Gehrke, Stephan; Wu, Zhihao; Klinkenberg, Michael; Sun, Yaping; Auburger, Georg; Guo, Su; Lu, Bingwei
Mitochondria play essential roles in many aspects of biology, and their dysfunction has been linked to diverse diseases. Central to mitochondrial function is oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), accomplished by respiratory chain complexes (RCCs) encoded by nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. How RCC biogenesis is regulated in metazoans is poorly understood. Here we show that Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated genes PINK1 and Parkin direct localized translation of certain nuclear-encoded RCC (nRCC) mRNAs. Translationally repressed nRCC mRNAs are localized in a PINK1/Tom20-dependent manner to mitochondrial outer membrane, where they are derepressed and activated by PINK1/Parkin through displacement of translation repressors, including Pumilio and Glorund/hnRNP-F, a Parkin substrate, and enhanced binding of activators such as eIF4G. Inhibiting the translation repressors rescued nRCC mRNA translation and neuromuscular-degeneration phenotypes of PINK1 mutant, whereas inhibiting eIF4G had opposite effects. Our results reveal previously unknown functions of PINK1/Parkin in RNA metabolism and suggest new approaches to mitochondrial restoration and disease intervention.
Plasmids are selfish genetic elements that normally constitute a burden for the bacterial host cell. This burden is expected to favor plasmid loss. Therefore, plasmids have evolved mechanisms to control their replication and ensure their stable maintenance. Replication control can be either mediated by iterons or by antisense RNAs. Antisense RNAs work through a negative control circuit. They are constitutively synthesized and metabolically unstable. They act both as a measuring device and a regulator, and regulation occurs by inhibition. Increased plasmid copy numbers lead to increasing antisense-RNA concentrations, which, in turn, result in the inhibition of a function essential for replication. On the other hand, decreased plasmid copy numbers entail decreasing concentrations of the inhibiting antisense RNA, thereby increasing the replication frequency. Inhibition is achieved by a variety of mechanisms, which are discussed in detail. The most trivial case is the inhibition of translation of an essential replication initiator protein (Rep) by blockage of the rep-ribosome binding site. Alternatively, ribosome binding to a leader peptide mRNA whose translation is required for efficient Rep translation can be prevented by antisense-RNA binding. In 2004, translational attenuation was discovered. Antisense-RNA-mediated transcriptional attenuation is another mechanism that has, so far, only been detected in plasmids of Gram-positive bacteria. ColE1, a plasmid that does not need a plasmid-encoded replication initiator protein, uses the inhibition of primer formation. In other cases, antisense RNAs inhibit the formation of an activator pseudoknot that is required for efficient Rep translation.
Saramago, Margarida; Bárria, Cátia; Arraiano, Cecília M; Domingues, Susana
In the last decade regulatory RNAs have emerged as powerful tools to regulate the expression of genes both in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes. RNases, by degrading these RNA molecules, control the right amount of regulatory RNAs, which is fundamental for an accurate regulation of gene expression in the cell. Remarkably the first antisense RNAs identified were plasmid-encoded and their detailed study was crucial for the understanding of prokaryotic antisense RNAs. In this review we highlight the role of RNases in the precise modulation of antisense RNAs that control plasmid replication, maintenance and transfer.
Wu, Tao; Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Wilson, Teresa; Chen, Fangyi; Porsov, Edward; Subhash, Hrebesh; Foster, Sarah; Zhang, Yuan; Omelchenko, Irina; Bateschell, Michael; Wang, Lingyan; Brigande, John V.; Jiang, Zhi-Gen; Mao, Tianyi; Nuttall, Alfred L.
Normal hearing in mammals depends on sound amplification by outer hair cells (OHCs) presumably by their somatic motility and force production. However, the role of OHC force production in cochlear amplification and frequency tuning are not yet fully understood. Currently, available OHC manipulation techniques for physiological or clinical studies are limited by their invasive nature, lack of precision, and poor temporal-spatial resolution. To overcome these limitations, we explored an optogenetic approach based on channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR-2), a direct light-activated nonselective cation channel originally discovered in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Three approaches were compared: 1) adeno-associated virus-mediated in utero transfer of the ChR-2 gene into the developing murine otocyst, 2) expression of ChR-2(H134R) in an auditory cell line (HEI-OC1), and 3) expression of ChR-2 in the OHCs of a mouse line carrying a ChR-2 conditional allele. Whole cell recording showed that blue light (470 nm) elicited the typical nonselective cation current of ChR-2 with reversal potential around zero in both mouse OHCs and HEI-OC1 cells and generated depolarization in both cell types. In addition, pulsed light stimulation (10 Hz) elicited a 1:1 repetitive depolarization and ChR-2 currents in mouse OHCs and HEI-OC1 cells, respectively. The time constant of depolarization in OHCs, 1.45 ms, is 10 times faster than HEI-OC1 cells, which allowed light stimulation up to rates of 10/s to elicit corresponding membrane potential changes. Our study demonstrates that ChR-2 can successfully be expressed in mouse OHCs and HEI-OC1 cells and that these present a typical light-sensitive current and depolarization. However, the amount of ChR-2 current induced in our in vivo experiments was insufficient to result in measurable cochlear effects. PMID:26789771
Bennett, Harold E.
Three documents discuss a method of controlling the diameter of a laser beam projected from Earth to any altitude ranging from low orbit around the Earth to geosynchronous orbit. Such laser beams are under consideration as means of supplying power to orbiting spacecraft at levels of the order of tens of kilowatts apiece. Each such beam would be projected by use of a special purpose telescope having an aperture diameter of 15 m or more. Expanding the laser beam to such a large diameter at low altitude would prevent air breakdown and render the laser beam eyesafe. Typically, the telescope would include an adaptive-optics concave primary mirror and a convex secondary mirror. The laser beam transmitted out to the satellite would remain in the near field on the telescope side of the beam waist, so that the telescope focal point would remain effective in controlling the beam width. By use of positioning stages having submicron resolution and repeatability, the relative positions of the primary and secondary mirrors would be adjusted to change the nominal telescope object and image distances to obtain the desired beam diameter (typically about 6 m) at the altitude of the satellite. The limiting distance D(sub L) at which a constant beam diameter can be maintained is determined by the focal range of the telescope 4 lambda f(sup 2) where lambda is the wavelength and f the f/number of the primary mirror. The shorter the wavelength and the faster the mirror, the longer D(sub L) becomes.
Tal, Tamara L.; Franzosa, Jill A.; Tilton, Susan C.; Philbrick, Kenneth A.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Turner, Russell T.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tanguay, Robert L.
microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as regulators of a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental processes, including brain morphogenesis, neuronal differentiation, and survival. While the role of miRNAs in establishing and maintaining the developing nervous system is widely appreciated, the developmental neurobehavioral role of miRNAs has yet to be defined. Here we show that transient disruption of brain morphogenesis by ethanol exposure results in behavioral hyperactivity in larval zebrafish challenged with changes in lighting conditions. Aberrations in swimming activity persist in juveniles that were developmentally exposed to ethanol. During early neurogenesis, multiple gene expression profiling studies revealed widespread changes in mRNA and miRNA abundance in ethanol-exposed embryos. Consistent with a role for miRNAs in neurobehavioral development, target prediction analyses identified multiple miRNAs misexpressed in the ethanol-exposed cohorts that were also predicted to target inversely expressed transcripts known to influence brain morphogenesis. In vivo knockdown of miR-9/9* or miR-153c persistently phenocopied the effect of ethanol on larval and juvenile swimming behavior. Structural analyses performed on adults showed that repression of miR-153c during development impacts craniofacial skeletal development. Together, these data support an integral role for miRNAs in the establishment of vertebrate neurobehavioral and skeletal systems.—Tal, T. L., Franzosa, J. A., Tilton, S. C., Philbrick, K. A., Iwaniec, U. T., Turner, R. T., Waters, K. M., Tanguay, R. L. MicroRNAs control neurobehavioral development and function in zebrafish. PMID:22253472
Andl, Thomas; Botchkareva, Natalia V
Hair follicle development and its postnatal regeneration are characterized by dramatic changes in its microanatomy and cellular activity, which are controlled by multiple signalling pathways, transcription factors and epigenetic regulators, including microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs and their targets form remarkably diverse regulatory networks, playing a key role in the execution of gene expression programmes in the different cell lineages of the hair follicle. This review summarizes the roles of miRNAs in the control of hair follicle development, cycling and hair pigmentation, emphasizes the remaining problems/unanswered questions, and provides future directions in this rapidly growing and exciting area of research.
Rodriguez, Ramiro E; Schommer, Carla; Palatnik, Javier F
Plants have the ability to generate different and new organs throughout their life cycle. Organ growth is mostly determined by the combinatory effects of cell proliferation and cell expansion. Still, organ size and shape are adjusted constantly by environmental conditions and developmental timing. The plasticity of plant development is further illustrated by the diverse organ forms found in nature. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to control key biological processes in plants. In this review, we will discuss recent findings showing the participation of miRNA networks in the regulation of cell proliferation and organ growth. It has become clear that miRNA networks play both integrative and specific roles in the control of organ development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, recent work in different species demonstrated a broad role for miR396 in the control of organ size, and that specific tuning of the miR396 network can improve crop yield.
Li, Min; Marin-Muller, Christian; Bharadwaj, Uddalak; Chow, Kwong-Hon; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi
Analysis of the human genome indicates that a large fraction of the genome sequences are RNAs that do not encode any proteins, also known as non-coding RNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small non-coding RNA molecules 20-22 nucleotides (nt) in length that are predicted to control the activity of approximately 30% of all protein-coding genes in mammals. miRNAs play important roles in many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and immune disorders. The expression of miRNAs can be regulated by epigenetic modification, DNA copy number change, and genetic mutations. miRNAs can serve as a valuable therapeutic target for a large number of diseases. For miRNAs with oncogenic capabilities, potential therapies include miRNA silencing, antisense blocking, and miRNA modifications. For miRNAs with tumor suppression functions, overexpression of those miRNAs might be a useful strategy to inhibit tumor growth. In this review, we discuss the current progress of miRNA research, regulation of miRNA expression, prediction of miRNA targets, and regulatory role of miRNAs in human physiology and diseases, with a specific focus on miRNAs in pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, cardiovascular disease, the immune system, and infectious disease. This review provides valuable information for clinicians and researchers who want to recognize the newest advances in this new field and identify possible lines of investigation in miRNAs as important mediators in human physiology and diseases.
Tal, Tamara L; Franzosa, Jill A; Tilton, Susan C; Philbrick, Kenneth A; Iwaniec, Urszula T; Turner, Russell T; Waters, Katrina M; Tanguay, Robert L
microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as regulators of a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental processes, including brain morphogenesis, neuronal differentiation, and survival. While the role of miRNAs in establishing and maintaining the developing nervous system is widely appreciated, the developmental neurobehavioral role of miRNAs has yet to be defined. Here we show that transient disruption of brain morphogenesis by ethanol exposure results in behavioral hyperactivity in larval zebrafish challenged with changes in lighting conditions. Aberrations in swimming activity persist in juveniles that were developmentally exposed to ethanol. During early neurogenesis, multiple gene expression profiling studies revealed widespread changes in mRNA and miRNA abundance in ethanol-exposed embryos. Consistent with a role for miRNAs in neurobehavioral development, target prediction analyses identified multiple miRNAs misexpressed in the ethanol-exposed cohorts that were also predicted to target inversely expressed transcripts known to influence brain morphogenesis. In vivo knockdown of miR-9/9* or miR-153c persistently phenocopied the effect of ethanol on larval and juvenile swimming behavior. Structural analyses performed on adults showed that repression of miR-153c during development impacts craniofacial skeletal development. Together, these data support an integral role for miRNAs in the establishment of vertebrate neurobehavioral and skeletal systems.
Codocedo, Juan F; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C
The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) a little over 20 years ago was revolutionary given that miRNAs are essential to numerous physiological and physiopathological processes. Currently, several aspects of the biogenic process of miRNAs and of the translational repression mechanism exerted on their targets mRNAs are known in detail. In fact, the development of bioinformatics tools for predicting miRNA targets has established that miRNAs have the potential to regulate almost all known biological processes. Therefore, the identification of the signals and molecular mechanisms that regulate miRNA function is relevant to understanding the role of miRNAs in both pathological and adaptive processes. Recently, a series of studies has focused on miRNA expression in the brain, establishing that their levels are altered in response to various environmental factors (EFs), such as light, sound, odorants, nutrients, drugs and stress. In this review, we discuss how exposure to various EFs modulates the expression and function of several miRNAs in the nervous system and how this control determines adaptation to their environment, behavior and disease state.
Laux, Anke; Sexauer, Anne; Sivaselvarajah, Dineshan; Kaysen, Anne; Brückner, Reinhold
The two-component regulatory system CiaRH of Streptococcus pneumoniae is involved in β-lactam resistance, maintenance of cell integrity, bacteriocin production, host colonization, virulence, and competence. The response regulator CiaR controls, among other genes, expression of five highly similar small non-coding RNAs, designated csRNAs. These csRNAs control competence development by targeting comC, encoding the precursor of the competence stimulating peptide, which is essential to initiate the regulatory cascade leading to competence. In addition, another gene product of the CiaR regulon, the serine protease HtrA, is also involved in competence control. In the absence of HtrA, five csRNAs could suppress competence, but one csRNA alone was not effective. To determine if all csRNAs are needed, reporter gene fusions to competence genes were used to monitor competence gene expression in the presence of different csRNAs. These experiments showed that two csRNAs were not enough to prevent competence, but combinations of three csRNAs, csRNA1,2,3, or csRNA1,2,4 were sufficient. In S. pneumoniae strains expressing only csRNA5, a surprising positive effect was detected on the level of early competence gene expression. Hence, the role of the csRNAs in competence regulation is more complex than anticipated. Mutations in comC (comC8) partially disrupting predicted complementarity to the csRNAs led to competence even in the presence of all csRNAs. Reconstitution of csRNA complementarity to comC8 restored competence suppression. Again, more than one csRNA was needed. In this case, even two mutated csRNAs complementary to comC8, csRNA1–8 and csRNA2–8, were suppressive. In conclusion, competence in S. pneumoniae is additively controlled by the csRNAs via post-transcriptional regulation of comC. PMID:26257773
Kagami, Haruna; Akutsu, Tatsuya; Maegawa, Shingo; Hosokawa, Hiroshi; Nacher, Jose C.
Deciphering the association between life molecules and human diseases is currently an important task in systems biology. Research over the past decade has unveiled that the human genome is almost entirely transcribed, producing a vast number of non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) with potential regulatory functions. More recent findings suggest that many diseases may not be exclusively linked to mutations in protein-coding genes. The combination of these arguments poses the question of whether ncRNAs that play a critical role in network control are also enriched with disease-associated ncRNAs. To address this question, we mapped the available annotated information of more than 350 human disorders to the largest collection of human ncRNA-protein interactions, which define a bipartite network of almost 93,000 interactions. Using a novel algorithmic-based controllability framework applied to the constructed bipartite network, we found that ncRNAs engaged in critical network control are also statistically linked to human disorders (P-value of P = 9.8 × 10-109). Taken together, these findings suggest that the addition of those genes that encode optimized subsets of ncRNAs engaged in critical control within the pool of candidate genes could aid disease gene prioritization studies.
Kagami, Haruna; Akutsu, Tatsuya; Maegawa, Shingo; Hosokawa, Hiroshi; Nacher, Jose C
Deciphering the association between life molecules and human diseases is currently an important task in systems biology. Research over the past decade has unveiled that the human genome is almost entirely transcribed, producing a vast number of non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) with potential regulatory functions. More recent findings suggest that many diseases may not be exclusively linked to mutations in protein-coding genes. The combination of these arguments poses the question of whether ncRNAs that play a critical role in network control are also enriched with disease-associated ncRNAs. To address this question, we mapped the available annotated information of more than 350 human disorders to the largest collection of human ncRNA-protein interactions, which define a bipartite network of almost 93,000 interactions. Using a novel algorithmic-based controllability framework applied to the constructed bipartite network, we found that ncRNAs engaged in critical network control are also statistically linked to human disorders (P-value of P = 9.8 × 10(-109)). Taken together, these findings suggest that the addition of those genes that encode optimized subsets of ncRNAs engaged in critical control within the pool of candidate genes could aid disease gene prioritization studies.
Sun, Lingmei; Zhi, Lingtong; Shakoor, Shumaila; Liao, Kai; Wang, Dayong
The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating innate immune response to Candida albicans infection in Caenorhabditis elegans is still largely unclear. Using small RNA SOLiD deep sequencing technique, we profiled the miRNAs that were dysregulated by C. albicans infection. We identified 16 miRNAs that were up-regulated and 4 miRNAs that were down-regulated in nematodes infected with C. albicans. Bioinformatics analysis implied that these dysregulated miRNAs may be involved in the control of many important biological processes. Using available mutants, we observed that mir-251 and mir-252 loss-of-function mutants were resistant to C. albicans infection, whereas mir-360 mutants were hypersensitive to C. albicans infection. The expression pattern of antimicrobial genes suggested that mir-251, mir-252, and mir-360 played crucial roles in regulating the innate immune response to C. albicans infection. Fungal burden might be closely associated with altered lifespan and innate immune response in mir-251, mir-252, and mir-360 mutants. Moreover, mir-251 and mir-252 might function downstream of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) or IGF-1/insulin-like pathway to regulate the innate immune response to C. albicans infection. Our results provide an important molecular basis for further elucidating how miRNA-mRNA networks may control the innate immune response to C. albicans infection. PMID:27796366
Panera, Nadia; Gnani, Daniela; Crudele, Annalisa; Ceccarelli, Sara; Nobili, Valerio; Alisi, Anna
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a multi-faceted condition including simple steatosis alone or associated with inflammation and ballooning (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) and eventually fibrosis. The NAFLD incidence has increased over the last twenty years becoming the most frequent chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. Obesity, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, and many other disorders that characterize metabolic syndrome are the major predisposing risk factors for NAFLD. Furthermore, different factors, including genetic background, epigenetic mechanisms and environmental factors, such as diet and physical exercise, contribute to NAFLD development and progression. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that specific microRNAs expression profiles are strongly associated with several pathological conditions including NAFLD. In NAFLD, microRNA deregulation in response to intrinsic genetic or epigenetic factors or environmental factors contributes to metabolic dysfunction. In this review we focused on microRNAs role both as controlled and controllers molecules in NAFLD development and/or their eventual value as non-invasive biomarkers of disease.
Palanisamy, V.; Jakymiw, A.; Van Tubergen, E.A.; D’Silva, N.J.; Kirkwood, K.L.
Cytokines are critical mediators of inflammation and host defenses. Regulation of cytokines can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcription, mRNA export, and post- transcriptional and translational levels. Among these modes of regulation, post-transcriptional regulation has been shown to play a vital role in controlling the expression of cytokines by modulating mRNA stability. The stability of cytokine mRNAs, including TNFα, IL-6, and IL-8, has been reported to be altered by the presence of AU-rich elements (AREs) located in the 3′-untranslated regions (3′UTRs) of the mRNAs. Numerous RNA-binding proteins and microRNAs bind to these 3′UTRs to regulate the stability and/or translation of the mRNAs. Thus, this paper describes the cooperative function between RNA-binding proteins and miRNAs and how they regulate AU-rich elements containing cytokine mRNA stability/degradation and translation. These mRNA control mechanisms can potentially influence inflammation as it relates to oral biology, including periodontal diseases and oral pharyngeal cancer progression. PMID:22302144
Litt, Jonathan S.; Sowers, T. Shane
The thrust control capability of a retrofit architecture for intelligent turbofan engine control and diagnostics is evaluated. The focus of the study is on the portion of the hierarchical architecture that performs thrust estimation and outer loop thrust control. The inner loop controls fan speed so the outer loop automatically adjusts the engine's fan speed command to maintain thrust at the desired level, based on pilot input, even as the engine deteriorates with use. The thrust estimation accuracy is assessed under nominal and deteriorated conditions at multiple operating points, and the closed loop thrust control performance is studied, all in a complex real-time nonlinear turbofan engine simulation test bed. The estimation capability, thrust response, and robustness to uncertainty in the form of engine degradation are evaluated.
Girardot, Michael; Cavaillé, Jérôme; Feil, Robert
More than a hundred protein-coding genes are controlled by genomic imprinting in humans. These atypical genes are organized in chromosomal domains, each of which is controlled by a differentially methylated "imprinting control region" (ICR). How ICRs mediate the parental allele-specific expression of close-by genes is now becoming understood. At several imprinted domains, this epigenetic mechanism involves the action of long non-coding RNAs. It is less well appreciated that imprinted gene domains also transcribe hundreds of microRNA and small nucleolar RNA genes and that these represent the densest clusters of small RNA genes in mammalian genomes. The evolutionary reasons for this remarkable enrichment of small regulatory RNAs at imprinted domains remain unclear. However, recent studies show that imprinted small RNAs modulate specific functions in development and metabolism and also are frequently perturbed in cancer. Here, we review our current understanding of imprinted small RNAs in the human genome and discuss how perturbation of their expression contributes to disease.
Girardot, Michael; Cavaillé, Jérôme; Feil, Robert
More than a hundred protein-coding genes are controlled by genomic imprinting in humans. These atypical genes are organized in chromosomal domains, each of which is controlled by a differentially methylated "imprinting control region" (ICR). How ICRs mediate the parental allele-specific expression of close-by genes is now becoming understood. At several imprinted domains, this epigenetic mechanism involves the action of long non-coding RNAs. It is less well appreciated that imprinted gene domains also transcribe hundreds of microRNA and small nucleolar RNA genes and that these represent the densest clusters of small RNA genes in mammalian genomes. The evolutionary reasons for this remarkable enrichment of small regulatory RNAs at imprinted domains remain unclear. However, recent studies show that imprinted small RNAs modulate specific functions in development and metabolism and also are frequently perturbed in cancer. Here, we review our current understanding of imprinted small RNAs in the human genome and discuss how perturbation of their expression contributes to disease. PMID:23154539
van Werven, Folkert J; Neuert, Gregor; Hendrick, Natalie; Lardenois, Aurélie; Buratowski, Stephen; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Primig, Michael; Amon, Angelika
The cell-fate decision leading to gametogenesis is essential for sexual reproduction. In S. cerevisiae, only diploid MATa/α but not haploid MATa or MATα cells undergo gametogenesis, known as sporulation. We find that transcription of two long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) mediates mating-type control of sporulation. In MATa or MATα haploids, expression of IME1, the central inducer of gametogenesis, is inhibited in cis by transcription of the lncRNA IRT1, located in the IME1 promoter. IRT1 transcription recruits the Set2 histone methyltransferase and the Set3 histone deacetylase complex to establish repressive chromatin at the IME1 promoter. Inhibiting expression of IRT1 and an antisense transcript that antagonizes the expression of the meiotic regulator IME4 allows cells expressing the haploid mating type to sporulate with kinetics that are indistinguishable from that of MATa/α diploids. Conversely, expression of the two lncRNAs abolishes sporulation in MATa/α diploids. Thus, transcription of two lncRNAs governs mating-type control of gametogenesis in yeast.
Ning, Matthew S.; Andl, Thomas
microRNAs have continued to attract enormous interest in the scientific community ever since their discovery. Their allure stems from their unique role in posttranscriptional gene expression control as well as their potential application as therapeutic targets in various disease pathologies. While much is known concerning their general biological function, such as their interaction with RNA-Induced Silencing Complexes (RISC), many important questions still remain unanswered, especially regarding their functions in the skin. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of the role of microRNAs in the skin in order to shine new light on our understanding of cutaneous biology and emphasize the significance of these small, single-stranded RNA molecules in the largest organ of the human body. Key events in epidermal and hair follicle biology, including differentiation, proliferation, and pigmentation, all involve microRNAs. We explore the role of microRNAs in several cutaneous processes, such as appendage formation, wound-healing, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, carcinogenesis, immune response, and aging. In addition, we discuss current trends in research and offer suggestions for future studies. PMID:22983383
Yadav, Ram Prakash; Kotaja, Noora
Spermatogenesis is characterized by meiotic divisions and major morphological changes to produce spermatozoa that are capable of independent movement and fertilization of an egg. Male germ cell differentiation is governed by orchestrated, phase-specific gene expression patterns that are tightly controlled at transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Post-transcriptional regulation of protein-coding mRNAs becomes prominent during the late steps of spermatogenesis when the compacting sperm nucleus becomes transcriptionally inhibited. Small non-coding RNAs are important regulators of gene expression that mainly function post-transcriptionally to control the properties of their target mRNAs. Male germ cells express several classes of small RNAs, including Dicer-dependent microRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs), as well as Dicer-independent piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Increasing evidence supports the essential role of small RNA-mediated RNA regulation in normal spermatogenesis and male fertility.
Sheets, Michael D; Fox, Catherine A; Dowdle, Megan E; Blaser, Susanne Imboden; Chung, Andy; Park, Sookhee
The selective translation of maternal mRNAs encoding cell-fate determinants drives the earliest decisions of embryogenesis that establish the vertebrate body plan. This chapter will discuss studies in Xenopus laevis that provide insights into mechanisms underlying this translational control. Xenopus has been a powerful model organism for many discoveries relevant to the translational control of maternal mRNAs because of the large size of its oocytes and eggs that allow for microinjection of molecules and the relative ease of manipulating the oocyte to egg transition (maturation) and fertilization in culture. Consequently, many key studies have focused on the expression of maternal mRNAs during the oocyte to egg transition (the meiotic cell cycle) and the rapid cell divisions immediately following fertilization. This research has made seminal contributions to our understanding of translational regulatory mechanisms, but while some of the mRNAs under consideration at these stages encode cell-fate determinants, many encode cell cycle regulatory proteins that drive these early cell cycles. In contrast, while maternal mRNAs encoding key developmental (i.e., cell-fate) regulators that function after the first cleavage stages may exploit aspects of these foundational mechanisms, studies reveal that these mRNAs must also rely on distinct and, as of yet, incompletely understood mechanisms. These findings are logical because the functions of such developmental regulatory proteins have requirements distinct from cell cycle regulators, including becoming relevant only after fertilization and then only in specific cells of the embryo. Indeed, key maternal cell-fate determinants must be made available in exquisitely precise amounts (usually low), only at specific times and in specific cells during embryogenesis. To provide an appreciation for the regulation of maternal cell-fate determinant expression, an overview of the maternal phase of Xenopus embryogenesis will be presented
Carrer, Michele; Liu, Ning; Grueter, Chad E.; Williams, Andrew H.; Frisard, Madlyn I.; Hulver, Matthew W.; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N.
Obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and deranged regulation of metabolic genes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1β (PGC-1β) is a transcriptional coactivator that regulates metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis through stimulation of nuclear hormone receptors and other transcription factors. We report that the PGC-1β gene encodes two microRNAs (miRNAs), miR-378 and miR-378*, which counterbalance the metabolic actions of PGC-1β. Mice genetically lacking miR-378 and miR-378* are resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity and exhibit enhanced mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism and elevated oxidative capacity of insulin-target tissues. Among the many targets of these miRNAs, carnitine O-acetyltransferase, a mitochondrial enzyme involved in fatty acid metabolism, and MED13, a component of the Mediator complex that controls nuclear hormone receptor activity, are repressed by miR-378 and miR-378*, respectively, and are elevated in the livers of miR-378/378* KO mice. Consistent with these targets as contributors to the metabolic actions of miR-378 and miR-378*, previous studies have implicated carnitine O-acetyltransferase and MED13 in metabolic syndrome and obesity. Our findings identify miR-378 and miR-378* as integral components of a regulatory circuit that functions under conditions of metabolic stress to control systemic energy homeostasis and the overall oxidative capacity of insulin target tissues. Thus, these miRNAs provide potential targets for pharmacologic intervention in obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:22949648
Krill, Kenneth T; Gurdziel, Katherine; Heaton, Joanne H; Simon, Derek P; Hammer, Gary D
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, endogenous, non-protein-coding RNAs that are an important means of posttranscriptional gene regulation. Deletion of Dicer, a key miRNA processing enzyme, is embryonic lethal in mice, and tissue-specific Dicer deletion results in developmental defects. Using a conditional knockout model, we generated mice lacking Dicer in the adrenal cortex. These Dicer-knockout (KO) mice exhibited perinatal mortality and failure of the adrenal cortex during late gestation between embryonic day 16.5 (E16.5) and E18.5. Further study of Dicer-KO adrenals demonstrated a significant loss of steroidogenic factor 1-expressing cortical cells that was histologically evident as early as E16.5 coincident with an increase in p21 and cleaved-caspase 3 staining in the cortex. However, peripheral cortical proliferation persisted in KO adrenals as assessed by staining of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. To further characterize the embryonic adrenals from Dicer-KO mice, we performed microarray analyses for both gene and miRNA expression on purified RNA isolated from control and KO adrenals of E15.5 and E16.5 embryos. Consistent with the absence of Dicer and the associated loss of miRNA-mediated mRNA degradation, we observed an up-regulation of a small subset of adrenal transcripts in Dicer-KO mice, most notably the transcripts coded by the genes Nr6a1 and Acvr1c. Indeed, several miRNAs, including let-7, miR-34c, and miR-21, that are predicted to target these genes for degradation, were also markedly down-regulated in Dicer-KO adrenals. Together these data suggest a role for miRNA-mediated regulation of a subset of genes that are essential for normal adrenal growth and homeostasis.
Schott, Johanna; Reitter, Sonja; Philipp, Janine; Haneke, Katharina; Schäfer, Heiner; Stoecklin, Georg
For a rapid induction and efficient resolution of the inflammatory response, gene expression in cells of the immune system is tightly regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. The control of mRNA translation has emerged as an important determinant of protein levels, yet its role in macrophage activation is not well understood. We systematically analyzed the contribution of translational regulation to the early phase of the macrophage response by polysome fractionation from mouse macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Individual mRNAs whose translation is specifically regulated during macrophage activation were identified by microarray analysis. Stimulation with LPS for 1 h caused translational activation of many feedback inhibitors of the inflammatory response including NF-κB inhibitors (Nfkbid, Nfkbiz, Nr4a1, Ier3), a p38 MAPK antagonist (Dusp1) and post-transcriptional suppressors of cytokine expression (Zfp36 and Zc3h12a). Our analysis showed that their translation is repressed in resting and de-repressed in activated macrophages. Quantification of mRNA levels at a high temporal resolution by RNASeq allowed us to define groups with different expression patterns. Thereby, we were able to distinguish mRNAs whose translation is actively regulated from mRNAs whose polysomal shifts are due to changes in mRNA levels. Active up-regulation of translation was associated with a higher content in AU-rich elements (AREs). For one example, Ier3 mRNA, we show that repression in resting cells as well as de-repression after stimulation depends on the ARE. Bone-marrow derived macrophages from Ier3 knockout mice showed reduced survival upon activation, indicating that IER3 induction protects macrophages from LPS-induced cell death. Taken together, our analysis reveals that translational control during macrophage activation is important for cellular survival as well as the expression of anti-inflammatory feedback inhibitors that promote the
Gagnon, Keith T.
Small RNAs are a commonly used tool for gene silencing and a promising platform for nucleic acid drug development. They are almost exclusively used to silence gene expression post-transcriptionally through degradation of mRNA. Small RNAs, however, can have a broader range of function by binding to Argonaute proteins and associating with complementary RNA targets in the nucleus, including long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and pre-mRNA. Argonaute–RNA complexes can regulate nuclear events like transcription, genome maintenance, and splicing. Thousands of lncRNAs and alternatively spliced pre-mRNA isoforms exist in humans, and these RNAs may serve as natural targets for regulation and therapeutic intervention. This review describes nuclear mechanisms for Argonaute proteins and small RNAs, new pathways for sequence-specific targeting, and the potential for therapeutic development of small RNAs with nuclear targets. PMID:22283730
Zhang, Yu Liang; Huang, Qi Xing; Yin, Guo Hua; Lee, Samantha; Jia, Rui Zong; Liu, Zhi Xin; Yu, Nai Tong; Pennerman, Kayla K; Chen, Xin; Guo, An Ping
Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is a major pest of cotton around the world. With the increase of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin in transgenic cotton plants, there is a need to develop an alternative control approach that can be used in combination with Bt transgenic crops as part of resistance management strategies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a non-coding small RNA family (18-25 nt), play crucial roles in various biological processes and over-expression of miRNAs has been shown to interfere with the normal development of insects. In this study, we identified 127 conserved miRNAs in S. exigua by using small RNA deep sequencing technology. From this, we tested the effects of 11 miRNAs on larval development. We found three miRNAs, Sex-miR-10-1a, Sex-miR-4924, and Sex-miR-9, to be differentially expressed during larval stages of S. exigua. Oral feeding experiments using synthetic miRNA mimics of Sex-miR-10-1a, Sex-miR-4924, and Sex-miR-9 resulted in suppressed growth of S. exigua and mortality. Over-expression of Sex-miR-4924 caused a significant reduction in the expression level of chitinase 1 and caused abortive molting in the insects. Therefore, we demonstrated a novel approach of using miRNA mimics to control S. exigua development.
Cumbie, Jason S.; Ivanchenko, Maria G.
RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) regulatory cascades involving transcription factors (TFs) and their targets orchestrate the genetic circuitry of every eukaryotic organism. In order to understand how these cascades function, they can be dissected into small genetic networks, each containing just a few Pol II transcribed genes, that generate specific signal-processing outcomes. Small RNA regulatory circuits involve direct regulation of a small RNA by a TF and/or direct regulation of a TF by a small RNA and have been shown to play unique roles in many organisms. Here, we will focus on small RNA regulatory circuits containing Pol II transcribed microRNAs (miRNAs). While the role of miRNA-containing regulatory circuits as modular building blocks for the function of complex networks has long been on the forefront of studies in the animal kingdom, plant studies are poised to take a lead role in this area because of their advantages in probing transcriptional and posttranscriptional control of Pol II genes. The relative simplicity of tissue- and cell-type organization, miRNA targeting, and genomic structure make the Arabidopsis thaliana plant model uniquely amenable for small RNA regulatory circuit studies in a multicellular organism. In this Review, we cover analysis, tools, and validation methods for probing the component interactions in miRNA-containing regulatory circuits. We then review the important roles that plant miRNAs are playing in these circuits and summarize methods for the identification of small genetic circuits that strongly influence plant function. We conclude by noting areas of opportunity where new plant studies are imminently needed. PMID:26869700
Megraw, Molly; Cumbie, Jason S; Ivanchenko, Maria G; Filichkin, Sergei A
RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) regulatory cascades involving transcription factors (TFs) and their targets orchestrate the genetic circuitry of every eukaryotic organism. In order to understand how these cascades function, they can be dissected into small genetic networks, each containing just a few Pol II transcribed genes, that generate specific signal-processing outcomes. Small RNA regulatory circuits involve direct regulation of a small RNA by a TF and/or direct regulation of a TF by a small RNA and have been shown to play unique roles in many organisms. Here, we will focus on small RNA regulatory circuits containing Pol II transcribed microRNAs (miRNAs). While the role of miRNA-containing regulatory circuits as modular building blocks for the function of complex networks has long been on the forefront of studies in the animal kingdom, plant studies are poised to take a lead role in this area because of their advantages in probing transcriptional and posttranscriptional control of Pol II genes. The relative simplicity of tissue- and cell-type organization, miRNA targeting, and genomic structure make the Arabidopsis thaliana plant model uniquely amenable for small RNA regulatory circuit studies in a multicellular organism. In this Review, we cover analysis, tools, and validation methods for probing the component interactions in miRNA-containing regulatory circuits. We then review the important roles that plant miRNAs are playing in these circuits and summarize methods for the identification of small genetic circuits that strongly influence plant function. We conclude by noting areas of opportunity where new plant studies are imminently needed.
Chu, Dominique; Kazana, Eleanna; Bellanger, Noémie; Singh, Tarun; Tuite, Mick F; von der Haar, Tobias
Synonymous codons encode the same amino acid, but differ in other biophysical properties. The evolutionary selection of codons whose properties are optimal for a cell generates the phenomenon of codon bias. Although recent studies have shown strong effects of codon usage changes on protein expression levels and cellular physiology, no translational control mechanism is known that links codon usage to protein expression levels. Here, we demonstrate a novel translational control mechanism that responds to the speed of ribosome movement immediately after the start codon. High initiation rates are only possible if start codons are liberated sufficiently fast, thus accounting for the observation that fast codons are overrepresented in highly expressed proteins. In contrast, slow codons lead to slow liberation of the start codon by initiating ribosomes, thereby interfering with efficient translation initiation. Codon usage thus evolved as a means to optimise translation on individual mRNAs, as well as global optimisation of ribosome availability. PMID:24357599
Kurakula, Kondababu; Goumans, Marie-Jose; ten Dijke, Peter
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the last few years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as master regulators of gene expression in cardiovascular biology and disease. miRNAs are small endogenous non-coding RNAs that usually bind to 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of their target mRNAs and inhibit mRNA stability or translation of their target genes. miRNAs play a dynamic role in the pathophysiology of many CVDs through their effects on target mRNAs in vascular cells. Recently, numerous miRNAs have been implicated in the regulation of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling pathway which plays crucial roles in diverse biological processes, and is involved in pathogenesis of many diseases including CVD. This review gives an overview of current literature on the role of miRNAs targeting TGF-β/BMP signalling in vascular cells, including endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. We also provide insight into how this miRNA-mediated regulation of TGF-β/BMP signalling might be used to harness CVD. PMID:26862319
Knebel, H. J.
A review of recent data on the velocity of bottom currents, the frequency of bottom-sediment movement, the kinds and amounts of suspended sediments in near-bottom waters, and the acoustic and sedimentary features of subbottom strata indicates that the characteristics of the ubiquitous sand sheet on the Atlantic outer continental shelf of the United States have been controlled by a variety of past and present processes. Although these processes collectively have had a widespread effect on the characteristics of the sand sheet, the relative importance of each process changes geographically. On Georges Bank, late Pleistocene glaciations along with modern tidal currents and the regional circulation pattern have played a dominant role. On the Middle Atlantic shelf, ancestral rivers, former near-shore processes, and modern wind- and wave-generated currents are important factors. On the South Atlantic shelf, the sediments reflect subaerial weathering, erosion or nondeposition over or near hardgrounds, and the production of biogenic carbonate. Other processes such as the movement of water masses, bioturbation, and bottom fishing probably have affected the sediments in all areas. A knowledge of the various factors affecting the sand sheet is fundamental to an understanding of its general geologic history and to the paleoenvironmental interpretation of ancient sand strata. ?? 1981.
Akerman, Ildem; Tu, Zhidong; Beucher, Anthony; Rolando, Delphine M Y; Sauty-Colace, Claire; Benazra, Marion; Nakic, Nikolina; Yang, Jialiang; Wang, Huan; Pasquali, Lorenzo; Moran, Ignasi; Garcia-Hurtado, Javier; Castro, Natalia; Gonzalez-Franco, Roser; Stewart, Andrew F; Bonner, Caroline; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Berney, Thierry; Groop, Leif; Kerr-Conte, Julie; Pattou, Francois; Argmann, Carmen; Schadt, Eric; Ravassard, Philippe; Ferrer, Jorge
Recent studies have uncovered thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in human pancreatic β cells. β cell lncRNAs are often cell type specific and exhibit dynamic regulation during differentiation or upon changing glucose concentrations. Although these features hint at a role of lncRNAs in β cell gene regulation and diabetes, the function of β cell lncRNAs remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the function of β cell-specific lncRNAs and transcription factors using transcript knockdowns and co-expression network analysis. This revealed lncRNAs that function in concert with transcription factors to regulate β cell-specific transcriptional networks. We further demonstrate that the lncRNA PLUTO affects local 3D chromatin structure and transcription of PDX1, encoding a key β cell transcription factor, and that both PLUTO and PDX1 are downregulated in islets from donors with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. These results implicate lncRNAs in the regulation of β cell-specific transcription factor networks.
Grace, M S; Chiba, A; Menaker, M
Vertebrate retinal photoreceptors periodically shed membrane from their outer segment distal tips; this material is phagocytosed and degraded by the retinal pigmented epithelium. Both a circadian oscillator and the daily light-dark cycle affect disk shedding, and the effects of both may be mediated by melatonin. To clarify melatonin's role in this process, we asked whether endogenous melatonin is required for rhythmic disk shedding in mouse retina. We analyzed disk shedding in two mouse strains: C3H, which produce melatonin in retina and pineal under the control of circadian oscillators, and C57BL/6, which do not produce melatonin. In cyclic light, both strains exhibited a robust cycle of disk phagosome content in the pigmented epithelium. Peak shedding occurred just after dawn, and trough levels occurred during the middle of the dark phase. In constant darkness, mice exhibited circadian rhythms of locomotor activity, the characteristics of which were similar between strains. Both strains also exhibited rhythmic disk shedding in constant darkness, although amplitudes of the rhythms were damped. Exogenous melatonin delivered once per day failed to reestablish high-amplitude cyclic shedding in mice held in constant darkness. Our results show that, while disk shedding in cyclic light is robustly rhythmic, neither rhythmic production of melatonin nor the circadian oscillator responsible for rhythmic locomotor activity is sufficient to drive high-amplitude rhythmic shedding in constant darkness. More importantly, melatonin is required neither for cyclic changes in the rate of disk shedding in cyclic light, nor for the circadian rhythm of disk shedding in constant darkness.
Krol, Jacek; Krol, Ilona; Alvarez, Claudia Patricia Patino; Fiscella, Michele; Hierlemann, Andreas; Roska, Botond; Filipowicz, Witold
Brain regions, such as the cortex and retina, are composed of layers of uniform thickness. The molecular mechanism that controls this uniformity is not well understood. Here we show that during mouse postnatal development the timed expression of Rncr4, a retina-specific long noncoding RNA, regulates the similarly timed processing of pri-miR-183/96/182, which is repressed at an earlier developmental stage by RNA helicase Ddx3x. Shifting the timing of mature miR-183/96/182 accumulation or interfering with Ddx3x expression leads to the disorganization of retinal architecture, with the photoreceptor layer being most affected. We identify Crb1, a component of the adhesion belt between glial and photoreceptor cells, as a link between Rncr4-regulated miRNA metabolism and uniform retina layering. Our results suggest that the precise timing of glia–neuron interaction controlled by noncoding RNAs and Ddx3x is important for the even distribution of cells across layers. PMID:26041499
corresponding loci . 1984). This cost is computed for each input iask, x, and each decision strategy. The accuracy measure J is the expected value 3.3...Symposium on Large Scale Systems.: Theory and for the outer air battle, using a structured synthesis methodo - Application, Zurich, Switzerland
Fiorillo, Alyson A; Heier, Christopher R; Novak, James S; Tully, Christopher B; Brown, Kristy J; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Vila, Maria C; Ngheim, Peter P; Bello, Luca; Kornegay, Joe N; Angelini, Corrado; Partridge, Terence A; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Hoffman, Eric P
The amount and distribution of dystrophin protein in myofibers and muscle is highly variable in Becker muscular dystrophy and in exon-skipping trials for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Here, we investigate a molecular basis for this variability. In muscle from Becker patients sharing the same exon 45-47 in-frame deletion, dystrophin levels negatively correlate with microRNAs predicted to target dystrophin. Seven microRNAs inhibit dystrophin expression in vitro, and three are validated in vivo (miR-146b/miR-374a/miR-31). microRNAs are expressed in dystrophic myofibers and increase with age and disease severity. In exon-skipping-treated mdx mice, microRNAs are significantly higher in muscles with low dystrophin rescue. TNF-α increases microRNA levels in vitro whereas NFκB inhibition blocks this in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these data show that microRNAs contribute to variable dystrophin levels in muscular dystrophy. Our findings suggest a model where chronic inflammation in distinct microenvironments induces pathological microRNAs, initiating a self-sustaining feedback loop that exacerbates disease progression.
Kim, Kee K.; Yang, Yanqin; Zhu, Jun; Adelstein, Robert S.; Kawamoto, Sachiyo
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) regulate numerous aspects of gene expression, thus identification of endogenous targets of RBPs is important for understanding their functions in cells. Here we identified transcriptome-wide targets of Rbfox3 in neuronally differentiated P19 cells and mouse brain using Photoactivatable-Ribonucleoside-Enhanced Crosslinking and Immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP). Although Rbfox3 is known to regulate pre-mRNA splicing through binding to the UGCAUG motif, PAR-CLIP analysis revealed diverse Rbfox3 targets including primary-microRNAs (pri-miRNAs) which lack the UGCAUG motif. Induced expression and depletion of Rbfox3 led to changes in the expression levels of a subset of PAR-CLIP-detected miRNAs. In vitro analyses revealed that Rbfox3 functions as a positive and a negative regulator at the stage of pri-miRNA processing to precursor-miRNA. Rbfox3 binds directly to pri-miRNAs and regulates the recruitment of the microprocessor complex to pri-miRNAs. Our study proposes a novel function for Rbfox3 in miRNA biogenesis. PMID:25240799
Wynne, David J.
It is widely accepted that the kinetochore is built on CENP-A–marked centromeric chromatin in a hierarchical order from inner to outer kinetochore. Recruitment of many kinetochore proteins depends on microtubule attachment status, but it remains unclear how their assembly/disassembly is orchestrated. Applying 3D structured illumination microscopy to Xenopus laevis egg extracts, here we reveal that in the absence of microtubule attachment, proteins responsible for lateral attachment and spindle checkpoint signaling expand to form micrometer-scale fibrous structures over CENP-A–free chromatin, whereas a core module responsible for end-on attachment (CENP-A, CENP-T, and Ndc80) does not. Both outer kinetochore proteins (Bub1, BubR1, Mad1, and CENP-E) and the inner kinetochore component CENP-C are integral components of the expandable module, whose assembly depends on multiple mitotic kinases (Aurora B, Mps1, and Plx1) and is suppressed by protein phosphatase 1. We propose that phospho-dependent coexpansion of CENP-C and outer kinetochore proteins promotes checkpoint signal amplification and lateral attachment, whereas their selective disassembly enables the transition to end-on attachment. PMID:26347137
Wheeler, Bayly S
Transposons are mobile genetic elements that are a major constituent of most genomes. Organisms regulate transposable element expression, transposition, and insertion site preference, mitigating the genome instability caused by uncontrolled transposition. A recent burst of research has demonstrated the critical role of small non-coding RNAs in regulating transposition in fungi, plants, and animals. While mechanistically distinct, these pathways work through a conserved paradigm. The presence of a transposon is communicated by the presence of its RNA or by its integration into specific genomic loci. These signals are then translated into small non-coding RNAs that guide epigenetic modifications and gene silencing back to the transposon. In addition to being regulated by the host, transposable elements are themselves capable of influencing host gene expression. Transposon expression is responsive to environmental signals, and many transposons are activated by various cellular stresses. TEs can confer local gene regulation by acting as enhancers and can also confer global gene regulation through their non-coding RNAs. Thus, transposable elements can act as stress-responsive regulators that control host gene expression in cis and trans.
Zhang, Rui; Xia, Li Qiong; Lu, Wen Wen; Zhang, Jing; Zhu, Jin-Shui
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a group of non-coding RNAs composed of >200 nucleotides. Recent studies have revealed that lncRNAs exert an important role in the development and progression of cancer. In this review, the involvement of the most extensively investigated lncRNAs in cancers of the digestive, respiratory, reproductive, urinary and central nervous systems are discussed. LncRNAs function via molecular and biochemical mechanisms that include cis- and trans-regulation of gene expression, epigenetic modulation in the nucleus and post-transcriptional control in the cytoplasm. Although the detailed biological functions and molecular mechanisms of the majority of lncRNAs remain to be elucidated, this review aims to provide a novel insight into the diagnosis and treatment of cancer using lncRNAs. PMID:27446422
Friday, Andrew J; Henderson, Melissa A; Morrison, J Kaitlin; Hoffman, Jenna L; Keiper, Brett D
Regulated mRNA translation is vital for germ cells to produce new proteins in the spatial and temporal patterns that drive gamete development. Translational control involves the de-repression of stored mRNAs and their recruitment by eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) to ribosomes. C. elegans expresses five eIF4Es (IFE-1-IFE-5); several have been shown to selectively recruit unique pools of mRNA. Individual IFE knockouts yield unique phenotypes due to inefficient translation of certain mRNAs. Here, we identified mRNAs preferentially translated through the germline-specific eIF4E isoform IFE-1. Differential polysome microarray analysis identified 77 mRNAs recruited by IFE-1. Among the IFE-1-dependent mRNAs are several required for late germ cell differentiation and maturation. Polysome association of gld-1, vab-1, vpr-1, rab-7 and rnp-3 mRNAs relies on IFE-1. Live animal imaging showed IFE-1-dependent selectivity in spatial and temporal translation of germline mRNAs. Altered MAPK activation in oocytes suggests dual roles for IFE-1, both promoting and suppressing oocyte maturation at different stages. This single eIF4E isoform exerts positive, selective translational control during germ cell differentiation.
Johanson, Timothy M; Keown, Ashleigh A; Cmero, Marek; Yeo, Janet H C; Kumar, Amit; Lew, Andrew M; Zhan, Yifan; Chong, Mark M W
To investigate if the microRNA (miRNA) pathway is required for dendritic cell (DC) development, we assessed the effect of ablating Drosha and Dicer, the two enzymes central to miRNA biogenesis. We found that while Dicer deficiency had some effect, Drosha deficiency completely halted DC development and halted myelopoiesis more generally. This indicated that while the miRNA pathway did have a role, it was a non-miRNA function of Drosha that was particularly critical. Drosha repressed the expression of two mRNAs encoding inhibitors of myelopoiesis in early hematopoietic progenitors. We found that Drosha directly cleaved stem-loop structure within these mRNAs and that this mRNA degradation was necessary for myelopoiesis. We have therefore identified a mechanism that regulates the development of DCs and other myeloid cells.
Friggi-Grelin, Florence; Lavenant-Staccini, Laurence; Therond, Pascal
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is critical for many developmental processes and for the genesis of diverse cancers. Hh signaling comprises a series of negative regulatory steps, from Hh reception to gene transcription output. We previously showed that stability of antagonistic regulatory proteins, including the coreceptor Smoothened (Smo), the kinesin-like Costal-2 (Cos2), and the kinase Fused (Fu), is affected by Hh signaling activation. Here, we show that the level of these three proteins is also regulated by a microRNA cluster. Indeed, the overexpression of this cluster and resulting microRNA regulation of the 3′-UTRs of smo, cos2, and fu mRNA decreases the levels of the three proteins and activates the pathway. Further, the loss of the microRNA cluster or of Dicer function modifies the 3′-UTR regulation of smo and cos2 mRNA, confirming that the mRNAs encoding the different Hh components are physiological targets of microRNAs. Nevertheless, an absence of neither the microRNA cluster nor of Dicer activity creates an hh-like phenotype, possibly due to dose compensation between the different antagonistic targets. This study reveals that a single signaling pathway can be targeted at multiple levels by the same microRNAs. PMID:18493062
Łabno, Anna; Warkocki, Zbigniew; Kuliński, Tomasz; Krawczyk, Paweł Szczepan; Bijata, Krystian; Tomecki, Rafał; Dziembowski, Andrzej
The exosome-independent exoribonuclease DIS3L2 is mutated in Perlman syndrome. Here, we used extensive global transcriptomic and targeted biochemical analyses to identify novel DIS3L2 substrates in human cells. We show that DIS3L2 regulates pol II transcripts, comprising selected canonical and histone-coding mRNAs, and a novel FTL_short RNA from the ferritin mRNA 5′ UTR. Importantly, DIS3L2 contributes to surveillance of maturing snRNAs during their cytoplasmic processing. Among pol III transcripts, DIS3L2 particularly targets vault and Y RNAs and an Alu-like element BC200 RNA, but not Alu repeats, which are removed by exosome-associated DIS3. Using 3′ RACE-Seq, we demonstrate that all novel DIS3L2 substrates are uridylated in vivo by TUT4/TUT7 poly(U) polymerases. Uridylation-dependent DIS3L2-mediated decay can be recapitulated in vitro, thus reinforcing the tight cooperation between DIS3L2 and TUTases. Together these results indicate that catalytically inactive DIS3L2, characteristic of Perlman syndrome, can lead to deregulation of its target RNAs to disturb transcriptome homeostasis. PMID:27431325
Flores, R.M.; Shideler, G.L.
Heavy-mineral distribution on the outer continental shelf off the southern coast of Texas shows regional variability induced by provenance and local variability reflecting genetic differences in sea-floor sediments. Q-mode factor analysis showed that three suites of heavy minerals are present. The southern ancestral Rio Grande delta sediments contain a distinct opaque-pyroxene-garnet suite, whereas the northern ancestral Brazes-Colorado delta sediments contain a tourmaline-green hornblende suite. An interdelta region contains a heavy mineral suite that is mixed owing to contributions from both ancestral deltas. Analysis of variance, correlation, and regression methods indicate that heavy-mineral variations in each sedimentary province have been significantly influenced by hydraulic fractionation by size, shape, and density, and by a selective chemical decomposition of unstable minerals. These factors have operated at varying degrees on the relict, palimpsest, and modern sediment populations of the sedimentary provinces since the end of Pleistocene time. The differential effects of these processes on the sediments have resulted in local variations that contribute to the total mineralogical variability. A comparison of the heavy mineral suites of the modern and relict Rio Grande delta sediments, which are derived from a common provenance, also shows mineral variations resulting from factors other than provenance.
Arthur, Michael A.; Dean, Walter E.
Concentrations and characteristics of organic matter in surface sediments deposited under an intense oxygen-minimum zone (OMZ) on the Peru margin were mapped and studied in samples from deck-deployed box cores and push cores acquired by submersible on two east-west transects spanning depths of 75 to 1,000 meters (m) at 12°S and 13.5°S. On the basis of sampling and analyses of the top 1–2 centimeters (cm) of available cores, three main belts of sediments were identified on each transect with increasing depth: (1) muds rich in organic carbon (OC); (2) authigenic phosphatic mineral crusts and pavements; and (3) glaucony facies. Sediments rich in OC on the 12°S transect were mainly located on the outer shelf and upper slope (150–350 m), but they occurred in much shallower water (approximately 100 m) on the 13.5°S transect. The organic matter is almost entirely marine as confirmed by Rock-Eval pyrolysis and isotopic composition of OC. Concentrations of OC are highest (up to 18 percent) in sediments within the OMZ where dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are 3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2. The glaucony on the 13.5°S transect forms by alteration of one or more original “framework” minerals (carbonate and [or] aluminosilicates) to form pellital aggregates of Fe-, K-, and Mg-rich clay minerals. Because Fe, K, and Mg are derived from seawater, sedimentation rates must be extremely slow in order for the original framework minerals to remain in contact with seawater. The close association of glaucony and phosphorite indicates a delicate balance between the slightly oxidizing conditions at the base of the OMZ that form glaucony and the slightly reducing conditions that mobilize iron and phosphate to form phosphorite.
Pudelski, Birgit; Schock, Annette; Hoth, Stefan; Radchuk, Ruslana; Weber, Hans; Hofmann, Jörg; Sonnewald, Uwe; Soll, Jürgen; Philippar, Katrin
Previously, the OEP16.1 channel pore in the outer envelope membrane of mature pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts in vitro has been characterized to be selective for amino acids. Isolation of OEP16.2, a second OEP16 isoform from pea, in the current study allowed membrane localization and gene expression of OEP16 to be followed throughout seed development and germination of Arabidopsis thaliana and P. sativum. Thereby it can be shown on the transcript and protein level that the isoforms OEP16.1 and OEP16.2 in both plant species are alternating: whereas OEP16.1 is prominent in early embryo development and first leaves of the growing plantlet, OEP16.2 dominates in late seed development stages, which are associated with dormancy and desiccation, as well as early germination events. Further, OEP16.2 expression in seeds is under control of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), leading to an ABA-hypersensitive phenotype of germinating oep16 knockout mutants. In consequence, the loss of OEP16 causes metabolic imbalance, in particular that of amino acids during seed development and early germination. It is thus concluded that in vivo OEP16 most probably functions in shuttling amino acids across the outer envelope of seed plastids. PMID:22155670
In mammals, male gametes are produced inside the testis by spermatogenesis, which has three phases: mitotic proliferation of spermatogonia, meiosis of spermatocytes, and haploid differentiation of spermatids. The genome of male germ cells is actively transcribed to produce phase-specific gene expression patterns. Male germ cells have a complex transcriptome. In addition to protein-coding messenger RNAs, many noncoding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), are produced. The miRNAs are important regulators of gene expression. They function mainly post-transcriptionally to control the stability or translation of their target messenger RNAs. The miRNAs are expressed in a cell-specific manner during spermatogenesis to participate in the control of each step of male germ cell differentiation. Genetically modified mouse models have demonstrated the importance of miRNA pathways for normal spermatogenesis, and functional studies have been designed to dissect the roles of specific miRNAs in distinct cell types. Clinical studies have exploited the well-defined expression profiles of miRNAs, and human spermatozoal or seminal plasma miRNAs have been explored as potential biomarkers for male factor infertility. This review article discusses the current findings that support the central role of miRNAs in the regulation of spermatogenesis and male fertility.
Pei, Chongzhe; Zhang, Xiaoping; Meng, Shu; Li, Yigang
Diabetes is generally associated with vasculopathy, which contains both microvascular and macrovascular complications, associated with high morbidity and mortality. Currently, despite interventional therapy, the overall prognosis for patients with diabetic vasculopathy remains unsatisfactory. Angiogenesis and vascular injury and repair are associated with a variety of cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of the cells that are involved in pathogenesis of diabetic vasculopathy remain largely unknown. As novel molecules, microRNAs (miRs) take part in regulating protein-coding gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, and contribute to the pathogenesis of various types of chronic metabolism disease, especially diabetic vasculopathy. This allows miRs to have a direct function in regulation of various cellular events. Additionally, circulating miRs have been proposed as biomarkers for a wide range of cardiovascular diseases. This review elucidates miR-mediated regulatory mechanisms in diabetic vasculopathy. Furthermore, we discuss the current understanding of miRs in diabetic vasculopathy. Finally, we summarize the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for diabetic vasculopathy related to miRs.
de Gonzalo-Calvo, D; Kenneweg, F; Bang, C; Toro, R; van der Meer, R W; Rijzewijk, L J; Smit, J W; Lamb, H J; Llorente-Cortes, V; Thum, T
Contractile dysfunction is underdiagnosed in early stages of diabetic cardiomyopathy. We evaluated the potential of circulating long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as biomarkers of subclinical cardiac abnormalities in type 2 diabetes. Forty-eight men with well-controlled type 2 diabetes and 12 healthy age-matched volunteers were enrolled in the study. Left ventricular (LV) parameters were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. A panel of lncRNAs was quantified in serum by RT-qPCR. No differences in expression levels of lncRNAs were observed between type 2 diabetes patients and healthy volunteers. In patients with type 2 diabetes, long intergenic non-coding RNA predicting cardiac remodeling (LIPCAR) was inversely associated with diastolic function, measured as E/A peak flow (P < 0.050 for all linear models). LIPCAR was positively associated with grade I diastolic dysfunction (P < 0.050 for all logistic models). Myocardial infarction-associated transcript (MIAT) and smooth muscle and endothelial cell-enriched migration/differentiation-associated long noncoding RNA (SENCR) were directly associated with LV mass to LV end-diastolic volume ratio, a marker of cardiac remodelling (P < 0.050 for all linear models). These findings were validated in a sample of 30 patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. LncRNAs are independent predictors of diastolic function and remodelling in patients with type 2 diabetes.
de Gonzalo-Calvo, D.; Kenneweg, F.; Bang, C.; Toro, R.; van der Meer, R. W.; Rijzewijk, L. J.; Smit, J. W.; Lamb, H. J.; Llorente-Cortes, V.; Thum, T.
Contractile dysfunction is underdiagnosed in early stages of diabetic cardiomyopathy. We evaluated the potential of circulating long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as biomarkers of subclinical cardiac abnormalities in type 2 diabetes. Forty-eight men with well-controlled type 2 diabetes and 12 healthy age-matched volunteers were enrolled in the study. Left ventricular (LV) parameters were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. A panel of lncRNAs was quantified in serum by RT-qPCR. No differences in expression levels of lncRNAs were observed between type 2 diabetes patients and healthy volunteers. In patients with type 2 diabetes, long intergenic non-coding RNA predicting cardiac remodeling (LIPCAR) was inversely associated with diastolic function, measured as E/A peak flow (P < 0.050 for all linear models). LIPCAR was positively associated with grade I diastolic dysfunction (P < 0.050 for all logistic models). Myocardial infarction-associated transcript (MIAT) and smooth muscle and endothelial cell-enriched migration/differentiation-associated long noncoding RNA (SENCR) were directly associated with LV mass to LV end-diastolic volume ratio, a marker of cardiac remodelling (P < 0.050 for all linear models). These findings were validated in a sample of 30 patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. LncRNAs are independent predictors of diastolic function and remodelling in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27874027
Du, Hao-Yue; Cao, Dan-Ni; Chen, Ying; Wang, Lv; Wu, Ning; Li, Jin
Drug addiction is a process that transits from recreative and regular drug use into compulsive drug use. The two patterns of drug use, controlled drug intake and escalated drug intake, represent different stages in the development of drug addiction; and escalation of drug use is a hallmark of addiction. Accumulating studies indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) play key regulatory roles in drug addiction. However, the molecular adaptations in escalation of drug use, as well as the difference in the adaptations between escalated and controlled drug use, remain unclear. In the present study, 28 altered miRNAs in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were found in the groups of controlled methamphetamine self-administration (1h/session) and escalated self-administration (6h/session), and some of them were validated. Compared with saline control group, miR-186 was verified to be up-regulated while miR-195 and miR-329 were down-regulated in the rats with controlled methamphetamine use. In the rats with escalated drug use, miR-127, miR-186, miR-222 and miR-24 were verified to be up-regulated while miR-329 was down-regulated compared with controls. Furthermore, bioinformatic analysis indicated that the predicted targets of these verified miRNAs involved in the processes of neuronal apoptosis and synaptic plasticity. However, the putative regulated molecules may be different between controlled and escalated drug use groups. Taken together, we detected the altered miRNAs in rat PFC under the conditions of controlled methamphetamine use and escalated use respectively, which may extend our understanding of the molecular adaptations underlying the transition from controlled drug use to addiction.
The assembly of ribosomal subunits starting from free ribosomal RNA and protein of Dictyostelium discoideum was induced in vitro in the presence of several oligoribonucleotides complementary to defined sequences of ribosomal RNA. The reconstituted particles had a full complement of ribosomal proteins, but did not function in an in vitro protein synthesis system and were disassembled following interaction with mRNA. The same result was obtained in vivo by fusing the oligodeossiribonucleotides coding for the selected oligoribonucleotides to the promoter of the gene coding for contact site A protein. This gene is expressed only in the first part of development. Transfected growing cells, transferred in developing buffer in the presence of pulses of cAMP, accumulated significant amounts of the oligoribonucleotides. When retransferred to the growth medium, they grew progressively more slowly, until their doubling time doubled, apparently due to the availability of a limiting amount of functional ribosomes. To avoid disassembly of misassembled subunits (G. Mangiarotti et al., 1997, J. Biol. Chem. 272, 27818-27822), two oligoribonucleotides complementary to sequences present at the 5' ends of pre-17S and pre-26S RNAs were also induced to accumulate during early development with the same technique. When transfected cells were retransferred to the growth medium, their rate of growth declined rapidly to zero and cells died, apparently because they were unable to disassemble misassembled ribosomal subunits and avoid their entry into polyribosomes. This technique to perturb protein synthesis, arrest cell growth, and cause cell suicide will be tested in abnormally growing animal cells.
