Science.gov

Sample records for road building land

  1. Road building, land use and climate change: prospects for environmental governance in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Perz, Stephen; Brilhante, Silvia; Brown, Foster; Caldas, Marcellus; Ikeda, Santos; Mendoza, Elsa; Overdevest, Christine; Reis, Vera; Reyes, Juan Fernando; Rojas, Daniel; Schmink, Marianne; Souza, Carlos; Walker, Robert

    2008-05-27

    Some coupled land-climate models predict a dieback of Amazon forest during the twenty-first century due to climate change, but human land use in the region has already reduced the forest cover. The causation behind land use is complex, and includes economic, institutional, political and demographic factors. Pre-eminent among these factors is road building, which facilitates human access to natural resources that beget forest fragmentation. While official government road projects have received considerable attention, unofficial road building by interest groups is expanding more rapidly, especially where official roads are being paved, yielding highly fragmented forest mosaics. Effective governance of natural resources in the Amazon requires a combination of state oversight and community participation in a 'hybrid' model of governance. The MAP Initiative in the southwestern Amazon provides an example of an innovative hybrid approach to environmental governance. It embodies a polycentric structure that includes government agencies, NGOs, universities and communities in a planning process that links scientific data to public deliberations in order to mitigate the effects of new infrastructure and climate change.

  2. Unofficial Road Building in the Amazon: Socioeconomic and Biophysical Explanations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Arima, Eugenio; Walker, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Roads have manifold social and environmental impacts, including regional development, social conflicts and habitat fragmentation. 'Road ecology' has emerged as an approach to evaluate the various ecological and hydrological impacts of roads. This article aims to complement road ecology by examining the socio-spatial processes of road building itself. Focusing on the Brazilian Amazon, a heavily-studied context due to forest fragmentation by roads, the authors consider non-state social actors who build 'unofficial roads' for the purpose of gaining access to natural resources to support livelihoods and community development. They examine four case studies of roads with distinct histories in order to explain the socio-spatial processes behind road building in terms of profit maximization, land tenure claims, co-operative and conflictive political ecologies, and constraints as well as opportunities afforded by the biophysical environment. The study cases illustrate the need for a multi-pronged theoretical approach to understanding road building, and call for more attention to the role of non-state actors in unofficial road construction.

  3. Understanding nutrient build-up on urban road surfaces.

    PubMed

    Miguntanna, Nandika Prasadani; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Egodowatta, Prasanna; Kokot, Serge

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the outcomes of a research project on nutrients build-up on urban road surfaces. Nutrient build-up was investigated on road sites belonging to residential, industrial and commercial land use. Collected build-up samples were separated into five particle size ranges and were tested for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and sub species of nutrients, namely, NO2-, NO3-, TKN and PO4(3-). Multivariate analytical techniques were used to analyse the data and to develop detailed understanding on buildup. Data analysis revealed that the solids loads on urban road surfaces are highly influenced by factors such as land use, antecedent dry period and traffic volume. However, the nutrient build-up process was found to be independent of the type of land use. It was solely dependent on the particle size of solids build-up. Most of the nutrients were associated with the particle size range < 150 microm. Therefore, the removal of particles below 150 microm from road surfaces is of importance for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from road surface solids build-up. It is also important to consider the difference in the composition of nitrogen and phosphorus build-up in the context of designing effective stormwater quality mitigation strategies.

  4. A global strategy for road building.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Sloan, Sean; O'Connell, Christine S; Mueller, Nathan D; Goosem, Miriam; Venter, Oscar; Edwards, David P; Phalan, Ben; Balmford, Andrew; Van Der Ree, Rodney; Arrea, Irene Burgues

    2014-09-11

    The number and extent of roads will expand dramatically this century. Globally, at least 25 million kilometres of new roads are anticipated by 2050; a 60% increase in the total length of roads over that in 2010. Nine-tenths of all road construction is expected to occur in developing nations, including many regions that sustain exceptional biodiversity and vital ecosystem services. Roads penetrating into wilderness or frontier areas are a major proximate driver of habitat loss and fragmentation, wildfires, overhunting and other environmental degradation, often with irreversible impacts on ecosystems. Unfortunately, much road proliferation is chaotic or poorly planned, and the rate of expansion is so great that it often overwhelms the capacity of environmental planners and managers. Here we present a global scheme for prioritizing road building. This large-scale zoning plan seeks to limit the environmental costs of road expansion while maximizing its benefits for human development, by helping to increase agricultural production, which is an urgent priority given that global food demand could double by mid-century. Our analysis identifies areas with high environmental values where future road building should be avoided if possible, areas where strategic road improvements could promote agricultural development with relatively modest environmental costs, and 'conflict areas' where road building could have sizeable benefits for agriculture but with serious environmental damage. Our plan provides a template for proactively zoning and prioritizing roads during the most explosive era of road expansion in human history.

  5. 4. View of Building 802 from the access road, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of Building 802 from the access road, facing northwest. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  6. Contextual view of Building 477 along Reeves Road, view facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Building 477 along Reeves Road, view facing east - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Golf Course Equipment & Repair Shop, Reeves & Moffett Roads, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  7. VIEW ALONG NEW YORK ROAD, LOOKING TOWARD BASE THEATER (BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW ALONG NEW YORK ROAD, LOOKING TOWARD BASE THEATER (BUILDING 2338)RIGHT AND EXCHANGE SALES STORE (BUILDING 2363) LEFT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  8. The road plan model: Information model for planning road building activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azinhal, Rafaela K.; Moura-Pires, Fernando

    1994-01-01

    The general building contractor is presented with an information model as an approach for deriving a high-level work plan of construction activities applied to road building. Road construction activities are represented in a Road Plan Model (RPM), which is modeled in the ISO standard STEP/EXPRESS and adopts various concepts from the GARM notation. The integration with the preceding road design stage and the succeeding phase of resource scheduling is discussed within the framework of a Road Construction Model. Construction knowledge is applied to the road design and the terrain model of the surrounding road infrastructure for the instantiation of the RPM. Issues regarding the implementation of a road planner application supporting the RPM are discussed.

  9. Characterizing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon build-up processes on urban road surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Liu, An; Li, Dunzhu; Zhang, Lixun; Guan, Yuntao

    2016-07-01

    Reliable prediction models are essential for modeling pollutant build-up processes on urban road surfaces. Based on successive samplings of road deposited sediments (RDS), this study presents empirical models for mathematical replication of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) build-up processes on urban road surfaces. The contaminant build-up behavior was modeled using saturation functions, which are commonly applied in US EPA's Stormwater Management Model (SWMM). Accurate fitting results were achieved in three typical urban land use types, and the applicability of the models was confirmed based on their acceptable relative prediction errors. The fitting results showed high variability in PAH saturation value and build-up rate among different land use types. Results of multivariate data and temporal-based analyses suggested that the quantity and property of RDS significantly influenced PAH build-up. Furthermore, pollution sources, traffic parameters, road surface conditions, and sweeping frequency could synthetically impact the RDS build-up and RDS property change processes. Thus, changes in these parameters could be the main reason for variations in PAH build-up in different urban land use types. PMID:27086074

  10. Characterizing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon build-up processes on urban road surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Liu, An; Li, Dunzhu; Zhang, Lixun; Guan, Yuntao

    2016-07-01

    Reliable prediction models are essential for modeling pollutant build-up processes on urban road surfaces. Based on successive samplings of road deposited sediments (RDS), this study presents empirical models for mathematical replication of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) build-up processes on urban road surfaces. The contaminant build-up behavior was modeled using saturation functions, which are commonly applied in US EPA's Stormwater Management Model (SWMM). Accurate fitting results were achieved in three typical urban land use types, and the applicability of the models was confirmed based on their acceptable relative prediction errors. The fitting results showed high variability in PAH saturation value and build-up rate among different land use types. Results of multivariate data and temporal-based analyses suggested that the quantity and property of RDS significantly influenced PAH build-up. Furthermore, pollution sources, traffic parameters, road surface conditions, and sweeping frequency could synthetically impact the RDS build-up and RDS property change processes. Thus, changes in these parameters could be the main reason for variations in PAH build-up in different urban land use types.

  11. Unofficial Road Building in the Brazilian Amazon: Dilemmas and Models for Road Governance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Overdevest, Christine; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.

    2007-01-01

    Unofficial roads form dense networks in landscapes, generating a litany of negative ecological outcomes, but unofficial roads in frontier areas are also instrumental in local livelihoods and community development. This trade-off poses dilemmas for the governance of unofficial roads. Unofficial road building in frontier areas of the Brazilian Amazon illustrates the challenges of 'road governance.' Both state-based and community based governance models exhibit important liabilities for governing unofficial roads. Whereas state-based governance has experienced difficulties in adapting to specific local contexts and interacting effectively with local interest groups, community-based governance has a mixed record owing to social inequalities and conflicts among local interest groups. A state-community hybrid model may offer more effective governance of unofficial road building by combining the oversight capacity of the state with locally grounded community management via participatory decision-making.

  12. 63. Historic American Buildings Survey U.S. Land Commission, Clerk ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Historic American Buildings Survey U.S. Land Commission, Clerk - U.S. District Court of Northern California - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  13. 43 CFR 3811.2-5 - O and C and Coos Bay Wagon Road lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false O and C and Coos Bay Wagon Road lands... SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject to Location and Purchase § 3811.2-5 O and C and Coos Bay Wagon Road lands. Revested Oregon and California Railroad and Reconveyed Coos Bay Wagon Road Grant Lands,...

  14. 43 CFR 3811.2-5 - O and C and Coos Bay Wagon Road lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false O and C and Coos Bay Wagon Road lands... SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject to Location and Purchase § 3811.2-5 O and C and Coos Bay Wagon Road lands. Revested Oregon and California Railroad and Reconveyed Coos Bay Wagon Road Grant Lands,...

  15. 43 CFR 3811.2-5 - O and C and Coos Bay Wagon Road lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false O and C and Coos Bay Wagon Road lands... SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject to Location and Purchase § 3811.2-5 O and C and Coos Bay Wagon Road lands. Revested Oregon and California Railroad and Reconveyed Coos Bay Wagon Road Grant Lands,...

  16. 43 CFR 3811.2-5 - O and C and Coos Bay Wagon Road lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false O and C and Coos Bay Wagon Road lands... SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject to Location and Purchase § 3811.2-5 O and C and Coos Bay Wagon Road lands. Revested Oregon and California Railroad and Reconveyed Coos Bay Wagon Road Grant Lands,...

  17. View of Corto Square Road from Corto Square. Buildings No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Corto Square Road from Corto Square. Buildings No. 27 at left, Building No. 25 at rear, and Building No. 26 at right. Parking areas on left and right, looking north - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  18. 16. TYPE F, BUILDING #516732 PEARSON ROAD, INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. TYPE F, BUILDING #516-732 PEARSON ROAD, INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, HALLWAY, NORTHWEST VIEW. - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Brick Officers' Quarters, Types E & F, Area A, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  19. 19. CHAPMAN ROAD LOOKING NORTH (Buildings 43, 42) (Copy negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. CHAPMAN ROAD LOOKING NORTH (Buildings 43, 42) (Copy negative made from National Archives negative No. 92-F-61B-4) - Fort Sheridan, 25 miles Northeast of Chicago, on Lake Michigan, Lake Forest, Lake County, IL

  20. 23. LYSTER ROAD LOOKING SOUTH (Buildings No. 37, 36, 38, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. LYSTER ROAD LOOKING SOUTH (Buildings No. 37, 36, 38, 80) (Copy negative made from National Archives negative No. 92-F-61B-7) - Fort Sheridan, 25 miles Northeast of Chicago, on Lake Michigan, Lake Forest, Lake County, IL

  1. 17. SOUTH SIDE OF RONAN ROAD (Buildings No. 42, 78, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. SOUTH SIDE OF RONAN ROAD (Buildings No. 42, 78, 62) (Copy negative made from National Archives negative No. 92-F-61B-3) - Fort Sheridan, 25 miles Northeast of Chicago, on Lake Michigan, Lake Forest, Lake County, IL

  2. 1. General overview, Buckingham Road in foreground, livestock exchange building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General overview, Buckingham Road in foreground, livestock exchange building to right. View to southwest. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, Motor Truck No. 1, 2900 "O" Plaza, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  3. The Building Leadership Team. The SILC Road.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This booklet was designed to help families, school professionals, and students understand the function and purpose of comprehensive school improvement. It is part of the SILC Road initiative, which was founded by several education groups in Colorado for the purpose of helping schools educate all students. The volume focuses on the elements of the…

  4. Building and road detection from large aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shunta; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2015-02-01

    Building and road detection from aerial imagery has many applications in a wide range of areas including urban design, real-estate management, and disaster relief. The extracting buildings and roads from aerial imagery has been performed by human experts manually, so that it has been very costly and time-consuming process. Our goal is to develop a system for automatically detecting buildings and roads directly from aerial imagery. Many attempts at automatic aerial imagery interpretation have been proposed in remote sensing literature, but much of early works use local features to classify each pixel or segment to an object label, so that these kind of approach needs some prior knowledge on object appearance or class-conditional distribution of pixel values. Furthermore, some works also need a segmentation step as pre-processing. Therefore, we use Convolutional Neural Networks(CNN) to learn mapping from raw pixel values in aerial imagery to three object labels (buildings, roads, and others), in other words, we generate three-channel maps from raw aerial imagery input. We take a patch-based semantic segmentation approach, so we firstly divide large aerial imagery into small patches and then train the CNN with those patches and corresponding three-channel map patches. Finally, we evaluate our system on a large-scale road and building detection datasets that is publicly available.

  5. Taxonomy of factors which influence heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, An; Gunawardana, Chandima; Gunawardena, Janaka; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-06-01

    Heavy metals build-up on urban road surfaces is a complex process and influenced by a diverse range of factors. Although numerous research studies have been conducted in the area of heavy metals build-up, limited research has been undertaken to rank these factors in terms of their influence on the build-up process. This results in limitations in the identification of the most critical factor/s for accurately estimating heavy metal loads and for designing effective stormwater treatment measures. The research study undertook an in-depth analysis of the factors which influence heavy metals build-up based on data generated from a number of different geographical locations around the world. Traffic volume was found to be the highest ranked factor in terms of influencing heavy metals build-up while land use was ranked the second. Proximity to arterial roads, antecedent dry days and road surface roughness has a relatively lower ranking. Furthermore, the study outcomes advances the conceptual understanding of heavy metals build-up based on the finding that with increasing traffic volume, total heavy metal build-up load increases while the variability decreases. The outcomes from this research study are expected to contribute to more accurate estimation of heavy metals build-up loads leading to more effective stormwater treatment design.

  6. Public expectations about access fees and road closures on public lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cline, K.; Lamb, B.L.; Ponds, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that land managers could better communicate with the general public by relying on people who are active in community affairs to frame the message. By comparing responses from the 'attentive' and general public on the Colorado Plateau in the USA, this study investigated the expected effects of using recreation access fees or road closures to manage recreation on public lands. Although neither the attentive nor general public strongly anticipated benefits from the two management options, the attentive public was more likely than the general public to report positive expectations. Those more likely to expect fewer benefits from the management options do so because of factors that are outside the influence of managers (e.g., socio-demographics and value orientation). The results point out challenges for building public support through mobilizing the attentive public to develop a positive management atmosphere with fees and road closures. ?? 2006 University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

  7. Remote Sensing for optimum road network development by using Land use Land cover classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Snehal; Bhuvana Chandra, mr.; Hebbar, R.

    2012-07-01

    Rural development plays a major role in overall development of any country. Remote Sensing may be helpful in areas like infrastructure development, agricultural development. This paper focuses on implementation of Remote Sensing methods for solving problems in laying new roads and efficient transport in undulating terrain regions. It gives an approach towards economical and ecofriendly rural development. The aim was to suggest a road network with optimum transportation path considering the major factors as slope, road length, least intervention to the natural vegetation, least transportation cost. Area of interest was chosen from Agali-Thuvaipathy area in Palakkad, Kerala. The methodology involves generation of Digital Elevation Model, slope map, land use land cover map for the area of interest. DEM was generated using Cartosat-1 stereo pairs, slope map was generated using Arc Map and land use land cover map was generated by digitizing different feature classes like cropland, vegetation, barren land, water body and town from the LISS 4 data. Weighted overlay analysis was performed for identification of an optimum path by applying required limitations on land use type and maximum slope value. The favorable area for road creation between the two given points in the image was obtained.

  8. Exterior building details of Building B, west façade: road level ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building B, west façade: road level four-over-four double-hung painted-wood windows with brick sill and arch brick lintels; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  9. 2. EXTERIOR FRONT (EAST) SIDE OF BUILDING 108 SHOWING ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR FRONT (EAST) SIDE OF BUILDING 108 SHOWING ROAD FROM MAIN PARKING AREA TO HOUSE. NOTE ORIGINAL TALL CHIMNEY ON EAST SIDE OF GABLE ROOF. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  10. Analysis of the build-up of semi and non volatile organic compounds on urban roads.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Parvez; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Egodawatta, Prasanna

    2011-04-01

    Vehicular traffic in urban areas may adversely affect urban water quality through the build-up of traffic generated semi and non volatile organic compounds (SVOCs and NVOCs) on road surfaces. The characterisation of the build-up processes is the key to developing mitigation measures for the removal of such pollutants from urban stormwater. An in-depth analysis of the build-up of SVOCs and NVOCs was undertaken in the Gold Coast region in Australia. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Multicriteria Decision tools such as PROMETHEE and GAIA were employed to understand the SVOC and NVOC build-up under combined traffic scenarios of low, moderate, and high traffic in different land uses. It was found that congestion in the commercial areas and use of lubricants and motor oils in the industrial areas were the main sources of SVOCs and NVOCs on urban roads, respectively. The contribution from residential areas to the build-up of such pollutants was hardly noticeable. It was also revealed through this investigation that the target SVOCs and NVOCs were mainly attached to particulate fractions of 75-300 μm whilst the redistribution of coarse fractions due to vehicle activity mainly occurred in the >300 μm size range. Lastly, under combined traffic scenario, moderate traffic with average daily traffic ranging from 2300 to 5900 and average congestion of 0.47 were found to dominate SVOC and NVOC build-up on roads.

  11. Characterising metal build-up on urban road surfaces.

    PubMed

    Egodawatta, Prasanna; Ziyath, Abdul M; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2013-05-01

    Reliable approaches for predicting pollutant build-up are essential for accurate urban stormwater quality modelling. Based on the in-depth investigation of metal build-up on residential road surfaces, this paper presents empirical models for predicting metal loads on these surfaces. The study investigated metals commonly present in the urban environment. Analysis undertaken found that the build-up process for metals primarily originating from anthropogenic (copper and zinc) and geogenic (aluminium, calcium, iron and manganese) sources were different. Chromium and nickel were below detection limits. Lead was primarily associated with geogenic sources, but also exhibited a significant relationship with anthropogenic sources. The empirical prediction models developed were validated using an independent data set and found to have relative prediction errors of 12-50%, which is generally acceptable for complex systems such as urban road surfaces. Also, the predicted values were very close to the observed values and well within 95% prediction interval. PMID:23416742

  12. The changes of densities and patterns of roads and rural buildings: a case study on Dongzhi Yuan of the Loess Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiaoli; Wang, Hui; Ge, Jianping

    2010-05-01

    Roads and buildings are considered as primary causes of rural landscape changes. In this study, linear regression models were used to analyze the dynamic influences of environmental factors and variables on roads and rural buildings from 1979 to 2005 in Dongzhi Yuan (tableland) of the Loess Plateau, China. The relationship between roads and rural buildings and their effects on Dongzhi Yuan are discussed also. The results showed that three environmental factors (topography, land cover, and development level) explained roads better than rural buildings referring densities and patterns. The environmental variables significantly related to roads have decreased, whereas those related to rural buildings have increased over time. Among these significant variables, percent of farmland mostly determined the densities and patterns of both roads and rural buildings. There was significant correlation between roads and rural buildings in terms of density and pattern. In addition, roads and rural buildings have increased greatly in gully areas of this region. Therefore, more attention should be paid to planning of roads and rural buildings in Dongzhi Yuan.

