour, corresponding to rate accelerations of approximately 5 x10(5) over the templated, but otherwise uncatalyzed, background reaction rate. Three characterized ribozymes catalyzed the formation of 3'-5'-phosphodiester bonds and were highly specific for activation by AMP at the ligation site. CONCLUSIONS: The existence of a new class of ligase ribozymes is consistent with the hypothesis that the unusual mechanism of the biological ligases resulted from a conservation of mechanism during an evolutionary replacement of a primordial ribozyme ligase by a more modern protein enzyme. The newly isolated ligase ribozymes may also provide a starting point for the isolation of ribozymes that catalyze the polymerization of AMP-activated oligonucleotides or mononucleotides, which might have been the prebiotic analogs of nucleoside triphosphates.

  15. Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase is Involved in the Repair of DNA Damage Due to Sulfur Mustard by a Mechanism Other Than DNA Ligase I Activation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-16

    agents including sulfur mustard (SM). We observed concurrent activation of PARP and DNA ligase in SM-exposed human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK...Previous reports from other laboratories suggested that DNA ligase activation could be due to its modification by PARP. In humans, there are three distinct...DNA ligases, I, II and IV of which DNA ligase I participates in DNA replication and repair. By metabolically labeling HEK using 3H-adenosine

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA ligase IV supports imprecise end joining independently of its catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Chiruvella, Kishore K; Liang, Zhuobin; Birkeland, Shanda R; Basrur, Venkatesha; Wilson, Thomas E

    2013-06-01

    DNA ligase IV (Dnl4 in budding yeast) is a specialized ligase used in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Although point and truncation mutations arise in the human ligase IV syndrome, the roles of Dnl4 in DSB repair have mainly been examined using gene deletions. Here, Dnl4 catalytic point mutants were generated that were severely defective in auto-adenylation in vitro and NHEJ activity in vivo, despite being hyper-recruited to DSBs and supporting wild-type levels of Lif1 interaction and assembly of a Ku- and Lif1-containing complex at DSBs. Interestingly, residual levels of especially imprecise NHEJ were markedly higher in a deletion-based assay with Dnl4 catalytic mutants than with a gene deletion strain, suggesting a role of DSB-bound Dnl4 in supporting a mode of NHEJ catalyzed by a different ligase. Similarly, next generation sequencing of repair joints in a distinct single-DSB assay showed that dnl4-K466A mutation conferred a significantly different imprecise joining profile than wild-type Dnl4 and that such repair was rarely observed in the absence of Dnl4. Enrichment of DNA ligase I (Cdc9 in yeast) at DSBs was observed in wild-type as well as dnl4 point mutant strains, with both Dnl4 and Cdc9 disappearing from DSBs upon 5' resection that was unimpeded by the presence of catalytically inactive Dnl4. These findings indicate that Dnl4 can promote mutagenic end joining independently of its catalytic activity, likely by a mechanism that involves Cdc9.

  17. Tuning BRCA1 and BARD1 activity to investigate RING ubiquitin ligase mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Mikaela D; Duncan, Emily D; Coronado, Ernesto; DaRosa, Paul A; Pruneda, Jonathan N; Brzovic, Peter S; Klevit, Rachel E

    2017-03-01

    The tumor-suppressor protein BRCA1 works with BARD1 to catalyze the transfer of ubiquitin onto protein substrates. The N-terminal regions of BRCA1 and BARD1 that contain their RING domains are responsible for dimerization and ubiquitin ligase activity. This activity is a common feature among hundreds of human RING domain-containing proteins. RING domains bind and activate E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes to promote ubiquitin transfer to substrates. We show that the identity of residues at specific positions in the RING domain can tune activity levels up or down. We report substitutions that create a structurally intact BRCA1/BARD1 heterodimer that is inactive in vitro with all E2 enzymes. Other substitutions in BRCA1 or BARD1 RING domains result in hyperactivity, revealing that both proteins have evolved attenuated activity. Loss of attenuation results in decreased product specificity, providing a rationale for why nature has tuned BRCA1 activity. The ability to tune BRCA1 provides powerful tools for understanding its biological functions and provides a basis to assess mechanisms for rescuing the activity of cancer-associated variations. Beyond the applicability to BRCA1, we show the identity of residues at tuning positions that can be used to predict and modulate the activity of an unrelated RING E3 ligase. These findings provide valuable insights into understanding the mechanism and function of RING E3 ligases like BRCA1. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  18. Altered regulation of DNA ligase IV activity by aberrant promoter DNA methylation and gene amplification in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuhmann, Christine; Li, Carmen; Kloor, Matthias; Salou, Mariam; Weigel, Christoph; Schmidt, Christopher R; Ng, Linda W C; Tsui, Wendy W Y; Leung, Suet Y; Yuen, Siu T; Becker, Natalia; Weichenhan, Dieter; Plass, Christoph; Schmezer, Peter; Chan, Tsun L; Popanda, Odilia

    2014-04-15

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) presents as a very heterogeneous disease which cannot sufficiently be characterized with the currently known genetic and epigenetic markers. To identify new markers for CRC we scrutinized the methylation status of 231 DNA repair-related genes by methyl-CpG immunoprecipitation followed by global methylation profiling on a CpG island microarray, as altered expression of these genes could drive genomic and chromosomal instability observed in these tumors. We show for the first time hypermethylation of MMP9, DNMT3A and LIG4 in CRC which was confirmed in two CRC patient groups with different ethnicity. DNA ligase IV (LIG4) showed strong differential promoter methylation (up to 60%) which coincided with downregulation of mRNA in 51% of cases. This functional association of LIG4 methylation and gene expression was supported by LIG4 re-expression in 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-treated colon cancer cell lines, and reduced ligase IV amounts and end-joining activity in extracts of tumors with hypermethylation. Methylation of LIG4 was not associated with other genetic and epigenetic markers of CRC in our study. As LIG4 is located on chromosome 13 which is frequently amplified in CRC, two loci were tested for gene amplification in a subset of 47 cases. Comparison of amplification, methylation and expression data revealed that, in 30% of samples, the LIG4 gene was amplified and methylated, but expression was not changed. In conclusion, hypermethylation of the LIG4 promoter is a new mechanism to control ligase IV expression. It may represent a new epigenetic marker for CRC independent of known markers.

  19. Auto-ubiquitination of Mdm2 Enhances Its Substrate Ubiquitin Ligase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Ranaweera, Ruchira S.; Yang, Xiaolu

    2013-01-01

    The RING domain E3 ubiquitin ligase Mdm2 is the master regulator of the tumor suppressor p53. It targets p53 for proteasomal degradation, restraining the potent activity of p53 and enabling cell survival and proliferation. Like most E3 ligases, Mdm2 can also ubiquitinate itself. How Mdm2 auto-ubiquitination may influence its substrate ubiquitin ligase activity is undefined. Here we show that auto-ubiquitination of Mdm2 is an activating event. Mdm2 that has been conjugated to polyubiquitin chains, but not to single ubiquitins, exhibits substantially enhanced activity to polyubiquitinate p53. Mechanistically, auto-ubiquitination of Mdm2 facilitates the recruitment of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. This occurs through noncovalent interactions between the ubiquitin chains on Mdm2 and the ubiquitin binding domain on E2s. Mutations that diminish the noncovalent interactions render auto-ubiquitination unable to stimulate Mdm2 substrate E3 activity. These results suggest a model in which polyubiquitin chains on an E3 increase the local concentration of E2 enzymes and permit the processivity of substrate ubiquitination. They also support the notion that autocatalysis may be a prevalent mode for turning on the activity of latent enzymes. PMID:23671280

  20. Expression and biochemical characterization of Plasmodium falciparum DNA ligase I.

    PubMed

    Buguliskis, Jeffrey S; Casta, Louis J; Butz, Charles E; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Taraschi, Theodore F

    2007-10-01

    We report that Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) encodes a 912 amino acid ATP-dependent DNA ligase. Protein sequence analysis of Pf DNA ligase I indicates a strong sequence similarity, particularly in the C-terminal region, to DNA ligase I homologues. The activity of recombinant Pf DNA ligase I (PfLigI) was investigated using protein expressed in HEK293 cells. The PfLigI gene product is approximately 94kDa and catalyzes phosphodiester bond formation on a singly nicked DNA substrate. The enzyme is most active at alkaline pH (8.5) and with Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) and ATP as cofactors. Kinetic studies of PfLigI revealed that the enzyme has similar substrate affinity (K(m) 2.6nM) as compared to human DNA ligase I and k(cat) (2.3x10(-3)s(-1)) and k(cat)/K(m) (8.8x10(5)M(-1)s(-1)) which are similar to other ATP-dependent DNA ligases. PfLigI was able to join RNA-DNA substrates only when the RNA sequence was upstream of the nick, confirming that it is DNA ligase I and has no associated DNA ligase III like activity.

  1. Functional role of TRIM E3 ligase oligomerization and regulation of catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Koliopoulos, Marios G; Esposito, Diego; Christodoulou, Evangelos; Taylor, Ian A; Rittinger, Katrin

    2016-06-01

    TRIM E3 ubiquitin ligases regulate a wide variety of cellular processes and are particularly important during innate immune signalling events. They are characterized by a conserved tripartite motif in their N-terminal portion which comprises a canonical RING domain, one or two B-box domains and a coiled-coil region that mediates ligase dimerization. Self-association via the coiled-coil has been suggested to be crucial for catalytic activity of TRIMs; however, the precise molecular mechanism underlying this observation remains elusive. Here, we provide a detailed characterization of the TRIM ligases TRIM25 and TRIM32 and show how their oligomeric state is linked to catalytic activity. The crystal structure of a complex between the TRIM25 RING domain and an ubiquitin-loaded E2 identifies the structural and mechanistic features that promote a closed E2~Ub conformation to activate the thioester for ubiquitin transfer allowing us to propose a model for the regulation of activity in the full-length protein. Our data reveal an unexpected diversity in the self-association mechanism of TRIMs that might be crucial for their biological function.

  2. The mRNA decay factor tristetraprolin (TTP) induces senescence in human papillomavirus-transformed cervical cancer cells by targeting E6-AP ubiquitin ligase

    PubMed Central

    Sanduja, Sandhya; Kaza, Vimala; Dixon, Dan A.

    2009-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) regulates expression of many cancer-associated and proinflammatory factors through binding AU-rich elements (ARE) in the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) and facilitating rapid mRNA decay. Here we report on the ability of TTP to act in an anti-proliferative capacity in HPV18-positive HeLa cells by inducing senescence. HeLa cells maintain a dormant p53 pathway and elevated telomerase activity resulting from HPV-mediated transformation, whereas TTP expression counteracted this effect by stabilizing p53 protein and inhibiting hTERT expression. Presence of TTP did not alter E6 and E7 viral mRNA levels indicating that these are not TTP targets. It was found that TTP promoted rapid mRNA decay of the cellular ubiquitin ligase E6-associated protein (E6-AP). RNA-binding studies demonstrated TTP and E6-AP mRNA interaction and deletion of the E6-AP mRNA ARE-containing 3'UTR imparts resistance to TTP-mediated downregulation. Similar results were obtained with high-risk HPV16-positive cells that employ the E6-AP pathway to control p53 and hTERT levels. Furthermore, loss of TTP expression was consistently observed in cervical cancer tissue compared to normal tissue. These findings demonstrate the ability of TTP to act as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting the E6-AP pathway and indicate TTP loss to be a critical event during HPV-mediated carcinogenesis. PMID:20157568

  3. E3 Ubiquitin Ligase RLIM Negatively Regulates c-Myc Transcriptional Activity and Restrains Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan; Cai, Hao; Zhu, Jingjing; Yu, Long

    2016-01-01

    RNF12/RLIM is a RING domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase whose function has only begun to be elucidated recently. Although RLIM was reported to play important roles in some biological processes such as imprinted X-chromosome inactivation and regulation of TGF-β pathway etc., other functions of RLIM are largely unknown. Here, we identified RLIM as a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase for c-Myc, one of the most frequently deregulated oncoproteins in human cancers. RLIM associates with c-Myc in vivo and in vitro independently of the E3 ligase activity of RLIM. Moreover, RLIM promotes the polyubiquitination of c-Myc protein independently of Ser62 and Thr58 phosphorylation of c-Myc. However, RLIM-mediated ubiquitination does not affect c-Myc stability. Instead, RLIM inhibits the transcriptional activity of c-Myc through which RLIM restrains cell proliferation. Our results suggest that RLIM may function as a tumor suppressor by controlling the activity of c-Myc oncoprotein. PMID:27684546

  4. Structural basis for catalytic activation by the human ZNF451 SUMO E3 ligase

    DOE PAGES

    Cappadocia, Laurent; Pichler, Andrea; Lima, Christopher D.

    2015-11-02

    E3 protein ligases enhance transfer of ubiquitin-like (Ubl) proteins from E2 conjugating enzymes to substrates by stabilizing the thioester-charged E2~Ubl in a closed configuration optimally aligned for nucleophilic attack. In this paper, we report biochemical and structural data that define the N-terminal domain of the Homo sapiens ZNF451 as the catalytic module for SUMO E3 ligase activity. The ZNF451 catalytic module contains tandem SUMO-interaction motifs (SIMs) bridged by a Pro-Leu-Arg-Pro (PLRP) motif. The first SIM and PLRP motif engage thioester-charged E2~SUMO while the next SIM binds a second molecule of SUMO bound to the back side of E2. We showmore » that ZNF451 is SUMO2 specific and that SUMO modification of ZNF451 may contribute to activity by providing a second molecule of SUMO that interacts with E2. Finally, our results are consistent with ZNF451 functioning as a bona fide SUMO E3 ligase.« less

  5. Structural basis for catalytic activation by the human ZNF451 SUMO E3 ligase

    SciTech Connect

    Cappadocia, Laurent; Pichler, Andrea; Lima, Christopher D.

    2015-11-02

    E3 protein ligases enhance transfer of ubiquitin-like (Ubl) proteins from E2 conjugating enzymes to substrates by stabilizing the thioester-charged E2~Ubl in a closed configuration optimally aligned for nucleophilic attack. In this paper, we report biochemical and structural data that define the N-terminal domain of the Homo sapiens ZNF451 as the catalytic module for SUMO E3 ligase activity. The ZNF451 catalytic module contains tandem SUMO-interaction motifs (SIMs) bridged by a Pro-Leu-Arg-Pro (PLRP) motif. The first SIM and PLRP motif engage thioester-charged E2~SUMO while the next SIM binds a second molecule of SUMO bound to the back side of E2. We show that ZNF451 is SUMO2 specific and that SUMO modification of ZNF451 may contribute to activity by providing a second molecule of SUMO that interacts with E2. Finally, our results are consistent with ZNF451 functioning as a bona fide SUMO E3 ligase.

  6. Human DNA ligases I and III, but not ligase IV, are required for microhomology-mediated end joining of DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Liang, Li; Deng, Li; Nguyen, Son C; Zhao, Xin; Maulion, Christopher D; Shao, Changshun; Tischfield, Jay A

    2008-06-01

    DNA nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination are two distinct pathways of DNA double-strand break repair in mammalian cells. Biochemical and genetic studies showed that DNA ends can also be joined via microhomology-mediated end joining (MHEJ), especially when proteins responsible for NHEJ, such as Ku, are reduced or absent. While it has been known that Ku-dependent NHEJ requires DNA ligase IV, it is unclear which DNA ligase(s) is required for Ku-independent MHEJ. In this study, we used a cell-free assay to determine the roles of DNA ligases I, III and IV in MHEJ and NHEJ. We found that siRNA mediated down-regulation of DNA ligase I or ligase III in human HTD114 cells led to impaired end joining that was mediated by 2-, 3- or 10-bp microhomology. In addition, nuclear extract from human fibroblasts harboring a mutation in DNA ligase I displayed reduced MHEJ activity. Furthermore, treatment of HTD114 nuclear extracts with an antibody against DNA ligase I or III also significantly reduced MHEJ. These data indicate that DNA ligases I and III are required in MHEJ. DNA ligase IV, on the contrary, is not required in MHEJ but facilitates Ku-dependent NHEJ. Therefore, MHEJ and NHEJ require different DNA ligases.

  7. In vitro reconstitution demonstrates the cell wall ligase activity of LCP proteins.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Kaitlin; Matano, Leigh M; Qiao, Yuan; Kahne, Daniel; Walker, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Sacculus is a peptidoglycan (PG) matrix that protects bacteria from osmotic lysis. In Gram-positive organisms, the sacculus is densely functionalized with glycopolymers important for survival, but the way in which assembly occurs is not known. In Staphylococcus aureus, three LCP (LytR-CpsA-Psr) family members have been implicated in attaching the major glycopolymer wall teichoic acid (WTA) to PG, but ligase activity has not been demonstrated for these or any other LCP proteins. Using WTA and PG substrates produced chemoenzymatically, we show that all three proteins can transfer WTA precursors to nascent PGs, establishing that LCP proteins are PG-glycopolymer ligases. Although all S. aureus LCP proteins have the capacity to attach WTA to PG, we show that their cellular functions are not redundant. Strains lacking lcpA have phenotypes similar to those of WTA-null strains, indicating that this is the most important WTA ligase. This work provides a foundation for studying how LCP enzymes participate in cell wall assembly.

  8. Characterization of the role of COP9 signalosome in regulating cullin E3 ubiquitin ligase activity.

    PubMed

    Choo, Yin Yin; Boh, Boon Kim; Lou, Jessica Jie Wei; Eng, Jolane; Leck, Yee Chin; Anders, Benjamin; Smith, Peter G; Hagen, Thilo

    2011-12-01

    Cullin RING ligases (CRLs) are the largest family of cellular E3 ubiquitin ligases and mediate polyubiquitination of a number of cellular substrates. CRLs are activated via the covalent modification of the cullin protein with the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8. This results in a conformational change in the cullin carboxy terminus that facilitates the ubiquitin transfer onto the substrate. COP9 signalosome (CSN)-mediated cullin deneddylation is essential for CRL activity in vivo. However, the mechanism through which CSN promotes CRL activity in vivo is currently unclear. In this paper, we provide evidence that cullin deneddylation is not intrinsically coupled to substrate polyubiquitination as part of the CRL activation cycle. Furthermore, inhibiting substrate-receptor autoubiquitination is unlikely to account for the major mechanism through which CSN regulates CRL activity. CSN also did not affect recruitment of the substrate-receptor SPOP to Cul3, suggesting it may not function to facilitate the exchange of Cul3 substrate receptors. Our results indicate that CSN binds preferentially to CRLs in the neddylation-induced, active conformation. Binding of the CSN complex to active CRLs may recruit CSN-associated proteins important for CRL regulation. The deneddylating activity of CSN would subsequently promote its own dissociation to allow progression through the CRL activation cycle.

  9. Critical Role of the Ubiquitin Ligase Activity of UHRF1, a Nuclear RING Finger Protein, in Tumor Cell GrowthD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Yonchu; Markovtsov, Vadim; Lang, Wayne; Sharma, Poonam; Pearsall, Denise; Warner, Justin; Franci, Christian; Huang, Betty; Huang, Jianing; Yam, George C.; Vistan, Joseph P.; Pali, Erlina; Vialard, Jorge; Janicot, Michel; Lorens, James B.; Payan, Donald G.; Hitoshi, Yasumichi

    2005-01-01

    Early cellular events associated with tumorigenesis often include loss of cell cycle checkpoints or alteration in growth signaling pathways. Identification of novel genes involved in cellular proliferation may lead to new classes of cancer therapeutics. By screening a tetracycline-inducible cDNA library in A549 cells for genes that interfere with proliferation, we have identified a fragment of UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like protein containing PHD and RING domains 1), a nuclear RING finger protein, that acts as a dominant negative effector of cell growth. Reduction of UHRF1 levels using an UHRF1-specific shRNA decreased growth rates in several tumor cell lines. In addition, treatment of A549 cells with agents that activated different cell cycle checkpoints resulted in down-regulation of UHRF1. The primary sequence of UHRF1 contains a PHD and a RING motif, both of which are structural hallmarks of ubiquitin E3 ligases. We have confirmed using an in vitro autoubiquitination assay that UHRF1 displays RING-dependent E3 ligase activity. Overexpression of a GFP-fused UHRF1 RING mutant that lacks ligase activity sensitizes cells to treatment with various chemotherapeutics. Taken together, our results suggest a general requirement for UHRF1 in tumor cell proliferation and implicate the RING domain of UHRF1 as a functional determinant of growth regulation. PMID:16195352

  10. Reversible phosphorylation controls the activity of cyclosome-associated cyclin-ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed Central

    Lahav-Baratz, S; Sudakin, V; Ruderman, J V; Hershko, A

    1995-01-01

    Cyclin B/cdc2 is responsible both for driving cells into mitosis and for activating the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of mitotic cyclins near the end of mitosis, an event required for the completion of mitosis and entry into interphase of the next cell cycle. Previous work with cell-free extracts of rapidly dividing clam embryos has identified two specific components required for the ubiquitination of mitotic cyclins: E2-C, a cyclin-selective ubiquitin carrier protein that is constitutively active during the cell cycle, and E3-C, a cyclin-selective ubiquitin ligase that purifies as part of a approximately 1500-kDa complex, termed the cyclosome, and which is active only near the end of mitosis. Here, we have separated the cyclosome from its ultimate upstream activator, cdc2. The mitotic, active form of the cyclosome can be inactivated by incubation with a partially purified, endogenous okadaic acid-sensitive phosphatase; addition of cdc2 restores activity to the cyclosome after a lag that reproduces that seen previously in intact cells and in crude extracts. These results demonstrate that activity of cyclin-ubiquitin ligase is controlled by reversible phosphorylation of the cyclosome complex. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7568122

  11. Probes of Ubiquitin E3 ligases distinguish different stages of Parkin activation

    PubMed Central

    Pao, Kuan-Chuan; Stanley, Mathew; Han, Cong; Lai, Yu-Chiang; Murphy, Paul; Balk, Kristin; Wood, Nicola T.; Corti, Olga; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Muqit, Miratul M.K.; Virdee, Satpal

    2016-01-01

    E3 ligases represent an important class of enzymes, yet there are currently no chemical probes to profile their activity. We develop a new class of activity-based probe by reengineering of a ubiquitin-charged E2 conjugating enzyme and demonstrate their utility by profiling the transthiolation activity of the RING-in-between-RING (RBR) E3 ligase Parkin in vitro and in cellular extracts. Our study provides valuable insight into the roles, and cellular hierarchy, of distinct phosphorylation events in Parkin activation. We also profile Parkin patient disease-associated mutations and strikingly demonstrate that they largely mediate their effect by altering transthiolation activity. Furthermore, our probes enable direct and quantitative measurement of endogenous Parkin activity revealing that endogenous Parkin is activated in neuronal cell lines (≥75 %) in response to mitochondrial depolarization. This new technology also holds promise as a novel biomarker of PINK1-Parkin signalling as demonstrated by compatibility with Parkinson’s disease patient-derived samples. PMID:26928937

  12. The ubiquitin ligase human TRIM71 regulates let-7 microRNA biogenesis via modulation of Lin28B protein.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seo Hyun; Cho, Sungchan; Kim, M Sun; Choi, Kwangman; Cho, Jae Youl; Gwak, Ho-Shin; Kim, Youn-Jae; Yoo, Heon; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Park, Jong Bae; Kim, Jong Heon

    2014-05-01

    let-7 microRNA (miRNA) is implicated in various biological processes, and its downregulation essentially linked to human malignancy. Regulation of gene expression of the let-7 family is critically linked to RNA-binding proteins. For instance, Lin28B and its paralog, Lin28A, inhibit the pre-let-7 precursor from being processed to mature miRNA by recruiting terminal uridyltransferase, TUT4, which adds oligomeric U at the 3' end, suggesting that deregulation of Lin28B, together with Lin28A, may alter various biological processes through modulation of let-7 expression. Here, we showed that the Lin28B protein level is regulated via ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation, and identified the ubiquitin ligase as human TRIM-NHL domain-containing TRIM71. In cells, TRIM71 negatively regulates Lin28B protein stability by catalyzing polyubiquitination. Compared with its paralog, Lin28A, a C-terminal unique ~50 amino acid stretch of Lin28B is essential for TRIM71 interactions and subsequent polyubiquitination. Moreover, the N-terminal RING finger motif of TRIM71 is critical for protein-protein interactions and polyubiquitination of Lin28B, and consequent let-7 expression. Consistent with the let-7 stimulatory role of TRIM71 via Lin28B polyubiquitination, specific knockdown of TRIM71 led to downregulation of let-7 expression. Expression of one of the known let-7 targets, HMGA2, was derepressed after knockdown of TRIM71. We additionally showed that enhanced expression of let-7 is part of a feedback loop that targets TRIM71 3'UTR, which contains two conserved let-7 target sites. Our findings collectively reveal critical aspects of regulatory complexity of let-7 biogenesis at the posttranscriptional level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An Arabidopsis SUMO E3 Ligase, SIZ1, Negatively Regulates Photomorphogenesis by Promoting COP1 Activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao-Li; Niu, De; Hu, Zi-Liang; Kim, Dae Heon; Jin, Yin Hua; Cai, Bin; Liu, Peng; Miura, Kenji; Yun, Dae-Jin; Kim, Woe-Yeon; Lin, Rongcheng; Jin, Jing Bo

    2016-04-01

    COP1 (CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1), a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is a central negative regulator of photomorphogenesis. However, how COP1 activity is regulated by post-translational modifications remains largely unknown. Here we show that SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) modification enhances COP1 activity. Loss-of-function siz1 mutant seedlings exhibit a weak constitutive photomorphogenic phenotype. SIZ1 physically interacts with COP1 and mediates the sumoylation of COP1. A K193R substitution in COP1 blocks its SUMO modification and reduces COP1 activity in vitro and in planta. Consistently, COP1 activity is reduced in siz1 and the level of HY5, a COP1 target protein, is increased in siz1. Sumoylated COP1 may exhibits higher transubiquitination activity than does non-sumoylated COP1, but SIZ1-mediated SUMO modification does not affect COP1 dimerization, COP1-HY5 interaction, and nuclear accumulation of COP1. Interestingly, prolonged light exposure reduces the sumoylation level of COP1, and COP1 mediates the ubiquitination and degradation of SIZ1. These regulatory mechanisms may maintain the homeostasis of COP1 activity, ensuing proper photomorphogenic development in changing light environment. Our genetic and biochemical studies identify a function for SIZ1 in photomorphogenesis and reveal a novel SUMO-regulated ubiquitin ligase, COP1, in plants.

  14. Small, N-Terminal Tags Activate Parkin E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity by Disrupting Its Autoinhibited Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Burchell, Lynn; Chaugule, Viduth K.; Walden, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase, mutations in which cause Autosomal Recessive Parkinson's Disease. Many studies aimed at understanding Parkin function, regulation and dysfunction are performed using N-terminal epitope tags. We report here that the use of small tags such as FLAG, cMyc and HA, influence the physical stability and activity of Parkin in and out of cells, perturbing the autoinhibited native state of Parkin, resulting in an active-for-autoubiquitination species. PMID:22496854

  15. Naphthalimides Selectively Inhibit the Activity of Bacterial, Replicative DNA Ligases and Display Bactericidal Effects against Tubercle Bacilli.

    PubMed

    Korycka-Machala, Malgorzata; Nowosielski, Marcin; Kuron, Aneta; Rykowski, Sebastian; Olejniczak, Agnieszka; Hoffmann, Marcin; Dziadek, Jaroslaw

    2017-01-17

    The DNA ligases, enzymes that seal breaks in the backbones of DNA, are essential for all organisms, however bacterial ligases essential for DNA replication use β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as their co-factor, whereas those that are essential in eukaryotes and viruses use adenosine-5'-triphosphate. This fact leads to the conclusion that NAD⁺-dependent DNA ligases in bacteria could be targeted by their co-factor specific inhibitors. The development of novel alternative medical strategies, including new drugs, are a top priority focus areas for tuberculosis research due to an increase in the number of multi-drug resistant as well as totally drug resistant tubercle bacilli strains. Here, through the use of a virtual high-throughput screen and manual inspection of the top 200 records, 23 compounds were selected for in vitro studies. The selected compounds were evaluated in respect to their Mycobacterium tuberculosis NAD⁺ DNA ligase inhibitory effect by a newly developed assay based on Genetic Analyzer 3500 Sequencer. The most effective agents (e.g., pinafide, mitonafide) inhibited the activity of M. tuberculosis NAD⁺-dependent DNA ligase A at concentrations of 50 µM. At the same time, the ATP-dependent (phage) DNA LigT₄ was unaffected by the agents at concentrations up to 2 mM. The selected compounds appeared to also be active against actively growing tubercle bacilli in concentrations as low as 15 µM.

  16. Synthesis of 2'(3')-O-DL-alanyl hexainosinic acid using T4 RNA ligase: suppression of the enzymic reverse transfer reaction by alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Profy, A T; Lo, K M; Usher, D A

    1983-03-11

    2'(3')-O-DL-Alanyl (Ip)5I was synthesized by a new method. An alanine ortho ester of inosine 5'-phosphate was added to (Ip)4I using the ATP-independent reaction of T4 RNA ligase, and the product was converted smoothly to the desired ester. The enzymic reverse transfer reaction was conveniently suppressed by the dephosphorylation of the adenosine 5'-phosphate coproduct, catalyzed in situ by alkaline phosphatase.

  17. Ubiquitin-Activated Interaction Traps (UBAITs) identify E3 ligase binding partners.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Hazel F; Lyon, Nancy; Leung, Justin W; Agarwal, Poonam; Swaim, Caleb D; Miller, Kyle M; Huibregtse, Jon M

    2015-12-01

    We describe a new class of reagents for identifying substrates, adaptors, and regulators of HECT and RING E3s. UBAITs (Ubiquitin-Activated Interaction Traps) are E3-ubiquitin fusion proteins and, in an E1- and E2-dependent manner, the C-terminal ubiquitin moiety forms an amide linkage to proteins that interact with the E3, enabling covalent co-purification of the E3 with partner proteins. We designed UBAITs for both HECT (Rsp5, Itch) and RING (Psh1, RNF126, RNF168) E3s. For HECT E3s, trapping of interacting proteins occurred in vitro either through an E3 thioester-linked lariat intermediate or through an E2 thioester intermediate, and both WT and active-site mutant UBAITs trapped known interacting proteins in yeast and human cells. Yeast Psh1 and human RNF126 and RNF168 UBAITs also trapped known interacting proteins when expressed in cells. Human RNF168 is a key mediator of ubiquitin signaling that promotes DNA double-strand break repair. Using the RNF168 UBAIT, we identify H2AZ--a histone protein involved in DNA repair--as a new target of this E3 ligase. These results demonstrate that UBAITs represent powerful tools for profiling a wide range of ubiquitin ligases.

  18. Ubiquitination and regulation of AURKA identifies a hypoxia-independent E3 ligase activity of VHL.

    PubMed

    Hasanov, E; Chen, G; Chowdhury, P; Weldon, J; Ding, Z; Jonasch, E; Sen, S; Walker, C L; Dere, R

    2017-01-23

    The hypoxia-regulated tumor-suppressor von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) is an E3 ligase that recognizes its substrates as part of an oxygen-dependent prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) reaction, with hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIFα) being its most notable substrate. Here we report that VHL has an equally important function distinct from its hypoxia-regulated activity. We find that Aurora kinase A (AURKA) is a novel, hypoxia-independent target for VHL ubiquitination. In contrast to its hypoxia-regulated activity, VHL mono-, rather than poly-ubiquitinates AURKA, in a PHD-independent reaction targeting AURKA for degradation in quiescent cells, where degradation of AURKA is required to maintain the primary cilium. Tumor-associated variants of VHL differentiate between these two functions, as a pathogenic VHL mutant that retains intrinsic ability to ubiquitinate HIFα is unable to ubiquitinate AURKA. Together, these data identify VHL as an E3 ligase with important cellular functions under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions.Oncogene advance online publication, 23 January 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.495.

  19. Constitutively active Cullin-RING-Ligases fail to rescue loss of NEDD8 conjugation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Girdwood, David; Robertson, Morag; Gordon, Colin

    2012-05-21

    In fission yeast, the only known essential function of Ned8p is the modification of the cullin, Pcu1p, and subsequent Cullin-RING-Ligase (CRL) activation and substrate ubiquitination. We show here that a functional Pcu1p mutant, deleted for its C-terminal autoinhibitory domain, which negates the requirement of neddylation for ligase activity, is unable to rescue the loss of neddylation. These findings suggest that the neddylation of non-cullin substrate(s) are required for Schizosaccharomyces pombe viability. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhibiting Mitochondrial DNA Ligase IIIα Activates Caspase 1-Dependent Apoptosis in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Sallmyr, Annahita; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Roginskaya, Vera; Van Houten, Bennett; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2016-09-15

    Elevated levels of DNA ligase IIIα (LigIIIα) have been identified as a biomarker of an alteration in DNA repair in cancer cells that confers hypersensitivity to a LigIIIα inhibitor, L67, in combination with a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor. Because LigIIIα functions in the nucleus and mitochondria, we examined the effect of L67 on these organelles. Here, we show that, although the DNA ligase inhibitor selectively targets mitochondria, cancer and nonmalignant cells respond differently to disruption of mitochondrial DNA metabolism. Inhibition of mitochondrial LigIIIα in cancer cells resulted in abnormal mitochondrial morphology, reduced levels of mitochondrial DNA, and increased levels of mitochondrially generated reactive oxygen species that caused nuclear DNA damage. In contrast, these effects did not occur in nonmalignant cells. Furthermore, inhibition of mitochondrial LigIIIα activated a caspase 1-dependent apoptotic pathway, which is known to be part of inflammatory responses induced by pathogenic microorganisms in cancer, but not nonmalignant cells. These results demonstrate that the disruption of mitochondrial DNA metabolism elicits different responses in nonmalignant and cancer cells and suggests that the abnormal response in cancer cells may be exploited in the development of novel therapeutic strategies that selectively target cancer cells. Cancer Res; 76(18); 5431-41. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Dysfunction of microRNA-32 regulates ubiquitin ligase FBXW7 in multiple myeloma disease

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Jingsheng; Ding, Tianling; Yang, Linjun

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunction of microRNA (miRNA) expression has been associated with tumor occurrence, progression, and development. The aim of this work was to study the dysfunction of miR-32 – an miRNA that was abnormally regulated in different tumors – in clinical tissues from patients with multiple myeloma (MM). The tumor tissues in which we assessed miR-32 expression levels were collected during our 5 years of clinical practice. Our study found an increase in miR-32 expression in MM tissues. Assessment of F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBXW7) in MM tissues showed an inverse relation between the expression of FBXW7 and miR-32. To further investigate the relation between miR-32 and FBXW7, cells were transfected with miR-32 or anti-miR-32. In vitro studies found that cells transfected with miR-32 showed a lower expression of FBXW7 and a higher expression of cancer-related proteins, c-Jun and c-Myc. In contrast, the cells transfected with anti-miR32 showed a relatively higher expression of FBXW7, but a lower expression of c-Jun and c-Myc. This study may offer perceptive insights into developing new strategies for MM cancer detection and therapy. PMID:27822062

  2. Unique ligation properties of eukaryotic NAD+-dependent DNA ligase from Melanoplus sanguinipes entomopoxvirus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Tong, Jie; Feng, Hong; Huang, Jianmin; Afonso, Claudio L; Rock, Dan L; Barany, Francis; Cao, Weiguo

    2004-09-01

    The eukaryotic Melanoplus sanguinipes entomopoxvirus (MsEPV) genome reveals a homologous sequence to eubacterial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent DNA ligases [J. Virol. 73 (1999) 533]. This 522-amino acid open reading frame (ORF) contains all conserved nucleotidyl transferase motifs but lacks the zinc finger motif and BRCT domain found in conventional eubacterial NAD(+) ligases. Nevertheless, cloned MsEPV ligase seals DNA nicks in a NAD(+)-dependent fashion, while adenosine 5'-monophosphate (ATP) cannot serve as an adenylation cofactor. The ligation activity of MsEPV ligase requires Mg(2+) or Mn(2+). MsEPV ligase seals sticky ends efficiently, but has little activity on 1-nucleotide gap or blunt-ended DNA substrates even in the presence of polyethylene glycol. In comparison, bacterial NAD(+)-dependent ligases seal blunt-ended DNA substrates in the presence of polyethylene glycol. MsEPV DNA ligase readily joins DNA nicks with mismatches at either side of the nick junction, except for mismatches at the nick junction containing an A base in the template strand (A/A, G/A, and C/A). MsEPV NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase can join DNA probes on RNA templates, a unique property that distinguishes this enzyme from other conventional bacterial NAD(+) DNA ligases. T4 ATP-dependent DNA ligase shows no detectable mismatch ligation at the 3' side of the nick but substantial 5' T/G mismatch ligation on an RNA template. In contrast, MsEPV ligase joins mismatches at the 3' side of the nick more frequently than at the 5' side of the nick on an RNA template. The complementary specificities of these two enzymes suggest alternative primer design for genomic profiling approaches that use allele-specific detection directly from RNA transcripts.

  3. Regulation of RNF144A E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity by Self-association through Its Transmembrane Domain.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shiuh-Rong; Lee, Yu-Ju; Lin, Weei-Chin

    2015-09-18

    RNF144A, an E3 ubiquitin ligase for DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), can promote DNA damage-induced cell apoptosis. Here we characterize an important regulation of RNF144A through its transmembrane (TM) domain. The TM domain of RNF144A is highly conserved among species. Deletion of the TM domain abolishes its membrane localization and also significantly reduces its ubiquitin ligase activity. Further evidence shows that the TM domain is required for RNF144A self-association and that the self-association may be partially mediated through a classic GXXXG interaction motif. A mutant RNF144A-G252L/G256L (in the G(252)XXXG(256) motif) preserves membrane localization but is defective in self-association and ubiquitin ligase activity. On the other hand, a membrane localization loss mutant of RNF144A still retains self-association and E3 ligase activity, which can be blocked by additional G252L/G256L mutations. Therefore, our data demonstrate that the TM domain of RNF144A has at least two independent roles, membrane localization and E3 ligase activation, to regulate its physiological function. This regulatory mechanism may be applicable to other RBR (RING1-IBR-RING2) E3 ubiquitin ligases because, first, RNF144B also self-associates. Second, all five TM-containing RBR E3 ligases, including RNF144A and RNF144B, RNF19A/Dorfin, RNF19B, and RNF217, have the RBR-TM(GXXXG) superstructure. Mutations of the GXXXG motifs in RNF144A and RNF217 have also be found in human cancers, including a G252D mutation of RNF144A. Interestingly, RNF144A-G252D still preserves self-association and ubiquitin ligase activity but loses membrane localization and is turned over rapidly. In conclusion, both proper membrane localization and self-association are important for RNF144A function. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Hairpin DNA probe based surface plasmon resonance biosensor used for the activity assay of E. coli DNA ligase.

    PubMed

    Luan, Qingfen; Xue, Ying; Yao, Xin; Lu, Wu

    2010-02-01

    Using hairpin DNA probe self-structure change during DNA ligation process, a sensitive, label-free and simple method of E. coli DNA ligase assay via a home-built high-resolution surface plasmon resonance (SPR) instrument was developed. The DNA ligation process was monitored in real-time and the effects of single-base mutation on the DNA ligation process were investigated. Then an assay of E. coli DNA ligase was completed with a lower detection limit (0.6 nM), wider concentration range and better reproducibility. Moreover, the influence of Quinacrine on the activity of E. coli DNA ligase was also studied, which demonstrated that our method was useful for drug screening.

  5. Allosteric Activation of the RNF146 Ubiquitin Ligase by a Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation Signal

    PubMed Central

    DaRosa, Paul A.; Wang, Zhizhi; Jiang, Xiaomo; Pruneda, Jonathan N.; Cong, Feng; Klevit, Rachel E.; Xu, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    Protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) plays a role in diverse cellular processes such as DNA repair, transcription, Wnt signaling, and cell death1–6. Recent studies have shown that PARylation can serve as a signal for the polyubiquitination and degradation of several critical regulatory proteins, including Axin and 3BP2 (refs 7–9). The RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF146 (a.k.a. Iduna) is responsible for PARylation-dependent ubiquitination (PARdU)10–12. Here we provide a structural basis for RNF146 catalyzed PARdU and how PARdU specificity is achieved. First, we show that iso-ADPr, the smallest internal poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) structural unit, binds between the WWE and RING domains of RNF146 and functions as an allosteric signal that switches the RING domain from a catalytically inactive state to an active one. In the absence of PAR, the RING domain is unable to efficiently bind and activate an E2. Binding of PAR/iso-ADPr induces a major conformational change that creates a functional RING structure. Thus RNF146 represents a new mechanistic class of RING E3 ligases whose activities are regulated by non-covalent ligand binding, which may provide a template for designing inducible protein-degradation systems. Second, we found that RNF146 directly interacts with the PAR polymerase tankyrase (TNKS). Disruption of the RNF146/TNKS interaction inhibits turnover of the substrate Axin in cells. Thus, both substrate PARylation and PARdU are catalyzed by enzymes within the same protein complex, and PARdU substrate specificity may be primarily determined by the substrate-TNKS interaction. We propose that maintenance of unliganded RNF146 in an inactive state may serve to maintain the stability of the RNF146-TNKS complex, which in turn regulates the homeostasis of PARdU activity in the cell. PMID:25327252

  6. Multimodal RNA-seq using single-strand, double-strand, and CircLigase-based capture yields a refined and extended description of the C. elegans transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Ayelet T; Stadler, Michael R; Zhang, Huibin; Gent, Jonathan I; Fire, Andrew Z

    2011-02-01

    We have used a combination of three high-throughput RNA capture and sequencing methods to refine and augment the transcriptome map of a well-studied genetic model, Caenorhabditis elegans. The three methods include a standard (non-directional) library preparation protocol relying on cDNA priming and foldback that has been used in several previous studies for transcriptome characterization in this species, and two directional protocols, one involving direct capture of single-stranded RNA fragments and one involving circular-template PCR (CircLigase). We find that each RNA-seq approach shows specific limitations and biases, with the application of multiple methods providing a more complete map than was obtained from any single method. Of particular note in the analysis were substantial advantages of CircLigase-based and ssRNA-based capture for defining sequences and structures of the precise 5' ends (which were lost using the double-strand cDNA capture method). Of the three methods, ssRNA capture was most effective in defining sequences to the poly(A) junction. Using data sets from a spectrum of C. elegans strains and stages and the UCSC Genome Browser, we provide a series of tools, which facilitate rapid visualization and assignment of gene structures.

  7. MALT1 cleaves the E3 ubiquitin ligase HOIL-1 in activated T cells, generating a dominant negative inhibitor of LUBAC-induced NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Elton, Lynn; Carpentier, Isabelle; Staal, Jens; Driege, Yasmine; Haegman, Mira; Beyaert, Rudi

    2016-02-01

    Human paracaspase 1 (PCASP1), better known as mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation 1 (MALT1), plays a key role in immunity and inflammation by regulating gene expression in lymphocytes and other immune cell types. Deregulated MALT1 activity has been implicated in autoimmunity, immunodeficiency and certain types of lymphoma. As a scaffold MALT1 assembles downstream signaling proteins for nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, while its proteolytic activity further enhances NF-κB activation by cleaving NF-κB inhibitory proteins. MALT1 also processes and inactivates a number of mRNA destabilizing proteins, which further fine-tunes gene expression. MALT1 protease inhibitors are currently developed for therapeutic targeting. Here we show that T cell activation, as well as overexpression of the oncogenic fusion protein API2-MALT1, induces the MALT1-mediated cleavage of haem-oxidized IRP2 ubiquitin ligase 1 (HOIL-1). In addition, to acting as a K48-polyubiquitin specific E3 ubiquitin ligase for different substrates, HOIL-1 co-operates in a catalytic-independent manner with the E3 ubiquitin ligase HOIL-1L interacting protein (HOIP) as part of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC). Intriguingly, cleavage of HOIL-1 does not directly abolish its ability to support HOIP-induced NF-κB signaling, which is still mediated by the N-terminal cleavage fragment, but generates a C-terminal fragment with LUBAC inhibitory properties. We propose that MALT1-mediated HOIL-1 cleavage provides a gain-of-function mechanism that is involved in the negative feedback regulation of NF-κB signaling.

  8. Types of Ubiquitin Ligases.

    PubMed

    Morreale, Francesca Ester; Walden, Helen

    2016-03-24

    Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification of proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes. Ubiquitination requires the sequential action of three enzymes: E1 (ubiquitin-activating enzymes), E2 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes), and E3 (ubiquitin ligases). This SnapShot highlights the main types of E3 ubiquitin ligases, which can be classified in three families depending on the presence of characteristic domains and on the mechanism of ubiquitin transfer to the substrate protein.

  9. The Ubiquitin E3 Ligase NOSIP Modulates Protein Phosphatase 2A Activity in Craniofacial Development

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmeister, Meike; Prelle, Carola; Küchler, Philipp; Kovacevic, Igor; Moser, Markus; Müller-Esterl, Werner; Oess, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Holoprosencephaly is a common developmental disorder in humans characterised by incomplete brain hemisphere separation and midface anomalies. The etiology of holoprosencephaly is heterogeneous with environmental and genetic causes, but for a majority of holoprosencephaly cases the genes associated with the pathogenesis could not be identified so far. Here we report the generation of knockout mice for the ubiquitin E3 ligase NOSIP. The loss of NOSIP in mice causes holoprosencephaly and facial anomalies including cleft lip/palate, cyclopia and facial midline clefting. By a mass spectrometry based protein interaction screen we identified NOSIP as a novel interaction partner of protein phosphatase PP2A. NOSIP mediates the monoubiquitination of the PP2A catalytic subunit and the loss of NOSIP results in an increase in PP2A activity in craniofacial tissue in NOSIP knockout mice. We conclude, that NOSIP is a critical modulator of brain and craniofacial development in mice and a candidate gene for holoprosencephaly in humans. PMID:25546391

  10. The active form of E6-associated protein (E6AP)/UBE3A ubiquitin ligase is an oligomer.

    PubMed

    Ronchi, Virginia P; Klein, Jennifer M; Edwards, Daniel J; Haas, Arthur L

    2014-01-10

    Employing 125I-polyubiquitin chain formation as a functional readout of ligase activity, biochemical and biophysical evidence demonstrates that catalytically active E6-associated protein (E6AP)/UBE3A is an oligomer. Based on an extant structure previously discounted as an artifact of crystal packing forces, we propose that the fully active form of E6AP is a trimer, analysis of which reveals a buried surface of 7508Å2 and radially symmetric interacting residues that are conserved within the Hect (homologous to E6AP C terminus) ligase superfamily. An absolutely conserved interaction between Phe(727) and a hydrophobic pocket present on the adjacent subunit is critical for trimer stabilization because mutation disrupts the oligomer and decreases kcat 62-fold but fails to affect E2 ubiquitin binding or subsequent formation of the Hect domain Cys(820) ubiquitin thioester catalytic intermediate. Exogenous N-acetylphenylalanylamide reversibly antagonizes Phe(727)-dependent trimer formation and catalytic activity (Ki12 mM), as does a conserved-helical peptide corresponding to residues 474–490 of E6A Pisoform 1 (Ki22M) reported to bind the hydrophobic pocket of other Hect ligases, presumably blocking Phe(727) intercalation and trimer formation. Conversely, oncogenic human papillomavirus-16/18 E6 protein significantly enhances E6AP catalytic activity by promoting trimer formation (Kactivation 1.5 nM) through the ability of E6 to form homodimers. Recombinant E6 protein additionally rescues the kcat defect of the Phe(727) mutation and that of a specific loss-of-function Angelman syndrome mutation that promotes trimer destabilization. The present findings codify otherwise disparate observations regarding the mechanism of E6AP and related Hect ligases in addition to suggesting therapeutic approaches for modulating ligase activity.

  11. Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity Impacts Gammaherpesvirus-Driven Germinal Center B Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Sofia A; Tan, Min; Li, Shijun; Juillard, Franceline; McVey, Colin E; Kaye, Kenneth M; Simas, J Pedro

    2016-09-01

    Viruses have evolved mechanisms to hijack components of cellular E3 ubiquitin ligases, thus modulating the ubiquitination pathway. However, the biological relevance of such mechanisms for viral pathogenesis in vivo remains largely unknown. Here, we utilized murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) infection of mice as a model system to address the role of MuHV-4 latency-associated nuclear antigen (mLANA) E3 ligase activity in gammaherpesvirus latent infection. We show that specific mutations in the mLANA SOCS box (V199A, V199A/L202A, or P203A/P206A) disrupted mLANA's ability to recruit Elongin C and Cullin 5, thereby impairing the formation of the Elongin BC/Cullin 5/SOCS (EC5S(mLANA)) complex and mLANA's E3 ligase activity on host NF-κB and Myc. Although these mutations resulted in considerably reduced mLANA binding to viral terminal repeat DNA as assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), the mutations did not disrupt mLANA's ability to mediate episome persistence. In vivo, MuHV-4 recombinant viruses bearing these mLANA SOCS box mutations exhibited a deficit in latency amplification in germinal center (GC) B cells. These findings demonstrate that the E3 ligase activity of mLANA contributes to gammaherpesvirus-driven GC B cell proliferation. Hence, pharmacological inhibition of viral E3 ligase activity through targeting SOCS box motifs is a putative strategy to control gammaherpesvirus-driven lymphoproliferation and associated disease. The gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) cause lifelong persistent infection and play causative roles in several human malignancies. Colonization of B cells is crucial for virus persistence, and access to the B cell compartment is gained by virus-driven proliferation in germinal center (GC) B cells. Infection of B cells is predominantly latent, with the viral genome persisting as a multicopy episome and expressing only a small subset of viral genes. Here, we focused on

  12. Novel bacterial NAD+-dependent DNA ligase inhibitors with broad-spectrum activity and antibacterial efficacy in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mills, Scott D; Eakin, Ann E; Buurman, Ed T; Newman, Joseph V; Gao, Ning; Huynh, Hoan; Johnson, Kenneth D; Lahiri, Sushmita; Shapiro, Adam B; Walkup, Grant K; Yang, Wei; Stokes, Suzanne S

    2011-03-01

    DNA ligases are indispensable enzymes playing a critical role in DNA replication, recombination, and repair in all living organisms. Bacterial NAD+-dependent DNA ligase (LigA) was evaluated for its potential as a broad-spectrum antibacterial target. A novel class of substituted adenosine analogs was discovered by target-based high-throughput screening (HTS), and these compounds were optimized to render them more effective and selective inhibitors of LigA. The adenosine analogs inhibited the LigA activities of Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus, with inhibitory activities in the nanomolar range. They were selective for bacterial NAD+-dependent DNA ligases, showing no inhibitory activity against ATP-dependent human DNA ligase 1 or bacteriophage T4 ligase. Enzyme kinetic measurements demonstrated that the compounds bind competitively with NAD+. X-ray crystallography demonstrated that the adenosine analogs bind in the AMP-binding pocket of the LigA adenylation domain. Antibacterial activity was observed against pathogenic Gram-positive and atypical bacteria, such as S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and M. pneumoniae, as well as against Gram-negative pathogens, such as H. influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. The mode of action was verified using recombinant strains with altered LigA expression, an Okazaki fragment accumulation assay, and the isolation of resistant strains with ligA mutations. In vivo efficacy was demonstrated in a murine S. aureus thigh infection model and a murine S. pneumoniae lung infection model. Treatment with the adenosine analogs reduced the bacterial burden (expressed in CFU) in the corresponding infected organ tissue as much as 1,000-fold, thus validating LigA as a target for antibacterial therapy.

  13. Prokaryotic DNA ligases unwind superhelical DNA.

    PubMed

    Ivanchenko, M; van Holde, K; Zlatanova, J

    1996-09-13

    We have studied the effect on DNA topology of binding of prokaryotic DNA ligases (T4 and E. coli) to superhelical or nicked circular DNA. Performing topoisomerase I-mediated relaxation in the presence of increasing amounts of T4 ligase led to a shift in the topoisomer distribution to increasingly more negative values. This result suggested that T4 ligase unwound the DNA and was further substantiated by ligation of nicked circular molecules by E. coli DNA ligase in the presence of increasing amounts of T4 ligase. Such an experiment was possible since the two DNA ligases require different cofactors for enzymatic activity. Performing a similar experiment with reverse partners, using E. coli DNA ligase as ligand, and T4 ligase as sealing agent, we observed that the E. coli enzyme also unwound the DNA. Thus, prokaryotic DNA ligases can be added to an ever-growing list of DNA-binding proteins that unwind the DNA upon binding.

  14. Disruption of the autoinhibited state primes the E3 ligase parkin for activation and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Atul; Aguirre, Jacob D; Condos, Tara E C; Martinez-Torres, R Julio; Chaugule, Viduth K; Toth, Rachel; Sundaramoorthy, Ramasubramanian; Mercier, Pascal; Knebel, Axel; Spratt, Donald E; Barber, Kathryn R; Shaw, Gary S; Walden, Helen

    2015-10-14

    The PARK2 gene is mutated in 50% of autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (ARJP) cases. It encodes parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase of the RBR family. Parkin exists in an autoinhibited state that is activated by phosphorylation of its N-terminal ubiquitin-like (Ubl) domain and binding of phosphoubiquitin. We describe the 1.8 Å crystal structure of human parkin in its fully inhibited state and identify the key interfaces to maintain parkin inhibition. We identify the phosphoubiquitin-binding interface, provide a model for the phosphoubiquitin-parkin complex and show how phosphorylation of the Ubl domain primes parkin for optimal phosphoubiquitin binding. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the addition of phosphoubiquitin leads to displacement of the Ubl domain through loss of structure, unveiling a ubiquitin-binding site used by the E2~Ub conjugate, thus leading to active parkin. We find the role of the Ubl domain is to prevent parkin activity in the absence of the phosphorylation signals, and propose a model for parkin inhibition, optimization for phosphoubiquitin recruitment, release of inhibition by the Ubl domain and engagement with an E2~Ub conjugate. Taken together, this model provides a mechanistic framework for activating parkin.

  15. Evolution of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase quaternary structure and activity: Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Sanni, A; Walter, P; Boulanger, Y; Ebel, J P; Fasiolo, F

    1991-01-01

    Phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetases [L-phenylalanine:tRNAPhe ligase (AMP-forming), EC 6.1.1.20] from Escherichia coli, yeast cytoplasm, and mammalian cytoplasm have an unusual conserved alpha 2 beta 2 quaternary structure that is shared by only one other aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. Both subunits are required for activity. We show here that a single mitochondrial polypeptide from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an active phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase. This protein (the MSF1 gene product) is active as a monomer. It has all three characteristic sequence motifs of the class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and its activity may result from the recruitment of additional sequences into an alpha-subunit-like structure. Images PMID:1924298

  16. CRL4A(CRBN) E3 ubiquitin ligase restricts BK channel activity and prevents epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiye; Ye, Jia; Zou, Xiaolong; Xu, Zhenghao; Feng, Yan; Zou, Xianxian; Chen, Zhong; Li, Yuezhou; Cang, Yong

    2014-05-21

    Ion channels regulate membrane excitation, and mutations of ion channels often cause serious neurological disorders including epilepsy. Compared with extensive analyses of channel protein structure and function, much less is known about the fine tuning of channel activity by post-translational modification. Here we report that the large conductance, Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K(+) (BK) channels are targeted by the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4A(CRBN) for polyubiquitination and retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Inactivation of CRL4A(CRBN) releases deubiquitinated BK channels from the ER to the plasma membrane, leading to markedly enhanced channel activity. Mice with CRL4A(CRBN) mutation in the brain or treated with a CRL4A(CRBN) inhibitor are very sensitive to seizure induction, which can be attenuated by blocking BK channels. Finally, the mutant mice develop spontaneous epilepsy when aged. Therefore, ubiquitination of BK channels before their cell surface expression is an important step to prevent systemic neuronal excitability and epileptogenesis.

  17. Regulation of leukemia-initiating cell activity by the ubiquitin ligase FBXW7

    PubMed Central

    King, Bryan; Trimarchi, Thomas; Reavie, Linsey; Xu, Luyao; Mullenders, Jasper; Ntziachristos, Panagiotis; Aranda-Orgilles, Beatriz; Perez-Garcia, Arianne; Shi, Junwei; Vakoc, Christopher; Sandy, Peter; Shen, Steven S.; Ferrando, Adolfo; Aifantis, Iannis

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Sequencing efforts led to the identification of somatic mutations that could affect self-renewal and differentiation of cancer-initiating cells. One such recurrent mutation targets the binding pocket of the ubiquitin ligase FBXW7. Missense FBXW7 mutations are prevalent in various tumors, including T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). To study the effects of such lesions, we generated animals carrying regulatable Fbxw7 mutant alleles. We show here that these mutations specifically bolster cancer-initiating cell activity in collaboration with Notch1 oncogenes, but spare normal hematopoietic stem cell function. We were also able to show that FBXW7 mutations specifically affect the ubiquitylation and half-life of c-Myc protein, a key T-ALL oncogene. Using animals carrying c-Myc fusion alleles, we connected Fbxw7 function to c-Myc abundance and correlated c-Myc expression to leukemia-initiating activity. Finally, we demonstrated that small molecule-mediated suppression of MYC activity leads to T-ALL remission, suggesting a novel effective therapeutic strategy. PMID:23791182

  18. Arabidopsis nitrate reductase activity is stimulated by the E3 SUMO ligase AtSIZ1

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bong Soo; Song, Jong Tae; Seo, Hak Soo

    2011-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is a small polypeptide that modulates protein activity and regulates hormone signalling, abiotic and biotic responses in plants. Here we show that AtSIZ regulates nitrogen assimilation in Arabidopsis through its E3 SUMO ligase function. Dwarf plants of siz1-2 flower early, show abnormal seed development and have high salicylic acid content and enhanced resistance to bacterial pathogens. These mutant phenotypes are reverted to wild-type phenotypes by exogenous ammonium but not by nitrate, phosphate or potassium. Decreased nitrate reductase activity in siz1-2 plants resulted in low nitrogen concentrations, low nitric oxide production and high nitrate content in comparison with wild-type plants. The nitrate reductases, NIA1 and NIA2, are sumoylated by AtSIZ1, which dramatically increases their activity. Both sumoylated and non-sumoylated NIA1 and NIA2 can form dimers. Our results indicate that AtSIZ1 positively controls nitrogen assimilation by promoting sumoylation of NRs in Arabidopsis. PMID:21772271

  19. PINK1 is activated by mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and stimulates Parkin E3 ligase activity by phosphorylating Serine 65

    PubMed Central

    Kondapalli, Chandana; Kazlauskaite, Agne; Zhang, Ning; Woodroof, Helen I.; Campbell, David G.; Gourlay, Robert; Burchell, Lynn; Walden, Helen; Macartney, Thomas J.; Deak, Maria; Knebel, Axel; Alessi, Dario R.; Muqit, Miratul M. K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Missense mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause autosomal-recessive inherited Parkinson's disease (PD). We have exploited our recent discovery that recombinant insect PINK1 is catalytically active to test whether PINK1 directly phosphorylates 15 proteins encoded by PD-associated genes as well as proteins reported to bind PINK1. We have discovered that insect PINK1 efficiently phosphorylates only one of these proteins, namely the E3 ligase Parkin. We have mapped the phosphorylation site to a highly conserved residue within the Ubl domain of Parkin at Ser65. We show that human PINK1 is specifically activated by mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) depolarization, enabling it to phosphorylate Parkin at Ser65. We further show that phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser65 leads to marked activation of its E3 ligase activity that is prevented by mutation of Ser65 or inactivation of PINK1. We provide evidence that once activated, PINK1 autophosphorylates at several residues, including Thr257, which is accompanied by an electrophoretic mobility band-shift. These results provide the first evidence that PINK1 is activated following Δψm depolarization and suggest that PINK1 directly phosphorylates and activates Parkin. Our findings indicate that monitoring phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser65 and/or PINK1 at Thr257 represent the first biomarkers for examining activity of the PINK1-Parkin signalling pathway in vivo. Our findings also suggest that small molecule activators of Parkin that mimic the effect of PINK1 phosphorylation may confer therapeutic benefit for PD. PMID:22724072

  20. MULAN related gene (MRG): a potential novel ubiquitin ligase activator of NF-kB involved in immune response in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Tacchi, Luca; Casadei, Elisa; Bickerdike, Ralph; Secombes, Christopher J; Martin, Samuel A M

    2012-12-01

    Nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) is a transcription factor that plays a central role in the regulation of a variety of genes including many involved in bacterial and viral infections. NF-kB is normally sequestered by inhibitory proteins (IkBs) in the cytoplasm of non-stimulated cells. The degradation of IkBs by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway releases NF-kB allowing its translocation to the nucleus where it regulates gene transcription. The Mitochondrial Ubiquitin Ligase Activator of NF-kB, (MULAN), is an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in controlling activation of NF-kB, and regulating mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis. We report the characterisation of a novel piscine-specific MULAN related gene (MRG) sequence, its mRNA tissue distribution and expression following in vivo and in vitro challenges. MRG cDNA was identified in Atlantic salmon and its sequence encodes a predicted protein of 274 amino acids. The mRNA of MRG was expressed in multiple tissues, with the highest abundance head kidney. An Aeromonas salmonicida bacterial challenge increased expression of this gene in head kidney, liver and gill tissue at 6 h and 24 h. In vitro stimulation of a salmonid cell line indicated MRG was increased in expression following stimulation with LPS, PolyI:C and recombinant trout IL-1β for 4 h and 24 h. These results suggest an active role of MRG in the activation of the NF-kB pathway during early immune responses.