Madrigal-Matute, Julio; Rotllan, Noemi; Aranda, Juan F.; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (~22nucleotide) sequences of RNA that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level. MiRNA/mRNA base pairing complementarity provokes mRNA decay and consequent gene silencing. These endogenous gene expression inhibitors were primarily described in cancer but recent exciting findings have also demonstrated a key role in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including atherosclerosis. MiRNAs controls endothelial cell (EC), vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and macrophage functions, and thereby regulate the progression of atherosclerosis. MiRNAs expression is modulated by different stimuli involved in every stage of atherosclerosis and conversely miRNAs modulates several pathways implicated in plaque development such as cholesterol metabolism. In the present review, we focus on the importance of miRNAs in atherosclerosis and we further discuss their potential use as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in CVDs. PMID:23512606
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) represent a class of RNA molecules that typically do not code for proteins. Emerging data suggest that ncRNAs play an important role in several physiological and pathological conditions such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including atherosclerosis. The best-characterized ncRNAs are the microRNAs (miRNAs), which are small, ~22 nucleotide (nt) sequences of RNA that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level through transcript degradation or translational repression. MiRNAs control several aspects of atherosclerosis including endothelial cell, vascular smooth cell, and macrophage functions as well as lipoprotein metabolism. Apart from miRNAs, recently ncRNAs, especially long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), have emerged as important potential regulators of the progression of atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanism of their regulation and function as well as significance of other ncRNAs such as small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) during atherogenesis is largely unknown. In this review, we summarize the recent findings in the field, highlighting the importance of ncRNAs in atherosclerosis and discuss their potential use as therapeutic targets in CVDs. PMID:24623179
Carbonell, Alberto; Daròs, José-Antonio
Artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) and synthetic trans-acting small interfering RNAs (syn-tasiRNAs) are two classes of artificial small RNAs (sRNAs) engineered to silence endogenous transcripts as well as viral RNAs in plants. Here, we explore the possibility of using amiRNAs and syn-tasiRNAs to specifically interfere with infections by viroids, small (250-400 nt) non-coding circular RNAs with compact secondary structure infecting a wide range of plant species. The combined use of recent high-throughput methods for artificial sRNA construct generation and of the Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd)/Nicotiana benthamiana pathosystem allowed for the simple and time-effective screening of multiple artificial sRNAs targeting sites distributed along PSTVd RNAs of (+) or (-) polarity. The majority of amiRNAs were highly active in agroinfiltrated leaves when co-expressed with an infectious PSTVd transcript, as were syn-tasiRNAs derived from a construct including the five most effective amiRNA sequences. A comparative analysis showed that the effects of the most effective amiRNA and of the syn-tasiRNAs were similar in agroinfiltrated leaves, as well as in upper non-agroinfiltrated leaves where PSTVd accumulation was significantly delayed. These results suggest that amiRNAs and syn-tasiRNAs can be used effectively to control viroid infections in plants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Guan, Yan-Qing; Zheng, Zhe; Huang, Zheng; Li, Zhibin; Niu, Shuiqin; Liu, Jun-Ming
Nanomagnetic materials offer exciting avenues for advancing cancer therapies. Most researches have focused on efficient delivery of drugs in the body by incorporating various drug molecules onto the surface of nanomagnetic particles. The challenge is how to synthesize low toxic nanocarriers with multi-target drug loading. The cancer cell death mechanisms associated with those nanocarriers remain unclear either. Following the cell biology mechanisms, we develop a liquid photo-immobilization approach to attach doxorubicin, folic acid, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ onto the oleic acid molecules coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles to prepare a kind of novel inner/outer controlled multi-target magnetic nanoparticle drug carrier. In this work, this approach is demonstrated by a variety of structural and biomedical characterizations, addressing the anti-cancer effects in vivo and in vitro on the HeLa, and it is highly efficient and powerful in treating cancer cells in a valuable programmed cell death mechanism for overcoming drug resistance.
Gilquin, Benoît; Taillebourg, Emmanuel; Cherradi, Nadia; Hubstenberger, Arnaud; Gay, Olivia; Merle, Nicolas; Assard, Nicole; Fauvarque, Marie-Odile; Tomohiro, Shiho; Kuge, Osamu; Baudier, Jacques
Dynamic interactions between components of the outer (OM) and inner (IM) membranes control a number of critical mitochondrial functions such as channeling of metabolites and coordinated fission and fusion. We identify here the mitochondrial AAA+ ATPase protein ATAD3A specific to multicellular eukaryotes as a participant in these interactions. The N-terminal domain interacts with the OM. A central transmembrane segment (TMS) anchors the protein in the IM and positions the C-terminal AAA+ ATPase domain in the matrix. Invalidation studies in Drosophila and in a human steroidogenic cell line showed that ATAD3A is required for normal cell growth and cholesterol channeling at contact sites. Using dominant-negative mutants, including a defective ATP-binding mutant and a truncated 50-amino-acid N-terminus mutant, we showed that ATAD3A regulates dynamic interactions between the mitochondrial OM and IM sensed by the cell fission machinery. The capacity of ATAD3A to impact essential mitochondrial functions and organization suggests that it possesses unique properties in regulating mitochondrial dynamics and cellular functions in multicellular organisms. PMID:20154147
Guan, Yan-Qing; Zheng, Zhe; Huang, Zheng; Li, Zhibin; Niu, Shuiqin; Liu, Jun-Ming
Nanomagnetic materials offer exciting avenues for advancing cancer therapies. Most researches have focused on efficient delivery of drugs in the body by incorporating various drug molecules onto the surface of nanomagnetic particles. The challenge is how to synthesize low toxic nanocarriers with multi-target drug loading. The cancer cell death mechanisms associated with those nanocarriers remain unclear either. Following the cell biology mechanisms, we develop a liquid photo-immobilization approach to attach doxorubicin, folic acid, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ onto the oleic acid molecules coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles to prepare a kind of novel inner/outer controlled multi-target magnetic nanoparticle drug carrier. In this work, this approach is demonstrated by a variety of structural and biomedical characterizations, addressing the anti-cancer effects in vivo and in vitro on the HeLa, and it is highly efficient and powerful in treating cancer cells in a valuable programmed cell death mechanism for overcoming drug resistance. PMID:24845203
Fortes, Puri; Morris, Kevin
Viral infections induce strong modifications in the cell transcriptome. Among the RNAs whose expression is altered by infection are long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). LncRNAs are transcripts with potential to function as RNA molecules. Infected cells may express viral lncRNAs, cellular lncRNAs and chimeric lncRNAs formed by viral and cellular sequences. Some viruses express viral lncRNAs whose function is essential for viral viability. They are transcribed by polymerase II or III and some of them can be processed by unique maturation steps performed by host cell machineries. Some viral lncRNAs control transcription, stability or translation of cellular and viral genes. Surprisingly, similar functions can be exerted by cellular lncRNAs induced by infection. Expression of cellular lncRNAs may be altered in response to viral replication or viral protein expression. However, many cellular lncRNAs respond to the antiviral pathways induced by infection. In fact, many lncRNAs function as positive or negative regulators of the innate antiviral response. Our current knowledge about the identity and function of lncRNAs in infected cells is very limited. However, research into this field has already helped in the identification of novel cellular pathways and may help in the development of therapeutic tools for the treatment of viral infections, autoimmune diseases, neurological disorders and cancer. PMID:26454188
Ouyang, Yi-Bing; Giffard, Rona G
The BCL-2 family is centrally involved in the mechanism of cell death after cerebral ischemia. It is well known that the proteins of the BCL-2 family are key regulators of apoptosis through controlling mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. Recent findings suggest that many BCL-2 family members are also directly involved in controlling transmission of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria through a specialization called the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM). Increasing evidence supports the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs), some of them targeting BCL-2 family proteins, in the regulation of cerebral ischemia. In this mini-review, after highlighting current knowledge about the multiple functions of BCL-2 family proteins and summarizing their relationship to outcome from cerebral ischemia, we focus on the regulation of BCL-2 family proteins by miRNAs, especially miR-29 which targets multiple BCL-2 family proteins.
Cridge, Andrew G.; Castelli, Lydia M.; Smirnova, Julia B.; Selley, Julian N.; Rowe, William; Hubbard, Simon J.; McCarthy, John E.G.; Ashe, Mark P.; Grant, Christopher M.; Pavitt, Graham D.
eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs) regulate translation of mRNAs in eukaryotes. However the extent to which specific mRNA targets are regulated by 4E-BPs remains unknown. We performed translational profiling by microarray analysis of polysome and monosome associated mRNAs in wild-type and mutant cells to identify mRNAs in yeast regulated by the 4E-BPs Caf20p and Eap1p; the first-global comparison of 4E-BP target mRNAs. We find that yeast 4E-BPs modulate the translation of >1000 genes. Most target mRNAs differ between the 4E-BPs revealing mRNA specificity for translational control by each 4E-BP. This is supported by observations that eap1Δ and caf20Δ cells have different nitrogen source utilization defects, implying different mRNA targets. To account for the mRNA specificity shown by each 4E-BP, we found correlations between our data sets and previously determined targets of yeast mRNA-binding proteins. We used affinity chromatography experiments to uncover specific RNA-stabilized complexes formed between Caf20p and Puf4p/Puf5p and between Eap1p and Puf1p/Puf2p. Thus the combined action of each 4E-BP with specific 3′-UTR-binding proteins mediates mRNA-specific translational control in yeast, showing that this form of translational control is more widely employed than previously thought. PMID:20705650
Arcila, Mary L; Betizeau, Marion; Cambronne, Xiaolu A; Guzman, Elmer; Doerflinger, Nathalie; Bouhallier, Frantz; Zhou, Hongjun; Wu, Bian; Rani, Neha; Bassett, Danielle S; Borello, Ugo; Huissoud, Cyril; Goodman, Richard H; Dehay, Colette; Kosik, Kenneth S
Major nonprimate-primate differences in cortico-genesis include the dimensions, precursor lineages, and developmental timing of the germinal zones (GZs). microRNAs (miRNAs) of laser-dissected GZ compartments and cortical plate (CP) from embryonic E80 macaque visual cortex were deep sequenced. The CP and the GZ including ventricular zone (VZ) and outer and inner subcompartments of the outer subventricular zone (OSVZ) in area 17 displayed unique miRNA profiles. miRNAs present in primate, but absent in rodent, contributed disproportionately to the differential expression between GZ subregions. Prominent among the validated targets of these miRNAs were cell-cycle and neurogenesis regulators. Coevolution between the emergent miRNAs and their targets suggested that novel miRNAs became integrated into ancient gene circuitry to exert additional control over proliferation. We conclude that multiple cell-cycle regulatory events contribute to the emergence of primate-specific cortical features, including the OSVZ, generated enlarged supragranular layers, largely responsible for the increased primate cortex computational abilities.
Uchida, Shizuka; Dimmeler, Stefanie
In recent year, increasing evidence suggests that noncoding RNAs play important roles in the regulation of tissue homeostasis and pathophysiological conditions. Besides small noncoding RNAs (eg, microRNAs), >200-nucleotide long transcripts, namely long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), can interfere with gene expressions and signaling pathways at various stages. In the cardiovascular system, studies have detected and characterized the expression of lncRNAs under normal physiological condition and in disease states. Several lncRNAs are regulated during acute myocardial infarction (eg, Novlnc6) and heart failure (eg, Mhrt), whereas others control hypertrophy, mitochondrial function and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. In the vascular system, the endothelial-expressed lncRNAs (eg, MALAT1 and Tie-1-AS) can regulate vessel growth and function, whereas the smooth-muscle-expressed lncRNA smooth muscle and endothelial cell-enriched migration/differentiation-associated long noncoding RNA was recently shown to control the contractile phenotype of smooth muscle cells. This review article summarizes the data on lncRNA expressions in mouse and human and highlights identified cardiovascular lncRNAs that might play a role in cardiovascular diseases. Although our understanding of lncRNAs is still in its infancy, these examples may provide helpful insights how lncRNAs interfere with cardiovascular diseases.
Hu, Jie; Wang, Zheng; Liao, Bo-Yi; Yu, Lei; Gao, Xue; Lu, Shaohua; Wang, Shuyang; Dai, Zhi; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Qing; Qiu, Shuang-Jian; Wu, Ying; Zhu, Hongguang; Fan, Jia; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Jiping
Circulating microRNAs are promising biomarkers for non-invasive testing and dynamic monitoring in cancer patients. However, no consensus exists regarding the normalization of circulating microRNAs in the quantification, making the results incomparable. We investigated global circulating microRNA profiles to identify a stable endogenous control for quantifying circulating microRNAs using three cohorts (n = 544), including 168 control individuals (healthy subjects and those with chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis) and 376 cancer patients (hepatocellular, colorectal, lung, esophageal, gastric, renal, prostate, and breast cancer patients). GeNorm, NormFinder, and coefficient of variability (CV) were used to select the most stable endogenous control, whereas Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was adopted to explore its signaling pathways. Seven candidates (miR-1225-3p, miR-1228, miR-30d, miR-939, miR-940, miR-188-5p, and miR-134) from microarray analysis and four commonly used controls (miR-16, miR-223, let-7a, and RNU6B) from literature were subjected to real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction validation using independent cohorts. MiR-1228 (CV = 5.4%) with minimum M value and S value presented as the most stable endogenous control across eight cancer types and three controls. IPA showed miR-1228 to be involved extensively in metabolism-related signal pathways and organ morphology, implying that miR-1228 functions as a housekeeping gene. Functional network analysis found that "hematological system development" was on the list of the top networks that associate with miR-1228, implying that miR-1228 plays an important role in the hematological system. The results explained the steady expression of miR-1228 in the blood. In conclusion, miR-1228 is a promising stable endogenous control for quantifying circulating microRNAs in cancer patients.
Zhang, Xu; Hu, Wenqian
Mammalian development is under tight control to ensure precise gene expression. Recent studies reveal a new layer of regulation of gene expression mediated by long noncoding RNAs. These transcripts are longer than 200nt that do not have functional protein coding capacity. Interestingly, many of these long noncoding RNAs are expressed with high specificity in different types of cells, tissues, and developmental stages in mammals, suggesting that they may have functional roles in diverse biological processes. Here, we summarize recent findings of long noncoding RNAs in hematopoiesis, which is one of the best-characterized mammalian cell differentiation processes. Then we provide our own perspectives on future studies of long noncoding RNAs in this field. PMID:27508063
Lonze, Bonnie E; Holzer, Horatio T; Knabel, Matthew K; Locke, Jayme E; DiCamillo, Gregory A; Karhadkar, Sunil S; Montgomery, Robert A; Sun, Zhaoli; Warren, Daniel S; Cameron, Andrew M
Recurrent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common cause of graft loss and patient death after transplantation for HCV cirrhosis. Transplant surgeons have access to uninfected explanted livers before transplantation and an opportunity to deliver RNA interference-based protective gene therapy to uninfected grafts. Conserved HCV sequences were used to design short interfering RNAs and test their ability to knockdown HCV transcript expression in an in vitro model, both by transfection and when delivered via an adeno-associated viral vector. In a rodent model of liver transplantation, portal venous perfusion of explanted grafts with an adeno-associated viral vector before transplantation produced detectable short hairpin RNA transcript expression after transplantation. The ability to deliver anti-HCV short hairpin RNAs to uninfected livers before transplantation and subsequent exposure to HCV offers hope for the possibility of preventing the currently inevitable subsequent infection of liver grafts with HCV.
The research and advanced development work is reported on a ballistic-mode, outer planet spacecraft using radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power. The Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS) project was established to provide the advanced systems technology that would allow the realistic estimates of performance, cost, reliability, and scheduling that are required for an actual flight mission. A system design of the complete RTG-powered outer planet spacecraft was made; major technical innovations of certain hardware elements were designed, developed, and tested; and reliability and quality assurance concepts were developed for long-life requirements. At the conclusion of its active phase, the TOPS Project reached its principal objectives: a development and experience base was established for project definition, and for estimating cost, performance, and reliability; an understanding of system and subsystem capabilities for successful outer planets missions was achieved. The system design answered long-life requirements with massive redundancy, controlled by on-board analysis of spacecraft performance data.
Koch, Aline; Furch, Alexandra; Weber, Lennart; Rossbach, Oliver; Abdellatef, Eltayb; Linicus, Lukas; Jelonek, Lukas; Goesmann, Alexander; Cardoza, Vinitha; McMillan, John; Mentzel, Tobias; Kogel, Karl-Heinz
Meeting the increasing food and energy demands of a growing population will require the development of ground-breaking strategies that promote sustainable plant production. Host-induced gene silencing has shown great potential for controlling pest and diseases in crop plants. However, while delivery of inhibitory noncoding double-stranded (ds)RNA by transgenic expression is a promising concept, it requires the generation of transgenic crop plants which may cause substantial delay for application strategies depending on the transformability and genetic stability of the crop plant species. Using the agronomically important barley—Fusarium graminearum pathosystem, we alternatively demonstrate that a spray application of a long noncoding dsRNA (791 nt CYP3-dsRNA), which targets the three fungal cytochrome P450 lanosterol C-14α-demethylases, required for biosynthesis of fungal ergosterol, inhibits fungal growth in the directly sprayed (local) as well as the non-sprayed (distal) parts of detached leaves. Unexpectedly, efficient spray-induced control of fungal infections in the distal tissue involved passage of CYP3-dsRNA via the plant vascular system and processing into small interfering (si)RNAs by fungal DICER-LIKE 1 (FgDCL-1) after uptake by the pathogen. We discuss important consequences of this new finding on future RNA-based disease control strategies. Given the ease of design, high specificity, and applicability to diverse pathogens, the use of target-specific dsRNA as an anti-fungal agent offers unprecedented potential as a new plant protection strategy. PMID:27737019
Chu, Chia-Ying; Rana, Tariq M.
Small (19-31-nucleotides) noncoding RNAs were identified in the past 10 years for their distinct function in gene silencing. The best known gene-silencing phenomenon, RNA interference (RNAi), is triggered in a sequence-specific manner by endogenously produced or exogenously introduced small doubled-stranded RNAs. As knowledge of the structure and function of the RNAi machinery has expanded, this phenomenon has become a powerful tool for biochemical research; it has enormous potential for therapeutics. This chapter summarizes significant aspects of three major classes of small noncoding, regulatory RNAs: small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Here, we focus on the biogenesis of these small RNAs, their structural features and coupled effectors as well as the mechanisms of each small regulatory RNA pathway which reveal fascinating ways by which gene silencing is controlled and fine-tuned at an epigenetic level.
Han, Lu; Luan, Yu-Shi
Genetic information is traditionally thought to be transferred from parents to offspring. However, there is evidence indicating that gene transfer can also occur from microbes to higher species, such as plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. This horizontal transfer can be carried out by small RNAs (sRNAs). sRNAs have been recently reported to move across kingdoms as mobile signals, spreading silencing information toward targeted genes. sRNAs, especially microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are non-coding molecules that control gene expression at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. Some sRNAs act in a cross-kingdom manner between animals and their parasites, but little is known about such sRNAs associated with plants. In this report, we provide a brief introduction to miRNAs that are transferred from plants to mammals/viruses and siRNAs that are transferred from microbes to plants. Both miRNAs and siRNAs can exert corresponding functions in the target organisms. Additionally, we provide information concerning a host-induced gene silencing system as a potential application that utilizes the transgenic trafficking of RNA molecules to silence the genes of interacting organisms. Moreover, we lay out the controversial views regarding cross-kingdom miRNAs and call for better methodology and experimental design to confirm this unique function of miRNAs. PMID:26697056
MicroRNAs have emerged as a new regulatory factor of gene expression. They mediate translational repression or degradation of their target mRNAs by RNA interference (RNAi). The expression of each microRNA is tightly regulated in a development- and cell-specific manner by various mechanisms such as blockade of let-7 family expression by Lin-28 or RNA editing. They also act as regulatory switches for development, organogenesis, and cellular differentiation or for controlling distinct functions that are required for the maintenance of each tissue and cell subtypes. The abundant expression of microRNAs as well as the exclusive expression of certain microRNAs in the central nervous system highlights their biological importance at all stages of neural development and in postmitotic and differentiated neurons. Further, some microRNAs, such as miRNA-134, and miRNA-132 are localized and are synthesized in part at synaptic sites in dendrites to regulate synaptic formation and plasticity. In addition to the imparting of basic knowledge about the biogenesis and mechanism of action of microRNAs, this review focuses on the recent advances in microRNA studies in neurobiology, including the expression pattern of microRNAs in the mammalian brain, the role of microRNAs in neural differentiation and maturation, formation and plasticity of synaptic connections, and maintenance of neural function such as the synthesis of the neurotransmitters in selected neurons. Finally, the possible connection between microRNA dysfunction and neurological diseases, and future implications for diagnosis, and treatment of defects in human brain development and neurodegenerative diseases are discussed.
Ma, Guoxing; Tang, Mingqing; Wu, Yaqing; Xu, Xiaoming; Pan, Feng; Xu, Ruian
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second lethal disease for men in western countries. Although androgen receptor (AR) signaling has been widely investigated, noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), deficient of open reading frame, have also received considerable attention. Growing studies showed that the aberrant ncRNAs expression contributed to cell proliferation, metastasis and drug resistance in PCa. Therefore, therapeutically targeting ncRNAs may synergize androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) to have a better effect to fight against PCa, especially castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). This review would systematically summarize the multicellular events controlled by ncRNAs and give a snapshot of future scientific activities and clinical applications. PMID:28077991
Grönke, Sebastian; Stewart, James B.; Mourier, Arnaud; Ruzzenente, Benedetta; Kukat, Christian; Wibom, Rolf; Habermann, Bianca; Partridge, Linda; Larsson, Nils-Göran
The bicoid stability factor (BSF) of Drosophila melanogaster has been reported to be present in the cytoplasm, where it stabilizes the maternally contributed bicoid mRNA and binds mRNAs expressed from early zygotic genes. BSF may also have other roles, as it is ubiquitously expressed and essential for survival of adult flies. We have performed immunofluorescence and cell fractionation analyses and show here that BSF is mainly a mitochondrial protein. We studied two independent RNAi knockdown fly lines and report that reduced BSF protein levels lead to a severe respiratory deficiency and delayed development at the late larvae stage. Ubiquitous knockdown of BSF results in a severe reduction of the polyadenylation tail lengths of specific mitochondrial mRNAs, accompanied by an enrichment of unprocessed polycistronic RNA intermediates. Furthermore, we observed a significant reduction in mRNA steady state levels, despite increased de novo transcription. Surprisingly, mitochondrial de novo translation is increased and abnormal mitochondrial translation products are present in knockdown flies, suggesting that BSF also has a role in coordinating the mitochondrial translation in addition to its role in mRNA maturation and stability. We thus report a novel function of BSF in flies and demonstrate that it has an important intra-mitochondrial role, which is essential for maintaining mtDNA gene expression and oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:22022283
Lodish, Harvey F; Zhou, Beiyan; Liu, Gwen; Chen, Chang-Zheng
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of evolutionarily conserved small non-coding RNAs that are thought to control gene expression by targeting mRNAs for degradation or translational repression. Emerging evidence suggests that miRNA-mediated gene regulation represents a fundamental layer of genetic programmes at the post-transcriptional level and has diverse functional roles in animals. Here, we provide an overview of the mechanisms by which miRNAs regulate gene expression, with specific focus on the role of miRNAs in regulating the development of immune cells and in modulating innate and adaptive immune responses.
Lévi-Meyrueis, Corinne; Monteil, Véronique; Sismeiro, Odile; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Monot, Marc; Jagla, Bernd; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Dupuy, Bruno; Norel, Françoise
The RpoS/σS sigma subunit of RNA polymerase (RNAP) controls a global adaptive response that allows many Gram-negative bacteria to survive starvation and various stresses. σS also contributes to biofilm formation and virulence of the food-borne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). In this study, we used directional RNA-sequencing and complementary assays to explore the σS-dependent transcriptome of S. Typhimurium during late stationary phase in rich medium. This study confirms the large regulatory scope of σS and provides insights into the physiological functions of σS in Salmonella. Extensive regulation by σS of genes involved in metabolism and membrane composition, and down-regulation of the respiratory chain functions, were important features of the σS effects on gene transcription that might confer fitness advantages to bacterial cells and/or populations under starving conditions. As an example, we show that arginine catabolism confers a competitive fitness advantage in stationary phase. This study also provides a firm basis for future studies to address molecular mechanisms of indirect regulation of gene expression by σS. Importantly, the σS-controlled downstream network includes small RNAs that might endow σS with post-transcriptional regulatory functions. Of these, four (RyhB-1/RyhB-2, SdsR, SraL) were known to be controlled by σS and deletion of the sdsR locus had a competitive fitness cost in stationary phase. The σS-dependent control of seven additional sRNAs was confirmed in Northern experiments. These findings will inspire future studies to investigate molecular mechanisms and the physiological impact of post-transcriptional regulation by σS. PMID:24810289
Dong, Shiwu; Yang, Bo; Guo, Hongfeng; Kang, Fei
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To focus on the role of miRNAs in chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Involved in the regulation of miRNAs in osteoarthritis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To speculate some therapeutic targets for bone diseases. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small molecules and non-coding single strand RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by binding to specific sequences within target genes. miRNAs have been recognized as important regulatory factors in organism development and disease expression. Some miRNAs regulate the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and chondrocytes, eventually influencing metabolism and bone formation. miRNAs are expected to provide potential gene therapy targets for the clinical treatment of metabolic bone diseases and bone injuries. Here, we review the recent research progress on the regulation of miRNAs in bone biology, with a particular focus on the miRNA-mediated control mechanisms of bone and cartilage formation.
Investigation, development and application of optimal output feedback theory. Volume 2: Development of an optimal, limited state feedback outer-loop digital flight control system for 3-D terminal area operation
Broussard, J. R.; Halyo, N.
This report contains the development of a digital outer-loop three dimensional radio navigation (3-D RNAV) flight control system for a small commercial jet transport. The outer-loop control system is designed using optimal stochastic limited state feedback techniques. Options investigated using the optimal limited state feedback approach include integrated versus hierarchical control loop designs, 20 samples per second versus 5 samples per second outer-loop operation and alternative Type 1 integration command errors. Command generator tracking techniques used in the digital control design enable the jet transport to automatically track arbitrary curved flight paths generated by waypoints. The performance of the design is demonstrated using detailed nonlinear aircraft simulations in the terminal area, frequency domain multi-input sigma plots, frequency domain single-input Bode plots and closed-loop poles. The response of the system to a severe wind shear during a landing approach is also presented.
Ouellet, Dominique L.; Provost, Patrick
Within the past few years, microRNAs (miRNAs) and other non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have emerged as elements with critically high importance in post-transcriptional control of cellular and, more recently, viral processes. Endogenously produced by a component of the miRNA-guided RNA silencing machinery known as Dicer, miRNAs are known to control messenger RNA (mRNA) translation through recognition of specific binding sites usually located in their 3′ untranslated region. Recent evidences indicate that the host miRNA pathway may represent an adapted antiviral defense mechanism that can act either by direct miRNA-mediated modulation of viral gene expression or through recognition and inactivation of structured viral RNA species by the protein components of the RNA silencing machinery, such as Dicer. This latter process, however, is a double-edge sword, as it may yield viral miRNAs exerting gene regulatory properties on both host and viral mRNAs. Our knowledge of the interaction between viruses and host RNA silencing machineries, and how this influences the course of infection, is becoming increasingly complex. This review article aims to summarize our current knowledge about viral miRNAs/ncRNAs and their targets, as well as cellular miRNAs that are modulated by viruses upon infection. PMID:20217543
Smith-Vikos, Thalyana; Slack, Frank J.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding RNAs that bind mRNAs through partial base-pair complementarity with their target genes, resulting in post-transcriptional repression of gene expression. The role of miRNAs in controlling aging processes has been uncovered recently with the discovery of miRNAs that regulate lifespan in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans through insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling and DNA damage checkpoint factors. Furthermore, numerous miRNAs are differentially expressed during aging in C. elegans, but the specific functions of many of these miRNAs are still unknown. Recently, various miRNAs have been identified that are up- or down-regulated during mammalian aging by comparing their tissue-specific expression in younger and older mice. In addition, many miRNAs have been implicated in governing senescence in a variety of human cell lines, and the precise functions of some of these miRNAs in regulating cellular senescence have helped to elucidate mechanisms underlying aging. In this Commentary, we review the various regulatory roles of miRNAs during aging processes. We highlight how certain miRNAs can regulate aging on the level of organism lifespan, tissue aging or cellular senescence. Finally, we discuss future approaches that might be used to investigate the mechanisms by which miRNAs govern aging processes. PMID:22294612
Saramago, Margarida; Bárria, Cátia; Dos Santos, Ricardo F; Silva, Inês J; Pobre, Vânia; Domingues, Susana; Andrade, José M; Viegas, Sandra C; Arraiano, Cecília M
Ribonucleases (RNases) are key factors in the control of biological processes, since they modulate the processing, degradation and quality control of RNAs. This review gives many illustrative examples of the role of RNases in the regulation of small RNAs (sRNAs). RNase E and PNPase have been shown to degrade the free pool of sRNAs. RNase E can also be recruited to cleave mRNAs when they are interacting with sRNAs. RNase III cleaves double-stranded structures, and can cut both the sRNA and its RNA target when they are hybridized. Overall, ribonucleases act as conductors in the control of sRNAs. Therefore, it is very important to further understand their role in the post-transcriptional control of gene expression.
Wang, Huijuan; Shao, Fang; Yu, JianFeng; Jiang, Honglin; Han, Yaoping; Gong, Daoqing; Gu, Zhiliang
Growth hormone (GH) is a key regulatory factor in animal growth, development and metabolism. Based on the expression level of the GH receptor, the chicken liver is a major target organ of GH, but the biological effects of GH on the chicken liver are not fully understood. In this work we identified mRNAs and miRNAs that are regulated by GH in primary hepatocytes from female chickens through RNA-seq, and analyzed the functional relevance of these mRNAs and miRNAs through GO enrichment analysis and miRNA target prediction. A total of 164 mRNAs were found to be differentially expressed between GH-treated and control chicken hepatocytes, of which 112 were up-regulated and 52 were down-regulated by GH. A total of 225 chicken miRNAs were identified by the RNA-Seq analysis. Among these miRNAs 16 were up-regulated and 1 miRNA was down-regulated by GH. The GH-regulated mRNAs were mainly involved in growth and metabolism. Most of the GH-upregulated or GH-downregulated miRNAs were predicted to target the GH-downregulated or GH-upregulated mRNAs, respectively, involved in lipid metabolism. This study reveals that GH regulates the expression of many mRNAs involved in metabolism in female chicken hepatocytes, which suggests that GH plays an important role in regulating liver metabolism in female chickens. The results of this study also support the hypothesis that GH regulates lipid metabolism in chicken liver in part by regulating the expression of miRNAs that target the mRNAs involved in lipid metabolism. PMID:25386791
Grammatikakis, Ioannis; Panda, Amaresh C; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Gorospe, Myriam
During aging, progressive deleterious changes increase the risk of disease and death. Prominent molecular hallmarks of aging are genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and altered intercellular communication. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in a wide range of biological processes, including age-related diseases like cancer, cardiovascular pathologies, and neurodegenerative disorders. Evidence is emerging that lncRNAs influence the molecular processes that underlie age-associated phenotypes. Here, we review our current understanding of lncRNAs that control the development of aging traits.
Chen, Y-T; Shen, C-H; Lin, W-D; Chu, H-A; Huang, B-L; Kuo, C-I; Yeh, K-W; Huang, L-C; Chang, I-F
In this work, the population of small RNAs (sRNAs) was studied in the gymnosperm Sequoia sempervirens during phase changes, specifically in the juvenile, adult and rejuvenated plants obtained in vitro. The potential target genes of Sequoia sRNAs were predicted through bioinformatics. Rejuvenation is a pivotal process in woody plants that enables them to regain their growth potential, which results in the recovery of physiologic and molecular characteristics that were lost when the juveniles mature into adult plants. The results from the five repeated graftings of juvenile, adult and rejuvenated plants in vitro showed that sRNAs could be classified into structural RNAs (Group I), small interfering RNAs (Group II), annotated microRNAs (Group III, and unannotated sRNAs (Group IV). The results indicate that only 573 among 15,485,415 sRNAs (Groups III and IV) had significantly different expression patterns associated with rejuvenation and phase change. A total of 215 sRNAs exhibited up-regulated expression patterns in adult shoots, and 358 sRNAs were down-regulated. Expression profiling and prediction of possible target genes of these unique small RNAs indicate possible functions in the control of photosynthetic efficiency and rooting competence abundance during plant rejuvenation. Moreover, the increase in SsmiR156 and decrease in SsmiR172 during plant rejuvenation suggested that these two microRNAs extensively affect phase transition.
Farazi, Thalia A.; Spitzer, Jessica I.; Morozov, Pavel; Tuschl, Thomas
Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNA molecules of 20- to 23-nucleotide (nt) length that control gene expression in many cellular processes. These molecules typically reduce the stability of mRNAs, including those of genes that mediate processes in tumorigenesis, such as inflammation, cell cycle regulation, stress response, differentiation, apoptosis, and invasion. miRNA targeting is mostly achieved through specific base-pairing interactions between the 5′ end (“seed” region) of the miRNA and sites within coding and untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs; target sites in the 3′ UTR lead to more effective mRNA destabilization. Since miRNAs frequently target hundreds of mRNAs, miRNA regulatory pathways are complex. To provide a critical overview of miRNA dysregulation in cancer we first discuss the methods currently available for studying the role of miRNAs in cancer and then review miRNA genomic organization, biogenesis, and mechanism of target recognition examining how these processes are altered in tumorigenesis. Given the critical role miRNAs play in tumorigenesis processes and their disease specific expression, they hold potential as therapeutic targets and novel biomarkers. PMID:21125669
Papenfort, Kai; Vanderpool, Carin K.
Bacterial small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are commonly known to repress gene expression by base pairing to target mRNAs. In many cases, sRNAs base pair with and sequester mRNA ribosome-binding sites, resulting in translational repression and accelerated transcript decay. In contrast, a growing number of examples of translational activation and mRNA stabilization by sRNAs have now been documented. A given sRNA often employs a conserved region to interact with and regulate both repressed and activated targets. However, the mechanisms underlying activation differ substantially from repression. Base pairing resulting in target activation can involve sRNA interactions with the 5′ untranslated region (UTR), the coding sequence or the 3′ UTR of the target mRNAs. Frequently, the activities of protein factors such as cellular ribonucleases and the RNA chaperone Hfq are required for activation. Bacterial sRNAs, including those that function as activators, frequently control stress response pathways or virulence-associated functions required for immediate responses to changing environments. This review aims to summarize recent advances in knowledge regarding target mRNA activation by bacterial sRNAs, highlighting the molecular mechanisms and biological relevance of regulation. PMID:25934124
MiRNAs, negatively affecting gene expression at the post-transcriptional levels, have been shown to control numerous genes involved in various biological and metabolic processes. To date, the identification of miRNAs in plants focused on certain model plants, such as Arabidopsis and rice. Investig...
Schenk, P.M. )
Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon. 210 refs.
Le Rhun, Anaïs; Beer, Yan Yan; Reimegård, Johan; Chylinski, Krzysztof; Charpentier, Emmanuelle
ABSTRACT Streptococcus pyogenes is a human pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from mild to life-threatening infections. During the infectious process, the temporal and spatial expression of pathogenicity factors is tightly controlled by a complex network of protein and RNA regulators acting in response to various environmental signals. Here, we focus on the class of small RNA regulators (sRNAs) and present the first complete analysis of sRNA sequencing data in S. pyogenes. In the SF370 clinical isolate (M1 serotype), we identified 197 and 428 putative regulatory RNAs by visual inspection and bioinformatics screening of the sequencing data, respectively. Only 35 from the 197 candidates identified by visual screening were assigned a predicted function (T-boxes, ribosomal protein leaders, characterized riboswitches or sRNAs), indicating how little is known about sRNA regulation in S. pyogenes. By comparing our list of predicted sRNAs with previous S. pyogenes sRNA screens using bioinformatics or microarrays, 92 novel sRNAs were revealed, including antisense RNAs that are for the first time shown to be expressed in this pathogen. We experimentally validated the expression of 30 novel sRNAs and antisense RNAs. We show that the expression profile of 9 sRNAs including 2 predicted regulatory elements is affected by the endoribonucleases RNase III and/or RNase Y, highlighting the critical role of these enzymes in sRNA regulation. PMID:26580233
Axtell, Michael J
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are defined by their precise processing from a longer stem-loop precursor and by their subsequent ability to direct the regulation of target RNAs distinct from the miRNA precursor. Several lines of evidence suggest that miRNAs arose at least twice during eukaryotic evolution from an ancestral, pan-eukaryotic small RNA producing molecular machinery, though alternative scenarios cannot be ruled out. A handful of plant miRNAs are strongly expressed, widely conserved among plants, and have identical targets in long-diverged species; most of these very well conserved miRNA-target relationships involve DNA-binding transcription factors with suspected roles in developmental control. In contrast, a much greater number of plant miRNAs are weakly expressed, poorly conserved, and have few if any readily identifiable targets. These miRNAs appear to be evolutionarily "transient", and many of them may be of little to no selective value. However, this ever-changing cast of transient miRNAs could provide a reservoir of potentially useful miRNAs from which new regulatory interactions sometimes are selected.
Yoon, Je-Hyun; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Gorospe, Myriam
In mammals, the vast majority of transcripts expressed are noncoding RNAs, ranging from short RNAs (including microRNAs) to long RNAs spanning up to hundreds of kb. While the actions of microRNAs as destabilizers and repressors of the translation of protein-coding transcripts (mRNAs) have been studied in detail, the influence of microRNAs on long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) function is only now coming into view. Conversely, the influence of lncRNAs upon microRNA function is also rapidly emerging. In some cases, lncRNA stability is reduced through the interaction of specific miRNAs. In other cases, lncRNAs can act as microRNA decoys, with the sequestration of microRNAs favoring expression of repressed target mRNAs. Other lncRNAs derepress gene expression by competing with miRNAs for interaction with shared target mRNAs. Finally, some lncRNAs can produce miRNAs, leading to repression of target mRNAs. These microRNA-lncRNA regulatory paradigms modulate gene expression patterns that drive major cellular processes (such as cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell death) which are central to mammalian physiologic and pathologic processes. We review and summarize the types of microRNA-lncRNA crosstalk identified to-date and discuss their influence on gene expression programs. PMID:24965208
Wang, Zifeng; Yao, Hong; Lin, Sheng; Zhu, Xiao; Shen, Zan; Lu, Gang; Poon, Wai Sang; Xie, Dan; Lin, Marie Chia-mi; Kung, Hsiang-fu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are members of non-coding RNAs. They are involved in diverse biological functions. MiRNAs are precisely regulated in a tissue- and developmental-specific manner, but dysregulated in many human diseases, in particular cancers. Transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional regulation, as well as genetic alterations, are the three major mechanisms controlling the spatial and temporal expression of miRNAs. Emerging evidence now indicates that transcriptional and epigenetic regulations play major roles in miRNA expression. This review summarizes the current knowledge and discusses the future challenges.
Merritt, E. C.; Montgomery, D. S.; Kline, J. L.; Daughton, W. S.; Wilson, D. C.; Dodd, E. S.; Renner, D. B.; Cardenas, T.; Batha, S. H.
At the core of the Double Shell concept is the kinetic energy transfer from the outer shell to the inner shell via collision. This collision sets both the implosion shape of the inner shell, from imprinting of the shape of the outer shell, as well as the maximum energy available to compress the DT fuel. Therefore, it is crucial to be able to control the time-dependent shape of the outer shell, such that the outer shell is nominally round at the collision time. We present the experiment results from our sub-scale ( 1 MJ) NIF outer-shell only shape tuning campaign, where we vary shape by changing a turn-on time delay between the same pulse shape on the inner and outer cone beams. This type of shape tuning is unique to this platform and only possible since the Double Shell design uses a single-shock drive (4.5 ns reverse ramp pulse). The outer-shell only targets used a 5.75 mm diameter standard near-vacuum NIF hohlraum with 0.032 mg/cc He gas fill, and a Be capsule with 0.4% uniform Cu dopant, with 242 um thick ablator. We also present results from a third outer-shell only shot used to measure shell trajectory, which is critical in determining the shell impact time. This work conducted under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.
Lu, Tingting; Cui, Lingling; Zhou, Yan; Zhu, Chuanrang; Fan, Danlin; Gong, Hao; Zhao, Qiang; Zhou, Congcong; Zhao, Yan; Lu, Danfeng; Luo, Jianghong; Wang, Yongchun; Tian, Qilin; Feng, Qi; Huang, Tao; Han, Bin
Various stable circular RNAs (circRNAs) are newly identified to be the abundance of noncoding RNAs in Archaea, Caenorhabditis elegans, mice, and humans through high-throughput deep sequencing coupled with analysis of massive transcriptional data. CircRNAs play important roles in miRNA function and transcriptional controlling by acting as competing endogenous RNAs or positive regulators on their parent coding genes. However, little is known regarding circRNAs in plants. Here, we report 2354 rice circRNAs that were identified through deep sequencing and computational analysis of ssRNA-seq data. Among them, 1356 are exonic circRNAs. Some circRNAs exhibit tissue-specific expression. Rice circRNAs have a considerable number of isoforms, including alternative backsplicing and alternative splicing circularization patterns. Parental genes with multiple exons are preferentially circularized. Only 484 circRNAs have backsplices derived from known splice sites. In addition, only 92 circRNAs were found to be enriched for miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in flanking sequences or to be complementary to at least 18-bp flanking intronic sequences, indicating that there are some other production mechanisms in addition to direct backsplicing in rice. Rice circRNAs have no significant enrichment for miRNA target sites. A transgenic study showed that overexpression of a circRNA construct could reduce the expression level of its parental gene in transgenic plants compared with empty-vector control plants. This suggested that circRNA and its linear form might act as a negative regulator of its parental gene. Overall, these analyses reveal the prevalence of circRNAs in rice and provide new biological insights into rice circRNAs. PMID:26464523
López-Lastra, Marcelo; Ramdohr, Pablo; Letelier, Alejandro; Vallejos, Maricarmen; Vera-Otarola, Jorge; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando
Viruses depend on cells for their replication but have evolved mechanisms to achieve this in an efficient and, in some instances, a cell-type-specific manner. The expression of viral proteins is frequently subject to translational control. The dominant target of such control is the initiation step of protein synthesis. Indeed, during the early stages of infection, viral mRNAs must compete with their host counterparts for the protein synthetic machinery, especially for the limited pool of eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs) that mediate the recruitment of ribosomes to both viral and cellular mRNAs. To circumvent this competition viruses use diverse strategies so that ribosomes can be recruited selectively to viral mRNAs. In this review we focus on the initiation of protein synthesis and outline some of the strategies used by viruses to ensure efficient translation initiation of their mRNAs.
Shimura, Hanako; Masuta, Chikara
Satellite RNAs (satRNAs) and viroids belong to the group called subviral agents and are the smallest pathogens of plants. In general, small satRNAs and viroids are 300-400 nt in size and do not encode any functional proteins; they are thus regarded as so-called long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). These lncRNAs are receiving great attention as a new RNA class involved in gene regulation to control important biological processes such as gene transcription and epigenetic regulation. A substantial number of lncRNAs in animal cells have been found to play important roles in the interactions between a virus and its host. We here discuss the pathogenicity of subviral RNAs (especially satRNAs) in plant cells and their functions as lncRNAs associated with viral diseases, using animal lncRNAs as an analogy. Because, unlike animal lncRNAs, plant subviral RNAs can replicate and accumulate at very high levels in infected cells, we here considered the unique possibility that the RNA silencing machinery of plants, an important defense mechanism against virus infection, may have brought about the replication ability of subviral molecules. In addition, we also discuss the possibility that satRNAs may have arisen from plant-virus interactions in virus-infected cells. Understanding the molecular functions of these unique lncRNAs in plants will enable us to reveal the most plausible origins of these subviral RNAs.
Baldrich, Patricia; San Segundo, Blanca
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short regulatory non-coding RNAs that guide gene silencing in most eukaryotes. They regulate gene expression by triggering sequence-specific cleavage or translational repression of target transcripts. Plant miRNAs are known to play important roles in a wide range of developmental processes. Increasing evidence also supports that the modulation of miRNA levels plays an important role in reprogramming plant responses to abiotic stress (drought, cold, salinity and nutrient deficiency) and biotic stress (antibacterial resistance). Most of these studies were carried out in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. During the last years, the adoption of high-throughput sequencing technologies has significantly contributed to uncover multiple miRNAs while allowing miRNA profiling in plants. However, although a plethora of rice miRNAs have been shown to be regulated by pathogen infection, the biological function remains largely unknown for most of them. In this review, we summarize our current understanding on the contribution of miRNAs to rice immunity and discuss their potential applications in rice biotechnology. A better understanding of the miRNA species controlling rice immunity may lead to practical biotechnological applications leading to the development of appropriate strategies for rice protection.
Murray, Daniel D.; Suzuki, Kazuo; Law, Matthew; Trebicka, Jonel; Neuhaus, Jacquie; Wentworth, Deborah; Johnson, Margaret; Vjecha, Michael J.; Kelleher, Anthony D.; Emery, Sean
Introduction The use of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced HIV-1 associated morbidity and mortality. However, HIV-1 infected individuals have increased rates of morbidity and mortality compared to the non-HIV-1 infected population and this appears to be related to end-organ diseases collectively referred to as Serious Non-AIDS Events (SNAEs). Circulating miRNAs are reported as promising biomarkers for a number of human disease conditions including those that constitute SNAEs. Our study sought to investigate the potential of selected miRNAs in predicting mortality in HIV-1 infected ART treated individuals. Materials and Methods A set of miRNAs was chosen based on published associations with human disease conditions that constitute SNAEs. This case: control study compared 126 cases (individuals who died whilst on therapy), and 247 matched controls (individuals who remained alive). Cases and controls were ART treated participants of two pivotal HIV-1 trials. The relative abundance of each miRNA in serum was measured, by RTqPCR. Associations with mortality (all-cause, cardiovascular and malignancy) were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Correlations between miRNAs and CD4+ T cell count, hs-CRP, IL-6 and D-dimer were also assessed. Results None of the selected miRNAs was associated with all-cause, cardiovascular or malignancy mortality. The levels of three miRNAs (miRs -21, -122 and -200a) correlated with IL-6 while miR-21 also correlated with D-dimer. Additionally, the abundance of miRs -31, -150 and -223, correlated with baseline CD4+ T cell count while the same three miRNAs plus miR-145 correlated with nadir CD4+ T cell count. Discussion No associations with mortality were found with any circulating miRNA studied. These results cast doubt onto the effectiveness of circulating miRNA as early predictors of mortality or the major underlying diseases that contribute to mortality in participants treated for HIV-1 infection. PMID:26465293
Alanazi, Ibrahim; Hoffmann, Peter; Adelson, David L.
MiRNAs are known to regulate gene expression and in the context of cancer have been shown to regulate metastasis, cell proliferation and cell death. In this report we describe potential miRNA regulatory roles with respect to induction of cell death by pharmacologic dose of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF). Our previous work suggested that multiple pathways are involved in the induction of apoptosis, including interferon induced genes, cytokines, cytoskeleton and cell adhesion and TP53 regulated genes. Using miRNA time course expression profiling of EGF treated A431 cells and coupling this to our previous gene expression and proteomic data, we have been able to implicate a number of additional miRNAs in the regulation of apoptosis. Specifically we have linked miR-134, miR-145, miR-146b-5p, miR-432 and miR-494 to the regulation of both apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes expressed as a function of EGF treatment. Whilst additional miRNAs were differentially expressed, these had the largest number of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic targets. We found 5 miRNAs previously implicated in the regulation of apoptosis and our results indicate that an additional 20 miRNAs are likely to be involved based on their correlated expression with targets. Certain targets were linked to multiple miRNAs, including PEG10, BTG1, ID1, IL32 and NCF2. Some miRNAs that target the interferon pathway were found to be down regulated, consistent with a novel layer of regulation of interferon pathway components downstream of JAK/STAT. We have significantly expanded the repertoire of miRNAs that may regulate apoptosis in cancer cells as a result of this work. PMID:25781916
Prieto, Ana I; Hernández, Sara B; Cota, Ignacio; Pucciarelli, M Graciela; Orlov, Yuri; Ramos-Morales, Francisco; García-del Portillo, Francisco; Casadesús, Josep
A genetic screen for suppressors of bile sensitivity in DNA adenine methylase (dam) mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium yielded insertions in an uncharacterized locus homologous to the Escherichia coli asmA gene. Disruption of asmA suppressed bile sensitivity also in phoP and wec mutants of S. enterica and increased the MIC of sodium deoxycholate for the parental strain ATCC 14028. Increased levels of marA mRNA were found in asmA, asmA dam, asmA phoP, and asmA wec strains of S. enterica, suggesting that lack of AsmA activates expression of the marRAB operon. Hence, asmA mutations may enhance bile resistance by inducing gene expression changes in the marRAB-controlled Mar regulon. In silico analysis of AsmA structure predicted the existence of one transmembrane domain. Biochemical analysis of subcellular fractions revealed that the asmA gene of S. enterica encodes a protein of approximately 70 kDa located in the outer membrane. Because AsmA is unrelated to known transport and/or efflux systems, we propose that activation of marRAB in asmA mutants may be a consequence of envelope reorganization. Competitive infection of BALB/c mice with asmA(+) and asmA isogenic strains indicated that lack of AsmA attenuates Salmonella virulence by the oral route but not by the intraperitoneal route. Furthermore, asmA mutants showed a reduced ability to invade epithelial cells in vitro.
Prieto, Ana I.; Hernández, Sara B.; Cota, Ignacio; Pucciarelli, M. Graciela; Orlov, Yuri; Ramos-Morales, Francisco; García-del Portillo, Francisco; Casadesús, Josep
A genetic screen for suppressors of bile sensitivity in DNA adenine methylase (dam) mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium yielded insertions in an uncharacterized locus homologous to the Escherichia coli asmA gene. Disruption of asmA suppressed bile sensitivity also in phoP and wec mutants of S. enterica and increased the MIC of sodium deoxycholate for the parental strain ATCC 14028. Increased levels of marA mRNA were found in asmA, asmA dam, asmA phoP, and asmA wec strains of S. enterica, suggesting that lack of AsmA activates expression of the marRAB operon. Hence, asmA mutations may enhance bile resistance by inducing gene expression changes in the marRAB-controlled Mar regulon. In silico analysis of AsmA structure predicted the existence of one transmembrane domain. Biochemical analysis of subcellular fractions revealed that the asmA gene of S. enterica encodes a protein of ∼70 kDa located in the outer membrane. Because AsmA is unrelated to known transport and/or efflux systems, we propose that activation of marRAB in asmA mutants may be a consequence of envelope reorganization. Competitive infection of BALB/c mice with asmA+ and asmA isogenic strains indicated that lack of AsmA attenuates Salmonella virulence by the oral route but not by the intraperitoneal route. Furthermore, asmA mutants showed a reduced ability to invade epithelial cells in vitro. PMID:19346309
Sun, Miao; Gadad, Shrikanth S; Kim, Dae-Seok; Kraus, W Lee
We describe a computational approach that integrates GRO-seq and RNA-seq data to annotate long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), with increased sensitivity for low-abundance lncRNAs. We used this approach to characterize the lncRNA transcriptome in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, including >700 previously unannotated lncRNAs. We then used information about the (1) transcription of lncRNA genes from GRO-seq, (2) steady-state levels of lncRNA transcripts in cell lines and patient samples from RNA-seq, and (3) histone modifications and factor binding at lncRNA gene promoters from ChIP-seq to explore lncRNA gene structure and regulation, as well as lncRNA transcript stability, regulation, and function. Functional analysis of selected lncRNAs with altered expression in breast cancers revealed roles in cell proliferation, regulation of an E2F-dependent cell-cycle gene expression program, and estrogen-dependent mitogenic growth. Collectively, our studies demonstrate the use of an integrated genomic and molecular approach to identify and characterize growth-regulating lncRNAs in cancers.
Schardt, A. W.; Behannon, K. W.; Carbary, J. F.; Eviatar, A.; Lepping, R. P.; Siscoe, G. L.
Similarities between the Saturnian and terrestrial outer magnetosphere are examined. Saturn, like Earth, has a fully developed magnetic tail, 80 to 100 RS in diameter. One major difference between the two outer magnetospheres is the hydrogen and nitrogen torus produced by Titan. This plasma is, in general, convected in the corotation direction at nearly the rigid corotation speed. Energies of magnetospheric particles extend to above 500 keV. In contrast, interplanetary protons and ions above 2 MeV have free access to the outer magnetosphere to distances well below the Stormer cutoff. This access presumably occurs through the magnetotail. In addition to the H+, H2+, and H3+ ions primarily of local origin, energetic He, C, N, and O ions are found with solar composition. Their flux can be substantially enhanced over that of interplanetary ions at energies of 0.2 to 0.4 MeV/nuc.
Sripada, Lakshmi; Tomar, Dhanendra; Singh, Rajesh
The cellular processes are controlled by a narrow range of mRNA and proteins levels, where small RNAs (sRNAs) known as miRNAs play a critical role. The spatial and temporal regulation of miRNA processing components and mature miRNA is emerging. The recent studies suggest that mitochondria are one of the destinations of pre as well as mature miRNAs. The role of mitochondria extends beyond energy metabolism to many other cellular processes like metabolism, cell death and inflammation. The new found destination of miRNAs suggest the role of mitochondria in monitoring site specific regulations of proteins as well as the function of mitochondria. The studies in this direction will decipher the novel role of mitochondria-associated miRNAs in different cellular processes. This review is focussed on the recent studies demonstrating the presence of miRNAs in mitochondria and its possible significance in different cellular and physiological conditions.
Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R.; Hu, Wenqian; Gromatzky, Austin A.
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly recognized to contribute to cellular development via diverse mechanisms during both health and disease. Here, we highlight recent progress on the study of lncRNAs that function in the development of blood cells. We emphasize lncRNAs that regulate blood cell fates through epigenetic control of gene expression, an emerging theme among functional lncRNAs. Many of these noncoding genes and their targets become dysregulated during malignant hematopoiesis, directly implicating lncRNAs in blood cancers such as leukemia. In a few cases, dysregulation of an lncRNA alone leads to malignant hematopoiesis in a mouse model. Thus, lncRNAs may be not only useful as markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancers of the blood, but also as potential targets for novel therapies. PMID:24609766
Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R; Hu, Wenqian; Gromatzky, Austin A; Lodish, Harvey F
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly recognized to contribute to cellular development via diverse mechanisms during both health and disease. Here, we highlight recent progress on the study of lncRNAs that function in the development of blood cells. We emphasize lncRNAs that regulate blood cell fates through epigenetic control of gene expression, an emerging theme among functional lncRNAs. Many of these noncoding genes and their targets become dysregulated during malignant hematopoiesis, directly implicating lncRNAs in blood cancers such as leukemia. In a few cases, dysregulation of an lncRNA alone leads to malignant hematopoiesis in a mouse model. Thus, lncRNAs may be not only useful as markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancers of the blood, but also as potential targets for novel therapies.
RNA molecules that are unable to translate into proteins are classified as non-coding RNA. Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) genes include highly abundant and functionally important RNAs such as transfer RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), siRNAs, snRNAs, exRNAs and piRNAs. The number of ncRNAs encoded within the human genome is unknown; however, recent transcriptomic and bioinformatic studies suggest the existence of thousands of ncRNAs. Furthermore, small ncRNAs, including miRNAs and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), play an imperative role in the regulation of gene expression of numerous biological and pathological processes. Investigation into the expression and function of small RNA in cancer cells has contributed to gaining a greater understanding of the roles of small RNAs in carcinogenesis. The present review is aimed primarily to discuss the importance of the expression and functions of these small RNAs in carcinogenesis. These studies may provide useful information for future therapies in cancer. PMID:27698791
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be major regulators of eukaryotic gene expression. Traditionally, miRNAs were thought to control highly complex signal transduction and other biological pathways by targeting coding transcripts, accounting for their important role in cellular events. Traditional miRNA biogenesis and function focused on several key enzymes that functioned in miRNA maturation and miRNA inhibitory function upon binding to 3'-untranslated region of target transcripts. However, recent studies have revealed that miRNA biosynthesis and function is complicated, with many exceptions to conventional miRNA mechanisms. In addition to those noncanonical miRNA functions, this review introduces newly discovered biogenesis and regulatory mechanisms, as well as a new class of miRNA-sized small RNA and miRNA methylation. miRNA inhibition and intercellular miRNA signaling are also discussed. Taken together, these insights extend current understanding of miRNAs.
Circular ribonucleic acids (circRNAs) are non-coding RNAs of approximately 100 nucleotides in length with thousands of members in mammalian cells. The presence of circRNAs is believed to be even greater than that of messenger RNAs. Identification of circRNAs occurred approximately 37 years ago with the subsequent demonstration that covalent bonds are necessary for the unique circular structure of these ribonucleic acids. However, present understanding of the complex biological role of circRNAs remains limited and requires further elucidation. CircRNAs may impact aging, multiple disorders, function as biomarkers, and are able to regulate gene expression by acting as effective microRNA (miRNA) sponges. New work suggests that circRNAs are vital for the modulation of cellular senescence and programmed cell death pathways such as apoptosis. These non-coding RNAs can control cell cycle progression, cellular proliferation, and cellular survival impacting disorders linked to aging, cardiovascular disease, and atherosclerosis through pathways that involve cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21), and mammalian forkhead transcription factors. In addition, circRNAs can oversee cellular metabolism and disorders such as diabetes mellitus through the regulation of insulin signaling as well as limit tumor progression through Wnt signaling and β-catenin pathways. Further understanding of the biology of circRNAs offers great promise for the targeting of novel strategies against a wide spectrum of disease entities.
Liu, Xiao-Yang; Wang, Liang; Yu, Bin; Zhuang, Qian-yu; Wang, Yi-Peng
Purpose. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the most common pediatric spinal deformity, is considered a complex genetic disease. Causing genes and pathogenesis of AIS are still unclear. This study was designed to identify differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) involving the pathogenesis of AIS. Methods. We first performed comprehensive screening of lncRNA and mRNA in AIS patients and healthy children using Agilent human lncRNA + mRNA Array V3.0 microarray. LncRNAs expression in different AIS patients was further evaluated using quantitative PCR. Results. A total of 139 lncRNAs and 546 mRNAs were differentially expressed between AIS patients and healthy control. GO and Pathway analysis showed that these mRNAs might be involved in bone mineralization, neuromuscular junction, skeletal system morphogenesis, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism, and regulation of signal pathway. Four lncRNAs (ENST00000440778.1, ENST00000602322.1, ENST00000414894.1, and TCONS_00028768) were differentially expressed between different patients when grouped according to age, height, classification, severity of scoliosis, and Risser grade. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the abnormal expression of lncRNAs and mRNAs in AIS, and the expression of some lncRNAs was related to clinical features. This study is helpful for further understanding of lncRNAs in pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis of AIS. PMID:26421281
Zhou, Xue; Jin, Ping; Qin, Sheng; Chen, Liming; Ma, Fei
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in various biological processes via controlling gene activity. Amphioxus is the best available stand-in as the proximate invertebrate ancestor of the vertebrates. Here, we systematically investigated the miRNAs in amphioxus. First, we identified 245 candidate amphioxus miRNAs, in which 183 miRNAs were firstly reported. Second, we gave evidences to support a birth-and-death process of miRNA genes in some families and gave implications for the functional diversification of miRNA during evolution. Third, we identified 47 development-specific expression miRNAs. We found that only 19 miRNAs were expressed in all developmental stages, 16 miRNAs were neurula-specific and 13 miRNAs were larva-specific. In addition, these potential miRNA-targeting genes were mainly classified into development, muscle formation, cell adhesion, and gene regulation categories. Finally, we found 79 immune related genes targeted by 136 miRNAs in amphioxus. In conclusion, our results take an insight into both the function and evolution of the amphioxus miRNAs.
Small RNAs are non-coding regulatory RNA molecules that control gene expression by mediating mRNA degradation, translational inhibition, or chromatin modification. Virus-derived small RNAs induce silencing of viral RNAs and are essential for antiviral defense in both animal and plant systems. The role of host endogenous small RNAs on antibacterial immunity has only recently been recognized. Host disease resistance and defense responses are achieved by activation and repression of a large array of genes. Certain endogenous small RNAs in plants, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are induced or repressed in response to pathogen attack and subsequently regulate the expression of genes involved in disease resistance and defense responses by mediating transcriptional or post-transcriptional gene silencing. Thus, these small RNAs play an important role in gene expression reprogramming in plant disease resistance and defense responses. This review focuses on the recent findings of plant endogenous small RNAs in antibacterial immunity.
Pawlicka, Kamila; Perrigue, Patrick M; Barciszewski, Jan
The full scope of regulatory RNA evolution and function in epigenetic processes is still not well understood. The development of planarian flatworms to be used as a simple model organism for research has shown a great potential to address gaps in the knowledge in this field of study. The genomes of planarians encode a wide array of regulatory RNAs that function in gene regulation. Here, we review planarians as a suitable model organism for the identification and function of regulatory RNAs.
Schmidt, William G.
Provides an overview of the current practice and fascinating future of legal issues involved in outer space exploration and colonization. Current space law, by necessity, addresses broad principles rather than specific incidents. Nonetheless, it covers a variety of issues including commercial development, rescue agreements, object registration,…
Nair, Madhavan; Sagar, Vidya; Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Sudheesh
Interplay between lncRNAs and mRNAs is rapidly emerging as a key epigenetic mechanism in controlling various cell functions. HIV can actively infect and/or can persist latently for years by manipulating host epigenetics; however, its molecular essence remains undiscovered in entirety. Here for the first time, we delineate the influence of HIV on global lncRNAs expression in monocytic cells lines. Our analysis revealed the expression modulation of nearly 1060 such lncRNAs which are associated with differentially expressed mRNAs in active and latent infection. This suggests a greater role of lncRNAs in regulating transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene expression during HIV infection. The differentially expressed mRNAs were involved in several different biological pathways where immunological networks were most enriched. Importantly, we discovered that HIV induces expression reversal of more than 150 lncRNAs between its active and latent infection. Also, hundreds of unique lncRNAs were identified in both infection conditions. The pathology specific “gene-expression reversal” and “on-and-off” switching of lncRNAs and associated mRNAs may lead to establish the relationship between active and HIV infection. PMID:27756902
Higashino, Fumihiro; Aoyagi, Mariko; Takahashi, Akiko; Ishino, Masaho; Taoka, Masato; Isobe, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Masanobu; Totsuka, Yasunori; Kohgo, Takao; Shindoh, Masanobu
E4orf6 plays an important role in the transportation of cellular and viral mRNAs and is known as an oncogene product of adenovirus. Here, we show that E4orf6 interacts with pp32/leucine-rich acidic nuclear protein (LANP). E4orf6 exports pp32/LANP from the nucleus to the cytoplasm with its binding partner, HuR, which binds to an AU-rich element (ARE) present within many protooncogene and cytokine mRNAs. We found that ARE-mRNAs, such as c-fos, c-myc, and cyclooxygenase-2, were also exported to and stabilized in the cytoplasm of E4orf6-expressing cells. The oncodomain of E4orf6 was necessary for both binding to pp32/LANP and effect for ARE-mRNA. C-fos mRNA was exported together with E4orf6, E1B-55kD, pp32/LANP, and HuR proteins. Moreover, inhibition of the CRM1-dependent export pathway failed to block the export of ARE-mRNAs mediated by E4orf6. Thus, E4orf6 interacts with pp32/LANP to modulate the fate of ARE-mRNAs by altering the CRM1-dependent export pathway.
Kentwell, Jessica; Gundara, Justin S; Sidhu, Stan B
Only recently has it been uncovered that the mammalian transcriptome includes a large number of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that play a variety of important regulatory roles in gene expression and other biological processes. Among numerous kinds of ncRNAs, short noncoding RNAs, such as microRNAs, have been extensively investigated with regard to their biogenesis, function, and importance in carcinogenesis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have only recently been implicated in playing a key regulatory role in cancer biology. The deregulation of ncRNAs has been demonstrated to have important roles in the regulation and progression of cancer development. In this review, we describe the roles of both short noncoding RNAs (including microRNAs, small nuclear RNAs, and piwi-interacting RNAs) and lncRNAs in carcinogenesis and outline the possible underlying genetic mechanisms, with particular emphasis on clinical applications. The focus of our review includes studies from the literature on ncRNAs in traditional endocrine-related cancers, including thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal gland, and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine malignancies. The current and potential future applications of ncRNAs in clinical cancer research is also discussed, with emphasis on diagnosis and future treatment.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally by base pairing to the target mRNAs in animal cells. KRas, an oncogene known to be repressed by let-7a miRNAs, is expressed and needed for the differentiation of mammalian sympathetic neurons and PC12 cells. We documented a loss of let-7a activity during this differentiation process without any significant change in the cellular level of let-7a miRNA. However, the level of Ago2, an essential component that is associated with miRNAs to form RNP-specific miRNA (miRNP) complexes, shows an increase with neuronal differentiation. In this study, differentiation-induced phosphorylation and the subsequent loss of miRNA from Ago2 were noted, and these accounted for the loss of miRNA activity in differentiating neurons. Neuronal differentiation induces the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 and the downstream kinase mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1). This in turn upregulates the phosphorylation of Ago2 and ensures the dissociation of miRNA from Ago2 in neuronal cells. MSK1-mediated miRNP inactivation is a prerequisite for the differentiation of neuronal cells, where let-7a miRNA gets unloaded from Ago2 to ensure the upregulation of KRas, a target of let-7a. We noted that the inactivation of let-7a is both necessary and sufficient for the differentiation of sympathetic neurons. PMID:26858302
Kerr, Thomas A.; Korenblat, Kevin M.; Davidson, Nicholas O.
Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression is now recognized as an important contributor to disease pathogenesis, among whose mechanisms include alterations in the function of stability and translational elements within both coding and non-coding regions of messenger RNA. A major component in this regulatory paradigm is the binding both to RNA stability and also to translational control elements by microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are non-coding endogenously transcribed RNAs that undergo a well characterized series of processing steps that generate short single stranded (~20–22) RNA fragments that bind to complementary regions within a range of targets and in turn lead to mRNA degradation or attenuated translation as a result of trafficking to processing bodies. This article will highlight selected advances in the role of miRNAs in liver disease including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, viral hepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma and will briefly discuss the utility of miRNAs as biomarkers of liver injury and neoplasia. PMID:21420035
Babski, Julia; Maier, Lisa-Katharina; Heyer, Ruth; Jaschinski, Katharina; Prasse, Daniela; Jäger, Dominik; Randau, Lennart; Schmitz, Ruth A; Marchfelder, Anita; Soppa, Jörg
Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are universally distributed in all three domains of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryotes. In bacteria, sRNAs typically function by binding near the translation start site of their target mRNAs and thereby inhibit or activate translation. In eukaryotes, miRNAs and siRNAs typically bind to the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of their target mRNAs and influence translation efficiency and/or mRNA stability. In archaea, sRNAs have been identified in all species investigated using bioinformatic approaches, RNomics, and RNA-Seq. Their size can vary significantly between less than 50 to more than 500 nucleotides. Differential expression of sRNA genes has been studied using northern blot analysis, microarrays, and RNA-Seq. In addition, biological functions have been unraveled by genetic approaches, i.e., by characterization of designed mutants. As in bacteria, it was revealed that archaeal sRNAs are involved in many biological processes, including metabolic regulation, adaptation to extreme conditions, stress responses, and even in regulation of morphology and cellular behavior. Recently, the first target mRNAs were identified in archaea, including one sRNA that binds to the 5'-region of two mRNAs in Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 and a few sRNAs that bind to 3'-UTRs in Sulfolobus solfataricus, three Pyrobaculum species, and Haloferax volcanii, indicating that archaeal sRNAs appear to be able to target both the 5'-UTR or the 3'-UTRs of their respective target mRNAs. In addition, archaea contain tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs), and one tRF has been identified as a major ribosome-binding sRNA in H. volcanii, which downregulates translation in response to stress. Besides regulatory sRNAs, archaea contain further classes of sRNAs, e.g., CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) and snoRNAs.
Hackenberg, Michael; Huang, Po-Jung; Huang, Chun-Yuan; Shi, Bu-Jun; Gustafson, Perry; Langridge, Peter
Phosphorus (P) is essential for plant growth. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in phosphate homeostasis. However, little is known about P effect on miRNA expression in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). In this study, we used Illumina's next-generation sequencing technology to sequence small RNAs (sRNAs) in barley grown under P-deficient and P-sufficient conditions. We identified 221 conserved miRNAs and 12 novel miRNAs, of which 55 were only present in P-deficient treatment while 32 only existed in P-sufficient treatment. Total 47 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between the two P treatments (|log2| > 1). We also identified many other classes of sRNAs, including sense and antisense sRNAs, repeat-associated sRNAs, transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived sRNAs and chloroplast-derived sRNAs, and some of which were also significantly differentially expressed between the two P treatments. Of all the sRNAs identified, antisense sRNAs were the most abundant sRNA class in both P treatments. Surprisingly, about one-fourth of sRNAs were derived from the chloroplast genome, and a chloroplast-encoded tRNA-derived sRNA was the most abundant sRNA of all the sRNAs sequenced. Our data provide valuable clues for understanding the properties of sRNAs and new insights into the potential roles of miRNAs and other classes of sRNAs in the control of phosphate homeostasis. PMID:23266877
Patil, Veena S.; Zhou, Rui; Rana, Tariq M.
The past two decades have seen an explosion in research on noncoding RNAs and their physiological and pathological functions. Several classes of small (20–30 nucleotides) and long (>200 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs have been firmly established as key regulators of gene expression in myriad processes ranging from embryonic development to innate immunity. In this review, we focus on our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the biogenesis and function of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). In addition, we briefly review the relevance of small and long noncoding RNAs to human physiology and pathology and their potential to be exploited as therapeutic agents. PMID:24164576
Kato, Masaomi; Chen, Xiaowei; Inukai, Sachi; Zhao, Hongyu; Slack, Frank J
Small, noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs), impact diverse biological events through the control of gene expression and genome stability. However, the role of these sncRNAs in aging remains largely unknown. To understand the contribution of sncRNAs to the aging process, we performed small RNA profiling by deep-sequencing over the course of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) aging. Many small RNAs, including a significant number of miRNAs, change their expression during aging in C. elegans. Further studies of miRNA expression changes under conditions that modify lifespan demonstrate the tight control of their expression during aging. Adult-specific loss of argonaute-like gene-1 (alg-1) activity, which is necessary for miRNA maturation and function, resulted in an abnormal lifespan, suggesting that miRNAs are, indeed, required in adulthood for normal aging. miRNA target prediction algorithms combined with transcriptome data and pathway enrichment analysis revealed likely targets of these age-associated miRNAs with known roles in aging, such as mitochondrial metabolism. Furthermore, a computational analysis of our deep-sequencing data identified additional age-associated sncRNAs, including miRNA star strands, novel miRNA candidates, and endo-siRNA sequences. We also show an increase of specific transfer RNA (tRNA) fragments during aging, which are known to be induced in response to stress in several organisms. This study suggests that sncRNAs including miRNAs contribute to lifespan regulation in C. elegans, and indicates new connections between aging, stress responses, and the small RNA world.
Denisenko, Elena; Ho, Daniel; Tamgue, Ousman; Ozturk, Mumin; Suzuki, Harukazu; Brombacher, Frank; Guler, Reto; Schmeier, Sebastian
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and other functional non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have emerged as pivotal regulators involved in multiple biological processes. Recently, ncRNA control of gene expression has been identified as a critical regulatory mechanism in the immune system. Despite the great efforts made to discover and characterize ncRNAs, the functional role for most remains unknown. To facilitate discoveries in ncRNA regulation of immune system-related processes, we developed the database of immunologically relevant ncRNAs and target genes (IRNdb). We integrated mouse data on predicted and experimentally supported ncRNA-target interactions, ncRNA and gene annotations, biological pathways and processes and experimental data in a uniform format with a user-friendly web interface. The current version of IRNdb documents 12 930 experimentally supported miRNA-target interactions between 724 miRNAs and 2427 immune-related mouse targets. In addition, we recorded 22 453 lncRNA-immune target and 377 PIWI-interacting RNA-immune target interactions. IRNdb is a comprehensive searchable data repository which will be of help in studying the role of ncRNAs in the immune system. Database URL: http://irndb.org
Lages, Elodie; Ipas, Hélène; Guttin, Audrey; Nesr, Houssam; Berger, François; Issartel, Jean-Paul
microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding endogenously produced RNAs that play key roles in controlling the expression of many cellular proteins. Once they are recruited and incorporated into a ribonucleoprotein complex miRISC, they can target specific mRNAs in a miRNA sequence-dependent process and interfere in the translation into proteins of the targeted mRNAs via several mechanisms. Consequently, miRNAs can regulate many cellular pathways and processes. Dysregulation of their physiological roles may largely contribute to disease. In particular, in cancer, miRNAs can be involved in the deregulation of the expression of important genes that play key roles in tumorigenesis, tumor development, and angiogenesis and have oncogenic or tumor suppressor roles. This review focuses on the biogenesis and maturation of miRNAs, their mechanisms of gene regulation, and the way their expression is deregulated in cancer. The involvement of miRNAs in several oncogenic pathways such as angiogenesis and apoptosis, and in the inter-cellular dialog mediated by miRNA-loaded exosomes as well as the development of new therapeutical strategies based on miRNAs will be discussed. PMID:22652795
Mirkovic-Hösle, Milijana; Förstemann, Klaus
Transposable elements are a serious threat for genome integrity and their control via small RNA mediated silencing pathways is an ancient strategy. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has two silencing activities that target transposons: endogenous siRNAs (esiRNAs or endo-siRNAs) and Piwi-interacting small RNAs (piRNAs). The biogenesis of endo-siRNAs involves the Dicer-2 co-factors Loqs-PD, which acts predominantly during processing of dsRNA by Dcr-2, and R2D2, which primarily helps to direct siRNAs into the RNA interference effector Ago2. Nonetheless, loss of either protein is not sufficient to produce a phenotype comparable with a dcr-2 mutation. We provide further deep sequencing evidence supporting the notion that R2D2 and Loqs-PD have partially overlapping function. Certain transposons display a preference for either dsRBD-protein during production or loading; this appeared to correlate neither with overall abundance, classification of the transposon or a specific site of genomic origin. The endo-siRNA biogenesis pathway in germline operates according to the same principles as the existing model for the soma, and its impairment does not significantly affect piRNAs. Expanding the analysis, we confirmed the occurrence of somatic piRNA-like RNAs (pilRNAs) that show a ping-pong signature. We detected expression of the Piwi-family protein mRNAs only barely above background, indicating that the somatic pilRNAs may arise from a small sub-population of somatic cells that express a functional piRNA pathway. PMID:24454776
Backofen, Rolf; Amman, Fabian; Costa, Fabrizio; Findeiß, Sven; Richter, Andreas S; Stadler, Peter F
The genome of most prokaryotes gives rise to surprisingly complex transcriptomes, comprising not only protein-coding mRNAs, often organized as operons, but also harbors dozens or even hundreds of highly structured small regulatory RNAs and unexpectedly large levels of anti-sense transcripts. Comprehensive surveys of prokaryotic transcriptomes and the need to characterize also their non-coding components is heavily dependent on computational methods and workflows, many of which have been developed or at least adapted specifically for the use with bacterial and archaeal data. This review provides an overview on the state-of-the-art of RNA bioinformatics focusing on applications to prokaryotes. PMID:24755880
Backofen, Rolf; Amman, Fabian; Costa, Fabrizio; Findeiß, Sven; Richter, Andreas S; Stadler, Peter F
The genome of most prokaryotes gives rise to surprisingly complex transcriptomes, comprising not only protein-coding mRNAs, often organized as operons, but also harbors dozens or even hundreds of highly structured small regulatory RNAs and unexpectedly large levels of anti-sense transcripts. Comprehensive surveys of prokaryotic transcriptomes and the need to characterize also their non-coding components is heavily dependent on computational methods and workflows, many of which have been developed or at least adapted specifically for the use with bacterial and archaeal data. This review provides an overview on the state-of-the-art of RNA bioinformatics focusing on applications to prokaryotes.
RNA interference (RNAi), an evolutionarily conserved sequence-specific post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism, is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that results in the degradation of homologous mRNA or in the inhibition of mRNA translation. The naturally occurring triggers for the RNAi pathway are small regulatory RNAs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), processed from longer dsRNAs by the RNAse III enzyme Dicer, and microRNAs (miRNAs), generated in a regulated multistep process from endogenous primary transcripts (pri-miRNA). These primary transcripts are capped, polyadenylated and spliced, thus resembling conventional mRNAs. It is estimated that miRNAs regulate more than one third of all cellular mRNAs, and bioinformatic data indicate that each miRNA can control hundreds of gene targets. Thus, there are likely to be few biological processes not regulated by miRNAs. Although the biological functions of miRNAs are not completely revealed, there is growing evidence that miRNA pathways are a new mechanism of gene regulation in both normal and diseased conditions. Recent evidence has shown that miRNA mutations or aberrant expression patterns correlate with various diseases, such as cancer, viral infections, cardiovascular or neurodegenerative diseases and indicates that miRNAs can function as tumor suppressors and oncogenes. MiRNAs have not only emerged as a powerful tool for gene regulation studies but also for the development of novel drugs. Since they do not encode proteins, they are not traditional therapeutic targets of small-molecule inhibitors and thus comprise a novel class of therapeutics. This article will focus on the current progress in drug discovery using the miRNA strategy.
Singh, Nagendra Kumar
microRNA (miRNA) is an endogenous and evolutionary conserved non-coding RNA, involved in post-transcriptional process as gene repressor and mRNA cleavage through RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) formation. In RISC, miRNA binds in complementary base pair with targeted mRNA along with Argonaut proteins complex, causes gene repression or endonucleolytic cleavage of mRNAs and results in many diseases and syndromes. After the discovery of miRNA lin-4 and let-7, subsequently large numbers of miRNAs were discovered by low-throughput and high-throughput experimental techniques along with computational process in various biological and metabolic processes. The miRNAs are important non-coding RNA for understanding the complex biological phenomena of organism because it controls the gene regulation. This paper reviews miRNA databases with structural and functional annotations developed by various researchers. These databases contain structural and functional information of animal, plant and virus miRNAs including miRNAs-associated diseases, stress resistance in plant, miRNAs take part in various biological processes, effect of miRNAs interaction on drugs and environment, effect of variance on miRNAs, miRNAs gene expression analysis, sequence of miRNAs, structure of miRNAs. This review focuses on the developmental methodology of miRNA databases such as computational tools and methods used for extraction of miRNAs annotation from different resources or through experiment. This study also discusses the efficiency of user interface design of every database along with current entry and annotations of miRNA (pathways, gene ontology, disease ontology, etc.). Here, an integrated schematic diagram of construction process for databases is also drawn along with tabular and graphical comparison of various types of entries in different databases. Aim of this paper is to present the importance of miRNAs-related resources at a single place.
Martínez de Alba, Angel Emilio; Moreno, Ana Beatriz; Gabriel, Marc; Mallory, Allison C; Christ, Aurélie; Bounon, Rémi; Balzergue, Sandrine; Aubourg, Sebastien; Gautheret, Daniel; Crespi, Martin D; Vaucheret, Hervé; Maizel, Alexis
Cytoplasmic degradation of endogenous RNAs is an integral part of RNA quality control (RQC) and often relies on the removal of the 5' cap structure and their subsequent 5' to 3' degradation in cytoplasmic processing (P-)bodies. In parallel, many eukaryotes degrade exogenous and selected endogenous RNAs through post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). In plants, PTGS depends on small interfering (si)RNAs produced after the conversion of single-stranded RNAs to double-stranded RNAs by the cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) in cytoplasmic siRNA-bodies. PTGS and RQC compete for transgene-derived RNAs, but it is unknown whether this competition also occurs for endogenous transcripts. We show that the lethality of decapping mutants is suppressed by impairing RDR6 activity. We establish that upon decapping impairment hundreds of endogenous mRNAs give rise to a new class of rqc-siRNAs, that over-accumulate when RQC processes are impaired, a subset of which depending on RDR6 for their production. We observe that P- and siRNA-bodies often are dynamically juxtaposed, potentially allowing for cross-talk of the two machineries. Our results suggest that the decapping of endogenous RNA limits their entry into the PTGS pathway. We anticipate that the rqc-siRNAs identified in decapping mutants represent a subset of a larger ensemble of endogenous siRNAs.
Martínez de Alba, Angel Emilio; Moreno, Ana Beatriz; Gabriel, Marc; Mallory, Allison C.; Christ, Aurélie; Bounon, Rémi; Balzergue, Sandrine; Aubourg, Sebastien; Gautheret, Daniel; Crespi, Martin D.; Vaucheret, Hervé; Maizel, Alexis
Cytoplasmic degradation of endogenous RNAs is an integral part of RNA quality control (RQC) and often relies on the removal of the 5′ cap structure and their subsequent 5′ to 3′ degradation in cytoplasmic processing (P-)bodies. In parallel, many eukaryotes degrade exogenous and selected endogenous RNAs through post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). In plants, PTGS depends on small interfering (si)RNAs produced after the conversion of single-stranded RNAs to double-stranded RNAs by the cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) in cytoplasmic siRNA-bodies. PTGS and RQC compete for transgene-derived RNAs, but it is unknown whether this competition also occurs for endogenous transcripts. We show that the lethality of decapping mutants is suppressed by impairing RDR6 activity. We establish that upon decapping impairment hundreds of endogenous mRNAs give rise to a new class of rqc-siRNAs, that over-accumulate when RQC processes are impaired, a subset of which depending on RDR6 for their production. We observe that P- and siRNA-bodies often are dynamically juxtaposed, potentially allowing for cross-talk of the two machineries. Our results suggest that the decapping of endogenous RNA limits their entry into the PTGS pathway. We anticipate that the rqc-siRNAs identified in decapping mutants represent a subset of a larger ensemble of endogenous siRNAs. PMID:25694514
Jing, Dian; Hao, Jin; Shen, Yu; Tang, Ge; Li, Mei-Le; Huang, Shi-Hu; Zhao, Zhi-He
Bone remodeling is balanced by bone formation and bone resorption as well as by alterations in the quantities and functions of seed cells, leading to either the maintenance or deterioration of bone status. The existing evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs), known as a family of short non-coding RNAs, are the key post-transcriptional repressors of gene expression, and growing numbers of novel miRNAs have been verified to play vital roles in the regulation of osteogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, and adipogenesis, revealing how they interact with signaling molecules to control these processes. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the roles of miRNAs in regulating bone remodeling as well as novel applications for miRNAs in biomaterials for therapeutic purposes. PMID:26208037
Owen, Tobias C.
The Principal Investigator's responsibilities on this grant fell into two categories according to his participation. In the nomenclature work of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). Owen is chair of the Task Group for the Outer Solar System. He is also a member of the IAU's Working Group on Planetary and Satellite Nomenclature (WGPSN) which is composed of the chairs of the several Task Groups plus the presidents of two IAU Commissions and several outside consultants. The WGPSN is presided over by its President, Professor Kaare Aksnes from the Rosseland Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics in Oslo, Norway.
Brice, N. M.
The current state of the theory of Jupiter's outer atmosphere is briefly reviewed. The similarities and dissimilarities between the terrestrial and Jovian upper atmospheres are discussed, including the interaction of the solar wind with the planetary magnetic fields. Estimates of Jovian parameters are given, including magnetosphere and auroral zone sizes, ionospheric conductivity, energy inputs, and solar wind parameters at Jupiter. The influence of the large centrifugal force on the cold plasma distribution is considered. The Jovian Van Allen belt is attributed to solar wind particles diffused in toward the planet by dynamo electric fields from ionospheric neutral winds, and the consequences of this theory are indicated.
Reynoso, Mauricio Alberto; Blanco, Flavio Antonio; Bailey-Serres, Julia; Crespi, Martín; Zanetti, María Eugenia
Translation of mRNAs is a key regulatory step that contributes to the coordination and modulation of eukaryotic gene expression during development or adaptation to the environment. mRNA stability or translatability can be regulated by the action of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs), which control diverse biological processes. Under low nitrogen conditions, leguminous plants associate with soil bacteria and develop a new organ specialized in nitrogen fixation: the nodule. To gain insight into the translational regulation of mRNAs during nodule formation, the association of mRNAs and sRNAs to polysomes was characterized in roots of the model legume Medicago truncatula during the symbiotic interaction with Sinorhizobium meliloti. Quantitative comparison of steady-state and polysomal mRNAs for 15 genes involved in nodulation identified a group of transcripts with slight or no change in total cellular abundance that were significantly upregulated at the level of association with polysomes in response to rhizobia. This group included mRNAs encoding receptors like kinases required either for nodule organogenesis, bacterial infection or both, and transcripts encoding GRAS and NF-Y transcription factors (TFs). Quantitative analysis of sRNAs in total and polysomal RNA samples revealed that mature microRNAs (miRNAs) were associated with the translational machinery, notably, miR169 and miR172, which target the NF-YA/HAP2 and AP2 TFs, respectively. Upon inoculation, levels of miR169 pronouncedly decreased in polysomal complexes, concomitant with the increased accumulation of the NF-YA/HAP2 protein. These results indicate that both mRNAs and miRNAs are subject to differential recruitment to polysomes, and expose the importance of selective mRNA translation during root nodule symbiosis.
Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.
Piscopo, Paola; Albani, Diego; Castellano, Anna E.; Forloni, Gianluigi; Confaloni, Annamaria
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) includes a spectrum of disorders characterized by changes of personality and social behavior and, often, a gradual and progressive language dysfunction. In the last years, several efforts have been fulfilled in identifying both genetic mutations and pathological proteins associated with FTLD. The molecular bases undergoing the onset and progression of the disease remain still unknown. Recent literature prompts an involvement of RNA metabolism in FTLD, particularly microRNAs (miRNAs). Dysregulation of miRNAs in several disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, and increasing importance of circulating miRNAs in different pathologies has suggested to implement the study of their possible application as biological markers and new therapeutic targets; moreover, miRNA-based therapy is becoming a powerful tool to deepen the function of a gene, the mechanism of a disease, and validate therapeutic targets. Regarding FTLD, different studies showed that miRNAs are playing an important role. For example, several reports have evaluated miRNA regulation of the progranulin gene suggesting that it is under their control, as described for miR-29b, miR-107, and miR-659. More recently, it has been demonstrated that TMEM106B gene, which protein is elevated in FTLD-TDP brains, is repressed by miR-132/212 cluster; this post-transcriptional mechanism increases intracellular levels of progranulin, affecting its pathways. These findings if confirmed could suggest that these microRNAs have a role as potential targets for some related-FTLD genes. In this review, we focus on the emerging roles of the miRNAs in the pathogenesis of FTLD. PMID:26903860
Yang, Xiaobo; Liang, Guiqiang; Zhang, Li’e; Li, Qin; Xiong, Feng; Peng, Suwan; Ma, Yifei; Huang, Xiaowei; Zou, Yunfeng
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element, while excessive expose may induce neurotoxicity. Recently, lncRNAs have been extensively studied and it has been confirmed that lncRNAs participate in neural functions and aberrantly expressed lncRNAs are involved in neurological diseases. However, the pathological effects of lncRNAs on Mn-induced neurotoxicity remain unclear. In this study, the expression profiles of lncRNAs and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were identified in Mn-treated hippocampal neurons and control neurons via microarray. Bioinformatic methods and intersection analysis were also employed. Results indicated that 566, 1161, and 1474 lncRNAs meanwhile 1848, 3228, and 4022 mRNAs were aberrantly expressed in low, intermediate, and high Mn-exposed groups compared with the control group, respectively. Go analysis determined that differentially expressed mRNAs were targeted to biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions. Pathway analysis indicated that these mRNAs were enriched in insulin secretion, cell cycle, and DNA replication. Intersection analysis denominated that 135 lncRNAs and 373 mRNAs were consistently up-regulated while 150 lncRNAs and 560 mRNAs were consistently down-regulated. Meanwhile, lncRNA BC079195 was significantly up-regulated while lncRNAs uc.229- and BC089928 were significantly down-regulated in three comparison groups. The relative expression levels of 3 lncRNAs and 4 mRNAs were validated through qRT-PCR. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to identify the expression patterns of lncRNAs and mRNAs in hippocampal neurons of Sprague–Dawley rats. The results may provide evidence on underlying mechanisms of Mn-induced neurotoxicity, and aberrantly expressed lncRNAs/mRNAs may be useful in further investigations to detect early symptoms of Mn-induced neuropsychiatric disorders in the central nervous system. PMID:26745496
Ma, Shuyan; Qing, Li; Yang, Xiaobo; Liang, Guiqiang; Zhang, Li'e; Li, Qin; Xiong, Feng; Peng, Suwan; Ma, Yifei; Huang, Xiaowei; Zou, Yunfeng
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element, while excessive expose may induce neurotoxicity. Recently, lncRNAs have been extensively studied and it has been confirmed that lncRNAs participate in neural functions and aberrantly expressed lncRNAs are involved in neurological diseases. However, the pathological effects of lncRNAs on Mn-induced neurotoxicity remain unclear. In this study, the expression profiles of lncRNAs and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were identified in Mn-treated hippocampal neurons and control neurons via microarray. Bioinformatic methods and intersection analysis were also employed. Results indicated that 566, 1161, and 1474 lncRNAs meanwhile 1848, 3228, and 4022 mRNAs were aberrantly expressed in low, intermediate, and high Mn-exposed groups compared with the control group, respectively. Go analysis determined that differentially expressed mRNAs were targeted to biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions. Pathway analysis indicated that these mRNAs were enriched in insulin secretion, cell cycle, and DNA replication. Intersection analysis denominated that 135 lncRNAs and 373 mRNAs were consistently up-regulated while 150 lncRNAs and 560 mRNAs were consistently down-regulated. Meanwhile, lncRNA BC079195 was significantly up-regulated while lncRNAs uc.229- and BC089928 were significantly down-regulated in three comparison groups. The relative expression levels of 3 lncRNAs and 4 mRNAs were validated through qRT-PCR. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to identify the expression patterns of lncRNAs and mRNAs in hippocampal neurons of Sprague-Dawley rats. The results may provide evidence on underlying mechanisms of Mn-induced neurotoxicity, and aberrantly expressed lncRNAs/mRNAs may be useful in further investigations to detect early symptoms of Mn-induced neuropsychiatric disorders in the central nervous system.
Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Plata, Germán; Ayling, Sarah; Rodríguez-Zapata, Fausto; Tohme, Joe
The study of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is tolerant to drought and other adverse conditions, most cassava miRNAs have been predicted using bioinformatics alone or through sequencing of plants challenged by biotic stress. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing and different bioinformatics methods to identify potential cassava miRNAs expressed in different tissues subject to heat and drought conditions. We identified 60 miRNAs conserved in other plant species and 821 potential cassava-specific miRNAs. We also predicted 134 and 1002 potential target genes for these two sets of sequences. Using real time PCR, we verified the condition-specific expression of 5 cassava small RNAs relative to a non-stress control. We also found, using publicly available expression data, a significantly lower expression of the predicted target genes of conserved and nonconserved miRNAs under drought stress compared to other cassava genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis along with condition specific expression of predicted miRNA targets, allowed us to identify several interesting miRNAs which may play a role in stress-induced posttranscriptional regulation in cassava and other plants. PMID:24328029
Ha, Misook; Pang, Mingxiong; Agarwal, Vikram; Chen, Z. Jeffrey
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 20−24 nucleotide RNA molecules that play essential roles in posttranscriptional regulation of target genes. In animals, miRNAs bind to target mRNA through imperfect complementary sequences that are usually located at the 3’ untranslated regions (UTRs), leading to translational repression or transcript degradation. In plants, miRNAs predominately mediate degradation of target mRNAs via perfect or near-perfect complementary sequences. MicroRNA targets include a large number of transcription factors, suggesting a role of miRNAs in the control of regulatory networks and cellular growth and development. Many miRNAs and their targets are conserved among plants or animals, whereas some are specific to a few plant or animal lineages. Conserved miRNAs do not necessarily exhibit the same expression levels or patterns in different species or at different stages within a species. Therefore, sequence and expression divergence in miRNAs between species may affect miRNA accumulation and target regulation in interspecific hybrids and allopolyploids that contain two or more divergent genomes, leading to developmental changes and phenotypic variation in the new species. PMID:18407843
Zhou, Tian; Ding, Jia-wang; Wang, Xin-an; Zheng, Xia-xia
Atherosclerosis is universally recognized as a chronic lipid-induced inflammation of the vessel wall in response to dyslipidemia and haemodynamic stress involving dysfunction and activation of resident vascular cells as well as infiltration of leukocytes. As members of nonprotein-coding RNAs, the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated in various biological processes. Accumulating evidences suggest that lncRNAs regulate the function of vascular wall, activation of macrophages, lipid metabolism and immune response. Here, we review the effects of lncRNAs on the progress of atherosclerosis.
Voyager 2 took these images of Saturn's outer satellite Phoebe, on Sept. 4, 1981, from 2.2 million kilometers (1.36 million miles)away. This pair shows two different hemispheres of the satellite. The left image shows a bright mountain on the upper right edge reflecting the light of the setting sun. This mountain is possibly the central peak of a large impact crater taking up most of the upper right quadrant of Phoebe in this view. The right images shows a hemisphere with an intrinsically bright spot in the top portion of the image as well as the ridges appearing bright in the sunset light of the lower right. These images were processed by the Multimission Image Processing Laboratory of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Voyager Project for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.
Katiyar, Amit; Smita, Shuchi; Muthusamy, Senthilkumar K.; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Pandey, Dev M.; Bansal, Kailash C.
Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) namely microRNAs (miRNAs) and trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasi-RNAs) play a crucial role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and thus the control plant development and stress responses. In order to identify drought-responsive miRNAs and tasi-RNAs in sorghum, we constructed small RNA libraries from a drought tolerant (M35-1) and susceptible (C43) sorghum genotypes grown under control and drought stress conditions, and sequenced by Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx. Ninety seven conserved and 526 novel miRNAs representing 472 unique miRNA families were identified from sorghum. Ninety-six unique miRNAs were found to be regulated by drought stress, of which 32 were up- and 49 were down-regulated (fold change ≥ 2 or ≤ −2) at least in one genotype, while the remaining 15 miRNAs showed contrasting drought-regulated expression pattern between genotypes. A maximum of 17 and 18 miRNAs was differentially regulated under drought stress condition in the sensitive and tolerant genotypes, respectively. These results suggest that genotype dependent stress responsive regulation of miRNAs may contribute, at least in part, to the differential drought tolerance of sorghum genotypes. We also identified two miR390-directed TAS3 gene homologs and the auxin response factors as tasi-RNA targets. We predicted more than 1300 unique target genes for the novel and conserved miRNAs. These target genes were predicted to be involved in different cellular, metabolic, response to stimulus, biological regulation, and developmental processes. Genome-wide identification of stress-responsive miRNAs, tasi-RNAs and their targets identified in this study will be useful in unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying drought stress responses and genetic improvement of biomass production and stress tolerance in sorghum. PMID:26236318
Kaerkitcha, Navaporn; Chuangchote, Surawut; Sagawa, Takashi
Hollow carbon nanofibers (HCNFs) were prepared by electrospinning method with several coaxial nozzles, in which the level of the inner nozzle-end is adjustable. Core/shell nanofibers were prepared from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a pyrolytic core and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a carbon shell with three types of normal (viz. inner and outer nozzle-ends are balanced in the same level), inward, and outward coaxial nozzles. The influence of the applied voltage on these three types of coaxial nozzles was studied. Specific surface area, pore size diameter, crystallinity, and degree of graphitization of the hollow and mesoporous structures of carbon nanofibers obtained after carbonization of the as spun PMMA/PAN nanofibers were characterized by BET analyses, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy in addition to the conductivity measurements. It was found that specific surface area, crystallinity, and graphitization degree of the HCNFs affect the electrical conductivity of the carbon nanofibers.
Han, Dong; Gao, Quansheng; Cao, Feng
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a category of noncoding RNAs with the potential for genetic and epigenetic regulations. As important regulators of gene expression, increasing evidence has proven that lncRNAs play a significant regulatory role in various cardiovascular pathologies. In particular, lncRNAs have been proved to be participating in gene regulatory mechanisms involved in heart growth and development that can be exploited to repair the injured adult heart. Furthermore, lncRNAs have been revealed as possible therapeutic targets for heart failure with different causes and in different stages. In the journey from a healthy heart to heart failure, lncRNAs have been shown to participate in almost every landmark of heart failure pathogenesis including ischemic injury, cardiac hypertrophy, and cardiac fibrosis. Furthermore, the manipulation of lncRNAs palliates the progression of heart failure by attenuating ischemic heart injury, cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis, as well as facilitating heart regeneration and therapeutic angiogenesis. This review will highlight recent updates regarding the involvement of lncRNAs in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure and their potential as novel therapeutic targets. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Genetic and epigenetic control of heart failure - edited by Jun Ren & Megan Yingmei Zhang.
Díaz-González, Sacnite del Mar; Benítez-Boijseauneau, Odelia; Gómez-Cerón, Claudia; Bermúdez-Morales, Victor Hugo; Rodríguez-Dorantes, Mauricio; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar
MicroRNAs and siRNAs belong to a family of small noncoding RNAs which bind through partial sequence complementarity to 3′-UTR regions of mRNA from target genes, resulting in the regulation of gene expression. MicroRNAs have become an attractive target for genetic and pharmacological modulation due to the critical function of their target proteins in several signaling pathways, and their expression profiles have been found to be altered in various cancers. A promising technology platform for selective silencing of cell and/or viral gene expression using siRNAs is currently in development. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women in the developing world and sexually transmitted infection with HPV is the cause of this malignancy. Therefore, a cascade of abnormal events is induced during cervical carcinogenesis, including the induction of genomic instability, reprogramming of cellular metabolic pathways, deregulation of cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptotic mechanisms, disruption of cell cycle control mechanisms, and alteration of gene expression. Thus, in the present review article, we highlight new research on microRNA expression profiles which may be utilized as biomarkers for cervical cancer. Furthermore, we discuss selective silencing of HPV E6 and E7 with siRNAs which represents a potential gene therapy strategy against cervical cancer. PMID:25874209
Díaz-González, Sacnite del Mar; Deas, Jessica; Benítez-Boijseauneau, Odelia; Gómez-Cerón, Claudia; Bermúdez-Morales, Victor Hugo; Rodríguez-Dorantes, Mauricio; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar
MicroRNAs and siRNAs belong to a family of small noncoding RNAs which bind through partial sequence complementarity to 3'-UTR regions of mRNA from target genes, resulting in the regulation of gene expression. MicroRNAs have become an attractive target for genetic and pharmacological modulation due to the critical function of their target proteins in several signaling pathways, and their expression profiles have been found to be altered in various cancers. A promising technology platform for selective silencing of cell and/or viral gene expression using siRNAs is currently in development. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women in the developing world and sexually transmitted infection with HPV is the cause of this malignancy. Therefore, a cascade of abnormal events is induced during cervical carcinogenesis, including the induction of genomic instability, reprogramming of cellular metabolic pathways, deregulation of cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptotic mechanisms, disruption of cell cycle control mechanisms, and alteration of gene expression. Thus, in the present review article, we highlight new research on microRNA expression profiles which may be utilized as biomarkers for cervical cancer. Furthermore, we discuss selective silencing of HPV E6 and E7 with siRNAs which represents a potential gene therapy strategy against cervical cancer.
NASA's Planetary Programs Office formed a number of scientific working groups to study in depth the potential scientific return from the various candidate missions to the outer solar system. The results of these working group studies were brought together in a series of symposia to evaluate the potential outer planet missions and to discuss strategies for exploration of the outer solar system that were consistent with fiscal constraints and with anticipated spacecraft and launch vehicle capabilities. A logical, scientifically sound, and cost effective approach to exploration of the outer solar system is presented.
Forte, Eleonora; Luftig, Micah A.
Oncogenic viruses reprogram host gene expression driving proliferation, ensuring survival, and evading the immune response. The recent appreciation of microRNAs (miRNAs) as small non-coding RNAs that broadly regulate gene expression has provided new insight into this complex scheme of host control. This review highlights the role of viral and cellular miRNAs during the latent and lytic phases of the EBV life cycle. PMID:21835261
Cortés-López, Mariela; Miura, Pedro
Many thousands of Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have recently been identified in metazoan genomes by transcriptome-wide sequencing. Most circRNAs are generated by back-splicing events from exons of protein-coding genes. A great deal of progress has recently been made in understanding the genome-wide expression patterns, biogenesis, and regulation of circRNAs. To date, however, few functions of circRNAs have been identified. CircRNAs are preferentially expressed in neural tissues and some are found at synapses, suggesting possible functions in the nervous system. Several circRNAs have been shown to function as microRNA “sponges” to counteract microRNA mediated repression of mRNA. New functions for circRNAs are arising, including protein sequestration, transcriptional regulation, and potential functions in cancer. Here, we highlight the recent progress made in understanding the biogenesis and regulation of circRNAs, discuss newly uncovered circRNA functions, and explain the methodological approaches that could reveal more exciting and unexpected roles for these RNAs. PMID:28018143
Owen, Tobias C.; Grant, John (Technical Monitor)
This grant has supported work by T. Owen and B. A. Smith on planetary and satellite nomenclature, carried out under the general auspices of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The IAU maintains a Working Group on Planetary and Satellite Nomenclature (WGPSN) whose current chair is Prof.Kaare Aksnes of the Rosseland Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics in Oslo, Norway. Both Owen and Smith are members of the WGPSN; Owen as chair of the Outer Solar System Task Group, and Smith as chair of the Mars Task Group. The major activity during the last grant period (2002) was the approval of several new names for features on Mars by Smith's group and features on Jovian satellites plus new names for satellites of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus by Owen's group. Much of this work was accomplished by e-mail exchanges, but the new nomenclature was formally discussed and approved at a meeting of the WGPSN held in conjunction with the Division for Planetary Sciences meeting in Birmingham, Alabama in October 2002.
Akiyama, Benjamin M.; Eiler, Daniel; Kieft, Jeffrey S.
Cells contain powerful RNA decay machinery to eliminate unneeded RNA from the cell, and this process is an important and regulated part of controlling gene expression. However, certain structured RNAs have been found that can robustly resist degradation and extend the lifetime of an RNA. In this review, we present three RNA structures that use a specific three-dimensional fold to provide protection from RNA degradation, and discuss how the recently-solved structures of these RNAs explain their function. Specifically, we describe the Xrn1-resistant RNAs from arthropod-borne flaviviruses, exosome-resistant long non-coding RNAs associated with lung cancer metastasis and found in Kaposi’s Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, and tRNA-like sequences occurring in certain plant viruses. These three structures reveal three different mechanisms to protect RNAs from decay and suggest RNA structure-based nuclease resistance may be a widespread mechanism of regulation. PMID:26797676
Ponicsan, Steven L; Kugel, Jennifer F; Goodrich, James A
Mammalian short interspersed elements (SINEs) are abundant retrotransposons that have long been considered junk DNA; however, RNAs transcribed from mouse B2 and human Alu SINEs have recently been found to control mRNA production at multiple levels. Upon cell stress B2 and Alu RNAs bind RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and repress transcription of some protein-encoding genes. Bi-directional transcription of a B2 SINE establishes a boundary that places the growth hormone locus in a permissive chromatin state during mouse development. Alu RNAs embedded in Pol II transcripts can promote evolution and proteome diversity through exonization via alternative splicing. Given the diverse means by which SINE encoded RNAs impact production of mRNAs, this genomic junk is proving to contain hidden gems.
Zhao, Daqiu; Wei, Mengran; Shi, Min; Hao, Zhaojun; Tao, Jun
Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is popular worldwide because of its gorgeous flower colour, and the yellow flower is the rarest. However, its mechanism of yellow formation is still unexplored from the post-translational level. In this study, the anatomy of the petal, cell sap pH and metal elements were investigated in bicoloured flower cultivar ‘Jinhui’ with red outer-petal and yellow inner-petal, and the yellow formation was influenced by the anatomy of petal, while not by the cell sap pH and metal elements. Subsequently, microRNAs sequencing (miRNA-seq) was used to identify small RNAs (sRNAs). A total of 4,172,810 and 3,565,152 specific unique sRNAs were obtained, 207 and 204 conserved miRNAs and 38 and 42 novel miRNAs were identified from red outer-petal and yellow inner-petal, respectively, which were confirmed by subcloning. Among these miRNAs, 163 conserved and 28 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed in two wheel of petals. And 5 differentially expressed miRNAs and their corresponding target genes related to yellow formation were screened, and their dynamic expression patterns confirmed that the yellow formation might be under the regulation of miR156e-3p-targeted squamosa promoter binding protein-like gene (SPL1). These results improve the understanding of miRNA regulation of the yellow formation in P. lactiflora. PMID:28317945
Bonizzato, A; Gaffo, E; te Kronnie, G; Bortoluzzi, S
Cell states in hematopoiesis are controlled by master regulators and by complex circuits of a growing family of RNA species impacting cell phenotype maintenance and plasticity. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are rapidly gaining the status of particularly stable transcriptome members with distinctive qualities. RNA-seq identified thousands of circRNAs with developmental stage- and tissue-specific expression corroborating earlier suggestions that circular isoforms are a natural feature of the cell expression program. CircRNAs are abundantly expressed also in the hematopoietic compartment. There are a number of studies on circRNAs in blood cells, a specific overview is however lacking. In this review we first present current insight in circRNA biogenesis discussing the relevance for hematopoiesis of the highly interleaved processes of splicing and circRNA biogenesis. Regarding molecular functions circRNAs modulate host gene expression, but also compete for binding of microRNAs, RNA-binding proteins or translation initiation and participate in regulatory circuits. We examine circRNA expression in the hematopoietic compartment and in hematologic malignancies and review the recent breakthrough study that identified pathogenic circRNAs derived from leukemia fusion genes. CircRNA high and regulated expression in blood cell types indicate that further studies are warranted to inform the position of these regulators in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. PMID:27740630
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs expressed by plants, animals, and some viruses. miRNAs generally function as part of miRNA-induced silencing complexes to modestly repress mRNAs with imperfect sequence complementarity. Over the last years, many different roles of miRNA mediated regulation in the life cycles of mammalian viruses have been uncovered. In this chapter, I will mainly explore four different examples of how cellular miRNAs interact with viruses: the role of miR-155 in viral oncogenesis, viral strategies to eliminate cellular miR-27, the contribution of miR-122 to the replication of hepatitis C virus, and miRNAs as an experimental tool to control virus replication and vector transgene expression. In the final part of this chapter, I will give a brief overview of virally encoded microRNAs.
Shepherd, Jennifer; Ibba, Michael
Transfer RNA is an essential adapter molecule that is found across all three domains of life. The primary role of transfer RNA resides in its critical involvement in the accurate translation of messenger RNA codons during protein synthesis and, therefore, ultimately in the determination of cellular gene expression. This review aims to bring together the results of intensive investigations into the synthesis, maturation, modification, aminoacylation, editing and recycling of bacterial transfer RNAs. Codon recognition at the ribosome as well as the ever-increasing number of alternative roles for transfer RNA outside of translation will be discussed in the specific context of bacterial cells. PMID:25796611
Ge, Qin-Min; Huang, Chun-Mei; Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Bian, Fan; Pan, Shu-Ming
Objective To identify specific miRNAs involved in sepsis-induced AKI and to explore their targeting pathways. Methods The expression profiles of miRNAs in serum from patients with sepsis-induced AKI (n = 6), sepsis-non AKI (n = 6), and healthy volunteers (n = 3) were investigated by microarray assay and validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR). The targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted by Target Scan, mirbase and Miranda. Then the significant functions and involvement in signaling pathways of gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathways were analyzed. Furthermore, eight miRNAs were randomly selected out of the differentially expressed miRNAs for further testing by qPCR. Results qPCR analysis confirmed that the expressions levels of hsa-miR-23a-3p, hsa-miR-4456, hsa-miR-142-5p, hsa-miR-22-3p and hsa-miR-191-5p were significantly lower in patients with sepsis compared with the healthy volunteers, while hsa-miR-4270, hsa-miR-4321, hsa-miR-3165 were higher in the sepsis patients. Statistically, miR-4321; miR-4270 were significantly upregulated in the sepsis-induced AKI compared with sepsis-non AKI, while only miR-4321 significantly overexpressed in the sepsis groups compared with control groups. GO analysis showed that biological processes regulated by the predicted target genes included diverse terms. They were related to kidney development, regulation of nitrogen compound metabolic process, regulation of cellular metabolic process, cellular response to oxidative stress, mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, etc. Pathway analysis showed that several significant pathways of the predicted target genes related to oxidative stress. miR-4321 was involved in regulating AKT1, mTOR and NOX5 expression while miR-4270 was involved in regulating PPARGC1A, AKT3, NOX5, PIK3C3, WNT1 expression. Function and pathway analysis highlighted the possible involvement of miRNA-deregulated mRNAs in oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Conclusion This study
Ge, Xi; Lyu, Zhi-Xin; Liu, Yang; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Xin Sheng; Fu, Xinmiao; Chang, Zengyi
The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Gram-negative bacterial cells, as well as the mitochondrion and chloroplast organelles, possess unique and highly stable β-barrel structures. Biogenesis of OMPs in Escherichia coli involves such periplasmic chaperones as SurA and Skp. In this study, we found that the ΔsurA Δskp double-deletion strain of E. coli, although lethal and defective in the biogenesis of OMPs at the normal growth temperature, is viable and effective at the heat shock temperature. We identified FkpA as the multicopy suppressor for the lethal phenotype of the ΔsurA Δskp strain. We also demonstrated that the deletion of fkpA from the ΔsurA cells resulted in only a mild decrease in the levels of folded OMPs at the normal temperature but a severe decrease as well as lethality at the heat shock temperature, whereas the deletion of fkpA from the Δskp cells had no detectable effect on OMP biogenesis at either temperature. These results strongly suggest a functional redundancy between FkpA and SurA for OMP biogenesis under heat shock stress conditions. Mechanistically, we found that FkpA becomes a more efficient chaperone for OMPs under the heat shock condition, with increases in both binding rate and affinity. In light of these observations and earlier reports, we propose a temperature-responsive OMP biogenesis mechanism in which the degrees of functional importance of the three chaperones are such that SurA > Skp > FkpA at the normal temperature but FkpA ≥ SurA > Skp at the heat shock temperature.
Li, Qian; Liu, Qiang
Cancer immunology is the study of interaction between cancer cells and immune system by the application of immunology principle and theory. With the recent approval of several new drugs targeting immune checkpoints in cancer, cancer immunology has become a very attractive field of research and is thought to be the new hope to conquer cancer. This chapter introduces the aberrant expression and function of noncoding RNAs, mainly microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs, in tumor-infiltrating immune cells, and their significance in tumor immunity. It also illustrates how noncoding RNAs are shuttled between tumor cells and immune cells in tumor microenvironments via exosomes or other microvesicles to modulate tumor immunity.
Tycowski, Kazimierz T.; Guo, Yang Eric; Lee, Nara; Moss, Walter N.; Vallery, Tenaya K.; Xie, Mingyi
Eukaryotic cells produce several classes of long and small noncoding RNA (ncRNA). Many DNA and RNA viruses synthesize their own ncRNAs. Like their host counterparts, viral ncRNAs associate with proteins that are essential for their stability, function, or both. Diverse biological roles—including the regulation of viral replication, viral persistence, host immune evasion, and cellular transformation—have been ascribed to viral ncRNAs. In this review, we focus on the multitude of functions played by ncRNAs produced by animal viruses. We also discuss their biogenesis and mechanisms of action. PMID:25792595
Zhukov, Gennady P.
9 states. The satellites of various functions (early warning, communication, data acquisition, reconnaissance and navigation) were actively used and continue to be used with the purposes of raising efficiency of ground armed forces, especially in fight against international terrorism. At the same time such satellites are not a weapon in the sense of that word since they do not create the threats of armed attack in outer space or from outer space. Moreover, they promote maintaining of stability in the international relations. For this reason the reconnaissance and data acquisition satellites used for the verification of observance by States of the arms limitation agreements are under international protection as national technical means of the control. Similar protection is enjoyed by the early warning satellites. With the help of space communication facilities the more reliable operative connection of the statesmen is organized in the strained situations. By this way the probability of making of the incorrect retaliatory decisions in critical political situations is reduced. At the same time it's necessary to take into consideration that the activities of such satellite systems are tightly connected with ground armed forces of the states. the earth, what from the point of view of international law may be qualified as establishing a partial demilitarization regime in outer space. After the prohibition of anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) and anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons it will be possible to speak about establishing of an international legal regime of complete demilitarization in outer space eliminating any kinds of weapon from outer space. in a peaceful time. weaponization.The main task of this paper is to analyze and to discuss the present binding regime of the outer space deweaponization and particular measures on consolidation and strengthening of this regime. agreements of the Russian Federation and the USA into multilateral Treaties. Such "immunity" would cover
Sandhu, Gurveen K; Milevskiy, Michael J G; Wilson, Wesley; Shewan, Annette M; Brown, Melissa A
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are untranslated RNA molecules that function to regulate the expression of numerous genes and associated biochemical pathways and cellular functions. NcRNAs include small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). They participate in the regulation of all developmental processes and are frequently aberrantly expressed or functionally defective in disease. This Chapter will focus on the role of ncRNAs, in particular miRNAs and lncRNAs, in mammary gland development and disease.
Beckers, Anneleen; Van Peer, Gert; Carter, Daniel R; Mets, Evelien; Althoff, Kristina; Cheung, Belamy B; Schulte, Johannes H; Mestdagh, Pieter; Vandesompele, Jo; Marshall, Glenn M; De Preter, Katleen; Speleman, Frank
MYCN is a transcription factor that plays key roles in both normal development and cancer. In neuroblastoma, MYCN acts as a major oncogenic driver through pleiotropic effects regulated by multiple protein encoding genes as well as microRNAs (miRNAs). MYCN activity is tightly controlled at the level of transcription and protein stability through various mechanisms. Like most genes, MYCN is further controlled by miRNAs, but the full complement of all miRNAs implicated in this process has not been determined through an unbiased approach. To elucidate the role of miRNAs in regulation of MYCN, we thus explored the MYCN-miRNA interactome to establish miRNAs controlling MYCN expression levels. We combined results from an unbiased and genome-wide high-throughput miRNA target reporter screen with miRNA and mRNA expression data from patients and a murine neuroblastoma progression model. We identified 29 miRNAs targeting MYCN, of which 12 miRNAs are inversely correlated with MYCN expression or activity in neuroblastoma tumor tissue. The majority of MYCN-targeting miRNAs in neuroblastoma showed a decrease in expression during murine MYCN-driven neuroblastoma tumor development. Therefore, we provide evidence that MYCN-targeting miRNAs are preferentially downregulated in MYCN-driven neuroblastoma, suggesting that MYCN negatively controls the expression of these miRNAs, to safeguard its expression.
Yin, Yongjun; Castro, Angela M; Hoekstra, Marrit; Yan, Thomas J; Kanakamedala, Ajay C; Dehner, Louis P; Hill, D Ashley; Ornitz, David M
Pleuropulmonary Blastoma (PPB) is the primary neoplastic manifestation of a pediatric cancer predisposition syndrome that is associated with several diseases including cystic nephroma, Wilms tumor, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, medulloblastoma, and ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor. The primary pathology of PPB, epithelial cysts with stromal hyperplasia and risk for progression to a complex primitive sarcoma, is associated with familial heterozygosity and lesion-associated epithelial loss-of-heterozygosity of DICER1. It has been hypothesized that loss of heterozygosity of DICER1 in lung epithelium is a non-cell autonomous etiology of PPB and a critical pathway that regulates lung development; however, there are no known direct targets of epithelial microRNAs (miRNAs) in the lung. Fibroblast Growth Factor 9 (FGF9) is expressed in the mesothelium and epithelium during lung development and primarily functions to regulate lung mesenchyme; however, there are no known mechanisms that regulate FGF9 expression during lung development. Using mouse genetics and molecular phenotyping of human PPB tissue, we show that FGF9 is overexpressed in lung epithelium in the initial multicystic stage of Type I PPB and that in mice lacking epithelial Dicer1, or induced to overexpress epithelial Fgf9, increased Fgf9 expression results in pulmonary mesenchymal hyperplasia and a multicystic architecture that is histologically and molecularly indistinguishable from Type I PPB. We further show that miR-140 is expressed in lung epithelium, regulates epithelial Fgf9 expression, and regulates pseudoglandular stages of lung development. These studies identify an essential miRNA-FGF9 pathway for lung development and a non-cell autonomous signaling mechanism that contributes to the mesenchymal hyperplasia that is characteristic of Type I PPB.
Niu, Qingfeng; Li, Jianzhao; Cai, Danying; Qian, Minjie; Jia, Huimin; Bai, Songling; Hussain, Sayed; Liu, Guoqin; Teng, Yuanwen; Zheng, Xiaoyan
Bud dormancy in perennial plants is indispensable to survival over winter and to regrowth and development in the following year. However, the molecular pathways of endo-dormancy induction, maintenance, and release are still unclear, especially in fruit crops. To identify genes with roles in regulating endo-dormancy, 30 MIKC(C)-type MADS-box genes were identified in the pear genome and characterized. The 30 genes were analysed to determine their phylogenetic relationships with homologous genes, genome locations, gene structure, tissue-specific transcript profiles, and transcriptional patterns during flower bud dormancy in 'Suli' pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group). The roles in regulating bud dormancy varied among the MIKC gene family members. Yeast one-hybrid and transient assays showed that PpCBF enhanced PpDAM1 and PpDAM3 transcriptional activity during the induction of dormancy, probably by binding to the C-repeat/DRE binding site, while DAM proteins inhibited the transcriptional activity of PpFT2 during dormancy release. In the small RNA-seq analysis, 185 conserved, 24 less-conserved, and 32 pear-specific miRNAs with distinct expression patterns during bud dormancy were identified. Joint analyses of miRNAs and MIKC genes together with degradome data showed that miR6390 targeted PpDAM transcripts and degraded them to release PpFT2. Our data show that cross-talk among PpCBF, PpDAM, PpFT2, and miR6390 played important roles in regulating endo-dormancy. A model for the molecular mechanism of dormancy transition is proposed: short-term chilling in autumn activates the accumulation of CBF, which directly promotes DAM expression; DAM subsequently inhibits FT expression to induce endo-dormancy, and miR6390 degrades DAM genes to release endo-dormancy.
Haque, Shadabul; Kaushik, Kriti; Leonard, Vincent Elvin; Kapoor, Shruti; Sivadas, Ambily; Joshi, Adita
Abstract The recent re-annotation of the transcriptome of human and other model organisms, using next-generation sequencing approaches, has unravelled a hitherto unknown repertoire of transcripts that do not have a potential to code for proteins. These transcripts have been largely classified into an amorphous class popularly known as long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA). This discovery of lncRNAs in human and other model systems have added a new layer to the understanding of gene regulation at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In recent years, three independent studies have discovered a number of lncRNAs expressed in different stages of zebrafish development and adult tissues using a high-throughput RNA sequencing approach, significantly adding to the repertoire of genes known in zebrafish. A subset of these transcripts also shows distinct and specific spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression, pointing to a tight regulatory control and potential functional roles in development, organogenesis, and/ or homeostasis. This review provides an overview of the lncRNAs in zebrafish and discusses how their discovery could provide new insights into understanding biology, explaining mutant phenotypes, and helping in potentially modeling disease processes. PMID:25110965
Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B
A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.
Sampson, Valerie B.; Yoo, Soonmoon; Kumar, Asmita; Vetter, Nancy S.; Kolb, E. Anders
Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer in children and young adults. Surgery and multi-agent chemotherapy are the standard treatment regimens for this disease. New therapies are being investigated to improve overall survival in patients. Molecular targets that actively modulate cell processes, such as cell-cycle control, cell proliferation, metabolism, and apoptosis, have been studied, but it remains a challenge to develop novel, effective-targeted therapies to treat this heterogeneous and complex disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play critical roles in regulating cell processes including growth, development, and disease. miRNAs function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors to regulate gene and protein expression. Several studies have demonstrated the involvement of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma with the potential for development in disease diagnostics and therapeutics. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on the role of miRNAs and their target genes and evaluate their potential use as therapeutic agents in osteosarcoma. We also summarize the efficacy of inhibition of oncogenic miRNAs or expression of tumor suppressor miRNAs in preclinical models of osteosarcoma. Recent progress on systemic delivery as well as current applications for miRNAs as therapeutic agents has seen the advancement of miR-34a in clinical trials for adult patients with non-resectable primary liver cancer or metastatic cancer with liver involvement. We suggest a global approach to the understanding of the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma may identify candidate miRNAs as promising biomarkers for this rare disease. PMID:26380245
Liu, Huizhan; Pecka, Jason L.; Zhang, Qian; Soukup, Garrett A.; Beisel, Kirk W.
Inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs) are the two types of sensory receptor cells that are critical for hearing in the mammalian cochlea. IHCs and OHCs have different morphology and function. The genetic mechanisms that define their morphological and functional specializations are essentially unknown. The transcriptome reflects the genes that are being actively expressed in a cell and holds the key to understanding the molecular mechanisms of the biological properties of the cell. Using DNA microarray, we examined the transcriptome of 2000 individually collected IHCs and OHCs from adult mouse cochleae. We show that 16,647 and 17,711 transcripts are expressed in IHCs and OHCs, respectively. Of those genes, ∼73% are known genes, 22% are uncharacterized sequences, and 5.0% are noncoding RNAs in both populations. A total of 16,117 transcripts are expressed in both populations. Uniquely and differentially expressed genes account for <15% of all genes in either cell type. The top 10 differentially expressed genes include Slc17a8, Dnajc5b, Slc1a3, Atp2a3, Osbpl6, Slc7a14, Bcl2, Bin1, Prkd1, and Map4k4 in IHCs and Slc26a5, C1ql1, Strc, Dnm3, Plbd1, Lbh, Olfm1, Plce1, Tectb, and Ankrd22 in OHCs. We analyzed commonly and differentially expressed genes with the focus on genes related to hair cell specializations in the apical, basolateral, and synaptic membranes. Eighty-three percent of the known deafness-related genes are expressed in hair cells. We also analyzed genes involved in cell-cycle regulation. Our dataset holds an extraordinary trove of information about the molecular mechanisms underlying hair cell morphology, function, pathology, and cell-cycle control. PMID:25122905
Kowalczykiewicz, Dorota; Świercz, Aleksandra; Handschuh, Luiza; Leśniak, Katarzyna; Figlerowicz, Marek; Wrzesinski, Jan
Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are indispensable for proper germ cell development, emphasizing the need for greater elucidation of the mechanisms of germline development and regulation of this process by sncRNAs. We used deep sequencing to characterize three families of small non-coding RNAs (piRNAs, miRNAs, and tRFs) present in Sus scrofa gonads and focused on the small RNA fraction present in both male and female gonads. Although similar numbers of reads were obtained from both types of gonads, the number of unique RNA sequences in the ovaries was several times lower. Of the sequences detected in the testes, 2.6% of piRNAs, 9% of miRNAs, and 10% of tRFs were also present in the ovaries. Notably, the majority of the shared piRNAs mapped to ribosomal RNAs and were derived from clustered loci. In addition, the most abundant miRNAs present in the ovaries and testes are conserved and are involved in many biological processes such as the regulation of homeobox genes, the control of cell proliferation, and carcinogenesis. Unexpectedly, we detected a novel sncRNA type, the tRFs, which are 30-36-nt RNA fragments derived from tRNA molecules, in gonads. Analysis of S. scrofa piRNAs show that testes specific piRNAs are biased for 5' uracil but both testes and ovaries specific piRNAs are not biased for adenine at the 10th nucleotide position. These observations indicate that adult porcine piRNAs are predominantly produced by a primary processing pathway or other mechanisms and secondary piRNAs generated by ping-pong mechanism are absent.
6. OUTER BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA
He, Yuqing; Lin, Juanjuan; Ding, Yuanlin; Liu, Guodong; Luo, Yanhong; Huang, Mingyuan; Xu, Chengkai; Kim, Taek-Kyun; Etheridge, Alton; Lin, Mi; Kong, Danli; Wang, Kai
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short regulatory RNAs that modulate the transcriptome and proteome at the post-transcriptional level. To obtain a better understanding on the role of miRNAs in the progression of cervical cancer, meta-analysis and gene set enrichment analysis were used to analyze published cervical cancer miRNA studies. From 85 published reports, which include 3,922 cases and 2,099 noncancerous control tissue samples, 63 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRNAs) were identified in different stages of cervical cancer development (CIN 1-3 and CC). It was found that some of the dysregulated miRNAs were associated with specific stages of cervical cancer development. To illustrate the impact of miRNAs on the pathogenesis of cervical cancer, a miRNA-mRNA interaction network on selected pathways was built by integrating viral oncoproteins, dysregulated miRNAs and their predicted/validated targets. The results indicated that the deregulated miRNAs at the different stages of cervical cancer were functionally involved in several key cancer related pathways, such as cell cycle, p53 and Wnt signaling pathways. These dysregulated miRNAs could play an important role in cervical cancer development. Some of the stage-specific miRNAs can also be used as biomarkers for cancer classification and monitoring the progression of cancer development.
Dhuruvasan, Kavitha; Sivasubramanian, Geetha; Pellett, Philip E.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has a relatively large and complex genome, a protracted lytic replication cycle, and employs a strategy of replicational latency as part of its lifelong persistence in the infected host. An important form of gene regulation in plants and animals revolves around a type of small RNA known as microRNA (miRNA). miRNAs can serve as major regulators of key developmental pathways, as well as provide subtle forms of regulatory control. The human genome encodes over 900 miRNAs, and miRNAs are also encoded by some viruses, including HCMV, which encodes at least 14 miRNAs. Some of the HCMV miRNAs are known to target both viral and cellular genes, including important immunomodulators. In addition to expressing their own miRNAs, infections with some viruses, including HCMV, can result in changes in the expression of cellular miRNAs that benefit virus replication. In this review, we summarize the connections between miRNAs and HCMV biology. We describe the nature of miRNA genes, miRNA biogenesis and modes of action, methods for studying miRNAs, HCMV-encoded miRNAs, effects of HCMV infection on cellular miRNA expression, roles of miRNAs in HCMV biology, and possible HCMV-related diagnostic and therapeutic applications of miRNAs. PMID:20969901
Ayupe, Ana Carolina; Reis, Eduardo M
Changes in RNA stability have an important impact in the gene expression regulation. Different methods based on the transcription blockage with RNA polymerase inhibitors or metabolic labeling of newly synthesized RNAs have been developed to evaluate RNA decay rates in cultured cell. Combined with techniques to measure transcript abundance genome-wide, these methods have been used to reveal novel features of the eukaryotic transcriptome. The stability of protein-coding mRNAs is in general closely associated to the physiological function of their encoded proteins, with short-lived mRNAs being significantly enriched among regulatory genes whereas genes associated with housekeeping functions are predominantly stable. Likewise, the stability of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) seems to reflect their functional role in the cell. Thus, investigating RNA stability can provide insights regarding the function of yet uncharacterized regulatory ncRNAs. In this chapter, we discuss the methodologies currently used to estimate RNA decay and outline an experimental protocol for genome-wide estimation of RNA stability of protein-coding and lncRNAs. This protocol details the transcriptional blockage of cultured cells with actinomycin D, followed by RNA isolation at different time points, the determination of transcript abundance by qPCR/DNA oligoarray hybridization, and the calculation of individual transcript half-lives.