  13. The changes of densities and patterns of roads and rural buildings: a case study on Dongzhi Yuan of the Loess Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiaoli; Wang, Hui; Ge, Jianping

    2010-05-01

    Roads and buildings are considered as primary causes of rural landscape changes. In this study, linear regression models were used to analyze the dynamic influences of environmental factors and variables on roads and rural buildings from 1979 to 2005 in Dongzhi Yuan (tableland) of the Loess Plateau, China. The relationship between roads and rural buildings and their effects on Dongzhi Yuan are discussed also. The results showed that three environmental factors (topography, land cover, and development level) explained roads better than rural buildings referring densities and patterns. The environmental variables significantly related to roads have decreased, whereas those related to rural buildings have increased over time. Among these significant variables, percent of farmland mostly determined the densities and patterns of both roads and rural buildings. There was significant correlation between roads and rural buildings in terms of density and pattern. In addition, roads and rural buildings have increased greatly in gully areas of this region. Therefore, more attention should be paid to planning of roads and rural buildings in Dongzhi Yuan. PMID:19399633

  14. Loggers and Forest Fragmentation: Behavioral Models of Road Building in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arima, Eugenio Y.; Walker, Robert T.; Perz, Stephen G.; Caldas, Marcellus

    2005-01-01

    Although a large literature now exists on the drivers of tropical deforestation, less is known about its spatial manifestation. This is a critical shortcoming in our knowledge base since the spatial pattern of land-cover change and forest fragmentation, in particular, strongly affect biodiversity. The purpose of this article is to consider emergent patterns of road networks, the initial proximate cause of fragmentation in tropical forest frontiers. Specifically, we address the road-building processes of loggers who are very active in the Amazon landscape. To this end, we develop an explanation of road expansions, using a positive approach combining a theoretical model of economic behavior with geographic information systems (GIs) software in order to mimic the spatial decisions of road builders. We simulate two types of road extensions commonly found in the Amazon basin in a region: showing the fishbone pattern of fragmentation. Although our simulation results are only partially successful, they call attention to the role of multiple agents in the landscape, the importance of legal and institutional constraints on economic behavior, and the power of GIs as a research tool.

  15. 2. Southwest side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Southwest side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  16. 4. Northeast side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Northeast side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking southwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  17. 8. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  18. 3. Northwest side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Northwest side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking east - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  19. 1. Overview of Building 1015 (land plane hanger), looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Overview of Building 1015 (land plane hanger), looking east - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  20. 5. Southeast side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Southeast side of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking northwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  1. 6. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), looking north - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  2. 7. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior of Building 1015 (land plane hangar), structural detail, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1015, Byrd Street, .82 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  3. 47 CFR 32.6121 - Land and building expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Land and building expense. 32.6121 Section 32.6121 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6121 Land and building expense. (a) This account...

  4. 76 FR 44602 - Notice of Temporary Closure of Roads and Trails on Public Lands Adjacent to Big Willow Creek in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Temporary Closure of Roads and Trails on Public Lands Adjacent to Big Willow Creek in Payette County, ID AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... in effect on public lands administered by the Four Rivers Field Office, Bureau of Land...

  5. Characterizing heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces: implication for stormwater reuse.

    PubMed

    Liu, An; Liu, Liang; Li, Dunzhu; Guan, Yuntao

    2015-05-15

    Stormwater reuse is increasingly popular in the worldwide. In terms of urban road stormwater, it commonly contains toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, which could undermine the reuse safety. The research study investigated heavy metal build-up characteristics on urban roads in a typical megacity of South China. The research outcomes show the high variability in heavy metal build-up loads among different urban road sites. The degree of traffic congestion and road surface roughness was found to exert a more significant influence on heavy metal build-up rather than traffic volume. Due to relatively higher heavy metal loads, stormwater from roads with more congested traffic conditions or rougher surfaces might be suitable for low-water-quality required activities while the stormwater from by-pass road sections could be appropriate for relatively high-water-quality required purposes since the stormwater could be relatively less polluted. Based on the research outcomes, a decision-making process for heavy metals based urban road stormwater reuse was proposed. The new finding highlights the importance to undertaking a "fit-for-purpose" road stormwater reuse strategy. Additionally, the research results can also contribute to enhancing stormwater reuse safety. PMID:25687783

  6. Characterizing heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces: implication for stormwater reuse.

    PubMed

    Liu, An; Liu, Liang; Li, Dunzhu; Guan, Yuntao

    2015-05-15

    Stormwater reuse is increasingly popular in the worldwide. In terms of urban road stormwater, it commonly contains toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, which could undermine the reuse safety. The research study investigated heavy metal build-up characteristics on urban roads in a typical megacity of South China. The research outcomes show the high variability in heavy metal build-up loads among different urban road sites. The degree of traffic congestion and road surface roughness was found to exert a more significant influence on heavy metal build-up rather than traffic volume. Due to relatively higher heavy metal loads, stormwater from roads with more congested traffic conditions or rougher surfaces might be suitable for low-water-quality required activities while the stormwater from by-pass road sections could be appropriate for relatively high-water-quality required purposes since the stormwater could be relatively less polluted. Based on the research outcomes, a decision-making process for heavy metals based urban road stormwater reuse was proposed. The new finding highlights the importance to undertaking a "fit-for-purpose" road stormwater reuse strategy. Additionally, the research results can also contribute to enhancing stormwater reuse safety.

  7. Analysis of build-up of heavy metals and volatile organics on urban roads in gold coast, Australia.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Parvez; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Yigitcanlar, Tan

    2011-01-01

    Urban water quality can be significantly impaired by the build-up of pollutants such as heavy metals and volatile organics on urban road surfaces due to vehicular traffic. Any control strategy for the mitigation of traffic related build-up of heavy metals and volatile organic pollutants should be based on the knowledge of their build-up processes. In the study discussed in this paper, the outcomes of a detailed experimental investigation into build-up processes of heavy metals and volatile organics are presented. It was found that traffic parameters such as average daily traffic, volume over capacity ratio and surface texture depth had similar strong correlations with the build-up of heavy metals and volatile organics. Multicriteria decision analyses revealed that that the 1-74 microm particulate fraction of total suspended solids (TSS) could be regarded as a surrogate indicator for particulate heavy metals in build-up and this same fraction of total organic carbon could be regarded as a surrogate indicator for particulate volatile organics build-up. In terms of pollutants affinity, TSS was found to be the predominant parameter for particulate heavy metals build-up and total dissolved solids was found to be the predominant parameter for the potential dissolved particulate fraction in heavy metals buildup. It was also found that land use did not play a significant role in the build-up of traffic generated heavy metals and volatile organics.

  8. Building a road map for tailoring multilayer polyelectrolyte films

    SciTech Connect

    Ankner, John Francis; Bardoel, Agatha A; Sukishvili, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Researchers are moving a step closer to a definite road map for building layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled polyelectrolyte films, with the assistance of the Liquids Reflectometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Spallation Neutron Source, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Scientists using the liquids reflectometer have successfully taken snapshots in close to real time of these multilayered structures for different applications when they modify the structure and function parameters. Polyelecrolytes are polymers that carry charge in aqueous solutions. They contain chemical groups that dissociate in water, making such polymers charged. Most polyelectrolytes are water soluble. They are important components in foods, soaps, shampoos, and cosmetics products. They show promise for such environmental work as oil recovery and water treatment. Polyelectrolytes are compelling because researchers can chemically modify how they interact with water for multiple applications. When two types of polyelectrolytes of opposite charge are assembled at a surface in a sequential way using the LbL assembly technique, 'the result is the forming of surface films, useful for coatings, biomedical implants and devices, controlling adhesion of biological molecules, and controlling delivery of therapeutic molecules from surfaces,' said Svetlana Sukhishvili of the Stevens Institute of Technology in New Jersey, the lead chemist on the collaboration. 'Medical doctors often prefer to deliver multiple therapeutic compounds from the coatings in a time-resolved manner,' Sukhishvili said. 'To assist them, material scientists need to learn how to build coatings in which polymer layering will not be compromised when exposed to normal physiological conditions.' 'Being able to control these properties, understanding how what you do to the materials affects their properties, this allows you to apply them to situations where interacting with an environment is very helpful, whether in a biological context or any other

  9. Fugitive particulate air emissions from off-road vehicle maneuvers at military training lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Military training lands used for off-road vehicle maneuvers may be subject to severe soil loss and air quality degradation as a result of severe wind erosion. The objective of this study was to measure suspended particulate matter resulting from various different vehicle training scenarios. Soil s...

  10. Landscape level estimate of lands and waters impacted by road runoff in the Adirondack Park of New York State.

    PubMed

    Regalado, Sean A; Kelting, Daniel L

    2015-08-01

    Road runoff is understood to be a significant stressor in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, yet the effects of this stressor are poorly understood at large spatial scales. We developed an efficient method for estimating the spatial impact of road runoff on lands and waters over large geographic areas and then applied our methodology to the 2.4 million ha Adirondack Park in New York State. We used TauDEM hydrologic modeling and a series of ESRI GIS processes to delineate surface flow downslope of paved roads, illustrating the potential movement of pollutants originating from paved roads through the USGS 10 m DEM topography. We then estimated the land and surface water areas, number of water bodies, and total stream length potentially impacted by road runoff from paved roads. We found that as much as 11% of land area, 77% of surface water area, 1/3 of the water bodies, and 52% of stream length in the Adirondack Park may be impacted by road runoff. The high degree of hydrologic association between paved roads and the lands and waters of this region strongly suggests that the environmental impacts of road runoff should be evaluated along with other regional stressors currently being studied. Being able to estimate the spatial impact of road runoff is important for designing monitoring programs that can explicitly monitor this stressor while also providing opportunities to understand the interaction of multiple environmental stressors.

  11. Landscape level estimate of lands and waters impacted by road runoff in the Adirondack Park of New York State.

    PubMed

    Regalado, Sean A; Kelting, Daniel L

    2015-08-01

    Road runoff is understood to be a significant stressor in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, yet the effects of this stressor are poorly understood at large spatial scales. We developed an efficient method for estimating the spatial impact of road runoff on lands and waters over large geographic areas and then applied our methodology to the 2.4 million ha Adirondack Park in New York State. We used TauDEM hydrologic modeling and a series of ESRI GIS processes to delineate surface flow downslope of paved roads, illustrating the potential movement of pollutants originating from paved roads through the USGS 10 m DEM topography. We then estimated the land and surface water areas, number of water bodies, and total stream length potentially impacted by road runoff from paved roads. We found that as much as 11% of land area, 77% of surface water area, 1/3 of the water bodies, and 52% of stream length in the Adirondack Park may be impacted by road runoff. The high degree of hydrologic association between paved roads and the lands and waters of this region strongly suggests that the environmental impacts of road runoff should be evaluated along with other regional stressors currently being studied. Being able to estimate the spatial impact of road runoff is important for designing monitoring programs that can explicitly monitor this stressor while also providing opportunities to understand the interaction of multiple environmental stressors. PMID:26188804

  12. The Impact of Roadside Barriers and Buildings on Near Road Concentrations of Vehicle Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Nico

    Exposure to elevated concentrations of vehicle emitted pollutants is associated with negative health effects. Elevated concentrations are typically found within several hundred meters of high traffic roads, where atmospheric dispersion has not sufficiently diluted pollutants. Tall buildings next to roads reduce dispersion, thereby creating pollutant hot spots and increasing exposure to vehicle emissions for city residents. Roadside barriers enhance dispersion of roadway emissions and thus can be used to mitigate elevated concentrations next to large roads. The work in this thesis develops semi-empirical dispersion models that are useful for estimating near road concentrations of vehicle emissions when there are buildings or barriers next to the road. Dispersion models that account for the effect of near road barriers on concentrations are developed and evaluated with data from a wind tunnel and a field tracer study. The model evaluation shows that the primary effect of roadside barriers is enhancement of the vertical mixing by an amount proportional to the barrier height. Additionally, turbulence is enhanced in the barrier's wake, resulting in more rapid growth of the pollutant plume. The models perform well during neutral and stable atmospheric conditions. During unstable conditions the models overestimate concentrations. A model that accounts for reduction of the mean wind speed in the barrier wake is unbiased for all stabilities. Models of the impact of tall buildings next to the road on near road concentrations of vehicle emissions are developed. The models are evaluated with data from field measurements conducted in Los Angeles and Riverside counties, CA, and with data from an urban area in Hannover, Germany. The study specifically investigates dispersion in cities with significant building height variability. Model evaluation shows that vertical turbulent transport dominates dispersion in cities. The primary variables governing near road concentrations of

  13. Efficient Risk Determination of Risk of Road Blocking by Means of MMS and Data of Buildings and Their Surrounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nose, Kazuhito; Hatake, Shuhei

    2016-06-01

    Massive earthquake named "Tonankai Massive earthquake" is predicted to occur in the near future and is feared to cause severe damage in Kinki District . "Hanshin-Awaji Massive Earthquake" in 1995 destroyed most of the buildings constructed before 1981 and not complying with the latest earthquake resistance standards. Collapsed buildings blocked roads, obstructed evacuation, rescue and firefighting operations and inflicted further damages.To alleviate the damages, it is important to predict the points where collapsed buildings are likely block the roads and to take precautions in advance. But big cities have an expanse of urban areas with densely-distributed buildings, and it requires time and cost to check each and every building whether or not it will block the road. In order to reduce blocked roads when a disaster strikes, we made a study and confirmed that the risk of road blocking can be determined easily by means of the latest technologies of survey and geographical information.

  14. Automatic 3D Extraction of Buildings, Vegetation and Roads from LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellakaout, A.; Cherkaoui, M.; Ettarid, M.; Touzani, A.

    2016-06-01

    Aerial topographic surveys using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology collect dense and accurate information from the surface or terrain; it is becoming one of the important tools in the geosciences for studying objects and earth surface. Classification of Lidar data for extracting ground, vegetation, and buildings is a very important step needed in numerous applications such as 3D city modelling, extraction of different derived data for geographical information systems (GIS), mapping, navigation, etc... Regardless of what the scan data will be used for, an automatic process is greatly required to handle the large amount of data collected because the manual process is time consuming and very expensive. This paper is presenting an approach for automatic classification of aerial Lidar data into five groups of items: buildings, trees, roads, linear object and soil using single return Lidar and processing the point cloud without generating DEM. Topological relationship and height variation analysis is adopted to segment, preliminary, the entire point cloud preliminarily into upper and lower contours, uniform and non-uniform surface, non-uniform surfaces, linear objects, and others. This primary classification is used on the one hand to know the upper and lower part of each building in an urban scene, needed to model buildings façades; and on the other hand to extract point cloud of uniform surfaces which contain roofs, roads and ground used in the second phase of classification. A second algorithm is developed to segment the uniform surface into buildings roofs, roads and ground, the second phase of classification based on the topological relationship and height variation analysis, The proposed approach has been tested using two areas : the first is a housing complex and the second is a primary school. The proposed approach led to successful classification results of buildings, vegetation and road classes.

  15. Aggregates for road building from Apulia region quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeone, Vincenzo; Doglioni, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Apulia region is characterized by several quarries producing aggregates for road construction. A good knowledge of the technical behavior of aggregates is really important for the use. A laboratrory investigation has been developed in cooperation with Tecnoprove laboratory on 50 quarries from all over the Apulia region. Have been studied aggregates for road construction, avoiding weak rock quarry. The study has concerned unit weigth, compressive strength, wear and tear strength (Los Angeles test) and crushing strength. Tests have been made according to Italian rules for aggregates.Quarries from Foggia district were mainly located along the southern-western boundary of Gargano calcareous horst where back-reef limestone outcrop. Only two of the studied quarries were of alluvial deposits from the Appenine. The values of technical properties were quite interesting and also the variation coefficients have been really low witnessing that the material is quite homogeneous. Only a quarry, located really close to an important fault gave poor values. Quarries from Bari district dug limestone of the Mesozoic calcareous platform. The values of the compressive strength has been between 100 and 200 MPa, while the unit weight has beetween 26,5 and 25 kN/m3. Crushing coefficient values have been quite high. It due probably either to the corned shape of limestone aggregates or the fact that aggregates quarries are located where limestone are strongly tectonized. Quarries from Brindisi and Taranto districts even are oper in Mesozoic calcareous platform unit gave the worst values of compressive strength and other technical properties. The compressive strength was normally lower than 100 MPa. The Also crushing test and the Los Angeles test has given values quite poor. Compressive strength values of limestone are strongly variable, with an high coefficient of variation (more than 30%).Probably it is due to the fact that all the studied quarries are located along the boundary of the

  16. Building a Continental Scale Land Cover Monitoring Framework for Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thankappan, Medhavy; Lymburner, Leo; Tan, Peter; McIntyre, Alexis; Curnow, Steven; Lewis, Adam

    2012-04-01

    Land cover information is critical for national reporting and decision making in Australia. A review of information requirements for reporting on national environmental indicators identified the need for consistent land cover information to be compared against a baseline. A Dynamic Land Cover Dataset (DLCD) for Australia has been developed by Geoscience Australia and the Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics and Sciences (ABARES) recently, to provide a comprehensive and consistent land cover information baseline to enable monitoring and reporting for sustainable farming practices, water resource management, soil erosion, and forests at national and regional scales. The DLCD was produced from the analysis of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data at 250-metre resolution derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for the period from 2000 to 2008. The EVI time series data for each pixel was modelled as 12 coefficients based on the statistical, phenological and seasonal characteristics. The time series were then clustered in coefficients spaces and labelled using ancillary information on vegetation and land use at the catchment scale. The accuracy of the DLCD was assessed using field survey data over 25,000 locations provided by vegetation and land management agencies in State and Territory jurisdictions, and by ABARES. The DLCD is seen as the first in a series of steps to build a framework for national land cover monitoring in Australia. A robust methodology to provide annual updates to the DLCD is currently being developed at Geoscience Australia. There is also a growing demand from the user community for land cover information at better spatial resolution than currently available through the DLCD. Global land cover mapping initiatives that rely on Earth observation data offer many opportunities for national and international programs to work in concert and deliver better outcomes by streamlining efforts on development and

  17. Building Minds, Minding Buildings: Our Union's Road Map to Green and Sustainable Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spake, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Late in 2006, the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) released the first report in this series, "Building Minds, Minding Buildings: Turning Crumbling Schools into Environments for Learning." This second report, which covers the green schools movement is a natural follow-up; it highlights the work of AFT members and affiliates involved in…

  18. On the utilization of hydrological modelling for road drainage design under climate and land use change.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Zahra; Briel, Annemarie; Lyon, Steve W; Olofsson, Bo; Folkeson, Lennart

    2014-03-15

    Road drainage structures are often designed using methods that do not consider process-based representations of a landscape's hydrological response. This may create inadequately sized structures as coupled land cover and climate changes can lead to an amplified hydrological response. This study aims to quantify potential increases of runoff in response to future extreme rain events in a 61 km(2) catchment (40% forested) in southwest Sweden using a physically-based hydrological modelling approach. We simulate peak discharge and water level (stage) at two types of pipe bridges and one culvert, both of which are commonly used at Swedish road/stream intersections, under combined forest clear-cutting and future climate scenarios for 2050 and 2100. The frequency of changes in peak flow and water level varies with time (seasonality) and storm size. These changes indicate that the magnitude of peak flow and the runoff response are highly correlated to season rather than storm size. In all scenarios considered, the dimensions of the current culvert are insufficient to handle the increase in water level estimated using a physically-based modelling approach. It also appears that the water level at the pipe bridges changes differently depending on the size and timing of the storm events. The findings of the present study and the approach put forward should be considered when planning investigations on and maintenance for areas at risk of high water flows. In addition, the research highlights the utility of physically-based hydrological models to identify the appropriateness of road drainage structure dimensioning.

  19. Building Low Carbon Cities: Framework to Design and Evaluate Alternative Technologies and Policies for Land Use Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, S.; Hamano, H.; Fujita, T.; Hori, H.

    2008-12-01

    Annex I parties of the Kyoto Protocol are facing even greater pressures to fulfill their commitment for GHG reduction as they enter the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol 2008-2012. In Japanese context, one such challenge is to reduce CO2 emissions from the household and business sectors because CO2 emissions from the both sectors has increased by 12% and 20% respectively since 1990 while the industry has achieved 21% of CO2 emissions reduction. Land use planning, which, either directly or indirectly, controls appropriate uses for land within jurisdictions, might play very important roles to deal with CO2 reductions from the household and business sectors. In this research, aiming at effective reductions of air- conditioning energy consumption and resultant CO2 emissions from the household and business sectors, the framework to design and evaluate land use planning was developed. The design and evaluation processes embraced in this framework consist of GIS database, technology and policy inventory for planning, one- dimensional urban canopy model which evaluate urban climate at neighborhood level and air-conditioning load calculation procedure. The GIS database provides spatial information of target areas such as land use, building use and road networks, which, then, helps design alternative land use plans. The technology and policy inventory includes various planning options ranging from those for land over control to those for building energy control, which, combined with the GIS database, serves for planning process. The urban canopy model derives vertical profiles of local climate, such as temperature and humidity, using the information of land use, building height and so on, aided by the GIS database. Vertical profiles of the urban climate are then utilized to derive air-conditioning load and associated CO2 emissions for each building located in target areas. The framework developed was applied to the coastal district of Kawasaki, Japan, with an

  20. Influence of pollutant build-up on variability in wash-off from urban road surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wijesiri, Buddhi; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2015-09-15

    Variability in the pollutant wash-off process is a concept which needs to be understood in-depth in order to better assess the outcomes of stormwater quality models, and thereby strengthen stormwater pollution mitigation strategies. Current knowledge about the wash-off process does not extend to a clear understanding of the influence of the initially available pollutant build-up on the variability of the pollutant wash-off load and composition. Consequently, pollutant wash-off process variability is poorly characterised in stormwater quality models, which can result in inaccurate stormwater quality predictions. Mathematical simulation of particulate wash-off from three urban road surfaces confirmed that the wash-off load of particle size fractions < 150 μm and > 150 μm after a storm event vary with the build-up of the respective particle size fractions available at the beginning of the storm event. Furthermore, pollutant load and composition associated with the initially available build-up of < 150 μm particles predominantly influence the variability in washed-off pollutant load and composition. The influence of the build-up of pollutants associated with > 150 μm particles on wash-off process variability is significant only for relatively shorter duration storm events.