  1. CBS9106-induced CRM1 degradation is mediated by cullin ring ligase activity and the neddylation pathway.

    PubMed

    Saito, Naoya; Sakakibara, Keiichi; Sato, Takuji; Friedman, Jonathan M; Kufe, Donald W; VonHoff, Daniel D; Kawabe, Takumi

    2014-12-01

    Chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) mediates the nuclear export of proteins and mRNAs, and is overexpressed in various cancers. Recent studies have also reported that CRM1 protein expression is a negative prognostic factor in patients with cancer. Therefore, CRM1 is considered a potential target for anticancer therapy. Our previous study demonstrated that CBS9106, a synthetic small-molecular inhibitor of CRM1, decreases CRM1 protein through proteasomal degradation without affecting CRM1 mRNA levels. However, the mechanism by which CRM1 is degraded is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate a novel signaling pathway that plays an important role in CBS9106-induced CRM1 degradation. We found that MLN4924, a selective inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE), effectively inhibits cullin neddylation and attenuates CBS9106-induced CRM1 degradation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. MLN4924 also attenuated CBS9106-induced nuclear accumulation of Ran-binding protein 1 (RanBP1), cell growth inhibition, and apoptosis. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated knockdown of neddylation pathway proteins (NEDD8 and UBA3) or cullin ring ligase (CRL) component protein (Rbx1) attenuated CRM1 protein degradation and G1 phase cell-cycle arrest by CBS9106. Knockdown of CSN5 or CAND1 also partially inhibited CBS9106-induced CRM1 degradation. These findings demonstrate that CBS9106-induced CRM1 degradation is conferred by CRL activity involving the neddylation pathway, and that this response to CBS9106 leads to cell growth inhibition and apoptosis.

  2. Biotin analogues with antibacterial activity are potent inhibitors of biotin protein ligase.

    PubMed

    Soares da Costa, Tatiana P; Tieu, William; Yap, Min Y; Zvarec, Ondrej; Bell, Jan M; Turnidge, John D; Wallace, John C; Booker, Grant W; Wilce, Matthew C J; Abell, Andrew D; Polyak, Steven W

    2012-06-14

    There is a desperate need to develop new antibiotic agents to combat the rise of drug-resistant bacteria, such as clinically important Staphylococcus aureus. The essential multifunctional enzyme, biotin protein ligase (BPL), is one potential drug target for new antibiotics. We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of biotin analogues with activity against BPLs from S. aureus, Escherichia coli, and Homo sapiens. Two potent inhibitors with K i < 100 nM were identified with antibacterial activity against a panel of clinical isolates of S. aureus (MIC 2-16 μg/mL). Compounds with high ligand efficiency and >20-fold selectivity between the isozymes were identified and characterized. The antibacterial mode of action was shown to be via inhibition of BPL. The bimolecular interactions between the BPL and the inhibitors were defined by surface plasmon resonance studies and X-ray crystallography. These findings pave the way for second-generation inhibitors and antibiotics with greater potency and selectivity.

  3. Balancing protein stability and activity in cancer: a new approach for identifying driver mutations affecting CBL ubiquitin ligase activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minghui; Kales, Stephen C.; Ma, Ke; Shoemaker, Benjamin A.; Crespo-Barreto, Juan; Cangelosi, Andrew L.; Lipkowitz, Stanley; Panchenko, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic mutations in the monomeric Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (Cbl) gene have been found in many tumors, but their significance remains largely unknown. Several human c-Cbl (CBL) structures have recently been solved depicting the protein at different stages of its activation cycle and thus provide mechanistic insight underlying how stability-activity tradeoffs in cancer-related proteins may influence disease onset and progression. In this study, we computationally modeled the effects of missense cancer mutations on structures representing four stages of the CBL activation cycle to identify driver mutations that affect CBL stability, binding, and activity. We found that recurrent, homozygous, and leukemia-specific mutations had greater destabilizing effects on CBL states than did random non-cancer mutations. We further tested the ability of these computational models assessing the changes in CBL stability and its binding to ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2, by performing blind CBL-mediated EGFR ubiquitination assays in cells. Experimental CBL ubiquitin ligase activity was in agreement with the predicted changes in CBL stability and, to a lesser extent, with CBL-E2 binding affinity. Two-thirds of all experimentally tested mutations affected the ubiquitin ligase activity by either destabilizing CBL or disrupting CBL-E2 binding, whereas about one-third of tested mutations were found to be neutral. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that computational methods incorporating multiple protein conformations and stability and binding affinity evaluations can successfully predict the functional consequences of cancer mutations on protein activity, and provide a proof of concept for mutations in CBL. PMID:26676746

  4. RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Activity in Influenza Virions

    PubMed Central

    Penhoet, Edward; Miller, Henry; Doyle, Michael; Blatti, Stanley

    1971-01-01

    An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity has been detected in purified preparations of influenza virus. In contrast to the replicase activity induced in influenza-infected cells, the virion-associated enzyme has an absolute requirement for Mn++. Most of the RNA synthesized in vitro is complementary to virion RNA. PMID:5288388

  5. Mutations of Asp540 and the domain-connecting residues synergistically enhance Pyrococcus furiosus DNA ligase activity.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Maiko; Ishino, Sonoko; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Nishida, Hirokazu

    2014-01-21

    The structure of Pyrococcus furiosus DNA ligase (PfuLig), which architecturally resembles human DNA ligase I (hLigI), revealed that the C-terminal helix stabilizes the closed conformation through several ionic interactions between two domains (adenylylation domain (AdD) and C-terminal OB-fold domain (OBD)). This helix is oriented differently in DNA-bound hLigI, suggesting that the disruption of its interactions with AdD facilitates DNA binding. Previously, we demonstrated that the replacement of Asp540 with arginine improves the ligation activity. Here we report that the combination of the Asp540-replacement and the elimination of ionic residues in the helix, forming interactions with AdD, effectively enhanced the activity.

  6. The activities of the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1/SPA, a key repressor in light signaling.

    PubMed

    Hoecker, Ute

    2017-06-01

    Light is a critical signal to integrate plant growth and development with the environment. Downstream of photoreceptors, the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1/SPA is a key repressor of photomorphogenesis which targets many positive regulators of light signaling, mainly transcription factors, for degradation in darkness. In light-grown plants COP1/SPA activity is repressed, allowing light responses to occur. This review provides an overview on our current knowledge on COP1/SPA repressor function, focusing in particular on the roles of the respective protein domains and the mechanisms of light-induced inactivation of COP1/SPA. Moreover, we summarize how COP1 activity is regulated by other interacting proteins, such as a SUMO E3 ligase and Phytochrome-Interacting Factors (PIFs), as well as by hormones. At last, several novel functions of COP1 that were recently revealed are included. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phosphorylation of Ser72 does not regulate the ubiquitin ligase activity and subcellular localization of Skp2.

    PubMed

    Boutonnet, Christel; Tanguay, Pierre-Luc; Julien, Catherine; Rodier, Geneviève; Coulombe, Philippe; Meloche, Sylvain

    2010-03-01

    Skp2 is the substrate binding subunit of the SCF(Skp2) ubiquitin ligase, which plays a key role in the regulation of cell cycle progression. The activity of Skp2 is regulated by the APC(Cdh1), which targets Skp2 for degradation in early G(1) and prevent premature S phase entry. Overexpression of Skp2 leads to dysregulation of the cell cycle and is commonly observed in human cancers. We have previously shown that Skp2 is phosphorylated on Ser64 and Ser72 in vivo, and that these modifications regulate its stability. Recently, two studies have proposed a role for Ser72 phosphorylation in the cytosolic relocalization of Skp2 and in the assembly and activity of SCF(Skp2) ubiquitin ligase complex. We have revisited this question and analyzed the impact of Ser72 phosphorylation site mutations on the biological activity and subcellular localization of Skp2. We show here that phosphorylation of Ser72 does not control Skp2 binding to Skp1 and Cul1, has no influence on SCF(Skp2) ubiquitin ligase activity, and does not affect the subcellular localization of Skp2 in a panel of cell lines.

  8. Shigella IpaH7.8 E3 ubiquitin ligase targets glomulin and activates inflammasomes to demolish macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shiho; Mimuro, Hitomi; Kim, Minsoo; Ogawa, Michinaga; Ashida, Hiroshi; Toyotome, Takahito; Franchi, Luigi; Suzuki, Masato; Sanada, Takahito; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Tsutsui, Hiroko; Núñez, Gabriel; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    When nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain–like receptors (NLRs) sense cytosolic-invading bacteria, they induce the formation of inflammasomes and initiate an innate immune response. In quiescent cells, inflammasome activity is tightly regulated to prevent excess inflammation and cell death. Many bacterial pathogens provoke inflammasome activity and induce inflammatory responses, including cell death, by delivering type III secreted effectors, the rod component flagellin, and toxins. Recent studies indicated that Shigella deploy multiple mechanisms to stimulate NLR inflammasomes through type III secretion during infection. Here, we show that Shigella induces rapid macrophage cell death by delivering the invasion plasmid antigen H7.8 (IpaH7.8) enzyme 3 (E3) ubiquitin ligase effector via the type III secretion system, thereby activating the NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) and NLR family CARD domain-containing 4 (NLRC4) inflammasomes and caspase-1 and leading to macrophage cell death in an IpaH7.8 E3 ligase-dependent manner. Mice infected with Shigella possessing IpaH7.8, but not with Shigella possessing an IpaH7.8 E3 ligase-null mutant, exhibited enhanced bacterial multiplication. We defined glomulin/flagellar-associated protein 68 (GLMN) as an IpaH7.8 target involved in IpaH7.8 E3 ligase-dependent inflammasome activation. This protein originally was identified through its association with glomuvenous malformations and more recently was described as a member of a Cullin ring ligase inhibitor. Modifying GLMN levels through overexpression or knockdown led to reduced or augmented inflammasome activation, respectively. Macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide/ATP induced GLMN puncta that localized with the active form of caspase-1. Macrophages from GLMN+/− mice were more responsive to inflammasome activation than those from GLMN+/+ mice. Together, these results highlight a unique bacterial adaptation that hijacks inflammasome activation via

  9. TIP120A associates with cullins and modulates ubiquitin ligase activity.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyoeng-Woo; Hwang, Ji-Won; Lee, Jong-Sik; Park, Yoon; Tamura, Taka-aki; Yoon, Jong-Bok

    2003-05-02

    The cullin-containing ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligases (E3s) play an important role in regulating the abundance of key proteins involved in cellular processes such as cell cycle and cytokine signaling. They have multisubunit modular structures in which substrate recognition and the catalysis of ubiquitination are carried out by distinct polypeptides. In a search for proteins involved in regulation of cullin-containing E3 ubiquitin ligases we immunopurified CUL4B-containing complex from HeLa cells and identified TIP120A as an associated protein by mass spectrometry. Immunoprecipitation of cullins revealed that all cullins tested specifically interacted with TIP120A. Reciprocal immunoaffinity purification of TIP120A confirmed the stable interaction of TIP120A with cullin family proteins. TIP120A formed a complex with CUL1 and Rbx1, but interfered with the binding of Skp1 and F-box proteins to CUL1. TIP120A greatly reduced the ubiquitination of phosphorylated IkappaBalpha by SCF(beta-TrCP) ubiquitin ligase. These results suggest that TIP120A functions as a negative regulator of SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases and may modulate other cullin ligases in a similar fashion.

  10. Active site conformational changes upon reaction intermediate biotinyl-5'-AMP binding in biotin protein ligase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingjun; Akhter, Yusuf; Wilmanns, Matthias; Ehebauer, Matthias T

    2014-07-01

    Protein biotinylation, a rare form of post-translational modification, is found in enzymes required for lipid biosynthesis. In mycobacteria, this process is essential for the formation of their complex and distinct cell wall and has become a focal point of drug discovery approaches. The enzyme responsible for this process, biotin protein ligase, substantially varies in different species in terms of overall structural organization, regulation of function and substrate specificity. To advance the understanding of the molecular mechanism of biotinylation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis we have biochemically and structurally characterized the corresponding enzyme. We report the high-resolution crystal structures of the apo-form and reaction intermediate biotinyl-5'-AMP-bound form of M. tuberculosis biotin protein ligase. Binding of the reaction intermediate leads to clear disorder-to-order transitions. We show that a conserved lysine, Lys138, in the active site is essential for biotinylation. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  11. A genome wide analysis of ubiquitin ligases in APP processing identifies a novel regulator of BACE1 mRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Espeseth, Amy S; Huang, Qian; Gates, Adam; Xu, Min; Yu, Yuanjiang; Simon, Adam J; Shi, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Xiaohua; Hodor, Paul; Stone, David J; Burchard, Julja; Cavet, Guy; Bartz, Steven; Linsley, Peter; Ray, William J; Hazuda, Daria

    2006-11-01

    Proteolysis of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) into amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) by beta- and gamma-secretases is a critical step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), but the pathways regulating secretases are not fully characterized. Ubiquitinylation, which is dysregulated in AD, may affect APP processing. Here, we describe a screen for APP processing modulators using an siRNA library targeting 532 predicted ubiquitin ligases. Seven siRNA pools diminished Abeta production. Of these, siRNAs targeting PPIL2 (hCyp-60) suppressed beta-site cleavage. Knockdown of PPIL2 mRNA decreased BACE1 mRNA, while overexpression of PPIL2 cDNA enhanced BACE1 mRNA levels. Microarray analysis of PPIL2 or BACE1 knockdown indicated that genes affected by BACE1 knockdown are a subset of those dependent upon PPIL2; suggesting that BACE1 expression is downstream of PPIL2. The association of PPIL2 with BACE expression and its requirement for Abeta production suggests new approaches to discover disease modifying agents for AD.

  12. Ataxia and hypogonadism caused by the loss of ubiquitin ligase activity of the U box protein CHIP

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chang-He; Schisler, Jonathan C.; Rubel, Carrie E.; Tan, Song; Song, Bo; McDonough, Holly; Xu, Lei; Portbury, Andrea L.; Mao, Cheng-Yuan; True, Cadence; Wang, Rui-Hao; Wang, Qing-Zhi; Sun, Shi-Lei; Seminara, Stephanie B.; Patterson, Cam; Xu, Yu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Gordon Holmes syndrome (GHS) is a rare Mendelian neurodegenerative disorder characterized by ataxia and hypogonadism. Recently, it was suggested that disordered ubiquitination underlies GHS though the discovery of exome mutations in the E3 ligase RNF216 and deubiquitinase OTUD4. We performed exome sequencing in a family with two of three siblings afflicted with ataxia and hypogonadism and identified a homozygous mutation in STUB1 (NM_005861) c.737C→T, p.Thr246Met, a gene that encodes the protein CHIP (C-terminus of HSC70-interacting protein). CHIP plays a central role in regulating protein quality control, in part through its ability to function as an E3 ligase. Loss of CHIP function has long been associated with protein misfolding and aggregation in several genetic mouse models of neurodegenerative disorders; however, a role for CHIP in human neurological disease has yet to be identified. Introduction of the Thr246Met mutation into CHIP results in a loss of ubiquitin ligase activity measured directly using recombinant proteins as well as in cell culture models. Loss of CHIP function in mice resulted in behavioral and reproductive impairments that mimic human ataxia and hypogonadism. We conclude that GHS can be caused by a loss-of-function mutation in CHIP. Our findings further highlight the role of disordered ubiquitination and protein quality control in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease and demonstrate the utility of combining whole-exome sequencing with molecular analyses and animal models to define causal disease polymorphisms. PMID:24113144

  13. Cloning and expression analysis of the mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase activator of NF-κB (MULAN) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Tacchi, Luca; Casadei, Elisa; Bickerdike, Ralph; Secombes, Christopher J; Martin, Samuel A M

    2011-12-01

    Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of a large number of genes including many involved in bacterial and viral infections. NF-κB is normally sequestered by inhibitory proteins (IκBs) in the cytoplasm of non-stimulated cells. The degradation of IκBs by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway leads to the rapid translocation of NF-κB to the nucleous where it regulates gene transcription. The Mitochondrial Ubiquitin Ligase Activator of NF-κB, (MULAN), is an E3 ubiquitin ligase believed to be central in controlling activation of NF-κB, and regulating the mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis process. We report, for the first time in fish, the characterization of a MULAN cDNA in Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. The salmonid MULAN sequences encode predicted proteins of 352 amino acids. The mRNA of MULAN was expressed in multiple tissues, with the highest abundance in brain and white muscle. An Aeromonas salmonicida bacterial challenge increased expression of this gene in head kidney, liver and gill both at 6 and at 24h following the infection. In vitro experiments using the salmonid cell line RTG-2 indicated MULAN was increased in expression following 4h stimulation with LPS and recombinant trout IL-1β. MULAN expression remained increased 24h post-stimulation with both LPS and IL-1β, but was down regulated by PolyI:C at this time. These results suggest an active role of the MULAN gene in the activation of the NF-κB pathway during piscine immune responses.

  14. CUL4-DDB1-CDT2 E3 Ligase Regulates the Molecular Clock Activity by Promoting Ubiquitination-Dependent Degradation of the Mammalian CRY1

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xin; Zhang, Deqiang; Guha, Anirvan; Arthurs, Blake; Cazares, Victor; Gupta, Neil; Yin, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The CUL4-DDB1 E3 ligase complex serves as a critical regulator in various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, DNA damage repair, and cell cycle progression. However, whether this E3 ligase complex regulates clock protein turnover and the molecular clock activity in mammalian cells is unknown. Here we show that CUL4-DDB1-CDT2 E3 ligase ubiquitinates CRY1 and promotes its degradation both in vitro and in vivo. Depletion of the major components of this E3 ligase complex, including Ddb1, Cdt2, and Cdt2-cofactor Pcna, leads to CRY1 stabilization in cultured cells or in the mouse liver. CUL4A-DDB1-CDT2 E3 ligase targets lysine 585 within the C-terminal region of CRY1 protein, shown by the CRY1 585KA mutant’s resistance to ubiquitination and degradation mediated by the CUL4A-DDB1 complex. Surprisingly, both depletion of Ddb1 and over-expression of Cry1-585KA mutant enhance the oscillatory amplitude of the Bmal1 promoter activity without altering its period length, suggesting that CUL4A-DDB1-CDT2 E3 targets CRY1 for degradation and reduces the circadian amplitude. All together, we uncovered a novel biological role for CUL4A-DDB1-CDT2 E3 ligase that regulates molecular circadian behaviors via promoting ubiquitination-dependent degradation of CRY1. PMID:26431207

  15. A novel HECT-type E3 ubiquitin protein ligase NEDL1 enhances the p53-mediated apoptotic cell death in its catalytic activity-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Ozaki, T; Kikuchi, H; Yamamoto, H; Ohira, M; Nakagawara, A

    2008-06-12

    NEDL1 (NEDD4-like ubiquitin protein ligase-1) is a newly identified HECT-type E3 ubiquitin protein ligase highly expressed in favorable neuroblastomas as compared with unfavorable ones. In this study, we found that NEDL1 cooperates with p53 to induce apoptosis. During cisplatin (CDDP)-mediated apoptosis in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, p53 was induced to accumulate in association with an increase in expression levels of NEDL1. Enforced expression of NEDL1 resulted in a decrease in number of G418-resistant colonies in SH-SY5Y and U2OS cells bearing wild-type p53, whereas NEDL1 had undetectable effect on p53-deficient H1299 and SAOS-2 cells. Similarly, enforced expression of NEDL1 increased number of U2OS cells with sub-G1 DNA content. Co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro binding assays revealed that NEDL1 binds to the COOH-terminal region of p53. Luciferase reporter assay showed that NEDL1 has an ability to enhance the transcriptional activity of p53. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of the endogenous NEDL1 conferred the resistance of U2OS cells to adriamycin. It is noteworthy that NEDL1 enhanced pro-apoptotic activity of p53 in its catalytic activity-independent manner. Taken together, our present findings suggest that functional interaction of NEDL1 with p53 might contribute to the induction of apoptosis in cancerous cells bearing wild-type p53.

  16. Staphylococcal β-Toxin Modulates Human Aortic Endothelial Cell and Platelet Function through Sphingomyelinase and Biofilm Ligase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Alfa; Kulhankova, Katarina; Sonkar, Vijay K.; Dayal, Sanjana; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus causes many infections, such as skin and soft tissue, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and infective endocarditis (IE). IE is an endovascular infection of native and prosthetic valves and the lining of the heart; it is characterized by the formation of cauliflower-like “vegetations” composed of fibrin, platelets, other host factors, bacteria, and bacterial products. β-Toxin is an S. aureus virulence factor that contributes to the microorganism’s ability to cause IE. This cytolysin has two enzymatic activities: sphingomyelinase (SMase) and biofilm ligase. Although both activities have functions in a rabbit model of IE, the mechanism(s) by which β-toxin directly affects human cells and is involved in the infectious process has not been elucidated. Here, we compared the in vitro effects of purified recombinant wild-type β-toxin, SMase-deficient β-toxin (H289N), and biofilm ligase-deficient β-toxin (H162A and/or D163A) on human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and platelets. β-Toxin was cytotoxic to HAECs and inhibited the production of interleukin 8 (IL-8) from these cells by both SMase and biofilm ligase activities. β-Toxin altered HAEC surface expression of CD40 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). HAECs treated with β-toxin displayed granular membrane morphology not seen in treatment with the SMase-deficient mutant. The altered morphology resulted in two possibly separable activities, cell rounding and redistribution of cell membranes into granules, which were not the result of endosome production from the Golgi apparatus or lysosomes. β-Toxin directly aggregated rabbit platelets via SMase activity. PMID:28325766

  17. Staphylococcal β-Toxin Modulates Human Aortic Endothelial Cell and Platelet Function through Sphingomyelinase and Biofilm Ligase Activities.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Alfa; Kulhankova, Katarina; Sonkar, Vijay K; Dayal, Sanjana; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Schlievert, Patrick M

    2017-03-21

    Staphylococcus aureus causes many infections, such as skin and soft tissue, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and infective endocarditis (IE). IE is an endovascular infection of native and prosthetic valves and the lining of the heart; it is characterized by the formation of cauliflower-like "vegetations" composed of fibrin, platelets, other host factors, bacteria, and bacterial products. β-Toxin is an S. aureus virulence factor that contributes to the microorganism's ability to cause IE. This cytolysin has two enzymatic activities: sphingomyelinase (SMase) and biofilm ligase. Although both activities have functions in a rabbit model of IE, the mechanism(s) by which β-toxin directly affects human cells and is involved in the infectious process has not been elucidated. Here, we compared the in vitro effects of purified recombinant wild-type β-toxin, SMase-deficient β-toxin (H289N), and biofilm ligase-deficient β-toxin (H162A and/or D163A) on human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and platelets. β-Toxin was cytotoxic to HAECs and inhibited the production of interleukin 8 (IL-8) from these cells by both SMase and biofilm ligase activities. β-Toxin altered HAEC surface expression of CD40 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). HAECs treated with β-toxin displayed granular membrane morphology not seen in treatment with the SMase-deficient mutant. The altered morphology resulted in two possibly separable activities, cell rounding and redistribution of cell membranes into granules, which were not the result of endosome production from the Golgi apparatus or lysosomes. β-Toxin directly aggregated rabbit platelets via SMase activity.IMPORTANCE Each year there are up to 100,000 cases of infective endocarditis (IE) in the United States. S. aureus is the most common pathogen in patients with health care-associated IE and the leading cause of community-associated IE in the developed world. Multiple clonal group strains as defined by the Centers for Disease Control

  18. RNA-mediated gene activation

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Alan L; Slack, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression by non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) has become a new paradigm in biology. RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways have been studied extensively, revealing diverse epigenetic and posttranscriptional mechanisms. In contrast, the roles of ncRNAs in activating gene expression remains poorly understood. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of gene activation by small RNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and enhancer-derived RNAs, with an emphasis on epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:24185374

  19. Cbl-c Ubiquitin Ligase Activity Is Increased via the Interaction of Its RING Finger Domain with a LIM Domain of the Paxillin Homolog, Hic 5

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Philip E.; Kales, Stephen C.; Yadavalli, Rajgopal; Nau, Marion M.; Zhang, Han; Lipkowitz, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    Cbl proteins (Cbl, Cbl-b and Cbl-c) are ubiquitin ligases that are critical regulators of tyrosine kinase signaling. In this study we identify a new Cbl-c interacting protein, Hydrogen peroxide Induced Construct 5 (Hic-5). The two proteins interact through a novel interaction mediated by the RING finger of Cbl-c and the LIM2 domain of Hic-5. Further, this interaction is mediated and dependent on specific zinc coordinating complexes within the RING finger and LIM domain. Binding of Hic-5 to Cbl-c leads to an increase in the ubiquitin ligase activity of Cbl-c once Cbl-c has been activated by Src phosphorylation or through an activating phosphomimetic mutation. In addition, co-transfection of Hic-5 with Cbl-c leads to an increase in Cbl-c mediated ubiquitination of the EGFR. These data suggest that Hic-5 enhances Cbl-c ubiquitin ligase activity once Cbl-c has been phosphorylated and activated. Interactions between heterologous RING fingers have been shown to activate E3s. This is the first demonstration of enhancement of ubiquitin ligase activity of a RING finger ubiquitin ligase by the direct interaction of a LIM zinc coordinating domain. PMID:23145173

  20. Essential residues for the enzyme activity of ATP-dependent MurE ligase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Basavannacharya, Chandrakala; Moody, Paul R; Munshi, Tulika; Cronin, Nora; Keep, Nicholas H; Bhakta, Sanjib

    2010-11-01

    The emergence of total drug-resistant tuberculosis (TDRTB) has made the discovery of new therapies for tuberculosis urgent. The cytoplasmic enzymes of peptidoglycan biosynthesis have generated renewed interest as attractive targets for the development of new anti-mycobacterials. One of the cytoplasmic enzymes, uridine diphosphate (UDP)-MurNAc-tripeptide ligase (MurE), catalyses the addition of meso-diaminopimelic acid (m-DAP) into peptidoglycan in Mycobacterium tuberculosis coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP. Mutants of M. tuberculosis MurE were generated by replacing K157, E220, D392, R451 with alanine and N449 with aspartate, and truncating the first 24 amino acid residues at the N-terminus of the enzyme. Analysis of the specific activity of these proteins suggested that apart from the 24 N-terminal residues, the other mutated residues are essential for catalysis. Variations in K(m) values for one or more substrates were observed for all mutants, except the N-terminal truncation mutant, indicating that these residues are involved in binding substrates and form part of the active site structure. These mutant proteins were also tested for their specificity for a wide range of substrates. Interestingly, the mutations K157A, E220A and D392A showed hydrolysis of ATP uncoupled from catalysis. The ATP hydrolysis rate was enhanced by at least partial occupation of the uridine nucleotide dipeptide binding site. This study provides an insight into the residues essential for the catalytic activity and substrate binding of the ATP-dependent MurE ligase. Since ATP-dependent MurE ligase is a novel drug target, the understanding of its function may lead to development of novel inhibitors against resistant forms of M. tuberculosis.

  1. The E3 ubiquitin ligase and RNA-binding protein ZNF598 orchestrates ribosome quality control of premature polyadenylated mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Garzia, Aitor; Jafarnejad, Seyed Mehdi; Meyer, Cindy; Chapat, Clément; Gogakos, Tasos; Morozov, Pavel; Amiri, Mehdi; Shapiro, Maayan; Molina, Henrik; Tuschl, Thomas; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2017-07-07

    Cryptic polyadenylation within coding sequences (CDS) triggers ribosome-associated quality control (RQC), followed by degradation of the aberrant mRNA and polypeptide, ribosome disassembly and recycling. Although ribosomal subunit dissociation and nascent peptide degradation are well-understood, the molecular sensors of aberrant mRNAs and their mechanism of action remain unknown. We studied the Zinc Finger Protein 598 (ZNF598) using PAR-CLIP and revealed that it cross-links to tRNAs, mRNAs and rRNAs, thereby placing the protein on translating ribosomes. Cross-linked reads originating from AAA-decoding tRNA(Lys)(UUU) were 10-fold enriched over its cellular abundance, and poly-lysine encoded by poly(AAA) induced RQC in a ZNF598-dependent manner. Encounter with translated polyA segments by ZNF598 triggered ubiquitination of several ribosomal proteins, requiring the E2 ubiquitin ligase UBE2D3 to initiate RQC. Considering that human CDS are devoid of >4 consecutive AAA codons, sensing of prematurely placed polyA tails by a specialized RNA-binding protein is a novel nucleic-acid-based surveillance mechanism of RQC.

  2. CK2 phosphorylation of SAG at Thr10 regulates SAG stability, but not its E3 ligase activity.

    PubMed

    He, Hongbin; Tan, Mingjia; Pamarthy, Deepika; Wang, Guixia; Ahmed, Khalil; Sun, Yi

    2007-01-01

    Sensitive to Apoptosis Gene (SAG), a RING component of SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase, was shown to be phosphorylated by protein kinase CK2 at the Thr10 residue. It is, however, unknown whether this phosphorylation is stress-responsive or whether the phosphorylation changes its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. To address these, we made a specific antibody against the phosphor-SAG(Thr10). Transient transfection experiment showed that SAG was phosphorylated at Thr10 which can be significantly inhibited by TBB, a relatively specific inhibitor of protein kinase CK2. To determine whether this SAG phosphorylation is stress-responsive, we defined a chemical-hypoxia condition in which SAG and CK2 were both induced. Under this condition, we failed to detect SAG phosphorylation at Thr10, which was readily detected, however, in the presence of MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, suggesting that the phosphorylated SAG has undergone a rapid degradation. To further define this, we made two SAG mutants, SAG-T10A which abolishes the SAG phosphorylation and SAG-T10E, which mimics the constitutive SAG phosphorylation. The half-life study revealed that indeed, SAG-T10E has a much shorter protein half-life (2 h), as compared to wild-type SAG (10 h). Again, rapid degradation of SAG-T10E in cells can be blocked by MG132. Thus, it appears that CK2-induced SAG phosphorylation at Thr10 regulates its stability through a proteasome-dependent pathway. Immunocytochemistry study showed that SAG as well as its phosphorylation mutants, was mainly localized in nucleus and lightly in cytoplasm. Hypoxia condition did not change their sub-cellular localization. Finally, an in vitro ubiqutination assay showed that SAG mutation at Thr10 did not change its E3 ligase activity when complexed with cullin-1. These studies suggested that CK2 might regulate SAG-SCF E3 ligase activity through modulating SAG's stability, rather than its enzymatic activity directly.

  3. Ubiquitin ligase Nedd4L targets activated Smad2/3 to limit TGF-beta signaling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Sheng; Alarcón, Claudio; Sapkota, Gopal; Rahman, Sadia; Chen, Pan-Yu; Goerner, Nina; Macias, Maria J; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Massagué, Joan

    2009-11-13

    TGF-beta induces phosphorylation of the transcription factors Smad2 and Smad3 at the C terminus as well as at an interdomain linker region. TGF-beta-induced linker phosphorylation marks the activated Smad proteins for proteasome-mediated destruction. Here, we identify Nedd4L as the ubiquitin ligase responsible for this step. Through its WW domain, Nedd4L specifically recognizes a TGF-beta-induced phosphoThr-ProTyr motif in the linker region, resulting in Smad2/3 polyubiquitination and degradation. Nedd4L is not interchangeable with Smurf1, a ubiquitin ligase that targets BMP-activated, linker-phosphorylated Smad1. Nedd4L limits the half-life of TGF-beta-activated Smads and restricts the amplitude and duration of TGF-beta gene responses, and in mouse embryonic stem cells, it limits the induction of mesoendodermal fates by Smad2/3-activating factors. Hierarchical regulation is provided by SGK1, which phosphorylates Nedd4L to prevent binding of Smad2/3. Previously identified as a regulator of renal sodium channels, Nedd4L is shown here to play a broader role as a general modulator of Smad turnover during TGF-beta signal transduction.

  4. Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier Ligase Activity of Mms21 Is Required for Maintenance of Chromosome Integrity during the Unperturbed Mitotic Cell Division Cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Ragini; Varma, Satya P. M. V.; Shinde, Nikhil; Ghosh, Shilpa; Kumaran, Srikala P.; Skariah, Geena; Laloraya, Shikha

    2011-01-01

    The SUMO ligase activity of Mms21/Nse2, a conserved member of the Smc5/6 complex, is required for resisting extrinsically induced genotoxic stress. We report that the Mms21 SUMO ligase activity is also required during the unchallenged mitotic cell cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. SUMO ligase-defective cells were slow growing and spontaneously incurred DNA damage. These cells required caffeine-sensitive Mec1 kinase-dependent checkpoint signaling for survival even in the absence of extrinsically induced genotoxic stress. SUMO ligase-defective cells were sensitive to replication stress and displayed synthetic growth defects with DNA damage checkpoint-defective mutants such as mec1, rad9, and rad24. MMS21 SUMO ligase and mediator of replication checkpoint 1 gene (MRC1) were epistatic with respect to hydroxyurea-induced replication stress or methyl methanesulfonate-induced DNA damage sensitivity. Subjecting Mms21 SUMO ligase-deficient cells to transient replication stress resulted in enhancement of cell cycle progression defects such as mitotic delay and accumulation of hyperploid cells. Consistent with the spontaneous activation of the DNA damage checkpoint pathway observed in the Mms21-mediated sumoylation-deficient cells, enhanced frequency of chromosome breakage and loss was detected in these mutant cells. A mutation in the conserved cysteine 221 that is engaged in coordination of the zinc ion in Loop 2 of the Mms21 SPL-RING E3 ligase catalytic domain resulted in strong replication stress sensitivity and also conferred slow growth and Mec1 dependence to unchallenged mitotically dividing cells. Our findings establish Mms21-mediated sumoylation as a determinant of cell cycle progression and maintenance of chromosome integrity during the unperturbed mitotic cell division cycle in budding yeast. PMID:21324902

  5. The ubiquitin ligase MuRF1 regulates PPARα activity in the heart by enhancing nuclear export via monoubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Jessica E.; Liao, Jie-Ying; He, Jun; Schisler, Jonathan C.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Drujan, Doreen; Glass, David L.; Frederick, C.Brandon; Yoder, Bryan C.; Lalush, David S.; Patterson, Cam; Willis, Monte S.

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptional regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α by post-translational modification, such as ubiquitin, has not been described. We report here for the first time an ubiquitin ligase (muscle ring finger-1/MuRF1) that inhibits fatty acid oxidation by inhibiting PPARα, but not PPARβ/δ or PPARγ in cardiomyocytes in vitro. Similarly, MuRF1 Tg+ hearts showed significant decreases in nuclear PPARα activity and acyl-carnitine intermediates, while MuRF1−/− hearts exhibited increased PPARα activity and acyl-carnitine intermediates. MuRF1 directly interacts with PPARα, mono-ubiquitinates it, and targets it for nuclear export to inhibit fatty acid oxidation in a proteasome independent manner. We then identified a previously undescribed nuclear export sequence in PPARα, along with three specific lysines (292, 310, 388) required for MuRF1s targeting of nuclear export. These studies identify the role of ubiquitination in regulating cardiac PPARα, including the ubiquitin ligase that may be responsible for this critical regulation of cardiac metabolism in heart failure. PMID:26116825

  6. Characterization of Mycobacterium smegmatis PolD2 and PolD1 as RNA/DNA polymerases homologous to the POL domain of bacterial DNA ligase D

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hui; Bhattarai, Hitesh; Yan, Han-Guang; Shuman, Stewart; Glickman, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacteria exploit nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) to repair DNA double-strand breaks. The core NHEJ machinery comprises the homodimeric DNA end-binding protein Ku and DNA ligase D (LigD), a modular enzyme composed of a C-terminal ATP-dependent ligase domain (LIG), a central 3’-phosphoesterase domain (PE), and an N-terminal polymerase domain (POL). LigD POL is proficient at adding templated and nontemplated deoxynucleotide and ribonucleotides to DNA ends in vitro and is the catalyst in vivo of unfaithful NHEJ events involving nontemplated single-nucleotide additions to blunt DSB ends. Here, we identify two mycobacterial proteins, PolD1 and PolD2, as stand-alone homologs of the LigD POL domain. Biochemical characterization of PolD1 and PolD2 shows that they resemble LigD POL in their monomeric quaternary structures, their ability to add templated and nontemplated nucleotides to primer-templates and blunt ends, and their preference for rNTPs versus dNTPs. Deletion of polD1, polD2, or both, in an M. smegmatis strain carrying an inactivating mutation in LigD POL failed to reveal a role for PolD1 or PolD2 in templated nucleotide additions during NHEJ of 5’-overhang DSBs or in clastogen resistance. Whereas our results document the existence and characteristics of new stand-alone members of the LigD POL family of RNA/DNA polymerases, they imply that other polymerases can perform fill-in synthesis during mycobacterial NHEJ. PMID:23198659

  7. Characterization of Mycobacterium smegmatis PolD2 and PolD1 as RNA/DNA polymerases homologous to the POL domain of bacterial DNA ligase D.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui; Bhattarai, Hitesh; Yan, Han-Guang; Shuman, Stewart; Glickman, Michael S

    2012-12-21

    Mycobacteria exploit nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) to repair DNA double-strand breaks. The core NHEJ machinery comprises the homodimeric DNA end-binding protein Ku and DNA ligase D (LigD), a modular enzyme composed of a C-terminal ATP-dependent ligase domain (LIG), a central 3'-phosphoesterase domain (PE), and an N-terminal polymerase domain (POL). LigD POL is proficient at adding templated and nontemplated deoxynucleotides and ribonucleotides to DNA ends in vitro and is the catalyst in vivo of unfaithful NHEJ events involving nontemplated single-nucleotide additions to blunt DSB ends. Here, we identify two mycobacterial proteins, PolD1 and PolD2, as stand-alone homologues of the LigD POL domain. Biochemical characterization of PolD1 and PolD2 shows that they resemble LigD POL in their monomeric quaternary structures, their ability to add templated and nontemplated nucleotides to primer-templates and blunt ends, and their preference for rNTPs versus dNTPs. Deletion of polD1, polD2, or both from a Mycobacterium smegmatis strain carrying an inactivating mutation in LigD POL failed to reveal a role for PolD1 or PolD2 in templated nucleotide additions during NHEJ of 5'-overhang DSBs or in clastogen resistance. Whereas our results document the existence and characteristics of new stand-alone members of the LigD POL family of RNA/DNA polymerases, they imply that other polymerases can perform fill-in synthesis during mycobacterial NHEJ.

  8. Cis-Active RNA Elements (CREs) and Picornavirus RNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Steil, Benjamin P.; Barton, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Our understanding of picornavirus RNA replication has improved over the past 10 years, due in large part to the discovery of cis-active RNA elements (CREs) within picornavirus RNA genomes. CREs function as templates for the conversion of VPg, the Viral Protein of the genome, into VPgpUpUOH. These so called CREs are different from the previously recognized cis-active RNA sequences and structures within the 5′ and 3′ NTRs of picornavirus genomes. Two adenosine residues in the loop of the CRE RNA structures allow the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 3DPol to add two uridine residues to the tyrosine residue of VPg. Because VPg and/or VPgpUpUOH prime the initiation of viral RNA replication, the asymmetric replication of viral RNA could not be explained without an understanding of the viral RNA template involved in the conversion of VPg into VPgpUpUOH primers. We review the growing body of knowledge regarding picornavirus CREs and discuss how CRE RNAs work coordinately with viral replication proteins and other cis-active RNAs in the 5′ and 3′ NTRs during RNA replication. PMID:18773930

  9. Biochemical characterization of the DNA ligase I from Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Cardona-Felix, Cesar S; Pastor-Palacios, Guillermo; Cardenas, Helios; Azuara-Liceaga, Elisa; Brieba, Luis G

    2010-11-01

    DNA ligases play an essential role in DNA replication and repair. Herein, we report the cloning and biochemical characterization of DNA ligase I from the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica (EhDNAligI). EhDNAligI is an ATP-dependent DNA ligase of 685 amino acids with 35% identity to human DNA ligase I. This report shows that heterologous expressed EhDNAligI is able to perform the three conserved steps of a DNA ligation reaction: adenylation, binding to a 5'-phosphorylated nicked DNA substrate and sealing of the nick. EhDNAligI is strongly inhibited by NaCl and displays optimal activity at pH 7.5. EhDNAligI uses Mn2+ or Mg2+ as metal cofactors and ATP as nucleotide cofactor. EhDNAligI has a nicked DNA binding constant of 6.6microM and follows Michaelis-Menten steady-state kinetics with a K(m) ATP of 64nM and a k(cat) of 2.4min(-1). Accordingly to its properties as a family I DNA ligase, EhDNAligI is able to ligate a RNA strand upstream of a nucleic acid nick, but not in the downstream or the template position. We propose that EhDNAligI is involved in sealing DNA nicks during lagging strand synthesis and may have a role in base excision repair in E. histolytica.

  10. Informational Complexity and Functional Activity of RNA Structures

    PubMed Central

    Carothers, James M.; Oestreich, Stephanie C.; Davis, Jonathan H.

    2004-01-01

    Very little is known about the distribution of functional DNA, RNA, and protein molecules in sequence space. The question of how the number and complexity of distinct solutions to a particular biochemical problem varies with activity is an important aspect of this general problem. Here we present a comparison of the structures and activities of eleven distinct GTP-binding RNAs (aptamers). By experimentally measuring the amount of information required to specify each optimal binding structure, we show that defining a structure capable of 10-fold tighter binding requires approximately 10 additional bits of information. This increase in information content is equivalent to specifying the identity of five additional nucleotide positions and corresponds to an ∼1000-fold decrease in abundance in a sample of random sequences. We observe a similar relationship between structural complexity and activity in a comparison of two catalytic RNAs (ribozyme ligases), raising the possibility of a general relationship between the complexity of RNA structures and their functional activity. Describing how information varies with activity in other heteropolymers, both biological and synthetic, may lead to an objective means of comparing their functional properties. This approach could be useful in predicting the functional utility of novel heteropolymers. PMID:15099096

  11. The E3 ubiquitin ligase and RNA-binding protein ZNF598 orchestrates ribosome quality control of premature polyadenylated mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Garzia, Aitor; Jafarnejad, Seyed Mehdi; Meyer, Cindy; Chapat, Clément; Gogakos, Tasos; Morozov, Pavel; Amiri, Mehdi; Shapiro, Maayan; Molina, Henrik; Tuschl, Thomas; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2017-01-01

    Cryptic polyadenylation within coding sequences (CDS) triggers ribosome-associated quality control (RQC), followed by degradation of the aberrant mRNA and polypeptide, ribosome disassembly and recycling. Although ribosomal subunit dissociation and nascent peptide degradation are well-understood, the molecular sensors of aberrant mRNAs and their mechanism of action remain unknown. We studied the Zinc Finger Protein 598 (ZNF598) using PAR-CLIP and revealed that it cross-links to tRNAs, mRNAs and rRNAs, thereby placing the protein on translating ribosomes. Cross-linked reads originating from AAA-decoding tRNALys(UUU) were 10-fold enriched over its cellular abundance, and poly-lysine encoded by poly(AAA) induced RQC in a ZNF598-dependent manner. Encounter with translated polyA segments by ZNF598 triggered ubiquitination of several ribosomal proteins, requiring the E2 ubiquitin ligase UBE2D3 to initiate RQC. Considering that human CDS are devoid of >4 consecutive AAA codons, sensing of prematurely placed polyA tails by a specialized RNA-binding protein is a novel nucleic-acid-based surveillance mechanism of RQC. PMID:28685749

  12. Genetic interactions between the ESS1 prolyl-isomerase and the RSP5 ubiquitin ligase reveal opposing effects on RNA polymerase II function.

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Chang, A; Sudol, M; Hanes, S D

    2001-12-01

    Transcription of protein-coding genes by RNA polymerase II (pol II) is a highly coordinated process that requires the stepwise association of distinct protein complexes with the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Rpbl, the largest subunit of RNA pol II. Interaction of these complexes with the CTD might be subject to regulation by proteins such as Ess1 and Rsp5. Ess1, a prolyl-isomerase, binds the CTD and is thought to play a positive role in pol II transcription by generating conformational isomers of the CTD. Rsp5, a ubiquitin ligase, binds the CTD and is thought to play a negative role in transcription by mediating Rpbl ubiquitination and degradation. In this paper, we demonstrate that ESS1 and RSP5 interact genetically and that these interactions occur via RPBI. We show that over-expression of RSP5 enhances the growth defect of ess1ts cells and this effect is reversed by introducing extra copies of RPB1. Over-expression of RSP5 also mimics the sensitivity of ess1ts mutant cells to the toxicity of plasmids carrying dominant-negative CTD mutations, whereas mutations in RSP5 suppress this effect. Using a modified two-hybrid assay, we also demonstrate that Essl and Rsp5 compete directly for binding to the CTD. The results suggest a model in which Essl and Rsp5 act opposingly on pol II function to control the level of pol II available for transcription.

  13. Inhibition of the ubiquitin ligase activity improves the production of biologically active fusion protein HSA-HGF in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongsheng; Wan, Aini; Zhang, Jingjing; Peng, Lin; Chen, Yun; He, Yang; Yang, Jianfeng; Jin, Jian

    2016-10-18

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent multi-functional protein that stimulates proliferation, survival, motility, scattering and differentiation during growth and development, and has been considered to be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of a number of intractable diseases. The aim of this study was to enhance the expression of recombinant fusion protein HSA-HGF (R494E) in CHO cells by inhibiting the intracellular ubiquitin ligase activity. The high stable expression sub-clones with different signal peptides were selected by western blot (WB) analysis and used for suspension culture. We found that the expression of fusion protein HSA-HGF (R494E) on day 3 achieved 50 mg/L during the 8 day culture process, a large number of fusion proteins were intracellular degradated by ubiquitination pathway during day 4 to day 8. Furthermore, ubiquitin ligase inhibitor, thalidomide, was added in culture process, and resulted in efficient and stable secretion of HSA-HGF (R494E) in CHO cells. According to biological activity assays, HSA-HGF (R494E) possessed various biological activities similar to native HGF. In conclusion, innhibition of intracellular ubiquitin ligase activity was successfully improve the expression of biologically active fusion protein HSA-HGF (R494E) in CHO cells. Our data may be beneficial to enhance the production of other therapeutic proteins in fed-batch culture.

  14. The E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM23 regulates adipocyte differentiation via stabilization of the adipogenic activator PPARγ.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masashi; Takahashi, Hidehisa; Saeki, Yasushi; Ozaki, Takashi; Itoh, Shihori; Suzuki, Masanobu; Mizushima, Wataru; Tanaka, Keiji; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

    2015-04-23

    Adipocyte differentiation is a strictly controlled process regulated by a series of transcriptional activators. Adipogenic signals activate early adipogenic activators and facilitate the transient formation of early enhanceosomes at target genes. These enhancer regions are subsequently inherited by late enhanceosomes. PPARγ is one of the late adipogenic activators and is known as a master regulator of adipogenesis. However, the factors that regulate PPARγ expression remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that a novel ubiquitin E3 ligase, tripartite motif protein 23 (TRIM23), stabilizes PPARγ protein and mediates atypical polyubiquitin conjugation. TRIM23 knockdown caused a marked decrease in PPARγ protein abundance during preadipocyte differentiation, resulting in a severe defect in late adipogenic differentiation, whereas it did not affect the formation of early enhanceosomes. Our results suggest that TRIM23 plays a critical role in the switching from early to late adipogenic enhanceosomes by stabilizing PPARγ protein possibly via atypical polyubiquitin conjugation.

  15. microRNA Decay: Refining microRNA Regulatory Activity.

    PubMed

    Pepin, Genevieve; Gantier, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short 19-25 nucleotide RNA molecules that impact on most biological processes by regulating the efficiency of messenger RNA (mRNA) translation. To date, most research activities have been focused on the control of miRNA expression and its functional consequences. Nonetheless, much remains unknown about the mechanisms affecting the level of specific miRNAs in the cell, a critical feature impacting their regulatory activity. This review focuses on the factors that regulate the abundance of miRNAs, including synthesis, post-transcriptional modifications, nucleases, target binding, and secretion.

  16. MAVS recruits multiple ubiquitin E3 ligases to activate antiviral signaling cascades

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Siqi; Chen, Jueqi; Cai, Xin; Wu, Jiaxi; Chen, Xiang; Wu, You-Tong; Sun, Lijun; Chen, Zhijian J

    2013-01-01

    RNA virus infections are detected by the RIG-I family of receptors, which induce type-I interferons through the mitochondrial protein MAVS. MAVS forms large prion-like polymers that activate the cytosolic kinases IKK and TBK1, which in turn activate NF-κB and IRF3, respectively, to induce interferons. Here we show that MAVS polymers recruit several TRAF proteins, including TRAF2, TRAF5, and TRAF6, through distinct TRAF-binding motifs. Mutations of these motifs that disrupted MAVS binding to TRAFs abrogated its ability to activate IRF3. IRF3 activation was also abolished in cells lacking TRAF2, 5, and 6. These TRAF proteins promoted ubiquitination reactions that recruited NEMO to the MAVS signaling complex, leading to the activation of IKK and TBK1. These results delineate the mechanism of MAVS signaling and reveal that TRAF2, 5, and 6, which are normally associated with NF-κB activation, also play a crucial role in IRF3 activation in antiviral immune responses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00785.001 PMID:23951545

  17. Purification of Pseudomonas putida acyl coenzyme A ligase active with a range of aliphatic and aromatic substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Valverde, M; Reglero, A; Martinez-Blanco, H; Luengo, J M

    1993-01-01

    Acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) ligase (acyl-CoA synthetase [ACoAS]) from Pseudomonas putida U was purified to homogeneity (252-fold) after this bacterium was grown in a chemically defined medium containing octanoic acid as the sole carbon source. The enzyme, which has a mass of 67 kDa, showed maximal activity at 40 degrees C in 10 mM K2PO4H-NaPO4H2 buffer (pH 7.0) containing 20% (wt/vol) glycerol. Under these conditions, ACoAS showed hyperbolic behavior against acetate, CoA, and ATP; the Kms calculated for these substrates were 4.0, 0.7, and 5.2 mM, respectively. Acyl-CoA ligase recognizes several aliphatic molecules (acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric, hexanoic, heptanoic, and octanoic acids) as substrates, as well as some aromatic compounds (phenylacetic and phenoxyacetic acids). The broad substrate specificity of ACoAS from P. putida was confirmed by coupling it with acyl-CoA:6-aminopenicillanic acid acyltransferase from Penicillium chrysogenum to study the formation of several penicillins. Images PMID:8476289

  18. Dual control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the budding yeast APC/C ubiquitin ligase activator Cdh1

    PubMed Central

    Höckner, Sebastian; Neumann-Arnold, Lea; Seufert, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The antagonism between cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1 is central to eukaryotic cell cycle control. APC/C-Cdh1 targets cyclin B and other regulatory proteins for degradation, whereas Cdks disable APC/C-Cdh1 through phosphorylation of the Cdh1 activator protein at multiple sites. Budding yeast Cdh1 carries nine Cdk phosphorylation sites in its N-terminal regulatory domain, most or all of which contribute to inhibition. However, the precise role of individual sites has remained unclear. Here, we report that the Cdk phosphorylation sites of yeast Cdh1 are organized into autonomous subgroups and act through separate mechanisms. Cdk sites 1–3 had no direct effect on the APC/C binding of Cdh1 but inactivated a bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and thereby controlled the partitioning of Cdh1 between cytoplasm and nucleus. In contrast, Cdk sites 4–9 did not influence the cell cycle–regulated localization of Cdh1 but prevented its binding to the APC/C. Cdk sites 4–9 reside near two recently identified APC/C interaction motifs in a pattern conserved with the human Cdh1 orthologue. Thus a Cdk-inhibited NLS goes along with Cdk-inhibited APC/C binding sites in yeast Cdh1 to relay the negative control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1. PMID:27226481

  19. Dual control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the budding yeast APC/C ubiquitin ligase activator Cdh1.

    PubMed

    Höckner, Sebastian; Neumann-Arnold, Lea; Seufert, Wolfgang

    2016-07-15

    The antagonism between cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1 is central to eukaryotic cell cycle control. APC/C-Cdh1 targets cyclin B and other regulatory proteins for degradation, whereas Cdks disable APC/C-Cdh1 through phosphorylation of the Cdh1 activator protein at multiple sites. Budding yeast Cdh1 carries nine Cdk phosphorylation sites in its N-terminal regulatory domain, most or all of which contribute to inhibition. However, the precise role of individual sites has remained unclear. Here, we report that the Cdk phosphorylation sites of yeast Cdh1 are organized into autonomous subgroups and act through separate mechanisms. Cdk sites 1-3 had no direct effect on the APC/C binding of Cdh1 but inactivated a bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and thereby controlled the partitioning of Cdh1 between cytoplasm and nucleus. In contrast, Cdk sites 4-9 did not influence the cell cycle-regulated localization of Cdh1 but prevented its binding to the APC/C. Cdk sites 4-9 reside near two recently identified APC/C interaction motifs in a pattern conserved with the human Cdh1 orthologue. Thus a Cdk-inhibited NLS goes along with Cdk-inhibited APC/C binding sites in yeast Cdh1 to relay the negative control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1.

  20. SUMOylation of Argonaute-2 regulates RNA interference activity

    PubMed Central

    Josa-Prado, Fernando; Henley, Jeremy M.; Wilkinson, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modification of substrate proteins by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) regulates a vast array of cellular processes. SUMOylation occurs through three sequential enzymatic steps termed E1, E2 and E3. Substrate selection can be determined through interactions between the target protein and the SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme Ubc9 and specificity can be enhanced by substrate interactions with E3 ligase enzymes. We used the putative substrate recognition (PINIT) domain from the SUMO E3 PIAS3 as bait to identify potential SUMO substrates. One protein identified was Argonaute-2 (Ago2), which mediates RNA-induced gene silencing through binding small RNAs and promoting degradation of complimentary target mRNAs. We show that Ago2 can be SUMOylated in mammalian cells by both SUMO1 and SUMO2. SUMOylation occurs primarily at K402, and mutation of the SUMO consensus site surrounding this lysine reduces Ago2-mediated siRNA-induced silencing in a luciferase-based reporter assay. These results identify SUMOylation as a potential regulator of Ago2 activity and open new avenues for research into the mechanisms underlying the regulation of RNA-induced gene silencing. PMID:26188511

  1. Effects of DNA end configuration on XRCC4-DNA ligase IV and its stimulation of Artemis activity.

    PubMed

    Gerodimos, Christina A; Chang, Howard H Y; Watanabe, Go; Lieber, Michael R

    2017-08-25

    In humans, nonhomologous DNA end-joining (NHEJ) is the major pathway by which DNA double-strand breaks are repaired. Recognition of each broken DNA end by the DNA repair protein Ku is the first step in NHEJ, followed by the iterative binding of nucleases, DNA polymerases, and the XRCC4-DNA ligase IV (X4-LIV) complex in an order influenced by the configuration of the two DNA ends at the break site. The endonuclease Artemis improves joining efficiency by functioning in a complex with DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) that carries out endonucleolytic cleavage of 5' and 3' overhangs. Previously, we observed that X4-LIV alone can stimulate Artemis activity on 3' overhangs, but this DNA-PKcs-independent endonuclease activity of Artemis awaited confirmation. Here, using in vitro nuclease and ligation assays, we find that stimulation of Artemis nuclease activity by X4-LIV and the efficiency of blunt-end ligation are determined by structural configurations at the DNA end. Specifically, X4-LIV stimulated Artemis to cut near the end of 3' overhangs without the involvement of other NHEJ proteins. Of note, this ligase complex is not able to stimulate Artemis activity at hairpins or at 5' overhangs. We also found that X4-LIV and DNA-PKcs interfere with one another with respect to stimulating Artemis activity at 3' overhangs, favoring the view that these NHEJ proteins are sequentially rather than concurrently recruited to DNA ends. These data suggest specific functional and positional relationships among these components that explain genetic and molecular features of NHEJ and V(D)J recombination within cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Reconstruction of an active SOCS3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex in vitro: identification of the active components and JAK2 and gp130 as substrates.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, Nadia J; Laktyushin, Artem; Nicola, Nicos A; Babon, Jeffrey J

    2014-02-01

    SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3) inhibits the intracellular signaling cascade initiated by exposure of cells to cytokines. SOCS3 regulates signaling via two distinct mechanisms: directly inhibiting the catalytic activity of Janus kinases (JAKs) that initiate the intracellular signaling cascade and catalysing the ubiquitination of signaling components by recruiting components of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Here we investigate the latter mode-of-action biochemically by reconstructing a SOCS3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex in vitro using fully purified, recombinant components and examining its ability to promote the ubiquitination of molecules involved in the cytokine signaling cascade. We show that SOCS3 is an active substrate recruitment module for a Cullin5-based E3 ligase and have defined the core protein components required for ubiquitination. SOCS3-induced polyubiquitination was rapid and could proceed through a number of different ubiquitin lysines. SOCS3 catalyzed the ubiquitination of both the IL-6 receptor common chain (gp130) and JAK2.