Hong, Yeting; Wang, Cheng; Fu, Zheng; Liang, Hongwei; Zhang, Suyang; Lu, Meiling; Sun, Wu; Ye, Chao; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke; Shi, Liang; Zhang, Chunni; Chen, Xi
Although piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play pivotal roles in spermatogenesis, little is known about piRNAs in the seminal plasma of infertile males. In this study, we systematically investigated the profiles of seminal plasma piRNAs in infertile males to identify piRNAs that are altered during infertility and evaluate their diagnostic value. Seminal plasma samples were obtained from 211 infertile patients (asthenozoospermia and azoospermia) and 91 fertile controls. High-throughput sequencing technology was employed to screen piRNA profiles in seminal plasma samples pooled from healthy controls and infertile patients. The results identified 61 markedly altered piRNAs in infertile patient groups compared with control group. Next, a quantitative RT-PCR assay was conducted in the training and validation sets to measure and confirm the concentrations of altered piRNAs. The results identified a panel of 5 piRNAs that were significantly decreased in seminal plasma of infertile patients compared with healthy controls. ROC curve analysis and risk score analysis revealed that the diagnostic potential of these 5 piRNAs to distinguish asthenozoospermic and azoospermic individuals from healthy controls was high. In summary, this study identifies a panel of piRNAs that can accurately distinguish fertile from infertile males. This finding may provide pathophysiological clues about the development of infertility. PMID:27068805
Correia, Carolina N.; Nalpas, Nicolas C.; McLoughlin, Kirsten E.; Browne, John A.; Gordon, Stephen V.; MacHugh, David E.; Shaughnessy, Ronan G.
microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that regulate a wide range of biological processes by post-transcriptionally regulating gene expression. Thousands of these molecules have been discovered to date, and multiple miRNAs have been shown to coordinately fine-tune cellular processes key to organismal development, homeostasis, neurobiology, immunobiology, and control of infection. The fundamental regulatory role of miRNAs in a variety of biological processes suggests that differential expression of these transcripts may be exploited as a novel source of molecular biomarkers for many different disease pathologies or abnormalities. This has been emphasized by the recent discovery of remarkably stable miRNAs in mammalian biofluids, which may originate from intracellular processes elsewhere in the body. The potential of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers of disease has mainly been demonstrated for various types of cancer. More recently, however, attention has focused on the use of circulating miRNAs as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers of infectious disease; for example, human tuberculosis caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, sepsis caused by multiple infectious agents, and viral hepatitis. Here, we review these developments and discuss prospects and challenges for translating circulating miRNA into novel diagnostics for infectious disease. PMID:28261201
Shen, Guomin; Li, Xiaobo; Jia, Yong-feng; Piazza, Gary A; Xi, Yaguang
Hypoxia plays an important role in the tumor microenvironment by allowing the development and maintenance of cancer cells, but the regulatory mechanisms by which tumor cells adapt to hypoxic conditions are not yet well understood. MicroRNAs are recognized as a new class of master regulators that control gene expression and are responsible for many normal and pathological cellular processes. Studies have shown that hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1) regulates a panel of microRNAs, whereas some of microRNAs target HIF1. The interaction between microRNAs and HIF1 can account for many vital events relevant to tumorigenesis, such as angiogenesis, metabolism, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, proliferation, metastasis, and resistance to anticancer therapy. This review will summarize recent findings on the roles of hypoxia and microRNAs in human cancer and illustrate the machinery by which microRNAs interact with hypoxia in tumor cells. It is expected to update our knowledge about the regulatory roles of microRNAs in regulating tumor microenvironments and thus benefit the development of new anticancer drugs. PMID:23377548
Lu, Xuke; Chen, Xiugui; Mu, Min; Wang, Junjuan; Wang, Xiaoge; Wang, Delong; Yin, Zujun; Fan, Weili; Wang, Shuai; Guo, Lixue; Ye, Wuwei
Recent researches on long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have expanded our horizon of gene regulation and the cellular complexity. However, the number, characteristics and expression patterns of lncRNAs remain poorly characterized and how these lncRNAs biogenesis are regulated in response to drought stress in cotton are still largely unclear. In the study, using a reproducibility-based RNA-sequencing and bioinformatics strategy to analyze the lncRNAs of 9 samples under three different environment stresses (control, drought stress and re-watering, three replications), we totally identified 10,820 lncRNAs of high-confidence through five strict steps filtration, of which 9,989 were lincRNAs, 153 were inronic lncRNAs, 678 were anti-sense lncRNAs. Coding function analysis showed 6,470 lncRNAs may have the ability to code proteins. Small RNAs precursor analysis revealed that 196 lncRNAs may be the precursors to small RNAs, most of which (35.7%, 70) were miRNAs. Expression patterns analysis showed that most of lncRNAs were expressed at a low level and most inronic lncRNAs (75.95%) had a consistent expression pattern with their adjacent protein-coding genes. Further analysis of transcriptome data uncovered that lncRNAs XLOC_063105 and XLOC_115463 probably function in regulating two adjacent coding genes CotAD_37096 and CotAD_12502, respectively. Investigations of the content of plant hormones and proteomics analysis under drought stress also complemented the prediction. We analyzed the characteristics and the expression patterns of lncRNAs under drought stress and re-watering treatment, and found lncRNAs may be likely to involve in regulating plant hormones pathway in response to drought stress. PMID:27294517
Pandey, Gaurav Kumar; Kanduri, Chandrasekhar
Neuroblastoma is a disease that affects infants and despite intense multimodal therapy, high-risk patients have low survival rates (<50%). In recent years long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have become the cutting edge of cancer research with inroads made in understanding their roles in multiple cancer types, including prostate and breast cancers. The roles of lncRNAs in neuroblastoma have just begun to be elucidated. This review summarises where we are with regards to lncRNAs in neuroblastoma. The known mechanistic roles of lncRNAs during neuroblastoma pathogenesis are discussed, as well as the relationship between lncRNA expression and the differentiation capacity of neuroblastoma cells. We speculate about the use of some of these lncRNAs, such as those mapping to the 6p22 hotspot, as biomarkers for neuroblastoma prognosis and treatment. This novel way of thinking about both neuroblastoma and lncRNAs brings a new perspective to the prognosis and treatment of high-risk patients. PMID:26087192
Pandey, Gaurav Kumar; Kanduri, Chandrasekhar
Neuroblastoma is a disease that affects infants and despite intense multimodal therapy, high-risk patients have low survival rates (<50%). In recent years long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have become the cutting edge of cancer research with inroads made in understanding their roles in multiple cancer types, including prostate and breast cancers. The roles of lncRNAs in neuroblastoma have just begun to be elucidated. This review summarises where we are with regards to lncRNAs in neuroblastoma. The known mechanistic roles of lncRNAs during neuroblastoma pathogenesis are discussed, as well as the relationship between lncRNA expression and the differentiation capacity of neuroblastoma cells. We speculate about the use of some of these lncRNAs, such as those mapping to the 6p22 hotspot, as biomarkers for neuroblastoma prognosis and treatment. This novel way of thinking about both neuroblastoma and lncRNAs brings a new perspective to the prognosis and treatment of high-risk patients.
Liu, Yanli; Guo, Runsheng; Hao, Guojun; Xiao, Jun; Bao, Yi; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Qinkai; Wei, Xin
Increasing amounts of evidence have indicated that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have important regulatory potential in various biological processes. However, the contributions of ncRNAs, especially long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), to peritoneal fibrosis remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate miRNA, lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles and their potential roles in the process of peritoneal fibrosis. Microarray expression profiles of the miRNAs, lncRNAs and mRNAs were determined in normal control peritoneum and in a mouse model of peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF)-induced fibrotic peritoneum. Differential expression, pathway and gene network analyses were developed to identify possible functional RNA molecules in peritoneal fibrosis. Compared to the normal control, 232 lncRNAs (127 up-regulated and 105 down-regulated), 154 mRNAs (87 up-regulated and 67 down-regulated) and 15 miRNAs (14 miRNAs up-regulated and 1 down-regulated) were differentially expressed in the fibrotic peritoneum. Among the differentially expressed ncRNAs, 9 lncRNAs and 5 miRNAs were validated by real-time RT-PCR. Pathway analysis showed that the Jak-STAT, TGF-beta and MAPK signaling pathways had a close relationship with peritoneal fibrosis. Gene co-expression network analysis identified many genes, including JunB, HSP72, and Nedd9. It also identified lncRNAs AK089579, AK080622, and ENSMUST00000053838 and miRNAs miR-182 and miR-488. All of these species potentially play a key role in peritoneal fibrosis. Our results provide a foundation and an expansive view of the roles and mechanisms of ncRNAs in PDF-induced peritoneal fibrosis.
Anglicheau, Dany; Muthukumar, Thangamani; Suthanthiran, Manikkam
MicroRNAs are evolutionarily conserved, small (~20–25 nucleotides), single-stranded molecules that suppress the expression of protein-coding genes by translational repression, messenger RNA degradation, or both. More than 700 microRNAs have been identified in the human genome. Amazingly, a single miRNA can regulate the expression of hundreds of mRNAs/proteins within a cell. The small RNAs are fast emerging as master regulators of innate and adaptive immunity, and very likely to play a pivotal role in transplantation. The clinical application of RNA sequencing (“next – generation sequencing”) should facilitate transcriptome profiling at an unprecedented resolution. We provide an overview of microRNA biology and their hypothesized roles in transplantation. PMID:20574417
... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 55 Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Massachusetts AGENCY... portion of the Outer Continental Shelf (``OCS'') Air Regulations. Requirements applying to OCS sources... established requirements to control air pollution from Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) sources in order...
Brantl, Sabine; Brückner, Reinhold
Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) that act by base-pairing were first discovered in so-called accessory DNA elements—plasmids, phages, and transposons—where they control replication, maintenance, and transposition. Since 2001, a huge body of work has been performed to predict and identify sRNAs in a multitude of bacterial genomes. The majority of chromosome-encoded sRNAs have been investigated in E. coli and other Gram-negative bacteria. However, during the past five years an increasing number of sRNAs were found in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we outline our current knowledge on chromosome-encoded sRNAs from low-GC Gram-positive species that act by base-pairing, i.e., an antisense mechanism. We will focus on sRNAs with known targets and defined regulatory mechanisms with special emphasis on Bacillus subtilis. PMID:24576839
Ramachandran, Vanitharani; Chen, Xuemei
microRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in numerous developmental and metabolic processes in plants and animals. The steady-state levels of miRNAs need to be properly controlled to ensure normal development. While the framework of miRNA biogenesis is established, factors involved in miRNA degradation remain unknown. Here, we show that a family of exoribonucleases encoded by the SMALL RNA DEGRADING NUCLEASE (SDN) genes degrades mature miRNAs in Arabidopsis. SDN1 acts specifically on single-stranded miRNAs in vitro, and is sensitive to the 2’-O-methyl modification on the 3’ terminal ribose of miRNAs. Simultaneous knockdown of three SDN genes in vivo results in elevated miRNA levels and pleiotropic developmental defects. Therefore, we have uncovered the enzymes that degrade miRNAs and demonstrated that miRNA turnover is crucial for plant development. PMID:18787168
Wang, Chuan; Liao, Haiqing; Cao, Zhengguo
Osterix (Osx) is an osteoblast-specific transcription factor that is essential for bone formation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ~22-nucleotide-long noncoding RNAs that play important regulatory roles in animals and plants by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. They can also control osteoblast-mediated bone formation and osteoclast-related bone remodeling. The vital roles of Osx and miRNAs during bone formation have been well studied, but very few studies have discussed their co-functions and the relationships between them. In this review, we outline the significant functions of Osx and miRNAs on certain cell types during osteogenesis and illustrate their roles during tooth development. More importantly, we discuss the relationship between Osx and miRNAs, which we believe could lead to a new treatment for skeletal and periodontal diseases. PMID:27543160
Lee, Melissa M; Childs-Disney, Jessica L; Pushechnikov, Alexei; French, Jonathan M; Sobczak, Krzysztof; Thornton, Charles A; Disney, Matthew D
Myotonic muscular dystrophy types 1 and 2 (DM1 and DM2, respectively) are caused by expansions of repeating nucleotides in noncoding regions of RNA. In DM1, the expansion is an rCUG triplet repeat, whereas the DM2 expansion is an rCCUG quadruplet repeat. Both RNAs fold into hairpin structures with periodically repeating internal loops separated by two 5'GC/3'CG base pairs. The sizes of the loops, however, are different: the DM1 repeat forms 1 x 1 nucleotide UU loops while the DM2 repeat forms 2 x 2 nucleotide 5'CU/3'UC loops. DM is caused when the expanded repeats bind the RNA splicing regulator Muscleblind-like 1 protein (MBNL1), thus compromising its function. Therefore, one potential therapeutic strategy for these diseases is to prevent MBNL1 from binding the toxic RNA repeats. Previously, we designed nanomolar inhibitors of the DM2-MBNL1 interaction by modularly assembling 6'-N-5-hexyonate kanamycin A (K) onto a peptoid backbone. The K ligand binds the 2 x 2 pyrimidine-rich internal loops found in the DM2 RNA with high affinity. The best compound identified from that study contains three K modules separated by four propylamine spacing modules and is 20-fold selective for the DM2 RNA over the DM1 RNA. Because the modularly assembled K-containing compounds also bound the DM1 RNA, albeit with lower affinity, and because the loop size is different, we hypothesized that the optimal DM1 RNA binder may display K modules separated by a shorter distance. Indeed, here the ideal DM1 RNA binder has only two propylamine spacing modules separating the K ligands. Peptoids displaying three and four K modules on a peptoid scaffold bind the DM1 RNA with K(d)'s of 20 nM (3-fold selective for DM1 over DM2) and 4 nM (6-fold selective) and inhibit the RNA-protein interaction with IC(50)'s of 40 and 7 nM, respectively. Importantly, by coupling the two studies together, we have determined that appropriate spacing can affect binding selectivity by 60-fold (20- x 3-fold). The trimer and
Jash, Sukanta; Dhar, Gunjan; Ghosh, Utpalendu; Adhya, Samit
During myogenesis, satellite stem cells (SCs) are induced to proliferate and differentiate to myogenic precursors. The role of energy sensors such as the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) in SC activation is unclear. We previously observed that upregulation of ATP through RNA-mediated mitochondrial restoration (MR) accelerates SC activation following skeletal muscle injury. We show here that during regeneration, the AMPK-CRTC2-CREB and Raptor-mTORC-4EBP1 pathways were rapidly activated. The phosho-CRTC2-CREB complex was essential for myogenesis and activated transcription of the critical cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 (Ccnd1). Knockdown (KD) of either mTORC or its subunit Raptor delayed SC activation without influencing the differentiation program. KD of 4EBP1 had no effect on SC activation but enhanced myofiber size. mTORC1 positively regulated Ccnd1 translation but destabilized Ccnd1 mRNA. These antithetical effects of mTORC1 were mediated by two microRNAs (miRs) targeted to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of Ccnd1 mRNA: miR-1 was downregulated in mTORC-KD muscle, and depletion of miR-1 resulted in increased levels of mRNA without any effect on Ccnd1 protein. In contrast, miR-26a was upregulated upon mTORC depletion, while anti-miR-26a oligonucleotide specifically stimulated Ccnd1 protein expression. Thus, mTORC may act as a timer of satellite cell proliferation during myogenesis.
Anthwal, Neal; Thompson, Hannah
The mammalian ear is a complex structure divided into three main parts: the outer; middle; and inner ear. These parts are formed from all three germ layers and neural crest cells, which have to integrate successfully in order to form a fully functioning organ of hearing. Any defect in development of the outer and middle ear leads to conductive hearing loss, while defects in the inner ear can lead to sensorineural hearing loss. This review focuses on the development of the parts of the ear involved with sound transduction into the inner ear, and the parts largely ignored in the world of hearing research: the outer and middle ear. The published data on the embryonic origin, signalling, genetic control, development and timing of the mammalian middle and outer ear are reviewed here along with new data showing the Eustachian tube cartilage is of dual embryonic origin. The embryonic origin of some of these structures has only recently been uncovered (Science, 339, 2013, 1453; Development, 140, 2013, 4386), while the molecular mechanisms controlling the growth, structure and integration of many outer and middle ear components are hardly known. The genetic analysis of outer and middle ear development is rather limited, with a small number of genes often affecting either more than one part of the ear or having only very small effects on development. This review therefore highlights the necessity for further research into the development of outer and middle ear structures, which will be important for the understanding and treatment of conductive hearing loss.
Barakat, Abdelali; Wall, Phillip K; DiLoreto, Scott; dePamphilis, Claude W; Carlson, John E
Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs (sRNA) ~21 nucleotides in length that negatively control gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. miRNAs have been extensively analyzed in Arabidopsis and rice and partially investigated in other non-model plant species. To date, 109 and 62 miRNA families have been identified in Arabidopsis and rice respectively. However, only 33 miRNAs have been identified from the genome of the model tree species (Populus trichocarpa), of which 11 are Populus specific. The low number of miRNA families previously identified in Populus, compared with the number of families identified in Arabidopsis and rice, suggests that many miRNAs still remain to be discovered in Populus. In this study, we analyzed expressed small RNAs from leaves and vegetative buds of Populus using high throughput pyrosequencing. Results Analysis of almost eighty thousand small RNA reads allowed us to identify 123 new sequences belonging to previously identified miRNA families as well as 48 new miRNA families that could be Populus-specific. Comparison of the organization of miRNA families in Populus, Arabidopsis and rice showed that miRNA family sizes were generally expanded in Populus. The putative targets of non-conserved miRNA include both previously identified targets as well as several new putative target genes involved in development, resistance to stress, and other cellular processes. Moreover, almost half of the genes predicted to be targeted by non-conserved miRNAs appear to be Populus-specific. Comparative analyses showed that genes targeted by conserved and non-conserved miRNAs are biased mainly towards development, electron transport and signal transduction processes. Similar results were found for non-conserved miRNAs from Arabidopsis. Conclusion Our results suggest that while there is a conserved set of miRNAs among plant species, a large fraction of miRNAs vary among species. The non-conserved miRNAs may
Wang, Feng; Li, Liping; Xu, Haiming; Liu, Yong; Yang, Chun; Cowley, Allen W; Wang, Niansong; Liu, Pengyuan; Liang, Mingyu
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are potentially important mediators of genomic regulation. lncRNAs, however, remain poorly characterized in the rat model organism widely used in biomedical research. Using poly(A)-independent and strand-specific RNA-seq, we identified 1,500 to 1,800 lncRNAs expressed in each of the following tissues of Brown Norway rats: the renal cortex, renal outer medulla, liver, cardiac left ventricle, adrenal gland, and hypothalamus. Expression and the binding of histone H3K4me3 to promoter regions were confirmed for several lncRNAs. Rat lncRNA expression appeared to be more tissue-specific than mRNA. Rat lncRNAs had 4.5 times fewer exons and 29% shorter transcripts than mRNA. The median cumulative abundance of rat lncRNAs was 53% of that of mRNA. Approximately 28% of the lncRNAs identified in the renal outer medulla appeared to lack a poly(A) tail. Differential expression of 74 lncRNAs was detected in the renal outer medulla between Dahl SS rats, a model of salt-sensitive hypertension, and salt-insensitive, congenic SS.13(BN26) rats fed a high-salt diet. Two of the differentially expressed lncRNAs, which were confirmed, were located within the congenic region and contained several sequence variants. The study identified genome-wide characteristics of lncRNAs in the rat model and suggested a role of lncRNAs in hypertension.
Holman, Matthew J.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)
Our ongoing research program combines extensive deep and wide-field observations using a variety of observational platforms with numerical studies of the dynamics of small bodies in the outer solar system in order to advance the main scientific goals of the community studying the Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. These include: (1) determining the relative populations of the known classes of KBOs as well as other possible classes; ( 2 ) determining the size distributions or luminosity function of the individual populations or the Kuiper belt as a whole; (3) determining the inclinations distributions of these populations; (4) establishing the radial extent of the Kuiper belt; ( 5 ) measuring and relating the physical properties of different types of KBOs to those of other solar system bodies; and, (6) completing our systematic inventory of the satellites of the outer planets.
Wang, Yuexia; Yang, Ming; Wei, Shimei; Qin, Fujun; Zhao, Huijie; Suo, Biao
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a type of newly identified non-coding RNAs through high-throughput deep sequencing, which play important roles in miRNA function and transcriptional controlling in human, animals, and plants. To date, there is no report in wheat seedlings regarding the circRNAs identification and roles in the dehydration stress response. In present study, the total RNA was extracted from leaves of wheat seedlings under dehydration-stressed and well-watered conditions, respectively. Then, the circRNAs enriched library based deep sequencing was performed and the circRNAs were identified using bioinformatics tools. Around 88 circRNAs candidates were isolated in wheat seedlings leaves while 62 were differentially expressed in dehydration-stressed seedlings compared to well-watered control. Among the dehydration responsive circRNAs, six were found to act as 26 corresponding miRNAs sponges in wheat. Sixteen circRNAs including the 6 miRNAs sponges and other 10 randomly selected ones were further validated to be circular by real-time PCR assay, and 14 displayed consistent regulation patterns with the transcriptome sequencing results. After Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of the targeted mRNAs functions, the circRNAs were predicted to be involved in dehydration responsive process, such as photosynthesis, porphyrin, and chlorophyll metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, amino acid biosynthesis, and metabolism, as well as plant hormone signal transduction, involving auxin, brassinosteroid, and salicylic acid. Herein, we revealed a possible connection between the regulations of circRNAs with the expressions of functional genes in wheat leaves associated with dehydration resistance. PMID:28105043
Yuan, Shuiqiao; Schuster, Andrew; Tang, Chong; Yu, Tian; Ortogero, Nicole; Bao, Jianqiang; Zheng, Huili; Yan, Wei
Although it is believed that mammalian sperm carry small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) into oocytes during fertilization, it remains unknown whether these sperm-borne sncRNAs truly have any function during fertilization and preimplantation embryonic development. Germline-specific Dicer and Drosha conditional knockout (cKO) mice produce gametes (i.e. sperm and oocytes) partially deficient in miRNAs and/or endo-siRNAs, thus providing a unique opportunity for testing whether normal sperm (paternal) or oocyte (maternal) miRNA and endo-siRNA contents are required for fertilization and preimplantation development. Using the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) as a readout, we found that sperm with altered miRNA and endo-siRNA profiles could fertilize wild-type (WT) eggs, but embryos derived from these partially sncRNA-deficient sperm displayed a significant reduction in developmental potential, which could be rescued by injecting WT sperm-derived total or small RNAs into ICSI embryos. Disrupted maternal transcript turnover and failure in early zygotic gene activation appeared to associate with the aberrant miRNA profiles in Dicer and Drosha cKO spermatozoa. Overall, our data support a crucial function of paternal miRNAs and/or endo-siRNAs in the control of the transcriptomic homeostasis in fertilized eggs, zygotes and two-cell embryos. Given that supplementation of sperm RNAs enhances both the developmental potential of preimplantation embryos and the live birth rate, it might represent a novel means to improve the success rate of assisted reproductive technologies in fertility clinics. PMID:26718009
O’Hara, Steven P.; Gradilone, Sergio A.; Masyuk, Tetyana V.; Tabibian, James H.; LaRusso, Nicholas F.
Cholangiocytes, the cells lining bile ducts, comprise a small fraction of the total cellular component of the liver, yet perform the essential role of bile modification and transport of biliary and blood constituents. Cholangiopathies are a diverse group of biliary disorders with the cholangiocyte as the target cell; the etiopathogenesis of most cholangiopathies remains obscure. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. These small RNAs may not only be involved in the etiopathogenesis of disease, but are showing promise as diagnostic and prognostic tools. In this brief review, we summarize recent work regarding the role of microRNAs in the etiopathogenesis of several cholangiopathies, and discuss their utility as prognostic and diagnostic tools. PMID:25097819
Simon, Anne E; Gehrke, Lee
The rugged nature of the RNA structural free energy landscape allows cellular RNAs to respond to environmental conditions or fluctuating levels of effector molecules by undergoing dynamic conformational changes that switch on or off activities such as catalysis, transcription or translation. Infectious RNAs must also temporally control incompatible activities and rapidly complete their life cycle before being targeted by cellular defenses. Viral genomic RNAs must switch between translation and replication, and untranslated subviral RNAs must control other activities such as RNA editing or self-cleavage. Unlike well characterized riboswitches in cellular RNAs, the control of infectious RNA activities by altering the configuration of functional RNA domains has only recently been recognized. In this review, we will present some of these molecular rearrangements found in RNA viruses, viroids and virus-associated RNAs, relating how these dynamic regions were discovered, the activities that might be regulated, and what factors or conditions might cause a switch between conformations.
Ochs, Meike J; Steinhilber, Dieter; Suess, Beatrix
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important regulators in human physiological and pathological processes. We summarize the current knowledge about the role of miRNA involved in the control of inflammatory responses with a special focus on eicosanoid signalling. Cyclooxygenase 2 - the key enzyme of the prostanoid pathway - is regulated by different miRNAs such as miRNA-101, miR199a, miR26b and miR-146a. In contrast to this, the understanding of miRNA regulation on enzymes of the leukotriene biosynthesis is just at the beginning. The knowledge of miRNAs regulating enzymes of the eicosanoid pathway offers a new way for the development of new therapeutic concepts for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
Britton, Collette; Winter, Alan D.; Gillan, Victoria; Devaney, Eileen
microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. They were first identified in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, where the miRNAs lin-4 and let-7 were shown to be essential for regulating correct developmental progression. The sequence of let-7 was subsequently found to be conserved in higher organisms and changes in expression of let-7, as well as other miRNAs, are associated with certain cancers, indicating important regulatory roles. Some miRNAs have been shown to have essential functions, but the roles of many are currently unknown. With the increasing availability of genome sequence data, miRNAs have now been identified from a number of parasitic helminths, by deep sequencing of small RNA libraries and bioinformatic approaches. While some miRNAs are widely conserved in a range of organisms, others are helminth-specific and many are novel to each species. Here we review the potential roles of miRNAs in regulating helminth development, in interacting with the host environment and in development of drug resistance. Use of fluorescently-labeled small RNAs demonstrates uptake by parasites, at least in vitro. Therefore delivery of miRNA inhibitors or mimics has potential to alter miRNA activity, providing a useful tool for probing the roles of miRNAs and suggesting novel routes to therapeutics for parasite control. PMID:25057458
Caswell, Clayton C.; Oglesby-Sherrouse, Amanda G.; Murphy, Erin R.
Small RNA molecules (sRNAs) are now recognized as key regulators controlling bacterial gene expression, as sRNAs provide a quick and efficient means of positively or negatively altering the expression of specific genes. To date, numerous sRNAs have been identified and characterized in a myriad of bacterial species, but more recently, a theme in bacterial sRNAs has emerged: the presence of more than one highly related sRNAs produced by a given bacterium, here termed sibling sRNAs. Sibling sRNAs are those that are highly similar at the nucleotide level, and while it might be expected that sibling sRNAs exert identical regulatory functions on the expression of target genes based on their high degree of relatedness, emerging evidence is demonstrating that this is not always the case. Indeed, there are several examples of bacterial sibling sRNAs with non-redundant regulatory functions, but there are also instances of apparent regulatory redundancy between sibling sRNAs. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of bacterial sibling sRNAs, and also discusses important questions about the significance and evolutionary implications of this emerging class of regulators. PMID:25389522
Measuring a non-zero value for the neutrino mixing angle θ13 sets the scale for future precision measurements in the lepton sector such as CP violation. The Double Chooz experiment will begin taking data later this year with a sensitivity to 2̂(2θ13) in the 0.02 - 0.03 range, improving on the CHOOZ bound by about an order of magnitude. Efficient rejection of backgrounds induced by cosmic muons is essential to achieving this sensitivity. The Double Chooz Outer Veto plays a crucial role in vetoing and tagging these muons. An update on the status of the Double Chooz Outer Veto will be presented.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small RNAs, are important regulators of various developmental processes in both plants and animals. Several years ago, a report showed the detection of diet-derived plant miRNAs in mammalian tissues and their regulation of mammalian genes, challenging the traditional f...
Roik, N.V. Belyakova, L.A.
Mesoporous silicas with hexagonally arranged pore channels were synthesized in water–ethanol-ammonia solution using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as template. Directed modification of silica surface with N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups was realized by postsynthetic activation of halogenoalkylsilicas, which have surface uniformly or selectively distributed 3-chloropropyl groups, with 2-aminodiphenylamine in the liquid phase. Chemical composition of silica materials was estimated by IR spectroscopy and chemical analysis of the surface products of reactions. Characteristics of porous structure of MCM-41-type silicas were determined from X-ray and low-temperature nitrogen ad-desorption measurements. Release ability of synthesized silica carriers was established on encapsulation of 4-aminobenzoic acid in pore channels and subsequent delivery at pH=6.86 and pH=1.00. It was found that N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups block pore entrances at neutral pH preventing 4-aminobenzoic acid release. At pH=1.00 repulsion of positively charged surface aromatic amino groups localized near pore orifices provides unhindered liberation of aromatic amino acid from mesoporous channels. - Graphical abstract: Blocking of pores with N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups at pH=6.86 for storage of ABA and opening of pore entrances at pH=1.00 for unhindered ABA liberation. - Highlights: • Modification of MCM-41 with N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups. • Study of release ability of synthesized silica carriers in relation to amino acid. • Controlled blocking and opening of pores by amino groups at pH change were performed. • Retention of amino acid at pH=6.86 and its liberation at pH=1.00 was proved.
Ghildiyal, Megha; Seitz, Hervé; Horwich, Michael D.; Li, Chengjian; Du, Tingting; Lee, Soohyun; Xu, Jia; Kittler, Ellen L.W.; Zapp, Maria L.; Weng, Zhiping; Zamore, Phillip D.
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) direct RNA interference (RNAi) in eukaryotes. In flies, somatic cells produce siRNAs from exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as a defense against viral infection. We identified endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs), 21 nucleotides in length, that correspond to transposons and heterochromatic sequences in the somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster. We also detected endo-siRNAs complementary to messenger RNAs (mRNAs); these siRNAs disproportionately mapped to the complementary regions of overlapping mRNAs predicted to form double-stranded RNA in vivo. Normal accumulation of somatic endo-siRNAs requires the siRNA-generating ribonuclease Dicer-2 and the RNAi effector protein Argonaute2 (Ago2). We propose that endo-siRNAs generated by the fly RNAi pathway silence selfish genetic elements in the soma, much as Piwi-interacting RNAs do in the germ line. PMID:18403677
Daugherty, W.; Howard, S.; Peterson, K.; Stokes, M.
Excess plutonium materials in the DOE complex are packaged and stored in accordance with DOE-STD-3013. This standard specifies requirements for the stabilization of such materials and subsequent packaging in dual nested seal-welded containers. Austenitic stainless steels have been selected for container fabrication. The inner 3013 container provides contamination control while the outer 3013 container is the primary containment vessel and is the focus of this paper. Each packaging site chose a process for seal welding the outer 3013 containers in accordance with its needs and expertise. The two processes chosen for weld closure were laser beam welding (LBW) and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Following development efforts, each system was qualified in accordance with DOE-STD-3013 prior to production use. The 3013 outer container closure weld joint was designed to accommodate the characteristics of a laser weld. This aspect of the joint design necessitated some innovative process and equipment considerations in the application of the GTAW process. Details of the weld requirements and the development processes are presented and several potential enhancements for the GTAW system are described.
Kennel, C. F.
Scaling laws for possible outer planet magnetospheres are derived. These suggest that convection and its associated auroral effects will play a relatively smaller role than at earth, and that there is a possibility that they could have significant radiation belts of energetic trapped particles.
Lyra-González, Iván; Flores-Fong, Laura E; González-García, Ignacio; Medina-Preciado, David; Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading primary liver cancer and its clinical outcome is still poor. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have demonstrated an interesting potential to regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level. Current findings suggest that miRNAs deregulation in cancer is caused by genetic and/or epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional modifications resulting in abnormal expression and hallmarks of malignant transformation: aberrant cell growth, cell death, differentiation, angiogenesis, invasion and metástasis. The important role of miRNAs in the development and progression of HCC has increased the efforts to understand and develop mechanisms of control overt this single-stranded RNAs. Several studies have analyzed tumoral response to the regulation and control of deregulated miRNAs with good results in vitro and in vivo, proving that targeting aberrant expression of miRNAs is a powerful anticancer therapeutic. Identification of up and/or down regulated miRNAs related to HCC has led to the discovery of new potential application for detection of their presence in the affected organism. MiRNAs represent a relevant new target for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment in a wide variety of pathologic entities, including HCC. This manuscript intends to summarize current knowledge regarding miRNAs and their role in HCC development. PMID:26085912
Lyra-González, Iván; Flores-Fong, Laura E; González-García, Ignacio; Medina-Preciado, David; Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading primary liver cancer and its clinical outcome is still poor. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have demonstrated an interesting potential to regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level. Current findings suggest that miRNAs deregulation in cancer is caused by genetic and/or epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional modifications resulting in abnormal expression and hallmarks of malignant transformation: aberrant cell growth, cell death, differentiation, angiogenesis, invasion and metástasis. The important role of miRNAs in the development and progression of HCC has increased the efforts to understand and develop mechanisms of control overt this single-stranded RNAs. Several studies have analyzed tumoral response to the regulation and control of deregulated miRNAs with good results in vitro and in vivo, proving that targeting aberrant expression of miRNAs is a powerful anticancer therapeutic. Identification of up and/or down regulated miRNAs related to HCC has led to the discovery of new potential application for detection of their presence in the affected organism. MiRNAs represent a relevant new target for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment in a wide variety of pathologic entities, including HCC. This manuscript intends to summarize current knowledge regarding miRNAs and their role in HCC development.
Peng, Qing-Lin; Zhang, Ya-Mei; Yang, Han-Bo; Shu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Xin; Wang, Guo-Chun
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are prevalently transcribed in the genome and have been found to be of functional importance. However, the potential roles of lncRNAs in dermatomyositis (DM) remain unknown. In this study, a lncRNA + mRNA microarray analysis was performed to profile lncRNAs and mRNAs from 15 treatment-naive DM patients and 5 healthy controls. We revealed a total of 1198 lncRNAs (322 up-regulated and 876 down-regulated) and 1213 mRNAs (665 up-regulated and 548 down-regulated) were significantly differentially expressed in DM patients compared with the healthy controls (fold change>2, P < 0.05). Subgrouping DM patients according to the presence of interstitial lung disease and anti-Jo-1 antibody revealed different expression patterns of the lncRNAs. Pathway and gene ontology analysis for the differentially expressed mRNAs confirmed that type 1 interferon signaling was the most significantly dysregulated pathway in all DM subgroups. In addition, distinct pathways that uniquely associated with DM subgroup were also identified. Bioinformatics prediction suggested that linc-DGCR6-1 may be a lncRNA that regulates type 1 interferon-inducible gene USP18, which was found highly expressed in the perifascicular areas of the muscle fibers of DM patients. Our findings provide an overview of aberrantly expressed lncRNAs in DM muscle and further broaden the understanding of DM pathogenesis. PMID:27605457
Krishnan, Preethi; Ghosh, Sunita; Wang, Bo; Heyns, Mieke; Graham, Kathryn; Mackey, John R.; Kovalchuk, Olga; Damaraju, Sambasivarao
One of the most abundant, yet least explored, classes of RNA is the small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), which are well known for their involvement in post-transcriptional modifications of other RNAs. Although snoRNAs were only considered to perform housekeeping functions for a long time, recent studies have highlighted their importance as regulators of gene expression and as diagnostic/prognostic markers. However, the prognostic potential of these RNAs has not been interrogated for breast cancer (BC). The objective of the current study was to identify snoRNAs as prognostic markers for BC. Small RNA sequencing (Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx) was performed for 104 BC cases and 11 normal breast tissues. Partek Genomics Suite was used for analyzing the sequencing files. Two independent and proven approaches were used to identify prognostic markers: case-control (CC) and case-only (CO). For both approaches, snoRNAs significant in the permutation test, following univariate Cox proportional hazards regression model were used for constructing risk scores. Risk scores were subsequently adjusted for potential confounders in a multivariate Cox model. For both approaches, thirteen snoRNAs were associated with overall survival and/or recurrence free survival. Patients belonging to the high-risk group were associated with poor outcomes, and the risk score was significant after adjusting for confounders. Validation of representative snoRNAs (SNORD46 and SNORD89) using qRT-PCR confirmed the observations from sequencing experiments. We also observed 64 snoRNAs harboring piwi-interacting RNAs and/or microRNAs that were predicted to target genes (mRNAs) involved in tumorigenesis. Our results demonstrate the potential of snoRNAs to serve (i) as novel prognostic markers for BC and (ii) as indirect regulators of gene expression. PMID:27631501
Yuhong, Jiang; Leilei, Tang; Fuyun, Zhang; Hongyang, Jiang; Xiaowen, Liu; Liying, Yang; Lei, Zhang; Jingrong, Mao; Jinpeng, Yan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in diverse biological processes, including in immune response. Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is a prevalent and important commercial endemic freshwater fish species in China's intensive polyculture systems. To identify immune-related miRNAs of M. amblycephala, two small RNA (sRNA) libraries from immune tissues with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation were constructed and sequenced using the high-throughput sequencing technology. Totally, 16,425,543 and 15,076,813 raw reads, corresponding to 14,156,755 and 13,445,869 clean reads, were obtained in the normal and infected libraries, respectively. A total of 324 miRNAs, including 218 known miRNAs and 106 putative novel miRNAs were identified by bioinformatic analysis. We analyzed differentially expressed miRNAs between two libraries using pairwise comparison. 113 (34.88%) miRNAs were found to be significantly differentially expressed between two libraries, with 63 (55.75%) exhibiting elevated expression in LPS stimulation sample. Thereinto, a number of known miRNAs were identified immune-related. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) were implemented for 12 miRNAs of two samples, and agreement was confirmed between the sequencing and RT-qPCR data. Target genes likely regulated by these differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using computational prediction. The functional annotation of target genes by Gene Ontology enrichment (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis (KEGG) indicated that a majority of differential miRNAs might involved in immune response. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study of miRNAs in response to LPS stimulation in M. amblycephala, even in fish. These results deepened our understanding of the role of miRNAs in the intricate host's immune system, and should be useful to develop new control strategies for host immune defense against various bacterial invasions in M. amblycephala.
Sasaki, Yukio; Gross, Christina; Xing, Lei; Goshima, Yoshio; Bassell, Gary J
There is increasing evidence that localized mRNAs in axons and growth cones play an important role in axon extension and pathfinding via local translation. A few studies have revealed the presence of microRNAs (miRNAs) in axons, which may control local protein synthesis during axon development. However, so far, there has been no attempt to screen for axon-enriched miRNAs and to validate their possible localization to growth cones of developing axons from neurons of the central nervous system. In this study, the localization of miRNAs in axons and growth cones in cortical neurons was examined using a "neuron ball" culture method that is suitable to prepare axonal miRNAs with high yield and purity. Axonal miRNAs prepared from the neuron ball cultures of mouse cortical neurons were analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Among 375 miRNAs that were analyzed, 105 miRNAs were detected in axons, and six miRNAs were significantly enriched in axonal fractions when compared with cell body fractions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that two axon-enriched miRNAs, miR-181a-1* and miR-532, localized as distinct granules in distal axons and growth cones. The association of these miRNAs with the RNA-induced silencing complex further supported their function to regulate mRNA levels or translation in the brain. These results suggest a mechanism to localize specific miRNAs to distal axons and growth cones, where they could be involved in local mRNA regulation. These findings provide new insight into the presence of axonal miRNAs and motivate further analysis of their function in local protein synthesis underlying axon guidance.
McGregor, R A; Choi, M S
Worldwide obesity is a growing health problem, associated with increased risk of chronic disease. Understanding the molecular basis of adipogenesis and fat cell development in obesity is essential to identify new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the development of anti-obesity drugs. microRNAs (miRNAs) appear to play regulatory roles in many biological processes associated with obesity, including adipocyte differentiation, insulin action and fat metabolism. Recent studies show miRNAs are dysregulated in obese adipose tissue. During adipogenesis miRNAs can accelerate or inhibit adipocyte differentiation and hence regulate fat cell development. In addition miRNAs may regulate adipogenic lineage commitment in multipotent stem cells and hence govern fat cell numbers. Recent findings suggest miR-519d may be associated with human obesity, but larger case-control studies are needed. Few miRNA targets have been experimentally validated in adipocytes but interestingly both miR-27 and miR-519d target PPAR family members, which are well established regulators of fat cell development. In this review recent advances in our understanding of the role of miRNAs in fat cell development and obesity are discussed. The potential of miRNA based therapeutics targeting obesity is highlighted as well as recommendations for future research which could lead to a breakthrough in the treatment of obesity.
Ho, Pui Yan; Yu, Ai-Ming
The discovery of functional small noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), such as microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, in the control of human cellular processes has opened new avenues to develop RNA-based therapies for various diseases including viral infections and cancers. However, studying ncRNA functions and developing RNA-based therapeutics relies on access to large quantities of affordable ncRNA agents. Currently, synthetic RNAs account for the major source of agents for RNA research and development, yet carry artificial modifications on the ribose ring and phosphate backbone in sharp contrast to posttranscriptional modifications present on the nucleobases or unmodified natural RNA molecules produced within cells. Therefore, large efforts have been made in recent years to develop recombinant RNA techniques to cost-effectively produce biological RNA agents that may better capture the structure, function, and safety properties of natural RNAs. In this article, we summarize and compare current in vitro and in vivo methods for the production of RNA agents including chemical synthesis, in vitro transcription, and bioengineering approaches. We highlight the latest recombinant RNA approaches using transfer RNA (tRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and optimal ncRNA scaffold (OnRS), and discuss the applications of bioengineered ncRNA agents (BERAs) that should facilitate RNA research and development.
RNA interference is now a well-recognized post-transcriptional mechanism for regulation of gene expression in both animals and plants. In this process, microRNAs (miRNAs) direct silencing complexes to complementary RNA sequences, leading to either degradation or repression of translation. Plants also contain another type of small RNA, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), that play a role in gene silencing by directing cytosine methylation activities of complementary DNA sequences and thus, differ from miRNAs. This nuclear regulation system is referred to as RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). In plant genomes, transposable elements were initially thought to be regulated by DNA methylation alone. However, several recent reports have revealed that siRNAs and RdDM also play crucial roles in silencing of transposons and endogenous repeats. It is also becoming apparent that transposons are subjected to different levels of regulation in response to developmental and environmental cues. Transposons are tightly regulated in germ cells to protect the host genome from transgenerational mutagenic activity. In plants, transposons are also activated by biotic and abiotic stress. The regulation of transposons in these different situations has been associated with both the DNA methylation and siRNA-mediated regulation systems, suggesting that plants likely evolved "multi-lock" systems for transposon regulation to ensure tight control during the developmental phase and environmental changes.
Anwar, Sumadi Lukman; Lehmann, Ulrich
The discovery of small non-coding RNAs known as microRNAs has refined our view of the complexity of gene expression regulation. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the fifth most frequent cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide, dysregulation of microRNAs has been implicated in all aspects of hepatocarcinogenesis. In addition, alterations of microRNA expression have also been reported in non-cancerous liver diseases including chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. MicroRNAs have been proposed as clinically useful diagnostic biomarkers to differentiate HCC from different liver pathologies and healthy controls. Unique patterns of microRNA expression have also been implicated as biomarkers for prognosis as well as to predict and monitor therapeutic responses in HCC. Since dysregulation has been detected in various specimens including primary liver cancer tissues, serum, plasma, and urine, microRNAs represent novel non-invasive markers for HCC screening and predicting therapeutic responses. However, despite a significant number of studies, a consensus on which microRNA panels, sample types, and methodologies for microRNA expression analysis have to be used has not yet been established. This review focuses on potential values, benefits, and limitations of microRNAs as new clinical markers for diagnosis, prognosis, prediction, and therapeutic monitoring in HCC. PMID:26295264
Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Zhou, Xuefeng; Zheng, Yun; Zhang, Weixiong; Zhu, Jian-Kang
Background Small RNA-guided gene silencing at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels has emerged as an important mode of gene regulation in plants and animals. Thus far, conventional sequencing of small RNA libraries from rice led to the identification of most of the conserved miRNAs. Deep sequencing of small RNA libraries is an effective approach to uncover rare and lineage- and/or species-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) in any organism. Results In order to identify new miRNAs and possibly abiotic-stress regulated small RNAs in rice, three small RNA libraries were constructed from control rice seedlings and seedlings exposed to drought or salt stress, and then subjected to pyrosequencing. A total of 58,781, 43,003 and 80,990 unique genome-matching small RNAs were obtained from the control, drought and salt stress libraries, respectively. Sequence analysis confirmed the expression of most of the conserved miRNAs in rice. Importantly, 23 new miRNAs mostly each derived from a unique locus in rice genome were identified. Six of the new miRNAs are conserved in other monocots. Additionally, we identified 40 candidate miRNAs. Allowing not more than 3 mis-matches between a miRNA and its target mRNA, we predicted 20 targets for 9 of the new miRNAs. Conclusion Deep sequencing proved to be an effective strategy that allowed the discovery of 23 low-abundance new miRNAs and 40 candidate miRNAs in rice. PMID:18312648
Gerken, Henri; Leiser, Owen P.; Bennion, Drew; Misra, Rajeev
Summary The Cpx and σE regulons help maintain outer membrane integrity; the Cpx pathway monitors the biogenesis of cell surface structures, such as pili, while the σE pathway monitors the biogenesis of β-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs). In this study we revealed the importance of the Cpx regulon in the event of β-barrel OMP mis-assembly, by utilizing mutants expressing either a defective β-barrel OMP assembly machinery (Bam) or assembly defective β-barrel OMPs. Analysis of specific mRNAs showed that ΔcpxR bam double mutants failed to induce degP expression beyond the wild type level, despite activation of the σE pathway. The synthetic conditional lethal phenotype of ΔcpxR in mutant Bam or β-barrel OMP backgrounds was reversed by wild type DegP expressed from a heterologous plasmid promoter. Consistent with the involvement of the Cpx regulon in the event of aberrant β-barrel OMP assembly, the expression of cpxP, the archetypal member of the cpx regulon, was upregulated in defective Bam backgrounds or in cells expressing a single assembly-defective β-barrel OMP species. Together, these results showed that both the Cpx and σE regulons are required to reduce envelope stress caused by aberrant β-barrel OMP assembly, with the Cpx regulon principally contributing by controlling degP expression. PMID:20487295
Abendroth, Ulrike; Schmidtke, Cornelius; Bonas, Ulla
The genus Xanthomonas comprises a large group of plant-pathogenic bacteria. The infection and bacterial multiplication in the plant tissue depends on the type III secretion system and other virulence determinants. Recent studies revealed that bacterial virulence is also controlled at the post-transcriptional level by small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs). In this review, we highlight our current knowledge about sRNAs and RNA-binding proteins in Xanthomonas species.
ZAN, HONG; TAT, CONNIE; CASALI, PAOLO
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease characterized by the production of an array of pathogenic autoantibodies, including high-affinity anti-dsDNA IgG antibodies, which plays an important role in disease development and progression. Lupus preferentially affects women during their reproductive years. The pathogenesis of lupus is contributed by both genetic factors and epigenetic modifications that arise from exposure to the environment. Epigenetic marks, including DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications and microRNAs (miRNAs), interact with genetic programs to regulate immune responses. Epigenetic modifications influence gene expression and modulate B cell functions, such as class switch DNA recombination (CSR), somatic hypermutation (SHM) and plasma cell differentiation, thereby informing the antibody response. Epigenetic dysregulation can result in aberrant antibody responses to exogenous antigens or self-antigens, such as chromatin, histones and dsDNA in lupus. miRNAs play key roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of most gene-regulatory pathways and regulate both the innate and the adaptive immune responses. In mice, dysregulation of miRNAs leads to aberrant immune responses and development of systemic autoimmunity. Altered miRNA expression has been reported in human autoimmune diseases, including lupus. The dysregulation of miRNAs in lupus could be the result of multiple environmental factors, such as sex hormones and viral or bacterial infection. Modulation of miRNA is a potential therapeutic strategy for lupus. PMID:24826805
Campbell, Christian X [Oviedo, FL; Morrison, Jay A [Oviedo, FL
A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation in the outer layer is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a support structure. The outer layer may be a compliant layer configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand and thereby reduce the stress within the outer layer. The outer layer may be formed from a nonplanar surface configured to thermally expand. In another embodiment, the outer layer may be planar and include a plurality of slots enabling unrestricted thermal expansion in a direction aligned with the outer layer.
Yang, Jian; Hirschi, Kendal D.; Farmer, Lisa M.
microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small RNAs, are important regulators of various developmental processes in both plants and animals. Several years ago, a report showed the detection of diet-derived plant miRNAs in mammalian tissues and their regulation of mammalian genes, challenging the traditional functions of plant miRNAs. Subsequently, multiple efforts have attempted to replicate these findings, with the results arguing against the uptake of plant dietary miRNAs in healthy consumers. Moreover, several reports suggest the potential for “false positive” detection of plant miRNAs in human tissues. Meanwhile, some research continues to suggest both the presence and function of dietary miRNAs in mammalian tissues. Here we review the recent literature and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of emerging work that suggests the feasibility of dietary delivery of miRNAs. We also discuss future experimental approaches to address this controversial topic. PMID:25942490
Koduru, Srinivas V; Tiwari, Amit K; Leberfinger, Ashley; Hazard, Sprague W; Kawasawa, Yuka Imamura; Mahajan, Milind; Ravnic, Dino J
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States and is a major public health concern worldwide. Basic, clinical and epidemiological research is leading to improved cancer detection, prevention, and outcomes. Recent technological advances have allowed unbiased and comprehensive screening of genome-wide gene expression. Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) have been shown to play an important role in biological processes and could serve as a diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic biomarker for specific diseases. Recent findings have begun to reveal and enhance our understanding of the complex architecture of sncRNA expression including miRNAs, piRNAs, lncRNAs, sn/snoRNAs and their relationships with biological systems. We used publicly available small RNA sequencing data that was derived from 24 triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) and 14 adjacent normal tissue samples to remap various types of sncRNAs. We found a total of 55 miRNAs were aberrantly expressed (p<0.005) in TNBC samples (8 miRNAs upregulated; 47 downregulated) compared to adjacent normal tissues whereas the original study reported only 25 novel miRs. In this study, we used pathway analysis of differentially expressed miRNAs which revealed TGF-beta signaling pathways to be profoundly affected in the TNBC samples. Furthermore, our comprehensive re-mapping strategy allowed us to discover a number of other differentially expressed sncRNAs including piRNAs, lncRNAs, sn/snoRNAs, rRNAs, miscRNAs and nonsense-mediated decay RNAs. We believe that our sncRNA analysis workflow is extremely comprehensive and suitable for discovery of novel sncRNAs changes, which may lead to the development of innovative diagnostic and therapeutic tools for TNBC. PMID:28367238
Tomé-Carneiro, Joao; Crespo, María Carmen; Iglesias-Gutierrez, Eduardo; Martín, Roberto; Gil-Zamorano, Judit; Tomas-Zapico, Cristina; Burgos-Ramos, Emma; Correa, Carlos; Gómez-Coronado, Diego; Lasunción, Miguel A; Herrera, Emilio; Visioli, Francesco; Dávalos, Alberto
Dietary microRNAs (miRNAs) modulation could be important for health and wellbeing. Part of the healthful activities of polyphenols might be due to a modulation of miRNAs' expression. Among the most biologically active polyphenols, hydroxytyrosol (HT) has never been studied for its actions on miRNAs. We investigated whether HT could modulate the expression of miRNAs in vivo. We performed an unbiased intestinal miRNA screening in mice supplemented (for 8 weeks) with nutritionally relevant amounts of HT. HT modulated the expression of several miRNAs. Analysis of other tissues revealed consistent HT-induced modulation of only few miRNAs. Also, HT administration increased triglycerides levels. Acute treatment with HT and in vitro experiments provided mechanistic insights. The HT-induced expression of one miRNA was confirmed in healthy volunteers supplemented with HT in a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. HT consumption affects specific miRNAs' expression in rodents and humans. Our findings suggest that the modulation of miRNAs' action through HT consumption might partially explain its healthful activities and might be pharmanutritionally exploited in current therapies targeting endogenous miRNAs. However, the effects of HT on triglycerides warrant further investigations.
Peng, Ting; Lv, Qiang; Zhang, Jing; Li, Junzhou; Du, Yanxiu; Zhao, Quanzhi
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in post-transcriptional gene regulation and have been shown to control many genes involved in various biological and metabolic processes. This work investigated miRNAs in rice (Oryza sativa), an important food crop. High-throughput sequencing technology was used to reveal expression differences in miRNAs between superior and inferior spikelets in rice (japonica cultivar Xinfeng 2) at 18 d after fertilization. Totals of 351 and 312 known miRNAs were obtained from the superior and inferior spikelets, respectively. Analysis of the expression profiles of these miRNAs showed that 189 miRNAs were differentially expressed between superior spikelets and inferior spikelets. In addition, 43 novel miRNAs were identified mostly by the accumulation of miRNA*s expressed differentially between the superior and inferior spikelets. Further analysis with bioinformatics software and comparison with existing databases showed that these differentially expressed miRNAs may individually participate in regulating hormone metabolism, carbohydrate metabolic pathways, and cell division during rice grain development. The results indicate that the slow grain-filling and low grain weight of rice inferior spikelets are attributed partly to differences in expression and function between superior and inferior spikelet miRNAs.
Kriegel, Alison J; Baker, Maria Angeles; Liu, Yong; Liu, Pengyuan; Cowley, Allen W; Liang, Mingyu
The goal of this study was to systematically identify endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) in endothelial cells that regulate mRNAs encoded by genes relevant to hypertension. Small RNA deep sequencing was performed in cultured human microvascular endothelial cells. Of the 50 most abundant miRNAs identified, 30 had predicted target mRNAs encoded by genes with known involvement in hypertension or blood pressure regulation. The cells were transfected with anti-miR oligonucleotides to inhibit each of the 30 miRNAs and the mRNA abundance of predicted targets was examined. Of 95 miRNA-target pairs examined, the target mRNAs were significantly upregulated in 35 pairs and paradoxically downregulated in 8 pairs. The result indicated significant suppression of the abundance of mRNA encoded by ADM by endogenous miR-181a-5p, ATP2B1 by the miR-27 family, FURIN by miR-125a-5p, FGF5 by the let-7 family, GOSR2 by miR-27a-3p, JAG1 by miR-21-5p, SH2B3 by miR-30a-5p, miR-98, miR-181a-5p, and the miR-125 family, TBX3 by the miR-92 family, ADRA1B by miR-22-3p, ADRA2A by miR-30a-5p and miR-30e-5p, ADRA2B by miR-30e-5p, ADRB1 by the let-7 family and miR-98, EDNRB by the miR-92 family, and NOX4 by the miR-92 family, miR-100-5p, and miR-99b-5p (n=3-9; P<0.05 versus scrambled anti-miR). Treatment with anti-miR-21 decreased blood pressure in mice fed a 4% NaCl diet. Inhibition of the miRNAs targeting NOX4 mRNA increased H2O2 release from endothelial cells. The findings indicate widespread, tonic control of mRNAs encoded by genes relevant to blood pressure regulation by endothelial miRNAs and provide a novel and uniquely informative basis for studying the role of miRNAs in hypertension.
... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and...
... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY... revised North American Datum of 1927 (NAD 27) Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram,...
Holman, Matthew J.; Boyce, J. (Technical Monitor)
We feel that at the present moment the available theoretical models of the Kuiper belt are still in advance of the data, and thus our main task has been to conduct observational work guided by theoretical motivations. Our efforts over the past year can be divided into four categories: A) Wide-field Searches for Kuiper Belt Objects; B) Pencil-beam Searches for Kuiper Belt Objects; C) Wide-field Searches for Moons of the Outer Planets; D) Pencil-beam Searches for Faint Uranian and Neptunian Moons; E) Recovery Observations. As of April 2002, we have conducted several searches for Kuiper belt objects using large-format mosaic CCD camera on 4-meter class telescopes. In May 1999, we used the Kitt Peak 4-meter with the NOAO Mosaic camera we attempted a search for KBOs at a range of ecliptic latitudes. In addition to our wide-field searches, we have conducted three 'pencil-beam' searches in the past year. In a pencil-beam search we take repeated integrations of the same field throughout a night. After preprocessing the resulting images we shift and recombine them along a range of rates and directions consistent with the motion of KBOs. Stationary objects then smear out, while objects moving at near the shift rate appear as point sources. In addition to our searches for Kuiper belt objects, we are completing the inventory of the outer solar system by search for faint satellites of the outer planets. In August 2001 we conducted pencil beam searches for faint Uranian and Neptunian satellites at CFHT and CTIO. These searches resulted in the discover of two Neptunian and four Uranian satellite candidates. The discovery of Kuiper belt objects and outer planet satellites is of little use if the discoveries are not followed by systematic, repeated astrometric observations that permit reliable estimates of their orbits.
Gazis, P.R. )
Major advances in the physics of the outer heliosphere are reviewed for the 1987-1990 time frame. Emphasis is placed on five broad topics: the detailed structure of the solar wind at large heliocentric distances, the global structure of the interplanetary field, latidudinal variations and meridional flows, radial and temporal variations, and the interaction of the solar wind with the local interstellar medium. 122 refs.
Ghildiyal, Megha; Zamore, Phillip D.
Since the discovery in 1993 of the first small silencing RNA, a dizzying number of small RNA classes have been identified, including microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). These classes differ in their biogenesis, modes of target regulation and in the biological pathways they regulate. There is a growing realization that, despite their differences, these distinct small RNA pathways are interconnected and that small RNA pathways compete and collaborate as they regulate genes and protect the genome from external and internal threats. PMID:19148191
Ghildiyal, Megha; Zamore, Phillip D
Since the discovery in 1993 of the first small silencing RNA, a dizzying number of small RNA classes have been identified, including microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). These classes differ in their biogenesis, their modes of target regulation and in the biological pathways they regulate. There is a growing realization that, despite their differences, these distinct small RNA pathways are interconnected, and that small RNA pathways compete and collaborate as they regulate genes and protect the genome from external and internal threats.
Malone, Colin D.; Hannon, Gregory J.
Transposons populate the landscape of all eukaryotic genomes. Often considered purely genomic parasites, transposons can also benefit their hosts, playing roles in gene regulation and in genome organization and evolution. Peaceful coexistence with mobile elements depends upon adaptive control mechanisms, since unchecked transposon activity can impact long-term fitness and acutely reduce the fertility of progeny. Here, we review the conserved roles played by small RNAs in the adaptation of eukaryotes to coexist with their genomic colonists. An understanding of transposon-defense pathways has uncovered recurring themes in the mechanisms by which genomes distinguish “self” from “non-self” and selectively silence the latter. PMID:19239887
Larsen, Paul B.
Management of traffic in outer space is a major safety problem. Traffic is increasing. Most satellites are navigable but they have to co-exist with space debris which is not navigable. We need minimum safety rules for outer space traffic. We have the possible beginnings of international safety standards in the form of national space object tracking; Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) standardization through ICAO and the International Committee on GNSS (ICG); the IADC space debris guidelines; and the proposed Code of Conduct. However, safety could be improved by standards for such activities as licensing launches of satellites into outer space; standards for accident investigation and search and rescue: operational safety zones around space objects such as the International Space Station. This paper describes legal authority for minimum safety standards. It considers safety standards established by private agreements among commercial operators. Finally it examines a number of options for an international forum to establish safety standards, including self-regulation, COPUOS, ICAO, ITU, a space code of conduct, and a new space organization.
Kaspi, Haggai; Pasvolsky, Ronit; Hornstein, Eran
Normal physiology depends on defined functional output of differentiated cells. However, differentiated cells are often surprisingly fragile. As an example, phenotypic collapse and dedifferentiation of β cells were recently discovered in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D). These discoveries necessitate the investigation of mechanisms that function to maintain robust cell type identity. microRNAs (miRNAs), which are small non-coding RNAs, are known to impart robustness to development. miRNAs are interlaced within networks, that include also transcriptional and epigenetic regulators, for continuous control of lineage-specific gene expression. In this Opinion article, we provide a framework for conceptualizing how miRNAs might participate in adult β cell identity and suggest that miRNAs may function as important genetic components in metabolic disorders, including diabetes.
Davis, Gregory M.; Haas, Matilda A.; Pocock, Roger
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding RNAs that operate as prominent post-transcriptional regulators of eukaryotic gene expression. miRNAs are abundantly expressed in the brain of most animals and exert diverse roles. The anatomical and functional complexity of the brain requires the precise coordination of multilayered gene regulatory networks. The flexibility, speed, and reversibility of miRNA function provide precise temporal and spatial gene regulatory capabilities that are crucial for the correct functioning of the brain. Studies have shown that the underlying molecular mechanisms controlled by miRNAs in the nervous systems of invertebrate and vertebrate models are remarkably conserved in humans. We endeavor to provide insight into the roles of miRNAs in the nervous systems of these model organisms and discuss how such information may be used to inform regarding diseases of the human brain. PMID:26635721
Mangiarotti, G; Ceccarelli, A; Lodish, H F
The stability of mRNA is an important facet of the regulation of protein synthesis. In mammalian cells most mRNAs have long half-lives (5-15 hours) but a substantial fraction are much less stable. There are few examples where the stability of a particular mRNA or class of mRNAs is specifically affected by environmental or developmental stimuli. Certain hormones cause specific stabilization of mRNAs species and preferential mRNA stability is important in the accumulation of globin and myosin mRNAs during the terminal stages of erythropoesis or myogenesis, respectively. Disaggregation of Dictyostelium discoideum aggregates induces the specific destabilization of a large class of developmentally regulated mRNAs; thus, this system is an excellent one in which to determine how such controls are effected. Here we show that addition of cyclic AMP to disaggregated cells specifically prevents the destabilization of these mRNAs.
Leung, Yuk Yee; Kuksa, Pavel P.; Amlie-Wolf, Alexandre; Valladares, Otto; Ungar, Lyle H.; Kannan, Sampath; Gregory, Brian D.; Wang, Li-San
Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are highly abundant RNAs, typically <100 nucleotides long, that act as key regulators of diverse cellular processes. Although thousands of sncRNA genes are known to exist in the human genome, no single database provides searchable, unified annotation, and expression information for full sncRNA transcripts and mature RNA products derived from these larger RNAs. Here, we present the Database of small human noncoding RNAs (DASHR). DASHR contains the most comprehensive information to date on human sncRNA genes and mature sncRNA products. DASHR provides a simple user interface for researchers to view sequence and secondary structure, compare expression levels, and evidence of specific processing across all sncRNA genes and mature sncRNA products in various human tissues. DASHR annotation and expression data covers all major classes of sncRNAs including microRNAs (miRNAs), Piwi-interacting (piRNAs), small nuclear, nucleolar, cytoplasmic (sn-, sno-, scRNAs, respectively), transfer (tRNAs), and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). Currently, DASHR (v1.0) integrates 187 smRNA high-throughput sequencing (smRNA-seq) datasets with over 2.5 billion reads and annotation data from multiple public sources. DASHR contains annotations for ∼48 000 human sncRNA genes and mature sncRNA products, 82% of which are expressed in one or more of the curated tissues. DASHR is available at http://lisanwanglab.org/DASHR. PMID:26553799
Ogawa, Yuko; Tsujimoto, Masafumi; Yanoshita, Ryohei
Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles containing microRNAs and mRNAs that are produced by various types of cells. We previously used ultrafiltration and size-exclusion chromatography to isolate two types of human salivary exosomes (exosomes I, II) that are different in size and proteomes. We showed that salivary exosomes contain large repertoires of small RNAs. However, precise information regarding long RNAs in salivary exosomes has not been fully determined. In this study, we investigated the compositions of protein-coding RNAs (pcRNAs) and long non-protein-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) of exosome I, exosome II and whole saliva (WS) by next-generation sequencing technology. Although 11% of all RNAs were commonly detected among the three samples, the compositions of reads mapping to known RNAs were similar. The most abundant pcRNA is ribosomal RNA protein, and pcRNAs of some salivary proteins such as S100 calcium-binding protein A8 (protein S100-A8) were present in salivary exosomes. Interestingly, lncRNAs of pseudogenes (presumably, processed pseudogenes) were abundant in exosome I, exosome II and WS. Translationally controlled tumor protein gene, which plays an important role in cell proliferation, cell death and immune responses, was highly expressed as pcRNA and pseudogenes in salivary exosomes. Our results show that salivary exosomes contain various types of RNAs such as pseudogenes and small RNAs, and may mediate intercellular communication by transferring these RNAs to target cells as gene expression regulators.
Reis, Rodrigo S; Eamens, Andrew L; Waterhouse, Peter M
Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulatory switches. Recent advances have revealed many regulatory layers between the two essential processes, miRNA biogenesis and function. However, how these multilayered regulatory processes ultimately control miRNA gene regulation and connects miRNAs and plant responses with the surrounding environment is still largely unknown. In this opinion article, we propose that the miRNA pathway is highly dynamic and plastic. The apparent flexibility of the miRNA pathway in plants appears to be controlled by a number recently identified proteins and poorly characterized signaling cascades. We further propose that altered miRNA accumulation can be a direct consequence of the rewiring of interactions between proteins that function in the miRNA pathway, an avenue that remains largely unexplored.
Draayer, Jerry P.; Troltenier, D.
A geometrical interpretation for the outer multiplicity rho that occurs in a reduction of the product of two SU(3) representations, (lambda(sub pi), mu(sub pi)) x (lambda(sub nu), mu(sub nu)) approaches sigma(sub rho)(lambda, mu)(sub rho), is introduced. This coupling of proton (pi) and neutron (nu) representations arises, for example, in both boson and fermion descriptions of heavy deformed nuclei. Attributing a geometry to the coupling raises the possibility of introducing a simple interaction that provides a physically meaningful way for distinguishing multiple occurrences of (lambda, mu) values that can arise in such products.