  1. Adsorption and mobility of metals in build-up on road surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gunawardana, Chandima; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the adsorption and bioavailability characteristics of traffic generated metals common to urban land uses, in road deposited solids particles. To validate the outcomes derived from the analysis of field samples, adsorption and desorption experiments were undertaken. The analysis of field samples revealed that metals are selectively adsorbed to different charge sites on solids. Zinc, copper, lead and nickel are adsorbed preferentially to oxides of manganese, iron and aluminium. Lead is adsorbed to organic matter through chemisorption. Cadmium and chromium form weak bonding through cation exchange with most of the particle sizes. Adsorption and desorption experiments revealed that at high metal concentrations, chromium, copper and lead form relatively strong bonds with solids particles while zinc is adsorbed through cation exchange with high likelihood of being released back into solution. Outcomes from this study provide specific guidance for the removal of metals from stormwater based on solids removal.

  2. Determining urban land uses through building-associated element attributes derived from lidar and aerial photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xuelian

    Urban land-use research is a key component in analyzing the interactions between human activities and environmental change. Researchers have conducted many experiments to classify urban or built-up land, forest, water, agriculture, and other land-use and land-cover types. Separating residential land uses from other land uses within urban areas, however, has proven to be surprisingly troublesome. Although high-resolution images have recently become more available for land-use classification, an increase in spatial resolution does not guarantee improved classification accuracy by traditional classifiers due to the increase of class complexity. This research presents an approach to detect and separate residential land uses on a building scale directly from remotely sensed imagery to enhance urban land-use analysis. Specifically, the proposed methodology applies a multi-directional ground filter to generate a bare ground surface from lidar data, then utilizes a morphology-based building detection algorithm to identify buildings from lidar and aerial photographs, and finally separates residential buildings using a supervised C4.5 decision tree analysis based on the seven selected building land-use indicators. Successful execution of this study produces three independent methods, each corresponding to the steps of the methodology: lidar ground filtering, building detection, and building-based object-oriented land-use classification. Furthermore, this research provides a prototype as one of the few early explorations of building-based land-use analysis and successful separation of more than 85% of residential buildings based on an experiment on an 8.25-km2 study site located in Austin, Texas.

  3. High Road Partnerships Report: Innovations in Building Good Jobs and Strong Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC. Working for America Inst.

    When deciding how to compete in the new global economy, employers can opt for "low-road" strategies such as low wages and no job security. Alternatively, they can choose the "high road" and compete by offering quality goods and services, innovation, and value. Fourteen successful "high-road" partnerships were examined to identify elements likely…

  4. Study of composition and morphology features of alumina producing waste for its application in road building technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepelev, Igor; Bochkov, Nikolay; Zhyzhaev, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    The research of component composition of complex mineral binder material obtained using non-toxic alumina producing waste was performed. The strength characteristics of road mixtures and binder mineral product structure were studied. The technology of subgrade building on the basis of nepheline slime, gypsum-anhydrite waste and dust from cleaning collectors of electrostatic gas treatment systems of calcination furnaces of Achinsk alumina plant was developed and experimentally tested. It provides beside of part of waste utilization also increasing of strength properties and frost resistance of road mixtures.

  5. Fugitive dust emissions from off-road vehicle maneuvers on military training lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Off-road vehicle training can contribute to air quality degradation because of increased wind erosion as a result of soil disruption during high wind events. However, limited information exists regarding the impacts of off-road vehicle maneuvering on wind erosion potential of soils. This study was c...

  6. Larval Habitat Associations with Human Land Uses, Roads, Rivers, and Land Cover for Anopheles albimanus, A. pseudopunctipennis, and A. punctimacula (Diptera: Culicidae) in Coastal and Highland Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Pinault, Lauren L.; Hunter, Fiona F.

    2012-01-01

    Larval habitat for three highland Anopheles species: Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald, and Anopheles punctimacula Dyar and Knab was related to human land uses, rivers, roads, and remotely sensed land cover classifications in the western Ecuadorian Andes. Of the five commonly observed human land uses, cattle pasture (n = 30) provided potentially suitable habitat for A. punctimacula and A. albimanus in less than 14% of sites, and was related in a principal components analysis (PCA) to the presence of macrophyte vegetation, greater surface area, clarity, and algae cover. Empty lots (n = 30) were related in the PCA to incident sunlight and provided potential habitat for A. pseudopunctipennis and A. albimanus in less than 14% of sites. The other land uses surveyed (banana, sugarcane, and mixed tree plantations; n = 28, 21, 25, respectively) provided very little standing water that could potentially be used for larval habitat. River edges and eddies (n = 41) were associated with greater clarity, depth, temperature, and algae cover, which provide potentially suitable habitat for A. albimanus in 58% of sites and A. pseudopunctipennis in 29% of sites. Road-associated water bodies (n = 38) provided potential habitat for A. punctimacula in 44% of sites and A. albimanus in 26% of sites surveyed. Species collection localities were compared to land cover classifications using Geographic Information Systems software. All three mosquito species were associated more often with the category “closed/open broadleaved evergreen and/or semi-deciduous forests” than expected (P ≤ 0.01 in all cases), given such a habitat’s abundance. This study provides evidence that specific human land uses create habitat for potential malaria vectors in highland regions of the Andes. PMID:22454623

  7. Larval Habitat Associations with Human Land Uses, Roads, Rivers, and Land Cover for Anopheles albimanus, A. pseudopunctipennis, and A. punctimacula (Diptera: Culicidae) in Coastal and Highland Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Pinault, Lauren L; Hunter, Fiona F

    2012-01-01

    Larval habitat for three highland Anopheles species: Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald, and Anopheles punctimacula Dyar and Knab was related to human land uses, rivers, roads, and remotely sensed land cover classifications in the western Ecuadorian Andes. Of the five commonly observed human land uses, cattle pasture (n = 30) provided potentially suitable habitat for A. punctimacula and A. albimanus in less than 14% of sites, and was related in a principal components analysis (PCA) to the presence of macrophyte vegetation, greater surface area, clarity, and algae cover. Empty lots (n = 30) were related in the PCA to incident sunlight and provided potential habitat for A. pseudopunctipennis and A. albimanus in less than 14% of sites. The other land uses surveyed (banana, sugarcane, and mixed tree plantations; n = 28, 21, 25, respectively) provided very little standing water that could potentially be used for larval habitat. River edges and eddies (n = 41) were associated with greater clarity, depth, temperature, and algae cover, which provide potentially suitable habitat for A. albimanus in 58% of sites and A. pseudopunctipennis in 29% of sites. Road-associated water bodies (n = 38) provided potential habitat for A. punctimacula in 44% of sites and A. albimanus in 26% of sites surveyed. Species collection localities were compared to land cover classifications using Geographic Information Systems software. All three mosquito species were associated more often with the category "closed/open broadleaved evergreen and/or semi-deciduous forests" than expected (P ≤ 0.01 in all cases), given such a habitat's abundance. This study provides evidence that specific human land uses create habitat for potential malaria vectors in highland regions of the Andes.

  8. 1. Building 1B west elevation from third floor landing of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Building 1B west elevation from third floor landing of Building 9. Stack associated with Building 3 to right. View looking SEE. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), The Tower, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Heavy metal accumulation related to population density in road dust samples taken from urban sites under different land uses.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-González, Juan Manuel; Torres-Mora, Marco Aurelio; Keesstra, Saskia; Brevik, Eric C; Jiménez-Ballesta, Raimundo

    2016-05-15

    Soil pollution is a key component of the land degradation process, but little is known about the impact of soil pollution on human health in the urban environment. The heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd and Ni were analyzed by acid digestion (method EPA 3050B) and a total of 15 dust samples were collected from streets of three sectors of the city with different land uses; commercial, residential and a highway. The purpose was to measure the concentrations of heavy metals in road sediment samples taken from urban sites under different land uses, and to assess pollution through pollution indices, namely the ecological risk index and geoaccumulation index. Heavy metals concentrations (mg/kg) followed the following sequences for each sector: commercial sector Pb (1289.4)>Cu (490.2)>Zn (387.6)>Cr (60.2)>Ni (54.3); highway Zn (133.3)>Cu (126.3)>Pb (87.5)>Cr (9.4)>Ni (5.3); residential sector Zn (108.3)>Pb (26.0)>Cu (23.7)>Cr (7.3)>Ni (7.2). The geoaccumulation index indicated that the commercial sector was moderately to strongly polluted while the other sectors fell into the unpolluted category. Similarly, using the ecological risk index the commercial sector fell into the considerable category while the other sectors classified as low risk. Road dust increased along with city growth and its dynamics, additionally, road dust might cause a number of negative environmental impacts, therefore the monitoring this dust is crucial. PMID:26986764

  10. Organic binders for road building based on the products of thermal dissolution of baltic shales and the sulfurous shales of the Volga region

    SciTech Connect

    Rudenskii, A.V.; Gorlov, E.G.; Poshekhonova, T.A.; Rudenskaya, I.M.; Shpil'berg, M.B.; Vol-Epshtein, A.V.

    1983-01-01

    Information is given on the technology of the thermal dissolution of shales and the characteristics of organic binders based on the liquid products obtained, and their applicability for road building is shown.

  11. Application of land use regression modelling to assess the spatial distribution of road traffic noise in three European cities.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Inmaculada; Foraster, Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Corradi, Elisabetta; Deltell, Alexandre; Morelli, Xavier; Phuleria, Harish C; Ragettli, Martina S; Rivera, Marcela; Thomasson, Alexandre; Slama, Rémy; Künzli, Nino

    2015-01-01

    Noise prediction models and noise maps are used to estimate the exposure to road traffic noise, but their availability and the quality of the noise estimates is sometimes limited. This paper explores the application of land use regression (LUR) modelling to assess the long-term intraurban spatial variability of road traffic noise in three European cities. Short-term measurements of road traffic noise taken in Basel, Switzerland (n=60), Girona, Spain (n=40), and Grenoble, France (n=41), were used to develop two LUR models: (a) a "GIS-only" model, which considered only predictor variables derived with Geographic Information Systems; and (b) a "Best" model, which in addition considered the variables collected while visiting the measurement sites. Both noise measurements and noise estimates from LUR models were compared with noise estimates from standard noise models developed for each city by the local authorities. Model performance (adjusted R(2)) was 0.66-0.87 for "GIS-only" models, and 0.70-0.89 for "Best" models. Short-term noise measurements showed a high correlation (r=0.62-0.78) with noise estimates from the standard noise models. LUR noise estimates did not show any systematic differences in the spatial patterns when compared with those from standard noise models. LUR modelling with accurate GIS source data can be a promising tool for noise exposure assessment with applications in epidemiological studies.

  12. Multispectral Image Road Extraction Based Upon Automated Map Conflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin

    Road network extraction from remotely sensed imagery enables many important and diverse applications such as vehicle tracking, drone navigation, and intelligent transportation studies. There are, however, a number of challenges to road detection from an image. Road pavement material, width, direction, and topology vary across a scene. Complete or partial occlusions caused by nearby buildings, trees, and the shadows cast by them, make maintaining road connectivity difficult. The problems posed by occlusions are exacerbated with the increasing use of oblique imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. Further, common objects such as rooftops and parking lots are made of materials similar or identical to road pavements. This problem of common materials is a classic case of a single land cover material existing for different land use scenarios. This work addresses these problems in road extraction from geo-referenced imagery by leveraging the OpenStreetMap digital road map to guide image-based road extraction. The crowd-sourced cartography has the advantages of worldwide coverage that is constantly updated. The derived road vectors follow only roads and so can serve to guide image-based road extraction with minimal confusion from occlusions and changes in road material. On the other hand, the vector road map has no information on road widths and misalignments between the vector map and the geo-referenced image are small but nonsystematic. Properly correcting misalignment between two geospatial datasets, also known as map conflation, is an essential step. A generic framework requiring minimal human intervention is described for multispectral image road extraction and automatic road map conflation. The approach relies on the road feature generation of a binary mask and a corresponding curvilinear image. A method for generating the binary road mask from the image by applying a spectral measure is presented. The spectral measure, called anisotropy-tunable distance (ATD

  13. 1. NORTH (LAND SIDE) AND NORTHWEST ELEVATIONS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ROUTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTH (LAND SIDE) AND NORTHWEST ELEVATIONS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ROUTE ONE IN FOREGROUND. - Newark International Airport, Administration Building, Brewster Road between Route 21 & New Jersey Turnpike Exchange No. 14, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  14. EPA's Energy Star Buildings Provides a Road Map to Energy Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarneiri, Michele

    1997-01-01

    Several colleges and universities participate in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Energy Star Buildings program, in which institutions commit to improving their buildings' energy efficiency and reducing energy costs. All participants must also be a Green Lights Program participant or agree to specific building-wide lighting upgrades. The…

  15. Stratification of a cityscape using census and land use variables for inventory of building materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, G.H.; Fitzpatrick-Lins, K.; Johnson, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    A cityscape (or any landscape) can be stratified into environmental units using multiple variables of information. For the purposes of sampling building materials, census and land use variables were used to identify similar strata. In the Metropolitan Statistical Area of a cityscape, the census tract is the smallest unit for which census data are summarized and digitized boundaries are available. For purposes of this analysis, census data on total population, total number of housing units, and number of singleunit dwellings were aggregated into variables of persons per square kilometer and proportion of housing units in single-unit dwellings. The level 2 categories of the U.S. Geological Survey's land use and land cover data base were aggregated into variables of proportion of residential land with buildings, proportion of nonresidential land with buildings, and proportion of open land. The cityscape was stratified, from these variables, into environmental strata of Urban Central Business District, Urban Livelihood Industrial Commercial, Urban Multi-Family Residential, Urban Single Family Residential, Non-Urban Suburbanizing, and Non-Urban Rural. The New England region was chosen as a region with commonality of building materials, and a procedure developed for trial classification of census tracts into one of the strata. Final stratification was performed by discriminant analysis using the trial classification and prior probabilities as weights. The procedure was applied to several cities, and the results analyzed by correlation analysis from a field sample of building materials. The methodology developed for stratification of a cityscape using multiple variables has application to many other types of environmental studies, including forest inventory, hydrologic unit management, waste disposal, transportation studies, and other urban studies. Multivariate analysis techniques have recently been used for urban stratification in England. ?? 1987 Annals of Regional

  16. Land Use Regression Models of On-Road Particulate Air Pollution (Particle Number, Black Carbon, PM2.5, Particle Size) Using Mobile Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hankey, Steve; Marshall, Julian D

    2015-08-01

    Land Use Regression (LUR) models typically use fixed-site monitoring; here, we employ mobile monitoring as a cost-effective alternative for LUR development. We use bicycle-based, mobile measurements (∼85 h) during rush-hour in Minneapolis, MN to build LUR models for particulate concentrations (particle number [PN], black carbon [BC], fine particulate matter [PM2.5], particle size). We developed and examined 1224 separate LUR models by varying pollutant, time-of-day, and method of spatial and temporal smoothing of the time-series data. Our base-case LUR models had modest goodness-of-fit (adjusted R(2): ∼0.5 [PN], ∼0.4 [PM2.5], 0.35 [BC], ∼0.25 [particle size]), low bias (<4%) and absolute bias (2-18%), and included predictor variables that captured proximity to and density of emission sources. The spatial density of our measurements resulted in a large model-building data set (n = 1101 concentration estimates); ∼25% of buffer variables were selected at spatial scales of <100m, suggesting that on-road particle concentrations change on small spatial scales. LUR model-R(2) improved as sampling runs were completed, with diminishing benefits after ∼40 h of data collection. Spatial autocorrelation of model residuals indicated that models performed poorly where spatiotemporal resolution of emission sources (i.e., traffic congestion) was poor. Our findings suggest that LUR modeling from mobile measurements is possible, but that more work could usefully inform best practices.

  17. Land Use Regression Models of On-Road Particulate Air Pollution (Particle Number, Black Carbon, PM2.5, Particle Size) Using Mobile Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hankey, Steve; Marshall, Julian D

    2015-08-01

    Land Use Regression (LUR) models typically use fixed-site monitoring; here, we employ mobile monitoring as a cost-effective alternative for LUR development. We use bicycle-based, mobile measurements (∼85 h) during rush-hour in Minneapolis, MN to build LUR models for particulate concentrations (particle number [PN], black carbon [BC], fine particulate matter [PM2.5], particle size). We developed and examined 1224 separate LUR models by varying pollutant, time-of-day, and method of spatial and temporal smoothing of the time-series data. Our base-case LUR models had modest goodness-of-fit (adjusted R(2): ∼0.5 [PN], ∼0.4 [PM2.5], 0.35 [BC], ∼0.25 [particle size]), low bias (<4%) and absolute bias (2-18%), and included predictor variables that captured proximity to and density of emission sources. The spatial density of our measurements resulted in a large model-building data set (n = 1101 concentration estimates); ∼25% of buffer variables were selected at spatial scales of <100m, suggesting that on-road particle concentrations change on small spatial scales. LUR model-R(2) improved as sampling runs were completed, with diminishing benefits after ∼40 h of data collection. Spatial autocorrelation of model residuals indicated that models performed poorly where spatiotemporal resolution of emission sources (i.e., traffic congestion) was poor. Our findings suggest that LUR modeling from mobile measurements is possible, but that more work could usefully inform best practices. PMID:26134458

  18. Cost analysis of water and sediment diversions to optimize land building in the Mississippi River delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenney, Melissa A.; Hobbs, Benjamin F.; Mohrig, David; Huang, Hongtai; Nittrouer, Jeffrey A.; Kim, Wonsuck; Parker, Gary

    2013-06-01

    Land loss in the Mississippi River delta caused by subsidence and erosion has resulted in habitat loss and increased exposure of settled areas to storm surge risks. There is debate over the most cost-efficient and geomorphologically feasible projects to build land by river diversions, namely, whether a larger number of small, or a lesser number of large, engineered diversions provide the most efficient outcomes. This study uses an optimization framework to identify portfolios of diversions that are efficient for three general restoration objectives: maximize land built, minimize cost, and minimize water diverted. The framework links the following models: (1) a hydraulic water and sediment diversion model that, for a given structural design for a diversion, estimates the volume of water and sediment diverted; (2) a geomorphological land-building model that estimates the amount of land built over a time period, given the volume of water and sediment; and (3) a statistical model of investment cost as a function of diversion depth and width. An efficient portfolio is found by optimizing one objective subject to constraints on achievement of the other two; then by permuting those constraints, we find distinct portfolios that represent trade-offs among the objectives. Although the analysis explores generic relationships among size, cost, and land building (and thus does not consider specific project proposals or locations), the results demonstrate that large-scale land building (>200 km2) programs that operate over a time span of 50 years require deep diversions because of the enhanced efficiency of sand extraction per unit water. This conclusion applies whether or not there are significant scale economies or diseconomies associated with wider and deeper diversions.

  19. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 8, 1936 SOUTH WALL OF HALL SHOWING DOORS AND STAIR LANDING, SECOND FLOOR - John H. Sherard House, State Road 28, Livingston, Sumter County, AL

  20. The impacts of road and walking trails upon adjacent vegetation: effects of road building materials on species composition in a nutrient poor environment.

    PubMed

    Müllerová, Jana; Vítková, Michaela; Vítek, Ondřej

    2011-09-01

    Roads represent an important landscape element affecting both biotic and abiotic components. Alteration of soil properties along roads (addition of nutrients) is assumed to have a great impact on vegetation structure especially in nutrient poor ecosystems. Existing studies focus mainly on road dust. In our study we assessed the overall effects of roads upon adjacent alpine tundra vegetation and soils in Krkonoše Mts, Czech Republic. Our aims were to (1) reconstruct the road-related changes using aerial data and GPS mapping to study colonization of roadside plant species; (2) assess the road effects on physical-chemical soil properties and vegetation composition along transects; and (3) propose conservation measures to stop further damage. Changes were reconstructed from historical multispectral aerial photography (1986 to 1997), measured by GPS device (1997, 2004), and accompanied by detailed soil (1998, 2000 and 2001) and vegetation (2000 and 2004) surveys along transects. Along alkaline roads, fast and profound shifts in physical-chemical soil properties (pH increased from 3.9 up to 7.6, base saturation from 9-30% up to 100%), and species composition were recorded. The roadside vegetation doubled in area during the studied decade. Stress-tolerant tundra species were replaced by meso- to nitrophilous species and species preferring man-made habitats. The intensity of changes depended significantly on the type of road material and the position relative to the road (slope position, distance from the road). Our findings support the assumption that alkaline gravel is the main cause of changes along roads in the area, and indicate the leading role of water transport in the soil and consequent vegetation alteration. To prevent the further damage we recommended replacement of alkaline gravel by granite, even though expensive and technically complicated. Based on our recommendations, the National Park authorities started to reconstruct the trails, although recovery is

  1. Legal and Technical Aspects of Modernization of Land and Buildings Cadastre in Selected Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siejka, Monika; Ślusarski, Marek; Mika, Monika

    2015-12-01

    Modernization of the land and buildings cadastre is a set of actions aimed at improving the quality of data collected there. Application in the process of modernization of the sources of information from the land surveying, gives fully satisfactory results. On the other hand the use of photogrammetric measurements is the solution more economical in terms of financial and time. However, there is a danger of obtaining the results which do not meet the standards of accuracy of the border points position. The paper presents an example of the results of the influence of the process of modernizing the land and buildings cadastre for the areas where the source material are cadastral maps in the scale 1: 2000, created on the basis of photomaps or cadastral maps in the scale 1: 2880. An assessment of the suitability of these materials in the process of modernization and their impact on the current form of the land and building cadastre as a public register was made.

