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Sample records for rna polymerases

  1. T7-RNA Polymerase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    T7-RNA Polymerase grown on STS-81. Structure-Function Relationships of RNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent RNA polymerase is the key enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of RNA, a process known as transcription. Principal Investigator's include Dr. Dan Carter, Dr. B.C. Wang, and Dr. John Rose of New Century Pharmaceuticals.

  2. T7-RNA Polymerase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    T7-RNA Polymerase grown on STS-81. Structure-Function Relationships of RNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent RNA polymerase is the key enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of RNA, a process known as transcription. Principal Investigator's include Dr. Dan Carter, Dr. B.C. Wang, and Dr. John Rose of New Century Pharmaceuticals.

  3. Archaeal RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Akira; Murakami, Katsuhiko S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The recently solved X-ray crystal structures of archaeal RNA polymerase allows a structural comparison of the transcription machinery among all three domains of life. Archaeal transcription is very simple and all components, including the structures of general transcription factors and RNA polymerase, are highly conserved in eukaryotes. Therefore, it could be a new model for dissection of the eukaryotic transcription apparatus. The archaeal RNA polymerase structure also provides a framework for addressing the functional role that Fe–S clusters play within the transcription machinery of archaea and eukaryotes. A comparison between bacterial and archaeal open complex models reveals likely key motifs of archaeal RNA polymerase for DNA unwinding during the open complex formation. PMID:19880312

  4. RNA Polymerase in Mumps Virion

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Jacqueline P.; Northrop, Robert L.

    1974-01-01

    Mumps virions of the Enders' strain were examined for polymerase activity in vitro. An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase was found to be associated with the virion. The general properties of the reaction appear to be similar to those described for other paramyxoviruses. PMID:4836602

  5. Alphavirus polymerase and RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, Maija K; Hellström, Kirsi; Ahola, Tero

    2017-01-16

    Alphaviruses are typically arthropod-borne, and many are important pathogens such as chikungunya virus. Alphaviruses encode four nonstructural proteins (nsP1-4), initially produced as a polyprotein P1234. nsP4 is the core RNA-dependent RNA polymerase but all four nsPs are required for RNA synthesis. The early replication complex (RC) formed by the polyprotein P123 and nsP4 synthesizes minus RNA strands, and the late RC composed of fully processed nsP1-nsP4 is responsible for the production of genomic and subgenomic plus strands. Different parts of nsP4 recognize the promoters for minus and plus strands but the binding also requires the other nsPs. The alphavirus polymerase has been purified and is capable of de novo RNA synthesis only in the presence of the other nsPs. The purified nsP4 also has terminal adenylyltransferase activity, which may generate the poly(A) tail at the 3' end of the genome. Membrane association of the nsPs is vital for replication, and alphaviruses induce membrane invaginations called spherules, which form a microenvironment for RNA synthesis by concentrating replication components and protecting double-stranded RNA intermediates. The RCs isolated as crude membrane preparations are active in RNA synthesis in vitro, but high-resolution structure of the RC has not been achieved, and thus the arrangement of viral and possible host components remains unknown. For some alphaviruses, Ras-GTPase-activating protein (Src-homology 3 (SH3) domain)-binding proteins (G3BPs) and amphiphysins have been shown to be essential for RNA replication and are present in the RCs. Host factors offer an additional target for antivirals, as only few alphavirus polymerase inhibitors have been described.

  6. Exploiting polymerase promiscuity: A simple colorimetric RNA polymerase assay.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, W; Epp, J B; Wang, B B; Del Vecchio, A M; Widlanski, T; Kao, C C

    2000-09-01

    We developed a convenient colorimetric assay for monitoring RNA synthesis from DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (DdRp) and viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp). ATP and GTP with a p-nitrophenyl moiety attached to the gamma-phosphate were synthesized (PNP-NTPs). These PNP-NTPs can be used for RNA synthesis by several RNA polymerases, including the RdRps from brome mosaic virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus and the DdRps from bacteriophage T7 and SP6. When the polymerase reactions were performed in the presence of alkaline phosphatase, which digests the p-nitrophenylpyrophosphate side-product of phosphoryl transfer to the chromogenic p-nitrophenylate, an increase in absorbence at 405 nm was observed. These nucleotide analogues were used in continuous colorimetric monitoring of polymerase activity. Furthermore, the PNP-NTPs were found to be stable and utilized by RNA polymerases in the presence of human plasma. This simple colorimetric polymerase assay can be performed in a standard laboratory spectrophotometer and will be useful in screens for inhibitors of viral RNA synthesis.

  7. Transcription by RNA polymerases I and III

    PubMed Central

    Paule, Marvin R.; White, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    The task of transcribing nuclear genes is shared between three RNA polymerases in eukaryotes: RNA polymerase (pol) I synthesises the large rRNA, pol II synthesises mRNA and pol III synthesises tRNA and 5S rRNA. Although pol II has received most attention, pol I and pol III are together responsible for the bulk of transcriptional activity. This survey will summarise what is known about the process of transcription by pol I and pol III, how it happens and the proteins involved. Attention will be drawn to the similarities between the three nuclear RNA polymerase systems and also to their differences. PMID:10684922

  8. Disengaging polymerase: Terminating RNA polymerase II transcription in budding yeast☆

    PubMed Central

    Mischo, Hannah E.; Proudfoot, Nick J.

    2013-01-01

    Termination of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires two distinct processes: The formation of a defined 3′ end of the transcribed RNA, as well as the disengagement of RNA polymerase from its DNA template. Both processes are intimately connected and equally pivotal in the process of functional messenger RNA production. However, research in recent years has elaborated how both processes can additionally be employed to control gene expression in qualitative and quantitative ways. This review embraces these new findings and attempts to paint a broader picture of how this final step in the transcription cycle is of critical importance to many aspects of gene regulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: RNA polymerase II Transcript Elongation. PMID:23085255

  9. The RNA polymerase II elongation complex.

    PubMed

    Aso, T; Conaway, J W; Conaway, R C

    1995-11-01

    The initiation stage of transcription by RNA polymerase II has long been regarded as the primary site for regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. Nevertheless, a growing body of evidence reveals that the RNA polymerase II elongation complex is also a major target for regulation. Biochemical studies are implicating an increasing number of transcription factors in the regulation of elongation, and these transcription factors are being found to function by a diverse collection of mechanisms. Moreover, unexpected features of the structure and catalytic mechanism of RNA polymerase II are forcing a reconsideration of long-held views on the mechanics of some of the most basic aspects of polymerase function. In this review, we will describe recent insights into the structures and functions of RNA polymerase II and the transcription factors that control its activity during the elongation stage of eukaryotic messenger RNA synthesis.

  10. RNA binding and replication by the poliovirus RNA polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Oberste, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    RNA binding and RNA synthesis by the poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase were studied in vitro using purified polymerase. Templates for binding and RNA synthesis studies were natural RNAs, homopolymeric RNAs, or subgenomic poliovirus-specific RNAs synthesized in vitro from cDNA clones using SP6 or T7 RNA polymerases. The binding of the purified polymerase to poliovirion and other RNAs was studied using a protein-RNA nitrocellulose filter binding assay. A cellular poly(A)-binding protein was found in the viral polymerase preparations, but was easily separated from the polymerase by chromatography on poly(A) Sepharose. The binding of purified polymerase to {sup 32}P-labeled ribohomopolymeric RNAs was examined, and the order of binding observed was poly(G) >>> poly(U) > poly(C) > poly(A). The K{sub a} for polymerase binding to poliovirion RNA and to a full-length negative strand transcript was about 1 {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1}. The polymerase binds to a subgenomic RNAs which contain the 3{prime} end of the genome with a K{sub a} similar to that for virion RNA, but binds less well to 18S rRNA, globin mRNA, and subgenomic RNAs which lack portions of the 3{prime} noncoding region.

  11. RNA polymerase gene, microorganism having said gene and the production of RNA polymerase by the use of said microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Kotani, Hirokazu; Hiraoka, Nobutsugu; Obayashi, Akira

    1991-01-01

    SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase is produced by cultivating a new microorganism (particularly new strains of Escherichia coli) harboring a plasmid that carries SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase gene and recovering SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase from the culture broth. SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase gene is provided as are new microorganisms harboring a plasmid that carries SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase gene.

  12. RNA polymerase II transcription: structure and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Bushnell, David A; Kornberg, Roger D

    2013-01-01

    A minimal RNA polymerase II (pol II) transcription system comprises the polymerase and five general transcription factors (GTFs) TFIIB, -D, -E, -F, and -H. The addition of Mediator enables a response to regulatory factors. The GTFs are required for promoter recognition and the initiation of transcription. Following initiation, pol II alone is capable of RNA transcript elongation and of proofreading. Structural studies reviewed here reveal roles of GTFs in the initiation process and shed light on the transcription elongation mechanism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: RNA Polymerase II Transcript Elongation.

  13. Norovirus proteinase-polymerase and polymerase are both active forms of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Belliot, Gaël; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Babu, Vijay; Uche, Uzo; Arnold, Jamie J; Cameron, Craig E; Green, Kim Y

    2005-02-01

    In vitro mapping studies of the MD145 norovirus (Caliciviridae) ORF1 polyprotein identified two stable cleavage products containing the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains: ProPol (a precursor comprised of both the proteinase and polymerase) and Pol (the mature polymerase). The goal of this study was to identify the active form (or forms) of the norovirus polymerase. The recombinant ProPol (expressed as Pro(-)Pol with an inactivated proteinase domain to prevent autocleavage) and recombinant Pol were purified after synthesis in bacteria and shown to be active RdRp enzymes. In addition, the mutant His-E1189A-ProPol protein (with active proteinase but with the natural ProPol cleavage site blocked) was active as an RdRp, confirming that the norovirus ProPol precursor could possess two enzymatic activities simultaneously. The effects of several UTP analogs on the RdRp activity of the norovirus and feline calicivirus Pro(-)Pol enzymes were compared and found to be similar. Our data suggest that the norovirus ProPol is a bifunctional enzyme during virus replication. The availability of this recombinant ProPol enzyme might prove useful in the development of antiviral drugs for control of the noroviruses associated with acute gastroenteritis.

  14. Norovirus Proteinase-Polymerase and Polymerase Are Both Active Forms of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Belliot, Gaël; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Babu, Vijay; Uche, Uzo; Arnold, Jamie J.; Cameron, Craig E.; Green, Kim Y.

    2005-01-01

    In vitro mapping studies of the MD145 norovirus (Caliciviridae) ORF1 polyprotein identified two stable cleavage products containing the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains: ProPol (a precursor comprised of both the proteinase and polymerase) and Pol (the mature polymerase). The goal of this study was to identify the active form (or forms) of the norovirus polymerase. The recombinant ProPol (expressed as Pro−Pol with an inactivated proteinase domain to prevent autocleavage) and recombinant Pol were purified after synthesis in bacteria and shown to be active RdRp enzymes. In addition, the mutant His-E1189A-ProPol protein (with active proteinase but with the natural ProPol cleavage site blocked) was active as an RdRp, confirming that the norovirus ProPol precursor could possess two enzymatic activities simultaneously. The effects of several UTP analogs on the RdRp activity of the norovirus and feline calicivirus Pro−Pol enzymes were compared and found to be similar. Our data suggest that the norovirus ProPol is a bifunctional enzyme during virus replication. The availability of this recombinant ProPol enzyme might prove useful in the development of antiviral drugs for control of the noroviruses associated with acute gastroenteritis. PMID:15681440

  15. Functional oligomerization of poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Pata, J D; Schultz, S C; Kirkegaard, K

    1995-01-01

    Using a hairpin primer/template RNA derived from sequences present at the 3' end of the poliovirus genome, we investigated the RNA-binding and elongation activities of highly purified poliovirus 3D polymerase. We found that surprisingly high polymerase concentrations were required for efficient template utilization. Binding of template RNAs appeared to be the primary determinant of efficient utilization because binding and elongation activities correlated closely. Using a three-filter binding assay, polymerase binding to RNA was found to be highly cooperative with respect to polymerase concentration. At pH 5.5, where binding was most cooperative, a Hill coefficient of 5 was obtained, indicating that several polymerase molecules interact to retain the 110-nt RNA in a filter-bound complex. Chemical crosslinking with glutaraldehyde demonstrated physical polymerase-polymerase interactions, supporting the cooperative binding data. We propose a model in which poliovirus 3D polymerase functions both as a catalytic polymerase and as a cooperative single-stranded RNA-binding protein during RNA-dependent RNA synthesis. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 PMID:7489508

  16. RNA Polymerase II Transcription: Structure and Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Bushnell, David A.; Kornberg, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    A minimal RNA polymerase II (pol II) transcription system comprises the polymerase and five general transcription factors (GTFs) TFIIB, -D, -E, -F, and -H. The addition of Mediator enables a response to regulatory factors. The GTFs are required for promoter recognition and the initiation of transcription. Following initiation, pol II alone is capable of RNA transcript elongation and of proofreading. Structural studies reviewed here reveal roles of GTFs in the initiation process and shed light on the transcription elongation mechanism. PMID:23000482

  17. Transcription termination by nuclear RNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Patricia; Manley, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Gene transcription in the cell nucleus is a complex and highly regulated process. Transcription in eukaryotes requires three distinct RNA polymerases, each of which employs its own mechanisms for initiation, elongation, and termination. Termination mechanisms vary considerably, ranging from relatively simple to exceptionally complex. In this review, we describe the present state of knowledge on how each of the three RNA polymerases terminates and how mechanisms are conserved, or vary, from yeast to human. PMID:19487567

  18. RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Activity in Influenza Virions

    PubMed Central

    Penhoet, Edward; Miller, Henry; Doyle, Michael; Blatti, Stanley

    1971-01-01

    An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity has been detected in purified preparations of influenza virus. In contrast to the replicase activity induced in influenza-infected cells, the virion-associated enzyme has an absolute requirement for Mn++. Most of the RNA synthesized in vitro is complementary to virion RNA. PMID:5288388

  19. Free RNA polymerase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Michael; Dennis, Patrick P; Ehrenberg, Mans; Bremer, Hans

    2015-12-01

    The frequencies of transcription initiation of regulated and constitutive genes depend on the concentration of free RNA polymerase holoenzyme [Rf] near their promoters. Although RNA polymerase is largely confined to the nucleoid, it is difficult to determine absolute concentrations of [Rf] at particular locations within the nucleoid structure. However, relative concentrations of free RNA polymerase at different growth rates, [Rf]rel, can be estimated from the activities of constitutive promoters. Previous studies indicated that the rrnB P2 promoter is constitutive and that [Rf]rel in the vicinity of rrnB P2 increases with increasing growth rate. Recently it has become possible to directly visualize Rf in growing Escherichia coli cells. Here we examine some of the important issues relating to gene expression based on these new observations. We conclude that: (i) At a growth rate of 2 doublings/h, there are about 1000 free and 2350 non-specifically DNA-bound RNA polymerase molecules per average cell (12 and 28%, respectively, of 8400 total) which are in rapid equilibrium. (ii) The reversibility of the non-specific binding generates more than 1000 free RNA polymerase molecules every second in the immediate vicinity of the DNA. Of these, most rebind non-specifically to the DNA within a few ms; the frequency of non-specific binding is at least two orders of magnitude greater than specific binding and transcript initiation. (iii) At a given amount of RNA polymerase per cell, [Rf] and the density of non-specifically DNA-bound RNA polymerase molecules along the DNA both vary reciprocally with the amount of DNA in the cell. (iv) At 2 doublings/h an E. coli cell contains, on the average, about 1 non-specifically bound RNA polymerase per 9 kbp of DNA and 1 free RNA polymerase per 20 kbp of DNA. However some DNA regions (i.e. near active rRNA operons) may have significantly higher than average [Rf].

  20. Chloroplast RNA polymerases: Role in chloroplast biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Börner, Thomas; Aleynikova, Anastasia Yu; Zubo, Yan O; Kusnetsov, Victor V

    2015-09-01

    Plastid genes are transcribed by two types of RNA polymerase in angiosperms: the bacterial type plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) and one (RPOTp in monocots) or two (RPOTp and RPOTmp in dicots) nuclear-encoded RNA polymerase(s) (NEP). PEP is a bacterial-type multisubunit enzyme composed of core subunits (coded for by the plastid rpoA, rpoB, rpoC1 and rpoC2 genes) and additional protein factors (sigma factors and polymerase associated protein, PAPs) encoded in the nuclear genome. Sigma factors are required by PEP for promoter recognition. Six different sigma factors are used by PEP in Arabidopsis plastids. NEP activity is represented by phage-type RNA polymerases. Only one NEP subunit has been identified, which bears the catalytic activity. NEP and PEP use different promoters. Many plastid genes have both PEP and NEP promoters. PEP dominates in the transcription of photosynthesis genes. Intriguingly, rpoB belongs to the few genes transcribed exclusively by NEP. Both NEP and PEP are active in non-green plastids and in chloroplasts at all stages of development. The transcriptional activity of NEP and PEP is affected by endogenous and exogenous factors. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast Biogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Amplification of RNA by an RNA polymerase ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Horning, David P.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2016-01-01

    In all extant life, genetic information is stored in nucleic acids that are replicated by polymerase proteins. In the hypothesized RNA world, before the evolution of genetically encoded proteins, ancestral organisms contained RNA genes that were replicated by an RNA polymerase ribozyme. In an effort toward reconstructing RNA-based life in the laboratory, in vitro evolution was used to improve dramatically the activity and generality of an RNA polymerase ribozyme by selecting variants that can synthesize functional RNA molecules from an RNA template. The improved polymerase ribozyme is able to synthesize a variety of complex structured RNAs, including aptamers, ribozymes, and, in low yield, even tRNA. Furthermore, the polymerase can replicate nucleic acids, amplifying short RNA templates by more than 10,000-fold in an RNA-catalyzed form of the PCR. Thus, the two prerequisites of Darwinian life—the replication of genetic information and its conversion into functional molecules—can now be accomplished with RNA in the complete absence of proteins. PMID:27528667

  2. The bacterial enhancer-dependent RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Darbari, Vidya C.; Glyde, Robert; Zhang, Xiaodong; Buck, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Transcription initiation is highly regulated in bacterial cells, allowing adaptive gene regulation in response to environment cues. One class of promoter specificity factor called sigma54 enables such adaptive gene expression through its ability to lock the RNA polymerase down into a state unable to melt out promoter DNA for transcription initiation. Promoter DNA opening then occurs through the action of specialized transcription control proteins called bacterial enhancer-binding proteins (bEBPs) that remodel the sigma54 factor within the closed promoter complexes. The remodelling of sigma54 occurs through an ATP-binding and hydrolysis reaction carried out by the bEBPs. The regulation of bEBP self-assembly into typically homomeric hexamers allows regulated gene expression since the self-assembly is required for bEBP ATPase activity and its direct engagement with the sigma54 factor during the remodelling reaction. Crystallographic studies have now established that in the closed promoter complex, the sigma54 factor occupies the bacterial RNA polymerase in ways that will physically impede promoter DNA opening and the loading of melted out promoter DNA into the DNA-binding clefts of the RNA polymerase. Large-scale structural re-organizations of sigma54 require contact of the bEBP with an amino-terminal glutamine and leucine-rich sequence of sigma54, and lead to domain movements within the core RNA polymerase necessary for making open promoter complexes and synthesizing the nascent RNA transcript. PMID:27789741

  3. Structural biology of bacterial RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Katsuhiko S

    2015-05-11

    Since its discovery and characterization in the early 1960s (Hurwitz, J. The discovery of RNA polymerase. J. Biol. Chem. 2005, 280, 42477-42485), an enormous amount of biochemical, biophysical and genetic data has been collected on bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP). In the late 1990s, structural information pertaining to bacterial RNAP has emerged that provided unprecedented insights into the function and mechanism of RNA transcription. In this review, I list all structures related to bacterial RNAP (as determined by X-ray crystallography and NMR methods available from the Protein Data Bank), describe their contributions to bacterial transcription research and discuss the role that small molecules play in inhibiting bacterial RNA transcription.

  4. Structural Biology of Bacterial RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Katsuhiko S.

    2015-01-01

    Since its discovery and characterization in the early 1960s (Hurwitz, J. The discovery of RNA polymerase. J. Biol. Chem. 2005, 280, 42477–42485), an enormous amount of biochemical, biophysical and genetic data has been collected on bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP). In the late 1990s, structural information pertaining to bacterial RNAP has emerged that provided unprecedented insights into the function and mechanism of RNA transcription. In this review, I list all structures related to bacterial RNAP (as determined by X-ray crystallography and NMR methods available from the Protein Data Bank), describe their contributions to bacterial transcription research and discuss the role that small molecules play in inhibiting bacterial RNA transcription. PMID:25970587

  5. Interstitial contacts in an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase lattice

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Andres B.; Wang, Jing; Tanner, Elizabeth J.; Spagnolo, Jeannie F.; Kirkegaard, Karla; Bullitt, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Catalytic activities can be facilitated by ordered enzymatic arrays that co-localize and orient enzymes and their substrates. The purified RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from poliovirus self-assembles to form two-dimensional lattices, possibly facilitating the assembly of viral RNA replication complexes on the cytoplasmic face of intracellular membranes. Creation of a two-dimensional lattice requires at least two different molecular contacts between polymerase molecules. One set of polymerase contacts, between the ‘thumb’ domain of one polymerase and the back of the ‘palm’ domain of another, has been previously defined. To identify the second interface needed for lattice formation and to test its function in viral RNA synthesis, a hybrid approach of both electron microscopic and biochemical evaluation of wild-type and mutant viral polymerases was used to evaluate computationally generated models of this second interface. A unique solution satisfied all constraints and predicted a two-dimensional structure formed from antiparallel arrays of polymerase fibers that use contacts from the flexible amino-terminal region of the protein. Enzymes that contained mutations in this newly defined interface did not form lattices and altered the structure of wild-type lattices. When reconstructed into virus, mutations that disrupt lattice assembly exhibited growth defects, synthetic lethality, or both, supporting the function of the oligomeric lattice in infected cells. Understanding the structure of polymerase lattices within the multimeric RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex should faciliate antiviral drug design and provide a precedent for other positive-strand RNA viruses. PMID:21839092

  6. Regulation through the RNA Polymerase Secondary Channel

    PubMed Central

    Symersky, Jindrich; Perederina, Anna; Vassylyeva, Marina N.; Svetlov, Vladimir; Artsimovitch, Irina; Vassylyev, Dmitry G.

    2006-01-01

    Gre factors enhance the intrinsic endonucleolytic activity of RNA polymerase to rescue arrested transcription complexes and are thought to confer the high fidelity and processivity of RNA synthesis. The Gre factors insert the extended α-helical coiled-coil domains into the RNA polymerase secondary channel to position two invariant acidic residues at the coiled-coil tip near the active site to stabilize the catalytic metal ion. Gfh1, a GreA homolog from Thermus thermophilus, inhibits rather than activates RNA cleavage. Here we report the structure of the T. thermophilus Gfh1 at 2.4 Å resolution revealing a two-domain architecture closely resembling that of GreA. However, the interdomain orientation is strikingly distinct (~162° rotation) between the two proteins. In contrast to GreA, which has two acidic residues on a well fixed self-stabilized α-turn, the tip of the Gfh1 coiled-coil is flexible and contains four acidic residues. This difference is likely the key to the Gre functional diversity, while Gfh1 inhibits exo- and endonucleolytic cleavage, RNA synthesis, and pyrophosphorolysis, GreA enhances only the endonucleolytic cleavage. We propose that Gfh1 acidic residues stabilize the RNA polymerase active center in a catalytically inactive configuration through Mg2+-mediated interactions. The excess of the acidic residues and inherent flexibility of the coiled-coil tip might allow Gfh1 to adjust its activity to structurally distinct substrates, thereby inhibiting diverse catalytic reactions of RNA polymerase. PMID:16298991

  7. A Cross-chiral RNA Polymerase Ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Sczepanski, Jonathan T.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2014-01-01

    Thirty years ago it was shown that the non-enzymatic, template-directed polymerization of activated mononucleotides proceeds readily in a homochiral system, but is severely inhibited by the presence of the opposing enantiomer.1 This finding poses a severe challenge for the spontaneous emergence of RNA-based life, and has led to the suggestion that either RNA was preceded by some other genetic polymer that is not subject to chiral inhibition2 or chiral symmetry was broken through chemical processes prior to the origin of RNA-based life.3,4 Once an RNA enzyme arose that could catalyze the polymerization of RNA, it would have been possible to distinguish among the two enantiomers, enabling RNA replication and RNA-based evolution to occur. It is commonly thought that the earliest RNA polymerase and its substrates would have been of the same handedness, but this is not necessarily the case. Replicating D-and L-RNA molecules may have emerged together, based on the ability of structured RNAs of one handedness to catalyze the templated polymerization of activated mononucleotides of the opposite handedness. Such a cross-chiral RNA polymerase has now been developed using in vitro evolution. The D-RNA enzyme, consisting of 83 nucleotides, catalyzes the joining of L-mono- or oligonucleotide substrates on a complementary L-RNA template, and similarly for the L-enzyme with D-substrates and a D-template. Chiral inhibition is avoided because the 106-fold rate acceleration of the enzyme only pertains to cross-chiral substrates. The enzyme's activity is sufficient to generate full-length copies of its enantiomer through the templated joining of 11 component oligonucleotides. PMID:25363769

  8. Origin and Evolution of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase.

    PubMed

    de Farias, Savio T; Dos Santos Junior, Ariosvaldo P; Rêgo, Thais G; José, Marco V

    2017-01-01

    RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) are very ancient enzymes and are essential for all viruses with RNA genomes. We reconstruct the origin and evolution of this polymerase since the initial stages of the origin of life. The origin of the RdRp was traced back from tRNA ancestors. At the origin of the RdRp the most ancient part of the protein is the cofactor-binding site that had the capacity of binding to simple molecules as magnesium, calcium, and ribonucleotides. Our results suggest that RdRp originated from junctions of proto-tRNAs that worked as the first genes at the emergence of the primitive translation system, where the RNA was the informational molecule. The initial domain, worked as a building block for the emergence of the fingers and thumb domains. From the ancestral RdRp, we could establish the evolutionary stages of viral evolution from a rooted ancestor to modern viruses. It was observed that the selective pressure under the RdRp was the organization and functioning of the genome, where RNA double-stranded and RNA single-stranded virus formed a separate group. We propose an evolutionary route to the polymerases and the results suggest an ancient scenario for the origin of RNA viruses.

  9. RNA Polymerase II Collision Interrupts Convergent Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, David J.; Wei, Wu; Steinmetz, Lars M.; Svejstrup, Jesper Q.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Antisense noncoding transcripts, genes-within-genes, and convergent gene pairs are prevalent among eukaryotes. The existence of such transcription units raises the question of what happens when RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) molecules collide head-to-head. Here we use a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches in yeast to show that polymerases transcribing opposite DNA strands cannot bypass each other. RNAPII stops but does not dissociate upon head-to-head collision in vitro, suggesting that opposing polymerases represent insurmountable obstacles for each other. Head-to-head collision in vivo also results in RNAPII stopping, and removal of collided RNAPII from the DNA template can be achieved via ubiquitylation-directed proteolysis. Indeed, in cells lacking efficient RNAPII polyubiquitylation, the half-life of collided polymerases increases, so that they can be detected between convergent genes. These results provide insight into fundamental mechanisms of gene traffic control and point to an unexplored effect of antisense transcription on gene regulation via polymerase collision. PMID:23041286

  10. A movie of RNA polymerase II transcription.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Alan C M; Cramer, Patrick

    2012-06-22

    We provide here a molecular movie that captures key aspects of RNA polymerase II initiation and elongation. To create the movie, we combined structural snapshots of the initiation-elongation transition and of elongation, including nucleotide addition, translocation, pausing, proofreading, backtracking, arrest, reactivation, and inhibition. The movie reveals open questions about the mechanism of transcription and provides a useful teaching tool. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The architecture of RNA polymerase fidelity.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Craig D

    2010-06-22

    The basis for transcriptional fidelity by RNA polymerase is not understood, but the 'trigger loop', a conserved structural element that is rearranged in the presence of correct substrate nucleotides, is thought to be critical. A study just published in BMC Biology sheds new light on the ways in which the trigger loop may promote selection of correct nucleotide triphosphate substrates. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/54.

  12. RNA polymerase: the vehicle of transcription.

    PubMed

    Borukhov, Sergei; Nudler, Evgeny

    2008-03-01

    RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the principal enzyme of gene expression and regulation for all three divisions of life: Eukaryota, Archaea and Bacteria. Recent progress in the structural and biochemical characterization of RNAP illuminates this enzyme as a flexible, multifunctional molecular machine. During each step of the transcription cycle, RNAP undergoes elaborate conformational changes. As many fundamental and previously mysterious aspects of how RNAP works begin to be understood, this enzyme reveals intriguing similarities to man-made engineered devices. These resemblances can be found in the mechanics of RNAP-DNA complex formation, in RNA chain initiation and in the elongation processes. Here we highlight recent advances in understanding RNAP function and regulation.

  13. RNA polymerase errors cause splicing defects and can be regulated by differential expression of RNA polymerase subunits.

    PubMed

    Carey, Lucas B

    2015-12-10

    Errors during transcription may play an important role in determining cellular phenotypes: the RNA polymerase error rate is >4 orders of magnitude higher than that of DNA polymerase and errors are amplified >1000-fold due to translation. However, current methods to measure RNA polymerase fidelity are low-throughout, technically challenging, and organism specific. Here I show that changes in RNA polymerase fidelity can be measured using standard RNA sequencing protocols. I find that RNA polymerase is error-prone, and these errors can result in splicing defects. Furthermore, I find that differential expression of RNA polymerase subunits causes changes in RNA polymerase fidelity, and that coding sequences may have evolved to minimize the effect of these errors. These results suggest that errors caused by RNA polymerase may be a major source of stochastic variability at the level of single cells.

  14. RNA polymerase errors cause splicing defects and can be regulated by differential expression of RNA polymerase subunits

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Lucas B

    2015-01-01

    Errors during transcription may play an important role in determining cellular phenotypes: the RNA polymerase error rate is >4 orders of magnitude higher than that of DNA polymerase and errors are amplified >1000-fold due to translation. However, current methods to measure RNA polymerase fidelity are low-throughout, technically challenging, and organism specific. Here I show that changes in RNA polymerase fidelity can be measured using standard RNA sequencing protocols. I find that RNA polymerase is error-prone, and these errors can result in splicing defects. Furthermore, I find that differential expression of RNA polymerase subunits causes changes in RNA polymerase fidelity, and that coding sequences may have evolved to minimize the effect of these errors. These results suggest that errors caused by RNA polymerase may be a major source of stochastic variability at the level of single cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09945.001 PMID:26652005

  15. The RNA polymerase I transcription machinery.

    PubMed

    Russell, Jackie; Zomerdijk, Joost C B M

    2006-01-01

    The rRNAs constitute the catalytic and structural components of the ribosome, the protein synthesis machinery of cells. The level of rRNA synthesis, mediated by Pol I (RNA polymerase I), therefore has a major impact on the life and destiny of a cell. In order to elucidate how cells achieve the stringent control of Pol I transcription, matching the supply of rRNA to demand under different cellular growth conditions, it is essential to understand the components and mechanics of the Pol I transcription machinery. In this review, we discuss: (i) the molecular composition and functions of the Pol I enzyme complex and the two main Pol I transcription factors, SL1 (selectivity factor 1) and UBF (upstream binding factor); (ii) the interplay between these factors during pre-initiation complex formation at the rDNA promoter in mammalian cells; and (iii) the cellular control of the Pol I transcription machinery.

  16. Solving the RNA polymerase I structural puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno-Morcillo, María; Taylor, Nicholas M. I.; Gruene, Tim; Legrand, Pierre; Rashid, Umar J.; Ruiz, Federico M.; Steuerwald, Ulrich; Müller, Christoph W.; Fernández-Tornero, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Details of the RNA polymerase I crystal structure determination provide a framework for solution of the structures of other multi-subunit complexes. Simple crystallographic experiments are described to extract relevant biological information such as the location of the enzyme active site. Knowing the structure of multi-subunit complexes is critical to understand basic cellular functions. However, when crystals of these complexes can be obtained they rarely diffract beyond 3 Å resolution, which complicates X-ray structure determination and refinement. The crystal structure of RNA polymerase I, an essential cellular machine that synthesizes the precursor of ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus of eukaryotic cells, has recently been solved. Here, the crucial steps that were undertaken to build the atomic model of this multi-subunit enzyme are reported, emphasizing how simple crystallographic experiments can be used to extract relevant biological information. In particular, this report discusses the combination of poor molecular replacement and experimental phases, the application of multi-crystal averaging and the use of anomalous scatterers as sequence markers to guide tracing and to locate the active site. The methods outlined here will likely serve as a reference for future structural determination of large complexes at low resolution.

  17. Evidence that sigma factors are components of chloroplast RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Troxler, R F; Zhang, F; Hu, J; Bogorad, L

    1994-01-01

    Plastid genes are transcribed by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase(s), which have been incompletely characterized and have been examined in a limited number of species. Plastid genomes contain rpoA, rpoB, rpoC1, and rpoC2 coding for alpha, beta, beta', and beta" RNA polymerase subunits that are homologous to the alpha, beta, and beta' subunits that constitute the core moiety of RNA polymerase in bacteria. However, genes with homology to sigma subunits in bacteria have not been found in plastid genomes. An antibody directed against the principal sigma subunit of RNA polymerase from the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 was used to probe western blots of purified chloroplast RNA polymerase from maize, rice, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and Cyanidium caldarium. Chloroplast RNA polymerase from maize and rice contained an immunoreactive 64-kD protein. Chloroplast RNA polymerase from C. reinhardtii contained immunoreactive 100- and 82-kD proteins, and chloroplast RNA polymerase from C. caldarium contained an immunoreactive 32-kD protein. The elution profile of enzyme activity of both algal chloroplast RNA polymerases coeluted from DEAE with the respective immunoreactive proteins, indicating that they are components of the enzyme. These results provide immunological evidence for sigma-like factors in chloroplast RNA polymerase in higher plants and algae. PMID:8159791

  18. Conformational flexibility of bacterial RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Darst, Seth A.; Opalka, Natacha; Chacon, Pablo; Polyakov, Andrey; Richter, Catherine; Zhang, Gongyi; Wriggers, Willy

    2002-01-01

    The structure of Escherichia coli core RNA polymerase (RNAP) was determined by cryo-electron microscopy and image processing of helical crystals to a nominal resolution of 15 Å. Because of the high sequence conservation between the core RNAP subunits, we were able to interpret the E. coli structure in relation to the high-resolution x-ray structure of Thermus aquaticus core RNAP. A very large conformational change of the T. aquaticus RNAP x-ray structure, corresponding to opening of the main DNA/RNA channel by nearly 25 Å, was required to fit the E. coli map. This finding reveals, at least partially, the range of conformational flexibility of the RNAP, which is likely to have functional implications for the initiation of transcription, where the DNA template must be loaded into the channel. PMID:11904365

  19. Archaeal RNA polymerase and transcription regulation

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Sung-Hoon; Reichlen, Matthew J.; Tajiri, Momoko; Murakami, Katsuhiko S.

    2010-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of transcription by cellular RNA polymerases (RNAPs), high resolution X-ray crystal structures together with structure-guided biochemical, biophysical and genetics studies are essential. The recently-solved X-ray crystal structures of archaeal RNA polymerase (RNAP) allow a structural comparison of the transcription machinery among all three domains of life. The archaea were once thought of closely related to bacteria, but they are now considered to be more closely related to the eukaryote at the molecular level than bacteria. According to these structures, the archaeal transcription apparatus, which includes RNAP and general transcription factors, is similar to the eukaryotic transcription machinery. Yet, the transcription regulators, activators and repressors, encoded by archaeal genomes are closely related to bacterial factors. Therefore, archaeal transcription appears to possess an intriguing hybrid of eukaryotic-type transcription apparatus and bacterial-like regulatory mechanisms. Elucidating the transcription mechanism in archaea, which possesses a combination of bacterial and eukaryotic transcription mechanisms that are commonly regarded as separate and mutually exclusive, can provide data that will bring basic transcription mechanisms across all three domains of life. PMID:21250781

  20. Structure-Function Relationships Among RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kenneth K.-S.; Arnold, Jamie J.; Cameron, Craig E.

    2008-01-01

    RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs) play key roles in viral transcription and genome replication, as well as epigenetic and post-transcriptional control of cellular gene expression. In this article, we review the crystallographic, biochemical, and molecular genetic data available for viral RdRPs that have led to a detailed description of substrate and cofactor binding, fidelity of nucleotide selection and incorporation, and catalysis. It is likely that the cellular RdRPs will share some of the basic structural and mechanistic principles gleaned from studies of viral RdRPs. Therefore, studies of the viral RdRP establish a framework for the study of cellular RdRPs, an important yet understudied class of nucleic acid polymerases. PMID:18268843

  1. Ratcheting of RNA polymerase toward structural principles of RNA polymerase operations

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, Shun-ichi; Murayama, Yuko; Svetlov, Vladimir; Nudler, Evgeny; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    RNA polymerase (RNAP) performs various tasks during transcription by changing its conformational states, which are gradually becoming clarified. A recent study focusing on the conformational transition of RNAP between the ratcheted and tight forms illuminated the structural principles underlying its functional operations. PMID:26226152

  2. Multisubunit RNA Polymerases IV and V: Purveyors of Non-Coding RNA for Plant Gene Silencing

    SciTech Connect

    Haag, Jeremy R.; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2011-08-01

    In all eukaryotes, nuclear DNA-dependent RNA polymerases I, II and III synthesize the myriad RNAs that are essential for life. Remarkably, plants have evolved two additional multisubunit RNA polymerases, RNA polymerases IV and V, which orchestrate non-coding RNA-mediated gene silencing processes affecting development, transposon taming, antiviral defence and allelic crosstalk. Biochemical details concerning the templates and products of RNA polymerases IV and V are lacking. However, their subunit compositions reveal that they evolved as specialized forms of RNA polymerase II, which provides the unique opportunity to study the functional diversification of a eukaryotic RNA polymerase family.

  3. RNA polymerase activity in purified virions of avian reticuloendotheliosis viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, S; Temin, H M

    1976-01-01

    An RNA polymerase activity that synthesizes a U-rich RNA hydrogen bonded to a large viral RNA molecule was found in the cores of virions of avian reticuloendotheliosis viruses (REV). The RNA polymerase activity was separable from the DNA polymerase activity of REV virions. The 5'-terminus of the newly synthesized RNA was A. In addition, a tRNA nucleotidyl transferase activity, which added -CpCpA ends to tRNA, appears to be present in the REV virions. Images PMID:183017

  4. RNA polymerase backtracking in gene regulation and genome instability.

    PubMed

    Nudler, Evgeny

    2012-06-22

    RNA polymerase is a ratchet machine that oscillates between productive and backtracked states at numerous DNA positions. Since its first description 15 years ago, backtracking--the reversible sliding of RNA polymerase along DNA and RNA--has been implicated in many critical processes in bacteria and eukaryotes, including the control of transcription elongation, pausing, termination, fidelity, and genome instability.

  5. RNA Polymerase III Accurately Initiates Transcription from RNA Polymerase II Promoters in Vitro*

    PubMed Central

    Duttke, Sascha H. C.

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotes, there are three major RNA polymerases (Pol) in the nucleus, which are commonly described as transcribing non-overlapping subsets of genes. Structural studies have highlighted a conserved core shared among all three transcription systems. Initiation of human Pol III from TATA box-containing Pol II promoters under conditions with impaired Pol II transcription activity have been described previously. RNA polymerase III and Pol II were found to co-localize at the promoters of the c-myc gene and the RPPH1 sRNA in vivo. Here, I report that Pol III can, like Pol II, initiate transcription from most tested Pol II core promoters when assayed with crude human nuclear extracts (HSK, SNF, or Dignam). Both polymerases often initiate from the same transcription start site, and depend on a TATA box or AT-rich region but not the downstream promoter element (DPE) or the motif ten element (MTE). Moderate (∼2-fold) changes in the ratio of DNA template to nuclear extract were sufficient to change Pol II-mediated transcription to a mixture of Pol II- and Pol III-, or to a solely Pol III-dependent initiation of transcription from Pol II promoters. Polymerase specificity is thus not fixed but a variable that depends on the properties of the promoter and the transcription conditions. These findings provide functional evidence for a close similarity between the Pol II and Pol III transcription complexes, and additionally explain previous controversies in the literature. PMID:24917680

  6. The punctilious RNA polymerase II core promoter.

    PubMed

    Vo Ngoc, Long; Wang, Yuan-Liang; Kassavetis, George A; Kadonaga, James T

    2017-07-01

    The signals that direct the initiation of transcription ultimately converge at the core promoter, which is the gateway to transcription. Here we provide an overview of the RNA polymerase II core promoter in bilateria (bilaterally symmetric animals). The core promoter is diverse in terms of its composition and function yet is also punctilious, as it acts with strict rules and precision. We additionally describe an expanded view of the core promoter that comprises the classical DNA sequence motifs, sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors, chromatin signals, and DNA structure. This model may eventually lead to a more unified conceptual understanding of the core promoter. © 2017 Vo ngoc et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. Basic mechanism of transcription by RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Svetlov, Vladimir; Nudler, Evgeny

    2012-01-01

    RNA polymerase II-like enzymes carry out transcription of genomes in Eukaryota, Archaea, and some viruses. They also exhibit fundamental similarity to RNA polymerases from bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria. In this review we take an inventory of recent studiesilluminating different steps of basic transcription mechanism, likely common for most multi-subunit RNA polymerases. Through the amalgamation of structural and computational chemistry data we attempt to highlight the most feasible reaction pathway for the two-metal nucleotidyl transfer mechanism, and to evaluate the way catalysis can be linked to translocation in the mechano-chemical cycle catalyzed by RNA polymerase II. PMID:22982365

  8. Solving the RNA polymerase I structural puzzle

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Morcillo, María; Taylor, Nicholas M. I.; Gruene, Tim; Legrand, Pierre; Rashid, Umar J.; Ruiz, Federico M.; Steuerwald, Ulrich; Müller, Christoph W.; Fernández-Tornero, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the structure of multi-subunit complexes is critical to understand basic cellular functions. However, when crystals of these complexes can be obtained they rarely diffract beyond 3 Å resolution, which complicates X-ray structure determination and refinement. The crystal structure of RNA polymerase I, an essential cellular machine that synthesizes the precursor of ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus of eukaryotic cells, has recently been solved. Here, the crucial steps that were undertaken to build the atomic model of this multi-subunit enzyme are reported, emphasizing how simple crystallographic experiments can be used to extract relevant biological information. In particular, this report discusses the combination of poor molecular replacement and experimental phases, the application of multi-crystal averaging and the use of anomalous scatterers as sequence markers to guide tracing and to locate the active site. The methods outlined here will likely serve as a reference for future structural determination of large complexes at low resolution. PMID:25286842

  9. RNA Polymerases of Maize. Purification and Molecular Structure of DNA-dependent RNA Polymerase II*

    PubMed Central

    Mullinix, Kathleen P.; Strain, Gustave C.; Bogorad, Lawrence

    1973-01-01

    Nuclear DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II has been purified from leaves of Zea mays by a new procedure that improves enzyme stability and thus permits more manipulation during purification. The purification procedure includes a heating step, gel filtration on Sepharose 6B and 4B, and chromatography on DEAE- and DNA-celluloses. This method of purification yields an enzyme that exhibits maximal activity when denatured DNA is used as a template. Electrophoresis of highly purified enzyme on polyacrylamide gels containing sodium dodecyl sulfate indicates that maize RNA polymerase IIa is composed of several polypeptide subunits. The most highly purified preparations contain polypeptides with molecular weights of 200,000, 160,000, 35,000, 25,000, 20,000, and 17,000. Images PMID:4525172

  10. Nidovirus RNA polymerases: Complex enzymes handling exceptional RNA genomes.

    PubMed

    Posthuma, Clara C; Te Velthuis, Aartjan J W; Snijder, Eric J

    2017-02-06

    Coronaviruses and arteriviruses are distantly related human and animal pathogens that belong to the order Nidovirales. Nidoviruses are characterized by their polycistronic plus-stranded RNA genome, the production of subgenomic mRNAs and the conservation of a specific array of replicase domains, including key RNA-synthesizing enzymes. Coronaviruses (26-34 kilobases) have the largest known RNA genomes and their replication presumably requires a processive RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and enzymatic functions that suppress the consequences of the typically high error rate of viral RdRps. The arteriviruses have significantly smaller genomes and form an intriguing package with the coronaviruses to analyse viral RdRp evolution and function. The RdRp domain of nidoviruses resides in a cleavage product of the replicase polyprotein named non-structural protein (nsp) 12 in coronaviruses and nsp9 in arteriviruses. In all nidoviruses, the C-terminal RdRp domain is linked to a conserved N-terminal domain, which has been coined NiRAN (nidovirus RdRp-associated nucleotidyl transferase). Although no structural information is available, the functional characterization of the nidovirus RdRp and the larger enzyme complex of which it is part, has progressed significantly over the past decade. In coronaviruses several smaller, non-enzymatic nsps were characterized that direct RdRp function, while a 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease activity in nsp14 was implicated in fidelity. In arteriviruses, the nsp1 subunit was found to maintain the balance between genome replication and subgenomic mRNA production. Understanding RdRp behaviour and interactions during RNA synthesis and subsequent processing will be key to rationalising the evolutionary success of nidoviruses and the development of antiviral strategies.

  11. Persistent nuclear actin filaments inhibit transcription by RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Serebryannyy, Leonid A; Parilla, Megan; Annibale, Paolo; Cruz, Christina M; Laster, Kyle; Gratton, Enrico; Kudryashov, Dmitri; Kosak, Steven T; Gottardi, Cara J; de Lanerolle, Primal

    2016-09-15

    Actin is abundant in the nucleus and it is clear that nuclear actin has important functions. However, mystery surrounds the absence of classical actin filaments in the nucleus. To address this question, we investigated how polymerizing nuclear actin into persistent nuclear actin filaments affected transcription by RNA polymerase II. Nuclear filaments impaired nuclear actin dynamics by polymerizing and sequestering nuclear actin. Polymerizing actin into stable nuclear filaments disrupted the interaction of actin with RNA polymerase II and correlated with impaired RNA polymerase II localization, dynamics, gene recruitment, and reduced global transcription and cell proliferation. Polymerizing and crosslinking nuclear actin in vitro similarly disrupted the actin-RNA-polymerase-II interaction and inhibited transcription. These data rationalize the general absence of stable actin filaments in mammalian somatic nuclei. They also suggest a dynamic pool of nuclear actin is required for the proper localization and activity of RNA polymerase II.

  12. Persistent nuclear actin filaments inhibit transcription by RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Serebryannyy, Leonid A.; Parilla, Megan; Cruz, Christina M.; Laster, Kyle; Kudryashov, Dmitri; Kosak, Steven T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Actin is abundant in the nucleus and it is clear that nuclear actin has important functions. However, mystery surrounds the absence of classical actin filaments in the nucleus. To address this question, we investigated how polymerizing nuclear actin into persistent nuclear actin filaments affected transcription by RNA polymerase II. Nuclear filaments impaired nuclear actin dynamics by polymerizing and sequestering nuclear actin. Polymerizing actin into stable nuclear filaments disrupted the interaction of actin with RNA polymerase II and correlated with impaired RNA polymerase II localization, dynamics, gene recruitment, and reduced global transcription and cell proliferation. Polymerizing and crosslinking nuclear actin in vitro similarly disrupted the actin–RNA-polymerase-II interaction and inhibited transcription. These data rationalize the general absence of stable actin filaments in mammalian somatic nuclei. They also suggest a dynamic pool of nuclear actin is required for the proper localization and activity of RNA polymerase II. PMID:27505898

  13. Transcriptional proofreading in dense RNA polymerase traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Mamata; Klumpp, Stefan

    2011-12-01

    The correction of errors during transcription involves the diffusive backward translocation (backtracking) of RNA polymerases (RNAPs) on the DNA. A trailing RNAP on the same template can interfere with backtracking as it progressively restricts the space that is available for backward translocation and thereby ratchets the backtracked RNAP forward. We analyze the resulting negative impact on proofreading theoretically using a driven lattice gas model of transcription under conditions of dense RNAP traffic. The fraction of errors that are corrected is calculated exactly for the case of a single RNAP; for multi-RNAP transcription, we use simulations and an analytical approximation and find a decrease with increasing traffic density. Moreover, we ask how the parameters of the system have to be set to keep down the impact of the interference of a trailing RNAP. Our analysis uncovers a surprisingly simple picture of the design of the error correction system: its efficiency is essentially determined by the rate for the initial backtracking step, while the value of the cleavage rate ensures that the correction mechanism remains efficient at high transcription rates. Finally, we argue that our analysis can also be applied to cases with transcription-translation coupling where the leading ribosome on the transcript assumes the role of the trailing RNAP.

  14. Selenotrisulfide inhibits initiation by RNA polymerase II but not elongation

    SciTech Connect

    Frenkel, G.D.; Falvey, D.

    1989-03-01

    We previously reported that RNA polymerase II (purified from wheat germ) is inhibited by selenotrisulfides, the products of the reaction of selenite with sulfhydryl compounds. We have now found that the initiation stage of the reaction is inhibited by selenotrisulfide but the elongation stage of the reaction is not. The actual start of the RNA chain is not inhibited by the selenotrisulfide, but rather the formation of the enzyme-DNA binary complex. Selenotrisulfide has a similar differential effect on initiation and elongation by RNA polymerase II from HeLa cells; in contrast, with E. coli RNA polymerase, it inhibits elongation as well.

  15. A new family of polymerases related to superfamily A DNA polymerases and T7-like DNA-dependent RNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Abhiman, Saraswathi; Aravind, L

    2008-01-01

    Using sequence profile methods and structural comparisons we characterize a previously unknown family of nucleic acid polymerases in a group of mobile elements from genomes of diverse bacteria, an algal plastid and certain DNA viruses, including the recently reported Sputnik virus. Using contextual information from domain architectures and gene-neighborhoods we present evidence that they are likely to possess both primase and DNA polymerase activity, comparable to the previously reported prim-pol proteins. These newly identified polymerases help in defining the minimal functional core of superfamily A DNA polymerases and related RNA polymerases. Thus, they provide a framework to understand the emergence of both DNA and RNA polymerization activity in this class of enzymes. They also provide evidence that enigmatic DNA viruses, such as Sputnik, might have emerged from mobile elements coding these polymerases. This article was reviewed by Eugene Koonin and Mark Ragan. PMID:18834537

  16. A new family of polymerases related to superfamily A DNA polymerases and T7-like DNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Abhiman, Saraswathi; Aravind, L

    2008-10-04

    Using sequence profile methods and structural comparisons we characterize a previously unknown family of nucleic acid polymerases in a group of mobile elements from genomes of diverse bacteria, an algal plastid and certain DNA viruses, including the recently reported Sputnik virus. Using contextual information from domain architectures and gene-neighborhoods we present evidence that they are likely to possess both primase and DNA polymerase activity, comparable to the previously reported prim-pol proteins. These newly identified polymerases help in defining the minimal functional core of superfamily A DNA polymerases and related RNA polymerases. Thus, they provide a framework to understand the emergence of both DNA and RNA polymerization activity in this class of enzymes. They also provide evidence that enigmatic DNA viruses, such as Sputnik, might have emerged from mobile elements coding these polymerases.

  17. Understanding the Molecular Basis of RNA Polymerase II Transcription.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Su; Wang, Dong

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic nucleic acid analogues have profoundly advanced our knowledge of DNA and RNA, as well as the complex biological processes that involve nucleic acids. As a pivotal enzyme, eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is responsible for transcribing DNA into messenger RNA, which serves as a template to direct protein synthesis. Chemically modified nucleic acid analogues have greatly facilitated the structural elucidation of RNA Pol II elongation complex and understanding the key chemical interactions governing RNA Pol II transcriptional fidelity. This review addresses major progress in RNA polymerase II mechanistic studies using modified nucleic acid analogues in recent years.

  18. Multisubunit RNA Polymerase Cleavage Factors Modulate the Kinetics and Energetics of Nucleotide Incorporation: An RNA Polymerase I Case Study.

    PubMed

    Appling, Francis D; Schneider, David A; Lucius, Aaron L

    2017-10-11

    All cellular RNA polymerases are influenced by protein factors that stimulate RNA polymerase-catalyzed cleavage of the nascent RNA. Despite divergence in amino acid sequence, these so-called "cleavage factors" appear to share a common mechanism of action. Cleavage factors associate with the polymerase through a conserved structural element of the polymerase known as the secondary channel or pore. This mode of association enables the cleavage factor to reach through the secondary channel into the polymerase active site to reorient the active site divalent metal ions. This reorientation converts the polymerase active site into a nuclease active site. Interestingly, eukaryotic RNA polymerases I and III (Pols I and III, respectively) have incorporated their cleavage factors as bona fide subunits known as A12.2 and C11, respectively. Although it is clear that A12.2 and C11 dramatically stimulate the polymerase's cleavage activity, it is not known if or how these subunits affect the polymerization mechanism. In this work we have used transient-state kinetic techniques to characterize a Pol I isoform lacking A12.2. Our data clearly demonstrate that the A12.2 subunit profoundly affects the kinetics and energetics of the elementary steps of Pol I-catalyzed nucleotide incorporation. Given the high degree of conservation between polymerase-cleavage factor interactions, these data indicate that cleavage factor-modulated nucleotide incorporation mechanisms may be common to all cellular RNA polymerases.

  19. Template-free generation of RNA species that replicate with bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Biebricher, C K; Luce, R

    1996-01-01

    A large variety of different RNA species that are replicated by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from bacteriophage T7 have been generated by incubating high concentrations of this enzyme with substrate for extended time periods. The products differed from sample to sample in molecular weight and sequence, their chain lengths ranging from 60 to 120. The mechanism of autocatalytic amplification of RNA by T7 RNA polymerase proved to be analogous to that observed with viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (replicases): only single-stranded templates are accepted and complementary replica strands are synthesized. With enzyme in excess, exponential growth was observed; linear growth resulted when the enzyme was saturated by RNA template. The plus strands, present at 90% of the replicating RNA species, were found to have GG residues at both termini. Consensus sequences were not found among the sequences of the replicating RNA species. The secondary structures of all species sequenced turned out to be hairpins. The RNA species were specifically replicated by T7 RNA polymerase; they were not accepted as templates by the RNA polymerases from Escherichia coli or bacteriophage SP6 or by Qbeta replicase; T3 RNA polymerase was partially active. Template-free production of RNA was completely suppressed by addition of DNA to the incubation mixture. When both DNA and RNA templates were present, transcription and replication competed, but T7 RNA polymerase preferred DNA as a template. No replicating RNA species were detected in vivo in cells expressing T7 RNA polymerase. Images PMID:8670848

  20. In-ice evolution of RNA polymerase ribozyme activity

    PubMed Central

    Attwater, James; Wochner, Aniela; Holliger, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of molecular self-replication have the potential to shed light upon the origins of life. In particular, self-replication through RNA-catalysed templated RNA synthesis is thought to have supported a primordial ‘RNA World’. However, existing polymerase ribozymes lack the capacity to synthesise RNAs approaching their own size. Here we report the in vitro evolution of such catalysts directly in the RNA-stabilising medium of water-ice, which yielded RNA polymerase ribozymes specifically adapted to sub-zero temperatures and able to synthesise RNA in ices at temperatures as low as −19°C. Combination of cold-adaptive mutations with a previously described 5′ extension operating at ambient temperatures enabled the design of a first polymerase ribozyme capable of catalysing the accurate synthesis of an RNA sequence longer than itself (adding up to 206 nucleotides), an important stepping stone towards RNA self-replication. PMID:24256864

  1. RNA polymerase II transcription on the fast lane.

    PubMed

    Marcello, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Transcription by RNA polymerase II is the process that copies DNA into RNA leading to the expression of a specific gene. Averaged estimates of polymerase elongation rates in mammalian cells have been shown to vary between 1 and 4 kilobases per minute. However, recent advances in live cell imaging allowed direct measurements of RNA biogenesis from a single gene exceeded 50 kb·min(-1) . This unexpected finding opens novel and intriguing perspectives on the control of metazoan transcription.

  2. Dysregulation of RNA polymerase I transcription during disease.

    PubMed

    Hannan, K M; Sanij, E; Rothblum, L I; Hannan, R D; Pearson, R B

    2013-01-01

    Transcription of the ribosomal RNA genes by the dedicated RNA polymerase I enzyme and subsequent processing of the ribosomal RNA are fundamental control steps in the synthesis of functional ribosomes. Dysregulation of Pol I transcription and ribosome biogenesis is linked to the etiology of a broad range of human diseases. Diseases caused by loss of function mutations in the molecular constituents of the ribosome, or factors intimately associated with RNA polymerase I transcription and processing are collectively termed ribosomopathies. Ribosomopathies are generally rare and treatment options are extremely limited tending to be more palliative than curative. Other more common diseases are associated with profound changes in cellular growth such as cardiac hypertrophy, atrophy or cancer. In contrast to ribosomopathies, altered RNA polymerase I transcriptional activity in these diseases largely results from dysregulated upstream oncogenic pathways or by direct modulation by oncogenes or tumor suppressors at the level of the RNA polymerase I transcription apparatus itself. Ribosomopathies associated with mutations in ribosomal proteins and ribosomal RNA processing or assembly factors have been covered by recent excellent reviews. In contrast, here we review our current knowledge of human diseases specifically associated with dysregulation of RNA polymerase I transcription and its associated regulatory apparatus, including some cases where this dysregulation is directly causative in disease. We will also provide insight into and discussion of possible therapeutic approaches to treat patients with dysregulated RNA polymerase I transcription. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Transcription by Odd Pols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cloning the Horse RNA Polymerase I Promoter and Its Application to Studying Influenza Virus Polymerase Activity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Gang; He, Dong; Wang, Zengchao; Ou, Shudan; Yuan, Rong; Li, Shoujun

    2016-05-31

    An influenza virus polymerase reconstitution assay based on the human, dog, or chicken RNA polymerase I (PolI) promoter has been developed and widely used to study the polymerase activity of the influenza virus in corresponding cell types. Although it is an important member of the influenza virus family and has been known for sixty years, no studies have been performed to clone the horse PolI promoter or to study the polymerase activity of equine influenza virus (EIV) in horse cells. In our study, the horse RNA PolI promoter was cloned from fetal equine lung cells. Using the luciferase assay, it was found that a 500 bp horse RNA PolI promoter sequence was required for efficient transcription. Then, using the developed polymerase reconstitution assay based on the horse RNA PolI promoter, the polymerase activity of two EIV strains was compared, and equine myxovirus resistance A protein was identified as having the inhibiting EIV polymerase activity function in horse cells. Our study enriches our knowledge of the RNA PolI promoter of eukaryotic species and provides a useful tool for the study of influenza virus polymerase activity in horse cells.

  4. Human DNA polymerase η accommodates RNA for strand extension.

    PubMed

    Su, Yan; Egli, Martin; Guengerich, F Peter

    2017-09-26

    Ribonucleotides are the natural analogs of deoxyribonucleotides, which can be misinserted by DNA polymerases, leading to the most abundant DNA lesions in genomes. During replication, DNA polymerases tolerate patches of ribonucleotides on the parental strands to different extents. The majority of human DNA polymerases have been reported to misinsert ribonucleotides into genomes. However, only PrimPol, DNA polymerase alpha, telomerase, and the mitochondrial DNA polymerase hpol gamma have been shown to tolerate an entire RNA strand. Y-family DNA polymerase eta] (hpol eta) is known for translesion synthesis opposite the UV-induced DNA lesion cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and was recently found to incorporate ribonucleotides into DNA. Here, we report that hpol eta is able to bind DNA/DNA, RNA/DNA, and DNA/RNA duplexes with similar affinities. In addition, hpol eta--as well as another Y-family DNA polymerase, hpol kappa--accommodates RNA as one of the two strands during primer extension, mainly by inserting dNMPs opposite unmodified templates or DNA lesions such as 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine or CPD, even in the presence of an equal amount of the DNA/DNA substrate. The discovery of this RNA accommodating ability of hpol eta redefines the traditional concept of human DNA polymerases and indicates potential new functions of hpol eta in vivo. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  5. Optical tweezers studies of transcription by eukaryotic RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Lisica, Ana; Grill, Stephan W

    2017-02-21

    Transcription is the first step in the expression of genetic information and it is carried out by large macromolecular enzymes called RNA polymerases. Transcription has been studied for many years and with a myriad of experimental techniques, ranging from bulk studies to high-resolution transcript sequencing. In this review, we emphasise the advantages of using single-molecule techniques, particularly optical tweezers, to study transcription dynamics. We give an overview of the latest results in the single-molecule transcription field, focusing on transcription by eukaryotic RNA polymerases. Finally, we evaluate recent quantitative models that describe the biophysics of RNA polymerase translocation and backtracking dynamics.

  6. The RNA polymerase II CTD coordinates transcription and RNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Hsin, Jing-Ping; Manley, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the RNA polymerase II largest subunit consists of multiple heptad repeats (consensus Tyr1–Ser2–Pro3–Thr4–Ser5–Pro6–Ser7), varying in number from 26 in yeast to 52 in vertebrates. The CTD functions to help couple transcription and processing of the nascent RNA and also plays roles in transcription elongation and termination. The CTD is subject to extensive post-translational modification, most notably phosphorylation, during the transcription cycle, which modulates its activities in the above processes. Therefore, understanding the nature of CTD modifications, including how they function and how they are regulated, is essential to understanding the mechanisms that control gene expression. While the significance of phosphorylation of Ser2 and Ser5 residues has been studied and appreciated for some time, several additional modifications have more recently been added to the CTD repertoire, and insight into their function has begun to emerge. Here, we review findings regarding modification and function of the CTD, highlighting the important role this unique domain plays in coordinating gene activity. PMID:23028141

  7. relA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Ryals, J; Bremer, H

    1982-01-01

    Parameters relating to RNA synthesis were measured after a temperature shift from 30 to 42 degrees C, in a relA+ and relA- isogenic pair of Escherichia coli strains containing a temperature-sensitive valyl tRNA synthetase. The following results were obtained: (i) the rRNA chain growth rate increased 2-fold in both strains; (ii) newly synthesized rRNA became unstable in both strains; (iii) the stable RNA gene activity (rRNA and tRNA, measured as stable RNA synthesis rate relative to the total instantaneous rate of RNA synthesis) decreased 1.7-fold in the relA+ strain and increased 1.9-fold in the relA mutant; and (iv) the RNA polymerase activity (measured by the percentage of total RNA polymerase enzyme active in transcription an any instant) decreased from 20 to 3.6% in the relA+ strain and remained unchanged (or increased at most to 22%) in the relA mutant. It is suggested that both rRNA gene activity and the RNA polymerase activity depend on the intracellular concentration of guanosine tetraphosphate, whereas the altered chain elongation rate and stability of rRNA are temperature or amino acid starvation effects, respectively, without involvement of relA function. PMID:6174501

  8. DNA wrapping in transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Coulombe, B

    1999-01-01

    The DNA wrapping model of transcription stipulates that DNA bending and wrapping around RNA polymerase causes an unwinding of the DNA helix at the enzyme catalytic center that stimulates strand separation prior to initiation and during transcript elongation. Recent experiments with mammalian RNA polymerase II indicate the significance of DNA bending and wrapping in transcriptional mechanisms. These findings have important implications in our understanding of the role of the general transcription factors in transcriptional initiation and the mechanisms underlying transcriptional regulation.

  9. RNA Polymerase III Regulates Cytosolic RNA:DNA Hybrids and Intracellular MicroRNA Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Christine Xing'er; Kobiyama, Kouji; Shen, Yu J.; LeBert, Nina; Ahmad, Shandar; Khatoo, Muznah; Aoshi, Taiki; Gasser, Stephan; Ishii, Ken J.

    2015-01-01

    RNA:DNA hybrids form in the nuclei and mitochondria of cells as transcription-induced R-loops or G-quadruplexes, but exist only in the cytosol of virus-infected cells. Little is known about the existence of RNA:DNA hybrids in the cytosol of virus-free cells, in particular cancer or transformed cells. Here, we show that cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids are present in various human cell lines, including transformed cells. Inhibition of RNA polymerase III (Pol III), but not DNA polymerase, abrogated cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids. Cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids bind to several components of the microRNA (miRNA) machinery-related proteins, including AGO2 and DDX17. Furthermore, we identified miRNAs that are specifically regulated by Pol III, providing a potential link between RNA:DNA hybrids and the miRNA machinery. One of the target genes, exportin-1, is shown to regulate cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids. Taken together, we reveal previously unknown mechanism by which Pol III regulates the presence of cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids and miRNA biogenesis in various human cells. PMID:25623070

  10. Visualization of Single Molecules of RNA Polymerase Sliding along DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabata, Hiroyuki; Kurosawa, Osamu; Arai, Ichiro; Washizu, Masao; Margarson, Stefanie A.; Glass, Robert E.; Shimamoto, Nobuo

    1993-12-01

    Transcription requires that RNA polymerase binds to promoters buried in nonspecific sites on DNA. The search for promoters may be facilitated if the polymerase slides along the molecule of DNA. Single molecules of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase were visualized, and their movements on immobilized bacteriophage λ and T7 DNAs were examined. Deviating from drifts by bulk flow, about 40 percent of the enzyme molecules moved along the extended DNA. The results provide direct evidence for sliding as a mechanism for relocation of the enzyme on DNA.

  11. Mutational studies of archaeal RNA polymerase and analysis of hybrid RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Thomm, Michael; Reich, Christoph; Grünberg, Sebastian; Naji, Souad

    2009-02-01

    The recent success in reconstitution of RNAPs (RNA polymerases) from hyperthermophilic archaea from bacterially expressed purified subunits opens the way for detailed structure-function analyses of multisubunit RNAPs. The archaeal enzyme shows close structural similarity to eukaryotic RNAP, particularly to polymerase II, and can therefore be used as model for analyses of the eukaryotic transcriptional machinery. The cleft loops in the active centre of RNAP were deleted and modified to unravel their function in interaction with nucleic acids during transcription. The rudder, lid and fork 2 cleft loops were required for promoter-directed initiation and elongation, the rudder was essential for open complex formation. Analyses of transcripts from heteroduplex templates containing stable open complexes revealed that bubble reclosure is required for RNA displacement during elongation. Archaeal transcription systems contain, besides the orthologues of the eukaryotic transcription factors TBP (TATA-box-binding protein) and TF (transcription factor) IIB, an orthologue of the N-terminal part of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic TFIIE, called TFE, whose function is poorly understood. Recent analyses revealed that TFE is involved in open complex formation and, in striking contrast with eukaryotic TFIIE, is also present in elongation complexes. Recombinant archaeal RNAPs lacking specific subunits were used to investigate the functions of smaller subunits. These studies revealed that the subunits P and H, the orthologues of eukaryotic Rpb12 and Rpb5, were not required for RNAP assembly. Subunit P was essential for open complex formation, and the DeltaH enzyme was greatly impaired in all assays, with the exception of promoter recruitment. Recent reconstitution studies indicate that Rpb12 and Rpb5 can be incorporated into archaeal RNAP and can complement for the function of the corresponding archaeal subunit in in vitro transcription assays.