  3. Reconstruction of an active SOCS3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex in vitro: Identification of the active components and JAK2 and gp130 as substrates

    PubMed Central

    Kershaw, Nadia J.; Laktyushin, Artem; Nicola, Nicos A.; Babon, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    SOCS3 (Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3) inhibits the intracellular signaling cascade initiated by exposure of cells to cytokines. SOCS3 regulates signaling via two distinct mechanisms: directly inhibiting the catalytic activity of Janus Kinases (JAKs) that initiate the intracellular signaling cascade and catalysing the ubiquitination of signaling components by recruiting components of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Here we investigate the latter mode-of-action biochemically by reconstructing a SOCS3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex in vitro using fully purified, recombinant components and examining its ability to promote the ubiquitination of molecules involved in the cytokine signaling cascade. We show that SOCS3 is an active substrate recruitment module for a Cullin5-based E3 ligase and have defined the core protein components required for ubiquitination. SOCS3-induced poly-ubiquitination was rapid and could proceed through a number of different ubiquitin lysines. SOCS3 catalysed the ubiquitination of both the IL-6 receptor common chain (gp130) and JAK2. PMID:24438103

  4. Identification of a conserved 5′-dRP lyase activity in bacterial DNA repair ligase D and its potential role in base excision repair

    PubMed Central

    de Ory, Ana; Nagler, Katja; Carrasco, Begoña; Raguse, Marina; Zafra, Olga; Moeller, Ralf; de Vega, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is one of the bacterial members provided with a nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) system constituted by the DNA-binding Ku homodimer that recruits the ATP-dependent DNA Ligase D (BsuLigD) to the double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) ends. BsuLigD has inherent polymerization and ligase activities that allow it to fill the short gaps that can arise after realignment of the broken ends and to seal the resulting nicks, contributing to genome stability during the stationary phase and germination of spores. Here we show that BsuLigD also has an intrinsic 5′-2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate (dRP) lyase activity located at the N-terminal ligase domain that in coordination with the polymerization and ligase activities allows efficient repairing of 2′-deoxyuridine-containing DNA in an in vitro reconstituted Base Excision Repair (BER) reaction. The requirement of a polymerization, a dRP removal and a final sealing step in BER, together with the joint participation of BsuLigD with the spore specific AP endonuclease in conferring spore resistance to ultrahigh vacuum desiccation suggest that BsuLigD could actively participate in this pathway. We demonstrate the presence of the dRP lyase activity also in the homolog protein from the distantly related bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, allowing us to expand our results to other bacterial LigDs. PMID:26826709

  5. Multiplexed identification of blood-borne bacterial pathogens by use of a novel 16S rRNA gene PCR-ligase detection reaction-capillary electrophoresis assay.

    PubMed

    Pingle, Maneesh R; Granger, Kathleen; Feinberg, Philip; Shatsky, Rebecca; Sterling, Bram; Rundell, Mark; Spitzer, Eric; Larone, Davise; Golightly, Linnie; Barany, Francis

    2007-06-01

    We have developed a novel high-throughput PCR-ligase detection reaction-capillary electrophoresis (PCR-LDR-CE) assay for the multiplexed identification of 20 blood-borne pathogens (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Neisseria meningitidis, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and Brucella abortus), the last four of which are biothreat agents. The method relies on the amplification of two regions within the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, using universal PCR primers and querying the identity of specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the amplified regions in a subsequent LDR. The ligation products vary in color and size and are separated by CE. Each organism generates a specific pattern of ligation products, which can be used to distinguish the pathogens using an automated software program we developed for that purpose. The assay has been verified on 315 clinical isolates and demonstrated a detection sensitivity of 98%. Additionally, 484 seeded blood cultures were tested, with a detection sensitivity of 97.7%. The ability to identify geographically variant strains of the organisms was determined by testing 132 isolates obtained from across the United States. In summary, the PCR-LDR-CE assay can successfully identify, in a multiplexed fashion, a panel of 20 blood-borne pathogens with high sensitivity and specificity.

  6. The ubiquitin ligase STUB1 regulates stability and activity of RUNX1 and RUNX1-RUNX1T1.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Taishi; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Shikata, Shiori; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Tamura, Moe; Asada, Shuhei; Fukushima, Tsuyoshi; Fukuyama, Tomofusa; Tanaka, Yosuke; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Kitamura, Toshio; Goyama, Susumu

    2017-07-28

    RUNX1 is a member of RUNX transcription factors and plays important roles in hematopoiesis. Disruption of RUNX1 activity has been implicated in the development of hematopoietic neoplasms. Chromosomal translocations involving the RUNX1 gene are associated with several types of leukemia, including acute myeloid leukemia driven by a leukemogenic fusion protein RUNX1-RUNX1T1. Previous studies have shown that RUNX1 is an unstable protein and is subjected to proteolytic degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. However, the precise mechanisms of RUNX1 ubiquitination have not been fully understood. Furthermore, much less is known about the mechanisms to regulate the stability of RUNX1-RUNX1T1. In this study, we identified several RUNX1-interacting E3 ubiquitin ligases using a novel high-throughput binding assay. Among them, we found that STUB1 bound to RUNX1 and induced its ubiquitination and degradation mainly in the nucleus. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that the STUB1-induced ubiquitination also promoted nuclear export of RUNX1, which probably contributes to the reduced transcriptional activity of RUNX1 in STUB1-overexpressing cells. STUB1 also induced ubiquitination of RUNX1-RUNX1T1 and down-regulated its expression. Importantly, STUB1 overexpression showed a substantial growth-inhibitory effect in myeloid leukemia cells that harbor RUNX1-RUNX1T1, whereas it showed only a marginal effect in other non-RUNX1-RUNX1T1 leukemia cells and normal human cord blood cells. Taken together, these data suggest that the E3 ubiquitin ligase STUB1 is a negative regulator of both RUNX1 and RUNX1-RUNX1T1. Activation of STUB1 could be a promising therapeutic strategy for RUNX1-RUNX1T1 leukemia. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Cellular DNA ligase I is recruited to cytoplasmic vaccinia virus factories and masks the role of the vaccinia ligase in viral DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Paran, Nir; De Silva, Frank S; Senkevich, Tatiana G; Moss, Bernard

    2009-12-17

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes DNA polymerase and additional proteins that enable cytoplasmic replication. We confirmed the ability of VACV DNA ligase mutants to replicate and tested the hypothesis that cellular ligases compensate for loss of viral gene expression. RNA silencing of human DNA ligase I expression and a small molecule inhibitor of human DNA ligase I [corrected] severely reduced replication of viral DNA in cells infected with VACV ligase-deficient mutants, indicating that the cellular enzyme plays a complementary role. Replication of ligase-deficient VACV was greatly reduced and delayed in resting primary cells, correlating with initial low levels of ligase I and subsequent viral induction and localization of ligase I in virus factories. These studies indicate that DNA ligation is essential for poxvirus replication and explain the ability of ligase deletion mutants to replicate in dividing cells but exhibit decreased pathogenicity in mice. Encoding its own ligase might allow VACV to "jump-start" DNA synthesis.

  8. Levels of the ubiquitin ligase substrate adaptor MEL-26 are inversely correlated with MEI-1/katanin microtubule-severing activity during both meiosis and mitosis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jacque-Lynne F A; Lu, Chenggang; Raharjo, Eko; McNally, Karen; McNally, Francis J; Mains, Paul E

    2009-06-15

    The MEI-1/MEI-2 microtubule-severing complex, katanin, is required for oocyte meiotic spindle formation and function in C. elegans, but the microtubule-severing activity must be quickly downregulated so that it does not interfere with formation of the first mitotic spindle. Post-meiotic MEI-1 inactivation is accomplished by two parallel protein degradation pathways, one of which requires MEL-26, the substrate-specific adaptor that recruits MEI-1 to a CUL-3 based ubiquitin ligase. Here we address the question of how MEL-26 mediated MEI-1 degradation is triggered only after the completion of MEI-1's meiotic function. We find that MEL-26 is present only at low levels until the completion of meiosis, after which protein levels increase substantially, likely increasing the post-meiotic degradation of MEI-1. During meiosis, MEL-26 levels are kept low by the action of another type of ubiquitin ligase, which contains CUL-2. However, we find that the low levels of meiotic MEL-26 have a subtle function, acting to moderate MEI-1 activity during meiosis. We also show that MEI-1 is the only essential target for MEL-26, and possibly for the E3 ubiquitin ligase CUL-3, but the upstream ubiquitin ligase activating enzyme RFL-1 has additional essential targets.

  9. The CUL1 C-Terminal Sequence and ROC1 Are Required for Efficient Nuclear Accumulation, NEDD8 Modification, and Ubiquitin Ligase Activity of CUL1

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Manabu; Zhang, Yanping; McCarville, Joseph; Ohta, Tomohiko; Xiong, Yue

    2000-01-01

    Members of the cullin and RING finger ROC protein families form heterodimeric complexes to constitute a potentially large number of distinct E3 ubiquitin ligases. We report here that the highly conserved C-terminal sequence in CUL1 is dually required, both for nuclear localization and for modification by NEDD8. Disruption of ROC1 binding impaired nuclear accumulation of CUL1 and decreased NEDD8 modification in vivo but had no effect on NEDD8 modification of CUL1 in vitro, suggesting that ROC1 promotes CUL1 nuclear accumulation to facilitate its NEDD8 modification. Disruption of NEDD8 binding had no effect on ROC1 binding, nor did it affect nuclear localization of CUL1, suggesting that nuclear localization and NEDD8 modification of CUL1 are two separable steps, with nuclear import preceding and required for NEDD8 modification. Disrupting NEDD8 modification diminishes the IκBα ubiquitin ligase activity of CUL1. These results identify a pathway for regulation of CUL1 activity—ROC1 and the CUL1 C-terminal sequence collaboratively mediate nuclear accumulation and NEDD8 modification, facilitating assembly of active CUL1 ubiquitin ligase. This pathway may be commonly utilized for the assembly of other cullin ligases. PMID:11027288

  10. RNA Dimerization Promotes PKR Dimerization and Activation

    PubMed Central

    Heinicke, Laurie A.; Wong, C. Jason; Lary, Jeffrey; Nallagatla, Subba Rao; Diegelman-Parente, Amy; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Cole, James L.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.

    2009-01-01

    The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) plays a major role in the innate immune response in humans. PKR binds dsRNA non-sequence specifically and requires a minimum of 15 bp dsRNA for one protein to bind and 30 bp dsRNA to induce protein dimerization and activation by autophosphorylation. PKR phosphorylates eIF2α, a translation initiation factor, resulting in the inhibition of protein synthesis. We investigated the mechanism of PKR activation by an RNA hairpin with a number of base pairs intermediate between these 15 to 30 bp limits: HIV-I TAR RNA, a 23 bp hairpin with three bulges that is known to dimerize. To test whether RNA dimerization affects PKR dimerization and activation, TAR monomers and dimers were isolated from native gels and assayed for RNA and protein dimerization. To modulate the extent of dimerization, we included TAR mutants with different secondary features. Native gel mixing experiments and analytical ultracentrifugation indicate that TAR monomers bind one PKR monomer and that TAR dimers bind two or three PKRs, demonstrating that RNA dimerization drives the binding of multiple PKR molecules. Consistent with functional dimerization of PKR, TAR dimers activated PKR while TAR monomers did not, and RNA dimers with fewer asymmetrical secondary structure defects, as determined by enzymatic structure mapping, were more potent activators. Thus, the secondary structure defects in the TAR RNA stem function as antideterminants to PKR binding and activation. Our studies support that dimerization of a 15–30 bp hairpin RNA, which effectively doubles its length, is a key step in driving activation of PKR and provide a model for how RNA folding can be related to human disease. PMID:19445956

  11. Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta inhibits the ubiquitin ligase activity of SIAH-1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huiling; Shi, Yan; Lin, Ying; Qian, Wei; Yu, Yao; Huo, Keke

    2011-11-01

    SIAH-1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, plays an important role in regulating cell cycle, tumorigenesis and several neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we found a novel SIAH-1-interacting protein, EEF1D (Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta). The interaction was confirmed in vitro and in vivo, and both proteins were co-localized in the cytoplasm. The Cys-rich domain of SIAH-1 was essential for its interaction with EEF1D. Overexpressing SIAH-1 had no effect on the protein level of EEF1D, implying that EFF1D is not the substrate of SIAH-1. In contrast, the protein level of SIAH-1 increased significantly in the cells overexpressing EEF1D. Increased amount of SIAH-1 was caused by the EEF1D-mediated inhibition of auto-ubiquitination and degradation of SIAH-1. Furthermore, EEF1D was able to inhibit the degradation of HPH2, a known substrate of SIAH-1. Taken together, our data suggest EFF1D functions as a novel negative regulator of SIAH-1.

  12. Overexpression of microRNA-223 regulates the ubiquitin ligase FBXW7 in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kurashige, J; Watanabe, M; Iwatsuki, M; Kinoshita, K; Saito, S; Hiyoshi, Y; Kamohara, H; Baba, Y; Mimori, K; Baba, H

    2012-01-03

    F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBXW7) is a cell cycle regulatory gene whose protein product ubiquitinates positive cell cycle regulators such as c-Myc, cyclin E, and c-Jun, thereby acting as a tumour-suppressor gene. This study focused on microRNA-223 (miR-223), which is a candidate regulator of FBXW7 mRNA. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of miR-223 and FBXW7 in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients, and to elucidate the mechanism by which FBXW7 is regulated by miR-223. The expression levels of miR-223 and the expression of FBXW7 protein was examined using 109 resected specimens to determine the clinicopathological significance. We also investigated the role of miR-223 in the regulation of FBXW7 expression in ESCC cell lines in an in vitro analysis. We found that miR-223 expression was significantly higher in cancerous tissues than in the corresponding normal tissues. There was a significant inverse relationship between the expression levels of miR-223 and FBXW7 protein. Moreover, patients with high miR-223 expression demonstrated a significantly poorer prognosis than those with low expression. On the basis of a series of gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies in vitro, we identified FBXW7 as a functional downstream target of miR-223. Our present study indicates that high expression of miR-223 had a significant adverse impact on the survival of ESCC patients through repression of the function of FBXW7.

  13. E3 ubiquitin ligase isolated by differential display regulates cervical cancer growth in vitro and in vivo via microRNA-143.

    PubMed

    Li, Jibin; Wang, Xinling; Zhang, Yanshang; Zhang, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecological cancers worldwide. Aberrant expression of E3 ubiquitin ligase isolated by differential display (EDD) has been detected in various types of tumor and has been demonstrated to have an important role in carcinogenesis, tumor growth and drug resistance. However, the role of EDD in cervical cancer and its underlying molecular mechanisms remains unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the role of EDD in the tumorigenicity of cervical cancer. EDD expression levels were measured using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting in SiHa, HeLa, CaSki, c-41 and c-33A cervical cancer cell lines and cervical cancer tissue specimens. A functional study was performed using cell proliferation, colony formation, cell apoptosis assays in vitro and tumor growth assays in vivo with EDD either overexpressed or silenced. In the present study, EDD expression levels were significantly upregulated in cervical cancer cell lines and tissue samples. EDD knockdown significantly inhibited colony formation, cell proliferation and tumor growth and accelerated cell apoptosis in the cervical cancer cell lines and tissue samples. Furthermore, microRNA (miR)-143 expression levels were low in cervical cancer tissue samples and were negatively correlated with EDD expression. miR-143 silencing eliminated the effect of EDD on cell proliferation, colony formation and cell apoptosis in the cervical cancer cells, which suggested that miR-143 is critical for EDD-mediated regulation of cervical cancer cell growth. The results of the present study indicated that EDD may promote cervical cancer growth in vivo and in vitro by targeting miR-143. In conclusion, EDD may have an oncogenic role in cervical cancer and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with cervical cancer.

  14. Ubiquitylation activates a peptidase that promotes cleavage and destabilization of its activating E3 ligases and diverse growth regulatory proteins to limit cell proliferation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hui; Dumenil, Jack; Lu, Fu-Hao; Na, Li; Vanhaeren, Hannes; Naumann, Christin; Klecker, Maria; Prior, Rachel; Smith, Caroline; McKenzie, Neil; Saalbach, Gerhard; Chen, Liangliang; Xia, Tian; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Seguela, Mathilde; Inzé, Dirk; Dissmeyer, Nico; Li, Yunhai; Bevan, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    The characteristic shapes and sizes of organs are established by cell proliferation patterns and final cell sizes, but the underlying molecular mechanisms coordinating these are poorly understood. Here we characterize a ubiquitin-activated peptidase called DA1 that limits the duration of cell proliferation during organ growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. The peptidase is activated by two RING E3 ligases, Big Brother (BB) and DA2, which are subsequently cleaved by the activated peptidase and destabilized. In the case of BB, cleavage leads to destabilization by the RING E3 ligase PROTEOLYSIS 1 (PRT1) of the N-end rule pathway. DA1 peptidase activity also cleaves the deubiquitylase UBP15, which promotes cell proliferation, and the transcription factors TEOSINTE BRANCED 1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF 15 (TCP15) and TCP22, which promote cell proliferation and repress endoreduplication. We propose that DA1 peptidase activity regulates the duration of cell proliferation and the transition to endoreduplication and differentiation during organ formation in plants by coordinating the destabilization of regulatory proteins. PMID:28167503

  15. Mindbomb 1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, forms a complex with RYK to activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Berndt, Jason D.; Aoyagi, Atsushi; Yang, Peitzu; Anastas, Jamie N.; Tang, Lan

    2011-01-01

    Receptor-like tyrosine kinase (RYK) functions as a transmembrane receptor for the Wnt family of secreted protein ligands. Although RYK undergoes endocytosis in response to Wnt, the mechanisms that regulate its internalization and concomitant activation of Wnt signaling are unknown. We discovered that RYK both physically and functionally interacts with the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mindbomb 1 (MIB1). Overexpression of MIB1 promotes the ubiquitination of RYK and reduces its steady-state levels at the plasma membrane. Moreover, we show that MIB1 is sufficient to activate Wnt/β-catenin (CTNNB1) signaling and that this activity depends on endogenous RYK. Conversely, in loss-of-function studies, both RYK and MIB1 are required for Wnt-3A–mediated activation of CTNNB1. Finally, we identify the Caenorhabditis elegans orthologue of MIB1 and demonstrate a genetic interaction between ceMIB and lin-18/RYK in vulva development. These findings provide insights into the mechanisms of Wnt/RYK signaling and point to novel targets for the modulation of Wnt signaling. PMID:21875946

  16. Antisense suppression of 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase activity in Arabidopsis leads to altered lignin subunit composition.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, D; Meyer, K; Chapple, C; Douglas, C J

    1997-01-01

    The phenylpropanoid enzyme 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) is considered necessary to activate the hydroxycinnamic acids for the biosynthesis of the coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols subsequently polymerized into lignin. To clarify the role played by 4CL in the biosynthesis of the guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units characteristic of angiosperm lignin, we generated 4CL antisense Arabidopsis lines having as low as 8% residual 4CL activity. The plants had decreases in thioglycolic acid-extractable lignin correlating with decreases in 4CL activity. Nitrobenzene oxidation of cell walls from bolting stems revealed a significant decrease in G units in 4CL-suppressed plants; however, levels of S lignin units were unchanged in even the most severely 4CL-suppressed plants. These effects led to a large decrease in the G/S ratio in these plants. Our results suggest that an uncharacterized metabolic route to sinapyl alcohol, which is independent of 4CL, may exist in Arabidopsis. They also demonstrate that repression of 4CL activity may provide an avenue to manipulate angiosperm lignin subunit composition in a predictable manner. PMID:9401123

  17. DNA-ligase IV and DNA-protein kinase play a critical role in deficient caspases activation in apoptosis-resistant cancer cells by using doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Claudia; Uhl, Miriam; Pannicke, Ulrich; Schwarz, Klaus; Miltner, Erich; Debatin, Klaus-Michael

    2008-08-01

    Resistance toward cytotoxic drugs is one of the primary causes for therapeutic failure in cancer therapy. DNA repair mechanisms as well as deficient caspases activation play a critical role in apoptosis resistance of tumor cells toward anticancer drug treatment. Here, we discovered that deficient caspases activation in apoptosis-resistant cancer cells depends on DNA-ligase IV and DNA-protein kinase (DNA-PK), playing crucial roles in the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway, which is the predominant pathway for DNA double-strand break repair (DNA-DSB-repair) in mammalian cells. DNA-PK(+/+) as well as DNA-ligase IV (+/+) cancer cells were apoptosis resistant and deficient in activation of caspase-3, caspase-9, and caspase-8 and in cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase after doxorubicin treatment. Inhibition of NHEJ by knocking out DNA-PK or DNA-ligase IV restored caspases activation and apoptosis sensitivity after doxorubicin treatment. In addition, inhibition of caspases activation prevented doxorubicin-induced apoptosis but could not prevent doxorubicin-induced DNA damage, indicating that induction of DNA damage is independent of caspases activation. However, caspases activation depends on induction of DNA damage left unrepaired by NHEJ-DNA-DSB-repair. We conclude that DNA damage left unrepaired by DNA-ligase IV or DNA-PK might be the initiator for caspases activation by doxorubicin in cancer cells. Failure in caspases activation using doxorubicin depends on loss of DNA damage and is due to higher rates of NHEJ-DNA-DBS-repair.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus β-Toxin Mutants Are Defective in Biofilm Ligase and Sphingomyelinase Activity, and Causation of Infective Endocarditis and Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Alfa; Vu, Bao G; Stach, Christopher S; Merriman, Joseph A; Horswill, Alexander R; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Schlievert, Patrick M

    2016-05-03

    β-Toxin is an important virulence factor of Staphylococcus aureus, contributing to colonization and development of disease [Salgado-Pabon, W., et al. (2014) J. Infect. Dis. 210, 784-792; Huseby, M. J., et al. (2010) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 14407-14412; Katayama, Y., et al. (2013) J. Bacteriol. 195, 1194-1203]. This cytotoxin has two distinct mechanisms of action: sphingomyelinase activity and DNA biofilm ligase activity. However, the distinct mechanism that is most important for its role in infective endocarditis is unknown. We characterized the active site of β-toxin DNA biofilm ligase activity by examining deficiencies in site-directed mutants through in vitro DNA precipitation and biofilm formation assays. Possible conformational changes in mutant structure compared to that of wild-type toxin were assessed preliminarily by trypsin digestion analysis, retention of sphingomyelinase activity, and predicted structures based on the native toxin structure. We addressed the contribution of each mechanism of action to producing infective endocarditis and sepsis in vivo in a rabbit model. The H289N β-toxin mutant, lacking sphingomyelinase activity, exhibited lower sepsis lethality and infective endocarditis vegetation formation compared to those of the wild-type toxin. β-Toxin mutants with disrupted biofilm ligase activity did not exhibit decreased sepsis lethality but were deficient in infective endocarditis vegetation formation compared to the wild-type protein. Our study begins to characterize the DNA biofilm ligase active site of β-toxin and suggests β-toxin functions importantly in infective endocarditis through both of its mechanisms of action.

  19. The E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM31 attenuates NLRP3 inflammasome activation by promoting proteasomal degradation of NLRP3

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hui; Liu, Bingyu; Huai, Wanwan; Yu, Zhongxia; Wang, Wenwen; Zhao, Jing; Han, Lihui; Jiang, Guosheng; Zhang, Lining; Gao, Chengjiang; Zhao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome has a fundamental role in host defence against microbial pathogens and its deregulation may cause diverse inflammatory diseases. NLRP3 protein expression is a rate-limiting step for inflammasome activation, thus its expression must be tightly controlled to maintain immune homeostasis and avoid detrimental effects. However, how NLRP3 expression is regulated remains largely unknown. In this study, we identify E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM31 as a feedback suppressor of NLRP3 inflammasome. TRIM31 directly binds to NLRP3, promotes K48-linked polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of NLRP3. Consequently, TRIM31 deficiency enhances NLRP3 inflammasome activation and aggravates alum-induced peritonitis in vivo. Furthermore, TRIM31 deficiency attenuates the severity of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, an inflammatory bowel diseases model in which NLRP3 possesses protective roles. Thus, our research describes a mechanism by which TRIM31 limits NLRP3 inflammasome activity under physiological conditions and suggests TRIM31 as a potential therapeutic target for the intervention of NLRP3 inflammasome related diseases. PMID:27929086

  20. NEDD4 E3 ligase inhibits the activity of the Hippo pathway by targeting LATS1 for degradation.

    PubMed

    Salah, Zaidoun; Cohen, Sherri; Itzhaki, Ella; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2013-12-15

    Proper regulation of cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, and cell death are vital for the development and survival of living organisms. Failure or dysfunction of any of these processes can have devastating effects, including cancer. The Hippo pathway, first discovered in Drosophila, has been found to be a major growth-regulatory signaling pathway that controls these crucial processes and has been implicated in cell-progress regulation and organ size determination. Abnormal regulation of this pathway has been found in several cancer types. However, the mechanisms that regulate the pathway and its core members yet have to be elucidated. One of the main core components of this pathway is LATS1, a serine/threonine kinase. Therefore, understanding how LATS1 activity is regulated is expected to shed light on new mechanisms that regulate the Hippo pathway. In the current work, we identified several potential LATS1 regulators and proved that NEDD4 E3 ubiquitin ligase controls LATS1 stability. We demonstrate that NEDD4 directly interacts with LATS1, leading to ubiquitination and decreased levels of LATS1 and, thus, increased YAP localization in the nucleus, which subsequently increases the transcriptional activity of YAP. As such, we show that NEDD4 acts as an additional regulator of the Hippo pathway on the protein level via interactions between WW domain-containing and PPxY motif-containing proteins. These findings might be applied in the development of new therapeutic approaches through the activation of LATS1.

  1. NEDD4 E3 ligase inhibits the activity of the Hippo pathway by targeting LATS1 for degradation

    PubMed Central

    Salah, Zaidoun; Cohen, Sherri; Itzhaki, Ella; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2013-01-01

    Proper regulation of cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, and cell death are vital for the development and survival of living organisms. Failure or dysfunction of any of these processes can have devastating effects, including cancer. The Hippo pathway, first discovered in Drosophila, has been found to be a major growth-regulatory signaling pathway that controls these crucial processes and has been implicated in cell-progress regulation and organ size determination. Abnormal regulation of this pathway has been found in several cancer types. However, the mechanisms that regulate the pathway and its core members yet have to be elucidated. One of the main core components of this pathway is LATS1, a serine/threonine kinase. Therefore, understanding how LATS1 activity is regulated is expected to shed light on new mechanisms that regulate the Hippo pathway. In the current work, we identified several potential LATS1 regulators and proved that NEDD4 E3 ubiquitin ligase controls LATS1 stability. We demonstrate that NEDD4 directly interacts with LATS1, leading to ubiquitination and decreased levels of LATS1 and, thus, increased YAP localization in the nucleus, which subsequently increases the transcriptional activity of YAP. As such, we show that NEDD4 acts as an additional regulator of the Hippo pathway on the protein level via interactions between WW domain-containing and PPxY motif-containing proteins. These findings might be applied in the development of new therapeutic approaches through the activation of LATS1. PMID:24107629

  2. PC-1 works in conjunction with E3 ligase CHIP to regulate androgen receptor stability and activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Peng; Wang, Hongtao; Huang, Fang; Zhou, Chenyan; Zhou, Jianguang; Li, Shanhu

    2016-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is not only a ligand-dependent transcription factor, but also functions as a licensing factor, a component of DNA replication, which is degraded during mitosis. Furthermore, the deregulation of AR activity is involved in the initiation of prostate cancer and contributes to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). While AR degradation is known to occur primarily through a proteasome-mediated pathway, very little is known about how this process is regulated, especially in M phase. PC-1 is an androgen-responsive factor and expresses specificity in prostate cancer, with higher expression noted at G2/M. In this study, PC-1 was shown to interact with AR and E3 ligase CHIP (Carboxy-terminus of Hsc70 Interacting Protein) and to enhance AR/CHIP interactions, thereby decreasing AR stability. Moreover, PC-1 was found to act in conjunction with CHIP in the decreasing of AR via ubiquitination, with the subsequent degradation predominantly occurring during M phase. PC-1 was also found to repress AR transcriptional activity in androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer cells and attenuate the growth inhibition of AR. In conclusion, these findings should provide new clues regarding the modulation of AR turnover and activity via PC-1 and reveals an essential role of PC-1 in AR signaling. PMID:27835608

  3. The Architectural Chromatin Factor High Mobility Group A1 Enhances DNA Ligase IV Activity Influencing DNA Repair.

    PubMed

    Pellarin, Ilenia; Arnoldo, Laura; Costantini, Silvia; Pegoraro, Silvia; Ros, Gloria; Penzo, Carlotta; Triolo, Gianluca; Demarchi, Francesca; Sgarra, Riccardo; Vindigni, Alessandro; Manfioletti, Guidalberto

    2016-01-01

    The HMGA1 architectural transcription factor is an oncogene overexpressed in the vast majority of human cancers. HMGA1 is a highly connected node in the nuclear molecular network and the key aspect of HMGA1 involvement in cancer development is that HMGA1 simultaneously confers cells multiple oncogenic hits, ranging from global chromatin structural and gene expression modifications up to the direct functional alterations of key cellular proteins. Interestingly, HMGA1 also modulates DNA damage repair pathways. In this work, we provide evidences linking HMGA1 with Non-Homologous End Joining DNA repair. We show that HMGA1 is in complex with and is a substrate for DNA-PK. HMGA1 enhances Ligase IV activity and it counteracts the repressive histone H1 activity towards DNA ends ligation. Moreover, breast cancer cells overexpressing HMGA1 show a faster recovery upon induction of DNA double-strand breaks, which is associated with a higher survival. These data suggest that resistance to DNA-damaging agents in cancer cells could be partially attributed to HMGA1 overexpression thus highlighting the relevance of considering HMGA1 expression levels in the selection of valuable and effective pharmacological regimens.

  4. The Architectural Chromatin Factor High Mobility Group A1 Enhances DNA Ligase IV Activity Influencing DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Silvia; Pegoraro, Silvia; Ros, Gloria; Penzo, Carlotta; Triolo, Gianluca; Demarchi, Francesca; Sgarra, Riccardo; Vindigni, Alessandro; Manfioletti, Guidalberto

    2016-01-01

    The HMGA1 architectural transcription factor is an oncogene overexpressed in the vast majority of human cancers. HMGA1 is a highly connected node in the nuclear molecular network and the key aspect of HMGA1 involvement in cancer development is that HMGA1 simultaneously confers cells multiple oncogenic hits, ranging from global chromatin structural and gene expression modifications up to the direct functional alterations of key cellular proteins. Interestingly, HMGA1 also modulates DNA damage repair pathways. In this work, we provide evidences linking HMGA1 with Non-Homologous End Joining DNA repair. We show that HMGA1 is in complex with and is a substrate for DNA-PK. HMGA1 enhances Ligase IV activity and it counteracts the repressive histone H1 activity towards DNA ends ligation. Moreover, breast cancer cells overexpressing HMGA1 show a faster recovery upon induction of DNA double-strand breaks, which is associated with a higher survival. These data suggest that resistance to DNA-damaging agents in cancer cells could be partially attributed to HMGA1 overexpression thus highlighting the relevance of considering HMGA1 expression levels in the selection of valuable and effective pharmacological regimens. PMID:27723831

  5. Post-translational Activation of Glutamate Cysteine Ligase with Dimercaprol: A Novel Mechanism of Inhibiting Neuroinflammation in vitro.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Pallavi B; Sri Hari, Ashwini; Day, Brian J; Patel, Manisha

    2017-02-15

    Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are hallmarks of various neurological diseases. However, whether and how the redox processes control neuroinflammation is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that increasing cellular glutathione (GSH) levels would inhibit neuroinflammation. A series of thiol compounds were identified to elevate cellular GSH levels by a novel approach i.e. post-translational activation of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH biosynthesis. These small thiolcontaining compounds were examined for their ability to increase intracellular GSH levels in a murine microglial cell line (BV2), of which dimercaprol [2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol (DMP)] was found to be the most effective compound. DMP increased GCL activity, decreased LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and iNOS induction in BV2 cells in a concentrationdependent manner. DMP's ability to elevate GSH levels and attenuate LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production was inhibited by buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of GCL. DMP increased the expression of GCL holoenzyme without altering the expression of its subunits or Nrf2 target proteins (NQO1 and HO-1), suggesting a post-translational mechanism. DMP attenuated LPS-induced mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase activation in BV2 cells suggesting the MAP kinase pathway as the signaling mechanism underlying DMP's effect. Finally, DMP's ability to increase GSH via GCL activation was observed in mixed cerebrocortical cultures and N27 dopaminergic cells. Together, the data demonstrate a novel mechanism of GSH elevation by posttranslational activation of GCL. Post-translational activation of GCL offers a novel targeted approach to control inflammation in chronic neuronal disorders associated with impaired adaptive responses.

  6. TRIM65 regulates microRNA activity by ubiquitination of TNRC6

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shitao; Wang, Lingyan; Fu, Bishi; Berman, Michael A.; Diallo, Alos; Dorf, Martin E.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small evolutionarily conserved regulatory RNAs that modulate mRNA stability and translation in a wide range of cell types. MiRNAs are involved in a broad array of biological processes, including cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. To identify previously unidentified regulators of miRNA, we initiated a systematic discovery-type proteomic analysis of the miRNA pathway interactome in human cells. Six of 66 genes identified in our proteomic screen were capable of regulating lethal-7a (let-7a) miRNA reporter activity. Tripartite motif 65 (TRIM65) was identified as a repressor of miRNA activity. Detailed analysis indicates that TRIM65 interacts and colocalizes with trinucleotide repeat containing six (TNRC6) proteins in processing body-like structures. Ubiquitination assays demonstrate that TRIM65 is an ubiquitin E3 ligase for TNRC6 proteins. The combination of overexpression and knockdown studies establishes that TRIM65 relieves miRNA-driven suppression of mRNA expression through ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of TNRC6. PMID:24778252

  7. Neuroblastoma patient outcomes, tumor differentiation, and ERK activation are correlated with expression levels of the ubiquitin ligase UBE4B

    PubMed Central

    Woodfield, Sarah E.; Guo, Rong Jun; Liu, Yin; Major, Angela M.; Hollingsworth, Emporia Faith; Indiviglio, Sandra; Whittle, Sarah B.; Mo, Qianxing; Bean, Andrew J.; Ittmann, Michael; Lopez-Terrada, Dolores; Zage, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    Background UBE4B is an E3/E4 ubiquitin ligase whose gene is located in chromosome 1p36.22. We analyzed the associations of UBE4B gene and protein expression with neuroblastoma patient outcomes and with tumor prognostic features and histology. Methods We evaluated the association of UBE4B gene expression with neuroblastoma patient outcomes using the R2 Platform. We screened neuroblastoma tumor samples for UBE4B protein expression using immunohistochemistry. FISH for UBE4B and 1p36 deletion was performed on tumor samples. We then evaluated UBE4B expression for associations with prognostic factors and with levels of phosphorylated ERK in neuroblastoma tumors and cell lines. Results Low UBE4B gene expression is associated with poor outcomes in patients with neuroblastoma and with worse outcomes in all patient subgroups. UBE4B protein expression was associated with neuroblastoma tumor differentiation, and decreased UBE4B protein levels were associated with high-risk features. UBE4B protein levels were also associated with levels of phosphorylated ERK. Conclusions We have demonstrated associations between UBE4B gene expression and neuroblastoma patient outcomes and prognostic features. Reduced UBE4B protein expression in neuroblastoma tumors was associated with high-risk features, a lack of differentiation, and with ERK activation. These results suggest UBE4B may contribute to the poor prognosis of neuroblastoma tumors with 1p36 deletions and that UBE4B expression may mediate neuroblastoma differentiation. PMID:27014418

  8. PARAQUAT TOLERANCE3 Is an E3 Ligase That Switches off Activated Oxidative Response by Targeting Histone-Modifying PROTEIN METHYLTRANSFERASE4b

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jin; Zhao, Tao-Lan; Wang, Peng-Fei; Zhao, Ping-Xia; Xie, Qi; Cao, Xiao-Feng; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is unavoidable for aerobic organisms. When abiotic and biotic stresses are encountered, oxidative damage could occur in cells. To avoid this damage, defense mechanisms must be timely and efficiently modulated. While the response to oxidative stress has been extensively studied in plants, little is known about how the activated response is switched off when oxidative stress is diminished. By studying Arabidopsis mutant paraquat tolerance3, we identified the genetic locus PARAQUAT TOLERANCE3 (PQT3) as a major negative regulator of oxidative stress tolerance. PQT3, encoding an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is rapidly down-regulated by oxidative stress. PQT3 has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in ubiquitination assay. Subsequently, we identified PRMT4b as a PQT3-interacting protein. By histone methylation, PRMT4b upregulates the expression of APX1 and GPX1, encoding two key enzymes against oxidative stress. On the other hand, PRMT4b is recognized by PQT3 for targeted degradation via 26S proteasome. Therefore, we have identified PQT3 as an E3 ligase that acts as a negative regulator of activated response to oxidative stress and found that histone modification by PRMT4b at APX1 and GPX1 loci plays an important role in oxidative stress tolerance. PMID:27676073

  9. The Human Adenovirus Type 5 E4orf6/E1B55K E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Enhances E1A Functional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dallaire, Frédéric; Schreiner, Sabrina; Blair, G. Eric; Dobner, Thomas; Branton, Philip E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human adenovirus (Ad) E1A proteins have long been known as the central regulators of virus infection as well as the major source of adenovirus oncogenic potential. Not only do they activate expression of other early viral genes, they make viral replication possible in terminally differentiated cells, at least in part, by binding to the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor family of proteins to activate E2F transcription factors and thus viral and cellular DNA synthesis. We demonstrate in an accompanying article (F. Dallaire et al., mSphere 1:00014-15, 2016) that the human adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase complex formed by the E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins is able to mimic E1A activation of E2F transactivation factors. Acting alone in the absence of E1A, the Ad5 E4orf6 protein in complex with E1B55K was shown to bind E2F, disrupt E2F/Rb complexes, and induce hyperphosphorylation of Rb, leading to induction of viral and cellular DNA synthesis, as well as stimulation of early and late viral gene expression and production of viral progeny. While these activities were significantly lower than those exhibited by E1A, we report here that this ligase complex appeared to enhance E1A activity in two ways. First, the E4orf6/E1B55K complex was shown to stabilize E1A proteins, leading to higher levels in infected cells. Second, the complex was demonstrated to enhance the activation of E2F by E1A products. These findings indicated a new role of the E4orf6/E1B55K ligase complex in promoting adenovirus replication. IMPORTANCE Following our demonstration that adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase formed by the viral E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins is able to mimic the activation of E2F by E1A, we conducted a series of studies to determine if this complex might also promote the ability of E1A to do so. We found that the complex both significantly stabilizes E1A proteins and also enhances their ability to activate E2F. This finding is of significance because it represents an entirely new

  10. Biphasic folding kinetics of RNA pseudoknots and telomerase RNA activity

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Song; Chen, Shi-Jie

    2007-01-01

    Using a combined master equation and kinetic cluster approach, we investigate RNA pseudoknot folding and unfolding kinetics. The energetic parameters are computed from a recently developed Vfold model for RNA secondary structure and pseudoknot folding thermodynamics. The folding kinetics theory is based on the complete conformational ensemble, including all the native-like and non-native states. The predicted folding and unfolding pathways, activation barriers, Arrhenius plots, and rate-limiting steps lead to several findings. First, for the PK5 pseudoknot, a misfolded 5′ hairpin emerges as a stable kinetic trap in the folding process, and the detrapping from this misfolded state is the rate-limiting step for the overall folding process. The calculated rate constant and activation barrier agree well with the experimental data. Second, as an application of the model, we investigate the kinetic folding pathways for hTR (human Telomerase RNA) pseudoknot. The predicted folding and unfolding pathways not only support the proposed role of conformational switch between hairpin and pseudoknot in hTR activity, but also reveal molecular mechanism for the conformational switch. Furthermore, for an experimentally studied hTR mutation, whose hairpin intermediate is destabilized, the model predicts a long-lived transient hairpin structure, and the switch between the transient hairpin intermediate and the native pseudoknot may be responsible for the observed hTR activity. Such finding would help resolve the apparent contradiction between the observed hTR activity and the absence of a stable hairpin. PMID:17276459

  11. Interaction of N-methyl-2-alkenyl-4-quinolones with ATP-dependent MurE ligase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: antibacterial activity, molecular docking and inhibition kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Juan David; Wube, Abraham; Evangelopoulos, Dimitrios; Gupta, Antima; Hüfner, Antje; Basavannacharya, Chandrakala; Rahman, Md. Mukhleshur; Thomaschitz, Christina; Bauer, Rudolf; McHugh, Timothy Daniel; Nobeli, Irene; Prieto, Jose M.; Gibbons, Simon; Bucar, Franz; Bhakta, Sanjib

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the antibacterial activity and MurE inhibition of a set of N-methyl-2-alkenyl-4-quinolones found to inhibit the growth of fast-growing mycobacteria. Methods Using the spot culture growth inhibition assay, MICs were determined for Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155. MICs were determined for Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium phlei, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using microplate dilution assays. Inhibition of M. tuberculosis MurE ligase activity was determined both by colorimetric and HPLC methods. Computational modelling and binding prediction of the quinolones in the MurE structure was performed using Glide. Kinetic experiments were conducted for understanding possible competitive relations of the quinolones with the endogenous substrates of MurE ligase. Results The novel synthetic N-methyl-2-alkenyl-4-quinolones were found to be growth inhibitors of M. tuberculosis and rapid-growing mycobacteria as well as methicillin-resistant S. aureus, while showing no inhibition for E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The quinolones were found to be inhibitory to MurE ligase of M. tuberculosis in the micromolar range (IC50 ∼40–200 μM) when assayed either spectroscopically or by HPLC. Computational docking of the quinolones on the published M. tuberculosis MurE crystal structure suggested that the uracil recognition site is a probable binding site for the quinolones. Conclusions N-methyl-2-alkenyl-4-quinolones are inhibitors of mycobacterial and staphylococcal growth, and show MurE ligase inhibition. Therefore, they are considered as a starting point for the development of increased affinity MurE activity disruptors. PMID:21622974

  12. Jpx RNA Activates Xist by Evicting CTCF

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Sha; Del Rosario, Brian C.; Szanto, Attila; Ogawa, Yuya; Jeon, Yesu; Lee, Jeannie T.

    2013-01-01

    Summary In mammals, dosage compensation between XX and XY individuals occurs through X chromosome inactivation (XCI). The noncoding Xist RNA is expressed and initiates XCI only when more than one X chromosome is present. Current models invoke a dependency on the X-to-autosome ratio (X:A), but molecular factors remain poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that molecular titration between an X-encoded RNA and an autosomally encoded protein dictates Xist induction. In pre-XCI cells, CTCF protein represses Xist transcription. At the onset of XCI, Jpx RNA is upregulated, binds CTCF, and extricates CTCF from one Xist allele. We demonstrate that CTCF is an RNA-binding protein and is titrated away from the Xist promoter by Jpx RNA. Thus, Jpx activates Xist by evicting CTCF. The functional antagonism via molecular titration reveals a role for long noncoding RNA in epigenetic regulation. PMID:23791181

  13. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Siah2 Contributes to Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer by Regulation of Androgen Receptor Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jianfei; Tripathi, Manisha; Mishra, Rajeev; Sahgal, Natasha; Fazil, Ladan; Ettinger, Susan; Placzek, William J.; Claps, Giuseppina; Chung, Leland W.K.; Bowtell, David; Gleave, Martin; Bhowmick, Neil; Ronai, Ze'ev A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding the mechanism underlying the regulation of the androgen receptor (AR), a central player in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), holds promise for overcoming the challenge of treating CRPC. We demonstrate that the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 targets a select pool of NCOR1-bound, transcriptionally-inactive AR for ubiquitin-dependent degradation, thereby promoting expression of select AR target genes implicated in lipid metabolism, cell motility, and proliferation. Siah2 is required for prostate cancer cell growth under androgen-deprivation conditions in vitro and in vivo, and Siah2 inhibition promotes prostate cancer regression upon castration. Notably, Siah2 expression is markedly increased in human CRPCs. Collectively, we find that selective regulation of AR transcriptional activity by the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 is important for CRPC development. PMID:23518348

  14. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah2 contributes to castration-resistant prostate cancer by regulation of androgen receptor transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jianfei; Tripathi, Manisha; Mishra, Rajeev; Sahgal, Natasha; Fazli, Ladan; Fazil, Ladan; Ettinger, Susan; Placzek, William J; Claps, Giuseppina; Chung, Leland W K; Bowtell, David; Gleave, Martin; Bhowmick, Neil; Ronai, Ze'ev A

    2013-03-18

    Understanding the mechanism underlying the regulation of the androgen receptor (AR), a central player in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), holds promise for overcoming the challenge of treating CRPC. We demonstrate that the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 targets a select pool of NCOR1-bound, transcriptionally-inactive AR for ubiquitin-dependent degradation, thereby promoting expression of select AR target genes implicated in lipid metabolism, cell motility, and proliferation. Siah2 is required for prostate cancer cell growth under androgen-deprivation conditions in vitro and in vivo, and Siah2 inhibition promotes prostate cancer regression upon castration. Notably, Siah2 expression is markedly increased in human CRPCs. Collectively, we find that selective regulation of AR transcriptional activity by the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 is important for CRPC development.

  15. Polycomb-group complex 1 acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase for Geminin to sustain hematopoietic stem cell activity.

    PubMed

    Ohtsubo, Motoaki; Yasunaga, Shin'ichiro; Ohno, Yoshinori; Tsumura, Miyuki; Okada, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Nobutsune; Shirao, Kenichiro; Kikuchi, Akira; Nishitani, Hideo; Kobayashi, Masao; Takihara, Yoshihiro

    2008-07-29

    Polycomb-group (PcG) genes encode multimeric nuclear protein complexes, PcG complex 1 and 2. PcG complex 2 was proved to induce transcription repression and to further methylate histone H3 at lysine-27 (H3K27). Subsequently PcG complex 1 is recruited through recognition of methylated H3K27 and maintains the transcription silencing by mediating monoubiquitination of histone H2A at lysine-119. Genetic evidence demonstrated a crucial role for PcG complex 1 in stem cells, and Bmi1, a member of PcG complex 1, was shown to sustain adult stem cells through direct repression of the INK4a locus encoding cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p16CKI, and p19ARF. The molecular functions of PcG complex 1, however, remain insufficiently understood. In our study, deficiency of Rae28, a member of PcG complex 1, was found to impair ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation of Geminin, an inhibitor of DNA replication licensing factor Cdt1, and to increase protein stability. The resultant accumulation of Geminin, based on evidence from retroviral transduction experiments, presumably eliminated hematopoietic stem cell activity in Rae28-deficient mice. Rae28 mediates recruiting Scmh1, which provides PcG complex 1 an interaction domain for Geminin. Moreover, PcG complex 1 acts as the E3 ubiquitin ligase for Geminin, as we demonstrated in vivo as well as in vitro by using purified recombinant PcG complex 1 reconstituted in insect cells. Our findings suggest that PcG complex 1 supports the activity of hematopoietic stem cells, in which high-level Geminin expression induces quiescence securing genome stability, by enhancing cycling capability and hematopoietic activity through direct regulation of Geminin.

  16. p90RSK targets the ERK5-CHIP ubiquitin E3 ligase activity in diabetic hearts and promotes cardiac apoptosis and dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Le, Nhat-Tu; Takei, Yuichiro; Shishido, Tetsuro; Woo, Chang-Hoon; Chang, Eugene; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Lee, Hakjoo; Lu, Yan; Morrell, Craig; Oikawa, Masayoshi; McClain, Carolyn; Wang, Xin; Tournier, Cathy; Molina, Carlos A.; Taunton, Jack; Yan, Chen; Fujiwara, Keigi; Patterson, Cam; Yang, Jay; Abe, Jun-ichi

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is one of the key events in the development and progression of heart failure, and a crucial role for ICER (inducible cAMP early repressor) in this process has been previously reported. ERK5 is known to inhibit cardiac apoptosis after myocardial infarction (MI), especially in hyperglycemic states, via association with CHIP ubiquitin (Ub) ligase and subsequent up-regulation of CHIP ligase activity, which induces ICER ubiquitination and subsequent protein degradation. The regulatory mechanism governing ERK5/CHIP interaction is unknown. Objective We previously demonstrated increased p90RSK activation in the diabetic heart. As a logical extension of this work, we now investigate whether p90RSK activation inhibits ERK5-mediated CHIP activation, and subsequently increases ICER levels and apoptosis. Methods and Results p90RSK activation inhibits ERK5/CHIP association and CHIP Ub ligase activity. p90RSK and CHIP share a common binding site in the ERK5 C-terminal domain (aa571-807). Overexpression of either p90RSK or an ERK5 fragment (aa571-807) inhibits ERK5/CHIP association, suggesting that p90RSK and CHIP competes for ERK5 binding and that p90RSK activation is critical for inhibiting ERK5/CHIP interaction. We also identified ERK5-S496 as being directly phosphorylated by p90RSK, and demonstrated that an ERK5-S496A mutant significantly impairs Angiotensin II-mediated inhibition of CHIP activity and subsequent increase in ICER levels. In vivo, either cardiac specific depletion of ERK5 or overexpression of p90RSK inhibits CHIP activity and accelerates cardiac apoptosis after MI--a phenomenon fully reversible by activating ERK5. Conclusion These data suggest a role for p90RSK in inhibiting CHIP activity and promoting cardiac apoptosis through binding to and phosphorylation of ERK5-S496. PMID:22267842

  17. p90RSK targets the ERK5-CHIP ubiquitin E3 ligase activity in diabetic hearts and promotes cardiac apoptosis and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Le, Nhat-Tu; Takei, Yuichiro; Shishido, Tetsuro; Woo, Chang-Hoon; Chang, Eugene; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Lee, Hakjoo; Lu, Yan; Morrell, Craig; Oikawa, Masayoshi; McClain, Carolyn; Wang, Xin; Tournier, Cathy; Molina, Carlos A; Taunton, Jack; Yan, Chen; Fujiwara, Keigi; Patterson, Cam; Yang, Jay; Abe, Jun-ichi

    2012-02-17

    Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is one of the key events in the development and progression of heart failure, and a crucial role for ICER (inducible cAMP early repressor) in this process has been previously reported. ERK5 is known to inhibit cardiac apoptosis after myocardial infarction (MI), especially in hyperglycemic states, via association with CHIP ubiquitin (Ub) ligase and subsequent upregulation of CHIP ligase activity, which induces ICER ubiquitination and subsequent protein degradation. The regulatory mechanism governing ERK5/CHIP interaction is unknown. We previously demonstrated increased p90RSK activation in the diabetic heart. As a logical extension of this work, we now investigate whether p90RSK activation inhibits ERK5-mediated CHIP activation, and subsequently increases ICER levels and apoptosis. p90RSK activation inhibits ERK5/CHIP association and CHIP Ub ligase activity. p90RSK and CHIP share a common binding site in the ERK5 C-terminal domain (aa571-807). Overexpression of either p90RSK or an ERK5 fragment (aa571-807) inhibits ERK5/CHIP association, suggesting that p90RSK and CHIP competes for ERK5 binding and that p90RSK activation is critical for inhibiting ERK5/CHIP interaction. We also identified ERK5-S496 as being directly phosphorylated by p90RSK and demonstrated that an ERK5-S496A mutant significantly impairs Angiotensin II-mediated inhibition of CHIP activity and subsequent increase in ICER levels. In vivo, either cardiac-specific depletion of ERK5 or overexpression of p90RSK inhibits CHIP activity and accelerates cardiac apoptosis after MI-a phenomenon fully reversible by activating ERK5. These data suggest a role for p90RSK in inhibiting CHIP activity and promoting cardiac apoptosis through binding to and phosphorylation of ERK5-S496.

  18. The accessibility of thiophosphorylated groups in DNA fragments to the enzymatic activity of ligases and restriction endonuclease Bbs I.

    PubMed

    Schenk, J A; Heymann, S; Micheel, B

    1995-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to test the possibility to ligate and hydrolyse DNA sequences containing thiomodified ends and bonds. T4 DNA ligase was shown to ligate DNA fragments regardless of whether it contains phosphorylated or thiophosphorylated 5'-end. But the cleavage of an internally thiomodified phosphodiester bond was found to be totally inhibited when using the non-palindromic restrictase Bbs I. The special properties of this restriction endonuclease should allow the development of an oriented cloning strategy when combined with T4 ligase and a thiophosphorylation of DNA fragments.

  19. Drosophila Ube3a regulates monoamine synthesis by increasing GTP cyclohydrolase I activity via a non-ubiquitin ligase mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ferdousy, Faiza; Bodeen, William; Summers, Kyle; Doherty, Olugbenga; Wright, O'Neil; Elsisi, Nahed; Hilliard, George; O'Donnell, Janis M.; Reiter, Lawrence T.

    2010-01-01

    The underlying defects in Angelman syndrome (AS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be in part due to basic defects in synaptic plasticity and function. In some individuals serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which decrease pre-synaptic re-uptake of serotonin, can ameliorate symptoms, as can resperidone, which blocks both dopamine and serotonin receptors. Loss of maternal UBE3A expression causes AS, while maternal duplications of chromosome 15q11.2-q13 that include the UBE3A gene cause ASD, implicating the maternally expressed UBE3A gene in the ASD phenotype. In a Drosophila screen for proteins regulated by UBE3A, we identified a key regulator of monoamine synthesis, the gene Punch, or GCH1, encoding the enzyme GTP cyclohydrolase I. Here we show that Dube3a, the fly UBE3A ortholog, regulates Punch/GCH1 in the fly brain. Over-expression of Dube3a elevates tetrahydrobiopterin (THB), the rate-limiting cofactor in monoamine synthesis while loss of Dube3a has the opposite effect. The fluctuations in dopamine levels were associated with hyper- and hypoactivity, respectively, in flies. We show that changes in Punch/GCH1 and dopamine levels do not depend on the ubiquitin ligase catalytic domain of Dube3a. In addition, both wild type Dube3a and a ubiquitination-defective Dube3a-C/A form were found at high levels in nuclear fractions and appear to be poly-ubiquitinated in vivo by endogenous Dube3a. We propose that the transcriptional co-activation function of Dube3a may regulate GCH1 activity in the brain. These results provide a connection between monoamine synthesis (dopamine/serotonin) and Dube3a expression that may explain why some individuals with ASD or AS respond better to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors than others. PMID:21147225

  20. Drosophila Ube3a regulates monoamine synthesis by increasing GTP cyclohydrolase I activity via a non-ubiquitin ligase mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ferdousy, Faiza; Bodeen, William; Summers, Kyle; Doherty, Olugbenga; Wright, O'Neil; Elsisi, Nahed; Hilliard, George; O'Donnell, Janis M; Reiter, Lawrence T

    2011-03-01

    The underlying defects in Angelman syndrome (AS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be in part due to basic defects in synaptic plasticity and function. In some individuals serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which decrease pre-synaptic re-uptake of serotonin, can ameliorate symptoms, as can resperidone, which blocks both dopamine and serotonin receptors. Loss of maternal UBE3A expression causes AS, while maternal duplications of chromosome 15q11.2-q13 that include the UBE3A gene cause ASD, implicating the maternally expressed UBE3A gene in the ASD phenotype. In a Drosophila screen for proteins regulated by UBE3A, we identified a key regulator of monoamine synthesis, the gene Punch, or GCH1, encoding the enzyme GTP cyclohydrolase I. Here we show that Dube3a, the fly UBE3A orthologue, regulates Punch/GCH1 in the fly brain. Over-expression of Dube3a elevates tetrahydrobiopterin (THB), the rate-limiting cofactor in monoamine synthesis while loss of Dube3a has the opposite effect. The fluctuations in dopamine levels were associated with hyper- and hypoactivity, respectively, in flies. We show that changes in Punch/GCH1 and dopamine levels do not depend on the ubiquitin ligase catalytic domain of Dube3a. In addition, both wild type Dube3a and a ubiquitination-defective Dube3a-C/A form were found at high levels in nuclear fractions and appear to be poly-ubiquitinated in vivo by endogenous Dube3a. We propose that the transcriptional co-activation function of Dube3a may regulate GCH1 activity in the brain. These results provide a connection between monoamine synthesis (dopamine/serotonin) and Dube3a expression that may explain why some individuals with ASD or AS respond better to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors than others. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Long Non-coding RNA H19 Induces Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury via Activation of Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jue; Cao, Bin; Han, Dong; Sun, Miao; Feng, Juan

    2017-02-01

    Long non-coding RNA H19 (lncRNA H19) was found to be upregulated by hypoxia, its expression and function have never been tested in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study intended to investigate the role of lncRNA H19 and H19 gene variation in cerebral I/R injury with focusing on its relationship with autophagy activation. Cerebral I/R was induced in rats by middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. SH-SY5Y cells were subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R) to simulate I/R injury. Real-time PCR, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and Western blot were used to evaluate the level of lncRNA H19, apoptosis, autophagy and some related proteins. The modified multiple ligase reaction was used to analyze the gene polymorphism of six SNPs in H19, rs217727, rs2067051, rs2251375, rs492994, rs2839698 and rs10732516 in ischemic stroke patients. We found that the expression of lncRNA H19 was upregulated by cerebral I/R in rats, as well as by OGD/R in vitro in the cells. Inhibition of lncRNA H19 and autophagy protected cells from OGD/R-induced death, respectively. Autophagy activation induced by OGD/R was prevented by H19 siRNA. Autophagy inducer, rapamycin, abolished lncRNA H19 effect. Furthermore, we found that lncRNA H19 inhibited autophagy through DUSP5-ERK1/2 axis. The result from blood samples of ischemic patients revealed that the variation of H19 gene increased the risk of ischemic stroke. Taken together, the results of present study suggest that LncRNA H19 could be a new therapeutic target of ischemic stroke.