  2. Assessing the Land Subsidence Governance in Ningbo City: By a Close Study of the Building Collapse at the Strictly Protected Land Subsidence Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Ningbo is a coastal city in East China, its land subsidence problem was noticed in the 1960s. However, scientific management was insufficient at that time, so with the fast city development from the 1980s, groundwater was used by a large amount of small factories, and tall buildings were built on the land. It was in 2008, scientists predicted that if without doing anything to prevent the land from subsiding, the city will be covered by the East Sea in 2030. From then on, the local government implied several policies, such as shut down most of the groundwater pumping wells, set up a new authority to enhance the cooperation among different administration departments, and also set up a land subsidence monitoring center for the city. Recently, it is declared that a Stereo regulatory system of land subsidence governance has been achieved. However, in 2012, a 23-years old building in the city center collapsed. According to the City Planning 2009, this building is located just in the strictly protected land subsidence area. The experts, however, think that land subsidence is not the main reason, since there are many illegal changes to the building during the past 23 years. The aim of my research is to assess the land subsidence governance in Ningbo city. I studied the collapsed building, how it was built, what has changed after building, how the environment changed in this area, and how this area became the strictly protected land subsidence area, and what kind of protections have been made. Actually, during the case study I discuss the land subsidence governance design of Ningbo, and to see what practices and lessons we can learn from this case.

  3. Is It Feasible to Build New Land in the Mississippi River Delta?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wonsuck; Mohrig, David; Twilley, Robert; Paola, Chris; Parker, Gary

    2009-10-01

    What if the Mississippi River levees were cut below New Orleans? What if much of the water and sediment were allowed to flow out and build new deltas? Could deltaic land loss be reversed, and indeed restored? Using a conservative sediment supply rate and a range of rates of sea level rise and subsidence, a physically based model of deltaic river sedimentation [Kim et al., 2009] predicts that approximately 700-1200 square kilometers of new land (exposed surface and in-channel freshwater habitat) could be built over a century (Figure 1).

  4. Numerical studies on flow fields around buildings in an Urban street canyon and cross-road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xueling; Hu, Fei

    2005-03-01

    The questions on how vortices are constructed and on the relationship between the flow patterns and concentration distributions in real street canyons are the most pressing questions in pollution control studies. In this paper, the very large eddy simulation (VLES) and large eddy simulation (LES) are applied to calculate the flow and pollutant concentration fields in an urban street canyon and a cross-road respectively. It is found that the flow separations are not only related to the canyon aspect ratios, but also with the flow velocities and wall temperatures. And the turbulent dispersions are so strongly affected by the flow fields that the pollutant concentration distributions can be distinguished from the different aspect ratios, flow velocities and wall temperatures.

  5. The Road to Evaluation Capacity Building: A Case Study from Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Barbara; Englert, Pnina Elal

    2008-01-01

    We present an empirical case study of an Evaluation Capacity Building (ECB) initiative in a school in Israel. First, we tell the story of the school's 10-year journey toward the successful integration of evaluation through ECB. Then we examine the case according to King's (2002) four elements of ECB: teachers, students, the curriculum, and the…

  6. On the Road to Science Literacy: Building Confidence and Competency in Technical Language through Choral Repetition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohenshell, Liesl M.; Woller, Michael J.; Sherlock, Wallace

    2013-01-01

    In order to be successful, students must acquire the language of science for both oral and written communication. In this article we examine an oral language learning technique called choral repetition for its role in building literacy in the context of an animal physiology course. For 3 weeks, the instructor conducted choral repetitions of nine…

  7. Celtic Roads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Building upon lessons learned is relevant to art and life. As an art teacher dealing with teens, the author tries to give her students an understanding of art as a window to the "big picture" as well as a practical, relevant skill. She developed this lesson plan, "Celtic Roads," with that objective in mind. The success rate is high, the product is…

  8. PERSPECTIVE OF HANGAR AND ACCESS ROAD LOOKING EAST (During the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE OF HANGAR AND ACCESS ROAD LOOKING EAST (During the 1940s the Arnold family leased part of their land to serve as a runway and airplane hangar. The building on the right of the photograph was originally two separate airplane hangars - they were joined in the early 1950s to provide covered combine parking between them. The building on the left of the photograph is a tractor shed. The building at a distance was gasoline and oil shed for the planes) - Arnold Farm, Hangar / Workshop, 1948 Arnold Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  9. Follow-up of a road building scheme in a fragile environment

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, Amarilis Lucia Casteli Figueiredo; Sanchez, Luis E

    2004-01-01

    Serra do Mar, in Southeastern Brazil, is an extremely diverse and rich environment characterized by intense rainfall and steep slopes covered by tropical rainforest. A number of roads, highways, railways, pipelines, and transmission lines cross this zone. A new highway that has been approved by the Sao Paulo State environment authorities is currently under construction. During the approval phase, the issue of ensuring proper implementation of mitigation measures arose as a significant concern. As a consequence, an innovative institutional arrangement has been set up for following-up, by which a multi-institutional multidisciplinary team performs weekly inspection tours, whereas the project owner hired its own consultant to oversee the construction, putting the contractor under strict scrutiny. Among the most significant issues addressed, the following are particularly relevant: (1) erosion and sediment yield; (2) river siltation; (3) slope stability; (4) excavated soil and rock disposal; (5) management of water pumped from tunneling; and (6) minimizing habitat loss. Results show that strict environmental supervision can effectively ensure that environmental impacts can be maintained within the limits of predicted impacts or legal requirements. Furthermore, this case showed that careful review of environmental impact studies and the establishment of detailed terms and conditions to be fulfilled by the proponent during the construction phase are necessary conditions for a successful follow-up.

  10. Analysis of the Contribution of the Road Traffic Industry to the PM2.5 Emission for Different Land-Use Types

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peng; Wang, Wei; Ji, Jiawei; Yao, Shunyu

    2014-01-01

    Road dust and vehicle exhaust are the main sources of air pollution in cities, especially in recent years with the quantity of vehicles and transportation construction continuously soaring; the hazy weather has been a dominant urban pollution form which is widely concerned by the Chinese society. By establishing a relationship model between traffic and land use, then applying analytic hierarchy process on the data from air quality monitoring station, this paper concludes the influence of different traffic behavior on air pollution which provides support to abate urban air pollution caused by traffic reasons through taking measures to control traffic. PMID:25530754

  11. The influence of lithology, land cover, road network and slope gradient in the landslides triggered during the period November 2008 - February 2009 in northern Tuscany (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segoni, Samuele; Mucci, Alessandra; Casagli, Nicola

    2010-05-01

    In the provinces of Lucca and Pistoia (Tuscany, Central Italy) 650 landslides (mainly shallow rapid slides and debris flows) were registered by Civil Protection during the period spanning from November 2008 to February 2009. During that period both provinces were struck by widespread precipitations: in November three distinct brief but very intense events brought the monthly precipitation well above the mean value, while the month of December was conversely characterized by heavy and prolonged precipitations whose cumulative amount doubled the monthly mean value. During January and February brief and intense precipitations struck again diffusively the whole studied area. As a consequence of such a prolonged period of abundant rainfall, hundreds of landslides occurred in the provinces of Lucca and Pistoia damaging private and public buildings, assets and infrastructures. The state of emergency was declared by the National Civil Protection from December to February. Rainfall has been without doubt the triggering factor of the landslides, but can some predisposing feature be identified? The answer is decisive for improving risk assessments and for developing effective emergency plans for civil protection purposes. For example, rainfall thresholds can be easily used to set up warning systems that can forecast the time of occurrence of landslides but such methods have a very coarse spatial resolution: the identification of predisposing elements could be helpful to identify the most risky locations in order to reduce the spatial uncertainty. From the Provincial and Regional Civil Protection archives many information about the occurred landslides were gathered and organized into a geographic database making use of a GIS system. Data include the exact location and day of occurrence of the landslides and their type. By means of a GIS analysis, the landslides database was superimposed to various thematic maps (geology, land cover, road network, slope gradient) in order to

  12. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 12 (SUNDFLR0030012) on Forest Land Road 3, crossing Roaring Branch Brook, Sunderland, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure SUNDFLR0030012 on Forest Land Road (FLR) 3 (FAS 114) crossing Roaring Branch Brook, Sunderland, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in southwestern Vermont. The 4.93-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is dense forest along the left bank and primarily shrubs and trees along the right bank, both upstream and downstream of the bridge. In the study area, Roaring Branch Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 33 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from cobble to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 139 mm (0.457 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 30, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. Forest Land Road 3 (FAS 114) crossing of Roaring Branch Brook is a 37-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 35-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 14, 1995). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 30 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 15 degrees. The scour protection measures at the site included

  13. Design, building, and testing of the post landing systems for the assured crew return vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1991-01-01

    The design, building, and testing of the post landing support systems for a water landing Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) are presented. One ACRV will be permanently docked to Space Station Freedom, fulfilling NASA's commitment to Assured Crew Return Capability in the event of an accident or illness. The configuration of the ACRV is based on an Apollo Command Module (ACM) derivative. The 1990 to 91 effort concentrated on the design, building, and testing of a 1/5 scale model of the egress and stabilization systems. The objective was to determine the feasibility of: (1) stabilizing the ACM out of the range of motions which cause sea sickness; and (2) the safe and rapid removal of a sick or injured crewmember from the ACRV. The ACRV model construction is presented along with a discussion of the water test facility. The rapid egress system is also presented along with a discussion of the ACRV stabilization control systems. Results are given and discussed in detail.

  14. Impacts of traffic composition and street-canyon geometry on on-road air quality in a high-rise building area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Seung-Bok; Woo, Sung Ho; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Sunwoo, Young; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Mobile measurements using a mobile laboratory and numerical simulations using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model were conducted over different time periods of multiple days in a high-rise building area, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Mobile measurement can provide actual on-road emission levels of air pollutants from vehicles as well as validation dataset of a CFD model. On the other hand, CFD modeling is required for the process analysis of mobile measurement data and the quantitative estimation of determining factors in complex phenomena. The target area is characterized as a busy street canyon elongated along a major road with hourly traffic volumes of approximately 4000 vehicles during working hours on weekdays. Nitrogen oxides (NOx), black carbon (BC), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAH), and particle number (PN) concentrations were measured during 39 round trips of mobile laboratory. The associations of the measured NOx, BC, pPAH, and PN concentrations with the traffic volumes of individual compositions are analyzed by calculating the correlation coefficients (R2) based on linear regressions. It is found that SUV, truck, van, and bus are heavy emitters responsible for the on-road air pollution in the street canyon. Among the measured pollutants, the largest R2 is shown for pPAH. The measured NOx, BC, pPAH, and PN concentrations are unevenly distributed in the street canyon. The measured concentrations around an intersection are higher than those in between intersections, particularly for NOx and pPAH. The CFD modeling for different dispersion scenarios reveals that the intersection has counterbalancing roles in determining the on-road concentrations. The emission process acts to increase the on-road concentrations due to accelerating and idling vehicles, whereas the dispersion process acts to decrease the on-road concentrations due to lateral ventilations along the crossing street. It is needed to control the number of heavy emitters and

  15. Floodplain management: Land acquisition versus preservation of historic buildings in Cambridge, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Wendy J.; Mitchell, Bruce

    1983-07-01

    Non-structural adjustments in floodplain management are often avoided because they are seen to infringe on personal rights, adversely affect property values and restrict local tax bases. Land acquisition programs in urban areas encounter a further problem when they lead to demolition of buildings and other structures considered to have historical or architectural value. An experience in Cambridge, Ontario demonstrates that the potential conflict between flood damage reduction and historical preservation objectives can be exacerbated as a result of uncoordinated planning efforts, inflexibility in interpreting mandates, unclear roles for participating agencies, and lack of cooperation Many of these dilemmas can be resolved through consultation and discussion early in the planning process as well as through a willingness to be flexible and to search for a compromise

  16. Chryse Planitia as a Mars Pathfinder landing site: The imperative of building on previous ground truth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, Larry S.

    1994-01-01

    Based on consideration of the geological characteristics of Chryse Planitia, the requirements for Mars Pathfinder landing sites, the nature of the mission, the scale of the observations to be made, and the need to build outward from previous experience, a new mission to Chryse Planitia offers several advantages that are difficult to ignore as well as offering a low-gamble/high-return mission scenario. Considering the need to ensure a successful mission, and to ensure the continued health of planetary exploration, the reasons for a new mission to Chryse Planitia are compelling. Results of 1:500,000 mapping, operational benefits of Chryse Planitia, science benefits of Chryse Planitia, and conclusions and site recommendations are discussed.

  17. What land covers are effective in mitigating a heat island in urban building rooftop?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Ryu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Since the 20th century, due to the rapid urbanization many urban environment problems have got blossomed and above all heat island has been recognized as an important issue. There are several causes of urban heat island, but land cover change occupies the largest portion of them. Owing to urban expansion, vegetation is changed into asphalt pavements and concrete buildings, which reduces latent heat flux. To mitigate the problems, people enlarge vegetation covers such as planting street trees, making rooftop gardens and constructing parks or install white roofs that feature high albedo on a building. While the white roofs reflect about 70% of solar radiation and absorb less radiation, vegetation has low albedo but cools the air through transpiration and fixes carbon dioxide through photosynthesis. There are some studies concerning which one is more effective to mitigate heat island between the green roof and white roof. This study compares the green roof and white roof and additionally considers carbon fixation that has not been treated in other studies. Furthermore, this study ascertains an efficiency of solar-cell panel that is used for building roof recently. The panel produces electric power but has low albedo which could warm the air. The experiment is conducted at the rooftop in Seoul, Korea and compares green roof (grass), white roof (painted cover), black roof (solar panel) and normal painted roof. Surface temperature and albedo are observed for the four roof types and incoming shortwave, outgoing longwave and carbon flux are measured in green roof solely. In the case of solar panels, the electricity generation is calculated from the incoming radiation. We compute global warming potentials for the four roof types and test which roof type is most effective in reducing global warming potential.

  18. Land use regression models for estimating individual NOx and NO₂ exposures in a metropolis with a high density of traffic roads and population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jui-Huan; Wu, Chang-Fu; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2014-02-15

    This study is conducted to characterize the intra-urban distribution of NOx and NO2; develop land use regression (LUR) models to assess outdoor NOx and NO2 concentrations, using the ESCAPE modeling approach with locally specific land use data; and compare NOx and NO2 exposures for children in the Taipei Metropolis by the LUR models, the nearest monitoring station, and kriging methods based on data collected at the measurement sites. NOx and NO2 were measured for 2 weeks during 3 seasons at 40 sampling sites by Ogawa passive badges to represent their concentrations at urban backgrounds and streets from October 2009 to September 2010. Land use data and traffic-related information in different buffer zones were combined with measured concentrations to derive LUR models using supervised forward stepwise multiple regressions. The annual average concentrations of NOx and NO2 in Taipei were 72.4 ± 22.5 and 48.9 ± 12.2 μg/m(3), respectively, which were at the high end of all 36 European areas in the ESCAPE project. Spatial contrasts in Taipei were lower than those of the European areas in the ESCAPE project. The NOx LUR model included 6 land use variables, which were lengths of major roads within 25 m, 25-50 m, and 50-500 m, urban green areas within 300 m and 300-5,000 m, and semi-natural and forested areas within 500 m, with R(2)=0.81. The NO2 LUR model included 4 land use variables, which were lengths of major roads within 25 m, urban green areas within 100 m, semi-natural and forested areas within 500 m, and low-density residential area within 500 m, with R(2)=0.74. The LUR models gave a wider variation in estimating NOx and NO2 exposures than either the ordinary kriging method or the nearest measurement site did for the children of Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) in Taipei.

  19. Exploring the relationships of between land surface temperature, ground coverage ratio and building volume density in an urbanized environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Q.; Meng, F.; Xiao, Y.

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to explore and compare the relationships between urban land surface temperature (LST), ground coverage ratio (GCR) and building volume density (BVD). Landsat ETM+ data of August 2011 and August 2013 are used to estimate the LST for Wuhan, China, metropolitan area, and maps of GCR and BVD are generated using building census data of 2011 and 2013. Our analysis indicates there is a strong linear relationship between LST and GCR, and when GCR is lower, the linear correlation is more prominent, whereas the relationship between LST and BVD is not straightforward, but seems some underlying pattern. The result suggests GCR and BVD provide complementary metrics to the traditionally applied land use/land cover (LULC) for analysing LST quantitatively for surface urban heat island studies using thermal infrared remote sensing in an urbanized environment. This study is of positive significance to understand today's urban heat island issues, and contributes to the planning work of urban architectural space.

  20. 41 CFR 102-73.45 - When may Federal agencies consider leases of privately owned land and buildings to satisfy their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agencies consider leases of privately owned land and buildings to satisfy their space needs? 102-73.45... their space needs? Federal agencies may consider leases of privately owned land and buildings only when needs cannot be met satisfactorily in Government-controlled space and one or more of the...

  1. 41 CFR 102-73.45 - When may Federal agencies consider leases of privately owned land and buildings to satisfy their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agencies consider leases of privately owned land and buildings to satisfy their space needs? 102-73.45... their space needs? Federal agencies may consider leases of privately owned land and buildings only when needs cannot be met satisfactorily in Government-controlled space and one or more of the...

  2. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... authorizes land surveyors to certify the design of primary roads a qualified registered professional land surveyor, with experience in the design and construction of roads, as meeting the requirements of this... cross sections, design drawings and specifications for road widths, gradients, surfacing materials,...

  3. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... authorizes land surveyors to certify the design of primary roads a qualified registered professional land surveyor, with experience in the design and construction of roads, as meeting the requirements of this... cross sections, design drawings and specifications for road widths, gradients, surfacing materials,...

  4. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... authorizes land surveyors to certify the design of primary roads a qualified registered professional land surveyor, with experience in the design and construction of roads, as meeting the requirements of this... cross sections, design drawings and specifications for road widths, gradients, surfacing materials,...

  5. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authorizes land surveyors to certify the design of primary roads a qualified registered professional land surveyor, with experience in the design and construction of roads, as meeting the requirements of this... cross sections, design drawings and specifications for road widths, gradients, surfacing materials,...

  6. 24 CFR 1710.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Roads. 1710.210 Section 1710.210... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is...

  7. 24 CFR 1710.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roads. 1710.210 Section 1710.210... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is...

  8. 24 CFR 1710.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Roads. 1710.210 Section 1710.210... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is...

  9. 24 CFR 1710.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roads. 1710.210 Section 1710.210... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is...

  10. 24 CFR 1710.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roads. 1710.210 Section 1710.210... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is...

  11. Building a hybrid land cover map with crowdsourcing and geographically weighted regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Linda; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Lesiv, Myroslava; McCallum, Ian; Fritz, Steffen; Comber, Alexis; Perger, Christoph; Schill, Christian; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Maus, Victor; Siraj, Muhammad Athar; Albrecht, Franziska; Cipriani, Anna; Vakolyuk, Mar'yana; Garcia, Alfredo; Rabia, Ahmed H.; Singha, Kuleswar; Marcarini, Abel Alan; Kattenborn, Teja; Hazarika, Rubul; Schepaschenko, Maria; van der Velde, Marijn; Kraxner, Florian; Obersteiner, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Land cover is of fundamental importance to many environmental applications and serves as critical baseline information for many large scale models e.g. in developing future scenarios of land use and climate change. Although there is an ongoing movement towards the development of higher resolution global land cover maps, medium resolution land cover products (e.g. GLC2000 and MODIS) are still very useful for modelling and assessment purposes. However, the current land cover products are not accurate enough for many applications so we need to develop approaches that can take existing land covers maps and produce a better overall product in a hybrid approach. This paper uses geographically weighted regression (GWR) and crowdsourced validation data from Geo-Wiki to create two hybrid global land cover maps that use medium resolution land cover products as an input. Two different methods were used: (a) the GWR was used to determine the best land cover product at each location; (b) the GWR was only used to determine the best land cover at those locations where all three land cover maps disagree, using the agreement of the land cover maps to determine land cover at the other cells. The results show that the hybrid land cover map developed using the first method resulted in a lower overall disagreement than the individual global land cover maps. The hybrid map produced by the second method was also better when compared to the GLC2000 and GlobCover but worse or similar in performance to the MODIS land cover product depending upon the metrics considered. The reason for this may be due to the use of the GLC2000 in the development of GlobCover, which may have resulted in areas where both maps agree with one another but not with MODIS, and where MODIS may in fact better represent land cover in those situations. These results serve to demonstrate that spatial analysis methods can be used to improve medium resolution global land cover information with existing products.