  12. RNA polymerase IV functions in paramutation in Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Erhard, Karl F; Stonaker, Jennifer L; Parkinson, Susan E; Lim, Jana P; Hale, Christopher J; Hollick, Jay B

    2009-02-27

    Plants have distinct RNA polymerase complexes (Pol IV and Pol V) with largely unknown roles in maintaining small RNA-associated gene silencing. Curiously, the eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana is not affected when either function is lost. By use of mutation selection and positional cloning, we showed that the largest subunit of the presumed maize Pol IV is involved in paramutation, an inherited epigenetic change facilitated by an interaction between two alleles, as well as normal maize development. Bioinformatics analyses and nuclear run-on transcription assays indicate that Pol IV does not engage in the efficient RNA synthesis typical of the three major eukaryotic DNA-dependent RNA polymerases. These results indicate that Pol IV employs abnormal RNA polymerase activities to achieve genome-wide silencing and that its absence affects both maize development and heritable epigenetic changes.

  13. CDK9-dependent RNA polymerase II pausing controls transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Gressel, Saskia; Schwalb, Björn; Decker, Tim Michael; Qin, Weihua; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Eick, Dirk; Cramer, Patrick

    2017-10-10

    Gene transcription can be activated by decreasing the duration of RNA polymerase II pausing in the promoter-proximal region, but how this is achieved remains unclear. Here we use a 'multi-omics' approach to demonstrate that the duration of polymerase pausing generally limits the productive frequency of transcription initiation in human cells ('pause-initiation limit'). We further engineer a human cell line to allow for specific and rapid inhibition of the P-TEFb kinase CDK9, which is implicated in polymerase pause release. CDK9 activity decreases the pause duration but also increases the productive initiation frequency. This shows that CDK9 stimulates release of paused polymerase and activates transcription by increasing the number of transcribing polymerases and thus the amount of mRNA synthesized per time. CDK9 activity is also associated with long-range chromatin interactions, suggesting that enhancers can influence the pause-initiation limit to regulate transcription.

  14. Evolution of tertiary structure of viral RNA dependent polymerases.

    PubMed

    Černý, Jiří; Černá Bolfíková, Barbora; Valdés, James J; Grubhoffer, Libor; Růžek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Viral RNA dependent polymerases (vRdPs) are present in all RNA viruses; unfortunately, their sequence similarity is too low for phylogenetic studies. Nevertheless, vRdP protein structures are remarkably conserved. In this study, we used the structural similarity of vRdPs to reconstruct their evolutionary history. The major strength of this work is in unifying sequence and structural data into a single quantitative phylogenetic analysis, using powerful a Bayesian approach. The resulting phylogram of vRdPs demonstrates that RNA-dependent DNA polymerases (RdDPs) of viruses within Retroviridae family cluster in a clearly separated group of vRdPs, while RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs) of dsRNA and +ssRNA viruses are mixed together. This evidence supports the hypothesis that RdRPs replicating +ssRNA viruses evolved multiple times from RdRPs replicating +dsRNA viruses, and vice versa. Moreover, our phylogram may be presented as a scheme for RNA virus evolution. The results are in concordance with the actual concept of RNA virus evolution. Finally, the methods used in our work provide a new direction for studying ancient virus evolution.

  15. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity associated with the yeast viral p91/20S RNA ribonucleoprotein complex.

    PubMed Central

    García-Cuéllar, M P; Esteban, R; Fujimura, T

    1997-01-01

    20S RNA is a noninfectious viral single-stranded RNA found in most laboratory strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 20S RNA encodes a protein of 91 kDa (p91) that contains the common motifs found among RNA-dependent RNA polymerases from RNA viruses. p91 and 20S RNA are noncovalently associated in vivo, forming a ribonucleoprotein complex. We detected an RNA polymerase activity in p91/20S RNA complexes isolated by high-speed centrifugation. The activity was not inhibited by actinomycin D nor alpha-amanitin. The majority of the in vitro products was 20S RNA and the rest was the complementary strands of 20S RNA. Because the extracts were prepared from cells accumulating 20S RNA over its complementary strands, these in vitro products reflect the corresponding activities in vivo. When the p91/20S RNA complexes were subjected to sucrose gradient centrifugation, the polymerase activity cosedimented with the complexes. Furthermore, an RNA polymerase activity was detected in the complex by an antibody-linked polymerase assay using anti-p91 antiserum, suggesting that p91 is present in the active RNA polymerase machinery. These results together indicate that p91 is the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or a subunit thereof responsible for 20S RNA replication. PMID:8990396

  16. Continuous in vitro evolution of bacteriophage RNA polymerase promoters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaker, R. R.; Banerji, A.; Joyce, G. F.

    1994-01-01

    Rapid in vitro evolution of bacteriophage T7, T3, and SP6 RNA polymerase promoters was achieved by a method that allows continuous enrichment of DNAs that contain functional promoter elements. This method exploits the ability of a special class of nucleic acid molecules to replicate continuously in the presence of both a reverse transcriptase and a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Replication involves the synthesis of both RNA and cDNA intermediates. The cDNA strand contains an embedded promoter sequence, which becomes converted to a functional double-stranded promoter element, leading to the production of RNA transcripts. Synthetic cDNAs, including those that contain randomized promoter sequences, can be used to initiate the amplification cycle. However, only those cDNAs that contain functional promoter sequences are able to produce RNA transcripts. Furthermore, each RNA transcript encodes the RNA polymerase promoter sequence that was responsible for initiation of its own transcription. Thus, the population of amplifying molecules quickly becomes enriched for those templates that encode functional promoters. Optimal promoter sequences for phage T7, T3, and SP6 RNA polymerase were identified after a 2-h amplification reaction, initiated in each case with a pool of synthetic cDNAs encoding greater than 10(10) promoter sequence variants.

  17. Continuous in vitro evolution of bacteriophage RNA polymerase promoters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaker, R. R.; Banerji, A.; Joyce, G. F.

    1994-01-01

    Rapid in vitro evolution of bacteriophage T7, T3, and SP6 RNA polymerase promoters was achieved by a method that allows continuous enrichment of DNAs that contain functional promoter elements. This method exploits the ability of a special class of nucleic acid molecules to replicate continuously in the presence of both a reverse transcriptase and a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Replication involves the synthesis of both RNA and cDNA intermediates. The cDNA strand contains an embedded promoter sequence, which becomes converted to a functional double-stranded promoter element, leading to the production of RNA transcripts. Synthetic cDNAs, including those that contain randomized promoter sequences, can be used to initiate the amplification cycle. However, only those cDNAs that contain functional promoter sequences are able to produce RNA transcripts. Furthermore, each RNA transcript encodes the RNA polymerase promoter sequence that was responsible for initiation of its own transcription. Thus, the population of amplifying molecules quickly becomes enriched for those templates that encode functional promoters. Optimal promoter sequences for phage T7, T3, and SP6 RNA polymerase were identified after a 2-h amplification reaction, initiated in each case with a pool of synthetic cDNAs encoding greater than 10(10) promoter sequence variants.

  18. Backtracking dynamics of RNA polymerase: pausing and error correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Mamata; Klumpp, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Transcription by RNA polymerases is frequently interrupted by pauses. One mechanism of such pauses is backtracking, where the RNA polymerase translocates backward with respect to both the DNA template and the RNA transcript, without shortening the transcript. Backtracked RNA polymerases move in a diffusive fashion and can return to active transcription either by diffusive return to the position where backtracking was initiated or by cleaving the transcript. The latter process also provides a mechanism for proofreading. Here we present some exact results for a kinetic model of backtracking and analyse its impact on the speed and the accuracy of transcription. We show that proofreading through backtracking is different from the classical (Hopfield-Ninio) scheme of kinetic proofreading. Our analysis also suggests that, in addition to contributing to the accuracy of transcription, backtracking may have a second effect: it attenuates the slow down of transcription that arises as a side effect of discriminating between correct and incorrect nucleotides based on the stepping rates.

  19. RNA footprint mapping of RNA polymerase II molecules stalled in the intergenic region of polyomavirus DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Brabant, F; Acheson, N H

    1995-01-01

    RNA polymerase II molecules that transcribe the late strand of the 5.3-kb circular polyomavirus genome stall just upstream of the DNA replication origin, in a region containing multiple binding sites for polyomavirus large T antigen. Stalling of RNA polymerases depends on the presence of functional large T antigen and on the integrity of large T antigen binding site A. To gain insight into the interaction between DNA-bound large T antigen and RNA polymerase II, we mapped the position of stalled RNA polymerases by analyzing nascent RNA chains associated with these polymerases. Elongation of RNA in vitro, followed by hybridization with a nested set of DNA fragments extending progressively farther into the stalling region, allowed localization of the 3' end of the nascent RNA to a position 5 to 10 nucleotides upstream of binding site A. Ribonuclease treatment of nascent RNAs on viral transcription complexes, followed by in vitro elongation and hybridization, allowed localization of the distal end of stalled RNA polymerases to a position 40 nucleotides upstream of binding site A. This RNA footprint shows that elongating RNA polymerases stall at a site very close to the position of DNA-bound large T antigen and that they protect approximately 30 nucleotides of nascent RNA against ribonuclease digestion. PMID:7769704

  20. A transcribing RNA polymerase molecule survives DNA replication without aborting its growing RNA chain.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Wong, M L; Alberts, B

    1994-10-25

    We have demonstrated elsewhere that a precisely placed, stalled Escherichia coli RNA polymerase ternary transcription complex (polymerase-RNA-DNA) stays on the DNA template after passage of a DNA replication fork. Moreover, the bypassed complex remains competent to resume elongation of its bound RNA chain. But the simplicity of our experimental system left several important questions unresolved: in particular, might the observation be relevant only to the particular ternary complex that we studied, and can the finding be generalized to a transcribing instead of a stalled RNA polymerase? To address these issues, we have created three additional ternary transcription complexes and examined their fates after passage of a replication fork. In addition, we have examined the fate of moving RNA polymerase molecules during DNA replication. The results suggest that our previous finding applies to all transcription intermediates of the E. coli RNA polymerase.

  1. Molecular architecture of the vesicular stomatitis virus RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Rahmeh, Amal A.; Schenk, Andreas D.; Danek, Eric I.; Kranzusch, Philip J.; Liang, Bo; Walz, Thomas; Whelan, Sean P. J.

    2010-01-01

    Nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA viruses initiate infection by delivering into the host cell a highly specialized RNA synthesis machine comprising the genomic RNA completely encapsidated by the viral nucleocapsid protein and associated with the viral polymerase. The catalytic core of this protein–RNA complex is a 250-kDa multifunctional large (L) polymerase protein that contains enzymatic activities for nucleotide polymerization as well as for each step of mRNA cap formation. Working with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a prototype of NNS RNA viruses, we used negative stain electron microscopy (EM) to obtain a molecular view of L, alone and in complex with the viral phosphoprotein (P) cofactor. EM analysis, combined with proteolytic digestion and deletion mapping, revealed the organization of L into a ring domain containing the RNA polymerase and an appendage of three globular domains containing the cap-forming activities. The capping enzyme maps to a globular domain, which is juxtaposed to the ring, and the cap methyltransferase maps to a more distal and flexibly connected globule. Upon P binding, L undergoes a significant rearrangement that may reflect an optimal positioning of its functional domains for transcription. The structural map of L provides new insights into the interrelationship of its various domains, and their rearrangement on P binding that is likely important for RNA synthesis. Because the arrangement of conserved regions involved in catalysis is homologous, the structural insights obtained for VSV L likely extend to all NNS RNA viruses. PMID:21041632

  2. Molecular architecture of the vesicular stomatitis virus RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Rahmeh, Amal A; Schenk, Andreas D; Danek, Eric I; Kranzusch, Philip J; Liang, Bo; Walz, Thomas; Whelan, Sean P J

    2010-11-16

    Nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA viruses initiate infection by delivering into the host cell a highly specialized RNA synthesis machine comprising the genomic RNA completely encapsidated by the viral nucleocapsid protein and associated with the viral polymerase. The catalytic core of this protein-RNA complex is a 250-kDa multifunctional large (L) polymerase protein that contains enzymatic activities for nucleotide polymerization as well as for each step of mRNA cap formation. Working with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a prototype of NNS RNA viruses, we used negative stain electron microscopy (EM) to obtain a molecular view of L, alone and in complex with the viral phosphoprotein (P) cofactor. EM analysis, combined with proteolytic digestion and deletion mapping, revealed the organization of L into a ring domain containing the RNA polymerase and an appendage of three globular domains containing the cap-forming activities. The capping enzyme maps to a globular domain, which is juxtaposed to the ring, and the cap methyltransferase maps to a more distal and flexibly connected globule. Upon P binding, L undergoes a significant rearrangement that may reflect an optimal positioning of its functional domains for transcription. The structural map of L provides new insights into the interrelationship of its various domains, and their rearrangement on P binding that is likely important for RNA synthesis. Because the arrangement of conserved regions involved in catalysis is homologous, the structural insights obtained for VSV L likely extend to all NNS RNA viruses.

  3. The cellular factor TRP-185 regulates RNA polymerase II binding to HIV-1 TAR RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Wu-Baer, F; Lane, W S; Gaynor, R B

    1995-01-01

    Activation of HIV-1 gene expression by the transactivator Tat is dependent on an RNA regulatory element located downstream of the transcription initiation site known as TAR. To characterize cellular factors that bind to TAR RNA and are involved in the regulation of HIV-1 transcription, HeLa nuclear extract was fractionated and RNA gel-retardation analysis was performed. This analysis indicated that only two cellular factors, RNA polymerase II and the previously characterized TAR RNA loop binding protein TRP-185, were capable of binding specifically to TAR RNA. To elucidate the function of TRP-185, it was purified from HeLa nuclear extract, amino acid microsequence analysis was performed and a cDNA encoding TRP-185 was isolated. TRP-185 is a novel protein of 1621 amino acids which contains a leucine zipper and potentially a novel RNA binding motif. In gel-retardation assays, the binding of both recombinant TRP-185 and RNA polymerase II was dependent on the presence of an additional group of proteins designated cellular cofactors. Both the TAR RNA loop and bulge sequences were critical for RNA polymerase II binding, while TRP-185 binding was dependent only on TAR RNA loop sequences. Since binding of TRP-185 and RNA polymerase II to TAR RNA was found to be mutually exclusive, our results suggest that TRP-185 may function either alone or in conjunction with Tat to disengage RNA polymerase II which is stalled upon binding to nascently synthesized TAR RNA during transcriptional elongation. Images PMID:8846792

  4. Synthesis of 2′-Fluoro RNA by Syn5 RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bin; Hernandez, Alfredo; Tan, Min; Wollenhaupt, Jan; Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.

    2015-01-01

    The substitution of 2′-fluoro for 2′-hydroxyl moieties in RNA substantially improves the stability of RNA. RNA stability is a major issue in RNA research and applications involving RNA. We report that the RNA polymerase from the marine cyanophage Syn5 has an intrinsic low discrimination against the incorporation of 2′-fluoro dNMPs during transcription elongation. The presence of both magnesium and manganese ions at high concentrations further reduce this discrimination without decreasing the efficiency of incorporation. We have constructed a Syn5 RNA polymerase in which tyrosine 564 is replaced with phenylalanine (Y564F) that further decreases the discrimination against 2′-fluoro-dNTPs during RNA synthesis. Sequence elements in DNA templates that affect the yield of RNA and incorporation of 2′-fluoro-dNMPs by Syn5 RNA polymerase have been identified. PMID:25897116

  5. Malondialdehyde adducts in DNA arrest transcription by T7 RNA polymerase and mammalian RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Cline, Susan D; Riggins, James N; Tornaletti, Silvia; Marnett, Lawrence J; Hanawalt, Philip C

    2004-05-11

    Malondialdehyde, a genotoxic byproduct of lipid peroxidation, reacts with guanine in DNA to form pyrimido[1,2-alpha]purin-10(3H)one (M(1)dG), the first endogenous DNA lesion found to be a target of nucleotide excision repair enzymes. A subpathway of nucleotide excision repair, transcription-coupled repair, is thought to occur when RNA polymerase (RNAP) is arrested at damage in transcribed DNA strands and might function for efficient removal of M(1)dG in active genes. Results presented here show that M(1)dG and its stable, exocyclic analog 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanine (PdG), arrest translocation of T7 RNAP and mammalian RNAPII when located in the transcribed strand of a DNA template. M(1)dG paired with thymine is exocyclic and poses a stronger block to transcription than the acyclic N(2)-(3-oxo-1-propenyl)-dG, formed upon cytosine-catalyzed opening of M(1)dG in duplex DNA. PdG is a complete block to RNAPII regardless of base pairing. The elongation factor TFIIS (SII) induces reversal and RNA transcript cleavage by RNAPII arrested at PdG. Thus, arrested RNAPII complexes may be stable at M(1)dG in cells and may resume transcription once the offending adduct is removed. The conclusion from this work is that malondialdehyde adducts in the transcribed strand of expressed genes are strong blocks to RNAPs and are targets for cellular transcription-coupled repair. If so, then M(1)dG, already known to be highly mutagenic in human cells, also may contribute to apoptosis in the developing tissues of individuals with Cockayne's syndrome, a hereditary disorder characterized by transcription-coupled repair deficiency.

  6. Control of Transcriptional Elongation by RNA Polymerase II: A Retrospective.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Kris; Bentley, David L

    2012-01-01

    The origins of our current understanding of control of transcription elongation lie in pioneering experiments that mapped RNA polymerase II on viral and cellular genes. These studies first uncovered the surprising excess of polymerase molecules that we now know to be situated at the at the 5' ends of most genes in multicellular organisms. The pileup of pol II near transcription start sites reflects a ubiquitous bottle-neck that limits elongation right at the start of the transcription elongation. Subsequent seminal work identified conserved protein factors that positively and negatively control the flux of polymerase through this bottle-neck, and make a major contribution to control of gene expression.

  7. A structural and primary sequence comparison of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Bruenn, Jeremy A.

    2003-01-01

    A systematic bioinformatic approach to identifying the evolutionarily conserved regions of proteins has verified the universality of a newly described conserved motif in RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (motif F). In combination with structural comparisons, this approach has defined two regions that may be involved in unwinding double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) for transcription. One of these is the N-terminal portion of motif F and the second is a large insertion in motif F present in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of some dsRNA viruses. PMID:12654997

  8. Conditions for Using DNA Polymerase I as an RNA-Dependent DNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, S. C.; Kacian, D. L.; Spiegelman, S.

    1974-01-01

    Conditions are described for using Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I for synthesizing complementary DNA copies of natural RNA molecules, which are suitable for use in hybridization experiments. The molar ratio of enzyme to template is critical; below a certain level, synthesis is not observed. Hybrids formed with the complementary DNA are of comparable specificity and stability to those formed with complementary DNAs synthesized by viral RNA-directed DNA polymerase. Synthesis of dA-dT polymers, a common occurrence with this enzyme, can be eliminated by including distamycin in the reaction mixture. PMID:4133845

  9. Direct Characterization of Transcription Elongation by RNA Polymerase I.

    PubMed

    Ucuncuoglu, Suleyman; Engel, Krysta L; Purohit, Prashant K; Dunlap, David D; Schneider, David A; Finzi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcribes ribosomal DNA and is responsible for more than 60% of transcription in a growing cell. Despite this fundamental role that directly impacts cell growth and proliferation, the kinetics of transcription by Pol I are poorly understood. This study provides direct characterization of S. Cerevisiae Pol I transcription elongation using tethered particle microscopy (TPM). Pol I was shown to elongate at an average rate of approximately 20 nt/s. However, the maximum speed observed was, in average, about 60 nt/s, comparable to the rate calculated based on the in vivo number of active genes, the cell division rate and the number of engaged polymerases observed in EM images. Addition of RNA endonucleases to the TPM elongation assays enhanced processivity. Together, these data suggest that additional transcription factors contribute to efficient and processive transcription elongation by RNA polymerase I in vivo.

  10. Direct Characterization of Transcription Elongation by RNA Polymerase I

    PubMed Central

    Ucuncuoglu, Suleyman; Engel, Krysta L.; Purohit, Prashant K.; Dunlap, David D.; Schneider, David A.

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcribes ribosomal DNA and is responsible for more than 60% of transcription in a growing cell. Despite this fundamental role that directly impacts cell growth and proliferation, the kinetics of transcription by Pol I are poorly understood. This study provides direct characterization of S. Cerevisiae Pol I transcription elongation using tethered particle microscopy (TPM). Pol I was shown to elongate at an average rate of approximately 20 nt/s. However, the maximum speed observed was, in average, about 60 nt/s, comparable to the rate calculated based on the in vivo number of active genes, the cell division rate and the number of engaged polymerases observed in EM images. Addition of RNA endonucleases to the TPM elongation assays enhanced processivity. Together, these data suggest that additional transcription factors contribute to efficient and processive transcription elongation by RNA polymerase I in vivo. PMID:27455049

  11. Modulation of RNA polymerase assembly dynamics in transcriptional regulation

    PubMed Central

    Gorski, Stanislaw A.; Snyder, Sara K.; John, Sam; Grummt, Ingrid; Misteli, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of transcription factors with target genes is highly dynamic. Whether the dynamic nature of these interactions is merely an intrinsic property of transcriptions factors or serves a regulatory role is unknown. Here, we have used single cell fluorescence imaging combined with computational modeling and chromatin immunoprecipitation to analyze transcription complex dynamics in gene regulation during the cell cycle in living cells. We demonstrate a link between the dynamics of RNA polymerase I (RNA pol I) assembly and transcriptional output. We show that transcriptional upregulation is accompanied by prolonged retention of RNA pol I components at the promoter, resulting in longer promoter dwell time, and an increase in the steady state population of assembling polymerase. As a consequence, polymerase assembly efficiency, and ultimately, an rate of entry into processive elongation are elevated. Our results show that regulation of rDNA transcription in vivo occurs via modulation of the efficiency of transcription complex subunit capture and assembly. PMID:18498750

  12. Structural Basis of RNA Polymerase I Transcription Initiation.

    PubMed

    Engel, Christoph; Gubbey, Tobias; Neyer, Simon; Sainsbury, Sarah; Oberthuer, Christiane; Baejen, Carlo; Bernecky, Carrie; Cramer, Patrick

    2017-03-23

    Transcription initiation at the ribosomal RNA promoter requires RNA polymerase (Pol) I and the initiation factors Rrn3 and core factor (CF). Here, we combine X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to obtain a molecular model for basal Pol I initiation. The three-subunit CF binds upstream promoter DNA, docks to the Pol I-Rrn3 complex, and loads DNA into the expanded active center cleft of the polymerase. DNA unwinding between the Pol I protrusion and clamp domains enables cleft contraction, resulting in an active Pol I conformation and RNA synthesis. Comparison with the Pol II system suggests that promoter specificity relies on a distinct "bendability" and "meltability" of the promoter sequence that enables contacts between initiation factors, DNA, and polymerase.

  13. Conformational selection and induced fit for RNA polymerase and RNA/DNA hybrid backtracked recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Ye, Wei; Yang, Jingxu; Chen, Hai-Feng

    2015-01-01

    RNA polymerase catalyzes transcription with a high fidelity. If DNA/RNA mismatch or DNA damage occurs downstream, a backtracked RNA polymerase can proofread this situation. However, the backtracked mechanism is still poorly understood. Here we have performed multiple explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on bound and apo DNA/RNA hybrid to study backtracked recognition. MD simulations at room temperature suggest that specific electrostatic interactions play key roles in the backtracked recognition between the polymerase and DNA/RNA hybrid. Kinetics analysis at high temperature shows that bound and apo DNA/RNA hybrid unfold via a two-state process. Both kinetics and free energy landscape analyses indicate that bound DNA/RNA hybrid folds in the order of DNA/RNA contracting, the tertiary folding and polymerase binding. The predicted Φ-values suggest that C7, G9, dC12, dC15, and dT16 are key bases for the backtracked recognition of DNA/RNA hybrid. The average RMSD values between the bound structures and the corresponding apo ones and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) P-test analyses indicate that the recognition between DNA/RNA hybrid and polymerase might follow an induced fit mechanism for DNA/RNA hybrid and conformation selection for polymerase. Furthermore, this method could be used to relative studies of specific recognition between nucleic acid and protein. PMID:26594643

  14. Poliovirus Polymerase Leu420 Facilitates RNA Recombination and Ribavirin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kempf, Brian J.; Peersen, Olve B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT RNA recombination is important in the formation of picornavirus species groups and the ongoing evolution of viruses within species groups. In this study, we examined the structure and function of poliovirus polymerase, 3Dpol, as it relates to RNA recombination. Recombination occurs when nascent RNA products exchange one viral RNA template for another during RNA replication. Because recombination is a natural aspect of picornavirus replication, we hypothesized that some features of 3Dpol may exist, in part, to facilitate RNA recombination. Furthermore, we reasoned that alanine substitution mutations that disrupt 3Dpol-RNA interactions within the polymerase elongation complex might increase and/or decrease the magnitudes of recombination. We found that an L420A mutation in 3Dpol decreased the frequency of RNA recombination, whereas alanine substitutions at other sites in 3Dpol increased the frequency of recombination. The 3Dpol Leu420 side chain interacts with a ribose in the nascent RNA product 3 nucleotides from the active site of the polymerase. Notably, the L420A mutation that reduced recombination also rendered the virus more susceptible to inhibition by ribavirin, coincident with the accumulation of ribavirin-induced G→A and C→U mutations in viral RNA. We conclude that 3Dpol Leu420 is critically important for RNA recombination and that RNA recombination contributes to ribavirin resistance. IMPORTANCE Recombination contributes to the formation of picornavirus species groups and the emergence of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs). The recombinant viruses that arise in nature are occasionally more fit than either parental strain, especially when the two partners in recombination are closely related, i.e., members of characteristic species groups, such as enterovirus species groups A to H or rhinovirus species groups A to C. Our study shows that RNA recombination requires conserved features of the viral polymerase. Furthermore, a

  15. Stochastic resetting in backtrack recovery by RNA polymerases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán, Édgar; Lisica, Ana; Sánchez-Taltavull, Daniel; Grill, Stephan W.

    2016-06-01

    Transcription is a key process in gene expression, in which RNA polymerases produce a complementary RNA copy from a DNA template. RNA polymerization is frequently interrupted by backtracking, a process in which polymerases perform a random walk along the DNA template. Recovery of polymerases from the transcriptionally inactive backtracked state is determined by a kinetic competition between one-dimensional diffusion and RNA cleavage. Here we describe backtrack recovery as a continuous-time random walk, where the time for a polymerase to recover from a backtrack of a given depth is described as a first-passage time of a random walker to reach an absorbing state. We represent RNA cleavage as a stochastic resetting process and derive exact expressions for the recovery time distributions and mean recovery times from a given initial backtrack depth for both continuous and discrete-lattice descriptions of the random walk. We show that recovery time statistics do not depend on the discreteness of the DNA lattice when the rate of one-dimensional diffusion is large compared to the rate of cleavage.

  16. Influenza virus RNA polymerase: insights into the mechanisms of viral RNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    te Velthuis, Aartjan J.W.; Fodor, Ervin

    2016-01-01

    The genome of influenza viruses consists of multiple segments of single stranded negative-sense RNA. Each of these segments is bound by the heterotrimeric viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and multiple copies of nucleoprotein, forming viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes. It is in the context of these vRNPs that the viral RNA polymerase carries out transcription of viral genes and replication of the viral RNA genome. In this Review, we discuss our current knowledge of the structure of the influenza virus RNA polymerase, how it carries out transcription and replication, and how its activities are modulated by viral and host factors. Furthermore, we discuss how advances in our understanding of polymerase function could help identifying new antiviral targets. PMID:27396566

  17. Enzymatic and nonenzymatic functions of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases within oligomeric arrays

    PubMed Central

    Spagnolo, Jeannie F.; Rossignol, Evan; Bullitt, Esther; Kirkegaard, Karla

    2010-01-01

    Few antivirals are effective against positive-strand RNA viruses, primarily because the high error rate during replication of these viruses leads to the rapid development of drug resistance. One of the favored current targets for the development of antiviral compounds is the active site of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. However, like many subcellular processes, replication of the genomes of all positive-strand RNA viruses occurs in highly oligomeric complexes on the cytosolic surfaces of the intracellular membranes of infected host cells. In this study, catalytically inactive polymerases were shown to participate productively in functional oligomer formation and catalysis, as assayed by RNA template elongation. Direct protein transduction to introduce either active or inactive polymerases into cells infected with mutant virus confirmed the structural role for polymerase molecules during infection. Therefore, we suggest that targeting the active sites of polymerase molecules is not likely to be the best antiviral strategy, as inactivated polymerases do not inhibit replication of other viruses in the same cell and can, in fact, be useful in RNA replication complexes. On the other hand, polymerases that could not participate in functional RNA replication complexes were those that contained mutations in the amino terminus, leading to altered contacts in the folded polymerase and mutations in a known polymerase–polymerase interaction in the two-dimensional protein lattice. Thus, the functional nature of multimeric arrays of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase supplies a novel target for antiviral compounds and provides a new appreciation for enzymatic catalysis on membranous surfaces within cells. PMID:20051491

  18. Micro-RNA quantification using DNA polymerase and pyrophosphate quantification.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hsiang-Ping; Hsiao, Yi-Ling; Pan, Hung-Yin; Huang, Chih-Hung; Hou, Shao-Yi

    2011-12-15

    A rapid quantification method for micro-RNA based on DNA polymerase activity and pyrophosphate quantification has been developed. The tested micro-RNA serves as the primer, unlike the DNA primer in all DNA sequencing methods, and the DNA probe serves as the template for DNA replication. After the DNA synthesis, the pyrophosphate detection and quantification indicate the existence and quantity of the tested miRNA. Five femtomoles of the synthetic RNA could be detected. In 20-100 μg RNA samples purified from SiHa cells, the measurement was done using the proposed assay in which hsa-miR-16 and hsa-miR-21 are 0.34 fmol/μg RNA and 0.71 fmol/μg RNA, respectively. This simple and inexpensive assay takes less than 5 min after total RNA purification and preparation. The quantification is not affected by the pre-miRNA which cannot serve as the primer for the DNA synthesis in this assay. This assay is general for the detection of the target RNA or DNA with a known matched DNA template probe, which could be widely used for detection of small RNA, messenger RNA, RNA viruses, and DNA. Therefore, the method could be widely used in RNA and DNA assays.

  19. Recent highlights of RNA-polymerase-II-mediated transcription.

    PubMed

    Sims, Robert J; Mandal, Subhrangsu S; Reinberg, Danny

    2004-06-01

    Considerable advances into the basis of RNA-polymerase-II-mediated transcriptional regulation have recently emerged. Biochemical, genetic and structural studies have contributed to novel insights into transcription, as well as the functional significance of covalent histone modifications. New details regarding transcription elongation through chromatin have further defined the mechanism behind this action, and identified how chromatin structure may be maintained after RNAP II traverses a nucleosome. ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes, along with histone chaperone complexes, were recently discovered to facilitate histone exchange. In addition, it has become increasingly clear that transcription by RNA polymerase II extends beyond RNA synthesis, towards a more active role in mRNA maturation, surveillance and export to the cytoplasm.

  20. Single-molecule tracking of mRNA exiting from RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Andrecka, Joanna; Lewis, Robert; Brückner, Florian; Lehmann, Elisabeth; Cramer, Patrick; Michaelis, Jens

    2008-01-08

    Single-pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer was used to track RNA exiting from RNA polymerase II (Pol II) in elongation complexes. Measuring the distance between the RNA 5' end and three known locations within the elongation complex allows us determine its position by means of triangulation. RNA leaves the polymerase active center cleft via the previously proposed exit tunnel and then disengages from the enzyme surface. When the RNA reaches lengths of 26 and 29 nt, its 5' end associates with Pol II at the base of the dock domain. Because the initiation factor TFIIB binds to the dock domain and exit tunnel, exiting RNA may prevent TFIIB reassociation during elongation. RNA further extends toward the linker connecting to the polymerase C-terminal repeat domain (CTD), which binds the 5'-capping enzyme and other RNA processing factors.

  1. Structural basis of RNA polymerase II backtracking, arrest and reactivation.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Alan C M; Cramer, Patrick

    2011-03-10

    During gene transcription, RNA polymerase (Pol) II moves forwards along DNA and synthesizes messenger RNA. However, at certain DNA sequences, Pol II moves backwards, and such backtracking can arrest transcription. Arrested Pol II is reactivated by transcription factor IIS (TFIIS), which induces RNA cleavage that is required for cell viability. Pol II arrest and reactivation are involved in transcription through nucleosomes and in promoter-proximal gene regulation. Here we present X-ray structures at 3.3 Å resolution of an arrested Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pol II complex with DNA and RNA, and of a reactivation intermediate that additionally contains TFIIS. In the arrested complex, eight nucleotides of backtracked RNA bind a conserved 'backtrack site' in the Pol II pore and funnel, trapping the active centre trigger loop and inhibiting mRNA elongation. In the reactivation intermediate, TFIIS locks the trigger loop away from backtracked RNA, displaces RNA from the backtrack site, and complements the polymerase active site with a basic and two acidic residues that may catalyse proton transfers during RNA cleavage. The active site is demarcated from the backtrack site by a 'gating tyrosine' residue that probably delimits backtracking. These results establish the structural basis of Pol II backtracking, arrest and reactivation, and provide a framework for analysing gene regulation during transcription elongation.

  2. RNA-dependent DNA-polymerase activity in human milk.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, E S; Ryan, S M; Mann, E

    1975-08-01

    A simple method is described for testing milk specimens from nursing mothers for the presence of RNA-dependent DNA-polymerase activity. Positive results were obtained in five of 137 women (3.6%) without a family history of breast cancer, and in six of 31 women (19.3%) with a family history of breast cancer.

  3. Transcription rate of RNA polymerase under rotary torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiryu, H.

    2004-04-01

    We investigated the transcription rates of RNA polymerases that were subjected to rotational drag. By combining chemical kinetics with mechanical equations, we derived formulas for the transcription rate in the case where the torque was caused by the hydrodynamic drag to DNA rotation.

  4. The Continuing SAGA of TFIID and RNA Polymerase II Transcription.

    PubMed

    Taatjes, Dylan J

    2017-10-05

    Using improved techniques, Baptista et al. (2017) and Warfield et al. (2017) revisit fundamental questions about SAGA and TFIID function in yeast. They conclude that each complex independently contributes to the expression of all genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Ribosome Holds the RNA Polymerase on Track in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Klaholz, Bruno P

    2017-09-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology comprises two fundamental mechanistic steps of gene expression (transcription and translation), which, in bacteria, are coupled. A recent study provides structural insights into a supercomplex between the RNA polymerase and the ribosome, thus highlighting the synergy between two key macromolecular machineries in the cell. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Viral RNA-directed RNA polymerases use diverse mechanisms to promote recombination between RNA molecules.

    PubMed

    Chetverin, Alexander B; Kopein, Damir S; Chetverina, Helena V; Demidenko, Alexander A; Ugarov, Victor I

    2005-03-11

    An earlier developed purified cell-free system was used to explore the potential of two RNA-directed RNA polymerases (RdRps), Qbeta phage replicase and the poliovirus 3Dpol protein, to promote RNA recombination through a primer extension mechanism. The substrates of recombination were fragments of complementary strands of a Qbeta phage-derived RNA, such that if aligned at complementary 3'-termini and extended using one another as a template, they would produce replicable molecules detectable as RNA colonies grown in a Qbeta replicase-containing agarose. The results show that while 3Dpol efficiently extends the aligned fragments to produce the expected homologous recombinant sequences, only nonhomologous recombinants are generated by Qbeta replicase at a much lower yield and through a mechanism not involving the extension of RNA primers. It follows that the mechanisms of RNA recombination by poliovirus and Qbeta RdRps are quite different. The data favor an RNA transesterification reaction catalyzed by a conformation acquired by Qbeta replicase during RNA synthesis and provide a likely explanation for the very low frequency of homologous recombination in Qbeta phage.

  7. Transcription termination by the eukaryotic RNA polymerase III

    PubMed Central

    Arimbasseri, Aneeshkumar G.; Rijal, Keshab; Maraia, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    RNA polymerase (pol) III transcribes a multitude of tRNA and 5S rRNA genes as well as other small RNA genes distributed through the genome. By being sequence-specific, precise and efficient, transcription termination by pol III not only defines the 3′ end of the nascent RNA which directs subsequent association with the stabilizing La protein, it also prevents transcription into downstream DNA and promotes efficient recycling. Each of the RNA polymerases appears to have evolved unique mechanisms to initiate the process of termination in response to different types of termination signals. However, in eukaryotes much less is known about the final stage of termination, destabilization of the elongation complex with release of the RNA and DNA from the polymerase active center. By comparison to pols I & II, pol III exhibits the most direct coupling of the initial and final stages of termination, both of which occur at a short oligo(dT) tract on the non-template strand (dA on the template) of the DNA. While pol III termination is autonomous involving the core subunits C2 and probably C1, it also involves subunits C11, C37 and C53, which act on the pol III catalytic center and exhibit homology to the pol II elongation factor TFIIS, and TFIIFα/β respectively. Here we compile knowledge of pol III termination and associate mutations that affect this process with structural elements of the polymerase that illustrate the importance of C53/37 both at its docking site on the pol III lobe and in the active center. The models suggest that some of these features may apply to the other eukaryotic pols. PMID:23099421

  8. RNA cleavage and chain elongation by Escherichia coli DNA-dependent RNA polymerase in a binary enzyme.RNA complex.

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, C R; Solow-Cordero, D E; Chamberlin, M J

    1994-01-01

    In the absence of DNA, Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.6) can bind RNA to form an equimolar binary complex with the concomitant release of the sigma factor. We show now that E. coli RNA polymerase binds at a region near the 3' terminus of the RNA and that an RNA in such RNA.RNA polymerase complexes undergoes reactions previously thought to be unique to nascent RNA in ternary complexes with DNA. These include GreA/GreB-dependent cleavage of the RNA and elongation by 3'-terminal addition of NMP from NTP. Both of these reactions are inhibited by rifampicin. Hence, by several criteria, the RNA in binary complexes is bound to the polymerase in a manner quite similar to that in ternary complexes. These findings can be explained by a model for the RNA polymerase ternary complex in which the RNA is bound at the 3' terminus through two protein binding sites located up to 10 nt apart. In this model, the stability of RNA binding to the polymerase in the ternary complex is due primarily to its interaction with the protein. Images PMID:7513426

  9. Eucaryotic RNA polymerase conditional mutant that rapidly ceases mRNA synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Nonet, M; Scafe, C; Sexton, J; Young, R

    1987-01-01

    We have isolated a yeast conditional mutant which rapidly ceases synthesis of mRNA when subjected to the nonpermissive temperature. This mutant (rpb1-1) was constructed by replacing the wild-type chromosomal copy of the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II with one mutagenized in vitro. The rapid cessation of mRNA synthesis in vivo and the lack of RNA polymerase II activity in crude extracts indicate that the mutant possesses a functionally defective, rather than an assembly-defective, RNA polymerase II. The shutdown in mRNA synthesis in the rpb1-1 mutant has pleiotropic effects on the synthesis of other RNAs and on the heat shock response. This mutant provides direct evidence that the RPB1 protein has a functional role in mRNA synthesis. Images PMID:3299050

  10. Influenza virion RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: stimulation by guanosine and related compounds.

    PubMed Central

    McGeoch, D; Kitron, N

    1975-01-01

    The activity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of several influenza viruses is stimulated by guanosine. Depending upon the virus strain used, the stimulation of initial reaction rate is up to 10-fold. 5'-GMP, 3',5'-cyclic GMP, and 5'-GDP show lesser stimulation effects. No other nucleosides of 5'-NMPs stimulate, but the dinucleoside monophosphates GpG and GpC show large stimulations. We present evidence that the stimulation represents preferential initiation of genome complementary RNA chains with guanosine: (i) [3-H] guanosine is incorporated specifically at the 5'terminus of RNA in polymerase reaction mixes in vitro. (ii) This incorporation reaction has several properties similar to those of the virion polymerase elongation reaction. (iii) RNA made in the stimulated reaction behaves as complementary RNA in annealing kinetic studies, as does RNA labeled with [3-H]guanosine. PMID:163915

  11. Single molecule studies of RNA polymerase II transcription in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Abigail E; Goodrich, James A; Kugel, Jennifer F

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic mRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) is the first step in gene expression and a key determinant of cellular regulation. Elucidating the mechanism by which RNAP II synthesizes RNA is therefore vital to determining how genes are controlled under diverse biological conditions. Significant advances in understanding RNAP II transcription have been achieved using classical biochemical and structural techniques; however, aspects of the transcription mechanism cannot be assessed using these approaches. The application of single-molecule techniques to study RNAP II transcription has provided new insight only obtainable by studying molecules in this complex system one at a time. PMID:25764112

  12. Single molecule studies of RNA polymerase II transcription in vitro.

    PubMed

    Horn, Abigail E; Goodrich, James A; Kugel, Jennifer F

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic mRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) is the first step in gene expression and a key determinant of cellular regulation. Elucidating the mechanism by which RNAP II synthesizes RNA is therefore vital to determining how genes are controlled under diverse biological conditions. Significant advances in understanding RNAP II transcription have been achieved using classical biochemical and structural techniques; however, aspects of the transcription mechanism cannot be assessed using these approaches. The application of single-molecule techniques to study RNAP II transcription has provided new insight only obtainable by studying molecules in this complex system one at a time.

  13. A movie of the RNA polymerase nucleotide addition cycle.

    PubMed

    Brueckner, Florian; Ortiz, Julio; Cramer, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    During gene transcription, RNA polymerase (Pol) passes through repetitive cycles of adding a nucleotide to the growing mRNA chain. Here we obtained a movie of the nucleotide addition cycle by combining structural information on different functional states of the Pol II elongation complex (EC). The movie illustrates the two-step loading of the nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) substrate, closure of the active site for catalytic nucleotide incorporation, and the presumed two-step translocation of DNA and RNA, which is accompanied by coordinated conformational changes in the polymerase bridge helix and trigger loop. The movie facilitates teaching and a mechanistic analysis of transcription and can be downloaded from http://www.lmb.uni-muenchen.de/cramer/pr-materials.

  14. Fast transcription rates of RNA polymerase II in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Maiuri, Paolo; Knezevich, Anna; De Marco, Alex; Mazza, Davide; Kula, Anna; McNally, Jim G; Marcello, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Averaged estimates of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) elongation rates in mammalian cells have been shown to range between 1.3 and 4.3 kb min−1. In this work, nascent RNAs from an integrated human immunodeficiency virus type 1-derived vector were detectable at the single living cell level by fluorescent RNA tagging. At steady state, a constant number of RNAs was measured corresponding to a minimal density of polymerases with negligible fluctuations over time. Recovery of fluorescence after photobleaching was complete within seconds, indicating a high rate of RNA biogenesis. The calculated transcription rate above 50 kb min−1 points towards a wide dynamic range of RNAPII velocities in living cells. PMID:22015688

  15. Interactions between the human RNA polymerase II subunits.

    PubMed

    Acker, J; de Graaff, M; Cheynel, I; Khazak, V; Kedinger, C; Vigneron, M

    1997-07-04

    As an initial approach to characterizing the molecular structure of the human RNA polymerase II (hRPB), we systematically investigated the protein-protein contacts that the subunits of this enzyme may establish with each other. To this end, we applied a glutathione S-transferase-pulldown assay to extracts from Sf9 insect cells, which were coinfected with all possible combinations of recombinant baculoviruses expressing hRPB subunits, either as untagged polypeptides or as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins. This is the first comprehensive study of interactions between eukaryotic RNA polymerase subunits; among the 116 combinations of hRPB subunits tested, 56 showed significant to strong interactions, whereas 60 were negative. Within the intricate network of interactions, subunits hRPB3 and hRPB5 play a central role in polymerase organization. These subunits, which are able to homodimerize and to interact, may constitute the nucleation center for polymerase assembly, by providing a large interface to most of the other subunits.

  16. FACT facilitates chromatin transcription by RNA polymerases I and III

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Joanna L; Tan, Bertrand C-M; Panov, Kostya I; Panova, Tatiana B; Andersen, Jens S; Owen-Hughes, Tom A; Russell, Jackie; Lee, Sheng-Chung; Zomerdijk, Joost C B M

    2009-01-01

    Efficient transcription elongation from a chromatin template requires RNA polymerases (Pols) to negotiate nucleosomes. Our biochemical analyses demonstrate that RNA Pol I can transcribe through nucleosome templates and that this requires structural rearrangement of the nucleosomal core particle. The subunits of the histone chaperone FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription), SSRP1 and Spt16, co-purify and co-immunoprecipitate with mammalian Pol I complexes. In cells, SSRP1 is detectable at the rRNA gene repeats. Crucially, siRNA-mediated repression of FACT subunit expression in cells results in a significant reduction in 47S pre-rRNA levels, whereas synthesis of the first 40 nt of the rRNA is not affected, implying that FACT is important for Pol I transcription elongation through chromatin. FACT also associates with RNA Pol III complexes, is present at the chromatin of genes transcribed by Pol III and facilitates their transcription in cells. Our findings indicate that, beyond the established role in Pol II transcription, FACT has physiological functions in chromatin transcription by all three nuclear RNA Pols. Our data also imply that local chromatin dynamics influence transcription of the active rRNA genes by Pol I and of Pol III-transcribed genes. PMID:19214185

  17. Structural Basis of Transcription Initiation by Bacterial RNA Polymerase Holoenzyme*

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Ritwika S.; Warner, Brittany A.; Molodtsov, Vadim; Pupov, Danil; Esyunina, Daria; Fernández-Tornero, Carlos; Kulbachinskiy, Andrey; Murakami, Katsuhiko S.

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme containing σ factor initiates transcription at specific promoter sites by de novo RNA priming, the first step of RNA synthesis where RNAP accepts two initiating ribonucleoside triphosphates (iNTPs) and performs the first phosphodiester bond formation. We present the structure of de novo transcription initiation complex that reveals unique contacts of the iNTPs bound at the transcription start site with the template DNA and also with RNAP and demonstrate the importance of these contacts for transcription initiation. To get further insight into the mechanism of RNA priming, we determined the structure of initially transcribing complex of RNAP holoenzyme with 6-mer RNA, obtained by in crystallo transcription approach. The structure highlights RNAP-RNA contacts that stabilize the short RNA transcript in the active site and demonstrates that the RNA 5′-end displaces σ region 3.2 from its position near the active site, which likely plays a key role in σ ejection during the initiation-to-elongation transition. Given the structural conservation of the RNAP active site, the mechanism of de novo RNA priming appears to be conserved in all cellular RNAPs. PMID:24973216

  18. Structural basis of transcription initiation by bacterial RNA polymerase holoenzyme.

    PubMed

    Basu, Ritwika S; Warner, Brittany A; Molodtsov, Vadim; Pupov, Danil; Esyunina, Daria; Fernández-Tornero, Carlos; Kulbachinskiy, Andrey; Murakami, Katsuhiko S

    2014-08-29

    The bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme containing σ factor initiates transcription at specific promoter sites by de novo RNA priming, the first step of RNA synthesis where RNAP accepts two initiating ribonucleoside triphosphates (iNTPs) and performs the first phosphodiester bond formation. We present the structure of de novo transcription initiation complex that reveals unique contacts of the iNTPs bound at the transcription start site with the template DNA and also with RNAP and demonstrate the importance of these contacts for transcription initiation. To get further insight into the mechanism of RNA priming, we determined the structure of initially transcribing complex of RNAP holoenzyme with 6-mer RNA, obtained by in crystallo transcription approach. The structure highlights RNAP-RNA contacts that stabilize the short RNA transcript in the active site and demonstrates that the RNA 5'-end displaces σ region 3.2 from its position near the active site, which likely plays a key role in σ ejection during the initiation-to-elongation transition. Given the structural conservation of the RNAP active site, the mechanism of de novo RNA priming appears to be conserved in all cellular RNAPs. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Functional state of rat liver RNA polymerase IA and IB.

    PubMed

    Zoncheddu, A; Accomando, R; Pertica, M; Orunesu, M

    1979-01-01

    Phosphocellulose chromatography has been employed to characterize RNA polymerase I present in two different functional states in rat liver cells. The actively transcribing enzyme solubilized from nuclei appears to belong both to the IA and IB classes, whereas the non-transcribing enzyme present in the cytoplasmic fraction has been found to belong only to the IA class. Indirect and direct evidence indicates, however, that in isolated nuclei only the IB form is to be regarded as the physiological form of the enzyme, the IA form arising as a procedural artefact during the extraction process. It may, therefore, be concluded that rat liver IA and IB RNA polymerase are to be strictly regarded as the non-transcribing and transcribing form of the enzyme, respectively.

  20. A heteromeric transcription factor required for mammalian RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, S; Tanaka, Y; Kawaguchi, T; Nagaoka, T; Weissman, S M; Yasukochi, Y

    1990-01-01

    A general transcription factor, FC, essential for specific initiation of in vitro transcription by mammalian RNA polymerase II was identified and a procedure developed to purify it to near homogeneity from HeLa cell nuclei. Purified FC is composed of two polypeptides of apparent molecular masses 80 kDa and 30 kDa, on SDS-PAGE, and has a native size of 280 kDa estimated by gel filtration column. Both polypeptides were shown to be essential for reconstituting in vitro transcription activity. Biochemical analysis showed that the 80 kDa and 30 kDa components were present in a 1:1 molar ratio. FC was also demonstrated to interact directly or indirectly with purified RNA polymerase II. Similarities between FC and transcription factors reported by others from human, rat or Drosophila cells are discussed. Images PMID:2395645

  1. Structure and function of the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (or, the virtues of simplicity).

    PubMed

    McAllister, W T

    1993-01-01

    A consideration of the properties of a number of mutants of T7 RNA polymerase, together with emerging structural information (Sousa et al., 1993) allows an interpretation of the the mechanics of transcription by this relatively simple RNA polymerase. Evidence indicating features in common with other nucleotide polymerases (such as DNA polymerases and reverse transcriptases) is reviewed.

  2. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of the influenza A virus

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, Thomas M; te Velthuis, Aartjan JW

    2014-01-01

    The influenza A virus causes a highly contagious respiratory disease that significantly impacts our economy and health. Its replication and transcription is catalyzed by the viral RNA polymerase. This enzyme is also crucial for the virus, because it is involved in the adaptation of zoonotic strains. It is thus of major interest for the development of antiviral therapies and is being intensively studied. In this article, we will discuss recent advances that have improved our knowledge of the structure of the RNA polymerase and how mutations in the polymerase help the virus to spread effectively among new hosts. PMID:25431616

  3. Transcription by RNA polymerase III: insights into mechanism and regulation

    PubMed Central

    Turowski, Tomasz W.; Tollervey, David

    2016-01-01

    The highly abundant, small stable RNAs that are synthesized by RNA polymerase III (RNAPIII) have key functional roles, particularly in the protein synthesis apparatus. Their expression is metabolically demanding, and is therefore coupled to changing demands for protein synthesis during cell growth and division. Here, we review the regulatory mechanisms that control the levels of RNAPIII transcripts and discuss their potential physiological relevance. Recent analyses have revealed differential regulation of tRNA expression at all steps on its biogenesis, with significant deregulation of mature tRNAs in cancer cells. PMID:27911719

  4. Structural basis of transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, Sarah; Bernecky, Carrie; Cramer, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Transcription of eukaryotic protein-coding genes commences with the assembly of a conserved initiation complex, which consists of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and the general transcription factors, at promoter DNA. After two decades of research, the structural basis of transcription initiation is emerging. Crystal structures of many components of the initiation complex have been resolved, and structural information on Pol II complexes with general transcription factors has recently been obtained. Although mechanistic details await elucidation, available data outline how Pol II cooperates with the general transcription factors to bind to and open promoter DNA, and how Pol II directs RNA synthesis and escapes from the promoter.

  5. Fitness-compensatory mutations in rifampicin-resistant RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Brandis, Gerrit; Wrande, Marie; Liljas, Lars; Hughes, Diarmaid

    2012-07-01

    Mutations in rpoB (RNA polymerase β-subunit) can cause high-level resistance to rifampicin, an important first-line drug against tuberculosis. Most rifampicin-resistant (Rif(R)) mutants selected in vitro have reduced fitness, and resistant clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis frequently carry multiple mutations in RNA polymerase genes. This supports a role for compensatory evolution in global epidemics of drug-resistant tuberculosis but the significance of secondary mutations outside rpoB has not been demonstrated or quantified. Using Salmonella as a model organism, and a previously characterized Rif(R) mutation (rpoB R529C) as a starting point, independent lineages were evolved with selection for improved growth in the presence and absence of rifampicin. Compensatory mutations were identified in every lineage and were distributed between rpoA, rpoB and rpoC. Resistance was maintained in all strains showing that increased fitness by compensatory mutation was more likely than reversion. Genetic reconstructions demonstrated that the secondary mutations were responsible for increasing growth rate. Many of the compensatory mutations in rpoA and rpoC individually caused small but significant reductions in susceptibility to rifampicin, and some compensatory mutations in rpoB individually caused high-level resistance. These findings show that mutations in different components of RNA polymerase are responsible for fitness compensation of a Rif(R) mutant.

  6. Nascent transcription affected by RNA polymerase IV in Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Erhard, Karl F; Talbot, Joy-El R B; Deans, Natalie C; McClish, Allison E; Hollick, Jay B

    2015-04-01

    All eukaryotes use three DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RNAPs) to create cellular RNAs from DNA templates. Plants have additional RNAPs related to Pol II, but their evolutionary role(s) remain largely unknown. Zea mays (maize) RNA polymerase D1 (RPD1), the largest subunit of RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV), is required for normal plant development, paramutation, transcriptional repression of certain transposable elements (TEs), and transcriptional regulation of specific alleles. Here, we define the nascent transcriptomes of rpd1 mutant and wild-type (WT) seedlings using global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) to identify the broader targets of RPD1-based regulation. Comparisons of WT and rpd1 mutant GRO-seq profiles indicate that Pol IV globally affects transcription at both transcriptional start sites and immediately downstream of polyadenylation addition sites. We found no evidence of divergent transcription from gene promoters as seen in mammalian GRO-seq profiles. Statistical comparisons identify genes and TEs whose transcription is affected by RPD1. Most examples of significant increases in genic antisense transcription appear to be initiated by 3'-proximal long terminal repeat retrotransposons. These results indicate that maize Pol IV specifies Pol II-based transcriptional regulation for specific regions of the maize genome including genes having developmental significance.

  7. Mechanism of histone survival during transcription by RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Kulaeva, Olga I; Studitsky, Vasily M

    2010-01-01

    This work is related to and stems from our recent NSMB paper, "Mechanism of chromatin remodeling and recovery during passage of RNA polymerase II" (December 2009). Synopsis. Recent genomic studies from many laboratories have suggested that nucleosomes are not displaced from moderately transcribed genes. Furthermore, histones H3/H4 carrying the primary epigenetic marks are not displaced or exchanged (in contrast to H2A/H2B histones) during moderate transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) in vivo. These exciting observations suggest that the large molecule of Pol II passes through chromatin structure without even transient displacement of H3/H4 histones. The most recent analysis of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-type mechanism of chromatin remodeling in vitro (described in our NSMB 2009 paper) suggests that nucleosome survival is tightly coupled with formation of a novel intermediate: a very small intranucleosomal DNA loop (Ø-loop) containing transcribing Pol II. In the submitted manuscript we critically evaluate one of the key predictions of this model: the lack of even transient displacement of histones H3/H4 during Pol II transcription in vitro. The data suggest that, indeed, histones H3/H4 are not displaced during Pol II transcription in vitro. These studies are directly connected with the observation in vivo on the lack of exchange of histones H3/H4 during Pol II transcription.

  8. Nascent Transcription Affected by RNA Polymerase IV in Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    Erhard, Karl F.; Talbot, Joy-El R. B.; Deans, Natalie C.; McClish, Allison E.; Hollick, Jay B.

    2015-01-01

    All eukaryotes use three DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RNAPs) to create cellular RNAs from DNA templates. Plants have additional RNAPs related to Pol II, but their evolutionary role(s) remain largely unknown. Zea mays (maize) RNA polymerase D1 (RPD1), the largest subunit of RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV), is required for normal plant development, paramutation, transcriptional repression of certain transposable elements (TEs), and transcriptional regulation of specific alleles. Here, we define the nascent transcriptomes of rpd1 mutant and wild-type (WT) seedlings using global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) to identify the broader targets of RPD1-based regulation. Comparisons of WT and rpd1 mutant GRO-seq profiles indicate that Pol IV globally affects transcription at both transcriptional start sites and immediately downstream of polyadenylation addition sites. We found no evidence of divergent transcription from gene promoters as seen in mammalian GRO-seq profiles. Statistical comparisons identify genes and TEs whose transcription is affected by RPD1. Most examples of significant increases in genic antisense transcription appear to be initiated by 3ʹ-proximal long terminal repeat retrotransposons. These results indicate that maize Pol IV specifies Pol II-based transcriptional regulation for specific regions of the maize genome including genes having developmental significance. PMID:25653306

  9. Favipiravir (T-705), a novel viral RNA polymerase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Yousuke; Gowen, Brian B.; Takahashi, Kazumi; Shiraki, Kimiyasu; Smee, Donald F.; Barnard, Dale L.

    2013-01-01

    Favipiravir (T-705; 6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyrazinecarboxamide) is an antiviral drug that selectively inhibits the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of influenza virus. It is phosphoribosylated by cellular enzymes to its active form, favipiravir-ribofuranosyl-5′-triphosphate (RTP). Its antiviral effect is attenuated by the addition of purine nucleic acids, indicating the viral RNA polymerase mistakenly recognizes favipiravir-RTP as a purine nucleotide. Favipiravir is active against a broad range of influenza viruses, including A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H5N1) and the recently emerged A(H7N9) avian virus. It also inhibits influenza strains resistant to current antiviral drugs, and shows a synergistic effect in combination with oseltamivir, thereby expanding influenza treatment options. A Phase III clinical evaluation of favipiravir for influenza therapy has been completed in Japan and two Phase II studies have been completed in the United States. In addition to its anti-influenza activity, favipiravir blocks the replication of many other RNA viruses, including arenaviruses (Junin, Machupo and Pichinde); phleboviruses (Rift Valley fever, sandfly fever and Punta Toro); hantaviruses (Maporal, Dobrava, and Prospect Hill); flaviviruses (yellow fever and West Nile); enteroviruses (polio- and rhinoviruses); an alphavirus, Western equine encephalitis virus; a paramyxovirus, respiratory syncytial virus; and noroviruses. With its unique mechanism of action and broad range of antiviral activity, favipiravir is a promising drug candidate for influenza and many other RNA viral diseases for which there are no approved therapies. PMID:24084488

  10. Favipiravir (T-705), a novel viral RNA polymerase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Yousuke; Gowen, Brian B; Takahashi, Kazumi; Shiraki, Kimiyasu; Smee, Donald F; Barnard, Dale L

    2013-11-01

    Favipiravir (T-705; 6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyrazinecarboxamide) is an antiviral drug that selectively inhibits the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of influenza virus. It is phosphoribosylated by cellular enzymes to its active form, favipiravir-ribofuranosyl-5'-triphosphate (RTP). Its antiviral effect is attenuated by the addition of purine nucleic acids, indicating the viral RNA polymerase mistakenly recognizes favipiravir-RTP as a purine nucleotide. Favipiravir is active against a broad range of influenza viruses, including A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H5N1) and the recently emerged A(H7N9) avian virus. It also inhibits influenza strains resistant to current antiviral drugs, and shows a synergistic effect in combination with oseltamivir, thereby expanding influenza treatment options. A Phase III clinical evaluation of favipiravir for influenza therapy has been completed in Japan and two Phase II studies have been completed in the United States. In addition to its anti-influenza activity, favipiravir blocks the replication of many other RNA viruses, including arenaviruses (Junin, Machupo and Pichinde); phleboviruses (Rift Valley fever, sandfly fever and Punta Toro); hantaviruses (Maporal, Dobrava, and Prospect Hill); flaviviruses (yellow fever and West Nile); enteroviruses (polio- and rhinoviruses); an alphavirus, Western equine encephalitis virus; a paramyxovirus, respiratory syncytial virus; and noroviruses. With its unique mechanism of action and broad range of antiviral activity, favipiravir is a promising drug candidate for influenza and many other RNA viral diseases for which there are no approved therapies.

  11. Quantifying the influence of 5'-RNA modifications on RNA polymerase I activity.

    PubMed

    Appling, Francis D; Lucius, Aaron L; Schneider, David A

    2017-09-01

    For ensemble and single-molecule analyses of transcription, the use of synthetic transcription elongation complexes has been a versatile and powerful tool. However, structural analyses demonstrate that short RNA substrates, often employed in these assays, would occupy space within the RNA polymerase. Most commercial RNA oligonucleotides do not carry a 5'-triphosphate as would be present on a natural, de novo synthesized RNA. To examine the effects of 5'-moities on transcription kinetics, we measured nucleotide addition and 3'-dinucleotide cleavage by eukaryotic RNA polymerase I using 5'-hydroxyl and 5'-triphosphate RNA substrates. We found that 5' modifications had no discernable effect on the kinetics of nucleotide addition; however, we observed clear, but modest, effects on the rate of backtracking and/or dinucleotide cleavage. These data suggest that the 5'-end may influence RNA polymerase translocation, consistent with previous prokaryotic studies, and these findings may have implications on kinetic barriers that confront RNA polymerases during the transition from initiation to elongation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Comparative overview of RNA polymerase II and III transcription cycles, with focus on RNA polymerase III termination and reinitiation.

    PubMed

    Arimbasseri, Aneeshkumar G; Rijal, Keshab; Maraia, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase (RNAP) III transcribes hundreds of genes for tRNAs and 5S rRNA, among others, which share similar promoters and stable transcription initiation complexes (TIC), which support rapid RNAP III recycling. In contrast, RNAP II transcribes a large number of genes with highly variable promoters and interacting factors, which exert fine regulatory control over TIC lability and modifications of RNAP II at different transitional points in the transcription cycle. We review data that illustrate a relatively smooth continuity of RNAP III initiation-elongation-termination and reinitiation toward its function to produce high levels of tRNAs and other RNAs that support growth and development.

  13. Structural basis for transcription elongation by bacterial RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Vassylyev, Dmitry G; Vassylyeva, Marina N; Perederina, Anna; Tahirov, Tahir H; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2007-07-12

    The RNA polymerase elongation complex (EC) is both highly stable and processive, rapidly extending RNA chains for thousands of nucleotides. Understanding the mechanisms of elongation and its regulation requires detailed information about the structural organization of the EC. Here we report the 2.5-A resolution structure of the Thermus thermophilus EC; the structure reveals the post-translocated intermediate with the DNA template in the active site available for pairing with the substrate. DNA strand separation occurs one position downstream of the active site, implying that only one substrate at a time can specifically bind to the EC. The upstream edge of the RNA/DNA hybrid stacks on the beta'-subunit 'lid' loop, whereas the first displaced RNA base is trapped within a protein pocket, suggesting a mechanism for RNA displacement. The RNA is threaded through the RNA exit channel, where it adopts a conformation mimicking that of a single strand within a double helix, providing insight into a mechanism for hairpin-dependent pausing and termination.

  14. Regulation of mammalian ribosomal gene transcription by RNA polymerase I.

    PubMed

    Grummt, I

    1999-01-01

    All cells, from prokaryotes to vertebrates, synthesize vast amounts of ribosomal RNA to produce the several million new ribosomes per generation that are required to maintain the protein synthetic capacity of the daughter cells. Ribosomal gene (rDNA) transcription is governed by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) assisted by a dedicated set of transcription factors that mediate the specificity of transcription and are the targets of the pleiotrophic pathways the cell uses to adapt rRNA synthesis to cell growth. In the past few years we have begun to understand the specific functions of individual factors involved in rDNA transcription and to elucidate on a molecular level how transcriptional regulation is achieved. This article reviews our present knowledge of the molecular mechanism of rDNA transcriptional regulation.

  15. Dynamics of bridge helix bending in RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhan-Feng; Fu, Yi-Ben; Wang, Peng-Ye; Xie, Ping

    2017-04-01

    One of critical issues for RNA polymerase is how the enzyme translocates along the DNA substrate during transcription elongation cycle. Comparisons of the structure of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) with that of bacterial enzyme have suggested that the transition of the bridge helix (BH) from straight to flipped-out conformations facilitates the translocation of upstream DNA-RNA hybrid. However, the flipped-out conformation of BH in Pol II has not been observed up to now and the detailed mechanism of how the BH facilitating upstream hybrid translocation still remains obscure. Here we use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study the transition dynamics of BH in Pol II. Two different flipped-out conformations (termed as F1 and F2) are derived from our simulation trajectories, both of which could contribute to upstream hybrid translocation. In particular, the structure of BH in F2 conformation shows nearly identical to that observed in free bacterial enzyme, showing the existence of the flipped-out conformation in Pol II. Analysis of hydrogen bonds and salt bridge formed intra BH in different conformations indicates that the flipped-out conformations are more unstable than the straight conformation. Moreover, a detailed understanding of how the transition of BH conformations facilitating upstream hybrid translocation is given. Proteins 2017; 85:614-629. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Giardia lamblia RNA polymerase II: amanitin-resistant transcription.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, Vishwas; McArthur, Andrew G; Sogin, Mitchell L; Adam, Rodney D

    2003-07-25

    Giardia lamblia is an early branching eukaryote, and although distinctly eukaryotic in its cell and molecular biology, transcription and translation in G. lamblia demonstrate important differences from these processes in higher eukaryotes. The cyclic octapeptide amanitin is a relatively selective inhibitor of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and is commonly used to study RNAP II transcription. Therefore, we measured the sensitivity of G. lamblia RNAP II transcription to alpha-amanitin and found that unlike most other eukaryotes, RNAP II transcription in Giardia is resistant to 1 mg/ml amanitin. In contrast, 50 microg/ml amanitin inhibits 85% of RNAP III transcription activity using leucyl-tRNA as a template. To better understand transcription in G. lamblia, we identified 10 of the 12 known eukaryotic rpb subunits, including all 10 subunits that are required for viability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The amanitin motif (amanitin binding site) of Rpb1 from G. lamblia has amino acid substitutions at six highly conserved sites that have been associated with amanitin resistance in other organisms. These observations of amanitin resistance of Giardia RNA polymerase II support previous proposals of the mechanism of amanitin resistance in other organisms and provide a molecular framework for the development of novel drugs with selective activity against G. lamblia.