  2. Long Non-coding RNA H19 Induces Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury via Activation of Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jue; Cao, Bin; Han, Dong; Sun, Miao; Feng, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Long non-coding RNA H19 (lncRNA H19) was found to be upregulated by hypoxia, its expression and function have never been tested in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study intended to investigate the role of lncRNA H19 and H19 gene variation in cerebral I/R injury with focusing on its relationship with autophagy activation. Cerebral I/R was induced in rats by middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. SH-SY5Y cells were subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R) to simulate I/R injury. Real-time PCR, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and Western blot were used to evaluate the level of lncRNA H19, apoptosis, autophagy and some related proteins. The modified multiple ligase reaction was used to analyze the gene polymorphism of six SNPs in H19, rs217727, rs2067051, rs2251375, rs492994, rs2839698 and rs10732516 in ischemic stroke patients. We found that the expression of lncRNA H19 was upregulated by cerebral I/R in rats, as well as by OGD/R in vitro in the cells. Inhibition of lncRNA H19 and autophagy protected cells from OGD/R-induced death, respectively. Autophagy activation induced by OGD/R was prevented by H19 siRNA. Autophagy inducer, rapamycin, abolished lncRNA H19 effect. Furthermore, we found that lncRNA H19 inhibited autophagy through DUSP5-ERK1/2 axis. The result from blood samples of ischemic patients revealed that the variation of H19 gene increased the risk of ischemic stroke. Taken together, the results of present study suggest that LncRNA H19 could be a new therapeutic target of ischemic stroke. PMID:28203482

  3. The cyclosome, a large complex containing cyclin-selective ubiquitin ligase activity, targets cyclins for destruction at the end of mitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sudakin, V; Ganoth, D; Dahan, A; Heller, H; Hershko, J; Luca, F C; Ruderman, J V; Hershko, A

    1995-01-01

    The ubiquitin-mediated degradation of mitotic cyclins is required for cells to exit from mitosis. Previous work with cell-free systems has revealed four components required for cyclin-ubiquitin ligation and proteolysis: a nonspecific ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1, a soluble fraction containing a ubiquitin carrier protein activity called E2-C, a crude particulate fraction containing a ubiquitin ligase (E3) activity that is activated during M-phase, and a constitutively active 26S proteasome that degrades ubiquitinated proteins. Here, we identify a novel approximately 1500-kDa complex, termed the cyclosome, which contains a cyclin-selective ubiquitin ligase activity, E3-C. E3-C is present but inactive during interphase; it can be activated in vitro by the addition of cdc2, enabling the transfer of ubiquitin from E2-C to cyclin. The kinetics of E3-C activation suggest the existence of one or more intermediates between cdc2 and E3-C. Cyclosome-associated E3-C acts on both cyclin A and B, and requires the presence of wild-type N-terminal destruction box motifs in each cyclin. Ubiquitinated cyclins are then rapidly recognized and degraded by the proteasome. These results identify the cyclosome-associated E3-C as the component of the cyclin destruction machinery whose activity is ultimately regulated by cdc2 and, as such, the element directly responsible for setting mitotic cyclin levels during early embryonic cell cycles. Images PMID:7787245

  4. Structure and E3-ligase activity of the Ring–Ring complex of Polycomb proteins Bmi1 and Ring1b

    PubMed Central

    Buchwald, Gretel; van der Stoop, Petra; Weichenrieder, Oliver; Perrakis, Anastassis; van Lohuizen, Maarten; Sixma, Titia K

    2006-01-01

    Polycomb group proteins Ring1b and Bmi1 (B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukaemia virus integration site 1) are critical components of the chromatin modulating PRC1 complex. Histone H2A ubiquitination by the PRC1 complex strongly depends on the Ring1b protein. Here we show that the E3-ligase activity of Ring1b on histone H2A is enhanced by Bmi1 in vitro. The N-terminal Ring-domains are sufficient for this activity and Ring1a can replace Ring1b. E2 enzymes UbcH5a, b, c or UbcH6 support this activity with varying processivity and selectivity. All four E2s promote autoubiquitination of Ring1b without affecting E3-ligase activity. We solved the crystal structure of the Ring–Ring heterodimeric complex of Ring1b and Bmi1. In the structure the arrangement of the Ring-domains is similar to another H2A E3 ligase, the BRCA1/BARD1 complex, but complex formation depends on an N-terminal arm of Ring1b that embraces the Bmi1 Ring-domain. Mutation of a critical residue in the E2/E3 interface shows that catalytic activity resides in Ring1b and not in Bmi1. These data provide a foundation for understanding the critical enzymatic activity at the core of the PRC1 polycomb complex, which is implicated in stem cell maintenance and cancer. PMID:16710298

  5. DNA ligase I, the replicative DNA ligase.

    PubMed

    Howes, Timothy R L; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2012-01-01

    Multiple DNA ligation events are required to join the Okazaki fragments generated during lagging strand DNA synthesis. In eukaryotes, this is primarily carried out by members of the DNA ligase I family. The C-terminal catalytic region of these enzymes is composed of three domains: a DNA binding domain, an adenylation domain and an OB-fold domain. In the absence of DNA, these domains adopt an extended structure but transition into a compact ring structure when they engage a DNA nick, with each of the domains contacting the DNA. The non-catalytic N-terminal region of eukaryotic DNA ligase I is responsible for the specific participation of these enzymes in DNA replication. This proline-rich unstructured region contains the nuclear localization signal and a PCNA interaction motif that is critical for localization to replication foci and efficient joining of Okazaki fragments. DNA ligase I initially engages the PCNA trimer via this interaction motif which is located at the extreme N-terminus of this flexible region. It is likely that this facilitates an additional interaction between the DNA binding domain and the PCNA ring. The similar size and shape of the rings formed by the PCNA trimer and the DNA ligase I catalytic region when it engages a DNA nick suggest that these proteins interact to form a double-ring structure during the joining of Okazaki fragments. DNA ligase I also interacts with replication factor C, the factor that loads the PCNA trimeric ring onto DNA. This interaction, which is regulated by phosphorylation of the non-catalytic N-terminus of DNA ligase I, also appears to be critical for DNA replication.

  6. MicroRNA-424 impairs ubiquitination to activate STAT3 and promote prostate tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Dallavalle, Cecilia; Civenni, Gianluca; Merulla, Jessica; Ostano, Paola; Mello-Grand, Maurizia; Rossi, Simona; Losa, Marco; D’Ambrosio, Gioacchino; Sessa, Fausto; Thalmann, George N.; Zitella, Andrea; Chiorino, Giovanna; Catapano, Carlo V.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations and deletions in components of ubiquitin ligase complexes that lead to alterations in protein turnover are important mechanisms in driving tumorigenesis. Here we describe an alternative mechanism involving upregulation of the microRNA miR-424 that leads to impaired ubiquitination and degradation of oncogenic transcription factors in prostate cancers. We found that miR-424 targets the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 and identified STAT3 as a key substrate of COP1 in promoting tumorigenic and cancer stem-like properties in prostate epithelial cells. Altered protein turnover due to impaired COP1 function led to accumulation and enhanced basal and cytokine-induced activity of STAT3. We further determined that loss of the ETS factor ESE3/EHF is the initial event that triggers the deregulation of the miR-424/COP1/STAT3 axis. COP1 silencing and STAT3 activation were effectively reverted by blocking of miR-424, suggesting a possible strategy to attack this key node of tumorigenesis in ESE3/EHF–deficient tumors. These results establish miR-424 as an oncogenic effector linked to noncanonical activation of STAT3 and as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27820701

  7. MicroRNA-424 impairs ubiquitination to activate STAT3 and promote prostate tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Dallavalle, Cecilia; Albino, Domenico; Civenni, Gianluca; Merulla, Jessica; Ostano, Paola; Mello-Grand, Maurizia; Rossi, Simona; Losa, Marco; D'Ambrosio, Gioacchino; Sessa, Fausto; Thalmann, George N; Garcia-Escudero, Ramon; Zitella, Andrea; Chiorino, Giovanna; Catapano, Carlo V; Carbone, Giuseppina M

    2016-12-01

    Mutations and deletions in components of ubiquitin ligase complexes that lead to alterations in protein turnover are important mechanisms in driving tumorigenesis. Here we describe an alternative mechanism involving upregulation of the microRNA miR-424 that leads to impaired ubiquitination and degradation of oncogenic transcription factors in prostate cancers. We found that miR-424 targets the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 and identified STAT3 as a key substrate of COP1 in promoting tumorigenic and cancer stem-like properties in prostate epithelial cells. Altered protein turnover due to impaired COP1 function led to accumulation and enhanced basal and cytokine-induced activity of STAT3. We further determined that loss of the ETS factor ESE3/EHF is the initial event that triggers the deregulation of the miR-424/COP1/STAT3 axis. COP1 silencing and STAT3 activation were effectively reverted by blocking of miR-424, suggesting a possible strategy to attack this key node of tumorigenesis in ESE3/EHF-deficient tumors. These results establish miR-424 as an oncogenic effector linked to noncanonical activation of STAT3 and as a potential therapeutic target.

  8. Ubiquitin Ligases: Structure, Function, and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ning; Shabek, Nitzan

    2017-06-20

    Ubiquitin E3 ligases control every aspect of eukaryotic biology by promoting protein ubiquitination and degradation. At the end of a three-enzyme cascade, ubiquitin ligases mediate the transfer of ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme to specific substrate proteins. Early investigations of E3s of the RING (really interesting new gene) and HECT (homologous to the E6AP carboxyl terminus) types shed light on their enzymatic activities, general architectures, and substrate degron-binding modes. Recent studies have provided deeper mechanistic insights into their catalysis, activation, and regulation. In this review, we summarize the current progress in structure-function studies of ubiquitin ligases as well as exciting new discoveries of novel classes of E3s and diverse substrate recognition mechanisms. Our increased understanding of ubiquitin ligase function and regulation has provided the rationale for developing E3-targeting therapeutics for the treatment of human diseases.

  9. Assembly of the Elongin A Ubiquitin Ligase Is Regulated by Genotoxic and Other Stresses*

    PubMed Central

    Weems, Juston C.; Slaughter, Brian D.; Unruh, Jay R.; Hall, Shawn M.; McLaird, Merry B.; Gilmore, Joshua M.; Washburn, Michael P.; Florens, Laurence; Yasukawa, Takashi; Aso, Teijiro; Conaway, Joan W.; Conaway, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Elongin A performs dual functions in cells as a component of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription elongation factor Elongin and as the substrate recognition subunit of a Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that has been shown to target Pol II stalled at sites of DNA damage. Here we investigate the mechanism(s) governing conversion of the Elongin complex from its elongation factor to its ubiquitin ligase form. We report the discovery that assembly of the Elongin A ubiquitin ligase is a tightly regulated process. In unstressed cells, Elongin A is predominately present as part of Pol II elongation factor Elongin. Assembly of Elongin A into the ubiquitin ligase is strongly induced by genotoxic stress; by transcriptional stresses that lead to accumulation of stalled Pol II; and by other stimuli, including endoplasmic reticulum and nutrient stress and retinoic acid signaling, that activate Elongin A-dependent transcription. Taken together, our findings shed new light on mechanisms that control the Elongin A ubiquitin ligase and suggest that it may play a role in Elongin A-dependent transcription. PMID:25878247

  10. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity associated with the yeast viral p91/20S RNA ribonucleoprotein complex.

    PubMed Central

    García-Cuéllar, M P; Esteban, R; Fujimura, T

    1997-01-01

    20S RNA is a noninfectious viral single-stranded RNA found in most laboratory strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 20S RNA encodes a protein of 91 kDa (p91) that contains the common motifs found among RNA-dependent RNA polymerases from RNA viruses. p91 and 20S RNA are noncovalently associated in vivo, forming a ribonucleoprotein complex. We detected an RNA polymerase activity in p91/20S RNA complexes isolated by high-speed centrifugation. The activity was not inhibited by actinomycin D nor alpha-amanitin. The majority of the in vitro products was 20S RNA and the rest was the complementary strands of 20S RNA. Because the extracts were prepared from cells accumulating 20S RNA over its complementary strands, these in vitro products reflect the corresponding activities in vivo. When the p91/20S RNA complexes were subjected to sucrose gradient centrifugation, the polymerase activity cosedimented with the complexes. Furthermore, an RNA polymerase activity was detected in the complex by an antibody-linked polymerase assay using anti-p91 antiserum, suggesting that p91 is present in the active RNA polymerase machinery. These results together indicate that p91 is the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or a subunit thereof responsible for 20S RNA replication. PMID:8990396

  11. ZNF313 is a novel cell cycle activator with an E3 ligase activity inhibiting cellular senescence by destabilizing p21(WAF1.).

    PubMed

    Han, J; Kim, Y-L; Lee, K-W; Her, N-G; Ha, T-K; Yoon, S; Jeong, S-I; Lee, J-H; Kang, M-J; Lee, M-G; Ryu, B-K; Baik, J-H; Chi, S-G

    2013-08-01

    ZNF313 encoding a zinc-binding protein is located at chromosome 20q13.13, which exhibits a frequent genomic amplification in multiple human cancers. However, the biological function of ZNF313 remains largely undefined. Here we report that ZNF313 is an ubiquitin E3 ligase that has a critical role in the regulation of cell cycle progression, differentiation and senescence. In this study, ZNF313 is initially identified as a XIAP-associated factor 1 (XAF1)-interacting protein, which upregulates the stability and proapoptotic effect of XAF1. Intriguingly, we found that ZNF313 activates cell cycle progression and suppresses cellular senescence through the RING domain-mediated degradation of p21(WAF1). ZNF313 ubiquitinates p21(WAF1) and also destabilizes p27(KIP1) and p57(KIP2), three members of the CDK-interacting protein (CIP)/kinase inhibitor protein (KIP) family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, whereas it does not affect the stability of the inhibitor of CDK (INK4) family members, such as p16(INK4A) and p15(INK4B). ZNF313 expression is tightly controlled during the cell cycle and its elevation at the late G1 phase is crucial for the G1-to-S phase transition. ZNF313 is induced by mitogenic growth factors and its blockade profoundly delays cell cycle progression and accelerates p21(WAF1)-mediated senescence. Both replicative and stress-induced senescence are accompanied with ZNF313 reduction. ZNF313 is downregulated during cellular differentiation process in vitro and in vivo, while it is commonly upregulated in many types of cancer cells. ZNF313 shows both the nuclear and cytoplasmic localization in epithelial cells of normal tissues, but exhibits an intense cytoplasmic distribution in carcinoma cells of tumor tissues. Collectively, ZNF313 is a novel E3 ligase for p21(WAF1), whose alteration might be implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including cancers.

  12. Structural evolution of luciferase activity in Zophobas mealworm AMP/CoA-ligase (protoluciferase) through site-directed mutagenesis of the luciferin binding site.

    PubMed

    Prado, R A; Barbosa, J A; Ohmiya, Y; Viviani, V R

    2011-07-01

    The structural origin and evolution of bioluminescent activity of beetle luciferases from AMP/CoA ligases remains a mystery. Previously we cloned the luciferase-like enzyme from Zophobas morio mealworm, a reasonable protoluciferase model that could shine light on this mystery. Kinetic characterization and studies with D- and L-luciferin and their adenylates showed that stereoselectivity constitutes a critical feature for the origin of luciferase activity in AMP/CoA ligases. Comparison of the primary structures and modeling studies of this protoluciferase and the three main families of beetle luciferases showed that the carboxylic acid substrate binding site of this enzyme is smaller and more hydrophobic than the luciferin binding site of beetle luciferases, showing several substitutions of otherwise conserved residues. Thus, here we performed a site-directed mutagenesis survey of the carboxylic binding site motifs of the protoluciferase by replacing their residues by the respective conserved ones found in beetle luciferases in order to identify the structural determinants of luciferase/oxygenase activity. Although most of the substitutions had negative impact on the luminescence activity of the protoluciferase, only the substitution I327T improved the luminescence activity, resulting in a broad and 15 nm blue-shifted luminescence spectrum. Such substitution indicates the importance of the loop motif 322YGMSEI327 (341YGLTETT347 in Photinus pyralis luciferase) for luciferase activity, and indicates a possible route for the evolution of bioluminescence function of beetle luciferases.

  13. Role of PINK1 binding to the TOM complex and alternate intracellular membranes in recruitment and activation of the E3 ligase Parkin.

    PubMed

    Lazarou, Michael; Jin, Seok Min; Kane, Lesley A; Youle, Richard J

    2012-02-14

    Mutations in the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 and the cytosolic E3 ligase Parkin can cause Parkinson's disease. Damaged mitochondria accumulate PINK1 on the outer membrane where, dependent on kinase activity, it recruits and activates Parkin to induce mitophagy, potentially maintaining organelle fidelity. How PINK1 recruits Parkin is unknown. We show that endogenous PINK1 forms a 700 kDa complex with the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) selectively on depolarized mitochondria whereas PINK1 ectopically targeted to the outer membrane retains association with TOM on polarized mitochondria. Inducibly targeting PINK1 to peroxisomes or lysosomes, which lack a TOM complex, recruits Parkin and activates ubiquitin ligase activity on the respective organelles. Once there, Parkin induces organelle selective autophagy of peroxisomes but not lysosomes. We propose that the association of PINK1 with the TOM complex allows rapid reimport of PINK1 to rescue repolarized mitochondria from mitophagy, and discount mitochondrial-specific factors for Parkin translocation and activation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase (PARP) is Essential for Sulfur Mustard-Induced DNA Damage Repair, But Has No Role in DNA Ligase Activation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    ligase activation could be due to its modification by PARP. Using HEK, intracellular "H-labeled NAD÷ (H-adenine) was metabolically generated and then... acetic acid methyl ester) (Bhat et al., 1998). These observations indicate a Stock HEK from adult skin of a single donor at passage need for a better...0.76 HEK were used in which NAD’ was metabolically 3H- Z-VAD-FMK (4 pm) 0.55CDO5 antibodly (2 pag ml )/(.( labeled at adenine (Malanga and Althaus

  15. Effects of Nephrolithiasis on Serum DNase (Deoxyribonuclease I and II) Activity and E3 SUMO-Protein Ligase NSE2 (NSMCE2) in Malaysian Individuals.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Faridah; Mehde, Atheer Awad; Mehdi, Wesen Adel; Raus, Raha Ahmed; Ghazali, Hamid; Rahman, Azlina Abd

    2015-09-01

    Nephrolithiasis is one of the most common disorders of the urinary tract. The aim of this study was to examine a possible relationship between DNase I/II activity and E3 SUMO-protein ligase NSE2 in the sera of nephrolithiasis patients to evaluate the possibility of a new biomarker for evaluating kidney damage. Sixty nephrolithiasis patients and 50 control patients were enrolled in a case-control study. Their blood urea, creatinine, protein levels and DNase I/II activity levels were measured by spectrometry. Serum NSMCE2 levels were measured by ELISA. Blood was collected from patients of the government health clinics in Kuantan-Pahang and fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The result indicated that mean levels of sera NSMCE2 have a significantly increase (P<0.01) in patients compared to control group. Compared with control subjects, activities and specific activities of serum DNase I and II were significantly elevated in nephrolithiasis patients (P$lt;0.01). This study suggests that an increase in serum concentrations of DNase I/II and E3 SUMO-protein ligase NSE2 level can be used as indicators for the diagnosis of kidney injury in patients with nephrolithiasis. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  16. A lysine-to-arginine mutation on NEDD8 markedly reduces the activity of cullin RING E3 ligase through the impairment of neddylation cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Sui, Yiyan; Liu, Yaobin; Xu, Guoqiang

    2015-06-12

    Neural-precursor-cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated 8 (NEDD8) is a ubiquitin-like modifier, which forms covalent conjugates on lysines of its substrates. This post-translational modification, neddylation, plays important roles in tumor cell proliferation and viability. Ubiquitin can form diverse polyubiquitin chains, on its seven lysines, which play important functions in various biological processes. However, the roles of lysines in NEDD8 have not been explored. Here, we generated nine NEDD8 point mutants, each with one lysine replaced by an arginine, to study the putative function of lysines in NEDD8. Our experiments discover that Lys27 in NEDD8 is a critical residue for protein neddylation. Replacement of this residue with arginine almost completely eliminates the conjugation of NEDD8 to its substrates. Furthermore, we find that the K27R mutant impairs NEDD8 conjugation to the E2 enzyme, which normally forms thioester bonds for further transferring NEDD8 to its ligases and substrates. Therefore, this mutation completely inhibits global protein neddylation, including neddylation of cullin family proteins, resulting in decreased activity of cullin-RING E3 ligases. This work sheds new light on the roles of NEDD8 lysines on neddylation cascades and provides a dominant negative mutant for the study of neddylation and its biological functions. - Highlights: • Lys27 in NEDD8 is critical for protein neddylation. • NEDD8 K27R mutant impairs the NEDD8 conjugation. • NEDD8 K27R mutant significantly reduces the activity of cullin-RING E3 ligases.

  17. Protein–Protein Interactions Modulate the Docking-Dependent E3-Ubiquitin Ligase Activity of Carboxy-Terminus of Hsc70-Interacting Protein (CHIP)*

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Vikram; Landré, Vivien; Ning, Jia; Hernychova, Lenka; Muller, Petr; Verma, Chandra; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D.; Blackburn, Elizabeth A.; Ball, Kathryn L.

    2015-01-01

    CHIP is a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain protein that functions as an E3-ubiquitin ligase. As well as linking the molecular chaperones to the ubiquitin proteasome system, CHIP also has a docking-dependent mode where it ubiquitinates native substrates, thereby regulating their steady state levels and/or function. Here we explore the effect of Hsp70 on the docking-dependent E3-ligase activity of CHIP. The TPR-domain is revealed as a binding site for allosteric modulators involved in determining CHIP's dynamic conformation and activity. Biochemical, biophysical and modeling evidence demonstrate that Hsp70-binding to the TPR, or Hsp70-mimetic mutations, regulate CHIP-mediated ubiquitination of p53 and IRF-1 through effects on U-box activity and substrate binding. HDX-MS was used to establish that conformational-inhibition-signals extended from the TPR-domain to the U-box. This underscores inter-domain allosteric regulation of CHIP by the core molecular chaperones. Defining the chaperone-associated TPR-domain of CHIP as a manager of inter-domain communication highlights the potential for scaffolding modules to regulate, as well as assemble, complexes that are fundamental to protein homeostatic control. PMID:26330542

  18. LIN-23, an E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Component, Is Required for the Repression of CDC-25.2 Activity during Intestinal Development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Son, Miseol; Kawasaki, Ichiro; Oh, Bong-Kyeong; Shim, Yhong-Hee

    2016-11-30

    Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) utilizes two different cell-cycle modes, binucleations during the L1 larval stage and endoreduplications at four larval moltings, for its postembryonic intestinal development. Previous genetic studies indicated that CDC-25.2 is specifically required for binucleations at the L1 larval stage and is repressed before endoreduplications. Furthermore, LIN-23, the C. elegans β-TrCP ortholog, appears to function as a repressor of CDC-25.2 to prevent excess intestinal divisions. We previously reported that intestinal hyperplasia in lin-23(e1883) mutants was effectively suppressed by the RNAi depletion of cdc-25.2. Nevertheless, LIN-23 targeting CDC-25.2 for ubiquitination as a component of E3 ubiquitin ligase has not yet been tested. In this study, LIN-23 is shown to be the major E3 ubiquitin ligase component, recognizing CDC-25.2 to repress their activities for proper transition of cell-cycle modes during the C. elegans postembryonic intestinal development. In addition, for the first time that LIN-23 physically interacts with both CDC-25.1 and CDC-25.2 and facilitates ubiquitination for timely regulation of their activities during the intestinal development.

  19. LIN-23, an E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Component, Is Required for the Repression of CDC-25.2 Activity during Intestinal Development in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Son, Miseol; Kawasaki, Ichiro; Oh, Bong-Kyeong; Shim, Yhong-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) utilizes two different cell-cycle modes, binucleations during the L1 larval stage and endoreduplications at four larval moltings, for its postembryonic intestinal development. Previous genetic studies indicated that CDC-25.2 is specifically required for binucleations at the L1 larval stage and is repressed before endoreduplications. Furthermore, LIN-23, the C. elegans β-TrCP ortholog, appears to function as a repressor of CDC-25.2 to prevent excess intestinal divisions. We previously reported that intestinal hyperplasia in lin-23(e1883) mutants was effectively suppressed by the RNAi depletion of cdc-25.2. Nevertheless, LIN-23 targeting CDC-25.2 for ubiquitination as a component of E3 ubiquitin ligase has not yet been tested. In this study, LIN-23 is shown to be the major E3 ubiquitin ligase component, recognizing CDC-25.2 to repress their activities for proper transition of cell-cycle modes during the C. elegans postembryonic intestinal development. In addition, for the first time that LIN-23 physically interacts with both CDC-25.1 and CDC-25.2 and facilitates ubiquitination for timely regulation of their activities during the intestinal development. PMID:27871172

  20. Shigella IpaH0722 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Effector Targets TRAF2 to Inhibit PKC–NF-κB Activity in Invaded Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Nakano, Hiroyasu; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2013-01-01

    NF-κB plays a central role in modulating innate immune responses to bacterial infections. Therefore, many bacterial pathogens deploy multiple mechanisms to counteract NF-κB activation. The invasion of and subsequent replication of Shigella within epithelial cells is recognized by various pathogen recognition receptors as pathogen-associated molecular patterns. These receptors trigger innate defense mechanisms via the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Here, we show the inhibition of the NF-κB activation by the delivery of the IpaH E3 ubiquitin ligase family member IpaH0722 using Shigella's type III secretion system. IpaH0722 dampens the acute inflammatory response by preferentially inhibiting the PKC-mediated activation of NF-κB by ubiquitinating TRAF2, a molecule downstream of PKC, and by promoting its proteasome-dependent degradation. PMID:23754945

  1. Identification of dynamical hinge points of the L1 ligase molecular switch

    PubMed Central

    Giambaşu, George M.; Lee, Tai-Sung; Sosa, Carlos P.; Robertson, Michael P.; Scott, William G.; York, Darrin M.

    2010-01-01

    The L1 ligase is an in vitro selected ribozyme that uses a noncanonically base-paired ligation site to catalyze regioselectively and regiospecifically the 5′ to 3′ phosphodiester bond ligation, a reaction relevant to origin of life hypotheses that invoke an RNA world scenario. The L1 ligase crystal structure revealed two different conformational states that were proposed to represent the active and inactive forms. It remains an open question as to what degree these two conformers persist as stable conformational intermediates in solution, and along what pathway are they able to interconvert. To explore these questions, we have performed a series of molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent of the inactive–active conformational switch in L1 ligase. Four simulations were performed departing from both conformers in both the reactant and product states, in addition to a simulation where local unfolding in the active state was induced. From these simulations, along with crystallographic data, a set of four virtual torsion angles that span two evolutionarily conserved and restricted regions were identified as dynamical hinge points in the conformational switch transition. The ligation site visits three distinct states characterized by hydrogen bond patterns that are correlated with the formation of specific contacts that may promote catalysis. The insights gained from these simulations contribute to a more detailed understanding of the coupled catalytic/conformational switch mechanism of L1 ligase that may facilitate the design and engineering of new catalytic riboswitches. PMID:20167653

  2. RNA polymerase activity in purified virions of avian reticuloendotheliosis viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, S; Temin, H M

    1976-01-01

    An RNA polymerase activity that synthesizes a U-rich RNA hydrogen bonded to a large viral RNA molecule was found in the cores of virions of avian reticuloendotheliosis viruses (REV). The RNA polymerase activity was separable from the DNA polymerase activity of REV virions. The 5'-terminus of the newly synthesized RNA was A. In addition, a tRNA nucleotidyl transferase activity, which added -CpCpA ends to tRNA, appears to be present in the REV virions. Images PMID:183017

  3. Inhibition of NEDD8 and FAT10 ligase activities through the degrading enzyme NEDD8 ultimate buster 1: A potential anticancer approach

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ka-Liong; Pezzella, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The capabilities of tumour cells to survive through deregulated cell cycles and evade apoptosis are hallmarks of cancer. The ubiquitin-like proteins (UBL) proteasome system is important in regulating cell cycles via signaling proteins. Deregulation of the proteasomal system can lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation. The Skp, Cullin, F-box containing complex (SCF complex) is the predominant E3 ubiquitin ligase, and has diverse substrates. The ubiquitin ligase activity of the SCF complexes requires the conjugation of neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 8 (NEDD8) to cullin proteins. A tumour suppressor and degrading enzyme named NEDD8 ultimate buster 1 (NUB1) is able to recruit HLA-F-adjacent transcript 10 (FAT10)- and NEDD8-conjugated proteins for proteasomal degradation. Ubiquitination is associated with neddylation and FAT10ylation. Although validating the targets of UBLs, including ubiquitin, NEDD8 and FAT10, is challenging, understanding the biological significance of such substrates is an exciting research prospect. This present review discusses the interplay of these UBLs, as well as highlighting their inhibition through NUB1. Knowledge of the mechanisms by which NUB1 is able to downregulate the ubiquitin cascade via NEDD8 conjugation and the FAT10 pathway is essential. This will provide insights into potential cancer therapy that could be used to selectively suppress cancer growth. PMID:28101194

  4. A lysine-to-arginine mutation on NEDD8 markedly reduces the activity of cullin RING E3 ligase through the impairment of neddylation cascades.

    PubMed

    Sui, Yiyan; Liu, Yaobin; Xu, Guoqiang

    2015-06-12

    Neural-precursor-cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated 8 (NEDD8) is a ubiquitin-like modifier, which forms covalent conjugates on lysines of its substrates. This post-translational modification, neddylation, plays important roles in tumor cell proliferation and viability. Ubiquitin can form diverse polyubiquitin chains, on its seven lysines, which play important functions in various biological processes. However, the roles of lysines in NEDD8 have not been explored. Here, we generated nine NEDD8 point mutants, each with one lysine replaced by an arginine, to study the putative function of lysines in NEDD8. Our experiments discover that Lys27 in NEDD8 is a critical residue for protein neddylation. Replacement of this residue with arginine almost completely eliminates the conjugation of NEDD8 to its substrates. Furthermore, we find that the K27R mutant impairs NEDD8 conjugation to the E2 enzyme, which normally forms thioester bonds for further transferring NEDD8 to its ligases and substrates. Therefore, this mutation completely inhibits global protein neddylation, including neddylation of cullin family proteins, resulting in decreased activity of cullin-RING E3 ligases. This work sheds new light on the roles of NEDD8 lysines on neddylation cascades and provides a dominant negative mutant for the study of neddylation and its biological functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Curcumin-induced degradation of ErbB2: A role for the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP and the Michael reaction acceptor activity of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yunjin; Xu, Wanping; Kim, Heejung; Ha, Namchul; Neckers, Len

    2007-03-01

    We investigated the molecular mechanism underlying curcumin depletion of ErbB2 protein. Curcumin induced ErbB2 ubiquitination but pretreatment with proteasome inhibitors neither prevented curcumin depletion of ErbB2 protein nor further accumulated ubiquitinated ErbB2. Curcumin increased association of endogenous and ectopically expressed CHIP, a chaperone-dependent ubiquitin ligase, with ErbB2. In COS7 cells cotransfected with ErbB2 and various CHIP plasmids followed by curcumin treatment, CHIP-H260Q (a mutant lacking ubiquitin ligase activity) promoted less curcumin-induced ErbB2 ubiquitination than did wild type CHIP, and CHIP-K30A (a mutant incapable of binding Hsp90 and Hsp70) neither associated with ErbB2 nor promoted its ubiquitination. ErbB2 mutants lacking the kinase domain failed to associate with CHIP and were completely resistant to ubiquitination and depletion induced by curcumin. Finally, curcumin's Michael reaction acceptor functionality was required for both covalent association of curcumin with ErbB2 and curcumin-mediated ErbB2 depletion. These data suggest (1) that CHIP-dependent ErbB2 ubiquitination is implicated in curcumin-stimulated ErbB2 depletion, and (2) that covalent modification of ErbB2 by curcumin is the proximal signal which initiates this process.

  6. Structural Characterization of Modified Lignin in Transgenic Tobacco Plants in Which the Activity of 4-Coumarate:Coenzyme A Ligase Is Depressed.

    PubMed Central

    Kajita, S.; Hishiyama, S.; Tomimura, Y.; Katayama, Y.; Omori, S.

    1997-01-01

    Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants in which the activity of 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase is very low contain a novel lignin in their xylem. Details of changes in hydroxycinnamic acids bound to cell walls and in the structure of the novel lignin were identified by base hydrolysis, alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation, pyrolysis-gas chromatography, and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. In the brownish tissue of the transgenic plants, the levels of three hydroxycinnamic acids, p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic, which were bound to cell walls, were apparently increased as a result of down-regulation of the expression of the gene for 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase. Some of these hydroxycinnamic acids were linked to cell walls via ester and ether linkages. The accumulation of hydroxycinnamic acids also induced an increase in the level of condensed units in the novel lignin of the brownish tissue. Our data indicate that the behavior of some of the incorporated hydroxycinnamic acids resembles lignin monomers in the brownish tissue, and their accumulation results in dramatic changes in the biosynthesis of lignin in transgenic plants. PMID:12223748

  7. Reinvestigation of DNA ligase I in axolotl and Pleurodeles development.

    PubMed Central

    Aoufouchi, S; Hardy, S; Prigent, C; Philippe, M; Thiebaud, P

    1991-01-01

    We have recently shown that the exclusion process causing the replacement of DNA ligases II by DNA ligase I in amphibian eggs after fertilization does not occur in the case of Xenopus laevis [Hardy, S., Aoufouchi, S., Thiebaud, P., and Prigent, C., (1991) Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 701-705]. Since this result is in contradiction with the situation reported in axolotl and Pleurodeles we decided to reinvestigate such results in both species. Three different approaches have been used: (1) the substrate specificity of DNA ligase I; (2) the DNA ligase-AMP adduct reaction and (3) the immunological detection using antibodies raised against the X.laevis DNA ligase I. Our results clearly demonstrate that DNA ligase I activity is associated with a single polypeptide which is present in oocyte, unfertilized egg and embryo of both amphibians. Therefore, the hypothesis of a change in DNA ligase forms, resulting from an expression of the DNA ligase I gene in axolotl and Pleurodeles early development must be rejected. We also show that, in contradiction with published data, the unfertilized sea urchin egg contains a DNA ligase activity able to join blunt ended DNA molecules. Images PMID:1886765

  8. Separation of cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris fermentation supernatant using preparative HPLC and evaluation of its antibacterial activity as an NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaofeng; Cai, Guoqiang; He, Yi; Tong, Guotong

    2016-09-01

    Cordycepin exhibits various bio-activities, including anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral and immune regulation activities, and is a significant focus of research. However, the preparation of high-purity cordycepin remains challenging. Also, the molecular target with which cordycepin interacts to cause an antibacterial effect remains unknown. In the present study, cordycepin was prepared by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) and the purity obtained was 99.6%, indicating that this technique may be useful for the large-scale isolation of cordycepin in the future. The results of computational molecular docking analysis indicated that the interaction energy between cordycepin and NAD+-dependent DNA ligase (LigA) was lower than that between cordycepin and other common antibacterial targets. The highly pure cordycepin obtained by prep-HPLC demonstrated inhibitory activity against LigA from various bacteria in vitro. In conclusion, cordycepin may be useful as a broad-spectrum antibiotic targeting LigA in various bacteria.

  9. Identification of a novel motif in DNA ligases exemplified by DNA ligase IV.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Caterina; Walker, Sarah A; Odreman, Federico; Vindigni, Alessandro; Doherty, Aidan J; Jeggo, Penny

    2006-07-13

    DNA ligase IV is an essential protein that functions in DNA non-homologous end-joining, the major mechanism that rejoins DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells. LIG4 syndrome represents a human disorder caused by mutations in DNA ligase IV that lead to impaired but not ablated activity. Thus far, five conserved motifs in DNA ligases have been identified. We previously reported G469E as a mutational change in a LIG4 syndrome patient. G469 does not lie in any of the previously reported motifs. A sequence comparison between DNA ligases led us to identify residues 468-476 of DNA ligase IV as a further conserved motif, designated motif Va, present in eukaryotic DNA ligases. We carried out mutational analysis of residues within motif Va examining the impact on adenylation, double-stranded ligation, and DNA binding. We interpret our results using the DNA ligase I:DNA crystal structure. Substitution of the glycine at position 468 with an alanine or glutamic acid severely compromises protein activity and stability. Substitution of G469 with an alanine or glutamic acid is better tolerated but still impacts upon activity and protein stability. These finding suggest that G468 and G469 are important for protein stability and provide insight into the hypomorphic nature of the G469E mutation identified in a LIG4 syndrome patient. In contrast, residues 470, 473 and 476 within motif Va can be changed to alanine residues without any impact on DNA binding or adenylation activity. Importantly, however, such mutational changes do impact upon double-stranded ligation activity. Considered in light of the DNA ligase I:DNA crystal structure, our findings suggest that residues 470-476 function as part of a molecular pincer that maintains the DNA in a conformation that is required for ligation.

  10. Involvement of fatty acid-CoA ligase 4 in hepatocellular carcinoma growth: Roles of cyclic AMP and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yu-Chih; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Chu, Jan-Show; Wang, Chung-Kwe; Hung, Ling-Fang; Wang, Ying-Jan; Ho, Yuan-Soon; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Lin, Shyr-Yi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Fatty acid-CoA ligase 4 (FACL4) is an arachidonate-preferring enzyme which has been shown to be up-regulated in human colon cancer tissues and implicated in the colon tumorigenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of FACL4 in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumorigenesis and the specific signal pathways involved in this process. METHODS: We investigated the expression and regulation of FACL4 in HCC, adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues, and cell lines. RESULTS: In HCC patients, we demonstrated that FACL4 gene expression was markedly elevated in the cancerous tissues than in the adjacent non-cancerous liver tissues. In addition, several human hepatoma cell lines, including Hep3B and HepG2, expressed high levels of FACL4. Stable overex-pression of FACL4 knockdown plasmids (small interfering RNA, siRNA) to Hep3B cells significantly decreased FACL4 expression and subsequently limited the cell proliferation. Treatment of Hep3B cells with 8-bromo-cAMP and SB203508 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) significantly suppressed the FACL4 expression. CONCLUSION: FACL4 is involved in the HCC tumorigenesis and both cAMP and p38 MAPK pathways are associated with the regulation of FACL4 in HCC. PMID:15849811

  11. The E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF185 facilitates the cGAS-mediated innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Zhongshi; Mao, Zhaomin; Tang, Yijun; Kong, Xiufang; Li, Senlin; Cui, Ye; Liu, Heng; Zhang, Lele; Zhang, Xiaojie; Jiang, Lindi; Zhou, Qin

    2017-01-01

    The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), upon cytosolic DNA stimulation, catalyzes the formation of the second messenger 2′3′-cGAMP, which then binds to stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and activates downstream signaling. It remains to be elucidated how the cGAS enzymatic activity is modulated dynamically. Here, we reported that the ER ubiquitin ligase RNF185 interacted with cGAS during HSV-1 infection. Ectopic-expression or knockdown of RNF185 respectively enhanced or impaired the IRF3-responsive gene expression. Mechanistically, RNF185 specifically catalyzed the K27-linked poly-ubiquitination of cGAS, which promoted its enzymatic activity. Additionally, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) patients displayed elevated expression of RNF185 mRNA. Collectively, this study uncovers RNF185 as the first E3 ubiquitin ligase of cGAS, shedding light on the regulation of cGAS activity in innate immune responses. PMID:28273161

  12. Hypoxia-induced SUMOylation of E3 ligase HAF determines specific activation of HIF2 in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Koh, Mei Yee; Nguyen, Vuvi; Lemos, Robert; Darnay, Bryant G; Kiriakova, Galina; Abdelmelek, Mena; Ho, Thai H; Karam, Jose; Monzon, Federico A; Jonasch, Eric; Powis, Garth

    2015-01-15

    Clear-cell renal cell cancer (CRCC) is initiated typically by loss of the tumor-suppressor VHL, driving constitutive activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF1) and HIF2. However, whereas HIF1 has a tumor-suppressor role, HIF2 plays a distinct role in driving CRCC. In this study, we show that the HIF1α E3 ligase hypoxia-associated factor (HAF) complexes with HIF2α at DNA to promote HIF2-dependent transcription through a mechanism relying upon HAF SUMOylation. HAF SUMOylation was induced by hypoxia, whereas HAF-mediated HIF1α degradation was SUMOylation independent. HAF overexpression in mice increased CRCC growth and metastasis. Clinically, HAF overexpression was associated with poor prognosis. Taken together, our results show that HAF is a specific mediator of HIF2 activation that is critical for CRCC development and morbidity.

  13. Mammalian Alpha Arrestins Link Activated Seven Transmembrane Receptors to Nedd4 Family E3 Ubiquitin Ligases and Interact with Beta Arrestins

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Fortune F.; Rowell, Jennie L.; Li, Yechaowei; Chang, Tien-Hsien; Alvarez, Carlos E.

    2012-01-01

    The complement of fungal cell surface proteins is widely regulated by ubiquitination of membrane proteins, which results in their endocytosis and vacuolar degradation. For diverse fungal transporters, the specificity of ubiquitination is conferred by alpha arrestin adaptors, which recruit the Nedd4 family E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5. A recent study showed that one mammalian alpha arrestin also mediates ubiquitination and lysosomal trafficking of an activated plasma membrane receptor. Here we first screen all five widely-expressed human alpha arrestins for subcellular localization in ligand-stimulated and -unstimulated cells overexpressing the seven transmembrane receptor vasopressin 2. We then characterize the effects of alpha arrestins ARRDC3 and ARRDC4 upon activation of the seven transmembrane receptors vasopressin 2 and beta adrenergic 2. Using biochemical and imaging approaches, we show that ligand-activated receptors interact with alpha arrestins, and this results in recruitment of Nedd4 family E3 ubiquitin ligases and receptor ubiquitination – which are known to result in lysosomal trafficking. Our time course studies show these effects occur in the first 1–5 minutes after ligand activation, the same time that beta arrestins are known to have roles in receptor endocytic trafficking and kinase signaling. We tested the possibility that alpha and beta arrestins function coordinately and found co-immunoprecipitation and colocalization evidence to support this. Others recently reported that Arrdc3 knockout mice are lean and resistant to obesity. In the course of breeding our own Arrdc3-deficient mice, we observed two novel phenotypes in homozygotes: skin abnormalities, and embryonic lethality on normal chow diet, but not on high fat diet. Our findings suggest that alpha and beta arrestins function coordinately to maintain the optimal complement and function of cell surface proteins according to cellular physiological context and external signals. We discuss the

  14. One-step assay for the quantification of T4 DNA ligase.

    PubMed

    Franke, Steffi; Kreisig, Thomas; Buettner, Karin; Zuchner, Thole

    2015-02-01

    As one of the most commonly used enzyme in molecular biology, the T4 DNA ligase presents an important tool for the manipulation of DNA. T4 DNA ligase activity measurements are based on the use of radioactivity or rather labor-intense procedures including gel-based analysis. We therefore established a homogeneous T4 DNA ligase assay utilizing a specifically designed fluorescein- and dark quencher-labeled DNA molecule. Upon ligation of both DNA molecules, a quenching occurs and the fluorescence intensity decreases with increasing ligase concentrations. The assay allows a sensitive and precise quantification (CV, 4.6-5.5 %) of T4 DNA ligase activities and showed a high specificity when tested against other ligases of related and different species. Most importantly, this T4 DNA ligase assay requires only one working and incubation step before measurement can take place at room temperature and may therefore offer an interesting alternative to existing, more laborious ligase assays.

  15. Cockayne syndrome B protein regulates recruitment of the Elongin A ubiquitin ligase to sites of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Weems, Juston C; Slaughter, Brian D; Unruh, Jay R; Boeing, Stefan; Hall, Shawn M; McLaird, Merry B; Yasukawa, Takashi; Aso, Teijiro; Svejstrup, Jesper Q; Conaway, Joan W; Conaway, Ronald C

    2017-04-21

    Elongin A performs dual functions as the transcriptionally active subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation factor Elongin and as the substrate recognition subunit of a Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitylates Pol II in response to DNA damage. Assembly of the Elongin A ubiquitin ligase and its recruitment to sites of DNA damage is a tightly regulated process induced by DNA-damaging agents and α-amanitin, a drug that induces Pol II stalling. In this study, we demonstrate (i) that Elongin A and the ubiquitin ligase subunit CUL5 associate in cells with the Cockayne syndrome B (CSB) protein and (ii) that this interaction is also induced by DNA-damaging agents and α-amanitin. In addition, we present evidence that the CSB protein promotes stable recruitment of the Elongin A ubiquitin ligase to sites of DNA damage. Our findings are consistent with the model that the Elongin A ubiquitin ligase and the CSB protein function together in a common pathway in response to Pol II stalling and DNA damage. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. HTLV-1 Tax Functions as a Ubiquitin E3 Ligase for Direct IKK Activation via Synthesis of Mixed-Linkage Polyubiquitin Chains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Long, Wenying; Peng, Chao; Hu, Lin; Zhang, Qiong; Wu, Ailing; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Duan, Xiaotao; Wong, Catherine C L; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Xia, Zongping

    2016-04-01

    The HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax plays a key role in CD4+ T cell transformation by promoting cell proliferation and survival, mainly through permanent activation of the NK-κB pathway and induction of many NF-κB target genes. Elucidating the underlying molecular mechanism is therefore critical in understanding HTLV-1-mediated transformation. Current studies have suggested multiple but controversial mechanisms regarding Tax-induced IKK activation mainly due to blending of primary Tax-induced IKK activation events and secondary IKK activation events induced by cytokines secreted by the primary Tax-induced IKK-NF-κB activation events. We reconstituted Tax-stimulated IKK activation in a cell-free system to dissect the essential cellular components for primary IKK activation by Tax and studied the underlying biochemical mechanism. We found that Tax is a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase, which, together with UbcH2, UhcH5c, or UbcH7, catalyzes the assembly of free mixed-linkage polyubiquitin chains. These free mixed-linkage polyubiquitin chains are then responsible for direct IKK activation by binding to the NEMO subunit of IKK. Our studies revealed the biochemical function of Tax in the process of IKK activation, which utilizes the minimal cellular ubiquitination components for NF-κB activation.

  17. HTLV-1 Tax Functions as a Ubiquitin E3 Ligase for Direct IKK Activation via Synthesis of Mixed-Linkage Polyubiquitin Chains

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong; Long, Wenying; Peng, Chao; Hu, Lin; Zhang, Qiong; Wu, Ailing; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Duan, Xiaotao; Wong, Catherine C. L.; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Xia, Zongping

    2016-01-01

    The HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax plays a key role in CD4+ T cell transformation by promoting cell proliferation and survival, mainly through permanent activation of the NK-κB pathway and induction of many NF-κB target genes. Elucidating the underlying molecular mechanism is therefore critical in understanding HTLV-1-mediated transformation. Current studies have suggested multiple but controversial mechanisms regarding Tax-induced IKK activation mainly due to blending of primary Tax-induced IKK activation events and secondary IKK activation events induced by cytokines secreted by the primary Tax-induced IKK-NF-κB activation events. We reconstituted Tax-stimulated IKK activation in a cell-free system to dissect the essential cellular components for primary IKK activation by Tax and studied the underlying biochemical mechanism. We found that Tax is a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase, which, together with UbcH2, UhcH5c, or UbcH7, catalyzes the assembly of free mixed-linkage polyubiquitin chains. These free mixed-linkage polyubiquitin chains are then responsible for direct IKK activation by binding to the NEMO subunit of IKK. Our studies revealed the biochemical function of Tax in the process of IKK activation, which utilizes the minimal cellular ubiquitination components for NF-κB activation. PMID:27082114

  18. Restoration of ligase activity in E. coli K12 lig ts7 strain by bacteriophage Mu and cloning of a DNA fragment harbouring the Mu 'lig' gene.

    PubMed Central

    Ghelardini, P; Paolozzi, L; Liebart, J C

    1980-01-01

    Restoration of ligase activity has been observed in E. coli K12 ligts7 strain lysogenic for Mu, in presence as well in absence of lysogenic immunity. This restoration consist in phenotypic reversal of temperature sensitivity of E. coli ligts7 which also regain the ability to sustain the complete growth cycle of T4 lig-phages. It is possible to put under the control of the gal operon the expression of the viral gene responsible for the restoration effect. This new gene of Mu has been named 'lig'. A 5 kb fragment responsible for the reported effects and localized between genes gam and lys of Mu genome has been cloned in pBR322. This recombinant plasmid used for transforming ligts7 strain restores in it normal behaviour for ligation of Okazaki pieces. PMID:6449688

  19. DNA Ligase I is an In Vivo Substrate of DNA-Dependent Protein Kinase and is Activated by Phosphorylation in Response to DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    anlysis. to the procedure described by Malanga and Althaus (8). Gel Electrophoresis and A utoradiography. Immunopre- DNA Ligase and Protein Assays. DNA...by casein kinase 11, EMBO J. 11, 2925-2933. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that DNA ligase I 8. Malanga , M., and Althaus, F. R. (1994) Poly (ADP

  20. Branchiostoma floridae has separate healing and sealing enzymes for 5′-phosphate RNA ligation

    PubMed Central

    Englert, Markus; Sheppard, Kelly; Gundllapalli, Sarath; Beier, Hildburg; Söll, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Animal cells have two tRNA splicing pathways: (i) a 5′-P ligation mechanism, where the 5′-phosphate of the 3′ tRNA half becomes the junction phosphate of the new phosphodiester linkage, and (ii) a 3′-P ligation process, in which the 3′-phosphate of the 5′ tRNA half turns into the junction phosphate. Although both activities are known to exist in animals, in almost three decades of investigation, neither of the two RNA ligases has been identified. Here we describe a gene from the chordate Branchiostoma floridae that encodes an RNA ligase (Bf RNL) with a strict requirement for RNA substrates with a 2′-phosphate terminus for the ligation of RNAs with 5′-phosphate and 3′-hydroxyl ends. Unlike the yeast and plant tRNA ligases involved in tRNA splicing, Bf RNL lacks healing activities and requires the action of a polynucleotide kinase (PNK) and a cyclic phosphodiesterase (CDPase) in trans. The activities of these two enzymes were identified in a single B. floridae protein (Bf PNK/CPDase). The combined activities of Bf RNL and Bf PNK/CPDase are sufficient for the joining of tRNA splicing intermediates in vitro, and for the functional complementation of a tRNA ligase-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain in vivo. Hence, these two proteins constitute the 5′-P RNA ligation pathway in an animal organism. PMID:20837552

  1. Anti-Ro52 Autoantibodies from Patients with Sjögren's Syndrome Inhibit the Ro52 E3 Ligase Activity by Blocking the E3/E2 Interface*

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Alexander; Hennig, Janosch; Ambrosi, Aurélie; Anandapadmanaban, Madhanagopal; Abelius, Martina Sandberg; Sheng, Yi; Nyberg, Filippa; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Sunnerhagen, Maria; Wahren-Herlenius, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Ro52 (TRIM21) is an E3 ligase of the tripartite motif family that negatively regulates proinflammatory cytokine production by ubiquitinating transcription factors of the interferon regulatory factor family. Autoantibodies to Ro52 are present in patients with lupus and Sjögren's syndrome, but it is not known if these autoantibodies affect the function of Ro52. To address this question, the requirements for Ro52 E3 ligase activity were first analyzed in detail. Scanning a panel of E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, we found that UBE2D1–4 and UBE2E1–2 supported the E3 ligase activity of Ro52 and that the E3 ligase activity of Ro52 was dependent on its RING domain. We also found that the N-terminal extensions in the class III E2 enzymes affected their interaction with Ro52. Although the N-terminal extension in UBE2E3 made this E2 enzyme unable to function together with Ro52, the N-terminal extensions in UBE2E1 and UBE2E2 allowed for a functional interaction with Ro52. Anti-Ro52-positive patient sera and affinity-purified anti-RING domain autoantibodies inhibited the E3 activity of Ro52 in ubiquitination assays. Using NMR, limited proteolysis, ELISA, and Ro52 mutants, we mapped the interactions between Ro52, UBE2E1, and anti-Ro52 autoantibodies. We found that anti-Ro52 autoantibodies inhibited the E3 ligase activity of Ro52 by sterically blocking the E2/E3 interaction between Ro52 and UBE2E1. Our data suggest that anti-Ro52 autoantibodies binding the RING domain of Ro52 may be actively involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatic autoimmune disease by inhibiting Ro52-mediated ubiquitination. PMID:21862588

  2. Development of β-Hairpin Peptides for the Measurement of SCF-Family E3 Ligase Activity in Vitro via Ornithine Ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Regulation of the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) to treat select types of cancer has become a popular area of drug discovery research. The FDA approval of proteasome inhibitors Bortezomib and Carfilzomib in the treatment of multiple myeloma has led to an increased need for chemical reporters capable of detecting and quantifying protein ubiquitination and the activity of members of the UPS including E3 ubiquitin ligases and the proteasome in the tumor cells of the patients. One limitation of peptide-based reporters is their rapid degradation in the cellular environment by cytosolic peptidases. Conversely, β-hairpin “protectides” exhibit a pronounced secondary structure that significantly increases their lifetime under cellular conditions. The goal of this work was to develop a family of novel, ornithine-rich protectides that could act as primary degrons serving as substrates for in vitro ubiquitination. The fluorescent peptide-based reporters were demonstrated to be highly resistant to degradation in multiple myeloma cell lysates. The most stable β-hairpin primary degron, containing a single ornithine residue at the N-terminus, OWRWR [Ac-OWVRVpGO(FAM)WIRQ-NH2], demonstrated rapid ubiquitination kinetics and a 20-fold increase in stability when compared with an unstructured primary degron. A screen of E1 and E3 enzyme inhibitors in cell lysates showed that ubiquitination of OWRWR was significantly impaired by inhibitors of the SCF family of E3 ligases. Furthermore, this is the first report demonstrating the use of an ornithine residue on a primary degron as a ubiquitination site. This study serves as a strong foundation for the development of stable, fluorescent, peptide-based reporters capable of quantifying protein ubiquitination and the enzymatic activity of members of the UPS. PMID:28393136

  3. HECT E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Itch Functions as a Novel Negative Regulator of Gli-Similar 3 (Glis3) Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    ZeRuth, Gary T.; Williams, Jason G.; Cole, Yasemin C.; Jetten, Anton M.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor Gli-similar 3 (Glis3) plays a critical role in the generation of pancreatic ß cells and the regulation insulin gene transcription and has been implicated in the development of several pathologies, including type 1 and 2 diabetes and polycystic kidney disease. However, little is known about the proteins and posttranslational modifications that regulate or mediate Glis3 transcriptional activity. In this study, we identify by mass-spectrometry and yeast 2-hybrid analyses several proteins that interact with the N-terminal region of Glis3. These include the WW-domain-containing HECT E3 ubiquitin ligases, Itch, Smurf2, and Nedd4. The interaction between Glis3 and the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligases was verified by co-immunoprecipitation assays and mutation analysis. All three proteins interact through their WW-domains with a PPxY motif located in the Glis3 N-terminus. However, only Itch significantly contributed to Glis3 polyubiquitination and reduced Glis3 stability by enhancing its proteasomal degradation. Itch-mediated degradation of Glis3 required the PPxY motif-dependent interaction between Glis3 and the WW-domains of Itch as well as the presence of the Glis3 zinc finger domains. Transcription analyses demonstrated that Itch dramatically inhibited Glis3-mediated transactivation and endogenous Ins2 expression by increasing Glis3 protein turnover. Taken together, our study identifies Itch as a critical negative regulator of Glis3-mediated transcriptional activity. This regulation provides a novel mechanism to modulate Glis3-driven gene expression and suggests that it may play a role in a number of physiological processes controlled by Glis3, such as insulin transcription, as well as in Glis3-associated diseases. PMID:26147758

  4. Rice LGD1 containing RNA binding activity affects growth and development through alternative promoters.

    PubMed

    Thangasamy, Saminathan; Chen, Pei-Wei; Lai, Ming-Hsing; Chen, Jychian; Jauh, Guang-Yuh

    2012-07-01

    Tiller initiation and panicle development are important agronomical traits for grain production in Oryza sativa L. (rice), but their regulatory mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In this study, T-DNA mutant and RNAi transgenic approaches were used to functionally characterize a unique rice gene, LAGGING GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 1 (LGD1). The lgd1 mutant showed slow growth, reduced tiller number and plant height, altered panicle architecture and reduced grain yield. The fewer unelongated internodes and cells in lgd1 led to respective reductions in tiller number and to semi-dwarfism. Several independent LGD1-RNAi lines exhibited defective phenotypes similar to those observed in lgd1. Interestingly, LGD1 encodes multiple transcripts with different transcription start sites (TSSs), which were validated by RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of 5' and 3' cDNA ends (RLM-RACE). Additionally, GUS assays and a luciferase promoter assay confirmed the promoter activities of LGD1.1 and LGD1.5. LGD1 encoding a von Willebrand factor type A (vWA) domain containing protein is a single gene in rice that is seemingly specific to grasses. GFP-tagged LGD1 isoforms were predominantly detected in the nucleus, and weakly in the cytoplasm. In vitro northwestern analysis showed the RNA-binding activity of the recombinant C-terminal LGD1 protein. Our results demonstrated that LGD1 pleiotropically regulated rice vegetative growth and development through both the distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns of its multiple transcripts and RNA binding activity. Hence, the study of LGD1 will strengthen our understanding of the molecular basis of the multiple transcripts, and their corresponding polypeptides with RNA binding activity, that regulate pleiotropic effects in rice.

  5. Phosphorylation regulates coilin activity and RNA association

    PubMed Central

    Broome, Hanna J.; Carrero, Zunamys I.; Douglas, Heather E.; Hebert, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The Cajal body (CB) is a domain of concentrated components found within the nucleus of cells in an array of species that is functionally important for the biogenesis of telomerase and small nuclear ribonucleoproteins. The CB is a dynamic structure whose number and size change during the cell cycle and is associated with other nuclear structures and gene loci. Coilin, also known as the marker protein for the CB, is a phosphoprotein widely accepted for its role in maintaining CB integrity. Recent studies have been done to further elucidate functional activities of coilin apart from its structural role in the CB in an attempt to explore the rationale for coilin expression in cells that have few CBs or lack them altogether. Here we show that the RNA association profile of coilin changes in mitosis with respect to that during interphase. We provide evidence of transcriptional and/or processing dysregulation of several CB-related RNA transcripts as a result of ectopic expression of both wild-type and phosphomutant coilin proteins. We also show apparent changes in transcription and/or processing of these transcripts upon coilin knockdown in both transformed and primary cell lines. Additionally, we provide evidence of specific coilin RNase activity regulation, on both U2 and hTR transcripts, by phosphorylation of a single residue, serine 489. Collectively, these results point to additional functions for coilin that are regulated by phosphorylation. PMID:23616925

  6. Human DNA ligases: a comprehensive new look for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deependra Kumar; Krishna, Shagun; Chandra, Sharat; Shameem, Mohammad; Deshmukh, Amit Laxmikant; Banerjee, Dibyendu

    2014-05-01

    Living organisms belonging to all three domains of life, viz., eubacteria, archaeabacteria, and eukaryotes encode one or more DNA ligases. DNA ligases are indispensable in various DNA repair and replication processes and a deficiency or an inhibition of their activity can lead to accumulation of DNA damage and strand breaks. DNA damage, specially strand breaks at unsustainable levels can lead to replication block and/or cell death. DNA ligases as potential anticancer targets have been realized only recently. There is enough rationale to suggest that ligases have a tremendous potential for novel therapeutics including anticancer and antibacterial therapy, specially when the world is facing acute problems of drug resistance and chemotherapy failure, with an immediate need for new therapeutic targets. Here, we review the current state of the art in the development of human ligase inhibitors, their structures, molecular mechanisms, physiological effects, and their potential in future cancer therapy. Citing examples, we focus on strategies for improving the activity and specificity of existing and novel inhibitors by using structure-based rational approaches. In the end, we describe potential new sites on the ligase I protein that can be targeted for the development of novel inhibitors. This is the first comprehensive review to compile all known human ligase inhibitors and to provide a rationale for the further development of ligase inhibitors for cancer therapy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Leukemogenic kinase FIP1L1-PDGFRA and a small ubiquitin-like modifier E3 ligase, PIAS1, form a positive cross-talk through their enzymatic activities.