  12. Using Outcrop Exposures on the Road to Yellowknife Bay to Build a Stratigraphic Column, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stack, K. M.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Sumner, D.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Milliken, R. E.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Gupta, S.; Williams, R. M. E.; Kah, L. C.; Lewis, K. W.

    2013-01-01

    Since landing in Gale Crater on August 5, 2012, the Curiosity rover has driven 450 m east, descending approximately 15 m in elevation from the Bradbury landing site to Yellowknife Bay. Outcrop exposure along this drive has been discontinuous, but isolated outcrops may represent windows into underlying inplace stratigraphy. This study presents an inventory of outcrops targeted by Curiosity (Figs. 1-2), grouped by lithological properties observed in Mastcam and Navcam imagery. Outcrop locations are placed in a stratigraphic context using orbital imagery and first principles of stratigraphy. The stratigraphic models presented here represent an essential first step in understanding the relative age relationships of lithological units encountered at the Curiosity landing site. Such observations will provide crucial context for assessing habitability potential of ancient Gale crater environments and organic matter preservation.

  13. Integrating Land Conservation and Renewable Energy Goals in California: Assessing Land Use and Economic Cost Impacts Using the Optimal Renewable Energy Build-Out (ORB) Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, G. C.; Schlag, N. H.; Cameron, D. R.; Brand, E.; Crane, L.; Williams, J.; Price, S.; Hernandez, R. R.; Torn, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    There is a lack of understanding of the environmental impacts and economic costs of potential renewable energy (RE) siting decisions that achieve ambitious RE targets. Such analyses are needed to inform policy recommendations that minimize potential conflicts between conservation and RE development. We use the state of California's rapid development of utility-scale RE as a case study to examine how possible land use constraints impact the total electricity land area, areas with conservation value, water use, and electricity cost of ambitious RE portfolios. We developed the Optimal Renewable energy Build-out (ORB) model, and used it in conjunction with the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) Calculator, a RE procurement and transmission planning tool used by utilities within California, to generate environmentally constrained renewable energy potential and assess the cost and siting-associated impacts of wind, solar photovoltaic, concentrating solar power (CSP), and geothermal technologies. We find that imposing environmental constraints on RE development achieves lower conservation impacts and results in development of more fragmented land areas. With increased RE and environmental exclusions, generation becomes more widely distributed across the state, which results in more development on herbaceous agricultural vegetation, grasslands, and developed & urban land cover types. We find land use efficiencies of RE technologies are relatively inelastic to changes in environmental constraints, suggesting that cost-effective substitutions that reduce environmental impact and achieve RE goals is possible under most scenarios and exclusion categories. At very high RE penetration that is limited to in-state development, cost effectiveness decreases substantially under the highest level of environmental constraint due to the over-reliance on solar technologies. This additional cost is removed once the in-state constraint is lifted, suggesting that minimizing both negative

  14. Application of plume analysis to build land use regression models from mobile sampling to improve model transferability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yi; Dallmann, Timothy R.; Robinson, Allen L.; Presto, Albert A.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile monitoring of traffic-related air pollutants was conducted in Pittsburgh, PA. The data show substantial spatial variability of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PB-PAH) and black carbon (BC). This variability is driven in large part by pollutant plumes from high emitting vehicles (HEVs). These plumes contribute a disproportionately large fraction of the near-road exposures of PB-PAH and BC. We developed novel statistical models to describe the spatial patterns of PB-PAH and BC exposures. The models consist of two layers: a plume layer to describe the contributions of high emitting vehicles using a near-roadway kernel, and an urban-background layer that predicts the spatial pattern of other sources using land use regression. This approach leverages unique information content of highly time resolved mobile monitoring data and provides insight into source contributions. The two-layer model describes 76% of observed PB-PAH variation and 61% of BC variation. On average, HEVs contribute at least 32% of outdoor PB-PAH and 14% of BC. The transferability of the models was examined using measurements from 36 hold-out validation sites. The plume layer performed well at validation sites, but the background layer showed little transferability due to the large difference in land use between the city and outer suburbs.

  15. 43 CFR 2812.5-2 - Payment to the United States for road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment to the United States for road use... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-2 Payment to the United States for road... permittee receives a right to use a road constructed or acquired by the United States, which road is...

  16. Silk Roads or Steppe Roads? The Silk Roads in World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, David

    2000-01-01

    Explores the prehistory of the Silk Roads, reexamines their structure and history in the classical era, and explores shifts in their geography in the last one thousand years. Explains that a revised understanding of the Silk Roads demonstrates how the Afro-Eurasian land mass has been linked by networks of exchange since the Bronze Age. (CMK)

  17. 1. View of Building 802 from the parking lot, Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of Building 802 from the parking lot, Building 800 in the background, facing east. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  18. Carbon dynamics and land-use choices: building a regional-scale multidisciplinary model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerr, Suzi; Liu, Shu-Guang; Pfaff, Alexander S.P.; Hughes, R. Flint

    2003-01-01

    Policy enabling tropical forests to approach their potential contribution to global-climate-change mitigation requires forecasts of land use and carbon storage on a large scale over long periods. In this paper, we present an integrated modeling methodology that addresses these needs. We model the dynamics of the human land-use system and of C pools contained in each ecosystem, as well as their interactions. The model is national scale, and is currently applied in a preliminary way to Costa Rica using data spanning a period of over 50 years. It combines an ecological process model, parameterized using field and other data, with an economic model, estimated using historical data to ensure a close link to actual behavior. These two models are linked so that ecological conditions affect land-use choices and vice versa. The integrated model predicts land use and its consequences for C storage for policy scenarios. These predictions can be used to create baselines, reward sequestration, and estimate the value in both environmental and economic terms of including C sequestration in tropical forests as part of the efforts to mitigate global climate change. The model can also be used to assess the benefits from costly activities to increase accuracy and thus reduce errors and their societal costs.

  19. Building Partnerships to Monitor the Conditions of Streams and Rivers on Public Lands

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), will conduct its first Western Rivers and Streams Assessment (WRSA), a survey of the condition of BLM streams and rivers throughout the contiguous western U.S. The objective...

  20. Building Community Capacity and Social Infrastructure through Landcare: A Case Study of Land Grant Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Courtney E.; Hull, R. Bruce; Stephenson, Max O.; Robertson, David P.; Cowgill, Kimberly H.

    2012-01-01

    In the struggle to remain true to their technical assistance and civic engagement missions in an era of shrinking budgets and increasingly complex accountability claims, land grant universities have developed different engagement strategies to contribute to the development of surrounding communities. Drawing on Flora and Flora's (in "Ann Am Acad…

  1. Building factorial regression models to explain and predict nitrate concentrations in groundwater under agricultural land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stigter, T. Y.; Ribeiro, L.; Dill, A. M. M. Carvalho

    2008-07-01

    SummaryFactorial regression models, based on correspondence analysis, are built to explain the high nitrate concentrations in groundwater beneath an agricultural area in the south of Portugal, exceeding 300 mg/l, as a function of chemical variables, electrical conductivity (EC), land use and hydrogeological setting. Two important advantages of the proposed methodology are that qualitative parameters can be involved in the regression analysis and that multicollinearity is avoided. Regression is performed on eigenvectors extracted from the data similarity matrix, the first of which clearly reveals the impact of agricultural practices and hydrogeological setting on the groundwater chemistry of the study area. Significant correlation exists between response variable NO3- and explanatory variables Ca 2+, Cl -, SO42-, depth to water, aquifer media and land use. Substituting Cl - by the EC results in the most accurate regression model for nitrate, when disregarding the four largest outliers (model A). When built solely on land use and hydrogeological setting, the regression model (model B) is less accurate but more interesting from a practical viewpoint, as it is based on easily obtainable data and can be used to predict nitrate concentrations in groundwater in other areas with similar conditions. This is particularly useful for conservative contaminants, where risk and vulnerability assessment methods, based on assumed rather than established correlations, generally produce erroneous results. Another purpose of the models can be to predict the future evolution of nitrate concentrations under influence of changes in land use or fertilization practices, which occur in compliance with policies such as the Nitrates Directive. Model B predicts a 40% decrease in nitrate concentrations in groundwater of the study area, when horticulture is replaced by other land use with much lower fertilization and irrigation rates.

  2. Why did universities start patenting? Institution-building and the road to the Bayh-Dole Act.

    PubMed

    Berman, Elizabeth Popp

    2008-12-01

    This paper draws on institutional theory to explain the rise of university patenting in the USA. While observers have traditionally attributed this development to the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, recent research has shown that university patenting was increasing throughout the 1970s and argued that the Act's impact was less than has generally been assumed. This paper attempts to reconcile these opposing positions by explaining the rise of university patenting as a process of institution-building. Beginning in the 1960s, a skilled actor within the federal bureaucracy created a proto-institution that simplified university patenting and encouraged the development of a community of university patent administrators. In the 1970s, that community in turn allied itself with government proponents of patent policy liberalization and representatives of small business in a successful effort to pass the Bayh-Dole Act. The Act itself should be seen not as creating modern technology transfer, but rather as a final step in a state-driven process of institutionalization that was already well under way by 1980. The case is used to discuss how an institutional approach, which is infrequently seen in STS, can sometimes be useful to it.

  3. Look before you build; geologic studies for safer land development in the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blair-Tyler, Martha

    1995-01-01

    This Circular provides a general description of the types of geologic hazards that exist throughout the United States. In nontechnical language this book describes how geologic information can be incorporated in the land-use development process and contains useful discussion of several examples from the San Francisco Bay area and elsewhere in the United States of how geologic information is already being used in the development process by some cities and counties.

  4. Spatial assessment of land surface temperature and land use/land cover in Langkawi Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Bakar, Suzana Binti; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Salihu Lay, Usman; Abdullahi, Saleh

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the relationship between Land Surface Temperature and Land Use/Land Cover in Langkawi Island by using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Build-Up Index (NDBI) and Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) qualitatively by using Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 (OLI/TIRS) over the period 2002 and 2015. Pixel-based classifiers Maximum Likelihood (MLC) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), has been performed to prepare the Land Use/ Land Cover map (LU/LC) and the result shows that Support Vector Machine (SVM) achieved maximum accuracy with 90% and 90.46% compared to Maximum Likelihood (MLC) classifier with 86.62% and 86.98% respectively. The result revealed that as the impervious surface (built-up /roads) increases, the surface temperature of the area increased. However, land surface temperature decreased in the vegetated areas. Based from the linear regression between LST and NDVI, NDBI and MNDWI, these indices can be used as an indicator to monitor the impact of Land Use/Land Cover on Land Surface Temperature.

  5. 43 CFR 2812.3-4 - Where no road use agreement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Where no road use agreement is required. 2812.3-4 Section 2812.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-4 Where no road use agreement...

  6. 43 CFR 2812.3 - Right-of-way and road use agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Right-of-way and road use agreement. 2812... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3 Right-of-way and road use agreement....

  7. 43 CFR 2812.3 - Right-of-way and road use agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Right-of-way and road use agreement. 2812... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3 Right-of-way and road use agreement....

  8. 43 CFR 2812.3-4 - Where no road use agreement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Where no road use agreement is required. 2812.3-4 Section 2812.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-4 Where no road use agreement...

  9. 43 CFR 2812.3 - Right-of-way and road use agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Right-of-way and road use agreement. 2812... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3 Right-of-way and road use agreement....

  10. 43 CFR 2812.3-4 - Where no road use agreement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where no road use agreement is required. 2812.3-4 Section 2812.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-4 Where no road use agreement...

  11. Investigating near-road particle number concentrations along a busy urban corridor with varying built environment characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junshi; Wang, An; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at capturing the determinants of near-road concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFP) using linear mixed-effects models, investigating the effects of meteorology, built environment, and traffic. In addition, the differences in the levels of UFP between both sides of the road were investigated. To reach these objectives, field measurements were conducted on 16 weekdays in the months of March and April 2015, along Papineau Avenue, a high-volume street in Montreal, Canada. Four sites were identified varying in land use, building height, and road characteristics. Air quality measurements were conducted at each location (on both sides of the road) for two consecutive hours, at four different times during the day and repeated four times, leading to a total of 16 visits per location. Traffic volume and composition was also recorded. On-site meteorological variables including wind speed, wind direction, temperature and relative humidity were collected using a portable weather station. Linear mixed-effects models with random intercept were developed for both dependent variables: the natural logarithm of the mean UFP concentration and the difference in UFP concentrations between two sides of the road. Lower temperatures and wind speeds were associated with increased UFP concentrations. Winds orthogonal to the road tended to increase UFP concentrations as well as the differences between both sides of the road. Finally, built environment variables such as the presence of open areas and buildings on both sides of the road, had a positive influence on the difference between UFP on the two sides.

  12. 25 CFR 170.802 - How is road maintenance funded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is road maintenance funded? 170.802 Section 170.802 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.802 How is road maintenance funded? (a) The U.S. Congress funds a...

  13. 25 CFR 170.802 - How is road maintenance funded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How is road maintenance funded? 170.802 Section 170.802 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.802 How is road maintenance funded? (a) The U.S. Congress funds a...

  14. 25 CFR 170.802 - How is road maintenance funded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How is road maintenance funded? 170.802 Section 170.802 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.802 How is road maintenance funded? (a) The U.S. Congress funds a...

  15. 25 CFR 170.802 - How is road maintenance funded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How is road maintenance funded? 170.802 Section 170.802 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.802 How is road maintenance funded? (a) The U.S. Congress funds a...

  16. 25 CFR 170.802 - How is road maintenance funded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How is road maintenance funded? 170.802 Section 170.802 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.802 How is road maintenance funded? (a) The U.S. Congress funds a...

  17. [The impact of load density differences on land subsidence based on build-up index and PS-InSAR technology].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bei-Bei; Gong, Hui-Li; Li, Xiao-Juan; Lei, Kun-Chao; Lin, Zhu; Wang, Yan-Bing

    2013-08-01

    The excessive mining for underground water is the main reason inducing the land subsidence in Beijing, while, increasing of load brought by the urban construction aggravate the local land subsidence in a certain degree. As an international metropolis, the problems of land subsidence that caused by urban construction are becoming increasingly highlights, so revealing the relationship between regional load increase and the response of land subsidence also becomes one of the key problems in the land subsidence research field. In order to analyze the relationship between the load changes in construction and the land subsidence quantitatively, the present study selected the TM remote sensing image covering Beijing plain and used Erdas Modeler tool to invert the index based on building site (IBI), acquired the spatial and temporal change information in research area further; Based on results monitored by PS-InSAR (permanent scatterer interferometry) and IBI index method, and combined with the GIS spatial analysis method in the view of pixels in different scales, this paper analyzes the correlation between typical area load change and land subsidence, The conclusions show that there is a positive correlation between the density of load and the homogeneity of subsidence, especially in area which has a high sedimentation rate. Owing to such characteristics as the complexity and hysteretic nature of soil and geological structure, it is not obvious that the land subsidence caused by the increase of load in a short period. But with the increasing of local land load made by high density buildings and additional settlement of each monomer building superposed with each other, regional land subsidence is still a question that cannot be ignored and needs long-term systematic research and discussion. PMID:24159875

  18. [The impact of load density differences on land subsidence based on build-up index and PS-InSAR technology].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bei-Bei; Gong, Hui-Li; Li, Xiao-Juan; Lei, Kun-Chao; Lin, Zhu; Wang, Yan-Bing

    2013-08-01

    The excessive mining for underground water is the main reason inducing the land subsidence in Beijing, while, increasing of load brought by the urban construction aggravate the local land subsidence in a certain degree. As an international metropolis, the problems of land subsidence that caused by urban construction are becoming increasingly highlights, so revealing the relationship between regional load increase and the response of land subsidence also becomes one of the key problems in the land subsidence research field. In order to analyze the relationship between the load changes in construction and the land subsidence quantitatively, the present study selected the TM remote sensing image covering Beijing plain and used Erdas Modeler tool to invert the index based on building site (IBI), acquired the spatial and temporal change information in research area further; Based on results monitored by PS-InSAR (permanent scatterer interferometry) and IBI index method, and combined with the GIS spatial analysis method in the view of pixels in different scales, this paper analyzes the correlation between typical area load change and land subsidence, The conclusions show that there is a positive correlation between the density of load and the homogeneity of subsidence, especially in area which has a high sedimentation rate. Owing to such characteristics as the complexity and hysteretic nature of soil and geological structure, it is not obvious that the land subsidence caused by the increase of load in a short period. But with the increasing of local land load made by high density buildings and additional settlement of each monomer building superposed with each other, regional land subsidence is still a question that cannot be ignored and needs long-term systematic research and discussion.

  19. Building up knowledge on resilience of fragile lands in subarctic climate - a metadatabase for land degradation and restoration in southern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, David C.; de Lavenne, Alban; Þórsson, Jóhann

    2016-04-01

    Resilience is the capacity of an ecosystem to respond to a perturbation or disturbance by resisting perturbations and recovering quickly. Natural catastrophes, such as floods, droughts, landslides, storms and volcanic eruptions can have devastating impacts on natural and build environment. Nevertheless, researchers worldwide have identified anthropogenic impacts to be the cause for enhanced consequences of natural catastrophes. Iceland, the small island on the mid Atlantic ridge is an ideal location to investigate anthropogenic impacts on the resilience of natural ecosystems. The dramatic deforestation after the arrival of the first settlers ~1100 years ago, the subsequent year round livestock grazing along with devastating ash emissions during volcanic eruptions and a harsh sub-polar oceanic climate have led to severe degradation of large areas of Icelandic soils. Since the beginning of the 20th century diverse restoration measures have been implemented at a large-scale on lowland areas of Iceland making them an ideal case study to investigate the effects of restoration on the resilience of water resources. Since over 100 years the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland (SCSI) has been restoring and investigating degraded landscapes, collecting valuable information and data on restoration research in Iceland. In a joint effort to provide an overview of terminated and ongoing research project, the SCSI and Reykjavik University have established a metadatabase summarizing all relevant restoration projects in the Rangárvellir area, a representative study site in southern Iceland. The SCSI and other governmental agencies have conducted numerous research and restoration projects in the area, including land restoration, land management, reforestation, hydrometeorological monitoring, vegetation mapping, to name just a few. The combination of these projects provides a valuable set of observational data and knowledge regarding the history of land restoration in Rang

  20. 6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, GENERATOR BUILDING No. 3, AND WARHEADING BUILDING OF LAUNCH AREA. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Beck Road between Nike & M Roads, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  1. Building Confidence in the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM) with LIVVkit, the Land Ice Validation and Verification Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, J. H.; Bennett, A. R.; Evans, K. J.; Worley, P.; Price, S. F.; Hoffman, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Using an ice flow model to make inferences of real world systems requires a high level of confidence in the model. Verification and validation (V&V) is a set of techniques that are used to quantify confidence and build credibility. We are developing LIVVkit (Land Ice Verification and Validation toolkit), a comprehensive V&V toolkit for ice sheet models, to help scientists make robust inferences of real world systems with their models. LIVVkit is written in python, due to its wide usage throughout the scientific community and should be easily accessible to a large number of users. The toolkit provides resources for data assimilation, verification testing, validation testing, and performance evaluations. A website is created automatically which presents the testing results in a comprehensive and user-friendly way. LIVVkit allows scientists and developers to implement reusable validation tests of model applications and build confidence in their ice flow model. Currently, we are working with scientific users and developers of the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM) for the development of LIVVkit, but LIVVkit is designed to be extensible to other ice flow models.

  2. The impact of road and railway embankments on runoff and soil erosion in eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P.; Gimeìnez-Morera, A.; Novara, A.; Keesstra, S.; Jordán, A.; Masto, R. E.; Brevik, E.; Azorin-Molina, C.; Cerdà, A.