  17. SAGA Is a General Cofactor for RNA Polymerase II Transcription.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Tiago; Grünberg, Sebastian; Minoungou, Nadège; Koster, Maria J E; Timmers, H T Marc; Hahn, Steve; Devys, Didier; Tora, László

    2017-10-05

    Prior studies suggested that SAGA and TFIID are alternative factors that promote RNA polymerase II transcription, with about 10% of genes in S. cerevisiae dependent on SAGA. We reassessed the role of SAGA by mapping its genome-wide location and role in global transcription in budding yeast. We find that SAGA maps to the UAS elements of most genes, overlapping with Mediator binding and irrespective of previous designations of SAGA- or TFIID-dominated genes. Disruption of SAGA through mutation or rapid subunit depletion reduces transcription from nearly all genes, measured by newly synthesized RNA. We also find that the acetyltransferase Gcn5 synergizes with Spt3 to promote global transcription and that Spt3 functions to stimulate TBP recruitment at all tested genes. Our data demonstrate that SAGA acts as a general cofactor required for essentially all RNA polymerase II transcription and is not consistent with the previous classification of SAGA- and TFIID-dominated genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evolution of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Stiller, John W.; Hall, Benjamin D.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years a great deal of biochemical and genetic research has focused on the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit (RPB1) of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II. This strongly conserved domain of tandemly repeated heptapeptides has been linked functionally to important steps in the initiation and processing of mRNA transcripts in both animals and fungi. Although they are absolutely required for viability in these organisms, C-terminal tandem repeats do not occur in RPB1 sequences from diverse eukaryotic taxa. Here we present phylogenetic analyses of RPB1 sequences showing that canonical CTD heptads are strongly conserved in only a subset of eukaryotic groups, all apparently descended from a single common ancestor. Moreover, eukaryotic groups in which the most complex patterns of ontogenetic development occur are descended from this CTD-containing ancestor. Consistent with the results of genetic and biochemical investigations of CTD function, these analyses suggest that the enhanced control over RNA polymerase II transcription conveyed by acquired CTD/protein interactions was an important step in the evolution of intricate patterns of gene expression that are a hallmark of large, developmentally complex eukaryotic organisms. PMID:11972039

  19. RNA polymerase and the ribosome: the close relationship.

    PubMed

    McGary, Katelyn; Nudler, Evgeny

    2013-04-01

    In bacteria transcription and translation are linked in time and space. When coupled to RNA polymerase (RNAP), the translating ribosome ensures transcriptional processivity by preventing RNAP backtracking. Recent advances in the field have characterized important linker proteins that bridge the gap between transcription and translation: In particular, the NusE(S10):NusG complex and the NusG homolog, RfaH. The direct link between the moving ribosome and RNAP provides a basis for maintaining genomic integrity while enabling efficient transcription and timely translation of various genes within the bacterial cell. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Procedure for purifying RNA polymerase II from human placenta].

    PubMed

    Kandyba, L V; Matsanova, V R; Shamovskiĭ, I V; Raĭt, V K

    1994-12-01

    DNA-dependent RNA polymerase IIB having a specific activity of 320 u./mg has been isolated from the term placenta homogenate using extraction performed at 4-6 degrees C in the presence of 75 mM ammonium sulfate and 1.5% nonidet P40, fractionation on DEAE-cellulose DE 23, desalting and heparin-agarose chromatography, resulting in 330-fold purification and a 18% yield. Technical details have been determined which are of crucial importance for reproducibility of affinity chromatography. The possibility of proteolysis of the IIc subunit during enzyme purification has been demonstrated.

  1. Hinge action versus grip in translocation by RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Nedialkov, Yuri A; Opron, Kristopher; Caudill, Hailey L; Assaf, Fadi; Anderson, Amanda J; Cukier, Robert I; Wei, Guowei; Burton, Zachary F

    2017-08-30

    Based on molecular dynamics simulations and functional studies, a conformational mechanism is posited for forward translocation by RNA polymerase (RNAP). In a simulation of a ternary elongation complex, the clamp and downstream cleft were observed to close. Hinges within the bridge helix and trigger loop supported generation of translocation force against the RNA-DNA hybrid resulting in opening of the furthest upstream i-8 RNA-DNA bp, establishing conditions for RNAP sliding. The β flap tip helix and the most N-terminal β' Zn finger engage the RNA, indicating a path of RNA threading out of the exit channel. Because the β flap tip connects to the RNAP active site through the β subunit double-Ψ-β-barrel and the associated sandwich barrel hybrid motif (also called the flap domain), the RNAP active site is coupled to the RNA exit channel and to the translocation of RNA-DNA. Using an exonuclease III assay to monitor translocation of RNAP elongation complexes, we show that K(+) and Mg(2+) and also an RNA 3'-OH or a 3'-H2 affect RNAP sliding. Because RNAP grip to template suggests a sticky translocation mechanism, and because grip is enhanced by increasing K(+) and Mg(2+)concentration, biochemical assays are consistent with a conformational change that drives forward translocation as observed in simulations. Mutational analysis of the bridge helix indicates that 778-GARKGL-783 (Escherichia coli numbering) is a homeostatic hinge that undergoes multiple bends to compensate for complex conformational dynamics during phosphodiester bond formation and translocation.

  2. Polycistronic RNA polymerase II expression vectors for RNA interference based on BIC/miR-155

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kwan-Ho; Hart, Christopher C.; Al-Bassam, Sarmad; Avery, Adam; Taylor, Jennifer; Patel, Paresh D.; Vojtek, Anne B.; Turner, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Vector-based RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a valuable tool for analysis of gene function. We have developed new RNA polymerase II expression vectors for RNAi, designated SIBR vectors, based upon the non-coding RNA BIC. BIC contains the miR-155 microRNA (miRNA) precursor, and we find that expression of a short region of the third exon of mouse BIC is sufficient to produce miR-155 in mammalian cells. The SIBR vectors use a modified miR-155 precursor stem–loop and flanking BIC sequences to express synthetic miRNAs complementary to target RNAs. Like RNA polymerase III driven short hairpin RNA vectors, the SIBR vectors efficiently reduce target mRNA and protein expression. The synthetic miRNAs can be expressed from an intron, allowing coexpression of a marker or other protein with the miRNAs. In addition, intronic expression of a synthetic miRNA from a two intron vector enhances RNAi. A SIBR vector can express two different miRNAs from a single transcript for effective inhibition of two different target mRNAs. Furthermore, at least eight tandem copies of a synthetic miRNA can be expressed in a polycistronic transcript to increase the inhibition of a target RNA. The SIBR vectors are flexible tools for a variety of RNAi applications. PMID:16614444

  3. Structural insights into transcription initiation by yeast RNA polymerase I.

    PubMed

    Sadian, Yashar; Tafur, Lucas; Kosinski, Jan; Jakobi, Arjen J; Wetzel, Rene; Buczak, Katarzyna; Hagen, Wim Jh; Beck, Martin; Sachse, Carsten; Müller, Christoph W

    2017-09-15

    In eukaryotic cells, RNA polymerase I (Pol I) synthesizes precursor ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA) that is subsequently processed into mature rRNA. To initiate transcription, Pol I requires the assembly of a multi-subunit pre-initiation complex (PIC) at the ribosomal RNA promoter. In yeast, the minimal PIC includes Pol I, the transcription factor Rrn3, and Core Factor (CF) composed of subunits Rrn6, Rrn7, and Rrn11. Here, we present the cryo-EM structure of the 18-subunit yeast Pol I PIC bound to a transcription scaffold. The cryo-EM map reveals an unexpected arrangement of the DNA and CF subunits relative to Pol I. The upstream DNA is positioned differently than in any previous structures of the Pol II PIC. Furthermore, the TFIIB-related subunit Rrn7 also occupies a different location compared to the Pol II PIC although it uses similar interfaces as TFIIB to contact DNA. Our results show that although general features of eukaryotic transcription initiation are conserved, Pol I and Pol II use them differently in their respective transcription initiation complexes. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  4. Cloning and expression of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F. William; Davanloo, Parichehre; Rosenberg, Alan H.; Moffatt, Barbara A.; Dunn, John J.

    1999-02-09

    This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the R7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties. T7 RNA polymerase is also used in a system for selective, high-level synthesis of RNAs and proteins in suitable host cells.

  5. Cloning and expression of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F. William; Davanloo, Parichehre; Rosenberg, Alan H.; Moffatt, Barbara A.; Dunn, John J.

    1990-01-01

    This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the T7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties. T7 RNA polymerase is also used in a system for selective, high-level synthesis of RNAs and proteins in suitable host cells.

  6. Cloning and expression of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F. William; Davanloo, Parichehre; Rosenberg, Alan H.; Moffatt, Barbara A.; Dunn, John J.

    1997-12-02

    This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the R7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties. T7 RNA polymerase is also used in a system for selective, high-level synthesis of RNAs and proteins in suitable host cells.

  7. Cloning and expression of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.; Davanloo, P.; Rosenberg, A.H.; Moffatt, B.A.; Dunn, J.J.

    1997-12-02

    This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the R7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties. T7 RNA polymerase is also used in a system for selective, high-level synthesis of RNAs and proteins in suitable host cells. 10 figs.

  8. Cloning and expression of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.; Davanloo, P.; Rosenberg, A.H.; Moffatt, B.A.; Dunn, J.J.

    1999-02-09

    This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the R7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties. T7 RNA polymerase is also used in a system for selective, high-level synthesis of RNAs and proteins in suitable host cells. 10 figs.

  9. RNA polymerase active center: the molecular engine of transcription.

    PubMed

    Nudler, Evgeny

    2009-01-01

    RNA polymerase (RNAP) is a complex molecular machine that governs gene expression and its regulation in all cellular organisms. To accomplish its function of accurately producing a full-length RNA copy of a gene, RNAP performs a plethora of chemical reactions and undergoes multiple conformational changes in response to cellular conditions. At the heart of this machine is the active center, the engine, which is composed of distinct fixed and moving parts that serve as the ultimate acceptor of regulatory signals and as the target of inhibitory drugs. Recent advances in the structural and biochemical characterization of RNAP explain the active center at the atomic level and enable new approaches to understanding the entire transcription mechanism, its exceptional fidelity and control.

  10. Prokaryotic histone-like protein interacting with RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Lathe, R; Buc, H; Lecocq, J P; Bautz, E K

    1980-01-01

    firA mutation of Escherichia coli can render RNA synthesis thermosensitive and confer abnormal sensitivity to rifampicin, an antibiotic that specifically inhibits the activity of RNA polymerase. We previously described the cloning of a chromosomal HindIII fragment containing the firA gene, and we now present strong evidence that the product of this gene is a 17,000-dalton polypeptide which, by various criteria, closely resembles the eukaryotic histones. This protein forms the largest of a unique set of three abundant histone-like proteins (HLP) found in E. coli and is hence referred to as HLPI. We discuss possible routes by which these proteins might affect transcription. Images PMID:6447875

  11. RNA polymerase III under control: repression and de-repression.

    PubMed

    Boguta, Magdalena; Graczyk, Damian

    2011-09-01

    The synthesis of tRNA by yeast RNA polymerase III (Pol III) is regulated in response to changing environmental conditions. This control is mediated by Maf1, the global negative regulator of Pol III transcription conserved from yeast to humans. Details regarding the molecular basis of Pol III repression by Maf1 are now emerging from recently reported structural and biochemical data on Pol III and Maf1. Efficient Pol III transcription, following the shift of cells from a non-fermentable carbon source to glucose, requires phosphorylation of Maf1. One of the newly identified Maf1 kinases is the chromatin-bound casein kinase II (CK2). Current studies have allowed us to propose an innovative mechanism of Pol III regulation. We suggest that CK2-mediated phosphorylation of Maf1, occurring directly on tDNA chromatin, controls Pol III recycling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. RNA polymerase structure and function at lac operon.

    PubMed

    Borukhov, Sergei; Lee, Jookyung

    2005-06-01

    Transcription of E. coli lac operon by RNA polymerase (RNAP) is a classic example of how the basic functions of this enzyme, specifically the ability to recognize/bind promoters, melt the DNA and initiate RNA synthesis, is positively regulated by transcription activators, such as cyclic AMP-receptor protein, CRP, and negatively regulated by lac-repressor, LacI. In this review, we discuss the recent progress in structural and biochemical studies of RNAP and its binary and ternary complexes with CRP and lac promoter. With structural information now available for RNAP and models of binary and ternary elongation complexes, the interaction between these factors and RNAP can be modeled, and possible molecular mechanisms of their action can be inferred.

  13. RNAi: Mammalian oocytes do it without RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    STEIN, PAULA; SVOBODA, PETR; ANGER, MARTIN; SCHULTZ, RICHARD M.

    2003-01-01

    Studies in mutant organisms deficient in RNA interference (RNAi) and related post-transcriptional gene silencing implicated a role for a single class of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp). Nevertheless, sequence homologs to these RdRps have not been found in coelomate organisms such as Drosophila or mammals. This lack of homologous sequences does not exclude that an RdRp functions in RNAi in these organisms because an RdRp could be acquired by horizontal transfer from an RNA virus. In fact, such a sequence is found in mice (Aquarius) and we observe that it is expressed in mouse oocytes and early embryos, which exhibit RNAi. We report here that cordycepin, an inhibitor of RNA synthesis, does not prevent Mos double-strand RNA (dsRNA) to target endogenous Mos mRNA in mouse oocytes and that targeting a chimeric Mos–EGFP mRNA with dsRNA to EGFP does not reduce the endogenous Mos mRNA, but does target the chimeric mRNA. These results indicate that an RdRp is not involved in dsRNA-mediated mRNA degradation in mammalian oocytes, and possibly in mammals in general, and therefore that only homologous sequences to the dsRNA are targeted for degradation. PMID:12554861

  14. Cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7-like bacteriophages

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.; Dubendorff, J.W.

    1998-11-03

    This invention relates to the cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7 and T7-like bacteriophages, in which the RNA polymerase gene is transcribed from a promoter which is recognized by the encoded RNA polymerase. Cloning of T7 autogenes was achieved by reducing the activity of the RNA polymerase sufficiently to permit host cell growth. T7 RNA polymerase activity was controlled by combining two independent methods: lac-repression of the recombinant lac operator-T7 promoter in the autogene and inhibition of the polymerase by T7 lysozyme. Expression systems for producing the RNA polymerases of T7 and other T7-like bacteriophages, and expression systems for producing selected gene products are described, as well as other related materials and methods. 12 figs.

  15. Cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7-like bacteriophages

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.; Dubendorff, J.W.

    1998-10-20

    This invention relates to the cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7 and T7-like bacteriophages, in which the RNA polymerase gene is transcribed from a promoter which is recognized by the encoded RNA polymerase. Cloning of T7 autogenes was achieved by reducing the activity of the RNA polymerase sufficiently to permit host cell growth. T7 RNA polymerase activity was controlled by combining two independent methods: lac-repression of the recombinant lac operator-T7 promoter in the autogene and inhibition of the polymerase by T7 lysozyme. Expression systems for producing the RNA polymerases of T7 and other T7-like bacteriophages, and expression systems for producing selected gene products are described, as well as other related materials and methods. 12 figs.

  16. Cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7-like bacteriophages

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F. William; Dubendorff, John W.

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to the cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7 and T7-like bacteriophages, in which the RNA polymerase gene is transcribed from a promoter which is recognized by the encoded RNA polymerase. Cloning of T7 autogenes was achieved by reducing the activity of the RNA polymerase sufficiently to permit host cell growth. T7 RNA polymerase activity was controlled by combining two independent methods: lac-repression of the recombinant lac operator-T7 promoter in the autogene and inhibition of the polymerase by T7 lysozyme. Expression systems for producing the RNA polymerases of T7 and other T7-like bacteriophages, and expression systems for producing selected gene products are described, as well as other related materials and methods.

  17. Coupling of RNA Polymerase II Transcription Elongation with Pre-mRNA Splicing.

    PubMed

    Saldi, Tassa; Cortazar, Michael A; Sheridan, Ryan M; Bentley, David L

    2016-06-19

    Pre-mRNA maturation frequently occurs at the same time and place as transcription by RNA polymerase II. The co-transcriptionality of mRNA processing has permitted the evolution of mechanisms that functionally couple transcription elongation with diverse events that occur on the nascent RNA. This review summarizes the current understanding of the relationship between transcriptional elongation through a chromatin template and co-transcriptional splicing including alternative splicing decisions that affect the expression of most human genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic exploration of interactive domains in RNA polymerase II subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, C; Okamura, S; Young, R

    1990-01-01

    The two large subunits of RNA polymerase II, RPB1 and RPB2, contain regions of extensive homology to the two large subunits of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. These homologous regions may represent separate protein domains with unique functions. We investigated whether suppressor genetics could provide evidence for interactions between specific segments of RPB1 and RPB2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A plasmid shuffle method was used to screen thoroughly for mutations in RPB2 that suppress a temperature-sensitive mutation, rpb1-1, which is located in region H of RPB1. All six RPB2 mutations that suppress rpb1-1 were clustered in region I of RPB2. The location of these mutations and the observation that they were allele specific for suppression of rpb1-1 suggests an interaction between region H of RPB1 and region I of RPB2. A similar experiment was done to isolate and map mutations in RPB1 that suppress a temperature-sensitive mutation, rpb2-2, which occurs in region I of RPB2. These suppressor mutations were not clustered in a particular region. Thus, fine structure suppressor genetics can provide evidence for interactions between specific segments of two proteins, but the results of this type of analysis can depend on the conditional mutation to be suppressed. Images PMID:2183012

  19. High Fidelity of Yellow Fever Virus RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Pugachev, Konstantin V.; Guirakhoo, Farshad; Ocran, Simeon W.; Mitchell, Fred; Parsons, Megan; Penal, Caroline; Girakhoo, Soheila; Pougatcheva, Svetlana O.; Arroyo, Juan; Trent, Dennis W.; Monath, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    Three consecutive plaque purifications of four chimeric yellow fever virus-dengue virus (ChimeriVax-DEN) vaccine candidates against dengue virus types 1 to 4 were performed. The genome of each candidate was sequenced by the consensus approach after plaque purification and additional passages in cell culture. Our data suggest that the nucleotide sequence error rate for SP6 RNA polymerase used in the in vitro transcription step to initiate virus replication was as high as 1.34 × 10−4 per copied nucleotide and that the error rate of the yellow fever virus RNA polymerase employed by the chimeras for genome replication in infected cells was as low as 1.9 × 10−7 to 2.3 × 10−7. Clustering of beneficial mutations that accumulated after multiple virus passages suggests that the N-terminal part of the prM protein, a specific site in the middle of the E protein, and the NS4B protein may be essential for nucleocapsid-envelope interaction during flavivirus assembly. PMID:14694136

  20. Guanosine tetraphosphate as a global regulator of bacterial RNA synthesis: a model involving RNA polymerase pausing and queuing.

    PubMed

    Bremer, H; Ehrenberg, M

    1995-05-17

    A recently reported comparison of stable RNA (rRNA, tRNA) and mRNA synthesis rates in ppGpp-synthesizing and ppGpp-deficient (delta relA delta spoT) bacteria has suggested that ppGpp inhibits transcription initiation from stable RNA promoters, as well as synthesis of (bulk) mRNA. Inhibition of stable RNA synthesis occurs mainly during slow growth of bacteria when cytoplasmic levels of ppGpp are high. In contrast, inhibition of mRNA occurs mainly during fast growth when ppGpp levels are low, and it is associated with a partial inactivation of RNA polymerase. To explain these observations it has been proposed that ppGpp causes transcriptional pausing and queuing during the synthesis of mRNA. Polymerase queuing requires high rates of transcription initiation in addition to polymerase pausing, and therefore high concentrations of free RNA polymerase. These conditions are found in fast growing bacteria. Furthermore, the RNA polymerase queues lead to a promoter blocking when RNA polymerase molecules stack up from the pause site back to the (mRNA) promoter. This occurs most frequently at pause sites close to the promoter. Blocking of mRNA promoters diverts RNA polymerase to stable RNA promoters. In this manner ppGpp could indirectly stimulate synthesis of stable RNA at high growth rates. In the present work a mathematical analysis, based on the theory of queuing, is presented and applied to the global control of transcription in bacteria. This model predicts the in vivo distribution of RNA polymerase over stable RNA and mRNA genes for both ppGpp-synthesizing and ppGpp-deficient bacteria in response to different environmental conditions. It also shows how small changes in basal ppGpp concentrations can produce large changes in the rate of stable RNA synthesis.

  1. Improved crystallization of the coxsackievirus B3 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Jabafi, Ilham; Selisko, Barbara; Coutard, Bruno; De Palma, Armando M.; Neyts, Johan; Egloff, Marie-Pierre; Grisel, Sacha; Dalle, Karen; Campanacci, Valerie; Spinelli, Silvia; Cambillau, Christian; Canard, Bruno; Gruez, Arnaud

    2007-06-01

    The first crystal of a coxsackievirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is reported. The Picornaviridae virus family contains a large number of human pathogens such as poliovirus, hepatitis A virus and rhinoviruses. Amongst the viruses belonging to the genus Enterovirus, several serotypes of coxsackievirus coexist for which neither vaccine nor therapy is available. Coxsackievirus B3 is involved in the development of acute myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy and is thought to be an important cause of sudden death in young adults. Here, the first crystal of a coxsackievirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is reported. Standard crystallization methods yielded crystals that were poorly suited to X-ray diffraction studies, with one axis being completely disordered. Crystallization was improved by testing crystallization solutions from commercial screens as additives. This approach yielded crystals that diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution and that were suitable for structure determination.

  2. Characterization of new RNA polymerase III and RNA polymerase II transcriptional promoters in the Bovine Leukemia Virus genome

    PubMed Central

    Van Driessche, Benoit; Rodari, Anthony; Delacourt, Nadège; Fauquenoy, Sylvain; Vanhulle, Caroline; Burny, Arsène; Rohr, Olivier; Van Lint, Carine

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus latency is a viral strategy used to escape from the host immune system and contribute to tumor development. However, a highly expressed BLV micro-RNA cluster has been reported, suggesting that the BLV silencing is not complete. Here, we demonstrate the in vivo recruitment of RNA polymerase III to the BLV miRNA cluster both in BLV-latently infected cell lines and in ovine BLV-infected primary cells, through a canonical type 2 RNAPIII promoter. Moreover, by RPC6-knockdown, we showed a direct functional link between RNAPIII transcription and BLV miRNAs expression. Furthermore, both the tumor- and the quiescent-related isoforms of RPC7 subunits were recruited to the miRNA cluster. We showed that the BLV miRNA cluster was enriched in positive epigenetic marks. Interestingly, we demonstrated the in vivo recruitment of RNAPII at the 3′LTR/host genomic junction, associated with positive epigenetic marks. Functionally, we showed that the BLV LTR exhibited a strong antisense promoter activity and identified cis-acting elements of an RNAPII-dependent promoter. Finally, we provided evidence for an in vivo collision between RNAPIII and RNAPII convergent transcriptions. Our results provide new insights into alternative ways used by BLV to counteract silencing of the viral 5′LTR promoter. PMID:27545598

  3. Novel layers of RNA polymerase III control affecting tRNA gene transcription in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Leśniewska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcribes a limited set of short genes in eukaryotes producing abundant small RNAs, mostly tRNA. The originally defined yeast Pol III transcriptome appears to be expanding owing to the application of new methods. Also, several factors required for assembly and nuclear import of Pol III complex have been identified recently. Models of Pol III based on cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of distinct Pol III conformations reveal unique features distinguishing Pol III from other polymerases. Novel concepts concerning Pol III functioning involve recruitment of general Pol III-specific transcription factors and distinctive mechanisms of transcription initiation, elongation and termination. Despite the short length of Pol III transcription units, mapping of transcriptionally active Pol III with nucleotide resolution has revealed strikingly uneven polymerase distribution along all genes. This may be related, at least in part, to the transcription factors bound at the internal promoter regions. Pol III uses also a specific negative regulator, Maf1, which binds to polymerase under stress conditions; however, a subset of Pol III genes is not controlled by Maf1. Among other RNA polymerases, Pol III machinery represents unique features related to a short transcript length and high transcription efficiency. PMID:28228471

  4. Novel layers of RNA polymerase III control affecting tRNA gene transcription in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Leśniewska, Ewa; Boguta, Magdalena

    2017-02-01

    RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcribes a limited set of short genes in eukaryotes producing abundant small RNAs, mostly tRNA. The originally defined yeast Pol III transcriptome appears to be expanding owing to the application of new methods. Also, several factors required for assembly and nuclear import of Pol III complex have been identified recently. Models of Pol III based on cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of distinct Pol III conformations reveal unique features distinguishing Pol III from other polymerases. Novel concepts concerning Pol III functioning involve recruitment of general Pol III-specific transcription factors and distinctive mechanisms of transcription initiation, elongation and termination. Despite the short length of Pol III transcription units, mapping of transcriptionally active Pol III with nucleotide resolution has revealed strikingly uneven polymerase distribution along all genes. This may be related, at least in part, to the transcription factors bound at the internal promoter regions. Pol III uses also a specific negative regulator, Maf1, which binds to polymerase under stress conditions; however, a subset of Pol III genes is not controlled by Maf1. Among other RNA polymerases, Pol III machinery represents unique features related to a short transcript length and high transcription efficiency.

  5. The uncoupling of catalysis and translocation in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Shu, Bo; Gong, Peng

    2017-03-01

    The nucleotide addition cycle of nucleic acid polymerases includes two major events: the pre-chemistry active site closure leading to the addition of one nucleotide to the product chain; the post-chemistry translocation step moving the polymerase active site one position downstream on its template. In viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs), structural and biochemical evidences suggest that these two events are not tightly coupled, unlike the situation observed in A-family polymerases such as the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Recently, an RdRP translocation intermediate crystal structure of enterovirus 71 shed light on how translocation may be controlled by elements within RdRP catalytic motifs, and a series of poliovirus apo RdRP crystal structures explicitly suggest that a motif B loop may assist the movement of the template strand in late stages of transcription. Implications of RdRP catalysis-translocation uncoupling and the remaining challenges to further elucidate RdRP translocation mechanism are also discussed.

  6. Efficient expression of a protein coding gene under the control of an RNA polymerase I promoter.

    PubMed

    Palmer, T D; Miller, A D; Reeder, R H; McStay, B

    1993-07-25

    In mammalian cells, RNA polymerase I transcripts are uncapped and retain a polyphosphate 5' terminus. It is probably for this reason that they are poorly translated as messenger RNA. We show in this report that insertion of an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) into the 5' leader of an RNA polymerase I transcript overcomes the block to translation, presumably by substituting for the 5' trimethyl G cap. Addition of an SV40 polyA addition signal also enhances protein production from the RNA polymerase I transcript. RNA Polymerase I driven expression vectors containing both elements produce protein at levels comparable to that produced from RNA polymerase II driven expression vectors which utilize a retroviral LTR. RNA Polymerase I driven expression vectors may have a variety of uses both for basic research and for practical expression of recombinant proteins.

  7. Comparative overview of RNA polymerase II and III transcription cycles, with focus on RNA polymerase III termination and reinitiation

    PubMed Central

    Arimbasseri, Aneeshkumar G; Rijal, Keshab; Maraia, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase (RNAP) III transcribes hundreds of genes for tRNAs and 5S rRNA, among others, which share similar promoters and stable transcription initiation complexes (TIC), which support rapid RNAP III recycling. In contrast, RNAP II transcribes a large number of genes with highly variable promoters and interacting factors, which exert fine regulatory control over TIC lability and modifications of RNAP II at different transitional points in the transcription cycle. We review data that illustrate a relatively smooth continuity of RNAP III initiation-elongation-termination and reinitiation toward its function to produce high levels of tRNAs and other RNAs that support growth and development. PMID:25764110

  8. Organization, Function, and Therapeutic Targeting of the Morbillivirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Complex

    PubMed Central

    Sourimant, Julien; Plemper, Richard K.

    2016-01-01

    The morbillivirus genus comprises major human and animal pathogens, including the highly contagious measles virus. Morbilliviruses feature single stranded negative sense RNA genomes that are wrapped by a plasma membrane-derived lipid envelope. Genomes are encapsidated by the viral nucleocapsid protein forming ribonucleoprotein complexes, and only the encapsidated RNA is transcribed and replicated by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). In this review, we discuss recent breakthroughs towards the structural and functional understanding of the morbillivirus polymerase complex. Considering the clinical burden imposed by members of the morbillivirus genus, the development of novel antiviral therapeutics is urgently needed. The viral polymerase complex presents unique structural and enzymatic properties that can serve as attractive candidates for druggable targets. We evaluate distinct strategies for therapeutic intervention and examine how high-resolution insight into the organization of the polymerase complex may pave the path towards the structure-based design and optimization of next-generation RdRp inhibitors. PMID:27626440

  9. Transcriptional bypass of regioisomeric ethylated thymidine lesions by T7 RNA polymerase and human RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    You, Changjun; Wang, Pengcheng; Dai, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yinsheng

    2014-01-01

    Alkylative damage to DNA can be induced by environmental chemicals, endogenous metabolites and some commonly prescribed chemotherapeutic agents. The regioisomeric N3-, O2- and O4-ethylthymidine (N3-, O2- and O4-EtdT, respectively) represent an important class of ethylated DNA lesions. Using nonreplicative double-stranded vectors containing an N3-EtdT, O2-EtdT or O4-EtdT at a defined site in the template strand, herein we examined the effects of these lesions on DNA transcription mediated by single-subunit T7 RNA polymerase or multisubunit human RNA polymerase II in vitro and in human cells. We found that O4-EtdT is highly mutagenic and exclusively induces the misincorporation of guanine opposite the lesion, whereas N3-EtdT and O2-EtdT display promiscuous miscoding properties during transcription. In addition, N3-EtdT and O2-EtdT were found to inhibit strongly DNA transcription in vitro and in certain human cells. Moreover, N3-EtdT, but not O2-EtdT or O4-EtdT, is an efficient substrate for transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair. These findings provide new important insights into how these alkylated DNA lesions compromise the flow of genetic information, which may help to understand the risk of these lesions in living cells. PMID:25404131

  10. Structure of a bacterial RNA polymerase holoenzyme open promoter complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Brian; Feklistov, Andrey; Lass-Napiorkowska, Agnieszka; Landick, Robert; Darst, Seth A.

    2015-09-08

    Initiation of transcription is a primary means for controlling gene expression. In bacteria, the RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme binds and unwinds promoter DNA, forming the transcription bubble of the open promoter complex (RPo). We have determined crystal structures, refined to 4.14 Å-resolution, of RPo containing Thermus aquaticus RNAP holoenzyme and promoter DNA that includes the full transcription bubble. The structures, combined with biochemical analyses, reveal key features supporting the formation and maintenance of the double-strand/single-strand DNA junction at the upstream edge of the -10 element where bubble formation initiates. The results also reveal RNAP interactions with duplex DNA just upstream of the -10 element and potential protein/DNA interactions that direct the DNA template strand into the RNAP active site. Additionally a RNA primer to yield a 4 base-pair post-translocated RNA:DNA hybrid mimics an initially transcribing complex at the point where steric clash initiates abortive initiation and σA dissociation.

  11. Structure of a bacterial RNA polymerase holoenzyme open promoter complex

    DOE PAGES

    Bae, Brian; Feklistov, Andrey; Lass-Napiorkowska, Agnieszka; ...

    2015-09-08

    Initiation of transcription is a primary means for controlling gene expression. In bacteria, the RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme binds and unwinds promoter DNA, forming the transcription bubble of the open promoter complex (RPo). We have determined crystal structures, refined to 4.14 Å-resolution, of RPo containing Thermus aquaticus RNAP holoenzyme and promoter DNA that includes the full transcription bubble. The structures, combined with biochemical analyses, reveal key features supporting the formation and maintenance of the double-strand/single-strand DNA junction at the upstream edge of the -10 element where bubble formation initiates. The results also reveal RNAP interactions with duplex DNA just upstreammore » of the -10 element and potential protein/DNA interactions that direct the DNA template strand into the RNAP active site. Additionally a RNA primer to yield a 4 base-pair post-translocated RNA:DNA hybrid mimics an initially transcribing complex at the point where steric clash initiates abortive initiation and σA dissociation.« less

  12. The RNA polymerase flow model of gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Edri, Shlomit; Gazit, Eran; Cohen, Eyal; Tuller, Tamir

    2014-02-01

    Gene expression is a fundamental cellular process by which proteins are synthesized based on the information coded in the genes. The two major steps of this process are the transcription of the DNA segment corresponding to a gene to mRNA molecules and the translation of the mRNA molecules to proteins by the ribosome. Thus, understanding, modeling and engineering the different stages of this process have both important biotechnological applications and contributions to basic life science. In previous studies we have introduced the Homogenous Ribosome Flow Model (HRFM) and demonstrated its advantages in analyses of the translation process. In this study we introduce the RNA Polymerase Flow Model (RPFM), a non trivial extension of the HRFM, which also includes a backward flow and can be used for modeling transcription and maybe other similar processes. We compare the HRFM and the RPFM in the three regimes of the transcription process: rate limiting initiation, rate limiting elongation and rate limiting termination via a simulative and analytical analysis. In addition, based on experimental data, we show that RPFM is a better choice for modeling transcription process.

  13. Millisecond dynamics of RNA polymerase II translocation at atomic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Weiss, Dahlia R.; Pardo Avila, Fátima; Da, Lin-Tai; Levitt, Michael; Wang, Dong; Huang, Xuhui

    2014-01-01

    Transcription is a central step in gene expression, in which the DNA template is processively read by RNA polymerase II (Pol II), synthesizing a complementary messenger RNA transcript. At each cycle, Pol II moves exactly one register along the DNA, a process known as translocation. Although X-ray crystal structures have greatly enhanced our understanding of the transcription process, the underlying molecular mechanisms of translocation remain unclear. Here we use sophisticated simulation techniques to observe Pol II translocation on a millisecond timescale and at atomistic resolution. We observe multiple cycles of forward and backward translocation and identify two previously unidentified intermediate states. We show that the bridge helix (BH) plays a key role accelerating the translocation of both the RNA:DNA hybrid and transition nucleotide by directly interacting with them. The conserved BH residues, Thr831 and Tyr836, mediate these interactions. To date, this study delivers the most detailed picture of the mechanism of Pol II translocation at atomic level. PMID:24753580

  14. Impact of template backbone heterogeneity on RNA polymerase II transcription

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Lu; Chong, Jenny; Huang, Xuhui; Wang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the sugar component (ribose or deoxyribose) and the nature of the phosphodiester linkage (3′-5′ or 2′-5′ orientation) have been a challenge for genetic information transfer from the very beginning of evolution. RNA polymerase II (pol II) governs the transcription of DNA into precursor mRNA in all eukaryotic cells. How pol II recognizes DNA template backbone (phosphodiester linkage and sugar) and whether it tolerates the backbone heterogeneity remain elusive. Such knowledge is not only important for elucidating the chemical basis of transcriptional fidelity but also provides new insights into molecular evolution. In this study, we systematically and quantitatively investigated pol II transcriptional behaviors through different template backbone variants. We revealed that pol II can well tolerate and bypass sugar heterogeneity sites at the template but stalls at phosphodiester linkage heterogeneity sites. The distinct impacts of these two backbone components on pol II transcription reveal the molecular basis of template recognition during pol II transcription and provide the evolutionary insight from the RNA world to the contemporary ‘imperfect’ DNA world. In addition, our results also reveal the transcriptional consequences from ribose-containing genomic DNA. PMID:25662224

  15. Structural basis of transcription: separation of RNA from DNA by RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Westover, Kenneth D; Bushnell, David A; Kornberg, Roger D

    2004-02-13

    The structure of an RNA polymerase II-transcribing complex has been determined in the posttranslocation state, with a vacancy at the growing end of the RNA-DNA hybrid helix. At the opposite end of the hybrid helix, the RNA separates from the template DNA. This separation of nucleic acid strands is brought about by interaction with a set of proteins loops in a strand/loop network. Formation of the network must occur in the transition from abortive initiation to promoter escape.

  16. Crystal structure of Zika virus NS5 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Andre S; Lima, Gustavo M A; Oliveira, Ketllyn I Z; Torres, Naiara U; Maluf, Fernando V; Guido, Rafael V C; Oliva, Glaucius

    2017-03-27

    The current Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak became a global health threat of complex epidemiology and devastating neurological impacts, therefore requiring urgent efforts towards the development of novel efficacious and safe antiviral drugs. Due to its central role in RNA viral replication, the non-structural protein 5 (NS5) RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) is a prime target for drug discovery. Here we describe the crystal structure of the recombinant ZIKV NS5 RdRp domain at 1.9 Å resolution as a platform for structure-based drug design strategy. The overall structure is similar to other flaviviral homologues. However, the priming loop target site, which is suitable for non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor design, shows significant differences in comparison with the dengue virus structures, including a tighter pocket and a modified local charge distribution.

  17. Crystal structure of Zika virus NS5 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Andre S.; Lima, Gustavo M. A.; Oliveira, Ketllyn I. Z.; Torres, Naiara U.; Maluf, Fernando V.; Guido, Rafael V. C.; Oliva, Glaucius

    2017-01-01

    The current Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak became a global health threat of complex epidemiology and devastating neurological impacts, therefore requiring urgent efforts towards the development of novel efficacious and safe antiviral drugs. Due to its central role in RNA viral replication, the non-structural protein 5 (NS5) RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) is a prime target for drug discovery. Here we describe the crystal structure of the recombinant ZIKV NS5 RdRp domain at 1.9 Å resolution as a platform for structure-based drug design strategy. The overall structure is similar to other flaviviral homologues. However, the priming loop target site, which is suitable for non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor design, shows significant differences in comparison with the dengue virus structures, including a tighter pocket and a modified local charge distribution. PMID:28345596

  18. Defining the status of RNA polymerase at promoters.

    PubMed

    Core, Leighton J; Waterfall, Joshua J; Gilchrist, Daniel A; Fargo, David C; Kwak, Hojoong; Adelman, Karen; Lis, John T

    2012-10-25

    Recent genome-wide studies in metazoans have shown that RNA polymerase II (Pol II) accumulates to high densities on many promoters at a rate-limited step in transcription. However, the status of this Pol II remains an area of debate. Here, we compare quantitative outputs of a global run-on sequencing assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing assays and demonstrate that the majority of the Pol II on Drosophila promoters is transcriptionally engaged; very little exists in a preinitiation or arrested complex. These promoter-proximal polymerases are inhibited from further elongation by detergent-sensitive factors, and knockdown of negative elongation factor, NELF, reduces their levels. These results not only solidify the notion that pausing occurs at most promoters, but demonstrate that it is the major rate-limiting step in early transcription at these promoters. Finally, the divergent elongation complexes seen at mammalian promoters are far less prevalent in Drosophila, and this specificity in orientation correlates with directional core promoter elements, which are abundant in Drosophila.

  19. On the evolution of the single-subunit RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Cermakian, N; Ikeda, T M; Miramontes, P; Lang, B F; Gray, M W; Cedergren, R

    1997-12-01

    Many eukaryotic nuclear genomes as well as mitochondrial plasmids contain genes displaying evident sequence similarity to those encoding the single-subunit RNA polymerase (ssRNAP) of bacteriophage T7 and its relatives. We have collected and aligned these ssRNAP sequences and have constructed unrooted phylogenetic trees that demonstrate the separation of ssRNAPs into three well-defined and nonoverlapping clusters (phage-encoded, nucleus-encoded, and plasmid-encoded). Our analyses indicate that these three subfamiles of T7-like RNAPs shared a common ancestor; however, the order in which the groups diverged cannot be inferred from available data. On the basis of structural similarities and mutational data, we suggest that the ancestral ssRNAP gene may have arisen via duplication and divergence of a DNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase gene. Considering the current phylogenetic distribution of ssRNAP sequences, we further suggest that the origin of the ancestral ssRNAP gene closely paralleled in time the introduction of mitochondria into eukaryotic cells through a eubacterial endosymbiosis.

  20. How slow RNA polymerase II elongation favors alternative exon skipping.

    PubMed

    Dujardin, Gwendal; Lafaille, Celina; de la Mata, Manuel; Marasco, Luciano E; Muñoz, Manuel J; Le Jossic-Corcos, Catherine; Corcos, Laurent; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2014-05-22

    Splicing is functionally coupled to transcription, linking the rate of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation and the ability of splicing factors to recognize splice sites (ss) of various strengths. In most cases, slow Pol II elongation allows weak splice sites to be recognized, leading to higher inclusion of alternative exons. Using CFTR alternative exon 9 (E9) as a model, we show here that slowing down elongation can also cause exon skipping by promoting the recruitment of the negative factor ETR-3 onto the UG-repeat at E9 3' splice site, which displaces the constitutive splicing factor U2AF65 from the overlapping polypyrimidine tract. Weakening of E9 5' ss increases ETR-3 binding at the 3' ss and subsequent E9 skipping, whereas strengthening of the 5' ss usage has the opposite effect. This indicates that a delay in the cotranscriptional emergence of the 5' ss promotes ETR-3 recruitment and subsequent inhibition of E9 inclusion.

  1. Structural basis of transcription by bacterial and eukaryotic RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Shun-ichi; Tagami, Shunsuke; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2012-02-01

    DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) is responsible for cellular gene transcription. Although crystallographic studies on prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNAPs have elucidated the basic RNAP architectures, the structural details of many essential events during transcription initiation, elongation, and termination are still largely unknown. Recent crystallographic studies on a bacterial RNAP and yeast RNAP II have revealed different RNAP structural states from that of the normal transcribing complex, as well as the basis of transcription factor functions, advancing our understanding of transcription. These studies have highlighted unexpected similarities in many fundamental aspects of transcription mechanisms between the bacterial and eukaryotic transcription machineries. Remarkable differences also exist between the bacterial and eukaryotic transcription systems, suggesting directions for future studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. TFIIB-related Factors in RNA Polymerase I Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Bruce A.; Hahn, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerases (Pol) I, II, III and archaeal Pol use a related set of general transcription factors to recognize promoter sequences, recruit Pol to promoters and to function at key points in the transcription initiation mechanism. The TFIIB-like general transcription factors (GTFs) function during several important and conserved steps in the initiation pathway for Pol II, III, and archaeal Pol. Until recently, the mechanism of Pol I initiation seemed unique, since it appeared to lack a GTF paralogous to the TFIIB-like proteins. The surprising recent discovery of TFIIB-related Pol I general factors in yeast and humans highlights the evolutionary conservation of transcription initiation mechanisms for all eukaryotic and archaeal Pols. These findings reveal new roles for the function of the Pol I GTFs and insight into the function of TFIIB-related factors. Models for Pol I transcription initiation are reexamined in light of these recent findings. PMID:22960599

  3. Cooperation between translating ribosomes and RNA polymerase in transcription elongation.

    PubMed

    Proshkin, Sergey; Rahmouni, A Rachid; Mironov, Alexander; Nudler, Evgeny

    2010-04-23

    During transcription of protein-coding genes, bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) is closely followed by a ribosome that translates the newly synthesized transcript. Our in vivo measurements show that the overall elongation rate of transcription is tightly controlled by the rate of translation. Acceleration and deceleration of a ribosome result in corresponding changes in the speed of RNAP. Moreover, we found an inverse correlation between the number of rare codons in a gene, which delay ribosome progression, and the rate of transcription. The stimulating effect of a ribosome on RNAP is achieved by preventing its spontaneous backtracking, which enhances the pace and also facilitates readthrough of roadblocks in vivo. Such a cooperative mechanism ensures that the transcriptional yield is always adjusted to translational needs at different genes and under various growth conditions.

  4. Tagetitoxin Inhibits RNA Polymerase through Trapping of the Trigger Loop*

    PubMed Central

    Artsimovitch, Irina; Svetlov, Vladimir; Nemetski, Sondra Maureen; Epshtein, Vitaly; Cardozo, Timothy; Nudler, Evgeny

    2011-01-01

    Tagetitoxin (Tgt) inhibits multisubunit chloroplast, bacterial, and some eukaryotic RNA polymerases (RNAPs). A crystallographic structure of Tgt bound to bacterial RNAP apoenzyme shows that Tgt binds near the active site but does not explain why Tgt acts only at certain sites. To understand the Tgt mechanism, we constructed a structural model of Tgt bound to the transcription elongation complex. In this model, Tgt interacts with the β′ subunit trigger loop (TL), stabilizing it in an inactive conformation. We show that (i) substitutions of the Arg residue of TL contacted by Tgt confer resistance to inhibitor; (ii) Tgt inhibits RNAP translocation, which requires TL movements; and (iii) paused complexes and a “slow” enzyme, in which the TL likely folds into an altered conformation, are resistant to Tgt. Our studies highlight the role of TL as a target through which accessory proteins and antibiotics can alter the elongation complex dynamics. PMID:21976682

  5. Targeting mitochondrial RNA polymerase in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bralha, Fernando N.; Liyanage, Sanduni U.; Hurren, Rose; Wang, Xiaoming; Son, Meong Hi; Fung, Thomas A.; Chingcuanco, Francine B.; Tung, Aveline Y. W.; Andreazza, Ana C.; Psarianos, Pamela; Schimmer, Aaron D.; Salmena, Leonardo; Laposa, Rebecca R.

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells have high oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial mass and low respiratory chain spare reserve capacity. We reasoned that targeting the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (POLRMT), which indirectly controls oxidative phosphorylation, represents a therapeutic strategy for AML. POLRMT-knockdown OCI-AML2 cells exhibited decreased mitochondrial gene expression, decreased levels of assembled complex I, decreased levels of mitochondrially-encoded Cox-II and decreased oxidative phosphorylation. POLRMT-knockdown cells exhibited an increase in complex II of the electron transport chain, a complex comprised entirely of subunits encoded by nuclear genes, and POLRMT-knockdown cells were resistant to a complex II inhibitor theonyltrifluoroacetone. POLRMT-knockdown cells showed a prominent increase in cell death. Treatment of OCI-AML2 cells with 10-50 μM 2-C-methyladenosine (2-CM), a chain terminator of mitochondrial transcription, reduced mitochondrial gene expression and oxidative phosphorylation, and increased cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of normal human hematopoietic cells with 2-CM at concentrations of up to 100 μMdid not alter clonogenic growth, suggesting a therapeutic window. In an OCI-AML2 xenograft model, treatment with 2-CM (70 mg/kg, i.p., daily) decreased the volume and mass of tumours to half that of vehicle controls. 2-CM did not cause toxicity to major organs. Overall, our results in a preclinical model contribute to the functional validation of the utility of targeting the mitochondrial RNA polymerase as a therapeutic strategy for AML. PMID:26484416

  6. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 in potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its relationship to other plant RNA-dependent RNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lydia J. R.; Brockington, Samuel F.; Murphy, Alex M.; Pate, Adrienne E.; Gruden, Kristina; MacFarlane, Stuart A.; Palukaitis, Peter; Carr, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) catalyze synthesis of double-stranded RNAs that can serve to initiate or amplify RNA silencing. Arabidopsis thaliana has six RDR genes; RDRs 1, 2 and 6 have roles in anti-viral RNA silencing. RDR6 is constitutively expressed but RDR1 expression is elevated following plant treatment with defensive phytohormones. RDR1 also contributes to basal virus resistance. RDR1 has been studied in several species including A. thaliana, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), N. benthamiana, N. attenuata and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) but not to our knowledge in potato (S. tuberosum). StRDR1 was identified and shown to be salicylic acid-responsive. StRDR1 transcript accumulation decreased in transgenic potato plants constitutively expressing a hairpin construct and these plants were challenged with three viruses: potato virus Y, potato virus X, and tobacco mosaic virus. Suppression of StRDR1 gene expression did not increase the susceptibility of potato to these viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of RDR genes present in potato and in a range of other plant species identified a new RDR gene family, not present in potato and found only in Rosids (but apparently lost in the Rosid A. thaliana) for which we propose the name RDR7. PMID:26979928

  7. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 in potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its relationship to other plant RNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Lydia J R; Brockington, Samuel F; Murphy, Alex M; Pate, Adrienne E; Gruden, Kristina; MacFarlane, Stuart A; Palukaitis, Peter; Carr, John P

    2016-03-16

    Cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) catalyze synthesis of double-stranded RNAs that can serve to initiate or amplify RNA silencing. Arabidopsis thaliana has six RDR genes; RDRs 1, 2 and 6 have roles in anti-viral RNA silencing. RDR6 is constitutively expressed but RDR1 expression is elevated following plant treatment with defensive phytohormones. RDR1 also contributes to basal virus resistance. RDR1 has been studied in several species including A. thaliana, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), N. benthamiana, N. attenuata and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) but not to our knowledge in potato (S. tuberosum). StRDR1 was identified and shown to be salicylic acid-responsive. StRDR1 transcript accumulation decreased in transgenic potato plants constitutively expressing a hairpin construct and these plants were challenged with three viruses: potato virus Y, potato virus X, and tobacco mosaic virus. Suppression of StRDR1 gene expression did not increase the susceptibility of potato to these viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of RDR genes present in potato and in a range of other plant species identified a new RDR gene family, not present in potato and found only in Rosids (but apparently lost in the Rosid A. thaliana) for which we propose the name RDR7.

  8. The Crystal Structure of a Cardiovirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Reveals an Unusual Conformation of the Polymerase Active Site

    PubMed Central

    Vives-Adrian, Laia; Lujan, Celia; Oliva, Baldo; van der Linden, Lonneke; Selisko, Barbara; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a member of the Cardiovirus genus within the large Picornaviridae family, which includes a number of important human and animal pathogens. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) 3Dpol is a key enzyme for viral genome replication. In this study, we report the X-ray structures of two different crystal forms of the EMCV RdRp determined at 2.8- and 2.15-Å resolution. The in vitro elongation and VPg uridylylation activities of the purified enzyme have also been demonstrated. Although the overall structure of EMCV 3Dpol is shown to be similar to that of the known RdRps of other members of the Picornaviridae family, structural comparisons show a large reorganization of the active-site cavity in one of the crystal forms. The rearrangement affects mainly motif A, where the conserved residue Asp240, involved in ribonucleoside triphosphate (rNTP) selection, and its neighbor residue, Phe239, move about 10 Å from their expected positions within the ribose binding pocket toward the entrance of the rNTP tunnel. This altered conformation of motif A is stabilized by a cation-π interaction established between the aromatic ring of Phe239 and the side chain of Lys56 within the finger domain. Other contacts, involving Phe239 and different residues of motif F, are also observed. The movement of motif A is connected with important conformational changes in the finger region flanked by residues 54 to 63, harboring Lys56, and in the polymerase N terminus. The structures determined in this work provide essential information for studies on the cardiovirus RNA replication process and may have important implications for the development of new antivirals targeting the altered conformation of motif A. IMPORTANCE The Picornaviridae family is one of the largest virus families known, including many important human and animal pathogens. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) 3Dpol is a key enzyme for picornavirus genome replication and a validated

  9. Cloning and expression of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.; Davanloo, P.; Rosenberg, A.H.

    1984-03-30

    This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the T7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties.

  10. Identification of previously unrecognized common elements in eukaryotic promoters. A ribosomal RNA gene initiator element for RNA polymerase I.

    PubMed

    Radebaugh, C A; Gong, X; Bartholomew, B; Paule, M R

    1997-02-07

    A new ribosomal RNA promoter element with a functional role similar to the RNA polymerase II initiator (Inr) was identified. This sequence, which we dub the ribosomal Inr (rInr) is unusually conserved, even in normally divergent RNA polymerase I promoters. It functions in the recruitment of the fundamental, TATA-binding protein (TBP)-containing transcription factor, TIF-IB. All upstream elements of the exceptionally strong Acanthamoeba castellanii ribosomal RNA core promoter, to within 6 base pairs of the transcription initiation site (tis), can be deleted without loss of specific transcription initiation. Thus, the A. castellanii promoter can function in a manner similar to RNA polymerase II TATA-less promoters. Sequence-specific photo-cross-linking localizes a 96-kDa subunit of TIF-IB and the second largest RNA polymerase I subunit (A133) to the rInr sequence. A185 also photo-cross-links when polymerase is stalled at +7.

  11. [The multifunctional RNA polymerase L protein of non-segmented negative strand RNA viruses catalyzes unique mRNA capping].

    PubMed

    Ogino, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    Non-segmented negative strand RNA viruses belonging to the Mononegavirales order possess RNA-dependent RNA polymerase L proteins within viral particles. The L protein is a multifunctional enzyme catalyzing viral RNA synthesis and processing (i.e., mRNA capping, cap methylation, and polyadenylation). Using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) as a prototypic model virus, we have shown that the L protein catalyzes the unconventional mRNA capping reaction, which is strikingly different from the eukaryotic reaction. Furthermore, co-transcriptional pre-mRNA capping with the VSV L protein was found to be required for accurate stop?start transcription to synthesize full-length mRNAs in vitro and virus propagation in host cells. This article provides a review of historical and present studies leading to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of VSV mRNA capping.

  12. TATA elements direct bi-directional transcription by RNA polymerases II and III.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, W; Wong, J M; Bateman, E

    1996-01-01

    Eukaryotic promoter elements specify the direction and efficiency of transcription, as well as the type of RNA polymerase to be used. One such element, the TATA box, is thought to participate in determining the direction of transcription and can function within promoters for RNA polymerase II or III, depending on the sequence context. In this report the ability of four different TATA boxes to support transcription in vitro was determined. It was found that TATA elements are not directional. However, they support transcription by RNA polymerases II and III. An upstream activating sequence was found to stimulate downstream transcription by RNA polymerase II and to inhibit upstream transcription by RNA polymerases II and III. Thus a promoter necessarily consists of a TATA element and upstream sequences in order to specify the direction of transcription and the type of polymerase to be used. PMID:8604352

  13. Transcription by single molecules of RNA polymerase observed by light microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, Dorothy A.; Gelles, Jeff; Sheetz, Michael P.; Landick, Robert

    1991-08-01

    THE kinetics of transcription by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase relate directly to the regulation of transcription and to the properties of processive enzymes in general1, but analysis of RNA polymerase movement along the DNA template has so far been limited to the study of populations of enzyme molecules. The ability to view nanometre-sized particles with the light microscope2,3 suggested a method of monitoring transcription by individual RNA polymerase molecules. We describe here the behaviour of 40-nm-diameter particles of colloidal gold attached to the ends of DNA molecules being transcribed by RNA polymerase immobilized on a glass surface. The tethered gold particles are released from the surface at times after addition of nucleoside triphosphates that are consistent with the kinetics of transcription by RNA polymerase in solution. Analysis of the brownian motion of the gold particles enabled us to measure the movement along the template DNA of individual polymerase molecules.

  14. The interaction of RNA polymerase and lac repressor with the lac control region.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, A; Galas, D J

    1979-01-01

    We have examined the interactions of lac repressor and RNA polymerase with the DNA of the lac control region, using a method for direct visualization of the regions of DNA protected by proteins from DNAase attack. The repressor protects the operator essentially as reported by Gilbert and Maxam (1) with some small modifications. However, the evidence reported here concerning the binding of RNA polymerase to the DNA of the promoter mutant UV5 indicates that : 1) the RNA polymerase molecule binds asymmetrically to the promoter DNA, 2) RNA polymerase protects DNA sequences to within a few bases of the CAP binding site, suggesting direct interaction between polymerase and the CAP protein at this site, 3) RNA polymerase still binds to the promoter when repressor is bound to the operator, but fails to form the same extensive complex. Images PMID:370784

  15. Conserved functions of the trigger loop and Gre factors in RNA cleavage by bacterial RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Miropolskaya, Nataliya; Esyunina, Daria; Kulbachinskiy, Andrey

    2017-02-27

    RNA cleavage by RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the central step in co-transcriptional RNA proofreading. Bacterial RNAPs were proposed to rely on the same mobile element of the active site, the trigger loop (TL), for both nucleotide addition and RNA cleavage. RNA cleavage can also be stimulated by universal Gre factors, which should replace the TL to get access to the RNAP active site. The contributions of the TL and Gre factors to RNA cleavage reportedly vary between RNAPs from different bacterial species and, probably, different types of transcription complexes. Here, by comparing RNAPs from Escherichia coli (Eco), Deinococcus radiodurans (Dra) and Thermus aquaticus (Taq) we show that the functions of the TL and Gre factors in RNA cleavage are conserved in various species, with important variations which may be related to extremophilic adaptation. Deletions of the TL strongly impair intrinsic RNA cleavage by all three RNAPs and eliminate the inter-species differences in the reaction rates. GreA factors activate RNA cleavage by wild-type RNAPs to similar levels. The rates of GreA-dependent cleavage are lower for ΔTL RNAP variants, suggesting that the TL contributes to the Gre function. Finally, neither the TL nor GreA can efficiently activate RNA cleavage in certain types of backtracked transcription complexes suggesting that these complexes adopt a catalytically inactive conformation probably important for transcription regulation.

  16. Initiation of RNA Polymerization and Polymerase Encapsidation by a Small dsRNA Virus

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yusong R.; Toh, Yukimatsu; Poranen, Minna M.; Tao, Yizhi J.

    2016-01-01

    During the replication cycle of double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) replicates and transcribes the viral genome from within the viral capsid. How the RdRP molecules are packaged within the virion and how they function within the confines of an intact capsid are intriguing questions with answers that most likely vary across the different dsRNA virus families. In this study, we have determined a 2.4 Å resolution structure of an RdRP from the human picobirnavirus (hPBV). In addition to the conserved polymerase fold, the hPBV RdRP possesses a highly flexible 24 amino acid loop structure located near the C-terminus of the protein that is inserted into its active site. In vitro RNA polymerization assays and site-directed mutagenesis showed that: (1) the hPBV RdRP is fully active using both ssRNA and dsRNA templates; (2) the insertion loop likely functions as an assembly platform for the priming nucleotide to allow de novo initiation; (3) RNA transcription by the hPBV RdRP proceeds in a semi-conservative manner; and (4) the preference of virus-specific RNA during transcription is dictated by the lower melting temperature associated with the terminal sequences. Co-expression of the hPBV RdRP and the capsid protein (CP) indicated that, under the conditions used, the RdRP could not be incorporated into the recombinant capsids in the absence of the viral genome. Additionally, the hPBV RdRP exhibited higher affinity towards the conserved 5’-terminal sequence of the viral RNA, suggesting that the RdRP molecules may be encapsidated through their specific binding to the viral RNAs during assembly. PMID:27078841

  17. Bacterial RNA polymerase can retain σ70 throughout transcription.

    PubMed

    Harden, Timothy T; Wells, Christopher D; Friedman, Larry J; Landick, Robert; Hochschild, Ann; Kondev, Jane; Gelles, Jeff

    2016-01-19

    Production of a messenger RNA proceeds through sequential stages of transcription initiation and transcript elongation and termination. During each of these stages, RNA polymerase (RNAP) function is regulated by RNAP-associated protein factors. In bacteria, RNAP-associated σ factors are strictly required for promoter recognition and have historically been regarded as dedicated initiation factors. However, the primary σ factor in Escherichia coli, σ(70), can remain associated with RNAP during the transition from initiation to elongation, influencing events that occur after initiation. Quantitative studies on the extent of σ(70) retention have been limited to complexes halted during early elongation. Here, we used multiwavelength single-molecule fluorescence-colocalization microscopy to observe the σ(70)-RNAP complex during initiation from the λ PR' promoter and throughout the elongation of a long (>2,000-nt) transcript. Our results provide direct measurements of the fraction of actively transcribing complexes with bound σ(70) and the kinetics of σ(70) release from actively transcribing complexes. σ(70) release from mature elongation complexes was slow (0.0038 s(-1)); a substantial subpopulation of elongation complexes retained σ(70) throughout transcript elongation, and this fraction depended on the sequence of the initially transcribed region. We also show that elongation complexes containing σ(70) manifest enhanced recognition of a promoter-like pause element positioned hundreds of nucleotides downstream of the promoter. Together, the results provide a quantitative framework for understanding the postinitiation roles of σ(70) during transcription.

  18. Rat1p maintains RNA polymerase II CTD phosphorylation balance

    PubMed Central

    Jimeno-González, Silvia; Schmid, Manfred; Malagon, Francisco; Haaning, Line Lindegaard; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2014-01-01

    In S. cerevisiae, the 5′-3′ exonuclease Rat1p partakes in transcription termination. Although Rat1p-mediated RNA degradation has been suggested to play a role for this activity, the exact mechanisms by which Rat1p helps release RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) from the DNA template are poorly understood. Here we describe a function of Rat1p in regulating phosphorylation levels of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest RNAPII subunit, Rpb1p, during transcription elongation. The rat1-1 mutant exhibits highly elevated levels of CTD phosphorylation as well as RNAPII distribution and transcription termination defects. These phenotypes are all rescued by overexpression of the CTD phosphatase Fcp1p, suggesting a functional relationship between the absence of Rat1p activity, elevated CTD phosphorylation, and transcription defects. We also demonstrate that rat1-1 cells display increased RNAPII transcription kinetics, a feature that may contribute to the cellular phenotypes of the mutant. Consistently, the rat1-1 allele is synthetic lethal with the rpb1-E1103G mutation, causing increased RNAPII speed, and is suppressed by the rpb2-10 mutation, causing slowed transcription. Thus, Rat1p plays more complex roles in controlling transcription than previously thought. PMID:24501251

  19. Rpb4/7 facilitates RNA polymerase II CTD dephosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Allepuz-Fuster, Paula; Martínez-Fernández, Verónica; Garrido-Godino, Ana I.; Alonso-Aguado, Sergio; Hanes, Steven D.; Navarro, Francisco; Calvo, Olga

    2014-01-01

    The Rpb4 and Rpb7 subunits of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) participate in a variety of processes from transcription, DNA repair, mRNA export and decay, to translation regulation and stress response. However, their mechanism(s) of action remains unclear. Here, we show that the Rpb4/7 heterodimer in Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays a key role in controlling phosphorylation of the carboxy terminal domain (CTD) of the Rpb1 subunit of RNAPII. Proper phosphorylation of the CTD is critical for the synthesis and processing of RNAPII transcripts. Deletion of RPB4, and mutations that disrupt the integrity of Rpb4/7 or its recruitment to the RNAPII complex, increased phosphorylation of Ser2, Ser5, Ser7 and Thr4 within the CTD. RPB4 interacted genetically with genes encoding CTD phosphatases (SSU72, FCP1), CTD kinases (KIN28, CTK1, SRB10) and a prolyl isomerase that targets the CTD (ESS1). We show that Rpb4 is important for Ssu72 and Fcp1 phosphatases association, recruitment and/or accessibility to the CTD, and that this correlates strongly with Ser5P and Ser2P levels, respectively. Our data also suggest that Fcp1 is the Thr4P phosphatase in yeast. Based on these and other results, we suggest a model in which Rpb4/7 helps recruit and potentially stimulate the activity of CTD-modifying enzymes, a role that is central to RNAPII function. PMID:25416796

  20. Structural basis of initial RNA polymerase II transcription.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Alan C M; Sainsbury, Sarah; Cramer, Patrick

    2011-11-04

    During transcription initiation by RNA polymerase (Pol) II, a transient open promoter complex (OC) is converted to an initially transcribing complex (ITC) containing short RNAs, and to a stable elongation complex (EC). We report structures of a Pol II-DNA complex mimicking part of the OC, and of complexes representing minimal ITCs with 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7 nucleotide (nt) RNAs, with and without a non-hydrolyzable nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) in the insertion site +1. The partial OC structure reveals that Pol II positions the melted template strand opposite the active site. The ITC-mimicking structures show that two invariant lysine residues anchor the 3'-proximal phosphate of short RNAs. Short DNA-RNA hybrids adopt a tilted conformation that excludes the +1 template nt from the active site. NTP binding induces complete DNA translocation and the standard hybrid conformation. Conserved NTP contacts indicate a universal mechanism of NTP selection. The essential residue Q1078 in the closed trigger loop binds the NTP 2'-OH group, explaining how the trigger loop couples catalysis to NTP selection, suppressing dNTP binding and DNA synthesis.