    PubMed

    Ibata, Makoto; Iwasaki, Junko; Fujioka, Yoichiro; Nakagawa, Koji; Darmanin, Stephanie; Onozawa, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Daigo; Ohba, Yusuke; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu; Teshima, Takanori; Kondo, Takeshi

    2017-02-01

    Fusion tyrosine kinases play a crucial role in the development of hematological malignancies. FIP1L1-PDGFRA is a leukemogenic fusion kinase that causes chronic eosinophilic leukemia. As a constitutively active kinase, FIP1L1-PDGFRA stimulates downstream signaling molecules, leading to cellular proliferation and the generation of an anti-apoptotic state. Contribution of the N-terminal FIP1L1 portion is necessary for FIP1L1-PDGFRA to exert its full transforming activity, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully characterized. We identified PIAS1 as a FIP1L1-PDGFRA association molecule by yeast two-hybrid screening. Our analyses indicate that the FIP1L1 portion of FIP1L1-PDGFRA is required for efficient association with PIAS1. As a consequence of the association, FIP1L1-PDGFRA phosphorylates PIAS1. Moreover, the kinase activity of FIP1L1-PDGFRA stabilizes PIAS1. Therefore, PIAS1 is one of the downstream targets of FIP1L1-PDGFRA. Moreover, we found that PIAS1, as a SUMO E3 ligase, sumoylates and stabilizes FIP1L1-PDGFRA. In addition, suppression of PIAS1 activity by a knockdown experiment resulted in destabilization of FIP1L1-PDGFRA. Therefore, FIP1L1-PDGFRA and PIAS1 form a positive cross-talk through their enzymatic activities. Suppression of sumoylation by ginkgolic acid, a small molecule compound inhibiting a SUMO E1-activating enzyme, also destabilizes FIP1L1-PDGFRA, and while the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib suppresses FIP1L1-PDGFRA-dependent cell growth, ginkgolic acid or siRNA of PIAS1 has a synergistic effect with imatinib. In conclusion, our results suggest that sumoylation by PIAS1 is a potential target in the treatment of FIP1L1-PDGFRA-positive chronic eosinophilic leukemia.

  8. relA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Ryals, J; Bremer, H

    1982-01-01

    Parameters relating to RNA synthesis were measured after a temperature shift from 30 to 42 degrees C, in a relA+ and relA- isogenic pair of Escherichia coli strains containing a temperature-sensitive valyl tRNA synthetase. The following results were obtained: (i) the rRNA chain growth rate increased 2-fold in both strains; (ii) newly synthesized rRNA became unstable in both strains; (iii) the stable RNA gene activity (rRNA and tRNA, measured as stable RNA synthesis rate relative to the total instantaneous rate of RNA synthesis) decreased 1.7-fold in the relA+ strain and increased 1.9-fold in the relA mutant; and (iv) the RNA polymerase activity (measured by the percentage of total RNA polymerase enzyme active in transcription an any instant) decreased from 20 to 3.6% in the relA+ strain and remained unchanged (or increased at most to 22%) in the relA mutant. It is suggested that both rRNA gene activity and the RNA polymerase activity depend on the intracellular concentration of guanosine tetraphosphate, whereas the altered chain elongation rate and stability of rRNA are temperature or amino acid starvation effects, respectively, without involvement of relA function. PMID:6174501

  9. Determinants of Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier 1 (SUMO1) Protein Specificity, E3 Ligase, and SUMO-RanGAP1 Binding Activities of Nucleoporin RanBP2

    SciTech Connect

    Gareau, Jaclyn R.; Reverter, David; Lima, Christopher D.

    2012-02-16

    The RanBP2 nucleoporin contains an internal repeat domain (IR1-M-IR2) that catalyzes E3 ligase activity and forms a stable complex with SUMO-modified RanGAP1 and UBC9 at the nuclear pore complex. RanBP2 exhibits specificity for SUMO1 as RanGAP1-SUMO1/UBC9 forms a more stable complex with RanBP2 compared with RanGAP1-SUMO2 that results in greater protection of RanGAP-SUMO1 from proteases. The IR1-M-IR2 SUMO E3 ligase activity also shows a similar preference for SUMO1. We utilized deletions and domain swap constructs in protease protection assays and automodification assays to define RanBP2 domains responsible for RanGAP1-SUMO1 protection and SUMO1-specific E3 ligase activity. Our data suggest that elements in both IR1 and IR2 exhibit specificity for SUMO1. IR1 protects RanGAP1-SUMO1/UBC9 and functions as the primary E3 ligase of RanBP2, whereas IR2 retains the ability to interact with SUMO1 to promote SUMO1-specific E3 ligase activity. To determine the structural basis for SUMO1 specificity, a hybrid IR1 construct and IR1 were used to determine three new structures for complexes containing UBC9 with RanGAP1-SUMO1/2. These structures show more extensive contacts among SUMO, UBC9, and RanBP2 in complexes containing SUMO1 compared with SUMO2 and suggest that differences in SUMO specificity may be achieved through these subtle conformational differences.

  10. Determinants of Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier 1 (SUMO1) Protein Specificity, E3 Ligase, and SUMO-RanGAP1 Binding Activities of Nucleoporin RanBP2*

    PubMed Central

    Gareau, Jaclyn R.; Reverter, David; Lima, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    The RanBP2 nucleoporin contains an internal repeat domain (IR1-M-IR2) that catalyzes E3 ligase activity and forms a stable complex with SUMO-modified RanGAP1 and UBC9 at the nuclear pore complex. RanBP2 exhibits specificity for SUMO1 as RanGAP1-SUMO1/UBC9 forms a more stable complex with RanBP2 compared with RanGAP1-SUMO2 that results in greater protection of RanGAP-SUMO1 from proteases. The IR1-M-IR2 SUMO E3 ligase activity also shows a similar preference for SUMO1. We utilized deletions and domain swap constructs in protease protection assays and automodification assays to define RanBP2 domains responsible for RanGAP1-SUMO1 protection and SUMO1-specific E3 ligase activity. Our data suggest that elements in both IR1 and IR2 exhibit specificity for SUMO1. IR1 protects RanGAP1-SUMO1/UBC9 and functions as the primary E3 ligase of RanBP2, whereas IR2 retains the ability to interact with SUMO1 to promote SUMO1-specific E3 ligase activity. To determine the structural basis for SUMO1 specificity, a hybrid IR1 construct and IR1 were used to determine three new structures for complexes containing UBC9 with RanGAP1-SUMO1/2. These structures show more extensive contacts among SUMO, UBC9, and RanBP2 in complexes containing SUMO1 compared with SUMO2 and suggest that differences in SUMO specificity may be achieved through these subtle conformational differences. PMID:22194619

  11. Specific Inhibition of the Eubacterial DNA Ligase by Arylamino Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ciarrocchi, Giovanni; MacPhee, Donald G.; Deady, Les W.; Tilley, Leann

    1999-01-01

    All known DNA ligases catalyze the formation of a phosphodiester linkage between adjacent termini in double-stranded DNA via very similar mechanisms. The ligase family can, however, be divided into two classes: eubacterial ligases, which require NAD+ as a cofactor, and other ligases, from viruses, archaea, and eukaryotes, which use ATP. Drugs that discriminate between DNA ligases from different sources may have antieubacterial activity. We now report that a group of arylamino compounds, including some commonly used antimalarial and anti-inflammatory drugs and a novel series of bisquinoline compounds, are specific inhibitors of eubacterial DNA ligases. Members of this group of inhibitors have different heterocyclic ring systems with a common amino side chain in which the two nitrogens are separated by four carbon atoms. The potency, but not the specificity of action, is influenced by the DNA-binding characteristics of the inhibitor, and the inhibition is noncompetitive with respect to NAD+. The arylamino compounds appear to target eubacterial DNA ligase in vivo, since a Salmonella Lig− strain that has been rescued with the ATP-dependent T4 DNA ligase is less sensitive than the parental Salmonella strain. PMID:10543760

  12. Trim25 Is an RNA-Specific Activator of Lin28a/TuT4-Mediated Uridylation.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Nila Roy; Nowak, Jakub S; Zuo, Juan; Rappsilber, Juri; Spoel, Steven H; Michlewski, Gracjan

    2014-11-20

    RNA binding proteins have thousands of cellular RNA targets and often exhibit opposite or passive molecular functions. Lin28a is a conserved RNA binding protein involved in pluripotency and tumorigenesis that was previously shown to trigger TuT4-mediated pre-let-7 uridylation, inhibiting its processing and targeting it for degradation. Surprisingly, despite binding to other pre-microRNAs (pre-miRNAs), only pre-let-7 is efficiently uridylated by TuT4. Thus, we hypothesized the existence of substrate-specific cofactors that stimulate Lin28a-mediated pre-let-7 uridylation or restrict its functionality on non-let-7 pre-miRNAs. Through RNA pull-downs coupled with quantitative mass spectrometry, we identified the E3 ligase Trim25 as an RNA-specific cofactor for Lin28a/TuT4-mediated uridylation. We show that Trim25 binds to the conserved terminal loop (CTL) of pre-let-7 and activates TuT4, allowing for more efficient Lin28a-mediated uridylation. These findings reveal that protein-modifying enzymes, only recently shown to bind RNA, can guide the function of canonical ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes in cis, thereby providing an additional level of specificity.

  13. Trim25 Is an RNA-Specific Activator of Lin28a/TuT4-Mediated Uridylation

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Nila Roy; Nowak, Jakub S.; Zuo, Juan; Rappsilber, Juri; Spoel, Steven H.; Michlewski, Gracjan

    2014-01-01

    Summary RNA binding proteins have thousands of cellular RNA targets and often exhibit opposite or passive molecular functions. Lin28a is a conserved RNA binding protein involved in pluripotency and tumorigenesis that was previously shown to trigger TuT4-mediated pre-let-7 uridylation, inhibiting its processing and targeting it for degradation. Surprisingly, despite binding to other pre-microRNAs (pre-miRNAs), only pre-let-7 is efficiently uridylated by TuT4. Thus, we hypothesized the existence of substrate-specific cofactors that stimulate Lin28a-mediated pre-let-7 uridylation or restrict its functionality on non-let-7 pre-miRNAs. Through RNA pull-downs coupled with quantitative mass spectrometry, we identified the E3 ligase Trim25 as an RNA-specific cofactor for Lin28a/TuT4-mediated uridylation. We show that Trim25 binds to the conserved terminal loop (CTL) of pre-let-7 and activates TuT4, allowing for more efficient Lin28a-mediated uridylation. These findings reveal that protein-modifying enzymes, only recently shown to bind RNA, can guide the function of canonical ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes in cis, thereby providing an additional level of specificity. PMID:25457611

  14. The Nedd4-Type Rsp5p Ubiquitin Ligase Inhibits Tombusvirus Replication by Regulating Degradation of the p92 Replication Protein and Decreasing the Activity of the Tombusvirus Replicase▿

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Daniel; Li, Zhenghe; Nagy, Peter D.

    2009-01-01

    Recent in vitro proteomics screens revealed that many host proteins could interact with the replication proteins of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), which is a small, plus-stranded RNA virus (Z. Li, D. Barajas, T. Panavas, D. A. Herbst, and P. D. Nagy, J. Virol. 82:6911-6926, 2008). To further our understanding of the roles of host factors in TBSV replication, we have tested the effect of Rsp5p, which is a member of the Nedd4 family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. The full-length Rsp5p, via its WW domain, is shown to interact with p33 and the central portion of p92pol replication proteins. We find that overexpression of Rsp5p inhibits TBSV replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, while downregulation of Rsp5p leads to increased TBSV accumulation. The inhibition is caused by Rsp5p-guided degradation of p92pol, while the negative effect on the p33 level is less pronounced. Interestingly, recombinant Rsp5p also inhibits TBSV RNA replication in a cell-free replication assay, likely due to its ability to bind to p33 and p92pol. We show that the WW domain of Rsp5p, which is involved in protein interactions, is responsible for inhibition of TBSV replication, whereas the HECT domain, involved in protein ubiquitination, is not necessary for Rsp5p-mediated inhibition of viral replication. Overall, our data suggest that direct binding between Rsp5p and p92pol reduces the stability of p92pol, with consequent inhibition of TBSV replicase activity. PMID:19759160

  15. PPR-SMR protein SOT1 has RNA endonuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen; Lu, Qingtao; Li, Qingwei; Wang, Lei; Ding, Shunhua; Zhang, Aihong; Wen, Xiaogang; Zhang, Lixin; Lu, Congming

    2017-02-21

    Numerous attempts have been made to identify and engineer sequence-specific RNA endonucleases, as these would allow for efficient RNA manipulation. However, no natural RNA endonuclease that recognizes RNA in a sequence-specific manner has been described to date. Here, we report that SUPPRESSOR OF THYLAKOID FORMATION 1 (SOT1), an Arabidopsis pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein with a small MutS-related (SMR) domain, has RNA endonuclease activity. We show that the SMR moiety of SOT1 performs the endonucleolytic maturation of 23S and 4.5S rRNA through the PPR domain, specifically recognizing a 13-nucleotide RNA sequence in the 5' end of the chloroplast 23S-4.5S rRNA precursor. In addition, we successfully engineered the SOT1 protein with altered PPR motifs to recognize and cleave a predicted RNA substrate. Our findings point to SOT1 as an exciting tool for RNA manipulation.

  16. [Novel L-amino acid ligases catalyzing oligopeptide synthesis].

    PubMed

    Kino, Kuniki

    2010-11-01

    L-Amino acid ligase (EC 6.3.2.28) is a microbial enzyme catalyzing formation of an alpha-peptide bond from unprotected L-amino acids in an ATP-dependent manner. The YwfE protein from Bacillus subtilis 168 was the first reported L-amino acid ligase, and it synthesizes various dipeptides. Thereafter, several L-amino acid ligases were newly obtained by in silico analysis using the ATP-grasp motif. But these L-amino acid ligases synthesize only dipeptide and no longer peptide. A novel L-amino acid ligase capable of catalyzing oligopeptide synthesis is required to increase the variety of peptides. We have previously found a new member of L-amino acid ligase, RizA, from B. subtilis NBRC3134, a microorganism that produces the peptide-antibiotic rhizocticin. We newly found that a gene at approximately 9 kbp upstream of rizA encoded a novel L-amino acid ligase RizB. Recombinant RizB synthesized homo-oligomers of branched-chain amino acids consisting of 2 to 5 amino acids, and also synthesized various heteropeptides. RizB is the first reported L-amino acid ligase that catalyzes oligopeptide synthesis. In addition, we obtained L-amino acid ligases showing oligopeptide synthesis activities by in silico analysis using BLAST, which is a set of similarity search programs. These L-amino acid ligases showed low similarity in amino acid sequence, but commonly used branched-chain amino acids, such as RizB, as substrates. Furthermore, the spr0969 protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae synthesized longer peptides than those synthesized by RizB, and the BAD_1200 protein of Bifidobacteria adolescentis showed higher activity toward aromatic amino acids than toward branched-chain ones.

  17. Noncoding flavivirus RNA displays RNA interference suppressor activity in insect and Mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Schnettler, Esther; Sterken, Mark G; Leung, Jason Y; Metz, Stefan W; Geertsema, Corinne; Goldbach, Rob W; Vlak, Just M; Kohl, Alain; Khromykh, Alexander A; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2012-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV) are highly pathogenic, mosquito-borne flaviviruses (family Flaviviridae) that cause severe disease and death in humans. WNV and DENV actively replicate in mosquitoes and human hosts and thus encounter different host immune responses. RNA interference (RNAi) is the predominant antiviral response against invading RNA viruses in insects and plants. As a countermeasure, plant and insect RNA viruses encode RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) proteins to block the generation/activity of small interfering RNA (siRNA). Enhanced flavivirus replication in mosquitoes depleted for RNAi factors suggests an important biological role for RNAi in restricting virus replication, but it has remained unclear whether or not flaviviruses counteract RNAi via expression of an RSS. First, we established that flaviviral RNA replication suppressed siRNA-induced gene silencing in WNV and DENV replicon-expressing cells. Next, we showed that none of the WNV encoded proteins displayed RSS activity in mammalian and insect cells and in plants by using robust RNAi suppressor assays. In contrast, we found that the 3'-untranslated region-derived RNA molecule known as subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) efficiently suppressed siRNA- and miRNA-induced RNAi pathways in both mammalian and insect cells. We also showed that WNV sfRNA inhibits in vitro cleavage of double-stranded RNA by Dicer. The results of the present study suggest a novel role for sfRNA, i.e., as a nucleic acid-based regulator of RNAi pathways, a strategy that may be conserved among flaviviruses.

  18. Structure and function of the DNA ligases encoded by the mammalian LIG3 gene.

    PubMed

    Tomkinson, Alan E; Sallmyr, Annahita

    2013-12-01

    Among the mammalian genes encoding DNA ligases (LIG), the LIG3 gene is unique in that it encodes multiple DNA ligase polypeptides with different cellular functions. Notably, this nuclear gene encodes the only mitochondrial DNA ligase and so is essential for this organelle. In the nucleus, there is significant functional redundancy between DNA ligase IIIα and DNA ligase I in excision repair. In addition, DNA ligase IIIα is essential for DNA replication in the absence of the replicative DNA ligase, DNA ligase I. DNA ligase IIIα is a component of an alternative non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair that is more active when the major DNA ligase IV-dependent pathway is defective. Unlike its other nuclear functions, the role of DNA ligase IIIα in alternative NHEJ is independent of its nuclear partner protein, X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1). DNA ligase IIIα is frequently overexpressed in cancer cells, acting as a biomarker for increased dependence upon alternative NHEJ for DSB repair and it is a promising novel therapeutic target. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Structure and function of the DNA ligases encoded by the mammalian LIG3 gene

    PubMed Central

    Tomkinson, Alan E.; Sallmyr, Annahita

    2013-01-01

    Among the mammalian genes encoding DNA ligases (LIG), the LIG3 gene is unique in that it encodes multiple DNA ligase polypeptides with different cellular functions. Notably, this nuclear gene encodes the only mitochondrial DNA ligase and so is essential for this organelle. In the nucleus, there is significant functional redundancy between DNA ligase IIIα and DNA ligase I in excision repair. In addition, DNA ligase IIIα is essential for DNA replication in the absence of the replicative DNA ligase, DNA ligase I. DNA ligase IIIα is a component of an alternative non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair that is more active when the major DNA ligase IV-dependent pathway is defective. Unlike its other nuclear functions, the role of DNA ligase IIIα in alternative NHEJ is independent of its nuclear partner protein, X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1). DNA ligase IIIα is frequently overexpressed in cancer cells, acting as a biomarker for increased dependence upon alternative NHEJ for DSB repair and it is a promising novel therapeutic target. PMID:24013086

  20. DNA Ligase C1 Mediates the LigD-Independent Nonhomologous End-Joining Pathway of Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Hitesh; Gupta, Richa

    2014-01-01

    Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is a recently described bacterial DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway that has been best characterized for mycobacteria. NHEJ can religate transformed linear plasmids, repair ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DSBs in nonreplicating cells, and seal I-SceI-induced chromosomal DSBs. The core components of the mycobacterial NHEJ machinery are the DNA end binding protein Ku and the polyfunctional DNA ligase LigD. LigD has three autonomous enzymatic modules: ATP-dependent DNA ligase (LIG), DNA/RNA polymerase (POL), and 3′ phosphoesterase (PE). Although genetic ablation of ku or ligD abolishes NHEJ and sensitizes nonreplicating cells to ionizing radiation, selective ablation of the ligase activity of LigD in vivo only mildly impairs NHEJ of linearized plasmids, indicating that an additional DNA ligase can support NHEJ. Additionally, the in vivo role of the POL and PE domains in NHEJ is unclear. Here we define a LigD ligase-independent NHEJ pathway in Mycobacterium smegmatis that requires the ATP-dependent DNA ligase LigC1 and the POL domain of LigD. Mycobacterium tuberculosis LigC can also support this backup NHEJ pathway. We also demonstrate that, although dispensable for efficient plasmid NHEJ, the activities of the POL and PE domains are required for repair of IR-induced DSBs in nonreplicating cells. These findings define the genetic requirements for a LigD-independent NHEJ pathway in mycobacteria and demonstrate that all enzymatic functions of the LigD protein participate in NHEJ in vivo. PMID:24957619

  1. DNA ligase C1 mediates the LigD-independent nonhomologous end-joining pathway of Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Hitesh; Gupta, Richa; Glickman, Michael S

    2014-10-01

    Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is a recently described bacterial DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway that has been best characterized for mycobacteria. NHEJ can religate transformed linear plasmids, repair ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DSBs in nonreplicating cells, and seal I-SceI-induced chromosomal DSBs. The core components of the mycobacterial NHEJ machinery are the DNA end binding protein Ku and the polyfunctional DNA ligase LigD. LigD has three autonomous enzymatic modules: ATP-dependent DNA ligase (LIG), DNA/RNA polymerase (POL), and 3' phosphoesterase (PE). Although genetic ablation of ku or ligD abolishes NHEJ and sensitizes nonreplicating cells to ionizing radiation, selective ablation of the ligase activity of LigD in vivo only mildly impairs NHEJ of linearized plasmids, indicating that an additional DNA ligase can support NHEJ. Additionally, the in vivo role of the POL and PE domains in NHEJ is unclear. Here we define a LigD ligase-independent NHEJ pathway in Mycobacterium smegmatis that requires the ATP-dependent DNA ligase LigC1 and the POL domain of LigD. Mycobacterium tuberculosis LigC can also support this backup NHEJ pathway. We also demonstrate that, although dispensable for efficient plasmid NHEJ, the activities of the POL and PE domains are required for repair of IR-induced DSBs in nonreplicating cells. These findings define the genetic requirements for a LigD-independent NHEJ pathway in mycobacteria and demonstrate that all enzymatic functions of the LigD protein participate in NHEJ in vivo. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. A Novel Benzocoumarin-Stilbene Hybrid as a DNA ligase I inhibitor with in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity in breast cancer models.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Mohd Kamil; Singh, Deependra Kumar; Singh, Akhilesh; Asad, Mohd; Ansari, Mohd Imran; Shameem, Mohammad; Krishna, Shagun; Valicherla, Guru R; Makadia, Vishal; Meena, Sanjeev; Deshmukh, Amit Laxmikant; Gayen, Jiaur R; Imran Siddiqi, Mohammad; Datta, Dipak; Hajela, Kanchan; Banerjee, Dibyendu

    2017-09-06

    Existing cancer therapies are often associated with drug resistance and toxicity, which results in poor prognosis and recurrence of cancer. This necessitates the identification and development of novel therapeutics against existing as well as novel cellular targets. In this study, a novel class of Benzocoumarin-Stilbene hybrid molecules were synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against various cancer cell lines followed by in vivo antitumor activity in a mouse model of cancer. The most promising molecule among the series, i.e. compound (E)-4-(3,5-dimethoxystyryl)-2H-benzo[h]chromen-2-one (19) showed maximum antiproliferative activity in breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and 4T1) and decreased the tumor size in the in-vivo 4T1 cell-induced orthotopic syngeneic mouse breast cancer model. The mechanistic studies of compound 19 by various biochemical, cell biology and biophysical approaches suggest that the compound binds to and inhibits the human DNA ligase I enzyme activity that might be the cause for significant reduction in tumor growth and may constitute a promising next-generation therapy against breast cancers.

  3. Interplay between Polo kinase, LKB1-activated NUAK1 kinase, PP1βMYPT1 phosphatase complex and the SCFβTrCP E3 ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sourav; Zagórska, Anna; Deak, Maria; Campbell, David G; Prescott, Alan R; Alessi, Dario R

    2014-07-15

    NUAK1 (NUAK family SnF1-like kinase-1) and NUAK2 protein kinases are activated by the LKB1 tumour suppressor and have been implicated in regulating multiple processes such as cell survival, senescence, adhesion and polarity. In the present paper we present evidence that expression of NUAK1 is controlled by CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase), PLK (Polo kinase) and the SCFβTrCP (Skp, Cullin and F-boxβTrCP) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Our data indicate that CDK phosphorylates NUAK1 at Ser445, triggering binding to PLK, which subsequently phosphorylates NUAK1 at two conserved non-catalytic serine residues (Ser476 and Ser480). This induces binding of NUAK1 to βTrCP, the substrate-recognition subunit of the SCFβTrCP E3 ligase, resulting in NUAK1 becoming ubiquitylated and degraded. We also show that NUAK1 and PLK1 are reciprocally controlled in the cell cycle. In G2-M-phase, when PLK1 is most active, NUAK1 levels are low and vice versa in S-phase, when PLK1 expression is low, NUAK1 is more highly expressed. Moreover, NUAK1 inhibitors (WZ4003 or HTH-01-015) suppress proliferation by reducing the population of cells in S-phase and mitosis, an effect that can be rescued by overexpression of a NUAK1 mutant in which Ser476 and Ser480 are mutated to alanine. Finally, previous work has suggested that NUAK1 phosphorylates and inhibits PP1βMYPT1 (where PP1 is protein phosphatase 1) and that a major role for the PP1βMYPT1 complex is to inhibit PLK1 by dephosphorylating its T-loop (Thr210). We demonstrate that activation of NUAK1 leads to a striking increase in phosphorylation of PLK1 at Thr210, an effect that is suppressed by NUAK1 inhibitors. Our data link NUAK1 to important cell-cycle signalling components (CDK, PLK and SCFβTrCP) and suggest that NUAK1 plays a role in stimulating S-phase, as well as PLK1 activity via its ability to regulate the PP1βMYPT1 phosphatase.

  4. RNA Chaperone Activity of Human La Protein Is Mediated by Variant RNA Recognition Motif*

    PubMed Central

    Naeeni, Amir R.; Conte, Maria R.; Bayfield, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    La proteins are conserved factors in eukaryotes that bind and protect the 3′ trailers of pre-tRNAs from exonuclease digestion via sequence-specific recognition of UUU-3′OH. La has also been hypothesized to assist pre-tRNAs in attaining their native fold through RNA chaperone activity. In addition to binding polymerase III transcripts, human La has also been shown to enhance the translation of several internal ribosome entry sites and upstream ORF-containing mRNA targets, also potentially through RNA chaperone activity. Using in vitro FRET-based assays, we show that human and Schizosaccharomyces pombe La proteins harbor RNA chaperone activity by enhancing RNA strand annealing and strand dissociation. We use various RNA substrates and La mutants to show that UUU-3′OH-dependent La-RNA binding is not required for this function, and we map RNA chaperone activity to its RRM1 motif including a noncanonical α3-helix. We validate the importance of this α3-helix by appending it to the RRM of the unrelated U1A protein and show that this fusion protein acquires significant strand annealing activity. Finally, we show that residues required for La-mediated RNA chaperone activity in vitro are required for La-dependent rescue of tRNA-mediated suppression via a mutated suppressor tRNA in vivo. This work delineates the structural elements required for La-mediated RNA chaperone activity and provides a basis for understanding how La can enhance the folding of its various RNA targets. PMID:22203678

  5. RNA chaperone activity of human La protein is mediated by variant RNA recognition motif.

    PubMed

    Naeeni, Amir R; Conte, Maria R; Bayfield, Mark A

    2012-02-17

    La proteins are conserved factors in eukaryotes that bind and protect the 3' trailers of pre-tRNAs from exonuclease digestion via sequence-specific recognition of UUU-3'OH. La has also been hypothesized to assist pre-tRNAs in attaining their native fold through RNA chaperone activity. In addition to binding polymerase III transcripts, human La has also been shown to enhance the translation of several internal ribosome entry sites and upstream ORF-containing mRNA targets, also potentially through RNA chaperone activity. Using in vitro FRET-based assays, we show that human and Schizosaccharomyces pombe La proteins harbor RNA chaperone activity by enhancing RNA strand annealing and strand dissociation. We use various RNA substrates and La mutants to show that UUU-3'OH-dependent La-RNA binding is not required for this function, and we map RNA chaperone activity to its RRM1 motif including a noncanonical α3-helix. We validate the importance of this α3-helix by appending it to the RRM of the unrelated U1A protein and show that this fusion protein acquires significant strand annealing activity. Finally, we show that residues required for La-mediated RNA chaperone activity in vitro are required for La-dependent rescue of tRNA-mediated suppression via a mutated suppressor tRNA in vivo. This work delineates the structural elements required for La-mediated RNA chaperone activity and provides a basis for understanding how La can enhance the folding of its various RNA targets.

  6. Poxvirus targeting of E3 ligase β-TrCP by molecular mimicry: a mechanism to inhibit NF-κB activation and promote immune evasion and virulence.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Daniel S; Maluquer de Motes, Carlos; Unterholzner, Leonie; Sumner, Rebecca P; Ferguson, Brian J; Ren, Hongwei; Strnadova, Pavla; Bowie, Andrew G; Smith, Geoffrey L

    2013-02-01

    The transcription factor NF-κB is essential for immune responses against pathogens and its activation requires the phosphorylation, ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of IκBα. Here we describe an inhibitor of NF-κB from vaccinia virus that has a closely related counterpart in variola virus, the cause of smallpox, and mechanistic similarity with the HIV protein Vpu. Protein A49 blocks NF-κB activation by molecular mimicry and contains a motif conserved in IκBα which, in IκBα, is phosphorylated by IKKβ causing ubiquitination and degradation. Like IκBα, A49 binds the E3 ligase β-TrCP, thereby preventing ubiquitination and degradation of IκBα. Consequently, A49 stabilised phosphorylated IκBα (p-IκBα) and its interaction with p65, so preventing p65 nuclear translocation. Serine-to-alanine mutagenesis within the IκBα-like motif of A49 abolished β-TrCP binding, stabilisation of p-IκBα and inhibition of NF-κB activation. Remarkably, despite encoding nine other inhibitors of NF-κB, a VACV lacking A49 showed reduced virulence in vivo.

  7. RNF8 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Stimulates Ubc13 E2 Conjugating Activity That Is Essential for DNA Double Strand Break Signaling and BRCA1 Tumor Suppressor Recruitment

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, Curtis D.; Ismail, Ismail H.; Edwards, Ross A.; Hura, Greg L.; Xiao, Andrew T.; Tainer, John A.; Hendzel, Michael J.; Glover, J. N. Mark

    2016-02-22

    DNA double strand break (DSB) responses depend on the sequential actions of the E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168 plus E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc13 to specifically generate histone Lys-63-linked ubiquitin chains in DSB signaling. In this paper, we defined the activated RNF8-Ubc13~ubiquitin complex by x-ray crystallography and its functional solution conformations by x-ray scattering, as tested by separation-of-function mutations imaged in cells by immunofluorescence. The collective results show that the RING E3 RNF8 targets E2 Ubc13 to DSB sites and plays a critical role in damage signaling by stimulating polyubiquitination through modulating conformations of ubiquitin covalently linked to the Ubc13 active site. Structure-guided separation-of-function mutations show that the RNF8 E2 stimulating activity is essential for DSB signaling in mammalian cells and is necessary for downstream recruitment of 53BP1 and BRCA1. Chromatin-targeted RNF168 rescues 53BP1 recruitment involved in non-homologous end joining but not BRCA1 recruitment for homologous recombination. Finally, these findings suggest an allosteric approach to targeting the ubiquitin-docking cleft at the E2-E3 interface for possible interventions in cancer and chronic inflammation, and moreover, they establish an independent RNF8 role in BRCA1 recruitment.

  8. RNF8 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Stimulates Ubc13 E2 Conjugating Activity That Is Essential for DNA Double Strand Break Signaling and BRCA1 Tumor Suppressor Recruitment

    DOE PAGES

    Hodge, Curtis D.; Ismail, Ismail H.; Edwards, Ross A.; ...

    2016-02-22

    DNA double strand break (DSB) responses depend on the sequential actions of the E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168 plus E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc13 to specifically generate histone Lys-63-linked ubiquitin chains in DSB signaling. In this paper, we defined the activated RNF8-Ubc13~ubiquitin complex by x-ray crystallography and its functional solution conformations by x-ray scattering, as tested by separation-of-function mutations imaged in cells by immunofluorescence. The collective results show that the RING E3 RNF8 targets E2 Ubc13 to DSB sites and plays a critical role in damage signaling by stimulating polyubiquitination through modulating conformations of ubiquitin covalently linked to the Ubc13more » active site. Structure-guided separation-of-function mutations show that the RNF8 E2 stimulating activity is essential for DSB signaling in mammalian cells and is necessary for downstream recruitment of 53BP1 and BRCA1. Chromatin-targeted RNF168 rescues 53BP1 recruitment involved in non-homologous end joining but not BRCA1 recruitment for homologous recombination. Finally, these findings suggest an allosteric approach to targeting the ubiquitin-docking cleft at the E2-E3 interface for possible interventions in cancer and chronic inflammation, and moreover, they establish an independent RNF8 role in BRCA1 recruitment.« less

  9. Inactivation of the Cullin (CUL)-RING E3 ligase by the NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor MLN4924 triggers protective autophagy in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhongguang; Pan, Yongfu; Jeong, Lak Shin; Liu, Jie; Jia, Lijun

    2012-11-01

    The multiunit Cullin (CUL)-RING E3 ligase (CRL) controls diverse biological processes by targeting a mass of substrates for ubiquitination and degradation, whereas its dysfunction causes carcinogenesis. Post-translational neddylation of CUL, a process triggered by the NEDD8-activating enzyme E1 subunit 1 (NAE1), is required for CRL activation. Recently, MLN4924 was discovered via a high-throughput screen as a specific NAE1 inhibitor and first-in-class anticancer drug. By blocking CUL neddylation, MLN4924 inactivates CRL and causes the accumulation of CRL substrates that trigger cell cycle arrest, senescence and/or apoptosis to suppress the growth of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Recently, we found that MLN4924 also triggers protective autophagy in response to CRL inactivation. MLN4924-induced autophagy is attributed partially to the inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin (also known as mammalian target of rapamycin, MTOR) activity by the accumulation of the MTOR inhibitory protein DEPTOR, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced stress. Moreover, the blockage of autophagy response enhances apoptosis in MLN4924-treated cells. Together, our findings not only reveal autophagy as a novel cellular response to CRL inactivation by MLN4924, but also provide a piece of proof-of-concept evidence for the combination of MLN4924 with autophagy inhibitors to enhance therapeutic efficacy.

  10. Separation of cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris fermentation supernatant using preparative HPLC and evaluation of its antibacterial activity as an NAD+-dependent DNA ligase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaofeng; Cai, Guoqiang; He, Yi; Tong, Guotong

    2016-01-01

    Cordycepin exhibits various bio-activities, including anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral and immune regulation activities, and is a significant focus of research. However, the preparation of high-purity cordycepin remains challenging. Also, the molecular target with which cordycepin interacts to cause an antibacterial effect remains unknown. In the present study, cordycepin was prepared by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) and the purity obtained was 99.6%, indicating that this technique may be useful for the large-scale isolation of cordycepin in the future. The results of computational molecular docking analysis indicated that the interaction energy between cordycepin and NAD+-dependent DNA ligase (LigA) was lower than that between cordycepin and other common antibacterial targets. The highly pure cordycepin obtained by prep-HPLC demonstrated inhibitory activity against LigA from various bacteria in vitro. In conclusion, cordycepin may be useful as a broad-spectrum antibiotic targeting LigA in various bacteria. PMID:27588098

  11. Non-degradative ubiquitination of the Notch1 receptor by the E3 ligase MDM2 activates the Notch signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Susanne; Sczaniecka, Matylda; McLaren, Lorna; Russell, Fiona; Gladstone, Karen; Hupp, Ted; Wallace, Maura

    2013-03-15

    The Notch receptor is necessary for modulating cell fate decisions throughout development, and aberrant activation of Notch signalling has been associated with many diseases, including tumorigenesis. The E3 ligase MDM2 (murine double minute 2) plays a role in regulating the Notch signalling pathway through its interaction with NUMB. In the present study we report that MDM2 can also exert its oncogenic effects on the Notch signalling pathway by directly interacting with the Notch 1 receptor through dual-site binding. This involves both the N-terminal and acidic domains of MDM2 and the RAM [RBP-Jκ (recombination signal-binding protein 1 for Jκ)-associated molecule] and ANK (ankyrin) domains of Notch 1. Although the interaction between Notch1 and MDM2 results in ubiquitination of Notch1, this does not result in degradation of Notch1, but instead leads to activation of the intracellular domain of Notch1. Furthermore, MDM2 can synergize with Notch1 to inhibit apoptosis and promote proliferation. This highlights yet another target for MDM2-mediated ubiquitination that results in activation of the protein rather than degradation and makes MDM2 an attractive target for drug discovery for both the p53 and Notch signalling pathways.

  12. CDK-mediated activation of the SCF(FBXO) (28) ubiquitin ligase promotes MYC-driven transcription and tumourigenesis and predicts poor survival in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Diana; Ng, Hwee-Fang; Sharifi, Hamid Reza; Mahmoudi, Salah; Cerrato, Vanessa Soto; Fredlund, Erik; Magnusson, Kristina; Nilsson, Helén; Malyukova, Alena; Rantala, Juha; Klevebring, Daniel; Viñals, Francesc; Bhaskaran, Nimesh; Zakaria, Siti Mariam; Rahmanto, Aldwin Suryo; Grotegut, Stefan; Nielsen, Michael Lund; Szigyarto, Cristina Al-Khalili; Sun, Dahui; Lerner, Mikael; Navani, Sanjay; Widschwendter, Martin; Uhlén, Mathias; Jirström, Karin; Pontén, Fredrik; Wohlschlegel, James; Grandér, Dan; Spruck, Charles; Larsson, Lars-Gunnar; Sangfelt, Olle

    2013-07-01

    SCF (Skp1/Cul1/F-box) ubiquitin ligases act as master regulators of cellular homeostasis by targeting key proteins for ubiquitylation. Here, we identified a hitherto uncharacterized F-box protein, FBXO28 that controls MYC-dependent transcription by non-proteolytic ubiquitylation. SCF(FBXO28) activity and stability are regulated during the cell cycle by CDK1/2-mediated phosphorylation of FBXO28, which is required for its efficient ubiquitylation of MYC and downsteam enhancement of the MYC pathway. Depletion of FBXO28 or overexpression of an F-box mutant unable to support MYC ubiquitylation results in an impairment of MYC-driven transcription, transformation and tumourigenesis. Finally, in human breast cancer, high FBXO28 expression and phosphorylation are strong and independent predictors of poor outcome. In conclusion, our data suggest that SCF(FBXO28) plays an important role in transmitting CDK activity to MYC function during the cell cycle, emphasizing the CDK-FBXO28-MYC axis as a potential molecular drug target in MYC-driven cancers, including breast cancer. © 2013 The Authors. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd on behalf of EMBO.

  13. The E3 ubiquitin ligase ZNRF2 is a substrate of mTORC1 and regulates its activation by amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Hoxhaj, Gerta; Caddye, Edward; Najafov, Ayaz; Houde, Vanessa P; Johnson, Catherine; Dissanayake, Kumara; Toth, Rachel; Campbell, David G; Prescott, Alan R; MacKintosh, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The mechanistic Target of Rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) senses intracellular amino acid levels through an intricate machinery, which includes the Rag GTPases, Ragulator and vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase). The membrane-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase ZNRF2 is released into the cytosol upon its phosphorylation by Akt. In this study, we show that ZNRF2 interacts with mTOR on membranes, promoting the amino acid-stimulated translocation of mTORC1 to lysosomes and its activation in human cells. ZNRF2 also interacts with the V-ATPase and preserves lysosomal acidity. Moreover, knockdown of ZNRF2 decreases cell size and cell proliferation. Upon growth factor and amino acid stimulation, mTORC1 phosphorylates ZNRF2 on Ser145, and this phosphosite is dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 6. Ser145 phosphorylation stimulates vesicle-to-cytosol translocation of ZNRF2 and forms a novel negative feedback on mTORC1. Our findings uncover ZNRF2 as a component of the amino acid sensing machinery that acts upstream of Rag-GTPases and the V-ATPase to activate mTORC1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12278.001 PMID:27244671

  14. Analysis of five rice 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase enzyme activity and stress response for potential roles in lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis in rice

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Haiyan; Li, Ying; Feng, Shengqiu; Zou, Weihua; Guo, Kai; Fan, Chunfen; Si, Shengli; and others

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► 4CLs play important roles in both lignin and flavonoids biosynthesis. ► PA and FA are the two main substrates of 4CL (Os4CL1/3/4/5) for lignin biosynthesis. ► Os4CL2 is suggested for flavonoid formation in defense against UV radiation. -- Abstract: 4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) catalyzes the conversion of hydroxycinnamates into corresponding CoA esters for biosynthesis of flavonoids and lignin. In this study, five members of the 4CL gene family from rice were cloned and analyzed. Recombinant 4CL data revealed that 4-coumaric acid and ferulic acid were the two main substrates of 4CL (Os4CL1/3/4/5) for monolignol biosynthesis in rice. Os4CL2 was specifically expressed in the anther and was strongly activated by UV irradiation, suggesting its potential involvement in flavonoid formation. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis showed that the existence of valine residue at the substrate-binding pocket may mainly affect rice 4CL activities toward sinapic acid.

  15. Structure of an SspH1-PKN1 Complex Reveals the Basis for Host Substrate Recognition and Mechanism of Activation for a Bacterial E3 Ubiquitin Ligase

    PubMed Central

    Keszei, Alexander F. A.; Tang, Xiaojing; McCormick, Craig; Zeqiraj, Elton; Rohde, John R.

    2014-01-01

    IpaH proteins are bacterium-specific E3 enzymes that function as type three secretion system (T3SS) effectors in Salmonella, Shigella, and other Gram-negative bacteria. IpaH enzymes recruit host substrates for ubiquitination via a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, which can inhibit the catalytic domain in the absence of substrate. The basis for substrate recognition and the alleviation of autoinhibition upon substrate binding is unknown. Here, we report the X-ray structure of Salmonella SspH1 in complex with human PKN1. The LRR domain of SspH1 interacts specifically with the HR1b coiled-coil subdomain of PKN1 in a manner that sterically displaces the catalytic domain from the LRR domain, thereby activating catalytic function. SspH1 catalyzes the ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation of PKN1 in cells, which attenuates androgen receptor responsiveness but not NF-κB activity. These regulatory features are conserved in other IpaH-substrate interactions. Our results explain the mechanism whereby substrate recognition and enzyme autoregulation are coupled in this class of bacterial ubiquitin ligases. PMID:24248594

  16. c-CBL E3 Ubiquitin Ligase is Over-Expressed in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma: Its Inhibition Promotes Activation Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianqiang; Salva, Katrin A.; Wood, Gary S.

    2014-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sezary syndrome (SS) are two major forms of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) characterized by resistance to apoptosis. A central pathway for T-cell apoptosis is activation-induced cell death (AICD) which is triggered through the T-cell receptor (TCR). This results in upregulation of FAS-ligand (FASL) and subsequent apoptosis through the FAS death receptor pathway. It has been known for more than a decade that TCR signaling is defective in CTCL; however, the underlying mechanism has not been apparent. In this report, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase, c-CBL, is over-expressed in CTCL and that its knockdown overcomes defective TCR signaling resulting in phosphorylation of PLCg1, calcium influx, ROS generation, up-regulation of FASL and extrinsic pathway apoptosis in CTCL cells expressing adequate FAS. In CTCL cells with suboptimal FAS expression, FAS can be upregulated epigenetically by derepression of the FAS promoter using methotrexate (MTX) which we showed previously has activity as a DNA methylation inhibitor. Using these combined strategies, FAS-low as well as FAS-high CTCL cells can be killed effectively. PMID:25140833

  17. Guide RNA functional modules direct Cas9 activity and orthogonality.

    PubMed

    Briner, Alexandra E; Donohoue, Paul D; Gomaa, Ahmed A; Selle, Kurt; Slorach, Euan M; Nye, Christopher H; Haurwitz, Rachel E; Beisel, Chase L; May, Andrew P; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2014-10-23

    The RNA-guided Cas9 endonuclease specifically targets and cleaves DNA in a sequence-dependent manner and has been widely used for programmable genome editing. Cas9 activity is dependent on interactions with guide RNAs, and evolutionarily divergent Cas9 nucleases have been shown to work orthogonally. However, the molecular basis of selective Cas9:guide-RNA interactions is poorly understood. Here, we identify and characterize six conserved modules within native crRNA:tracrRNA duplexes and single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) that direct Cas9 endonuclease activity. We show the bulge and nexus are necessary for DNA cleavage and demonstrate that the nexus and hairpins are instrumental in defining orthogonality between systems. In contrast, the crRNA:tracrRNA complementary region can be modified or partially removed. Collectively, our results establish guide RNA features that drive DNA targeting by Cas9 and open new design and engineering avenues for CRISPR technologies.

  18. RNA exosome regulated long non-coding RNA transcription controls super-enhancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Pefanis, Evangelos; Wang, Jiguang; Rothschild, Gerson; Lim, Junghyun; Kazadi, David; Sun, Jianbo; Federation, Alexander; Chao, Jaime; Elliott, Oliver; Liu, Zhi-Ping; Economides, Aris N.; Bradner, James E.; Rabadan, Raul; Basu, Uttiya

    2015-01-01

    We have ablated the cellular RNA degradation machinery in differentiated B cells and pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells by conditional mutagenesis of core (Exosc3) and nuclear RNase (Exosc10) components of RNA exosome and identified a vast number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) with emergent functionality. Unexpectedly, eRNA-expressing regions accumulate R-loop structures upon RNA exosome ablation, thus demonstrating the role of RNA exosome in resolving deleterious DNA/RNA hybrids arising from active enhancers. We have uncovered a distal divergent eRNA-expressing element (lncRNA-CSR) engaged in long-range DNA interactions and regulating IgH 3′ regulatory region super-enhancer function. CRISPR-Cas9 mediated ablation of lncRNA-CSR transcription decreases its chromosomal looping-mediated association with the IgH 3′regulatory region super-enhancer and leads to decreased class switch recombination efficiency. We propose that the RNA exosome protects divergently transcribed lncRNA expressing enhancers, by resolving deleterious transcription-coupled secondary DNA structures, while also regulating long-range super-enhancer chromosomal interactions important for cellular function. PMID:25957685

  19. Expression, purification and biochemical characterization of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii DNA ligase.

    PubMed

    Wang, You; Xie, Juan-Juan; Han, Zhong; Liu, Jian-Hua; Liu, Xi-Peng

    2013-02-01

    We describe the biochemical characterization of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (M. jannaschii) DNA ligase and its potential application in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. The recombinant M. jannaschii DNA ligase is an ATP-dependent ligase. The ligase activity was dependent on metal ions of Mg(2+) and Mn(2+). The optimal concentrations of ATP cofactor and Mg(2+) ion were 0.01-2 and 10 mM, respectively. The optimal pH value for DNA ligation was 8.5. High concentrations of NaCl inhibited DNA ligation. The effects of mismatches on joining short oligonucleotides by M. jannaschii DNA ligase were fully characterized. The mismatches at the first position 5' to the nick inhibited ligation more than those at the first position 3' to the nick. The mismatches at other positions 5' to the nick (3rd to 7th sites) exhibited less inhibition on ligation. However, the introduction of a C/C mismatch at the third position 5' to the nick could completely inhibit the ligation of the terminal-mismatched nick of an oligonucleotide duplex by M. jannaschii DNA ligase. Therefore, introducing an additional mismatch at the third position 5' to the SNP site is a more effective approach in genotyping by M. jannaschii DNA ligase.

  20. The p53-Mdm2 interaction and the E3 ligase activity of Mdm2/Mdm4 are conserved from lampreys to humans.

    PubMed

    Coffill, Cynthia R; Lee, Alison P; Siau, Jia Wei; Chee, Sharon M; Joseph, Thomas L; Tan, Yaw Sing; Madhumalar, Arumugam; Tay, Boon-Hui; Brenner, Sydney; Verma, Chandra S; Ghadessy, Farid J; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Lane, David P

    2016-02-01

    The extant jawless vertebrates, represented by lampreys and hagfish, are the oldest group of vertebrates and provide an interesting genomic evolutionary pivot point between invertebrates and jawed vertebrates. Through genome analysis of one of these jawless vertebrates, the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum), we identified all three members of the important p53 transcription factor family--Tp53, Tp63, and Tp73--as well as the Mdm2 and Mdm4 genes. These genes and their products are significant cellular regulators in human cancer, and further examination of their roles in this most distant vertebrate relative sheds light on their origin and coevolution. Their important role in response to DNA damage has been highlighted by the discovery of multiple copies of the Tp53 gene in elephants. Expression of lamprey p53, Mdm2, and Mdm4 proteins in mammalian cells reveals that the p53-Mdm2 interaction and the Mdm2/Mdm4 E3 ligase activity existed in the common ancestor of vertebrates and have been conserved for >500 million years of vertebrate evolution. Lamprey Mdm2 degrades human p53 with great efficiency, but this interaction is not blocked by currently available small molecule inhibitors of the human HDM2 protein, suggesting utility of lamprey Mdm2 in the study of the human p53 signaling pathway.

  1. The p53–Mdm2 interaction and the E3 ligase activity of Mdm2/Mdm4 are conserved from lampreys to humans

    PubMed Central

    Coffill, Cynthia R.; Lee, Alison P.; Siau, Jia Wei; Chee, Sharon M.; Joseph, Thomas L.; Tan, Yaw Sing; Madhumalar, Arumugam; Tay, Boon-Hui; Brenner, Sydney; Verma, Chandra S.; Ghadessy, Farid J.; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Lane, David P.

    2016-01-01

    The extant jawless vertebrates, represented by lampreys and hagfish, are the oldest group of vertebrates and provide an interesting genomic evolutionary pivot point between invertebrates and jawed vertebrates. Through genome analysis of one of these jawless vertebrates, the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum), we identified all three members of the important p53 transcription factor family—Tp53, Tp63, and Tp73—as well as the Mdm2 and Mdm4 genes. These genes and their products are significant cellular regulators in human cancer, and further examination of their roles in this most distant vertebrate relative sheds light on their origin and coevolution. Their important role in response to DNA damage has been highlighted by the discovery of multiple copies of the Tp53 gene in elephants. Expression of lamprey p53, Mdm2, and Mdm4 proteins in mammalian cells reveals that the p53–Mdm2 interaction and the Mdm2/Mdm4 E3 ligase activity existed in the common ancestor of vertebrates and have been conserved for >500 million years of vertebrate evolution. Lamprey Mdm2 degrades human p53 with great efficiency, but this interaction is not blocked by currently available small molecule inhibitors of the human HDM2 protein, suggesting utility of lamprey Mdm2 in the study of the human p53 signaling pathway. PMID:26798135

  2. Determination of host RNA helicases activity in viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amit; Boris-Lawrie, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    RNA helicases are encoded by all eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells and a minority of viruses. Activity of RNA helicases is necessary for all steps in the expression of cells and viruses and the host innate response to virus infection. Their vast functional repertoire is attributable to the core ATPase-dependent helicase domain in conjunction with flanking domains that are interchangeable and engage viral and cellular cofactors. Here, we address the important issue of host RNA helicases that are necessary for replication of a virus. The chapter covers approaches to identification and characterization of candidate helicases and methods to define the biochemical and biophysical parameters of specificity and functional activity of the enzymes. We discuss the context of cellular RNA helicase activity and virion-associated RNA helicases. The methodology and choice of controls fosters the assessment of the virologic scope of RNA helicases across divergent cell lineages and viral replication cycles. PMID:22713331

  3. Silencing Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β Inhibits Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity and Attenuates JNK Activation and Loss of Glutamate Cysteine Ligase and Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1*

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Mie; Ybanez, Maria D.; Win, Sanda; Than, Tin Aung; Jain, Shilpa; Gaarde, William A.; Han, Derick; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) plays a central role in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury. In the current work, we examined other possible signaling pathways that may also contribute to APAP hepatotoxicity. APAP treatment to mice caused glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) activation and translocation to mitochondria during the initial phase of APAP-induced liver injury (∼1 h). The silencing of GSK-3β, but not Akt-2 (protein kinase B) or glycogen synthase kinase-3α (GSK-3α), using antisense significantly protected mice from APAP-induced liver injury. The silencing of GSK-3β affected several key pathways important in conferring protection against APAP-induced liver injury. APAP treatment was observed to promote the loss of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL, rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis) in liver. The silencing of GSK-3β decreased the loss of hepatic GCL, and promoted greater GSH recovery in liver following APAP treatment. Silencing JNK1 and -2 also prevented the loss of GCL. APAP treatment also resulted in GSK-3β translocation to mitochondria and the degradation of myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1) in mitochondrial membranes in liver. The silencing of GSK-3β reduced Mcl-1 degradation caused by APAP treatment. The silencing of GSK-3β also resulted in an inhibition of the early phase (0–2 h), and blunted the late phase (after 4 h) of JNK activation and translocation to mitochondria in liver following APAP treatment. Taken together our results suggest that activation of GSK-3β is a key mediator of the initial phase of APAP-induced liver injury through modulating GCL and Mcl-1 degradation, as well as JNK activation in liver. PMID:20061376

  4. Rotavirus NSP1 Associates with Components of the Cullin RING Ligase Family of E3 Ubiquitin Ligases

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Lindy M.; Pace, Chandler R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP1 acts as an antagonist of the host antiviral response by inducing degradation of key proteins required to activate interferon (IFN) production. Protein degradation induced by NSP1 is dependent on the proteasome, and the presence of a RING domain near the N terminus has led to the hypothesis that NSP1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase. To examine this hypothesis, pulldown assays were performed, followed by mass spectrometry to identify components of the host ubiquitination machinery that associate with NSP1. Multiple components of cullin RING ligases (CRLs), which are essential multisubunit ubiquitination complexes, were identified in association with NSP1. The mass spectrometry was validated in both transfected and infected cells to show that the NSP1 proteins from different strains of rotavirus associated with key components of CRL complexes, most notably the cullin scaffolding proteins Cul3 and Cul1. In vitro binding assays using purified proteins confirmed that NSP1 specifically interacted with Cul3 and that the N-terminal region of Cul3 was responsible for binding to NSP1. To test if NSP1 used CRL3 to induce degradation of the target protein IRF3 or β-TrCP, Cul3 levels were knocked down using a small interfering RNA (siRNA) approach. Unexpectedly, loss of Cul3 did not rescue IRF3 or β-TrCP from degradation in infected cells. The results indicate that, rather than actively using CRL complexes to induce degradation of target proteins required for IFN production, NSP1 may use cullin-containing complexes to prevent another cellular activity. IMPORTANCE The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays an important regulatory role in numerous cellular functions, and many viruses have evolved mechanisms to exploit or manipulate this pathway to enhance replication and spread. Rotavirus, a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children that causes approximately 420,000 deaths worldwide each year, utilizes the ubiquitin

  5. Rotavirus NSP1 Associates with Components of the Cullin RING Ligase Family of E3 Ubiquitin Ligases.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Lindy M; Pace, Chandler R; Arnold, Michelle M

    2016-07-01

    The rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP1 acts as an antagonist of the host antiviral response by inducing degradation of key proteins required to activate interferon (IFN) production. Protein degradation induced by NSP1 is dependent on the proteasome, and the presence of a RING domain near the N terminus has led to the hypothesis that NSP1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase. To examine this hypothesis, pulldown assays were performed, followed by mass spectrometry to identify components of the host ubiquitination machinery that associate with NSP1. Multiple components of cullin RING ligases (CRLs), which are essential multisubunit ubiquitination complexes, were identified in association with NSP1. The mass spectrometry was validated in both transfected and infected cells to show that the NSP1 proteins from different strains of rotavirus associated with key components of CRL complexes, most notably the cullin scaffolding proteins Cul3 and Cul1. In vitro binding assays using purified proteins confirmed that NSP1 specifically interacted with Cul3 and that the N-terminal region of Cul3 was responsible for binding to NSP1. To test if NSP1 used CRL3 to induce degradation of the target protein IRF3 or β-TrCP, Cul3 levels were knocked down using a small interfering RNA (siRNA) approach. Unexpectedly, loss of Cul3 did not rescue IRF3 or β-TrCP from degradation in infected cells. The results indicate that, rather than actively using CRL complexes to induce degradation of target proteins required for IFN production, NSP1 may use cullin-containing complexes to prevent another cellular activity. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays an important regulatory role in numerous cellular functions, and many viruses have evolved mechanisms to exploit or manipulate this pathway to enhance replication and spread. Rotavirus, a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children that causes approximately 420,000 deaths worldwide each year, utilizes the ubiquitin-proteasome system to subvert

  6. NEDD4 ubiquitin ligase is a putative oncogene in endometrial cancer that activates IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuping; Goodfellow, Renee; Li, Yujun; Yang, Shujie; Winters, Christopher J; Thiel, Kristina W; Leslie, Kimberly K; Yang, Baoli

    2015-10-01

    The PI3K/Akt pathway is frequently dysregulated in endometrial cancer, the most common gynecologic malignancy. Emerging evidence identifies the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 as a key regulator of the PI3K/Akt pathway via activation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R). Our objective was to understand the role of NEDD4 in endometrial cancer. NEDD4 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray with 77 endometrial lesions ranging from normal benign endometrium to tumor specimens of varying stage and grade. Studies were extended to a panel of eight endometrial cancer cell lines phenotypically representing the most common endometrial patient tumors. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated robust staining of NEDD4 in endometrial tumor specimens, with greater NEDD4 expression in the most aggressive tumors. Expression of NEDD4 was detected in a majority of endometrial cancer cell lines surveyed. Exogenous overexpression of murine Nedd4 in endometrial cancer cell lines with modest endogenous NEDD4 expression resulted in a significant increase in the rate of proliferation. Nedd4 overexpression also promoted an increase in cell surface localization of IGF-1R and activation of Akt. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling reversed the enhanced cell growth in Nedd4-overexpressing endometrial cancer cells. In addition, the expression of NEDD4 in endometrial tumors positively correlated with the Akt downstream effector FoxM1. This study identifies NEDD4 as a putative oncogene in endometrial cancer that may augment activation of the IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ATL9, a RING Zinc Finger Protein with E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity Implicated in Chitin- and NADPH Oxidase-Mediated Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Berrocal-Lobo, Marta; Stone, Sophia; Yang, Xin; Antico, Jay; Callis, Judy; Ramonell, Katrina M.; Somerville, Shauna

    2010-01-01

    Pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are signals detected by plants that activate basal defenses. One of these PAMPs is chitin, a carbohydrate present in the cell walls of fungi and in insect exoskeletons. Previous work has shown that chitin treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana induced defense-related genes in the absence of a pathogen and that the response was independent of the salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling pathways. One of these genes is ATL9 ( = ATL2G), which encodes a RING zinc-finger like protein. In the current work we demonstrate that ATL9 has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The expression pattern of ATL9 is positively correlated with basal defense responses against Golovinomyces cichoracearum, a biotrophic fungal pathogen. The basal levels of expression and the induction of ATL9 by chitin, in wild type plants, depends on the activity of NADPH oxidases suggesting that chitin-mediated defense response is NADPH oxidase dependent. Although ATL9 expression is not induced by treatment with known defense hormones (SA, JA or ET), full expression in response to chitin is compromised slightly in mutants where ET- or SA-dependent signaling is suppressed. Microarray analysis of the atl9 mutant revealed candidate genes that appear to act downstream of ATL9 in chitin-mediated defenses. These results hint at the complexity of chitin-mediated signaling and the potential interplay between elicitor-mediated signaling, signaling via known defense pathways and the oxidative burst. PMID:21203445

  8. Improvement of DNA adenylation using T4 DNA ligase with a template strand and a strategically mismatched acceptor strand

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Maha P.; Baum, Dana A.; Silverman, Scott K.