    2015-12-01

    Road and railway infrastructure increased in the Mediterranean region during the last three decades. This included the building of embankments, which are assumed to be a~large source of sediments and runoff. However, little is known about soil erosion rates, the factors that control them, and the processes that contribute to detachment, transport and deposition of sediments from road and railway embankments. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the impacts of road and railway embankments as a source of sediment and water, and compare them to other land use types (citrus plantations and shrublands) representative of the Cànyoles watershed to evaluate the importance of road embankments as a~source of water and sediment under high magnitude low frequency rainfall events. Sixty rainfall experiments (1 m2 plots; 60 min duration; 78 mm h-1 rainfall intensity) were carried out on these land use types: 20 on two railway embankments (10 + 10), 20 on two road embankments (10 + 10), and 10 on citrus and 10 on shrubland. Road and railway embankments were characterized by bare soils with low organic matter and high bulk density. Erosion processes were more active in road, railway and citrus plots, and null in the shrublands. The non-sustainable soil erosion rates of 3 Mg ha-1 y-1 measured on the road embankments were due to the efficient runoff connectivity plus low infiltration rates within the plot as the runoff took less than one minute to reach the runoff outlet. Road and railway embankments are both an active source of sediments and runoff, and soil erosion control strategies must be applied. The citrus plantations also act as a~source of water and sediments (1.5 Mg ha-1 y-1), while shrublands are sediment sinks, as no overland flow was observed due to the high infiltration rates.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with road deposited solid and their ecological risk: Implications for road stormwater reuse.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Liu, An; Li, Yang; Zhang, Lixun; Zhang, Guijuan; Guan, Yuntao

    2016-09-01

    Reusing stormwater is becoming popular worldwide. However, urban road stormwater commonly contains toxic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which could undermine reuse safety. This study investigated pollution level of PAHs and their composition build-up on urban roads in a typical megacity in South China. The potential ecological risk posed by PAHs associated with road deposited solid (RDS) was also assessed. Results showed that ecological risk levels varied based on different land use types, which could be significantly influenced by the composition of PAHs and characteristics of RDS. A higher percentage of high-ring PAHs, such as more than four rings, could pose higher ecological risk and are more likely to undermine stormwater reuse safety. Additionally, the degree of traffic congestion rather than traffic volume was found to exert a more significant influence on the generation of high-ring PAH generation. Therefore, stormwater from more congested roads might need proper treatment (particularly for removing high-ring PAHs) before reuse or could be suitable for purposes requiring low-water-quality. The findings of this study are expected to contribute to adequate stormwater reuse strategy development and to enhance the safety of urban road stormwater reuse.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with road deposited solid and their ecological risk: Implications for road stormwater reuse.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Liu, An; Li, Yang; Zhang, Lixun; Zhang, Guijuan; Guan, Yuntao

    2016-09-01

    Reusing stormwater is becoming popular worldwide. However, urban road stormwater commonly contains toxic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which could undermine reuse safety. This study investigated pollution level of PAHs and their composition build-up on urban roads in a typical megacity in South China. The potential ecological risk posed by PAHs associated with road deposited solid (RDS) was also assessed. Results showed that ecological risk levels varied based on different land use types, which could be significantly influenced by the composition of PAHs and characteristics of RDS. A higher percentage of high-ring PAHs, such as more than four rings, could pose higher ecological risk and are more likely to undermine stormwater reuse safety. Additionally, the degree of traffic congestion rather than traffic volume was found to exert a more significant influence on the generation of high-ring PAH generation. Therefore, stormwater from more congested roads might need proper treatment (particularly for removing high-ring PAHs) before reuse or could be suitable for purposes requiring low-water-quality. The findings of this study are expected to contribute to adequate stormwater reuse strategy development and to enhance the safety of urban road stormwater reuse. PMID:27135582

  5. Benefits and impacts of road removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Switalski, T.A.; Bissonette, J.A.; DeLuca, T.H.; Luce, C.H.; Madej, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Road removal is being used to mitigate the physical and ecological impacts of roads and to restore both public and private lands. Although many federal and state agencies and private landowners have created protocols for road removal and priorities for restoration, research has not kept pace with the rate of removal. Some research has been conducted on hydrologic and geomorphic restoration following road removal, but no studies have directly addressed restoring wildlife habitat. Road removal creates a short-term disturbance which may temporarily increase sediment loss. However, long-term monitoring and initial research have shown that road removal reduces chronic erosion and the risk of landslides. We review the hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological benefits and impacts of three methods of road removal, identify knowledge gaps, and propose questions for future research, which is urgently needed to quantify how effectively road removal restores terrestrial, riparian, and aquatic habitat and other ecosystem processes.

  6. 43 CFR 2812.5-3 - Bonds in connection with existing roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bonds in connection with existing roads... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-3 Bonds in connection with existing roads. An applicant for permit or a permittee desiring to use an existing road owned or controlled...

  7. 43 CFR 2812.5-3 - Bonds in connection with existing roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bonds in connection with existing roads... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-3 Bonds in connection with existing roads. An applicant for permit or a permittee desiring to use an existing road owned or controlled...

  8. 43 CFR 2812.5-3 - Bonds in connection with existing roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bonds in connection with existing roads... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-3 Bonds in connection with existing roads. An applicant for permit or a permittee desiring to use an existing road owned or controlled...

  9. 43 CFR 2812.5-3 - Bonds in connection with existing roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bonds in connection with existing roads... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-3 Bonds in connection with existing roads. An applicant for permit or a permittee desiring to use an existing road owned or controlled...

  10. The building of a biodiversity hotspot across a land-bridge in the Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Venegas, Rafael; Aparicio, Abelardo; Lavergne, Sébastien; Arroyo, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Many of the macroevolutionary processes that have shaped present-day phylogenetic patterns were caused by geological events such as plate tectonics and temporary land-bridges. The study of spatial patterns of phylogenetic diversity can provide insights into these past events. Here we focus on a western Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot located in the southern Iberian Peninsula and northwest Africa, two regions that are separated by the Strait of Gibraltar. We explore the spatial structure of the phylogenetic relationships within and across large-scale plant assemblages. Significant turnover in terminal lineages tends to occur between landmasses, whereas turnover in deep lineages tends to occur within landmasses. Plant assemblages in the western ecoregions of this hotspot tend to be phylogenetically overdispersed but are phylogenetically clustered on its eastern margins. We discuss our results in the light of potential scenarios of niche evolution (or conservatism) and lineage diversification. The significant turnover between landmasses suggests a common scenario of allopatric speciation that could have been facilitated by the intermittent joining of the two continents. This may have constituted an important stimulus for diversification and the emergence of this western Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. PMID:26246551

  11. The building of a biodiversity hotspot across a land-bridge in the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Molina-Venegas, Rafael; Aparicio, Abelardo; Lavergne, Sébastien; Arroyo, Juan

    2015-08-22

    Many of the macroevolutionary processes that have shaped present-day phylogenetic patterns were caused by geological events such as plate tectonics and temporary land-bridges. The study of spatial patterns of phylogenetic diversity can provide insights into these past events. Here we focus on a western Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot located in the southern Iberian Peninsula and northwest Africa, two regions that are separated by the Strait of Gibraltar. We explore the spatial structure of the phylogenetic relationships within and across large-scale plant assemblages. Significant turnover in terminal lineages tends to occur between landmasses, whereas turnover in deep lineages tends to occur within landmasses. Plant assemblages in the western ecoregions of this hotspot tend to be phylogenetically overdispersed but are phylogenetically clustered on its eastern margins. We discuss our results in the light of potential scenarios of niche evolution (or conservatism) and lineage diversification. The significant turnover between landmasses suggests a common scenario of allopatric speciation that could have been facilitated by the intermittent joining of the two continents. This may have constituted an important stimulus for diversification and the emergence of this western Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot.

  12. The building of a biodiversity hotspot across a land-bridge in the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Molina-Venegas, Rafael; Aparicio, Abelardo; Lavergne, Sébastien; Arroyo, Juan

    2015-08-22

    Many of the macroevolutionary processes that have shaped present-day phylogenetic patterns were caused by geological events such as plate tectonics and temporary land-bridges. The study of spatial patterns of phylogenetic diversity can provide insights into these past events. Here we focus on a western Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot located in the southern Iberian Peninsula and northwest Africa, two regions that are separated by the Strait of Gibraltar. We explore the spatial structure of the phylogenetic relationships within and across large-scale plant assemblages. Significant turnover in terminal lineages tends to occur between landmasses, whereas turnover in deep lineages tends to occur within landmasses. Plant assemblages in the western ecoregions of this hotspot tend to be phylogenetically overdispersed but are phylogenetically clustered on its eastern margins. We discuss our results in the light of potential scenarios of niche evolution (or conservatism) and lineage diversification. The significant turnover between landmasses suggests a common scenario of allopatric speciation that could have been facilitated by the intermittent joining of the two continents. This may have constituted an important stimulus for diversification and the emergence of this western Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. PMID:26246551

  13. 41 CFR 102-73.45 - When may Federal agencies consider leases of privately owned land and buildings to satisfy their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may Federal agencies consider leases of privately owned land and buildings to satisfy their space needs? 102-73.45 Section 102-73.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION...

  14. Modeling spatial decisions with graph theory: logging roads and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert; Arima, Eugenio; Messina, Joe; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Perz, Stephen; Vergara, Dante; Sales, Marcio; Pereira, Ritaumaria; Castro, Williams

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the spatial decision-making of loggers and implications for forest fragmentation in the Amazon basin. It provides a behavioral explanation for fragmentation by modeling how loggers build road networks, typically abandoned upon removal of hardwoods. Logging road networks provide access to land, and the settlers who take advantage of them clear fields and pastures that accentuate their spatial signatures. In shaping agricultural activities, these networks organize emergent patterns of forest fragmentation, even though the loggers move elsewhere. The goal of the article is to explicate how loggers shape their road networks, in order to theoretically explain an important type of forest fragmentation found in the Amazon basin, particularly in Brazil. This is accomplished by adapting graph theory to represent the spatial decision-making of loggers, and by implementing computational algorithms that build graphs interpretable as logging road networks. The economic behavior of loggers is conceptualized as a profit maximization problem, and translated into spatial decision-making by establishing a formal correspondence between mathematical graphs and road networks. New computational approaches, adapted from operations research, are used to construct graphs and simulate spatial decision-making as a function of discount rates, land tenure, and topographic constraints. The algorithms employed bracket a range of behavioral settings appropriate for areas of terras de volutas, public lands that have not been set aside for environmental protection, indigenous peoples, or colonization. The simulation target sites are located in or near so-called Terra do Meio, once a major logging frontier in the lower Amazon Basin. Simulation networks are compared to empirical ones identified by remote sensing and then used to draw inferences about factors influencing the spatial behavior of loggers. Results overall suggest that Amazonia's logging road networks induce more

  15. Road Rage

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Up to one-third of community participants report being perpetrators of road rage, indicating that various forms of road rage are relatively commonplace. However, only two percent or less of incidents culminate in serious damage to persons or vehicles. The most common offenders appear to be young and male. A number of factors may contribute to road rage, including environmental factors (e.g., greater number of miles driven per day, traffic density), nonspecific psychological factors (e.g., displaced aggression, attribution of blame to others), and bona fide Axis I and II disorders. The most common Axis I disorders appear to be related to alcohol and substance misuse, whereas possible Axis II disorders include borderline and antisocial personality disorders. Being aware of these contributory factors to road rage may improve general clinical awareness of the nature and treatment of perpetrators. PMID:20805914

  16. 43 CFR 2812.3-4 - Where no road use agreement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Where no road use agreement is required. 2812.3-4 Section 2812.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay...

  17. 1. TUCKERTON WIRELESS, RADIO ROAD, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF CONCRETE FOUNDATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TUCKERTON WIRELESS, RADIO ROAD, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF CONCRETE FOUNDATION OF RADIO STANTION WITH WIRELESS BUILDING AND SMOKESTACK IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTH - Town of Tuckerton, U.S. Highway 9 & County Road 539, Tuckerton, Ocean County, NJ

  18. VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  19. CLOSE UP VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH UNLOADER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSE UP VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH UNLOADER AND CRUSHING MILL WING IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  20. 1. View looking northwest, from Middle Mount Vernon Road, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View looking northwest, from Middle Mount Vernon Road, showing the slight rise upon which the building was constructed. - Perry Township School No. 3, Middle Mount Vernon & Eickhoff Roads, Evansville, Vanderburgh County, IN

  1. 76. VIEW OF SECOND WEAPONS STORAGE AREA ALONG SERVICE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. VIEW OF SECOND WEAPONS STORAGE AREA ALONG SERVICE ROAD SHOWING BUILDINGS 338-333 LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  2. OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP BUILDINGS, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. THE FUNCTION OF THE FLAT AREA AT CENTER RIGHT IS UNKNOWN. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  3. On the road to prevention: road injury and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason

    2014-04-01

    Road traffic injuries are already the leading cause of injury mortality and morbidity globally and by 2030 are predicted to be the fifth leading cause of mortality in the world. Australia has seen a dramatic reduction in road deaths and serious injuries since the 1970s and holds an international reputation for road traffic injury prevention due, in part, to its success in pioneering the multidisciplinary and intersectoral approach needed to address this significant issue and by applying an evidence-led approach to policy development. The paper will discuss Australia's early success in road traffic injury prevention (road safety), particularly the achievements following the implementation of targeted programs that focussed on road user behaviours for which health promotion played a role. The most successful of these programs was the introduction of comprehensive seat belt laws, random breath testing and more recently, strategic speed enforcement programs. Amid an array of significant challenges faced by the transport system in the future, the rapid development in information and communication technologies applied to transport is likely to provide the next generation of road safety benefits. The potential for a semi-autonomous transport system is likely to provide the next significant decline in road fatalities and serious injuries over the next 2 decades and the role of health promotion in relation to raising community engagement and building coalitions to increase uptake of new technologies will be discussed. PMID:24739772

  4. Distributed road assessment system

    DOEpatents

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  5. Traveling the National Road: A National Park Service Curriculum Based Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    In 1805, a U.S. Senate committee urged the building of a road that would connect the eastern United States with the western United States. The road came to be known as the National Road (or Cumberland Road). It began in Cumberland, Maryland, and eventually reached to Vandalia, Illinois. It was the first and only U.S. road built entirely with…

  6. Off-Road and the Fragile Desert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbins, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Part one of a two-part article sets forth the dimensions and the political-cultural aspects of the use of off-road vehicles in desert areas. Presents arguments for and against off-road vehicle use on national-resource land as exemplified in the California Desert. (Editor/JR)

  7. 30 CFR 817.150 - Roads: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... erosion, siltation, and the air pollution attendant to erosion, including road dust and dust occurring on... public or private property, including the prevention or mitigation of adverse effects on lands within...

  8. 30 CFR 817.150 - Roads: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... erosion, siltation, and the air pollution attendant to erosion, including road dust and dust occurring on... public or private property, including the prevention or mitigation of adverse effects on lands within...

  9. 30 CFR 816.150 - Roads: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... erosion, siltation, and the air pollution attendant to erosion, including road dust as well as dust... public or private property, including the prevention or mitigation of adverse effects on lands within...

  10. 30 CFR 816.150 - Roads: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... erosion, siltation, and the air pollution attendant to erosion, including road dust as well as dust... public or private property, including the prevention or mitigation of adverse effects on lands within...

  11. 8. BUILDING No. 5 SOUTH SIDE (LEFT); BUILDING No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. BUILDING No. 5 - SOUTH SIDE (LEFT); BUILDING No. 13 - WEST AND SOUTH SIDES (CENTER); BUILDING No. 6 - WEST SIDE (RIGHT), VIEW TO THE EAST - Whiting-Plover Paper Mill, 3243 Whiting Road, Whiting, Portage County, WI

  12. 51. Overall view of building 156, Warhead Building on far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Overall view of building 156, Warhead Building on far left, acid fueling station and standby generator building on far right, looking northwest - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  13. 49. Overall view of building 156, Warhead Building on far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Overall view of building 156, Warhead Building on far left, and building 160, acid fueling station on far right, looking west - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  14. 47. Overall view of building 156, Warhead Building on far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Overall view of building 156, Warhead Building on far right, and building 160, acid fueling station on far left, looking northeast - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  15. 48. Overall view of building 156, Warhead Building on far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Overall view of building 156, Warhead Building on far right, and building 160, acid fueling station on far left, looking east - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  16. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Tower Road Site in Aurora, Colorado. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Van Geet, O.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Tower Road site in Aurora, Colorado, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  17. Paving the Road for Student Success: Building a Case for Integrated Strategic Planning from Pre-K to Post-Doc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kealey, Jarrett; Peterson, Renee; Thompson, Angela; Waters, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The road from prekindergarten (pre-K) to post-doctoral (post-doc) work is riddled with potholes, detours, u-turns, and construction zones. National education initiatives such as No Child Left Behind, the Common Core, Race to the Top, Performance-Based Funding, College Readiness and Completion Acts, and Post-Graduate Gainful Employment Reports…

  18. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 25, 1937 SMOKE HOUSE - Colonel John Young Kilpatrick House & Outbuildings, Bridgeport Road (County Road 37), Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  19. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Russell Jones, Photographer June 1963 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Russell Jones, Photographer June 1963 SOUTHEAST VIEW - Abner Cloud House, Intersection of Canal Road & Reservoir Road Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Russell Jones, Photographer June 1963 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Russell Jones, Photographer June 1963 SOUTHWEST VIEW - Abner Cloud House, Intersection of Canal Road & Reservoir Road Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. 43 CFR 2812.5-2 - Payment to the United States for road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment to the United States for road use... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-2 Payment to the United States for road... any existing road or of any road constructed by the permittee upon the right-of-way. If the term...

  2. 43 CFR 2812.5-2 - Payment to the United States for road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment to the United States for road use... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-2 Payment to the United States for road... any existing road or of any road constructed by the permittee upon the right-of-way. If the term...

  3. 43 CFR 2812.5-2 - Payment to the United States for road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment to the United States for road use... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-2 Payment to the United States for road... any existing road or of any road constructed by the permittee upon the right-of-way. If the term...

  4. 5. VIEW OF THE LOCATION FOR A PROPOSED SPUR ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF THE LOCATION FOR A PROPOSED SPUR ROAD FROM KINGS CANYON ROAD TO THE PROPOSED HELICOPTER LANDING SITE #11. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 0.55, FACING NORTH 53ø EAST (53 ). - Kings Canyon Road, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  5. 36 CFR 13.702 - Off-Road Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off-Road Vehicles. 13.702... NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Bering Land Bridge National Preserve § 13.702 Off-Road Vehicles. The use of off-road vehicles for purposes of reindeer grazing may be permitted...

  6. 43 CFR 2812.4-2 - Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... maintenance of such road or road improvements. Current stumpage prices shall be determined by the application... permittee for use of road. 2812.4-2 Section 2812.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.4-2 Compensation payable...

  7. 5. VIEW FROM SLIGHTLY FARTHER DOWN SERVICE ROAD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW FROM SLIGHTLY FARTHER DOWN SERVICE ROAD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ELECTRICITY SUPPLY BUILDING, LABORATORY, AND OFFICE. - Standard Lime & Stone Quarry, County Route 27, Millville, Jefferson County, WV

  8. Within compound, looking southeast, Satellite Communications Terminal Building (Building 5771) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Within compound, looking southeast, Satellite Communications Terminal Building (Building 5771) to left, Gate House (Building 5764) to right of center - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  9. 3. View of Building 802 from the Guard Shack (Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Building 802 from the Guard Shack (Building 801), Buildings 800 and 804 beside, facing north. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  10. 23. SOUTH PLANT MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 728) AND WAREHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. SOUTH PLANT MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 728) AND WAREHOUSE (BUILDING 729) FROM ROOF OF TON CONTAINER RECONDITIONING BUILDING, SHOWING FACILITIES MAINTENANCE BUILDING AT FOREGROUND AND BUILDING 741, 742 AND 743 AT CENTER BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 25 CFR 170.128 - Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for IRR Program funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.128 Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for...

  12. Sand transport in the lower Mississippi River does not yield to dams: Applications for building deltaic land in Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittrouer, J. A.; Viparelli, E.

    2013-12-01

    The Mississippi Delta is presently undergoing a catastrophic drowning, whereby 5000 km2 of low-lying wetlands have converted to open water. This land loss is primarily the result of: a) relative sea-level rise, occurring due to the combined effect of rapid subsidence associated with subsurface fluids extraction and eustatic rise; b) leveeing and damming of the river and its tributaries, which restricts sediment delivery to and dispersal within the delta; and c) severe excavation of the delta for navigation channels. It has been argued that continued net land loss of the Mississippi Delta is inevitable due to declining measured total (sand and mud) suspended sediment loads over the past 6 decades. However, recent research has documented that the key to delta growth is deposition of sand, which accounts for ~50-70% of modern and ancient (up to 9 m.a.) Mississippi Delta deposits, but comprises only ~20% of the sampled portion of the total load. Here we present new analysis of existing data to show that sand transport has not diminished since dam construction. Furthermore, we produce a numerical model based on the mass balance of bed material loads over the lower 1600 km of the Mississippi River to show that mining of sand from the channel bed continues to replenish downstream sand loads. For example, our model results indicate that it requires approximately 240 years for a reduced sand load to reach the delta apex. Furthermore, our calculations indicate that sand load at the delta apex is reduced by a noticeable amount (17%) only after about 600 years. We also show how channel bed elevations are predicted to change over the lower 1600 km of the river channel due to channel mining. Channel-bed degradation is greatest at the upstream end of the study reach and decreases downstream. After 300 years the wave of significant degradation has just passed ~800 km downstream, or roughly half of our model domain. These results are in contrast to the measurements which concern

  13. View west along Tatnic Road and Hartford Road (Route 6) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west along Tatnic Road and Hartford Road (Route 6) showing West Brooklyn Green, 10 Tatnic Road, and 126 Hartford Road - West Brooklyn Green, Tatnic Road & Hartford Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  14. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer Oct. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer Oct. 17, 1940 (a) 34- MILE STONE. GREAT ROAD - Doctor Oliver Prescott Milestones, Farmers Row & Main Street; Great Road & Old Ayer Road, Groton, Middlesex County, MA

  15. Washboard Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwaine, Jim; Dalziel, Stuart; Taberlet, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen

    2006-11-01

    The tendency of unpaved road surfaces to develop lateral ripples (``washboard'' or ``corrugated'' road) is annoyingly familiar to drivers on dry gravel roads. Similar ripples are well known on railroad tracks and many other rolling or sliding, load bearing surfaces. Our approach combined laboratory experiments, soft-particle direct numerical simulations and simple nonlinear dynamics models. The experiment consisted of a rotating table 60 cm in radius with a thick layer of sand forming a roadbed around the circumference. A 6 cm radius hard rubber wheel, with a support stationary in the lab frame, rolled on the sand layer. We varied the speed of the table and the details of the suspension of the wheel. The onset of the ripple pattern exhibits a sharp threshold and was strongly subcritical with a large hysteresis as a function of the speed of the table. The ripple pattern appears as small patches of travelling waves which eventually spread to the entire circumference. The ripples move slowly in the driving direction. Interesting secondary dynamics of the saturated ripples were observed. All of these effects are captured qualitatively by a 2D soft particle simulations. The simulations clearly indicate that neither compaction nor particle size segregation are crucial for the appearance of the ripples, and we present a simple model to describe the wavelength and amplitude of the ripples.