  1. Coliphage HK022 Nun protein inhibits RNA polymerase translocation

    PubMed Central

    Vitiello, Christal L.; Kireeva, Maria L.; Lubkowska, Lucyna; Kashlev, Mikhail; Gottesman, Max

    2014-01-01

    The Nun protein of coliphage HK022 arrests RNA polymerase (RNAP) in vivo and in vitro at pause sites distal to phage λ N-Utilization (nut) site RNA sequences. We tested the activity of Nun on ternary elongation complexes (TECs) assembled with templates lacking the λ nut sequence. We report that Nun stabilizes both translocation states of RNAP by restricting lateral movement of TEC along the DNA register. When Nun stabilized TEC in a pretranslocated register, immediately after NMP incorporation, it prevented binding of the next NTP and stimulated pyrophosphorolysis of the nascent transcript. In contrast, stabilization of TEC by Nun in a posttranslocated register allowed NTP binding and nucleotidyl transfer but inhibited pyrophosphorolysis and the next round of forward translocation. Nun binding to and action on the TEC requires a 9-bp RNA–DNA hybrid. We observed a Nun-dependent toe print upstream to the TEC. In addition, mutations in the RNAP β′ subunit near the upstream end of the transcription bubble suppress Nun binding and arrest. These results suggest that Nun interacts with RNAP near the 5′ edge of the RNA–DNA hybrid. By stabilizing translocation states through restriction of TEC lateral mobility, Nun represents a novel class of transcription arrest factors. PMID:24853501

  2. Functional Evolution in Orthologous Cell-encoded RNA-dependent RNA Polymerases*

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xinlei; Hamid, Fursham M.; El Sahili, Abbas; Darwis, Dina Amallia; Wong, Yee Hwa; Bhushan, Shashi; Makeyev, Eugene V.; Lescar, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Many eukaryotic organisms encode more than one RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) that probably emerged as a result of gene duplication. Such RdRP paralogs often participate in distinct RNA silencing pathways and show characteristic repertoires of enzymatic activities in vitro. However, to what extent members of individual paralogous groups can undergo functional changes during speciation remains an open question. We show that orthologs of QDE-1, an RdRP component of the quelling pathway in Neurospora crassa, have rapidly diverged in evolution at the amino acid sequence level. Analyses of purified QDE-1 polymerases from N. crassa (QDE-1Ncr) and related fungi, Thielavia terrestris (QDE-1Tte) and Myceliophthora thermophila (QDE-1Mth), show that all three enzymes can synthesize RNA, but the precise modes of their action differ considerably. Unlike their QDE-1Ncr counterpart favoring processive RNA synthesis, QDE-1Tte and QDE-1Mth produce predominantly short RNA copies via primer-independent initiation. Surprisingly, a 3.19 Å resolution crystal structure of QDE-1Tte reveals a quasisymmetric dimer similar to QDE-1Ncr. Further electron microscopy analyses confirm that QDE-1Tte occurs as a dimer in solution and retains this status upon interaction with a template. We conclude that divergence of orthologous RdRPs can result in functional innovation while retaining overall protein fold and quaternary structure. PMID:26907693

  3. Global analysis of transcriptionally engaged yeast RNA polymerase III reveals extended tRNA transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Turowski, Tomasz W.; Leśniewska, Ewa; Delan-Forino, Clementine; Sayou, Camille; Boguta, Magdalena; Tollervey, David

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase III (RNAPIII) synthesizes a range of highly abundant small stable RNAs, principally pre-tRNAs. Here we report the genome-wide analysis of nascent transcripts attached to RNAPIII under permissive and restrictive growth conditions. This revealed strikingly uneven polymerase distributions across transcription units, generally with a predominant 5′ peak. This peak was higher for more heavily transcribed genes, suggesting that initiation site clearance is rate-limiting during RNAPIII transcription. Down-regulation of RNAPIII transcription under stress conditions was found to be uneven; a subset of tRNA genes showed low response to nutrient shift or loss of the major transcription regulator Maf1, suggesting potential “housekeeping” roles. Many tRNA genes were found to generate long, 3′-extended forms due to read-through of the canonical poly(U) terminators. The degree of read-through was anti-correlated with the density of U-residues in the nascent tRNA, and multiple, functional terminators can be located far downstream. The steady-state levels of 3′-extended pre-tRNA transcripts are low, apparently due to targeting by the nuclear surveillance machinery, especially the RNA binding protein Nab2, cofactors for the nuclear exosome, and the 5′-exonuclease Rat1. PMID:27206856

  4. Crystal structure of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from influenza C virus

    PubMed Central

    Hengrung, Narin; El Omari, Kamel; Martin, Itziar Serna; Vreede, Frank T.; Cusack, Stephen; Rambo, Robert P.; Vonrhein, Clemens; Bricogne, Gérard; Stuart, David I.; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Fodor, Ervin

    2016-01-01

    Negative-sense RNA viruses, such as influenza, encode large, multidomain RNA-dependent RNA polymerases that can both transcribe and replicate the viral RNA genome1. In influenza virus, the polymerase (FluPol) is composed of three polypeptides: PB1, PB2 and PA/P3. PB1 houses the polymerase active site, whereas PB2 and PA/P3 contain, respectively, cap-binding and endonuclease domains required for transcription initiation by cap-snatching2. Replication occurs through de novo initiation and involves a complementary RNA intermediate. Currently available structures of the influenza A and B virus polymerases include promoter RNA (the 5′ and 3′ termini of viral genome segments), showing FluPol in transcription pre-initiation states3,4. Here we report the structure of apo-FluPol from an influenza C virus, solved by X-ray crystallography to 3.9 Å, revealing a new ‘closed’ conformation. The apo-FluPol forms a compact particle with PB1 at its centre, capped on one face by PB2 and clamped between the two globular domains of P3. Notably, this structure is radically different from those of promoter-bound FluPols3,4. The endonuclease domain of P3 and the domains within the carboxy-terminal two-thirds of PB2 are completely rearranged. The cap-binding site is occluded by PB2, resulting in a conformation that is incompatible with transcription initiation. Thus, our structure captures FluPol in a closed, transcription pre-activation state. This reveals the conformation of newly made apo-FluPol in an infected cell, but may also apply to FluPol in the context of a non-transcribing ribonucleoprotein complex. Comparison of the apo-FluPol structure with those of promoter-bound FluPols allows us to propose a mechanism for FluPol activation. Our study demonstrates the remarkable flexibility of influenza virus RNA polymerase, and aids our understanding of the mechanisms controlling transcription and genome replication. PMID:26503046

  5. Structural basis for proteolysis-dependent activation of the poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Aaron A; Peersen, Olve B

    2004-01-01

    The active RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of poliovirus, 3Dpol, is generated by cleavage of the 3CDpro precursor protein, a protease that has no polymerase activity despite containing the entire polymerase domain. By intentionally disrupting a known and persistent crystal packing interaction, we have crystallized the poliovirus polymerase in a new space group and solved the complete structure of the protein at 2.0 Å resolution. It shows that the N-terminus of fully processed 3Dpol is buried in a surface pocket where it makes hydrogen bonds that act to position Asp238 in the active site. Asp238 is an essential residue that selects for the 2′ OH group of substrate rNTPs, as shown by a 2.35 Å structure of a 3Dpol–GTP complex. Mutational, biochemical, and structural data further demonstrate that 3Dpol activity is exquisitely sensitive to mutations at the N-terminus. This sensitivity is the result of allosteric effects where the structure around the buried N-terminus directly affects the positioning of Asp238 in the active site. PMID:15306852

  6. RNase-like domain in DNA-directed RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, T; Go, M

    1991-01-01

    DNA-directed RNA polymerase is responsible for gene expression. Despite its importance, many details of its function and higher-order structure still remain unknown. We report here a local sequence similarity between the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and bacterial RNases Ba (barnase), Bi, and St. The most remarkable similarity is that the catalytic sites of the RNases are shared with the eukaryotic RNA polymerase II subunits of Drosophila melanogaster and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several amino acids conserved among the RNases and the RNase-like domains of the RNA polymerase subunits are located in the neighborhood of the catalytic sites of barnase, whose three-dimensional structure has been resolved. This observation suggests the functional importance of the RNase-like domain of the RNA polymerase subunits and indicates that the RNase-like domain may have RNase activity. The location of the RNase-like domain relative to the region necessary for RNA polymerization is similar to the relative proximity of 5'----3' or 3'----5' exonuclease and the region of polymerase activity of DNA polymerase I. The RNase-like domain might work in proofreading, as in RNA-directed RNA polymerase of influenza virus, or it may contribute to RNA binding through an unknown function. Images PMID:1924368

  7. 6S RNA Mimics B-Form DNA to Regulate Escherichia coli RNA Polymerase.

    PubMed

    Chen, James; Wassarman, Karen M; Feng, Shili; Leon, Katherine; Feklistov, Andrey; Winkelman, Jared T; Li, Zongli; Walz, Thomas; Campbell, Elizabeth A; Darst, Seth A

    2017-10-04

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) regulate gene expression in all organisms. Bacterial 6S RNAs globally regulate transcription by binding RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme and competing with promoter DNA. Escherichia coli (Eco) 6S RNA interacts specifically with the housekeeping σ(70)-holoenzyme (Eσ(70)) and plays a key role in the transcriptional reprogramming upon shifts between exponential and stationary phase. Inhibition is relieved upon 6S RNA-templated RNA synthesis. We report here the 3.8 Å resolution structure of a complex between 6S RNA and Eσ(70) determined by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy and validation of the structure using footprinting and crosslinking approaches. Duplex RNA segments have A-form C3' endo sugar puckers but widened major groove widths, giving the RNA an overall architecture that mimics B-form promoter DNA. Our results help explain the specificity of Eco 6S RNA for Eσ(70) and show how an ncRNA can mimic B-form DNA to directly regulate transcription by the DNA-dependent RNAP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. RNA polymerase activities associated with mirex-induced adaptive liver growth

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbrough, J.D.; Grimley, J.M.

    1986-03-01

    Chromatin-bound poly(d(A-T)) dependent RNA polymerase II and I plus III activities were measured in intact and adrenalectomized mirex-dosed rats. In intact mirex-dosed rats there was a 92% decrease in hepatic chromatin-bound RNA polymerase II activity 36 hrs post mirex dose. Chromatin-bound RNA polymerase I plus II activity increased with time post mirex dose: 70% at 12 hrs; 99% at 36 hrs, and 179% at 48 hrs. Adrenalectomy (ADX) reduced chromatin-bound RNA polymerase II activity by 45%. Contrary to the intact response, there was no change in chromatin-bound polymerase II activity in ADX mirex dosed rats. There was a marked change in the composition of total chromatin-bound RNA polymerases with time following the mirex dose. By 36 hrs post mirex dose, chromatin-bound RNA polymerase I plus III was 98% of the total. The sequence of events that occur in mirex-induced adaptive liver growth include: a 70-80% increase in relative liver weight at 72 hrs; a 48 hr peak in (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into DNA; a significant reduction in chromatin-bound RNA polymerase II activity at 37 hrs; and significant increases in polymerase I plus III activity (from 24-48 hrs post mirex dose).

  9. Phosphorylation at the N-terminal finger subdomain of a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Sergio; Figueroa, Daniella; Correa, Simón; Díaz, Ariel; Aguayo, Daniel; Villanueva, Rodrigo A

    2015-10-09

    The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV), named NS5B, is phosphorylated by the cellular protein kinase C-related kinase 2 (PRK2) at two serine residues (Ser29 and Ser42) of the finger subdomain (genotype 1b). Herein, using bioinformatics, we selected four potential phosphorylation residues (Ser46, Ser76, Ser96 and Ser112) of NS5B (genotype 2a) for study. Whereas the NS5B Ser46D and Ser76D substitutions seemed to improve polymerase activity, the Ser96D mutation decreased colony formation efficiency. Active WT NS5B was utilized in in vitro kinase assays, and phosphopeptides were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Interestingly, the data indicated that both the NS5B Ser29 and Ser76 residues resulted phosphorylated. Thus, as Ser76 is absolutely conserved across HCV genotypes, our results confirmed the relevance of these sites for both genotypes and suggested that Ser76 becomes phosphorylated by a cellular kinase different from PRK2. By molecular dynamic simulations, we show that new interactions between space-adjacent amino acid chains could be established by the presence of a di-anionic phosphate group on the analyzed serines to possibly modify RNA polymerase activity. Together, our data present novel evidence on the complex regulation at the finger subdomain of HCV NS5B via phosphorylation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases of Picornaviruses: From the Structure to Regulatory Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Orta, Cristina; Ferrero, Diego; Verdaguer, Núria

    2015-01-01

    RNA viruses typically encode their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) to ensure genome replication within the infected cells. RdRP function is critical not only for the virus life cycle but also for its adaptive potential. The combination of low fidelity of replication and the absence of proofreading and excision activities within the RdRPs result in high mutation frequencies that allow these viruses a rapid adaptation to changing environments. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about structural and functional aspects on RdRP catalytic complexes, focused mainly in the Picornaviridae family. The structural data currently available from these viruses provided high-resolution snapshots for a range of conformational states associated to RNA template-primer binding, rNTP recognition, catalysis and chain translocation. As these enzymes are major targets for the development of antiviral compounds, such structural information is essential for the design of new therapies. PMID:26258787

  11. RNA Polymerase II cluster dynamics predict mRNA output in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Ki; Jayanth, Namrata; English, Brian P; Inoue, Takuma; Andrews, J Owen; Conway, William; Grimm, Jonathan B; Spille, Jan-Hendrik; Lavis, Luke D; Lionnet, Timothée; Cisse, Ibrahim I

    2016-01-01

    Protein clustering is a hallmark of genome regulation in mammalian cells. However, the dynamic molecular processes involved make it difficult to correlate clustering with functional consequences in vivo. We developed a live-cell super-resolution approach to uncover the correlation between mRNA synthesis and the dynamics of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) clusters at a gene locus. For endogenous β-actin genes in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we observe that short-lived (~8 s) Pol II clusters correlate with basal mRNA output. During serum stimulation, a stereotyped increase in Pol II cluster lifetime correlates with a proportionate increase in the number of mRNAs synthesized. Our findings suggest that transient clustering of Pol II may constitute a pre-transcriptional regulatory event that predictably modulates nascent mRNA output. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13617.001 PMID:27138339

  12. The RNA processing exosome is linked to elongating RNA polymerase II in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Andrulis, Erik D; Werner, Janis; Nazarian, Arpi; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Lis, John T

    The RNA polymerase II elongation complex contains several factors that facilitate transcription elongation and catalyse the processing of precursor messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs). The conserved elongation factor Spt6 is recruited rapidly and robustly to sites of active transcription. Here we show that Drosophila Spt6 (dSpt6) co-purifies with the exosome, a complex of 3' to 5' exoribonucleases that is implicated in the processing of structural RNA and in the degradation of improperly processed pre-mRNA. Immunoprecipitation assays of Drosophila nuclear extracts show that the exosome also associates with the elongation factor dSpt5 and RNA polymerase II. In vivo, exosome subunits colocalize with dSpt6 at transcriptionally active loci on polytene chromosomes during normal development and are strongly recruited to heat-shock loci on gene induction. At higher resolution, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis shows that the exosome is recruited to transcriptionally active units of heat-shock genes. These data provide a physical basis for the hypothesis that exosome-mediated pre-mRNA surveillance accompanies transcription elongation.

  13. 6S RNA-dependent inhibition of RNA polymerase is released by RNA-dependent synthesis of small de novo products.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Reinhild; Neusser, Thomas; Wagner, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    6S RNA from Escherichia coli is known to bind to RNA polymerase, preventing interaction with many promoters during stationary growth. The resulting repression is released under conditions of nutritional upshift, when the growth situation improves. 6S RNA, which binds to the active site of RNA polymerase, has the particularly interesting feature to act as a template, causing the transcription of defined de novo RNAs (dnRNA) that are complementary to a specific sequence region of the 6S RNA. We analyzed the conditions of dnRNA synthesis and determined their effect on the 6S RNA-mediated inhibition of RNA polymerase in vitro and in vivo. Upon nutritional upshift the RNA polymerase/6S RNA complex induces the rapid synthesis of dnRNAs, which form stable hybrids with the 6S RNA template. The resulting structural change destabilizes the inactivated RNA polymerase complex, causing sigma subunit release. Both dnRNA and 6S RNA are rapidly degraded after complex disintegration. Experiments using the transcriptional inhibitor rifampicin demonstrate that active transcription is required for the disintegration of the RNA polymerase/6S RNA complex. Our results support the conclusion that 6S RNA not only inhibits transcription during stationary growth but also enables cells to resume rapid growth after starvation and help to escape from stationary phase.

  14. Transcriptional interference by RNA polymerase pausing and dislodgement of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Adam C; Egan, J Barry; Shearwin, Keith E

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptional interference is the in cis suppression of one transcriptional process by another. Mathematical modeling shows that promoter occlusion by elongating RNA polymerases cannot produce strong interference. Interference may instead be generated by (1) dislodgement of slow-to-assemble pre-initiation complexes and transcription factors and (2) prolonged occlusion by paused RNA polymerases.

  15. Selective in vitro transcription by purified yeast RNA polymerase II on cloned 2 micron DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Ballario, P; Buongiorno-Nardelli, M; Carnevali, F; Di Mauro, E; Pedone, F

    1981-01-01

    The in vitro transcription properties of purified yeast RNA polymerase II have been analyzed on prokaryotic plasmids (pBR322 and pBR313) and chimaeric plasmids bearing yeast 2 micron sequences (BTYP 1, BTYH 2 and BTYH 3). Conditions for selective transcription of the 2 micron DNA sequences in chimaeric plasmids have been determined. pBR322 and pBR313 are not transcribed by the purified RNA polymerase II when not bearing eukaryotic inserts. We show that the agarose gel electrophoretic analysis of ternary transcription complexes allows the localization of nascent RNA chains. The RNA produced has been visualized by electron microscopy (nascent RNA hybridization loops) and by gel electrophoretic analysis. All the observed properties are shared by RNA polymerase II purified by a conventional method (1) and by a rapid alternative procedure described herein. The peculiar properties of a partially purified form of RNA polymerase II are reported. Images PMID:7029462

  16. Antibacterial Nucleoside-Analog Inhibitor of Bacterial RNA Polymerase.

    PubMed

    Maffioli, Sonia I; Zhang, Yu; Degen, David; Carzaniga, Thomas; Del Gatto, Giancarlo; Serina, Stefania; Monciardini, Paolo; Mazzetti, Carlo; Guglierame, Paola; Candiani, Gianpaolo; Chiriac, Alina Iulia; Facchetti, Giuseppe; Kaltofen, Petra; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Dehò, Gianni; Donadio, Stefano; Ebright, Richard H

    2017-06-15

    Drug-resistant bacterial pathogens pose an urgent public-health crisis. Here, we report the discovery, from microbial-extract screening, of a nucleoside-analog inhibitor that inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) and exhibits antibacterial activity against drug-resistant bacterial pathogens: pseudouridimycin (PUM). PUM is a natural product comprising a formamidinylated, N-hydroxylated Gly-Gln dipeptide conjugated to 6'-amino-pseudouridine. PUM potently and selectively inhibits bacterial RNAP in vitro, inhibits bacterial growth in culture, and clears infection in a mouse model of Streptococcus pyogenes peritonitis. PUM inhibits RNAP through a binding site on RNAP (the NTP addition site) and mechanism (competition with UTP for occupancy of the NTP addition site) that differ from those of the RNAP inhibitor and current antibacterial drug rifampin (Rif). PUM exhibits additive antibacterial activity when co-administered with Rif, exhibits no cross-resistance with Rif, and exhibits a spontaneous resistance rate an order-of-magnitude lower than that of Rif. PUM is a highly promising lead for antibacterial therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nucleosome Positioning and NDR Structure at RNA Polymerase III Promoters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbo, Alexandra Søgaard; Lay, Fides D.; Jones, Peter A.; Liang, Gangning; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2017-02-01

    Chromatin is structurally involved in the transcriptional regulation of all genes. While the nucleosome positioning at RNA polymerase II (pol II) promoters has been extensively studied, less is known about the chromatin structure at pol III promoters in human cells. We use a high-resolution analysis to show substantial differences in chromatin structure of pol II and pol III promoters, and between subtypes of pol III genes. Notably, the nucleosome depleted region at the transcription start site of pol III genes extends past the termination sequences, resulting in nucleosome free gene bodies. The +1 nucleosome is located further downstream than at pol II genes and furthermore displays weak positioning. The variable position of the +1 location is seen not only within individual cell populations and between cell types, but also between different pol III promoter subtypes, suggesting that the +1 nucleosome may be involved in the transcriptional regulation of pol III genes. We find that expression and DNA methylation patterns correlate with distinct accessibility patterns, where DNA methylation associates with the silencing and inaccessibility at promoters. Taken together, this study provides the first high-resolution map of nucleosome positioning and occupancy at human pol III promoters at specific loci and genome wide.

  18. RNA polymerase II kinetics in polo polyadenylation signal selection

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Pedro A B; Henriques, Telmo; Freitas, Marta O; Martins, Torcato; Domingues, Rita G; Wyrzykowska, Paulina S; Coelho, Paula A; Carmo, Alexandre M; Sunkel, Claudio E; Proudfoot, Nicholas J; Moreira, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Regulated alternative polyadenylation is an important feature of gene expression, but how gene transcription rate affects this process remains to be investigated. polo is a cell-cycle gene that uses two poly(A) signals in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) to produce alternative messenger RNAs that differ in their 3′UTR length. Using a mutant Drosophila strain that has a lower transcriptional elongation rate, we show that transcription kinetics can determine alternative poly(A) site selection. The physiological consequences of incorrect polo poly(A) site choice are of vital importance; transgenic flies lacking the distal poly(A) signal cannot produce the longer transcript and die at the pupa stage due to a failure in the proliferation of the precursor cells of the abdomen, the histoblasts. This is due to the low translation efficiency of the shorter transcript produced by proximal poly(A) site usage. Our results show that correct polo poly(A) site selection functions to provide the correct levels of protein expression necessary for histoblast proliferation, and that the kinetics of RNA polymerase II have an important role in the mechanism of alternative polyadenylation. PMID:21602789

  19. Recombinant Thermus aquaticus RNA Polymerase for Structural Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Juznedelov,K.; Lamour, V.; Patikoglou, G.; Chlenov, M.; Darst, S.; Severinov, K.

    2006-01-01

    Advances in the structural biology of bacterial transcription have come from studies of RNA polymerases (RNAPs) from the thermophilic eubacteria Thermus aquaticus (Taq) and Thermus thermophilus (Tth). These structural studies have been limited by the fact that only endogenous Taq or Tth RNAP, laboriously purified from large quantities of Taq or Tth cell paste and offering few options for genetic modification, is suitable for structural studies. Recombinant systems for the preparation of Taq RNAP by co-overexpression and assembly in the heterologous host, Escherichia coli, have been described, but these did not yield enzyme suitable for crystallographic studies. Here we describe recombinant systems for the preparation of Taq RNAP harboring full or partial deletions of the Taq {beta}' non-conserved domain (NCD), yielding enzyme suitable for crystallographic studies. This opens the way for structural studies of genetically manipulated enzymes, allowing the preparation of more crystallizable enzymes and facilitating detailed structure/function analysis. Characterization of the Taq{beta}'NCD deletion mutants generated in this study showed that the {beta}'NCD is important for the efficient binding of the s subunit, confirming previous hypotheses. Finally, preliminary structural analysis (at 4.1 Angstroms resolution) of one of the recombinant mutants revealed a previously unobserved conformation of the {beta}-flap, further defining the range of conformations accessible to this flexible structural element.

  20. Retinoblastoma protein disrupts interactions required for RNA polymerase III transcription.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, J E; Brown, T R; Allison, S J; Scott, P H; White, R J

    2000-12-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (RB) has been shown to suppress RNA polymerase (Pol) III transcription in vivo (R. J. White, D. Trouche, K. Martin, S. P. Jackson, and T. Kouzarides, Nature 382:88-90, 1996). This regulation involves interaction with TFIIIB, a multisubunit factor that is required for the expression of all Pol III templates (C. G. C. Larminie, C. A. Cairns, R. Mital, K. Martin, T. Kouzarides, S. P. Jackson, and R. J. White, EMBO J. 16:2061-2071, 1997; W.-M. Chu, Z. Wang, R. G. Roeder, and C. W. Schmid, J. Biol. Chem. 272:14755-14761, 1997). However, it has not been established why RB binding to TFIIIB results in transcriptional repression. For several Pol II-transcribed genes, RB has been shown to inhibit expression by recruiting histone deacetylases, which are thought to decrease promoter accessibility. We present evidence that histone deacetylases exert a negative effect on Pol III activity in vivo. However, RB remains able to regulate Pol III transcription in the presence of the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. Instead, RB represses by disrupting interactions between TFIIIB and other components of the basal Pol III transcription apparatus. Recruitment of TFIIIB to most class III genes requires its binding to TFIIIC2, but this can be blocked by RB. In addition, RB disrupts the interaction between TFIIIB and Pol III that is essential for transcription. The ability of RB to inhibit these key interactions can explain its action as a potent repressor of class III gene expression.

  1. Selective repression of SINE transcription by RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Dhaval; Vavrova-Anderson, Jana; Oler, Andrew J; Cairns, Bradley R; White, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    A million copies of the Alu short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) are scattered throughout the human genome, providing ∼11% of our total DNA. SINEs spread by retrotransposition, using a transcript generated by RNA polymerase (pol) III from an internal promoter. Levels of these pol III-dependent Alu transcripts are far lower than might be expected from the abundance of the template. This was believed to reflect transcriptional suppression through DNA methylation, denying pol III access to most SINEs through chromatin-mediated effects. Contrary to expectations, our recent study found no evidence that methylation of SINE DNA reduces its occupancy or expression by pol III. However, histone H3 associated with SINEs is prominently methylated on lysine 9, a mark that correlates with transcriptional silencing. The SUV39 methyltransferases that deposit this mark can be found at many SINEs. Furthermore, a selective inhibitor of SUV39 stimulates pol III recruitment to these loci, as well as SINE expression. These data suggest that methylation of histone H3 rather than DNA may mediate repression of SINE transcription by pol III, at least under the conditions we studied.

  2. Nucleosome Positioning and NDR Structure at RNA Polymerase III Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Helbo, Alexandra Søgaard; Lay, Fides D.; Jones, Peter A.; Liang, Gangning; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Chromatin is structurally involved in the transcriptional regulation of all genes. While the nucleosome positioning at RNA polymerase II (pol II) promoters has been extensively studied, less is known about the chromatin structure at pol III promoters in human cells. We use a high-resolution analysis to show substantial differences in chromatin structure of pol II and pol III promoters, and between subtypes of pol III genes. Notably, the nucleosome depleted region at the transcription start site of pol III genes extends past the termination sequences, resulting in nucleosome free gene bodies. The +1 nucleosome is located further downstream than at pol II genes and furthermore displays weak positioning. The variable position of the +1 location is seen not only within individual cell populations and between cell types, but also between different pol III promoter subtypes, suggesting that the +1 nucleosome may be involved in the transcriptional regulation of pol III genes. We find that expression and DNA methylation patterns correlate with distinct accessibility patterns, where DNA methylation associates with the silencing and inaccessibility at promoters. Taken together, this study provides the first high-resolution map of nucleosome positioning and occupancy at human pol III promoters at specific loci and genome wide. PMID:28176797

  3. RNA polymerase supply and flux through the lac operon in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sendy, Bandar; Lee, David J.; Bryant, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation, followed by quantification of immunoprecipitated DNA, can be used to measure RNA polymerase binding to any DNA segment in Escherichia coli. By calibrating measurements against the signal from a single RNA polymerase bound at a single promoter, we can calculate both promoter occupancy levels and the flux of transcribing RNA polymerase through transcription units. Here, we have applied the methodology to the E. coli lactose operon promoter. We confirm that promoter occupancy is limited by recruitment and that the supply of RNA polymerase to the lactose operon promoter depends on its location in the E. coli chromosome. Measurements of RNA polymerase binding to DNA segments within the lactose operon show that flux of RNA polymerase through the operon is low, with, on average, over 18 s elapsing between the passage of transcribing polymerases. Similar low levels of flux were found when semi-synthetic promoters were used to drive transcript initiation, even when the promoter elements were changed to ensure full occupancy of the promoter by RNA polymerase. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The new bacteriology’. PMID:27672157

  4. RNA polymerase supply and flux through the lac operon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sendy, Bandar; Lee, David J; Busby, Stephen J W; Bryant, Jack A

    2016-11-05

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation, followed by quantification of immunoprecipitated DNA, can be used to measure RNA polymerase binding to any DNA segment in Escherichia coli By calibrating measurements against the signal from a single RNA polymerase bound at a single promoter, we can calculate both promoter occupancy levels and the flux of transcribing RNA polymerase through transcription units. Here, we have applied the methodology to the E. coli lactose operon promoter. We confirm that promoter occupancy is limited by recruitment and that the supply of RNA polymerase to the lactose operon promoter depends on its location in the E. coli chromosome. Measurements of RNA polymerase binding to DNA segments within the lactose operon show that flux of RNA polymerase through the operon is low, with, on average, over 18 s elapsing between the passage of transcribing polymerases. Similar low levels of flux were found when semi-synthetic promoters were used to drive transcript initiation, even when the promoter elements were changed to ensure full occupancy of the promoter by RNA polymerase.This article is part of the themed issue 'The new bacteriology'.

  5. BC1 RNA: transcriptional analysis of a neural cell-specific RNA polymerase III transcript.

    PubMed Central

    Martignetti, J A; Brosius, J

    1995-01-01

    Rodent BC1 RNA represents the first example of a neural cell-specific RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcription product. By developing a rat brain in vitro system capable of supporting Pol III-directed transcription, we showed that the rat BC1 RNA intragenic promoter elements, comprising an A box element and a variant B box element, as well as its upstream region, containing octamer-binding consensus sequences and functional TATA and proximal sequence element sites, are necessary for transcription. The BC1 B box, lacking the invariant A residue found in the consensus B boxes of tRNAs, represents a functionally related and possibly distinct promoter element. The transcriptional activity of the BC1 B box element is greatly increased, in both a BC1 RNA and a chimeric tRNA(Leu) gene construct, when the BC1 5' flanking region is present and is appropriately spaced. Moreover, a tRNA consensus B-box sequence can efficiently replace the BC1 B box only if the BC1 upstream region is removed. These interactions, identified only in a homologous in vitro system, between upstream Pol II and intragenic Pol III promoters suggest a mechanism by which the tissue-specific BC1 RNA gene and possibly other Pol III-transcribed genes can be regulated. PMID:7862155

  6. Lineage-specific variations in the trigger loop modulate RNA proofreading by bacterial RNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Esyunina, Daria; Turtola, Matti; Pupov, Danil; Bass, Irina; Klimašauskas, Saulius; Belogurov, Georgiy; Kulbachinskiy, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    RNA cleavage by bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) has been implicated in transcriptional proofreading and reactivation of arrested transcription elongation complexes but its molecular mechanism is less understood than the mechanism of nucleotide addition, despite both reactions taking place in the same active site. RNAP from the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is characterized by highly efficient intrinsic RNA cleavage in comparison with Escherichia coli RNAP. We find that the enhanced RNA cleavage activity largely derives from amino acid substitutions in the trigger loop (TL), a mobile element of the active site involved in various RNAP activities. The differences in RNA cleavage between these RNAPs disappear when the TL is deleted, or in the presence of GreA cleavage factors, which replace the TL in the active site. We propose that the TL substitutions modulate the RNA cleavage activity by altering the TL folding and its contacts with substrate RNA and that the resulting differences in transcriptional proofreading may play a role in bacterial stress adaptation. PMID:26733581

  7. Purification of sea-urchin RNA polymerase II. Characterization by template requirements and sensitivity to inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ballario, P; Di Mauro, E; Giuliani, C; Pedone, F

    1980-04-01

    The purification of RNA polymerase II from gastrulae of Paracentrotus lividus is described. The enzyme obtained is homogeneous as judged by electrophoresis under non-denaturing conditions. It is able to transcribe both native high-Mr P. lividus DNA and Psammechinus miliaris h22 histone DNA, although single-stranded and nicked DNAs are better templates. P. lividus RNA polymerase II forms with homologous native DNA stable binary complexes that are able to initiate RNA chains after exposure to heparin. Heparin-resistant complexes do not form on nicks of DNA molecules. Sensitivity of sea-urchin RNA polymerase II to rifamycin derivatives and alpha-amanitin has been determined.

  8. Contributions of in vitro transcription to the understanding of human RNA polymerase III transcription

    PubMed Central

    Dumay-Odelot, Hélène; Durrieu-Gaillard, Stéphanie; El Ayoubi, Leyla; Parrot, Camila; Teichmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Human RNA polymerase III transcribes small untranslated RNAs that contribute to the regulation of essential cellular processes, including transcription, RNA processing and translation. Analysis of this transcription system by in vitro transcription techniques has largely contributed to the discovery of its transcription factors and to the understanding of the regulation of human RNA polymerase III transcription. Here we review some of the key steps that led to the identification of transcription factors and to the definition of minimal promoter sequences for human RNA polymerase III transcription. PMID:25764111

  9. Contributions of in vitro transcription to the understanding of human RNA polymerase III transcription.

    PubMed

    Dumay-Odelot, Hélène; Durrieu-Gaillard, Stéphanie; El Ayoubi, Leyla; Parrot, Camila; Teichmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Human RNA polymerase III transcribes small untranslated RNAs that contribute to the regulation of essential cellular processes, including transcription, RNA processing and translation. Analysis of this transcription system by in vitro transcription techniques has largely contributed to the discovery of its transcription factors and to the understanding of the regulation of human RNA polymerase III transcription. Here we review some of the key steps that led to the identification of transcription factors and to the definition of minimal promoter sequences for human RNA polymerase III transcription.

  10. Long non-coding RNA produced by RNA polymerase V determines boundaries of heterochromatin.

    PubMed

    Böhmdorfer, Gudrun; Sethuraman, Shriya; Rowley, M Jordan; Krzyszton, Michal; Rothi, M Hafiz; Bouzit, Lilia; Wierzbicki, Andrzej T

    2016-10-25

    RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing is a conserved process where small RNAs target transposons and other sequences for repression by establishing chromatin modifications. A central element of this process are long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA), which in Arabidopsis thaliana are produced by a specialized RNA polymerase known as Pol V. Here we show that non-coding transcription by Pol V is controlled by preexisting chromatin modifications located within the transcribed regions. Most Pol V transcripts are associated with AGO4 but are not sliced by AGO4. Pol V-dependent DNA methylation is established on both strands of DNA and is tightly restricted to Pol V-transcribed regions. This indicates that chromatin modifications are established in close proximity to Pol V. Finally, Pol V transcription is preferentially enriched on edges of silenced transposable elements, where Pol V transcribes into TEs. We propose that Pol V may play an important role in the determination of heterochromatin boundaries.

  11. Spontaneous cleavage of RNA in ternary complexes of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase and its significance for the mechanism of transcription.

    PubMed

    Surratt, C K; Milan, S C; Chamberlin, M J

    1991-09-15

    Ternary complexes of RNA polymerase, bearing the nascent RNA transcript, are intermediates in the synthesis of all RNAs and are regulatory targets of factors that control RNA chain elongation and termination. To study the catalytic and regulatory properties of RNA polymerases during elongation, we have developed methods for the preparation of these intermediates halted at defined positions along a DNA template. To our surprise, some of these halted complexes undergo a reaction in which the RNA transcript is cleaved up to 10 nucleotides from its 3'-terminal growing point. The 5'-terminal fragment, bearing a free 3'-OH residue, remains bound to the RNA polymerase-DNA complex and can resume elongation, whereas the 3'-terminal oligonucleotide of 2-10 nucleotides, bearing a 5'-phosphate, is released. RNA cleavage occurs only in the ternary complex and requires a divalent metal ion such as Mg2+. Since RNA polymerases are believed to have a single catalytic site for nucleotide addition, this reaction is unlikely to be due to hydrolysis catalyzed by this site comparable to the 3'----5' exonuclease activity associated with the catalytic center found for some DNA polymerases. Nor is this reaction easily explained by models for transcription elongation that postulate a 12-base-pair DNA.RNA hybrid as intermediate. Instead, we suggest that this is an unusual kind of protein-facilitated reaction in which tight binding of the RNA product to the enzyme strains the RNA phosphodiester linkage, resulting in cleavage of the RNA well away from the catalytic center. By this model, the nascent RNA enters a product binding site beginning 3 or 4 nucleotides from the growing point at the 3' terminus. This RNA binding site extends for up to 16 nucleotides along the protein surface. The stress brought about by this binding appears to vary considerably for different ternary complexes and may play a role in driving the translocation of the RNA polymerase along the DNA.

  12. RNA Polymerase Activity and Specific RNA Structure Are Required for Efficient HCV Replication in Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Date, Tomoko; Akazawa, Daisuke; Tian, Xiao; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Kato, Takanobu; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Mizokami, Masashi; Wakita, Takaji; Toyoda, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported that the NS3 helicase (N3H) and NS5B-to-3′X (N5BX) regions are important for the efficient replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) strain JFH-1 and viral production in HuH-7 cells. In the current study, we investigated the relationships between HCV genome replication, virus production, and the structure of N5BX. We found that the Q377R, A450S, S455N, R517K, and Y561F mutations in the NS5B region resulted in up-regulation of J6CF NS5B polymerase activity in vitro. However, the activation effects of these mutations on viral RNA replication and virus production with JFH-1 N3H appeared to differ. In the presence of the N3H region and 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of JFH-1, A450S, R517K, and Y561F together were sufficient to confer HCV genome replication activity and virus production ability to J6CF in cultured cells. Y561F was also involved in the kissing-loop interaction between SL3.2 in the NS5B region and SL2 in the 3′X region. We next analyzed the 3′ structure of HCV genome RNA. The shorter polyU/UC tracts of JFH-1 resulted in more efficient RNA replication than J6CF. Furthermore, 9458G in the JFH-1 variable region (VR) was responsible for RNA replication activity because of its RNA structures. In conclusion, N3H, high polymerase activity, enhanced kissing-loop interactions, and optimal viral RNA structure in the 3′UTR were required for J6CF replication in cultured cells. PMID:20442786

  13. Transcript cleavage by RNA polymerase II arrested by a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer in the DNA template.

    PubMed

    Donahue, B A; Yin, S; Taylor, J S; Reines, D; Hanawalt, P C

    1994-08-30

    A current model for transcription-coupled DNA repair is that RNA polymerase, arrested at a DNA lesion, directs the repair machinery to the transcribed strand of an active gene. To help elucidate this role of RNA polymerase, we constructed DNA templates containing the major late promoter of adenovirus and a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) at a specific site. CPDs, the predominant DNA lesions formed by ultraviolet radiation, are good substrates for transcription-coupled repair. A CPD located on the transcribed strand of the template was a strong block to polymerase movement, whereas a CPD located on the nontranscribed strand had no effect on transcription. Furthermore, the arrested polymerase shielded the CPD from recognition by photolyase, a bacterial DNA repair protein. Transcription elongation factor SII (also called TFIIS) facilitates read-through of a variety of transcriptional pause sites by a process in which RNA polymerase II cleaves the nascent transcript before elongation resumes. We show that SII induces nascent transcript cleavage by RNA polymerase II stalled at a CPD. However, this cleavage does not remove the arrested polymerase from the site of the DNA lesion, nor does it facilitate translesional bypass by the polymerase. The arrested ternary complex is stable and competent to resume elongation, demonstrating that neither the polymerase nor the RNA product dissociates from the DNA template.

  14. The second-largest subunit of the poxvirus RNA polymerase is similar to the corresponding subunits of procaryotic and eucaryotic RNA polymerases.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, D D; Pickup, D J

    1989-01-01

    We have characterized the poxvirus gene encoding the second-largest subunit of the viral DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. This gene, designated rpo132, is located in the HindIII A fragment of the DNA of the Brighton Red strain of cowpox virus. A similar gene is located in the corresponding position in the HindIII A fragment of the DNA of the Western Reserve strain of vaccinia virus. The rpo132 gene is transcribed throughout the viral multiplication cycle. It has two transcriptional start sites; one is operative at late times only, and the other (80 base pairs downstream) is operative both at early times and at late times. Neither early nor late transcripts originating from the latter RNA start site contain long 5'-terminal poly(A) sequences. The rpo132 gene has the capacity to encode primary gene products of two types. The RNA transcripts whose 5' ends correspond to the early RNA start site can encode a 133-kilodalton (kDa) protein. The RNA transcripts whose 5' ends correspond to the early RNA start site can encode a 132-kDa protein. Transcripts of the latter type are more abundant, suggesting that the 132-kDa protein is the major primary product of this gene. The predicted amino acid sequences of both gene products share extensive similarities with the amino acid sequences of the second-largest subunits of the following enzymes: the RNA polymerase of Escherichia coli, the RNA polymerase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the RNA polymerase II of Drosophila melanogaster. This result provides further evidence of relatedness between multisubunit DNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Images PMID:2915377

  15. Nuclear import of RNA polymerase II is coupled with nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the RNA polymerase II-associated protein 2.

    PubMed

    Forget, Diane; Lacombe, Andrée-Anne; Cloutier, Philippe; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Blanchette, Mathieu; Coulombe, Benoit

    2013-08-01

    The RNA polymerase II (RNAP II)-associated protein (RPAP) 2 has been discovered through its association with various subunits of RNAP II in affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry experiments. Here, we show that RPAP2 is a mainly cytoplasmic protein that shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. RPAP2 shuttling is tightly coupled with nuclear import of RNAP II, as RPAP2 silencing provokes abnormal accumulation of RNAP II in the cytoplasmic space. Most notably, RPAP4/GPN1 silencing provokes the retention of RPAP2 in the nucleus. Our results support a model in which RPAP2 enters the nucleus in association with RNAP II and returns to the cytoplasm in association with the GTPase GPN1/RPAP4. Although binding of RNAP II to RPAP2 is mediated by an N-terminal domain (amino acids 1-170) that contains a nuclear retention domain, and binding of RPAP4/GPN1 to RPAP2 occurs through a C-terminal domain (amino acids 156-612) that has a dominant cytoplasmic localization domain. In conjunction with previously published data, our results have important implications, as they indicate that RPAP2 controls gene expression by two distinct mechanisms, one that targets RNAP II activity during transcription and the other that controls availability of RNAP II in the nucleus.

  16. Ms1, a novel sRNA interacting with the RNA polymerase core in mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hnilicová, Jarmila; Jirát Matějčková, Jitka; Šiková, Michaela; Pospíšil, Jiří; Halada, Petr; Pánek, Josef; Krásný, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) are molecules essential for a number of regulatory processes in the bacterial cell. Here we characterize Ms1, a sRNA that is highly expressed in Mycobacterium smegmatis during stationary phase of growth. By glycerol gradient ultracentrifugation, RNA binding assay, and RNA co-immunoprecipitation, we show that Ms1 interacts with the RNA polymerase (RNAP) core that is free of the primary sigma factor (σA) or any other σ factor. This contrasts with the situation in most other species where it is 6S RNA that interacts with RNAP and this interaction requires the presence of σA. The difference in the interaction of the two types of sRNAs (Ms1 or 6S RNA) with RNAP possibly reflects the difference in the composition of the transcriptional machinery between mycobacteria and other species. Unlike Escherichia coli, stationary phase M. smegmatis cells contain relatively few RNAP molecules in complex with σA. Thus, Ms1 represents a novel type of small RNAs interacting with RNAP. PMID:25217589

  17. Histones are required for transcription of yeast rRNA genes by RNA polymerase I.

    PubMed

    Tongaonkar, Prasad; French, Sarah L; Oakes, Melanie L; Vu, Loan; Schneider, David A; Beyer, Ann L; Nomura, Masayasu

    2005-07-19

    Nucleosomes and their histone components have generally been recognized to act negatively on transcription. However, purified upstream activating factor (UAF), a transcription initiation factor required for RNA polymerase (Pol) I transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, contains histones H3 and H4 and four nonhistone protein subunits. Other studies have shown that histones H3 and H4 are associated with actively transcribed rRNA genes. To examine their functional role in Pol I transcription, we constructed yeast strains in which synthesis of H3 is achieved from the glucose-repressible GAL10 promoter. We found that partial depletion of H3 (approximately 50% depletion) resulted in a strong inhibition (>80%) of Pol I transcription. A combination of biochemical analysis and electron microscopic (EM) analysis of Miller chromatin spreads indicated that initiation and elongation steps and rRNA processing were compromised upon histone depletion. A clear decrease in relative amounts of UAF, presumably caused by reduced stability, was also observed under the conditions of H3 depletion. Therefore, the observed inhibition of initiation can be explained, in part, by the decrease in UAF concentration. In addition, the EM results suggested that the defects in rRNA transcript elongation and processing may be a result of loss of histones from rRNA genes rather than (or in addition to) an indirect consequence of effects of histone depletion on expression of other genes. Thus, these results show functional importance of histones associated with actively transcribed rRNA genes.

  18. Structural Analysis of Monomeric RNA-Dependent Polymerases: Evolutionary and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Jácome, Rodrigo; Becerra, Arturo; Ponce de León, Samuel; Lazcano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structures of monomeric RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and reverse transcriptases of more than 20 different viruses are available in the Protein Data Bank. They all share the characteristic right-hand shape of DNA- and RNA polymerases formed by the fingers, palm and thumb subdomains, and, in many cases, “fingertips” that extend from the fingers towards the thumb subdomain, giving the viral enzyme a closed right-hand appearance. Six conserved structural motifs that contain key residues for the proper functioning of the enzyme have been identified in all these RNA-dependent polymerases. These enzymes share a two divalent metal-ion mechanism of polymerization in which two conserved aspartate residues coordinate the interactions with the metal ions to catalyze the nucleotidyl transfer reaction. The recent availability of crystal structures of polymerases of the Orthomyxoviridae and Bunyaviridae families allowed us to make pairwise comparisons of the tertiary structures of polymerases belonging to the four main RNA viral groups, which has led to a phylogenetic tree in which single-stranded negative RNA viral polymerases have been included for the first time. This has also allowed us to use a homology-based structural prediction approach to develop a general three-dimensional model of the Ebola virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Our model includes several of the conserved structural motifs and residues described in other viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases that define the catalytic and highly conserved palm subdomain, as well as portions of the fingers and thumb subdomains. The results presented here help to understand the current use and apparent success of antivirals, i.e. Brincidofovir, Lamivudine and Favipiravir, originally aimed at other types of polymerases, to counteract the Ebola virus infection. PMID:26397100

  19. Episodic adaptive diversification of classical swine fever virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NS5B.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yang, Zexiao

    2015-12-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the pathogen that causes a highly infectious disease of pigs and has led to disastrous losses to pig farms and related industries. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) NS5B is a central component of the replicase complex (RC) in some single-stranded RNA viruses, including CSFV. On the basis of genetic variation, the CSFV RdRps could be clearly divided into 2 major groups and a minor group, which is consistent with the phylogenetic relationships and virulence diversification of the CSFV isolates. However, the adaptive signature underlying such an evolutionary profile of the polymerase and the virus is still an interesting open question. We analyzed the evolutionary trajectory of the CSFV RdRps over different timescales to evaluate the potential adaptation. We found that adaptive selection has driven the diversification of the RdRps between, but not within, CSFV major groups. Further, the major adaptive divergence-related sites are located in the surfaces relevant to the interaction with other component(s) of RC and the entrance and exit of the template-binding channel. These results might shed some light on the nature of the RdRp in virulence diversification of CSFV groups.

  20. The conserved protein Seb1 drives transcription termination by binding RNA polymerase II and nascent RNA.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Sina; Renner, Max; Watts, Beth R; Adams, Oliver; Huseyin, Miles; Baejen, Carlo; El Omari, Kamel; Kilchert, Cornelia; Heo, Dong-Hyuk; Kecman, Tea; Cramer, Patrick; Grimes, Jonathan M; Vasiljeva, Lidia

    2017-04-03

    Termination of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription is an important step in the transcription cycle, which involves the dislodgement of polymerase from DNA, leading to release of a functional transcript. Recent studies have identified the key players required for this process and showed that a common feature of these proteins is a conserved domain that interacts with the phosphorylated C-terminus of Pol II (CTD-interacting domain, CID). However, the mechanism by which transcription termination is achieved is not understood. Using genome-wide methods, here we show that the fission yeast CID-protein Seb1 is essential for termination of protein-coding and non-coding genes through interaction with S2-phosphorylated Pol II and nascent RNA. Furthermore, we present the crystal structures of the Seb1 CTD- and RNA-binding modules. Unexpectedly, the latter reveals an intertwined two-domain arrangement of a canonical RRM and second domain. These results provide important insights into the mechanism underlying eukaryotic transcription termination.

  1. Inhibition of RNA binding to hepatitis C virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: a new mechanism for antiviral intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed-Belkacem, Abdelhakim; Guichou, Jean-François; Brillet, Rozenn; Ahnou, Nazim; Hernandez, Eva; Pallier, Coralie; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is a key target for antiviral intervention. The goal of this study was to identify the binding site and unravel the molecular mechanism by which natural flavonoids efficiently inhibit HCV RdRp. Screening identified the flavonol quercetagetin as the most potent inhibitor of HCV RdRp activity. Quercetagetin was found to inhibit RdRp through inhibition of RNA binding to the viral polymerase, a yet unknown antiviral mechanism. X-ray crystallographic structure analysis of the RdRp-quercetagetin complex identified quercetagetin's binding site at the entrance of the RNA template tunnel, confirming its original mode of action. This antiviral mechanism was associated with a high barrier to resistance in both site-directed mutagenesis and long-term selection experiments. In conclusion, we identified a new mechanism for non-nucleoside inhibition of HCV RdRp through inhibition of RNA binding to the enzyme, a mechanism associated with broad genotypic activity and a high barrier to resistance. Our results open the way to new antiviral approaches for HCV and other viruses that use an RdRp based on RNA binding inhibition, that could prove to be useful in human, animal or plant viral infections. PMID:25053847

  2. Transcription inactivation through local refolding of the RNA polymerase structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belogurov, Georgiy A.; Vassylyeva, Marina N.; Sevostyanova, Anastasiya; Appleman, James R.; Xiang, Alan X.; Lira, Ricardo; Webber, Stephen E.; Klyuyev, Sergiy; Nudler, Evgeny; Artsimovitch, Irina; Vassylyev, Dmitry G.

    2009-02-12

    Structural studies of antibiotics not only provide a shortcut to medicine allowing for rational structure-based drug design, but may also capture snapshots of dynamic intermediates that become 'frozen' after inhibitor binding. Myxopyronin inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) by an unknown mechanism. Here we report the structure of dMyx - a desmethyl derivative of myxopyronin B - complexed with a Thermus thermophilus RNAP holoenzyme. The antibiotic binds to a pocket deep inside the RNAP clamp head domain, which interacts with the DNA template in the transcription bubble. Notably, binding of dMyx stabilizes refolding of the {beta}'-subunit switch-2 segment, resulting in a configuration that might indirectly compromise binding to, or directly clash with, the melted template DNA strand. Consistently, footprinting data show that the antibiotic binding does not prevent nucleation of the promoter DNA melting but instead blocks its propagation towards the active site. Myxopyronins are thus, to our knowledge, a first structurally characterized class of antibiotics that target formation of the pre-catalytic transcription initiation complex - the decisive step in gene expression control. Notably, mutations designed in switch-2 mimic the dMyx effects on promoter complexes in the absence of antibiotic. Overall, our results indicate a plausible mechanism of the dMyx action and a stepwise pathway of open complex formation in which core enzyme mediates the final stage of DNA melting near the transcription start site, and that switch-2 might act as a molecular checkpoint for DNA loading in response to regulatory signals or antibiotics. The universally conserved switch-2 may have the same role in all multisubunit RNAPs.

  3. Retinoblastoma Protein Disrupts Interactions Required for RNA Polymerase III Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, Josephine E.; Brown, Timothy R. P.; Allison, Simon J.; Scott, Pamela H.; White, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (RB) has been shown to suppress RNA polymerase (Pol) III transcription in vivo (R. J. White, D. Trouche, K. Martin, S. P. Jackson, and T. Kouzarides, Nature 382:88–90, 1996). This regulation involves interaction with TFIIIB, a multisubunit factor that is required for the expression of all Pol III templates (C. G. C. Larminie, C. A. Cairns, R. Mital, K. Martin, T. Kouzarides, S. P. Jackson, and R. J. White, EMBO J. 16:2061–2071, 1997; W.-M. Chu, Z. Wang, R. G. Roeder, and C. W. Schmid, J. Biol. Chem. 272:14755–14761, 1997). However, it has not been established why RB binding to TFIIIB results in transcriptional repression. For several Pol II-transcribed genes, RB has been shown to inhibit expression by recruiting histone deacetylases, which are thought to decrease promoter accessibility. We present evidence that histone deacetylases exert a negative effect on Pol III activity in vivo. However, RB remains able to regulate Pol III transcription in the presence of the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. Instead, RB represses by disrupting interactions between TFIIIB and other components of the basal Pol III transcription apparatus. Recruitment of TFIIIB to most class III genes requires its binding to TFIIIC2, but this can be blocked by RB. In addition, RB disrupts the interaction between TFIIIB and Pol III that is essential for transcription. The ability of RB to inhibit these key interactions can explain its action as a potent repressor of class III gene expression. PMID:11094071

  4. The plant RNA polymerase II elongation complex: a hub coordinating transcript elongation and mRNA processing.

    PubMed

    Grasser, Marion; Grasser, Klaus D

    2017-09-08

    Characterisation of the Arabidopsis RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) elongation complex revealed an assembly of a conserved set of transcript elongation factors associated with chromatin remodellers, histone modifiers as well as with various pre-mRNA splicing and polyadenylation factors. Therefore, transcribing RNAPII streamlines the processes of mRNA synthesis and processing in plants.

  5. Distinct molecular structures of nuclear class I, II, and III DNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Sklar, V E; Schwartz, L B; Roeder, R G

    1975-01-01

    Class III RNA polymerases purified from the murine plasmacytoma MOPC 315 and from Xenopus laevis ovaries were compared. The subunit structures of the chromatographically distinct murine enzymes IIIA and IIIB were indistinguishable and were remarkably similar to that of the amphibian enzyme III. The plasmacytoma class III RNA polymerases were also compared with purified plasmacytoma RNA polymerases I and II. Sedimentation studies indicated that RNA polymerase III si significantly larger than RNA polymerase II, which is slightly larger than RNA polymerase I. Structural analyses showed that the molecular weights of the large subunits present in the class III enzymes (138,000 and 155,000) differ from those of the class II enzymes (140,000 and either 170,000, 205,000, or 240,000) and from those of the class I enzymes (117,000 and 195,000). Some low-molecular-weight subunits are also unique to each enzyme class. These results clearly distinguish the class I, II, and III enzymes on a structural basis. In addition, polypeptides of molecular weight 29,000 and 19,000 were found in all enzyme classes, a polypeptide of molecular weight 52,000 was found only in class I and III enzymes, and a polypeptide of molecular weight 41,000 was found only in class II and III enzymes. These findings are discussed in terms of the function and regulation of the RNA polymerases.

  6. Chromatin-dependent regulation of RNA polymerases II and III activity throughout the transcription cycle.

    PubMed

    Jordán-Pla, Antonio; Gupta, Ishaan; de Miguel-Jiménez, Lola; Steinmetz, Lars M; Chávez, Sebastián; Pelechano, Vicent; Pérez-Ortín, José E

    2015-01-01

    The particular behaviour of eukaryotic RNA polymerases along different gene regions and amongst distinct gene functional groups is not totally understood. To cast light onto the alternative active or backtracking states of RNA polymerase II, we have quantitatively mapped active RNA polymerases at a high resolution following a new biotin-based genomic run-on (BioGRO) technique. Compared with conventional profiling with chromatin immunoprecipitation, the analysis of the BioGRO profiles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows that RNA polymerase II has unique activity profiles at both gene ends, which are highly dependent on positioned nucleosomes. This is the first demonstration of the in vivo influence of positioned nucleosomes on transcription elongation. The particular features at the 5' end and around the polyadenylation site indicate that this polymerase undergoes extensive specific-activity regulation in the initial and final transcription elongation phases. The genes encoding for ribosomal proteins show distinctive features at both ends. BioGRO also provides the first nascentome analysis for RNA polymerase III, which indicates that transcription of tRNA genes is poorly regulated at the individual copy level. The present study provides a novel perspective of the transcription cycle that incorporates inactivation/reactivation as an important aspect of RNA polymerase dynamics.

  7. Polyadenylation of RNA transcribed from mammalian SINEs by RNA polymerase III: Complex requirements for nucleotide sequences.

    PubMed

    Borodulina, Olga R; Golubchikova, Julia S; Ustyantsev, Ilia G; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2016-02-01

    It is generally accepted that only transcripts synthesized by RNA polymerase II (e.g., mRNA) were subject to AAUAAA-dependent polyadenylation. However, we previously showed that RNA transcribed by RNA polymerase III (pol III) from mouse B2 SINE could be polyadenylated in an AAUAAA-dependent manner. Many species of mammalian SINEs end with the pol III transcriptional terminator (TTTTT) and contain hexamers AATAAA in their A-rich tail. Such SINEs were united into Class T(+), whereas SINEs lacking the terminator and AATAAA sequences were classified as T(-). Here we studied the structural features of SINE pol III transcripts that are necessary for their polyadenylation. Eight and six SINE families from classes T(+) and T(-), respectively, were analyzed. The replacement of AATAAA with AACAAA in T(+) SINEs abolished the RNA polyadenylation. Interestingly, insertion of the polyadenylation signal (AATAAA) and pol III transcription terminator in T(-) SINEs did not result in polyadenylation. The detailed analysis of three T(+) SINEs (B2, DIP, and VES) revealed areas important for the polyadenylation of their pol III transcripts: the polyadenylation signal and terminator in A-rich tail, β region positioned immediately downstream of the box B of pol III promoter, and τ region located upstream of the tail. In DIP and VES (but not in B2), the τ region is a polypyrimidine motif which is also characteristic of many other T(+) SINEs. Most likely, SINEs of different mammals acquired these structural features independently as a result of parallel evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Distinct Mechanism Evolved for Mycobacterial RNA Polymerase and Topoisomerase I Protein-Protein Interaction.

    PubMed

    Banda, Srikanth; Cao, Nan; Tse-Dinh, Yuk-Ching

    2017-09-15

    We report here a distinct mechanism of interaction between topoisomerase I and RNA polymerase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis that has evolved independently from the previously characterized interaction between bacterial topoisomerase I and RNA polymerase. Bacterial DNA topoisomerase I is responsible for preventing the hyper-negative supercoiling of genomic DNA. The association of topoisomerase I with RNA polymerase during transcription elongation could efficiently relieve transcription-driven negative supercoiling. Our results demonstrate a direct physical interaction between the C-terminal domains of topoisomerase I (TopoI-CTDs) and the β' subunit of RNA polymerase of M. smegmatis in the absence of DNA. The TopoI-CTDs in mycobacteria are evolutionarily unrelated in amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure to the TopoI-CTD found in the majority of bacterial species outside Actinobacteria, including Escherichia coli. The functional interaction between topoisomerase I and RNA polymerase has evolved independently in mycobacteria and E. coli, with distinctively different structural elements of TopoI-CTD utilized for this protein-protein interaction. Zinc ribbon motifs in E. coli TopoI-CTD are involved in the interaction with RNA polymerase. For M. smegmatis TopoI-CTD, a 27-amino-acid tail that is rich in basic residues at the C-terminal end is responsible for the interaction with RNA polymerase. Overexpression of recombinant TopoI-CTD in M. smegmatis competed with the endogenous topoisomerase I for protein-protein interactions with RNA polymerase. The TopoI-CTD overexpression resulted in decreased survival following treatment with antibiotics and hydrogen peroxide, supporting the importance of the protein-protein interaction between topoisomerase I and RNA polymerase during stress response of mycobacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. RAP30/74: a general initiation factor that binds to RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Z F; Killeen, M; Sopta, M; Ortolan, L G; Greenblatt, J

    1988-01-01

    We have previously shown by affinity chromatography that RAP30 and RAP74 are the mammalian proteins that have the highest affinity for RNA polymerase II. Here we show that RAP30 binds to RAP74 and that the RAP30-RAP74 complex (RAP30/74) is required for accurate initiation by RNA polymerase II. RAP30/74 is required for accurate transcription from the following promoters: the adenovirus major late promoter, the long terminal repeat of human immunodeficiency virus, P2 of the human c-myc gene, the mouse beta maj-globin promoter (all of which have TATA boxes), and the mouse dihydrofolate reductase promoter (which lacks a TATA box). RAP30/74 is not required for initiation by RNA polymerase III at the adenovirus virus-associated RNA promoters. Therefore, RAP30/74 is a general initiation factor that binds to RNA polymerase II. Images PMID:3380090

  10. Upstream Binding of Idling RNA Polymerase Modulates Transcription Initiation from a Nearby Promoter*

    PubMed Central

    Gerganova, Veneta; Maurer, Sebastian; Stoliar, Liubov; Japaridze, Aleksandre; Dietler, Giovanni; Nasser, William; Kutateladze, Tamara; Travers, Andrew; Muskhelishvili, Georgi

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial gene regulatory regions often demonstrate distinctly organized arrays of RNA polymerase binding sites of ill-defined function. Previously we observed a module of closely spaced polymerase binding sites upstream of the canonical promoter of the Escherichia coli fis operon. FIS is an abundant nucleoid-associated protein involved in adjusting the chromosomal DNA topology to changing cellular physiology. Here we show that simultaneous binding of the polymerase at the canonical fis promoter and an upstream transcriptionally inactive site stabilizes a RNAP oligomeric complex in vitro. We further show that modulation of the upstream binding of RNA polymerase affects the fis promoter activity both in vivo and in vitro. The effect of the upstream RNA polymerase binding on the fis promoter activity depends on the spatial arrangement of polymerase binding sites and DNA supercoiling. Our data suggest that a specific DNA geometry of the nucleoprotein complex stabilized on concomitant binding of RNA polymerase molecules at the fis promoter and the upstream region acts as a topological device regulating the fis transcription. We propose that transcriptionally inactive RNA polymerase molecules can act as accessory factors regulating the transcription initiation from a nearby promoter. PMID:25648898

  11. De Novo Initiation of RNA Synthesis by the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (NS5B) of Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Guangxiang; Hamatake, Robert K.; Mathis, Danielle M.; Racela, Jason; Rigat, Karen L.; Lemm, Julie; Colonno, Richard J.

    2000-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B protein possesses an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity, a major function responsible for replication of the viral RNA genome. To further characterize the RdRp activity, NS5B proteins were expressed from recombinant baculoviruses, purified to near homogeneity, and examined for their ability to synthesize RNA in vitro. As a result, a highly active NS5B RdRp (1b-42), which contains an 18-amino acid C-terminal truncation resulting from a newly created stop codon, was identified among a number of independent isolates. The RdRp activity of the truncated NS5B is comparable to the activity of the full-length protein and is 20 times higher in the presence of Mn2+ than in the presence of Mg2+. When a 384-nucleotide RNA was used as the template, two major RNA products were synthesized by 1b-42. One is a complementary RNA identical in size to the input RNA template (monomer), while the other is a hairpin dimer RNA synthesized by a “copy-back” mechanism. Substantial evidence derived from several experiments demonstrated that the RNA monomer was synthesized through de novo initiation by NS5B rather than by a terminal transferase activity. Synthesis of the RNA monomer requires all four ribonucleotides. The RNA monomer product was verified to be the result of de novo RNA synthesis, as two expected RNA products were generated from monomer RNA by RNase H digestion. In addition, modification of the RNA template by the addition of the chain terminator cordycepin at the 3′ end did not affect synthesis of the RNA monomer but eliminated synthesis of the self-priming hairpin dimer RNA. Moreover, synthesis of RNA on poly(C) and poly(U) homopolymer templates by 1b-42 NS5B did not require the oligonucleotide primer at high concentrations (≥50 μM) of GTP and ATP, further supporting a de novo initiation mechanism. These findings suggest that HCV NS5B is able to initiate RNA synthesis de novo. PMID:10623748

  12. A genetic analysis of Plasmodium falciparum RNA polymerase II subunits in yeast.

    PubMed

    Hazoume, Adonis; Naderi, Kambiz; Candolfi, Ermanno; Kedinger, Claude; Chatton, Bruno; Vigneron, Marc

    2011-04-01

    RNA polymerase II is an essential nuclear multi subunit enzyme that transcribes nearly the whole genome. Its inhibition by the alpha-amanitin toxin leads to cell death. The enzyme of Plasmodium falciparum remains poorly characterized. Using a complementation assay in yeast as a genetic test, we demonstrate that five Plasmodium putative RNA polymerase subunits are indeed functional in vivo. The active site of this enzyme is built from the two largest subunits. Using site directed mutagenesis we were able to modify the active site of the yeast RNA polymerase II so as to introduce Plasmodium or human structural motifs. The resulting strains allow the screening of chemical libraries for potential specific inhibitors.

  13. DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunits encoded within the vaccinia virus genome.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, E V; Puckett, C; Moss, B

    1987-01-01

    Antiserum to a multisubunit DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from vaccinia virions was prepared to carry out genetic studies. This antiserum selectively inhibited the activity of the viral polymerase but had no effect on calf thymus RNA polymerase II. The specificity of the antiserum was further demonstrated by immunoprecipitation of RNA polymerase subunits from dissociated virus particles. The presence in vaccinia virus-infected cells of mRNA that encodes the polymerase subunits was determined by in vitro translation. Immunoprecipitable polypeptides with Mrs of about 135,000, 128,000, 36,000, 34,000, 31,000, 23,000, 21,000, 20,000, and 17,000 were made when early mRNA was added to reticulocyte extracts. The subunits were encoded within the vaccinia virus genome, as demonstrated by translation of early mRNA that hybridized to vaccinia virus DNA. The locations of the subunit genes were determined initially by hybridization of RNA to a series of overlapping 40-kilobase-pair DNA fragments that were cloned in a cosmid vector. Further mapping was achieved with cloned HindIII restriction fragments. Results of these studies indicated that RNA polymerase subunit genes are transcribed early in infection and are distributed within the highly conserved central portion of the poxvirus genome in HindIII fragments E, J, H, D, and A. Images PMID:3033308

  14. RNA as an RNA Polymerase: Net Elongation of an RNA Primer Catalyzed by the Tetrahymena Ribozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Been, Michael D.; Cech, Thomas R.

    1988-03-01

    A catalytic RNA (ribozyme) derived from an intervening sequence (IVS) RNA of Tetrahymena thermophila will catalyze an RNA polymerization reaction in which pentacytidylic acid (C5) is extended by the successive addition of mononucleotides derived from a guanylyl-(3', 5')-nucleotide (GpN). Cytidines or uridines are added to C5 to generate chain lengths of 10 to 11 nucleotides, with longer products being generated at greatly reduced efficiency. The reaction is analogous to that catalyzed by a replicase with C5 acting as the primer, GpNs as the nucleoside triphosphates, and a sequence in the ribozyme providing a template. The demonstration that an RNA enzyme can catalyze net elongation of an RNA primer supports theories of prebiotic RNA self-replication.

  15. Potent non-nucleoside inhibitors of the measles virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex.

    PubMed

    Sun, Aiming; Yoon, Jeong-Joong; Yin, Yan; Prussia, Andrew; Yang, Yutao; Min, Jaeki; Plemper, Richard K; Snyder, James P

    2008-07-10

    Measles virus (MV) is one of the most infectious pathogens known. In spite of the existence of a vaccine, approximately 350000 deaths/year result from MV or associated complications. Antimeasles compounds could conceivably diminish these statistics and provide a therapy that complements vaccine treatment. We recently described a high-throughput screening hit compound 1 (16677) against MV-infected cells with the capacity to eliminate viral reproduction at 250 nM by inhibiting the action of the virus's RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex (RdRp). The compound, 1-methyl-3-(trifluoromethyl)- N-[4-sulfonylphenyl]-1 H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide, 1 carries a critical CF 3 moiety on the 1,2-pyrazole ring. Elaborating on the preliminary structure-activity (SAR) study, the present work presents the synthesis and SAR of a much broader range of low nanomolar nonpeptidic MV inhibitors and speculates on the role of the CF 3 functionality.