    2008-01-01

    DNA with a 5′-adenylpyrophosphoryl cap (5′-adenylated DNA; AppDNA) is an activated form of DNA that is the biochemical intermediate of the reactions catalyzed by DNA ligase, RNA ligase, polynucleotide kinase, and other nucleic acid modifying enzymes. 5′-Adenylated DNA is also useful for in vitro selection experiments. Efficient preparation of 5′-adenylated DNA is therefore desirable for several biochemical applications. Here we have developed a DNA adenylation procedure that uses T4 DNA ligase and is more reliable than a previously reported approach that used the 5′-phosphorylated donor DNA substrate to be adenylated, a DNA template, and ATP but no acceptor strand. Our improved DNA adenylation procedure uses the above components as well as an acceptor strand that has a strategically chosen C-T acceptor-template mismatch directly adjacent to the adenylation site. This mismatch permits adenylation of the donor DNA substrate but largely suppresses subsequent ligation of the donor with the acceptor, as assayed on nine different DNA substrates that collectively have all four DNA nucleotides represented at each of the first two positions. The new DNA adenylation procedure is successful using either laboratory-prepared or commercial T4 DNA ligase and works well on the preparative (2 nmol) scale for all nine of the test DNA substrates. PMID:18022669

  9. Staufen Negatively Modulates MicroRNA Activity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhiji; Veksler-Lublinsky, Isana; Morrissey, David; Ambros, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The double-stranded RNA-binding protein Staufen has been implicated in various posttranscriptional gene regulatory processes. Here, we demonstrate that the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of Staufen, STAU-1, functionally interacts with microRNAs. Loss-of-function mutations of stau-1 significantly suppress phenotypes of let-7 family microRNA mutants, a hypomorphic allele of dicer, and a lsy-6 microRNA partial loss-of-function mutant. Furthermore, STAU-1 modulates the activity of lin-14, a target of lin-4 and let-7 family microRNAs, and this modulation is abolished when the 3′ untranslated region of lin-14 is removed. Deep sequencing of small RNA cDNA libraries reveals no dramatic change in the levels of microRNAs or other small RNA populations between wild-type and stau-1 mutants, with the exception of certain endogenous siRNAs in the WAGO pathway. The modulation of microRNA activity by STAU-1 does not seem to be associated with the previously reported enhanced exogenous RNAi (Eri) phenotype of stau-1 mutants, since eri-1 exhibits the opposite effect on microRNA activity. Altogether, our results suggest that STAU-1 negatively modulates microRNA activity downstream of microRNA biogenesis, possibly by competing with microRNAs for binding on the 3′ untranslated region of target mRNAs. PMID:26921297

  10. A small RNA activates CFA synthase by isoform-specific mRNA stabilization.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Kathrin Sophie; Papenfort, Kai; Fekete, Agnes; Vogel, Jörg

    2013-11-13

    Small RNAs use a diversity of well-characterized mechanisms to repress mRNAs, but how they activate gene expression at the mRNA level remains not well understood. The predominant activation mechanism of Hfq-associated small RNAs has been translational control whereby base pairing with the target prevents the formation of an intrinsic inhibitory structure in the mRNA and promotes translation initiation. Here, we report a translation-independent mechanism whereby the small RNA RydC selectively activates the longer of two isoforms of cfa mRNA (encoding cyclopropane fatty acid synthase) in Salmonella enterica. Target activation is achieved through seed pairing of the pseudoknot-exposed, conserved 5' end of RydC to an upstream region of the cfa mRNA. The seed pairing stabilizes the messenger, likely by interfering directly with RNase E-mediated decay in the 5' untranslated region. Intriguingly, this mechanism is generic such that the activation is equally achieved by seed pairing of unrelated small RNAs, suggesting that this mechanism may be utilized in the design of RNA-controlled synthetic circuits. Physiologically, RydC is the first small RNA known to regulate membrane stability.

  11. A small RNA activates CFA synthase by isoform-specific mRNA stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Kathrin Sophie; Papenfort, Kai; Fekete, Agnes; Vogel, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Small RNAs use a diversity of well-characterized mechanisms to repress mRNAs, but how they activate gene expression at the mRNA level remains not well understood. The predominant activation mechanism of Hfq-associated small RNAs has been translational control whereby base pairing with the target prevents the formation of an intrinsic inhibitory structure in the mRNA and promotes translation initiation. Here, we report a translation-independent mechanism whereby the small RNA RydC selectively activates the longer of two isoforms of cfa mRNA (encoding cyclopropane fatty acid synthase) in Salmonella enterica. Target activation is achieved through seed pairing of the pseudoknot-exposed, conserved 5′ end of RydC to an upstream region of the cfa mRNA. The seed pairing stabilizes the messenger, likely by interfering directly with RNase E-mediated decay in the 5′ untranslated region. Intriguingly, this mechanism is generic such that the activation is equally achieved by seed pairing of unrelated small RNAs, suggesting that this mechanism may be utilized in the design of RNA-controlled synthetic circuits. Physiologically, RydC is the first small RNA known to regulate membrane stability. PMID:24141880

  12. Regulation of lipid droplet turnover by ubiquitin ligases.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Philipp; Rotin, Daniela

    2010-07-19

    Mutation of the protein spartin is a cause of one form of spastic paraplegia. Spartin interacts with ubiquitin ligases of the Nedd4 family, and a recent report in BMC Biology now shows that it acts as an adaptor to recruit and activate the ubiquitin ligase AIP4 onto lipid droplets, leading to the ubiquitination and degradation of droplet-associated proteins. A deficiency of spartin apparently causes lipid droplets to accumulate.

  13. HTLV-1 Tax Stimulates Ubiquitin E3 Ligase, Ring Finger Protein 8, to Assemble Lysine 63-Linked Polyubiquitin Chains for TAK1 and IKK Activation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yik-Khuan; Zhi, Huijun; Bowlin, Tara; Dorjbal, Batsukh; Philip, Subha; Zahoor, Muhammad Atif; Shih, Hsiu-Ming; Semmes, Oliver John; Schaefer, Brian; Glover, J N Mark; Giam, Chou-Zen

    2015-08-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) trans-activator/oncoprotein, Tax, impacts a multitude of cellular processes, including I-κB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB signaling, DNA damage repair, and mitosis. These activities of Tax have been implicated in the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) in HTLV-1-infected individuals, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. IKK and its upstream kinase, TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), contain ubiquitin-binding subunits, NEMO and TAB2/3 respectively, which interact with K63-linked polyubiquitin (K63-pUb) chains. Recruitment to K63-pUb allows cross auto-phosphorylation and activation of TAK1 to occur, followed by TAK1-catalyzed IKK phosphorylation and activation. Using cytosolic extracts of HeLa and Jurkat T cells supplemented with purified proteins we have identified ubiquitin E3 ligase, ring finger protein 8 (RNF8), and E2 conjugating enzymes, Ubc13:Uev1A and Ubc13:Uev2, to be the cellular factors utilized by Tax for TAK1 and IKK activation. In vitro, the combination of Tax and RNF8 greatly stimulated TAK1, IKK, IκBα and JNK phosphorylation. In vivo, RNF8 over-expression augmented while RNF8 ablation drastically reduced canonical NF-κB activation by Tax. Activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway by Tax, however, is unaffected by the loss of RNF8. Using purified components, we further demonstrated biochemically that Tax greatly stimulated RNF8 and Ubc13:Uev1A/Uev2 to assemble long K63-pUb chains. Finally, co-transfection of Tax with increasing amounts of RNF8 greatly induced K63-pUb assembly in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, Tax targets RNF8 and Ubc13:Uev1A/Uev2 to promote the assembly of K63-pUb chains, which signal the activation of TAK1 and multiple downstream kinases including IKK and JNK. Because of the roles RNF8 and K63-pUb chains play in DNA damage repair and cytokinesis, this mechanism may also explain the genomic instability of HTLV-1-transformed T cells and ATL cells.

  14. HTLV-1 Tax Stimulates Ubiquitin E3 Ligase, Ring Finger Protein 8, to Assemble Lysine 63-Linked Polyubiquitin Chains for TAK1 and IKK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yik-Khuan; Zhi, Huijun; Bowlin, Tara; Dorjbal, Batsukh; Philip, Subha; Zahoor, Muhammad Atif; Shih, Hsiu-Ming; Semmes, Oliver John; Schaefer, Brian; Glover, J. N. Mark; Giam, Chou-Zen

    2015-01-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) trans-activator/oncoprotein, Tax, impacts a multitude of cellular processes, including I-κB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB signaling, DNA damage repair, and mitosis. These activities of Tax have been implicated in the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) in HTLV-1-infected individuals, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. IKK and its upstream kinase, TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), contain ubiquitin-binding subunits, NEMO and TAB2/3 respectively, which interact with K63-linked polyubiquitin (K63-pUb) chains. Recruitment to K63-pUb allows cross auto-phosphorylation and activation of TAK1 to occur, followed by TAK1-catalyzed IKK phosphorylation and activation. Using cytosolic extracts of HeLa and Jurkat T cells supplemented with purified proteins we have identified ubiquitin E3 ligase, ring finger protein 8 (RNF8), and E2 conjugating enzymes, Ubc13:Uev1A and Ubc13:Uev2, to be the cellular factors utilized by Tax for TAK1 and IKK activation. In vitro, the combination of Tax and RNF8 greatly stimulated TAK1, IKK, IκBα and JNK phosphorylation. In vivo, RNF8 over-expression augmented while RNF8 ablation drastically reduced canonical NF-κB activation by Tax. Activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway by Tax, however, is unaffected by the loss of RNF8. Using purified components, we further demonstrated biochemically that Tax greatly stimulated RNF8 and Ubc13:Uev1A/Uev2 to assemble long K63-pUb chains. Finally, co-transfection of Tax with increasing amounts of RNF8 greatly induced K63-pUb assembly in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, Tax targets RNF8 and Ubc13:Uev1A/Uev2 to promote the assembly of K63-pUb chains, which signal the activation of TAK1 and multiple downstream kinases including IKK and JNK. Because of the roles RNF8 and K63-pUb chains play in DNA damage repair and cytokinesis, this mechanism may also explain the genomic instability of HTLV-1-transformed T cells and ATL cells. PMID:26285145

  15. Characterization of human constitutive photomorphogenesis protein 1, a RING finger ubiquitin ligase that interacts with Jun transcription factors and modulates their transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Elisabetta; Denti, Simona; Catena, Raffaella; Rossetti, Grazisa; Polo, Simona; Gasparian, Sona; Putignano, Stella; Rogge, Lars; Pardi, Ruggero

    2003-05-30

    RING finger proteins have been implicated in many fundamental cellular processes, including the control of gene expression. A key regulator of light-dependent development in Arabidopsis thaliana is the constitutive photomorphogenesis protein 1 (atCOP1), a RING finger protein that plays an essential role in translating light/dark signals into specific changes in gene transcription. atCOP1 binds the basic leucine zipper factor HY5 and suppresses its transcriptional activity through a yet undefined mechanism that results in HY5 degradation in response to darkness. Furthermore, the pleiotropic phenotype of atCOP1 mutants indicates that atCOP1 may be a central regulator of several transcriptional pathways. Here we report the cloning and characterization of the human orthologue of atCOP1. Human COP1 (huCOP1) distributes both to the cytoplasm and the nucleus of cells and shows a striking degree of sequence conservation with atCOP1, suggesting the possibility of a functional conservation as well. In co-immunoprecipitation assays huCOP1 specifically binds basic leucine zipper factors of the Jun family. As a functional consequence of this interaction, expression of huCOP1 in mammalian cells down-regulates c-Jun-dependent transcription and the expression of the AP-1 target genes, urokinase and matrix metalloproteinase 1. The RING domain of huCOP1 displays ubiquitin ligase activity in an autoubiquitination assay in vitro; however, suppression of AP-1-dependent transcription by huCOP1 occurs in the absence of changes in c-Jun protein levels, suggesting that this inhibitory effect is independent of c-Jun degradation. Our findings indicate that huCOP1 is a novel regulator of AP-1-dependent transcription sharing the important properties of Arabidopsis COP1 in the control of gene expression.

  16. The Rrp6 C-terminal domain binds RNA and activates the nuclear RNA exosome

    PubMed Central

    Wasmuth, Elizabeth V.; Lima, Christopher D.

    2017-01-01

    The eukaryotic RNA exosome is an essential, multi-subunit complex that catalyzes RNA turnover, maturation, and quality control processes. Its non-catalytic donut-shaped core includes 9 subunits that associate with the 3′ to 5′ exoribonucleases Rrp6, and Rrp44/Dis3, a subunit that also catalyzes endoribonuclease activity. Although recent structures and biochemical studies of RNA bound exosomes from S. cerevisiae revealed that the Exo9 central channel guides RNA to either Rrp6 or Rrp44 using partially overlapping and mutually exclusive paths, several issues related to RNA recruitment remain. Here, we identify activities for the highly basic Rrp6 C-terminal tail that we term the ‘lasso’ because it binds RNA and stimulates ribonuclease activities associated with Rrp44 and Rrp6 within the 11-subunit nuclear exosome. Stimulation is dependent on the Exo9 central channel, and the lasso contributes to degradation and processing activities of exosome substrates in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we present evidence that the Rrp6 lasso may be a conserved feature of the eukaryotic RNA exosome. PMID:27899565

  17. Overproduction of polypeptides corresponding to the amino terminus of the F-box proteins Cdc4p and Met30p inhibits ubiquitin ligase activities of their SCF complexes.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Cheryl; Brunson, Lee Ellen; Roy, Mary Margaret; Smothers, Dechelle; Sehorn, Michael G; Mathias, Neal

    2003-02-01

    Ubiquitin ligases direct the transfer of ubiquitin onto substrate proteins and thus target the substrate for proteasome-dependent degradation. SCF complexes are a family of ubiquitin ligases composed of a common core of components and a variable component called an F-box protein that defines substrate specificity. Distinct SCF complexes, defined by a particular F-box protein, target different substrate proteins for degradation. Although a few have been identified to be involved in important biological pathways, such as the cell division cycle and coordinating cellular responses to changes in environmental conditions, the role of the overwhelming majority of F-box proteins is not clear. Creating inhibitors that will block the in vivo activities of specific SCF ubiquitin ligases may provide identification of substrates of these uncharacterized F-box proteins. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, we demonstrate that overproduction of polypeptides corresponding to the amino terminus of the F-box proteins Cdc4p and Met30p results in specific inhibition of their SCF complexes. Analyses of mutant amino-terminal alleles demonstrate that the interaction of these polypeptides with their full-length counterparts is an important step in the inhibitory process. These results suggest a common means to inhibit specific SCF complexes in vivo.

  18. Characterization of a SUMO Ligase that is Essential for DNA Damage-Induced NF-Kappa B Activation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    breast cancers . As of now, the majority of NF-?B inhibitors focus on the key signal integrating complex known as the I?B kinase (IKK) complex. Since NF...of PIASy may be used as a more specific inhibitor in anti- cancer therapy to treat ER- breast cancer . 15. SUBJECT TERMS PIAS•/PIASy, NEMO, NF-•B...activity to ultimately activate NF-κB. NF-κB activation has also been suggested to play a role in resistance to therapy in advanced breast cancers

  19. Loss of the WaaL O-Antigen Ligase Prevents Surface Activation of the Flagellar Gene Cascade in Proteus mirabilis▿

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstein, Randy M.; Clemmer, Katy M.; Rather, Philip N.

    2010-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium that undergoes a physical and biochemical change from a vegetative swimmer cell (a typical Gram-negative rod) to an elongated swarmer cell when grown on a solid surface. In this study, we report that a transposon insertion in the waaL gene, encoding O-antigen ligase, blocked swarming motility on solid surfaces but had little effect on swimming motility in soft agar. The waaL mutant was unable to differentiate into a swarmer cell. Differentiation was also prevented by a mutation in wzz, encoding a chain length determinant for O antigen, but not by a mutation in wzyE, encoding an enzyme that polymerizes enterobacterial common antigen, a surface polysaccharide different from the lipid A::core. In wild-type P. mirabilis, increased expression of the flhDC operon occurs after growth on solid surfaces and is required for the high-level expression of flagellin that is characteristic of swarmer cells. However, in both the waaL and the wzz mutants, the flhDC operon was not activated during growth on agar. A loss-of-function mutation in the rcsB response regulator or overexpression of flhDC restored swarming to the waaL mutant, despite the absence of O antigen. Therefore, although O antigen may serve a role in swarming by promoting wettability, the loss of O antigen blocks a regulatory pathway that links surface contact with the upregulation of flhDC expression. PMID:20382766

  20. Structure and function of Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase reveals aspects of RING and HECT ligases

    PubMed Central

    Riley, B.E.; Lougheed, J.C.; Callaway, K.; Velasquez, M.; Brecht, E.; Nguyen, L.; Shaler, T.; Walker, D.; Yang, Y.; Regnstrom, K.; Diep, L.; Zhang, Z.; Chiou, S.; Bova, M.; Artis, D.R.; Yao, N.; Baker, J.; Yednock, T.; Johnston, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Parkin is a RING-between-RING E3 ligase that functions in the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to specific substrates, and mutations in Parkin are linked to Parkinson’s disease, cancer and mycobacterial infection. The RING-between-RING family of E3 ligases are suggested to function with a canonical RING domain and a catalytic cysteine residue usually restricted to HECT E3 ligases, thus termed ‘RING/HECT hybrid’ enzymes. Here we present the 1.58 Å structure of Parkin-R0RBR, revealing the fold architecture for the four RING domains, and several unpredicted interfaces. Examination of the Parkin active site suggests a catalytic network consisting of C431 and H433. In cells, mutation of C431 eliminates Parkin-catalysed degradation of mitochondria, and capture of an ubiquitin oxyester confirms C431 as Parkin’s cellular active site. Our data confirm that Parkin is a RING/HECT hybrid, and provide the first crystal structure of an RING-between-RING E3 ligase at atomic resolution, providing insight into this disease-related protein. PMID:23770887

  1. Structure and function of Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase reveals aspects of RING and HECT ligases.

    PubMed

    Riley, B E; Lougheed, J C; Callaway, K; Velasquez, M; Brecht, E; Nguyen, L; Shaler, T; Walker, D; Yang, Y; Regnstrom, K; Diep, L; Zhang, Z; Chiou, S; Bova, M; Artis, D R; Yao, N; Baker, J; Yednock, T; Johnston, J A

    2013-01-01

    Parkin is a RING-between-RING E3 ligase that functions in the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to specific substrates, and mutations in Parkin are linked to Parkinson's disease, cancer and mycobacterial infection. The RING-between-RING family of E3 ligases are suggested to function with a canonical RING domain and a catalytic cysteine residue usually restricted to HECT E3 ligases, thus termed 'RING/HECT hybrid' enzymes. Here we present the 1.58 Å structure of Parkin-R0RBR, revealing the fold architecture for the four RING domains, and several unpredicted interfaces. Examination of the Parkin active site suggests a catalytic network consisting of C431 and H433. In cells, mutation of C431 eliminates Parkin-catalysed degradation of mitochondria, and capture of an ubiquitin oxyester confirms C431 as Parkin's cellular active site. Our data confirm that Parkin is a RING/HECT hybrid, and provide the first crystal structure of an RING-between-RING E3 ligase at atomic resolution, providing insight into this disease-related protein.

  2. Trans-acting RNA inhibits tRNA suppressor activity in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Attardi, Domenica Gandini; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P

    2002-01-01

    We constructed two aptamers, each of which contains a 7-nt-long loop complementary to the anticodon loop of a suppressor tRNA. One of these aptamers can form a stable bimolecular complex with the suppressor tRNA in vitro and protects the 7 nt in the suppressor's anticodon loop from RNase S1. An Escherichia coli strain, carrying an amber mutation in the lac Z gene, produces beta-galactosidase only if the suppressor is present; the aptamer's coexpression in the cell inhibits the activity of the suppressor tRNA. Moreover, in E. coli extract, the aptamer partially inhibits the read-through of the stop codon on the part of the suppressor tRNA. These results point to a novel strategy that need not be limited to the suppressor tRNA. By constructing appropriate inducible aptamers, it may well be possible to effectively control translation in vivo. PMID:12166645

  3. RNA Activation: A Diamond in the Rough for Genome Engineers.

    PubMed

    Vaschetto, Luis María

    2017-06-21

    The ability to develop efficient and versatile technologies for manipulating gene expression is a fundamental issue both in biotechnology and therapeutics. The endogenous RNA interference (RNAi) pathway which mediates gene silencing was discovered at the end of the 20th century and it is nowadays considered as an essential strategy for knockdown of specific genes and for studying gene function. Remarkably, during the past decade, a RNA-induced mechanism of gene activation has also been reported. Likewise RNAi, the RNA activation (RNAa) process is also mediated by sequence-specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules, and interesting resemblances between both RNA-based transcriptional mechanisms have been described. Small activating RNAs (saRNAs) and related molecules have been used for targeting of genes in species that are as different as nematodes and humans, and similar dsRNA-induced activation phenomena have also been observed in plants. The aim of this letter is to highlight recent molecular insights into yet unexplored RNAa mechanism and its potential for manipulating transcriptional activity. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1-3, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Global RNA association with the transcriptionally active chromosome of chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Lehniger, Marie-Kristin; Finster, Sabrina; Melonek, Joanna; Oetke, Svenja; Krupinska, Karin; Schmitz-Linneweber, Christian

    2017-09-08

    Processed chloroplast RNAs are co-enriched with preparations of the chloroplast transcriptionally active chromosome. Chloroplast genomes are organized as a polyploid DNA-protein structure called the nucleoid. Transcriptionally active chloroplast DNA together with tightly bound protein factors can be purified by gel filtration as a functional entity called the transcriptionally active chromosome (TAC). Previous proteomics analyses of nucleoids and of TACs demonstrated a considerable overlap in protein composition including RNA binding proteins. Therefore the RNA content of TAC preparations from Nicotiana tabacum was determined using whole genome tiling arrays. A large number of chloroplast RNAs was found to be associated with the TAC. The pattern of RNAs attached to the TAC consists of RNAs produced by different chloroplast RNA polymerases and differs from the pattern of RNA found in input controls. An analysis of RNA splicing and RNA editing of selected RNA species demonstrated that TAC-associated RNAs are processed to a similar extent as the RNA in input controls. Thus, TAC fractions contain a specific subset of the processed chloroplast transcriptome.

  5. Comparative analysis of RNA silencing suppression activities between viral suppressors and an endogenous plant RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Han, Kyoung-Sik; Park, Han-Yong; Choi, Seung-Kook

    2012-06-01

    RNA silencing is an evolutionarily conserved system that functions as an antiviral mechanism in eukaryotes, including higher plants. To counteract this, several plant viruses express silencing suppressors that inhibit RNA silencing in host plants. Here, we show that both 2b protein from peanut stunt virus (PSV) and a hairpin construct (designated hp-RDR6) that silences endogenous RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) strongly suppress RNA silencing. The Agrobacterium infiltration system was used to demonstrate that both PSV 2b and hp-RDR6 suppressed local RNA silencing as strongly as helper component (HC-Pro) from potato virus Y (PVY) and P19 from tomato bush stunt virus (TBSV). The 2b protein from PSV eliminated the small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) associated with RNA silencing and prevented systemic silencing, similar to 2b protein from cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). On the other hand, hp-RDR6 suppressed RNA silencing by inhibiting the generation of secondary siRNAs. The small coat protein (SCP) of squash mosaic virus (SqMV) also displayed weak suppression activity of RNA silencing. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer was used to investigate whether viral silencing suppressors or hp-RDR6 enhanced accumulations of green fluorescence protein (GFP) and β-glucuronidase (GUS) as markers of expression in leaf tissues of Nicotina benthamiana. Expression of both GFP and GUS was significantly enhanced in the presence of PSV 2b or CMV 2b, compared to no suppression or the weak SqMV SCP suppressor. Co-expression with hp-RDR6 also significantly increased the expression of GFP and GUS to levels similar to those induced by PVY HC-Pro and TBSV P19.

  6. Protein Neddylation: Beyond Cullin-RING Ligases

    PubMed Central

    Enchev, Radoslav I.; Schulman, Brenda A.; Peter, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    NEDD8 is a ubiquitin-like protein that activates the largest ubiquitin E3 ligase family, the cullin RING ligases. Many non-cullin neddylation targets have been proposed in recent years. However, overexpression of exogenous NEDD8 can trigger NEDD8 conjugation through the ubiquitylation machinery, which makes validating potential NEDD8 targets challenging. Here we re-evaluate these studies in light of the current understanding of the neddylation pathway, and suggest criteria for the identification of genuine neddylation substrates under homeostatic conditions. We describe the biological processes that might be regulated by non-cullin neddylation, and the utility of neddylation inhibitors for research and as potential therapies. Understanding the biological significance of non-cullin neddylation is an exciting research prospect primed to reveal fundamental insights. PMID:25531226

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis NAD+-dependent DNA ligase is selectively inhibited by glycosylamines compared with human DNA ligase I

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sandeep Kumar; Dube, Divya; Tewari, Neetu; Dwivedi, Namrata; Tripathi, Rama Pati; Ramachandran, Ravishankar

    2005-01-01

    DNA ligases are important enzymes which catalyze the joining of nicks between adjacent bases of double-stranded DNA. NAD+-dependent DNA ligases (LigA) are essential in bacteria and are absent in humans. They have therefore been identified as novel, validated and attractive drug targets. Using virtual screening against an in-house database of compounds and our recently determined crystal structure of the NAD+ binding domain of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis LigA, we have identified N1, Nn-bis-(5-deoxy-α-d-xylofuranosylated) diamines as a novel class of inhibitors for this enzyme. Assays involving M.tuberculosis LigA, T4 ligase and human DNA ligase I show that these compounds specifically inhibit LigA from M.tuberculosis. In vitro kinetic and inhibition assays demonstrate that the compounds compete with NAD+ for binding and inhibit enzyme activity with IC50 values in the µM range. Docking studies rationalize the observed specificities and show that among several glycofuranosylated diamines, bis xylofuranosylated diamines with aminoalkyl and 1, 3-phenylene carbamoyl spacers mimic the binding modes of NAD+ with the enzyme. Assays involving LigA-deficient bacterial strains show that in vivo inhibition of ligase by the compounds causes the observed antibacterial activities. They also demonstrate that the compounds exhibit in vivo specificity for LigA over ATP-dependent ligase. This class of inhibitors holds out the promise of rational development of new anti-tubercular agents. PMID:16361267

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis NAD+-dependent DNA ligase is selectively inhibited by glycosylamines compared with human DNA ligase I.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sandeep Kumar; Dube, Divya; Tewari, Neetu; Dwivedi, Namrata; Tripathi, Rama Pati; Ramachandran, Ravishankar

    2005-01-01

    DNA ligases are important enzymes which catalyze the joining of nicks between adjacent bases of double-stranded DNA. NAD+-dependent DNA ligases (LigA) are essential in bacteria and are absent in humans. They have therefore been identified as novel, validated and attractive drug targets. Using virtual screening against an in-house database of compounds and our recently determined crystal structure of the NAD+ binding domain of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis LigA, we have identified N1, N(n)-bis-(5-deoxy-alpha-D-xylofuranosylated) diamines as a novel class of inhibitors for this enzyme. Assays involving M.tuberculosis LigA, T4 ligase and human DNA ligase I show that these compounds specifically inhibit LigA from M.tuberculosis. In vitro kinetic and inhibition assays demonstrate that the compounds compete with NAD+ for binding and inhibit enzyme activity with IC50 values in the microM range. Docking studies rationalize the observed specificities and show that among several glycofuranosylated diamines, bis xylofuranosylated diamines with aminoalkyl and 1, 3-phenylene carbamoyl spacers mimic the binding modes of NAD+ with the enzyme. Assays involving LigA-deficient bacterial strains show that in vivo inhibition of ligase by the compounds causes the observed antibacterial activities. They also demonstrate that the compounds exhibit in vivo specificity for LigA over ATP-dependent ligase. This class of inhibitors holds out the promise of rational development of new anti-tubercular agents.

  9. Neuronal Activity Regulates Hippocampal miRNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Eacker, Stephen M.; Keuss, Matthew J.; Berezikov, Eugene; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal activity regulates a broad range of processes in the hippocampus, including the precise regulation of translation. Disruptions in proper translational control in the nervous system are associated with a variety of disorders that fall in the autistic spectrum. MicroRNA (miRNA) represent a relatively recently discovered player in the regulation of translation in the nervous system. We have conducted an in depth analysis of how neuronal activity regulates miRNA expression in the hippocampus. Using deep sequencing we exhaustively identify all miRNAs, including 15 novel miRNAs, expressed in hippocampus of the adult mouse. We identified 119 miRNAs documented in miRBase but less than half of these miRNA were expressed at a level greater than 0.1% of total miRNA. Expression profiling following induction of neuronal activity by electroconvulsive shock demonstrates that most miRNA show a biphasic pattern of expression: rapid induction of specific mature miRNA expression followed by a decline in expression. These results have important implications into how miRNAs influence activity-dependent translational control. PMID:21984899

  10. Alternative Okazaki Fragment Ligation Pathway by DNA Ligase III.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hiroshi; Iliakis, George

    2015-06-23

    Higher eukaryotes have three types of DNA ligases: DNA ligase 1 (Lig1), DNA ligase 3 (Lig3) and DNA ligase 4 (Lig4). While Lig1 and Lig4 are present in all eukaryotes from yeast to human, Lig3 appears sporadically in evolution and is uniformly present only in vertebrates. In the classical, textbook view, Lig1 catalyzes Okazaki-fragment ligation at the DNA replication fork and the ligation steps of long-patch base-excision repair (BER), homologous recombination repair (HRR) and nucleotide excision repair (NER). Lig4 is responsible for DNA ligation at DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) by the classical, DNA-PKcs-dependent pathway of non-homologous end joining (C-NHEJ). Lig3 is implicated in a short-patch base excision repair (BER) pathway, in single strand break repair in the nucleus, and in all ligation requirements of the DNA metabolism in mitochondria. In this scenario, Lig1 and Lig4 feature as the major DNA ligases serving the most essential ligation needs of the cell, while Lig3 serves in the cell nucleus only minor repair roles. Notably, recent systematic studies in the chicken B cell line, DT40, involving constitutive and conditional knockouts of all three DNA ligases individually, as well as of combinations thereof, demonstrate that the current view must be revised. Results demonstrate that Lig1 deficient cells proliferate efficiently. Even Lig1/Lig4 double knockout cells show long-term viability and proliferate actively, demonstrating that, at least in DT40, Lig3 can perform all ligation reactions of the cellular DNA metabolism as sole DNA ligase. Indeed, in the absence of Lig1, Lig3 can efficiently support semi-conservative DNA replication via an alternative Okazaki-fragment ligation pathway. In addition, Lig3 can back up NHEJ in the absence of Lig4, and can support NER and HRR in the absence of Lig1. Supporting observations are available in less elaborate genetic models in mouse cells. Collectively, these observations raise Lig3 from a niche-ligase to a

  11. DNA ligase and the pyridine nucleotide cycle in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Park, U E; Olivera, B M; Hughes, K T; Roth, J R; Hillyard, D R

    1989-01-01

    Bacterial DNA ligases use NAD as an energy source. In this study we addressed two questions about these enzymes. First, what is the physiological consequence of completely removing the NAD-dependent enzyme and replacing it with an ATP-dependent DNA ligase? We constructed Salmonella typhimurium strains in which the endogenous NAD-dependent DNA ligase activity was inactivated by an insertion mutation and the ATP-dependent enzyme from bacteriophage T4 was provided by a cloned phage gene. Such strains were physiologically indistinguishable from the wild type, even under conditions of UV irradiation or treatment with alkylating agents. These results suggest that specific functional interactions between DNA ligase and other replication and repair enzymes may be unimportant under the conditions tested. Second, the importance of DNA ligation as the initiating event of the bacterial pyridine nucleotide cycle was critically assessed in these mutant strains. Surprisingly, our results indicate that DNA ligation makes a minimal contribution to the pyridine nucleotide cycle; the Salmonella strains with only an ATP-dependent ligase had the same NAD turnover rates as the wild-type strain with an NAD-dependent ligase. However, we found that NAD turnover was significantly decreased under anaerobic conditions. We suggest that most intracellular pyridine nucleotide breakdown occurs in a process that protects the cell against oxygen damage but involves a biochemical mechanism other than DNA ligation. Images PMID:2649488

  12. Alternative ubiquitin activation/conjugation cascades interact with N-end rule ubiquitin ligases to control degradation of RGS proteins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Peter C W; Sowa, Mathew E; Gygi, Steven P; Harper, J Wade

    2011-08-05

    Vertebrates express two enzymes for activation of ubiquitin-UBA1, which is responsible for activation of the vast majority of E2 conjugating enzymes, and UBA6, which uses the dedicated E2, USE1. However, targets and E3s for UBA6-USE1 are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that UBA6-USE1 functions with the UBR1-3 subfamily of N-recognin E3s to degrade the N-end rule substrates RGS4, RGS5, and Arg (R)-GFP. This pathway functions in the cytoplasm in parallel with the UBA1-UBE2A/B-UBR2 cascade, which promotes turnover of nuclear RGS4/5 proteins and an apparently phenotypically distinct pool of cytoplasmic RGS4/5. UBR2 promotes Lys48 (K48)-specific ubiquitin discharge from, and RGS4 ubiquitylation by, both USE1 and UBE2A in vitro. This work provides insight into the machinery employed by the UBA6-USE1 cascade to promote protein turnover and suggests that the UBA6 and UBA1 pathways can function in parallel with the same E3 to degrade the same targets in a spatially distinct manner. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Alternative Ubiquitin Activation/Conjugation Cascades Interact with N-end rule Ubiquitin Ligases to Control Degradation of RGS Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Peter C.W.; Sowa, Mathew E.; Gygi, Steven P.; Harper, J. Wade

    2011-01-01

    Vertebrates express two enzymes for activation of ubiquitin – UBA1, which is responsible for activation of the vast majority of E2 conjugating enzymes, and UBA6, which uses the dedicated E2, USE1. However, targets and E3s for UBA6-USE1 are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that UBA6-USE1 functions with the UBR1-3 subfamily of N-recognin E3s to degrade the N-end rule substrates RGS4, RGS5, and Arg(R)-GFP. This pathway functions in the cytoplasm in parallel with the UBA1-UBE2A/B-UBR2 cascade, which promotes turnover of nuclear RGS4/5 proteins and an apparently phenotypically distinct pool of cytoplasmic RGS4/5. UBR2 promotes Lys48 (K48)-specific ubiquitin discharge from, and RGS4 ubiquitylation by, both USE1 and UBE2A in vitro. This work provides insight into the machinery employed by the UBA6-USE1 cascade to promote protein turnover, and suggests that the UBA6 and UBA1 pathways can function in parallel with the same E3 to degrade the same targets in a spatially distinct manner. PMID:21816346

  14. Coordinated activities of human dicer domains in regulatory RNA processing.

    PubMed

    Ma, Enbo; Zhou, Kaihong; Kidwell, Mary Anne; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2012-09-28

    The conserved ribonuclease Dicer generates microRNAs and short-interfering RNAs that guide gene silencing in eukaryotes. The specific contributions of human Dicer's structural domains to RNA product length and substrate preference are incompletely understood, due in part to the difficulties of Dicer purification. Here, we show that active forms of human Dicer can be assembled from recombinant polypeptides expressed in bacteria. Using this system, we find that three distinct modes of RNA recognition give rise to Dicer's fidelity and product length specificity. The first involves anchoring one end of a double-stranded RNA helix within the PAZ domain, which can assemble in trans with Dicer's catalytic domains to reconstitute an accurate but non-substrate-selective dicing activity. The second entails nonspecific RNA binding by the double-stranded RNA binding domain, an interaction that is essential for substrate recruitment in the absence of the PAZ domain. The third mode of recognition involves hairpin RNA loop recognition by the helicase domain, which ensures efficient processing of specific substrates. These results reveal distinct interactions of each Dicer domain with different RNA structural features and provide a facile system for investigating the molecular mechanisms of human microRNA biogenesis.

  15. A complex ligase ribozyme evolved in vitro from a group I ribozyme domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeger, L.; Wright, M. C.; Joyce, G. F.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Like most proteins, complex RNA molecules often are modular objects made up of distinct structural and functional domains. The component domains of a protein can associate in alternative combinations to form molecules with different functions. These observations raise the possibility that complex RNAs also can be assembled from preexisting structural and functional domains. To test this hypothesis, an in vitro evolution procedure was used to isolate a previously undescribed class of complex ligase ribozymes, starting from a pool of 10(16) different RNA molecules that contained a constant region derived from a large structural domain that occurs within self-splicing group I ribozymes. Attached to this constant region were three hypervariable regions, totaling 85 nucleotides, that gave rise to the catalytic motif within the evolved catalysts. The ligase ribozymes catalyze formation of a 3',5'-phosphodiester linkage between adjacent template-bound oligonucleotides, one bearing a 3' hydroxyl and the other a 5' triphosphate. Ligation occurs in the context of a Watson-Crick duplex, with a catalytic rate of 0.26 min(-1) under optimal conditions. The constant region is essential for catalytic activity and appears to retain the tertiary structure of the group I ribozyme. This work demonstrates that complex RNA molecules, like their protein counterparts, can share common structural domains while exhibiting distinct catalytic functions.

  16. A complex ligase ribozyme evolved in vitro from a group I ribozyme domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeger, L.; Wright, M. C.; Joyce, G. F.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Like most proteins, complex RNA molecules often are modular objects made up of distinct structural and functional domains. The component domains of a protein can associate in alternative combinations to form molecules with different functions. These observations raise the possibility that complex RNAs also can be assembled from preexisting structural and functional domains. To test this hypothesis, an in vitro evolution procedure was used to isolate a previously undescribed class of complex ligase ribozymes, starting from a pool of 10(16) different RNA molecules that contained a constant region derived from a large structural domain that occurs within self-splicing group I ribozymes. Attached to this constant region were three hypervariable regions, totaling 85 nucleotides, that gave rise to the catalytic motif within the evolved catalysts. The ligase ribozymes catalyze formation of a 3',5'-phosphodiester linkage between adjacent template-bound oligonucleotides, one bearing a 3' hydroxyl and the other a 5' triphosphate. Ligation occurs in the context of a Watson-Crick duplex, with a catalytic rate of 0.26 min(-1) under optimal conditions. The constant region is essential for catalytic activity and appears to retain the tertiary structure of the group I ribozyme. This work demonstrates that complex RNA molecules, like their protein counterparts, can share common structural domains while exhibiting distinct catalytic functions.

  17. Active fungi amidst a marine subsurface RNA paleome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsi, W.; Biddle, J.; Edgcomb, V.

    2012-12-01

    The deep marine subsurface is a vast habitat for microbial life where cells may live on geologic timescales. Since extracellular DNA in sediments may be preserved on long timescales, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is suggested to be a proxy for the active fraction of a microbial community in the subsurface. During an investigation of eukaryotic 18S rRNA signatures by amplicon pyrosequencing, metazoan, plant, and diatom rRNA signatures were recovered from marine sediments up to 2.7 million years old, suggesting that rRNA may be much more stable than previously considered in the marine subsurface. This finding confirms the concept of a paleome, extending it to include rRNA. Within the same dataset, unique profiles of fungi were found across a range of marine subsurface provinces exhibiting statistically significant correlations with total organic carbon (TOC), sulfide, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Sequences from metazoans, plants and diatoms showed different correlation patterns, consistent with a depth-controlled paleome. The fungal correlations with geochemistry allow the inference that some fungi are active and adapted for survival in the marine subsurface. A metatranscriptomic analysis of fungal derived mRNA confirms that fungi are metabolically active and utilize a range of organic and inorganic substrates in the marine subsurface.

  18. Reduction of polygalacturonase activity in tomato fruit by antisense RNA.

    PubMed

    Sheehy, R E; Kramer, M; Hiatt, W R

    1988-12-01

    Polygalacturonase [PG; poly(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide) glycanhydrolase; EC 3.2.1.15] is expressed in tomato only during the ripening stage of fruit development. PG becomes abundant during ripening and has a major role in cell wall degradation and fruit softening. Tomato plants were transformed to produce antisense RNA from a gene construct containing the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and a full-length PG cDNA in reverse orientation. The construct was integrated into the tomato genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The constitutive synthesis of PG antisense RNA in transgenic plants resulted in a substantial reduction in the levels of PG mRNA and enzymatic activity in ripening fruit. The steady-state levels of PG antisense RNA in green fruit of transgenic plants were lower than the levels of PG mRNA normally attained during ripening. However, analysis of transcription in isolated nuclei demonstrated that the antisense RNA construct was transcribed at a higher rate than the tomato PG gene(s). Analysis of fruit from transgenic plants demonstrated a reduction in PG mRNA and enzymatic activity of 70-90%. The reduction in PG activity did not prevent the accumulation of the red pigment lycopene.

  19. Conformational changes accompany activation of reovirus RNA-dependent RNA transcription

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Israel I.; Weiner, Scott G.; She, Yi-Min; Yeager, Mark; Coombs, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    Many critical biologic processes involve dynamic interactions between proteins and nucleic acids. Such dynamic processes are often difficult to delineate by conventional static methods. For example, while a variety of nucleic acid polymerase structures have been determined at atomic resolution, the details of how some multi-protein transcriptase complexes actively produce mRNA, as well as conformational changes associated with activation of such complexes, remain poorly understood. The mammalian reovirus innermost capsid (core) manifests all enzymatic activities necessary to produce mRNA from each of the 10 encased double-stranded RNA genes. We used rapid freezing and electron cryo-microscopy to trap and visualize transcriptionally active reovirus core particles and compared them to inactive core images. Rod-like density centered within actively transcribing core spike channels was attributed to exiting nascent mRNA. Comparative radial density plots of active and inactive core particles identified several structural changes in both internal and external regions of the icosahedral core capsid. Inactive and transcriptionally active cores were partially digested with trypsin and identities of initial tryptic peptides determined by mass spectrometry. Differentially-digested peptides, which also suggest transcription-associated conformational changes, were placed within the known 3-dimensional structures of major core proteins. PMID:18321727

  20. Regulation of APC(Cdh1) E3 ligase activity by the Fbw7/cyclin E signaling axis contributes to the tumor suppressor function of Fbw7.

    PubMed

    Lau, Alan W; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Fukushima, Hidefumi; Wan, Lixin; Liu, Pengda; Gao, Daming; Sun, Yi; Wei, Wenyi

    2013-07-01

    Fbw7 and Cdh1 are substrate-recognition subunits of the SCF- and APC-type E3 ubiquitin ligases, respectively. There is emerging evidence suggesting that both Fbw7 and Cdh1 function as tumor suppressors by targeting oncoproteins for destruction. Loss of Fbw7, but not Cdh1, is frequently observed in various human tumors. However, it remains largely unknown how Fbw7 mechanistically functions as a tumor suppressor and whether there is a signaling crosstalk between Fbw7 and Cdh1. Here, we report that Fbw7-deficient cells not only display elevated expression levels of SCF(Fbw7) substrates, including cyclin E, but also have increased expression of various APC(Cdh1) substrates. We further defined cyclin E as the critical signaling link by which Fbw7 governs APC(Cdh1) activity, as depletion of cyclin E in Fbw7-deficient cells results in decreased expression of APC(Cdh1) substrates to levels comparable to those in wild-type (WT) cells. Conversely, ectopic expression of cyclin E recapitulates the aberrant APC(Cdh1) substrate expression observed in Fbw7-deficient cells. More importantly, 4A-Cdh1 that is resistant to Cdk2/cyclin E-mediated phosphorylation, but not WT-Cdh1, reversed the elevated expression of various APC(Cdh1) substrates in Fbw7-deficient cells. Overexpression of 4A-Cdh1 also resulted in retarded cell growth and decreased anchorage-independent colony formation. Altogether, we have identified a novel regulatory mechanism by which Fbw7 governs Cdh1 activity in a cyclin E-dependent manner. As a result, loss of Fbw7 can lead to aberrant increase in the expression of both SCF(Fbw7) and APC(Cdh1) substrates. Our study provides a better understanding of the tumor suppressor function of Fbw7, and suggests that Cdk2/cyclin E inhibitors could serve as effective therapeutic agents for treating Fbw7-deficient tumors.

  1. DsRNA as a stimulator of cell pacemaker activity

    SciTech Connect

    Airapetyan, S.N.; Zakharyan, R.A.; Rychkov, G.E.; Dadalyan, S.S.; Bakunts, I.S.; Agabalyan, A.S.

    1986-03-01

    The authors study the action of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA) on the characteristics of neuron pacemaker activity which permits prediction of the character of action of dsRNA on the pacemaker activity of cells and organs, and takes the investigators closer to an understanding of the membrane mechanisms underlying the action of dsRNA on the cell. The methods for isolating and fractionating dsRNA from yeasts and the intracellular recording of the electrical activity of the snail giant neuron have been described by the authors earlier. The authors determined the dependence of Ca/sup 2 +/ entry upon dsRNA concentration using the isotope /sup 45/Ca. Preweighed ganglia were incubated five each for an hour in 2 ml Ringer's solution containing dsRNA and 5 microliters /sup 45/CaCl/sub 2/ of 12.5 mCi activity. After incubation, the ganglia were rinsed three times for 8 min each time in normal Ringers solution. The washed ganglia were dissolved for one day in KOH. The amount of isotope entering was counted using Brav's scintillator and an RGT counter tuned to the /sup 45/Ca isotope. The physiological saline used for the isolated ganglion contained 85 mmole NaCl, 4 mmole KCl, 8 mmole CaCl/sub 2/, 10 mmole MgCl/sub 2/, 10 mmole Tris-HCl, and 5 mmole glucose.

  2. An RNA matchmaker protein regulates the activity of the long noncoding RNA HOTAIR.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Emily K; Balas, Maggie M; Sindy, Karla; Haislop, Krystal; Johnson, Aaron M

    2016-07-01

    The human long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) HOTAIR acts in trans to recruit the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) to the HOXD gene cluster and to promote gene silencing during development. In breast cancers, overexpression of HOTAIR increases metastatic potential via the repression of many additional genes. It has remained unclear what factors determine HOTAIR-dependent PRC2 activity at specific genomic loci, particularly when high levels of HOTAIR result in aberrant gene silencing. To identify additional proteins that contribute to the specific action of HOTAIR, we performed a quantitative proteomic analysis of the HOTAIR interactome. We found that the most specific interaction was between HOTAIR and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1, a member of a family of proteins involved in nascent mRNA processing and RNA matchmaking. Our data suggest that A2/B1 are key contributors to HOTAIR-mediated chromatin regulation in breast cancer cells: A2/B1 knockdown reduces HOTAIR-dependent breast cancer cell invasion and decreases PRC2 activity at the majority of HOTAIR-dependent loci. We found that the B1 isoform, which differs from A2 by 12 additional amino acids, binds with highest specificity to HOTAIR. B1 also binds chromatin and associates preferentially with RNA transcripts of HOTAIR gene targets. We furthermore demonstrate a direct RNA-RNA interaction between HOTAIR and a target transcript that is enhanced by B1 binding. Together, these results suggest a model in which B1 matches HOTAIR with transcripts of target genes on chromatin, leading to repression by PRC2. © 2016 Meredith et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  3. Effects of ageing on expression of the muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases and Akt-dependent regulation of Foxo transcription factors in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Wagatsuma, Akira; Shiozuka, Masataka; Takayama, Yuzo; Hoshino, Takayuki; Mabuchi, Kunihiko; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Controversy exists as to whether the muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases MAFbx and MuRF1 are transcriptionally upregulated in the process of sarcopenia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ageing on mRNA/protein expression of muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases and Akt/Foxo signalling in gastrocnemius muscles of female mice. Old mice exhibited a typical sarcopenic phenotype, characterized by loss of muscle mass and strength, decreased amount of myofibrillar proteins, incidence of aberrant muscle fibres, and genetic signature to sarcopenia. Activation levels of Akt were lower in adult and old mice than in young mice. Consequently, Akt-mediated phosphorylation levels of Foxo1 and Foxo3 proteins were decreased. Nuclear levels of Foxo1 and Foxo3 proteins showed an overall increasing trend in old mice. MAFbx mRNA expression was decreased in old mice relative to adult mice, whereas MuRF1 mRNA expression was less affected by ageing. At the protein level, MAFbx was less affected by ageing, whereas MuRF1 was increased in old mice relative to adult mice, with ubiquitin-protein conjugates being increased with ageing. In conclusion, we provided evidence for no mRNA upregulation of muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases and disconnection between their expression and Akt/Foxo signalling in sarcopenic mice. Their different responsiveness to ageing may reflect different roles in sarcopenia.

  4. RNA Polymerase Activity and Specific RNA Structure Are Required for Efficient HCV Replication in Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Date, Tomoko; Akazawa, Daisuke; Tian, Xiao; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Kato, Takanobu; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Mizokami, Masashi; Wakita, Takaji; Toyoda, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported that the NS3 helicase (N3H) and NS5B-to-3′X (N5BX) regions are important for the efficient replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) strain JFH-1 and viral production in HuH-7 cells. In the current study, we investigated the relationships between HCV genome replication, virus production, and the structure of N5BX. We found that the Q377R, A450S, S455N, R517K, and Y561F mutations in the NS5B region resulted in up-regulation of J6CF NS5B polymerase activity in vitro. However, the activation effects of these mutations on viral RNA replication and virus production with JFH-1 N3H appeared to differ. In the presence of the N3H region and 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of JFH-1, A450S, R517K, and Y561F together were sufficient to confer HCV genome replication activity and virus production ability to J6CF in cultured cells. Y561F was also involved in the kissing-loop interaction between SL3.2 in the NS5B region and SL2 in the 3′X region. We next analyzed the 3′ structure of HCV genome RNA. The shorter polyU/UC tracts of JFH-1 resulted in more efficient RNA replication than J6CF. Furthermore, 9458G in the JFH-1 variable region (VR) was responsible for RNA replication activity because of its RNA structures. In conclusion, N3H, high polymerase activity, enhanced kissing-loop interactions, and optimal viral RNA structure in the 3′UTR were required for J6CF replication in cultured cells. PMID:20442786

  5. Prokaryotic RNA Associated to Bacterial Viability Induces Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Activation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Nahuel; Castillo, Luis A; Landoni, Verónica I; Martire-Greco, Daiana; Milillo, M Ayelén; Barrionuevo, Paula; Fernández, Gabriela C

    2017-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are the first cellular line of antibacterial host defense. They sense pathogens through recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by innate pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether PMN sense bacterial viability and explore which viability factor could be involved in this phenomenon. For this purpose, different functions were evaluated in isolated human PMN using live Escherichia coli (Ec) and heat-killed Ec (HK-Ec). We found that bacterial viability was indispensable to induce PMN activation, as measured by forward-scatter (FSC) increase, CD11b surface expression, chemotaxis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. As uncapped non-polyadenylated prokaryotic mRNA has been recognized as a PAMP associated to bacterial viability by macrophages and dendritic cells, total prokaryotic RNA (pRNA) from live Ec was purified and used as a stimulus for PMN. pRNA triggered similar responses to those observed with live bacteria. No RNA could be isolated from HK-Ec, explaining the lack of effect of dead bacteria. Moreover, the supernatant of dead bacteria was able to induce PMN activation, and this was associated with the presence of pRNA in this supernatant, which is released in the killing process. The induction of bactericidal functions (ROS and NETosis) by pRNA were abolished when the supernatant of dead bacteria or isolated pRNA were treated with RNAse. Moreover, endocytosis was necessary for pRNA-induced ROS generation and NETosis, and priming was required for the induction of pRNA-induced ROS in whole blood. However, responses related to movement and degranulation (FSC increase, CD11b up-regulation, and chemotaxis) were still triggered when pRNA was digested with RNase, and were not dependent on pRNA endocytosis or PMN priming. In conclusion, our results indicate that PMN sense live bacteria

  6. Prokaryotic RNA Associated to Bacterial Viability Induces Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Activation

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Nahuel; Castillo, Luis A.; Landoni, Verónica I.; Martire-Greco, Daiana; Milillo, M. Ayelén; Barrionuevo, Paula; Fernández, Gabriela C.

    2017-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are the first cellular line of antibacterial host defense. They sense pathogens through recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by innate pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether PMN sense bacterial viability and explore which viability factor could be involved in this phenomenon. For this purpose, different functions were evaluated in isolated human PMN using live Escherichia coli (Ec) and heat-killed Ec (HK-Ec). We found that bacterial viability was indispensable to induce PMN activation, as measured by forward-scatter (FSC) increase, CD11b surface expression, chemotaxis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. As uncapped non-polyadenylated prokaryotic mRNA has been recognized as a PAMP associated to bacterial viability by macrophages and dendritic cells, total prokaryotic RNA (pRNA) from live Ec was purified and used as a stimulus for PMN. pRNA triggered similar responses to those observed with live bacteria. No RNA could be isolated from HK-Ec, explaining the lack of effect of dead bacteria. Moreover, the supernatant of dead bacteria was able to induce PMN activation, and this was associated with the presence of pRNA in this supernatant, which is released in the killing process. The induction of bactericidal functions (ROS and NETosis) by pRNA were abolished when the supernatant of dead bacteria or isolated pRNA were treated with RNAse. Moreover, endocytosis was necessary for pRNA-induced ROS generation and NETosis, and priming was required for the induction of pRNA-induced ROS in whole blood. However, responses related to movement and degranulation (FSC increase, CD11b up-regulation, and chemotaxis) were still triggered when pRNA was digested with RNase, and were not dependent on pRNA endocytosis or PMN priming. In conclusion, our results indicate that PMN sense live bacteria

  7. Activation of the DNA Damage Response by RNA Viruses.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Ellis L; Hollingworth, Robert; Grand, Roger J

    2016-01-06

    RNA viruses are a genetically diverse group of pathogens that are responsible for some of the most prevalent and lethal human diseases. Numerous viruses introduce DNA damage and genetic instability in host cells during their lifecycles and some species also manipulate components of the DNA damage response (DDR), a complex and sophisticated series of cellular pathways that have evolved to detect and repair DNA lesions. Activation and manipulation of the DDR by DNA viruses has been extensively studied. It is apparent, however, that many RNA viruses can also induce significant DNA damage, even in cases where viral replication takes place exclusively in the cytoplasm. DNA damage can contribute to the pathogenesis of RNA viruses through the triggering of apoptosis, stimulation of inflammatory immune responses and the introduction of deleterious mutations that can increase the risk of tumorigenesis. In addition, activation of DDR pathways can contribute positively to replication of viral RNA genomes. Elucidation of the interactions between RNA viruses and the DDR has provided important insights into modulation of host cell functions by these pathogens. This review summarises the current literature regarding activation and manipulation of the DDR by several medically important RNA viruses.

  8. Activation of the DNA Damage Response by RNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Ellis L.; Hollingworth, Robert; Grand, Roger J.

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses are a genetically diverse group of pathogens that are responsible for some of the most prevalent and lethal human diseases. Numerous viruses introduce DNA damage and genetic instability in host cells during their lifecycles and some species also manipulate components of the DNA damage response (DDR), a complex and sophisticated series of cellular pathways that have evolved to detect and repair DNA lesions. Activation and manipulation of the DDR by DNA viruses has been extensively studied. It is apparent, however, that many RNA viruses can also induce significant DNA damage, even in cases where viral replication takes place exclusively in the cytoplasm. DNA damage can contribute to the pathogenesis of RNA viruses through the triggering of apoptosis, stimulation of inflammatory immune responses and the introduction of deleterious mutations that can increase the risk of tumorigenesis. In addition, activation of DDR pathways can contribute positively to replication of viral RNA genomes. Elucidation of the interactions between RNA viruses and the DDR has provided important insights into modulation of host cell functions by these pathogens. This review summarises the current literature regarding activation and manipulation of the DDR by several medically important RNA viruses. PMID:26751489

  9. MiRNA need a TRIM regulation of miRNA activity by Trim-NHL proteins.

    PubMed

    Wulczyn, F Gregory; Cuevas, Elisa; Franzoni, Eleonora; Rybak, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    Trim-NHL proteins are defined by RING, B-Box and Coiled-coil protein motifs (referred to collectively as the Trim domain) coupled to an NHL domain. The C. elegans, D. melanogaster, mouse and human Trim-NHL proteins are potential and in several cases confirmed, E3 ubiquitin ligases. Current research is focused on identifying targets and pathways for Trim-NHL-mediated ubiquitination and in assessing the contribution of the NHL protein-protein interactiondomain for function and specificity. Several Trim-NHL proteins were discovered in screens for developmental genes in model organisms; mutations in one of the family members, Trim32, cause developmental disturbances in humans. In most instances, mutations that alter protein function map to the NHL domain. The NHL domain is a scaffold for the assembly of a translational repressor complex by the Brat proto-oncogene, a well-studied family member in Drosophila. The link to translational control is common to at least four Trim-NHLs that associate with miRNA pathway proteins. So far, two have been shown to repress (Mei-P26 and Lin41) and two to promote (NHL-2, Trim32) miRNA-mediated gene silencing. In this chapter we will describe structure-function relations for each of the proteins and then focus on the lessons being learned from these proteins about miRNA functions in development and in stem cell biology.

  10. Functional annotation of deubiquitinating enzymes using RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Dirac, Annette M G; Nijman, Sebastian M B; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; Bernards, René

    2005-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination is a dynamic process, depending on a tightly regulated balance between the activity of ubiquitin ligases and their antagonists, the ubiquitin-specific proteases or deubiquitinating enzymes. The family of ubiquitin ligases has been studied intensively and it is well established that their deregulation contributes to diverse disease processes, including cancer. Much less is known about the function and regulation of the large group of deubiquitinating enzymes. This chapter describes how RNA interference against deubiquitinating enzymes can be used to elucidate their function. The application of this technology will greatly improve the functional annotation of this family of proteases.