  16. Linkages between unpaved forest roads and streambed sediment: why context matters in directing road restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Black, Tom A.; Thomas, Cameron; Luce, Charlie H.; Rieman, Bruce; Cissel, Richard; Carlson, Anne; Hendrickson, Shane; Archer, Eric K.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Unpaved forest roads remain a pervasive disturbance on public lands and mitigating sediment from road networks remains a priority for management agencies. Restoring roaded landscapes is becoming increasingly important for many native coldwater fishes that disproportionately rely on public lands for persistence. However, effectively targeting restoration opportunities requires a comprehensive understanding of the effects of roads across different ecosystems. Here, we combine a review and a field study to evaluate the status of knowledge supporting the conceptual framework linking unpaved forest roads with streambed sediment. Through our review, we specifically focused on those studies linking measures of the density of forest roads or sediment delivery with empirical streambed sediment measures. Our field study provides an example of a targeted effort of linking spatially explicit estimates of sediment production with measures of streambed sediment. Surprisingly, our review uncovered few studies (n = 8) that empirically tested the conceptual framework linking unpaved forest roads and streambed sediment, and the results varied considerably. Field results generally supported the conceptual model that unpaved forest roads can control streambed sediment quality, but demonstrated high-spatial variability in the effects of forest roads on streambed sediment and the need to address hotspots of sediment sources. The importance of context in the effects of forest roads is apparent in both our review and field data, suggesting the need for in situ studies to avoid misdirected restoration actions.

  17. 43 CFR 420.22 - Criteria for off-road vehicle areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. 420..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.22 Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. (a) Areas and trails to be opened to off-road vehicle use shall be located:...

  18. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  19. 43 CFR 420.22 - Criteria for off-road vehicle areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. 420..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.22 Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. (a) Areas and trails to be opened to off-road vehicle use shall be located:...

  20. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  1. 25 CFR 170.120 - What restrictions apply to the use of an Indian Reservation Road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Reservation Road? 170.120 Section 170.120 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.120 What restrictions apply to the use of an...

  2. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  3. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  4. 25 CFR 170.120 - What restrictions apply to the use of an Indian Reservation Road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Reservation Road? 170.120 Section 170.120 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.120 What restrictions apply to the use of an...

  5. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  6. 43 CFR 420.22 - Criteria for off-road vehicle areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. 420..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.22 Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. (a) Areas and trails to be opened to off-road vehicle use shall be located:...

  7. 43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-road vehicle use. 420.21 Section 420.21 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.21 Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. The Regional Director shall,...

  8. 45 CFR 2102.10 - Timing, scope and content of submissions for proposed projects involving land, buildings, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... historical information about the building or other structure to be altered or razed; (ii) The identity of the... information to the extent it is relevant, such as area studies, site plans, building and landscape schematics, renderings, models, depictions or samples of exterior materials and components, and photographs of...

  9. VIEW ALONG SUPPORT ROAD, LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATED WATER STORAGE TANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW ALONG SUPPORT ROAD, LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATED WATER STORAGE TANK (BUILDING 2824), WITH EDUCATION CENTER (BUILDING 2670) AT LEFT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  10. Within compound, from Guard Tower (Building 5762), looking southwest, Technical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Within compound, from Guard Tower (Building 5762), looking southwest, Technical Equipment Building (Building 5760) to left, Microwave Tower (associated with Building 5769) and Civil Engineering Storage Building (Building 5766) to left - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  11. On the Road to HIV/AIDS Competence in the Household: Building a Health-Enabling Environment for People Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Masquillier, Caroline; Wouters, Edwin; Mortelmans, Dimitri; van Wyk, Brian

    2015-01-01

    When aiming to provide chronic disease care within the context of human resource shortages, we should not only consider the responsibility of the individual person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) but also the capacity of the social environment to actively encourage a lifestyle that fosters health. In this social environment, extensive efforts are thus required to increase HIV/AIDS knowledge, reduce stigma, stimulate HIV testing, improve health care-seeking behavior, and encourage safe sexual practices—described in the literature as the need for AIDS competence. In accordance with socio-ecological theory, one cannot restrict the research focus to communities, as AIDS competence studies should also incorporate the intermediate household level. In responding to this research need, the aim of this article is to conceptualize an “HIV/AIDS competent household” based on qualitative interviews and focus group discussions conducted in a township on the outskirts of Cape Town, South Africa. Our results show that a household’s supportive response to disclosure allows a patient to live openly as HIV positive in the household concerned. This may mark the start of the road to HIV/AIDS competence in the household, meaning the PLWHA receives sustainable support throughout the care continuum and positive living becomes the norm for the PLWHA and his or her household. A feedback loop might also be created in which other household members are encouraged to be tested and to disclose their status, which is an important step towards a sustainable response to HIV/AIDS-related challenges. Despite the fact that this road to HIV/AIDS competence at the household level is fragile and prone to various barriers, this article shows that the household has the potential to be a health-enabling environment for PLWHA. PMID:25794189

  12. On the road to HIV/AIDS competence in the household: building a health-enabling environment for people living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Masquillier, Caroline; Wouters, Edwin; Mortelmans, Dimitri; van Wyk, Brian

    2015-03-01

    When aiming to provide chronic disease care within the context of human resource shortages, we should not only consider the responsibility of the individual person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) but also the capacity of the social environment to actively encourage a lifestyle that fosters health. In this social environment, extensive efforts are thus required to increase HIV/AIDS knowledge, reduce stigma, stimulate HIV testing, improve health care-seeking behavior, and encourage safe sexual practices-described in the literature as the need for AIDS competence. In accordance with socio-ecological theory, one cannot restrict the research focus to communities, as AIDS competence studies should also incorporate the intermediate household level. In responding to this research need, the aim of this article is to conceptualize an "HIV/AIDS competent household" based on qualitative interviews and focus group discussions conducted in a township on the outskirts of Cape Town, South Africa. Our results show that a household's supportive response to disclosure allows a patient to live openly as HIV positive in the household concerned. This may mark the start of the road to HIV/AIDS competence in the household, meaning the PLWHA receives sustainable support throughout the care continuum and positive living becomes the norm for the PLWHA and his or her household. A feedback loop might also be created in which other household members are encouraged to be tested and to disclose their status, which is an important step towards a sustainable response to HIV/AIDS-related challenges. Despite the fact that this road to HIV/AIDS competence at the household level is fragile and prone to various barriers, this article shows that the household has the potential to be a health-enabling environment for PLWHA. PMID:25794189

  13. VIEW OF MILL FROM KALA ROAD. REAR OF SERVICE STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KALA ROAD. REAR OF SERVICE STATION IN LEFT FOREGROUND, AND AUTOMOBILE AND TRACTOR REPAIR BUILDING TO THE RIGHT. STACK AND MILL IN BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  14. Distribution of a community of mammals in relation to roads and other human disturbances in Gabon, central Africa.

    PubMed

    Vanthomme, Hadrien; Kolowski, Joseph; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso

    2013-04-01

    We present the first community-level study of the associations of both roads and other human disturbances with the distribution of mammals in Gabon (central Africa). Our study site was in an oil concession within a littoral mosaic landscape. We conducted surveys along 199 line transects and installed camera traps on 99 of these transects to document mammal presence and abundance. We used generalized linear mixed-effect models to document associations between variables related to the ecosystem (land cover, topography, and hydrology), roads (coating, width of rights of way, condition, type of vehicle used on the road, traffic level, affiliation of users, and general type of road), and other human disturbances (urbanization, agriculture, hunting, logging, gathering, and industrial activities) and the abundance or presence of 17 species or groups of mammals including elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), buffalo (Syncerus caffer), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus), smaller ungulates, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), carnivores, monkeys, and large rodents. Some types of roads and other human disturbances were negatively associated with the abundance or presence of elephants, buffalos, gorillas, sitatungas, some monkeys, and duikers. The pattern of associations of mammals with roads and other human disturbances was diverse and included positive associations with road presence (red river hog, some monkeys, and duikers), agriculture (sitatunga, small carnivores, and large rodents) and industrial activities (sitatunga, red river hog, red duikers, and side-striped jackal). Our results suggest that the community of mammals we studied was mostly affected by hunting, agriculture, and urbanization, which are facilitated by road presence. We recommend increased regulation of agriculture, hunting, and road building in the area.

  15. Distribution of a community of mammals in relation to roads and other human disturbances in Gabon, central Africa.

    PubMed

    Vanthomme, Hadrien; Kolowski, Joseph; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso

    2013-04-01

    We present the first community-level study of the associations of both roads and other human disturbances with the distribution of mammals in Gabon (central Africa). Our study site was in an oil concession within a littoral mosaic landscape. We conducted surveys along 199 line transects and installed camera traps on 99 of these transects to document mammal presence and abundance. We used generalized linear mixed-effect models to document associations between variables related to the ecosystem (land cover, topography, and hydrology), roads (coating, width of rights of way, condition, type of vehicle used on the road, traffic level, affiliation of users, and general type of road), and other human disturbances (urbanization, agriculture, hunting, logging, gathering, and industrial activities) and the abundance or presence of 17 species or groups of mammals including elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), buffalo (Syncerus caffer), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus), smaller ungulates, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), carnivores, monkeys, and large rodents. Some types of roads and other human disturbances were negatively associated with the abundance or presence of elephants, buffalos, gorillas, sitatungas, some monkeys, and duikers. The pattern of associations of mammals with roads and other human disturbances was diverse and included positive associations with road presence (red river hog, some monkeys, and duikers), agriculture (sitatunga, small carnivores, and large rodents) and industrial activities (sitatunga, red river hog, red duikers, and side-striped jackal). Our results suggest that the community of mammals we studied was mostly affected by hunting, agriculture, and urbanization, which are facilitated by road presence. We recommend increased regulation of agriculture, hunting, and road building in the area. PMID:23410077

  16. 70. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING WEST INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING WEST INTO STORAGE AREA SHOWING THE FOUR STORAGE ROOM ENTRANCES. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  17. 60. SOUTH CORNER OF BUILDING 370 (ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE BUILDING) IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. SOUTH CORNER OF BUILDING 370 (ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE BUILDING) IN BASE SPARES AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  18. 54. SOUTHWEST SIDE ELEVATION OF BUILDING 367 (ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE BUILDING) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. SOUTHWEST SIDE ELEVATION OF BUILDING 367 (ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE BUILDING) IN BASE SPARES AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  19. 24. CONTEXT VIEW OF BUILDING 220 (ENTRY CONTROL BUILDING) LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CONTEXT VIEW OF BUILDING 220 (ENTRY CONTROL BUILDING) LOOKING NORTH THROUGH SECURITY GATES. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  20. 69. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING SOUTHWEST THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING SOUTHWEST THROUGH DOOR-WAY INTO PLUTONIUM STORAGE AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  1. 71. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING NORTHEAST INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING NORTHEAST INTO PLUTONIUM STORAGE ROOM SHOWING CUBICLES FOR STORAGE. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  2. Detail view of base of Building 70021, showing Building 70022 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of base of Building 70021, showing Building 70022 (background), facing southeast - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, Randsburg Wash Facility Target Test Towers, Tower Road, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  3. View of hoist southeast of Building 70022. facing northwest. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of hoist southeast of Building 70022. facing northwest. Building 70022 is in background - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, Randsburg Wash Facility Target Test Towers, Tower Road, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  4. View showing base of Building 70021 with Building 70022 in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View showing base of Building 70021 with Building 70022 in background, facing southeast - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, Randsburg Wash Facility Target Test Towers, Tower Road, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  5. 37. Threequarter view of building 161, fallout shelter, showing building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Three-quarter view of building 161, fallout shelter, showing building 104, mess hall in background, looking southeast - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  6. 3. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 1705. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 1705. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, General Instruction Building, 200 feet North Road EW-1; 60 feet East of Road NS-4, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  7. 2. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 1705. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 1705. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, General Instruction Building, 200 feet North Road EW-1; 60 feet East of Road NS-4, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  8. 30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. Console and line printers - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  9. 1. EAST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 1613. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 1613. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Storage Building-Explosive Unpacking, 510 feet South of Road EW-3; adjacent to Road NS-4, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. 23. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #202, mechanical equipment room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #202, mechanical equipment room no. 2 - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  11. 24. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #203, communications room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #203, communications room - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  12. 1. View of EPA Farm Lab Building 1506, facing south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of EPA Farm Lab Building 15-06, facing south - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Laboratory Building, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  13. 6. View of interior, EPA Farm Lab Building 1506 milking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View of interior, EPA Farm Lab Building 15-06 milking area, facing northwest - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Laboratory Building, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  14. 7. View of interior, EPA Farm Lab Building 1506 milk ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View of interior, EPA Farm Lab Building 15-06 milk room, facing west - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Laboratory Building, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  15. Oblique view to the south of the Transmitter Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view to the south of the Transmitter Building - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Christmas Valley Radar Site Transmit Sector Five Transmitter Building, On unnamed road west of Lost Forest Road, Christmas Valley, Lake County, OR

  16. 43 CFR 2812.3-2 - Other roads and rights-of-way controlled by applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other roads and rights-of-way controlled... AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-2 Other roads and rights-of-way controlled by applicant. In addition to the private road systems and rights-of-way described in § 2812.3-1...

  17. 43 CFR 2812.3-2 - Other roads and rights-of-way controlled by applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other roads and rights-of-way controlled... AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-2 Other roads and rights-of-way controlled by applicant. In addition to the private road systems and rights-of-way described in § 2812.3-1...

  18. 43 CFR 2812.3-2 - Other roads and rights-of-way controlled by applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other roads and rights-of-way controlled... AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-2 Other roads and rights-of-way controlled by applicant. In addition to the private road systems and rights-of-way described in § 2812.3-1...

  19. Exterior with Technical Equipment Building (Building 5760) in background left, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior with Technical Equipment Building (Building 5760) in background left, looking west - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Power Plant, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  20. 5. View of Building 802 from the parking lot, Buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of Building 802 from the parking lot, Buildings 800 and 801 in the background, facing southeast. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  1. 2. View of Building 802 from the parking lot, Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of Building 802 from the parking lot, Building 800 and 804 in the background, facing northeast. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  2. 43 CFR 2916.1-2 - Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads. 2916.1-2 Section 2916.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.1-2 Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads. Nothing in this part...

  3. 43 CFR 2916.1-2 - Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads. 2916.1-2 Section 2916.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.1-2 Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads. Nothing in this part...

  4. 43 CFR 2916.1-2 - Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads. 2916.1-2 Section 2916.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.1-2 Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads. Nothing in this part...

  5. 43 CFR 2916.1-2 - Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads. 2916.1-2 Section 2916.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.1-2 Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads. Nothing in this part...

  6. Ecological perspectives of land use history: The Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Hinds, N R; Rogers, L E

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this study was to gather information on the land use history of the Arid Land Ecology (ALE) Reserve so that current ecological research could be placed within a historical perspective. The data were gathered in the early 1980s by interviewing former users of the land and from previously published research (where available). Interviews with former land users of the ALE Reserve in Benton County, Washington, revealed that major land uses from 1880 to 1940 were homesteading, grazing, oil/gas production, and road building. Land use practices associated with grazing and homesteading have left the greatest impact on the landscape. Disturbed sites where succession is characterized by non-native species, plots where sagebrush was railed away, and sheep trails are major indications today of past land uses. Recent estimates of annual bunchgrass production do ALE do not support the widespread belief that bunchgrass were more productive during the homesteading era, though the invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), Jim Hill mustard (Sisymbrium altissium), and other European alien plant species has altered pre-settlement succession patterns. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Russell Jones, Photographer June 1963NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Russell Jones, Photographer June 1963NORTHWEST VIEW - Abner Cloud House, Intersection of Canal Road & Reservoir Road Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Sustainable road safety: a new (?) neighbourhood road pattern that saves VRU lives.

    PubMed

    Wei, Vicky Feng; Lovegrove, Gord

    2012-01-01

    Both the UN (2007) and World Health Organizations (2004) have declared the enormous social and economic burden imposed on society by injuries due to road collisions as a major global problem. While the road safety problem is not new, this prominent global declaration sends an important signal of frustration regarding progress to date on reducing road collisions. It is clear that governments, communities, businesses and the public must discover ways of reducing this burden, especially as it relates to vulnerable road users (VRUs), typically meaning pedestrian and bicyclist road users. Recent comparisons of global VRU collisions statistics suggest that, in addition to mixed land use density, the layout of neighbourhood roads plays a vital role in the encouragement of walkable, safe and quiet, yet accessible and sustainable communities. The purpose of this paper was to: The Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) Program has produced a number of innovative land use and transportation initiatives for vehicular road users as well as non-vehicular VRUs. Following from the Dutch initiatives, these new 3-way offset, and fused grid neighbourhood patterns appear to not only have positive effects in encouraging mode split (i.e. increasing walking and bicycling, and transit), slowing traffic, and reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions; but also, to hold potential to improve road safety. To test the road safety hypothesis, UBCO researchers evaluated the level of road safety relative to five neighbourhood patterns - grid, culs-de-sac, and Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) (or limited access), 3-way offset, and fused grid networks. Analysis using standard transportation planning methodology revealed that they would maintain both mobility and accessibility. Analysis using standard road safety analysis methodology further revealed that these 3-way offset, and fused grid patterns would significantly improve road safety levels by as much as 60% compared to prevalent patterns (i

  9. 77 FR 4984 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Capacity Building Grants for Non Land Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ..., Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (NARETPA), (7 U.S.C. 3319i), authorizes the Secretary of... resources, and other similar disciplines. NIFA is holding a public meeting to obtain comments to use in... Building Grants for NLGCA Institutions program. NLGCA program funds will support efforts to maintain...

  10. Optimal policies for aggregate recycling from decommissioned forest roads.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

    2008-08-01

    To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective).

  11. Optimal Policies for Aggregate Recycling from Decommissioned Forest Roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

    2008-08-01

    To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective).

  12. Optimal policies for aggregate recycling from decommissioned forest roads.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

    2008-08-01

    To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective). PMID:18481140

  13. Quantification of Gravel Rural Road Sediment Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silliman, B. A.; Myers Toman, E.

    2014-12-01

    Unbound rural roads are thought to be one of the largest anthropogenic sources of sediment reaching stream channels in small watersheds. This sediment deposition can reduce water quality in the streams negatively impacting aquatic habitat as well as impacting municipal drinking water sources. These roads are thought to see an increase in construction and use in southeast Ohio due to the expansion of shale gas development in the region. This study set out to quantify the amount of sediment these rural roads are able to produce. A controlled rain event of 12.7 millimeters of rain over a half hour period was used to drive sediment production over a 0.03 kilometer section of gravel rural road. These 8 segments varied in many characteristics and produced from 2.0 to 8.4 kilograms of sediment per 0.03 kilometers of road with the average production over the 8 segments being 5.5 kilograms of sediment. Sediment production was not strongly correlated with road segment slope but traffic was found to increase sediment production from 1.1 to 3.9 times as much sediment after traffic use. These results will help inform watershed scale sediment budgeting, and inform best management practices for road maintenance and construction. This study also adds to the understanding of the impacts of rural road use and construction associated with the changing land use from agricultural to natural gas extraction.