  16. In Vitro Assays for RNA Binding and Protein Priming of Hepatitis B Virus Polymerase.

    PubMed

    Clark, Daniel N; Jones, Scott A; Hu, Jianming

    2017-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase synthesizes the viral DNA genome from the pre-genomic RNA (pgRNA) template through reverse transcription. Initiation of viral DNA synthesis is accomplished via a novel protein priming mechanism, so named because the polymerase itself acts as a primer, whereby the initiating nucleotide becomes covalently linked to a tyrosine residue on the viral polymerase. Protein priming, in turn, depends on specific recognition of the packaging signal on pgRNA called epsilon. These early events in viral DNA synthesis can now be dissected in vitro as described here.The polymerase is expressed in mammalian cells and purified by immunoprecipitation. The purified protein is associated with host cell factors, is enzymatically active, and its priming activity is epsilon dependent. A minimal epsilon RNA construct from pgRNA is co-expressed with the polymerase in cells. This RNA binds to and co-immunoprecipitates with the polymerase. Modifications can be made to either the epsilon RNA or the polymerase protein by manipulating the expression plasmids. Also, the priming reaction itself can be modified to assay for the initiation or subsequent DNA synthesis during protein priming, the susceptibility of the polymerase to chemical inhibitors, and the precise identification of the DNA products upon their release from the polymerase. The identity of associated host factors can also be evaluated. This protocol closely mirrors our current understanding of the RNA binding and protein priming steps of the HBV replication cycle, and it is amenable to modification. It should therefore facilitate both basic research and drug discovery.

  17. Acetylation of RNA polymerase II regulates growth-factor-induced gene transcription in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Sebastian; Herker, Eva; Itzen, Friederike; He, Daniel; Thomas, Sean; Gilchrist, Daniel A; Kaehlcke, Katrin; Cho, Sungyoo; Pollard, Katherine S; Capra, John A; Schnölzer, Martina; Cole, Philip A; Geyer, Matthias; Bruneau, Benoit G; Adelman, Karen; Ott, Melanie

    2013-11-07

    Lysine acetylation regulates transcription by targeting histones and nonhistone proteins. Here we report that the central regulator of transcription, RNA polymerase II, is subject to acetylation in mammalian cells. Acetylation occurs at eight lysines within the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest polymerase subunit and is mediated by p300/KAT3B. CTD acetylation is specifically enriched downstream of the transcription start sites of polymerase-occupied genes genome-wide, indicating a role in early stages of transcription initiation or elongation. Mutation of lysines or p300 inhibitor treatment causes the loss of epidermal growth-factor-induced expression of c-Fos and Egr2, immediate-early genes with promoter-proximally paused polymerases, but does not affect expression or polymerase occupancy at housekeeping genes. Our studies identify acetylation as a new modification of the mammalian RNA polymerase II required for the induction of growth factor response genes.

  18. Looking for inhibitors of the dengue virus NS5 RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase using a molecular docking approach

    PubMed Central

    Galiano, Vicente; Garcia-Valtanen, Pablo; Micol, Vicente; Encinar, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The dengue virus (DENV) nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) contains both an N-terminal methyltransferase domain and a C-terminal RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domain. Polymerase activity is responsible for viral RNA synthesis by a de novo initiation mechanism and represents an attractive target for antiviral therapy. The incidence of DENV has grown rapidly and it is now estimated that half of the human population is at risk of becoming infected with this virus. Despite this, there are no effective drugs to treat DENV infections. The present in silico study aimed at finding new inhibitors of the NS5 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of the four serotypes of DENV. We used a chemical library comprising 372,792 nonnucleotide compounds (around 325,319 natural compounds) to perform molecular docking experiments against a binding site of the RNA template tunnel of the virus polymerase. Compounds with high negative free energy variation (ΔG <−10.5 kcal/mol) were selected as putative inhibitors. Additional filters for favorable druggability and good absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity were applied. Finally, after the screening process was completed, we identified 39 compounds as lead DENV polymerase inhibitor candidates. Potentially, these compounds could act as efficient DENV polymerase inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27784988

  19. Looking for inhibitors of the dengue virus NS5 RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase using a molecular docking approach.

    PubMed

    Galiano, Vicente; Garcia-Valtanen, Pablo; Micol, Vicente; Encinar, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The dengue virus (DENV) nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) contains both an N-terminal methyltransferase domain and a C-terminal RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domain. Polymerase activity is responsible for viral RNA synthesis by a de novo initiation mechanism and represents an attractive target for antiviral therapy. The incidence of DENV has grown rapidly and it is now estimated that half of the human population is at risk of becoming infected with this virus. Despite this, there are no effective drugs to treat DENV infections. The present in silico study aimed at finding new inhibitors of the NS5 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of the four serotypes of DENV. We used a chemical library comprising 372,792 nonnucleotide compounds (around 325,319 natural compounds) to perform molecular docking experiments against a binding site of the RNA template tunnel of the virus polymerase. Compounds with high negative free energy variation (ΔG <-10.5 kcal/mol) were selected as putative inhibitors. Additional filters for favorable druggability and good absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity were applied. Finally, after the screening process was completed, we identified 39 compounds as lead DENV polymerase inhibitor candidates. Potentially, these compounds could act as efficient DENV polymerase inhibitors in vitro and in vivo.

  20. Complete replication in vitro of tobacco mosaic virus RNA by a template-dependent, membrane-bound RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Osman, T A; Buck, K W

    1996-01-01

    A crude membrane-bound RNA polymerase, obtained by differential centrifugation of extracts of tomato leaves infected with tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (tomato strain L) TMV-L), was purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Removal of the endogenous RNA template with micrococcal nuclease rendered the polymerase template dependent and template specific. The polymerase was primer independent and able to initiate RNA synthesis on templates containing the 3'-terminal sequences of the TMV-L positive or negative strands. TMV-vulgare RNA was a less efficient template, while RNAs of cucumber mosaic cucumovirus and red clover necrotic mosaic dianthovirus, or 5'-terminal sequences of TMV-L positive or negative strands, did not act as templates for the polymerase. A main product of the reaction with TMV-L genomic RNA as a template, carried out in the presence of [alpha-32P]UTP, was genomic-length single-stranded RNA. This was shown to be the positive strand and uniformly labelled along its length, demonstrating complete replication of TMV-L RNA. Genomic-length double-stranded RNA, labelled in both strands, and small amounts of RNAs corresponding to the single- and double-stranded forms of the coat protein subgenomic mRNA were also formed. Antibodies to N-terminal and C-terminal portions of the 126-kDa protein detected the 126-kDa protein and the 183-kDa readthrough protein in purified RNA polymerase preparations, whereas antibodies to the readthrough portion of the 183-kDa protein detected only the 183-kDa protein. All three antibodies inhibited the template-dependent RNA polymerase, but none of them had any effect on the template-bound enzyme. PMID:8709249

  1. Structure of influenza A polymerase bound to the viral RNA promoter.

    PubMed

    Pflug, Alexander; Guilligay, Delphine; Reich, Stefan; Cusack, Stephen

    2014-12-18

    The influenza virus polymerase transcribes or replicates the segmented RNA genome (viral RNA) into viral messenger RNA or full-length copies. To initiate RNA synthesis, the polymerase binds to the conserved 3' and 5' extremities of the viral RNA. Here we present the crystal structure of the heterotrimeric bat influenza A polymerase, comprising subunits PA, PB1 and PB2, bound to its viral RNA promoter. PB1 contains a canonical RNA polymerase fold that is stabilized by large interfaces with PA and PB2. The PA endonuclease and the PB2 cap-binding domain, involved in transcription by cap-snatching, form protrusions facing each other across a solvent channel. The 5' extremity of the promoter folds into a compact hook that is bound in a pocket formed by PB1 and PA close to the polymerase active site. This structure lays the basis for an atomic-level mechanistic understanding of the many functions of influenza polymerase, and opens new opportunities for anti-influenza drug design.

  2. Poliovirus RNA polymerase: in vitro enzymatic activities, fidelity of replication, and characterization of a temperature-sensitive RNA-negative mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, M.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro activities of the purified poliovirus RNA polymerase were investigated in this study. The polymerase was shown to be a strict RNA dependent RNA polymerase. It only copied RNA templates but used either a DNA or RNA primer to initiate RNA synthesis. Partially purified polymerase has some DNA polymerase activities. Additional purification of the enzyme and studies with a mutant poliovirus RNA polymerase indicated that the DNA polymerase activities were due to a cellular polymerase. The fidelity of RNA replication in vitro by the purified poliovirus RNA polymerase was studied by measuring the rate of misincorporation of noncomplementary ribonucleotide monophosphates on synthetic homopolymeric RNA templates. The results showed that the ratio of noncomplementary to complementary ribonucleotides incorporated was 1-5 x 10/sup -3/. The viral polymerase of a poliovirus temperature sensitive RNA-negative mutant, Ts 10, was isolated. This study confirmed that the mutant was viable 33/sup 0/, but was RNA negative at 39/sup 0/. Characterization of the Ts 10 polymerase showed it was significantly more sensitive to heat inactivation than was the old-type polymerase. Highly purified poliovirions were found to contain several noncapsid proteins. At least two of these proteins were labeled by (/sup 35/S)methionine infected cells and appeared to be virally encoded proteins. One of these proteins was immunoprecipitated by anti-3B/sup vpg/ antiserum. This protein had the approximate Mr = 50,000 and appeared to be one of the previously identified 3B/sup vpg/ precursor proteins.

  3. Molecular structure of yeast RNA polymerase III: demonstration of the tripartite transcriptive system in lower eukaryotes.

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, P; Hager, G L; Weinberg, F; Rutter, W J

    1976-01-01

    Homogeneous RNA polymerase III (RNA nucleotidyltransferase III) has been obtained from yeast. The subunit composition of the enzyme was examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The enzyme is composed of 12 putative subunits with molecular weights 160,000, 128,000, 82,000, 41,000, 40,500, 37,000, 34,000, 28,000, 24,000, 20,000, 14,500, and 11,000. The high-molecular-weight subunits and several of the smaller subunits of yeast RNA polymerase III are clearly different from those of enzymes I and II, indicating a distinct molecular structure. However, the molecular weights of some of the small subunits (41,000, 28,000, 24,000, and 14,500) appear to be identical to those of polymerases I and II. Thus, it is possible that the three classes of enzymes in yeast have some common subunits. As in other eukaryotes, yeast polymerase II is inhibited by relatively low concentrations of alpha-amanitin; however, contrary to what has been found in higher eukaryotes, yeast polymerase III is resistant (up to 2 mg/ml) to alpha-amanitin, while yeast polymerase I is sensitive to high concentrations of the drug (50% inhibition at 0.3 mg/ml). These results establish the existence of RNA polymerase III in yeast and provide a structural basis for the discrimination of the three functional polymerases in eukaryotes. Images PMID:772675

  4. Molecular structure of yeast RNA polymerase III: demonstration of the tripartite transcriptive system in lower eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, P; Hager, G L; Weinberg, F; Rutter, W J

    1976-04-01

    Homogeneous RNA polymerase III (RNA nucleotidyltransferase III) has been obtained from yeast. The subunit composition of the enzyme was examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The enzyme is composed of 12 putative subunits with molecular weights 160,000, 128,000, 82,000, 41,000, 40,500, 37,000, 34,000, 28,000, 24,000, 20,000, 14,500, and 11,000. The high-molecular-weight subunits and several of the smaller subunits of yeast RNA polymerase III are clearly different from those of enzymes I and II, indicating a distinct molecular structure. However, the molecular weights of some of the small subunits (41,000, 28,000, 24,000, and 14,500) appear to be identical to those of polymerases I and II. Thus, it is possible that the three classes of enzymes in yeast have some common subunits. As in other eukaryotes, yeast polymerase II is inhibited by relatively low concentrations of alpha-amanitin; however, contrary to what has been found in higher eukaryotes, yeast polymerase III is resistant (up to 2 mg/ml) to alpha-amanitin, while yeast polymerase I is sensitive to high concentrations of the drug (50% inhibition at 0.3 mg/ml). These results establish the existence of RNA polymerase III in yeast and provide a structural basis for the discrimination of the three functional polymerases in eukaryotes.

  5. Multiple isoelectric forms of poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: Evidence for phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Ransone, L.J.; Dasgupta, A. )

    1989-11-01

    Poliovirus-specific RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3Dpol) was purified to apparent homogeneity. A single polypeptide of an apparent molecular weight of 63,000 catalyzes the synthesis of dimeric and monomeric RNA products in response to the poliovirion RNA template. Analysis of purified 3Dpol by two-dimensional electrophoresis showed multiple forms of 3Dpol, suggesting posttranslational modification of the protein in virus-infected cells. The two major forms of 3Dpol appear to have approximate pI values of 7.1 and 7.4. Incubation of purified 3Dpol with calf intestinal phosphatase resulted in almost complete disappearance of the pI 7.1 form and a concomitant increase in the intensity of the pI 7.4 form of 3Dpol. Addition of 32P-labeled Pi during infection of HeLa cells with poliovirus resulted in specific labeling of 3Dpol and 3CD, a viral protein which contains the entire 3Dpol sequence. Both 3Dpol and 3CD appear to be phosphorylated at serine residues. Ribosomal salt washes prepared from both mock- and poliovirus-infected cells contain phosphatases capable of dephosphorylating quantitatively the phosphorylated form (pI 7.1) of 3Dpol.

  6. Imaging RNA polymerase III transcription using a photostable RNA-fluorophore complex.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenjiao; Filonov, Grigory S; Kim, Hyaeyeong; Hirsch, Markus; Li, Xing; Moon, Jared D; Jaffrey, Samie R

    2017-09-25

    Quantitative measurement of transcription rates in live cells is important for revealing mechanisms of transcriptional regulation. This is particularly challenging when measuring the activity of RNA polymerase III (Pol III), which transcribes growth-promoting small RNAs. To address this issue, we developed Corn, a genetically encoded fluorescent RNA reporter suitable for quantifying RNA transcription in cells. Corn binds and induces fluorescence of 3,5-difluoro-4-hydroxybenzylidene-imidazolinone-2-oxime, which resembles the fluorophore found in red fluorescent protein (RFP). Notably, Corn shows high photostability, enabling quantitative fluorescence imaging of mTOR-dependent Pol III transcription. We found that, unlike actinomycin D, mTOR inhibitors resulted in heterogeneous transcription suppression in individual cells. Quantitative imaging of Corn-tagged Pol III transcript levels revealed distinct Pol III transcription 'trajectories' elicited by mTOR inhibition. Together, these studies provide an approach for quantitative measurement of Pol III transcription by direct imaging of Pol III transcripts containing a photostable RNA-fluorophore complex.

  7. Behavior of T7 RNA polymerase and mammalian RNA polymerase II at site-specific cisplatin adducts in the template DNA.

    PubMed

    Tornaletti, Silvia; Patrick, Steve M; Turchi, John J; Hanawalt, Philip C

    2003-09-12

    Transcription-coupled DNA repair is dedicated to the removal of DNA lesions from transcribed strands of expressed genes. RNA polymerase arrest at a lesion has been proposed as a sensitive signal for recruitment of repair enzymes to the lesion site. To understand how initiation of transcription-coupled repair may occur, we have characterized the properties of the transcription complex when it encounters a lesion in its path. Here we have compared the effect of cisplatin-induced intrastrand cross-links on transcription elongation by T7 RNA polymerase and mammalian RNA polymerase II. We found that a single cisplatin 1,2-d(GG) intrastrand cross-link or a single cisplatin 1,3-d(GTG) intrastrand cross-link is a strong block to both polymerases. Furthermore, the efficiency of the block at a cisplatin 1,2-d(GG) intrastrand cross-link was similar in several different nucleotide sequence contexts. Interestingly, some blockage was also observed when the single cisplatin 1,3-d(GTG) intrastrand cross-link was located in the non-transcribed strand. Transcription complexes arrested at the cisplatin adducts were substrates for the transcript cleavage reaction mediated by the elongation factor TFIIS, indicating that the RNA polymerase II complexes arrested at these lesions are not released from template DNA. Addition of TFIIS yielded a population of transcripts up to 30 nucleotides shorter than those arrested at the lesion. In the presence of nucleoside triphosphates, these shortened transcripts could be re-elongated up to the site of the lesion, indicating that the arrested complexes are stable and competent to resume elongation. These results show that cisplatin-induced lesions in the transcribed DNA strand constitute a strong physical barrier to RNA polymerase progression, and they support current models of transcription arrest and initiation of transcription-coupled repair.

  8. Analysis of Ribonucleotide 5'-Triphosphate Analogs as Potential Inhibitors of Zika Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase by Using Nonradioactive Polymerase Assays.

    PubMed

    Lu, Gaofei; Bluemling, Gregory R; Collop, Paul; Hager, Michael; Kuiper, Damien; Gurale, Bharat P; Painter, George R; De La Rosa, Abel; Kolykhalov, Alexander A

    2017-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging human pathogen that is spreading rapidly through the Americas and has been linked to the development of microcephaly and to a dramatically increased number of Guillain-Barré syndrome cases. Currently, no vaccine or therapeutic options for the prevention or treatment of ZIKV infections exist. In the study described in this report, we expressed, purified, and characterized full-length nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) and the NS5 polymerase domain (NS5pol) of ZIKV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Using purified NS5, we developed an in vitro nonradioactive primer extension assay employing a fluorescently labeled primer-template pair. Both purified NS5 and NS5pol can carry out in vitro RNA-dependent RNA synthesis in this assay. Our results show that Mn(2+) is required for enzymatic activity, while Mg(2+) is not. We found that ZIKV NS5 can utilize single-stranded DNA but not double-stranded DNA as a template or a primer to synthesize RNA. The assay was used to compare the efficiency of incorporation of analog 5'-triphosphates by the ZIKV polymerase and to calculate their discrimination versus that of natural ribonucleotide triphosphates (rNTPs). The 50% inhibitory concentrations for analog rNTPs were determined in an alternative nonradioactive coupled-enzyme assay. We determined that, in general, 2'-C-methyl- and 2'-C-ethynyl-substituted analog 5'-triphosphates were efficiently incorporated by the ZIKV polymerase and were also efficient chain terminators. Derivatives of these molecules may serve as potential antiviral compounds to be developed to combat ZIKV infection. This report provides the first characterization of ZIKV polymerase and demonstrates the utility of in vitro polymerase assays in the identification of potential ZIKV inhibitors.

  9. Analysis of Ribonucleotide 5′-Triphosphate Analogs as Potential Inhibitors of Zika Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase by Using Nonradioactive Polymerase Assays

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Gaofei; Bluemling, Gregory R.; Collop, Paul; Hager, Michael; Kuiper, Damien; Gurale, Bharat P.; Painter, George R.; De La Rosa, Abel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging human pathogen that is spreading rapidly through the Americas and has been linked to the development of microcephaly and to a dramatically increased number of Guillain-Barré syndrome cases. Currently, no vaccine or therapeutic options for the prevention or treatment of ZIKV infections exist. In the study described in this report, we expressed, purified, and characterized full-length nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) and the NS5 polymerase domain (NS5pol) of ZIKV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Using purified NS5, we developed an in vitro nonradioactive primer extension assay employing a fluorescently labeled primer-template pair. Both purified NS5 and NS5pol can carry out in vitro RNA-dependent RNA synthesis in this assay. Our results show that Mn2+ is required for enzymatic activity, while Mg2+ is not. We found that ZIKV NS5 can utilize single-stranded DNA but not double-stranded DNA as a template or a primer to synthesize RNA. The assay was used to compare the efficiency of incorporation of analog 5′-triphosphates by the ZIKV polymerase and to calculate their discrimination versus that of natural ribonucleotide triphosphates (rNTPs). The 50% inhibitory concentrations for analog rNTPs were determined in an alternative nonradioactive coupled-enzyme assay. We determined that, in general, 2′-C-methyl- and 2′-C-ethynyl-substituted analog 5′-triphosphates were efficiently incorporated by the ZIKV polymerase and were also efficient chain terminators. Derivatives of these molecules may serve as potential antiviral compounds to be developed to combat ZIKV infection. This report provides the first characterization of ZIKV polymerase and demonstrates the utility of in vitro polymerase assays in the identification of potential ZIKV inhibitors. PMID:27993851

  10. Use of DNA, RNA, and Chimeric Templates by a Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase: Evolutionary Implications for the Transition from the RNA to the DNA World

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Robert W.; Bellon, Laurent; Beigelman, Leonid; Kao, C. Cheng

    1999-01-01

    All polynucleotide polymerases have a similar structure and mechanism of catalysis, consistent with their evolution from one progenitor polymerase. Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) are expected to have properties comparable to those from this progenitor and therefore may offer insight into the commonalities of all classes of polymerases. We examined RNA synthesis by the brome mosaic virus RdRp on DNA, RNA, and hybrid templates and found that precise initiation of RNA synthesis can take place from all of these templates. Furthermore, initiation can take place from either internal or penultimate initiation sites. Using a template competition assay, we found that the BMV RdRp interacts with DNA only three- to fourfold less well than it interacts with RNA. Moreover, a DNA molecule with a ribonucleotide at position −11 relative to the initiation nucleotide was able to interact with RdRp at levels comparable to that observed with RNA. These results suggest that relatively few conditions were needed for an ancestral RdRp to replicate DNA genomes. PMID:10400735

  11. Physical and functional association of RNA polymerase II and the proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Gillette, Thomas G.; Gonzalez, Fernando; Delahodde, Agnes; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Kodadek, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies from a number of laboratories have revealed a surprising number of connections between RNA polymerase II transcription and the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. We now find yet another intersection of these pathways by showing that the 26S proteasome associates with regions of the GAL1, GAL10, and HSP82 genes, including the 3′ ends, in a transcription-dependent fashion. The appearance of the proteasome on these inducible genes correlates with both the accumulation of transcripts and the buildup of RNA polymerase II complexes in the same region. Furthermore, the 26S proteasome and RNA polymerase II coimmunoprecipitate, and inhibition of 26S proteolytic activity leads to increased read through of a transcription termination site. We suggest that the proteasome is generally recruited to the DNA at sites of stalled RNA polymerase and may act to resolve these complexes. PMID:15069196

  12. Termination of Transcription of Short Noncoding RNAs by RNA Polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Karen M; Reines, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The RNA polymerase II transcription cycle is often divided into three major stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. Research over the last decade has blurred these divisions and emphasized the tightly regulated transitions that occur as RNA polymerase II synthesizes a transcript from start to finish. Transcription termination, the process that marks the end of transcription elongation, is regulated by proteins that interact with the polymerase, nascent transcript, and/or chromatin template. The failure to terminate transcription can cause accumulation of aberrant transcripts and interfere with transcription at downstream genes. Here, we review the mechanism, regulation, and physiological impact of a termination pathway that targets small noncoding transcripts produced by RNA polymerase II. We emphasize the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 pathway in yeast, in which the process has been extensively studied. The importance of understanding small RNA termination pathways is underscored by the need to control noncoding transcription in eukaryotic genomes.

  13. Syntheses of novel myxopyronin B analogs as potential inhibitors of bacterial RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Lira, Ricardo; Xiang, Alan X; Doundoulakis, Thomas; Biller, William T; Agrios, Konstantinos A; Simonsen, Klaus B; Webber, Stephen E; Sisson, Wes; Aust, Robert M; Shah, Amit M; Showalter, Richard E; Banh, Virginia N; Steffy, Kevin R; Appleman, James R

    2007-12-15

    Based upon observations from our initial findings, additional myxopyronin B analogs have been prepared and tested for in vitro inhibitory activity against DNA-dependent RNA polymerase and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  14. Substitution of Ribonucleotides in the T7 RNA Polymerase Promoter Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinness, Kathleen E.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2001-01-01

    A systematic analysis was carried out to examine the effects of ribonucleotide substitution at various locations within the promoter element for T7 RNA polymerase. Ribonucleotides could be introduced at most positions without significantly decreasing transcription efficiency. A critical window of residues that were intolerant of RNA substitution was defined for both the non-template and template strands of the promoter. These residues are involved in important contacts with the AT-rich recognition loop, specificity loop, and P-intercalating hairpin of the polymerase. These results highlight the malleability of T7 RNA polymerase in recognizing its promoter element and suggest that promoters with altered backbone conformations may be used in molecular biology applications that employ T7 RNA polymerase for in vitro transcription.

  15. Monitoring translocation of multisubunit RNA polymerase along the DNA with fluorescent base analogues.

    PubMed

    Malinen, Anssi M; Turtola, Matti; Belogurov, Georgiy A

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe a direct fluorescence method that reports real-time occupancies of the pre- and post-translocated state of multisubunit RNA polymerase. In a stopped-flow setup, this method is capable of resolving a single base-pair translocation motion of RNA polymerase in real time. In a conventional spectrofluorometer, this method can be employed for studies of the time-averaged distribution of RNA polymerase on the DNA template. This method utilizes commercially available base analogue fluorophores integrated into template DNA strand in place of natural bases. We describe two template DNA strand designs where translocation of RNA polymerase from a pre-translocation to a post-translocation state results in disruption of stacking interactions of fluorophore with neighboring bases, with a concomitant large increase in fluorescence intensity.

  16. Structural basis of transcription: nucleotide selection by rotation in the RNA polymerase II active center.

    PubMed

    Westover, Kenneth D; Bushnell, David A; Kornberg, Roger D

    2004-11-12

    Binding of a ribonucleoside triphosphate to an RNA polymerase II transcribing complex, with base pairing to the template DNA, was revealed by X-ray crystallography. Binding of a mismatched nucleoside triphosphate was also detected, but in an adjacent site, inverted with respect to the correctly paired nucleotide. The results are consistent with a two-step mechanism of nucleotide selection, with initial binding to an entry (E) site beneath the active center in an inverted orientation, followed by rotation into the nucleotide addition (A) site for pairing with the template DNA. This mechanism is unrelated to that of single subunit RNA polymerases and so defines a new paradigm for the large, multisubunit enzymes. Additional findings from these studies include a third nucleotide binding site that may define the length of backtracked RNA; DNA double helix unwinding in advance of the polymerase active center; and extension of the diffraction limit of RNA polymerase II crystals to 2.3 A.

  17. Termination of Transcription of Short Noncoding RNAs by RNA Polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Karen M.; Reines, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The RNA polymerase II transcription cycle is often divided into three major stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. Research over the last decade has blurred these divisions and emphasized the tightly regulated transitions that occur as RNA polymerase II synthesizes a transcript from start to finish. Transcription termination, the process that marks the end of transcription elongation, is regulated by proteins that interact with the polymerase, nascent transcript, and/or chromatin template. The failure to terminate transcription can cause accumulation of aberrant transcripts and interfere with transcription at downstream genes. Here, we review the mechanism, regulation, and physiological impact of a termination pathway that targets small noncoding transcripts produced by RNA polymerase II. We emphasize the Nrd1–Nab3–Sen1 pathway in yeast, in which the process has been extensively studied. The importance of understanding small RNA termination pathways is underscored by the need to control noncoding transcription in eukaryotic genomes. PMID:25747400

  18. Substitution of Ribonucleotides in the T7 RNA Polymerase Promoter Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinness, Kathleen E.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2001-01-01

    A systematic analysis was carried out to examine the effects of ribonucleotide substitution at various locations within the promoter element for T7 RNA polymerase. Ribonucleotides could be introduced at most positions without significantly decreasing transcription efficiency. A critical window of residues that were intolerant of RNA substitution was defined for both the non-template and template strands of the promoter. These residues are involved in important contacts with the AT-rich recognition loop, specificity loop, and P-intercalating hairpin of the polymerase. These results highlight the malleability of T7 RNA polymerase in recognizing its promoter element and suggest that promoters with altered backbone conformations may be used in molecular biology applications that employ T7 RNA polymerase for in vitro transcription.

  19. Sequence and analysis of the gene for bacteriophage T3 RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, N J; Bailey, J N; Cleaves, G R; Dembinski, D R; Gocke, C R; Joliffe, L K; MacWright, R S; McAllister, W T

    1985-01-01

    The RNA polymerases encoded by bacteriophages T3 and T7 have similar structures, but exhibit nearly exclusive template specificities. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the region of T3 DNA that encodes the T3 RNA polymerase (the gene 1.0 region), and have compared this sequence with the corresponding region of T7 DNA. The predicted amino acid sequence of the T3 RNA polymerase exhibits very few changes when compared to the T7 enzyme (82% of the residues are identical). Significant differences appear to cluster in three distinct regions in the amino-terminal half of the protein. Analysis of the data from both enzymes suggests features that may be important for polymerase function. In particular, a region that differs between the T3 and T7 enzymes exhibits significant homology to the bi-helical domain that is common to many sequence-specific DNA binding proteins. The region that flanks the structural gene contains a number of regulatory elements including: a promoter for the E. coli RNA polymerase, a potential processing site for RNase III and a promoter for the T3 polymerase. The promoter for the T3 RNA polymerase is located only 12 base pairs distal to the stop codon for the structural gene. PMID:3903658

  20. RNA polymerase II subunit RPB3 is an essential component of the mRNA transcription apparatus.

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziej, P; Young, R A

    1989-01-01

    To improve our understanding of RNA polymerase II, the gene that encodes its third-largest subunit, RPB3, was isolated from a lambda gt11 DNA library by using antibody probes. The RPB3 DNA sequence predicts a 318-amino-acid protein whose sequence was confirmed, in part, by microsequence analysis of the gel-purified RNA polymerase II subunit. RPB3 was found to be an essential single-copy gene that is tightly linked to HIS6 on chromosome IX. An RPB3 temperature-sensitive mutant that arrested growth after three to four generations at the restrictive temperature was isolated. When the mutant was shifted to the restrictive temperature, RNA polymerase II could no longer assemble, previously assembled functional enzyme was depleted, and mRNA levels were consequently reduced. These results demonstrate that RPB3 is an essential component of the mRNA transcription apparatus. Finally, the RPB3 protein is similar in sequence and length to RPC5, a subunit common to RNA polymerases I and III, suggesting that these subunits may play similar roles in RNA polymerases I, II, and III. Images PMID:2685562

  1. Efficient Interaction between Arenavirus Nucleoprotein (NP) and RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (L) Is Mediated by the Virus Nucleocapsid (NP-RNA) Template.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Masaharu; Ngo, Nhi; Cubitt, Beatrice; de la Torre, Juan C

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we document that efficient interaction between arenavirus nucleoprotein (NP) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L protein), the two trans-acting viral factors required for both virus RNA replication and gene transcription, requires the presence of virus-specific RNA sequences located within the untranslated 5' and 3' termini of the viral genome.

  2. A Dual Interface Determines the Recognition of RNA Polymerase II by RNA Capping Enzyme*

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Man-Hee; Meyer, Peter A.; Gu, Meigang; Ye, Ping; Zhang, Mincheng; Kaplan, Craig D.; Lima, Christopher D.; Fu, Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    RNA capping enzyme (CE) is recruited specifically to RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription sites to facilitate cotranscriptional 5′-capping of pre-mRNA and other Pol II transcripts. The current model to explain this specific recruitment of CE to Pol II as opposed to Pol I and Pol III rests on the interaction between CE and the phosphorylated C-terminal domain (CTD) of Pol II largest subunit Rpb1 and more specifically between the CE nucleotidyltransferase domain and the phosphorylated CTD. Through biochemical and diffraction analyses, we demonstrate the existence of a distinctive stoichiometric complex between CE and the phosphorylated Pol II (Pol IIO). Analysis of the complex revealed an additional and unexpected polymerase-CE interface (PCI) located on the multihelical Foot domain of Rpb1. We name this interface PCI1 and the previously known nucleotidyltransferase/phosphorylated CTD interface PCI2. Although PCI1 and PCI2 individually contribute to only weak interactions with CE, a dramatically stabilized and stoichiometric complex is formed when PCI1 and PCI2 are combined in cis as they occur in an intact phosphorylated Pol II molecule. Disrupting either PCI1 or PCI2 by alanine substitution or deletion diminishes CE association with Pol II and causes severe growth defects in vivo. Evidence from manipulating PCI1 indicates that the Foot domain contributes to the specificity in CE interaction with Pol II as opposed to Pol I and Pol III. Our results indicate that the dual interface based on combining PCI1 and PCI2 is required for directing CE to Pol II elongation complexes. PMID:20720002

  3. Altered promoter selection by a novel form of Bacillus subtilis RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Jaehning, J A; Wiggs, J L; Chamberlin, M J

    1979-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis RNA polymerase holoenzyme prepared by several standard methods utilizes bacteriophage T7 DeltaD111 DNA as an efficient template. The major RNA products are specific transcripts from T7 promoters A(1) and C; these promoters are also efficiently utilized by RNA polymerases purified from a wide range of other bacterial species [Wiggs, J., Bush, J. & Chamberlin, M. (1979) Cell 16, 97-109]. In contrast, B. subtilis RNA polymerase preparations purified by a modification of the method of Burgess and Jendrisak (designated fraction 5) utilize T7 DeltaD111 promoters A(1) and C and an additional promoter site, J, which has been located at 90.6% on the standard T7 physical map. This promoter is not used by B. subtilis core RNA polymerase or by RNA polymerase from any other bacterial species we have tested. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of fraction 5 RNA polymerase shows that it contains B. subtilis components sigma and delta and a polypeptide of M(r) 92,000 in addition to the B. subtilis beta, beta', and alpha subunits. Chromatography of fraction 5 on single-stranded DNA-cellulose gives an enzyme fraction, Bs I, that is indistinguishable from B. subtilis RNA polymerase holoenzyme both in its peptide composition (betabeta'alpha(2)sigma) and in the selective transcription of only T7 RNAs A(1) and C. Chromatography of fraction 5 on phosphocellulose yields an enzyme fraction, Bs II, devoid of sigma subunit but containing the M(r) 92,000 peptide and traces of delta. This fraction synthesizes predominantly T7 J RNA in vitro together with traces of T7 A(1) and C RNAs. Hence, B. subtilis RNA polymerase fraction Bs II appears to contain a form of RNA polymerase that can transcribe selectively without detectable amounts of B. subtilis sigma subunit and that utilizes a promoter site not used by other known bacterial RNA polymerases. The structural basis for this specificity is not yet known.

  4. Head-on collision between a DNA replication apparatus and RNA polymerase transcription complex.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Alberts, B M

    1995-02-24

    An in vitro system reconstituted from purified proteins has been used to examine what happens when the DNA replication apparatus of bacteriophage T4 collides with an Escherichia coli RNA polymerase ternary transcription complex that is poised to move in the direction opposite to that of the moving replication fork. In the absence of a DNA helicase, the replication fork stalls for many minutes after its encounter with the RNA polymerase. However, when the T4 gene 41 DNA helicase is present, the replication fork passes the RNA polymerase after a pause of a few seconds. This brief pause is longer than the pause observed for a codirectional collision between the same two polymerases, suggesting that there is an inherent disadvantage to having replication and transcription directions oriented head to head. As for a codirectional collision, the RNA polymerase remains competent to resume faithful RNA chain elongation after the DNA replication fork passes; most strikingly, the RNA polymerase has switched from its original template strand to use the newly synthesized daughter DNA strand as the template.

  5. Temperature-sensitive RNA polymerase II mutations in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    PubMed Central

    Ingles, C. James

    1978-01-01

    Mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines temperature-sensitive (TS) for growth and containing TS mutations in RNA polymerase II (nucleosidetriphosphate:RNA nucleotidyltransferase, EC 2.7.7.6) have been isolated. Wild-type cells were treated with the mutagen N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and a population of cells possessing mutations in RNA polymerase II was initially selected by isolating α-amanitin-resistant clones at 34°. Of 168 such α-amanitin-resistant isolates screened for temperature sensitivity, nine were TS for growth at 39.5°. By examining the behavior of the α-amanitin resistance of these TS cell lines in somatic cell hybrids, the TS mutation in a number of them was shown to be in RNA polymerase II. Hybrid cells obtained by the fusion of the TS and α-amanitin-resistant cells with cells possessing α-amanitin-sensitive polymerase II grew at both 34° and 39.5°; the TS mutations were recessive. At 34° all the hybrids were α-amanitin-resistant and possessed a mixture of α-amanitin-resistant and sensitive polymerase II. At 39.5° the α-amanitin-resistant polymerase II activities in hybrids of four of the TS cell lines were lost; these four lines were α-amanitin-sensitive and possessed only α-amanitin-sensitive polymerase II. Temperature-insensitive revertants of two of these mutants were isolated. Reversion of the TS phenotype for mutants TsAmaR-1 and TsAmaR-8 was accompanied by an alteration in the level of α-amanitin resistance of the RNA polymerase II activities in the revertant cells. Together these data provide convincing evidence that TS mutations in RNA polymerase II can be coselected with α-amanitin resistance. PMID:272657

  6. Altering the interaction between σ70 and RNA polymerase generates complexes with distinct transcription-elongation properties

    PubMed Central

    Berghöfer-Hochheimer, Yvonne; Lu, Chi Zen; Gross, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    We compare the elongation behavior of native Escherichia coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme assembled in vivo, holoenzyme reconstituted from σ70 and RNA polymerase in vitro, and holoenzyme with a specific alteration in the interface between σ70 and RNA polymerase. Elongating RNA polymerase from each holoenzyme has distinguishable properties, some of which cannot be explained by differential retention or rebinding of σ70 during elongation, or by differential presence of elongation factors. We suggest that interactions between RNA polymerase and σ70 may influence the ensemble of conformational states adopted by RNA polymerase during initiation. These states, in turn, may affect the conformational states adopted by the elongating enzyme, thereby physically and functionally imprinting RNA polymerase. PMID:15650048

  7. Structural explanation for the role of Mn2+ in the activity of ϕ6 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Poranen, Minna M.; Salgado, Paula S.; Koivunen, Minni R. L.; Wright, Sam; Bamford, Dennis H.; Stuart, David I.; Grimes, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    The biological role of manganese (Mn2+) has been a long-standing puzzle, since at low concentrations it activates several polymerases whilst at higher concentrations it inhibits. Viral RNA polymerases possess a common architecture, reminiscent of a closed right hand. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of bacteriophage ϕ6 is one of the best understood examples of this important class of polymerases. We have probed the role of Mn2+ by biochemical, biophysical and structural analyses of the wild-type enzyme and of a mutant form with an altered Mn2+-binding site (E491 to Q). The E491Q mutant has much reduced affinity for Mn2+, reduced RNA binding and a compromised elongation rate. Loss of Mn2+ binding structurally stabilizes the enzyme. These data and a re-examination of the structures of other viral RNA polymerases clarify the role of manganese in the activation of polymerization: Mn2+ coordination of a catalytic aspartate is necessary to allow the active site to properly engage with the triphosphates of the incoming NTPs. The structural flexibility caused by Mn2+ is also important for the enzyme dynamics, explaining the requirement for manganese throughout RNA polymerization. PMID:18940872

  8. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: Addressing Zika outbreak by a phylogeny-based drug target study.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Preyesh; Lin, Sheng-Xiang

    2017-06-21

    Since the first major outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in 2007, ZIKV is spreading explosively through South and Central America, and recent reports in highly populated developing countries alarm the possibility of a more catastrophic outbreak. ZIKV infection in pregnant women leads to embryonic microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. At present, there is limited understanding of the infectious mechanism, and no approved therapy has been reported. Despite the withdrawal of public health emergency, the WHO still considers the ZIKV as a highly significant and long-term public health challenge that the situation has to be addressed rapidly. Non-structural protein 5 is essential for capping and replication of viral RNA and comprises a methyltransferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain. We used molecular modeling to obtain the structure of ZIKV RdRp, and by molecular docking and phylogeny analysis, we here demonstrate the potential sites for drug screening. Two metal binding sites and an NS3-interacting region in ZIKV RdRp are demonstrated as potential drug screening sites. The docked structures reveal a remarkable degree of conservation at the substrate binding site and the potential drug screening sites. A phylogeny-based approach is provided for an emergency preparedness, where similar class of ligands could target phylogenetically related proteins. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Long non-coding RNA produced by RNA polymerase V determines boundaries of heterochromatin

    PubMed Central

    Böhmdorfer, Gudrun; Sethuraman, Shriya; Rowley, M Jordan; Krzyszton, Michal; Rothi, M Hafiz; Bouzit, Lilia; Wierzbicki, Andrzej T

    2016-01-01

    RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing is a conserved process where small RNAs target transposons and other sequences for repression by establishing chromatin modifications. A central element of this process are long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA), which in Arabidopsis thaliana are produced by a specialized RNA polymerase known as Pol V. Here we show that non-coding transcription by Pol V is controlled by preexisting chromatin modifications located within the transcribed regions. Most Pol V transcripts are associated with AGO4 but are not sliced by AGO4. Pol V-dependent DNA methylation is established on both strands of DNA and is tightly restricted to Pol V-transcribed regions. This indicates that chromatin modifications are established in close proximity to Pol V. Finally, Pol V transcription is preferentially enriched on edges of silenced transposable elements, where Pol V transcribes into TEs. We propose that Pol V may play an important role in the determination of heterochromatin boundaries. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19092.001 PMID:27779094

  10. Basic Mechanisms in RNA Polymerase I Transcription of the Ribosomal RNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Goodfellow, Sarah J.; Zomerdijk, Joost C. B. M.

    2013-01-01

    RNA Polymerase (Pol) I produces ribosomal (r)RNA, an essential component of the cellular protein synthetic machinery that drives cell growth, underlying many fundamental cellular processes. Extensive research into the mechanisms governing transcription by Pol I has revealed an intricate set of control mechanisms impinging upon rRNA production. Pol I-specific transcription factors guide Pol I to the rDNA promoter and contribute to multiple rounds of transcription initiation, promoter escape, elongation and termination. In addition, many accessory factors are now known to assist at each stage of this transcription cycle, some of which allow the integration of transcriptional activity with metabolic demands. The organisation and accessibility of rDNA chromatin also impinge upon Pol I output, and complex mechanisms ensure the appropriate maintenance of the epigenetic state of the nucleolar genome and its effective transcription by Pol I. The following review presents our current understanding of the components of the Pol I transcription machinery, their functions and regulation by associated factors, and the mechanisms operating to ensure the proper transcription of rDNA chromatin. The importance of such stringent control is demonstrated by the fact that deregulated Pol I transcription is a feature of cancer and other disorders characterised by abnormal translational capacity. PMID:23150253

  11. Norovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: A computational study of metal-binding preferences.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Md Munan; Bhattacharjee, Nicholus; Feliks, Mikolaj; Ng, Kenneth K-S; Field, Martin J

    2017-04-06

    Norovirus (NV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) is essential for replicating the genome of the virus, which makes this enzyme a key target for the development of antiviral agents against NV gastroenteritis. In this work, a complex of NV RdRP bound to manganese ions and an RNA primer-template duplex was investigated using X-ray crystallography and hybrid quantum chemical/molecular mechanical simulations. Experimentally, the complex crystallized in a tetragonal crystal form. The nature of the primer/template duplex binding in the resulting structure indicates that the complex is a closed back-tracked state of the enzyme, in which the 3'-end of the primer occupies the position expected for the post-incorporated nucleotide before translocation. Computationally, it is found that the complex can accept a range of divalent metal cations without marked distortions in the active site structure. The highest binding energy is for copper, followed closely by manganese and iron, and then by zinc, nickel and cobalt. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. RNA editing by T7 RNA polymerase bypasses InDel mutations causing unexpected phenotypic changes

    PubMed Central

    Wons, Ewa; Furmanek-Blaszk, Beata; Sektas, Marian

    2015-01-01

    DNA-dependent T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP) is the most powerful tool for both gene expression and in vitro transcription. By using a Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) approach we have analyzed the polymorphism of a T7 RNAP-generated mRNA pool of the mboIIM2 gene. We find that the enzyme displays a relatively high level of template-dependent transcriptional infidelity. The nucleotide misincorporations and multiple insertions in A/T-rich tracts of homopolymers in mRNA (0.20 and 0.089%, respectively) cause epigenetic effects with significant impact on gene expression that is disproportionally high to their frequency of appearance. The sequence-dependent rescue of single and even double InDel frameshifting mutants and wild-type phenotype recovery is observed as a result. As a consequence, a heterogeneous pool of functional and non-functional proteins of almost the same molecular mass is produced where the proteins are indistinguishable from each other upon ordinary analysis. We suggest that transcriptional infidelity as a general feature of the most effective RNAPs may serve to repair and/or modify a protein function, thus increasing the repertoire of phenotypic variants, which in turn has a high evolutionary potential. PMID:25824942

  13. Comparative analysis of RNA silencing suppression activities between viral suppressors and an endogenous plant RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Han, Kyoung-Sik; Park, Han-Yong; Choi, Seung-Kook

    2012-06-01

    RNA silencing is an evolutionarily conserved system that functions as an antiviral mechanism in eukaryotes, including higher plants. To counteract this, several plant viruses express silencing suppressors that inhibit RNA silencing in host plants. Here, we show that both 2b protein from peanut stunt virus (PSV) and a hairpin construct (designated hp-RDR6) that silences endogenous RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) strongly suppress RNA silencing. The Agrobacterium infiltration system was used to demonstrate that both PSV 2b and hp-RDR6 suppressed local RNA silencing as strongly as helper component (HC-Pro) from potato virus Y (PVY) and P19 from tomato bush stunt virus (TBSV). The 2b protein from PSV eliminated the small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) associated with RNA silencing and prevented systemic silencing, similar to 2b protein from cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). On the other hand, hp-RDR6 suppressed RNA silencing by inhibiting the generation of secondary siRNAs. The small coat protein (SCP) of squash mosaic virus (SqMV) also displayed weak suppression activity of RNA silencing. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer was used to investigate whether viral silencing suppressors or hp-RDR6 enhanced accumulations of green fluorescence protein (GFP) and β-glucuronidase (GUS) as markers of expression in leaf tissues of Nicotina benthamiana. Expression of both GFP and GUS was significantly enhanced in the presence of PSV 2b or CMV 2b, compared to no suppression or the weak SqMV SCP suppressor. Co-expression with hp-RDR6 also significantly increased the expression of GFP and GUS to levels similar to those induced by PVY HC-Pro and TBSV P19.

  14. The action of actinomycin D on the transcription of T7 coliphage DNA by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Flamée, P A

    1985-09-01

    An actinomycin D molecule bound to DNA sometimes stops the synthesis of RNA by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. However, quite often, the bound antibiotic is released before the RNA polymerase detaches from the template DNA, so that the enzyme can resume, without interruption, the synthesis of the RNA chain.

  15. Epigenetic regulation of noncoding RNA transcription by mammalian RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Lyul; Lee, Yeon-Su; Kunkeaw, Nawapol; Kim, Seon-Young; Kim, In-Hoo; Lee, Yong Sun

    2017-02-01

    RNA polymerase III (Pol III) synthesizes a range of medium-sized noncoding RNAs (collectively 'Pol III genes') whose early established biological roles were so essential that they were considered 'housekeeping genes'. Besides these fundamental functions, diverse unconventional roles of mammalian Pol III genes have recently been recognized and their expression must be exquisitely controlled. In this review, we summarize the epigenetic regulation of Pol III genes by chromatin structure, histone modification and CpG DNA methylation. We also recapitulate the association between dysregulation of Pol III genes and diseases such as cancer and neurological disorders. Additionally, we will discuss why in-depth molecular studies of Pol III genes have not been attempted and how nc886, a Pol III gene, may resolve this issue.

  16. The non-coding B2 RNA binds to the DNA cleft and active site region of RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Ponicsan, Steven L.; Houel, Stephane; Old, William M.; Ahn, Natalie G.; Goodrich, James A.; Kugel, Jennifer F.

    2013-01-01

    The B2 family of short interspersed elements is transcribed into non-coding RNA by RNA polymerase III. The ~180 nt B2 RNA has been shown to potently repress mRNA transcription by binding tightly to RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and assembling with it into complexes on promoter DNA, where it keeps the polymerase from properly engaging the promoter DNA. Mammalian Pol II is a ~500 kD complex that contains 12 different protein subunits, providing many possible surfaces for interaction with B2 RNA. We found that the carboxy-terminal domain of the largest Pol II subunit was not required for B2 RNA to bind Pol II and repress transcription in vitro. To identify the surface on Pol II to which the minimal functional region of B2 RNA binds, we coupled multi-step affinity purification, reversible formaldehyde crosslinking, peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry, and analysis of peptide enrichment. The Pol II peptides most highly recovered after crosslinking to B2 RNA mapped to the DNA binding cleft and active site region of Pol II. These studies determine the location of a defined nucleic acid binding site on a large, native, multi-subunit complex and provide insight into the mechanism of transcriptional repression by B2 RNA. PMID:23416138

  17. Identification of four conserved motifs among the RNA-dependent polymerase encoding elements.

    PubMed Central

    Poch, O; Sauvaget, I; Delarue, M; Tordo, N

    1989-01-01

    Four consensus sequences are conserved with the same linear arrangement in RNA-dependent DNA polymerases encoded by retroid elements and in RNA-dependent RNA polymerases encoded by plus-, minus- and double-strand RNA viruses. One of these motifs corresponds to the YGDD span previously described by Kamer and Argos (1984). These consensus sequences altogether lead to 4 strictly and 18 conservatively maintained amino acids embedded in a large domain of 120 to 210 amino acids. As judged from secondary structure predictions, each of the 4 motifs, which may cooperate to form a well-ordered domain, places one invariant amino acid in or proximal to turn structures that may be crucial for their correct positioning in a catalytic process. We suggest that this domain may constitute a prerequisite 'polymerase module' implicated in template seating and polymerase activity. At the evolutionary level, the sequence similarities, gap distribution and distances between each motif strongly suggest that the ancestral polymerase module was encoded by an individual genetic element which was most closely related to the plus-strand RNA viruses and the non-viral retroposons. This polymerase module gene may have subsequently propagated in the viral kingdom by distinct gene set recombination events leading to the wide viral variety observed today. Images PMID:2555175

  18. Transcription factors that influence RNA polymerases I and II: To what extent is mechanism of action conserved?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinfeng; Najmi, Saman M; Schneider, David A

    2017-02-01

    In eukaryotic cells, nuclear RNA synthesis is accomplished by at least three unique, multisubunit RNA polymerases. The roles of these enzymes are generally partitioned into the synthesis of the three major classes of RNA: rRNA, mRNA, and tRNA for RNA polymerases I, II, and III respectively. Consistent with their unique cellular roles, each enzyme has a complement of specialized transcription factors and enzymatic properties. However, not all transcription factors have evolved to affect only one eukaryotic RNA polymerase. In fact, many factors have been shown to influence the activities of multiple nuclear RNA polymerases. This review focuses on a subset of these factors, specifically addressing the mechanisms by which these proteins influence RNA polymerases I and II.

  19. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 from Nicotiana tabacum suppresses RNA silencing and enhances viral infection in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Ying, Xiao-Bao; Dong, Li; Zhu, Hui; Duan, Cheng-Guo; Du, Quan-Sheng; Lv, Dian-Qiu; Fang, Yuan-Yuan; Garcia, Juan Antonio; Fang, Rong-Xiang; Guo, Hui-Shan

    2010-04-01

    Endogenous eukaryotic RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) produce double-stranded RNA intermediates in diverse processes of small RNA synthesis in RNA silencing pathways. RDR6 is required in plants for posttranscriptional gene silencing induced by sense transgenes (S-PTGS) and has an important role in amplification of antiviral silencing. Whereas RDR1 is also involved in antiviral defense in plants, this does not necessarily proceed through triggering silencing. In this study, we show that Nicotiana benthamiana transformed with RDR1 from Nicotiana tabacum (Nt-RDR1 plants) exhibits hypersusceptibility to Plum pox potyvirus and other viruses, resembling RDR6-silenced (RDR6i) N. benthamiana. Analysis of transient induction of RNA silencing in N. benthamiana Nt-RDR1 and RDR6i plants revealed that Nt-RDR1 possesses silencing suppression activity. We found that Nt-RDR1 does not interfere with RDR6-dependent siRNA accumulation but turns out to suppress RDR6-dependent S-PTGS. Our results, together with previously published data, suggest that RDR1 might have a dual role, contributing, on one hand, to salicylic acid-mediated antiviral defense, and suppressing, on the other hand, the RDR6-mediated antiviral RNA silencing. We propose a scenario in which the natural loss-of-function variant of RDR1 in N. benthamiana may be the outcome of selective pressure to maintain a high RDR6-dependent antiviral defense, which would be required to face the hypersensitivity of this plant to a large number of viruses.

  20. dsRNA interference on expression of a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene of Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhong-Hua; Gao, Kun; Hou, Cheng-Xiang; Wu, Ping; Qin, Guang-Xing; Geng, Tao; Guo, Xi-Jie

    2015-07-01

    Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) is one of the major viral pathogens in silkworm. Its infection often results in significant losses to sericulture. Studies have demonstrated that RNAi is one of the important anti-viral mechanisms in organisms. In this study, three dsRNAs targeting the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP) gene of BmCPV were designed and synthesized with 2'-F modification to explore their interference effects on BmCPV replication in silkworm larvae. The results showed that injecting dsRNA in the dosage of 4-6 ng per mg body weight into the 5th instar larvae can interfere with the BmCPV-RDRP expression by 93% after virus infection and by 99.9% before virus infection. In addition, the expression of two viral structural protein genes (genome RNA segments 1 and 5) was also decreased with the decrease of RDRP expression, suggesting that RNAi interference of BmCPV-RDRP expression could affect viral replication. The study provides an effective method for investigating virus replication as well as the virus-host interactions in the silkworm larvae using dsRNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased levels of rat liver RNA polymerase I(A) and I(B) following the administration of triiodothyronine.

    PubMed

    Zoncheddu, A; Accomando, R; Pertica, M; Carlini, A; Orunesu, M

    1981-06-15

    The levels of the transcribing RNA polymerase I(B) in the nucleus and of the non-transcribing RNA polymerase I(A) in the cytoplasm are both approximately doubled 24 h after a single i.p. injection of triiodothyronine into thyroidectomized rats. This suggests that the triiodothyronine-induced stimulation of ribosomal RNA synthesis is associated with an increase in the total RNA polymerase I content of rat liver cells.

  2. A Template RNA Entry Channel in the Fingers Domain of the Poliovirus Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Kortus, Matthew G.; Kempf, Brian J.; Haworth, Kevin G.; Barton, David J.; Peersen, Olve B.

    2012-01-01

    Positive-strand RNA viruses within the Picornaviridae family express an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3Dpol) that is required for viral RNA replication. Structures of 3Dpol from poliovirus, coxsackievirus, human rhinoviruses, and other picornaviruses reveal a putative template RNA entry channel on the surface of the enzyme fingers domain. Basic amino acids and tyrosine residues along this entry channel are predicted to form ionic and base stacking interactions with the viral RNA template as it enters the polymerase active site. We generated a xseries of alanine substitution mutation sat these residues in the poliovirus polymerase and assayed their effects on template RNA binding, RNA synthesis initiation, rates of RNA elongation, elongation complex stability, and virus growth. The results show that basic residues K125, R128, and R188 are important for template RNA binding while tyrosines Y118 and Y148 are required for efficient initiation of RNA synthesis and for elongation complex stability. Alanine substitutions of tyrosines 118 and 148 at the tip of the 3Dpol pinky finger drastically decreased the rate of initiation as well as elongation complex stability, but without affecting template RNA binding or RNA elongation rates. Viable poliovirus was recovered from HeLa cells transfected with mutant RNAs; however, mutations that dramatically inhibited template RNA binding (K125A-K126A and R188A), RNA synthesis initiation (Y118A, Y148A), or elongation complex stability (Y118A, Y148A) were not stably maintained in progeny virus. These data identify key residues within the template RNA entry channel and begin to define their distinct mechanistic roles within RNA elongation complexes. PMID:22321798

  3. New insights into the promoterless transcription of DNA coligo templates by RNA polymerase III

    PubMed Central

    Lama, Lodoe; Seidl, Christine I; Ryan, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Chemically synthesized DNA can carry small RNA sequence information but converting that information into small RNA is generally thought to require large double-stranded promoters in the context of plasmids, viruses and genes. We previously found evidence that circularized oligodeoxynucleotides (coligos) containing certain sequences and secondary structures can template the synthesis of small RNA by RNA polymerase III in vitro and in human cells. By using immunoprecipitated RNA polymerase III we now report corroborating evidence that this enzyme is the sole polymerase responsible for coligo transcription. The immobilized polymerase enabled experiments showing that coligo transcripts can be formed through transcription termination without subsequent 3′ end trimming. To better define the determinants of productive transcription, a structure-activity relationship study was performed using over 20 new coligos. The results show that unpaired nucleotides in the coligo stem facilitate circumtranscription, but also that internal loops and bulges should be kept small to avoid secondary transcription initiation sites. A polymerase termination sequence embedded in the double-stranded region of a hairpin-encoding coligo stem can antagonize transcription. Using lessons learned from new and old coligos, we demonstrate how to convert poorly transcribed coligos into productive templates. Our findings support the possibility that coligos may prove useful as chemically synthesized vectors for the ectopic expression of small RNA in human cells. PMID:25764216

  4. Identification of distinct biological functions for four 3′-5′ RNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yicheng; Abad, Maria G.; Olson, Erik D.; Carrillo, Elisabeth Y.; Jackman, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    The superfamily of 3′-5′ polymerases synthesize RNA in the opposite direction to all other DNA/RNA polymerases, and its members include eukaryotic tRNAHis guanylyltransferase (Thg1), as well as Thg1-like proteins (TLPs) of unknown function that are broadly distributed, with family members in all three domains of life. Dictyostelium discoideum encodes one Thg1 and three TLPs (DdiTLP2, DdiTLP3 and DdiTLP4). Here, we demonstrate that depletion of each of the genes results in a significant growth defect, and that each protein catalyzes a unique biological reaction, taking advantage of specialized biochemical properties. DdiTLP2 catalyzes a mitochondria-specific tRNAHis maturation reaction, which is distinct from the tRNAHis maturation reaction typically catalyzed by Thg1 enzymes on cytosolic tRNA. DdiTLP3 catalyzes tRNA repair during mitochondrial tRNA 5′-editing in vivo and in vitro, establishing template-dependent 3′-5′ polymerase activity of TLPs as a bona fide biological activity for the first time since its unexpected discovery more than a decade ago. DdiTLP4 is cytosolic and, surprisingly, catalyzes robust 3′-5′ polymerase activity on non-tRNA substrates, strongly implying further roles for TLP 3′-5′ polymerases in eukaryotes. PMID:27484477

  5. New insights into the promoterless transcription of DNA coligo templates by RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed

    Lama, Lodoe; Seidl, Christine I; Ryan, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Chemically synthesized DNA can carry small RNA sequence information but converting that information into small RNA is generally thought to require large double-stranded promoters in the context of plasmids, viruses and genes. We previously found evidence that circularized oligodeoxynucleotides (coligos) containing certain sequences and secondary structures can template the synthesis of small RNA by RNA polymerase III in vitro and in human cells. By using immunoprecipitated RNA polymerase III we now report corroborating evidence that this enzyme is the sole polymerase responsible for coligo transcription. The immobilized polymerase enabled experiments showing that coligo transcripts can be formed through transcription termination without subsequent 3' end trimming. To better define the determinants of productive transcription, a structure-activity relationship study was performed using over 20 new coligos. The results show that unpaired nucleotides in the coligo stem facilitate circumtranscription, but also that internal loops and bulges should be kept small to avoid secondary transcription initiation sites. A polymerase termination sequence embedded in the double-stranded region of a hairpin-encoding coligo stem can antagonize transcription. Using lessons learned from new and old coligos, we demonstrate how to convert poorly transcribed coligos into productive templates. Our findings support the possibility that coligos may prove useful as chemically synthesized vectors for the ectopic expression of small RNA in human cells.

  6. Structural basis of transcription: mismatch-specific fidelity mechanisms and paused RNA polymerase II with frayed RNA.

    PubMed

    Sydow, Jasmin F; Brueckner, Florian; Cheung, Alan C M; Damsma, Gerke E; Dengl, Stefan; Lehmann, Elisabeth; Vassylyev, Dmitry; Cramer, Patrick

    2009-06-26

    We show that RNA polymerase (Pol) II prevents erroneous transcription in vitro with different strategies that depend on the type of DNARNA base mismatch. Certain mismatches are efficiently formed but impair RNA extension. Other mismatches allow for RNA extension but are inefficiently formed and efficiently proofread by RNA cleavage. X-ray analysis reveals that a TU mismatch impairs RNA extension by forming a wobble base pair at the Pol II active center that dissociates the catalytic metal ion and misaligns the RNA 3' end. The mismatch can also stabilize a paused state of Pol II with a frayed RNA 3' nucleotide. The frayed nucleotide binds in the Pol II pore either parallel or perpendicular to the DNA-RNA hybrid axis (fraying sites I and II, respectively) and overlaps the nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) site, explaining how it halts transcription during proofreading, before backtracking and RNA cleavage.

  7. In Vitro Synthesis of Rous Sarcoma Virus-Specific RNA is Catalyzed by a DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Rymo, L.; Parsons, J. T.; Coffin, J. M.; Weissmann, C.

    1974-01-01

    Synthesis of Rous sarcoma virus RNA was examined in vitro with a new assay for radioactive virus-specific RNA. Nuclei from infected and uninfected cells were incubated with ribonucleoside [α-32P]triphosphates, Mn++, Mg++ and (NH4)2SO4. Incorporation into total and viral RNA proceeded with similar kinetics for up to 25 min at 37°. About 0.5% of the RNA synthesized by the infected system was scored as virus-specific, compared to 0.03% of the RNA from the uninfected system and 0.005% of the RNA synthesized by monkey kidney cell nuclei. Preincubation with DNase or actinomycin D completely suppressed total and virus-specific RNA synthesis. α-Amanitin, a specific inhibitor of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II, completely inhibited virus-specific RNA synthesis, while reducing total RNA synthesis by only 50%. We conclude that tumor virus-specific RNA is synthesized on a DNA template, most probably by the host's RNA polymerase II. PMID:4368801

  8. Methyl mercury stimulates chain elongation by purified HeLa RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, G D; Ducote, J

    1988-11-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) inhibited the overall RNA synthetic reaction of HeLa RNA polymerase II. However, when RNA chain initiation was allowed to occur in its absence, MeHg stimulated the rate of the subsequent elongation stage of the reaction. Chain elongation with both double-stranded and single-stranded DNA templates was stimulated. This stimulatory effect was specific for MeHg; both p-hydroxymercuribenzoate and HgCl2 inhibited chain elongation (to about the same degree as they inhibited the overall reaction). The stimulatory effect was also specific for the HeLa polymerase; with Escherichia coli RNA polymerase, MeHg inhibited elongation (to the same degree as it inhibited the overall reaction).

  9. Positive modulation of RNA polymerase III transcription by ribosomal proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Dieci, Giorgio; Carpentieri, Andrea; Amoresano, Angela; Ottonello, Simone

    2009-02-06

    A yeast nuclear fraction of unknown composition, named TFIIIE, was reported previously to enhance transcription of tRNA and 5S rRNA genes in vitro. We show that TFIIIE activity co-purifies with a specific subset of ribosomal proteins (RPs) which, as revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, generally interact with tRNA and 5S rRNA genes, but not with a Pol II-specific promoter. Only Rpl6Ap and Rpl6Bp, among the tested RPs, were found associated to a TATA-containing tRNA{sup Ile}(TAT) gene. The RPL6A gene also emerged as a strong multicopy suppressor of a conditional mutation in the basal transcription factor TFIIIC, while RPL26A and RPL14A behaved as weak suppressors. The data delineate a novel extra-ribosomal role for one or a few RPs which, by influencing 5S rRNA and tRNA synthesis, could play a key role in the coordinate regulation of the different sub-pathways required for ribosome biogenesis and functionality.

  10. Multiple states of stalled T7 RNA polymerase at DNA lesions generated by platinum anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yongwon; Lippard, Stephen J

    2003-12-26

    Transcription inhibition by DNA adducts of cisplatin is considered to be one of the major routes by which this anticancer drug kills cancer cells. Stalled RNA polymerases at platinum-DNA lesions evoke various cellular responses such as nucleotide excision repair, polymerase degradation, and apoptosis. T7 RNA polymerase and site-specifically platinated DNA templates immobilized on a solid support were used to study stalled transcription elongation complexes. In vitro transcription studies were performed in both a promoter-dependent and -independent manner. An elongation complex is strongly blocked by cisplatin 1,2-intrastrand d(GpG) and 1,3-intrastrand d(GpTpG) cross-links located on the template strand. Polymerase action is inhibited at multiple sites in the vicinity of the platinum lesion, the nature of which can be altered by the choice and concentration of NTPs. The [(1R,2R-diaminocyclohexane)Pt]2+ DNA adducts formed by oxaliplatin, which carries a stereochemically more demanding spectator ligand than the ammine groups in cisplatin, also strongly block the polymerase with measurable differences compared with cis-[(NH3)2Pt]2+ lesions. Elongation complexes stopped at sites of platinum damage were isolated and characterized. The stalled polymerase can be dissociated from the DNA by subsequent polymerases initiated from the same template. We also discovered that a polymerase stalled at the platinum-DNA lesion can resume transcription after the platinum adduct is chemically removed from the template.

  11. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Citrus tristeza virus forms oligomers.

    PubMed

    Cevik, Bayram

    2013-12-01

    The RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) from Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were tagged with HA and FLAG epitopes. Differentially tagged proteins were expressed either individually or concomitantly in Escherichia coli. Immunoprecipitation of the expressed proteins with anti-FLAG antibody followed by Western blot with anti-HA antibody demonstrated that molecules of RdRp from CTV interact to form oligomers. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that molecules of RdRp interact in eukaryotic cells. Co-immunoprecipitation with anti-FLAG antibody of truncated HA-tagged RdRps (RdRpΔ1-166-HA, RdRpΔ1-390-HA, RdRp1-169-HA) co-expressed with full-length RdRp-FLAG showed that only RdRp1-169-HA interacted with the full-length FLAG-RdRp. Yeast two-hybrid assays with truncated RdRp constructs confirmed that the oligomerization site resides in the N-terminal region and that the first 169 aa of CTV RdRp are necessary and sufficient for oligomerization both in bacterial and yeast cells. Development of control strategies targeting viral RdRp oligomer formation may inhibit virus replication and prove useful in control of CTV. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Activation and reactivation of the RNA polymerase II trigger loop for intrinsic RNA cleavage and catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Čabart, Pavel; Jin, Huiyan; Li, Liangtao; Kaplan, Craig D

    2014-01-01

    In addition to RNA synthesis, multisubunit RNA polymerases (msRNAPs) support enzymatic reactions such as intrinsic transcript cleavage. msRNAP active sites from different species appear to exhibit differential intrinsic transcript cleavage efficiency and have likely evolved to allow fine-tuning of the transcription process. Here we show that a single amino-acid substitution in the trigger loop (TL) of Saccharomyces RNAP II, Rpb1 H1085Y, engenders a gain of intrinsic cleavage activity where the substituted tyrosine appears to participate in acid-base chemistry at alkaline pH for both intrinsic cleavage and nucleotidyl transfer. We extensively characterize this TL substitution for each of these reactions by examining the responses RNAP II enzymes to catalytic metals, altered pH, and factor inputs. We demonstrate that TFIIF stimulation of the first phosphodiester bond formation by RNAP II requires wild type TL function and that H1085Y substitution within the TL compromises or alters RNAP II responsiveness to both TFIIB and TFIIF. Finally, Mn2+ stimulation of H1085Y RNAP II reveals possible allosteric effects of TFIIB on the active center and cooperation between TFIIB and TFIIF. PMID:25764335

  13. Potent Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors of the Measles Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Complex

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Aiming; Yoon, Jeong-Joong; Yin, Yan; Prussia, Andrew; Yang, Yutao; Min, Jaeki; Plemper, Richard K.; Snyder, James P.