Dehay, Colette; Kennedy, Henry; Kosik, Kenneth S
Evolutionary expansion and complexification of the primate cerebral cortex are largely linked to the emergence of the outer subventricular zone (OSVZ), a uniquely structured germinal zone that generates the expanded primate supragranular layers. The primate OSVZ departs from rodent germinal zones in that it includes a higher diversity of precursor types, inter-related in bidirectional non-hierarchical lineages. In addition, primate-specific regulatory mechanisms are operating in primate cortical precursors via the occurrence of novel miRNAs. Here, we propose that the origin and evolutionary importance of the OSVZ is related to genetic changes in multiple regulatory loops and that cell-cycle regulation is a favored target for evolutionary adaptation of the cortex.
Zhao, Bo; Lu, Minjuan; Wang, Dong; Li, Haopeng
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as crucial players in a myriad of biological processes. However, the precise mechanism and functions of most lncRNAs are poorly characterized. In this study, we presented genome-wide identification of lncRNAs in the patients with intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) and spinal cord injury (control) using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). A total of 124.6 million raw reads were yielded using Hiseq 2500 platform and approximately 88% clean reads could be aligned to human reference genome in both IDD and control groups. RNA-seq profiling indicated that 1,854 lncRNAs were differentially expressed (log2 fold change ≥ 1 or ≤−1, p < 0.05), in which 1,530 could potentially target 6,386 genes via cis-regulatory effects. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis for these target genes suggested that lncRNAs were involved in diverse pathways, such as lysosome, focal adhesion, and MAPK signaling. In addition, a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network was constructed for analyzing the function of lncRNAs. Further, quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to confirm the differentially expressed lncRNAs and ceRNA network. In conclusion, our results present the first global identification of lncRNAs in IDD and may provide candidate diagnostic biomarkers for IDD treatment. PMID:28097131
Liu, Chi-Hsiu; Wang, Zhongxiao; Sun, Ye; SanGiovanni, John Paul; Chen, Jing
Ocular neovascularization is a leading cause of blindness in proliferative retinopathy. Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) play critical roles in both vascular and neuronal development of the retina through post-transcriptional regulation of target gene expression. To identify the function and therapeutic potential of sncRNAs in retinopathy, we assessed the expression profile of retinal sncRNAs in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) with pathologic proliferation of neovessels. Approximately 2% of all analyzed sncRNAs were significantly altered in OIR retinas compared with normoxic controls. Twenty three microRNAs with substantial up- or down-regulation were identified, including miR-351, -762, -210, 145, -155, -129-5p, -150, -203, and -375, which were further analyzed for their potential target genes in angiogenic, hypoxic, and immune response-related pathways. In addition, nineteen small nucleolar RNAs also revealed differential expression in OIR retinas compared with control retinas. A decrease of overall microRNA expression in OIR retinas was consistent with reduced microRNA processing enzyme Dicer, and increased expression of Alu element in OIR. Together, our findings elucidated a group of differentially expressed sncRNAs in a murine model of proliferative retinopathy. These sncRNAs may exert critical post-transcriptional regulatory roles in regulating pathological neovascularization in eye diseases. PMID:27653551
Schmitt, Simone; Prokisch, Holger; Schlunk, Tilman; Camp, David G.; Ahting, Uwe; Waizenegger, Thomas; Scharfe, Curt M.; Meitinger, Thomas; Imhof, Axel; Neupert, Walter; Oefner, Peter J.; Rapaport, Doron
The mitochondrial outer membrane mediates numerous interactions between the metabolic and genetic systems of mitochondria and the rest of the eukaryotic cell. We performed a proteomic study to discover novel functions of components of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Proteins of highly pure outer membrane vesicles (OMV) from Neurospora crassa were identified by a combination of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptide digests and gel electrophoresis of solubilized OMV proteins, followed by their identification using MALDI-MS peptide fingerprinting. Among the 30 proteins found in at least three of four separate analyses were 23 proteins with known functions in the outer membrane. These included components of the import machinery (the TOM and TOB complexes), a pore-forming component (Porin), and proteins that control fusion and fission of the organelle. In addition, proteins playing a role in various biosynthetic pathways, whose intracellular location had not been established previously, could be localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane. Thus, the proteome of the outer membrane can help in identifying new mitochondria-related functions.
Chujo, Takeshi; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Hirose, Tetsuro
Mammalian transcriptome analyses elucidated the presence of thousands of unannotated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) with distinct transcriptional units. Molecular characterization and functional classification of these lncRNAs are important challenges in the next decade. A subset of these lncRNAs is the core of nuclear bodies, which are the sites of the biogenesis, maturation, storage, and sequestration of specific RNAs, proteins, and ribonucleoprotein complexes. Here, we define a class of lncRNAs termed architectural RNAs (arcRNAs) that function as the essential scaffold or platform of nuclear bodies. Presently, five lncRNAs from mammals, insects, and yeast are classified as arcRNAs. These arcRNAs are temporarily upregulated upon specific cellular stresses, in developmental stages, or in various disease conditions, and sequestrate specific regulatory proteins, thereby changing gene expression patterns. In this review, we introduce common aspects of these arcRNAs and discuss why RNA is used as the architectural component of nuclear bodies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Clues to long noncoding RNA taxonomy1, edited by Dr. Tetsuro Hirose and Dr. Shinichi Nakagawa.
Kim, Hyun-Jin; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Bong-Woo; Choi, Doil; Hur, Cheol-Goo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, single-stranded, noncoding RNAs ranging from 19 to 25 nucleotides. The miRNA control various cellular functions by negatively regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The miRNA regulation over their target genes has a central role in regulating plant growth and development; however, only a few reports have been published on the function of miRNAs in the family Solanaceae. We identified Solanaceae miRNAs and their target genes by analyzing expressed sequence tag (EST) data from five different Solanaceae species. A comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of EST data of Solanaceae species revealed the presence of at least 11 miRNAs and 54 target genes in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), 22 miRNAs and 221 target genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), 12 miRNAs and 417 target genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), 46 miRNAs and 60 target genes in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), and 7 miRNAs and 28 target genes in Nicotiana benthamiana. The identified Solanaceae miRNAs and their target genes were deposited in the SolmiRNA database, which is freely available for academic research only at http://genepool.kribb.re.kr/SolmiRNA. Our data indicate that the Solanaceae family has both conserved and specific miRNAs and that their target genes may play important roles in growth and development of Solanaceae plants.
Xu, Juan; Feng, Lin; Han, Zujing; Li, Yongsheng; Wu, Aiwei; Shao, Tingting; Ding, Na; Li, Lili; Deng, Wei; Di, Xuebing; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Lianfeng; Li, Xia; Zhang, Kaitai; Cheng, Shujun
Crosstalk between RNAs mediated by shared microRNAs (miRNAs) represents a novel layer of gene regulation, which plays important roles in development. In this study, we analyzed time series expression data for coding genes and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) to identify thousands of interactions among competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) in four rhesus tissues. The ceRNAs exhibited dynamic expression and regulatory patterns during each tissue development process, which suggests that ceRNAs might work synergistically during different developmental stages or tissues to control specific functions. In addition, lncRNAs exhibit higher specificity as ceRNAs than coding-genes and their functions were predicted based on their competitive coding-gene partners to discover their important developmental roles. In addition to the specificity of tissue development, functional analyses demonstrated that the combined effects of multiple ceRNAs can have major impacts on general developmental and metabolic processes in multiple tissues, especially transcription-related functions where competitive interactions. Moreover, ceRNA interactions could sequentially and/or synergistically mediate the crosstalk among different signaling pathways during brain development. Analyzing ceRNA interactions during the development of multiple tissues will provideinsights in the regulation of normal development and the dysregulation of key mechanisms during pathogenesis. PMID:27365046
Formey, Damien; Martín-Rodríguez, José Ángel; Leija, Alfonso; Santana, Olivia; Quinto, Carmen; Cárdenas, Luis; Hernández, Georgina
A genome-wide analysis identified the set of small RNAs (sRNAs) from the agronomical important legume Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), including novel P. vulgaris-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) potentially important for the regulation of the rhizobia-symbiotic process. Generally, novel miRNAs are difficult to identify and study because they are very lowly expressed in a tissue- or cell-specific manner. In this work, we aimed to analyze sRNAs from common bean root hairs (RH), a single-cell model, induced with pure Rhizobium etli nodulation factors (NF), a unique type of signal molecule. The sequence analysis of samples from NF-induced and control libraries led to the identity of 132 mature miRNAs, including 63 novel miRNAs and 1984 phasiRNAs. From these, six miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed during NF induction, including one novel miRNA: miR-RH82. A parallel degradome analysis of the same samples revealed 29 targets potentially cleaved by novel miRNAs specifically in NF-induced RH samples; however, these novel miRNAs were not differentially accumulated in this tissue. This study reveals Phaseolus vulgaris-specific novel miRNA candidates and their corresponding targets that meet all criteria to be involved in the regulation of the early nodulation events, thus setting the basis for exploring miRNA-mediated improvement of the common bean–rhizobia symbiosis. PMID:27271618
Ono, Koh; Kuwabara, Yasuhide; Han, Jiahuai
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that have gained status as important regulators of gene expression. Recent studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in the cardiovascular system under some pathological conditions. Gain- and loss-of-function studies using in vitro and in vivo models have revealed distinct roles for specific miRNAs in cardiovascular development and physiological function. The implications of miRNAs in cardiovascular disease have recently been recognized, representing the most rapidly evolving research field. In the present article, the currently relevant findings on the role of miRNAs in cardiac diseases will be updated and the target genes of these miRNAs are summarized. PMID:21395978
Espinoza-Lewis, Ramón A.; Wang, Da-Zhi
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs of ~22 nt in length which are involved in the regulation of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level by degrading their target mRNAs and/or inhibiting their translation. Expressed ubiquitously or in a tissue-specific manner, miRNAs are involved in the regulation of many biological processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and the maintenance of normal cellular physiology. Many miRNAs are expressed in embryonic, postnatal, and adult hearts. Aberrant expression or genetic deletion of miRNAs is associated with abnormal cardiac cell differentiation, disruption of heart development, and cardiac dysfunction. This chapter will summarize the history, biogenesis, and processing of miRNAs as well as their function in heart development, remodeling, and disease. PMID:22449848
Catalanotto, Caterina; Cogoni, Carlo; Zardo, Giuseppe
The finding that small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are able to control gene expression in a sequence specific manner has had a massive impact on biology. Recent improvements in high throughput sequencing and computational prediction methods have allowed the discovery and classification of several types of ncRNAs. Based on their precursor structures, biogenesis pathways and modes of action, ncRNAs are classified as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs or esiRNAs), promoter associate RNAs (pRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and sno-derived RNAs. Among these, miRNAs appear as important cytoplasmic regulators of gene expression. miRNAs act as post-transcriptional regulators of their messenger RNA (mRNA) targets via mRNA degradation and/or translational repression. However, it is becoming evident that miRNAs also have specific nuclear functions. Among these, the most studied and debated activity is the miRNA-guided transcriptional control of gene expression. Although available data detail quite precisely the effectors of this activity, the mechanisms by which miRNAs identify their gene targets to control transcription are still a matter of debate. Here, we focus on nuclear functions of miRNAs and on alternative mechanisms of target recognition, at the promoter lavel, by miRNAs in carrying out transcriptional gene silencing. PMID:27754357
Xie, Junjun; Lei, Bo; Niu, Mengliang; Huang, Yuan; Kong, Qiusheng; Bie, Zhilong
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, recognize their mRNA targets based on perfect sequence complementarity. MiRNAs lead to broader changes in gene expression after plants are exposed to stress. High-throughput sequencing is an effective method to identify and profile small RNA populations in non-model plants under salt stresses, significantly improving our knowledge regarding miRNA functions in salt tolerance. Cucurbits are sensitive to soil salinity, and the Cucurbita genus is used as the rootstock of other cucurbits to enhance salt tolerance. Several cucurbit crops have been used for miRNA sequencing but salt stress-related miRNAs in cucurbit species have not been reported. In this study, we subjected two Cucurbita germplasm, namely, N12 (Cucurbita. maxima Duch.) and N15 (Cucurbita. moschata Duch.), with different sodium accumulation patterns, to Illumina sequencing to determine small RNA populations in root tissues after 4 h of salt treatment and control. A total of 21,548,326 and 19,394,108 reads were generated from the control and salt-treated N12 root tissues, respectively. By contrast, 19,108,240 and 20,546,052 reads were obtained from the control and salt-treated N15 root tissues, respectively. Fifty-eight conserved miRNA families and 33 novel miRNAs were identified in the two Cucurbita germplasm. Seven miRNAs (six conserved miRNAs and one novel miRNAs) were up-regulated in salt-treated N12 and N15 samples. Most target genes of differentially expressed novel miRNAs were transcription factors and salt stress-responsive proteins, including dehydration-induced protein, cation/H+ antiporter 18, and CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase. The differential expression of miRNAs between the two Cucurbita germplasm under salt stress conditions and their target genes demonstrated that novel miRNAs play an important role in the response of the two Cucurbita germplasm to salt stress. The present study initially explored small RNAs in the
Xie, Junjun; Lei, Bo; Niu, Mengliang; Huang, Yuan; Kong, Qiusheng; Bie, Zhilong
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, recognize their mRNA targets based on perfect sequence complementarity. MiRNAs lead to broader changes in gene expression after plants are exposed to stress. High-throughput sequencing is an effective method to identify and profile small RNA populations in non-model plants under salt stresses, significantly improving our knowledge regarding miRNA functions in salt tolerance. Cucurbits are sensitive to soil salinity, and the Cucurbita genus is used as the rootstock of other cucurbits to enhance salt tolerance. Several cucurbit crops have been used for miRNA sequencing but salt stress-related miRNAs in cucurbit species have not been reported. In this study, we subjected two Cucurbita germplasm, namely, N12 (Cucurbita. maxima Duch.) and N15 (Cucurbita. moschata Duch.), with different sodium accumulation patterns, to Illumina sequencing to determine small RNA populations in root tissues after 4 h of salt treatment and control. A total of 21,548,326 and 19,394,108 reads were generated from the control and salt-treated N12 root tissues, respectively. By contrast, 19,108,240 and 20,546,052 reads were obtained from the control and salt-treated N15 root tissues, respectively. Fifty-eight conserved miRNA families and 33 novel miRNAs were identified in the two Cucurbita germplasm. Seven miRNAs (six conserved miRNAs and one novel miRNAs) were up-regulated in salt-treated N12 and N15 samples. Most target genes of differentially expressed novel miRNAs were transcription factors and salt stress-responsive proteins, including dehydration-induced protein, cation/H+ antiporter 18, and CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase. The differential expression of miRNAs between the two Cucurbita germplasm under salt stress conditions and their target genes demonstrated that novel miRNAs play an important role in the response of the two Cucurbita germplasm to salt stress. The present study initially explored small RNAs in the
Marques, Francine Z; Charchar, Fadi J
Unravelling the complete genetic predisposition to high blood pressure (BP) has proven to be challenging. This puzzle and the fact that coding regions of the genome account for less than 2 % of the entire human DNA support the hypothesis that mechanisms besides coding genes are likely to contribute to BP regulation. Non-coding RNAs, especially microRNAs, are emerging as key players of transcription regulation in both health and disease states. They control basic functions in virtually all cell types relevant to the cardiovascular system and, thus, a direct involvement with BP regulation is highly probable. Here we review the literature about microRNAs associated with regulation of BP and hypertension, highlighting investigations, methodology and difficulties arising in the field. These molecules are being studied for exploitation in diagnostics, prognostics and therapeutics in many diseases. There have been some studies that examined biological fluid microRNAs as biomarkers for hypertension, but most remain inconclusive due to the small sample sizes and differences in methodological standardisation. Fewer studies have analysed tissue microRNA levels in vascular smooth muscle cells and the kidney. Others focused on the interaction between single nucleotide polymorphisms and microRNA binding sites. Studies in animals have shown that angiotensin II, high-salt diet and exercise change microRNA levels in hypertension. Treatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats with a miR-22 inhibitor and treatment of hypertensive Schlager BPH/2J mice with a miR-181a mimic decreased their BP. This supports the use of microRNAs as therapeutic targets in hypertension, and future studies should test the use of other microRNAs found in human association studies. In conclusion, there is a clear need of increased pace of human, animal and functional studies to help us understand the multifaceted roles of microRNAs as critical regulators of the development and physiology of BP.
We previously found transcripts encoding Dicer and Argonaute in the honey bee parasite Nosema ceranae. Since these proteins are involved in the production of regulatory microRNAs we carried out controlled infections and genetic screens in order to identify microRNAs in Nosema . We sequenced small R...
Pitts, K.T.; CDF Collaboration
We describe the CDF Central Outer Tracker (COT), an open-cell drift chamber currently being constructed for the CDF detector to run at the upgraded Fermilab Tevatron collider. This detector will provide central tracking with excellent momentum resolution in the high- density environment of a hadron collider. It will be able to resolve 132 ns beam crossings and provide tracking trigger information to the Level 1 trigger. The design is based upon the existing and successful CDF Central Tracking Chamber. The preliminary mechanical and electrical designs are presented. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
Lukin, Vladimir P.
In the early 70's, the scientists in Italy (A.Consortini, M.Bertolotti, L.Ronchi), USA (R.Buser, Ochs, S.Clifford) and USSR (V.Pokasov, V.Lukin) almost simultaneously discovered the phenomenon of deviation from the power law and the effect of saturation for the structure phase function. During a period of 35 years we have performed successively the investigations of the effect of low-frequency spectral range of atmospheric turbulence on the optical characteristics. The influence of the turbulence models as well as a outer scale of turbulence on the characteristics of telescopes and systems of laser beam formations has been determined too.
Pedersen, N; Hellung-Larsen, P; Engberg, J
We have isolated and partially characterized a family of small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) from three different species of the protozoan Tetrahymena. We find six distinct snRNAs ranging in size from 100 to 250 nucleotides. The two largest snRNAs, as well as an abundant, heterogenous group of smaller snRNAs are found in the nucleolar RNA fraction. None of the snRNAs are transcription products of the ribosomal RNA gene or its flanking regions, as shown by hybridization tests. The snRNAs are metabolically stable as determined by pulse/chase experiments and several of them contain a number of modified nuclotides. The snRNAs from Tetrahymena all have slightly different sizes from mammalian snRNAs. The cap structure of the snRNAs from Tetrahymena differs from that of the snRNAs from mammalian cells, but has not yet been fully characterized. The relative amount of snRNAs to total RNA is less in Tetrahymena (greater than 0.1%) than in mammalian cells (2%). Images PMID:2409533
Li, Pei-Fei; Chen, Sheng-Can; Xia, Tian; Jiang, Xiao-Ming; Shao, Yong-Fu; Xiao, Bing-Xiu; Guo, Jun-Ming
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play key roles in development, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Altered ncRNA expression is associated with gastric cancer occurrence, invasion, and metastasis. Moreover, aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is significantly related to gastric cancer tumor stage, size, differentiation and metastasis. MiRNAs interrupt cellular signaling pathways, inhibit the activity of tumor suppressor genes, and affect the cell cycle in gastric cancer cells. Some miRNAs, including miR-21, miR-106a and miR-421, could be potential markers for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a new research hotspot among cancer-associated ncRNAs, play important roles in epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Several gastric cancer-associated lncRNAs, such as CCAT1, GACAT1, H19, and SUMO1P3, have been explored. In addition, Piwi-interacting RNAs, another type of small ncRNA that is recognized by gastroenterologists, are involved in gastric carcinogenesis, and piR-651/823 represents an efficient diagnostic biomarker of gastric cancer that can be detected in the blood and gastric juice. Small interfering RNAs also function in post-transcriptional regulation in gastric cancer and might be useful in gastric cancer treatment. PMID:24833871
Jardim, Melanie J
The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the current understanding on the role of microRNAs in mediating genetic responses to air pollutants and to contemplate on how these responses ultimately control susceptibility to ambient air pollution. Morbidity and mortality attributable to air pollution continues to be a growing public health concern worldwide. Despite several studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain elusive. In the last several years, special attention has been given to the role of epigenetics in mediating, not only genetic and physiological responses to certain environmental insults, but also in regulating underlying susceptibility to environmental stressors. Epigenetic mechanisms control the expression of gene products, both basally and as a response to a perturbation, without affecting the sequence of DNA itself. These mechanisms include structural regulation of the chromatin structure, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, and post-transcriptional gene regulation, such as microRNA mediated repression of gene expression. microRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that have been quickly established as key regulators of gene expression. As such, miRNAs have been found to control several cellular processes including apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. More recently, research has emerged suggesting that changes in the expression of some miRNAs may be critical for mediating biological, and ultimately physiological, responses to air pollutants. Although the study of microRNAs, and epigenetics as a whole, has come quite far in the field of cancer, the understanding of how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions to environmental exposures in everyday life is unclear. This article does not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the US EPA.
Harding, Joanne L; Horswell, Stuart; Heliot, Claire; Armisen, Javier; Zimmerman, Lyle B; Luscombe, Nicholas M; Miska, Eric A; Hill, Caroline S
Small RNA control of gene expression is critical for developmental processes in vertebrate embryos. To determine the dynamics of small RNA expression and to uncover novel small RNAs in the early vertebrate embryo, we performed high-throughput sequencing of all small RNAs in Xenopus tropicalis embryos at three developmental time points and in dissected halves of gastrula embryos. This analysis allowed us to identify novel microRNAs and we show that microRNA expression is highly dynamic and spatially localized in early embryos. In addition, we have developed a microRNA prediction pipeline and demonstrate that it has the power to predict new miRNAs that are experimentally detectable in frogs, mice, and humans. By combining the small RNA sequencing with mRNA profiling at the different developmental stages, we identify a new class of small noncoding RNAs that we name siteRNAs, which align in clusters to introns of protein-coding genes. We show that siteRNAs are derived from remnants of transposable elements present in the introns. We find that genes containing clusters of siteRNAs are transcriptionally repressed as compared with all genes. Furthermore, we show that this is true for individual genes containing siteRNA clusters, and that these genes are enriched in specific repressive histone modifications. Our data thus suggest a new mechanism of siteRNA-mediated gene silencing in vertebrates, and provide an example of how mobile elements can affect gene regulation.
Moon, Dong Chan; Choi, Chul Hee; Lee, Jung Hwa; Choi, Chi-Won; Kim, Hye-Yeon; Park, Jeong Soon; Kim, Seung Il; Lee, Je Chul
Acinetobacter baumannii secretes outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) during both in vitro and in vivo growth, but the biogenesis mechanism by which A. baumannii produces OMVs remains undefined. Outer membrane protein A of A. baumannii (AbOmpA) is a major protein in the outer membrane and the C-terminus of AbOmpA interacts with diaminopimelate of peptidoglycan. This study investigated the role of AbOmpA in the biogenesis of A. baumannii OMVs. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to analyze OMV biogenesis in A. baumannii ATCC 19606T and an isogenic ΔAbOmpA mutant. OMV production was significantly increased in the ΔAbOmpA mutant compared to wild-type bacteria as demonstrated by quantitation of proteins and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) packaged in OMVs. LPS profiles prepared from OMVs from wild-type bacteria and the ΔAbOmpA mutant had identical patterns, but proteomic analysis showed different protein constituents in OMVs from wild-type bacteria compared to the ΔAbOmpA mutant. In conclusion, AbOmpA influences OMV biogenesis by controlling OMV production and protein composition.
Ehrmann, Ingrid; Dalgliesh, Caroline; Liu, Yilei; Danilenko, Marina; Crosier, Moira; Overman, Lynn; Arthur, Helen M.; Lindsay, Susan; Clowry, Gavin J.; Venables, Julian P.; Fort, Philippe; Elliott, David J.
The RNA binding protein T-STAR was created following a gene triplication 520–610 million years ago, which also produced its two parologs Sam68 and SLM-1. Here we have created a T-STAR null mouse to identify the endogenous functions of this RNA binding protein. Mice null for T-STAR developed normally and were fertile, surprisingly, given the high expression of T-STAR in the testis and the brain, and the known infertility and pleiotropic defects of Sam68 null mice. Using a transcriptome-wide search for splicing targets in the adult brain, we identified T-STAR protein as a potent splicing repressor of the alternatively spliced segment 4 (AS4) exons from each of the Neurexin1-3 genes, and exon 23 of the Stxbp5l gene. T-STAR protein was most highly concentrated in forebrain-derived structures like the hippocampus, which also showed maximal Neurexin1-3 AS4 splicing repression. In the absence of endogenous T-STAR protein, Nrxn1-3 AS4 splicing repression dramatically decreased, despite physiological co-expression of Sam68. In transfected cells Neurexin3 AS4 alternative splicing was regulated by either T-STAR or Sam68 proteins. In contrast, Neurexin2 AS4 splicing was only regulated by T-STAR, through a UWAA-rich response element immediately downstream of the regulated exon conserved since the radiation of bony vertebrates. The AS4 exons in the Nrxn1 and Nrxn3 genes were also associated with distinct patterns of conserved UWAA repeats. Consistent with an ancient mechanism of splicing control, human T-STAR protein was able to repress splicing inclusion of the zebrafish Nrxn3 AS4 exon. Although Neurexin1-3 and Stxbp5l encode critical synaptic proteins, T-STAR null mice had no detectable spatial memory deficits, despite an almost complete absence of AS4 splicing repression in the hippocampus. Our work identifies T-STAR as an ancient and potent tissue-specific splicing regulator that uses a concentration-dependent mechanism to co-ordinately regulate regional splicing patterns
Ehrmann, Ingrid; Dalgliesh, Caroline; Liu, Yilei; Danilenko, Marina; Crosier, Moira; Overman, Lynn; Arthur, Helen M; Lindsay, Susan; Clowry, Gavin J; Venables, Julian P; Fort, Philippe; Elliott, David J
The RNA binding protein T-STAR was created following a gene triplication 520-610 million years ago, which also produced its two parologs Sam68 and SLM-1. Here we have created a T-STAR null mouse to identify the endogenous functions of this RNA binding protein. Mice null for T-STAR developed normally and were fertile, surprisingly, given the high expression of T-STAR in the testis and the brain, and the known infertility and pleiotropic defects of Sam68 null mice. Using a transcriptome-wide search for splicing targets in the adult brain, we identified T-STAR protein as a potent splicing repressor of the alternatively spliced segment 4 (AS4) exons from each of the Neurexin1-3 genes, and exon 23 of the Stxbp5l gene. T-STAR protein was most highly concentrated in forebrain-derived structures like the hippocampus, which also showed maximal Neurexin1-3 AS4 splicing repression. In the absence of endogenous T-STAR protein, Nrxn1-3 AS4 splicing repression dramatically decreased, despite physiological co-expression of Sam68. In transfected cells Neurexin3 AS4 alternative splicing was regulated by either T-STAR or Sam68 proteins. In contrast, Neurexin2 AS4 splicing was only regulated by T-STAR, through a UWAA-rich response element immediately downstream of the regulated exon conserved since the radiation of bony vertebrates. The AS4 exons in the Nrxn1 and Nrxn3 genes were also associated with distinct patterns of conserved UWAA repeats. Consistent with an ancient mechanism of splicing control, human T-STAR protein was able to repress splicing inclusion of the zebrafish Nrxn3 AS4 exon. Although Neurexin1-3 and Stxbp5l encode critical synaptic proteins, T-STAR null mice had no detectable spatial memory deficits, despite an almost complete absence of AS4 splicing repression in the hippocampus. Our work identifies T-STAR as an ancient and potent tissue-specific splicing regulator that uses a concentration-dependent mechanism to co-ordinately regulate regional splicing patterns of
Erener, Suheda; Marwaha, Ashish; Tan, Rusung; Kieffer, Timothy J.
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that is clinically silent until the majority of β cells are destroyed. There is an unmet need for reliable and cost-effective biomarkers to predict and diagnose diabetes at an early stage. A number of stable microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported in serum and plasma and are now being investigated as biomarkers of different diseases. We measured the levels of 745 miRNAs in sera of children with recent-onset T1D and age-matched controls using locked nucleic acid–enhanced (LNA-enhanced) quantitative PCR profiling. Thirty-five miRNAs were significantly different between the groups, and 27 miRNAs were elevated in T1D. Good discriminating power was obtained for 6 miRNAs (miR-454-3p, miR-222-3p, miR-144-5p, miR-345-5p, miR-24-3p, and miR-140-5p), which were not elevated at later stages of diabetes. In silico pathway analysis, based on inferred miRNA target genes, associated glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis as well as PI3K/Akt, MAPK, and Wnt signaling pathways with early stages of T1D. Among the 27 upregulated miRNAs in T1D, 2 miRNAs significantly correlated with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), as did 5 of 8 downregulated miRNAs. A total of 134 miRNAs significantly correlated with HbA1c when stratifying hyperglycemia-induced miRNAs from T1D-specific miRNAs. In conclusion, we have identified a serum miRNA pattern of recent-onset T1D and signaling pathways that may be involved in its pathogenesis. PMID:28239651
Suh, Sung-Suk; Yoo, Ji Young; Nuovo, Gerard J.; Jeon, Young-Jun; Kim, Seokho; Lee, Tae Jin; Kim, Taewan; Bakàcs, Arianna; Alder, Hansjuerg; Kaur, Balveen; Aqeilan, Rami I.; Pichiorri, Flavia; Croce, Carlo M.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly implicated in regulating cancer initiation and progression. In this study, two miRNAs, miR-25 and -32, are identified as p53-repressed miRNAs by p53-dependent negative regulation of their transcriptional regulators, E2F1 and MYC. However, miR-25 and -32 result in p53 accumulation by directly targeting Mdm2 and TSC1, which are negative regulators of p53 and the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway, respectively, leading to inhibition of cellular proliferation through cell cycle arrest. Thus, there is a recurrent autoregulatory circuit involving expression of p53, E2F1, and MYC to regulate the expression of miR-25 and -32, which are miRNAs that, in turn, control p53 accumulation. Significantly, overexpression of transfected miR-25 and -32 in glioblastoma multiforme cells inhibited growth of the glioblastoma multiforme cells in mouse brain in vivo. The results define miR-25 and -32 as positive regulators of p53, underscoring their role in tumorigenesis in glioblastoma. PMID:22431589
Suh, Sung-Suk; Yoo, Ji Young; Nuovo, Gerard J; Jeon, Young-Jun; Kim, Seokho; Lee, Tae Jin; Kim, Taewan; Bakàcs, Arianna; Alder, Hansjuerg; Kaur, Balveen; Aqeilan, Rami I; Pichiorri, Flavia; Croce, Carlo M
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly implicated in regulating cancer initiation and progression. In this study, two miRNAs, miR-25 and -32, are identified as p53-repressed miRNAs by p53-dependent negative regulation of their transcriptional regulators, E2F1 and MYC. However, miR-25 and -32 result in p53 accumulation by directly targeting Mdm2 and TSC1, which are negative regulators of p53 and the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway, respectively, leading to inhibition of cellular proliferation through cell cycle arrest. Thus, there is a recurrent autoregulatory circuit involving expression of p53, E2F1, and MYC to regulate the expression of miR-25 and -32, which are miRNAs that, in turn, control p53 accumulation. Significantly, overexpression of transfected miR-25 and -32 in glioblastoma multiforme cells inhibited growth of the glioblastoma multiforme cells in mouse brain in vivo. The results define miR-25 and -32 as positive regulators of p53, underscoring their role in tumorigenesis in glioblastoma.
Kato, Mitsuo; Castro, Nancy E; Natarajan, Rama
The incidence of diabetes is escalating worldwide and, consequently, this has become a major health care problem. Moreover, both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with significantly accelerated rates of microvascular complications, including retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy, as well as macrovascular complications such as atherosclerotic cardiovascular and hypertensive diseases. Key factors have been implicated in leading to these complications, including hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, advanced glycation end products, growth factors, inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, and related increases in cellular oxidant stress (including mitochondrial) and endoplasmic reticulum stress. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the high incidence of diabetic complications, which often progress despite glycemic control, are still not fully understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that have elicited immense interest in recent years. They repress target gene expression via posttranscriptional mechanisms and have diverse cellular and biological functions. Herein, we discuss the role of miRNAs in the pathobiology of various diabetic complications, their involvement in oxidant stress, and also the potential use of differentially expressed miRNAs as novel diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
Syed, Deeba N; Khan, Mohammad Imran; Shabbir, Maria; Mukhtar, Hasan
Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, an ubiquitous environmental carcinogen, is classified depending on the wavelength, into three regions; short-wave UVC (200-280 nm), mid-wave UVB (280-320 nm), and long-wave UVA (320- 400 nm). The human skin, constantly exposed to UV radiation, particularly the UVB and UVA components, is vulnerable to its various deleterious effects such as erythema, photoaging, immunosuppression and cancer. To counteract these and for the maintenance of genomic integrity, cells have developed several protective mechanisms including DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The network of damage sensors, signal transducers, mediators, and various effector proteins is regulated through changes in gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a group of small non-coding RNAs, act as posttranscriptional regulators through binding to complementary sequences in the 3´-untranslated region of their target genes, resulting in either translational repression or target degradation. Recent studies show that miRNAs add an additional layer of complexity to the intricately controlled cellular responses to UV radiation. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the role of miRNAs in the regulation of the human skin response upon exposure to UV radiation.
Nosirov, Bakhtiyor; Billaud, Joël; Vandenbon, Alexis; Diez, Diego; Wijaya, Edward; Ishii, Ken J; Teraguchi, Shunsuke; Standley, Daron M
Purpose Evidence suggests that circulating serum microRNAs (miRNAs) might preferentially target immune-related mRNAs. If this were the case, we hypothesized that immune-related mRNAs would have more predicted serum miRNA binding sites than other mRNAs and, reciprocally, that serum miRNAs would have more immune-related mRNA targets than non-serum miRNAs. Materials and methods We developed a consensus target predictor using the random forest framework and calculated the number of predicted miRNA–mRNA interactions in various subsets of miRNAs (serum, non-serum) and mRNAs (immune related, nonimmune related). Results Immune-related mRNAs were predicted to be targeted by serum miRNA more than other mRNAs. Moreover, serum miRNAs were predicted to target many more immune-related mRNA targets than non-serum miRNAs; however, these two biases in immune-related mRNAs and serum miRNAs appear to be completely independent. Conclusion Immune-related mRNAs have more miRNA binding sites in general, not just for serum miRNAs; likewise, serum miRNAs target many more mRNAs than non-serum miRNAs overall, regardless of whether they are immune related or not. Nevertheless, these two independent phenomena result in a significantly larger number of predicted serum miRNA–immune mRNA interactions than would be expected by chance. PMID:28203094
Pan, Weihua; Xin, Ping; Clawson, Gary A.
The importance of microRNAs (miRs) in control of gene expression is now clearly recognized. While individual microRNAs are thought to target hundreds of disparate mRNAs via imperfect base pairing, little is known about the characteristics of miR target sites. Here we show that the miRs can be aligned with empirically identified accessible sites in a target RNA (Cytokeratin 19, KRT), and that some of the aligned miRs functionally down-regulate KRT expression post-transcriptionally. We employed an RNase-H-based random library selection protocol to identify accessible sites in KRT RNA. We then aligned the Sanger Institute database collection of human miRs to KRT mRNA, and also aligned them using the web-based MicroInspector program. Most miRs aligned with the accessible sites identified empirically; those not aligned with the empirically identified sites also functioned effectively in RNase-H-based assays. Similar results were obtained with a second target RNA (Mammoglobin). Transient transfection assays established that some of the miRs which aligned with KRT significantly down-regulated it at the protein level, with no effect on RNA level. The functionally effective miRs aligned within the coding region of KRT, whereas a number of miRs which aligned with the 3′-untranslated region did not produce down-regulation. PMID:19998415
Luk, Alfred Chun-Shui; Chan, Wai-Yee; Rennert, Owen M; Lee, Tin-Lap
Spermatogenesis is a complex developmental process in which undifferentiated spermatogonia are differentiated into spermatocytes and spermatids through two rounds of meiotic division and finally giving rise to mature spermatozoa (sperm). These processes involve many testis- or male germ cell-specific gene products that undergo strict developmental regulations. As a result, identifying critical, regulatory genes controlling spermatogenesis provide the clues not only to the regulatory mechanism of spermatogenesis at the molecular level, but also to the identification of candidate genes for infertility or contraceptives development. Despite the biological importance in male germ cell development, the underlying mechanisms of stage-specific gene regulation and cellular transition during spermatogenesis remain largely elusive. Previous genomic studies on transcriptome profiling were largely limited to protein-coding genes. Importantly, protein-coding genes only account for a small percentage of transcriptome; the majority are noncoding transcripts that do not translate into proteins. Although small noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as microRNAs, siRNAs, and Piwi-interacting RNAs are extensively investigated in male germ cell development, the role of long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), commonly defined as ncRNAs longer than 200 bp, is relatively unexplored. Herein, we summarize recent transcriptome studies on spermatogenesis and show examples that a subset of noncoding transcript population, known as lncRNAs, constitutes a novel regulatory target in spermatogenesis.
Liang, Pei; Feng, Bing; Zhou, Xuguo; Gao, Xiwu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small RNAs involved in various biological processes through negative regulation of mRNAs at the post-transcriptional level. Although miRNA profiles have been documented in over two dozen insect species, few are agricultural pests. In this study, both conserved and novel miRNAs in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., a devastating insect pest of cruciferous crops worldwide, were documented. High-throughput sequencing of a small RNA library constructed from a mixed life stages of P. xylostella, including eggs, 1st to 4th (last) instar larvae, pupae and adults, identified 384 miRNAs, of which 174 were P. xylostella specific. In addition, temporal expressions of 234 miRNAs at various developmental stages were investigated using a customized microarray analysis. Among the 91 differentially expressed miRNAs, qRT-PCR analysis was used to validate highly expressed miRNAs at each stage. The combined results not only systematically document miRNA profiles in an agriculturally important insect pest, but also provide molecular targets for future functional analysis and, ultimately, genetic-based pest control practice.
Wang, Ming; Weiberg, Arne; Lin, Feng-Mao; Thomma, Bart; Huang, Hsien-Da; Jin, Hailing
Aggressive fungal pathogens such as Botrytis and Verticillium spp. cause severe crop losses worldwide. We recently discovered that Botrytis cinerea delivers small RNAs (Bc-sRNAs) into plant cells to silence host immunity genes. Such sRNA effectors are mostly produced by B. cinerea Dicer-like protein 1 (Bc-DCL1) and Bc-DCL2. Here we show that expressing sRNAs that target Bc-DCL1 and Bc-DCL2 in Arabidopsis and tomato silences Bc-DCL genes and attenuates fungal pathogenicity and growth, exemplifying bidirectional cross-kingdom RNAi and sRNA trafficking between plants and fungi. This strategy can be adapted to simultaneously control multiple fungal diseases. We also show that Botrytis can take up external sRNAs and double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). Applying sRNAs or dsRNAs that target Botrytis DCL1 and DCL2 genes on the surface of fruits, vegetables, and flowers significantly inhibits gray mold disease. Such pathogen gene-targeting RNAs represent a new generation of environmentally-friendly fungicides. PMID:27643635
Sharma, Vandana; Yamamura, Asami; Yokobayashi, Yohei
It has become increasingly evident that noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs) play a significant and global role in bacterial gene regulation. A majority of the trans-acting sRNAs in bacteria interact with the 5' untranslated region (UTR) and/or the translation initiation region of the targeted mRNAs via imperfect base pairing, resulting in reduced translation efficiency and/or mRNA stability. Additionally, bacterial sRNAs often contain distinct scaffolds that recruit RNA chaperones such as Hfq to facilitate gene regulation. In this study, we describe a strategy to engineer artificial sRNAs that can regulate desired endogenous genes in Escherichia coli. Using a fluorescent reporter gene that was translationally fused to a native 5' mRNA leader sequence, active artificial sRNAs were screened from libraries in which natural sRNA scaffolds were fused to a randomized antisense domain. Artificial sRNAs that posttranscriptionally repress two endogenous genes ompF and fliC were isolated and characterized. We anticipate that the artificial sRNAs will be useful for dynamic control and fine-tuning of endogenous gene expression in bacteria for applications in synthetic biology.
Sanghvi, Viraj R.; Mavrakis, Konstantinos J.; Van der Meulen, Joni; Boice, Michael; Wolfe, Andrew L.; Carty, Mark; Mohan, Prathibha; Rondou, Pieter; Socci, Nicholas D.; Benoit, Yves; Taghon, Tom; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; Leslie, Christina S.; Speleman, Frank; Wendel, Hans-Guido
The posttranscriptional control of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) is highly redundant, and compensatory effects limit the consequences of the inactivation of individual miRNAs. This implies that only a few miRNAs can function as effective tumor suppressors. It is also the basis of our strategy to define functionally relevant miRNA target genes that are not under redundant control by other miRNAs. We identified a functionally interconnected group of miRNAs that exhibited a reduced abundance in leukemia cells from patients with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). To pinpoint relevant target genes, we applied a machine learning approach to eliminate genes that were subject to redundant miRNA-mediated control and to identify those genes that were exclusively targeted by tumor-suppressive miRNAs. This strategy revealed the convergence of a small group of tumor suppressor miRNAs on the Myb oncogene, as well as their effects on HBP1, which encodes a transcription factor. The expression of both genes was increased in T-ALL patient samples, and each gene promoted the progression of T-ALL in mice. Hence, our systematic analysis of tumor suppressor miRNA action identified a widespread mechanism of oncogene activation in T-ALL. PMID:25406379
The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the current understanding on the role of microRNAs in mediating genetic responses to air pollutants and to contemplate on how these responses ultimately control susceptibility to ambient air pollution. Morbidity and mortality ...
Wek, H.Y. Jiang, T.G. Anthony , Coping with stress: eIF2 kinases and translational control, Biochem. Soc. Trans. 34 (2006) 7–11.  S.H. Back, R.J...Rossell, E. Marti, L. Ribas de Pouplana, Chimeric tRNAs as tools to induce proteome damage and identify components of stress responses, Nucleic Acids
Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Xuepeng; Bradley, Janette E.
miRNAs, a subclass of small regulatory RNAs, are present from ancient unicellular protozoans to parasitic helminths and parasitic arthropods. The miRNA-silencing mechanism appears, however, to be absent in a number of protozoan parasites. Protozoan miRNAs and components of their silencing machinery possess features different from other eukaryotes, providing some clues on the evolution of the RNA-induced silencing machinery. miRNA functions possibly associate with neoblast biology, development, physiology, infection and immunity of parasites. Parasite infection can alter host miRNA expression that can favor both parasite clearance and infection. miRNA pathways are, thus, a potential target for the therapeutic control of parasitic diseases. PMID:23392243
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major macrovascular complication of diabetes mellitus. Recently, although CVD morbidity and mortality have decreased as a result of comprehensive control of CVD risk factors, CVD remains the leading cause of death of patients with diabetes in many countries, indicating the potential underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. MicroRNAs are a class of noncoding, single-stranded RNA molecules that are involved in β-cell function, insulin secretion, insulin resistance, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue and which play an important role in glucose homeostasis and the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Here, we review recent progress in research on microRNAs in endothelial cell and vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction, macrophage and platelet activation, lipid metabolism abnormality, and cardiomyocyte repolarization in diabetes mellitus. We also review the progress of microRNAs as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets of CVD in patients with diabetes. PMID:28299324
Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Xuepeng; Bradley, Janette E
miRNAs, a subclass of small regulatory RNAs, are present from ancient unicellular protozoans to parasitic helminths and parasitic arthropods. The miRNA-silencing mechanism appears, however, to be absent in a number of protozoan parasites. Protozoan miRNAs and components of their silencing machinery possess features different from other eukaryotes, providing some clues on the evolution of the RNA-induced silencing machinery. miRNA functions possibly associate with neoblast biology, development, physiology, infection and immunity of parasites. Parasite infection can alter host miRNA expression that can favor both parasite clearance and infection. miRNA pathways are, thus, a potential target for the therapeutic control of parasitic diseases.
Colameco, Savannah; Elliot, Marie A
Antibiotics inhibit a wide range of essential processes in the bacterial cell, including replication, transcription, translation and cell wall synthesis. In many instances, these antibiotics exert their effects through association with non-coding RNAs. This review highlights many classical antibiotic targets (e.g. rRNAs and the ribosome), explores a number of emerging targets (e.g. tRNAs, RNase P, riboswitches and small RNAs), and discusses the future directions and challenges associated with non-coding RNAs as antibiotic targets.
Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been found to have roles in a great variety of processes, including transcriptional regulation, chromosome replication, RNA processing and modification, messenger RNA stability and translation, and even protein degradation and translocation. Recent studies indicate that ncRNAs are far more abundant and important than initially imagined. These findings raise several fundamental questions: How many ncRNAs are encoded by a genome? Given the absence of a diagnostic open reading frame, how can these genes be identified? How can all the functions of ncRNAs be elucidated?
Li, Dandan; Wang, Yanhong; Zhang, Kun; Jiao, Zhujin; Zhu, Xiaopeng; Skogerboe, Geir; Guo, Xiangqian; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Bi, Lijun; Huang, Yongping; Dong, Shuanglin; Chen, Runsheng; Kan, Yunchao
Accumulating evidences show that small non-protein coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play important roles in development, stress response and other cellular processes. The silkworm is an important model for studies on insect genetics and control of lepidopterous pests. Here, we have performed the first systematic identification and analysis of intermediate size ncRNAs (50–500 nt) in the silkworm. We identified 189 novel ncRNAs, including 141 snoRNAs, six snRNAs, three tRNAs, one SRP and 38 unclassified ncRNAs. Forty ncRNAs showed significantly altered expression during silkworm development or across specific stage transitions. Genomic comparisons revealed that 123 of these ncRNAs are potentially silkworm-specific. Analysis of the genomic organization of the ncRNA loci showed that 32.62% of the novel snoRNA loci are intergenic, and that all the intronic snoRNAs follow the pattern of one-snoRNA-per-intron. Target site analysis predicted a total of 95 2′-O-methylation and pseudouridylation modification sites of rRNAs, snRNAs and tRNAs. Together, these findings provide new clues for future functional study of ncRNA during insect development and evolution. PMID:21227919
Li, Dandan; Wang, Yanhong; Zhang, Kun; Jiao, Zhujin; Zhu, Xiaopeng; Skogerboe, Geir; Guo, Xiangqian; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Bi, Lijun; Huang, Yongping; Dong, Shuanglin; Chen, Runsheng; Kan, Yunchao
Accumulating evidences show that small non-protein coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play important roles in development, stress response and other cellular processes. The silkworm is an important model for studies on insect genetics and control of lepidopterous pests. Here, we have performed the first systematic identification and analysis of intermediate size ncRNAs (50-500 nt) in the silkworm. We identified 189 novel ncRNAs, including 141 snoRNAs, six snRNAs, three tRNAs, one SRP and 38 unclassified ncRNAs. Forty ncRNAs showed significantly altered expression during silkworm development or across specific stage transitions. Genomic comparisons revealed that 123 of these ncRNAs are potentially silkworm-specific. Analysis of the genomic organization of the ncRNA loci showed that 32.62% of the novel snoRNA loci are intergenic, and that all the intronic snoRNAs follow the pattern of one-snoRNA-per-intron. Target site analysis predicted a total of 95 2'-O-methylation and pseudouridylation modification sites of rRNAs, snRNAs and tRNAs. Together, these findings provide new clues for future functional study of ncRNA during insect development and evolution.
Portius, Dorothea; Sobolewski, Cyril
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of ligand-dependent nuclear receptors, which control the transcription of genes involved in energy homeostasis and inflammation and cell proliferation/differentiation. Alterations of PPARs' expression and/or activity are commonly associated with metabolic disorders occurring with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and fatty liver disease, as well as with inflammation and cancer. Emerging evidence now indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs), a family of small noncoding RNAs, which fine-tune gene expression, play a significant role in the pathophysiological mechanisms regulating the expression and activity of PPARs. Herein, the regulation of PPARs by miRNAs is reviewed in the context of metabolic disorders, inflammation, and cancer. The reciprocal control of miRNAs expression by PPARs, as well as the therapeutic potential of modulating PPAR expression/activity by pharmacological compounds targeting miRNA, is also discussed. PMID:28167956
Voglova, K; Bezakova, J; Herichova, Iveta
Micro RNAs (miRNAs) represent a newly discovered class of regulatory molecules in the human body. miRNA is a short double stranded RNA sequence interfering with mRNA, causing in most cases, inhibition of translation. Synthesis of miRNAs shows an increasing developmental pattern and postnatally miRNAs are synthesized in all cells possessing transcriptional machinery. miRNAs usually target several mRNAs and therefore conclusive evidences proving their functions are not always ease to be acquired. In spite of this difficulty, functions of miRNAs were firmly established in the development, the cardiovascular and neural diseases, and cancer. Many miRNAs have been reported to be associated with physiological state of cells and/or tissues. This finding becomes fundamental, especially when consider that these miRNAs can be released from cell into intracellular space or circulation. Correlation between miRNA production in tissues and its contribution to multisource miRNA pool in the circulation is in a focus of biomarker-oriented researchers. Recently, circulating miRNAs have been suggested to be applicable as biomarkers in several types of cancer, cardiovascular injury, and diabetes. Role of miRNAs in the organism intercellular signaling is still under the broad investigation. Several miRNA mimics, intended for treatment of disease, are being currently tested in the clinical trials.
Zhang, Meng; Du, Xiang
Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have attracted much attention in cancer research field. They are involved in cellular development, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The dysregulation of ncRNAs has been reported in tumor initiation, progression, invasion and metastasis in various cancers, including gastric cancer (GC). In the past few years, an accumulating body of evidence has deepened our understanding of ncRNAs, and several emerging ncRNAs have been identified, such as PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs). The competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks include mRNAs, microRNAs, long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) and circRNAs, which play critical roles in the tumorigenesis of GC. This review summarizes the recent hotspots of ncRNAs involved in GC pathobiology and their potential applications in GC. Finally, we briefly discuss the advances in the ceRNA network in GC. PMID:27547004
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been recognized in recent years as key regulators of diverse cellular processes. Genome-wide large-scale projects have uncovered thousands of lncRNAs in many model organisms. Large intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are lncRNAs that are transcribed from intergeni...
Petri, Rebecca; Malmevik, Josephine; Fasching, Liana; Åkerblom, Malin; Jakobsson, Johan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In the brain, a large number of miRNAs are expressed and there is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that miRNAs are essential for brain development and neuronal function. Conditional knockout studies of the core components in the miRNA biogenesis pathway, such as Dicer and DGCR8, have demonstrated a crucial role for miRNAs during the development of the central nervous system. Furthermore, mice deleted for specific miRNAs and miRNA-clusters demonstrate diverse functional roles for different miRNAs during the development of different brain structures. miRNAs have been proposed to regulate cellular functions such as differentiation, proliferation and fate-determination of neural progenitors. In this review we summarise the findings from recent studies that highlight the importance of miRNAs in brain development with a focus on the mouse model. We also discuss the technical limitations of current miRNA studies that still limit our understanding of this family of non-coding RNAs and propose the use of novel and refined technologies that are needed in order to fully determine the impact of specific miRNAs in brain development. - Highlights: • miRNAs are essential for brain development and neuronal function. • KO of Dicer is embryonically lethal. • Conditional Dicer KO results in defective proliferation or increased apoptosis. • KO of individual miRNAs or miRNA families is necessary to determine function.
Riley, Kasandra J; Rabinowitz, Gabrielle S; Yario, Therese A; Luna, Joseph M; Darnell, Robert B; Steitz, Joan A
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) controls gene expression to transform human B cells and maintain viral latency. High-throughput sequencing and crosslinking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP) identified mRNA targets of 44 EBV and 310 human microRNAs (miRNAs) in Jijoye (Latency III) EBV-transformed B cells. While 25% of total cellular miRNAs are viral, only three viral mRNAs, all latent transcripts, are targeted. Thus, miRNAs do not control the latent/lytic switch by targeting EBV lytic genes. Unexpectedly, 90% of the 1664 human 3′-untranslated regions targeted by the 12 most abundant EBV miRNAs are also targeted by human miRNAs via distinct binding sites. Half of these are targets of the oncogenic miR-17∼92 miRNA cluster and associated families, including mRNAs that regulate transcription, apoptosis, Wnt signalling, and the cell cycle. Reporter assays confirmed the functionality of several EBV and miR-17 family miRNA-binding sites in EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), EBV BHRF1, and host CAPRIN2 mRNAs. Our extensive list of EBV and human miRNA targets implicates miRNAs in the control of EBV latency and illuminates viral miRNA function in general. PMID:22473208
Gopal, Ajaykumar; Egecioglu, Defne E.; Yoffe, Aron M.; Ben-Shaul, Avinoam; Rao, Ayala L. N.; Knobler, Charles M.; Gelbart, William M.
A majority of viruses are composed of long single-stranded genomic RNA molecules encapsulated by protein shells with diameters of just a few tens of nanometers. We examine the extent to which these viral RNAs have evolved to be physically compact molecules to facilitate encapsulation. Measurements of equal-length viral, non-viral, coding and non-coding RNAs show viral RNAs to have among the smallest sizes in solution, i.e., the highest gel-electrophoretic mobilities and the smallest hydrodynamic radii. Using graph-theoretical analyses we demonstrate that their sizes correlate with the compactness of branching patterns in predicted secondary structure ensembles. The density of branching is determined by the number and relative positions of 3-helix junctions, and is highly sensitive to the presence of rare higher-order junctions with 4 or more helices. Compact branching arises from a preponderance of base pairing between nucleotides close to each other in the primary sequence. The density of branching represents a degree of freedom optimized by viral RNA genomes in response to the evolutionary pressure to be packaged reliably. Several families of viruses are analyzed to delineate the effects of capsid geometry, size and charge stabilization on the selective pressure for RNA compactness. Compact branching has important implications for RNA folding and viral assembly. PMID:25188030
Stříteská, Jana; Nekvindová, Jana; Cerný, Vladimír; Palička, Vladimír
MicroRNAs are short non-coding ribonucleic acid molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level thus affecting important physiological as well as pathophysiological processes in the organism, for example cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and metabolism. They are involved in pathogenesis of many diseases including cancer. Many microRNAs are tissue or organ-specific which implies their possible potential as biomarkers or maybe even therapeutical agents as documented by microRNA research interest rising exponentially during last years. Among all, microRNAs are important also for physiological function of the kidney and they are involved in various renal disorders. Today research is focused mainly on renal and urinary tract carcinogenesis, acute kidney injury, chronic renal diseases (polycystic kidney disease) or renal complications of systemic diseases such as diabetic or hypertension nephropathy and autoimmune kidney injury including acute allograft rejection after kidney transplantation. The review summarizes current information about microRNA effect on kidney development and function and also on the most common kidney diseases.
Gopal, Ajaykumar; Egecioglu, Defne E; Yoffe, Aron M; Ben-Shaul, Avinoam; Rao, Ayala L N; Knobler, Charles M; Gelbart, William M
A majority of viruses are composed of long single-stranded genomic RNA molecules encapsulated by protein shells with diameters of just a few tens of nanometers. We examine the extent to which these viral RNAs have evolved to be physically compact molecules to facilitate encapsulation. Measurements of equal-length viral, non-viral, coding and non-coding RNAs show viral RNAs to have among the smallest sizes in solution, i.e., the highest gel-electrophoretic mobilities and the smallest hydrodynamic radii. Using graph-theoretical analyses we demonstrate that their sizes correlate with the compactness of branching patterns in predicted secondary structure ensembles. The density of branching is determined by the number and relative positions of 3-helix junctions, and is highly sensitive to the presence of rare higher-order junctions with 4 or more helices. Compact branching arises from a preponderance of base pairing between nucleotides close to each other in the primary sequence. The density of branching represents a degree of freedom optimized by viral RNA genomes in response to the evolutionary pressure to be packaged reliably. Several families of viruses are analyzed to delineate the effects of capsid geometry, size and charge stabilization on the selective pressure for RNA compactness. Compact branching has important implications for RNA folding and viral assembly.
This graph shows the chemical composition of the rock at Gusev Crater dubbed 'Mazatzal' after it was brushed and ground by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's rock abrasion tool. The data, taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer over the last few sols, show that the amount of chlorine and sulfur tri-oxide in Mazatzal first increased after brushing, then diminished after grinding. The interior of the rock appears to have the same chemical make-up as other volcanic or basalt rocks studied in the Gusev Crater area ('Adirondack' and 'Humphrey'). Its outer coating or rind, on the other hand, appears to be of a different constitution. Scientists are still puzzling out the implications of these data.The larger symbols on the graph represent inferred rock compositions, while the smaller symbols are actual data points. Observations were made at the target dubbed 'New York' on Mazatzal.
Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J; Campbell, Christian X
An outer rim seal arrangement (10), including: an annular rim (70) centered about a longitudinal axis (30) of a rotor disc (31), extending fore and having a fore-end (72), an outward-facing surface (74), and an inward-facing surface (76); a lower angel wing (62) extending aft from a base of a turbine blade (22) and having an aft end (64) disposed radially inward of the rim inward-facing surface to define a lower angel wing seal gap (80); an upper angel wing (66) extending aft from the turbine blade base and having an aft end (68) disposed radially outward of the rim outward-facing surface to define a upper angel wing seal gap (80, 82); and guide vanes (100) disposed on the rim inward-facing surface in the lower angel wing seal gap. Pumping fins (102) may be disposed on the upper angel wing seal aft end in the upper angel wing seal gap.
Smith, Neal A.; Dyson, Rosemary J.
This study assessed human kinetics in relation to golf shoe outer sole design features during the golf swing using a driver club by measuring both within the shoe, and beneath the shoe at the natural grass interface. Three different shoes were assessed: metal 7- spike shoe, alternative 7-spike shoe, and a flat soled shoe. In-shoe plantar pressure data were recorded using Footscan RS International pressure insoles and sampling at 500 Hz. Simultaneously ground reaction force at the shoe outer sole was measured using 2 natural grass covered Kistler force platforms and 1000 Hz data acquisition. Video recording of the 18 right-handed golfers at 200 Hz was undertaken while the golfer performed 5 golf shots with his own driver in each type of shoe. Front foot (nearest to shot direction) maximum vertical force and torque were greater than at the back foot, and there was no significant difference related to the shoe type. Wearing the metal spike shoe when using a driver was associated with more torque generation at the back foot (p < 0. 05) than when the flat soled shoe was worn. Within shoe regional pressures differed significantly with golf shoe outer sole design features (p < 0.05). Comparison of the metal spike and alternative spike shoe results provided indications of the quality of regional traction on the outer sole. Potential golf shoe outer sole design features and traction were presented in relation to phases of the golf swing movement. Application of two kinetic measurement methods identified that moderated (adapted) muscular control of foot and body movement may be induced by golf shoe outer sole design features. Ground reaction force measures inform comparisons of overall shoe functional performance, and insole pressure measurements inform comparisons of the underfoot conditions induced by specific regions of the golf shoe outer sole. Key points Assessments of within golf shoe pressures and beneath shoe forces at the natural grass interface were conducted
Scattergood, Thomas W.
Various aspects were studied of past or present chemistry in the atmospheres of the outer planets and their satellites using lab simulations. Three areas were studied: (1) organic chemistry induced by kinetically hot hydrogen atoms in the region of Jupiter's atmosphere containing the ammonia cirrus clouds; (2) the conversion of NH3 into N2 by plasmas associated with entry of meteors and other objects into the atmosphere of early Titan; and (3) the synthesis of simple hydrocarbons and HCN by lightning in mixtures containing N2, CH4, and NH3 representing the atmospheres of Titan and the outer planets. The results showed that: (1) hot H2 atoms formed from the photodissociation of NH3 in Jupiter's atmosphere could account for some of the atmospheric chemistry in the ammonia cirrus cloud region; (2) the thermalization of hot H2 atoms in atmospheres predominated by molecular H is not as rapid as predicted by elastic collision theory; (3) the net quantum loss of NH3 in the presence of a 200 fold excess of H2 is 0.02, much higher than was expected from the amount of H2 present; (4) the conversion of NH3 into N2 in plasmas associated with infalling meteors is very efficient and rapid, and could account for most of the N2 present on Titan; (5) the yields of C2H2 and HCN from lightning induced chemistry in mixtures of CH4 and N2 is consistent with quenched thermodynamic models of the discharge core; and (6) photolysis induced by the UV light emitted by the gases in the hot plasmas may account for some, if not most, of the excess production of C2H6 and the more complex hydrocarbons.
Jorge, Karina T O S; Souza, Renan P; Assis, Marieta T A; Araújo, Marcelo G; Locati, Massimo; Jesus, Amélia M R; Baptista, Ida M F D; Lima, Cristiano X; Teixeira, Antônio L; Teixeira, Mauro M; Soriani, Frederico M
Leprosy is an important cause of disability in the developing world. Early diagnosis is essential to allow cure and interrupt transmission of this infection. MiRNAs are important factors for host-pathogen interaction and they have been identified as biomarkers for various infectious diseases. The expression profile of 377 microRNAs were analyzed by TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA) in skin lesions of tuberculoid and lepromatous leprosy patients, as well as skin specimens from healthy controls. In a second step, sixteen microRNAs were selected for validation experiments with qRT-PCR in skin samples from new individuals. Principal component analysis followed by logistic regression model and ROC curve analysis were performed to evaluate the diagnostic potential of selected miRNAs. Four patterns of differential expression were identified in TLDA experiment suggesting a diagnostic potential of miRNAs in leprosy. After validation experiments, a combination of four miRNAs (miR-101, miR-196b, miR-27b, miR-29c) was revealed as able to discriminate healthy control and leprosy patients with 80% sensitivity and 91% specificity. This set of miRNAs was also able to discriminate lepromatous and tuberculoid patients with sensitivity of 83% and 80% of specificity. In this work, it was possible to identify a set of miRNAs with good diagnostic potential for leprosy.
Wang, Dadong; Tan, Jingwang; Xu, Yong; Tan, Xianglong; Han, Mingming; Tu, Yuliang; Zhu, Ziman; Zen, Jianping; Dou, Chunqing; Cai, Shouwang
The aim of the study is to identify the differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples and controls and provide new diagnostic potential miRNAs for HCC. The miRNAs expression profile data GSE20077 included 7 HCC samples, 1 HeLa sample and 3 controls. Differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs) were identified by t-test and wilcox test. The miRNA with significantly differential expression was chosen for further analysis. Target genes for this miRNA were selected using TargetScan and miRbase database. STRING software was applied to construct the target genes interaction network and topology analysis was carried out to identify the hub gene in the network. And we identified the mechanism for affecting miRNA function. A total of 54 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified, in which there were 13 miRNAs published to be related to HCC. The differentially expressed hsa-miR-106b was chosen for further analysis and PTPRT (Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase T) was its potential target gene. The target genes interaction network was constructed among 33 genes, in which PTPRT was the hub gene. We got the conclusion that the differentially expressed hsa-miR-106b may play an important role in the development of HCC by regulating the expression of its potential target gene PT-PRT.