  11. Characterization of the Arabidopsis thaliana E3 Ubiquitin-Ligase AtSINAL7 and Identification of the Ubiquitination Sites

    PubMed Central

    Peralta, Diego A.; Araya, Alejandro; Nardi, Cristina F.; Busi, Maria V.; Gomez-Casati, Diego F.

    2013-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination leading to degradation by the proteasome is an important mechanism in regulating key cellular functions. Protein ubiquitination is carried out by a three step process involving ubiquitin (Ub) activation by a E1 enzyme, the transfer of Ub to a protein E2, finally an ubiquitin ligase E3 catalyzes the transfer of the Ub peptide to an acceptor protein. The E3 component is responsible for the specific recognition of the target, making the unveiling of E3 components essential to understand the mechanisms regulating fundamental cell processes through the protein degradation pathways. The Arabidopsis thaliana seven in absentia-like 7 (AtSINAL7) gene encodes for a protein with characteristics from a C3HC4-type E3 ubiquitin ligase. We demonstrate here that AtSINAL7 protein is indeed an E3 protein ligase based on the self-ubiquitination in vitro assay. This activity is dependent of the presence of a Lys residue in position 124. We also found that higher AtSINAL7 transcript levels are present in tissues undergoing active cell division during floral development. An interesting observation is the circadian expression pattern of AtSINAL7 mRNA in floral buds. Furthermore, UV–B irradiation induces the expression of this transcript indicating that AtSINAL7 may be involved in a wide range of different cell processes. PMID:24015288

  12. Novel role of C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) ubiquitin ligase on inhibiting cardiac apoptosis and dysfunction via regulating ERK5-mediated degradation of inducible cAMP early repressor.

    PubMed

    Woo, Chang-Hoon; Le, Nhat-Tu; Shishido, Tetsuro; Chang, Eugene; Lee, Hakjoo; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Mickelsen, Deanne M; Lu, Yan; McClain, Carolyn; Spangenberg, Thomas; Yan, Chen; Molina, Carlos A; Yang, Jay; Patterson, Cam; Abe, Jun-ichi

    2010-12-01

    Growing evidence indicates a critical role of ubiquitin-proteosome system in apoptosis regulation. A cardioprotective effect of ubiquitin (Ub) ligase of the C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) on myocytes has been reported. In the current study, we found that the cardioprotective effect of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was mediated by ERK5-CHIP signal module via inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) destabilization. In vitro runoff assay and Ub assay showed ICER as a substrate of CHIP Ub ligase. Both disruption of ERK5-CHIP binding with inhibitory helical linker domain fragment (aa 101-200) of CHIP and the depletion of ERK5 by siRNA inhibited CHIP Ub ligase activity, which suggests an obligatory role of ERK5 on CHIP activation. Depletion of CHIP, using siRNA, inhibited IGF-1-mediated reduction of isoproterenol-mediated ICER induction and apoptosis. In diabetic mice subjected to myocardial infarction, the CHIP Ub ligase activity was decreased, with an increase in ICER expression. These changes were attenuated significantly in a cardiac-specific constitutively active form of MEK5α transgenic mice (CA-MEK5α-Tg) previously shown to have greater functional recovery. Furthermore, pressure overload-mediated ICER induction was enhanced in heterozygous CHIP(+/-) mice. We identified ICER as a novel CHIP substrate and that the ERK5-CHIP complex plays an obligatory role in inhibition of ICER expression, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and cardiac dysfunction.

  13. DNA ligase I and Nbs1 proteins associate in a complex and colocalize at replication factories.

    PubMed

    Vago, Riccardo; Leva, Valentina; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Montecucco, Alessandra

    2009-08-15

    DNA ligase I is the main DNA ligase activity involved in eukaryotic DNA replication acting in the joining of Okazaki fragments. This enzyme is also implicated in nucleotide excision repair and in the long-patch base excision repair while its role in the recombinational repair pathways is poorly understood. DNA ligase I is phosphorylated during cell cycle at several serine and threonine residues that regulate its participation in different DNA transactions by modulating the interaction with different protein partners. Here we use an antibody-based array method to identify novel DNA ligase-interacting partners. We show that DNA ligase I participates in several multiprotein complexes with proteins involved in DNA replication and repair, cell cycle control, and protein modification. In particular we demonstrate that DNA ligase I complexes with Nbs1, a core component of the MRN complex critical for detection, processing and repair of double-stranded DNA breaks. The analysis of epitope tagged DNA ligase I mutants demonstrates that the association is mediated by the catalytic fragment of the enzyme. DNA ligase I and Nbs1 colocalize at replication factories during unperturbed replication and after treatment with DNA damaging agents. Since MRN complex is involved in the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks by homologous recombination at stalled replication forks our data support the notion that DNA ligase I participates in homology dependent pathways that deal with replication-associated lesions generated when replication fork encounters DNA damage.

  14. Defining interactions between DNA-PK and ligase IV/XRCC4

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Hsin-Ling; Yannone, Steven M.; Chen, David J.

    2001-04-10

    Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a major pathway for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), ligase IV, and XRCC4 are all critical components of the NHEJ repair pathway. DNA-PK is composed of a heterodimeric DNA-binding component, Ku, and a large catalytic subunit, DNA-PKcs. Ligase IV and XRCC4 associate to form a multimeric complex that is also essential for NHEJ. DNA-PK and ligase IV/XRCC4 interact at DNA termini which results in stimulated ligase activity. Here we define interactions between the components of these two essential complexes, DNA-PK and ligase IV/XRCC4. We find that ligase IV/XRCC4 associates with DNA-PK in a DNA-independent manner. The specific protein-protein interactions that mediate the interaction between these two complexes are further identified. Direct physical interactions between ligase IV and Ku as well as between XRCC4 and DNA-PKcs are shown. No direct interactions are observed between ligase IV and DNA-PKcs or between XRCC4 and Ku. Our data defines the specific protein pairs involved in the association of DNA-PK and ligase IV/XRCC4, and suggests a molecular mechanism for coordinating the assembly of the DNA repair complex at DNA breaks.

  15. CATALYTIC ACTIVITY AS A PROBE OF NATIVE RNA FOLDING

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yaqi; Mitchell, David; Russell, Rick

    2010-01-01

    As RNAs fold to functional structures, they traverse complex energy landscapes that include many partially-folded and misfolded intermediates. For structured RNAs that possess catalytic activity, this activity can provide a powerful means of monitoring folding that is complementary to other biophysical approaches. RNA catalysis can be used to track accumulation of the native RNA specifically and quantitatively, readily distinguishing the native structure from intermediates that resemble it and may not be differentiated by other approaches. Here we outline how to design and interpret experiments using catalytic activity to monitor RNA folding, and we summarize adaptations of the method that have been used to probe aspects of folding well beyond determination of the folding rates. PMID:20946771

  16. SCF ubiquitin ligase targeted therapies

    PubMed Central

    Skaar, Jeffrey R.; Pagan, Julia K.; Pagano, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Summary The recent clinical successes of inhibitors of the proteasome for the treatment of cancer have highlighted the therapeutic potential of this protein degradation system. Proteasome inhibitors prevent the degradation of numerous proteins, so increased specificity could be achieved by inhibiting the components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system that target specific subsets of proteins for degradation. F-box proteins are the substrate-targeting subunits of SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complexes. Through the degradation of a plethora of diverse substrates, SCF ubiquitin ligases control a large number of processes at the cellular and organismal levels, and their misregulation is implicated in many pathologies. SCF ligases are characterized by a high specificity for their substrates, so they represent promising drug targets. However, the potential for therapeutic manipulation of SCF complexes remains an underdeveloped area. This review will explore and discuss potential strategies to target SCF-mediated biology to treat human diseases. PMID:25394868

  17. CREB SUMOylation by the E3 ligase PIAS1 enhances spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Chu; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Ma, Yun-Li; Tai, Derek J C; Lee, Eminy H Y

    2014-07-16

    cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and signaling plays an important role in long-term memory formation, but other posttranslational modifications of CREB are less known. Here, we found that CREB1Δ, the short isoform of CREB, could be sumoylated by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1) at Lys271 and Lys290 and PIAS1 SUMOylation of CREB1Δ increased the expression level of CREB1Δ. CREB1Δ could also be sumoylated by other PIAS family proteins, but not by the E3 ligases RanBP2 and Pc2 or by the E2 ligase Ubc9. Furthermore, water maze training increased the level of endogenous CREB SUMOylation in rat CA1 neurons determined by in vitro SUMOylation assay, but this effect was not observed in other brain areas. Moreover, transduction of Lenti-CREBWT to rat CA1 area facilitated, whereas transduction of Lenti-CREB double sumo-mutant (CREBK271RK290R) impaired, spatial learning and memory performance. Transduction of Lenti-CREBWT-SUMO1 fusion vector to rat CA1 area showed a more significant effect in enhancing spatial learning and memory and CREB SUMOylation. Lenti-CREBWT transduction increased, whereas Lenti-CREBK271RK290R transduction decreased, CREB DNA binding to the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) promoter and decreased bdnf mRNA expression. Knock-down of PIAS1 expression in CA1 area by PIAS1 siRNA transfection impaired spatial learning and memory and decreased endogenous CREB SUMOylation. In addition, CREB SUMOylation was CREB phosphorylation dependent and lasted longer. Therefore, CREB phosphorylation may be responsible for signal transduction during the early phase of long-term memory formation, whereas CREB SUMOylation sustains long-term memory.

  18. A cypovirus VP5 displays the RNA chaperone-like activity that destabilizes RNA helices and accelerates strand annealing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Cheng, Zhenyun; Zhang, Songliu; Xiong, Wei; Xia, Hongjie; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Zhaowei; Wu, Feige; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Yin, Lei; Hu, Yuanyang; Zhou, Xi

    2014-02-01

    For double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses in the family Reoviridae, their inner capsids function as the machinery for viral RNA (vRNA) replication. Unlike other multishelled reoviruses, cypovirus has a single-layered capsid, thereby representing a simplified model for studying vRNA replication of reoviruses. VP5 is one of the three major cypovirus capsid proteins and functions as a clamp protein to stabilize cypovirus capsid. Here, we expressed VP5 from type 5 Helicoverpa armigera cypovirus (HaCPV-5) in a eukaryotic system and determined that this VP5 possesses RNA chaperone-like activity, which destabilizes RNA helices and accelerates strand annealing independent of ATP. Our further characterization of VP5 revealed that its helix-destabilizing activity is RNA specific, lacks directionality and could be inhibited by divalent ions, such as Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Ca(2+) or Zn(2+), to varying degrees. Furthermore, we found that HaCPV-5 VP5 facilitates the replication initiation of an alternative polymerase (i.e. reverse transcriptase) through a panhandle-structured RNA template, which mimics the 5'-3' cyclization of cypoviral positive-stranded RNA. Given that the replication of negative-stranded vRNA on the positive-stranded vRNA template necessitates the dissociation of the 5'-3' panhandle, the RNA chaperone activity of VP5 may play a direct role in the initiation of reoviral dsRNA synthesis.

  19. DNA ligases as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Tomkinson, Alan E.; Howes, Timothy R.L.; Wiest, Nathaniel E.

    2013-01-01

    During DNA replication, DNA joining events link Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand. In addition, they are required to repair DNA single- and double-strand breaks and to complete repair events initiated by the excision of mismatched and damaged bases. In human cells, there are three genes encoding DNA ligases. These enzymes are ATP-dependent and contain a conserved catalytic region. Biophysical studies have shown that the catalytic region contains three domains that, in the absence of DNA, are in an extended conformation. When the catalytic region engages a DNA nick, it adopts a compact, ring structure around the DNA nick with each of the three domains contacting the DNA. Protein-protein interactions involving the regions flanking the conserved catalytic regions of human DNA ligases play a major role in directing these enzymes to participate in specific DNA transactions. Among the human LIG genes, the LIG3 gene is unique in that it encodes multiple DNA ligase polypeptides with different N- and C-termini. One of these polypeptides is targeted to mitochondria where it plays an essential role in the maintenance of the mitochondrial genome. In the nucleus, DNA ligases I, III and IV have distinct but overlapping functions in DNA replication and repair. Small molecule inhibitors of human DNA ligases have been identified using structure-based approaches. As expected, these inhibitors are cytotoxic and also potentiate the cytotoxicity of DNA damaging agents. The results of preclinical studies with human cancer cell lines and mouse models of human cancer suggest that DNA ligase inhibitors may have utility as anti-cancer agents. PMID:24224145

  20. Assembly and Function of the RNA Editing Complex in Trypanosoma brucei Requires Band III Protein

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Catherine E.; O'Hearn, Sean F.; Sollner-Webb, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Trypanosome RNA editing, the posttranscriptional insertion and deletion of U residues in mitochondrial transcripts, is catalyzed by a protein complex containing seven distinct proteins. In this study, we cloned the gene for band III, a 555-amino-acid protein with two separate zinc finger motifs. We prepared antibodies that showed band III protein cofractionates with the previously characterized band IV protein throughout the purification of the editing complex and is not found free or in other protein associations; therefore, it is a true constituent of the editing complex. Double-stranded RNA interference efficiently depleted band III protein and demonstrated that band III expression is essential for growth of procyclic trypanosomes and for RNA editing. These depleted cell extracts were deficient specifically in guide RNA-directed endonuclease cleavage at both U deletion and U insertion sites and in the activity of the band IV ligase, but they retained the 3′-U-exonuclease and terminal-U-transferase activities as well as band V ligase of the editing complex. Loss of band III protein also resulted in almost complete loss of the band IV ligase protein and altered sedimentation of the band V ligase. These data indicate that band III is either the RNA editing endonuclease or a factor critical for cleavage activity in the editing complex. They also demonstrate that band III is required for proper assembly of the editing complex. PMID:11940676

  1. Dsc E3 ligase localization to the Golgi requires the ATPase Cdc48 and cofactor Ufd1 for activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Burr, Risa; Ribbens, Diedre; Raychaudhuri, Sumana; Stewart, Emerson V; Ho, Jason; Espenshade, Peter J

    2017-09-29

    Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe regulate lipid homeostasis and the hypoxic response under conditions of low sterol or oxygen availability. SREBPs are cleaved in the Golgi through the combined action of the Dsc E3 ligase complex, the rhomboid protease Rbd2, and the essential ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA(+)) ATPase Cdc48. The soluble SREBP N-terminal transcription factor domain is then released into the cytosol to enter the nucleus and regulate gene expression. Previously, we reported that Cdc48 binding to Rbd2 is required for Rbd2-mediated SREBP cleavage. Here, using affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry experiments, we identified Cdc48-binding proteins in S. pombe, generating a list of many previously unknown potential Cdc48-binding partners. We show that the established Cdc48 cofactor Ufd1 is required for SREBP cleavage but does not interact with the Cdc48-Rbd2 complex. Cdc48-Ufd1 is instead required at a step prior to Rbd2 function, during Golgi localization of the Dsc E3 ligase complex. Together, these findings demonstrate that two distinct Cdc48 complexes, Cdc48-Ufd1 and Cdc48-Rbd2, are required for SREBP activation and low-oxygen adaptation in S. pombe. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. The Penicillium chrysogenum aclA gene encodes a broad-substrate-specificity acyl-coenzyme A ligase involved in activation of adipic acid, a side-chain precursor for cephem antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Koetsier, Martijn J; Gombert, Andreas K; Fekken, Susan; Bovenberg, Roel A L; van den Berg, Marco A; Kiel, Jan A K W; Jekel, Peter A; Janssen, Dick B; Pronk, Jack T; van der Klei, Ida J; Daran, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    Activation of the cephalosporin side-chain precursor to the corresponding CoA-thioester is an essential step for its incorporation into the beta-lactam backbone. To identify an acyl-CoA ligase involved in activation of adipate, we searched in the genome database of Penicillium chrysogenum for putative structural genes encoding acyl-CoA ligases. Chemostat-based transcriptome analysis was used to identify the one presenting the highest expression level when cells were grown in the presence of adipate. Deletion of the gene renamed aclA, led to a 32% decreased specific rate of adipate consumption and a threefold reduction of adipoyl-6-aminopenicillanic acid levels, but did not affect penicillin V production. After overexpression in Escherichia coli, the purified protein was shown to have a broad substrate range including adipate. Finally, protein-fusion with cyan-fluorescent protein showed co-localization with microbody-borne acyl-transferase. Identification and functional characterization of aclA may aid in developing future metabolic engineering strategies for improving the production of different cephalosporins.

  3. SUMO Ligase Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT1 (PIAS1) Is a Constituent Promyelocytic Leukemia Nuclear Body Protein That Contributes to the Intrinsic Antiviral Immune Response to Herpes Simplex Virus 1.

    PubMed

    Brown, James R; Conn, Kristen L; Wasson, Peter; Charman, Matthew; Tong, Lily; Grant, Kyle; McFarlane, Steven; Boutell, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Aspects of intrinsic antiviral immunity are mediated by promyelocytic leukemia nuclear body (PML-NB) constituent proteins. During herpesvirus infection, these antiviral proteins are independently recruited to nuclear domains that contain infecting viral genomes to cooperatively promote viral genome silencing. Central to the execution of this particular antiviral response is the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) signaling pathway. However, the participating SUMOylation enzymes are not fully characterized. We identify the SUMO ligase protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1) as a constituent PML-NB protein. We show that PIAS1 localizes at PML-NBs in a SUMO interaction motif (SIM)-dependent manner that requires SUMOylated or SUMOylation-competent PML. Following infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), PIAS1 is recruited to nuclear sites associated with viral genome entry in a SIM-dependent manner, consistent with the SIM-dependent recruitment mechanisms of other well-characterized PML-NB proteins. In contrast to that of Daxx and Sp100, however, the recruitment of PIAS1 is enhanced by PML. PIAS1 promotes the stable accumulation of SUMO1 at nuclear sites associated with HSV-1 genome entry, whereas the accumulation of other evaluated PML-NB proteins occurs independently of PIAS1. We show that PIAS1 cooperatively contributes to HSV-1 restriction through mechanisms that are additive to those of PML and cooperative with those of PIAS4. The antiviral mechanisms of PIAS1 are counteracted by ICP0, the HSV-1 SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase, which disrupts the recruitment of PIAS1 to nuclear domains that contain infecting HSV-1 genomes through mechanisms that do not directly result in PIAS1 degradation. Adaptive, innate, and intrinsic immunity cooperatively and efficiently restrict the propagation of viral pathogens. Intrinsic immunity mediated by constitutively expressed cellular proteins represents the first line of intracellular defense against infection. PML

  4. SUMO Ligase Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT1 (PIAS1) Is a Constituent Promyelocytic Leukemia Nuclear Body Protein That Contributes to the Intrinsic Antiviral Immune Response to Herpes Simplex Virus 1

    PubMed Central

    Brown, James R.; Conn, Kristen L.; Wasson, Peter; Charman, Matthew; Tong, Lily; Grant, Kyle; McFarlane, Steven

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aspects of intrinsic antiviral immunity are mediated by promyelocytic leukemia nuclear body (PML-NB) constituent proteins. During herpesvirus infection, these antiviral proteins are independently recruited to nuclear domains that contain infecting viral genomes to cooperatively promote viral genome silencing. Central to the execution of this particular antiviral response is the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) signaling pathway. However, the participating SUMOylation enzymes are not fully characterized. We identify the SUMO ligase protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1) as a constituent PML-NB protein. We show that PIAS1 localizes at PML-NBs in a SUMO interaction motif (SIM)-dependent manner that requires SUMOylated or SUMOylation-competent PML. Following infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), PIAS1 is recruited to nuclear sites associated with viral genome entry in a SIM-dependent manner, consistent with the SIM-dependent recruitment mechanisms of other well-characterized PML-NB proteins. In contrast to that of Daxx and Sp100, however, the recruitment of PIAS1 is enhanced by PML. PIAS1 promotes the stable accumulation of SUMO1 at nuclear sites associated with HSV-1 genome entry, whereas the accumulation of other evaluated PML-NB proteins occurs independently of PIAS1. We show that PIAS1 cooperatively contributes to HSV-1 restriction through mechanisms that are additive to those of PML and cooperative with those of PIAS4. The antiviral mechanisms of PIAS1 are counteracted by ICP0, the HSV-1 SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase, which disrupts the recruitment of PIAS1 to nuclear domains that contain infecting HSV-1 genomes through mechanisms that do not directly result in PIAS1 degradation. IMPORTANCE Adaptive, innate, and intrinsic immunity cooperatively and efficiently restrict the propagation of viral pathogens. Intrinsic immunity mediated by constitutively expressed cellular proteins represents the first line of intracellular defense against

  5. SCR7 is neither a selective nor a potent inhibitor of human DNA ligase IV.

    PubMed

    Greco, George E; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Brooks, Rhys C; Lu, Zhengfei; Lieber, Michael R; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2016-07-01

    DNA ligases are attractive therapeutics because of their involvement in completing the repair of almost all types of DNA damage. A series of DNA ligase inhibitors with differing selectivity for the three human DNA ligases were identified using a structure-based approach with one of these inhibitors being used to inhibit abnormal DNA ligase IIIα-dependent repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB)s in breast cancer, neuroblastoma and leukemia cell lines. Raghavan and colleagues reported the characterization of a derivative of one of the previously identified DNA ligase inhibitors, which they called SCR7 (designated SCR7-R in our experiments using SCR7). SCR7 appeared to show increased selectivity for DNA ligase IV, inhibit the repair of DSBs by the DNA ligase IV-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway, reduce tumor growth, and increase the efficacy of DSB-inducing therapeutic modalities in mouse xenografts. In attempting to synthesize SCR7, we encountered problems with the synthesis procedures and discovered discrepancies in its reported structure. We determined the structure of a sample of SCR7 and a related compound, SCR7-G, that is the major product generated by the published synthesis procedure for SCR7. We also found that SCR7-G has the same structure as the compound (SCR7-X) available from a commercial vendor (XcessBio). The various SCR7 preparations had similar activity in DNA ligation assay assays, exhibiting greater activity against DNA ligases I and III than DNA ligase IV. Furthermore, SCR7-R failed to inhibit DNA ligase IV-dependent V(D)J recombination in a cell-based assay. Based on our results, we conclude that SCR7 and the SCR7 derivatives are neither selective nor potent inhibitors of DNA ligase IV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Activation of PKR by RNA misfolding: HDV ribozyme dimers activate PKR

    PubMed Central

    Heinicke, Laurie A.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    Protein Kinase R (PKR), the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase, plays important roles in innate immunity. Previous studies have shown that PKR is activated by long stretches of dsRNA, RNA pseudoknots, and certain single-stranded RNAs; however, regulation of PKR by RNAs with globular tertiary structure has not been reported. In this study, the HDV ribozyme is used as a model of a mostly globular RNA. In addition to a catalytic core, the ribozyme contains a peripheral 13-bp pairing region (P4), which, upon shortening, affects neither the catalytic activity of the ribozyme nor its ability to crystallize. We report that the HDV ribozyme sequence alone can activate PKR. To elucidate the RNA structural basis for this, we prepared a number of HDV variants, including those with shortened or lengthened P4 pairing regions, with the anticipation that lengthening the P4 extension would yield a more potent activator since it would offer more base pairs of dsRNA. Surprisingly, the variant with a shortened P4 was the most potent activator. Through native gel mobility and enzymatic structure mapping experiments we implicate misfolded HDV ribozyme dimers as the PKR-activating species, and show that the shortened P4 leads to enhanced occupancy of the RNA dimer. These observations have implications for how RNA misfolding relates to innate immune response and human disease. PMID:23105000

  7. The role of antisense long noncoding RNA in small RNA-triggered gene activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xizhe; Li, Haitang; Rossi, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to regulate neighboring protein-coding genes by directing chromatin remodeling complexes, imprinting, and X-chromosome inactivation. In this study, we explore the function of lncRNAs in small RNA-triggered transcriptional gene activation (TGA), a process in which microRNAs (miRNAs) or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) associated with Argonaute (Ago) proteins induce chromatin remodeling and gene activation at promoters with sequence complementarity. We designed a model system with different lncRNA and chromatin environments to elucidate the molecular mechanisms required for mammalian TGA. Using RNA-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR, we demonstrated that small RNA-triggered TGA occurs at sites where antisense lncRNAs are transcribed through the reporter gene and promoter. Small RNA-induced TGA coincided with the enrichment of Ago2 at the promoter region, but Ago2-mediated cleavage of antisense lncRNAs was not observed. Moreover, we examined the allele-specific effects of lncRNAs through a Cre-induced inversion of a poly(A) sequence that was designed to block the transcription of antisense lncRNAs through the reporter gene region in an inducible and reversible manner. Termination of nascent antisense lncRNAs abrogated gene activation triggered by small RNAs, and only allele-specific cis-acting antisense lncRNAs, but not trans-acting lncRNAs, were capable of rescuing TGA. Hence, this model revealed that antisense lncRNAs can mediate TGA in cis and not in trans, serving as a molecular scaffold for a small RNA–Ago2 complex and chromatin remodeling. PMID:25344398

  8. Evolutionary relationships between miRNA genes and their activity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Skogerbø, Geir; Ning, Qianqian; Wang, Zhen; Li, Biqing; Yang, Shuang; Sun, Hong; Li, Yixue

    2012-12-22

    The emergence of vertebrates is characterized by a strong increase in miRNA families. MicroRNAs interact broadly with many transcripts, and the evolution of such a system is intriguing. However, evolutionary questions concerning the origin of miRNA genes and their subsequent evolution remain unexplained. In order to systematically understand the evolutionary relationship between miRNAs gene and their function, we classified human known miRNAs into eight groups based on their evolutionary ages estimated by maximum parsimony method. New miRNA genes with new functional sequences accumulated more dynamically in vertebrates than that observed in Drosophila. Different levels of evolutionary selection were observed over miRNA gene sequences with different time of origin. Most genic miRNAs differ from their host genes in time of origin, there is no particular relationship between the age of a miRNA and the age of its host genes, genic miRNAs are mostly younger than the corresponding host genes. MicroRNAs originated over different time-scales are often predicted/verified to target the same or overlapping sets of genes, opening the possibility of substantial functional redundancy among miRNAs of different ages. Higher degree of tissue specificity and lower expression level was found in young miRNAs. Our data showed that compared with protein coding genes, miRNA genes are more dynamic in terms of emergence and decay. Evolution patterns are quite different between miRNAs of different ages. MicroRNAs activity is under tight control with well-regulated expression increased and targeting decreased over time. Our work calls attention to the study of miRNA activity with a consideration of their origin time.

  9. An alternative splicing event which occurs in mouse pachytene spermatocytes generates a form of DNA ligase III with distinct biochemical properties that may function in meiotic recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Z B; Ramos, W; Levin, D S; Walter, C A; McCarrey, J R; Tomkinson, A E

    1997-01-01

    Three mammalian genes encoding DNA ligases have been identified. However, the role of each of these enzymes in mammalian DNA metabolism has not been established. In this study, we show that two forms of mammalian DNA ligase III, alpha and beta, are produced by a conserved tissue-specific alternative splicing mechanism involving exons encoding the C termini of the polypeptides. DNA ligase III-alpha cDNA, which encodes a 103-kDa polypeptide, is expressed in all tissues and cells, whereas DNA ligase III-beta cDNA, which encodes a 96-kDa polypeptide, is expressed only in the testis. During male germ cell differentiation, elevated expression of DNA ligase III-beta mRNA is restricted, beginning only in the latter stages of meiotic prophase and ending in the round spermatid stage. In 96-kDa DNA ligase III-beta, the C-terminal 77 amino acids of DNA ligase III-alpha are replaced by a different 17- to 18-amino acid sequence. As reported previously, the 103-kDa DNA ligase III-alpha interacts with the DNA strand break repair protein encoded by the human XRCC1 gene. In contrast, the 96-kDa DNA ligase III-beta does not interact with XRCC1, indicating that DNA ligase III-beta may play a role in cellular functions distinct from the DNA repair pathways involving the DNA ligase III-alpha x XRCC1 complex. The distinct biochemical properties of DNA ligase III-beta, in combination with the tissue- and cell-type-specific expression of DNA ligase III-beta mRNA, suggest that this form of DNA ligase III is specifically involved in the completion of homologous recombination events that occur during meiotic prophase. PMID:9001252

  10. RNA-dependent DNA-polymerase activity in human milk.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, E S; Ryan, S M; Mann, E

    1975-08-01

    A simple method is described for testing milk specimens from nursing mothers for the presence of RNA-dependent DNA-polymerase activity. Positive results were obtained in five of 137 women (3.6%) without a family history of breast cancer, and in six of 31 women (19.3%) with a family history of breast cancer.

  11. A design principle underlying the paradoxical roles of E3 ubiquitin ligases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daewon; Kim, Minjin; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    E3 ubiquitin ligases are important cellular components that determine the specificity of proteolysis in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. However, an increasing number of studies have indicated that E3 ubiquitin ligases also participate in transcription. Intrigued by the apparently paradoxical functions of E3 ubiquitin ligases in both proteolysis and transcriptional activation, we investigated the underlying design principles using mathematical modeling. We found that the antagonistic functions integrated in E3 ubiquitin ligases can prevent any undesirable sustained activation of downstream genes when E3 ubiquitin ligases are destabilized by unexpected perturbations. Interestingly, this design principle of the system is similar to the operational principle of a safety interlock device in engineering systems, which prevents a system from abnormal operation unless stability is guaranteed. PMID:24994517

  12. A design principle underlying the paradoxical roles of E3 ubiquitin ligases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Daewon; Kim, Minjin; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-07-01

    E3 ubiquitin ligases are important cellular components that determine the specificity of proteolysis in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. However, an increasing number of studies have indicated that E3 ubiquitin ligases also participate in transcription. Intrigued by the apparently paradoxical functions of E3 ubiquitin ligases in both proteolysis and transcriptional activation, we investigated the underlying design principles using mathematical modeling. We found that the antagonistic functions integrated in E3 ubiquitin ligases can prevent any undesirable sustained activation of downstream genes when E3 ubiquitin ligases are destabilized by unexpected perturbations. Interestingly, this design principle of the system is similar to the operational principle of a safety interlock device in engineering systems, which prevents a system from abnormal operation unless stability is guaranteed.

  13. RNA-binding properties and RNA chaperone activity of human peroxiredoxin 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Lee, Hae Na; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Ha, Bin; Ahn, Sung-Min; Jang, Ho Hee; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hPrx1 has RNA-binding properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hPrx1 exhibits helix-destabilizing activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cold stress increases hPrx1 level in the nuclear fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hPrx1 enhances the viability of cells exposed to cold stress. -- Abstract: Human peroxiredoxin 1 (hPrx1), a member of the peroxiredoxin family, detoxifies peroxide substrates and has been implicated in numerous biological processes, including cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and redox signaling. To date, Prx1 has not been implicated in RNA metabolism. Here, we investigated the ability of hPrx1 to bind RNA and act as an RNA chaperone. In vitro, hPrx1 bound to RNA and DNA, and unwound nucleic acid duplexes. hPrx1 also acted as a transcription anti-terminator in an assay using an Escherichia coli strain containing a stem-loop structure upstream of the chloramphenicol resistance gene. The overall cellular level of hPrx1 expression was not increased at low temperatures, but the nuclear level of hPrx1 was increased. In addition, hPrx1 overexpression enhanced the survival of cells exposed to cold stress, whereas hPrx1 knockdown significantly reduced cell survival under the same conditions. These findings suggest that hPrx1 may perform biological functions as a RNA-binding protein, which are distinctive from known functions of hPrx1 as a reactive oxygen species scavenger.

  14. The E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8 negatively regulates IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by targeting the IL1RAP coreceptor for ubiquitination and degradation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Li, Mi; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Qian; Shu, Hong-Bing

    2012-08-28

    The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) signals via type I IL-1 receptor (IL-1RI) and IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP), which leads to activation of the transcription factor NF-κB and induction of a range of downstream proteins involved in inflammatory and immune responses. Here, we identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH8) as a suppressor of IL-1β-induced NF-κB- and MAPK-activation pathways. Overexpression of MARCH8 inhibits IL-1β-induced NF-κB and MAPK activation, whereas knockdown of MARCH8 has the opposite effect. Mechanistically, MARCH8 interacts with IL1RAP and targets its Lys512 for K48-linked polyubiquitination and degradation. Our findings suggest that MARCH8-mediated polyubiquitination and degradation of IL1RAP is an important mechanism for negative regulation of IL-1β-induced signaling pathways.

  15. Rational design of human DNA ligase inhibitors that target cellular DNA replication and repair.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Zhong, Shijun; Zhu, Xiao; Dziegielewska, Barbara; Ellenberger, Tom; Wilson, Gerald M; MacKerell, Alexander D; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2008-05-01

    Based on the crystal structure of human DNA ligase I complexed with nicked DNA, computer-aided drug design was used to identify compounds in a database of 1.5 million commercially available low molecular weight chemicals that were predicted to bind to a DNA-binding pocket within the DNA-binding domain of DNA ligase I, thereby inhibiting DNA joining. Ten of 192 candidates specifically inhibited purified human DNA ligase I. Notably, a subset of these compounds was also active against the other human DNA ligases. Three compounds that differed in their specificity for the three human DNA ligases were analyzed further. L82 inhibited DNA ligase I, L67 inhibited DNA ligases I and III, and L189 inhibited DNA ligases I, III, and IV in DNA joining assays with purified proteins and in cell extract assays of DNA replication, base excision repair, and nonhomologous end-joining. L67 and L189 are simple competitive inhibitors with respect to nicked DNA, whereas L82 is an uncompetitive inhibitor that stabilized complex formation between DNA ligase I and nicked DNA. In cell culture assays, L82 was cytostatic whereas L67 and L189 were cytotoxic. Concordant with their ability to inhibit DNA repair in vitro, subtoxic concentrations of L67 and L189 significantly increased the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents. Interestingly, the ligase inhibitors specifically sensitized cancer cells to DNA damage. Thus, these novel human DNA ligase inhibitors will not only provide insights into the cellular function of these enzymes but also serve as lead compounds for the development of anticancer agents.

  16. SUMO E3 Ligases GmSIZ1a and GmSIZ1b regulate vegetative growth in soybean .

    PubMed

    Cai, Bin; Kong, Xiangxiong; Zhong, Chao; Sun, Suli; Zhou, Xiao Feng; Jin, Yin Hua; Wang, Youning; Li, Xia; Zhu, Zhendong; Jin, Jing Bo

    2017-01-01

    SIZ1 is a small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase that mediates post-translational SUMO modification of target proteins and thereby regulates developmental processes and hormonal and environmental stress responses in Arabidopsis. However, the role of SUMO E3 ligases in crop plants is largely unknown. Here, we identified and characterized two Glycine max (soybean) SUMO E3 ligases, GmSIZ1a and GmSIZ1b. Expression of GmSIZ1a and GmSIZ1b was induced in response to salicylic acid (SA), heat, and dehydration treatment, but not in response to cold, abscisic acid (ABA), and NaCl treatment. Although GmSIZ1a was expressed at higher levels than GmSIZ1b, both genes encoded proteins with SUMO E3 ligase activity in vivo. Heterologous expression of GmSIZ1a or GmSIZ1b rescued the mutant phenotype of Arabidopsis siz1-2, including dwarfism, constitutively activated expression of pathogen-related genes, and ABA-sensitive seed germination. Simultaneous downregulation of GmSIZ1a and GmSIZ1b (GmSIZ1a/b) using RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing decreased heat shock-induced SUMO conjugation in soybean. Moreover, GmSIZ1RNAi plants exhibited reduced plant height and leaf size. However, unlike Arabidopsis siz1-2 mutant plants, flowering time and SA levels were not significantly altered in GmSIZ1RNAi plants. Taken together, our results indicate that GmSIZ1a and GmSIZ1b mediate SUMO modification and positively regulate vegetative growth in soybean. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Regulation of lipid droplet turnover by ubiquitin ligases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mutation of the protein spartin is a cause of one form of spastic paraplegia. Spartin interacts with ubiquitin ligases of the Nedd4 family, and a recent report in BMC Biology now shows that it acts as an adaptor to recruit and activate the ubiquitin ligase AIP4 onto lipid droplets, leading to the ubiquitination and degradation of droplet-associated proteins. A deficiency of spartin apparently causes lipid droplets to accumulate. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/72/ PMID:20646264

  18. Automated discovery of active motifs in multiple RNA secondary structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.T.L.; Chang, Chia-Yo; Shapiro, B.A.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present a method for discovering approximately common motifs (also known as active motifs) in multiple RNA secondary structures. The secondary structures can be represented as ordered trees (i.e., the order among siblings matters). Motifs in these trees are connected subgraphs that can differ in both substitutions and deletions/insertions. The proposed method consists of two steps: (1) find candidate motifs in a small sample of the secondary structures; (2) search all of the secondary structures to determine how frequently these motifs occur (within the allowed approximation) in the secondary structures. To reduce the running time, we develop two optimization heuristics based on sampling and pattern matching techniques. Experimental results obtained by running these algorithms on both generated data and RNA secondary structures show the good performance of the algorithms. To demonstrate the utility of our algorithms, we discuss their applications to conducting the phylogenetic study of RNA sequences obtained from GenBank.

  19. Two Distinct RNase Activities of CRISPR-C2c2 Enable Guide RNA Processing and RNA Detection

    PubMed Central

    East-Seletsky, Alexandra; O’Connell, Mitchell R.; Knight, Spencer C.; Burstein, David; Cate, Jamie H. D.; Tjian, Robert; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial adaptive immune systems employ CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins for RNA-guided nucleic acid cleavage1,2. Although generally targeted to DNA substrates3–5, the Type III and Type VI CRISPR systems direct interference complexes against single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) substrates6–9. In Type VI systems, the single-subunit C2c2 protein functions as an RNA-guided RNA endonuclease9,10. How this enzyme acquires mature CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) essential for immune surveillance and its mechanism of crRNA-mediated RNA cleavage remain unclear. Here we show that C2c2 possesses a unique ribonuclease activity responsible for CRISPR RNA maturation that is distinct from its RNA-activated ssRNA-degradation activity. These dual ribonuclease functions are chemically and mechanistically different from each other and from the crRNA-processing behavior of the evolutionarily unrelated CRISPR enzyme Cpf111. We show that the two ribonuclease activities of C2c2 enable multiplexed processing and loading of guide RNAs that in turn allow for sensitive cellular transcript detection. PMID:27669025

  20. Thermozymes: Synthetic RNA thermometers based on ribozyme activity.

    PubMed

    Saragliadis, Athanasios; Krajewski, Stefanie S; Rehm, Charlotte; Narberhaus, Franz; Hartig, Jörg S

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic biology approaches often combine natural building blocks to generate new cellular activities. Here, we make use of two RNA elements to design a regulatory device with novel functionality. The system is based on a hammerhead ribozyme (HHR) that cleaves itself to generate a liberated ribosome-binding site and, thus, permits expression of a downstream gene. We connected a temperature-responsive RNA hairpin to the HHR and, thus, generated a temperature-controlled ribozyme that we call thermozyme. Specifically, a Salmonella RNA thermometer (RNAT) known to modulate small heat shock gene expression by temperature-controlled base-pairing and melting was fused to the ribozyme. Following an in vivo screening approach, we isolated two functional thermozymes. In vivo expression studies and in vitro structure probing experiments support a mechanism in which rising temperatures melt the thermometer structure impairing the self-cleavage reaction of the ribozyme. Since RNA cleavage is necessary to liberate the RBS, these engineered thermozymes shut off gene expression in response to a temperature increase and, thus, act in a reverse manner as the natural RNAT. Our results clearly emphasize the highly modular nature and biotechnological potential of ribozyme-based RNA thermometers.

  1. Efficient in situ detection of mRNAs using the Chlorella virus DNA ligase for padlock probe ligation.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Nils; Meier, Matthias

    2017-02-01

    Padlock probes are single-stranded DNA molecules that are circularized upon hybridization to their target sequence by a DNA ligase. In the following, the circulated padlock probes are amplified and detected with fluorescently labeled probes complementary to the amplification product. The hallmark of padlock probe assays is a high detection specificity gained by the ligation reaction. Concomitantly, the ligation reaction is the largest drawback for a quantitative in situ detection of mRNAs due to the low affinities of common DNA or RNA ligases to RNA-DNA duplex strands. Therefore, current protocols require that mRNAs be reverse transcribed to DNA before detection with padlock probes. Recently, it was found that the DNA ligase from Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) is able to efficiently ligate RNA-splinted DNA. Hence, we designed a padlock probe assay for direct in situ detection of mRNAs using the PBCV-1 DNA ligase. Experimental single-cell data were used to optimize and characterize the efficiency of mRNA detection with padlock probes. Our results demonstrate that the PBCV-1 DNA ligase overcomes the efficiency limitation of current protocols for direct in situ mRNA detection, making the PBCV-1 DNA ligase an attractive tool to simplify in situ ligation sequencing applications. © 2017 Schneider and Meier; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  2. Norovirus proteinase-polymerase and polymerase are both active forms of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Belliot, Gaël; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Babu, Vijay; Uche, Uzo; Arnold, Jamie J; Cameron, Craig E; Green, Kim Y

    2005-02-01

    In vitro mapping studies of the MD145 norovirus (Caliciviridae) ORF1 polyprotein identified two stable cleavage products containing the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains: ProPol (a precursor comprised of both the proteinase and polymerase) and Pol (the mature polymerase). The goal of this study was to identify the active form (or forms) of the norovirus polymerase. The recombinant ProPol (expressed as Pro(-)Pol with an inactivated proteinase domain to prevent autocleavage) and recombinant Pol were purified after synthesis in bacteria and shown to be active RdRp enzymes. In addition, the mutant His-E1189A-ProPol protein (with active proteinase but with the natural ProPol cleavage site blocked) was active as an RdRp, confirming that the norovirus ProPol precursor could possess two enzymatic activities simultaneously. The effects of several UTP analogs on the RdRp activity of the norovirus and feline calicivirus Pro(-)Pol enzymes were compared and found to be similar. Our data suggest that the norovirus ProPol is a bifunctional enzyme during virus replication. The availability of this recombinant ProPol enzyme might prove useful in the development of antiviral drugs for control of the noroviruses associated with acute gastroenteritis.

  3. Norovirus Proteinase-Polymerase and Polymerase Are Both Active Forms of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Belliot, Gaël; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Babu, Vijay; Uche, Uzo; Arnold, Jamie J.; Cameron, Craig E.; Green, Kim Y.

    2005-01-01

    In vitro mapping studies of the MD145 norovirus (Caliciviridae) ORF1 polyprotein identified two stable cleavage products containing the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains: ProPol (a precursor comprised of both the proteinase and polymerase) and Pol (the mature polymerase). The goal of this study was to identify the active form (or forms) of the norovirus polymerase. The recombinant ProPol (expressed as Pro−Pol with an inactivated proteinase domain to prevent autocleavage) and recombinant Pol were purified after synthesis in bacteria and shown to be active RdRp enzymes. In addition, the mutant His-E1189A-ProPol protein (with active proteinase but with the natural ProPol cleavage site blocked) was active as an RdRp, confirming that the norovirus ProPol precursor could possess two enzymatic activities simultaneously. The effects of several UTP analogs on the RdRp activity of the norovirus and feline calicivirus Pro−Pol enzymes were compared and found to be similar. Our data suggest that the norovirus ProPol is a bifunctional enzyme during virus replication. The availability of this recombinant ProPol enzyme might prove useful in the development of antiviral drugs for control of the noroviruses associated with acute gastroenteritis. PMID:15681440

  4. A Self-Replicating Ligase Ribozyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Natasha; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2002-01-01

    A self-replicating molecule directs the covalent assembly of component molecules to form a product that is of identical composition to the parent. When the newly formed product also is able to direct the assembly of product molecules, the self-replicating system can be termed autocatalytic. A self-replicating system was developed based on a ribozyme that catalyzes the assembly of additional copies of Itself through an RNA-catalyzed RNA ligation reaction. The R3C ligase ribozyme was redesigned so that it would ligate two substrates to generate an exact copy of itself, which then would behave in a similar manner. This self-replicating system depends on the catalytic nature of the RNA for the generation of copies. A linear dependence was observed between the initial rate of formation of new copies and the starting concentration of ribozyme, consistent with exponential growth. The autocatalytic rate constant was 0.011 per min, whereas the initial rate of reaction in the absence of pre-existing ribozyme was only 3.3 x 10(exp -11) M per min. Exponential growth was limited, however, because newly formed ribozyme molecules had greater difficulty forming a productive complex with the two substrates. Further optimization of the system may lead to the sustained exponential growth of ribozymes that undergo self-replication.

  5. A Self-Replicating Ligase Ribozyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Natasha; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2002-01-01

    A self-replicating molecule directs the covalent assembly of component molecules to form a product that is of identical composition to the parent. When the newly formed product also is able to direct the assembly of product molecules, the self-replicating system can be termed autocatalytic. A self-replicating system was developed based on a ribozyme that catalyzes the assembly of additional copies of Itself through an RNA-catalyzed RNA ligation reaction. The R3C ligase ribozyme was redesigned so that it would ligate two substrates to generate an exact copy of itself, which then would behave in a similar manner. This self-replicating system depends on the catalytic nature of the RNA for the generation of copies. A linear dependence was observed between the initial rate of formation of new copies and the starting concentration of ribozyme, consistent with exponential growth. The autocatalytic rate constant was 0.011 per min, whereas the initial rate of reaction in the absence of pre-existing ribozyme was only 3.3 x 10(exp -11) M per min. Exponential growth was limited, however, because newly formed ribozyme molecules had greater difficulty forming a productive complex with the two substrates. Further optimization of the system may lead to the sustained exponential growth of ribozymes that undergo self-replication.

  6. Signal-induced disassembly of the SCF ubiquitin ligase complex by Cdc48/p97

    PubMed Central

    Yen, James L.; Flick, Karin; Papagiannis, Christie V.; Mathur, Radhika; Tyrrell, An; Ouni, Ikram; Kaake, Robyn M.; Huang, Lan; Kaiser, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Summary A large group of E3 ubiquitin ligases is formed by the multisubunit SCF complex, whose core complex (Rbx1/Cul1-Cdc53/Skp1) binds one of many substrate recruiting F-box proteins to form an array of SCF ligases with diverse substrate specificities. It has long been thought that ubiquitylation by SCF ligases is regulated at the level of substrate binding. Here we describe an alternative mechanism of SCF regulation by active dissociation of the F-box subunit. We show that cadmium stress induces selective recruitment of the AAA+ ATPase Cdc48/p97 to catalyze dissociation of the F-box subunit from the yeast SCFMet30 ligase to block substrate ubiquitylation and trigger downstream events. Our results not only provide an additional layer of ubiquitin ligase regulation but also suggest that targeted, signal-dependent dissociation of multisubunit enzyme complexes is an important mechanism in control of enzyme function. PMID:23000173

  7. E3 Ubiquitin Ligases as Molecular Targets in Human Oral Cancers.

    PubMed

    Masumoto, Kazuma; Kitagawa, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is involved in various biological processes. Several oncogenic E3 ligases target tumor suppressor proteins for ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Alternatively, some other E3 ligases play as a tumor suppressor specifically targeting oncogene products. Deregulation of these E3 ligases induces unbalance between oncogenic signal and tumor suppressor pathway and leads to cellular transformation, tumor growth and metastasis in various human malignancies including oral, and head and neck cancers. Facilitated degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27(Kip1) has been observed in oral, and head and neck cancers, and is correlated with their poor prognosis. SCF(Skp2), KPC complex, Pirh2 and CRL4(DDB2-Artemis) have been reported as E3 ligases targeting p27(Kip1) for degradation. In oral cancers, it is reported that overexpression of Skp2 and Pirh2 is associated with poor prognosis. Thus, chemical inhibitors against these E3 ligases are applicable for oral cancer therapy. Some potential compounds that inhibit E3 ligase activity of SCF(Skp2) have been reported. Moreover, the HECT-type E3 ligase WWP family and Smurf1 are also involved in the development and growth of human oral cancers. Therefore, small molecule inhibitors against HECT-type E3 ligases are discussed as anti-oral cancer drugs.

  8. Structure of the adenylation domain of NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Han, Seungil; Chang, Jeanne S; Griffor, Matt

    2009-11-01

    DNA ligase catalyzes phosphodiester-bond formation between immediately adjacent 5'-phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl groups in double-stranded DNA and plays a central role in many cellular and biochemical processes, including DNA replication, repair and recombination. Bacterial NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligases have been extensively characterized as potential antibacterial targets because of their essentiality and their structural distinction from human ATP-dependent DNA ligases. The high-resolution structure of the adenylation domain of Staphylococcus aureus NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase establishes the conserved domain architecture with other bacterial adenylation domains. Two apo crystal structures revealed that the active site possesses the preformed NAD(+)-binding pocket and the 'C2 tunnel' lined with hydrophobic residues: Leu80, Phe224, Leu287, Phe295 and Trp302. The C2 tunnel is unique to bacterial DNA ligases and the Leu80 side chain at the mouth of the tunnel points inside the tunnel and forms a narrow funnel in the S. aureus DNA ligase structure. Taken together with other DNA ligase structures, the S. aureus DNA ligase structure provides a basis for a more integrated understanding of substrate recognition and catalysis and will be also be of help in the development of small-molecule inhibitors.

  9. Structure of the adenylation domain of NAD[superscript +]-dependent DNA ligase from Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Seungil; Chang, Jeanne S.; Griffor, Matt; Pfizer

    2010-09-17

    DNA ligase catalyzes phosphodiester-bond formation between immediately adjacent 5'-phosphate and 3''-hydroxyl groups in double-stranded DNA and plays a central role in many cellular and biochemical processes, including DNA replication, repair and recombination. Bacterial NAD{sup +}-dependent DNA ligases have been extensively characterized as potential antibacterial targets because of their essentiality and their structural distinction from human ATP-dependent DNA ligases. The high-resolution structure of the adenylation domain of Staphylococcus aureus NAD{sup +}-dependent DNA ligase establishes the conserved domain architecture with other bacterial adenylation domains. Two apo crystal structures revealed that the active site possesses the preformed NAD{sup +}-binding pocket and the 'C2 tunnel' lined with hydrophobic residues: Leu80, Phe224, Leu287, Phe295 and Trp302. The C2 tunnel is unique to bacterial DNA ligases and the Leu80 side chain at the mouth of the tunnel points inside the tunnel and forms a narrow funnel in the S. aureus DNA ligase structure. Taken together with other DNA ligase structures, the S. aureus DNA ligase structure provides a basis for a more integrated understanding of substrate recognition and catalysis and will be also be of help in the development of small-molecule inhibitors.

  10. Prokaryotic BirA ligase biotinylates K4, K9, K18 and K23 in histone H3.

    PubMed

    Kobza, Keyna; Sarath, Gautam; Zempleni, Janos

    2008-04-30

    BirA ligase is a prokaryotic ortholog of holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) that can biotinylate proteins. This study tested the hypothesis that BirA ligase catalyzes the biotinylation of eukaryotic histones. If so, this would mean that recombinant BirA ligase is a useful surrogate for HCS in studies of histone biotinylation. The biological activity of recombinant BirA ligase was confirmed by enzymatic biotinylation of p67. In particular, it was found that BirA ligase biotinylated both calf thymus histone H1 and human bulk histone extracts. Incubation of recombinant BirA ligase with H3-based synthetic peptides showed that lysines 4, 9, 18, and 23 in histone H3 are the targets for the biotinylation by BirA ligase. Modification of the peptides (e.g., serine phosphorylation) affected the subsequent biotinylation by BirA ligase, suggesting crosstalk between modifications. In conclusion, this study suggests that prokaryotic BirA ligase is a promiscuous enzyme and biotinylates eukaryotic histones. Moreover the biotinylation of histones by BirA ligase is consistent with the proposed role of human HCS in chromatin.

  11. RNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darnell, James E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) converts genetic information into protein and usually must be processed to serve its function. RNA types, chemical structure, protein synthesis, translation, manufacture, and processing are discussed. Concludes that the first genes might have been spliced RNA and that humans might be closer than bacteria to primitive…

  12. RNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darnell, James E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) converts genetic information into protein and usually must be processed to serve its function. RNA types, chemical structure, protein synthesis, translation, manufacture, and processing are discussed. Concludes that the first genes might have been spliced RNA and that humans might be closer than bacteria to primitive…

  13. Structural basis for proteolysis-dependent activation of the poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Aaron A; Peersen, Olve B

    2004-01-01

    The active RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of poliovirus, 3Dpol, is generated by cleavage of the 3CDpro precursor protein, a protease that has no polymerase activity despite containing the entire polymerase domain. By intentionally disrupting a known and persistent crystal packing interaction, we have crystallized the poliovirus polymerase in a new space group and solved the complete structure of the protein at 2.0 Å resolution. It shows that the N-terminus of fully processed 3Dpol is buried in a surface pocket where it makes hydrogen bonds that act to position Asp238 in the active site. Asp238 is an essential residue that selects for the 2′ OH group of substrate rNTPs, as shown by a 2.35 Å structure of a 3Dpol–GTP complex. Mutational, biochemical, and structural data further demonstrate that 3Dpol activity is exquisitely sensitive to mutations at the N-terminus. This sensitivity is the result of allosteric effects where the structure around the buried N-terminus directly affects the positioning of Asp238 in the active site. PMID:15306852

  14. Mouse dyskerin mutations affect accumulation of telomerase RNA and small nucleolar RNA, telomerase activity, and ribosomal RNA processing.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Yuko; He, Jun; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Bessler, Monica; Mason, Philip J

    2004-07-20

    Dyskerin is a nucleolar protein present in small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particles that modify specific uridine residues of rRNA by converting them to pseudouridine. Dyskerin is also a component of the telomerase complex. Point mutations in the human gene encoding dyskerin cause the skin and bone marrow failure syndrome dyskeratosis congenita (DC). To test the extent to which disruption of pseudouridylation or telomerase activity may contribute to the pathogenesis of DC, we introduced two dyskerin mutations into murine embryonic stem cells. The A353V mutation is the most frequent mutation in patients with X-linked DC, whereas the G402E mutation was identified in a single family. The A353V, but not the G402E, mutation led to severe destabilization of telomerase RNA, a reduction in telomerase activity, and a significant continuous loss of telomere length with increasing numbers of cell divisions during in vitro culture. Both mutations caused a defect in overall pseudouridylation and a small but detectable decrease in the rate of pre-rRNA processing. In addition, both mutant embryonic stem cell lines showed a decrease in the accumulation of a subset of H/ACA small nucleolar RNAs, correlating with a significant decrease in site-specific pseudouridylation efficiency. Interestingly, the H/ACA snoRNAs decreased in the G402E mutant cell line differed from those affected in A353V mutant cells. Hence, our findings show that point mutations in dyskerin may affect both the telomerase and pseudouridylation pathways and the extent to which these functions are altered can vary for different mutations.

  15. The dawn of the RNA World: Toward functional complexity through ligation of random RNA oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Briones, Carlos; Stich, Michael; Manrubia, Susanna C.

    2009-01-01

    A main unsolved problem in the RNA World scenario for the origin of life is how a template-dependent RNA polymerase ribozyme emerged from short RNA oligomers obtained by random polymerization on mineral surfaces. A number of computational studies have shown that the structural repertoire yielded by that process is dominated by topologically simple structures, notably hairpin-like ones. A fraction of these could display RNA ligase activity and catalyze the assembly of larger, eventually functional RNA molecules retaining their previous modular structure: molecular complexity increases but template replication is absent. This allows us to build up a stepwise model of ligation-based, modular evolution that could pave the way to the emergence of a ribozyme with RNA replicase activity, step at which information-driven Darwinian evolution would be triggered. PMID:19318464

  16. The role of the E3 ligase Not4 in cotranslational quality control

    PubMed Central

    Panasenko, Olesya O.

    2014-01-01

    Cotranslational quality control (QC) is the mechanism by which the cell checks the integrity of newly synthesized proteins and mRNAs. In the event of mistakes these molecules are degraded. The Ccr4-Not complex has been proposed to play a role in this process. It contains both deadenylation and ubiquitination activities, thus it may target both aberrant proteins and mRNAs. Deadenylation is the first step in mRNA degradation. In yeast it is performed by the Ccr4 subunit of the Ccr4-Not complex. Another complex subunit, namely Not4, is a RING E3 ligase and it provides the ubiquitination activity of the complex. It was found associated with translating ribosomes. Thus, it has been suggested that Not4 is involved in ribosome-associated ubiquitination and degradation of aberrant peptides. However, several other E3 ligases have been associated with peptide ubiquitination on the ribosome and the relevance of Not4 in this process remains unclear. In this review we summarize the recent data and suggest a role for Not4 in cotranslational protein QC. PMID:24904641

  17. Dendritic transport element of human arc mRNA confers RNA degradation activity in a translation-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Kensuke; Ohno, Mutsuhito; Kataoka, Naoyuki

    2016-11-01

    Localization of mRNA in neuronal cells is a critical process for spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression. Cytoplasmic localization of mRNA is often conferred by transport elements in 3' untranslated region (UTR). Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (arc) mRNA is one of the localizing mRNAs in neuronal cells, and its localization is mediated by dendritic targeting element (DTE). As arc mRNA has introns in its 3' UTR, it was thought that arc mRNA is a natural target of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Here, we show that DTE in human arc 3' UTR has destabilizing activity of RNA independent of NMD pathway. DTE alone was able to cause instability of the reporter mRNA and this degradation was dependent on translation. Our results indicate that DTE has dual activity in mRNA transport and degradation, which suggests the novel spatiotemporal regulation mechanism of activity-dependent degradation of the mRNA.

  18. Two distinct RNase activities of CRISPR-C2c2 enable guide-RNA processing and RNA detection.

    PubMed

    East-Seletsky, Alexandra; O'Connell, Mitchell R; Knight, Spencer C; Burstein, David; Cate, Jamie H D; Tjian, Robert; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2016-10-13

    Bacterial adaptive immune systems use CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins for RNA-guided nucleic acid cleavage. Although most prokaryotic adaptive immune systems generally target DNA substrates, type III and VI CRISPR systems direct interference complexes against single-stranded RNA substrates. In type VI systems, the single-subunit C2c2 protein functions as an RNA-guided RNA endonuclease (RNase). How this enzyme acquires mature CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that are essential for immune surveillance and how it carries out crRNA-mediated RNA cleavage remain unclear. Here we show that bacterial C2c2 possesses a unique RNase activity responsible for CRISPR RNA maturation that is distinct from its RNA-activated single-stranded RNA degradation activity. These dual RNase functions are chemically and mechanistically different from each other and from the crRNA-processing behaviour of the evolutionarily unrelated CRISPR enzyme Cpf1 (ref. 11). The two RNase activities of C2c2 enable multiplexed processing and loading of guide RNAs that in turn allow sensitive detection of cellular transcripts.