    2008-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) is one of the most infectious pathogens known. In spite of the existence of a vaccine, approximately 350,000 deaths/year result from MV or associated complications. Anti-measles compounds could conceivably diminish these statistics and provide a therapy that complements vaccine treatment. We recently described a high-throughput screening hit compound 1 (16677) against MV-infected cells with the capacity to eliminate viral reproduction at 250 nM by inhibiting the action of the virus’s RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex (RdRp). The compound, 1-methyl-3-(trifluoromethyl)-N-[4-sulfonylphenyl]-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide, carries a critical CF3 moiety on the 1,2-pyrazole ring. Elaborating on the preliminary structure-activity (SAR) study, the present work presents the synthesis and SAR of a much broader range of low nanomolar non-peptidic MV inhibitors and speculates on the role of the CF3 functionality.1 PMID:18529043

  14. Transcription of ribosomal RNA: the role of antitermination of RNA polymerase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpp, Stefan; Hwa, Terry

    2007-03-01

    The genes encoding ribosomal RNA are transcribed at high rates of 1-2 transcripts per second. These high transcription rates are crucial to maintain the large concentration of ribosomes necessary in fast growing bacteria. To understand how transcription is regulated under these conditions, we developed a model for the traffic of transcribing RNA polymerases (RNAP). Our simulations show that the transcription rate is limited by the elongation stage of transcription rather than by transcript initiation. The maximal transcription rate is severly impaired by RNAP pausing with pause durations in the second range which is ubiquitous under single-molecule conditions. We propose that ribosomal antitermination reduces pauses and thereby increases the transcription rate. This idea is in quantitative agreement with the observed increase of the elongation rate due to antitermination and predicts a two-fold increase of the transcription rate. Antitermination must be highly efficient, since incomplete antitermination with only a few percent of non-antiterminated, i.e. slow, RNAPs completely abolishes its effect. This result suggests that rho-dependent termination may selectively terminate slow RNAPs.

  15. Crystal Structure of Complete Rhinovirus RNA Polymerase Suggests Front Loading of Protein Primer

    PubMed Central

    Appleby, Todd C.; Luecke, Hartmut; Shim, Jae Hoon; Wu, Jim Z.; Cheney, I. Wayne; Zhong, Weidong; Vogeley, Lutz; Hong, Zhi; Yao, Nanhua

    2005-01-01

    Picornaviruses utilize virally encoded RNA polymerase and a uridylylated protein primer to ensure replication of the entire viral genome. The molecular details of this mechanism are not well understood due to the lack of structural information. We report the crystal structure of human rhinovirus 16 3D RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (HRV16 3Dpol) at a 2.4-Å resolution, representing the first complete polymerase structure from the Picornaviridae family. HRV16 3Dpol shares the canonical features of other known polymerase structures and contains an N-terminal region that tethers the fingers and thumb subdomains, forming a completely encircled active site cavity which is accessible through a small tunnel on the backside of the molecule. The small thumb subdomain contributes to the formation of a large cleft on the front face of the polymerase which also leads to the active site. The cleft appears large enough to accommodate a template:primer duplex during RNA elongation or a protein primer during the uridylylation stage of replication initiation. Based on the structural features of HRV16 3Dpo1 and the catalytic mechanism known for all polymerases, a front-loading model for uridylylation is proposed. PMID:15596823

  16. RNA polymerase and transcription elongation factor Spt4/5 complex structure

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Brianna J.; Bose, Daniel; Baker, Kevin J.; Yusoff, Zahirah M.; Zhang, Xiaodong; Murakami, Katsuhiko S.

    2011-01-01

    Spt4/5 in archaea and eukaryote and its bacterial homolog NusG is the only elongation factor conserved in all three domains of life and plays many key roles in cotranscriptional regulation and in recruiting other factors to the elongating RNA polymerase. Here, we present the crystal structure of Spt4/5 as well as the structure of RNA polymerase-Spt4/5 complex using cryoelectron microscopy reconstruction and single particle analysis. The Spt4/5 binds in the middle of RNA polymerase claw and encloses the DNA, reminiscent of the DNA polymerase clamp and ring helicases. The transcription elongation complex model reveals that the Spt4/5 is an upstream DNA holder and contacts the nontemplate DNA in the transcription bubble. These structures reveal that the cellular RNA polymerases also use a strategy of encircling DNA to enhance its processivity as commonly observed for many nucleic acid processing enzymes including DNA polymerases and helicases. PMID:21187417

  17. Subunit Compositions of the RNA-Silencing Enzymes Pol IV and Pol V Reveal Their Origins as Specialized Forms of RNA Polymerase II

    SciTech Connect

    Ream, Thomas S.; Haag, J. R.; Wierzbicki, A. T.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Zhu, J. K.; Hagen, G.; Guilfoyle, T. J.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2009-01-30

    In addition to RNA polymerases I, II and III, which are multi-subunit RNA polymerases found in all eukaryotes, plants have catalytic subunits for two additional nuclear RNA polymerases, abbreviated as Pol IV and Pol V (formerly Pol IVa and Pol IVb, respectively). Pol IV and Pol V play non-redundant roles in siRNA-directed DNA methylation and gene silencing pathways.

  18. In vitro transcription of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 is RNA polymerase II dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Lenzmeier, B A; Nyborg, J K

    1997-01-01

    The HTLV-1 promoter directs RNA polymerase II transcription of viral genomic RNA in vivo. However, it has been reported that in vitro, a unique RNA polymerase, with characteristics of RNA polymerases II and III, is capable of HTLV-1 transcription (G. Piras, F. Kashanchi, M. F. Radonovich, J. F. Duvall, and J. N. Brady, J. Virol. 68:6170-6179, 1994). To further characterize the polymerase involved in HTLV-1 transcription in vitro, runoff transcription assays were performed with a variety of extracts and RNA polymerase inhibitors. Under all in vitro reaction conditions tested, RNA polymerase II appeared to be the only polymerase capable of correct transcriptional initiation from the HTLV-1 promoter. Synthesis of the specific HTLV-1 RNA transcript showed sensitivities to the RNA polymerase inhibitors tagetitoxin and alpha-amanitin that are consistent with RNA polymerase II transcription. Together, these data indicate that in vitro, as in vivo, the HTLV-1 promoter directs transcription by RNA polymerase II. PMID:9032404

  19. RNA polymerase activity associated with bacteriophage phi 6.

    PubMed

    Van Etten, J L; Vidaver, A K; Koski, R K; Semancik, J S

    1973-09-01

    The Pseudomonas phaseolicola bacteriophage phi6 incorporated labeled UTP into an acid-insoluble precipitate. Incorporation was dependent on the presence of manganese acetate, ATP, GTP, CTP, and a short heat treatment of the phage; the reaction was stimulated by NH(4)Cl. The substitution of (14)C-ATP, -CTP or -GTP for UTP, together with the appropriate unlabeled ribonucleoside triphosphates, disclosed that CMP was incorporated to the greatest extent followed by GMP, UMP, and AMP. Radioactive RNAs formed by the reaction were resistant to RNases A and T(1) in high salt but susceptible to these nucleases in low salt. The labeled RNA co-sedimented and co-electrophoresed with phi6 double-stranded (ds) RNA. However, the distribution of the radioactivity into the three ds-RNA components varied depending on the (14)C-ribonucleoside triphosphate used in the reaction. The incorporation of UMP was primarily into the two smaller ds-RNA segments, GMP primarily into the large ds-RNA segment, and CMP and AMP were about equally distributed into all three ds-RNA segments.

  20. Altered minor-groove hydrogen bonds in DNA block transcription elongation by T7 RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Tanasova, Marina; Goeldi, Silvan; Meyer, Fabian; Hanawalt, Philip C; Spivak, Graciela; Sturla, Shana J

    2015-05-26

    DNA transcription depends upon the highly efficient and selective function of RNA polymerases (RNAPs). Modifications in the template DNA can impact the progression of RNA synthesis, and a number of DNA adducts, as well as abasic sites, arrest or stall transcription. Nonetheless, data are needed to understand why certain modifications to the structure of DNA bases stall RNA polymerases while others are efficiently bypassed. In this study, we evaluate the impact that alterations in dNTP/rNTP base-pair geometry have on transcription. T7 RNA polymerase was used to study transcription over modified purines and pyrimidines with altered H-bonding capacities. The results suggest that introducing wobble base-pairs into the DNA:RNA heteroduplex interferes with transcriptional elongation and stalls RNA polymerase. However, transcriptional stalling is not observed if mismatched base-pairs do not H-bond. Together, these studies show that RNAP is able to discriminate mismatches resulting in wobble base-pairs, and suggest that, in cases of modifications with minor steric impact, DNA:RNA heteroduplex geometry could serve as a controlling factor for initiating transcription-coupled DNA repair. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. One severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein complex integrates processive RNA polymerase and exonuclease activities.

    PubMed

    Subissi, Lorenzo; Posthuma, Clara C; Collet, Axelle; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Decroly, Etienne; Snijder, Eric J; Canard, Bruno; Imbert, Isabelle

    2014-09-16

    In addition to members causing milder human infections, the Coronaviridae family includes potentially lethal zoonotic agents causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome. The ∼30-kb positive-stranded RNA genome of coronaviruses encodes a replication/transcription machinery that is unusually complex and composed of 16 nonstructural proteins (nsps). SARS-CoV nsp12, the canonical RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), exhibits poorly processive RNA synthesis in vitro, at odds with the efficient replication of a very large RNA genome in vivo. Here, we report that SARS-CoV nsp7 and nsp8 activate and confer processivity to the RNA-synthesizing activity of nsp12. Using biochemical assays and reverse genetics, the importance of conserved nsp7 and nsp8 residues was probed. Whereas several nsp7 mutations affected virus replication to a limited extent, the replacement of two nsp8 residues (P183 and R190) essential for interaction with nsp12 and a third (K58) critical for the interaction of the polymerase complex with RNA were all lethal to the virus. Without a loss of processivity, the nsp7/nsp8/nsp12 complex can associate with nsp14, a bifunctional enzyme bearing 3'-5' exoribonuclease and RNA cap N7-guanine methyltransferase activities involved in replication fidelity and 5'-RNA capping, respectively. The identification of this tripartite polymerase complex that in turn associates with the nsp14 proofreading enzyme sheds light on how coronaviruses assemble an RNA-synthesizing machinery to replicate the largest known RNA genomes. This protein complex is a fascinating example of the functional integration of RNA polymerase, capping, and proofreading activities.

  2. One severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein complex integrates processive RNA polymerase and exonuclease activities

    PubMed Central

    Subissi, Lorenzo; Posthuma, Clara C.; Collet, Axelle; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Decroly, Etienne; Snijder, Eric J.; Canard, Bruno; Imbert, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    In addition to members causing milder human infections, the Coronaviridae family includes potentially lethal zoonotic agents causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome. The ∼30-kb positive-stranded RNA genome of coronaviruses encodes a replication/transcription machinery that is unusually complex and composed of 16 nonstructural proteins (nsps). SARS-CoV nsp12, the canonical RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), exhibits poorly processive RNA synthesis in vitro, at odds with the efficient replication of a very large RNA genome in vivo. Here, we report that SARS-CoV nsp7 and nsp8 activate and confer processivity to the RNA-synthesizing activity of nsp12. Using biochemical assays and reverse genetics, the importance of conserved nsp7 and nsp8 residues was probed. Whereas several nsp7 mutations affected virus replication to a limited extent, the replacement of two nsp8 residues (P183 and R190) essential for interaction with nsp12 and a third (K58) critical for the interaction of the polymerase complex with RNA were all lethal to the virus. Without a loss of processivity, the nsp7/nsp8/nsp12 complex can associate with nsp14, a bifunctional enzyme bearing 3′-5′ exoribonuclease and RNA cap N7-guanine methyltransferase activities involved in replication fidelity and 5′-RNA capping, respectively. The identification of this tripartite polymerase complex that in turn associates with the nsp14 proofreading enzyme sheds light on how coronaviruses assemble an RNA-synthesizing machinery to replicate the largest known RNA genomes. This protein complex is a fascinating example of the functional integration of RNA polymerase, capping, and proofreading activities. PMID:25197083

  3. Rifampicin-resistance, rpoB polymorphism and RNA polymerase genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Alifano, Pietro; Palumbo, Carla; Pasanisi, Daniela; Talà, Adelfia

    2015-05-20

    Following its introduction in 1967, rifampicin has become a mainstay of therapy in the treatment of tuberculosis, leprosy and many other widespread diseases. Its potent antibacterial activity is due to specific inhibition of bacterial RNA polymerase. However, resistance to rifampicin was reported shortly after its introduction in the medical practice. Studies in the model organism Escherichia coli helped to define the molecular mechanism of rifampicin-resistance demonstrating that resistance is mostly due to chromosomal mutations in rpoB gene encoding the RNA polymerase β chain. These studies also revealed the amazing potential of the molecular genetics to elucidate the structure-function relationships in bacterial RNA polymerase. The scope of this paper is to illustrate how rifampicin-resistance has been recently exploited to better understand the regulatory mechanisms that control bacterial cell physiology and virulence, and how this information has been used to maneuver, on a global scale, gene expression in bacteria of industrial interest. In particular, we reviewed recent literature regarding: (i) the effects of rpoB mutations conferring rifampicin-resistance on transcription dynamics, bacterial fitness, physiology, metabolism and virulence; (ii) the occurrence in nature of "mutant-type" or duplicated rifampicin-resistant RNA polymerases; and (iii) the RNA polymerase genetic engineering method for strain improvement and drug discovery.

  4. Purification and Subunit Structure of DNA-dependent RNA Polymerase III from Wheat Germ 1

    PubMed Central

    Jendrisak, Jerry

    1981-01-01

    A rapid and simple, large-scale method for the purification of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase III (EC 2.7.7.6) from wheat germ is presented. The method involves enzyme extraction at low ionic strength, polyethyleneimine fractionation, (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, and chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B, DEAE-cellulose, and heparin agarose. Milligram quantities of highly purified enzyme can be obtained from kilogram quantities of starting material in 2 to 3 days. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicates that RNA polymerase III contains 14 subunits with molecular weights of: 150,000; 130,000; 94,000; 55,000; 38,000; 30,000; 28,000; 25,000; 24,500; 20,500; 20,000; 19,500; 17,800; and 17,000. Subunit structure comparison of wheat germ RNA polymerases I, II, and III indicates that all three enzymes may contain common subunits with molecular weights 20,000, 17,800, and 17,000. In addition, RNA polymerases II and III may contain a common subunit with a molecular weight of 25,000, and RNA polymerases I and III may contain a common subunit with a molecular weight of 38,000. Images PMID:16661690

  5. RNA Primer Extension Hinders DNA Synthesis by Escherichia coli Mutagenic DNA Polymerase IV.

    PubMed

    Tashjian, Tommy F; Lin, Ida; Belt, Verena; Cafarelli, Tiziana M; Godoy, Veronica G

    2017-01-01

    In Escherichia coli the highly conserved DNA damage regulated dinB gene encodes DNA Polymerase IV (DinB), an error prone specialized DNA polymerase with a central role in stress-induced mutagenesis. Since DinB is the DNA polymerase with the highest intracellular concentrations upon induction of the SOS response, further regulation must exist to maintain genomic stability. Remarkably, we find that DinB DNA synthesis is inherently poor when using an RNA primer compared to a DNA primer, while high fidelity DNA polymerases are known to have no primer preference. Moreover, we show that the poor DNA synthesis from an RNA primer is conserved in DNA polymerase Kappa, the human DinB homolog. The activity of DinB is modulated by interactions with several other proteins, one of which is the equally evolutionarily conserved recombinase RecA. This interaction is known to positively affect DinB's fidelity on damaged templates. We find that upon interaction with RecA, DinB shows a significant reduction in DNA synthesis when using an RNA primer. Furthermore, with DinB or DinB:RecA a robust pause, sequence and lesion independent, occurs only when RNA is used as a primer. The robust pause is likely to result in abortive DNA synthesis when RNA is the primer. These data suggest a novel mechanism to prevent DinB synthesis when it is not needed despite its high concentrations, thus protecting genome stability.

  6. RNA Primer Extension Hinders DNA Synthesis by Escherichia coli Mutagenic DNA Polymerase IV

    PubMed Central

    Tashjian, Tommy F.; Lin, Ida; Belt, Verena; Cafarelli, Tiziana M.; Godoy, Veronica G.

    2017-01-01

    In Escherichia coli the highly conserved DNA damage regulated dinB gene encodes DNA Polymerase IV (DinB), an error prone specialized DNA polymerase with a central role in stress-induced mutagenesis. Since DinB is the DNA polymerase with the highest intracellular concentrations upon induction of the SOS response, further regulation must exist to maintain genomic stability. Remarkably, we find that DinB DNA synthesis is inherently poor when using an RNA primer compared to a DNA primer, while high fidelity DNA polymerases are known to have no primer preference. Moreover, we show that the poor DNA synthesis from an RNA primer is conserved in DNA polymerase Kappa, the human DinB homolog. The activity of DinB is modulated by interactions with several other proteins, one of which is the equally evolutionarily conserved recombinase RecA. This interaction is known to positively affect DinB’s fidelity on damaged templates. We find that upon interaction with RecA, DinB shows a significant reduction in DNA synthesis when using an RNA primer. Furthermore, with DinB or DinB:RecA a robust pause, sequence and lesion independent, occurs only when RNA is used as a primer. The robust pause is likely to result in abortive DNA synthesis when RNA is the primer. These data suggest a novel mechanism to prevent DinB synthesis when it is not needed despite its high concentrations, thus protecting genome stability. PMID:28298904

  7. Topoisomerase IIα promotes activation of RNA polymerase I transcription by facilitating pre-initiation complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Swagat; Panova, Tatiana; Miller, Gail; Volkov, Arsen; Porter, Andrew C. G.; Russell, Jackie; Panov, Konstantin I.; Zomerdijk, Joost C. B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Type II DNA topoisomerases catalyse DNA double-strand cleavage, passage and re-ligation to effect topological changes. There is considerable interest in elucidating topoisomerase II roles, particularly as these proteins are targets for anti-cancer drugs. Here we uncover a role for topoisomerase IIα in RNA polymerase I-directed ribosomal RNA gene transcription, which drives cell growth and proliferation and is upregulated in cancer cells. Our data suggest that topoisomerase IIα is a component of the initiation-competent RNA polymerase Iβ complex and interacts directly with RNA polymerase I-associated transcription factor RRN3, which targets the polymerase to promoter-bound SL1 in pre-initiation complex formation. In cells, activation of rDNA transcription is reduced by inhibition or depletion of topoisomerase II, and this is accompanied by reduced transient double-strand DNA cleavage in the rDNA-promoter region and reduced pre-initiation complex formation. We propose that topoisomerase IIα functions in RNA polymerase I transcription to produce topological changes at the rDNA promoter that facilitate efficient de novo pre-initiation complex formation. PMID:23511463

  8. Structure of a transcribing RNA polymerase II-DSIF complex reveals a multidentate DNA-RNA clamp.

    PubMed

    Bernecky, Carrie; Plitzko, Jürgen M; Cramer, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    During transcription, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) associates with the conserved elongation factor DSIF. DSIF renders the elongation complex stable and functions during Pol II pausing and RNA processing. We combined cryo-EM and X-ray crystallography to determine the structure of the mammalian Pol II-DSIF elongation complex at a nominal resolution of 3.4 Å. Human DSIF has a modular structure with two domains forming a DNA clamp, two domains forming an RNA clamp, and one domain buttressing the RNA clamp. The clamps maintain the transcription bubble, position upstream DNA, and retain the RNA transcript in the exit tunnel. The mobile C-terminal region of DSIF is located near exiting RNA, where it can recruit factors for RNA processing. The structure provides insight into the roles of DSIF during mRNA synthesis.

  9. Transcription elongation. Heterogeneous tracking of RNA polymerase and its biological implications.

    PubMed

    Imashimizu, Masahiko; Shimamoto, Nobuo; Oshima, Taku; Kashlev, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of transcription elongation via pausing of RNA polymerase has multiple physiological roles. The pausing mechanism depends on the sequence heterogeneity of the DNA being transcribed, as well as on certain interactions of polymerase with specific DNA sequences. In order to describe the mechanism of regulation, we introduce the concept of heterogeneity into the previously proposed alternative models of elongation, power stroke and Brownian ratchet. We also discuss molecular origins and physiological significances of the heterogeneity.

  10. Novel application of Phi29 DNA polymerase: RNA detection and analysis in vitro and in situ by target RNA-primed RCA

    PubMed Central

    Lagunavicius, Arunas; Merkiene, Egle; Kiveryte, Zivile; Savaneviciute, Agne; Zimbaite-Ruskuliene, Vilma; Radzvilavicius, Tomas; Janulaitis, Arvydas

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel Phi29 DNA polymerase application in RCA-based target RNA detection and analysis. The 3′→5′ RNase activity of Phi29 DNA polymerase converts target RNA into a primer and the polymerase uses this newly generated primer for RCA initiation. Therefore, using target RNA-primed RCA, padlock probes may be targeted to inner RNA sequences and their peculiarities can be analyzed directly. We demonstrate that the exoribonucleolytic activity of Phi29 DNA polymerase can be successfully applied in vitro and in situ. These findings expand the potential for detection and analysis of RNA sequences distanced from 3′-end. PMID:19244362

  11. Stability of the mitochondrial genome requires an amino-terminal domain of yeast mitochondrial RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanhong; Shadel, Gerald S.

    1999-01-01

    Mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) polymerases are related to bacteriophage RNA polymerases, but contain a unique amino-terminal extension of unknown origin and function. In addition to harboring mitochondrial targeting information, we show here that the amino-terminal extension of yeast mtRNA polymerase is required for a mtDNA maintenance function that is separable from the known RNA polymerization activity of the enzyme. Deletion of 185 N-terminal amino acids from the enzyme results in a temperature-sensitive mitochondrial petite phenotype, characterized by increased instability and eventual loss of the mitochondrial genome. Mitochondrial transcription initiation in vivo is largely unaffected by this mutation and expression of just the amino-terminal portion of the protein in trans partially suppresses the mitochondrial defect, indicating that the amino-terminal extension of the enzyme harbors an independent functional domain that is required for mtDNA replication and/or stability. These results suggest that amino-terminal extensions present in mtRNA polymerases comprise functional domains that couple additional activities to the transcription process in mitochondria. PMID:10393945

  12. Relatedness of archaebacterial RNA polymerase core subunits to their eubacterial and eukaryotic equivalents.

    PubMed Central

    Berghöfer, B; Kröckel, L; Körtner, C; Truss, M; Schallenberg, J; Klein, A

    1988-01-01

    The sequence of the genes encoding the four largest subunits of the RNA polymerase of the archaebacterium Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum was determined and putative translation signals were identified. The genes are more strongly homologous to eukaryotic than to eubacterial RNA polymerase genes. Analysis of the polypeptide sequences revealed colinearity of two pairs of adjacent archaebacterial genes encoding the B" and B' or A and C genes, respectively, with two eubacterial and two eukaryotic genes each encoding the two largest RNA polymerase subunits. This difference in sequence organization is discussed in terms of gene fusion in the course of evolution. The degree of conservation is much higher between the archaebacterial and the eukaryotic polypeptides than between the archaebacterial and the eubacterial enzyme. Putative functional domains were identified in two of the subunits of the archaebacterial enzyme. PMID:2843811

  13. Transcriptional bursting is intrinsically caused by interplay between RNA polymerases on DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Keisuke; Iwaki, Mitsuhiro; Yanagida, Toshio

    2016-12-01

    Cell-to-cell variability plays a critical role in cellular responses and decision-making in a population, and transcriptional bursting has been broadly studied by experimental and theoretical approaches as the potential source of cell-to-cell variability. Although molecular mechanisms of transcriptional bursting have been proposed, there is little consensus. An unsolved key question is whether transcriptional bursting is intertwined with many transcriptional regulatory factors or is an intrinsic characteristic of RNA polymerase on DNA. Here we design an in vitro single-molecule measurement system to analyse the kinetics of transcriptional bursting. The results indicate that transcriptional bursting is caused by interplay between RNA polymerases on DNA. The kinetics of in vitro transcriptional bursting is quantitatively consistent with the gene-nonspecific kinetics previously observed in noisy gene expression in vivo. Our kinetic analysis based on a cellular automaton model confirms that arrest and rescue by trailing RNA polymerase intrinsically causes transcriptional bursting.

  14. [Cancers associated with systemic sclerosis involving anti-RNA polymerase III antibodies].

    PubMed

    Monfort, J-B; Mathian, A; Amoura, Z; Francès, C; Barbaud, A; Senet, P

    2017-09-13

    The incidence of cancer is increased in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Further, recent studies have also shown that the presence of anti-RNA polymerase III antibodies is associated with a higher incidence of cancer in this population. Herein we present the cases of two men aged 56 and 23 years presenting SSc without anti-Scl70 or anti-centromere antibodies but with anti-RNA polymerase III antibodies. Clinical symptoms led us to prescribe more laboratory exams and both patients were diagnosed with cancer of the nasopharyngeal area. Anti-RNA polymerase III antibodies are useful for SSc diagnosis in patients without anti-centromere or anti-Scl70 antibodies. Their presence must lead physicians to screen for associated cancer, even in the absence of clinical signs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship of CDK-activating kinase and RNA polymerase II CTD kinase TFIIH/TFIIK.

    PubMed

    Feaver, W J; Svejstrup, J Q; Henry, N L; Kornberg, R D

    1994-12-16

    KIN28, a member of the p34cdc2/CDC28 family of protein kinases, is identified as a subunit of yeast RNA polymerase transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) on the basis of sequence determination, immunological reactivity, and copurification. KIN28 is, moreover, one of three subunits of TFIIK, a subassembly of TFIIH with protein kinase activity directed toward the C-terminal repeat domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Itself a phosphoprotein, KIN28 interacts specifically with the two largest subunits of RNA polymerase II. Previous work of others points to two further associations: KIN28 interacts in vivo with the cyclin CCL1, and KIN28 and CCL1 are homologous to human MO15 and cyclin H, which form the cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase (CAK). We show that human CAK possesses the CTD kinase activity characteristic of TFIIH.

  16. Transcriptional bursting is intrinsically caused by interplay between RNA polymerases on DNA

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Keisuke; Iwaki, Mitsuhiro; Yanagida, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Cell-to-cell variability plays a critical role in cellular responses and decision-making in a population, and transcriptional bursting has been broadly studied by experimental and theoretical approaches as the potential source of cell-to-cell variability. Although molecular mechanisms of transcriptional bursting have been proposed, there is little consensus. An unsolved key question is whether transcriptional bursting is intertwined with many transcriptional regulatory factors or is an intrinsic characteristic of RNA polymerase on DNA. Here we design an in vitro single-molecule measurement system to analyse the kinetics of transcriptional bursting. The results indicate that transcriptional bursting is caused by interplay between RNA polymerases on DNA. The kinetics of in vitro transcriptional bursting is quantitatively consistent with the gene-nonspecific kinetics previously observed in noisy gene expression in vivo. Our kinetic analysis based on a cellular automaton model confirms that arrest and rescue by trailing RNA polymerase intrinsically causes transcriptional bursting. PMID:27924870

  17. Single molecule imaging of RNA polymerase II using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodin, Thor; Fu, Jianhua; Umemura, Kazuo; Gad, Mohammed; Jarvis, Suzi; Ishikawa, Mitsuru

    2003-03-01

    An atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of the shape, orientation and surface topology of RNA polymerase II supported on silanized freshly cleaved mica was made. The overall aim is to define the molecular topology of RNA polymerase II in appropriate fluids to help clarify the relationship of conformational features to biofunctionality. A Nanoscope III atomic force microscope was used in the tapping mode with oxide-sharpened (8-10 nm) Si 3N 4 probes in aqueous zinc chloride buffer. The main structural features observed by AFM were compared to those derived from electron-density plots based on X-ray crystallographic studies. The conformational features included a bilobal silhouette with an inverted umbrella-shaped crater connected to a reaction site. These studies provide a starting point for constructing a 3D-AFM profiling analysis of proteins such as RNA polymerase complexes.

  18. The Streptomyces galP1 promoter has a novel RNA polymerase recognition sequence and is transcribed by a new form of RNA polymerase in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, M E; Mattern, S G; Babcock, M J; Westpheling, J

    1997-01-01

    We report the identification of DNA sequences that determine the activity of the Streptomyces galP1 promoter and a new form of RNA polymerase holoenzyme that recognizes these sequences in vitro. Base substitutions were introduced throughout the galP1 promoter region, and bases at positions -34, -36, and -11 with respect to the transcription start site were shown to be required for promoter function. These bases correspond in their positions to regions known to be important for RNA polymerase binding in several classes of eubacterial promoters, but the sequences themselves are not similar to those previously described. The -35 region of the galP1 promoter consists of six G residues, and base changes in this G hexamer had a dramatic effect on promoter activity. By using galP1-containing DNA template, a new RNA polymerase activity was purified from Streptomyces. Holoenzyme reconstitution experiments identified a new sigma factor that directs galP1 transcription in vitro. DNase I protection experiments identified a binding site for this new holoenzyme immediately upstream of the galP1 transcription start site. PMID:9150217

  19. Transcription Processing at 1,N2-ethenoguanine by Human RNA Polymerase II and Bacteriophage T7 RNA Polymerase†

    PubMed Central

    Dimitri, Alexandra; Goodenough, Angela K.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Broyde, Suse; Scicchitano, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The DNA lesion 1,N2-ethenoguanine is formed endogenously as a byproduct of lipid peroxidation or by reaction with epoxides that result from the metabolism of the industrial pollutant vinyl chloride, a known human carcinogen. DNA replication past 1,N2-ethenoguanine and site specific mutagenesis studies in mammalian cells have established the highly mutagenic and genotoxic properties of the damaged base. However, there is as yet no information on the processing of this lesion during transcription. Here, we report the results of transcription past a site specifically modified 1,N2-ethenoguanine DNA template. This lesion contains an exocyclic ring obstructing the Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding edge of guanine. Our results show that 1,N2-ethenoguanine acts as a partial block to the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase, which allows nucleotide incorporation in the growing RNA with the selectivity A > G > (C = −1 deletion) >> U. In contrast, 1,N2-ethenoguanine poses an absolute block to human RNA polymerase II elongation, and nucleotide incorporation opposite the lesion is not observed. Computer modeling studies show that the more open active site of T7 RNA polymerase allows lesion bypass when the 1,N2-ethenoguanine adopts the syn conformation. This orientation places the exocylic ring in a collision free empty pocket of the polymerase, and the observed base incorporation preferences are in agreement with hydrogen bonding possibilities between the incoming nucleotides and the Hoogsteen edge of the lesion. On the other hand, in the more crowded active site of the human RNA polymerase II, the modeling studies show that both syn and anti conformations of the 1,N2-ethenoguanine are sterically impermissible. Polymerase stalling is currently believed to trigger the transcription coupled nucleotide excision repair machinery. Thus, our data suggest that this repair pathway likely is engaged in the clearance of the 1,N2-ethenoguanine from actively transcribed DNA. PMID

  20. Structural basis of transcription: RNA polymerase II at 2.8 angstrom resolution.

    PubMed

    Cramer, P; Bushnell, D A; Kornberg, R D

    2001-06-08

    Structures of a 10-subunit yeast RNA polymerase II have been derived from two crystal forms at 2.8 and 3.1 angstrom resolution. Comparison of the structures reveals a division of the polymerase into four mobile modules, including a clamp, shown previously to swing over the active center. In the 2.8 angstrom structure, the clamp is in an open state, allowing entry of straight promoter DNA for the initiation of transcription. Three loops extending from the clamp may play roles in RNA unwinding and DNA rewinding during transcription. A 2.8 angstrom difference Fourier map reveals two metal ions at the active site, one persistently bound and the other possibly exchangeable during RNA synthesis. The results also provide evidence for RNA exit in the vicinity of the carboxyl-terminal repeat domain, coupling synthesis to RNA processing by enzymes bound to this domain.

  1. The RNA polymerase trigger loop functions in all three phases of the transcription cycle

    PubMed Central

    Fouqueau, Thomas; Zeller, Mirijam E.; Cheung, Alan C.; Cramer, Patrick; Thomm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The trigger loop (TL) forms a conserved element in the RNA polymerase active centre that functions in the elongation phase of transcription. Here, we show that the TL also functions in transcription initiation and termination. Using recombinant variants of RNA polymerase from Pyrococcus furiosus and a reconstituted transcription system, we demonstrate that the TL is essential for initial RNA synthesis until a complete DNA–RNA hybrid is formed. The archaeal TL is further important for transcription fidelity during nucleotide incorporation, but not for RNA cleavage during proofreading. A conserved glutamine residue in the TL binds the 2’-OH group of the nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) to discriminate NTPs from dNTPs. The TL also prevents aberrant transcription termination at non-terminator sites. PMID:23737452

  2. Structure of Hepatitis C Virus Polymerase in Complex with Primer-Template RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Mosley, Ralph T.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Murakami, Eisuke; Lam, Angela M.; Grice, Rena L.; Du, Jinfa; Sofia, Michael J.; Furman, Philip A.; Otto, Michael J.

    2012-08-01

    The replication of the hepatitis C viral (HCV) genome is accomplished by the NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), for which mechanistic understanding and structure-guided drug design efforts have been hampered by its propensity to crystallize in a closed, polymerization-incompetent state. The removal of an autoinhibitory {beta}-hairpin loop from genotype 2a HCV NS5B increases de novo RNA synthesis by >100-fold, promotes RNA binding, and facilitated the determination of the first crystallographic structures of HCV polymerase in complex with RNA primer-template pairs. These crystal structures demonstrate the structural realignment required for primer-template recognition and elongation, provide new insights into HCV RNA synthesis at the molecular level, and may prove useful in the structure-based design of novel antiviral compounds. Additionally, our approach for obtaining the RNA primer-template-bound structure of HCV polymerase may be generally applicable to solving RNA-bound complexes for other viral RdRps that contain similar regulatory {beta}-hairpin loops, including bovine viral diarrhea virus, dengue virus, and West Nile virus.

  3. Structure of Hepatitis C Virus Polymerase in Complex with Primer-Template RNA

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Eisuke; Lam, Angela M.; Grice, Rena L.; Du, Jinfa; Sofia, Michael J.; Furman, Philip A.; Otto, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The replication of the hepatitis C viral (HCV) genome is accomplished by the NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), for which mechanistic understanding and structure-guided drug design efforts have been hampered by its propensity to crystallize in a closed, polymerization-incompetent state. The removal of an autoinhibitory β-hairpin loop from genotype 2a HCV NS5B increases de novo RNA synthesis by >100-fold, promotes RNA binding, and facilitated the determination of the first crystallographic structures of HCV polymerase in complex with RNA primer-template pairs. These crystal structures demonstrate the structural realignment required for primer-template recognition and elongation, provide new insights into HCV RNA synthesis at the molecular level, and may prove useful in the structure-based design of novel antiviral compounds. Additionally, our approach for obtaining the RNA primer-template-bound structure of HCV polymerase may be generally applicable to solving RNA-bound complexes for other viral RdRps that contain similar regulatory β-hairpin loops, including bovine viral diarrhea virus, dengue virus, and West Nile virus. PMID:22496223

  4. Synergistic experimental/computational studies on arylazoenamine derivatives that target the bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Giliberti, Gabriele; Ibba, Cristina; Marongiu, Esther; Loddo, Roberta; Tonelli, Michele; Boido, Vito; Laurini, Erik; Posocco, Paola; Fermeglia, Maurizio; Pricl, Sabrina

    2010-08-15

    Starting from a series of arylazoenamine derivatives, shown to be selectively and potently active against the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), we developed a hierarchical combined experimental/molecular modeling strategy to explore the drug leads for the BVDV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Accordingly, BVDV mutants resistant to lead compounds in our series were isolated, and the mutant residues on the viral molecular target, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, were identified. Docking procedures upon previously identified pharmacophoric constraints and actual mutational data were carried out, and the binding affinity of all active compounds for the RdRp was estimated. Given the excellent agreement between in silico and in vitro data, this procedure is currently being employed in the design a new series of more selective and potent BVDV inhibitors.

  5. Structure and Function of the N-Terminal Domain of the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shihong; Ogino, Minako; Luo, Ming

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses have various mechanisms to duplicate their genomes and produce virus-specific mRNAs. Negative-strand RNA viruses encode their own polymerases to perform each of these processes. For the nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses, the polymerase is comprised of the large polymerase subunit (L) and the phosphoprotein (P). L proteins from members of the Rhabdoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Filoviridae share sequence and predicted secondary structure homology. Here, we present the structure of the N-terminal domain (conserved region I) of the L protein from a rhabdovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, at 1.8-Å resolution. The strictly and strongly conserved residues in this domain cluster in a single area of the protein. Serial mutation of these residues shows that many of the amino acids are essential for viral transcription but not for mRNA capping. Three-dimensional alignments show that this domain shares structural homology with polymerases from other viral families, including segmented negative-strand RNA and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses. IMPORTANCE Negative-strand RNA viruses include a diverse set of viral families that infect animals and plants, causing serious illness and economic impact. The members of this group of viruses share a set of functionally conserved proteins that are essential to their replication cycle. Among this set of proteins is the viral polymerase, which performs a unique set of reactions to produce genome- and subgenome-length RNA transcripts. In this article, we study the polymerase of vesicular stomatitis virus, a member of the rhabdoviruses, which has served in the past as a model to study negative-strand RNA virus replication. We have identified a site in the N-terminal domain of the polymerase that is essential to viral transcription and that shares sequence homology with members of the paramyxoviruses and the filoviruses. Newly identified sites such as that described here could prove to be useful targets in the

  6. The human RNA polymerase II interacts with the terminal stem-loop regions of the hepatitis delta virus RNA genome

    SciTech Connect

    Greco-Stewart, Valerie S.; Miron, Paul; Abrahem, Abrahem; Pelchat, Martin . E-mail: mpelchat@uottawa.ca

    2007-01-05

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is an RNA virus that depends on DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) for its transcription and replication. While it is generally accepted that RNAP II is involved in HDV replication, its interaction with HDV RNA requires confirmation. A monoclonal antibody specific to the carboxy terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNAP II was used to establish the association of RNAP II with both polarities of HDV RNA in HeLa cells. Co-immunoprecipitations using HeLa nuclear extract revealed that RNAP II interacts with HDV-derived RNAs at sites located within the terminal stem-loop domains of both polarities of HDV RNA. Analysis of these regions revealed a strong selection to maintain a rod-like conformation and demonstrated several conserved features. These results provide the first direct evidence of an association between human RNAP II and HDV RNA and suggest two transcription start sites on both polarities of HDV RNA.

  7. Increased expression of LD1 genes transcribed by RNA polymerase I in Leishmania donovani as a result of duplication into the rRNA gene locus

    SciTech Connect

    Lodes, M.J.; Merlin, G.; DeVos, T.

    1995-12-01

    This report investigates the duplication of two LD1 genes into the rRNA locus and the resultant transcription by RNA polymerase I, which has a faster transcription rate than that of RNA polymerase II. This was conducted using a 2.2-Mb chromosome in Leishmania donovani. 55 refs., 6 figs.

  8. A Novel Role for Cet1p mRNA 5′-Triphosphatase in Promoter Proximal Accumulation of RNA Polymerase II in Saccharomyces cerevisiase

    PubMed Central

    Lahudkar, Shweta; Durairaj, Geetha; Uprety, Bhawana; Bhaumik, Sukesh R.

    2014-01-01

    Yeast mRNA 5′-triphosphatase, Cet1p, recognizes phosphorylated-RNA polymerase II as a component of capping machinery via Ceg1p for cotranscriptional formation of mRNA cap structure that recruits cap-binding complex (CBC) and protects mRNA from exonucleases. Here, we show that the accumulation of RNA polymerase II at the promoter proximal site of ADH1 is significantly enhanced in the absence of Cet1p. Similar results are also found at other genes. Cet1p is recruited to the 5′ end of the coding sequence, and its absence impairs mRNA capping, and hence CBC recruitment. However, such an impaired recruitment of CBC does not enhance promoter proximal accumulation of RNA polymerase II. Thus, Cet1p specifically lowers the accumulation of RNA polymerase II at the promoter proximal site independently of mRNA cap structure or CBC. Further, we show that Cet1p’s N-terminal domain, which is not involved in mRNA capping, decreases promoter proximal accumulation of RNA polymerase II. An accumulation of RNA polymerase II at the promoter proximal site in the absence of Cet1p’s N-terminal domain is correlated with reduced transcription. Collectively, our results demonstrate a novel role of Cet1p in regulation of promoter proximal accumulation of RNA polymerase II independently of mRNA capping activity, and hence transcription in vivo. PMID:24172134

  9. RNA Polymerase Collision versus DNA Structural Distortion: Twists and Turns Can Cause Break Failure.

    PubMed

    Pannunzio, Nicholas R; Lieber, Michael R

    2016-05-05

    The twisting of DNA due to the movement of RNA polymerases is the basis of numerous classic experiments in molecular biology. Recent mouse genetic models indicate that chromosomal breakage is common at sites of transcriptional turbulence. Two key studies on this point mapped breakpoints to sites of either convergent or divergent transcription but arrived at different conclusions as to which is more detrimental and why. The issue hinges on whether DNA strand separation is the basis for the chromosomal instability or collision of RNA polymerases.

  10. Conditional mutations occur predominantly in highly conserved residues of RNA polymerase II subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Scafe, C; Martin, C; Nonet, M; Podos, S; Okamura, S; Young, R A

    1990-01-01

    Conditional mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II large subunit, RPB1, were obtained by introducing a mutagenized RPB1 plasmid into yeast cells, selecting for loss of the wild-type RPB1 gene, and screening the cells for heat or cold sensitivity. Sequence analysis of 10 conditional RPB1 mutations and 10 conditional RPB2 mutations revealed that the amino acid residues altered by these distinct mutations are nearly always invariant among eucaryotic RPB1 and RPB2 homologs. These results suggest that RNA polymerase mutants might be obtained in other eucaryotic organisms by alteration of these invariant residues. Images PMID:2406567

  11. Co-evolution of RNA polymerase with RbpA in the phylum Actinobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Abhinav; Adithi, V.R.; Chatterji, Dipankar

    2012-01-01

    The role of RbpA in the backdrop of M. smegmatis showed that it rescues mycobacterial RNA polymerase from rifampicin-mediated inhibition (Dey et al., 2010; Dey et al., 2011). Paget and co-workers (Paget et al., 2001; Newell et al., 2006) have revealed that RbpA homologs occur exclusively in actinobacteria. Newell et al. (2006) showed that MtbRbpA, when complemented in a ∆rbpA mutant of S. coelicolor, showed a low recovery of MIC (from 0.75 to 2 μg/ml) as compared to complementation by native RbpA of S. coelicolor (MIC increases from 0.75 to 11 μg/ml). Our studies on MsRbpA show that it is a differential marker for M. smegmatis RNA polymerase as compared to E. coli RNA polymerase at IC50 levels of rifampicin. A recent sequence-based analysis by Lane and Darst (2010) has shown that RNA polymerases from Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria have had a divergent evolution. E. coli is a representative of Proteobacteria and M. smegmatis is an Actinobacterium. RbpA has an exclusive occurrence in Actinobacteria. Since protein–protein interactions might not be conserved across different species, therefore, the probable reason for the indifference of MsRbpA toward E. coli RNA polymerase could be the lineage-specific differences between actinobacterial and proteobacterial RNA polymerases. These observations led us to ask the question as to whether the evolution of RbpA in Actinobacteria followed the same route as that of RNA polymerase subunits from actinobacterial species. We show that the exclusivity of RbpA in Actinobacteria and the unique evolution of RNA polymerase in this phylum share a co-evolutionary link. We have addressed this issue by a blending of experimental and bioinformatics based approaches. They comprise of induction of bacterial cultures coupled to rifampicin-tolerance, transcription assays and statistical comparison of phylogenetic trees for different pairs of proteins in actinobacteria. PMID:27896048

  12. T7 RNA polymerase elongation complex structure and movement.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Sousa, R

    2000-10-27

    We have characterized T7RNAP elongation complexes (ECs) halted at different positions on a single template using a combination of digestion with exonuclease III, lambda exonuclease, RNAse T1, and treatment with KMnO(4). Our results indicate that the transcription bubble is approximately nine bases long and that the RNA:DNA hybrid is 7-8 bp in size. An additional four to six bases of RNA immediately 5' to the hybrid interact with the RNAP, probably with a site on the N-terminal domain. When ECs with transcripts of different length were probed in the presence or absence of the incoming NTP we found that the position of the EC on the template and the RNA shifted downstream upon NTP binding. NTP binding also restricted the lateral mobility of the complex on the template. Our results indicate that, in the absence of bound NTP, the RNAP is relatively free to slide on the template around a position that usually lies one to two bases upstream of the position from which NTP binding and bond formation occur. NTP binding stabilizes the RNAP in the post-translocated position and keeps it from sliding upstream, either due directly to RNAP:NTP:template interactions, or to an isomerization which causes the fingers subdomain of the RNAP to clamp down on the downstream end of the template strand.

  13. Assembly of RNA polymerase II preinitiation complexes before assembly of nucleosomes allows efficient initiation of transcription on nucleosomal templates

    SciTech Connect

    Knezetic, J.A.; Jacob, G.A.; Luse, D.S.

    1988-08-01

    The authors have previously shown that assembly of nucleosomes on the DNA template blocks transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II in vitro. In the studies reported here, they demonstrate that assembly of a complete RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex before nucleosome assembly results in nucleosomal templates which support initiation in vitro as efficiently as naked DNA. Control experiments prove that the observations are not the result of slow displacemnt of nucleosomes by the transcription machinery during chromatin assembly, nor are they an artifact of inefficient nucleosome deposition on templates already bearing an RNA polymerase. Thus, the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex appears to be resistant to disruption by subsequent nucleosome assembly.

  14. Species-specificity of rRNA gene transcription in plants manifested as a switch in RNA polymerase specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Doelling, J H; Pikaard, C S

    1996-01-01

    Rapid evolution of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene promoters often prevents their recognition in a foreign species. Unlike animal systems, we show that foreign plant rRNA gene promoters are recognized in an alien species, but tend to program transcription by a different polymerase. In plants, RNA polymerase I transcripts initiate at a TATATA element (+1 is underlined) important for promoter strength and start-site selection. However, transcripts initiate from +32 following transfection of a tomato promoter into Arabidopsis. The rRNA gene promoter of a more closely related species, Brassica oleracea, programs both +1 and +29 transcription. A point mutation at +2 improving the identity between the Brassica and Arabidopsis promoters increases +1 transcription, indicating a role for the initiator element in species-specificity. Brassica +29 transcripts can be translated to express a luciferase reporter gene, implicating RNA polymerase II. TATA mutations that disrupt TATA-binding protein (TBP) interactions inhibit +29 transcription and luciferase expression. Co-expressed TBP proteins bearing compensatory mutations restore +29 transcription and luciferase activity, suggesting a direct TBP-TATA interaction. Importantly, +1 transcription is unaffected by the TATA mutations, suggesting that in the context of pol I recognition, the TATA-containing initiator element serves a function other than TBP binding. PMID:8972859

  15. Space constrained homology modelling: the paradigm of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of dengue (type II) virus.

    PubMed

    Vlachakis, Dimitrios; Kontopoulos, Dimitrios Georgios; Kossida, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    Protein structure is more conserved than sequence in nature. In this direction we developed a novel methodology that significantly improves conventional homology modelling when sequence identity is low, by taking into consideration 3D structural features of the template, such as size and shape. Herein, our new homology modelling approach was applied to the homology modelling of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of dengue (type II) virus. The RdRp of dengue was chosen due to the low sequence similarity shared between the dengue virus polymerase and the available templates, while purposely avoiding to use the actual X-ray structure that is available for the dengue RdRp. The novel approach takes advantage of 3D space corresponding to protein shape and size by creating a 3D scaffold of the template structure. The dengue polymerase model built by the novel approach exhibited all features of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and was almost identical to the X-ray structure of the dengue RdRp, as opposed to the model built by conventional homology modelling. Therefore, we propose that the space-aided homology modelling approach can be of a more general use to homology modelling of enzymes sharing low sequence similarity with the template structures.

  16. Escherichia coli RNA polymerase is the target of the cyclopeptide antibiotic microcin J25.

    PubMed

    Delgado, M A; Rintoul, M R; Farías, R N; Salomón, R A

    2001-08-01

    Escherichia coli microcin J25 (MccJ25) is a plasmid-encoded, cyclic peptide antibiotic consisting of 21 unmodified amino acid residues. It is primarily active on gram-negative bacteria related to the producer strain, inducing cell filamentation in an SOS-independent way. A mutation causing resistance to MccJ25 was isolated. Genetic analysis indicated that it resided in the rpoC gene, encoding the beta' subunit of RNA polymerase, at 90 min on the E. coli genetic map. The mutation was genetically crossed on to a plasmid containing the wild-type rpoC gene. The presence of the recombinant plasmid conferred complete resistance to otherwise sensitive strains. Nucleotide sequencing of the plasmid-borne, mutant rpoC gene revealed a ACC (Thr)-to-ATC (Ile) change at codon 931, within homology block G, an evolutionarily conserved region in the large subunits of all RNA polymerases. MccJ25 decreased RNA synthesis both in vivo and in vitro. These results point to the RNA polymerase as the target of microcin action. We favor the possibility that the filamentous phenotype induced by MccJ25 results from impaired transcription of genes coding for cell division proteins. As far as we know, MccJ25 is the first peptide antibiotic shown to affect RNA polymerase.

  17. Direct measurement of the poliovirus RNA polymerase error frequency in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.D.; Stokes, M.A.M.; Flanegan, J.B. )

    1988-02-01

    The fidelity of RNA replication by the poliovirus-RNA-dependent RNA polymerase was examined by copying homopolymeric RNA templates in vitro. The poliovirus RNA polymerase was extensively purified and used to copy poly(A), poly(C), or poly(I) templates with equimolar concentrations of noncomplementary and complementary ribonucleotides. The error frequency was expressed as the amount of a noncomplementary nucleotide incorporated divided by the total amount of complementary and noncomplementary nucleotide incorporated. The polymerase error frequencies were very high, depending on the specific reaction conditions. The activity of the polymerase on poly(U) and poly(G) was too low to measure error frequencies on these templates. A fivefold increase in the error frequency was observed when the reaction conditions were changed from 3.0 mM Mg{sup 2+} (pH 7.0) to 7.0 mM Mg{sup 2+} (pH 8.0). This increase in the error frequency correlates with an eightfold increase in the elongation rate that was observed under the same conditions in a previous study.

  18. Regulating RNA polymerase pausing and transcription elongation in embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Min, Irene M; Waterfall, Joshua J; Core, Leighton J; Munroe, Robert J; Schimenti, John; Lis, John T

    2011-04-01

    Transitions between pluripotent stem cells and differentiated cells are executed by key transcription regulators. Comparative measurements of RNA polymerase distribution over the genome's primary transcription units in different cell states can identify the genes and steps in the transcription cycle that are regulated during such transitions. To identify the complete transcriptional profiles of RNA polymerases with high sensitivity and resolution, as well as the critical regulated steps upon which regulatory factors act, we used genome-wide nuclear run-on (GRO-seq) to map the density and orientation of transcriptionally engaged RNA polymerases in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). In both cell types, progression of a promoter-proximal, paused RNA polymerase II (Pol II) into productive elongation is a rate-limiting step in transcription of ∼40% of mRNA-encoding genes. Importantly, quantitative comparisons between cell types reveal that transcription is controlled frequently at paused Pol II's entry into elongation. Furthermore, "bivalent" ESC genes (exhibiting both active and repressive histone modifications) bound by Polycomb group complexes PRC1 (Polycomb-repressive complex 1) and PRC2 show dramatically reduced levels of paused Pol II at promoters relative to an average gene. In contrast, bivalent promoters bound by only PRC2 allow Pol II pausing, but it is confined to extremely 5' proximal regions. Altogether, these findings identify rate-limiting targets for transcription regulation during cell differentiation.

  19. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Hijacks RNA Polymerase II To Create a Viral Transcriptional Factory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Christopher Phillip; Lyu, Yuanzhi; Chuang, Frank; Nakano, Kazushi; Izumiya, Chie; Jin, Di; Campbell, Mel; Izumiya, Yoshihiro

    2017-06-01

    Locally concentrated nuclear factors ensure efficient binding to DNA templates, facilitating RNA polymerase II recruitment and frequent reutilization of stable preinitiation complexes. We have uncovered a mechanism for effective viral transcription by focal assembly of RNA polymerase II around Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) genomes in the host cell nucleus. Using immunofluorescence labeling of latent nuclear antigen (LANA) protein, together with fluorescence in situ RNA hybridization (RNA-FISH) of the intron region of immediate early transcripts, we visualized active transcription of viral genomes in naturally infected cells. At the single-cell level, we found that not all episomes were uniformly transcribed following reactivation stimuli. However, those episomes that were being transcribed would spontaneously aggregate to form transcriptional "factories," which recruited a significant fraction of cellular RNA polymerase II. Focal assembly of "viral transcriptional factories" decreased the pool of cellular RNA polymerase II available for cellular gene transcription, which consequently impaired cellular gene expression globally, with the exception of selected ones. The viral transcriptional factories localized with replicating viral genomic DNAs. The observed colocalization of viral transcriptional factories with replicating viral genomic DNA suggests that KSHV assembles an "all-in-one" factory for both gene transcription and DNA replication. We propose that the assembly of RNA polymerase II around viral episomes in the nucleus may be a previously unexplored aspect of KSHV gene regulation by confiscation of a limited supply of RNA polymerase II in infected cells.IMPORTANCE B cells infected with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) harbor multiple copies of the KSHV genome in the form of episomes. Three-dimensional imaging of viral gene expression in the nucleus allows us to study interactions and changes in the physical distribution of

  20. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Hijacks RNA Polymerase II To Create a Viral Transcriptional Factory

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Christopher Phillip; Lyu, Yuanzhi; Chuang, Frank; Nakano, Kazushi; Izumiya, Chie; Jin, Di; Campbell, Mel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Locally concentrated nuclear factors ensure efficient binding to DNA templates, facilitating RNA polymerase II recruitment and frequent reutilization of stable preinitiation complexes. We have uncovered a mechanism for effective viral transcription by focal assembly of RNA polymerase II around Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) genomes in the host cell nucleus. Using immunofluorescence labeling of latent nuclear antigen (LANA) protein, together with fluorescence in situ RNA hybridization (RNA-FISH) of the intron region of immediate early transcripts, we visualized active transcription of viral genomes in naturally infected cells. At the single-cell level, we found that not all episomes were uniformly transcribed following reactivation stimuli. However, those episomes that were being transcribed would spontaneously aggregate to form transcriptional “factories,” which recruited a significant fraction of cellular RNA polymerase II. Focal assembly of “viral transcriptional factories” decreased the pool of cellular RNA polymerase II available for cellular gene transcription, which consequently impaired cellular gene expression globally, with the exception of selected ones. The viral transcriptional factories localized with replicating viral genomic DNAs. The observed colocalization of viral transcriptional factories with replicating viral genomic DNA suggests that KSHV assembles an “all-in-one” factory for both gene transcription and DNA replication. We propose that the assembly of RNA polymerase II around viral episomes in the nucleus may be a previously unexplored aspect of KSHV gene regulation by confiscation of a limited supply of RNA polymerase II in infected cells. IMPORTANCE B cells infected with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) harbor multiple copies of the KSHV genome in the form of episomes. Three-dimensional imaging of viral gene expression in the nucleus allows us to study interactions and changes in the

  1. RNAs nonspecifically inhibit RNA polymerase II by preventing binding to the DNA template

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Dave A.; Kaplan, Craig D.; Kweon, Hye Kyong; Murakami, Kenji; Andrews, Philip C.; Engelke, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Many RNAs are known to act as regulators of transcription in eukaryotes, including certain small RNAs that directly inhibit RNA polymerases both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We have examined the potential for a variety of RNAs to directly inhibit transcription by yeast RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and find that unstructured RNAs are potent inhibitors of purified yeast Pol II. Inhibition by RNA is achieved by blocking binding of the DNA template and requires binding of the RNA to Pol II prior to open complex formation. RNA is not able to displace a DNA template that is already stably bound to Pol II, nor can RNA inhibit elongating Pol II. Unstructured RNAs are more potent inhibitors than highly structured RNAs and can also block specific transcription initiation in the presence of basal transcription factors. Crosslinking studies with ultraviolet light show that unstructured RNA is most closely associated with the two large subunits of Pol II that comprise the template binding cleft, but the RNA has contacts in a basic residue channel behind the back wall of the active site. These results are distinct from previous observations of specific inhibition by small, structured RNAs in that they demonstrate a sensitivity of the holoenzyme to inhibition by unstructured RNA products that bind to a surface outside the DNA cleft. These results are discussed in terms of the need to prevent inhibition by RNAs, either though sequestration of nascent RNA or preemptive interaction of Pol II with the DNA template. PMID:24614752

  2. RNAs nonspecifically inhibit RNA polymerase II by preventing binding to the DNA template.

    PubMed

    Pai, Dave A; Kaplan, Craig D; Kweon, Hye Kyong; Murakami, Kenji; Andrews, Philip C; Engelke, David R

    2014-05-01

    Many RNAs are known to act as regulators of transcription in eukaryotes, including certain small RNAs that directly inhibit RNA polymerases both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We have examined the potential for a variety of RNAs to directly inhibit transcription by yeast RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and find that unstructured RNAs are potent inhibitors of purified yeast Pol II. Inhibition by RNA is achieved by blocking binding of the DNA template and requires binding of the RNA to Pol II prior to open complex formation. RNA is not able to displace a DNA template that is already stably bound to Pol II, nor can RNA inhibit elongating Pol II. Unstructured RNAs are more potent inhibitors than highly structured RNAs and can also block specific transcription initiation in the presence of basal transcription factors. Crosslinking studies with ultraviolet light show that unstructured RNA is most closely associated with the two large subunits of Pol II that comprise the template binding cleft, but the RNA has contacts in a basic residue channel behind the back wall of the active site. These results are distinct from previous observations of specific inhibition by small, structured RNAs in that they demonstrate a sensitivity of the holoenzyme to inhibition by unstructured RNA products that bind to a surface outside the DNA cleft. These results are discussed in terms of the need to prevent inhibition by RNAs, either though sequestration of nascent RNA or preemptive interaction of Pol II with the DNA template.

  3. Abnormal rapid non-linear RNA production induced by T7 RNA polymerase in the absence of an exogenous DNA template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakimoto, Y.; Fujinuma, A.; Fujita, S.; Kikuchi, Y.; Umekage, S.

    2015-02-01

    Although recombinant T7 RNA polymerase is commonly used for in vitro RNA synthesis, several reports have pointed out that T7 RNA polymerase can also induce RNA-directed RNA polymerization or replication. In addition, here we show a new aberrant transcription when using T7 RNA polymerase. This polymerization was observed in the presence of both ribonucleotides and a purchasable T7 RNA polymerase, Thermo T7 RNA polymerase, as well as in the absence of an exogenous DNA template. This cryptic RNA production was detectable after several hours of incubation and was inhibited by adding DNase I. These findings suggested that some contaminated DNA along with the Thermo stable T7 RNA polymerase could be used as template DNA. However, to our surprise, RNA production showed a rapid non-linear increase. This finding strongly indicated that a self-replication cycle emerged from the RNA-directed polymerization or replication by T7 RNA polymerase, triggering the abnormal explosive increase.

  4. SIRT1 inhibits EV71 genome replication and RNA translation by interfering with the viral polymerase and 5'UTR RNA.

    PubMed

    Han, Yang; Wang, Lvyin; Cui, Jin; Song, Yu; Luo, Zhen; Chen, Junbo; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Fang; Ho, Wenzhe; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Kailang; Wu, Jianguo

    2016-12-15

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) possesses a single-stranded positive RNA genome that contains a single open reading frame (ORF) flanked by a 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) and a polyadenylated 3'UTR. Here, we demonstrated that EV71 activates the production of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), a histone deacetylase (HDAC). EV71 further stimulates SIRT1 sumoylation and deacetylase activity, and enhances SIRT1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. More interestingly, activated SIRT1 subsequently binds with the EV71 3D(pol) protein (a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RdRp) to repress the acetylation and RdRp activity of 3D(pol), resulting in the attenuation of viral genome replication. Moreover, SIRT1 interacts with the cloverleaf structure of the EV71 RNA 5'UTR to inhibit viral RNA transcription, and binds to the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of the EV71 5'UTR to attenuate viral RNA translation. Thus, EV71 stimulates SIRT1 production and activity, which in turn represses EV71 genome replication by inhibiting viral polymerase, and attenuates EV71 RNA transcription and translation by interfering with viral RNA. These results uncover a new function of SIRT1 and reveal a new mechanism underlying the regulation of EV71 replication. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Pause & go: from the discovery of RNA polymerase pausing to its functional implications.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Andreas; Landry, Heather M; Churchman, L Stirling

    2017-03-28

    The synthesis of nascent RNA is a discontinuous process in which phases of productive elongation by RNA polymerase are interrupted by frequent pauses. Transcriptional pausing was first observed decades ago, but was long considered to be a special feature of transcription at certain genes. This view was challenged when studies using genome-wide approaches revealed that RNA polymerase II pauses at promoter-proximal regions in large sets of genes in Drosophila and mammalian cells. High-resolution genomic methods uncovered that pausing is not restricted to promoters, but occurs globally throughout gene-body regions, implying the existence of key-rate limiting steps in nascent RNA synthesis downstream of transcription initiation. Here, we outline the experimental breakthroughs that led to the discovery of pervasive transcriptional pausing, discuss its emerging roles and regulation, and highlight the importance of pausing in human development and disease.

  6. Nucleosomes inhibit both transcriptional initiation and elongation by RNA polymerase III in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, R H

    1989-01-01

    To examine the effect of nucleosomes on in vitro transcription, purified chicken erythrocyte core histones and plasmid DNA bearing the Xenopus 5S RNA gene were assembled into nucleosomes and used as templates for transcription in a Xenopus oocyte nuclear extract. Plasmids having a nucleosome incorporating a specific region of the gene were selected by treating the reconstituted molecules with restriction endonucleases. In this way, it was shown that a nucleosome on or close to the internal control region of the 5S RNA gene inhibits transcription. Furthermore, experiments with 5S maxigenes showed that RNA polymerase III, in contrast to SP6 RNA polymerase, will not transcribe through a nucleosome in vitro. Images PMID:2792088

  7. Production of RNA by a polymerase protein encapsulated within phospholipid vesicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, A. C.; Breaker, R. R.; Joyce, G. F.; Deamer, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    Catalyzed polymerization reactions represent a primary anabolic activity of all cells. It can be assumed that early cells carried out such reactions, in which macromolecular catalysts were encapsulated within some type of boundary membrane. In the experiments described here, we show that a template-independent RNA polymerase (polynucleotide phosphorylase) can be encapsulated in dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine vesicles without substrate. When the substrate adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was provided externally, long-chain RNA polymers were synthesized within the vesicles. Substrate flux was maximized by maintaining the vesicles at the phase transition temperature of the component lipid. A protease was introduced externally as an additional control. Free enzyme was inactivated under identical conditions. RNA products were visualized in situ by ethidium bromide fluorescence. The products were harvested from the liposomes, radiolabeled, and analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Encapsulated catalysts represent a model for primitive cellular systems in which an RNA polymerase was entrapped within a protected microenvironment.

  8. Structural basis of transcription: backtracked RNA polymerase II at 3.4 angstrom resolution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Bushnell, David A; Huang, Xuhui; Westover, Kenneth D; Levitt, Michael; Kornberg, Roger D

    2009-05-29

    Transcribing RNA polymerases oscillate between three stable states, two of which, pre- and posttranslocated, were previously subjected to x-ray crystal structure determination. We report here the crystal structure of RNA polymerase II in the third state, the reverse translocated, or "backtracked" state. The defining feature of the backtracked structure is a binding site for the first backtracked nucleotide. This binding site is occupied in case of nucleotide misincorporation in the RNA or damage to the DNA, and is termed the "P" site because it supports proofreading. The predominant mechanism of proofreading is the excision of a dinucleotide in the presence of the elongation factor SII (TFIIS). Structure determination of a cocrystal with TFIIS reveals a rearrangement whereby cleavage of the RNA may take place.

  9. Production of RNA by a polymerase protein encapsulated within phospholipid vesicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, A. C.; Breaker, R. R.; Joyce, G. F.; Deamer, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    Catalyzed polymerization reactions represent a primary anabolic activity of all cells. It can be assumed that early cells carried out such reactions, in which macromolecular catalysts were encapsulated within some type of boundary membrane. In the experiments described here, we show that a template-independent RNA polymerase (polynucleotide phosphorylase) can be encapsulated in dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine vesicles without substrate. When the substrate adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was provided externally, long-chain RNA polymers were synthesized within the vesicles. Substrate flux was maximized by maintaining the vesicles at the phase transition temperature of the component lipid. A protease was introduced externally as an additional control. Free enzyme was inactivated under identical conditions. RNA products were visualized in situ by ethidium bromide fluorescence. The products were harvested from the liposomes, radiolabeled, and analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Encapsulated catalysts represent a model for primitive cellular systems in which an RNA polymerase was entrapped within a protected microenvironment.

  10. Archaebacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerases testify to the evolution of the eukaryotic nuclear genome.