Ding, Enmin; Zhao, Qiuni; Bai, Ying; Xu, Ming; Pan, Liping; Liu, Qingdong; Wang, Bosheng; Song, Xianping; Wang, Jun; Chen, Lin
Background Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted interests as non-invasive biomarkers of physiological and pathological conditions. Several studies have examined the potential effects of mercury exposure on miRNAs expression profiles of general population environmentally exposed to mercury. The objective is to identify mercury-related miRNAs of female workers occupationally exposed to mercury. Methods In this case-control study, we used a microarray assay to detect the miRNA expression profiles in pooled plasma samples between (I) chronic mercury poisoning group; (II) mercury absorbing group and (III) control group in the discovery stage. Each group has ten individuals. In addition, we conducted a validation of eight candidate miRNAs in the same 30 workers by quantitative real-time PCR. Results In the discovery stage, eight miRNAs were conformed following our selection criteria. In the validation stage, RT-PCR confirmed up-regulation of miR-92a and miR-486 in the mercury poisoned group (P<0.05) compared to the other two groups. The results were consistent with the microarray analysis. Conclusions Plasma miR-92a-3p and miR-486-5p might prove to be potential biomarkers to indicate responses to mercury exposure. However, further studies are necessary to prove the causal association between miRNAs changes and mercury exposure, and to determine whether these two miRNAs are clear biomarkers to mercury exposure. PMID:27162656
Introduction MicroRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous small noncoding RNAs regulating the activities of target mRNAs and cellular processes, are present in human plasma in a stable form. In this study, we investigated whether miRNAs are also stably present in synovial fluids and whether plasma and synovial fluid miRNAs could be biomarkers of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). Methods We measured concentrations of miR-16, miR-132, miR-146a, miR-155 and miR-223 in synovial fluid from patients with RA and OA, and those in plasma from RA, OA and healthy controls (HCs) by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, miRNAs in the conditioned medium of synovial tissues, monolayer fibroblast-like synoviocytes, and mononuclear cells were examined. Correlations between miRNAs and biomarkers or disease activities of RA were statistically examined. Results Synovial fluid miRNAs were present and as stable as plasma miRNAs for storage at -20°C and freeze-thawing from -20°C to 4°C. In RA and OA, synovial fluid concentrations of miR-16, miR-132, miR-146a, and miR-223 were significantly lower than their plasma concentrations, and there were no correlation between plasma and synovial fluid miRNAs. Interestingly, synovial tissues, fibroblast-like synoviocytes, and mononuclear cells secreted miRNAs in distinct patterns. The expression patterns of miRNAs in synovial fluid of OA were similar to miRNAs secreted by synovial tissues. Synovial fluid miRNAs of RA were likely to originate from synovial tissues and infiltrating cells. Plasma miR-132 of HC was significantly higher than that of RA or OA with high diagnosability. Synovial fluid concentrations of miR-16, miR-146a miR-155 and miR-223 of RA were significantly higher than those of OA. Plasma miRNAs or ratio of synovial fluid miRNAs to plasma miRNAs, including miR-16 and miR-146a, significantly correlated with tender joint counts and 28-joint Disease Activity Score. Conclusions Plasma miRNAs had
Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one of the functional non-coding small RNAs involved in the epigenetic control of the plant genome. Although plants contain both evolutionary conserved miRNAs and species-specific miRNAs within their genomes, computational methods often only identify evolutionary conserved miRNAs. The recent sequencing of the Brassica rapa genome enables us to identify miRNAs and their putative target genes. In this study, we sought to provide a more comprehensive prediction of B. rapa miRNAs based on high throughput small RNA deep sequencing. Results We sequenced small RNAs from five types of tissue: seedlings, roots, petioles, leaves, and flowers. By analyzing 2.75 million unique reads that mapped to the B. rapa genome, we identified 216 novel and 196 conserved miRNAs that were predicted to target approximately 20% of the genome’s protein coding genes. Quantitative analysis of miRNAs from the five types of tissue revealed that novel miRNAs were expressed in diverse tissues but their expression levels were lower than those of the conserved miRNAs. Comparative analysis of the miRNAs between the B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana genomes demonstrated that redundant copies of conserved miRNAs in the B. rapa genome may have been deleted after whole genome triplication. Novel miRNA members seemed to have spontaneously arisen from the B. rapa and A. thaliana genomes, suggesting the species-specific expansion of miRNAs. We have made this data publicly available in a miRNA database of B. rapa called BraMRs. The database allows the user to retrieve miRNA sequences, their expression profiles, and a description of their target genes from the five tissue types investigated here. Conclusions This is the first report to identify novel miRNAs from Brassica crops using genome-wide high throughput techniques. The combination of computational methods and small RNA deep sequencing provides robust predictions of miRNAs in the genome. The finding of numerous novel miRNAs
Ratkiewicz, A; Galasinski, W
Metabolic peculiarities of RNAs in the liver of the tumor bearing and in the tumor tissue were found. The synthesis of nuclear RNA in liver of tumor bearing rats is distinctly disordered in comparison to that of control rats. The level of 14C-orotic acid incorporation into RNA of cancer tissue is manifold lower than that into the liver RNA. The studies on turnover rate showed the metabolic heterogeneity of the nuclear RNAs. The part of them showed a short turnover, the other RNAs were degraded much slower.
Ratkiewicz, A; Galasinski, W
The characteristics of the ribonucleic acids of Guerin tumor was the subject of this work. The effect of tumor development on the structure of the ribonucleic acids in the liver of tumor bearing rats was studied. Some differences of nucleotide compositions in RNAs isolated from subcellular fractions of liver of control and tumor bearing rats and of cancer tissue were observed. The nucleotide compositions of cancer nuclear RNA is distinctly different from liver RNA. The changes in primary structure of liver RNAs due by development of tumor in rats may be result of metabolic peculiarities of these RNAs.
Loinger, Adiel; Shemla, Yael; Simon, Itamar; Margalit, Hanah; Biham, Ofer
Two major classes of small regulatory RNAs--small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNA (miRNAs)--are involved in a common RNA interference processing pathway. Small RNAs within each of these families were found to compete for limiting amounts of shared components, required for their biogenesis and processing. Association with Argonaute (Ago), the catalytic component of the RNA silencing complex, was suggested as the central mechanistic point in RNA interference machinery competition. Aiming to better understand the competition between small RNAs in the cell, we present a mathematical model and characterize a range of specific cell and experimental parameters affecting the competition. We apply the model to competition between miRNAs and study the change in the expression level of their target genes under a variety of conditions. We show quantitatively that the amount of Ago and miRNAs in the cell are dominant factors contributing greatly to the competition. Interestingly, we observe what to our knowledge is a novel type of competition that takes place when Ago is abundant, by which miRNAs with shared targets compete over them. Furthermore, we use the model to examine different interaction mechanisms that might operate in establishing the miRNA-Ago complexes, mainly those related to their stability and recycling. Our model provides a mathematical framework for future studies of competition effects in regulation mechanisms involving small RNAs.
Yang, Jennifer X; Rastetter, Raphael H; Wilhelm, Dagmar
For many years the main role of RNA, it addition to the housekeeping functions of for example tRNAs and rRNAs, was believed to be a messenger between the genes encoded on the DNA and the functional units of the cell, the proteins. This changed drastically with the identification of the first small non-coding RNA, termed microRNA, some 20 years ago. This discovery opened the field of regulatory RNAs with no or little protein-coding potential. Since then many new classes of regulatory non-coding RNAs, including endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs), PIWI-associated RNAs (piRNAs), and long non-coding RNAs, have been identified and we have made amazing progress in elucidating their expression, biogenesis, mechanisms and mode of action, and function in many, if not all, biological processes. In this chapter we provide an introduction about the current knowledge of the main classes of non-coding RNAs, what is know about their biogenesis and mechanism of function.
Chung, Arthur C.-K.; Lan, Hui Y.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous short non-coding RNAs that regulate most of important cellular processes by inhibiting gene expression through the post-transcriptional repression of their target mRNAs. In kidneys, miRNAs have been associated in renal development, homeostasis, and physiological functions. Results from clinical and experimental animal studies demonstrate that miRNAs play essential roles in the pathogenesis of various renal diseases. Chronic kidney diseases (CKD) is characterized by renal fibrosis. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is recognized as a major mediator of renal fibrosis because it is able to stimulate the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to impair normal kidney function. Recently, emerging evidence demonstrate the relationship between TGF-β signaling and miRNAs expression during renal diseases. TGF-β regulates expression of several microRNAs, such as miR-21, miR-192, miR-200, miR-433, and miR-29. MiR-21, miR-192, and miR-433 which are positively induced by TGF-β signaling play a pathological role in kidney diseases. In contrast, members in both miR-29 and miR-200 families which are inhibited by TGF-β signaling protect kidneys from renal fibrosis by suppressing the deposition of ECM and preventing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, respectively. Clinically, the presence of miRNAs in blood and urine has been examined to be early biomarkers for detecting renal diseases. From experimental animal studies of CKD, targeting microRNAs also provides evidence about therapeutic potential of miRNAs during renal diseases. Now, it comes to the stage to examine the exact mechanisms of miRNAs during the initiation and progression of renal diseases. Therefore, determining the function of miRNAs in renal fibrosis may facilitate the development of both early diagnosis and treatment of renal diseases. PMID:25750628
da Silva, Franciele Cascaes; Iop, Rodrigo da Rosa; Vietta, Giovanna Grunewald; Kair, Diego Alessandro; Gutierres Filho, Paulo José Barbosa; de Alvarenga, José Gustavo Souza; da Silva, Rudney
The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of blood microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in PD in humans. For this purpose the following electronic databases were selected: MEDLINE by Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science. The search strategy included the proposed descriptors in the Medical Subject Headings. There were no restrictions with respect to the language of the publication. In the study selection two independent reviewers initially evaluated studies that were identified by the search strategy according to titles and abstracts. The reviewers evaluated (also unassisted) the complete articles and selected studies according to the eligibility criteria specified above. Studies that were not in accordance with the adopted criteria were excluded according to the boundaries imposed by the search strategy. The following data were extracted from the selected studies: Publication identification, location where the study was conducted, study design, the sample size, the participants' characteristics, the miRNAs involved in PD, the miRNA detection and analysis method, and the type of miRNA dysregulation in PD. Through this systematic review of the literature published over the last 10 years, the expression of 91 different miRNAs were analyzed in the context of PD, with the expression of 39 of these miRNAs differing significantly between individuals with PD and healthy controls and/or between treated and untreated patients with PD. The miRNAs were extracted from mononuclear cells, leukocytes, plasma, serum and peripheral blood, and the majority of the studies used reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), which is considered to be the gold standard for miRNA analysis.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of evolutionary conserved non-coding RNAs of 19-22 nucleotides that function as negative regulators of gene expression. Originally discovered in C. elegans, miRNAs regulate fundamental cellular processes in diverse organisms, including the control of metabolic pathways involved in fat metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, energy homeostasis, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and inflammation. Several miRNAs have been identified as having a physiological role in tissues in which type 2 diabetes (T2DM) complications occur (liver, pancreas, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle). In addition, previous studies in animal models or in human tissues have demonstrated altered expression of microRNAs in insulin-sensitive tissues of T2DM patients suggesting a potential role for these small RNA molecules in the complications associated with the diabetic condition. However all these data assume that miRNAs reside and elicit their regulatory action within the producing cells. However, studies in the last 5years have demonstrated that miRNAs are not only found intracellularly, but are also detectable outside cells, including in various body fluids. This phenomenon raises questions about the biological functions of such extracellular miRNAs. The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge of the impact of extracellular miRNAs on the development of obesity-associated T2DM, and its related complications including endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction. It also considers the possible use of blood miRNAs as biomarkers for the detection of T2DM, classification of the disease and detection of associated pathologies.
Wu, Ying; Guo, Jing; Cai, Yimei; Gong, Xiaolin; Xiong, Xuemei; Qi, Wenwen; Pang, Qiuying; Wang, Xumin; Wang, Yang
Eutrema salsugineum, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, is a valuable halophytic model plant that has extreme tolerance to salinity. As posttranscriptional gene regulators, microRNAs (miRNAs) control gene expression and a variety of biological processes, including plant-stress responses. To identify salt-stress responsive miRNAs in E. salsugineum and reveal their possible roles in the adaptive response to salt stress, we chose the Solexa sequencing platform to screen the miRNAs in 4-week-old E. salsugineum seedlings under salt treatment. A total of 82 conserved miRNAs belonging to 27 miRNA families and 17 novel miRNAs were identified and 11 conserved miRNA families and 4 novel miRNAs showed a significant response to salt stress. To investigate the possible biological roles of miRNAs, 1060 potential targets were predicted. Moreover, 35 gene ontology (GO) categories and 1 pathway, including a few terms that were directly and indirectly related to salt stress, were significantly enriched in the salt-stress-responsive miRNAs targets. The relative expression analysis of six target genes was analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and showed a negative correlation with their corresponding miRNAs. Many stress regulatory and phytohormone regulatory cis-regulatory elements were widely present in the promoter region of the salt-responsive miRNA precursors. This study describes the large-scale characterization of E. salsugineum miRNAs and provides a useful resource for further understanding of miRNA functions in the regulation of the E. salsugineum salt-stress response.
Zorgani, Mohamed A.; Quentin, Roland; Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique
Streptococcal species are Gram-positive bacteria involved in severe and invasive diseases in humans and animals. Although, this group includes different pathogenic species involved in life-threatening infections for humans, it also includes beneficial species, such as Streptococcus thermophilus, which is used in yogurt production. In bacteria virulence factors are controlled by various regulatory networks including regulatory RNAs. For clearness and to develop logical thinking, we start this review with a revision of regulatory RNAs nomenclature. Previous reviews are mostly dealing with Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae regulatory RNAs. We especially focused our analysis on regulatory RNAs in Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus thermophilus and other less studied Streptococcus species. Although, S. agalactiae RNome remains largely unknown, sRNAs (small RNAs) are supposed to mediate regulation during environmental adaptation and host infection. In the case of S. mutans, sRNAs are suggested to be involved in competence regulation, carbohydrate metabolism, and Toxin–Antitoxin systems. A new category of miRNA-size small RNAs (msRNAs) was also identified for the first time in this species. The analysis of S. thermophilus sRNome shows that many sRNAs are associated to the bacterial immune system known as CRISPR-Cas system. Only few of the other different Streptococcus species have been the subject of studies pointed toward the characterization of regulatory RNAs. Finally, understanding bacterial sRNome can constitute one step forward to the elaboration of new strategies in therapy such as substitution of antibiotics in the management of S. agalactiae neonatal infections, prevention of S. mutans dental caries or use of S. thermophilus CRISPR-Cas system in genome editing applications. PMID:27507970
Wu, Cheng-Wei; Biggar, Kyle K; Storey, Kenneth B
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are important in regulating metabolic stress. In this study, we determined the expression and structural characteristics of 20 miRNAs in brown (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) during torpor in thirteen-lined ground squirrels. Using a modified stem-loop technique, we found that during torpor, expression of six miRNAs including let-7a, let-7b, miR-107, miR-150, miR-222 and miR-31 was significantly downregulated in WAT (P<0.05), which was 16%-54% of euthermic non-torpid control squirrels, whereas expression of three miRNAs including miR-143, miR-200a and miR-519d was found to be upregulated by 1.32-2.34-fold. Similarly, expression of more miRNAs was downregulated in BAT during torpor. We detected reduced expression of 6 miRNAs including miR-103a, miR-107, miR-125b, miR-21, miR-221 and miR-31 (48%-70% of control), while only expression of miR-138 was significantly upregulated (2.91±0.8-fold of the control, P<0.05). Interestingly, miRNAs found to be downregulated in WAT during torpor were similar to those dysregulated in obese humans for increased adipogenesis, whereas miRNAs with altered expression in BAT during torpor were linked to mitochondrial β-oxidation. miRPath target prediction analysis showed that miRNAs downregulated in both WAT and BAT were associated with the regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, while the miRNAs upregulated in WAT were linked to transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. Compared to mouse sequences, no unique nucleotide substitutions within the stem-loop region were discovered for the associated pre-miRNAs for the miRNAs used in this study, suggesting no structure-influenced changes in pre-miRNA processing efficiency in the squirrel. As well, the expression of miRNA processing enzyme Dicer remained unchanged in both tissues during torpor. Overall, our findings suggest that changes of miRNA expression in adipose tissues may be linked to distinct
Wu, Cheng-Wei; Biggar, Kyle K.; Storey, Kenneth B.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are important in regulating metabolic stress. In this study, we determined the expression and structural characteristics of 20 miRNAs in brown (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) during torpor in thirteen-lined ground squirrels. Using a modified stem-loop technique, we found that during torpor, expression of six miRNAs including let-7a, let-7b, miR-107, miR-150, miR-222 and miR-31 was significantly downregulated in WAT (P < 0.05), which was 16%–54% of euthermic non-torpid control squirrels, whereas expression of three miRNAs including miR-143, miR-200a and miR-519d was found to be upregulated by 1.32–2.34-fold. Similarly, expression of more miRNAs was downregulated in BAT during torpor. We detected reduced expression of 6 miRNAs including miR-103a, miR-107, miR-125b, miR-21, miR-221 and miR-31 (48%–70% of control), while only expression of miR-138 was significantly upregulated (2.91 ± 0.8-fold of the control, P < 0.05). Interestingly, miRNAs found to be downregulated in WAT during torpor were similar to those dysregulated in obese humans for increased adipogenesis, whereas miRNAs with altered expression in BAT during torpor were linked to mitochondrial β-oxidation. miRPath target prediction analysis showed that miRNAs downregulated in both WAT and BAT were associated with the regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, while the miRNAs upregulated in WAT were linked to transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. Compared to mouse sequences, no unique nucleotide substitutions within the stem-loop region were discovered for the associated pre-miRNAs for the miRNAs used in this study, suggesting no structure-influenced changes in pre-miRNA processing efficiency in the squirrel. As well, the expression of miRNA processing enzyme Dicer remained unchanged in both tissues during torpor. Overall, our findings suggest that changes of miRNA expression in adipose tissues may be linked
Trypsteen, Wim; Mohammadi, Pejman; Van Hecke, Clarissa; Mestdagh, Pieter; Lefever, Steve; Saeys, Yvan; De Bleser, Pieter; Vandesompele, Jo; Ciuffi, Angela; Vandekerckhove, Linos; De Spiegelaere, Ward
Studying the effects of HIV infection on the host transcriptome has typically focused on protein-coding genes. However, recent advances in the field of RNA sequencing revealed that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) add an extensive additional layer to the cell’s molecular network. Here, we performed transcriptome profiling throughout a primary HIV infection in vitro to investigate lncRNA expression at the different HIV replication cycle processes (reverse transcription, integration and particle production). Subsequently, guilt-by-association, transcription factor and co-expression analysis were performed to infer biological roles for the lncRNAs identified in the HIV-host interplay. Many lncRNAs were suggested to play a role in mechanisms relying on proteasomal and ubiquitination pathways, apoptosis, DNA damage responses and cell cycle regulation. Through transcription factor binding analysis, we found that lncRNAs display a distinct transcriptional regulation profile as compared to protein coding mRNAs, suggesting that mRNAs and lncRNAs are independently modulated. In addition, we identified five differentially expressed lncRNA-mRNA pairs with mRNA involvement in HIV pathogenesis with possible cis regulatory lncRNAs that control nearby mRNA expression and function. Altogether, the present study demonstrates that lncRNAs add a new dimension to the HIV-host interplay and should be further investigated as they may represent targets for controlling HIV replication. PMID:27782208
Lefevere, Evy; Toft-Kehler, Anne Katrine; Vohra, Rupali; Kolko, Miriam; Moons, Lieve; Van Hove, Inge
Dysfunction of photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) or both contribute to the initiation and progression of several outer retinal disorders. Disrupted Müller glia function might additionally subsidize to these diseases. Mitochondrial malfunctioning is importantly associated with outer retina pathologies, which can be classified as primary and secondary mitochondrial disorders. This review highlights the importance of oxidative stress and mitochondrial DNA damage, underlying outer retinal disorders. Indeed, the metabolically active photoreceptors/RPE are highly prone to these hallmarks of mitochondrial dysfunction, indicating that mitochondria represent a weak link in the antioxidant defenses of outer retinal cells.
Smalheiser, Neil R; Lugli, Giovanni; Zhang, Hui; Rizavi, Hooriyah; Cook, Edwin H; Dwivedi, Yogesh
Because of the role played by miRNAs in post-transcriptional regulation of an array of genes, their impact in neuropsychiatric disease pathophysiology has increasingly been evident. In the present study, we assessed microRNA expression in prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10) of a well-characterized cohort of major depressed, bipolar, and schizophrenia subjects (obtained from Stanley Neuropathology Consortium; n = 15 in each group), using high throughput RT-PCR plates. Discrete miRNA alterations were observed in all disorders, as well as in suicide subjects (pooled across diagnostic categories) compared to all non-suicide subjects. The changes in the schizophrenia group were partially similar to those in the bipolar group, but distinct from changes in depression and suicide. Intriguingly, those miRNAs which were down-regulated in the schizophrenia group tended to be synaptically enriched, whereas up-regulated miRNAs tended not to be. To follow this up, we purified synaptosomes from pooled samples of the schizophrenia vs. control groups and subjected them to Illumina deep sequencing. There was a significant loss of small RNA expression in schizophrenia synaptosomes only for certain sequence lengths within the miRNA range. Moreover, 73 miRNAs were significantly down-regulated whereas only one was up-regulated. Strikingly, across all expressed miRNAs in synaptosomes, there was a significant inverse correlation between the fold-change of a given miRNA seen in schizophrenia and its synaptic enrichment ratio observed in controls. Thus, synaptic miRNAs tended to be down-regulated in schizophrenia, and the more highly synaptically enriched miRNAs tended to show greater down-regulation. These findings point to some deficit in miRNA biogenesis, transport, processing or turnover in schizophrenia that is selective for the synaptic compartment. A novel class of ncRNA-derived small RNAs, shown to be strongly induced during an early phase of learning in mouse, is also
Ng, Mei Ying; Hagen, Thilo
RNA-based therapy is one of the most promising approaches to treat human diseases. Specifically, the use of short interfering RNA (siRNA) siRNA and microRNA (miRNA) mimics for in vivo RNA interference has immense potential as it directly lowers the expression of the therapeutic target protein. However, there are a number of major roadblocks to the successful implementation of siRNA and other RNA based therapies in the clinic. These include the instability of RNAs in vivo and the difficulty to efficiently deliver the RNA into the target cells. Hence, various innovative approaches have been taken over the years to develop effective RNA delivery methods. These methods include liposome-, polymeric nanoparticle- and peptide-mediated cellular delivery. In a recent innovative study, bioengineered bacterial outer membrane vesicles were used as vehicles for effective delivery of siRNA into cells in vivo.
Lau, Nelson C.; Robine, Nicolas; Martin, Raquel; Chung, Wei-Jen; Niki, Yuzo; Berezikov, Eugene; Lai, Eric C.
Piwi proteins, a subclass of Argonaute-family proteins, carry ∼24–30-nt Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) that mediate gonadal defense against transposable elements (TEs). We analyzed the Drosophila ovary somatic sheet (OSS) cell line and found that it expresses miRNAs, endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs), and piRNAs in abundance. In contrast to intact gonads, which contain mixtures of germline and somatic cell types that express different Piwi-class proteins, OSS cells are a homogenous somatic cell population that expresses only PIWI and primary piRNAs. Detailed examination of its TE-derived piRNAs and endo-siRNAs revealed aspects of TE defense that do not rely upon ping-pong amplification. In particular, we provide evidence that a subset of piRNA master clusters, including flamenco, are specifically expressed in OSS and ovarian follicle cells. These data indicate that the restriction of certain TEs in somatic gonadal cells is largely mediated by a primary piRNA pathway. PMID:19541914
Tsimokha, Anna S; Kulichkova, Valentina A.; Karpova, Elena V.; Zaykova, Julia J.; Aksenov, Nikolai D; Vasilishina, Anastasia A.; Kropotov, Andrei V.; Antonov, Alexey; Barlev, Nikolai A.
26S proteasomes are known as major non-lysosomal cellular machines for coordinated and specific destruction of ubiquitinylated proteins. The proteolytic activities of proteasomes are controlled by various post-translational modifications in response to environmental cues, including DNA damage. Besides proteolysis, proteasomes also associate with RNA hydrolysis and splicing. Here, we extend the functional diversity of proteasomes by showing that they also dynamically associate with microRNAs (miRNAs) both in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells. Moreover, DNA damage induced by an anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin, alters the repertoire of proteasome-associated miRNAs, enriching the population of miRNAs that target cell cycle checkpoint regulators and DNA repair proteins. Collectively, these data uncover yet another potential mode of action for proteasomes in the cell via their dynamic association with microRNAs. PMID:25004448
Wright, Josephine A; Richer, Jennifer K; Goodall, Gregory J
MicroRNAs are master regulators of gene expression in many biological and pathological processes, including mammary gland development and breast cancer. The differentiation program termed the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) involves changes in a number of microRNAs. Some of these microRNAs have been shown to control cellular plasticity through the suppression of EMT-inducers or to influence cellular phenotype through the suppression of genes involved in defining the epithelial and mesenchymal cell states. This has led to the suggestion that microRNAs maybe a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer. In this review, we will discuss microRNAs that are involved in EMT in mammary cells and breast cancer.
Bayoumi, Ahmed S; Sayed, Amer; Broskova, Zuzana; Teoh, Jian-Peng; Wilson, James; Su, Huabo; Tang, Yao-Liang; Kim, Il-Man
Protein-coding genes account for only a small part of the human genome; in fact, the vast majority of transcripts are comprised of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) including long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) and small ncRNAs, microRNAs (miRs). Accumulating evidence indicates that ncRNAs could play critical roles in regulating many cellular processes which are often implicated in health and disease. For example, ncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in cancers, heart diseases, and many other diseases. LncRNAs and miRs are therefore novel and promising targets to be developed into biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis as well as treatment options. The interaction between lncRNAs and miRs as well as its pathophysiological significance have recently been reported. Mechanistically, it is believed that lncRNAs exert "sponge-like" effects on various miRs, which subsequently inhibits miR-mediated functions. This crosstalk between two types of ncRNAs frequently contributes to the pathogenesis of the disease. In this review, we provide a summary of the recent studies highlighting the interaction between these ncRNAs and the effects of this interaction on disease pathogenesis and regulation.
Bayoumi, Ahmed S.; Sayed, Amer; Broskova, Zuzana; Teoh, Jian-Peng; Wilson, James; Su, Huabo; Tang, Yao-Liang; Kim, Il-man
Protein-coding genes account for only a small part of the human genome; in fact, the vast majority of transcripts are comprised of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) including long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) and small ncRNAs, microRNAs (miRs). Accumulating evidence indicates that ncRNAs could play critical roles in regulating many cellular processes which are often implicated in health and disease. For example, ncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in cancers, heart diseases, and many other diseases. LncRNAs and miRs are therefore novel and promising targets to be developed into biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis as well as treatment options. The interaction between lncRNAs and miRs as well as its pathophysiological significance have recently been reported. Mechanistically, it is believed that lncRNAs exert “sponge-like” effects on various miRs, which subsequently inhibits miR-mediated functions. This crosstalk between two types of ncRNAs frequently contributes to the pathogenesis of the disease. In this review, we provide a summary of the recent studies highlighting the interaction between these ncRNAs and the effects of this interaction on disease pathogenesis and regulation. PMID:26978351
Wercinski, Paul F.; Langhoff, Steven R. (Technical Monitor)
Current and previous studies of orbiter missions to the outer planets have clearly identified high-energy aerocapture as a critical and enabling technology. Aerocapture involves the use of aerodynamic lift to fly a trajectory through a planet's atmosphere to sufficiently decelerate an entry vehicle to capture into planetary orbit. In the past, numerous studies of different configurations of lifting entry vehicles were studied for various planetary orbiter missions which identified aerocapture as a feasible concept yet complex and technically challenging. In order to determine the feasibility of high-speed aerocapture at the outer planets, an accurate trajectory simulation of the flight vehicle is the critical first step in the proposed research. Vehicle response to aerodynamic loading must be predicted accurately in the trajectory simulations. For several Neptune orbiter missions currently under study at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), entry velocities relative to the rotating atmosphere ranging from 25 to 30 km/sec, are to be expected. Preliminary trajectory analysis has identified the various flow regimes the entry vehicle is expected to fly in the 8 1% H2 and 19% He atmosphere of Neptune. The size and mass of the vehicle are also determined by the launch vehicle constraints and orbiter spacecraft requirements. For a given baseline arrival conditions of an inertial entry velocity of 28 km/sec and an entry mass of 400 kg, a medium lift (L/D = 1), axisymmetric biconic shaped vehicle was selected in order to satisfy entry corridor width requirements expected for Neptune aerocapture. The analysis summarized in this study indicates that a biconic entry vehicle is a feasible concept for a Neptune aerocapture orbiter mission. The preliminary entry trajectory simulations has demonstrated adequate entry corridor control authority. Furthermore, estimates of the stagnation point heating environment has enabled the preliminary selection of candidate lightweight ceramic
Brosh, Ran; Shalgi, Reut; Liran, Atar; Landan, Gilad; Korotayev, Katya; Nguyen, Giang Huong; Enerly, Espen; Johnsen, Hilde; Buganim, Yosef; Solomon, Hilla; Goldstein, Ido; Madar, Shalom; Goldfinger, Naomi; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Ginsberg, Doron; Harris, Curtis C; Pilpel, Yitzhak; Oren, Moshe; Rotter, Varda
Normal cell growth is governed by a complicated biological system, featuring multiple levels of control, often deregulated in cancers. The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the control of gene expression is now increasingly appreciated, yet their involvement in controlling cell proliferation is still not well understood. Here we investigated the mammalian cell proliferation control network consisting of transcriptional regulators, E2F and p53, their targets and a family of 15 miRNAs. Indicative of their significance, expression of these miRNAs is downregulated in senescent cells and in breast cancers harboring wild-type p53. These miRNAs are repressed by p53 in an E2F1-mediated manner. Furthermore, we show that these miRNAs silence antiproliferative genes, which themselves are E2F1 targets. Thus, miRNAs and transcriptional regulators appear to cooperate in the framework of a multi-gene transcriptional and post-transcriptional feed-forward loop. Finally, we show that, similarly to p53 inactivation, overexpression of representative miRNAs promotes proliferation and delays senescence, manifesting the detrimental phenotypic consequence of perturbations in this circuit. Taken together, these findings position miRNAs as novel key players in the mammalian cellular proliferation network. PMID:19034270
Moore, Benjamin T; Xiao, Peng
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which mainly inhibit protein expression by targeting the 3'UTR (untranslated region) of mRNAs, are known to play various roles in the pathogenesis of many different types of diseases. Specifically, in bone diseases, recent emphasis has been placed on the involvement of miRNAs in the differentiation and proliferation of bone and cartilage cells, particularly with regards to how these mechanisms contribute to bone homeostasis. In this review, we summarize miRNAs that are important in the differentiation and proliferation of bone cells, and specific miRNAs associated with bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. This review also provides the perspective that miRNA studies will identify not only new mechanisms in basic bone research, but also potential novel diagnostic biomarkers and drug targets for bone diseases.
The brain is considered a major site for microRNA (miRNA) expression; as evidenced by several studies reporting microarray data of different brain substructures. The hypothalamus is among the brain regions that plays a crucial role in integrating signals from other brain nuclei as well as environmental, hormonal, metabolic and neuronal signals from the periphery in order to deliver an adequate response. The hypothalamus controls vital functions such as reproduction, energy homeostasis, water balance, circadian rhythm and stress. These functions need a high neuronal plasticity to adequately respond to physiological, environmental and psychological stimuli that could be limited to a specific temporal period during life or are cyclic events. In this context, miRNAs constitute major regulators and coordinators of gene expression. Indeed, in response to specific stimuli, changes in miRNA expression profiles finely tune specific mRNA targets to adequately fit to the immediate needs through mainly the modulation of neuronal plasticity.
Volonte, Cinzia; Apolloni, Savina; Parisi, Chiara
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) causes neurodegeneration of both upper and lower motor neurons and progressive muscle impairment, atrophy and death within approximately five years from diagnosis. The aetiology is still not clear but evidence obtained in animal models of the disease indicates a non-cell-autonomous mechanism with the active contribution of non-neuronal cells such as microglia, astrocytes, muscle and T cells, which differently participate to the diverse phases of the disease. Clinically indistinguishable forms of ALS occur as sporadic disease in the absence of known mutation, or can be initiated by genetic mutations. About two-third of familial cases are triggered by mutations of four genes that are chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72), Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS), TAR-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP43). There is at present no succesfull treatment against ALS and the identification of novel signalling pathways, molecular mechanisms and cellular mediators are still a major task in the search for effective therapies. MiRNAs are conserved, endogenous, non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate protein expression. Produced as long primary transcripts, they are exported to the cytoplasm and further modified to obtain the mature miRNAs, with each step of their biogenesis being a potential step of regulation. There are more than 1000 different known human miRNA sequences, and more than 20-30% of all human protein-coding genes are likely controlled by miRNAs. This earns to miRNAs the definition of fine regulators of genetic networks. The discovery of the involvement of ALS mutated proteins TDP43 and FUS/TLS in miRNAs biogenesis strongly suggests a role of miRNA dysregulation also in ALS and many efforts are thus directed toward understanding the role of these small RNA molecules in the pathogenesis of ALS. The overall objective of this review is thus to highlight the emerging
Wang, Guiling; Yang, Kun; Wang, Yu; Niu, Libo; Chen, Xiaoying; Fang, Rongxiang
Background RNA silencing is an important mechanism for regulation of endogenous gene expression and defense against genomic intruders in plants. This natural defense system was adopted to generate virus-resistant plants even before the mechanism of RNA silencing was unveiled. With the clarification of that mechanism, transgenic antiviral plants were developed that expressed artificial virus-specific hairpin RNAs (hpRNAs) or microRNAs (amiRNAs) in host plants. Previous works also showed that plant-mediated RNA silencing technology could be a practical method for constructing insect-resistant plants by expressing hpRNAs targeting essential genes of insects. Methodology/Principal findings In this study, we chose aphid Myzus persicae of order Hemiptera as a target insect. To screen for aphid genes vulnerable to attack by plant-mediated RNA silencing to establish plant aphid resistance, we selected nine genes of M. persicae as silencing targets, and constructed their hpRNA-expressing vectors. For the acetylcholinesterase 2 coding gene (MpAChE2), two amiRNA-expressing vectors were also constructed. The vectors were transformed into tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanti). Insect challenge assays showed that most of the transgenic plants gained aphid resistance, among which those expressing hpRNAs targeting V-type proton ATPase subunit E-like (V-ATPaseE) or tubulin folding cofactor D (TBCD) genes displayed stronger aphicidal activity. The transgenic plants expressing amiRNAs targeting two different sites in the MpAChE2 gene exhibited better aphid resistance than the plants expressing MpAChE2-specific hpRNA. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicated that plant-mediated insect-RNA silencing might be an effective way to develop plants resistant to insects with piercing-sucking mouthparts, and both the selection of vulnerable target genes and the biogenetic type of the small RNAs were crucial for the effectiveness of aphid control. The expression of insect
Hewson, Chris; Morris, Kevin V
The recent discovery that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are functional and are not merely "transcriptional noise" has spawned an entirely new arena of investigation. LncRNAs have been found to be functional in the regulation of a wide variety of genes, including those involved in cancer. Studies have identified that lncRNAs play a role in the development and regulation of cancer and can also act as prognostic markers. Meanwhile, exosomes , which are extracellular particles generated endogenously by cells, have been observed to act as transport vesicles for a variety of biological components, particularly proteins and RNAs. This transportation of biological components has been shown to impact a variety of biological processes including the development of cancer. Collectively, these observations, along with those of several recent studies, suggest that lncRNAs and exosomes may function together to disseminate cell signals that alter and/or control local cellular microenvironments. This review will identify the various roles that lncRNAs and exosomes play in cancer development, as well as the possibility that exosomes may transfer functional lncRNAs between cells as a means of cell-to-cell communication.
Abdi, Jahangir; Jian, Hou; Chang, Hong
While novel therapeutic approaches have profoundly improved survival of multiple myeloma (MM) patients, drug resistance and treatment refractoriness still persists. This obstacle highly demands thorough investigation into the root and underlying molecular mechanisms to develop more effective strategies. The advent of micro-RNAs (miRNAs) in the study of cancer biology and pathogenesis in recent years has revolutionized therapy in this field and particularly opened new windows to further understanding of tumor drug resistance. However; in spite of the fact that miRNAs involvement in MM pathogenesis and progression has been substantially evidenced, miRNA investigation in MM drug resistance is still in its infancy. Our knowledge of the potential role of miRNAs in MM drug resistance comes from few recent reports confirming that some miRNAs including miR-137/197, miR-21 and miR-221/222 could negatively modulate drug sensitivity of MM cells. Further continuous researches are required to exploit miRNAs to elucidate the critical mechanisms controlling drug resistance in MM. In this review, we will highlight the most recent observations on the role of miRNAs in MM drug resistance. Moreover, approaches and insights into clinical application of miRNAs to overcome MM drug resistance will be discussed. PMID:27494872
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a major public health concern. Despite tremendous advances, the pathogenic mechanisms associated with MDD are still unclear. Moreover, a significant number of MDD subjects do not respond to the currently available medication. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that control gene expression by modulating translation, messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation, or stability of mRNA targets. The role of miRNAs in disease pathophysiology is emerging rapidly. Recent studies demonstrating the involvement of miRNAs in several aspects of neural plasticity, neurogenesis, and stress response, and more direct studies in human postmortem brain provide strong evidence that miRNAs can not only play a critical role in MDD pathogenesis, but can also open up new avenues for the development of therapeutic targets. Circulating miRNAs are now being considered as possible biomarkers in disease pathogenesis and in monitoring therapeutic responses because of the presence and/or release of miRNAs in blood cells as well as in other peripheral tissues. In this review, these aspects are discussed in a comprehensive and critical manner.
Eroles, Pilar; Asensio, Pilar E; Tormo, Eduardo; Martin, Eduardo T; Pineda, Begoña; Merlo, Begoña P; Espin, Estefanía; Armas, Estefanía E; Lluch, Ana; Hernández, Ana L
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that critically regulate the expression of genes. MiRNAs are involved in physiological cellular processes; however, their deregulation has been associated with several pathologies, including cancer. In human breast cancer, differently expressed levels of miRNAs have been identified from those in normal breast tissues. Moreover, several miRNAs have been correlated with pathological phenotype, cancer subtype and therapy response in breast cancer. The resistance to therapy is increasingly a problem in patient management, and miRNAs are emerging as novel therapeutic targets and potential predictive biomarkers for treatment. This review provides an overview of the current situation of miRNAs in breast cancer, focusing on their involvement in resistance and the circulating miRNA. The mechanisms of therapeutic resistance regulated by miRNAs, such as the regulation of receptors, the modification of enzymes of drug metabolism, the inhibition of cell cycle control or pro-apoptotic proteins, the alteration of histone activity and the regulation of DNA repair machinery among others, are discussed for breast cancer clinical subtypes. Additionally, in this review, we summarize the recent knowledge that has established miRNA detection in peripheral body fluids as a suitable biomarker. We review the detection of miRNA in liquid biopsies and its implications for the diagnosis and monitoring of breast cancer. This new generation of cancer biomarkers may lead to a significant improvement in patient management.
Huynh, Nguyen P. T.; Anderson, Britta A.; Guilak, Farshid; McAlinden, Audrey
Normal skeletal development requires tight coordination of transcriptional networks, signaling pathways, and biomechanical cues, and many of these pathways are dysregulated in pathological conditions affecting cartilage and bone. Recently, a significant role has been identified for long noncoding RNAs (IncRNAs) in developing and maintaining cellular phenotypes, and improvements in sequencing technologies have led to the identification of thousands of IncRNAs across diverse cell types, including the cells within cartilage and bone. It is clear that IncRNAs play critical roles in regulating gene expression. For example, they can function as epigenetic regulators in the nucleus via chromatin modulation to control gene transcription, or in the cytoplasm, where they can function as scaffolds for protein-binding partners or modulate the activity of other coding and noncoding RNAs. In this review, we discuss the growing list of IncRNAs involved in normal development and/or homeostasis of the skeletal system, the potential mechanisms by which these IncRNAs might function, and recent improvements in the methodologies available to study IncRNA functions in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we address the likely utility of IncRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for diseases of the skeletal system, including osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and in cancers of the skeletal system. PMID:27254479
Schoeberl, Ursula E.; Kurth, Henriette M.; Noto, Tomoko; Mochizuki, Kazufumi
The ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena undergoes extensive programmed DNA elimination when the germline micronucleus produces the new macronucleus during sexual reproduction. DNA elimination is epigenetically controlled by DNA sequences of the parental macronuclear genome, and this epigenetic regulation is mediated by small RNAs (scan RNAs [scnRNAs]) of ∼28–30 nucleotides that are produced and function by an RNAi-related mechanism. Here, we examine scnRNA production and turnover by deep sequencing. scnRNAs are produced exclusively from the micronucleus and nonhomogeneously from a variety of chromosomal locations. scnRNAs are preferentially derived from the eliminated sequences, and this preference is mainly determined at the level of transcription. Despite this bias, a significant fraction of scnRNAs is also derived from the macronuclear-destined sequences, and these scnRNAs are degraded during the course of sexual reproduction. These results indicate that the pattern of DNA elimination in the new macronucleus is shaped by the biased transcription in the micronucleus and the selective degradation of scnRNAs in the parental macronucleus. PMID:22855833
Chou, Min-Te; Han, Bo W; Hsiao, Chiung-Po; Zamore, Phillip D; Weng, Zhiping; Hung, Jui-Hung
Small silencing RNAs, including microRNAs, endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), have been shown to play important roles in fine-tuning gene expression, defending virus and controlling transposons. Loss of small silencing RNAs or components in their pathways often leads to severe developmental defects, including lethality and sterility. Recently, non-templated addition of nucleotides to the 3' end, namely tailing, was found to associate with the processing and stability of small silencing RNAs. Next Generation Sequencing has made it possible to detect such modifications at nucleotide resolution in an unprecedented throughput. Unfortunately, detecting such events from millions of short reads confounded by sequencing errors and RNA editing is still a tricky problem. Here, we developed a computational framework, Tailor, driven by an efficient and accurate aligner specifically designed for capturing the tailing events directly from the alignments without extensive post-processing. The performance of Tailor was fully tested and compared favorably with other general-purpose aligners using both simulated and real datasets for tailing analysis. Moreover, to show the broad utility of Tailor, we used Tailor to reanalyze published datasets and revealed novel findings worth further experimental validation. The source code and the executable binaries are freely available at https://github.com/jhhung/Tailor.
Busto, Germain U.; Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Fulga, Tudor A.; Van Vactor, David; Davis, Ronald L.
microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Prior studies have shown that they regulate numerous physiological processes critical for normal development, cellular growth control, and organismal behavior. Here, we systematically surveyed 134 different miRNAs for roles in olfactory learning and memory formation using “sponge” technology to titrate their activity broadly in the Drosophila melanogaster central nervous system. We identified at least five different miRNAs involved in memory formation or retention from this large screen, including miR-9c, miR-31a, miR-305, miR-974, and miR-980. Surprisingly, the titration of some miRNAs increased memory, while the titration of others decreased memory. We performed more detailed experiments on two miRNAs, miR-974 and miR-31a, by mapping their roles to subpopulations of brain neurons and testing the functional involvement in memory of potential mRNA targets through bioinformatics and a RNA interference knockdown approach. This screen offers an important first step toward the comprehensive identification of all miRNAs and their potential targets that serve in gene regulatory networks important for normal learning and memory. PMID:26088433
Soutourina, Olga A.; Monot, Marc; Boudry, Pierre; Saujet, Laure; Pichon, Christophe; Sismeiro, Odile; Semenova, Ekaterina; Severinov, Konstantin; Le Bouguenec, Chantal; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Dupuy, Bruno; Martin-Verstraete, Isabelle
Clostridium difficile is an emergent pathogen, and the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea. In an effort to understand the role of small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) in C. difficile physiology and pathogenesis, we used an in silico approach to identify 511 sRNA candidates in both intergenic and coding regions. In parallel, RNA–seq and differential 5′-end RNA–seq were used for global identification of C. difficile sRNAs and their transcriptional start sites at three different growth conditions (exponential growth phase, stationary phase, and starvation). This global experimental approach identified 251 putative regulatory sRNAs including 94 potential trans riboregulators located in intergenic regions, 91 cis-antisense RNAs, and 66 riboswitches. Expression of 35 sRNAs was confirmed by gene-specific experimental approaches. Some sRNAs, including an antisense RNA that may be involved in control of C. difficile autolytic activity, showed growth phase-dependent expression profiles. Expression of each of 16 predicted c-di-GMP-responsive riboswitches was observed, and experimental evidence for their regulatory role in coordinated control of motility and biofilm formation was obtained. Finally, we detected abundant sRNAs encoded by multiple C. difficile CRISPR loci. These RNAs may be important for C. difficile survival in bacteriophage-rich gut communities. Altogether, this first experimental genome-wide identification of C. difficile sRNAs provides a firm basis for future RNome characterization and identification of molecular mechanisms of sRNA–based regulation of gene expression in this emergent enteropathogen. PMID:23675309
Zhang, Xuchao; Li, Dongfeng; Huang, Jian; Yang, Cuiqin; Zhang, Pingyong; Qin, Yuxuan; Duan, Yifan; Gong, Bo; Li, Zijun
Background and Purpose Tissue microRNAs (miRNAs) can detect cancers and predict prognosis. Several recent studies reported that tissue, plasma, and saliva miRNAs share similar expression profiles. In this study, we investigated the discriminatory power of salivary miRNAs (including whole saliva and saliva supernatant) for detection of esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods By Agilent microarray, six deregulated miRNAs from whole saliva samples from seven patients with esophageal cancer and three healthy controls were selected. The six selected miRNAs were subjected to validation of their expression levels by RT-qPCR using both whole saliva and saliva supernatant samples from an independent set of 39 patients with esophageal cancer and 19 healthy controls. Results Six miRNAs (miR-10b*, miR-144, miR-21, miR-451, miR-486-5p, and miR-634) were identified as targets by Agilent microarray. After validation by RT-qPCR, miR-10b*, miR-144, and miR-451 in whole saliva and miR-10b*, miR-144, miR-21, and miR-451 in saliva supernatant were significantly upregulated in patients, with sensitivities of 89.7, 92.3, 84.6, 79.5, 43.6, 89.7, and 51.3% and specificities of 57.9, 47.4, 57.9%, 57.9, 89.5, 47.4, and 84.2%, respectively. Conclusions We found distinctive miRNAs for esophageal cancer in both whole saliva and saliva supernatant. These miRNAs possess discriminatory power for detection of esophageal cancer. Because saliva collection is noninvasive and convenient, salivary miRNAs show great promise as biomarkers for detection of esophageal cancer in areas at high risk. PMID:23560033
Regev, Keren; Paul, Anu; Healy, Brian; von Glenn, Felipe; Diaz-Cruz, Camilo; Gholipour, Taha; Mazzola, Maria Antonietta; Raheja, Radhika; Nejad, Parham; Glanz, Bonnie I.; Kivisakk, Pia; Chitnis, Tanuja; Weiner, Howard L.
Objective: To identify circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) linked to disease stage and disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Sera from 296 participants including patients with MS, other neurologic diseases (Alzheimer disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), and inflammatory diseases (rheumatoid arthritis and asthma) and healthy controls (HCs) were tested. miRNA profiles were determined using LNA (locked nucleic acid)-based quantitative PCR. Patients with MS were categorized according to disease stage and disability. In the discovery phase, 652 miRNAs were measured in sera from 26 patients with MS and 20 HCs. Following this, significant miRNAs (p < 0.05) from the discovery set were validated using quantitative PCR in 58 patients with MS, 30 HCs, and in 74 samples from other disease controls (Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis). Results: We validated 7 miRNAs that differentiate patients with MS from HCs (p < 0.05 in both the discovery and validation phase); miR-320a upregulation was the most significantly changing serum miRNA in patients with MS. We also identified 2 miRNAs linked to disease progression, with miR-27a-3p being the most significant. Ten miRNAs correlated with the Expanded Disability Status Scale of which miR.199a.5p had the strongest correlation with disability. Of the 15 unique miRNAs we identified in the different group comparisons, 12 have previously been reported to be associated with MS but not in serum. Conclusions: Our findings identify circulating serum miRNAs as potential biomarkers to diagnose and monitor disease status in MS. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that circulating serum miRNAs can be used as biomarker for MS. PMID:27606352
Perfetti, Alessandra; Greco, Simona; Bugiardini, Enrico; Cardani, Rosanna; Gaia, Paola; Gaetano, Carlo; Meola, Giovanni; Martelli, Fabio
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) lacks non-invasive and easy to measure biomarkers, still largely relying on semi-quantitative tests for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Muscle biopsies provide valuable data, but their use is limited by their invasiveness. microRNA (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression that are also present in biological fluids and may serve as diseases biomarkers. Thus, we tested plasma miRNAs in the blood of 36 DM1 patients and 36 controls. First, a wide miRNA panel was profiled in a patient subset, followed by validation using all recruited subjects. We identified a signature of nine deregulated miRNAs in DM1 patients: eight miRNAs were increased (miR-133a, miR-193b, miR-191, miR-140-3p, miR-454, miR-574, miR-885-5p, miR-886-3p) and one (miR-27b) was decreased. Next, the levels of these miRNAs were used to calculate a "DM1-miRNAs score". We found that both miR-133a levels and DM1-miRNAs score discriminated DM1 from controls significantly and Receiver-Operator Characteristic curves displayed an area under the curve of 0.94 and 0.97, respectively. Interestingly, both miR-133a levels and DM1-miRNAs score displayed an inverse correlation with skeletal muscle strength and displayed higher values in more compromised patients. In conclusion, we identified a characteristic plasma miRNA signature of DM1. Although preliminary, this study indicates miRNAs as potential DM1 humoral biomarkers.
McClure, Ryan; Tjaden, Brian; Genco, Caroline
In the last several years, bacterial gene regulation via small RNAs (sRNAs) has been recognized as an important mechanism controlling expression of essential proteins that are critical to bacterial growth and metabolism. Technologies such as RNA-seq are rapidly expanding the field of sRNAs and are enabling a global view of the "sRNAome" of several bacterial species. While numerous sRNAs have been identified in a variety of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, only a very small number have been fully characterized in the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the etiological agent of the STD gonorrhea. Here we present the first analysis of N. gonorrhoeae specifically focused on the identification of sRNAs through RNA-seq analysis of the organism cultured under different in vitro growth conditions. Using a new computational program, Rockhopper, to analyze prokaryotic RNA-seq data obtained from N. gonorrhoeae we identified several putative sRNAs and confirmed their expression and size through Northern blot analysis. In addition, RNA was collected from four different growth conditions (iron replete and deplete, as well as with and without co-culture with human endocervical cells). Many of the putative sRNAs identified shoed varying expression levels relative to the different growth conditions examine or were detected only under certain conditions but not others. Comparisons of identified sRNAs with the regulatory pattern of putative mRNA targets revealed possible functional roles for these sRNAs. These studies are the first to carry out a global analysis of N. gonorrhoeae specifically focused on sRNAs and show that RNA-mediated regulation may be an important mechanism of gene control in this human pathogen.
Banigan, Meredith G; Kao, Patricia F; Kozubek, James A; Winslow, Ashley R; Medina, Juan; Costa, Joan; Schmitt, Andrea; Schneider, Anja; Cabral, Howard; Cagsal-Getkin, Ozge; Vanderburg, Charles R; Delalle, Ivana
Exosomes are cellular secretory vesicles containing microRNAs (miRNAs). Once secreted, exosomes are able to attach to recipient cells and release miRNAs potentially modulating the function of the recipient cell. We hypothesized that exosomal miRNA expression in brains of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) might differ from controls, reflecting either disease-specific or common aberrations in SZ and BD patients. The sources of the analyzed samples included McLean 66 Cohort Collection (Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center), BrainNet Europe II (BNE, a consortium of 18 brain banks across Europe) and Boston Medical Center (BMC). Exosomal miRNAs from frozen postmortem prefrontal cortices with well-preserved RNA were isolated and submitted to profiling by Luminex FLEXMAP 3D microfluidic device. Multiple statistical analyses of microarray data suggested that certain exosomal miRNAs were differentially expressed in SZ and BD subjects in comparison to controls. RT-PCR validation confirmed that two miRNAs, miR-497 in SZ samples and miR-29c in BD samples, have significantly increased expression when compared to control samples. These results warrant future studies to evaluate the potential of exosome-derived miRNAs to serve as biomarkers of SZ and BD.
Baker, Charles; Jia, Tao; Kulkarni, Rahul V.
A wealth of new research has highlighted the critical roles of small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) in diverse processes, such as quorum sensing and cellular responses to stress. The pathways controlling these processes often have a central motif composed of a master regulator protein whose expression is controlled by multiple sRNAs. However, the stochastic gene expression of a single target gene regulated by multiple sRNAs is currently not well understood. To address this issue, we analyze a stochastic model of regulation of gene expression by multiple sRNAs. For this model, we derive exact analytic results for the regulated protein distribution, including compact expressions for its mean and variance. The derived results provide insights into the roles of multiple sRNAs in fine-tuning the noise in gene expression. In particular, we show that, in contrast to regulation by a single sRNA, multiple sRNAs provide a mechanism for independently controlling the mean and variance of the regulated protein distribution.
Nitsche, Anne; Doose, Gero; Tafer, Hakim; Robinson, Mark; Saha, Nil Ratan; Gerdol, Marco; Canapa, Adriana; Hoffmann, Steve; Amemiya, Chris T; Stadler, Peter F
Circular and apparently trans-spliced RNAs have recently been reported as abundant types of transcripts in mammalian transcriptome data. Both types of non-colinear RNAs are also abundant in RNA-seq of different tissue from both the African and the Indonesian coelacanth. We observe more than 8,000 lincRNAs with normal gene structure and several thousands of circularized and trans-spliced products, showing that such atypical RNAs form a substantial contribution to the transcriptome. Surprisingly, the majority of the circularizing and trans-connecting splice junctions are unique to atypical forms, that is, are not used in normal isoforms.
Shi, Zhaoqi; Wei, Qingxia; She, Junjun
Gastric cancer (GC) is common worldwide and has a high rate of metastasis. The underlying molecular mechanism of metastasis are not entirely clear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally and are reported to be involved in multiple steps of tumor metastasis. Clarifying their roles in GC metastasis will improve understanding of this disease. Here, we review the involvement of miRNAs in multiple steps of GC metastasis, including epithelial-mesenchymal transitions, anoikis, angiogenesis, invasion, and migration. The clinical application of miRNAs as prognostic biomarkers in GC is also discussed.
It is proven that in Vaidya spacetimes of bounded total mass, the outer boundary, in spacetime, of the region containing outer trapped surfaces, is the event horizon. Further, it is shown that the region containing trapped surfaces in these spacetimes does not always extend to the event horizon.
Braun, Juliane; Misiak, Danny; Busch, Bianca; Krohn, Knut; Hüttelmaier, Stefan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. However, the identification of miRNAs regulating the fate of a specific messenger RNA remains limited due to the imperfect complementarity of miRNAs and targeted transcripts. Here, we describe miTRAP (miRNA trapping by RNA in vitro affinity purification), an advanced protocol of previously reported MS2-tethering approaches. MiTRAP allows the rapid identification of miRNAs targeting an in vitro transcribed RNA in cell lysates. Selective co-purification of regulatory miRNAs was confirmed for the MYC- as well as ZEB2-3'UTR, two well-established miRNA targets in vivo. Combined with miRNA-sequencing, miTRAP identified in addition to miRNAs reported to control MYC expression, 18 novel candidates including not in silico predictable miRNAs. The evaluation of 10 novel candidate miRNAs confirmed 3'UTR-dependent regulation of MYC expression as well as putative non-canonical targeting sites for the not in silico predictable candidates. In conclusion, miTRAP provides a rapid, cost-effective and easy-to-handle protocol allowing the identification of regulatory miRNAs for RNAs of choice in a cellular context of interest. Most notably, miTRAP not only identifies in silico predictable but also unpredictable miRNAs regulating the expression of a specific target RNA.
... Doc No: 2011-26503] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block... American Datum of 1927 (NAD 27) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Official Protraction Diagram (OPD),...
Ferdous, Jannatul; Li, Yuan; Reid, Nicolas; Langridge, Peter; Shi, Bu-Jun; Tricker, Penny J
For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qPCR), the selection of appropriate reference genes as an internal control for normalization is crucial. We hypothesized that non-coding, small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs)would be stably expressed in different barley varieties and under different experimental treatments,in different tissues and at different developmental stages of plant growth and therefore might prove to be suitable reference genes for expression analysis of both microRNAs (miRNAs)and mRNAs. In this study, we examined the expression stability of ten candidate reference genes in six barley genotypes under five experimental stresses, drought, fungal infection,boron toxicity, nutrient deficiency and salinity. We compared four commonly used housekeeping genes; Actin (ACT), alpha-Tubulin (α-TUB), Glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GAPDH), ADP-ribosylation factor 1-like protein (ADP), four snoRNAs; (U18,U61, snoR14 and snoR23) and two microRNAs (miR168, miR159) as candidate reference genes. We found that ADP, snoR14 and snoR23 were ranked as the best of these candidates across diverse samples. Additionally, we found that miR168 was a suitable reference gene for expression analysis in barley. Finally, we validated the performance of our stable and unstable candidate reference genes for both mRNA and miRNA qPCR data normalization under different stress conditions and demonstrated the superiority of the stable candidates. Our data demonstrate the suitability of barley snoRNAs and miRNAs as potential reference genes form iRNA and mRNA qPCR data normalization under different stress treatments [corrected].
Giudice, Aldo; D'Arena, Giovanni; Crispo, Anna; Tecce, Mario Felice; Nocerino, Flavia; Grimaldi, Maria; Rotondo, Emanuela; D'Ursi, Anna Maria; Scrima, Mario; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Capunzo, Mario; Franci, Gianluigi; Barbieri, Antonio; Bimonte, Sabrina; Montella, Maurizio
MicroRNAs are short (21-23 nucleotides), noncoding RNAs that typically silence posttranscriptional gene expression through interaction with target messenger RNAs. Currently, miRNAs have been identified in almost all studied multicellular eukaryotes in the plant and animal kingdoms. Additionally, recent studies reported that miRNAs can also be encoded by certain single-cell eukaryotes and by viruses. The vast majority of viral miRNAs are encoded by the herpesviruses family. These DNA viruses including Epstein-Barr virus encode their own miRNAs and/or manipulate the expression of cellular miRNAs to facilitate respective infection cycles. Modulation of the control pathways of miRNAs expression is often involved in the promotion of tumorigenesis through a specific cascade of transduction signals. Notably, latent infection with Epstein-Barr virus is considered liable of causing several types of malignancies, including the majority of gastric carcinoma cases detected worldwide. In this review, we describe the role of the Epstein-Barr virus in gastric carcinogenesis, summarizing the functions of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded viral proteins and related epigenetic alterations as well as the roles of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded and virally modulated cellular miRNAs.
Li, Shuxia; Yu, Xiang; Lei, Ning; Cheng, Zhihao; Zhao, Pingjuan; He, Yuke; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming
Cold and drought stresses seriously affect cassava (Manihot esculenta) plant growth and yield. Recently, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of diverse cellular processes in mammals and plants. To date, no systematic screening of lncRNAs under abiotic stress and their regulatory roles in cassava has been reported. In this study, we present the first reference catalog of 682 high-confidence lncRNAs based on analysis of strand-specific RNA-seq data from cassava shoot apices and young leaves under cold, drought stress and control conditions. Among them, 16 lncRNAs were identified as putative target mimics of cassava known miRNAs. Additionally, by comparing with small RNA-seq data, we found 42 lncNATs and sense gene pairs can generate nat-siRNAs. We identified 318 lncRNAs responsive to cold and/or drought stress, which were typically co-expressed concordantly or discordantly with their neighboring genes. Trans-regulatory network analysis suggested that many lncRNAs were associated with hormone signal transduction, secondary metabolites biosynthesis, and sucrose metabolism pathway. The study provides an opportunity for future computational and experimental studies to uncover the functions of lncRNAs in cassava. PMID:28387315
Giudice, Aldo; D'Arena, Giovanni; Crispo, Anna; Tecce, Mario Felice; Nocerino, Flavia; Grimaldi, Maria; Rotondo, Emanuela; D'Ursi, Anna Maria; Scrima, Mario; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Capunzo, Mario; Franci, Gianluigi; Barbieri, Antonio; Bimonte, Sabrina; Montella, Maurizio
MicroRNAs are short (21–23 nucleotides), noncoding RNAs that typically silence posttranscriptional gene expression through interaction with target messenger RNAs. Currently, miRNAs have been identified in almost all studied multicellular eukaryotes in the plant and animal kingdoms. Additionally, recent studies reported that miRNAs can also be encoded by certain single-cell eukaryotes and by viruses. The vast majority of viral miRNAs are encoded by the herpesviruses family. These DNA viruses including Epstein-Barr virus encode their own miRNAs and/or manipulate the expression of cellular miRNAs to facilitate respective infection cycles. Modulation of the control pathways of miRNAs expression is often involved in the promotion of tumorigenesis through a specific cascade of transduction signals. Notably, latent infection with Epstein-Barr virus is considered liable of causing several types of malignancies, including the majority of gastric carcinoma cases detected worldwide. In this review, we describe the role of the Epstein-Barr virus in gastric carcinogenesis, summarizing the functions of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded viral proteins and related epigenetic alterations as well as the roles of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded and virally modulated cellular miRNAs. PMID:26977250
Since Galileo pointed a spyglass toward the sky, 400 years ago, observations empowered by man-made instrumentation have provided us with an enormous leap in the knowledge of how the Universe functions. More and more powerful optical telescopes made it possible for us to reach the farthest corners of space. At the same time, the advances in microphysics and the discovery of the electromagnetic spectrum, made it possible to directly look at the Universe in a way that our eyes cannot see. The discoveries of the intimate structure of matter, of subatomic particles and of how they interact with each other, have led astronomers to use the smallest objects in Nature to observe the farthest reaches of the otherwise invisible Universe. Not unlike Galileo, today we observe Outer Space with visible light and beyond, across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from long wavelength radio waves to short wavelength gamma rays. But also with instruments detecting cosmic rays (the atomic nuclei we know on Earth) neutrinos (neutral subatomic particles that interact very weakly with matter) and gravitational waves (perturbations of spacetime predicted by General Relativity). Each cosmic messenger provides us with a unique piece of information about their source and the history of their journey to us. Modern astrophysics has the challenging goal to collect as much information as possible from all those messengers, to reconstruct the story of the Universe and how it became what it is today. This journey started with the unsettling discovery that we are only one minuscule dot in the immensity of the Universe and yet we are able to observe objects that are far in space and time. This journey is yet to complete its course, and the more we advance our knowledge, the more we need to understand. This interdisciplinary talk provides an overview of this journey and the future perspectives.
Small RNAs (sRNA) add additional layers to the regulation of gene expression, with siRNAs directing gene silencing at the DNA level by RdDM (RNA-directed DNA methylation), and miRNAs directing post-transcriptional regulation of specific target genes, mostly by mRNA cleavage. We used manually isolate...
Dunn, John J.; Studier, F. William
The early region of T7 DNA is transcribed as a single unit in a Ribonuclease III-deficient E. coli strain to produce large molecules essentially identical to those produced in vitro by E. coli RNA polymerase. As with the in vitro RNAs, these molecules are cut by purified RNase III in vitro to produce the messenger RNAs normally observed in vivo. Thus, the normal pathway for producing the T7 early messenger RNAs in vivo appears to involve endonucleolytic cleavage by RNase III. The uninfected RNase III-deficient strain contains several RNAs not observed in the parent strain. Patterns of labeling in vivo suggest that the largest of these RNAs, about 1.8 × 106 daltons, may be a precursor to the 16S and 23S ribosomal RNAs. When this large molecule is treated in vitro with purified RNase III, molecules the size of precursor 16S and 23S ribosomal RNAs are released; hybridization competition experiments also indicate that the 1.8 × 106 dalton RNA does indeed represent ribosomal RNA. Thus, RNase III cleavage seems to be part of the normal pathway for producing at least the 16S and 23S ribosomal RNAs in vivo. Several smaller molecules are also released from the 1.8 × 106 dalton RNA by RNase III, but it is not yet established whether any of these contain 5S RNA sequences. Images PMID:4587248
Abrantes, Júlia L F; Tornatore, Thaís F; Pelizzaro-Rocha, Karin J; de Jesus, Marcelo B; Cartaxo, Rodrigo T; Milani, Renato; Ferreira-Halder, Carmen V
Reversible phosphorylation of proteins, performed by kinases and phosphatases, is the major post translational protein modification in eukaryotic cells. This intracellular event represents a critical regulatory mechanism of several signaling pathways and can be related to a vast array of diseases, including cancer. Cancer research has produced increasing evidence that kinase and phosphatase activity can be compromised by mutations and also by miRNA silencing, performed by small non-coding and endogenously produced RNA molecules that lead to translational repression. miRNAs are believed to target about one-third of human mRNAs while a single miRNA may target about 200 transcripts simultaneously. Regulation of the phosphorylation balance by miRNAs has been a topic of intense research over the last years, spanning topics going as far as cancer aggressiveness and chemotherapy resistance. By addressing recent studies that have shown miRNA expression patterns as phenotypic signatures of cancers and how miRNA influence cellular processes such as apoptosis, cell cycle control, angiogenesis, inflammation and DNA repair, we discuss how kinases, phosphatases and miRNAs cooperatively act in cancer biology.