  19. Novel role of C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) ubiquitin ligase on inhibiting cardiac apoptosis and dysfunction via regulating ERK5-mediated degradation of inducible cAMP early repressor

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Chang-Hoon; Le, Nhat-Tu; Shishido, Tetsuro; Chang, Eugene; Lee, Hakjoo; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Mickelsen, Deanne M.; Lu, Yan; McClain, Carolyn; Spangenberg, Thomas; Yan, Chen; Molina, Carlos A.; Yang, Jay; Patterson, Cam; Abe, Jun-ichi

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates a critical role of ubiquitin-proteosome system in apoptosis regulation. A cardioprotective effect of ubiquitin (Ub) ligase of the C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) on myocytes has been reported. In the current study, we found that the cardioprotective effect of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was mediated by ERK5-CHIP signal module via inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) destabilization. In vitro runoff assay and Ub assay showed ICER as a substrate of CHIP Ub ligase. Both disruption of ERK5-CHIP binding with inhibitory helical linker domain fragment (aa 101–200) of CHIP and the depletion of ERK5 by siRNA inhibited CHIP Ub ligase activity, which suggests an obligatory role of ERK5 on CHIP activation. Depletion of CHIP, using siRNA, inhibited IGF-1-mediated reduction of isoproterenol-mediated ICER induction and apoptosis. In diabetic mice subjected to myocardial infarction, the CHIP Ub ligase activity was decreased, with an increase in ICER expression. These changes were attenuated significantly in a cardiac-specific constitutively active form of MEK5α transgenic mice (CA-MEK5α-Tg) previously shown to have greater functional recovery. Furthermore, pressure overload-mediated ICER induction was enhanced in heterozygous CHIP+/− mice. We identified ICER as a novel CHIP substrate and that the ERK5-CHIP complex plays an obligatory role in inhibition of ICER expression, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and cardiac dysfunction.—Woo, C.-H., Le, N.-T., Shishido, T., Chang, E., Lee, H., Heo, K.-S., Mickelsen, D. M., Lu, Y., McClain, C., Spangenberg, T., Yan, C., Molina, C. A., Yang, J., Patterson, C., Abe, J.-I. Novel role of C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) ubiquitin ligase on inhibiting cardiac apoptosis and dysfunction via regulating ERK5-mediated degradation of inducible cAMP early repressor. PMID:20724525

  20. Ectopic expression of PtaRHE1, encoding a poplar RING-H2 protein with E3 ligase activity, alters plant development and induces defence-related responses

    PubMed Central

    Mukoko Bopopi, Johnny; Vandeputte, Olivier M.; Himanen, Kristiina; Mol, Adeline; Vaessen, Quentin; El Jaziri, Mondher; Baucher, Marie

    2010-01-01

    RING (really interesting new gene)-H2 domain-containing proteins are widely represented in plants and play important roles in the regulation of many developmental processes as well as in plant–environment interactions. In the present report, experiments were performed to unravel the role of the poplar gene PtaRHE1, coding for a RING-H2 protein. In vitro ubiquitination assays indicate a functional E3 ligase activity for PtaRHE1 with the specific E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH5a. The overexpression of PtaRHE1 in tobacco resulted in a pleiotropic phenotype characterized by a curling of the leaves, the formation of necrotic lesions on leaf blades, growth retardation, and a delay in floral transition. The plant gene expression response to PtaRHE1 overexpression provided evidence for the up-regulation of defence- and/or programmed cell death-related genes. Moreover, genes coding for WRKY transcription factors as well as for mitogen-activated protein kinases, such as wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK), were also found to be induced in the transgenic lines as compared with the wild type. In addition, histochemical β-glucuronidase staining showed that the PtaRHE1 promoter is induced by plant pathogens and by elicitors such as salicylic acid and cellulase. Taken together, these results suggest that the E3 ligase PtaRHE1 plays a role in the ubiquitination-mediated regulation of defence response, possibly by acting upstream of WIPK and/or in the activation of WRKY factors. PMID:19892745

  1. RNA polymerase active center: the molecular engine of transcription.

    PubMed

    Nudler, Evgeny

    2009-01-01

    RNA polymerase (RNAP) is a complex molecular machine that governs gene expression and its regulation in all cellular organisms. To accomplish its function of accurately producing a full-length RNA copy of a gene, RNAP performs a plethora of chemical reactions and undergoes multiple conformational changes in response to cellular conditions. At the heart of this machine is the active center, the engine, which is composed of distinct fixed and moving parts that serve as the ultimate acceptor of regulatory signals and as the target of inhibitory drugs. Recent advances in the structural and biochemical characterization of RNAP explain the active center at the atomic level and enable new approaches to understanding the entire transcription mechanism, its exceptional fidelity and control.

  2. Structure of RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase bound to substrate RNA.

    PubMed

    Desai, Kevin K; Bingman, Craig A; Cheng, Chin L; Phillips, George N; Raines, Ronald T

    2014-10-01

    RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase (RtcA) catalyzes the ATP-dependent cyclization of a 3'-phosphate to form a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate at RNA termini. Cyclization proceeds through RtcA-AMP and RNA(3')pp(5')A covalent intermediates, which are analogous to intermediates formed during catalysis by the tRNA ligase RtcB. Here we present a crystal structure of Pyrococcus horikoshii RtcA in complex with a 3'-phosphate terminated RNA and adenosine in the AMP-binding pocket. Our data reveal that RtcA recognizes substrate RNA by ensuring that the terminal 3'-phosphate makes a large contribution to RNA binding. Furthermore, the RNA 3'-phosphate is poised for in-line attack on the P-N bond that links the phosphorous atom of AMP to N(ε) of His307. Thus, we provide the first insights into RNA 3'-phosphate termini recognition and the mechanism of 3'-phosphate activation by an Rtc enzyme. © 2014 Desai et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  3. Proteins with RNA Chaperone Activity: A World of Diverse Proteins with a Common Task—Impediment of RNA Misfolding

    PubMed Central

    Semrad, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Proteins with RNA chaperone activity are ubiquitous proteins that play important roles in cellular mechanisms. They prevent RNA from misfolding by loosening misfolded structures without ATP consumption. RNA chaperone activity is studied in vitro and in vivo using oligonucleotide- or ribozyme-based assays. Due to their functional as well as structural diversity, a common chaperoning mechanism or universal motif has not yet been identified. A growing database of proteins with RNA chaperone activity has been established based on evaluation of chaperone activity via the described assays. Although the exact mechanism is not yet understood, it is more and more believed that disordered regions within proteins play an important role. This possible mechanism and which proteins were found to possess RNA chaperone activity are discussed here. PMID:21234377

  4. Human DNA Ligase I Interacts with and Is Targeted for Degradation by the DCAF7 Specificity Factor of the Cul4-DDB1 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhimin; Liao, Zhongping; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Yang, Austin; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2016-10-14

    The synthesis, processing, and joining of Okazaki fragments during DNA replication is complex, requiring the sequential action of a large number of proteins. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a DNA sliding clamp, interacts with and coordinates the activity of several DNA replication proteins, including the enzymes flap endonuclease 1 (FEN-1) and DNA ligase I that complete the processing and joining of Okazaki fragments, respectively. Although it is evident that maintaining the appropriate relative stoichiometry of FEN-1 and DNA ligase I, which compete for binding to proliferating cell nuclear antigen, is critical to prevent genomic instability, little is known about how the steady state levels of DNA replication proteins are regulated, in particular the proteolytic mechanisms involved in their turnover. Because DNA ligase I has been reported to be ubiquitylated, we used a proteomic approach to map ubiquitylation sites and screen for DNA ligase I-associated E3 ubiquitin ligases. We identified three ubiquitylated lysine residues and showed that DNA ligase I interacts with and is targeted for ubiquitylation by DCAF7, a specificity factor for the Cul4-DDB1 complex. Notably, knockdown of DCAF7 reduced the degradation of DNA ligase I in response to inhibition of proliferation and replacement of ubiquitylated lysine residues reduced the in vitro ubiquitylation of DNA ligase I by Cul4-DDB1 and DCAF7. In contrast, a different E3 ubiquitin ligase regulates FEN-1 turnover. Thus, although the expression of many of the genes encoding DNA replication proteins is coordinately regulated, our studies reveal that different mechanisms are involved in the turnover of these proteins. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. RNA activation of haploinsufficient Foxg1 gene in murine neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Fimiani, Cristina; Goina, Elisa; Su, Qin; Gao, Guangping; Mallamaci, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    More than one hundred distinct gene hemizygosities are specifically linked to epilepsy, mental retardation, autism, schizophrenia and neuro-degeneration. Radical repair of these gene deficits via genome engineering is hardly feasible. The same applies to therapeutic stimulation of the spared allele by artificial transactivators. Small activating RNAs (saRNAs) offer an alternative, appealing approach. As a proof-of-principle, here we tested this approach on the Rett syndrome-linked, haploinsufficient, Foxg1 brain patterning gene. We selected a set of artificial small activating RNAs (saRNAs) upregulating it in neocortical precursors and their derivatives. Expression of these effectors achieved a robust biological outcome. saRNA-driven activation (RNAa) was limited to neural cells which normally express Foxg1 and did not hide endogenous gene tuning. saRNAs recognized target chromatin through a ncRNA stemming from it. Gene upregulation required Ago1 and was associated to RNApolII enrichment throughout the Foxg1 locus. Finally, saRNA delivery to murine neonatal brain replicated Foxg1-RNAa in vivo. PMID:27995975

  6. E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b suppresses human ORMDL3 expression through STAT6 mediation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Xia; Jin, Rui; Jiang, Chun-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Hua; Shu, Jin; Li, Ling; Zhu, Liang-Hua; Zhuang, Li-Li; Gao, Chao; Zhou, Guo-Ping

    2015-07-08

    Orosomucoid 1-Like Protein 3 (ORMDL3) is an asthma candidate gene and Casitas B lineage lymphoma b (Cbl-b), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is a critical factor in maintaining airway immune tolerance. However, the association of Cbl-b with ORMDL3 for asthma is unclear. Here, we show that expression of ORMDL3 is significantly increased and shows a strong linear correlation with decreased Cbl-b in the peripheral blood of recurrent wheeze patients. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this correlation, we identified that Cbl-b suppressed the transcriptional activity and mRNA expression of ORMDL3 in vivo. Further investigation showed that phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) was induced by interleukin 4 bound to the ORMDL3 promoter, while Cbl-b reduced the phosphorylation of STAT6. Our results show that Cbl-b suppresses human ORMDL3 expression through STAT6.

  7. Activation of GTP hydrolysis in mRNA-tRNA translocation by elongation factor G

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen; Liu, Zheng; Koripella, Ravi Kiran; Langlois, Robert; Sanyal, Suparna; Frank, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    During protein synthesis, elongation of the polypeptide chain by each amino acid is followed by a translocation step in which mRNA and transfer RNA (tRNA) are advanced by one codon. This crucial step is catalyzed by elongation factor G (EF-G), a guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase), and accompanied by a rotation between the two ribosomal subunits. A mutant of EF-G, H91A, renders the factor impaired in guanosine triphosphate (GTP) hydrolysis and thereby stabilizes it on the ribosome. We use cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) at near-atomic resolution to investigate two complexes formed by EF-G H91A in its GTP state with the ribosome, distinguished by the presence or absence of the intersubunit rotation. Comparison of these two structures argues in favor of a direct role of the conserved histidine in the switch II loop of EF-G in GTPase activation, and explains why GTP hydrolysis cannot proceed with EF-G bound to the unrotated form of the ribosome. PMID:26229983

  8. GeneSet2miRNA: finding the signature of cooperative miRNA activities in the gene lists

    PubMed Central

    Antonov, Alexey V.; Dietmann, Sabine; Wong, Philip; Lutter, Dominik; Mewes, Hans W.

    2009-01-01

    GeneSet2miRNA is the first web-based tool which is able to identify whether or not a gene list has a signature of miRNA-regulatory activity. As input, GeneSet2miRNA accepts a list of genes. As output, a list of miRNA-regulatory models is provided. A miRNA-regulatory model is a group of miRNAs (single, pair, triplet or quadruplet) that is predicted to regulate a significant subset of genes from the submitted list. GeneSet2miRNA provides a user friendly dialog-driven web page submission available for several model organisms. GeneSet2miRNA is freely available at http://mips.helmholtz-muenchen.de/proj/gene2mir/. PMID:19420064

  9. Activation and reactivation of the RNA polymerase II trigger loop for intrinsic RNA cleavage and catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Čabart, Pavel; Jin, Huiyan; Li, Liangtao; Kaplan, Craig D

    2014-01-01

    In addition to RNA synthesis, multisubunit RNA polymerases (msRNAPs) support enzymatic reactions such as intrinsic transcript cleavage. msRNAP active sites from different species appear to exhibit differential intrinsic transcript cleavage efficiency and have likely evolved to allow fine-tuning of the transcription process. Here we show that a single amino-acid substitution in the trigger loop (TL) of Saccharomyces RNAP II, Rpb1 H1085Y, engenders a gain of intrinsic cleavage activity where the substituted tyrosine appears to participate in acid-base chemistry at alkaline pH for both intrinsic cleavage and nucleotidyl transfer. We extensively characterize this TL substitution for each of these reactions by examining the responses RNAP II enzymes to catalytic metals, altered pH, and factor inputs. We demonstrate that TFIIF stimulation of the first phosphodiester bond formation by RNAP II requires wild type TL function and that H1085Y substitution within the TL compromises or alters RNAP II responsiveness to both TFIIB and TFIIF. Finally, Mn2+ stimulation of H1085Y RNAP II reveals possible allosteric effects of TFIIB on the active center and cooperation between TFIIB and TFIIF. PMID:25764335

  10. Inhibition of ubiquitin ligase F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7α (Fbw7α) causes hepatosteatosis through Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2) pathway but not SREBP-1c protein in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumadaki, Shin; Karasawa, Tadayoshi; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Ema, Masatsugu; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Nakakuki, Masanori; Saito, Ryo; Yahagi, Naoya; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Sone, Hirohito; Takekoshi, Kazuhiro; Yatoh, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Takahashi, Akimitsu; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Satoru; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2011-11-25

    F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7α (Fbw7α) is the substrate recognition component of a ubiquitin ligase that controls the degradation of factors involved in cellular growth, including c-Myc, cyclin E, and c-Jun. In addition, Fbw7α degrades the nuclear form of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1a, a global regulator of lipid synthesis, particularly during mitosis in cultured cells. This study investigated the in vivo role of Fbw7α in hepatic lipid metabolism. siRNA knockdown of Fbw7α in mice caused marked hepatosteatosis with the accumulation of triglycerides. However, inhibition of Fbw7α did not change the level of nuclear SREBP-1 protein or the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation. In vivo experiments on the gain and loss of Fbw7α function indicated that Fbw7α regulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ2 and its target genes involved in fatty acid uptake and triglyceride synthesis. These genes included fatty acid transporter Cd36, diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (Dgat1), and fat-specific protein 27 (Cidec). The regulation of PPARγ2 by Fbw7α was mediated, at least in part, by the direct degradation of the Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) protein, upstream of PPARγ2 expression. Hepatic Fbw7α contributes to normal fatty acid and triglyceride metabolism, functions that represent novel aspects of this cell growth regulator.

  11. Acetaminophen-induced liver injury is attenuated in male glutamate-cysteine ligase transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Botta, Dianne; Shi, Shengli; White, Collin C; Dabrowski, Michael J; Keener, Cassie L; Srinouanprachanh, Sengkeo L; Farin, Federico M; Ware, Carol B; Ladiges, Warren C; Pierce, Robert H; Fausto, Nelson; Kavanagh, Terrance J

    2006-09-29

    Acetaminophen overdose is a leading cause of drug-related acute liver failure in the United States. Glutathione, a tripeptide antioxidant protects cells against oxidative damage from reactive oxygen species and plays a crucial role in the detoxification of xenobiotics, including acetaminophen. Glutathione is synthesized in a two-step enzymatic reaction. Glutamate-cysteine ligase carries out the rate-limiting and first step in glutathione synthesis. We have generated C57Bl/6 mice that conditionally overexpress glutamate-cysteine ligase, and report here their resistance to acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Indices of liver injury included histopathology and serum alanine aminotransferase activity. Male transgenic mice induced to overexpress glutamate-cysteine ligase exhibited resistance to acetaminophen-induced liver injury when compared with acetaminophen-treated male mice carrying, but not expressing glutamate-cysteine ligase transgenes, or to female glutamate-cysteine ligase transgenic mice. We conclude that glutamate-cysteine ligase activity is an important factor in determining acetaminophen-induced liver injury in C57Bl/6 male mice. Because people are known to vary in their glutamate-cysteine ligase activity, this enzyme may also be an important determinant of sensitivity to acetaminophen-induced liver injury in humans.

  12. Cell cycle regulatory E3 ubiquitin ligases as anticancer targets.

    PubMed

    Pray, Todd R; Parlati, Francesco; Huang, Jianing; Wong, Brian R; Payan, Donald G; Bennett, Mark K; Issakani, Sarkiz Daniel; Molineaux, Susan; Demo, Susan D

    2002-12-01

    Disregulation of the cell cycle and proliferation play key roles in cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. Such processes are intimately tied to the concentration, localization and activity of enzymes, adapters, receptors, and structural proteins in cells. Ubiquitination of these cellular regulatory proteins, governed by specific enzymes in the ubiquitin (Ub) conjugation cascade, has profound effects on their various functions, most commonly through proteasome targeting and degradation. This review will focus on a variety of E3 Ub ligases as potential oncology drug targets, with particular emphasis on the role of these molecules in the regulation of stability, localization, and activity of key proteins such as tumor suppressors and oncoproteins. E3 ubiquitin ligases that have established roles in cell cycle and apoptosis, such as the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), the Skp-1-Cul1-F-box class, and the murine double minute 2 (MDM2) protein, in addition to more recently discovered E3 ubiquitin ligases which may be similarly important in tumorigenesis, (e.g. Smurf family, CHFR, and Efp), will be discussed. We will present evidence to support E3 ligases as good biological targets in the development of anticancer therapeutics and address challenges in drug discovery for these targets.

  13. Chemically modified RNA activated matrices enhance bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Elangovan, Satheesh; Khorsand, Behnoush; Do, Anh-Vu; Hong, Liu; Dewerth, Alexander; Kormann, Michael; Ross, Ryan D; Sumner, D Rick; Allamargot, Chantal; Salem, Aliasger K

    2015-11-28

    There exists a dire need for improved therapeutics to achieve predictable bone regeneration. Gene therapy using non-viral vectors that are safe and efficient at transfecting target cells is a promising approach to overcoming the drawbacks of protein delivery of growth factors. Here, we investigated the transfection efficiency, cytotoxicity, osteogenic potential and in vivo bone regenerative capacity of chemically modified ribonucleic acid (cmRNA) (encoding BMP-2) complexed with polyethylenimine (PEI) and made comparisons with PEI complexed with conventional plasmid DNA (encoding BMP-2). The polyplexes were fabricated at an amine (N) to phosphate (P) ratio of 10 and characterized for transfection efficiency using human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). The osteogenic potential of BMSCs treated with these polyplexes was validated by determining the expression of bone-specific genes, osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase as well as through the detection of bone matrix deposition. Using a calvarial bone defect model in rats, it was shown that PEI-cmRNA (encoding BMP-2)-activated matrices promoted significantly enhanced bone regeneration compared to PEI-plasmid DNA (BMP-2)-activated matrices. Our proof of concept study suggests that scaffolds loaded with non-viral vectors harboring cmRNA encoding osteogenic proteins may be a powerful tool for stimulating bone regeneration with significant potential for clinical translation.

  14. E3 ubiquitin ligase Cullin-5 modulates multiple molecular and cellular responses to heat shock protein 90 inhibition in human cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Samant, Rahul S.; Clarke, Paul A.; Workman, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is required for the activity and stability of its client proteins. Pharmacologic inhibition of HSP90 leads to the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of clients, particularly activated or mutant oncogenic protein kinases. Client ubiquitination occurs via the action of one or more E3 ubiquitin ligases. We sought to identify the role of Cullin-RING family E3 ubiquitin ligases in the cellular response to HSP90 inhibition. Through a focused siRNA screen of 28 Cullin-RING ligase family members, we found that CUL5 and RBX2 were required for degradation of several HSP90 clients upon treatment of human cancer cells with the clinical HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG. Surprisingly, silencing Cullin-5 (CUL5) also delayed the earlier loss of HSP90 client protein activity at the same time as delaying cochaperone dissociation from inhibited HSP90–client complexes. Expression of a dominant-negative CUL5 showed that NEDD8 conjugation of CUL5 is required for client degradation but not for loss of client activity or recruitment of clients and HSP90 to CUL5. Silencing CUL5 reduced cellular sensitivity to three distinct HSP90 inhibitors, across four cancer types driven by different protein kinases. Our results reveal the importance of CUL5 in multiple aspects of the cellular response to HSP90 inhibition. PMID:24760825

  15. Xanthomonas campestris RpfB is a fatty Acyl-CoA ligase required to counteract the thioesterase activity of the RpfF diffusible signal factor (DSF) synthase.

    PubMed

    Bi, Hongkai; Yu, Yonghong; Dong, Huijuan; Wang, Haihong; Cronan, John E

    2014-07-01

    In Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), the proteins encoded by the rpf (regulator of pathogenicity factor) gene cluster produce and sense a fatty acid signal molecule called diffusible signalling factor (DSF, 2(Z)-11-methyldodecenoic acid). RpfB was reported to be involved in DSF processing and was predicted to encode an acyl-CoA ligase. We report that RpfB activates a wide range of fatty acids to their CoA esters in vitro. Moreover, RpfB can functionally replace the paradigm bacterial acyl-CoA ligase, Escherichia coli FadD, in the E. coli ß-oxidation pathway and deletion of RpfB from the Xcc genome results in a strain unable to utilize fatty acids as carbon sources. An essential RpfB function in the pathogenicity factor pathway was demonstrated by the properties of a strain deleted for both the rpfB and rpfC genes. The ΔrpfB ΔrpfC strain grew poorly and lysed upon entering stationary phase. Deletion of rpfF, the gene encoding the DSF synthetic enzyme, restored normal growth to this strain. RpfF is a dual function enzyme that synthesizes DSF by dehydration of a 3-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) fatty acid synthetic intermediate and also cleaves the thioester bond linking DSF to ACP. However, the RpfF thioesterase activity is of broad specificity and upon elimination of its RpfC inhibitor RpfF attains maximal activity and its thioesterase activity proceeds to block membrane lipid synthesis by cleavage of acyl-ACP intermediates. This resulted in release of the nascent acyl chains to the medium as free fatty acids. This lack of acyl chains for phospholipid synthesis results in cell lysis unless RpfB is present to counteract the RpfF thioesterase activity by catalysing uptake and activation of the free fatty acids to give acyl-CoAs that can be utilized to restore membrane lipid synthesis. Heterologous expression of a different fatty acid activating enzyme, the Vibrio harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase, replaced RpfB in counteracting the effects of high

  16. A DNA enzyme with Mg(2+)-Dependent RNA Phosphoesterase Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaker, Ronald R.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    1995-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated that DNA can act as an enzyme in the Pb(2+)-dependent cleavage of an RNA phosphoester. This is a facile reaction, with an uncatalyzed rate for a typical RNA phosphoester of approx. 10(exp -4)/ min in the presence of 1 mM Pb(OAc)2 at pH 7.0 and 23 C. The Mg(2+) - dependent reaction is more difficult, with an uncatalyzed rate of approx. 10(exp -7)/ min under comparable conditions. Mg(2+) - dependent cleavage has special relevance to biology because it is compatible with intracellular conditions. Using in vitro selection, we sought to develop a family of phosphoester-cleaving DNA enzymes that operate in the presence of various divalent metals, focusing particularly on the Mg(2+) - dependent reaction. Results: We generated a population of greater than 10(exp 13) DNAs containing 40 random nucleotides and carried out repeated rounds of selective amplification, enriching for molecules that cleave a target RNA phosphoester in the presence of 1 mM Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+) or Pb(2+). Examination of individual clones from the Mg(2+) lineage after the sixth round revealed a catalytic motif comprised of a three-stem junction.This motif was partially randomized and subjected to seven additional rounds of selective amplification, yielding catalysts with a rate of 0.01/ min. The optimized DNA catalyst was divided into separate substrate and enzyme domains and shown to have a similar level of activity under multiple turnover conditions. Conclusions: We have generated a Mg(2+) - dependent DNA enzyme that cleaves a target RNA phosphoester with a catalytic rate approx. 10(exp 5) - fold greater than that of the uncatalyzed reaction. This activity is compatible with intracellular conditions, raising the possibility that DNA enzymes might be made to operate in vivo.

  17. MORF9 increases the RNA-binding activity of PLS-type pentatricopeptide repeat protein in plastid RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Yan, Junjie; Zhang, Qunxia; Guan, Zeyuan; Wang, Qiang; Li, Li; Ruan, Fengying; Lin, Rongcheng; Zou, Tingting; Yin, Ping

    2017-04-10

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that modifies the genetic information on RNA molecules. In flowering plants, RNA editing usually alters cytidine to uridine in plastids and mitochondria. The PLS-type pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein and the multiple organellar RNA editing factor (MORF, also known as RNA editing factor interacting protein (RIP)) are two types of key trans-acting factors involved in this process. However, how they cooperate with one another remains unclear. Here, we have characterized the interactions between a designer PLS-type PPR protein (PLS)3PPR and MORF9, and found that RNA-binding activity of (PLS)3PPR is drastically increased on MORF9 binding. We also determined the crystal structures of (PLS)3PPR, MORF9 and the (PLS)3PPR-MORF9 complex. MORF9 binding induces significant compressed conformational changes of (PLS)3PPR, revealing the molecular mechanisms by which MORF9-bound (PLS)3PPR has increased RNA-binding activity. Similarly, increased RNA-binding activity is observed for the natural PLS-type PPR protein, LPA66, in the presence of MORF9. These findings significantly expand our understanding of MORF function in plant organellar RNA editing.

  18. SUMOylation regulates the homologous to E6-AP carboxyl terminus (HECT) ubiquitin ligase Rsp5p.

    PubMed

    Novoselova, Tatiana Vladislavovna; Rose, Ruth-Sarah; Marks, Helen Margaret; Sullivan, James Andrew

    2013-04-12

    The post-translational modifiers ubiquitin and small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) regulate numerous critical signaling pathways and are key to controlling the cellular fate of proteins in eukaryotes. The attachment of ubiquitin and SUMO involves distinct, but related, machinery. However, it is now apparent that many substrates can be modified by both ubiquitin and SUMO and that some regulatory interaction takes place between the respective attachment machinery. Here, we demonstrate that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ubiquitin ligase Rsp5p, a member of the highly conserved Nedd4 family of ubiquitin ligases, is SUMOylated in vivo. We further show that Rsp5p SUMOylation is mediated by the SUMO ligases Siz1p and Siz2p, members of the conserved family of PIAS SUMO ligases that are, in turn, substrates for Rsp5p-mediated ubiquitylation. Our experiments show that SUMOylated Rsp5p has reduced ubiquitin ligase activity, and similarly, ubiquitylated Siz1p demonstrates reduced SUMO ligase activity leading to respective changes in both ubiquitin-mediated sorting of the manganese transporter Smf1p and polySUMO chain formation. This reciprocal regulation of these highly conserved ligases represents an exciting and previously unidentified system of cross talk between the ubiquitin and SUMO systems.

  19. Ligase I and ligase III mediate the DNA double-strand break ligation in alternative end-joining.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guangqing; Duan, Jinzhi; Shu, Sheng; Wang, Xuxiang; Gao, Linlin; Guo, Jing; Zhang, Yu

    2016-02-02

    In eukaryotes, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), one of the most harmful types of DNA damage, are repaired by homologous repair (HR) and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). Surprisingly, in cells deficient for core classic NHEJ factors such as DNA ligase IV (Lig4), substantial end-joining activities have been observed in various situations, suggesting the existence of alternative end-joining (A-EJ) activities. Several putative A-EJ factors have been proposed, although results are mostly controversial. By using a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system, we generated mouse CH12F3 cell lines in which, in addition to Lig4, either Lig1 or nuclear Lig3, representing the cells containing a single DNA ligase (Lig3 or Lig1, respectively) in their nucleus, was completely ablated. Surprisingly, we found that both Lig1- and Lig3-containing complexes could efficiently catalyze A-EJ for class switching recombination (CSR) in the IgH locus and chromosomal deletions between DSBs generated by CRISPR/Cas9 in cis-chromosomes. However, only deletion of nuclear Lig3, but not Lig1, could significantly reduce the interchromosomal translocations in Lig4(-/-) cells, suggesting the unique role of Lig3 in catalyzing chromosome translocation. Additional sequence analysis of chromosome translocation junction microhomology revealed the specificity of different ligase-containing complexes. The data suggested the existence of multiple DNA ligase-containing complexes in A-EJ.

  20. RNA Sequencing and Bioinformatics Analysis Implicate the Regulatory Role of a Long Noncoding RNA-mRNA Network in Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Can-Jie; Xiao, Xiao; Sheng, Li; Chen, Lili; Zhong, Wei; Li, Hai; Hua, Jing; Ma, Xiong

    2017-08-11

    To analyze the long noncoding (lncRNA)-mRNA expression network and potential roles in rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) during activation. LncRNA expression was analyzed in quiescent and culture-activated HSCs by RNA sequencing, and differentially expressed lncRNAs verified by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were subjected to bioinformatics analysis. In vivo analyses of differential lncRNA-mRNA expression were performed on a rat model of liver fibrosis. We identified upregulation of 12 lncRNAs and 155 mRNAs and downregulation of 12 lncRNAs and 374 mRNAs in activated HSCs. Additionally, we identified the differential expression of upregulated lncRNAs (NONRATT012636.2, NONRATT016788.2, and NONRATT021402.2) and downregulated lncRNAs (NONRATT007863.2, NONRATT019720.2, and NONRATT024061.2) in activated HSCs relative to levels observed in quiescent HSCs, and Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses showed that changes in lncRNAs associated with HSC activation revealed 11 significantly enriched pathways according to their predicted targets. Moreover, based on the predicted co-expression network, the relative dynamic levels of NONRATT013819.2 and lysyl oxidase (Lox) were compared during HSC activation both in vitro and in vivo. Our results confirmed the upregulation of lncRNA NONRATT013819.2 and Lox mRNA associated with the extracellular matrix (ECM)-related signaling pathway in HSCs and fibrotic livers. Our results detailing a dysregulated lncRNA-mRNA network might provide new treatment strategies for hepatic fibrosis based on findings indicating potentially critical roles for NONRATT013819.2 and Lox in ECM remodeling during HSC activation. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Interaction of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and tRNA: positive and negative cooperativity of their active centres.

    PubMed

    Malygin, E G; Zinoviev, V V; Fasiolo, F; Kisselev, L L; Kochkina, L L; Achverdyan, V Z

    1976-07-01

    The influence of tRNA on the kinetics of PP-ATP exchange and aminoacyl-tRNA formation catalysed by leucyl-, phenylalanyl-, and tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetases has been investigated. These enzymes were chosen because they belong to three main classes of quaternary structure alpha1, alpha2beta2 and alpha2, respectively. The present paper shows that the investigated synthetases manifest kinetic cooperativity of the active centres which is negative in the case of AAA formation and positive in the case of leucyl- and tryptophanyl-tRNA synthesis. The obtained data were interpreted with the aid of the trigger model of the enzyme.

  2. Inhibition of Nonsense-Mediated RNA Decay Activates Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Wengrod, Jordan; Martin, Leenus; Wang, Ding; Frischmeyer-Guerrerio, Pamela; Dietz, Harry C.

    2013-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) is an mRNA surveillance mechanism which rapidly degrades select cytoplasmic mRNAs. We and others have shown that NMD is a dynamically regulated process inhibited by amino acid deprivation, hypoxia, and other cellular stresses commonly generated by the tumor microenvironment. This inhibition of NMD can result in the accumulation of misfolded, mutated, and aggregated proteins, but how cells adapt to these aberrant proteins is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the inhibition of NMD activates autophagy, an established protein surveillance mechanism, both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, the hyperactivation of NMD blunts the induction of autophagy in response to a variety of cellular stresses. The regulation of autophagy by NMD is due, in part, to stabilization of the documented NMD target ATF4. NMD inhibition increases intracellular amino acids, a hallmark of autophagy, and the concomitant inhibition of autophagy and NMD, either molecularly or pharmacologically, leads to synergistic cell death. Together these studies indicate that autophagy is an adaptive response to NMD inhibition and uncover a novel relationship between an mRNA surveillance system and a protein surveillance system, with important implications for the treatment of cancer. PMID:23508110

  3. Inhibition of nonsense-mediated RNA decay activates autophagy.

    PubMed

    Wengrod, Jordan; Martin, Leenus; Wang, Ding; Frischmeyer-Guerrerio, Pamela; Dietz, Harry C; Gardner, Lawrence B

    2013-06-01

    Nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) is an mRNA surveillance mechanism which rapidly degrades select cytoplasmic mRNAs. We and others have shown that NMD is a dynamically regulated process inhibited by amino acid deprivation, hypoxia, and other cellular stresses commonly generated by the tumor microenvironment. This inhibition of NMD can result in the accumulation of misfolded, mutated, and aggregated proteins, but how cells adapt to these aberrant proteins is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the inhibition of NMD activates autophagy, an established protein surveillance mechanism, both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, the hyperactivation of NMD blunts the induction of autophagy in response to a variety of cellular stresses. The regulation of autophagy by NMD is due, in part, to stabilization of the documented NMD target ATF4. NMD inhibition increases intracellular amino acids, a hallmark of autophagy, and the concomitant inhibition of autophagy and NMD, either molecularly or pharmacologically, leads to synergistic cell death. Together these studies indicate that autophagy is an adaptive response to NMD inhibition and uncover a novel relationship between an mRNA surveillance system and a protein surveillance system, with important implications for the treatment of cancer.

  4. The non-coding B2 RNA binds to the DNA cleft and active site region of RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Ponicsan, Steven L.; Houel, Stephane; Old, William M.; Ahn, Natalie G.; Goodrich, James A.; Kugel, Jennifer F.

    2013-01-01

    The B2 family of short interspersed elements is transcribed into non-coding RNA by RNA polymerase III. The ~180 nt B2 RNA has been shown to potently repress mRNA transcription by binding tightly to RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and assembling with it into complexes on promoter DNA, where it keeps the polymerase from properly engaging the promoter DNA. Mammalian Pol II is a ~500 kD complex that contains 12 different protein subunits, providing many possible surfaces for interaction with B2 RNA. We found that the carboxy-terminal domain of the largest Pol II subunit was not required for B2 RNA to bind Pol II and repress transcription in vitro. To identify the surface on Pol II to which the minimal functional region of B2 RNA binds, we coupled multi-step affinity purification, reversible formaldehyde crosslinking, peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry, and analysis of peptide enrichment. The Pol II peptides most highly recovered after crosslinking to B2 RNA mapped to the DNA binding cleft and active site region of Pol II. These studies determine the location of a defined nucleic acid binding site on a large, native, multi-subunit complex and provide insight into the mechanism of transcriptional repression by B2 RNA. PMID:23416138

  5. mRNA Decay of Most Arabidopsis miRNA Targets Requires Slicer Activity of AGO11[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression in animals and plants. They guide RNA-induced silencing complexes to complementary target mRNA, thereby mediating mRNA degradation or translational repression. ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins bind directly to miRNAs and may catalyze cleavage (slicing) of target mRNAs. In animals, miRNA target degradation via slicing occurs only exceptionally, and target mRNA decay is induced via AGO-dependent recruitment of deadenylase complexes. Conversely, plant miRNAs generally direct slicing of their targets, but it is unclear whether slicer-independent mechanisms of target mRNA decay also exist, and, if so, how much they contribute to miRNA-induced mRNA decay. Here, we compare phenotypes and transcript profiles of ago1 null and slicer-deficient mutants in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We also construct conditional loss-of-function mutants of AGO1 to allow transcript profiling in true leaves. Although phenotypic differences between ago1 null and slicer-deficient mutants can be discerned, the results of both transcript profiling approaches indicate that slicer activity is required for mRNA repression of the vast majority of miRNA targets. A set of genes exhibiting up-regulation specifically in ago1 null, but not in ago1 slicer-deficient mutants was also identified, leaving open the possibility that AGO1 may have functions in gene regulation independent of small RNAs. PMID:27208258

  6. Efficient in vitro synthesis of biologically active RNA and RNA hybridization probes from plasmids containing a bacteriophage SP6 promoter.

    PubMed

    Melton, D A; Krieg, P A; Rebagliati, M R; Maniatis, T; Zinn, K; Green, M R

    1984-09-25

    A simple and efficient method for synthesizing pure single stranded RNAs of virtually any structure is described. This in vitro transcription system is based on the unusually specific RNA synthesis by bacteriophage SP6 RNA polymerase which initiates transcription exclusively at an SP6 promoter. We have constructed convenient cloning vectors that contain an SP6 promoter immediately upstream from a polylinker sequence. Using these SP6 vectors, optimal conditions have been established for in vitro RNA synthesis. The advantages and uses of SP6 derived RNAs as probes for nucleic acid blot and solution hybridizations are demonstrated. We show that single stranded RNA probes of a high specific activity are easy to prepare and can significantly increase the sensitivity of nucleic acid hybridization methods. Furthermore, the SP6 transcription system can be used to prepare RNA substrates for studies on RNA processing (1,5,9) and translation (see accompanying paper).

  7. Trypanosoma brucei 20 S Editosomes Have One RNA Substrate-binding Site and Execute RNA Unwinding Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Cordula; Katari, Venkata Subbaraju; Brecht, Michael; Göringer, H. Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Editing of mitochondrial pre-mRNAs in African trypanosomes generates full-length transcripts by the site-specific insertion and deletion of uridylate nucleotides. The reaction is catalyzed by a 0.8 MDa multienzyme complex, the editosome. Although the binding of substrate pre-edited mRNAs and cognate guide RNAs (gRNAs) represents the first step in the reaction cycle, the biochemical and biophysical details of the editosome/RNA interaction are not understood. Here we show that editosomes bind full-length substrate mRNAs with nanomolar affinity in a nonselective fashion. The complexes do not discriminate–neither kinetically nor thermodynamically–between different mitochondrial pre-mRNAs or between edited and unedited versions of the same transcript. They also bind gRNAs and gRNA/pre-mRNA hybrid RNAs with similar affinities and association rate constants. Gold labeling of editosome-bound RNA in combination with transmission electron microscopy identified a single RNA-binding site per editosome. However, atomic force microscopy of individual pre-mRNA-editosome complexes revealed that multiple editosomes can interact with one pre-mRNA. Lastly, we demonstrate a so far unknown activity of the editing machinery: editosome-bound RNA becomes unfolded by a chaperone-type RNA unwinding activity. PMID:22661715

  8. TRIM E3 ligases in HIV infection: can these intrinsic immunity factors be harnessed for novel vaccines or therapies?

    PubMed

    Ndung'u, Thumbi

    2011-01-01

    Tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) E3 ligases are a recently identified family of proteins with potent antiviral activity in mammalian cells. The prototype TRIM E3 ligase, TRIM5α was initially identified as a species-specific antiviral restriction factor but subsequent studies suggest some antiviral activity by several TRIM E3 ligases in human cells. However, the mechanisms of antiviral activity by these proteins and their transcriptional, translational and post-translational regulation are poorly understood. Furthermore, the contribution of TRIM E3 ligases to relative resistance or viral control in vivo is largely unknown. Emerging data from our laboratory and other groups suggests that these proteins may have antiviral activity in vivo and contribute to HIV pathogenesis. Considering the significant difficulties so far encountered in developing an effective HIV vaccine and with the use of antiretroviral therapies, it will be important to further investigate the potential of TRIM E3 ligases as novel prophylactics or therapies.

  9. Transcriptional activation of ribosomal RNA genes during compensatory renal hypertrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Ouellette, A.J.; Moonka, R.; Zelenetz, A.; Malt, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    The overall rate of rDNA transcription increases by 50% during the first 24 hours of compensatory renal hypertrophy in the mouse. To study mechanisms of ribosome accumulation after uninephrectomy, transcription rates were measured in isolated kidneys by transcriptional runoff. /sup 32/P-labeled nascent transcripts were hybridized to blots containing linearized, denatured cloned rDNA, and hybridization was quantitated autoradiographically and by direct counting. Overall transcriptional activity of rDNA was increased by 30% above control levels at 6 hrs after nephrectomy and by 50% at 12, 18, and 24 hrs after operation. Hybridizing RNA was insensitive to inhibiby alpha-amanitin, and no hybridization was detected to vector DNA. Thus, accelerated rDNA transcription is one regulatory element in the accretion of ribosomes in renal growth, and the regulatory event is an early event. Mechanisms of activation may include enhanced transcription of active genes or induction of inactive DNA.

  10. Hsp70's RNA-binding and mRNA-stabilizing activities are independent of its protein chaperone functions.

    PubMed

    Kishor, Aparna; White, Elizabeth J F; Matsangos, Aerielle E; Yan, Zisui; Tandukar, Bishal; Wilson, Gerald M

    2017-08-25

    Hsp70 is a protein chaperone that prevents protein aggregation and aids protein folding by binding to hydrophobic peptide domains through a reversible mechanism directed by an ATPase cycle. However, Hsp70 also binds U-rich RNA including some AU-rich elements (AREs) that regulate the decay kinetics of select mRNAs and has recently been shown to bind and stabilize some ARE-containing transcripts in cells. Previous studies indicated that both the ATP- and peptide-binding domains of Hsp70 contributed to the stability of Hsp70-RNA complexes and that ATP might inhibit RNA recruitment. This suggested the possibility that RNA binding by Hsp70 might mimic features of its peptide-directed chaperone activities. Here, using purified, cofactor-free preparations of recombinant human Hsp70 and quantitative biochemical approaches, we found that high-affinity RNA binding requires at least 30 nucleotides of RNA sequence but is independent of Hsp70's nucleotide-bound status, ATPase activity, or peptide-binding roles. Furthermore, although both the ATP- and peptide-binding domains of Hsp70 could form complexes with an ARE sequence from VEGFA mRNA in vitro, only the peptide-binding domain could recover cellular VEGFA mRNA in ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitations. Finally, Hsp70-directed stabilization of VEGFA mRNA in cells was mediated exclusively by the protein's peptide-binding domain. Together, these findings indicate that the RNA-binding and mRNA-stabilizing functions of Hsp70 are independent of its protein chaperone cycle but also provide potential mechanical explanations for several well-established and recently discovered cytoprotective and RNA-based Hsp70 functions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Human DNA ligase III recognizes DNA ends by dynamic switching between two DNA-bound states.

    PubMed

    Cotner-Gohara, Elizabeth; Kim, In-Kwon; Hammel, Michal; Tainer, John A; Tomkinson, Alan E; Ellenberger, Tom

    2010-07-27

    Human DNA ligase III has essential functions in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA replication and repair and contains a PARP-like zinc finger (ZnF) that increases the extent of DNA nick joining and intermolecular DNA ligation, yet the bases for ligase III specificity and structural variation among human ligases are not understood. Here combined crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering results reveal dynamic switching between two nick-binding components of ligase III: the ZnF-DNA binding domain (DBD) forms a crescent-shaped surface used for DNA end recognition which switches to a ring formed by the nucleotidyl transferase (NTase) and OB-fold (OBD) domains for catalysis. Structural and mutational analyses indicate that high flexibility and distinct DNA binding domain features in ligase III assist both nick sensing and the transition from nick sensing by the ZnF to nick joining by the catalytic core. The collective results support a "jackknife model" in which the ZnF loads ligase III onto nicked DNA and conformational changes deliver DNA into the active site. This work has implications for the biological specificity of DNA ligases and functions of PARP-like zinc fingers.

  12. Human DNA Ligase III Recognizes DNA Ends by Dynamic Switching between Two DNA-Bound States

    SciTech Connect

    Cotner-Gohara, Elizabeth; Kim, In-Kwon; Hammel, Michal; Tainer, John A.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Ellenberger, Tom

    2010-09-13

    Human DNA ligase III has essential functions in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA replication and repair and contains a PARP-like zinc finger (ZnF) that increases the extent of DNA nick joining and intermolecular DNA ligation, yet the bases for ligase III specificity and structural variation among human ligases are not understood. Here combined crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering results reveal dynamic switching between two nick-binding components of ligase III: the ZnF-DNA binding domain (DBD) forms a crescent-shaped surface used for DNA end recognition which switches to a ring formed by the nucleotidyl transferase (NTase) and OB-fold (OBD) domains for catalysis. Structural and mutational analyses indicate that high flexibility and distinct DNA binding domain features in ligase III assist both nick sensing and the transition from nick sensing by the ZnF to nick joining by the catalytic core. The collective results support a 'jackknife model' in which the ZnF loads ligase III onto nicked DNA and conformational changes deliver DNA into the active site. This work has implications for the biological specificity of DNA ligases and functions of PARP-like zinc fingers.

  13. ATM mediates oxidative stress-induced dephosphorylation of DNA ligase IIIalpha.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhiwan; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2006-01-01

    Among the three mammalian genes encoding DNA ligases, only the LIG3 gene does not have a homolog in lower eukaryotes. In somatic mammalian cells, the nuclear form of DNA ligase IIIalpha forms a stable complex with the DNA repair protein XRCC1 that is also found only in higher eukaryotes. Recent studies have shown that XRCC1 participates in S phase-specific DNA repair pathways independently of DNA ligase IIIalpha and is constitutively phosphorylated by casein kinase II. In this study we demonstrate that DNA ligase IIIalpha, unlike XRCC1, is phosphorylated in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Specifically, DNA ligase IIIalpha is phosphorylated on Ser123 by the cell division cycle kinase Cdk2 beginning early in S phase and continuing into M phase. Interestingly, treatment of S phase cells with agents that cause oxygen free radicals induces the dephosphorylation of DNA ligase IIIalpha. This oxidative stress-induced dephosphorylation of DNA ligase IIIalpha is dependent upon the ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) kinase and appears to involve inhibition of Cdk2 and probably activation of a phosphatase.

  14. ATM mediates oxidative stress-induced dephosphorylation of DNA ligase IIIα

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhiwan; Tomkinson, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    Among the three mammalian genes encoding DNA ligases, only the LIG3 gene does not have a homolog in lower eukaryotes. In somatic mammalian cells, the nuclear form of DNA ligase IIIα forms a stable complex with the DNA repair protein XRCC1 that is also found only in higher eukaryotes. Recent studies have shown that XRCC1 participates in S phase-specific DNA repair pathways independently of DNA ligase IIIα and is constitutively phosphorylated by casein kinase II. In this study we demonstrate that DNA ligase IIIα, unlike XRCC1, is phosphorylated in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Specifically, DNA ligase IIIα is phosphorylated on Ser123 by the cell division cycle kinase Cdk2 beginning early in S phase and continuing into M phase. Interestingly, treatment of S phase cells with agents that cause oxygen free radicals induces the dephosphorylation of DNA ligase IIIα. This oxidative stress-induced dephosphorylation of DNA ligase IIIα is dependent upon the ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) kinase and appears to involve inhibition of Cdk2 and probably activation of a phosphatase. PMID:17040896

  15. LARP4 mRNA codon-tRNA match contributes to LARP4 activity for ribosomal protein mRNA poly(A) tail length protection

    PubMed Central

    Mattijssen, Sandy; Arimbasseri, Aneeshkumar G; Iben, James R; Gaidamakov, Sergei; Lee, Joowon; Hafner, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Messenger RNA function is controlled by the 3' poly(A) tail (PAT) and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP). La-related protein-4 (LARP4) binds poly(A) and PABP. LARP4 mRNA contains a translation-dependent, coding region determinant (CRD) of instability that limits its expression. Although the CRD comprises <10% of LARP4 codons, the mRNA levels vary >20 fold with synonymous CRD substitutions that accommodate tRNA dynamics. Separately, overexpression of the most limiting tRNA increases LARP4 levels and reveals its functional activity, net lengthening of the PATs of heterologous mRNAs with concomitant stabilization, including ribosomal protein (RP) mRNAs. Genetic deletion of cellular LARP4 decreases PAT length and RPmRNA stability. This LARP4 activity requires its PABP-interaction domain and the RNA-binding module which we show is sensitive to poly(A) 3'-termini, consistent with protection from deadenylation. The results indicate that LARP4 is a posttranscriptional regulator of ribosomal protein production in mammalian cells and suggest that this activity can be controlled by tRNA levels. PMID:28895529

  16. Cullin RING Ligases: Glommed by Glomulin

    PubMed Central

    Hristova, Ventzislava A.; Stringer, Daniel K.; Weissman, Allan M.

    2012-01-01

    Cullin ring ligases (CRLs) constitute the largest group of RING finger ubiquitin ligases. Two recent studies in Molecular Cell describe glomulin as a CRL1 inhibitor that blocks interactions with its ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) (Duda et al., 2012; Tron et al., 2012). These findings and their significance are discussed. PMID:22883621

  17. DNA looping by a ligase under nanoconfinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarpour-Roushan, Maedeh; Riehn, Robert

    2013-03-01

    DNA looping is essential for the function and maintenance of genetic information. We have investigated the kinetic evolution of DNA loops (48500 bp) induced by T4 ligase inside a nanofabricated channel system with a channel cross-section of 100x100 nm2, and a few hundred microns channel length. We found that addition of the ligase profoundly alters the behavior of DNA. In particular, ligase acts to stabilize hairpin geometries in which the extended forward and backward arms of the hairpin scan past each other. From the linear density of DNA inside the channel, we deduce that the effective excluded volume vanishes upon addition of T4 ligase and ATP. We conclude that the two strands are effectively stapled together through a large number of weak bonds involving T4 ligase.

  18. The SUD1 Gene Encodes a Putative E3 Ubiquitin Ligase and Is a Positive Regulator of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase Activity in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Doblas, Verónica G.; Amorim-Silva, Vítor; Posé, David; Rosado, Abel; Esteban, Alicia; Arró, Montserrat; Azevedo, Herlander; Bombarely, Aureliano; Borsani, Omar; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Ferrer, Albert; Tavares, Rui M.; Botella, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) enzyme catalyzes the major rate-limiting step of the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway from which sterols and other isoprenoids are synthesized. In contrast with our extensive knowledge of the regulation of HMGR in yeast and animals, little is known about this process in plants. To identify regulatory components of the MVA pathway in plants, we performed a genetic screen for second-site suppressor mutations of the Arabidopsis thaliana highly drought-sensitive drought hypersensitive2 (dry2) mutant that shows decreased squalene epoxidase activity. We show that mutations in SUPPRESSOR OF DRY2 DEFECTS1 (SUD1) gene recover most developmental defects in dry2 through changes in HMGR activity. SUD1 encodes a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase that shows sequence and structural similarity to yeast Degradation of α factor (Doα10) and human TEB4, components of the endoplasmic reticulum–associated degradation C (ERAD-C) pathway. While in yeast and animals, the alternative ERAD-L/ERAD-M pathway regulates HMGR activity by controlling protein stability, SUD1 regulates HMGR activity without apparent changes in protein content. These results highlight similarities, as well as important mechanistic differences, among the components involved in HMGR regulation in plants, yeast, and animals. PMID:23404890

  19. RNA-directed DNA methylation induces transcriptional activation in plants

    PubMed Central

    Shibuya, Kenichi; Fukushima, Setsuko; Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    A class-C floral homeotic gene of Petunia, pMADS3, is specifically expressed in the stamen and carpels of developing flowers. We had previously reported the ect-pMADS3 phenomenon in which introduction of a part of the pMADS3 genomic sequence, including intron 2, induces ectopic expression of endogenous pMADS3. Unlike transcriptional or posttranscriptional gene silencing triggered by the introduction of homologous sequences, this observation is unique in that the gene expression is up-regulated. In this study, we demonstrated that the ect-pMADS3 phenomenon is due to transcriptional activation based on RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) occurring in a particular CG in a putative cis-element in pMADS3 intron 2. The CG methylation was maintained over generations, along with pMADS3 ectopic expression, even in the absence of RNA triggers. These results demonstrate a previously undescribed transcriptional regulatory mechanism that could lead to the generation of a transcriptionally active epiallele, thereby contributing to plant evolution. Our results also reveal a putative negative cis-element for organ-specific transcriptional regulation of class-C floral homeotic genes, which could be difficult to identify by other approaches. PMID:19164525

  20. Cis-regulatory RNA elements that regulate specialized ribosome activity

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Shifeng; Barna, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that the ribosome itself can play a highly regulatory role in the specialized translation of specific subpools of mRNAs, in particular at the level of ribosomal proteins (RP). However, the mechanism(s) by which this selection takes place has remained poorly understood. In our recent study, we discovered a combination of unique RNA elements in the 5′UTRs of mRNAs that allows for such control by the ribosome. These mRNAs contain a Translation Inhibitory Element (TIE) that inhibits general cap-dependent translation, and an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) that relies on a specific RP for activation. The unique combination of an inhibitor of general translation and an activator of specialized translation is key to ribosome-mediated control of gene expression. Here we discuss how these RNA regulatory elements provide a new level of control to protein expression and their implications for gene expression, organismal development and evolution. PMID:26327194

  1. RNA helicase activity of the plum pox potyvirus CI protein expressed in Escherichia coli. Mapping of an RNA binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, A; Laín, S; García, J A

    1995-01-01

    The plum pox potyvirus (PPV) cylindrical inclusion (CI) protein fused to the maltose binding protein (MBP) has been synthesized in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography in amylose resin. In the absence of any other viral factors, the fusion product had NTPase, RNA binding and RNA helicase activities. These in vitro activities were not affected by removal of the last 103 amino acids of the CI protein. However, other deletions in the C-terminal part of the protein, although leaving intact all the region conserved in RNA helicases, drastically impaired the ability to unwind dsRNA and to hydrolyze NTPs. A mutant protein lacking the last 225 residues retained the competence to interact with RNA. Further deletions mapped boundaries of the RNA binding domain within residues 350 and 402 of the PPV CI protein. This region includes the arginine-rich motif VI, the most carboxy terminal conserved domain of RNA helicases of the superfamily SF2. These results indicate that NTP hydrolysis is not an essential component for RNA binding of the PPV CI protein. Images PMID:7538661

  2. Structural Basis for Nick Recognition by a Minimal Pluripotent DNA Ligase

    SciTech Connect

    Nair,P.; Nandakumar, J.; Smith, P.; Odell, M.; Lima, C.; Shuman, S.

    2007-01-01

    Chlorella virus DNA ligase, the smallest eukaryotic ligase known, has pluripotent biological activity and an intrinsic nick-sensing function, despite having none of the accessory domains found in cellular ligases. A 2.3-{angstrom} crystal structure of the Chlorella virus ligase-AMP intermediate bound to duplex DNA containing a 3'-OH-5'-PO{sub 4} nick reveals a new mode of DNA envelopment, in which a short surface loop emanating from the OB domain forms a {beta}-hairpin 'latch' that inserts into the DNA major groove flanking the nick. A network of interactions with the 3'-OH and 5'-PO{sub 4} termini in the active site illuminates the DNA adenylylation mechanism and the crucial roles of AMP in nick sensing and catalysis. Addition of a divalent cation triggered nick sealing in crystallo, establishing that the nick complex is a bona fide intermediate in the DNA repair pathway.

  3. Broad nucleotide cofactor specificity of DNA ligase from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Hyperthermus butylicus and its evolutionary significance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Lee, Kang-Keun; Sun, Younguk; Seo, Gang-Jin; Cho, Sung Suk; Kwon, Suk Hyung; Kwon, Suk-Tae

    2013-05-01

    The nucleotide cofactor specificity of the DNA ligase from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Hyperthermus butylicus (Hbu) was studied to investigate the evolutionary relationship of DNA ligases. The Hbu DNA ligase gene was expressed under control of the T7lac promoter of pTARG in Escherichia coli BL21-CodonPlus(DE3)-RIL. The expressed enzyme was purified using the IMPACT™-CN system (intein-mediated purification with an affinity chitin-binding tag) and cation-ion (Arg-tag) chromatography. The optimal temperature for Hbu DNA ligase activity was 75 °C, and the optimal pH was 8.0 in Tris-HCl. The activity was highly dependent on MgCl2 or MnCl2 with maximal activity above 5 mM MgCl2 and 2 mM MnCl2. Notably, Hbu DNA ligase can use ADP and GTP in addition to ATP. The broad nucleotide cofactor specificity of Hbu DNA ligase might exemplify an undifferentiated ancestral stage in the evolution of DNA ligases. This study provides new evidence for possible evolutionary relationships among DNA ligases.

  4. Mining and characterization of ubiquitin E3 ligases expressed in the mouse testis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ubiquitin-mediated protein modification and degradation are believed to play important roles in mammalian spermatogenesis. The catalogues of ubiquitin activating enzymes, conjugating enzymes, and ligases (E3s) have been known for mammals such as mice and humans. However, a systematic characterization of E3s expressed during spermatogenesis has not been carried out. Results In present study, we set out to mine E3s from the mouse genome and to characterize their expression pattern, subcellular localization, and enzymatic activities based on microarray data and biochemical assays. We identified 398 putative E3s belonging to the RING, U-box, and HECT subfamilies and found that most genes were conserved between mice and humans. We discovered that 73 of them were highly or specifically expressed in the testes based on the microarray expression data. We selected 10 putative E3 genes to examine their mRNA expression pattern, and several genes to study their subcellular localization and E3 ligase activity. RT-PCR results showed that all the selected genes were predominately expressed in the testis. Some putative E3s were localized in the cytoplasm while others were in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Moreover, all the selected proteins were enzymatically active as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo assays. Conclusions We have identified a large number of putative E3s that are expressed during mouse spermatogenesis. Among these, a significant portion is highly or specifically expressed in the testis. Subcellular localization and enzymatic activity assays suggested that these E3s might execute diverse functions in mammalian spermatogenesis. Our results may serve as an initial guide to the field for further functional analysis. PMID:22992278

  5. Adenylosuccinate lyase of Bacillus subtilis regulates the activity of the glutamyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Gendron, N; Breton, R; Champagne, N; Lapointe, J

    1992-01-01

    In Bacillus subtilis, the glutamyl-tRNA synthetase [L-glutamate:tRNA(Glu) ligase (AMP-forming), EC 6.1.1.17] is copurified with a polypeptide of M(r) 46,000 that influences its affinity for its substrates and increases its thermostability. The gene encoding this regulatory factor was cloned with the aid of a 41-mer oligonucleotide probe corresponding to the amino acid sequence of an NH2-terminal segment of this factor. The nucleotide sequence of this gene and the physical map of the 1475-base-pair fragment on which it was cloned are identical to those of purB, which encodes the adenylosuccinate lyase (adenylosuccinate AMP-lyase, EC 4.3.2.2), an enzyme involved in the de novo synthesis of purines. This gene complements the purB mutation of Escherichia coli JK268, and its presence on a multicopy plasmid behind the trc promoter in the purB- strain gives an adenylosuccinate lyase level comparable to that in wild-type B. subtilis. A complex between the adenylosuccinate lyase and the glutamyl-tRNA synthetase was detected by centrifugation on a density gradient. The interaction between these enzymes may play a role in the coordination of purine metabolism and protein biosynthesis. Images PMID:1608947