    PubMed Central

    Pühler, G; Leffers, H; Gropp, F; Palm, P; Klenk, H P; Lottspeich, F; Garrett, R A; Zillig, W

    1989-01-01

    Genes for DNA-dependent RNA polymerase components B, A, and C from the archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and for components B", B', A, and C from the archaebacterium Halobacterium halobium were cloned and sequenced. They are organized in gene clusters in the order above, which corresponds to the order of the homologous rpoB and rpoC genes in the corresponding operon of the Escherichia coli genome. Derived amino acid sequences of archaebacterial components A and C were aligned with each other and with the sequences of corresponding (largest) subunits from the archaebacterium Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, with sequences of various eukaryotic nuclear RNA polymerases I, II, and III, and with the sequence of the beta' component from E. coli polymerase. The archaebacterial genes for component A are homologous to about the first two-thirds of genes for the eukaryotic component A and the eubacterial component beta', and the archaebacterial genes for component C are homologous to the last third of the genes for the eukaryotic component A and the eubacterial component beta'. Unrooted phylogenetic dendrograms derived from both distance matrix and parsimony analyses show the archaebacteria are a coherent group closely related to the eukaryotic nuclear RNA polymerase II and/or III lineages. The eukaryotic polymerase I lineage appears to arise separately from a bifurcation with the eubacterial beta' component lineage. PMID:2499884

  11. RIG-I-dependent sensing of poly(dA:dT) through the induction of an RNA polymerase III-transcribed RNA intermediate.

    PubMed

    Ablasser, Andrea; Bauernfeind, Franz; Hartmann, Gunther; Latz, Eicke; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Hornung, Veit

    2009-10-01

    RNA is sensed by Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and TLR8 or by the RNA helicases LGP2, Mda5 and RIG-I to trigger antiviral responses. Much less is known about sensors for DNA. Here we identify a novel DNA-sensing pathway involving RNA polymerase III and RIG-I. In this pathway, AT-rich double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) served as a template for RNA polymerase III and was transcribed into double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) containing a 5'-triphosphate moiety. Activation of RIG-I by this dsRNA induced production of type I interferon and activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. This pathway was important in the sensing of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs, which were transcribed by RNA polymerase III and then triggered RIG-I activation. Thus, RNA polymerase III and RIG-I are pivotal in sensing viral DNA.

  12. Transcriptional termination in mammals: Stopping the RNA polymerase II juggernaut

    PubMed Central

    Proudfoot, Nick J.

    2016-01-01

    Terminating transcription is a highly intricate process for mammalian protein-coding genes. First, the chromatin template slows down transcription at the gene end. Then, the transcript is cleaved at the poly(A) signal to release the messenger RNA.The remaining transcript is selectively unraveled and degraded. This induces critical conformational changes in the heart of the enzyme that trigger termination. Termination can also occur at variable positions along the gene and so prevent aberrant transcript formation or intentionally make different transcripts.These may form multiple messenger RNAs with altered regulatory properties or encode different proteins. Finally, termination can be perturbed to achieve particular cellular needs or blocked in cancer or virally infected cells. In such cases, failure to terminate transcription can spell disaster for the cell. PMID:27284201

  13. Photobleaching reveals complex effects of inhibitors on transcribing RNA polymerase II in living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fromaget, Maud; Cook, Peter R. . E-mail: peter.cook@path.ox.ac.uk

    2007-08-15

    RNA polymerase II transcribes most eukaryotic genes. Photobleaching studies have revealed that living Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the catalytic subunit of the polymerase tagged with the green fluorescent protein contain a large rapidly exchanging pool of enzyme, plus a smaller engaged fraction; genetic complementation shows this tagged polymerase to be fully functional. We investigated how transcriptional inhibitors - some of which are used therapeutically - affect the engaged fraction in living cells using fluorescence loss in photobleaching; all were used at concentrations that have reversible effects. Various kinase inhibitors (roscovitine, DRB, KM05283, alsterpaullone, isoquinolinesulfonamide derivatives H-7, H-8, H-89, H-9), proteasomal inhibitors (lactacystin, MG132), and an anti-tumour agent (cisplatin) all reduced the engaged fraction; an intercalator (actinomycin D), two histone deacetylase inhibitors (trichostatin A, sodium butyrate), and irradiation with ultra-violet light all increased it. The polymerase proves to be both a sensitive sensor and effector of the response to these inhibitors.

  14. Enhanced detection of RNA by MMLV reverse transcriptase coupled with thermostable DNA polymerase and DNA/RNA helicase.

    PubMed

    Okano, Hiroyuki; Katano, Yuta; Baba, Misato; Fujiwara, Ayako; Hidese, Ryota; Fujiwara, Shinsuke; Yanagihara, Itaru; Hayashi, Tsukasa; Kojima, Kenji; Takita, Teisuke; Yasukawa, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Detection of mRNA is a valuable method for monitoring the specific gene expression. In this study, we devised a novel cDNA synthesis method using three enzymes, the genetically engineered thermostable variant of reverse transcriptase (RT), MM4 (E286R/E302K/L435R/D524A) from Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV), the genetically engineered variant of family A DNA polymerase with RT activity, K4polL329A from thermophilic Thermotoga petrophila K4, and the DNA/RNA helicase Tk-EshA from a hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. By optimizing assay conditions for three enzymes using Taguchi's method, 100 to 1000-fold higher sensitivity was achieved for cDNA synthesis than conventional assay condition using only RT. Our results suggest that DNA polymerase with RT activity and DNA/RNA helicase are useful to increase the sensitivity of cDNA synthesis.

  15. Antibiotics GE23077, novel inhibitors of bacterial RNA polymerase. Part 3: Chemical derivatization.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Riccardo; Granata, Giorgio; Maffioli, Sonia I; Serina, Stefania; Brunati, Cristina; Sosio, Margherita; Marazzi, Alessandra; Vannini, Alfredo; Patel, Dinesh; White, Richard; Ciabatti, Romeo

    2005-08-15

    GE23077 is a novel RNA polymerase inhibitor that is isolated from the fermentation broth of an Actinomadura sp. It is a cyclic heptapeptide complex made up of four factors, differing in the structure of acyl group connected to the side chain of an alpha,beta-diaminopropanoic acid moiety and in the configuration of the stereocenter of an alpha-amino-malonic acid residue. Although GE23077 shows strong inhibitory activity on both Rifampicin-sensitive and -resistant polymerases, it exhibits poor antimicrobial activity. The most reasonable explanation for this property has been based on the lack of penetration of the molecule across the bacterial membrane, owing to its strong hydrophilic character. To improve penetration, several parts of the molecule were accordingly modified with the aim of altering the physico-chemical properties of GE23077. The current SAR study has identified moieties important for RNA polymerase activity.

  16. Purification and properties of poliovirus RNA polymerase expressed in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Plotch, S.J.; Palant, O.; Gluzman, Y.

    1989-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the RNA polymerase of poliovirus has been expressed in Escherichia coli under the transcriptional control of a T7 bacteriophage promoter. This poliovirus enzyme was designed to contain only a single additional amino acid, the N-terminal methionine. The recombinant enzyme has been purified to near homogeneity, and polyclonal antibodies have been prepared against it. The enzyme exhibits poly(A)-dependent oligo(U)-primed ply(U) polymerase activity as well as RNA polymerase activity. In the presence of an oligo(U) primer, the enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of a full-length copy of either poliovirus or globin RNA templates. In the absence of added primer, RNA products up to twice the length of the template are synthesized. When incubated in the presence of a single nucleoside triphosphate, (..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P)UTP, the enzyme catalyzes the incorporation of radioactive label into template RNA. These results are discussed in light of previously proposed models of poliovirus RNA synthesis in vitro.

  17. Unusual organization of a developmentally regulated mitochondrial RNA polymerase (TBMTRNAP) gene in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Sandra L.; Koslowsky, Donna J.

    2009-01-01

    We report here the characterization of a developmentally regulated mitochondrial RNA polymerase transcript in the parasitic protozoan, Trypanosoma brucei. The 3822 bp protein-coding region of the T. brucei mitochondrial RNA polymerase (TBMTRNAP) gene is predicted to encode a 1274 amino acid polypeptide, the carboxyl-terminal domain of which exhibits 29–37% identity with the mitochondrial RNA polymerases from other organisms in the molecular databases. Interestingly, the TBMTRNAP mRNA is one of several mature mRNA species post-transcriptionally processed from a stable, polycistronic precursor. Alternative polyadenylation of the TBMTRNAP mRNA produces two mature transcripts that differ by 500 nt and that show stage-specific differences in abundance during the T. brucei life cycle. This alternative polyadenylation event appears to be accompanied by the alternative splicing of a high abundance, non-coding downstream transcript of unknown function. Our finding that the TBMTRNAP gene is transcribed into two distinct mRNAs subject to differential regulation during the T. brucei life cycle suggests that mitochondrial differentiation might be achieved in part through the regulated expression of this gene. PMID:11470527

  18. Molecular phylogeny of Fusarium inferred from partial RNA polymerase II gene sequences

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Currently there are no robust phylogenetic hypotheses for Fusarium based on large-scale sampling across the breadth of this important group of mycotoxigenic phytopathogens. Nucleotide variation within the second largest RNA polymerase subunit (RPB2) protein-coding gene, however, has clearly demonst...

  19. A novel conformation of RNA polymerase sheds light on the mechanism of transcription

    PubMed Central

    Tagami, Shunsuke; Sekine, Shun-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Transcription is a complicated, multistep process requiring stringent control. Its accuracy may be achieved in part by the conformational changes of RNA polymerase (RNAP). Here, we discuss the functional relevance of the recently reported conformational changes of RNAP, which may affect transcription control, RNAP translocation and transcription termination. PMID:21922057

  20. Myxopyronin B analogs as inhibitors of RNA polymerase, synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Doundoulakis, Thomas; Xiang, Alan X; Lira, Ricardo; Agrios, Konstantinos A; Webber, Stephen E; Sisson, Wes; Aust, Robert M; Shah, Amit M; Showalter, Richard E; Appleman, James R; Simonsen, Klaus B

    2004-11-15

    A series of myxopyronin B analogs has been prepared via a convergent synthetic route and were tested for in vitro inhibitory activity against DNA-dependent RNA polymerase and antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus. The parent lead compound proved to be very sensitive to even small changes. Only the achiral desmethyl myxopyronin B (1a) provided enhanced potency.

  1. Inhibition of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase of Rous sarcoma virus by thiosemicarbazones and several cations.

    PubMed

    Levinson, W; Faras, A; Woodson, B; Jackson, J; Bishop, J M

    1973-01-01

    The RNA-dependent DNA polymerase of Rous sarcoma virus is inhibited by N-methyl isatin beta-thiosemicarbazone and by thiosemicarbazide, but not by semicarbazide. These inhibitors also inactivate, upon contact with the virion, the transforming ability of Rous sarcoma virus. Sulfhydryl donors, such as 2-mercapto-ethanol, can prevent these effects. The RNA-directed activity of the purified polymerase is inhibited to a greater degree than is the DNA-directed activity. Two cations, Cu(++) and Hg(++), can inhibit RNA-dependent DNA polymerase and inactivate the transforming ability of the virus. Synergism between N-methyl isatin beta-thiosemicarbazone and Cu(++) occurs, since treatment of the virus with a low dose of either N-methyl isatin beta-thiosemicarbazone or Cu(++) has little effect; however, when the two compounds are mixed together, significant inactivation occurs. This observation supports the hypothesis that the antiviral action of thiosemicarbazones is a function of their ability to act as a ligand for metallic ions. Several cations (Ag(+), Co(++), Zn(++), Cd(++), and Ni(++)) significantly inactivate the RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, but have little effect on the transforming ability. In view of this result, the conclusion that the enzyme activity is required for transformation remains open to question.

  2. Snapshots of a viral RNA polymerase switching gears from transcription initiation to elongation.

    PubMed

    Theis, Karsten

    2013-12-01

    During transcription initiation, RNA polymerase binds tightly to the promoter DNA defining the start of transcription, transcribes comparatively slowly, and frequently releases short transcripts (3-8 nucleotides) in a process called abortive cycling. Transitioning to elongation, the second phase of transcription, the polymerase dissociates from the promoter while RNA synthesis continues. Elongation is characterized by higher rates of transcription and tight binding to the RNA transcript. The RNA polymerase from enterophage T7 (T7 RNAP) has been used as a model to understand the mechanism of transcription in general, and the transition from initiation to elongation specifically. This single-subunit enzyme undergoes dramatic conformational changes during this transition to support the changing requirements of nucleic acid interactions while continuously maintaining polymerase function. Crystal structures, available of multiple stages of the initiation complex and of the elongation complex, combined with biochemical and biophysical data, offer molecular detail of the transition. Some of the crystal structures contain a variant of T7 RNAP where proline 266 is substituted by leucine. This variant shows less abortive products and altered timing of transition, and is a valuable tool to study these processes. The structural transitions from early to late initiation are well understood and are consistent with solution data. The timing of events and the structural intermediates in the transition from late initiation to elongation are less well understood, but the available data allows one to formulate testable models of the transition to guide further research.

  3. Falling for the dark side of transcription: Nab2 fosters RNA polymerase III transcription

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, L. Maximilian; Sträßer, Katja

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT RNA polymerase III (RNAPIII) synthesizes diverse, small, non-coding RNAs with many important roles in the cellular metabolism. One of the open questions of RNAPIII transcription is whether and how additional factors are involved. Recently, Nab2 was identified as the first messenger ribonucleoprotein particle (mRNP) biogenesis factor with a function in RNAPIII transcription. PMID:27049816

  4. Mutations in the three largest subunits of yeast RNA polymerase II that affect enzyme assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziej, P A; Young, R A

    1991-01-01

    Mutations in the three largest subunits of yeast RNA polymerase II (RPB1, RPB2, and RPB3) were investigated for their effects on RNA polymerase II structure and assembly. Among 23 temperature-sensitive mutations, 6 mutations affected enzyme assembly, as assayed by immunoprecipitation of epitope-tagged subunits. In all six assembly mutants, RNA polymerase II subunits synthesized at the permissive temperature were incorporated into stably assembled, immunoprecipitable enzyme and remained stably associated when cells were shifted to the nonpermissive temperature, whereas subunits synthesized at the nonpermissive temperature were not incorporated into a completely assembled enzyme. The observation that subunit subcomplexes accumulated in assembly-mutant cells at the nonpermissive temperature led us to investigate whether these subcomplexes were assembly intermediates or merely byproducts of mutant enzyme instability. The time course of assembly of RPB1, RPB2, and RPB3 was investigated in wild-type cells and subsequently in mutant cells. Glycerol gradient fractionation of extracts of cells pulse-labeled for various times revealed that a subcomplex of RPB2 and RPB3 appears soon after subunit synthesis and can be chased into fully assembled enzyme. The RPB2-plus-RPB3 subcomplexes accumulated in all RPB1 assembly mutants at the nonpermissive temperature but not in an RPB2 or RPB3 assembly mutant. These data indicate that RPB2 and RPB3 form a complex that subsequently interacts with RPB1 during the assembly of RNA polymerase II. Images PMID:1715023

  5. Structural basis of transcription: an RNA polymerase II-TFIIB cocrystal at 4.5 Angstroms.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, David A; Westover, Kenneth D; Davis, Ralph E; Kornberg, Roger D

    2004-02-13

    The structure of the general transcription factor IIB (TFIIB) in a complex with RNA polymerase II reveals three features crucial for transcription initiation: an N-terminal zinc ribbon domain of TFIIB that contacts the "dock" domain of the polymerase, near the path of RNA exit from a transcribing enzyme; a "finger" domain of TFIIB that is inserted into the polymerase active center; and a C-terminal domain, whose interaction with both the polymerase and with a TATA box-binding protein (TBP)-promoter DNA complex orients the DNA for unwinding and transcription. TFIIB stabilizes an early initiation complex, containing an incomplete RNA-DNA hybrid region. It may interact with the template strand, which sets the location of the transcription start site, and may interfere with RNA exit, which leads to abortive initiation or promoter escape. The trajectory of promoter DNA determined by the C-terminal domain of TFIIB traverses sites of interaction with TFIIE, TFIIF, and TFIIH, serving to define their roles in the transcription initiation process.

  6. A synthetic growth switch based on controlled expression of RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Izard, Jérôme; Gomez Balderas, Cindy D C; Ropers, Delphine; Lacour, Stephan; Song, Xiaohu; Yang, Yifan; Lindner, Ariel B; Geiselmann, Johannes; de Jong, Hidde

    2015-11-23

    The ability to control growth is essential for fundamental studies of bacterial physiology and biotechnological applications. We have engineered an Escherichia coli strain in which the transcription of a key component of the gene expression machinery, RNA polymerase, is under the control of an inducible promoter. By changing the inducer concentration in the medium, we can adjust the RNA polymerase concentration and thereby switch bacterial growth between zero and the maximal growth rate supported by the medium. We show that our synthetic growth switch functions in a medium-independent and reversible way, and we provide evidence that the switching phenotype arises from the ultrasensitive response of the growth rate to the concentration of RNA polymerase. We present an application of the growth switch in which both the wild-type E. coli strain and our modified strain are endowed with the capacity to produce glycerol when growing on glucose. Cells in which growth has been switched off continue to be metabolically active and harness the energy gain to produce glycerol at a twofold higher yield than in cells with natural control of RNA polymerase expression. Remarkably, without any further optimization, the improved yield is close to the theoretical maximum computed from a flux balance model of E. coli metabolism. The proposed synthetic growth switch is a promising tool for gaining a better understanding of bacterial physiology and for applications in synthetic biology and biotechnology. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  7. An RNA cap (nucleoside-2'-O-)-methyltransferase in the flavivirus RNA polymerase NS5: crystal structure and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Egloff, Marie-Pierre; Benarroch, Delphine; Selisko, Barbara; Romette, Jean-Louis; Canard, Bruno

    2002-06-03

    Viruses represent an attractive system with which to study the molecular basis of mRNA capping and its relation to the RNA transcription machinery. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NS5 of flaviviruses presents a characteristic motif of S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferases at its N-terminus, and polymerase motifs at its C-terminus. The crystal structure of an N-terminal fragment of Dengue virus type 2 NS5 is reported at 2.4 A resolution. We show that this NS5 domain includes a typical methyltransferase core and exhibits a (nucleoside-2'-O-)-methyltransferase activity on capped RNA. The structure of a ternary complex comprising S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and a guanosine triphosphate (GTP) analogue shows that 54 amino acids N-terminal to the core provide a novel GTP-binding site that selects guanine using a previously unreported mechanism. Binding studies using GTP- and RNA cap-analogues, as well as the spatial arrangement of the methyltransferase active site relative to the GTP-binding site, suggest that the latter is a specific cap-binding site. As RNA capping is an essential viral function, these results provide a structural basis for the rational design of drugs against the emerging flaviviruses.

  8. In situ structures of the segmented genome and RNA polymerase complex inside a dsRNA virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xing; Ding, Ke; Yu, Xuekui; Chang, Winston; Sun, Jingchen; Hong Zhou, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Viruses in the Reoviridae, like the triple-shelled human rotavirus and the single-shelled insect cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV), all package a genome of segmented double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) inside the viral capsid and carry out endogenous messenger RNA synthesis through a transcriptional enzyme complex (TEC). By direct electron-counting cryoelectron microscopy and asymmetric reconstruction, we have determined the organization of the dsRNA genome inside quiescent CPV (q-CPV) and the in situ atomic structures of TEC within CPV in both quiescent and transcribing (t-CPV) states. We show that the ten segmented dsRNAs in CPV are organized with ten TECs in a specific, non-symmetric manner, with each dsRNA segment attached directly to a TEC. The TEC consists of two extensively interacting subunits: an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) and an NTPase VP4. We find that the bracelet domain of RdRP undergoes marked conformational change when q-CPV is converted to t-CPV, leading to formation of the RNA template entry channel and access to the polymerase active site. An amino-terminal helix from each of two subunits of the capsid shell protein (CSP) interacts with VP4 and RdRP. These findings establish the link between sensing of environmental cues by the external proteins and activation of endogenous RNA transcription by the TEC inside the virus.

  9. RNA polymerase II pauses at the 5 prime end of the transcriptionally induced Drosophila hsp70 gene

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, T.; Lis, J.T. )

    1991-10-01

    An RNA polymerase II molecule is associated with the 5{prime} end of the Drosophila melanogaster hsp70 gene under non-heat shock conditions. This polymerase is engaged in transcription but has paused, or arrested, after synthesizing about 25 nucleotides. Resumption of elongation by this paused polymerase appears to be the rate-limiting step in hsp70 transcription in uninduced cells. Here the authors report results of nuclear run-on assays that measure the distribution of elongating and paused RNA polymerase molecules on the hsp70 gene in induced cells. Pausing of polymerase was detected at the 5{prime} end of hsp70 was transcribed approximately five times during the 25-min heat shock that they used. Therefore, once the hsp70 gene is induced to an intermediate level, initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II remains more rapid than the resumption of elongation by a paused polymerase molecule.

  10. Novel Stress-Inducible Antisense RNAs of Protein-Coding Loci Are Synthesized by RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Akihiro; Iida, Kei; Tanaka, Maho; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Mizuhashi, Kayoko; Kim, Jong-Myong; Takahashi, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Norio; Shigenobu, Shuji; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Seki, Motoaki

    2017-09-01

    Our previous study identified approximately 6,000 abiotic stress-responsive noncoding transcripts existing on the antisense strand of protein-coding genes and implied that a type of antisense RNA was synthesized from a sense RNA template by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR). Expression analyses revealed that the expression of novel abiotic stress-induced antisense RNA on 1,136 gene loci was reduced in the rdr1/2/6 mutants. RNase protection indicated that the RD29A antisense RNA and other RDR1/2/6-dependent antisense RNAs are involved in the formation of dsRNA. The accumulation of stress-inducible antisense RNA was decreased and increased in dcp5 and xrn4, respectively, but not changed in dcl2/3/4, nrpd1a and nrpd1b RNA-seq analyses revealed that the majority of the RDR1/2/6-dependent antisense RNA loci did not overlap with RDR1/2/6-dependent 20-30 nt RNA loci. Additionally, rdr1/2/6 mutants decreased the degradation rate of the sense RNA and exhibited arrested root growth during the recovery stage following a drought stress, whereas dcl2/3/4 mutants did not. Collectively, these results indicate that RDRs have stress-inducible antisense RNA synthesis activity and a novel biological function that is different from the known endogenous small RNA pathways from protein-coding genes. These data reveal a novel mechanism of RNA regulation during abiotic stress response that involves complex RNA degradation pathways. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Identification of an ortholog of the eukaryotic RNA polymerase III subunit RPC34 in Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota suggests specialization of RNA polymerases for coding and non-coding RNAs in Archaea.

    PubMed

    Blombach, Fabian; Makarova, Kira S; Marrero, Jeannette; Siebers, Bettina; Koonin, Eugene V; van der Oost, John

    2009-10-14

    One of the hallmarks of eukaryotic information processing is the co-existence of 3 distinct, multi-subunit RNA polymerase complexes that are dedicated to the transcription of specific classes of coding or non-coding RNAs. Archaea encode only one RNA polymerase that resembles the eukaryotic RNA polymerase II with respect to the subunit composition. Here we identify archaeal orthologs of the eukaryotic RNA polymerase III subunit RPC34. Genome context analysis supports a function of this archaeal protein in the transcription of non-coding RNAs. These findings suggest that functional separation of RNA polymerases for protein-coding genes and non-coding RNAs might predate the origin of the Eukaryotes.

  12. Identification of an ortholog of the eukaryotic RNA polymerase III subunit RPC34 in Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota suggests specialization of RNA polymerases for coding and non-coding RNAs in Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Blombach, Fabian; Makarova, Kira S; Marrero, Jeannette; Siebers, Bettina; Koonin, Eugene V; Oost, John van der

    2009-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of eukaryotic information processing is the co-existence of 3 distinct, multi-subunit RNA polymerase complexes that are dedicated to the transcription of specific classes of coding or non-coding RNAs. Archaea encode only one RNA polymerase that resembles the eukaryotic RNA polymerase II with respect to the subunit composition. Here we identify archaeal orthologs of the eukaryotic RNA polymerase III subunit RPC34. Genome context analysis supports a function of this archaeal protein in the transcription of non-coding RNAs. These findings suggest that functional separation of RNA polymerases for protein-coding genes and non-coding RNAs might predate the origin of the Eukaryotes. Reviewers: This article was reviewed by Andrei Osterman and Patrick Forterre (nominated by Purificación López-García) PMID:19828044

  13. Human Polymerase-Associated Factor complex (PAFc) connects the Super Elongation Complex (SEC) to RNA polymerase II on chromatin.

    PubMed

    He, Nanhai; Chan, Caleb K; Sobhian, Bijan; Chou, Seemay; Xue, Yuhua; Liu, Min; Alber, Tom; Benkirane, Monsef; Zhou, Qiang

    2011-09-06

    The Super Elongation Complex (SEC), containing transcription elongation activators/coactivators P-TEFb, ELL2, AFF4/1, ENL, and AF9, is recruited by HIV-1 Tat and mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) proteins to activate the expression of HIV-1 and MLL-target genes, respectively. In the absence of Tat and MLL, however, it is unclear how SEC is targeted to RNA polymerase (Pol) II to stimulate elongation in general. Furthermore, although ENL and AF9 can bind the H3K79 methyltransferase Dot1L, it is unclear whether these bindings are required for SEC-mediated transcription. Here, we show that the homologous ENL and AF9 exist in separate SECs with similar but nonidentical functions. ENL/AF9 contacts the scaffolding protein AFF4 that uses separate domains to recruit different subunits into SEC. ENL/AF9 also exists outside SEC when bound to Dot1L, which is found to inhibit SEC function. The YEATS domain of ENL/AF9 targets SEC to Pol II on chromatin through contacting the human Polymerase-Associated Factor complex (PAFc) complex. This finding explains the YEATS domain's dispensability for leukemogenesis when ENL/AF9 is translocated to MLL, whose interactions with PAFc and DNA likely substitute for the PAFc/chromatin-targeting function of the YEATS domain.

  14. Protein determinants of RNA binding by DNA polymerase of the T4-related bacteriophage RB69.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Vasiliy M; Ng, San-San; Karam, Jim D

    2002-09-06

    DNA polymerase (gp43) of phage T4 plays two biological roles, one as an essential DNA binding replication enzyme and the other as an mRNA-specific autogenous translational repressor. Binding of T4 gp43 to its mRNA target (translational operator RNA) interferes with gp43-DNA interactions, but it is unclear how the protein determinants for binding DNA are affected by the dynamics of gp43-mRNA interactions. We have used RB69 gp43, a natural variant of the T4 enzyme whose crystal structure has been determined to identify protein sites that respond to the interaction with specific RNA. We used protein phosphorylation markers, photocross-linking studies, protease sensitivity assays, and mutational analyses to examine the effects of operator RNA on the enzyme's five structural domains (N, exo, palm, fingers, and thumb). Our studies suggest that this RNA affects gp43-DNA interactions through global effects on protein structure that occlude DNA-binding sites but leave the enzyme accessible to interactions with the sliding clamp (RB69 gp45) and possibly other polymerase accessory proteins. We discuss the possible biological significance of putative RNA-binding motifs in the N and palm domains of RB69 gp43.

  15. Mechanism for Coordinated RNA Packaging and Genome Replication by Rotavirus Polymerase VP1

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaohui; McDonald, Sarah M.; Tortorici, M. Alejandra; Tao, Yizhi Jane; Vasquez-Del Carpio, Rodrigo; Nibert, Max L.; Patton, John T.; Harrison, Stephen C.

    2009-04-08

    Rotavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase VP1 catalyzes RNA synthesis within a subviral particle. This activity depends on core shell protein VP2. A conserved sequence at the 3' end of plus-strand RNA templates is important for polymerase association and genome replication. We have determined the structure of VP1 at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution, as apoenzyme and in complex with RNA. The cage-like enzyme is similar to reovirus {lambda}3, with four tunnels leading to or from a central, catalytic cavity. A distinguishing characteristic of VP1 is specific recognition, by conserved features of the template-entry channel, of four bases, UGUG, in the conserved 3' sequence. Well-defined interactions with these bases position the RNA so that its 3' end overshoots the initiating register, producing a stable but catalytically inactive complex. We propose that specific 3' end recognition selects rotavirus RNA for packaging and that VP2 activates the autoinhibited VP1/RNA complex to coordinate packaging and genome replication.

  16. Evidence for a Non-Catalytic Ion-Binding Site in Multiple RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Mönttinen, Heli A. M.; Ravantti, Janne J.; Poranen, Minna M.

    2012-01-01

    A high-affinity divalent cation-binding site located proximal to the catalytic center has been identified in several RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps), but the characteristics of such a site have not been systematically studied. Here, all available polymerase structures that follow the hand-like structural motif were screened for the presence of a divalent cation close to the catalytic site but distinct from catalytic metal ions. Such non-catalytic ions were found in all RNA virus families for which there were high-resolution RdRp structures available. Bound ions were always located in structurally similar locations at an approximate 6-Å distance from the catalytic site. Furthermore, the second aspartate residue in the highly conserved GDD sequence was found to be involved in the coordination of the bound ion in all viral RdRps studied. These results suggest that a non-catalytic ion-binding site is conserved across positive-sense, single-stranded, and double-stranded RNA viruses. Interestingly, a non-catalytic ion was also observed in a similar position in the reverse transcriptase of the human immunodeficiency virus. Moreover, two members of the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase B family displayed an ion at a comparable distance from the catalytic site, but the position was clearly distinct from the non-catalytic ion-binding sites of RdRps. PMID:22792374

  17. Mutations in a conserved region of RNA polymerase II influence the accuracy of mRNA start site selection.

    PubMed Central

    Hekmatpanah, D S; Young, R A

    1991-01-01

    A sensitive phenotypic assay has been used to identify mutations affecting transcription initiation in the genes encoding the two large subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II (RPB1 and RPB2). The rpb1 and rpb2 mutations alter the ratio of transcripts initiated at two adjacent start sites of a delta-insertion promoter. Of a large number of rpb1 and rpb2 mutations screened, only a few affect transcription initiation patterns at delta-insertion promoters, and these mutations are in close proximity to each other within both RPB1 and RPB2. The two rpb1 mutations alter amino acid residues within homology block G, a region conserved in the large subunits of all RNA polymerases. The three strong rpb2 mutations alter adjacent amino acids. At a wild-type promoter, the rpb1 mutations affect the accuracy of mRNA start site selection by producing a small but detectable increase in the 5'-end heterogeneity of transcripts. These RNA polymerase II mutations implicate specific portions of the enzyme in aspects of transcription initiation. Images PMID:1922077

  18. X-ray crystal structures of the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase in complex with Benzoxazinorifamycins

    PubMed Central

    Molodtsov, Vadim; Nawarathne, Irosha N.; Scharf, Nathan T.; Kirchhoff, Paul D.; Hollis Showalter, H. D.; Garcia, George A.; Murakami, Katsuhiko S.

    2013-01-01

    Rifampin, a semi-synthetic rifamycin, is the cornerstone of current tuberculosis treatment. Among many semi-synthetic rifamycins, benzoxazinorifamycins have great potential for TB treatment due to their superior affinity for wild-type and rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA polymerases, and their reduced hepatic Cyp450 induction activity. In this study, we have determined the crystal structures of the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase complexes with two benzoxazinorifamycins. The ansa-naphthalene moieties of the benzoxazinorifamycins bind in a deep pocket of the β subunit, blocking the path of the RNA transcript. The C3′-tail of benzoxazinorifamycin fits a cavity between the β subunit and σ factor. We propose that, in addition to blocking RNA exit, the benzoxazinorifamycin C3′-tail changes the σ region3.2 loop position, which influences the template DNA at the active site thereby reducing the efficiency of transcription initiation. This study supports expansion of structure–activity relationships of benzoxazinorifamycins inhibition of RNA polymerase toward uncovering superior analogues with development potential. PMID:23679862

  19. RNA polymerase II transcriptional fidelity control and its functional interplay with DNA modifications

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Wei; Chong, Jenny; Shin, Ji Hyun; Xu, Jun; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Accurate genetic information transfer is essential for life. As a key enzyme involved in the first step of gene expression, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) must maintain high transcriptional fidelity while it reads along DNA template and synthesizes RNA transcript in a stepwise manner during transcription elongation. DNA lesions or modifications may lead to significant changes in transcriptional fidelity or transcription elongation dynamics. In this review, we will summarize recent progress towards understanding the molecular basis of RNA Pol II transcriptional fidelity control and impacts of DNA lesions and modifications on Pol II transcription elongation. PMID:26392149

  20. RNA polymerase II transcriptional fidelity control and its functional interplay with DNA modifications.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Wei; Chong, Jenny; Shin, Ji Hyun; Xu, Jun; Wang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Accurate genetic information transfer is essential for life. As a key enzyme involved in the first step of gene expression, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) must maintain high transcriptional fidelity while it reads along DNA template and synthesizes RNA transcript in a stepwise manner during transcription elongation. DNA lesions or modifications may lead to significant changes in transcriptional fidelity or transcription elongation dynamics. In this review, we will summarize recent progress toward understanding the molecular basis of RNA Pol II transcriptional fidelity control and impacts of DNA lesions and modifications on Pol II transcription elongation.

  1. Suppression of feline calicivirus replication using small interfering RNA targeted to its polymerase gene.

    PubMed

    Taharaguchi, Satoshi; Matsuhiro, Takahisa; Harima, Hayato; Sato, Atsuko; Ohe, Kyoko; Sakai, Sachi; Takahashi, Toshikazu; Hara, Motonobu

    2012-06-01

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a pathogenic microorganism that causes upper respiratory diseases in cats. Recently, an FCV infection with a high mortality rate has been confirmed, and there is need to develop a treatment for cases of acute infection. We evaluated whether the replication of FCV could be prevented by RNA interference. For this study, we designed an siRNA targeted to the polymerase region of the strain FCV-B isolated from a cat that died after exhibiting neurological symptoms. Cells transfected with siR-pol dose-dependently suppressed the replication of FCV-B. siR-pol suppressed its replication by suppressing the target viral RNA.

  2. Identification of a selective polymerase enables detection of N(6)-methyladenosine in RNA.

    PubMed

    Harcourt, Emily M; Ehrenschwender, Thomas; Batista, Pedro J; Chang, Howard Y; Kool, Eric T

    2013-12-26

    N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most abundant mRNA modification and has important links to human health. While recent studies have successfully identified thousands of mammalian RNA transcripts containing the modification, it is extremely difficult to identify the exact location of any specific m(6)A. Here we have identified a polymerase with reverse transcriptase activity (from Thermus thermophilus) that is selective by up to 18-fold for incorporation of thymidine opposite unmodified A over m(6)A. We show that the enzyme can be used to locate and quantify m(6)A in synthetic RNAs by analysis of pausing bands, and have used the enzyme in tandem with a nonselective polymerase to locate the presence and position of m(6)A in high-abundance cellular RNAs. By this approach we demonstrate that the long-undetermined position of m(6)A in mammalian 28S rRNA is nucleotide 4190.

  3. The active site of RNA polymerase II participates in transcript cleavage within arrested ternary complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, M D; Izban, M G; Luse, D S

    1994-01-01

    RNA polymerase II may become arrested during transcript elongation, in which case the ternary complex remains intact but further RNA synthesis is blocked. To relieve arrest, the nascent transcript must be cleaved from the 3' end. RNAs of 7-17 nt are liberated and transcription continues from the newly exposed 3' end. Factor SII increases elongation efficiency by strongly stimulating the transcript cleavage reaction. We show here that arrest relief can also occur by the addition of pyrophosphate. This generates the same set of cleavage products as factor SII, but the fragments produced with pyrophosphate have 5'-triphosphate termini. Thus, the active site of RNA polymerase II, in the presence of pyrophosphate, appears to be capable of cleaving phosphodiester linkages as far as 17 nt upstream of the original site of polymerization, leaving the ternary complex intact and transcriptionally active. Images PMID:8058756

  4. A method for quantifying the force dependence of initiation by T7 RNA polymerase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalafut, Bennett S.; Skinner, Gary M.; Visscher, Koen

    2009-08-01

    To access the genetic code to be transcribed to RNA, RNA polymerases must first open a "transcription bubble" in the DNA. Structural studies suggest that the minimal model of initiation by T7 bacterophage RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP) consists of two distinct steps: initial binding, in which the T7 RNAP binds to and bends the DNA, and opening, achieved by "scrunching" of the DNA. Since both steps involve mechanical deformation of the DNA, both may be affected by downstream DNA tension. Using an oscillating two-bead optical tweezers assay, we have measured the lifetime of single T7 RNAP-DNA initation complexes under tension. Global maximumlikelihood fitting of force-dependent and non-force-dependent versions of this minimal model shows that there is no conclusively discernible force-dependence of initiation in the measured 0-2 pN DNA tension range.

  5. Evolutionary Origins of Two-Barrel RNA Polymerases and Site-Specific Transcription Initiation.

    PubMed

    Fouqueau, Thomas; Blombach, Fabian; Werner, Finn

    2017-09-08

    Evolution-related multisubunit RNA polymerases (RNAPs) carry out RNA synthesis in all domains life. Although their catalytic cores and fundamental mechanisms of transcription elongation are conserved, the initiation stage of the transcription cycle differs substantially in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes in terms of the requirements for accessory factors and details of the molecular mechanisms. This review focuses on recent insights into the evolution of the transcription apparatus with regard to (a) the surprisingly pervasive double-Ψ β-barrel active-site configuration among different nucleic acid polymerase families, (b) the origin and phylogenetic distribution of TBP, TFB, and TFE transcription factors, and (c) the functional relationship between transcription and translation initiation mechanisms in terms of transcription start site selection and RNA structure.

  6. Cys-pair reporters detect a constrained trigger loop in a paused RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Dhananjaya; Voss, Michael; Windgassen, Tricia; Mooney, Rachel Anne; Landick, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional pausing, which regulates transcript elongation in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, is thought to involve formation of alternative RNA polymerase conformations in which nucleotide addition is inhibited in part due to restriction of trigger loop (TL) folding. The polymorphous TL must convert from a random coil to a helical hairpin that contacts the NTP substrate to allow rapid nucleotide addition. Understanding the distribution of TL conformations in different enzyme states is made difficult by its small size and sensitive energetics. Here we report a Cys-pair reporter strategy to elucidate the relative occupancies of different TL conformations in E. coli RNA polymerase based on the ability of Cys residues engineered into the TL and surrounding regions to form disulfide bonds. Our results indicate that a paused complex stabilized by a nascent RNA hairpin favors nonproductive TL conformations that persist after NTP binding, but that can be reversed by the elongation factor RfaH. PMID:23769674

  7. Functional Diversification of Maize RNA Polymerase IV and V subtypes via Alternative Catalytic Subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Haag, Jeremy R.; Brower-Toland, Brent; Krieger, Elysia K.; Sidorenko, Lyudmila; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Irsigler, Andre; LaRue, Huachun; Brzeski, Jan; Mcginnis, Karen A.; Ivashuta, Sergey; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Chandler, Vicki L.; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2014-10-01

    Unlike nuclear multisubunit RNA polymerases I, II, and III, whose subunit compositions are conserved throughout eukaryotes, plant RNA polymerases IV and V are nonessential, Pol II-related enzymes whose subunit compositions are still evolving. Whereas Arabidopsis Pols IV and V differ from Pol II in four or five of their 12 subunits, respectively, and differ from one another in three subunits, proteomic ana- lyses show that maize Pols IV and V differ from Pol II in six subunits but differ from each other only in their largest subunits. Use of alternative catalytic second subunits, which are nonredundant for development and paramutation, yields at least two sub- types of Pol IV and three subtypes of Pol V in maize. Pol IV/Pol V associations with MOP1, RMR1, AGO121, Zm_DRD1/CHR127, SHH2a, and SHH2b extend parallels between paramutation in maize and the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway in Arabidopsis.

  8. Constructing kinetic models to elucidate structural dynamics of a complete RNA polymerase II elongation cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jin; Da, Lin-Tai; Huang, Xuhui

    2015-02-01

    The RNA polymerase II elongation is central in eukaryotic transcription. Although multiple intermediates of the elongation complex have been identified, the dynamical mechanisms remain elusive or controversial. Here we build a structure-based kinetic model of a full elongation cycle of polymerase II, taking into account transition rates and conformational changes characterized from both single molecule experimental studies and computational simulations at atomistic scale. Our model suggests a force-dependent slow transition detected in the single molecule experiments corresponds to an essential conformational change of a trigger loop (TL) opening prior to the polymerase translocation. The analyses on mutant study of E1103G and on potential sequence effects of the translocation substantiate this proposal. Our model also investigates another slow transition detected in the transcription elongation cycle which is independent of mechanical force. If this force-independent slow transition happens as the TL gradually closes upon NTP binding, the analyses indicate that the binding affinity of NTP to the polymerase has to be sufficiently high. Otherwise, one infers that the slow transition happens pre-catalytically but after the TL closing. Accordingly, accurate determination of intrinsic properties of NTP binding is demanded for an improved characterization of the polymerase elongation. Overall, the study provides a working model of the polymerase II elongation under a generic Brownian ratchet mechanism, with most essential structural transition and functional kinetics elucidated.

  9. DNA's Liaison with RNA Polymerase Physical Consequences of a Twisted Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulic, Igor; Nelson, Phil

    2006-03-01

    RNA polymerase is the molecular motor that performs the fundamental process of transcription. Besides being the key- protagonist of gene regulation it is one of the most powerful nano-mechanical force generators known inside the cell. The fact that polymerase strictly tracks only one of DNA's strands together with DNA's helical geometry induces a force-to-torque transmission, with several important biological consequences like the ``twin supercoil domain'' effect and remote torsional interaction of genes. In the first part of the talk we theoretically explore the mechanisms of non-equilibrium transport of twist generated by a moving polymerase. We show that these equations are intrinsically non-linear in the crowded cellular environment and lead to peculiar effects like self-confinement of torsional strain by generation of alternative DNA structures like cruciforms. We demonstrate how the asymmetric conformational properties of DNA lead to a ``torsional diode'' effect, i.e. a rectification of polymerase-generated twist currents of different signs. In the second part we explore the possibility of exploiting the polymerase as a powerful workhorse for nanomechanical devices. We propose simple and easy to assemble arrangements of DNA templates interconnected by strand-hybridization that when transcribed by the polymerase linearly contract by tenfold. We show that the typical forces generated by such ``DNA stress fibers'' are in the piconewton range. We discuss their kinetics of contraction and relaxation and draw parallels to natural muscle fiber design.

  10. Inhibition of RNA polymerase II transcription in human cell extracts by cisplatin DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Cullinane, C; Mazur, S J; Essigmann, J M; Phillips, D R; Bohr, V A

    1999-05-11

    The anticancer drug cisplatin induces a spectrum of lesions in DNA. The effect of such DNA damage on transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) in human cell extracts was investigated at the level of initiation and elongation. RNA pol II transcription directed from the adenovirus major late promoter was inhibited following treatment of the promoter-containing template with increasing concentrations of cisplatin. Furthermore, transcription from an undamaged promoter fragment was depleted in the presence of increasing amounts of cisplatin DNA damage on an exogenous plasmid, suggesting such damage may hijack an essential factor for transcription initiation. The effect of cisplatin damage on RNA pol II elongation was investigated using site-specifically-placed cisplatin adducts. The GTG adduct was an effective block to RNA pol II elongation, inhibiting the polymerase by 80%. In contrast, RNA pol II completely bypassed the cisplatin GG intrastrand adduct. These studies suggest that the inhibition of RNA pol II transcription observed following the treatment of cells with cisplatin is likely to reflect the combined effects of DNA damage at the level of both transcription initiation and elongation.

  11. Purification of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from the myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca.

    PubMed Central

    Heidelbach, M; Skladny, H; Schairer, H U

    1992-01-01

    The DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.6) of the myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca has been purified. It shows three main polypeptide bands with apparent molecular weights of 146,000, 105,000, and 40,000 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. beta and beta' subunits of the S. aurantiaca polymerase were shown to migrate in the 146,000-molecular-weight polypeptide band and the main sigma factor was shown to migrate in the 105,000-molecular-weight band by using heterologous antisera. Images PMID:1556092

  12. Comparative modeling of DNA and RNA polymerases from Moniliophthora perniciosa mitochondrial plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Bruno S; Taranto, Alex G; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles; Duarte, Angelo A

    2009-01-01

    Background The filamentous fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel) Aime & Phillips-Mora is a hemibiotrophic Basidiomycota that causes witches' broom disease of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). This disease has resulted in a severe decrease in Brazilian cocoa production, which changed the position of Brazil in the market from the second largest cocoa exporter to a cocoa importer. Fungal mitochondrial plasmids are usually invertrons encoding DNA and RNA polymerases. Plasmid insertions into host mitochondrial genomes are probably associated with modifications in host generation time, which can be involved in fungal aging. This association suggests activity of polymerases, and these can be used as new targets for drugs against mitochondrial activity of fungi, more specifically against witches' broom disease. Sequencing and modeling: DNA and RNA polymerases of M. perniciosa mitochondrial plasmid were completely sequenced and their models were carried out by Comparative Homology approach. The sequences of DNA and RNA polymerase showed 25% of identity to 1XHX and 1ARO (pdb code) using BLASTp, which were used as templates. The models were constructed using Swiss PDB-Viewer and refined with a set of Molecular Mechanics (MM) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) in water carried out with AMBER 8.0, both working under the ff99 force fields, respectively. Ramachandran plots were generated by Procheck 3.0 and exhibited models with 97% and 98% for DNA and RNA polymerases, respectively. MD simulations in water showed models with thermodynamic stability after 2000 ps and 300 K of simulation. Conclusion This work contributes to the development of new alternatives for controlling the fungal agent of witches' broom disease. PMID:19744344

  13. The RNA Silencing Enzyme RNA Polymerase V Is Required for Plant Immunity

    PubMed Central

    López, Ana; Ramírez, Vicente; García-Andrade, Javier; Flors, Victor; Vera, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    RNA–directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is an epigenetic control mechanism driven by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that influence gene function. In plants, little is known of the involvement of the RdDM pathway in regulating traits related to immune responses. In a genetic screen designed to reveal factors regulating immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified NRPD2 as the OVEREXPRESSOR OF CATIONIC PEROXIDASE 1 (OCP1). NRPD2 encodes the second largest subunit of the plant-specific RNA Polymerases IV and V (Pol IV and Pol V), which are crucial for the RdDM pathway. The ocp1 and nrpd2 mutants showed increases in disease susceptibility when confronted with the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Plectosphaerella cucumerina. Studies were extended to other mutants affected in different steps of the RdDM pathway, such as nrpd1, nrpe1, ago4, drd1, rdr2, and drm1drm2 mutants. Our results indicate that all the mutants studied, with the exception of nrpd1, phenocopy the nrpd2 mutants; and they suggest that, while Pol V complex is required for plant immunity, Pol IV appears dispensable. Moreover, Pol V defective mutants, but not Pol IV mutants, show enhanced disease resistance towards the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae DC3000. Interestingly, salicylic acid (SA)–mediated defenses effective against PsDC3000 are enhanced in Pol V defective mutants, whereas jasmonic acid (JA)–mediated defenses that protect against fungi are reduced. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that, through differential histone modifications, SA–related defense genes are poised for enhanced activation in Pol V defective mutants and provide clues for understanding the regulation of gene priming during defense. Our results highlight the importance of epigenetic control as an additional layer of complexity in the regulation of plant immunity and point towards multiple components of the RdDM pathway being involved in plant immunity based on genetic evidence, but

  14. Systematic analysis of T7 RNA polymerase based in vitro linear RNA amplification for use in microarray experiments.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jörg; Buness, Andreas; Huber, Wolfgang; Volz, Joachim; Kioschis, Petra; Hafner, Mathias; Poustka, Annemarie; Sültmann, Holger

    2004-04-30

    The requirement of a large amount of high-quality RNA is a major limiting factor for microarray experiments using biopsies. An average microarray experiment requires 10-100 microg of RNA. However, due to their small size, most biopsies do not yield this amount. Several different approaches for RNA amplification in vitro have been described and applied for microarray studies. In most of these, systematic analyses of the potential bias introduced by the enzymatic modifications are lacking. We examined the sources of error introduced by the T7 RNA polymerase based RNA amplification method through hybridisation studies on microarrays and performed statistical analysis of the parameters that need to be evaluated prior to routine laboratory use. The results demonstrate that amplification of the RNA has no systematic influence on the outcome of the microarray experiment. Although variations in differential expression between amplified and total RNA hybridisations can be observed, RNA amplification is reproducible, and there is no evidence that it introduces a large systematic bias. Our results underline the utility of the T7 based RNA amplification for use in microarray experiments provided that all samples under study are equally treated.

  15. Systematic analysis of T7 RNA polymerase based in vitro linear RNA amplification for use in microarray experiments

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Jörg; Buneß, Andreas; Huber, Wolfgang; Volz, Joachim; Kioschis, Petra; Hafner, Mathias; Poustka, Annemarie; Sültmann, Holger

    2004-01-01

    Background The requirement of a large amount of high-quality RNA is a major limiting factor for microarray experiments using biopsies. An average microarray experiment requires 10–100 μg of RNA. However, due to their small size, most biopsies do not yield this amount. Several different approaches for RNA amplification in vitro have been described and applied for microarray studies. In most of these, systematic analyses of the potential bias introduced by the enzymatic modifications are lacking. Results We examined the sources of error introduced by the T7 RNA polymerase based RNA amplification method through hybridisation studies on microarrays and performed statistical analysis of the parameters that need to be evaluated prior to routine laboratory use. The results demonstrate that amplification of the RNA has no systematic influence on the outcome of the microarray experiment. Although variations in differential expression between amplified and total RNA hybridisations can be observed, RNA amplification is reproducible, and there is no evidence that it introduces a large systematic bias. Conclusions Our results underline the utility of the T7 based RNA amplification for use in microarray experiments provided that all samples under study are equally treated. PMID:15119961

  16. Recruitment of RED-SMU1 Complex by Influenza A Virus RNA Polymerase to Control Viral mRNA Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Munier, Sandie; Tomoiu, Andru; Demeret, Caroline; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Jacob, Yves; Naffakh, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses are major pathogens in humans and in animals, whose genome consists of eight single-stranded RNA segments of negative polarity. Viral mRNAs are synthesized by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the nucleus of infected cells, in close association with the cellular transcriptional machinery. Two proteins essential for viral multiplication, the exportin NS2/NEP and the ion channel protein M2, are produced by splicing of the NS1 and M1 mRNAs, respectively. Here we identify two human spliceosomal factors, RED and SMU1, that control the expression of NS2/NEP and are required for efficient viral multiplication. We provide several lines of evidence that in infected cells, the hetero-trimeric viral polymerase recruits a complex formed by RED and SMU1 through interaction with its PB2 and PB1 subunits. We demonstrate that the splicing of the NS1 viral mRNA is specifically affected in cells depleted of RED or SMU1, leading to a decreased production of the spliced mRNA species NS2, and to a reduced NS2/NS1 protein ratio. In agreement with the exportin function of NS2, these defects impair the transport of newly synthesized viral ribonucleoproteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and strongly reduce the production of infectious influenza virions. Overall, our results unravel a new mechanism of viral subversion of the cellular splicing machinery, by establishing that the human splicing factors RED and SMU1 act jointly as key regulators of influenza virus gene expression. In addition, our data point to a central role of the viral RNA polymerase in coupling transcription and alternative splicing of the viral mRNAs. PMID:24945353

  17. Recruitment of RED-SMU1 complex by Influenza A Virus RNA polymerase to control Viral mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Guillaume; Chiang, Chiayn; Munier, Sandie; Tomoiu, Andru; Demeret, Caroline; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Jacob, Yves; Naffakh, Nadia

    2014-06-01

    Influenza A viruses are major pathogens in humans and in animals, whose genome consists of eight single-stranded RNA segments of negative polarity. Viral mRNAs are synthesized by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the nucleus of infected cells, in close association with the cellular transcriptional machinery. Two proteins essential for viral multiplication, the exportin NS2/NEP and the ion channel protein M2, are produced by splicing of the NS1 and M1 mRNAs, respectively. Here we identify two human spliceosomal factors, RED and SMU1, that control the expression of NS2/NEP and are required for efficient viral multiplication. We provide several lines of evidence that in infected cells, the hetero-trimeric viral polymerase recruits a complex formed by RED and SMU1 through interaction with its PB2 and PB1 subunits. We demonstrate that the splicing of the NS1 viral mRNA is specifically affected in cells depleted of RED or SMU1, leading to a decreased production of the spliced mRNA species NS2, and to a reduced NS2/NS1 protein ratio. In agreement with the exportin function of NS2, these defects impair the transport of newly synthesized viral ribonucleoproteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and strongly reduce the production of infectious influenza virions. Overall, our results unravel a new mechanism of viral subversion of the cellular splicing machinery, by establishing that the human splicing factors RED and SMU1 act jointly as key regulators of influenza virus gene expression. In addition, our data point to a central role of the viral RNA polymerase in coupling transcription and alternative splicing of the viral mRNAs.

  18. Selectivity and proofreading both contribute significantly to the fidelity of RNA polymerase III transcription

    PubMed Central

    Alic, Nazif; Ayoub, Nayla; Landrieux, Emilie; Favry, Emmanuel; Baudouin-Cornu, Peggy; Riva, Michel; Carles, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    We examine here the mechanisms ensuring the fidelity of RNA synthesis by RNA polymerase III (Pol III). Misincorporation could only be observed by using variants of Pol III deficient in the intrinsic RNA cleavage activity. Determination of relative rates of the reactions producing correct and erroneous transcripts at a specific position on a tRNA gene, combined with computational methods, demonstrated that Pol III has a highly efficient proofreading activity increasing its transcriptional fidelity by a factor of 103 over the error rate determined solely by selectivity (1.8 × 10−4). We show that Pol III slows down synthesis past a misincorporation to achieve efficient proofreading. We discuss our findings in the context of transcriptional fidelity studies performed on RNA Pols, proposing that the fidelity of transcription is more crucial for Pol III than Pol II. PMID:17553959

  19. A Comparative Study of RNA Polymerase II Transcription Machinery in Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Nimisha; Mehta, Surbhi

    The control of gene expression, predominantly at the level of transcription, plays a fundamental role in biological processes determining the phenotypic changes in cells and organisms. The eukaryotes have evolved a complex and sophisticated transcription machinery to transcribe DNA into RNA. RNA polymerase II enzyme lies at the centre of the transcription apparatus that comprises nearly 60 polypeptides and is responsible for the expression and regulation of proteinencoding genes. Much of our present understanding and knowledge of the RNA polymerase II transcription apparatus in eukaryotes has been derived from studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. More recently, Schizosaccharomyces pombe has emerged as a better model system to study transcription because the transcription mechanism in this yeast is closer to that in higher eukaryotes. Also, studies on components of the basal transcription machinery have revealed a number of properties that are common with other eukaryotes, but have also highlighted some features unique to S. pombe. In fact, the fungal transcription associated protein families show greater species specificity and only 15% of these proteins contain homologues shared between both S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. In this chapter, we compare the RNA polymerase II transcription apparatus in different yeasts.

  20. Structural basis of transcription: an RNA polymerase II elongation complex at 3.3 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Gnatt, A L; Cramer, P; Fu, J; Bushnell, D A; Kornberg, R D

    2001-06-08

    The crystal structure of RNA polymerase II in the act of transcription was determined at 3.3 A resolution. Duplex DNA is seen entering the main cleft of the enzyme and unwinding before the active site. Nine base pairs of DNA-RNA hybrid extend from the active center at nearly right angles to the entering DNA, with the 3' end of the RNA in the nucleotide addition site. The 3' end is positioned above a pore, through which nucleotides may enter and through which RNA may be extruded during back-tracking. The 5'-most residue of the RNA is close to the point of entry to an exit groove. Changes in protein structure between the transcribing complex and free enzyme include closure of a clamp over the DNA and RNA and ordering of a series of "switches" at the base of the clamp to create a binding site complementary to the DNA-RNA hybrid. Protein-nucleic acid contacts help explain DNA and RNA strand separation, the specificity of RNA synthesis, "abortive cycling" during transcription initiation, and RNA and DNA translocation during transcription elongation.

  1. Elongation properties of vaccinia virus RNA polymerase: pausing, slippage, 3' end addition, and termination site choice.

    PubMed

    Deng, L; Shuman, S

    1997-12-16

    We have analyzed the elongation properties of vaccinia virus RNA polymerase during a single round of transcription in vitro. RNA-labeled ternary complexes were halted at a unique template position located upstream of a T-run (TTTTTTTTT) in the nontemplate strand; this element encodes an RNA signal for factor-dependent transcription termination at distal sites on the template. The halted ternary complexes were purified and allowed to resume elongation under a variety of conditions. We found that the T-run constituted a strong elongation block, even at high nucleotide concentrations. The principal sites of pausing were at a C position situated two nucleotides upstream of the first T in the T-run and at the first three to four T positions within the T-run. There was relatively little pausing at the five downstream Ts. Intrinsic pausing was exacerbated at suboptimal nucleotide concentrations. Ternary complexes arrested by the T-run at 10 microM NTPs rapidly traversed the T-run when the NTP pool was increased to 1 mM. Limiting GTP (1 microM) resulted in polymerase stuttering at the 3' margin of the T-run, immediately prior to a templated G position; this generated a ladder of slippage synthesis products. We found that vaccinia ternary complexes remained intact after elongating to the very end of a linear DNA template and that such complexes catalyzed the addition of extra nucleotides to the 3' end of the RNA chain. The 3' end addition required much higher concentrations of NTPs than did templated chain elongation. Finally, we report that factor-dependent transcription termination by vaccinia RNA polymerase downstream of the T-run was affected by nucleotide concentration. Limiting UTP caused the polymerase to terminate at sites closer to the UUUUUNU termination signal. This is consistent with the kinetic coupling model for factor-dependent termination.

  2. Influenza Virus Infection Induces Host Pyruvate Kinase M Which Interacts with Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yukari; Ishii, Kosuke; Honda, Ayae

    2017-01-01

    Influenza virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is a heterotrimer of three viral proteins, PB1, PB2, and PA and is involved in both transcription and replication of the negative strand of the viral RNA (vRNA) genome. RdRp is multifunctional, possessing RNA polymerase, cap binding, and endonuclease activities. The enzyme synthesizes three different RNAs, complementary RNA (cRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) from vRNA, and vRNA from cRNA. To synthesize these three RNAs, RdRp requires conversion of its function by host factor. Here, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening to identify the relevant host factor, revealing that pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) interacted with the PA subunit of influenza virus RdRp. PKM2 is one of two enzymes (PKM1 and PKM2) produced by alternative splicing of the pyruvate kinase M (PKM) pre-mRNA. We determined the interacting regions in both PKM2 and PA, the expression level of PKM by western blotting at different time points after viral infection, and the effects of transfection of siRNA targeting PKM on influenza virus replication. The results demonstrated that the C-terminal region of PKM2 interacted with the C-terminus of the PA subunit, that the expression level of PKM2 increased with influenza virus infection time, and that this enzyme is essential for influenza virus multiplication. Moreover, isoelectric focusing of uninfected and influenza virus infected cell extracts, followed by gradient gel electrophoresis to separate the PKM1 and PKM2 isoforms and western blotting indicated that PKM2 became more acidic after influenza infection. The decreased pH of PKM2 may have been due to phosphorylation, and phosphorylated PKM2 is active as a pyruvate kinase and protein kinase; therefore, it is possible that PKM2 may transfer a phosphate group to PA and consequently transform the function of RdRp from transcriptase to replicase.

  3. Influenza Virus Infection Induces Host Pyruvate Kinase M Which Interacts with Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Yukari; Ishii, Kosuke; Honda, Ayae

    2017-01-01

    Influenza virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is a heterotrimer of three viral proteins, PB1, PB2, and PA and is involved in both transcription and replication of the negative strand of the viral RNA (vRNA) genome. RdRp is multifunctional, possessing RNA polymerase, cap binding, and endonuclease activities. The enzyme synthesizes three different RNAs, complementary RNA (cRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) from vRNA, and vRNA from cRNA. To synthesize these three RNAs, RdRp requires conversion of its function by host factor. Here, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening to identify the relevant host factor, revealing that pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) interacted with the PA subunit of influenza virus RdRp. PKM2 is one of two enzymes (PKM1 and PKM2) produced by alternative splicing of the pyruvate kinase M (PKM) pre-mRNA. We determined the interacting regions in both PKM2 and PA, the expression level of PKM by western blotting at different time points after viral infection, and the effects of transfection of siRNA targeting PKM on influenza virus replication. The results demonstrated that the C-terminal region of PKM2 interacted with the C-terminus of the PA subunit, that the expression level of PKM2 increased with influenza virus infection time, and that this enzyme is essential for influenza virus multiplication. Moreover, isoelectric focusing of uninfected and influenza virus infected cell extracts, followed by gradient gel electrophoresis to separate the PKM1 and PKM2 isoforms and western blotting indicated that PKM2 became more acidic after influenza infection. The decreased pH of PKM2 may have been due to phosphorylation, and phosphorylated PKM2 is active as a pyruvate kinase and protein kinase; therefore, it is possible that PKM2 may transfer a phosphate group to PA and consequently transform the function of RdRp from transcriptase to replicase. PMID:28232820

  4. The elongation rate of RNA polymerase determines the fate of transcribed nucleosomes

    PubMed Central

    Bintu, Lacramioara; Kopaczynska, Marta; Hodges, Courtney; Lubkowska, Lucyna; Kashlev, Mikhail; Bustamante, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Upon transcription, histones can either detach from DNA or transfer behind the polymerase through a process believed to involve template looping. The details governing nucleosomal fate during transcription are not well understood. Our atomic force microscopy images of RNA polymerase II-nucleosome complexes confirm the presence of looped transcriptional intermediates and provide mechanistic insight into the histone-transfer process via the distribution of transcribed nucleosome positions. Significantly, we find that a fraction of the transcribed nucleosomes are remodeled to hexasomes, and that this fraction depends on the transcription elongation rate. A simple model involving the kinetic competition between transcription elongation, histone transfer, and histone-histone dissociation quantitatively rationalizes our observations and unifies results obtained with other polymerases. Factors affecting the relative magnitude of these processes provide the physical basis for nucleosomal fate during transcription and, therefore, for the regulation of gene expression. PMID:22081017

  5. A Mechanistic Model for Cooperative Behavior of Co-transcribing RNA Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Heberling, Tamra; Davis, Lisa; Gedeon, Jakub; Morgan, Charles; Gedeon, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    In fast-transcribing prokaryotic genes, such as an rrn gene in Escherichia coli, many RNA polymerases (RNAPs) transcribe the DNA simultaneously. Active elongation of RNAPs is often interrupted by pauses, which has been observed to cause RNAP traffic jams; yet some studies indicate that elongation seems to be faster in the presence of multiple RNAPs than elongation by a single RNAP. We propose that an interaction between RNAPs via the torque produced by RNAP motion on helically twisted DNA can explain this apparent paradox. We have incorporated the torque mechanism into a stochastic model and simulated transcription both with and without torque. Simulation results illustrate that the torque causes shorter pause durations and fewer collisions between polymerases. Our results suggest that the torsional interaction of RNAPs is an important mechanism in maintaining fast transcription times, and that transcription should be viewed as a cooperative group effort by multiple polymerases. PMID:27517607

  6. Insights into the Mechanism of Initial Transcription in Escherichia coli RNA Polymerase*

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Satamita; Martin, Craig T.

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that during initial transcription of the first 8–10 bases of RNA, complexes are relatively unstable, leading to the release of short abortive RNA transcripts. An early “stressed intermediate” model led to a more specific mechanistic model proposing “scrunching” stress as the basis for the instability. Recent studies in the single subunit T7 RNA polymerase have argued against scrunching as the energetic driving force and instead argue for a model in which pushing of the RNA-DNA hybrid against a protein element associated with promoter binding, while likely driving promoter release, reciprocally leads to instability of the hybrid. In this study, we test these models in the structurally unrelated multisubunit bacterial RNA polymerase. Via the targeted introduction of mismatches and nicks in the DNA, we demonstrate that neither downstream bubble collapse nor compaction/scrunching of either the single-stranded template or nontemplate strands is a major force driving abortive instability (although collapse from the downstream end of the bubble does contribute significantly to the instability of artificially halted complexes). In contrast, pushing of the hybrid against a mobile protein element (σ3.2 in the bacterial enzyme) results in substantially increased abortive instability and is likely the primary energetic contributor to abortive cycling. The results suggest that abortive instability is a by-product of the mechanistic need to couple the energy of nucleotide addition (RNA chain growth) to driving the timed release of promoter contacts during initial transcription. PMID:24047893

  7. Control of Transcriptional Fidelity by Active Center Tuning as Derived from RNA Polymerase Endonuclease Reaction*

    PubMed Central

    Sosunova, Ekaterina; Sosunov, Vasily; Epshtein, Vitaly; Nikiforov, Vadim; Mustaev, Arkady

    2013-01-01

    Precise transcription by cellular RNA polymerase requires the efficient removal of noncognate nucleotide residues that are occasionally incorporated. Mis-incorporation causes the transcription elongation complex to backtrack, releasing a single strand 3′-RNA segment bearing a noncognate residue, which is hydrolyzed by the active center that carries two Mg2+ ions. However, in most x-ray structures only one Mg2+ is present. This Mg2+ is tightly bound to the active center aspartates, creating an inactive stable state. The first residue of the single strand RNA segment in the backtracked transcription elongation complex strongly promotes transcript hydrolytic cleavage by establishing a network of interactions that force a shift of stably bound Mg2+ to release some of its aspartate coordination valences for binding to the second Mg2+ thus enabling catalysis. Such a rearrangement that we call active center tuning (ACT) occurs when all recognition contacts of the active center-bound RNA segment are established and verified by tolerance to stress. Transcription factor Gre builds on the ACT mechanism in the same reaction by increasing the retention of the second Mg2+ and by activating the attacking water, causing 3000–4000-fold reaction acceleration and strongly reinforcing proofreading. The unified mechanism for RNA synthesis and degradation by RNA polymerase predicts that ACT also executes NTP selection thereby contributing to high transcription fidelity. PMID:23283976

  8. The mRNA capping enzyme of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has dual specificity to interact with CTD of RNA Polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Bharati, Akhilendra Pratap; Singh, Neha; Kumar, Vikash; Kashif, Md.; Singh, Amit Kumar; Singh, Priyanka; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Tripathi, Timir; Akhtar, Md. Sohail

    2016-01-01

    RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII) uniquely possesses an extended carboxy terminal domain (CTD) on its largest subunit, Rpb1, comprising a repetitive Tyr1Ser2Pro3Thr4 Ser5Pro6Ser7 motif with potential phosphorylation sites. The phosphorylation of the CTD serves as a signal for the binding of various transcription regulators for mRNA biogenesis including the mRNA capping complex. In eukaryotes, the 5 prime capping of the nascent transcript is the first detectable mRNA processing event, and is crucial for the productive transcript elongation. The binding of capping enzyme, RNA guanylyltransferases to the transcribing RNAPII is known to be primarily facilitated by the CTD, phosphorylated at Ser5 (Ser5P). Here we report that the Saccharomyces cerevesiae RNA guanylyltransferase (Ceg1) has dual specificity and interacts not only with Ser5P but also with Ser7P of the CTD. The Ser7 of CTD is essential for the unconditional growth and efficient priming of the mRNA capping complex. The Arg159 and Arg185 of Ceg1 are the key residues that interact with the Ser5P, while the Lys175 with Ser7P of CTD. These interactions appear to be in a specific pattern of Ser5PSer7PSer5P in a tri-heptad CTD (YSPTSPPS YSPTSPSP YSPTSPPS) and provide molecular insights into the Ceg1-CTD interaction for mRNA transcription. PMID:27503426

  9. Aire unleashes stalled RNA polymerase to induce ectopic gene expression in thymic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Matthieu; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Abramson, Jakub; Rahl, Peter B; Young, Richard A; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

    2012-01-10

    Aire is a transcriptional regulator that induces expression of peripheral tissue antigens (PTA) in thymic medullary epithelial cells (MECs), driving immunological self-tolerance in differentiating T cells. To elucidate its mechanistic pathways, we examined its transcriptional impact in MECs in vivo by microarray analysis with mRNA-spanning probes. This analysis revealed initiation of Aire-activated genes to be comparable in Aire-deficient and wild-type MECs, but with a block to elongation after 50-100 bp in the absence of Aire, suggesting activation by release of stalled polymerases by Aire. In contrast, patterns of activation by transcription factors such as Klf4 were consistent with regulation of initiation. Mapping of Aire and RNA polymerase-II (Pol-II) by ChIP and high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed that Aire bound all Pol-II-rich transcriptional start sites (TSS), irrespective of its eventual effect. However, the genes it preferentially activated were characterized by a relative surfeit of stalled polymerases at the TSS, which resolved once Aire was introduced into cells. Thus, transcript mapping and ChIP-seq data indicate that Aire activates ectopic transcription not through specific recognition of PTA gene promoters but by releasing stalled polymerases.