Daiwile, Atul P; Sivanesan, Saravanadevi; Izzotti, Alberto; Bafana, Amit; Naoghare, Pravin K; Arrigo, Patrizio; Purohit, Hemant J; Parmar, Devendra; Kannan, Krishnamurthi
Fluorosis is caused by excess of fluoride intake over a long period of time. Aberrant change in the Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) mediated signaling cascade is one of the decisive steps during the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Up to date, role of fluoride on the epigenetic alterations is not studied. In the present study, global expression profiling of short noncoding RNAs, in particular miRNAs and snoRNAs, was carried out in sodium fluoride (NaF) treated human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells to understand their possible role in the development of fluorosis. qPCR and in silico hybridization revealed that miR-124 and miR-155 can be directly involved in the transcriptional regulation of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL) genes. Compared to control, C/D box analysis revealed marked elevation in the number of UG dinucleotides and D-box sequences in NaF exposed HOS cells. Herein, we report miR-124 and miR-155 as the new possible players involved in the development of fluorosis. We show that the alterations in UG dinucleotides and D-box sequences of snoRNAs could be due to NaF exposure.
Daiwile, Atul P.; Sivanesan, Saravanadevi; Izzotti, Alberto; Bafana, Amit; Naoghare, Pravin K.; Arrigo, Patrizio; Purohit, Hemant J.; Parmar, Devendra; Kannan, Krishnamurthi
Fluorosis is caused by excess of fluoride intake over a long period of time. Aberrant change in the Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) mediated signaling cascade is one of the decisive steps during the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Up to date, role of fluoride on the epigenetic alterations is not studied. In the present study, global expression profiling of short noncoding RNAs, in particular miRNAs and snoRNAs, was carried out in sodium fluoride (NaF) treated human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells to understand their possible role in the development of fluorosis. qPCR and in silico hybridization revealed that miR-124 and miR-155 can be directly involved in the transcriptional regulation of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL) genes. Compared to control, C/D box analysis revealed marked elevation in the number of UG dinucleotides and D-box sequences in NaF exposed HOS cells. Herein, we report miR-124 and miR-155 as the new possible players involved in the development of fluorosis. We show that the alterations in UG dinucleotides and D-box sequences of snoRNAs could be due to NaF exposure. PMID:26339601
Morris, T.J. . School of Biological Sciences); Jackson, A.O. . Dept. of Plant Pathology)
Our lab was the first to describe and characterize a defective interfering RNA (DI RNAs or DIs) in association with a small RNA plant virus. The features of the DIs that we discovered in infections of tomato bushy stunt virus were compatible with the properties of DIs identified in many animal virus infections. Animal virologists have generally recognized the importance of studying DIs because they are invaluable tools for identifying cis-acting sequences important in virus multiplication and because they offer the opportunity to elucidate mechanisms involved in viral persistence and disease attenuation. Hence our discovery offered a comparably valuable tool for use in plant virus studies for the first time. Since the original observation with TBSV, we discovered the second example of plant viral DI RNAs associated with turnip crinkle virus (TCV), and many other reports have now appeared characterizing DI and DI-like RNAs in other plant viral infections. We are seeking to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of DI generation and the precise nature of the RNA sequences necessary for DI replication and encapsidation. We also want to address the nature of the DI mediated symptom attenuation and interference effects in plants, and to determine the feasibility of using transgenic plants constitutively expressing DI RNAs for disease control. The progress made on each of these objectives is summarized along with the proposed experiments for the continuation period.
Chen, Yili; Indurthi, Dinesh C; Jones, Shawn W; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T
The genus Clostridium includes major human pathogens and species important to cellulose degradation, the carbon cycle, and biotechnology. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are emerging as crucial regulatory molecules in all organisms, but they have not been investigated in clostridia. Research on sRNAs in clostridia is hindered by the absence of a systematic method to identify sRNA candidates, thus delegating clostridial sRNA research to a hit-and-miss process. Thus, we wanted to develop a method to identify potential sRNAs in the Clostridium genus to open up the field of sRNA research in clostridia. Using comparative genomics analyses combined with predictions of rho-independent terminators and promoters, we predicted sRNAs in 21 clostridial genomes: Clostridium acetobutylicum, C. beijerinckii, C. botulinum (eight strains), C. cellulolyticum, C. difficile, C. kluyveri (two strains), C. novyi, C. perfringens (three strains), C. phytofermentans, C. tetani, and C. thermocellum. Although more than one-third of predicted sRNAs have Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequences, only one-sixth have a start codon downstream of SD sequences; thus, most of the predicted sRNAs are noncoding RNAs. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (Q-RT-PCR) and Northern analysis were employed to test the presence of a randomly chosen set of sRNAs in C. acetobutylicum and several C. botulinum strains, leading to the confirmation of a large fraction of the tested sRNAs. We identified a conserved, novel sRNA which, together with the downstream gene coding for an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, responds to the antibiotic clindamycin. The number of predicted sRNAs correlated with the physiological function of the species (high for pathogens, low for cellulolytic, and intermediate for solventogenic), but not with 16S rRNA-based phylogeny.
Yang, Liandong; He, Shunping
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in various vitally biological processes via controlling target genes activity and thousands of miRNAs have been identified in many species to date, including 18,698 known animal miRNA in miRBase. However, there are only limited studies reported in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) especially via the computational-based approaches. In present study, we systematically investigated the miRNAs in rainbow trout using a well-developed comparative genome-based homologue search. A total of 196 potential miRNAs, belonging to 124 miRNA families, were identified, most of which were firstly reported in rainbow trout. The length of miRNAs ranged from 17 to 24 nt with an average of 20 nt while the length of their precursors varied from 47 to 152 nt with an average of 85 nt. The identified miRNAs were not evenly distributed in each miRNA family, with only one member per family for a majority, and multiple members were also identified for several families. Nucleotide U was dominant in the pre-miRNAs with a percentage of 30.04%. The rainbow trout pre-miRNAs had relatively high negative minimal folding free energy (MFE) and adjusted MFE (AMFE). Not only the mature miRNAs but their precursor sequences are conserved among the living organisms. About 2466 O. mykiss genes were predicted as potential targets for 189 miRNAs. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed that nearly 2093, 2107, and 2081 target genes are involved in cellular component, molecular function, and biological processes respectively. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis illuminated that these miRNAs targets might regulate 105 metabolic pathways, including those of purine metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, and oxidative phosphorylation. This study has provided an update on rainbow trout miRNAs and their targets, which represents a foundation for future studies.
Zhao, Lijuan; Lu, Hong; Meng, Qinglei; Wang, Jinfu; Wang, Weimin; Yang, Ling; Lin, Li
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulation of many biological processes in eukaryotes, including pathogen infection and host interactions. Flavobacterium columnare (FC) infection can cause great economic loss of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) which is one of the most important cultured fish in the world. However, miRNAs in response to FC infection in common carp has not been characterized. To identify specific miRNAs involved in common carp infected with FC, we performed microRNA sequencing using livers of common carp infected with and without FC. A total of 698 miRNAs were identified, including 142 which were identified and deposited in the miRbase database (Available online: http://www.mirbase.org/) and 556 had only predicted miRNAs. Among the deposited miRNAs, eight miRNAs were first identified in common carp. Thirty of the 698 miRNAs were differentially expressed miRNAs (DIE-miRNAs) between the FC infected and control samples. From the DIE-miRNAs, seven were selected randomly and their expression profiles were confirmed to be consistent with the microRNA sequencing results using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 27,363 target genes of the 30 DIE-miRNAs were predicted. The target genes were enriched in five Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, including focal adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB) signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and adherent junction. The miRNA expression profile of the liver of common carp infected with FC will pave the way for the development of effective strategies to fight against FC infection. PMID:27092486
Zhao, Lijuan; Lu, Hong; Meng, Qinglei; Wang, Jinfu; Wang, Weimin; Yang, Ling; Lin, Li
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulation of many biological processes in eukaryotes, including pathogen infection and host interactions. Flavobacterium columnare (FC) infection can cause great economic loss of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) which is one of the most important cultured fish in the world. However, miRNAs in response to FC infection in common carp has not been characterized. To identify specific miRNAs involved in common carp infected with FC, we performed microRNA sequencing using livers of common carp infected with and without FC. A total of 698 miRNAs were identified, including 142 which were identified and deposited in the miRbase database (Available online: http://www.mirbase.org/) and 556 had only predicted miRNAs. Among the deposited miRNAs, eight miRNAs were first identified in common carp. Thirty of the 698 miRNAs were differentially expressed miRNAs (DIE-miRNAs) between the FC infected and control samples. From the DIE-miRNAs, seven were selected randomly and their expression profiles were confirmed to be consistent with the microRNA sequencing results using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 27,363 target genes of the 30 DIE-miRNAs were predicted. The target genes were enriched in five Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, including focal adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB) signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and adherent junction. The miRNA expression profile of the liver of common carp infected with FC will pave the way for the development of effective strategies to fight against FC infection.
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is one of the major causes for autism and mental retardation in humans. The etiology of FXS is linked to the expansion of the CGG trinucleotide repeats, r(CGG), suppressing the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene on the X chromosome, resulting in a loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) expression, which is required for regulating normal neuronal connectivity and plasticity. Recent studies have further identified that microRNAs are involved in the mechanisms underlying FXS pathogenesis at three different developmental stages. During early embryogenesis before the blastocyst stage, an embryonic stem cell (ESC)-specific microRNA, miR-302, interferes with FMR1 mRNA translation to maintain the stem cell status and inhibit neural development. After blastocyst, the downregulation of miR-302 releases FMRP synthesis and subsequently leads to neuronal development; yet, in FXS, certain r(CGG)-derived microRNAs, such as miR-fmr1s, are expressed and accumulated and then induce DNA hypermethylation on the FMR1 gene promoter regions, resulting in transcriptional inactivation of the FMR1 gene and the loss of FMRP. In normal neuronal development, FMRP is an RNA-binding protein responsible for interacting with miR-125 and miR-132 to regulate the signaling of Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), respectively, and consequently affecting synaptic plasticity. As a result, the loss of FMRP impairs these signaling controls and eventually causes FXS-associated disorders, such as autism and mental retardation. Based on these current findings, this chapter will summarize the etiological causes of FXS and further provides significant insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying microRNA-mediated FXS pathogenesis and the related therapy development.
Pekarsky, Yuri; Balatti, Veronica; Palamarchuk, Alexey; Rizzotto, Lara; Veneziano, Dario; Nigita, Giovanni; Rassenti, Laura Z.; Pass, Harvey I.; Kipps, Thomas J.; Liu, Chang-gong; Croce, Carlo M.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common human leukemia, and transgenic mouse studies indicate that activation of the T-cell leukemia/lymphoma 1 (TCL1) oncogene is a contributing event in the pathogenesis of the aggressive form of this disease. While studying the regulation of TCL1 expression, we identified the microRNA cluster miR-4521/3676 and discovered that these two microRNAs are associated with tRNA sequences and that this region can produce two small RNAs, members of a recently identified class of small noncoding RNAs, tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs). We further proved that miR-3676 and miR-4521 are tsRNAs using Northern blot analysis. We found that, like ts-3676, ts-4521 is down-regulated and mutated in CLL. Analysis of lung cancer samples revealed that both ts-3676 and ts-4521 are down-regulated and mutated in patient tumor samples. Because tsRNAs are similar in nature to piRNAs [P-element–induced wimpy testis (Piwi)-interacting small RNAs], we investigated whether ts-3676 and ts-4521 can interact with Piwi proteins and found these two tsRNAs in complexes containing Piwi-like protein 2 (PIWIL2). To determine whether other tsRNAs are involved in cancer, we generated a custom microarray chip containing 120 tsRNAs 16 bp or more in size. Microarray hybridization experiments revealed tsRNA signatures in CLL and lung cancer, indicating that, like microRNAs, tsRNAs may have an oncogenic and/or tumor-suppressor function in hematopoietic malignancies and solid tumors. Thus, our results show that tsRNAs are dysregulated in human cancer. PMID:27071132
Background Plants respond to external stimuli through fine regulation of gene expression partially ensured by small RNAs. Of these, microRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role. They negatively regulate gene expression by targeting the cleavage or translational inhibition of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). In Hevea brasiliensis, environmental and harvesting stresses are known to affect natural rubber production. This study set out to identify abiotic stress-related miRNAs in Hevea using next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Results Deep sequencing of small RNAs was carried out on plantlets subjected to severe abiotic stress using the Solexa technique. By combining the LeARN pipeline, data from the Plant microRNA database (PMRD) and Hevea EST sequences, we identified 48 conserved miRNA families already characterized in other plant species, and 10 putatively novel miRNA families. The results showed the most abundant size for miRNAs to be 24 nucleotides, except for seven families. Several MIR genes produced both 20-22 nucleotides and 23-27 nucleotides. The two miRNA class sizes were detected for both conserved and putative novel miRNA families, suggesting their functional duality. The EST databases were scanned with conserved and novel miRNA sequences. MiRNA targets were computationally predicted and analysed. The predicted targets involved in "responses to stimuli" and to "antioxidant" and "transcription activities" are presented. Conclusions Deep sequencing of small RNAs combined with transcriptomic data is a powerful tool for identifying conserved and novel miRNAs when the complete genome is not yet available. Our study provided additional information for evolutionary studies and revealed potentially specific regulation of the control of redox status in Hevea. PMID:22330773
Malek, Ehsan; Kim, Byung-Gyu; Driscoll, James J.
While the clinical benefit of proteasome inhibitors (PIs) for multiple myeloma (MM) treatment remains unchallenged, dose-limiting toxicities and the inevitable emergence of drug resistance limit their long-term utility. Disease eradication is compromised by drug resistance that is either present de novo or therapy-induced, which accounts for the majority of tumor relapses and MM-related deaths. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a broad class of RNA molecules, including long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), that do not encode proteins but play a major role in regulating the fundamental cellular processes that control cancer initiation, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. While lncRNAs have recently attracted significant attention as therapeutic targets to potentially improve cancer treatment, identification of lncRNAs that are deregulated in cells resistant to PIs has not been previously addressed. We have modeled drug resistance by generating three MM cell lines with acquired resistance to either bortezomib, carfilzomib, or ixazomib. Genome-wide profiling identified lncRNAs that were significantly deregulated in all three PI-resistant cell lines relative to the drug-sensitive parental cell line. Strikingly, certain lncRNAs deregulated in the three PI-resistant cell lines were also deregulated in MM plasma cells isolated from newly diagnosed patients compared to healthy plasma cells. Taken together, these preliminary studies strongly suggest that lncRNAs represent potential therapeutic targets to prevent or overcome drug resistance. More investigations are ongoing to expand these initial studies in a greater number of MM patients to better define lncRNAs signatures that contribute to PI resistance in MM. PMID:27782060
Souza, Rodrigo W A; Fernandez, Geysson J; Cunha, João P Q; Piedade, Warlen P; Soares, Luana C; Souza, Paula A T; de Campos, Dijon H S; Okoshi, Katashi; Cicogna, Antonio C; Dal-Pai-Silva, Maeli; Carvalho, Robson F
Exercise training (ET) has beneficial effects on the myocardium in heart failure (HF) patients and in animal models of induced cardiac hypertrophy and failure. We hypothesized that if microRNAs (miRNAs) respond to changes following cardiac stress, then myocardial profiling of these miRNAs may reveal cardio-protective mechanisms of aerobic ET in HF. We used ascending aortic stenosis (AS) inducing HF in Wistar rats. Controls were sham-operated animals. At 18 wk after surgery, rats with cardiac dysfunction were randomized to 10 wk of aerobic ET (HF-ET) or to a heart failure sedentary group (HF-S). ET attenuated cardiac remodeling as well as clinical and pathological signs of HF with maintenance of systolic and diastolic function when compared with that of the HF-S. Global miRNA expression profiling of the cardiac tissue revealed 53 miRNAs exclusively dysregulated in animals in the HF-ET, but only 11 miRNAs were exclusively dysregulated in the HF-S. Out of 23 miRNAs that were differentially regulated in both groups, 17 miRNAs exhibited particularly high increases in expression, including miR-598, miR-429, miR-224, miR-425, and miR-221. From the initial set of deregulated miRNAs, 14 miRNAs with validated targets expressed in cardiac tissue that respond robustly to ET in HF were used to construct miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks that revealed a set of 203 miRNA-target genes involved in programmed cell death, TGF-β signaling, cellular metabolic processes, cytokine signaling, and cell morphogenesis. Our findings reveal that ET attenuates cardiac abnormalities during HF by regulating cardiac miRNAs with a potential role in cardio-protective mechanisms through multiple effects on gene expression.
Liu, Yuting; Hu, Wenchao; Wang, Haifang; Lu, Minghua; Shao, Chunxuan; Menzel, Corinna; Yan, Zheng; Li, Ying; Zhao, Sen; Khaitovich, Philipp; Liu, Mofang; Chen, Wei; Barnes, Brian M; Yan, Jun
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 19- to 25-nucleotide-long small and noncoding RNAs now well-known for their regulatory roles in gene expression through posttranscriptional and translational controls. Mammalian hibernation is a physiological process involving profound changes in set-points for food consumption, body mass and growth, body temperature, and metabolic rate in which miRNAs may play important regulatory roles. In an initial study, we analyzed miRNAs in the liver of an extreme hibernating species, the Arctic ground squirrel (Spermophilus parryii), using massively parallel Illumina sequencing technology. We identified >200 ground squirrel miRNAs, including 18 novel miRNAs specific to ground squirrel and mir-506 that is fast evolving in the ground squirrel lineage. Comparing animals sampled after at least 8 days of continuous torpor (late torpid), within 5 h of a spontaneous arousal episode (early aroused), and 1-2 mo after hibernation had ended (nonhibernating), we identified differentially expressed miRNAs during hibernation, which are also compared with the results from two other miRNA profiling methods: Agilent miRNA microarray and real-time PCR. Among the most significant miRNAs, miR-320 and miR-378 were significantly underexpressed during both stages of hibernation compared with nonhibernating animals, whereas miR-486 and miR-451 were overexpressed in late torpor but returned in early arousal to the levels similar to those in nonhibernating animals. Analyses of their putative target genes suggest that these miRNAs could play an important role in suppressing tumor progression and cell growth during hibernation. High-throughput sequencing data and microarray data have been submitted to GEO database with accession: GSE19808.
Sekhon, Kirandeep; Bucay, Nathan; Majid, Shahana; Dahiya, Rajvir; Saini, Sharanjot
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of male cancer-related deaths. A significant fraction of prostate tumors are very aggressive, often metastasizing to bone, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Also, PCa is associated with high rates of recurrence, often attributed to the existence of cancer stem cells. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process characterized by decreased expression of epithelial genes and increased expression of mesenchymal genes, plays a critical role in tumor invasion, metastasis and recurrence. In PCa, EMT has been implicated particularly in the context of metastatic disease and microRNAs have emerged as critical post-transcriptional regulators of PCa EMT. In this review, we summarize the role of miRNAs in PCa EMT that play a role in progression, metastasis and recurrence. Studies till date suggest that microRNAs mediate efficient and reversible control of PCa EMT via multiple mechanisms including either by (i) directly repressing single or multiple EMT-TFs or regulating cytoskeletal components (epithelial/mesenchymal genes) or (ii) regulating key signaling pathways involved in EMT. Oncogenic microRNAs often act as EMT promoters by repressing epithelial characteristics and tumor suppressive miRNAs act by inhibiting mesenchymal progression. Further, EMT is mechanistically linked to stem cell signatures in PCa and several miRNAs implicated in EMT have been reported to influence PCa stem cells. Loss of EMT-inhibiting miRNAs and/or gain of EMT promoting miRNAs lead to induction of PCa EMT, leading to tumor progression, metastasis and recurrence. Restoring expression of tumor suppressive miRNAs and inhibiting oncogenic miRNAs represent potential therapeutic opportunities to prevent disease metastasis and recurrence. PMID:27588490
Perfetti, A.; Greco, S.; Cardani, R.; Fossati, B.; Cuomo, G.; Valaperta, R.; Ambrogi, F.; Cortese, A.; Botta, A.; Mignarri, A.; Santoro, M.; Gaetano, C.; Costa, E.; Dotti, M. T.; Silvestri, G.; Massa, R.; Meola, G.; Martelli, F.
Non-invasive and simple to measure biomarkers are still an unmet need for myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Indeed, muscle biopsies can be extremely informative, but their invasive nature limits their application. Extracellular microRNAs are emerging humoral biomarkers and preliminary studies identified a group of miRNAs that are deregulated in the plasma or serum of small groups of DM1 patients. Here we adopted very stringent selection and normalization criteria to validate or disprove these miRNAs in 103 DM1 patients and 111 matched controls. We confirmed that 8 miRNAs out of 12 were significantly deregulated in DM1 patients: miR-1, miR-27b, miR-133a, miR-133b, miR-206, miR-140-3p, miR-454 and miR-574. The levels of these miRNAs, alone or in combination, discriminated DM1 from controls significantly, and correlated with both skeletal muscle strength and creatine kinase values. Interestingly, miR-133b levels were significantly higher in DM1 female patients. Finally, the identified miRNAs were also deregulated in the plasma of a small group (n = 30) of DM2 patients. In conclusion, this study proposes that miRNAs might be useful as DM1 humoral biomarkers. PMID:27905532
Hennessy, Erica; O'Driscoll, Lorraine
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of endogenous small noncoding RNA molecules, of 19-28 nucleotides in length. In humans, up to 3% of all genes are estimated to encode these evolutionarily conserved sequences. miRNAs are thought to control expression of thousands of target mRNAs. Mammalian miRNAs generally negatively regulate gene expression by repressing translation, possibly through effects on mRNA stability and compartmentalisation, and/or the translation process itself. An extensive range of in silico and experimental techniques have been applied to our understanding of the occurrence and functional relevance of such sequences, and antisense technologies have been successfully used to control miRNA expression in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, miRNAs have been identified in both normal and pathological conditions, including differentiation and development, metabolism, proliferation, cell death, viral infection and cancer. Of specific relevance and excitement to the area of diabetes research, miRNA regulation has been implicated in insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells, diabetic heart conditions and nephropathy. Further analyses of miRNAs in vitro and in vivo will, undoubtedly, enable us determine their potential to be exploited as therapeutic targets in diabetes.
Baker, Charles; Jia, Tao; Kulkarni, Rahul
A wealth of new research has highlighted the critical roles of small RNAs (sRNAs) in diverse processes such as quorum sensing and cellular responses to stress. The pathways controlling these processes often have a central motif comprised of a key protein regulated by multiple sRNAs. However, the regulation of stochastic gene expression of a single target gene by multiple sRNAs is currently not well understood. To address this issue, we analyze a stochastic model of regulation of gene expression by multiple sRNAs. For this model, we derive exact analytic results for the regulated protein distribution including compact expressions for its mean and variance. The derived results provide novel insights into the roles of multiple sRNAs in fine-tuning the noise in gene expression. In particular, we show that, in contrast to regulation by a single sRNA, multiple sRNAs provide a mechanism for independently controlling the mean and variance of the regulated protein distribution.
Drobyshevski, E. M.
The resources offered by the outer bodies in the Solar System, starting with the main belt asteroids and Jovian System, are not only larger and more diverse but may even be easier to reach than, say, those of Mars. The use of their material, including water and organic matter, depends exclusively on the general strategy of exploration of the Solar System. Of major interest in this respect are the large ice satellites - Titan, Ganymede, and Callisto. Motion through the planetary magnetospheres excites in their ice envelopes megampere currents which, in the presence of rocky, etc., inclusions with electronic conduction should lead to the bulk electrolysis of ice and accumulation in it of 2H2 + O2 in the form of a solid solution. With the concentration of 2H2 + O2 reaching about 15 wt. percent, the solution becomes capable of detonation by a strong meteoritic impact. An explosion of Ganymede's ice envelope about 0.5 By ago could account for the formation of the Trojans and irregular satellites, all known differences between Ganymede and Callisto, and many other things. The explosion of a small icy planet with M approx less than 0.5 Moon created the asteroid belt. Two to three explosions occurred on Io, and two on Europa. The specific features of the longperiod comets close to Saturn's orbit permit dating Titan's envelope explosion as 10,000 yr ago, which produced its thick atmosphere, young Saturn's rings, as well as a reservoir of ice fragments saturated by 2H2 + O2, i.e., cometary nuclei between the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn. Thus these nuclei should contain, besides organic matter, also 2H2 + O2, which could be used for their transportation as well as for fuel for spaceships. Ices of such composition can reside deep inside Deimos, the Trojans, C-asteroids, etc. The danger of a future explosion of Callisto's electrolyzed ices, which would result in a catastrophic bombardment of the Earth by comets, may be high enough to warrant a revision of the priorities and
Drobyshevski, E. M.
The resources offered by the outer bodies in the Solar System, starting with the main belt asteroids and Jovian System, are not only larger and more diverse but may even be easier to reach than, say, those of Mars. The use of their material, including water and organic matter, depends exclusively on the general strategy of exploration of the Solar System. Of major interest in this respect are the large ice satellites - Titan, Ganymede, and Callisto. Motion through the planetary magnetospheres excites in their ice envelopes megampere currents which, in the presence of rocky, etc., inclusions with electronic conduction should lead to the bulk electrolysis of ice and accumulation in it of 2H2 + O2 in the form of a solid solution. With the concentration of 2H2 + O2 reaching about 15 wt. percent, the solution becomes capable of detonation by a strong meteoritic impact. An explosion of Ganymede's ice envelope about 0.5 By ago could account for the formation of the Trojans and irregular satellites, all known differences between Ganymede and Callisto, and many other things. The explosion of a small icy planet with M approx less than 0.5 Moon created the asteroid belt. Two to three explosions occurred on Io, and two on Europa. The specific features of the longperiod comets close to Saturn's orbit permit dating Titan's envelope explosion as 10,000 yr ago, which produced its thick atmosphere, young Saturn's rings, as well as a reservoir of ice fragments saturated by 2H2 + O2, i.e., cometary nuclei between the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn. Thus these nuclei should contain, besides organic matter, also 2H2 + O2, which could be used for their transportation as well as for fuel for spaceships. Ices of such composition can reside deep inside Deimos, the Trojans, C-asteroids, etc. The danger of a future explosion of Callisto's electrolyzed ices, which would result in a catastrophic bombardment of the Earth by comets, may be high enough to warrant a revision of the priorities and
Hodgkinson, Conrad P.; Kang, Martin H.; Dal-Pra, Sophie; Mirotsou, Maria; Dzau, Victor J.
The human heart has a very limited capacity to regenerate lost or damaged cardiomyocytes following cardiac insult. Instead, myocardial injury is characterized by extensive cardiac remodeling by fibroblasts, resulting in the eventual deterioration of cardiac structure and function. Cardiac function would be improved if these fibroblasts could be converted into cardiomyocytes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs that promote mRNA degradation and inhibit mRNA translation, have been shown to be important in cardiac development. Using this information various researchers have utilized miRNAs to promote the formation of cardiomyocytes through a number of approaches. Several miRNAs acting in combination promote the direct conversion of cardiac fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes. Moreover, a number of miRNAs have been identified that aid the formation of iPS cells and miRNAs also induce these cells to adopt a cardiac fate. MiRNAs have also been implicated in resident cardiac progenitor cell differentiation. In this review we will discuss the current literature as it pertains to these processes as well as discussing the therapeutic implications of these findings. PMID:25953925
De Guire, Vincent; Caron, Maxime; Scott, Nicolas; Ménard, Catherine; Gaumont-Leclerc, Marie-France; Chartrand, Pascal; Major, François; Ferbeyre, Gerardo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are naturally occurring small RNAs that regulate the expression of several genes. MiRNAs’ targeting rules are based on sequence complementarity between their mature products and targeted genes’ mRNAs. Based on our present understanding of those rules, we developed an algorithm to design artificial miRNAs to target simultaneously a set of predetermined genes. To validate in silico our algorithm, we tested different sets of genes known to be targeted by a single miRNA. The algorithm finds the seed of the corresponding miRNA among the solutions, which also include the seeds of new artificial miRNA sequences potentially capable of targeting these genes as well. We also validated the functionality of some artificial miRNAs designed to target simultaneously members of the E2F family. These artificial miRNAs reproduced the effects of E2Fs inhibition in both normal human fibroblasts and prostate cancer cells where they inhibited cell proliferation and induced cellular senescence. We conclude that the current miRNA targeting rules based on the seed sequence work to design multiple-target artificial miRNAs. This approach may find applications in both research and therapeutics. PMID:20453028
Albers, Suki; Czech, Andreas
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are powerful small RNA entities that are used to translate nucleotide language of genes into the amino acid language of proteins. Their near-uniform length and tertiary structure as well as their high nucleotide similarity and post-transcriptional modifications have made it difficult to characterize individual species quantitatively. However, due to the central role of the tRNA pool in protein biosynthesis as well as newly emerging roles played by tRNAs, their quantitative assessment yields important information, particularly relevant for virus research. Viruses which depend on the host protein expression machinery have evolved various strategies to optimize tRNA usage-either by adapting to the host codon usage or encoding their own tRNAs. Additionally, several viruses bear tRNA-like elements (TLE) in the 5'- and 3'-UTR of their mRNAs. There are different hypotheses concerning the manner in which such structures boost viral protein expression. Furthermore, retroviruses use special tRNAs for packaging and initiating reverse transcription of their genetic material. Since there is a strong specificity of different viruses towards certain tRNAs, different strategies for recruitment are employed. Interestingly, modifications on tRNAs strongly impact their functionality in viruses. Here, we review those intersection points between virus and tRNA research and describe methods for assessing the tRNA pool in terms of concentration, aminoacylation and modification.
Albers, Suki; Czech, Andreas
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are powerful small RNA entities that are used to translate nucleotide language of genes into the amino acid language of proteins. Their near-uniform length and tertiary structure as well as their high nucleotide similarity and post-transcriptional modifications have made it difficult to characterize individual species quantitatively. However, due to the central role of the tRNA pool in protein biosynthesis as well as newly emerging roles played by tRNAs, their quantitative assessment yields important information, particularly relevant for virus research. Viruses which depend on the host protein expression machinery have evolved various strategies to optimize tRNA usage—either by adapting to the host codon usage or encoding their own tRNAs. Additionally, several viruses bear tRNA-like elements (TLE) in the 5′- and 3′-UTR of their mRNAs. There are different hypotheses concerning the manner in which such structures boost viral protein expression. Furthermore, retroviruses use special tRNAs for packaging and initiating reverse transcription of their genetic material. Since there is a strong specificity of different viruses towards certain tRNAs, different strategies for recruitment are employed. Interestingly, modifications on tRNAs strongly impact their functionality in viruses. Here, we review those intersection points between virus and tRNA research and describe methods for assessing the tRNA pool in terms of concentration, aminoacylation and modification. PMID:26797637
Gampel, Alexandra; Mellor, Harry
Rho GTPases control a complex network of intracellular signalling pathways. Whereas progress has been made in identifying downstream signalling partners for these proteins, the characterization of Rho upstream regulatory guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) has been hampered by a lack of suitable research tools. Here we use small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to examine the cellular regulation of the RhoB GTPase, and show that RhoB is activated downstream of the epidermal-growth-factor receptor through the Vav2 exchange factor. These studies demonstrate that siRNAs are an ideal research tool for the assignment of Rho GEF function in vivo. PMID:12113653
Strobel, Eric J; Watters, Kyle E; Loughrey, David; Lucks, Julius B
RNAs assume sophisticated structures that are active in myriad cellular processes. In this review, we highlight newly identified ribozymes, riboswitches, and small RNAs, some of which control the function of cellular metabolic and gene expression networks. We then examine recent developments in genome-wide RNA structure probing technologies that are yielding new insights into the structural landscape of the transcriptome. Finally, we discuss how these RNA 'structomic' methods can address emerging questions in RNA systems biology, from the mechanisms behind long non-coding RNAs to new bases for human diseases.
Hu, Wenqian; Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R; Lodish, Harvey F
Differentiation of specialized cell types from stem and progenitor cells is tightly regulated at several levels, both during development and during somatic tissue homeostasis. Many long non-coding RNAs have been recognized as an additional layer of regulation in the specification of cellular identities; these non-coding species can modulate gene-expression programmes in various biological contexts through diverse mechanisms at the transcriptional, translational or messenger RNA stability levels. Here, we summarize findings that implicate long non-coding RNAs in the control of mammalian cell differentiation. We focus on several representative differentiation systems and discuss how specific long non-coding RNAs contribute to the regulation of mammalian development.
Wercinski, Paul; Munk, Michelle; Powell, Richard; Hall, Jeff; Graves, Claude; Partridge, Harry (Technical Monitor)
The purpose of this white paper is to identify aerocapture technology and system level development needs to enable NASA future mission planning to support Outer Planet Exploration. Aerocapture is a flight maneuver that takes place at very high speeds within a planet's atmosphere that provides a change in velocity using aerodynamic forces (in contrast to propulsive thrust) for orbit insertion. Aerocapture is very much a system level technology where individual disciplines such as system analysis and integrated vehicle design, aerodynamics, aerothermal environments, thermal protection systems (TPS), guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) instrumentation need to be integrated and optimized to meet mission specific requirements. This paper identifies on-going activities, their relevance and potential benefit to outer planet aerocapture that include New Millennium ST7 Aerocapture concept definition study, Mars Exploration Program aeroassist project level support, and FY01 Aeroassist In-Space Guideline tasks. The challenges of performing aerocapture for outer planet missions such as Titan Explorer or Neptune Orbiter require investments to advance the technology readiness of the aerocapture technology disciplines for the unique application of outer planet aerocapture. This white paper will identify critical technology gaps (with emphasis on aeroshell concepts) and strategies for advancement.
Wang, Xinxin; Zhu, Baohua; Huang, Zunnan; Chen, Liyong
Current diagnostic and prognostic markers still exhibit biological limitation and seeking novel molecular biomarkers is crucial for early clinical diagnosis and in the development of novel strategies for leukemia therapy. Emerging evidence showed that dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in cancer including leukemia. In this review, we summarized recent progress on the role of miRNAs in leukemia, mainly focusing on recent findings that suggest the potential of miRNAs as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis. Notably, the circulating miRNAs were also discussed for the fact that they can be detected in body fluids, and thus represent a novel source of promising biomarkers that may be applied to clinical settings. PMID:27358857
Fuentes, Eduardo; Palomo, Iván; Alarcón, Marcelo
Activated platelets play a critical role in the acute complications of atherosclerosis that cause life-threatening ischemic events at late stages of the disease. The miRNAs are a novel class of small, non-coding RNAs that play a significant role in both inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. The miRNAs are known to be present in platelets and exert important regulatory functions. Here we systematically examine the genes that are regulated by platelet miRNAs (miRNA-223,miRNA-126,miRNA-21, miRNA-24 and miRNA-197) and the association with cardiovascular disease risks. Platelet-secreted miRNAs could be novel biomarkers associated with cardiovascular diseases.
Vincent, Kimberly; Pichler, Martin; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Ling, Hui
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA transcripts approximately 20 nucleotides in length that regulate expression of protein-coding genes via complementary binding mechanisms. The last decade has seen an exponential increase of publications on miRNAs, ranging from every aspect of basic cancer biology to diagnostic and therapeutic explorations. In this review, we summarize findings of miRNA involvement in genomic instability, an interesting but largely neglected topic to date. We discuss the potential mechanisms by which miRNAs induce genomic instability, considered to be one of the most important driving forces of cancer initiation and progression, though its precise mechanisms remain elusive. We classify genomic instability mechanisms into defects in cell cycle regulation, DNA damage response, and mitotic separation, and review the findings demonstrating the participation of specific miRNAs in such mechanisms. PMID:25141103
Weng, Xinyu; Zhao, Yifan; Chen, Wei; Gan, Tianyi
Circular RNA (circRNA), a novel type of endogenous noncoding RNA (ncRNA), has become a research hotspot in recent years. CircRNAs are abundant and stably exist in creatures, and they are found with covalently closed loop structures in which they are quite different from linear RNAs. Nowadays, an increasing number of scientists have demonstrated that circRNAs may have played an essential role in the regulation of gene expression, especially acting as miRNA sponges, and have described the potential mechanisms of several circRNAs in diseases, hinting at their clinical therapeutic values. In this review, the authors summarized the current understandings of the biogenesis and properties of circRNAs and their functions and role as biomarkers in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:28210621
Xie, Huangming; Sun, Lei; Lodish, Harvey F
Obesity is a serious health problem worldwide associated with an increased risk of life-threatening diseases such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and certain types of cancer. Fundamental for the development of novel therapeutics for obesity and its associated metabolic syndromes is an understanding of the regulation of fat cell development. Recent computational and experimental studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a role in metabolic tissue development, lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis. In addition, many miRNAs are dysregulated in metabolic tissues from obese animals and humans, which potentially contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity-associated complications. In this review we summarize the current state of understanding of the roles of miRNAs in metabolic tissues under normal development and obese conditions, and discuss the potential use of miRNAs as therapeutic targets.
Liou, Jer-Chyi; Malhotra, Renu
During the early history of the solar system, it is likely that the outer planets changed their distance from the sun, and hence, their influence on the asteroid belt evolved with time. The gravitational influence of Jupiter and Saturn on the orbital evolution of asteroids in the outer asteroid belt was calculated. The results show that the sweeping of mean motion resonances associated with planetary migration efficiently destabilizes orbits in the outer asteroid belt on a time scale of 10 million years. This mechanism provides an explanation for the observed depletion of asteroids in that region.
1030 I. 1030 II. 1030 III. 1031 IV. 1031 V. 1032 VI. 1033 VII. 1034 VIII. 1034 1034 References 1034 SUMMARY: Copper (Cu) microRNAs are upregulated by Cu deficiency and mediate the post-transcriptional downregulation of transcripts that encode Cu proteins, suggesting a role directly related to Cu. However, expression and phenotypic analyses of copper microRNA mutants and over-expressors have suggested roles mainly in tolerance to abiotic stresses. To reconcile available data, a model is proposed which emphasizes the mobile nature of copper microRNA molecules in the regulation of Cu homeostasis. It is proposed that the Cu-microRNA regulatory circuits are further co-opted by plants to regulate both beneficial and pathogenic interactions with microbes. Further exploration of Cu-microRNA functions that account for the cell-to-cell mobility should give novel insight into plant microbe interactions and the integration of micronutrition and development.
Ayers, Duncan; Vandesompele, Jo
Innate and acquired chemoresistance exhibited by most tumours exposed to conventional chemotherapeutic agents account for the majority of relapse cases in cancer patients. Such chemoresistance phenotypes are of a multi-factorial nature from multiple key molecular players. The discovery of the RNA interference pathway in 1998 and the widespread gene regulatory influences exerted by microRNAs (miRNAs) and other non-coding RNAs have certainly expanded the level of intricacy present for the development of any single physiological phenotype, including cancer chemoresistance. This review article focuses on the latest research efforts in identifying and validating specific key molecular players from the two main families of non-coding RNAs, namely miRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), having direct or indirect influences in the development of cancer drug resistance properties and how such knowledge can be utilised for novel theranostics in oncology.
Ayers, Duncan; Vandesompele, Jo
Innate and acquired chemoresistance exhibited by most tumours exposed to conventional chemotherapeutic agents account for the majority of relapse cases in cancer patients. Such chemoresistance phenotypes are of a multi-factorial nature from multiple key molecular players. The discovery of the RNA interference pathway in 1998 and the widespread gene regulatory influences exerted by microRNAs (miRNAs) and other non-coding RNAs have certainly expanded the level of intricacy present for the development of any single physiological phenotype, including cancer chemoresistance. This review article focuses on the latest research efforts in identifying and validating specific key molecular players from the two main families of non-coding RNAs, namely miRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), having direct or indirect influences in the development of cancer drug resistance properties and how such knowledge can be utilised for novel theranostics in oncology. PMID:28273813
Gennari, L; Bianciardi, S; Merlotti, D
MicroRNAs are small, noncoding single-stranded RNAs that have emerged as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, with an essential role in vertebrate development and different biological processes. This review highlights the recent advances in the function of miRNAs and their roles in bone remodeling and bone diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small (∼22 nt), noncoding single-stranded RNAs that have emerged as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. They are essential for vertebrate development and play critical roles in different biological processes related to cell differentiation, activity, metabolism, and apoptosis. A rising number of experimental reports now indicate that miRNAs contribute to every step of osteogenesis and bone homeostasis, from embryonic skeletal development to maintenance of adult bone tissue, by regulating the growth, differentiation, and activity of different cell systems inside and outside the skeleton. Importantly, emerging information from animal studies suggests that targeting miRNAs might become an attractive and new therapeutic approach for osteoporosis or other skeletal diseases, even though there are still major concerns related to potential off target effects and the need of efficient delivery methods in vivo. Moreover, besides their recognized effects at the cellular level, evidence is also gathering that miRNAs are excreted and can circulate in the blood or other body fluids with potential paracrine or endocrine functions. Thus, they could represent suitable candidates for becoming sensitive disease biomarkers in different pathologic conditions, including skeletal disorders. Despite these promising perspectives more work remains to be done until miRNAs can serve as robust therapeutic targets or established diagnostic tools for precision medicine in skeletal disorders.
Van Grembergen, Olivier; Bizet, Martin; de Bony, Eric J.; Calonne, Emilie; Putmans, Pascale; Brohée, Sylvain; Olsen, Catharina; Guo, Mingzhou; Bontempi, Gianluca; Sotiriou, Christos; Defrance, Matthieu; Fuks, François
Evidence is emerging that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) may play a role in cancer development, but this role is not yet clear. We performed a genome-wide transcriptional survey to explore the lncRNA landscape across 995 breast tissue samples. We identified 215 lncRNAs whose genes are aberrantly expressed in breast tumors, as compared to normal samples. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of breast tumors on the basis of their lncRNAs revealed four breast cancer subgroups that correlate tightly with PAM50-defined mRNA-based subtypes. Using multivariate analysis, we identified no less than 210 lncRNAs prognostic of clinical outcome. By analyzing the coexpression of lncRNA genes and protein-coding genes, we inferred potential functions of the 215 dysregulated lncRNAs. We then associated subtype-specific lncRNAs with key molecular processes involved in cancer. A correlation was observed, on the one hand, between luminal A–specific lncRNAs and the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor–β pathways and, on the other hand, between basal-like–specific lncRNAs and the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–dependent pathways and of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Finally, we showed that a specific lncRNA, which we called CYTOR, plays a role in breast cancer. We confirmed its predicted functions, showing that it regulates genes involved in the EGFR/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway and is required for cell proliferation, cell migration, and cytoskeleton organization. Overall, our work provides the most comprehensive analyses for lncRNA in breast cancers. Our findings suggest a wide range of biological functions associated with lncRNAs in breast cancer and provide a foundation for functional investigations that could lead to new therapeutic approaches. PMID:27617288
Van Puyvelde, Sandra; Vanderleyden, Jozef; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J
Nowadays the identification of small RNAs (sRNAs) and characterization of their role within regulatory networks takes a prominent place in deciphering complex bacterial phenotypes. Compared to the study of other components of bacterial cells, this is a relatively new but fast-growing research field. Although reports on new sRNAs appear regularly, some sRNAs are already subject of research for a longer time. One of such sRNAs is MicA, a sRNA best described for its role in outer membrane remodeling, but probably having a much broader function than anticipated. An overview of what we have learnt from MicA led to the conclusion that even for this well-described sRNA, we still do not have the overall picture. More general, the story of MicA might become an experimental lead for unraveling the many sRNAs with unknown functions. In this review, three important topics in the sRNA field are covered, exemplified from the perspective of MicA: (i) identification of new sRNAs, (ii) target identification and unraveling the biological function, (iii) structural analysis. The complex mechanisms of action of MicA deliver some original insights in the sRNA field which includes the existence of dimer formation or simultaneous cis and trans regulation, and might further inspire the understanding of the function of other sRNAs.
Wang, Ziqiang; Lu, Yanqin; Ren, Xiuzhi; Wang, Yanzhou; Li, Zhiliang; Xu, Chao; Han, Jinxiang
We screened differential expression bone-related microRNAs (miRNAs) in serum of patients with osteogenesis imperfect (OI). First, we selected the reference gene (s) fit for quantitative detection of serum miRNAs by using geNorm and several other programmes. Then real-time fluorescent quntitative PCR was used to detect the expression level of bone-related miRNAs gained by means of miRanda, Targetscan and Pictar softwares caculation and reading literature. Then, the results were analyzed with the matched t test. All 6 candidate reference genes had a stable expression level in serum of healthy controls and patients with different characters, and the optimal number of reference genes is 4 (miR-16, let-7a, snRNAU6, miR-92a) after Pairwise Variations analysis (V4/5 = 0.133 < 0.15). For validating the universality of expression stability, we detected the relative expression value of miR-16, let-7a, snRNAU6 and miR-92a in another 8 healthy controls and 16 patients with OI and the result revealed that the expression of 4 genes remained stable (M < 1.5). After measuring serum levels of more than 100 bone-related miRNAs in patients with real-time qPCR, 11 miRNAs showed differential expression, and bioinformatic analysis suggested these altered expressional mioRNAs had possibilities to participate in the process of OI. So the experiment indicated that there existed many differential expression bone-related miRNAs in serum of patients with OI, and these miRNAs had potentials to be promising biomarkers for serologic tests and diagnosis of OI.
Tang, Jinlong; Li, Yuan; Wang, Jingyu; Wen, Zhineng; Lai, Maode; Zhang, Honghe
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) provides a strong driving force in the progression of various human cancers and the development of chemoresistance. Recently, numbers of studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs), by post-transcriptionally silencing EMT-related molecules, can promote or inhibit the EMT process and play pivotal roles in effectively manipulating the occurrence, development, invasion, and metastasis of cancers. MiRNAs can also control the EMT or be controlled by genetic modification and mutual regulation, especially negative feedback. Therefore, miRNAs can be viewed as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes to facilitate or retard the EMT, resulting in far-reaching impact on tumor metastasis and effective diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.
if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4...previous planning letter. In addition, we now have a substantial number of radiocarbon age constraints from the outer shelf wedge sediments, which help...the inverted age observed from C14 dating (Gulick et al., 2005) but it does not adequately explain the processes and the sediment sources that
Smittkamp, J. A.; Gustin, W. H.; Griffin, M. W.
A series of proof of concept structural tests was performed on an engineering model of the Outer Planets Atmospheric Entry Probe. The tests consisted of pyrotechnic shock, dynamic and static loadings. The tests partially verified the structural concept.
Wang, Jun-Wei; Ma, Qinghua; Zeng, Li; Abd-Elouahab, Mohammed Salah
In this paper, the problem of outer synchronization between two complex networks with the same topological structure and time-varying coupling delay is investigated. In particular, we introduce a new type of outer synchronization behavior, i.e., mixed outer synchronization (MOS), in which different state variables of the corresponding nodes can evolve into complete synchronization, antisynchronization, and even amplitude death simultaneously for an appropriate choice of the scaling matrix. A novel nonfragile linear state feedback controller is designed to realize the MOS between two networks and proved analytically by using Lyapunov-Krasovskii stability theory. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of our proposed control approach.
Gupta, Saurabh; Kumari, Manju; Kumar, Himansu; Varadwaj, Pritish Kumar
Globally important cereal crop maize provides important nutritions and starch in dietary foods. Low phosphate (LPi) availability in the soil frequently limits the maize quality and yield across the world. Small non-coding RNAs (Snc-RNAs) play crucial roles in growth and adaptation of plants to the environment. Snc-RNAs like microRNAs (miRs) and trans-acting small interfering RNAs (Tasi-Rs) play important functions in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, which controls plant development, reproduction, and biotic/abiotic stress responses. In order to identify the miR and Tasi-R alterations in leaf and root of maize in response to sufficient phosphate and LPi at 3LS and 4LS, the snc-RNA population libraries for 0th, 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 8th day were constructed. These libraries were used for genome-wide alignment and RNA-fold analysis for possible prediction of potential miRs and Tasi-Rs. This study reported 174 known and conserved differentially expressed miRs of 27 miR families of maize plant. In addition, leaf and root specific potential novel miRs representing 155 new families were also discovered. Differentially expressed conserved as well as novel miR functions in root and leaf during early stage of Pi starvation were extensively discussed. Leaf and root specific miRs as well as common miRs with their target genes, participating in different biological, cellular, and metabolic processes were explored. Further, four miR390-directed Tasi-Rs which belong to TAS3 gene family along with other orthologs of Tasi-Rs were also identified. Finally, the study provides an insight into the composite regulatory mechanism of miRs in maize in response to Pi deficiency.
Noman, Ali; Fahad, Shah; Aqeel, Muhammad; Ali, Usman; Amanullah; Anwar, Sumera; Baloch, Shahbaz Khan; Zainab, Madiha
Cumulatively, biotic and abiotic stresses of various magnitudes can decrease the production of crops by 70%. miRNAs have emerged as a genetic tool with enormous potential that can be exploited to understand stress tolerance at the molecular level and eventually regulate stress in crops. Plant miRNA targets frequently fit into diverse families of TFs that control the expression of genes related to a certain trait. As key machinery in gene regulatory networks, it is agreed that a broad understanding of miRNAs will greatly increase our understanding of plant responses to environmental stresses. miRNA-led stress regulatory networks are being considered as novel tools for the development of abiotic stress tolerance in crops. At this time, we need to expand our knowledge about the modulatory role of miRNAs during environmental fluctuations. It has become exceedingly clear that with increased understanding of the role of miRNAs during stress, the techniques for using miRNA-mediated gene regulation to enhance plant stress tolerance will become more effective and reliable. In this review we present: (1) miRNAs as a potential avenue for the modulation of abiotic stresses, and (2) summarize the research progress regarding plant responses to stress. Current progress is explained through discussion of the identification and validation of several miRNAs that enhance crop tolerance of salinity, drought, etc., while missing links on different aspects of miRNAs related to abiotic stress tolerance are noted.
Fu, Yuanshuai; Shi, Zhiyi; Wang, Guyue; Zhang, Junling; Li, Wenjuan; Jia, Liang
The let-7 microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small noncoding RNAs, are phylogenetically conserved and temporally expressed and control the proper timing of events during development as heterochronic genes in many animals. Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) undergoes a metamorphosis from the larval to juvenile form. Here, we identified 21 let-7 miRNA precursors from different genome loci in Japanese flounder. P. olivaceus let-7 miRNAs are widely expressed in adult tissues, highly expressed during metamorphosis, but weakly during embryonic development. Exogenous thyroid hormone (0.1 mg/L), which induces premature metamorphosis, significantly promotes the expression of let-7 miRNAs, while thiourea (30 mg/L), which affects metamorphic arrest, inhibits the expression of let-7 miRNAs in metamorphosis in P. olivaceus. These results show that let-7 miRNAs widely participate in tissue development and metabolism during development and are also involved in regulation of temporal transitions associated with cell proliferation and differentiation during metamorphosis, in P. olivaceus.
Elramah, Sara; Landry, Marc; Favereaux, Alexandre
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as master regulators of gene expression in the nervous system where they contribute not only to brain development but also to neuronal network homeostasis and plasticity. Their function is the result of a cascade of events including miRNA biogenesis, target recognition, and translation inhibition. It has been suggested that miRNAs are major switches of the genome owing to their ability to regulate multiple genes at the same time. This regulation is essential for normal neuronal activity and, when affected, can lead to drastic pathological conditions. As an example, we illustrate how deregulation of miRNAs can affect neuronal plasticity leading to chronic pain. The origin of pain and its dual role as a key physiological function and a debilitating disease has been highly debated until now. The incidence of chronic pain is estimated to be 20-25% worldwide, thus making it a public health problem. Chronic pain can be considered as a form of maladaptive plasticity. Long-lasting modifications develop as a result of global changes in gene expression, and are thus likely to be controlled by miRNAs. Here, we review the literature on miRNAs and their targets responsible for maladaptive plasticity in chronic pain conditions. In addition, we conduct a retrospective analysis of miRNA expression data published for different pain models, taking into account recent progress in our understanding of the role of miRNAs in neuronal plasticity.
Schuster, Andrew; Skinner, Michael K; Yan, Wei
Exposure to the agricultural fungicide vinclozolin during gestation promotes a higher incidence of various diseases in the subsequent unexposed F3 and F4 generations. This phenomenon is termed epigenetic transgenerational inheritance and has been shown to in part involve alterations in DNA methylation, but the role of other epigenetic mechanisms remains unknown. The current study investigated the alterations in small noncoding RNA (sncRNA) in the sperm from F3 generation control and vinclozolin lineage rats. Over 200 differentially expressed sncRNAs were identified and the tRNA-derived sncRNAs, namely 5' halves of mature tRNAs (5' halves), displayed the most dramatic changes. Gene targets of the altered miRNAs and tRNA 5' halves revealed associations between the altered sncRNAs and differentially DNA methylated regions. Dysregulated sncRNAs appear to correlate with mRNA profiles associated with the previously observed vinclozolin-induced disease phenotypes. Data suggest potential connections between sperm-borne RNAs and the vinclozolin-induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance phenomenon.
A mechanism is required to repress the expression and transposition of transposable elements (TEs) to ensure the stable inheritance of genomic information. Accumulating evidence indicates that small non-coding RNAs are important regulators of TEs. Among small non-coding RNAs, PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) serve as guide molecules for recognizing and silencing numerous TEs and work in collaboration with PIWI subfamily proteins in gonadal cells. Disruption of the piRNA pathway correlates with loss of proper genomic organization, gene expression control and fertility. Moreover, recent studies on the molecular mechanisms of piRNA biogenesis and on piRNA function have shown that piRNAs act as maternally inherited genic elements, transferring information about repressed TEs to progeny. These findings enable a molecular explanation of mysterious epigenetic phenomena, such as hybrid dysgenesis and TE adaptation with age. Here, I review our current knowledge of piRNAs derived from biochemical and genetic studies and discuss how small RNAs are utilized to maintain genome organization and to provide non-DNA genetic information. I mainly focus on Drosophila but also discuss comparisons with other species.
Mian, Yousaf A.; Zeleznik-Le, Nancy J.
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs of ~22 nucleotides that regulate the translation and stability of mRNA to control different functions of the cell. Misexpression of miRNA has been linked to disruption of normal cellular functions, which results in various disorders including cancers such as leukemias. MicroRNA involvement in disease has been the subject of much attention and is increasing our current understanding of disease biology. Such linkages have been determined by high-throughput studies, which provide a framework for characterizing differential miRNA expression levels correlating to different cytogenetic abnormalities and their corresponding malignancies. In addition, functional studies of particular miRNAs have begun to define the effects of miRNA on predicted mRNA targets. It is clear that miRNAs can serve as molecular markers of leukemias and the hope is that they can also serve as new therapeutic targets. Studies are beginning to elucidate how to deliver therapeutic antagonists to attenuate overexpressed miRNAs and to replace underexpressed miRNAs. In this review, we: i) discuss the current understanding of miRNA function and expression in normal hematopoiesis, ii) provide examples of miRNAs that are misregulated in leukemias, and iii) evaluate the current status and potential future directions for the burgeoning field of antisense oligonucleotides and other therapeutic attempts to intervene in miRNA disregulation in leukemias. PMID:20370647
Schuster, Andrew; Skinner, Michael K.; Yan, Wei
Exposure to the agricultural fungicide vinclozolin during gestation promotes a higher incidence of various diseases in the subsequent unexposed F3 and F4 generations. This phenomenon is termed epigenetic transgenerational inheritance and has been shown to in part involve alterations in DNA methylation, but the role of other epigenetic mechanisms remains unknown. The current study investigated the alterations in small noncoding RNA (sncRNA) in the sperm from F3 generation control and vinclozolin lineage rats. Over 200 differentially expressed sncRNAs were identified and the tRNA-derived sncRNAs, namely 5′ halves of mature tRNAs (5′ halves), displayed the most dramatic changes. Gene targets of the altered miRNAs and tRNA 5′ halves revealed associations between the altered sncRNAs and differentially DNA methylated regions. Dysregulated sncRNAs appear to correlate with mRNA profiles associated with the previously observed vinclozolin-induced disease phenotypes. Data suggest potential connections between sperm-borne RNAs and the vinclozolin-induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance phenomenon. PMID:27390623
França, Gustavo S.; Vibranovski, Maria D.; Galante, Pedro A. F.
Increasing evidence has shown that recent miRNAs tend to emerge within coding genes. Here we conjecture that human miRNA evolution is tightly influenced by the genomic context, especially by host genes. Our findings show a preferential emergence of intragenic miRNAs within old genes. We found that miRNAs within old host genes are significantly more broadly expressed than those within young ones. Young miRNAs within old genes are more broadly expressed than their intergenic counterparts, suggesting that young miRNAs have an initial advantage by residing in old genes, and benefit from their hosts' expression control and from the exposure to diverse cellular contexts and target genes. Our results demonstrate that host genes may provide stronger expression constraints to intragenic miRNAs in the long run. We also report associated functional implications, highlighting the genomic context and host genes as driving factors for the expression and evolution of human miRNAs. PMID:27109497
Izar, Benjamin; Mraheil, Mobarak Abu; Hain, Torsten
Bacterial regulatory non-coding RNAs control numerous mRNA targets that direct a plethora of biological processes, such as the adaption to environmental changes, growth and virulence. Recently developed high-throughput techniques, such as genomic tiling arrays and RNA-Seq have allowed investigating prokaryotic cis- and trans-acting regulatory RNAs, including sRNAs, asRNAs, untranslated regions (UTR) and riboswitches. As a result, we obtained a more comprehensive view on the complexity and plasticity of the prokaryotic genome biology. Listeria monocytogenes was utilized as a model system for intracellular pathogenic bacteria in several studies, which revealed the presence of about 180 regulatory RNAs in the listerial genome. A regulatory role of non-coding RNAs in survival, virulence and adaptation mechanisms of L. monocytogenes was confirmed in subsequent experiments, thus, providing insight into a multifaceted modulatory function of RNA/mRNA interference. In this review, we discuss the identification of regulatory RNAs by high-throughput techniques and in their functional role in L. monocytogenes. PMID:21954346
Sun, Mengge; Zhou, Xiaoya; Chen, Lili; Huang, Shishu; Leung, Victor; Wu, Nan; Pan, Haobo; Zhen, Wanxin; Lu, William; Peng, Songlin
MicroRNAs are involved in many cellular and molecular activities and played important roles in many biological and pathological processes, such as tissue formation, cancer development, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it has been reported that microRNAs can modulate the differentiation and activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, the key cells that are involved in bone remodeling process. Meanwhile, the results from our and other research groups showed that the expression profiles of microRNAs in the serum and bone tissues are significantly different in postmenopausal women with or without fractures compared to the control. Therefore, it can be postulated that microRNAs might play important roles in bone remodeling and that they are very likely to be involved in the pathological process of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In this review, we will present the updated research on the regulatory roles of microRNAs in osteoblasts and osteoclasts and the expression profiles of microRNAs in osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture patients. The perspective of serum microRNAs as novel biomarkers in bone loss disorders such as osteoporosis has also been discussed. PMID:27073801
Tang, Siuwah; Bonaroti, Jillian; Unlu, Sebnem; Liang, Xiaoyan; Tang, Daolin; Zeh, Herbert J; Lotze, Michael T
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 18- to 22-nucleotide-long, single-stranded, noncoding RNAs that regulate important biological processes including differentiation, proliferation, and response to cellular stressors such as hypoxia, nutrient depletion, and traversion of the cell cycle by controlling protein expression within the cell. Many investigators have profiled cancer tissue and serum miRNAs to identify potential therapeutic targets, understand the pathways involved in tumorigenesis, and identify diagnostic tumor signatures. In the setting of pancreatic cancer, obtaining pancreatic tissue is invasive and impractical for early diagnosis. Several groups have profiled miRNAs that are present in the blood as a means to diagnose tumor progression and predict prognosis/survival or drug resistance. Several miRNA signatures found in pancreatic tissue and the peripheral blood, as well as the pathways that are associated with pancreatic cancer, are reviewed here in detail. Three miRNA biomarkers (miR-21, miR-155, and miR-200) have been repetitively identified in both pancreatic cancer tissue and patients' blood. Those miRNAs regulate and are regulated by the central genetic and epigenetic changes observed in pancreatic cancer including p53, transforming growth factor β, p16(INK4A), BRCA1/2, and Kras. These miRNAs are involved in DNA repair, cell cycle, and cell invasion and also play important roles in promoting metastases.
Liu, Zhongyu; Guo, Yanzhi; Pu, Xuemei; Li, Menglong
miRNAs (microRNAs) are a set of endogenous and small non-coding RNAs which specifically induce degradation of target mRNAs or inhibit protein translation to control gene expression. Obviously, aberrant miRNA expression in human cells will lead to a serious of changes in protein-protein interaction network (PPIN), thus to activate or inactivate some pathways related to various diseases, especially carcinogenesis. In this study, we systematically constructed the miRNA-regulated co-expressed protein-protein interaction network (CePPIN) for 17 cancers firstly. We investigated the topological parameters and functional annotation for the proteins in CePPIN, especially for those miRNA targets. We found that targets regulated by more miRNAs tend to play a more important role in the forming process of cancers. We further elucidated the miRNA regulation rules in PPIN from a more systematical perspective. By GO and KEGG pathway analysis, miRNA targets are involved in various cellular processes mostly related to cell cycle, such as cell proliferation, growth, differentiation, etc. Through the Pfam classification, we found that miRNAs belonging to the same family tend to have targets from the same family which displays the synergistic function of these miRNAs. Finally, the case study on miR-519d and miR-21-regulated sub-network was performed to support our findings. PMID:27694936
Marques, Sara Correia; Laursen, Maria Bach; Bødker, Julie Støve; Kjeldsen, Malene Krag; Falgreen, Steffen; Schmitz, Alexander; Bøgsted, Martin; Johnsen, Hans Erik; Dybkaer, Karen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play important post-transcriptional regulatory roles in a wide range of biological processes. They are fundamental to the normal development of cells, and evidence suggests that the deregulation of specific miRNAs is involved in malignant transformation due to their function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. We know that miRNAs are involved in the development of normal B-cells and that different B-cell subsets express specific miRNA profiles according to their degree of differentiation. B-cell-derived malignancies contain transcription signatures reminiscent of their cell of origin. Therefore, we believe that normal and malignant B-cells share features of regulatory networks controlling differentiation and the ability to respond to treatment. The involvement of miRNAs in these processes makes them good biomarker candidates. B-cell malignancies are highly prevalent, and the poor overall survival of patients with these malignancies demands an improvement in stratification according to prognosis and therapy response, wherein we believe miRNAs may be of great importance. We have critically reviewed the literature, and here we sum up the findings of miRNA studies in hematological cancers, from the development and progression of the disease to the response to treatment, with a particular emphasis on B-cell malignancies. PMID:25622103
Srivastava, Swayam Prakash; Koya, Daisuke; Kanasaki, Keizo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression in diverse biological and pathological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis. As a result, miRNAs emerged as major area of biomedical research with relevance to kidney fibrosis. Fibrosis is characterized by the excess deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, which is the end result of an imbalance of metabolism of the ECM molecule. Recent evidence suggests that miRNAs participate in the fibrotic process in a number of organs including the heart, kidney, liver, and lung. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and endothelial mesenchymal transition (EndMT) programs play vital roles in the development of fibrosis in the kidney. A growing number of the extracellular and intracellular molecules that control EMT and EndMT have been identified and could be exploited in developing therapeutics for fibrosis. This review highlights recent advances on the role of miRNAs in the kidney diseases; diabetic nephropathy especially focused on EMT and EndMT program responsible for the development of kidney fibrosis. These miRNAs can be utilized as a potential novel drug target for the studying of underlying mechanism and treatment of kidney fibrosis.
Yiş, Uluç; Tüfekçi, Uğur Kemal; Genç, Şermin; Çarman, Kürşat Bora; Bayram, Erhan; Topçu, Yasemin; Kurul, Semra Hız
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is caused by persistent brain infection of mutated virus, showing inflammation, neurodegeneration, and demyelination. Although many factors are emphasized in the pathogenesis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, the exact mechanism of neurodegeneration remains unknown. Micro-RNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional levels. Micro-RNAs are essential for normal immune system development; besides they are also implicated in the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory disorders. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression patterns of micro-RNAs 146a, 181a, and 155 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. We enrolled 39 patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and 41 healthy controls. Quantitative analysis of micro-RNAs 146a, 181a, and 155 were performed using specific stem-loop primers followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. All of 3 micro-RNAs were upregulated in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients. In addition, the level of micro-RNA 155 expression was higher in stage 3 patients. But, micro-RNA 146a and 181a expression levels showed no association or correlation with clinically relevant data. Alteration of peripheral blood mononuclear cell micro-RNAs in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis may shed new light on the pathogenesis of disease and may contribute to the aberrant systemic rise in mRNA levels in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.
Cha, Seung Ah; Park, Byung Mun; Jung, Yu Jin; Kim, Soo Mi; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Kim, Won; Kim, Suhn Hee
To understand the pathophysiology of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) - induced acute kidney injury (AKI), the present study defined changes in renal function, plasma renotropic hormones and its receptors in the kidney 2, 5, or 7 days after 45 min-renal ischemia in rats. Blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine, and osmolarity increased 2 days after I/R injury and tended to return to control level 7 days after I/R injury. Decreased renal function tended to return to control level 5 days after I/R injury. However, plasma concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide and renin did not change. In control kidney, natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A, -B and -C mRNAs were highly expressed in medulla (ME), inner cortex (IC), and outer cortex (OC), respectively, and tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP), auqaporin-2 (AQP-2) and eNOS mRNAs were highly expressed in ME. NPR-A and -B mRNA expressions were markedly decreased 2 days after I/R injury. On 5 days after I/R injury, NPR-A mRNA expression increased in OC and recovered to control level in IC but not in ME. NPR-B mRNA expression was increased in OC, and recovered to control level in IC and ME. NPR-C mRNA expression was markedly decreased in OC 2 and 5 days after I/R injury. TonEBP, APQ-2 and eNOS mRNA expressions were markedly decreased 2 days after I/R injury and did not recover in ME 7 days after I/R injury. Therefore, we suggest that there is a regional heterogeneity of regulation of renal NPRs, TonEBP, and APQ-2 mRNA in AKI.
Pfeffer, Susan R.; Grossmann, Kenneth F.; Cassidy, Pamela B.; Yang, Chuan He; Fan, Meiyun; Kopelovich, Levy; Leachman, Sancy A.; Pfeffer, Lawrence M.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 22–25 nucleotide RNAs that control gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNAs have potential as cancer biomarkers. Melanoma is a highly aggressive form of skin cancer accounting for almost 4% of cancers among men and women, and ~80% of skin cancer-related deaths in the US. In the present study we analyzed plasma-derived exosomal miRNAs from clinically affected and unaffected familial melanoma patients (CDKN2A/p16 gene carriers) and compared them with affected (nonfamilial melanoma) and unaffected control subjects in order to identify novel risk biomarkers for melanoma. Intact miRNAs can be isolated from the circulation because of their presence in exosomes. A number of differentially regulated miRNAs identified by NanoString human V2 miRNA array were validated by quantitative PCR. Significantly, miR-17, miR-19a, miR-21, miR-126, and miR-149 were expressed at higher levels in patients with metastatic sporadic melanoma as compared with familial melanoma patients or unaffected control subjects. Surprisingly, no substantial differences in miRNA expression were detected between familial melanoma patients (all inclusive) and unaffected control subjects. The miRNAs differentially expressed in the different patient cohorts, especially in patients with metastatic melanoma, may play important roles in tumor progression and metastasis, and may be used as predictive biomarkers to monitor remission as well as relapse following therapeutic intervention. PMID:26694476
Marques, Tainá M; Kuiperij, H Bea; Bruinsma, Ilona B; van Rumund, Anouke; Aerts, Marjolein B; Esselink, Rianne A J; Bloem, Bas R; Verbeek, Marcel M
Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are both part of the spectrum of neurodegenerative movement disorders and α-synucleinopathies with overlap of symptoms especially at early stages of the disease but with distinct disease progression and responses to dopaminergic treatment. Therefore, having biomarkers that specifically classify patients, which could discriminate PD from MSA, would be very useful. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate protein translation and are observed in biological fluids, including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and may therefore have potential as biomarkers of disease. The aim of our study was to determine if miRNAs in CSF could be used as biomarkers for either PD or MSA. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), we evaluated expression levels of 10 miRNAs in CSF patient samples from PD (n = 28), MSA (n = 17), and non-neurological controls (n = 28). We identified two miRNAs (miR-24 and miR-205) that distinguished PD from controls and four miRNAs that differentiated MSA from controls (miR-19a, miR-19b, miR-24, and miR-34c). Combinations of miRNAs accurately discriminated either PD (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.96) or MSA (AUC = 0.86) from controls. In MSA, we also observed that miR-24 and miR-148b correlated with cerebellar ataxia symptoms, suggesting that these miRNAs are involved in cerebellar degeneration in MSA. Our findings support the potential of miRNA panels as biomarkers for movement disorders and may provide more insights into the pathological mechanisms related to these disorders.
Berkowitz, Bruce A.; Bredell, Bryce X.; Davis, Christopher; Samardzija, Marijana; Grimm, Christian; Roberts, Robin
Purpose Excessive and continuously produced free radicals in the outer retina are implicated in retinal aging and the pathogenesis of sight-threatening retinopathies, yet measuring outer retinal oxidative stress in vivo remains a challenge. Here, we test the hypothesis that continuously produced paramagnetic free radicals from the outer retina can be measured in vivo using high-resolution (22-μm axial resolution) 1/T1magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without and with a confirmatory quench (quench-assisted MRI). Methods Low-dose sodium iodate–treated and diabetic C57Bl6/J mice (and their controls), and rod-dominated (129S6) or cone-only R91W;Nrl−/− mice were studied. In dark-adapted groups, 1/T1 was mapped transretinally in vivo without or with (1) the antioxidant combination of methylene blue (MB) and α-lipoic acid (LPA), or (2) light exposure; in subgroups, retinal superoxide production was measured ex vivo (lucigenin). Results In the sodium iodate model, retinal superoxide production and outer retina-specific 1/T1 values were both significantly greater than normal and corrected to baseline with MB+LPA therapy. Nondiabetic mice at two ages and 1.2-month diabetic mice (before the appearance of oxidative stress) had similar transretinal 1/T1 profiles. By 2.3 months of diabetes, only outer retinal 1/T1 values were significantly greater than normal and were corrected to baseline with MB+LPA therapy. In mice with healthy photoreceptors, a light quench caused 1/T1 of rods, but not cones, to significantly decrease from their values in the dark. Conclusions Quench-assisted MRI is a feasible method for noninvasively measuring normal and pathologic production of free radicals in photoreceptors/RPE in vivo. PMID:26670830
Carnuta, Mihaela G.; Sanda, Gabriela M.; Stancu, Camelia S.; Popescu, Andreea C.; Popescu, Mihaela R.; Vlad, Adelina; Dimulescu, Doina R.; Simionescu, Maya; Sima, Anca V.
We aimed to determine the levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) in sera and HDL of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared to stable angina (SA) patients with/without hyperglycemia, and evaluate comparatively the functional effect of these sera on the processing machinery proteins (Drosha, DGCR8, Dicer) and miRNAs production in human macrophages. MiRNAs levels in sera and HDL from 35 SA and 72 ACS patients and 30 healthy subjects were measured by using microRNA TaqMan assays. MiR-223, miR-92a, miR-486, miR-122, miR-125a and miR-146a levels were higher in the hyperglycemic ACS compared to normoglycemic sera. MiR-223 and miR-486 prevailed in HDL2, while miR-92a predominated in HDL3, all three miRNAs discriminating between ACS and SA patients; their levels were increased in HDL from hyperglycemic ACS patients versus normoglycemic ones. The incubation of human macrophages with sera from ACS and SA patients showed that all patients’ sera induced an increase of Drosha, DGCR8 and Dicer expressions and of selected miRNAs levels compared to control sera, the effect being higher in the case of hyperglycemic versus normoglycemic ACS sera. The addition of glucose to SA and ACS sera increased Drosha, DGCR8 and Dicer expression and miRNAs levels in the exposed macrophages. In conclusion, hyperglycemia is associated with increased miR-223, miR-92a, miR-486 levels in HDL, which discriminate between ACS and SA patients. Exposure of human macrophages to ACS compared to SA sera determines the upregulation of Drosha, DGCR8 and Dicer expression and the increase of selected miRNAs production, the effect being augmented by an increased glucose concentration. PMID:27519051
Klahre, Ulrich; Crété, Patrice; Leuenberger, Sabrina A.; Iglesias, Victor A.; Meins, Frederick
Posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in transgenic plants is an epigenetic form of RNA degradation related to PTGS and RNA interference (RNAi) in fungi and animals. Evidence suggests that transgene loci and RNA viruses can generate double-stranded RNAs similar in sequence to the transcribed region of target genes, which then undergo endonucleolytic cleavage to generate small interfering RNAs (siRNA) that promote degradation of cognate RNAs. The silent state in transgenic plants and in Caenorhabditis elegans can spread systemically, implying that mobile silencing signals exist. Neither the chemical nature of these signals nor their exact source in the PTGS pathway is known. Here, we use a positive marker system and real-time monitoring of green fluorescent protein expression to show that large sense, antisense, and double-stranded RNAs as well as double-stranded siRNAs delivered biolistically into plant cells trigger silencing capable of spreading locally and systemically. Systemically silenced leaves show greatly reduced levels of target RNA and accumulate siRNAs, confirming that RNA can induce systemic PTGS. The induced siRNAs represent parts of the target RNA that are outside of the region of homology with the triggering siRNA. Our results imply that siRNAs themselves or intermediates induced by siRNAs could comprise silencing signals and that these signals induce self-amplifying production of siRNAs. PMID:12181491
Kumari, Pooja; Sampath, Karuna
For many decades, the major function of mRNA was thought to be to provide protein-coding information embedded in the genome. The advent of high-throughput sequencing has led to the discovery of pervasive transcription of eukaryotic genomes and opened the world of RNA-mediated gene regulation. Many regulatory RNAs have been found to be incapable of protein coding and are hence termed as non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). However, studies in recent years have shown that several previously annotated non-coding RNAs have the potential to encode proteins, and conversely, some coding RNAs have regulatory functions independent of the protein they encode. Such bi-functional RNAs, with both protein coding and non-coding functions, which we term as 'cncRNAs', have emerged as new players in cellular systems. Here, we describe the functions of some cncRNAs identified from bacteria to humans. Because the functions of many RNAs across genomes remains unclear, we propose that RNAs be classified as coding, non-coding or both only after careful analysis of their functions.
Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive tumour with increasing -incidence and poor prognosis in the metastatic stage. In recent years, a substantial number of reports on individual miRNAs or miRNA patterns have been published providing strong evidence that miRNAs might play an important role in malignant melanoma and might help to better understand the molecular mechanisms of melanoma development and progression. A major preliminary finding was that melanoma-associated miRNAs are often located in genomic regions with frequent gains and losses in tumours. Detailed studies of different groups thereafter identified miRNAs with differential expression in benign melanocytes compared with melanoma cell lines or in benign melanocytic lesions compared with melanomas. Among these were let-7a and b, miR-23a and b, miR-148, miR-155, miR-182, miR-200c, miR-211, miR214, and miR-221 and 222. Some of these miRNAs target well-known melanoma-associated genes like the NRAS oncogene, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), receptor tyrosine kinase c-KIT or AP-2 transcription factors (TFAP2). Although we are still far from a complete understanding of the role of miRNA-target gene interactions in malignant melanoma, these findings further underscore the notion of a direct involvement of miRNAs in melanoma biology. Very recently, a prognostic signature of six miRNAs has been identified consisting of miRNAs miR-150, miR-342-3p, miR-455-3p, miR-145, miR-155, and miR-497. High expression of these miRNAs was shown to be associated with improved long-term survival of metastatic patients.
Yu, Xin-Yi; Du, Bei-Bei; Gao, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Tu, Xu-Tong; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Zhen; Qu, Shen-Chun
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, which silence target mRNA via cleavage or translational inhibition to function in regulating gene expression. MiRNAs act as important regulators of plant development and stress response. For understanding the role of miRNAs responsive to apple ring rot stress, we identified disease-responsive miRNAs using high-throughput sequencing in Malus × domestica Borkh.. Four small RNA libraries were constructed from two control strains in M. domestica, crabapple (CKHu) and Fuji Naga-fu No. 6 (CKFu), and two disease stress strains, crabapple (DSHu) and Fuji Naga-fu No. 6 (DSFu). A total of 59 miRNA families were identified and five miRNAs might be responsive to apple ring rot infection and validated via qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we predicted 76 target genes which were regulated by conserved miRNAs potentially. Our study demonstrated that miRNAs was responsive to apple ring rot infection and may have important implications on apple disease resistance.
Liu, Fuli; Wang, Wenjun; Sun, Xiutao; Liang, Zhourui; Wang, Feijiu
As a temperate-cold species, Saccharina japonica often suffers heat stress when it is transplanted to temperate and subtropical zones. Study the heat stress response and resistance mechanism of Saccharina is of great significance for understanding the acclimation to heat stress under domestication as well as for breeding new cultivars with heat stress resistance. In this study, we identified a set of heat stress-responsive miRNAs and analysed their regulation during the heat stress response. CO (control) and heat stress (HS) sRNA libraries were constructed and sequenced. Forty-nine known miRNAs and 75 novel miRNAs were identified, of which seven known and 25 novel miRNAs were expressed differentially under heat stress. Quantitative PCR of six selected miRNAs confirmed that these loci were responsive to heat stress. Thirty-nine and 712 genes were predicted to be targeted by the seven known miRNAs and 25 novel miRNAs, respectively. Gene function and pathway analyses showed that these genes probably play important roles in S. japonica heat stress tolerance. The miRNAs identified represent the first set of heat-responsive miRNAs identified from S. japonica, and their identification can help elucidate the heat stress response and resistance mechanisms in S. japonica.
Li, Chunjin; Chen, Lu; Zhao, Yun; Chen, Shuxiong; Fu, Lulu; Jiang, Yanwen; Gao, Shan; Liu, Zhuo; Wang, Fengge; Zhu, Xiaoling; Rao, Jiahui; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Xu
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) causes female subfertility with ovarian disorders and may be associated with increased rate of early-pregnancy failure. Rat PCOS models were established using letrozole to understand the uterine pathogenesis of PCOS. The differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) was observed in rat uterus with PCOS. After estrous cycles were disrupted, significantly abnormal ovarian morphology and hormone level were observed in rats with PCOS. A total of 148 miRNAs differentially expressed were identified in the uterus from the letrozole-induced rat model compared with the control. These miRNAs included 111 upregulated miRNAs and 37 downregulated miRNAs. The differential expression of miR-484, miR-375-3p, miR-324-5p, and miR-223-3p was further confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Bioinformatic analysis showed that these four miRNAs were predicted to regulate a large number of genes with different functions. Pathway analysis supported that target genes of miRNAs were involved in insulin secretion and signaling pathways, such as wnt, AMPK, PI3K-Akt, and Ras. These data indicated that miRNAs differentially expressed in rat uterus with PCOS may be associated with PCOS pathogenesis in the uterus. Our findings can help clarify the mechanism of uterine defects in PCOS.
Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a solid tumor of the head and neck. Multimodal therapy is highly effective when NPC is detected early. However, due to the location of the tumor and the absence of clinical signs, early detection is difficult, making a biomarker for the early detection of NPC a priority. The dysregulation of small non-coding RNAs (miRNAs) during carcinogenesis is the focus of much current biomarker research. Herein, we examine several miRNA discovery methods using two sample matrices to identify circulating miRNAs (c-miRNAs) associated with NPC. Methods We tested two miRNA discovery workflows on two sample sources for miRNAs associated with NPC. In the first workflow, we assumed that NPC tumor tissue would be enriched for miRNAs, so we compared miRNA expression in FFPE from NPC cases and controls using microarray and RNA-Seq technologies. Candidate miRNAs from both technologies were verified by qPCR in FFPE and sera from an independent NPC sample set. In a second workflow, we directly interrogated NPC case and control sera by RNA-Seq for c-miRNAs associated with NPC, with candidate c-miRNAs verified by qPCR in the sera from the same independent NPC sample set. Results Both microarray and RNA-Seq narrowed the miRNA signature to 1-5% of the known mature human miRNAs. Moreover, these two methods produced similar results when applied to the same sample type (FFPE), with RNA-Seq additionally indicating “unknown” miRNAs associated with NPC. However, we found different miRNA profiles in NPC sera compared to FFPE using RNA-Seq, with the few overlapping miRNAs found to be significantly up-regulated in FFPE significantly down-regulated in sera (and vice versa). Despite the different miRNA profiles found in FFPE and sera, both profiles strongly associated with NPC, providing two potential sources for biomarker signatures for NPC. Conclusions We determined that the direct interrogation of sera by RNA-Seq was the most informative method for
In recent years, the discovery of small ncRNAs (noncoding RNAs) has unveiled a slew of powerful riboregulators of gene expression. So far, many different types of small ncRNAs have been described. Of these, miRNAs (microRNAs), siRNAs (small interfering RNAs), and piRNAs (Piwi-interacting RNAs) have been studied in more detail. A significant fraction of genes in most organisms and tissues is targets of these small ncRNAs. Because these tiny RNAs are turning out to be important regulators of gene and genome expression, their aberrant expression profiles are expected to be associated with cellular dysfunction and disease. In fact, an ever-increasing number of studies have implicated miRNAs and siRNAs in human health and disease ranging from metabolic disorders to diseases of various organ systems as well as various forms of cancer. Nevertheless, despite the flurry of research on these small ncRNAs, many aspects of their biology still remain to be understood. The following discussion focuses on some aspects of the biogenesis and function of small ncRNAs with major emphasis on miRNAs since these are the most widespread endogenous small ncRNAs that have been called "micromanagers" of gene expression. Their emerging significance in toxicology is also discussed.
Baldrich, Patricia; Hsing, Yue-Ie Caroline; San Segundo, Blanca
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that direct posttranscriptional gene silencing in eukaryotes. They are frequently clustered in the genomes of animals and can be independently transcribed or simultaneously transcribed into single polycistronic transcripts. Only a few miRNA clusters have been described in plants, and most of them are generated from independent transcriptional units. Here, we used a combination of bioinformatic tools and experimental analyses to discover new polycistronic miRNAs in rice. A genome-wide analysis of clustering patterns of MIRNA loci in the rice genome was carried out using a criterion of 3 kb as the maximal distance between two miRNAs. This analysis revealed 28 loci with the ability to form the typical hairpin structure of miRNA precursors in which 2 or more mature miRNAs mapped along the same structure. RT-PCR provided evidence for the polycistronic nature of seven miRNA precursors containing homologous or nonhomologous miRNA species. Polycistronic miRNAs and candidate polycistronic miRNAs are located across different rice chromosomes, except chromosome 12, and resided in both duplicated and nonduplicated chromosomal regions. Finally, most polycistronic and candidate polycistronic miRNAs showed a pattern of conservation in the genome of rice species with an AA genome. The diversity in the organization of MIR genes that are transcribed as polycistrons suggests a versatile mechanism for the control of gene expression in different biological processes and supports additional levels of complexity in miRNA functioning in plants. PMID:27190137
Piedade, Diogo; Azevedo-Pereira, José Miguel
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs important in gene regulation. They are able to regulate mRNA translation through base-pair complementarity. Cellular miRNAs have been involved in the regulation of nearly all cellular pathways, and their deregulation has been associated with several diseases such as cancer. Given the importance of microRNAs to cell homeostasis, it is no surprise that viruses have evolved to take advantage of this cellular pathway. Viruses have been reported to be able to encode and express functional viral microRNAs that target both viral and cellular transcripts. Moreover, viral inhibition of key proteins from the microRNA pathway and important changes in cellular microRNA pool have been reported upon viral infection. In addition, viruses have developed multiple mechanisms to avoid being targeted by cellular microRNAs. This complex interaction between host and viruses to control the microRNA pathway usually favors viral infection and persistence by either reducing immune detection, avoiding apoptosis, promoting cell growth, or promoting lytic or latent infection. One of the best examples of this virus-host-microRNA interplay emanates from members of the Herperviridae family, namely the herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), and the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). In this review, we will focus on the general functions of microRNAs and the interactions between herpesviruses, human hosts, and microRNAs and will delve into the related mechanisms that contribute to infection and pathogenesis. PMID:27271654
Khurana, Rimpi; Ranches, Glory; Schafferer, Simon; Lukasser, Melanie; Mayer, Gert; Hüttenhofer, Alexander
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), the decline in the glomerular filtration rate is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and thus poses a major challenge for healthcare systems. While the contribution of tissue-derived miRNAs and mRNAs to CKD progression has been extensively studied, little is known about the role of urinary exosomes and their association with CKD. Exosomes are small, membrane-derived endocytic vesicles that contribute to cell-to-cell communication and are present in various body fluids, such as blood or urine. Next-generation sequencing approaches have revealed that exosomes are enriched in noncoding RNAs and thus exhibit great potential for sensitive nucleic acid biomarkers in various human diseases. Therefore, in this study we aimed to identify urinary exosomal ncRNAs as novel biomarkers for diagnosis of CKD. Since up to now most approaches have focused on the class of miRNAs, we extended our analysis to several other noncoding RNA classes, such as tRNAs, tRNA fragments (tRFs), mitochondrial tRNAs, or lincRNAs. For their computational identification from RNA-seq data, we developed a novel computational pipeline, designated as ncRNASeqScan. By these analyses, in CKD patients we identified 30 differentially expressed ncRNAs, derived from urinary exosomes, as suitable biomarkers for early diagnosis. Thereby, miRNA-181a appeared as the most robust and stable potential biomarker, being significantly decreased by about 200-fold in exosomes of CKD patients compared to healthy controls. Using a cell culture system for CKD indicated that urinary exosomes might indeed originate from renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. PMID:27872161
Szemraj, Maciej; Bielecka-Kowalska, Anna; Oszajca, Katarzyna; Krajewska, Marta; Goś, Roman; Jurowski, Piotr; Kowalski, Michał; Szemraj, Janusz
Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness worldwide. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in serum have emerged as novel candidate biomarkers for many diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify a serum microRNA (miRNA) expression profile specific for dry and wet forms of AMD. Material/Methods Serum miRNA expression was first screened using TaqMan® Human MicroRNA Array A (Applied Biosystems). An extensive, self-validated, individual, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) study was then performed on a cohort of 300 AMD patients (150 wet form and 150 dry form) and 200 controls. The Mann-Whitney U test and nonparametric Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. Results miRNA expression analysis revealed increased expression of miR661 and miR3121 in serum of patients with dry AMD and miR4258, miR889, and Let7 in patients with wet form. Expression of analyzed miRNA was not observed or remained at low level in controls. Conclusions Differences in miRNA serum profile exist between patients with wet and dry form of AMD, which indicates miRNAs as potential biomarkers of AMD. Further studies should be performed to confirm its significance in clinical practice. PMID:26366973
Cruz, Jonathan W.; Woychik, Nancy A.
Most bacterial toxins derived from chromosomally encoded toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems that have been studied to date appear to protect cells from relatively short pulses of stress by triggering a reversible state of growth arrest. In contrast to many bacterial toxins that are produced as defense mechanisms and secreted from their hosts, TA toxins exert their protective effect from within the cell that produces them. TA toxin-mediated growth arrest is most frequently achieved through their ability to selectively cleave RNA species that participate in protein synthesis. Until very recently, it was thought that the primary conduit for toxin-mediated translation inhibition was cleavage of a single class of RNA, mRNA, thus depleting transcripts and precluding production of essential proteins. This minireview focuses on how the development and implementation of a specialized RNA-seq method to study Mycobacterium tuberculosis TA systems enabled the identification of unexpected RNA targets for toxins, i.e. a handful of tRNAs that are cleaved into tRNA halves. Our result brings to light a new perspective on how these toxins may act in this pathogen and uncovers a striking parallel to signature features of the eukaryotic stress response. PMID:26657107
Nakayama-Imaohji, Haruyuki; Hirota, Katsuhiko; Yamasaki, Hisashi; Yoneda, Saori; Nariya, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Motoo; Secher, Thomas; Miyake, Yoichiro; Oswald, Eric; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Kuwahara, Tomomi
Phase changes in Bacteroides fragilis, a member of the human colonic microbiota, mediate variations in a vast array of cell surface molecules, such as capsular polysaccharides and outer membrane proteins through DNA inversion. The results of the present study show that outer membrane vesicle (OMV) formation in this anaerobe is also controlled by DNA inversions at two distantly localized promoters, IVp-I and IVp-II that are associated with extracellular polysaccharide biosynthesis and the expression of outer membrane proteins. These promoter inversions are mediated by a single tyrosine recombinase encoded by BF2766 (orthologous to tsr19 in strain NCTC9343) in B. fragilis YCH46, which is located near IVp-I. A series of BF2766 mutants were constructed in which the two promoters were locked in different configurations (IVp-I/IVp-II = ON/ON, OFF/OFF, ON/OFF or OFF/ON). ON/ON B. fragilis mutants exhibited hypervesiculating, whereas the other mutants formed only a trace amount of OMVs. The hypervesiculating ON/ON mutants showed higher resistance to treatment with bile, LL-37, and human β-defensin 2. Incubation of wild-type cells with 5% bile increased the population of cells with the ON/ON genotype. These results indicate that B. fragilis regulates the formation of OMVs through DNA inversions at two distantly related promoter regions in response to membrane stress, although the mechanism underlying the interplay between the two regions controlled by the invertible promoters remains unknown. PMID:26859882
J. BACON; A. BACA; ET AL
The controlled power outer coil set of the first 100 T non-destructive (100 T ND) magnet is described. This magnet will be installed as part of the user facility research equipment at the National High Magnetic Field laboratory (NHMFL) Pulsed Field Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 100 T ND controlled power outer coil set consists of seven nested, mechanically independent externally reinforced coils. These coils, in combination, will produce a 47 T platform field in a 225-mm diameter bore. Using inertial energy storage a synchronous motor/generator provides ac power to a set of seven ac-dc converters rated at 64 MW/80 MVA each. These converters energize three independent coil circuits to create 170 MJ of field energy in the outer coil set at the platform field of 47 T. Each coil consists of a multi-layer winding of high strength conductor supported by an external high strength stainless steel shell. Coils with the highest magnetic loads will utilize a reinforcing shell fabricated from highly cold worked 301 stainless steel strip. The autofrettage conditioning method will be used to pre-stress the coils and thereby limit conductor and reinforcement strains to the elastic range. The purpose of pre-stressing the coils is to attain a design life of 10,000 full field pulses. The operation and conditioning of the coil set will be described along with special features of its design, magnetic and structural analyses and construction.
Bockmeyer, Clemens L.; Säuberlich, Karen; Wittig, Juliane; Eßer, Marc; Roeder, Sebastian S.; Vester, Udo; Hoyer, Peter F.; Agustian, Putri A.; Zeuschner, Philip; Amann, Kerstin; Daniel, Christoph; Becker, Jan U.
Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) have been used for normalization in glomerular microRNA (miRNA) quantification without confirmation of validity. Our aim was to identify glomerular reference miRNAs in IgA nephropathy. We compared miRNAs in human paraffin-embedded renal biopsies from patients with cellular-crescentic IgA-GN (n = 5; crescentic IgA-GN) and non-crescentic IgA-GN (n = 5; IgA-GN) to mild interstitial nephritis without glomerular abnormalities (controls, n = 5). Laser-microdissected glomeruli were used for expression profiling of 762 miRNAs by low-density TaqMan arrays (cards A and B). The comparison of different normalization methods (GeNormPlus, NormFinder, global mean and snoRNAs) in crescentic IgA-GN, IgA-GN and controls yielded similar results. However, levels of significance and the range of relative expression differed. In median, two normalization methods demonstrated similar results. GeNormPlus and NormFinder gave different top ranked reference miRNAs. Stability ranking for snoRNAs varied between cards A and B. In conclusion, we suggest the geometric mean of the most stable reference miRNAs found in GeNormPlus (miR-26b-5p), NormFinder (miR-28-5p) and snoRNAs (RNU44) as reference. It should be considered that significant differences could be missed using one particular normalization method. As a starting point for glomerular miRNA studies in IgA nephropathy we provide a library of miRNAs. PMID:27553688
Tait, Stephen W G; Green, Douglas R
Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) is often required for activation of the caspase proteases that cause apoptotic cell death. Various intermembrane space (IMS) proteins, such as cytochrome c, promote caspase activation following their mitochondrial release. As a consequence, mitochondrial outer membrane integrity is highly controlled, primarily through interactions between pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) protein family. Following MOMP by pro-apoptotic BCL-2-associated X protein (BAX) or BCL-2 antagonist or killer (BAK), additional regulatory mechanisms govern the mitochondrial release of IMS proteins and caspase activity. MOMP typically leads to cell death irrespective of caspase activity by causing a progressive decline in mitochondrial function, although cells can survive this under certain circumstances, which may have pathophysiological consequences.
Watanabe, Toshiaki; Takeda, Atsushi; Tsukiyama, Tomoyuki; Mise, Kazuyuki; Okuno, Tetsuro; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Minami, Naojiro; Imai, Hiroshi
Small RNAs ranging in size between 18 and 30 nucleotides (nt) are found in many organisms including yeasts, plants, and animals. Small RNAs are involved in the regulation of gene expression through translational repression, mRNA degradation, and chromatin modification. In mammals, microRNAs (miRNAs) are the only small RNAs that have been well characterized. Here, we have identified two novel classes of small RNAs in the mouse germline. One class consists of ∼20- to 24-nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from mouse oocytes, which are derived from retroelements including LINE, SINE, and LTR retrotransposons. Addition of retrotransposon-derived sequences to the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of a reporter mRNA destabilizes the mRNA significantly when injected into full-grown oocytes. These results suggest that retrotransposons are suppressed through the RNAi pathway in mouse oocytes. The other novel class of small RNAs is 26- to 30-nt germline small RNAs (gsRNAs) from testes. gsRNAs are expressed during spermatogenesis in a developmentally regulated manner, are mapped to the genome in clusters, and have strong strand bias. These features are reminiscent of Tetrahymena ∼23- to 24-nt small RNAs and Caenorhabditis elegans X-cluster small RNAs. A conserved novel small RNA pathway may be present in diverse animals. PMID:16766679
Creasey, Kate M; Zhai, Jixian; Borges, Filipe; Van Ex, Frederic; Regulski, Michael; Meyers, Blake C; Martienssen, Robert A
In plants, post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is mediated by DICER-LIKE 1 (DCL1)-dependent microRNAs (miRNAs), which also trigger 21-nucleotide secondary short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) via RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 6 (RDR6), DCL4 and ARGONAUTE 1 (AGO1), whereas transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) of transposons is mediated by 24-nucleotide heterochromatic (het)siRNAs, RDR2, DCL3 and AGO4 (ref. 4). Transposons can also give rise to abundant 21-nucleotide 'epigenetically activated' small interfering RNAs (easiRNAs) in DECREASED DNA METHYLATION 1 (ddm1) and DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (met1) mutants, as well as in the vegetative nucleus of pollen grains and in dedifferentiated plant cell cultures. Here we show that easiRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana resemble secondary siRNAs, in that thousands of transposon transcripts are specifically targeted by more than 50 miRNAs for cleavage and processing by RDR6. Loss of RDR6, DCL4 or DCL1 in a ddm1 background results in loss of 21-nucleotide easiRNAs and severe infertility, but 24-nucleotide hetsiRNAs are partially restored, supporting an antagonistic relationship between PTGS and TGS. Thus miRNA-directed easiRNA biogenesis is a latent mechanism that specifically targets transposon transcripts, but only when they are epigenetically reactivated during reprogramming of the germ line. This ancient recognition mechanism may have been retained both by transposons to evade long-term heterochromatic silencing and by their hosts for genome defence.
Melé, Marta; Mattioli, Kaia; Mallard, William; Shechner, David M.; Gerhardinger, Chiara; Rinn, John L.
While long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) and mRNAs share similar biogenesis pathways, these transcript classes differ in many regards. LincRNAs are less evolutionarily conserved, less abundant, and more tissue-specific, suggesting that their pre- and post-transcriptional regulation is different from that of mRNAs. Here, we perform an in-depth characterization of the features that contribute to lincRNA regulation in multiple human cell lines. We find that lincRNA promoters are depleted of transcription factor (TF) binding sites, yet enriched for some specific factors such as GATA and FOS relative to mRNA promoters. Surprisingly, we find that H3K9me3—a histone modification typically associated with transcriptional repression—is more enriched at the promoters of active lincRNA loci than at those of active mRNAs. Moreover, H3K9me3-marked lincRNA genes are more tissue-specific. The most discriminant differences between lincRNAs and mRNAs involve splicing. LincRNAs are less efficiently spliced, which cannot be explained by differences in U1 binding or the density of exonic splicing enhancers but may be partially attributed to lower U2AF65 binding and weaker splicing-related motifs. Conversely, the stability of lincRNAs and mRNAs is similar, differing only with regard to the location of stabilizing protein binding sites. Finally, we find that certain transcriptional properties are correlated with higher evolutionary conservation in both DNA and RNA motifs and are enriched in lincRNAs that have been functionally characterized. PMID:27927715
Hu, Chung-Chi; Hsu, Yau-Heiu; Lin, Na-Sheng
The view that satellite RNAs (satRNAs) and satellite viruses are purely molecular parasites of their cognate helper viruses has changed. The molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic and/or antagonistic interactions among satRNAs/satellite viruses, helper viruses, and host plants are beginning to be comprehended. This review aims to summarize the recent achievements in basic and practical research, with special emphasis on the involvement of RNA silencing mechanisms in the pathogenicity, population dynamics, and, possibly, the origin(s) of these subviral agents. With further research following current trends, the comprehensive understanding of satRNAs and satellite viruses could lead to new insights into the trilateral interactions among host plants, viruses, and satellites. PMID:21994595
Moore, Kathryn J.; Rayner, Katey J.; Suárez, Yajaira; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos
Cholesterol metabolism is tightly regulated at the cellular level. In addition to classic transcriptional regulation of cholesterol metabolism (e.g., by SREBP and LXR), members of a class of non-coding RNAs termed microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been identified to be potent post-transcriptional regulators of lipid metabolism genes, including cholesterol homeostasis. We and others have recently shown that miR-33 regulates cholesterol efflux and HDL biogenesis by downregulating the expression of the ABC transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1. In addition to miR-33, miR-122 and miR-370 have been shown to play important roles in regulating cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. These new data suggest important roles of microRNAs in the epigenetic regulation of cholesterol metabolism and have opened new avenues for the treatment of dyslipidemias. PMID:20880716
Hu, Chung-Chi; Hsu, Yau-Heiu; Lin, Na-Sheng
The view that satellite RNAs (satRNAs) and satellite viruses are purely molecular parasites of their cognate helper viruses has changed. The molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic and/or antagonistic interactions among satRNAs/satellite viruses, helper viruses, and host plants are beginning to be comprehended. This review aims to summarize the recent achievements in basic and practical research, with special emphasis on the involvement of RNA silencing mechanisms in the pathogenicity, population dynamics, and, possibly, the origin(s) of these subviral agents. With further research following current trends, the comprehensive understanding of satRNAs and satellite viruses could lead to new insights into the trilateral interactions among host plants, viruses, and satellites.
Zhou, Guofei; Chen, Tianji
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease without effective treatment. Despite decades of research and the development of novel treatments, PAH remains a fatal disease, suggesting an urgent need for better understanding of the pathogenesis of PAH. Recent studies suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) are dysregulated in patients with PAH and in experimental pulmonary hypertension. Furthermore, normalization of a few miRNAs is reported to inhibit experimental pulmonary hypertension. We have reviewed the current knowledge about miRNA biogenesis, miRNA expression pattern, and their roles in regulation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. We have also identified emerging trends in our understanding of the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of PAH and propose future studies that might lead to novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of PAH. PMID:25192340
Pastrello, Chiara; Tsay, Mike; McQuaid, Rosanne; Abovsky, Mark; Pasini, Elisa; Shirdel, Elize; Angeli, Marc; Tokar, Tomas; Jamnik, Joseph; Kotlyar, Max; Jurisicova, Andrea; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Jurisica, Igor
While Brassica oleracea vegetables have been linked to cancer prevention, the exact mechanism remains unknown. Regulation of gene expression by cross-species microRNAs has been previously reported; however, its link to cancer suppression remains unexplored. In this study we address both issues. We confirm plant microRNAs in human blood in a large nutrigenomics study cohort and in a randomized dose-controlled trial, finding a significant positive correlation between the daily amount of broccoli consumed and the amount of microRNA in the blood. We also demonstrate that Brassica microRNAs regulate expression of human genes and proteins in vitro, and that microRNAs cooperate with other Brassica-specific compounds in a possible cancer-preventive mechanism. Combined, we provide strong evidence and a possible multimodal mechanism for broccoli in cancer prevention. PMID:27604570
Fujii, Yoichi R.
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are capable of undergoing self-renewal, and their developmental ability is known as the stemness. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) as regulators have been isolated from ESCs. Although Dicer and DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 (DGCR8) are essential factors for the biogeneration of miRNA, Dicer-knockout (KO) ESCs have showed to fail to express differentiation markers and DGCR8-KO ESCs have showed to be arrest in the G1 phase. Furthermore, Dicer-KO ESCs lost the ability to epigenetically silence retroelemtns (REs). REs are expressed and transposed in ESCs, whose transcripts control expression of miRNAs, and their transposable retroelement (TE) expression is, therefore related to ESC proliferation and differentiation, suggesting that the interplay between miRNAs and REs may have a deep responsibility for the stemness including a short G1/S transition and for RE regulation in ESCs. PMID:20835360
Masood, N; Qureshi, M Z; Yasmin, A
Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide with an alarming increase in Asian countries. Overwhelmingly increasing cell culture and preclinical studies are identifying wide ranging mechanisms which are instrumental in disease development, progression and resistance against different therapeutics. The scientists are unable to differentiate whether expressional mutation is a cause or a consequence of some other alterations occurring in the body. We partition this review into how NOTCH1 and p16 contribute in cancer development and how microRNAs quantitatively control NOTCH1 expression. Future studies must converge on identification of miRNAs which negatively regulate p16 and targeted inhibition of p16 targeting miRNAs will be helpful in inhibiting tumor growth, cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Detailed mechanistic insights related to miRNA mediated Notch regulation will also be useful in delivery of tumor suppressor miRNAs or mimics to effectively inhibit cancer.
Bowen, Timothy; Jenkins, Robert H; Fraser, Donald J
MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNA regulators that repress synthesis of their targets post-transcriptionally. On average, each microRNA is estimated to regulate several hundred protein-coding genes, and about 60% of proteins are thought to be regulated by microRNAs in total. A subset of these genes, including the key profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), exhibits particularly strong levels of post-transcriptional control of protein synthesis, involving microRNAs and other mechanisms. Changes in microRNA expression pattern are linked to profound effects on cell phenotype, and microRNAs have an emerging role in diverse physiological and pathological processes. In this review, we provide an overview of microRNA biology with a focus on their emerging role in diseases typified by organ fibrosis.
Most, Dana; Leiter, Courtney; Blednov, Yuri A; Harris, R Adron; Mayfield, R Dayne
Local translation of mRNAs in the synapse has a major role in synaptic structure and function. Chronic alcohol use causes persistent changes in synaptic mRNA expression, possibly mediated by microRNAs localized in the synapse. We profiled the transcriptome of synaptoneurosomes (SN) obtained from the amygdala of mice that consumed 20% ethanol (alcohol) in a 30-day continuous two-bottle choice test to identify the microRNAs that target alcohol-induced mRNAs. SN are membrane vesicles containing pre- and post-synaptic compartments of neurons and astroglia and are a unique model for studying the synaptic transcriptome. We previously showed that chronic alcohol regulates mRNA expression in a coordinated manner. Here, we examine microRNAs and mRNAs from the same samples to define alcohol-responsive synaptic microRNAs and their predicted interactions with targeted mRNAs. The aim of the study was to identify the microRNA–mRNA synaptic interactions that are altered by alcohol. This was accomplished by comparing the effect of alcohol in SN and total homogenate preparations from the same samples. We used a combination of unbiased bioinformatic methods (differential expression, correlation, co-expression, microRNA-mRNA target prediction, co-targeting, and cell type-specific analyses) to identify key alcohol-sensitive microRNAs. Prediction analysis showed that a subset of alcohol-responsive microRNAs was predicted to target many alcohol-responsive mRNAs, providing a bidirectional analysis for identifying microRNA–mRNA interactions. We found microRNAs and mRNAs with overlapping patterns of expression that correlated with alcohol consumption. Cell type-specific analysis revealed that a significant number of alcohol-responsive mRNAs and microRNAs were unique to glutamate neurons and were predicted to target each other. Chronic alcohol consumption appears to perturb the coordinated microRNA regulation of mRNAs in SN, a mechanism that may explain the aberrations in synaptic
Most, Dana; Leiter, Courtney; Blednov, Yuri A; Harris, R Adron; Mayfield, R Dayne
Local translation of mRNAs in the synapse has a major role in synaptic structure and function. Chronic alcohol use causes persistent changes in synaptic mRNA expression, possibly mediated by microRNAs localized in the synapse. We profiled the transcriptome of synaptoneurosomes (SN) obtained from the amygdala of mice that consumed 20% ethanol (alcohol) in a 30-day continuous two-bottle choice test to identify the microRNAs that target alcohol-induced mRNAs. SN are membrane vesicles containing pre- and post-synaptic compartments of neurons and astroglia and are a unique model for studying the synaptic transcriptome. We previously showed that chronic alcohol regulates mRNA expression in a coordinated manner. Here, we examine microRNAs and mRNAs from the same samples to define alcohol-responsive synaptic microRNAs and their predicted interactions with targeted mRNAs. The aim of the study was to identify the microRNA-mRNA synaptic interactions that are altered by alcohol. This was accomplished by comparing the effect of alcohol in SN and total homogenate preparations from the same samples. We used a combination of unbiased bioinformatic methods (differential expression, correlation, co-expression, microRNA-mRNA target prediction, co-targeting, and cell type-specific analyses) to identify key alcohol-sensitive microRNAs. Prediction analysis showed that a subset of alcohol-responsive microRNAs was predicted to target many alcohol-responsive mRNAs, providing a bidirectional analysis for identifying microRNA-mRNA interactions. We found microRNAs and mRNAs with overlapping patterns of expression that correlated with alcohol consumption. Cell type-specific analysis revealed that a significant number of alcohol-responsive mRNAs and microRNAs were unique to glutamate neurons and were predicted to target each other. Chronic alcohol consumption appears to perturb the coordinated microRNA regulation of mRNAs in SN, a mechanism that may explain the aberrations in synaptic
Zhdanov, V. P.
Numerous biological functions of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in eukaryotic cells are based primarily on their ability to pair with target mRNAs and then either to prevent translation or to result in rapid degradation of the mRNA-ncRNA complex. Using a general model describing this scenario, we show that ncRNAs may help to maintain constant mRNA and protein concentrations during the growth of cells. The possibility of observation of this effect on the global scale is briefly discussed.
Nallar, Shreeram C; Kalvakolanu, Dhananjaya V
The interferon (IFN) family of cytokines regulates many cellular processes, such as transcription, translation, post-translational modifications, and protein degradation. IFNs induce growth inhibition and/or cell death, depending on the cell type, by employing different proteins. This review describes a novel growth-suppressive pathway employed by IFNs that affects rRNA levels. Maturation of rRNA involves numerous noncoding small regulatory RNA-guided processes. These regulatory RNAs, called small nucleolar RNA (snoRNAs), function as a ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) in the nucleolus. The biogenesis of snoRNPs is dependent on core protein and assembly factors. Our laboratory recently isolated a growth-suppressive protein gene associated with retinoid-IFN-induced mortality (GRIM)-1 using a genetic screen. IFN-inducible GRIM-1 (SHQ1) is an assembly factor that controls one arm of the snoRNP machinery. GRIM-1 inhibits sno/scaRNP formation to induce growth suppression via reduction in mature rRNA levels. Loss of GRIM-1 observed in certain cancers implicates it to be a novel tumor suppressor. Certain snoRNAs have been reported to act as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors in vitro. Recent studies have shown that certain sno/scaRNAs are further processed into micro RNA-like molecules to control translation of protein-coding RNAs. We present a model as to how these small regulatory RNAs influence cell growth and a potential role for GRIM-1 in this process.
Wang, Yunpeng; Wu, Suying; Yang, Yang; Peng, Fen; Li, Qintao; Tian, Peng; Xiang, Erying; Liang, Honglu; Wang, Beibei; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Huang, Hua; Zhou, Xiaoguang
The present study aimed to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in regulating retinal neovascularization and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A total of 80 healthy C57BL/6 neonatal mice were randomly divided into the oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) group (n=40), in which 7-day-old mice were maintained in 75% oxygen conditions for 5 days, or the control group (n=40). Following collection of retinal tissue, retinal angiography and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining were performed. Total RNA was also extracted from retinal tissue, and miRNA microarrays and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were performed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in the two groups. Retinal angiography and H&E staining revealed damage to retinas in the OIR group. Compared with the control group, 67 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the OIR group, of which 34 were upregulated and 33 were downregulated. Of these differentially expressed miRNAs, 32 exhibited a fold change ≥2, of which 21 were upregulated and 11 were downregulated. The results of RT-qPCR for miR-130a-3p and miR-5107-5p were in accordance with those of the miRNA microarray. The newly identified miRNAs may be important in the development of ROP, and may provide a basis for future research into the mechanisms of ROP. PMID:27922698
Mitchell, Patrick S.; Parkin, Rachael K.; Kroh, Evan M.; Fritz, Brian R.; Wyman, Stacia K.; Pogosova-Agadjanyan, Era L.; Peterson, Amelia; Noteboom, Jennifer; O'Briant, Kathy C.; Allen, April; Lin, Daniel W.; Urban, Nicole; Drescher, Charles W.; Knudsen, Beatrice S.; Stirewalt, Derek L.; Gentleman, Robert; Vessella, Robert L.; Nelson, Peter S.; Martin, Daniel B.; Tewari, Muneesh
Improved approaches for the detection of common epithelial malignancies are urgently needed to reduce the worldwide morbidity and mortality caused by cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (≈22 nt) regulatory RNAs that are frequently dysregulated in cancer and have shown promise as tissue-based markers for cancer classification and prognostication. We show here that miRNAs are present in human plasma in a remarkably stable form that is protected from endogenous RNase activity. miRNAs originating from human prostate cancer xenografts enter the circulation, are readily measured in plasma, and can robustly distinguish xenografted mice from controls. This concept extends to cancer in humans, where serum levels of miR-141 (a miRNA expressed in prostate cancer) can distinguish patients with prostate cancer from healthy controls. Our results establish the measurement of tumor-derived miRNAs in serum or plasma as an important approach for the blood-based detection of human cancer. PMID:18663219
Mitchell, Patrick S; Parkin, Rachael K; Kroh, Evan M; Fritz, Brian R; Wyman, Stacia K; Pogosova-Agadjanyan, Era L; Peterson, Amelia; Noteboom, Jennifer; O'Briant, Kathy C; Allen, April; Lin, Daniel W; Urban, Nicole; Drescher, Charles W; Knudsen, Beatrice S; Stirewalt, Derek L; Gentleman, Robert; Vessella, Robert L; Nelson, Peter S; Martin, Daniel B; Tewari, Muneesh
Improved approaches for the detection of common epithelial malignancies are urgently needed to reduce the worldwide morbidity and mortality caused by cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small ( approximately 22 nt) regulatory RNAs that are frequently dysregulated in cancer and have shown promise as tissue-based markers for cancer classification and prognostication. We show here that miRNAs are present in human plasma in a remarkably stable form that is protected from endogenous RNase activity. miRNAs originating from human prostate cancer xenografts enter the circulation, are readily measured in plasma, and can robustly distinguish xenografted mice from controls. This concept extends to cancer in humans, where serum levels of miR-141 (a miRNA expressed in prostate cancer) can distinguish patients with prostate cancer from healthy controls. Our results establish the measurement of tumor-derived miRNAs in serum or plasma as an important approach for the blood-based detection of human cancer.
Wang, Huan; Fu, Ziyi; Dai, Chencheng; Cao, Jian; Liu, Xiaoguang; Xu, Juan; Lv, Mingming; Gu, Yun; Zhang, Jingmin; Hua, Xiangdong; Jia, Genmei; Xu, Sujuan; Jia, Xuemei; Xu, Pengfei
Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) has been recognized as a regulator of gene expression, and the dysregulation of lncRNAs is involved in the progression of many types of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). To explore the potential roles of lncRNAs in EOC, we performed lncRNA and mRNA microarray profiling in malignant EOC, benign ovarian cyst and healthy control tissues. In this study, 663 transcripts of lncRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in malignant EOC compared with benign and normal control tissues. We also selected 18 altered lncRNAs to confirm the validity of the microarray analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Pathway and Gene Ontology (GO) analyses demonstrated that these altered transcripts were involved in multiple biological processes, especially the cell cycle. Furthermore, Series Test of Cluster (STC) and lncRNA-mRNA co-expression network analyses were conducted to predict lncRNA expression trends and the potential target genes of lncRNAs. We also determined that two antisense lncRNAs (RP11-597D13.9 and ADAMTS9-AS1) were associated with their nearby coding genes (FAM198B, ADAMTS9), which participated in cancer progression. This study offers helpful information to understand the initiation and development mechanisms of EOC. PMID:27941916
Zhang, Houshuang; Zhou, Yongzhi; Cao, Jie; Zhou, Jinlin
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates the innate immune response in arthropods. In tick vectors, LPS activates expression of immune genes, including those for antibacterial peptides. miRNAs are 21–24 nt non-coding small RNAs that regulate target mRNAs at the post-transcriptional level. However, our understanding of tick innate immunity is limited to a few cellular immune reactions and some characterized immune molecules. Moreover, there is little information on the regulation of the immune system in ticks by miRNA. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the differential expression of miRNAs in male and female ticks after LPS injection. LPS was injected into male and female Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides ticks to stimulate immune response, with phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-injected ticks as negative controls. miRNAs from each group were sequenced and analyzed. In the PBS- and LPS-injected female ticks, 11.46 and 12.82 million reads of 18–30 nt were obtained respectively. There were 13.92 and 15.29 million reads of 18–30 nt obtained in the PBS- and LPS-injected male ticks, respectively. Expression of miRNAs in male ticks was greater than that in female ticks. There were 955 and 984 conserved miRNA families in the PBS- and LPS-injected female ticks, respectively, and correspondingly 1684 and 1552 conserved miRNA families in male ticks. Nine novel miRNAs were detected as common miRNAs in two or more tested samples. There were 37 known miRNAs up-regulated >10-fold and 33 down-regulated >10-fold in LPS-injected female ticks; and correspondingly 52 and 59 miRNAs in male ticks. Differential expression of miRNAs in PBS- and LPS-injected samples supports their involvement in the regulation of innate immunity. These data provide an important resource for more detailed functional analysis of miRNAs in this species. PMID:26430879
Understanding the role of small RNAs (sRNAs) in gene regulation, function and development is a rapidly evolving field. sRNAs result from transcript degradation and to regulatory micro RNA (miRNA) and small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) classes involved in gene regulation. The sRNAs from potato leaves were...
Lobos-González, Lorena; Silva, Verónica; Araya, Mariela; Restovic, Franko; Echenique, Javiera; Oliveira-Cruz, Luciana; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Briones, Macarena; Villegas, Jaime; Villota, Claudio; Vidaurre, Soledad; Borgna, Vincenzo; Socias, Miguel; Valenzuela, Sebastián; Lopez, Constanza; Socias, Teresa; Varas, Manuel; Díaz, Jorge; Burzio, Luis O; Burzio, Verónica A
We reported that knockdown of the antisense noncoding mitochondrial RNAs (ASncmtRNAs) induces apoptotic death of several human tumor cell lines, but not normal cells, suggesting this approach for selective therapy against different types of cancer. In order to translate these results to a preclinical scenario, we characterized the murine noncoding mitochondrial RNAs (ncmtRNAs) and performed in vivo knockdown in syngeneic murine melanoma models. Mouse ncmtRNAs display structures similar to the human counterparts, including long double-stranded regions arising from the presence of inverted repeats. Knockdown of ASncmtRNAs with specific antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) reduces murine melanoma B16F10 cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in vitro through downregulation of pro-survival and metastasis markers, particularly survivin. For in vivo studies, subcutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumors in C57BL/6 mice were treated systemically with specific and control antisense oligonucleotides (ASO). For metastasis studies, tumors were resected, followed by systemic administration of ASOs and the presence of metastatic nodules in lungs and liver was assessed. Treatment with specific ASO inhibited tumor growth and metastasis after primary tumor resection. In a metastasis-only assay, mice inoculated intravenously with cells and treated with the same ASO displayed reduced number and size of melanoma nodules in the lungs, compared to controls. Our results suggest that ASncmtRNAs could be potent targets for melanoma therapy. To our knowledge, the ASncmtRNAs are the first potential non-nuclear targets for melanoma therapy.
Lobos-González, Lorena; Silva, Verónica; Araya, Mariela; Restovic, Franko; Echenique, Javiera; Oliveira-Cruz, Luciana; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Briones, Macarena; Villegas, Jaime; Villota, Claudio; Vidaurre, Soledad; Borgna, Vincenzo; Socias, Miguel; Valenzuela, Sebastián; Lopez, Constanza; Socias, Teresa; Varas, Manuel; Díaz, Jorge; Burzio, Luis O.; Burzio, Verónica A.
We reported that knockdown of the antisense noncoding mitochondrial RNAs (ASncmtRNAs) induces apoptotic death of several human tumor cell lines, but not normal cells, suggesting this approach for selective therapy against different types of cancer. In order to translate these results to a preclinical scenario, we characterized the murine noncoding mitochondrial RNAs (ncmtRNAs) and performed in vivo knockdown in syngeneic murine melanoma models. Mouse ncmtRNAs display structures similar to the human counterparts, including long double-stranded regions arising from the presence of inverted repeats. Knockdown of ASncmtRNAs with specific antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) reduces murine melanoma B16F10 cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in vitro through downregulation of pro-survival and metastasis markers, particularly survivin. For in vivo studies, subcutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumors in C57BL/6 mice were treated systemically with specific and control antisense oligonucleotides (ASO). For metastasis studies, tumors were resected, followed by systemic administration of ASOs and the presence of metastatic nodules in lungs and liver was assessed. Treatment with specific ASO inhibited tumor growth and metastasis after primary tumor resection. In a metastasis-only assay, mice inoculated intravenously with cells and treated with the same ASO displayed reduced number and size of melanoma nodules in the lungs, compared to controls. Our results suggest that ASncmtRNAs could be potent targets for melanoma therapy. To our knowledge, the ASncmtRNAs are the first potential non-nuclear targets for melanoma therapy. PMID:27507060
Tyler, G. Leonard
The outer solar system's planetary atmospheres, ionospheres, rings, and magnetic fields are under study in light of microwave telecommunications from the two Voyager spacecraft. The use of the hydrogen maser frequency standards on the ground, in conjunction with thermally controlled quartz oscillators aboard the spacecraft, ensures long coherence intervals and allows the application of novel signal processing methods. On this basis, studies of atmospheric structure and scintillation parameters, planetary ring structure, and magnetic control of small ionospheric irregularities have been undertaken; information concerning planetary evolution, composition, and dynamics is thereby obtained.
26. A typical outer rod room, or rack room, showing the racks for the nine horizontal control rods (HCRs) that would be inserted or withdrawn from the pile to control the rate of reaction. In this case, it is the 105-F Reactor in February 1945. The view is looking away from the pile, which is out of the picture on the left. Several of the cooling water hose reels for the rods can be seen at the end of the racks near the wall. D-8323 - B Reactor, Richland, Benton County, WA
Joshi, Pooja; Middleton, Justin; Jeon, Young-Jun; Garofalo, Michela
MicroRNAs have become recognized as key players in the development of cancer. They are a family of small non-coding RNAs that can negatively regulate the expression of cancer-related genes by sequence-selective targeting of mRNAs, leading to either mRNA degradation or translational repression. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide with a substantially low survival rate. MicroRNAs have been confirmed to play roles in lung cancer development, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and response to therapy. They are also being studied for their future use as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and as potential therapeutic targets. In this review we focus on the role of dysregulated microRNA expression in lung tumorigenesis. We also discuss the role of microRNAs in therapeutic resistance and as biomarkers. We further look into the progress made and challenges remaining in using microRNAs for therapy in lung cancer. PMID:25332906
Hou, Lifang; Wang, Dong; Baccarelli, Andrea
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded non-coding molecules that function as negative regulators to silence or suppress gene expression. Aberrant miRNA expression has been implicated in a several cellular processes and pathogenic pathways of a number of diseases. Evidence is rapidly growing that miRNA regulation of gene expression may be affected by environmental chemicals. These environmental exposures include those that have frequently been associated with chronic diseases, such as heavy metals, air pollution, bisphenol A, and cigarette smoking. In this article, we review the published data on miRNAs in relation to the exposure to several environmental chemicals, and discuss the potential mechanisms that may link environmental chemicals to miRNA alterations. We further discuss the challenges in environmental-miRNA research and possible future directions. The cumulating evidence linking miRNAs to environmental chemicals, coupled with the unique regulatory role of miRNAs in gene expression, makes miRNAs potential biomarkers for better understanding the mechanisms of environmental diseases. PMID:21609724
Kung, Johnny T. Y.; Colognori, David; Lee, Jeannie T.
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have gained widespread attention in recent years as a potentially new and crucial layer of biological regulation. lncRNAs of all kinds have been implicated in a range of developmental processes and diseases, but knowledge of the mechanisms by which they act is still surprisingly limited, and claims that almost the entirety of the mammalian genome is transcribed into functional noncoding transcripts remain controversial. At the same time, a small number of well-studied lncRNAs have given us important clues about the biology of these molecules, and a few key functional and mechanistic themes have begun to emerge, although the robustness of these models and classification schemes remains to be seen. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of the lncRNA field, discussing what is known about the genomic contexts, biological functions, and mechanisms of action of lncRNAs. We also reflect on how the recent interest in lncRNAs is deeply rooted in biology’s longstanding concern with the evolution and function of genomes. PMID:23463798
Josson, Sajni; Chung, Leland W. K.
microRNAs are noncoding RNAs that are important for embryonic stem cell development and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Tumor cells hijack EMT and stemness to grow and metastasize to distant organs including bone. In the tumor microenvironment, tumor cells interact with the stromal fibroblasts at the primary and metastatic sites and this interaction leads to tumor growth, EMT, and bone metastasis. Tumor-stromal interactions are a dynamic process that involves both cell–cell communications and extracellular vesicles and soluble factors. Growing body of evidence suggests that microRNAs are part of the payload that comprises the extracellular vesicles. microRNAs induce reactive stroma and thus convert normal stroma into tumor-associated stroma to promote aggressive tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo. Landmark published studies demonstrate that expression of specific microRNAs of DLK1-DIO3 stem cell cluster correlates with patient survival in metastatic prostate cancer. Thus, microRNAs mediate tumor growth, EMT, and metastasis through cell intrinsic mechanisms and extracellular communications and could be novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets in bone metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:26658999
Josson, Sajni; Chung, Leland W K; Gururajan, Murali
microRNAs are noncoding RNAs that are important for embryonic stem cell development and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Tumor cells hijack EMT and stemness to grow and metastasize to distant organs including bone. In the tumor microenvironment, tumor cells interact with the stromal fibroblasts at the primary and metastatic sites and this interaction leads to tumor growth, EMT, and bone metastasis. Tumor-stromal interactions are a dynamic process that involves both cell-cell communications and extracellular vesicles and soluble factors. Growing body of evidence suggests that microRNAs are part of the payload that comprises the extracellular vesicles. microRNAs induce reactive stroma and thus convert normal stroma into tumor-associated stroma to promote aggressive tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo. Landmark published studies demonstrate that expression of specific microRNAs of DLK1-DIO3 stem cell cluster correlates with patient survival in metastatic prostate cancer. Thus, microRNAs mediate tumor growth, EMT, and metastasis through cell intrinsic mechanisms and extracellular communications and could be novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets in bone metastatic prostate cancer.
Hannon, G J; Rivas, F V; Murchison, E P; Steitz, J A
The 71st Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology celebrated the numerous and expanding roles of regulatory RNAs in systems ranging from bacteria to mammals. It was clearly evident that noncoding RNAs are undergoing a renaissance, with reports of their involvement in nearly every cellular process. Previously known classes of longer noncoding RNAs were shown to function by every possible means-acting catalytically, sensing physiological states through adoption of complex secondary and tertiary structures, or using their primary sequences for recognition of target sites. The many recently discovered classes of small noncoding RNAs, generally less than 35 nucleotides in length, most often exert their effects by guiding regulatory complexes to targets via base-pairing. With the ability to analyze the RNA products of the genome in ever greater depth, it has become clear that the universe of noncoding RNAs may extend far beyond the boundaries we had previously imagined. Thus, as much as the Symposium highlighted exciting progress in the field, it also revealed how much farther we must go to understand fully the biological impact of noncoding RNAs.
Undi, Ram Babu; Kandi, Ravinder; Gutti, Ravi Kumar
The production of different types of blood cells including their formation, development, and differentiation is collectively known as haematopoiesis. Blood cells are divided into three lineages erythriod (erythrocytes), lymphoid (B and T cells), and myeloid (granulocytes, megakaryocytes, and macrophages). Haematopoiesis is a complex process regulated by several mechanisms including microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are small RNAs which regulate the expression of a number of genes involved in commitment and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells. Evidence shows that miRNAs play an important role in haematopoiesis; for example, myeloid and erythroid differentiation is blocked by the overexpression of miR-15a. miR-221, miR-222, and miR-24 inhibit the erythropoiesis, whereas miR-150 plays a role in B and T cell differentiation. miR-146 and miR-10a are downregulated in megakaryopoiesis. Aberrant expression of miRNAs was observed in hematological malignancies including chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myelomas, and B cell lymphomas. In this review we have focused on discussing the role of miRNA in haematopoiesis. PMID:24454381
Gayosso-Gómez, LV; Zárraga-Granados, G; Paredes-Garcia, P; Falfán-Valencia, R; Vazquez-Manríquez, ME; Martinez-Barrera, LM; Castillo-Gonzalez, P; Rumbo-Nava, U; Guevara-Gutierrez, R; Rivera-Bravo, B; Ramirez-Venegas, A; Sansores, R; Negrete-Garcia, MC; Ortiz-Quintero, Blanca
Accurate diagnosis of malignant pleura mesothelioma (MPM) is challenging. Differential diagnosis of MPM versus lung adenocarcinoma (AD) is particularly difficult, yet clinically important since the two neoplasias call for different treatment approaches. Circulating miRNA-profiling to identify miRNAs that can be used to distinguish MPM from AD has not been reported. We conducted a wide screening study of miRNA profiles in serum pools of MPM patients (N = 11), AD patients (N = 36), and healthy subjects (N = 45) to identify non-invasive biomarkers for differential diagnosis of MPM and AD, using deep sequencing. Sequencing detected up to 300 known miRNAs and up to 25 novel miRNAs species in the serum samples. Among known miRNAs, 7 were upregulated in MPM and 12 were upregulated in AD compared to healthy controls. Of these, eight were distinctive for AD and three were unique for MPM. Direct comparison of the miRNA profiles for MPM and AD revealed differences in miRNA levels that could be useful for differential diagnosis. No differentially expressed novel miRNAs were found. Further bioinformatics analysis indicated that three upregulated miRNAs in MPM are associated with the p38 pathway. There are unique alterations in serum miRNAs in MPM and AD compared to healthy controls, as well as differences between MPM and AD profiles. Differing miRNA levels between MPM and AD may be useful for differential diagnosis. A potential association to p38 pathway of three upregulated miRNAs in MPM was revealed. PMID:26417297
The discovery of microRNA (miRNA) is one of the major scientific breakthroughs in recent years and has revolutionized current cell biology and medical science. miRNAs are small (19~25nt) noncoding RNA molecules that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by targeting the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of specific messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for degradation of translation repression. Genetic ablation of the miRNA machinery, as well as loss or degradation of certain individual miRNAs, severely compromises immune development and response, and can lead to immune disorders. Several sophisticated regulatory mechanisms are used to maintain immune homeostasis. Regulatory T (Treg) cells are essential for maintaining peripheral tolerance, preventing autoimmune diseases and limiting chronic inflammatory diseases. Recent publications have provided compelling evidence that miRNAs are highly expressed in Treg cells, that the expression of Foxp3 is controlled by miRNAs and that a range of miRNAs are involved in the regulation of immunity. A large number of studies have reported links between alterations of miRNA homeostasis and pathological conditions such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes, as well as psychiatric and neurological diseases. Although it is still unclear how miRNA controls Treg cell development and function, recent studies certainly indicate that this topic will be the subject of further research. The specific circulating miRNA species may also be useful for the diagnosis, classification, prognosis of diseases and prediction of the therapeutic response. An