  10. Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA by a combined reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed Central

    Young, K K; Resnick, R M; Myers, T W

    1993-01-01

    Amplification of RNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is normally a two-step process requiring separate enzymes and buffer conditions. We describe a combined reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay for hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA amplification in which a single enzyme and buffer condition are used. In this assay, both the RT and PCR steps are carried out with the thermoactive DNA polymerase of Thermus thermophilus. A transcription vector containing HCV sequences has also been constructed to generate quantifiable HCV RNA templates that can be used to optimize reaction conditions and to assess the efficiency of amplification. Amplification from < or = 100 copies of RNA was detected reproducibly by gel electrophoresis. The assay sensitivity was increased to 10 RNA copies by hybridization to a probe. The patterns of viremia in three individuals infected with HCV were examined by amplification of HCV RNA from plasma samples collected serially over a period of 1 year. These results were correlated with the times of seroconversion and the onset of rise in levels of alanine aminotransferase in serum. In all three subjects, HCV RNA was detected prior to seroconversion and the initial rise in levels of alanine aminotransferase in serum. Upon seroconversion, HCV RNA fell to a level below the detection limit of the assay. This pattern of transient viremia appears to be characteristic of acute, resolving HCV infections. The combined RT-PCR assay is a sensitive method which circumvents the problems associated with PCR amplification of RNA. Using this assay, we demonstrated that three donors infected by the same index case all have similar patterns of viremia. Images PMID:8385151

  11. N7-platinated ribonucleotides are not incorporated by RNA polymerases. New perspectives for a rational design of platinum antitumor drugs.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Michele; Romano, Alessandro; De Castro, Federica; Girelli, Chiara R; Antonucci, Daniela; Migoni, Danilo; Verri, Tiziano; Fanizzi, Francesco P

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we assessed the capacity of RNA polymerases to use platinated ribonucleotides as substrates for RNA synthesis by testing the incorporation of the model compound [Pt(dien)(N7-5'-GTP)] (dien=diethylenetriamine; GTP=5'-guanosine triphosphate) into a natural RNA sequence. The yield of in vitro transcription operated by T7 RNA polymerase, on the LacZ (Escherichia coli gene encoding for β-galactosidase) sequence, decreases progressively with decreasing the concentration of natural GTP, in favor of the platinated nucleotide, [Pt(dien)(N7-5'-GTP)]. Comparison of the T7 RNA polymerase transcription activities for [Pt(dien)(N7-5'-GTP)] compound incorporation reaction test, with respect to the effect of a decreasing concentration of natural GTP, showed no major differences. A specific inhibitory effect of compound [Pt(dien)(N7-5'-GTP)] (which may pair the complementary base on the DNA strand, without being incorporated in the RNA by the T7 RNA polymerase) was evidenced. Our findings therefore suggest that RNA polymerases, unlike DNA polymerases, are unable to incorporate N7-platinated nucleotides into newly synthesized nucleic acids. In this respect, specifically designed N7-platinated nucleotides based compounds could be used in alternative to the classical platinum based drugs. This approach may offer a possible strategy to target specifically DNA, without affecting RNA, and is potentially able to better modulate pharmacological activity.

  12. Enhancement of RNA Polymerase Activity by a Factor Released by Auxin from Plasma Membrane*

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, James W.; Cherry, Joe H.; Morré, D. James; Lembi, Carole A.

    1972-01-01

    Using recently developed techniques for solubilization of RNA polymerase from soybean chromatin and isolation of plasma membrane fractions from plants we can show the presence of a transcriptional factor specifically released from the membranes by auxin, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The nonauxin, 3,5-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, does not release the factor, but subsequent exposure of the membranes to auxin results in its release. Factor activity could not be demonstrated in fractions devoid of plasma membranes. The presence of a regulatory factor for RNA polymerase associated with plant plasma membrane and specifically released by auxin provides a mechanism whereby both rapid growth responses and delayed nuclear changes could be derived from a common auxin receptor site associated with plasma membrane. Images PMID:4508307

  13. Phosphorylation-regulated Binding of RNA Polymerase II to Fibrous Polymers of Low Complexity Domains

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Siheng; Wu, Leeju; Theodoropoulos, Pano; Mirzaei, Hamid; Han, Tina; Xie, Shanhai; Corden, Jeffry L.; McKnight, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The low complexity (LC) domains of the products of the fused in sarcoma (FUS), Ewings sarcoma (EWS) and TAF15 genes are translocated onto a variety of different DNA-binding domains and thereby assist in driving the formation of cancerous cells. In the context of the translocated fusion proteins, these LC sequences function as transcriptional activation domains. Here we show that polymeric fibers formed from these LC domains directly bind the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II in a manner reversible by phosphorylation of the iterated, heptad repeats of the CTD. Mutational analysis indicates that the degree of binding between the CTD and the LC domain polymers correlates with the strength of transcriptional activation. These studies offer a simple means of conceptualizing how RNA polymerase II is recruited to active genes in its unphosphorylated state, and released for elongation following phosphorylation of the CTD. PMID:24267890

  14. The X-ray crystal structure of the euryarchaeal RNA polymerase in an open clamp configuration

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Sung-Hoon; Hirata, Akira; Kanai, Tamotsu; Santangelo, Thomas J.; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Murakami, Katsuhiko S.

    2014-01-01

    The archaeal transcription apparatus is closely related to the eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (Pol II) system. Archaeal RNA polymerase (RNAP) and Pol II evolved from a common ancestral structure and the euryarchaeal RNAP is the simplest member of the extant archaeal/eukaryotic RNAP family. Here we report the first crystal structure of euryarchaeal RNAP from Thermococcus kodakarensis (Tko). This structure reveals that the clamp domain is able to swing away from the main body of RNAP in the presence of the Rpo4/Rpo7 stalk by coordinated movements of these domains. More detailed structure-function analysis of yeast Pol II and Tko RNAP identifies structural additions to Pol II that correspond to the binding sites of Pol II-specific general transcription factors including TFIIF, TFIIH and Mediator. Such comparisons provide a framework for dissecting interactions between RNAP and these factors during formation of the pre-initiation complex. PMID:25311937

  15. SINE transcription by RNA polymerase III is suppressed by histone methylation but not by DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Dhaval; Vavrova-Anderson, Jana; Oler, Andrew J; Cowling, Victoria H; Cairns, Bradley R; White, Robert J

    2015-03-23

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), such as Alu, spread by retrotransposition, which requires their transcripts to be copied into DNA and then inserted into new chromosomal sites. This can lead to genetic damage through insertional mutagenesis and chromosomal rearrangements between non-allelic SINEs at distinct loci. SINE DNA is heavily methylated and this was thought to suppress its accessibility and transcription, thereby protecting against retrotransposition. Here we provide several lines of evidence that methylated SINE DNA is occupied by RNA polymerase III, including the use of high-throughput bisulphite sequencing of ChIP DNA. We find that loss of DNA methylation has little effect on accessibility of SINEs to transcription machinery or their expression in vivo. In contrast, a histone methyltransferase inhibitor selectively promotes SINE expression and occupancy by RNA polymerase III. The data suggest that methylation of histones rather than DNA plays a dominant role in suppressing SINE transcription.

  16. Crystal structure of a transcribing RNA Polymerase II complex reveals a complete transcription bubble

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Christopher O.; Calero, Monica; Malik, Indranil; Graham, Brian W.; Spahr, Henrik; Lin, Guowu; Cohen, Aina; Brown, Ian S.; Zhang, Qiangmin; Pullara, Filippo; Trakselis, Michael A.; Kaplan, Craig D.; Calero, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Notwithstanding numerous published structures of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II), structural details of Pol II engaging a complete nucleic acid scaffold have been lacking. Here, we report the structures of TFIIF stabilized transcribing Pol II complexes, revealing the upstream duplex and full transcription bubble. The upstream duplex lies over a wedge-shaped loop from Rpb2 that engages its minor groove, providing part of the structural framework for DNA tracking during elongation. At the upstream transcription bubble fork, rudder and fork loop-1 residues spatially coordinate strand annealing and the nascent RNA transcript. At the downstream fork, a network of Pol II interactions with the non-template strand forms a rigid domain with the Trigger Loop (TL), allowing visualization of its open state. Overall, our observations suggest that “open/closed” conformational transitions of the TL may be linked to interactions with the non-template strand, possibly in a synchronized ratcheting manner conducive to polymerase translocation. PMID:26186291

  17. High-Resolution Phenotypic Landscape of the RNA Polymerase II Trigger Loop

    PubMed Central

    Erinne, Olivia C.; Dave, Jui M.; Cui, Ping; Jin, Huiyan; Muthukrishnan, Nandhini; Tang, Leung K.; Lam, Kenny C.; Strohner, Ralf; Van den Brulle, Jan; Sze, Sing-Hoi; Kaplan, Craig D.

    2016-01-01

    The active sites of multisubunit RNA polymerases have a “trigger loop” (TL) that multitasks in substrate selection, catalysis, and translocation. To dissect the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II TL at individual-residue resolution, we quantitatively phenotyped nearly all TL single variants en masse. Three mutant classes, revealed by phenotypes linked to transcription defects or various stresses, have distinct distributions among TL residues. We find that mutations disrupting an intra-TL hydrophobic pocket, proposed to provide a mechanism for substrate-triggered TL folding through destabilization of a catalytically inactive TL state, confer phenotypes consistent with pocket disruption and increased catalysis. Furthermore, allele-specific genetic interactions among TL and TL-proximal domain residues support the contribution of the funnel and bridge helices (BH) to TL dynamics. Our structural genetics approach incorporates structural and phenotypic data for high-resolution dissection of transcription mechanisms and their evolution, and is readily applicable to other essential yeast proteins. PMID:27898685

  18. Activation of DNA replication in yeast by recruitment of the RNA polymerase II transcription complex.

    PubMed

    Stagljar, I; Hübscher, U; Barberis, A

    1999-05-01

    Activators of transcription are known to also play an important and direct role in activating DNA replication. However, the mechanism whereby they stimulate replication has remained elusive. One model suggests that, in the context of replication origins, transcriptional activators work by interacting with replication factors. We show that a defined, single interaction between a DNA-bound derivative of the activator Gal4 and Gal11P, a mutant form of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme component Gal11, suffices for stimulating DNA replication as it does for transcription. Moreover, recruitment of TBP, which can activate transcription from a gene promoter, also stimulates DNA replication from an origin site. These results strongly argue that transcriptional activators may not necessarily need to contact DNA replication factors directly, but can stimulate replication by recruiting the RNA polymerase II transcription complex to DNA.

  19. Horizontally acquired AT-rich genes in Escherichia coli cause toxicity by sequestering RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Lamberte, Lisa E; Baniulyte, Gabriele; Singh, Shivani S; Stringer, Anne M; Bonocora, Richard P; Stracy, Mathew; Kapanidis, Achillefs N; Wade, Joseph T; Grainger, David C

    2017-01-09

    Horizontal gene transfer permits rapid dissemination of genetic elements between individuals in bacterial populations. Transmitted DNA sequences may encode favourable traits. However, if the acquired DNA has an atypical base composition, it can reduce host fitness. Consequently, bacteria have evolved strategies to minimize the harmful effects of foreign genes. Most notably, xenogeneic silencing proteins bind incoming DNA that has a higher AT content than the host genome. An enduring question has been why such sequences are deleterious. Here, we showed that the toxicity of AT-rich DNA in Escherichia coli frequently results from constitutive transcription initiation within the coding regions of genes. Left unchecked, this causes titration of RNA polymerase and a global downshift in host gene expression. Accordingly, a mutation in RNA polymerase that diminished the impact of AT-rich DNA on host fitness reduced transcription from constitutive, but not activator-dependent, promoters.

  20. SINE transcription by RNA polymerase III is suppressed by histone methylation but not by DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Varshney, Dhaval; Vavrova-Anderson, Jana; Oler, Andrew J.; Cowling, Victoria H.; Cairns, Bradley R.; White, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), such as Alu, spread by retrotransposition, which requires their transcripts to be copied into DNA and then inserted into new chromosomal sites. This can lead to genetic damage through insertional mutagenesis and chromosomal rearrangements between non-allelic SINEs at distinct loci. SINE DNA is heavily methylated and this was thought to suppress its accessibility and transcription, thereby protecting against retrotransposition. Here we provide several lines of evidence that methylated SINE DNA is occupied by RNA polymerase III, including the use of high-throughput bisulphite sequencing of ChIP DNA. We find that loss of DNA methylation has little effect on accessibility of SINEs to transcription machinery or their expression in vivo. In contrast, a histone methyltransferase inhibitor selectively promotes SINE expression and occupancy by RNA polymerase III. The data suggest that methylation of histones rather than DNA plays a dominant role in suppressing SINE transcription. PMID:25798578

  1. The In Vivo Kinetics of RNA Polymerase II Elongation during Co-Transcriptional Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Yehuda; Neufeld, Noa; Bieberstein, Nicole; Causse, Sebastien Z.; Böhnlein, Eva-Maria; Neugebauer, Karla M.; Darzacq, Xavier; Shav-Tal, Yaron

    2011-01-01

    RNA processing events that take place on the transcribed pre-mRNA include capping, splicing, editing, 3′ processing, and polyadenylation. Most of these processes occur co-transcriptionally while the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) enzyme is engaged in transcriptional elongation. How Pol II elongation rates are influenced by splicing is not well understood. We generated a family of inducible gene constructs containing increasing numbers of introns and exons, which were stably integrated in human cells to serve as actively transcribing gene loci. By monitoring the association of the transcription and splicing machineries on these genes in vivo, we showed that only U1 snRNP localized to the intronless gene, consistent with a splicing-independent role for U1 snRNP in transcription. In contrast, all snRNPs accumulated on intron-containing genes, and increasing the number of introns increased the amount of spliceosome components recruited. This indicates that nascent RNA can assemble multiple spliceosomes simultaneously. Kinetic measurements of Pol II elongation in vivo, Pol II ChIP, as well as use of Spliceostatin and Meayamycin splicing inhibitors showed that polymerase elongation rates were uncoupled from ongoing splicing. This study shows that transcription elongation kinetics proceed independently of splicing at the model genes studied here. Surprisingly, retention of polyadenylated mRNA was detected at the transcription site after transcription termination. This suggests that the polymerase is released from chromatin prior to the completion of splicing, and the pre-mRNA is post-transcriptionally processed while still tethered to chromatin near the gene end. PMID:21264352

  2. Antibacterial discovery in actinomycetes strains with mutations in RNA polymerase or ribosomal protein S12.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Takeshi; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Muramatsu, Hideyuki; Murakami, Kana; Tsurumi, Yasuhisa; Kodani, Shinya; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Fujie, Akihiko; Ochi, Kozo

    2009-05-01

    We show that selection of drug-resistant bacterial mutants allows the discovery of antibacterial compounds. Mutant strains of a soil-isolated Streptomyces species that does not produce antibacterials synthesize a previously unknown class of antibacterial, which we name piperidamycin. Overall, 6% of non-Streptomyces actinomycetes species and 43% of Streptomyces species that do not produce antibacterials are activated to produce them. The antibacterial-producing mutants all carried mutations in RNA polymerase and/or the ribosomal protein S12.

  3. A phosphorylation pattern-recognizing antibody specifically reacts to RNA polymerase II bound to exons

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jungwon; Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Park, Sunyoung; Yoon, Soomin; Yoon, Aerin; Hwang, Do B; Lee, Hwa K; Kim, Min S; Lee, Yujean; Yang, Won J; Youn, Hong-Duk; Kim, Hyori; Chung, Junho

    2016-01-01

    The C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II is an unusual series of repeated residues appended to the C-terminus of the largest subunit and serves as a flexible binding scaffold for numerous nuclear factors. The binding of these factors is determined by the phosphorylation patterns on the repeats in the domain. In this study, we generated a synthetic antibody library by replacing the third heavy chain complementarity-determining region of an anti-HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) antibody (trastuzumab) with artificial sequences of 7–18 amino-acid residues. From this library, antibodies were selected that were specific to serine phosphopeptides that represent typical phosphorylation patterns on the functional unit (YSPTSPS)2 of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain (CTD). Antibody clones pCTD-1stS2 and pCTD-2ndS2 showed specificity for peptides with phosphoserine at the second residues of the first or second heptamer repeat, respectively. Additional clones specifically reacted to peptides with phosphoserine at the fifth serine of the first repeat (pCTD-1stS5), the seventh residue of the first repeat and fifth residue of the second repeat (pCTD-S7S5) or the seventh residue of either the first or second repeat (pCTD-S7). All of these antibody clones successfully reacted to RNA polymerase II in immunoblot analysis. Interestingly, pCTD-2ndS2 precipitated predominately RNA polymerase II from the exonic regions of genes in genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis, which suggests that the phosphoserine at the second residue of the second repeat of the functional unit (YSPTSPS)2 is a mediator of exon definition. PMID:27857068

  4. Genome-wide location analysis reveals a role for Sub1 in RNA polymerase III transcription

    PubMed Central

    Tavenet, Arounie; Suleau, Audrey; Dubreuil, Géraldine; Ferrari, Roberto; Ducrot, Cécile; Michaut, Magali; Aude, Jean-Christophe; Dieci, Giorgio; Lefebvre, Olivier; Conesa, Christine; Acker, Joël

    2009-01-01

    Human PC4 and the yeast ortholog Sub1 have multiple functions in RNA polymerase II transcription. Genome-wide mapping revealed that Sub1 is present on Pol III-transcribed genes. Sub1 was found to interact with components of the Pol III transcription system and to stimulate the initiation and reinitiation steps in a system reconstituted with all recombinant factors. Sub1 was required for optimal Pol III gene transcription in exponentially growing cells. PMID:19706510

  5. RNA Polymerase: Chromosome Domain Boundary Maker and Regulator of Supercoil Density

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, N. Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Summary Most bacterial chromosomes and plasmids are covalently closed circular molecules that are maintained in a dynamic supercoiled state. Average supercoil density differs significantly between E. coli and Salmonella. Two related questions are: 1) What protein(s) create supercoil domain boundaries in a bacterial chromosome? 2) How is supercoil density regulated in different bacterial species? RNA polymerase plays pivotal roles in both of these topological phenomena. PMID:25460807

  6. RNA polymerase I-Rrn3 complex at 4.8 Å resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Christoph; Plitzko, Jürgen; Cramer, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Transcription of ribosomal DNA by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) requires the initiation factor Rrn3. Here we report the cryo-EM structure of the Pol I-Rrn3 complex at 4.8 Å resolution. The structure reveals how Rrn3 binding converts an inactive Pol I dimer into an initiation-competent monomeric complex and provides insights into the mechanisms of Pol I-specific initiation and regulation.

  7. Docking and PLS studies on a set of thiophenes RNA polymerase inhibitors against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Luciana; Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes de; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; Ishiki, Hamilton; Oliveira Lima, Igara de; Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe de; Mendonça Junior, Francisco Jaime Bezerra; Scotti, Marcus Tullius

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus lives in commensalism with the majority of the population, being recognized as an important pathogen in patients with chronic liver diseases and can cause a deadly infection. The use of antibiotics as rifampin for the chemotherapy of infections caused by S. aureus has resulted in the selection of mutants with resistance. In an attempt to combat resistant strains new research is continuously conducted, as example searching new biological targets or new inhibitors such as tiophenes derivatives that can inhibit the RNA polymerase enzyme. This work investigated the set of tiophenes, selected from of literature and with RNA polymerase enzyme inhibitory activity of S. aureus. After seeking further information on existing scientific literature, the compounds under study were applied the methodologies of PLS, docking and calculation of Molecular Interaction Fields (MIFs) using Pentacle and VolSurf programmes. In addition, a comparison was made with two tiophenes synthesized in our laboratory and which have been tested against the bacteria. Docking studies showed that active compounds had more interactions with the amino acids on active site when compared with rifampicin. The best model obtained in PLS, considering two LVs (latent variables), after leave-one-outvalidation, exhibited the statistical parameters qcv(2) = 0.68 and r(2) = 0.85. External prediction model presented a rext(2) = 0.67. The obtained model through PLS analyses was able to predict the behavior of compounds synthesized by us. So we extract structural features important for the activity of these compounds. In this paper, first we discussed the topics: S. aureus, tiophenes, RNA polymerase, docking and QSAR methodologies. Then we have selected a series of 56 tiophenes from literature, which have their biological activity tested against the RNA polymerase enzyme of S. aureus. The compounds were subsequently carried out for Partial Least Squares (PLS) Analysis.

  8. B2 RNA and 7SK RNA, RNA polymerase III transcripts, have a cap-like structure at their 5' end.

    PubMed Central

    Shumyatsky, G P; Tillib, S V; Kramerov, D A

    1990-01-01

    We found that hydrolysates of poly(A)+ RNA from Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells which were transcribed by RNA polymerase III contained an unusual component designated as X. It was part of B2 RNA representing a transcript of B2 retroposon, typical of rodents. The component X possesses a cap-like structure, xppp5'G, where x has a non-nucleotide structure. About half of all B2 RNAs contained this group at the 5' end. Previously, Epstein et al. (1) detected a similar structure at the 5' end of small nuclear U6 RNA. Later, Singh and Reddy (2) showed methyl to be the blocking group in the component x of U6 RNA. Besides B2 RNA, we found 5' ends containing methyl groups in 7SK RNA. Images PMID:1700854

  9. RNA polymerase II conserved protein domains as platforms for protein-protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    García-López, M Carmen

    2011-01-01

    RNA polymerase II establishes many protein-protein interactions with transcriptional regulators to coordinate gene expression, but little is known about protein domains involved in the contact with them. We use a new approach to look for conserved regions of the RNA pol II of S. cerevisiae located at the surface of the structure of the complex, hypothesizing that they might be involved in the interaction with transcriptional regulators. We defined five different conserved domains and demonstrate that all of them make contact with transcriptional regulators. PMID:21922063

  10. Promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II: emerging roles in metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Adelman, Karen; Lis, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a sea change in our understanding of transcription regulation: whereas traditional models focused solely on the events that brought RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to a gene promoter to initiate RNA synthesis, emerging evidence points to the pausing of Pol II during early elongation as a widespread regulatory mechanism in higher eukaryotes. Current data indicate that pausing is particularly enriched at genes in signal-responsive pathways. Here the evidence for pausing of Pol II from recent high-throughput studies will be discussed, as well as the potential interconnected functions of promoter-proximally paused Pol II. PMID:22986266

  11. Close Temporal Relationship Between Onset of Cancer and Scleroderma in Patients with RNA Polymerase I/III Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ami A.; Rosen, Antony; Hummers, Laura; Wigley, Fredrick; Casciola-Rosen, Livia

    2010-01-01

    Objective We examined the temporal relationship between scleroderma development and malignancy, and evaluated whether this differed by autoantibody status among affected patients. Methods Participants had a diagnosis of scleroderma, cancer, an available serum sample, and a cancer pathology specimen. Sera were tested for autoantibodies against topoisomerase I, centromere, and RNA polymerase I/III by immunoprecipitation and/or ELISA. Clinical and demographic characteristics were compared across autoantibody categories. Expression of RNA polymerases I and III was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using cancerous tissue from patients with anti-RNA polymerase antibodies. Results Twenty three subjects were enrolled. Six subjects tested positive for anti-RNA polymerase I/III (Pol), 5 for anti-topoisomerase I (Topo), 8 for anti-centromere (CENP), and 4 recognized none of these antigens (Negative). The median duration of scleroderma at cancer diagnosis differed significantly between groups: −1.2 years (Pol), +13.4 years (Topo), +11.1 years (CENP), and +2.3 years (Negative) (p=0.027). RNA polymerase III demonstrated a robust nucleolar staining pattern in 4 of 5 available tumors from patients with antibodies to RNA polymerase I/III. In contrast, nucleolar RNA polymerase III staining was not detected in any of 4 examined tumors in the RNA polymerase antibody-negative group (p=0.048). Conclusions There is a close temporal relationship between onset of cancer and scleroderma in patients with antibodies to RNA polymerase I/III, which is distinct from scleroderma patients with other autoantibody specificities. In this study, autoantibody response and tumor antigen expression are associated. We propose that malignancy may initiate the scleroderma-specific immune response and drive disease in a subset of scleroderma patients. PMID:20506513

  12. Real-time dynamics of RNA Polymerase II clustering in live human cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisse, Ibrahim

    2014-03-01

    Transcription is the first step in the central dogma of molecular biology, when genetic information encoded on DNA is made into messenger RNA. How this fundamental process occurs within living cells (in vivo) is poorly understood,[1] despite extensive biochemical characterizations with isolated biomolecules (in vitro). For high-order organisms, like humans, transcription is reported to be spatially compartmentalized in nuclear foci consisting of clusters of RNA Polymerase II, the enzyme responsible for synthesizing all messenger RNAs. However, little is known of when these foci assemble or their relative stability. We developed an approach based on photo-activation localization microscopy (PALM) combined with a temporal correlation analysis, which we refer to as tcPALM. The tcPALM method enables the real-time characterization of biomolecular spatiotemporal organization, with single-molecule sensitivity, directly in living cells.[2] Using tcPALM, we observed that RNA Polymerase II clusters form transiently, with an average lifetime of 5.1 (+/- 0.4) seconds. Stimuli affecting transcription regulation yielded orders of magnitude changes in the dynamics of the polymerase clusters, implying that clustering is regulated and plays a role in the cells ability to effect rapid response to external signals. Our results suggest that the transient crowding of enzymes may aid in rate-limiting steps of genome regulation.

  13. Distinct transcriptional responses of RNA polymerases I, II and III to aptamers that bind TBP

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaochun; Shi, Hua; Lis, John T.

    2005-01-01

    The TATA-binding protein (TBP) is a general factor that is involved in transcription by all three types of nuclear RNA polymerase. To delineate the roles played by the DNA-binding surface of TBP in these transcription reactions, we used a set of RNA aptamers directed against TBP and examined their ability to perturb transcription in vitro by the different RNA polymerases. Distinct responses to the TBP aptamers were observed for transcription by different types of polymerase at either the initiation, reinitiation or both stages of the transcription cycle. We further probed the TBP interactions in the TFIIIB•DNA complex to elucidate the mechanism for the different sensitivity of Pol III dependent transcription before and after preinitiation complex (PIC) formation. Lastly, the aptamers were employed to measure the time required for Pol III PIC formation in vitro. This approach can be generalized to define the involvement of a particular region on the surface of a protein at particular stages in a biological process. PMID:15701755

  14. Structural Basis of Transcription Initiation: An RNA Polymerase Holoenzyme-DNA Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Katsuhiko S.; Masuda, Shoko; Campbell, Elizabeth A.; Muzzin, Oriana; Darst, Seth A.

    2002-05-01

    The crystal structure of Thermus aquaticus RNA polymerase holoenzyme (α2ββ'ωσA) complexed with a fork-junction promoter DNA fragment has been determined by fitting high-resolution x-ray structures of individual components into a 6.5-angstrom resolution map. The DNA lies across one face of the holoenzyme, completely outside the RNA polymerase active site channel. All sequence-specific contacts with core promoter elements are mediated by the σ subunit. A universally conserved tryptophan is ideally positioned to stack on the exposed face of the base pair at the upstream edge of the transcription bubble. Universally conserved basic residues of the σ subunit provide critical contacts with the DNA phosphate backbone and play a role in directing the melted DNA template strand into the RNA polymerase active site. The structure explains how holoenzyme recognizes promoters containing variably spaced -10 and -35 elements and provides the basis for models of the closed and open promoter complexes.

  15. Exploratory Study of RNA Polymerase II Using Dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodin, Thor; Umemura, Kazuo; Gad, Mohammed; Jarvis, Suzanne; Ishikawa, Mitsuru; Fu, Jianhua

    2002-03-01

    An exploratory study of the microtopological dimensions and shape features of yeast RNA polymerase II (y-poly II) on freshly cleaved mica was made in phosphate aqueous buffer solution at room temperature following previous work by Hansma and others. The molecules were imaged by stabilization on freshly cleaved mica at a limiting resolution of 10 Å and scanned using dynamical atomic force microscopy with a 10 nm multi-wall carbon nanotube in the resonance frequency modulation mode. They indicated microtopological shape and dimensional features similar to those predicted by electron density plots derived from the X-ray crystallographic model. It is concluded that this is considered primarily a feasibility study with definitive conclusions subject to more detailed systematic measurements of the 3D microtopology. These measurements appear to establish validity of the noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) approach into defining the primary microtopology and biochemical functionality of RNA polymerase II. Further nc-AFM studies at higher resolution using dynamical nc-AFM will be required to clearly define the detailed 3D microtopology of RNA polymerase II in anaerobic aqueous environments for both static and dynamic conditions.

  16. Influenza polymerase encoding mRNAs utilize atypical mRNA nuclear export.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Sean; Bui, Steven; Perez, Veronica; Mohammad, Adeba; Medina-Ramirez, Hilario; Newcomb, Laura L

    2014-08-28

    Influenza is a segmented negative strand RNA virus. Each RNA segment is encapsulated by influenza nucleoprotein and bound by the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) to form viral ribonucleoproteins responsible for RNA synthesis in the nucleus of the host cell. Influenza transcription results in spliced mRNAs (M2 and NS2), intron-containing mRNAs (M1 and NS1), and intron-less mRNAs (HA, NA, NP, PB1, PB2, and PA), all of which undergo nuclear export into the cytoplasm for translation. Most cellular mRNA nuclear export is Nxf1-mediated, while select mRNAs utilize Crm1. Here we inhibited Nxf1 and Crm1 nuclear export prior to infection with influenza A/Udorn/307/1972(H3N2) virus and analyzed influenza intron-less mRNAs using cellular fractionation and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). We examined direct interaction between Nxf1 and influenza intron-less mRNAs using immuno purification of Nxf1 and RT-PCR of associated RNA. Inhibition of Nxf1 resulted in less influenza intron-less mRNA export into the cytoplasm for HA and NA influenza mRNAs in both human embryonic kidney cell line (293 T) and human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line (A549). However, in 293 T cells no change was observed for mRNAs encoding the components of the viral ribonucleoproteins; NP, PA, PB1, and PB2, while in A549 cells, only PA, PB1, and PB2 mRNAs, encoding the RdRP, remained unaffected; NP mRNA was reduced in the cytoplasm. In A549 cells NP, NA, HA, mRNAs were found associated with Nxf1 but PA, PB1, and PB2 mRNAs were not. Crm1 inhibition also resulted in no significant difference in PA, PB1, and PB2 mRNA nuclear export. These results further confirm Nxf1-mediated nuclear export is functional during the influenza life cycle and hijacked for select influenza mRNA nuclear export. We reveal a cell type difference for Nxf1-mediated nuclear export of influenza NP mRNA, a reminder that cell type can influence molecular mechanisms. Importantly, we

  17. Synthesis of Sindbis virus complementary DNA by avian myeloblastosis virus RNA-directed DNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Yuferov, V; Grandgenett, D P; Bondurant, M; Riggin, C; Tigges, M

    1978-07-24

    Sindbis virus 42 S RNA was efficiently transcribed into complementary DNA (CDNA) by avian myeloblastosis virus alphabeta DNA polymerase using oligo- (dT) or single-stranded calf thymus DNA as primers. Both of the Sindbis virus cDNA products were able to protect 60% of 125I-labeled Sindbis virus RNA, at near equal weight ratios, from RNAase A and T1 digestion. Using hybridization kinetics, the Crt 1/2 value for hybridization of the calf thymus-primed cDNA product with excess Sindbis RNA was determined to be 1.8 9 10-2 mol . s . 1-1. Thes data demonstrate that the Sindbis virus cDNA products are relatively uniform representations of Sindbis virus RNA sequences.

  18. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-13 and RNA regulation in immunity and cancer.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Tanya; Bock, Florian J; Chang, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation of RNA is an important mechanism for activating and resolving cellular stress responses. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-13 (PARP13), also known as ZC3HAV1 and zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP), is an RNA-binding protein that regulates the stability and translation of specific mRNAs, and modulates the miRNA silencing pathway to globally affect miRNA targets. These functions of PARP13 are important components of the cellular response to stress. In addition, the ability of PARP13 to restrict oncogenic viruses and to repress the prosurvival cytokine receptor tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 4 (TRAILR4) suggests that it can be protective against malignant transformation and cancer development. The relevance of PARP13 to human health and disease make it a promising therapeutic target.

  19. FUS binds the CTD of RNA polymerase II and regulates its phosphorylation at Ser2

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jacob C.; Ebmeier, Christopher C.; Podell, Elaine R.; Heimiller, Joseph; Taatjes, Dylan J.; Cech, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the RNA-binding protein FUS (fused in sarcoma)/TLS have been shown to cause the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the normal role of FUS is incompletely understood. We found that FUS binds the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAP2) and prevents inappropriate hyperphosphorylation of Ser2 in the RNAP2 CTD at thousands of human genes. The loss of FUS leads to RNAP2 accumulation at the transcription start site and a shift in mRNA isoform expression toward early polyadenylation sites. Thus, in addition to its role in alternative RNA splicing, FUS has a general function in orchestrating CTD phosphorylation during RNAP2 transcription. PMID:23249733

  20. DDR complex facilitates global association of RNA polymerase V to promoters and evolutionarily young transposons.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xuehua; Hale, Christopher J; Law, Julie A; Johnson, Lianna M; Feng, Suhua; Tu, Andy; Jacobsen, Steven E

    2012-09-01

    The plant-specific DNA-dependent RNA polymerase V (Pol V) evolved from Pol II to function in an RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway. Here, we have identified targets of Pol V in Arabidopsis thaliana on a genome-wide scale using ChIP-seq of NRPE1, the largest catalytic subunit of Pol V. We found that Pol V is enriched at promoters and evolutionarily recent transposons. This localization pattern is highly correlated with Pol V-dependent DNA methylation and small RNA accumulation. We also show that genome-wide chromatin association of Pol V is dependent on all members of a putative chromatin-remodeling complex termed DDR. Our study presents a genome-wide view of Pol V occupancy and sheds light on the mechanistic basis of Pol V localization. Furthermore, these findings suggest a role for Pol V and RNA-directed DNA methylation in genome surveillance and in responding to genome evolution.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Transcription Elongation by RNA Polymerase I In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, David Alan

    2016-01-01

    The elongation step in transcription has gained attention for its roles in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and for its influence on RNA processing. Sophisticated genetic analyses have identified factors and/or conditions that may affect transcription elongation rate or processivity; however, differentiation of direct and indirect effects on transcription is difficult using in vivo strategies. Therefore, effective, reproducible in vitro assays have been developed to test whether a given factor or condition can have a direct effect on the kinetics of transcription elongation. We have adapted a fully reconstituted transcription system for RNA polymerase I (Pol I) for kinetic analysis of transcription elongation rate in vitro. The assay described here has proven to be effective in the characterization of defects or enhancement of wild-type transcription elongation by RNA Pol I. Since transcription elongation by RNA Pol I has only recently gained significant attention, this assay will be a valuable resource for years to come. PMID:22113301

  2. Genome-wide Analysis of RNA Polymerase II Termination at Protein-Coding Genes.

    PubMed

    Baejen, Carlo; Andreani, Jessica; Torkler, Phillipp; Battaglia, Sofia; Schwalb, Bjoern; Lidschreiber, Michael; Maier, Kerstin C; Boltendahl, Andrea; Rus, Petra; Esslinger, Stephanie; Söding, Johannes; Cramer, Patrick

    2017-03-06

    At the end of protein-coding genes, RNA polymerase (Pol) II undergoes a concerted transition that involves 3'-processing of the pre-mRNA and transcription termination. Here, we present a genome-wide analysis of the 3'-transition in budding yeast. We find that the 3'-transition globally requires the Pol II elongation factor Spt5 and factors involved in the recognition of the polyadenylation (pA) site and in endonucleolytic RNA cleavage. Pol II release from DNA occurs in a narrow termination window downstream of the pA site and requires the "torpedo" exonuclease Rat1 (XRN2 in human). The Rat1-interacting factor Rai1 contributes to RNA degradation downstream of the pA site. Defects in the 3'-transition can result in increased transcription at downstream genes.

  3. Functional Consequences of Subunit Diversity in RNA Polymerases II and V

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Ek Han; Blevins, Todd; Ream, Thomas S.; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2012-03-01

    Multisubunit RNA polymerases IV and V (Pol IV and Pol V) evolved as specialized forms of Pol II that mediate RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) and transcriptional silencing of transposons, viruses, and endogenous repeats in plants. Among the subunits common to Arabidopsis thaliana Pols II, IV, and V are 93% identical alternative ninth subunits, NRP(B/D/E)9a and NRP(B/D/E)9b. The 9a and 9b subunit variants are incompletely redundant with respect to Pol II; whereas double mutants are embryo lethal, single mutants are viable, yet phenotypically distinct. Likewise, 9a or 9b can associate with Pols IV or V but RNA-directed DNA methylation is impaired only in 9b mutants. Based on genetic and molecular tests, we attribute the defect in RdDM to impaired Pol V function. Collectively, our results reveal a role for the ninth subunit in RNA silencing and demonstrate that subunit diversity generates functionally distinct subtypes of RNA polymerases II and V.

  4. Importance of steric effects on the efficiency and fidelity of transcription by T7 RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Sébastien; Kool, Eric T

    2011-11-29

    DNA-dependent RNA polymerases such as T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP) perform the transcription of DNA into mRNA with high efficiency and high fidelity. Although structural studies have provided a detailed account of the molecular basis of transcription, the relative importance of factors like hydrogen bonds and steric effects remains poorly understood. We report herein the first study aimed at systematically probing the importance of steric and electrostatic effects on the efficiency and fidelity of DNA transcription by T7 RNAP. We used synthetic nonpolar analogues of thymine with sizes varying in subangstrom increments to probe the steric requirements of T7 RNAP during the elongation mode of transcription. Enzymatic assays with internal radiolabeling were performed to compare the efficiency of transcription of modified DNA templates with a natural template containing thymine as a reference. Furthermore, we analyzed effects on the fidelity by measuring the composition of RNA transcripts by enzymatic digestion followed by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography separation. Our results demonstrate that hydrogen bonds play an important role in the efficiency of transcription but, interestingly, do not appear to be required for faithful transcription. Steric effects (size and shape variations) are found to be significant both in insertion of a new RNA base and in extension beyond it.

  5. Interacting RNA polymerase motors on a DNA track: Effects of traffic congestion and intrinsic noise on RNA synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Tripti; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2008-01-01

    RNA polymerase (RNAP) is an enzyme that synthesizes a messenger RNA (mRNA) strand which is complementary to a single-stranded DNA template. From the perspective of physicists, an RNAP is a molecular motor that utilizes chemical energy input to move along the track formed by DNA. In many circumstances, which are described in this paper, a large number of RNAPs move simultaneously along the same track; we refer to such collective movements of the RNAPs as RNAP traffic. Here we develop a theoretical model for RNAP traffic by incorporating the steric interactions between RNAPs as well as the mechanochemical cycle of individual RNAPs during the elongation of the mRNA. By a combination of analytical and numerical techniques, we calculate the rates of mRNA synthesis and the average density profile of the RNAPs on the DNA track. We also introduce, and compute, two different measures of fluctuations in the synthesis of RNA. Analyzing these fluctuations, we show how the level of intrinsic noise in mRNA synthesis depends on the concentrations of the RNAPs as well as on those of some of the reactants and the products of the enzymatic reactions catalyzed by RNAP. We suggest appropriate experimental systems and techniques for testing our theoretical predictions.

  6. Stress Induces Changes in the Phosphorylation of Trypanosoma cruzi RNA Polymerase II, Affecting Its Association with Chromatin and RNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Antônio Augusto; Moretti, Nilmar Silvio

    2014-01-01

    The phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal heptapeptide repeats of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) controls several transcription-related events in eukaryotes. Trypanosomatids lack these typical repeats and display an unusual transcription control. RNA Pol II associates with the transcription site of the spliced leader (SL) RNA, which is used in the trans-splicing of all mRNAs transcribed on long polycistronic units. We found that Trypanosoma cruzi RNA Pol II associated with chromatin is highly phosphorylated. When transcription is inhibited by actinomycin D, the enzyme runs off from SL genes, remaining hyperphosphorylated and associated with polycistronic transcription units. Upon heat shock, the enzyme is dephosphorylated and remains associated with the chromatin. Transcription is partially inhibited with the accumulation of housekeeping precursor mRNAs, except for heat shock genes. DNA damage caused dephosphorylation and transcription arrest, with RNA Pol II dissociating from chromatin although staying at the SL. In the presence of calyculin A, the hyperphosphorylated form detached from chromatin, including the SL loci. These results indicate that in trypanosomes, the unusual RNA Pol II is phosphorylated during the transcription of SL and polycistronic operons. Different types of stresses modify its phosphorylation state, affecting pre-RNA processing. PMID:24813189

  7. Conserved Curvature of RNA Polymerase I Core Promoter Beyond rRNA Genes: The Case of the Tritryps

    PubMed Central

    Smircich, Pablo; Duhagon, María Ana; Garat, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    In trypanosomatids, the RNA polymerase I (RNAPI)-dependent promoters controlling the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes have been well identified. Although the RNAPI transcription machinery recognizes the DNA conformation instead of the DNA sequence of promoters, no conformational study has been reported for these promoters. Here we present the in silico analysis of the intrinsic DNA curvature of the rRNA gene core promoters in Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania major. We found that, in spite of the absence of sequence conservation, these promoters hold conformational properties similar to other eukaryotic rRNA promoters. Our results also indicated that the intrinsic DNA curvature pattern is conserved within the Leishmania genus and also among strains of T. cruzi and T. brucei. Furthermore, we analyzed the impact of point mutations on the intrinsic curvature and their impact on the promoter activity. Furthermore, we found that the core promoters of protein-coding genes transcribed by RNAPI in T. brucei show the same conserved conformational characteristics. Overall, our results indicate that DNA intrinsic curvature of the rRNA gene core promoters is conserved in these ancient eukaryotes and such conserved curvature might be a requirement of RNAPI machinery for transcription of not only rRNA genes but also protein-coding genes. PMID:26718450

  8. Interacting RNA polymerase motors on a DNA track: effects of traffic congestion and intrinsic noise on RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Tripti; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2008-01-01

    RNA polymerase (RNAP) is an enzyme that synthesizes a messenger RNA (mRNA) strand which is complementary to a single-stranded DNA template. From the perspective of physicists, an RNAP is a molecular motor that utilizes chemical energy input to move along the track formed by DNA. In many circumstances, which are described in this paper, a large number of RNAPs move simultaneously along the same track; we refer to such collective movements of the RNAPs as RNAP traffic. Here we develop a theoretical model for RNAP traffic by incorporating the steric interactions between RNAPs as well as the mechanochemical cycle of individual RNAPs during the elongation of the mRNA. By a combination of analytical and numerical techniques, we calculate the rates of mRNA synthesis and the average density profile of the RNAPs on the DNA track. We also introduce, and compute, two different measures of fluctuations in the synthesis of RNA. Analyzing these fluctuations, we show how the level of intrinsic noise in mRNA synthesis depends on the concentrations of the RNAPs as well as on those of some of the reactants and the products of the enzymatic reactions catalyzed by RNAP. We suggest appropriate experimental systems and techniques for testing our theoretical predictions.

  9. RNA polymerase II subunit RPB4 is essential for high- and low-temperature yeast cell growth.

    PubMed Central

    Woychik, N A; Young, R A

    1989-01-01

    RPB4 encodes the fourth-largest RNA polymerase II subunit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The RPB4 gene was cloned and sequenced, and its identity was confirmed by amino acid sequence analysis of tryptic peptides from the purified subunit. The RPB4 DNA sequence predicted a protein of 221 amino acids with a molecular mass of 25,414 daltons. The central 100 amino acids of the RPB4 protein were found to be similar to a segment of the major sigma subunit in Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. Deletion of RPB4 produced cells that were heat and cold sensitive but could grow, albeit slowly, at intermediate temperatures. RNA polymerase II lacking the RPB4 subunit exhibited markedly reduced activity in crude extracts in vitro. The RPB4 subunit, although not essential for mRNA synthesis or enzyme assembly, was essential for normal levels of RNA polymerase II activity and indispensable for cell viability over a wide temperature range. Images PMID:2674672

  10. Lysines in the RNA Polymerase II C-Terminal Domain Contribute to TAF15 Fibril Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Janke, Abigail M; Seo, Da Hee; Rahmanian, Vahid; Conicella, Alexander E; Mathews, Kaylee L; Burke, Kathleen A; Mittal, Jeetain; Fawzi, Nicolas L

    2017-10-11

    Many cancer-causing chromosomal translocations result in transactivating protein products encoding FET family (FUS, EWSR1, TAF15) low-complexity (LC) domains fused to a DNA binding domain from one of several transcription factors. Recent work demonstrates that higher-order assemblies of FET LC domains bind the carboxy-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II CTD), suggesting FET oncoproteins may mediate aberrant transcriptional activation by recruiting RNA polymerase II to promoters of target genes. Here we use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and hydrogel fluorescence microscopy localization and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching to visualize atomic details of a model of this process, interactions of RNA pol II CTD with high-molecular weight TAF15 LC assemblies. We report NMR resonance assignments of the intact degenerate repeat half of human RNA pol II CTD alone and verify its predominant intrinsic disorder by molecular simulation. By measuring NMR spin relaxation and dark-state exchange saturation transfer, we characterize the interaction of RNA pol II CTD with amyloid-like hydrogel fibrils of TAF15 and hnRNP A2 LC domains and observe that heptads far from the acidic C-terminal tail of RNA pol II CTD bind TAF15 fibrils most avidly. Mutation of CTD lysines in heptad position 7 to consensus serines reduced the overall level of TAF15 fibril binding, suggesting that electrostatic interactions contribute to complex formation. Conversely, mutations of position 7 asparagine residues and truncation of the acidic tail had little effect. Thus, weak, multivalent interactions between TAF15 fibrils and heptads throughout RNA pol II CTD collectively mediate complex formation.

  11. X-ray Crystal Structure of the Polymerase Domain of the Bacteriophage N4 Virion RNA Polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami,K.; Davydova, E.; Rothman-Denes, L.

    2008-01-01

    Coliphage N4 virion RNA polymerase (vRNAP), which is injected into the host upon infection, transcribes the phage early genes from promoters that have a 5-bp stem-3 nt loop hairpin structure. Here, we describe the 2.0- Angstroms resolution x-ray crystal structure of N4 mini-vRNAP, a member of the T7-like, single-unit RNAP family and the minimal component having all RNAP functions of the full-length vRNAP. The structure resembles a 'fisted right hand' with Fingers, Palm and Thumb subdomains connected to an N-terminal domain. We established that the specificity loop extending from the Fingers along with W129 of the N-terminal domain play critical roles in hairpin-promoter recognition. A comparison with the structure of the T7 RNAP initiation complex reveals that the pathway of the DNA to the active site is blocked in the apo-form vRNAP, indicating that vRNAP must undergo a large-scale conformational change upon promoter DNA binding and explaining the highly restricted promoter specificity of vRNAP that is essential for phage early transcription.

  12. [Influence of temperature on the preferential extraction of RNA polymerase I from hepatic nuclei of the rat].

    PubMed

    Zoncheddu, A; Accomando, R; Pertica, M; Orunesu, M

    1979-11-15

    RNA polymerase I has been extracted from rat liver nuclei by three consecutive washings at 0 degrees C with a medium of relatively low ionic strength (0.15 M KCl) containing Mg++ rather than by incubating the organelles at 37 degrees C in the same medium, as originally proposed by Chesterton and Butterworth. The modified technique, which has the advantage of preventing a temperature-mediated conversion of form IB to IA, gives similar yields of RNA polymerase I and retains the capacity of preferentially extracting the enzyme with respect to the other forms of nuclear RNA polymerase.

  13. Transcription by the multifunctional RNA polymerase I in Trypanosoma brucei functions independently of RPB7.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Hee; Nguyen, Tu N; Kirkham, Justin K; Lee, Ju Huck; Günzl, Arthur

    2011-11-01

    Trypanosoma brucei has a multifunctional RNA polymerase (pol) I that transcribes ribosomal gene units (RRNA) and units encoding its major cell surface proteins variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) and procyclin. Previous analysis of tandem affinity-purified, transcriptionally active RNA pol I identified ten subunits including an apparently trypanosomatid-specific protein termed RPA31. Another ortholog was identified in silico. No orthologs of the yeast subunit doublet RPA43/RPA14 have been identified yet. Instead, a recent report presented evidence that RPB7, the RNA pol II paralog of RPA43, is an RNA pol I subunit and essential for RRNA and VSG transcription in bloodstream form trypanosomes [18]. Revisiting this attractive hypothesis, we were unable to detect a stable interaction between RPB7 and RNA pol I in either reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation or tandem affinity purification. Furthermore, immunodepletion of RPB7 from extract virtually abolished RNA pol II transcription in vitro but had no effect on RRNA or VSG ES promoter transcription in the same reactions. Accordingly, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed cross-linking of RPB7 to known RNA pol II transcription units but not to the VSG ES promoter or to the 18S rRNA coding region. Interestingly, RPB7 did crosslink to the RRNA promoter but so did the RNA pol II-specific subunit RPB9 suggesting that RNA pol II is recruited to this promoter. Overall, our data led to the conclusion that RNA pol I transcription in T. brucei does not require the RNA pol II subunit RPB7.

  14. Transcription on nucleosomal templates by RNA polymerase II in vitro: inhibition of elongation with enhancement of sequence-specific pausing.

    PubMed

    Izban, M G; Luse, D S

    1991-04-01

    The process by which RNA polymerase II elongates RNA chains in vivo, where the template is at least partially in a nucleosomal configuration, remains poorly understood. To approach this question we have partially purified RNA polymerase II transcription complexes paused early in elongation. These complexes were then used as substrates for chromatin reconstitution. Elongation of the nascent RNA chains on these nucleosomal templates is severely inhibited relative to elongation on naked DNA templates. Elongation on the nucleosomal templates results in a reproducible template-specific pattern of transcripts generated by RNA polymerase pausing. The RNA polymerases are not terminated because the large majority will resume elongation upon the addition of Sarkosyl or 400 mM KCl. The effectiveness of RNA polymerase II pause/termination sites is enhanced by the presence of nucleosomes. For example, a pause site similar in sequence to the c-myc gene exon 1 terminator is used four to seven times more effectively in reconstituted templates. A comparison of elongation on templates bearing phased nucleosomes and on reconstituted templates that show no predominant phasing pattern indicates that the locations of pause sites are not related to the positions of the nucleosomes. Rather, the major determinant of RNA polymerase pausing on the nucleosomal templates appears to be the underlying DNA sequence.

  15. The methyltransferase domain of dengue virus protein NS5 ensures efficient RNA synthesis initiation and elongation by the polymerase domain.

    PubMed

    Potisopon, Supanee; Priet, Stéphane; Collet, Axelle; Decroly, Etienne; Canard, Bruno; Selisko, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) responsible for the replication of single-strand RNA virus genomes exert their function in the context of complex replication machineries. Within these replication complexes the polymerase activity is often highly regulated by RNA elements, proteins or other domains of multi-domain polymerases. Here, we present data of the influence of the methyltransferase domain (NS5-MTase) of dengue virus (DENV) protein NS5 on the RdRp activity of the polymerase domain (NS5-Pol). The steady-state polymerase activities of DENV-2 recombinant NS5 and NS5-Pol are compared using different biochemical assays allowing the dissection of the de novo initiation, transition and elongation steps of RNA synthesis. We show that NS5-MTase ensures efficient RdRp activity by stimulating the de novo initiation and the elongation phase. This stimulation is related to a higher affinity of NS5 toward the single-strand RNA template indicating NS5-MTase either completes a high-affinity RNA binding site and/or promotes the correct formation of the template tunnel. Furthermore, the NS5-MTase increases the affinity of the priming nucleotide ATP upon de novo initiation and causes a higher catalytic efficiency of the polymerase upon elongation. The complex stimulation pattern is discussed under the perspective that NS5 adopts several conformations during RNA synthesis. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. The methyltransferase domain of dengue virus protein NS5 ensures efficient RNA synthesis initiation and elongation by the polymerase domain

    PubMed Central

    Potisopon, Supanee; Priet, Stéphane; Collet, Axelle; Decroly, Etienne; Canard, Bruno; Selisko, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) responsible for the replication of single-strand RNA virus genomes exert their function in the context of complex replication machineries. Within these replication complexes the polymerase activity is often highly regulated by RNA elements, proteins or other domains of multi-domain polymerases. Here, we present data of the influence of the methyltransferase domain (NS5-MTase) of dengue virus (DENV) protein NS5 on the RdRp activity of the polymerase domain (NS5-Pol). The steady-state polymerase activities of DENV-2 recombinant NS5 and NS5-Pol are compared using different biochemical assays allowing the dissection of the de novo initiation, transition and elongation steps of RNA synthesis. We show that NS5-MTase ensures efficient RdRp activity by stimulating the de novo initiation and the elongation phase. This stimulation is related to a higher affinity of NS5 toward the single-strand RNA template indicating NS5-MTase either completes a high-affinity RNA binding site and/or promotes the correct formation of the template tunnel. Furthermore, the NS5-MTase increases the affinity of the priming nucleotide ATP upon de novo initiation and causes a higher catalytic efficiency of the polymerase upon elongation. The complex stimulation pattern is discussed under the perspective that NS5 adopts several conformations during RNA synthesis. PMID:25209234

  17. In Vitro Epsilon RNA-Dependent Protein Priming Activity of Human Hepatitis B Virus Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Scott A.; Boregowda, Rajeev; Spratt, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) replicates its DNA genome through reverse transcription of a pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) by using a multifunctional polymerase (HP). A critical function of HP is its specific recognition of a viral RNA signal termed ε (Hε) located on pgRNA, which is required for specific packaging of pgRNA into viral nucleocapsids and initiation of viral reverse transcription. HP initiates reverse transcription by using itself as a protein primer (protein priming) and Hε as the obligatory template. We have purified HP from human cells that retained Hε binding activity in vitro. Furthermore, HP purified as a complex with Hε, but not HP alone, displayed in vitro protein priming activity. While the HP-Hε interaction in vitro and in vivo required the Hε internal bulge, but not its apical loop, and was not significantly affected by the cap-Hε distance, protein priming required both the Hε apical loop and internal bulge, as well as a short distance between the cap and Hε, mirroring the requirements for RNA packaging. These studies have thus established new HBV protein priming and RNA binding assays that should greatly facilitate the dissection of the requirements and molecular mechanisms of HP-Hε interactions, RNA packaging, and protein priming. PMID:22379076

  18. The role of the lid element in transcription by E. coli RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Toulokhonov, Innokenti; Landick, Robert

    2006-08-25

    The recently described crystal structures of multi-subunit RNA polymerases (RNAPs) reveal a conserved loop-like feature called the lid. The lid projects from the clamp domain and contacts the flap, thereby enclosing the RNA transcript in RNAP's RNA-exit channel and forming the junction between the exit channel and the main channel, which holds the RNA:DNA hybrid. In the initiating form of bacterial RNAP (holoenzyme containing sigma), the lid interacts with sigma region 3 and encloses an extended linker between sigma region 3 and sigma region 4 in place of the RNA in the exit channel. During initiation, the lid may be important for holding open the transcription bubble and may help displace the RNA from the template DNA strand. To test these ideas, we constructed and characterized a mutant RNAP from which the lid element was deleted. Deltalid RNAP exhibited dramatically reduced activity during initiation from -35-dependent and -35-independent promoters, verifying that the lid is important for stabilizing the open promoter complex during initiation. However, transcript elongation, RNA displacement, and, surprisingly, transcriptional termination all occurred normally in Deltalid RNAP. Importantly, Deltalid RNAP behaved differently from wild-type RNAP when transcribing single-stranded DNA templates where it synthesized long, persistent RNA:DNA hybrids, in contrast to efficient transcriptional arrest by wild-type RNAP.

  19. REMOTE-SITE CONTROL OF AN ACTIVE-SITE FIDELITY CHECKPOINT IN A VIRAL RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Jamie J.; Vignuzzi, Marco; Stone, Jeffrey K.; Andino, Raul; Cameron, Craig E.

    2005-01-01

    The kinetic, thermodynamic and structural basis for fidelity of nucleic acid polymerases remains controversial. An understanding of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) fidelity has become a topic of considerable interest as a result of recent experiments that show that a two-fold increase in fidelity attenuates viral pathogenesis and a two-fold decrease in fidelity reduces viral fitness. Here we show that a conformational-change step preceding phosphoryl transfer is a key fidelity checkpoint for the poliovirus RdRp (3Dpol). We provide evidence that this conformational-change step is orientation of the triphosphate into a conformation suitable for catalysis, suggesting a kinetic and structural model for RdRp fidelity that can be extrapolated to other classes of nucleic acid polymerases. Finally, we show that a site remote from the catalytic center can control this checkpoint, which occurs at the active site. Importantly, similar connections between a remote site and the active site exist in a wide variety of viral RdRps. The capacity for sites remote from the catalytic center to alter fidelity suggests new possibilities for targeting the viral RdRp for antiviral drug development. PMID:15878882

  20. The active form of the norovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is a homodimer with cooperative activity.

    PubMed

    Högbom, Martin; Jäger, Katrin; Robel, Ivonne; Unge, Torsten; Rohayem, Jacques

    2009-02-01

    Norovirus (NV) is a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide and a major public health concern. So far, the replication strategy of NV remains poorly understood, mainly because of the lack of a cell system to cultivate the virus. In this study, the function and the structure of a key viral enzyme of replication, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, NS7), was examined. The overall structure of the NV NS7 RdRp was determined by X-ray crystallography to a 2.3 A (0.23 nm) resolution (PDB ID 2B43), displaying a right-hand fold typical of the template-dependent polynucleotide polymerases. Biochemical analysis evidenced that NV NS7 RdRp is active as a homodimer, with an apparent K(d) of 0.649 microM and a positive cooperativity (Hill coefficient n(H)=1.86). Crystals of the NV NS7 homodimer displayed lattices containing dimeric arrangements with high shape complementarity statistics. This experimental data on the structure and function of the NV RdRp may set the cornerstone for the development of polymerase inhibitors to control the infection with NV, a medically relevant pathogen.

  1. Structure and function of the polymerase core of TRAMP, a RNA surveillance complex

    SciTech Connect

    Hamill, Stephanie; Wolin, Sandra L.; Reinisch, Karin M.

    2010-09-03

    The Trf4p/Air2p/Mtr4p polyadenylation (TRAMP) complex recognizes aberrant RNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and targets them for degradation. A TRAMP subcomplex consisting of a noncanonical poly(A) RNA polymerase in the Pol {beta} superfamily of nucleotidyl transferases, Trf4p, and a zinc knuckle protein, Air2p, mediates initial substrate recognition. Trf4p and related eukaryotic poly(A) and poly(U) polymerases differ from other characterized enzymes in the Pol {beta} superfamily both in sequence and in the lack of recognizable nucleic acid binding motifs. Here we report, at 2.7-{angstrom} resolution, the structure of Trf4p in complex with a fragment of Air2p comprising two zinc knuckle motifs. Trf4p consists of a catalytic and central domain similar in fold to those of other noncanonical Pol {beta} RNA polymerases, and the two zinc knuckle motifs of Air2p interact with the Trf4p central domain. The interaction surface on Trf4p is highly conserved across eukaryotes, providing evidence that the Trf4p/Air2p complex is conserved in higher eukaryotes as well as in yeast and that the TRAMP complex may also function in RNA surveillance in higher eukaryotes. We show that Air2p, and in particular sequences encompassing a zinc knuckle motif near its N terminus, modulate Trf4p activity, and we present data supporting a role for this zinc knuckle in RNA binding. Finally, we show that the RNA 3{prime} end plays a role in substrate recognition.

  2. Temperature sensitive influenza A virus genome replication results from low thermal stability of polymerase-cRNA complexes.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Rosa M; Mullin, Anne E; Amorim, Maria Joao; Medcalf, Elizabeth; Tiley, Laurence S; Digard, Paul

    2006-08-25

    The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Influenza A virus is a determinant of viral pathogenicity and host range that is responsible for transcribing and replicating the negative sense segmented viral genome (vRNA). Transcription produces capped and polyadenylated mRNAs whereas genome replication involves the synthesis of an alternative plus-sense transcript (cRNA) with unmodified termini that is copied back to vRNA. Viral mRNA transcription predominates at early stages of viral infection, while later, negative sense genome replication is favoured. However, the "switch" that regulates the transition from transcription to replication is poorly understood. We show that temperature strongly affects the balance between plus and minus-sense RNA synthesis with high temperature causing a large decrease in vRNA accumulation, a moderate decrease in cRNA levels but (depending on genome segment) either increased or unchanged levels of mRNA. We found no evidence implicating cellular heat shock protein activity in this effect despite the known association of hsp70 and hsp90 with viral polymerase components. Temperature-shift experiments indicated that polymerase synthesised at 41 degrees C maintained transcriptional activity even though genome replication failed. Reduced polymerase association with viral RNA was seen in vivo and in confirmation of this, in vitro binding assays showed that temperature increased the rate of dissociation of polymerase from both positive and negative sense promoters. However, the interaction of polymerase with the cRNA promoter was particularly heat labile, showing rapid dissociation even at 37 degrees C. This suggested that vRNA synthesis fails at elevated temperatures because the polymerase does not bind the promoter. In support of this hypothesis, a mutant cRNA promoter with vRNA-like sequence elements supported vRNA synthesis at higher temperatures than the wild-type promoter. The differential stability of negative and positive sense polymerase

  3. Mechanisms of Nucleotidyl Transfer Catalyzed by the Yeast RNA Polymerase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Rui; Salahub, Dennis R.

    2007-11-01

    It has been proposed that all classes of nucleic acid polymerases use the same two-metal-ion mechanism for nucleotide incorporation. The main chemical kinetic scheme is that the oxygen atom of the 3'-OH group of the transcript primer, acting as a nucleophile, forms a phosphodiester bond with the first phosphate of the (deoxy)nucleoside triphosphate and the other two phosphates form a pyrophosphate leaving group. While some molecular modeling studies on DNA polymerases have been performed to investigate the detailed chemical steps involved in the kinetic scheme, few theoretical studies on RNA polymerases are available in the literature. Here, we report a molecular dynamics study of nucleotidyl transfer catalyzed by the yeast RNA polymerase II, which is based on the most recently published crystal structures. We particularly focus on the creation of the nucleophile, i.e., deprotonation of the 3'-OH group. Two pathways are examined: (i) proton transfer to the conserved Asp485 residue of the active site in association with nucleophilic attack and (ii) proton transfer to a nearby water molecule before nucleophilic attack. All the molecular dynamics simulations are carried out by a recently developed reactive force field, ReaxFF, whose parameters are derived directly from quantum chemical calculations. The rate-limiting step of the reaction in both cases is the dissociation of the pyrophosphate leaving group, which needs about 23 kcal/mol of activation energy. The nucleophilic attack needs about 19 kcal/mol of activation energy for pathway (i) and 17 kcal/mol of activation energy for pathway (ii). The water-assisting deprotonation just needs about 7 kcal/mol of activation energy. These data indicate that pathway (i) is comparable to pathway (ii). If water misses the deprotonation of the 3'-OH group before nucleophilic attack in the latter pathway, the general base (Asp485) of the polymerase active site can readily perform the deprotonation in the attack through the

  4. Virus-induced gene silencing of RPC5-like subunit of RNA polymerase III caused pleiotropic effects in Nicotiana benthamiana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In eukaryotic cells, RNA polymerase III is highly conserved, contains 17 subunits and transcribes housekeeping genes such as ribosomal 50S rRNA, tRNA and other small RNAs. Functional roles of the RPC5 are poorly characterized in the literature. In this work, we report that virus-induced gene silenci...

  5. [Persistent Shallot virus X infection correlates with transcriptional repression of plant cell RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and DCL proteins in plant roots].

    PubMed

    Arkhipov, A V; Solovyev, A G; Vishnichenko, V K

    2017-01-01

    Shallot virus X is a typical representative of Allexiviruses. The transcription levels of principal genes involved in the RNA silencing in healthy and shallot virus X-infected plants have been quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. There is a negative correlation between the reproduction rates of RNA virus and the levels of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and DCL proteins in roots and leaves of infected plants. These observations indicate that Shallot X virus employs noncanonical ways of overcoming the antiviral defense of the plant by systemic RNA silencing.

  6. 3D Molecular Modelling Study of the H7N9 RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase as an Emerging Pharmacological Target

    PubMed Central

    Vlachakis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Currently not much is known about the H7N9 strain, and this is the major drawback for a scientific strategy to tackle this virus. Herein, the 3D complex structure of the H7N9 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase has been established using a repe