  14. Revegetation Plan for Areas of the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve Affected by Decommissioning of Buildings and Infrastructure and Debris Clean-up Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, Janelle L.; Durham, Robin E.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office is working to remove a number of facilities on the Fitzner Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), which is part of the Hanford Reach National Monument. Decommissioning and removal of buildings and debris on ALE will leave bare soils and excavated areas that need to be revegetated to prevent erosion and weed invasion. Four main areas within ALE are affected by these activities (DOE 2009;DOE/EA-1660F): 1) facilities along the ridgeline of Rattlesnake Mountain, 2) the former Nike missile base and ALE HQ laboratory buildings, 3) the aquatic research laboratory at Rattlesnake Springs area, and 4) a number of small sites across ALE where various types of debris remain from previous uses. This revegetation plan addresses the revegetation and restoration of those land areas disturbed by decommissioning and removal of buildings, facilities and associated infrastructure or debris removal. The primary objective of the revegetation efforts on ALE is to establish native vegetation at each of the sites that will enhance and accelerate the recovery of the native plant community that naturally persists at that location. Revegetation is intended to meet the direction specified by the Environmental Assessment (DOE 2009; DOE/EA-1660F) and by Stipulation C.7 of the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for the Rattlesnake Mountain Combined Community Communication Facility and InfrastructureCleanup on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve, Hanford Site, Richland Washington(DOE 2009; Appendix B). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract with CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CPRC) and in consultation with the tribes and DOE-RL developed a site-specific strategy for each of the revegetation units identified within this document. The strategy and implementation approach for each revegetation unit identifies an appropriate native species mix and outlines the necessary site preparation activities

  15. 2. Overall view taken from 260th Street (Township Road), with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Overall view taken from 260th Street (Township Road), with missile assembly building on right, and MN DOTD Communication on left, looking southeast - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  16. Non-Official Roads Dilemma in Amazonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Arima, Eugenio; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Caldas, Marcellus; Brandao, Amintas de O., Jr.; Araujo de Souza, Francisco Kennedy; Walker, Robert

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of this millennium, "non-official" roads predominate in Amazonia. The opening of these roads, a phenomenon that has not been studied in depth, represents a major dilemma - it generates environmental and social impacts, but it helps to reduce the isolation of the communities in Amazonia and to improve the quality of life for those rural populations. The combined positive and negative aspects of this dilemma mean that it is a matter of crucial importance for the government at last to do a proper job in building these roads; if this is disregarded, in the future, the environment and the Brazilians living in that region will be at risk.

  17. Assessing impacts of roads: application of a standard assessment protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duniway, Michael C.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the impacts those systems are having on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support management decisions of road-associated disturbances. Roads can negatively impact the soil, hydrologic, plant, and animal processes on which virtually all ecosystem services depend. The Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) protocol is a qualitative method that has been demonstrated to be effective in characterizing impacts of roads. The goal of this study were to develop, describe, and test an approach for using IIRH to systematically evaluate road impacts across large, diverse arid and semiarid landscapes. We developed a stratified random sampling approach to plot selection based on ecological potential, road inventory data, and image interpretation of road impacts. The test application on a semiarid landscape in southern New Mexico, United States, demonstrates that the approach developed is sensitive to road impacts across a broad range of ecological sites but that not all the types of stratification were useful. Ecological site and road inventory strata accounted for significant variability in the functioning of ecological processes but stratification based on apparent impact did not. Analysis of the repeatability of IIRH applied to road plots indicates that the method is repeatable but consensus evaluations based on multiple observers should be used to minimize risk of bias. Landscape-scale analysis of impacts by roads of contrasting designs (maintained dirt or gravel roads vs. non- or infrequently maintained roads) suggests that future travel management plans for the study area should consider concentrating traffic on fewer roads that are well designed and maintained. Application of the approach by land managers will likely provide important insights into

  18. 25 CFR 170.808 - Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve... THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.808 Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities? No. BIA...

  19. 25 CFR 170.808 - Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve... THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.808 Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities? No. BIA...

  20. 25 CFR 170.808 - Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve... THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.808 Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities? No. BIA...

  1. 25 CFR 170.808 - Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve... THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.808 Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities? No. BIA...

  2. 25 CFR 170.808 - Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve... THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.808 Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities? No. BIA...

  3. Road pavement condition mapping and assessment using remote sensing data based on MESMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.; Zhang, X.; Jin, X.; Yu, H.; Rao, J.; Tian, S.; Luo, L.; Li, C.

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing can be used to monitor changes of asphalt pavement condition because of the spectral change of aged asphalt material. However, owing to coarse spatial resolution of images and the limited width of roads ambient land cover types (e.g. vegetation, buildings, and soil) affect the spectral signal and add significant variability and uncertainty to analysis of road conditions. To overcome this problem, Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) was tested to map asphalt pavement condition using WorldView-2 satellite imagery with eight bands spanning from visible to near infrared. Results indicated that MESMA run in a three-endmember model models mixed-pavement pixels well with a low average RMSE (0.01).

  4. 43 CFR 2812.4-2 - Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... permittee for use of road. 2812.4-2 Section 2812.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.4-2 Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road. In the event the United States itself removes forest...

  5. 43 CFR 2812.4-2 - Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... permittee for use of road. 2812.4-2 Section 2812.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.4-2 Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road. In the event the United States itself removes forest...

  6. 43 CFR 2812.4-3 - Agreements and arbitration between permittee and licensee respecting adjustment of road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... permittee and licensee respecting adjustment of road use. 2812.4-3 Section 2812.4-3 Public Lands: Interior... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.4-3 Agreements and arbitration between permittee and licensee respecting adjustment of road use....

  7. 43 CFR 2812.4-3 - Agreements and arbitration between permittee and licensee respecting adjustment of road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... permittee and licensee respecting adjustment of road use. 2812.4-3 Section 2812.4-3 Public Lands: Interior... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.4-3 Agreements and arbitration between permittee and licensee respecting adjustment of road use....

  8. 43 CFR 2812.4-3 - Agreements and arbitration between permittee and licensee respecting adjustment of road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... permittee and licensee respecting adjustment of road use. 2812.4-3 Section 2812.4-3 Public Lands: Interior... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.4-3 Agreements and arbitration between permittee and licensee respecting adjustment of road use....

  9. 43 CFR 2812.4-3 - Agreements and arbitration between permittee and licensee respecting adjustment of road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... permittee and licensee respecting adjustment of road use. 2812.4-3 Section 2812.4-3 Public Lands: Interior... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.4-3 Agreements and arbitration between permittee and licensee respecting adjustment of road use....

  10. 43 CFR 2812.4-2 - Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... permittee for use of road. 2812.4-2 Section 2812.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.4-2 Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road. In the event the United States itself removes forest...

  11. 43 CFR 2812.3-7 - Permittee's agreement with United States respecting compensation and adjustment of road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... licensees shall be required to amortise such capital cost; provisions for road maintenance; the use in... respecting compensation and adjustment of road use. 2812.3-7 Section 2812.3-7 Public Lands: Interior... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands §...

  12. 43 CFR 2812.3-7 - Permittee's agreement with United States respecting compensation and adjustment of road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... licensees shall be required to amortise such capital cost; provisions for road maintenance; the use in... respecting compensation and adjustment of road use. 2812.3-7 Section 2812.3-7 Public Lands: Interior... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands §...

  13. 43 CFR 2812.3-7 - Permittee's agreement with United States respecting compensation and adjustment of road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... licensees shall be required to amortise such capital cost; provisions for road maintenance; the use in... respecting compensation and adjustment of road use. 2812.3-7 Section 2812.3-7 Public Lands: Interior... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands §...

  14. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF BUILDING 9, LOOKING TO SOUTHEAST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF BUILDING 9, LOOKING TO SOUTHEAST FROM BUILDING 4. BUILDING 2 IS VISIBLE BEHIND AND TO LEFT OF BUILDING 9. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  15. CROCKETT BARN AND BLOCKHOUSE FROM SOUTH FORT CASEY ROAD, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CROCKETT BARN AND BLOCKHOUSE FROM SOUTH FORT CASEY ROAD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. The Crockett blockhouse was moved from its original location to a tract of land along South Fort Casey Road in 1938, making it more accessible to tourists. During the same year it was given to the Daughters of the Pioneers of Washington and restored by Works Progress Administration crews. - Crockett Farm, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  16. 31. SOUTH PLANT NORTHERN EDGE, SHOWING CELL BUILDING (BUILDING 242) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. SOUTH PLANT NORTHERN EDGE, SHOWING CELL BUILDING (BUILDING 242) AT LEFT, LABORATORY (BUILDING 241) AT CENTER AND CAUSTIC FUSION PLANT (BUILDING 254) AT RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  17. 10. Overall view of buildings showing building 101, administration, recreation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Overall view of buildings showing building 101, administration, recreation, and storage building on far right, and building 103, non-commissioned officers quarters and enlisted men barracks on far left, looking southwest - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  18. Modeling socioeconomic and ecologic aspects of land-use change

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; Pedlowski, M.A.; O'Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F.

    1992-01-01

    Land use change is one of the major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Prevalent types of land-use change include replacing forests with agriculture, mines or ranches; forest degradation from collection of firewood; and forest logging. A global effect of wide-scale deforestation is an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, which may affect climate. Regional effects include loss of biodiversity and disruption of hydrologic regimes. Local effects include soil erosion, siltation and decreases in soil fertility, loss of extractive reserves, and disruption of indigenous people. Modeling land use change requires combining socioeconomic and ecological factors because socioeconomic forces frequently initiate land-use change and are affected by the subsequent ecological degradation. This paper describes a modeling system that integrates submodels of human colonization and impacts to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land use scenarios. Immigration which follows road building or paving is a major factor in the rapid deforestation of previously inaccessible areas. Roads facilitate colonization, allow access for large machines, and provide transportation routes for mort of raw materials and produce.

  19. 43 CFR 2812.3 - Right-of-way and road use agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Right-of-way and road use agreement. 2812.3 Section 2812.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING...

  20. Interior building details of Building D, Room DM5: concrete stairs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building D, Room D-M5: concrete stairs to education room at road level; northerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  1. Interior building details of Building E, Room E002a multi brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building E, Room E-002a multi brick arch way under road level all walls and ceiling are brick; northerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  2. The application research of GNSS technology in Shanghai land subsidence monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yu; Dong, Danan; Chen, Wen

    2016-04-01

    Land subsidence is harmful to urban roads and bridges, municipal pipelines and tall buildings, etc. As an international metropolis with rapid development, it is very important to find a real-time and efficient method to monitor the land subsidence. The GNSS technology, based on the Shanghai Continuously Operating Reference System (SHCORS), can be used to accurately and contiguously monitor land subsidence. In this work, we analyze the land subsidence tendency of Shanghai area by the space geodetic post processing software QOCA, based on the vertical deformation time series of the ten CORS stations from 2007 to 2010. We use loading models to remove the vertical deformation caused by the geophysical factors, such as the atmospheric pressure, the mass load of snow covers and soil humidity, the non-tidal oceanic mass load, rock' s thermal expansion and shrink and so on, then study the possible factors, which cause land subsidence, such as the over pumping groundwater activities etc.

  3. Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Heath, G.

    2013-06-01

    This report provides data and analysis of the land use associated with utility-scale ground-mounted solar facilities, defined as installations greater than 1 MW. We begin by discussing standard land-use metrics as established in the life-cycle assessment literature and then discuss their applicability to solar power plants. We present total and direct land-use results for various solar technologies and system configurations, on both a capacity and an electricity-generation basis. The total area corresponds to all land enclosed by the site boundary. The direct area comprises land directly occupied by solar arrays, access roads, substations, service buildings, and other infrastructure. As of the third quarter of 2012, the solar projects we analyze represent 72% of installed and under-construction utility-scale PV and CSP capacity in the United States.

  4. The Tribal Lands Collaboratory: Building partnerships and developing tools to support local Tribal community response to climate change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. D.; Wee, B.; Kuslikis, A.

    2015-12-01

    Response of Tribal nations and Tribal communities to current and emerging climate change challenges requires active participation of stakeholders who have effective access to relevant data, information and analytical tools. The Tribal Lands Collaboratory (TLC), currently under development, is a joint effort between the American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC), the Environmental Systems Research Institute (Esri), and the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). The vision of the TLC is to create an integrative platform that enables coordination between multiple stakeholders (e.g. Tribal resource managers, Tribal College faculty and students, farmers, ranchers, and other local community members) to collaborate on locally relevant climate change issues. The TLC is intended to facilitate the transformation of data into actionable information that can inform local climate response planning. The TLC will provide the technical mechanisms to access, collect and analyze data from both internal and external sources (e.g. NASA's Giovanni climate data portal, Ameriflux or USA National Phenology Network) while also providing the social scaffolds to enable collaboration across Tribal communities and with members of the national climate change research community. The prototype project focuses on phenology, a branch of science focused on relationships between climate and the seasonal timing of biological phenomena. Monitoring changes in the timing and duration of phenological stages in plant and animal co­­­­mmunities on Tribal lands can provide insight to the direct impacts of climate change on culturally and economically significant Tribal resources . The project will leverage existing phenological observation protocols created by the USA-National Phenology Network and NEON to direct data collection efforts and will be tailored to the specific needs and concerns of the community. Phenology observations will be captured and managed within the Collaboratory

  5. Analysis of Island Land Use Change Based on Transfer Matrix'a Case Study of Dongtou Island in Zhejiang Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Tao, Kunwang; Qian, Xinlin

    2015-04-01

    With the increasing developments of islands, the protection and management of island's natural resources are imperative. The core of islands' protection and management is to acquire the information of changes of the land use and land cover. What's more, the purpose of the islands' land use change information analysis is to plan the effective protection of land resource, achieve scientific management and sustainable utilization. Based on the improved calculation method of land use change and the computational model of change rate of the land use, an analysis of land use transfer matrix and transfer probability matrix is presented, and the method of land use change analysis based on the transfer matrix is proposed in this paper. And then the comparative analysis of all types of land use transfer is introduced. Taken the island of Dongtou in Zhejiang Province as the case, with the SPOT-5 satellite image in 2005 and the aerial image in 2011 as the data source, the current situation of land utilization of Dongtou Island and its land use change are analyzed. The experiment results show that, from 2005 to 2011, the greatest changes are the structures and water, followed by the forest land, grassland, cultivated land and others. The major change of structure and forest is the net change, while the major change of the water and grassland is the swap change. From the perspective of increment, the conversion from waters to structure has the most advantage, followed by water converted to grassland and road. To see from the loss, structures converted into roads and buildings have the most superiority transformation, followed by structures converted to grassland. The analysis of the case proves that the proposed process and method in this paper could achieve better results in the practical application. The experiment results also demonstrate that the proposed method could effectively obtain the dynamic change information of land use which is much helpful for land management and

  6. Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

  7. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. 36 CFR 212.55 - Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., conflicts among uses of National Forest System lands, the need for maintenance and administration of roads... roads, trails, and areas. 212.55 Section 212.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle...

  9. 36 CFR 212.55 - Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., conflicts among uses of National Forest System lands, the need for maintenance and administration of roads... roads, trails, and areas. 212.55 Section 212.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle...

  10. 36 CFR 212.55 - Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., conflicts among uses of National Forest System lands, the need for maintenance and administration of roads... roads, trails, and areas. 212.55 Section 212.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle...

  11. Oblique view of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall, showing southernmost portion of intact wall and portion of concrete drainage ditch from Signal Corps Radar 296 Station 5 Transmitter Building foundation above, camera facing west-north - Fort Barry, Bonita Ridge Access Road, Retaining Wall, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  12. Contextual view of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall, showing concrete stairway and ramp with Army Fire Control Station (Buildings 621 and 622) at far left, camera facing southwest - Fort Barry, Bonita Ridge Access Road, Retaining Wall, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  13. South Perimeter Road, view to the east. One and twocar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Perimeter Road, view to the east. One- and two-car garages are visible at left; a row of citrus trees separate the road from a ball field at right; and a weather station is in the right foreground - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Building No. 1 (House), 30601 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  14. NY 32633 VIEW ALONG WASHINGTON ROAD, LOOKING (RIGHT TO LEFT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NY -326-33 VIEW ALONG WASHINGTON ROAD, LOOKING (RIGHT TO LEFT) TOWARD CARPENTER AND BLACKSMITH SHOP (BUILDING 65 I), ORDINANCE OFFICE AND STOREHOUSE (BUILDING 653) AND Q.M. STABLES AND WAGON SHED (BUILDING 657). VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  15. View looking northeast at Test Stand 'A' complex from road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking northeast at Test Stand 'A' complex from road, showing Test Stand 'A' test tower (Building 4202/E-3) in left background, Monitor Building 4203/E-4 in right foreground, and barrier (Building 4216/E-17) behind 4203/E-4. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. 4. NORTHWEST SIDE LOOKING EAST, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING AND HEADQUARTERS BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTHWEST SIDE LOOKING EAST, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING AND HEADQUARTERS BUILDING TO LEFT - Santa Fe Land Improvement Company, Office Building, 16915 Avenida de Acacias, Rancho Santa Fe, San Diego County, CA

  17. Within compound, from Gate House, looking northwest, Power Plant (Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Within compound, from Gate House, looking northwest, Power Plant (Building 5761) to left, Electrical Substation (Building 5770) and Supply Warehouse (Building 5768) center, Satellite Communications Terminal (Building 5771) to far left - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  18. Exterior, looking west, Equipment Building to left, Tower at center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior, looking west, Equipment Building to left, Tower at center, Civil Engineering Storage Building (Building 5765) at left - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Microwave Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  19. 1. View from missile site control building (southeast to northwest) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View from missile site control building (southeast to northwest) of universal missile building. Note earth mounding. On the far right can be seen the exit tunnel; the small "boxes" on top are the roof ventilators. This building was salvaged and sealed after site inactivation - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Universal Missile Building, Between Tactical Road South & Patrol Road, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  20. 5. CLOSE UP VIEW LOOKING DOWN THE ROAD AT THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. CLOSE UP VIEW LOOKING DOWN THE ROAD AT THE FAMILY HOUSING, BUILDINGS 600-608, LOOKING NORTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Military Family Housing, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  1. Land Cover Characterization Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    (2) identify sources, develop procedures, and organize partners to deliver data and information to meet user requirements. The LCCP builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS land use and land cover programs and projects. It will be compatible with current concepts of government operations, the changing needs of the land use and land cover data users, and the technological tools with which the data are applied.

  2. Developing User-Driven Climate Information Services to Build Resilience Amongst Groups at Risk of Drought and Flood in Arid and Semi-Arid Land Counties in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Githungo, W. N.; Shaka, A.; Kniveton, D.; Muithya, L.; Powell, R.; Visman, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Arid and Semi-Arid Land (ASAL) counties of Kitui and Makueni in Kenya are experiencing increasing climate variability in seasonal rainfall, including changes in the onset, cessation and distribution of the two principal rains upon which the majority of the population's small-holder farmers and livestock keepers depend. Food insecurity is prevalent with significant numbers also affected by flooding during periods of intense rainfall. As part of a multi-partner Adaptation Consortium, Kenya Meteorological Services (KMS) are developing Climate Information Services (CIS) which can better support decision making amongst the counties' principal livelihoods groups and across County Government ministries. Building on earlier pilots and stakeholder discussion, the system combines the production of climate information tailored for transmission via regional and local radio stations with the establishment of a new SMS service. SMS are provided through a network of CIS intermediaries drawn from across key government ministries, religious networks, non-governmental and community groups, aiming to achieve one SMS recipient per 3-500 people. It also introduces a demand-led, premium-rate SMS weather information service which is designed to be self-financing in the long term. Supporting the ongoing process of devolution, KMS is downscaling national forecasts for each county, and providing seasonal, monthly, weekly and daily forecasts, as well as warnings of weather-related hazards. Through collaboration with relevant ministries, government bodies and research institutions, including livestock, agriculture, drought management and health, technical advisories are developed to provide guidance on application of the climate information. The system seeks to provide timely, relevant information which can enable people to use weather and climate information to support decisions which protect life and property and build resilience to ongoing climate variability and future change.

  3. 43 CFR 420.22 - Criteria for off-road vehicle areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. 420.22..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.22 Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. (a) Areas and trails to be opened to off-road vehicle use shall be located:...

  4. Building No. 1057, Experiment Station Assistant’s Residence, view of east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 1057, Experiment Station Assistant’s Residence, view of east elevation - Wind River Administrative Site, Building No. 1057, Chapman Road, near Lookout Mountain Road, Carson, Skamania County, WA

  5. Building No. 1057, Experiment Station Assistant’s Residence, view of north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 1057, Experiment Station Assistant’s Residence, view of north elevation - Wind River Administrative Site, Building No. 1057, Chapman Road, near Lookout Mountain Road, Carson, Skamania County, WA

  6. Building No. 1057, Experiment Station Assistant’s Residence, view of south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 1057, Experiment Station Assistant’s Residence, view of south elevation - Wind River Administrative Site, Building No. 1057, Chapman Road, near Lookout Mountain Road, Carson, Skamania County, WA

  7. Building No. 1057, Experiment Station Assistant’s Residence, view of west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 1057, Experiment Station Assistant’s Residence, view of west elevation - Wind River Administrative Site, Building No. 1057, Chapman Road, near Lookout Mountain Road, Carson, Skamania County, WA

  8. 42. CONTEXT VIEW LOOKING WEST OF BUILDING 269 (PAINT BUILDING) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. CONTEXT VIEW LOOKING WEST OF BUILDING 269 (PAINT BUILDING) IN ASSEMBLY AREA SHOWING BUILDING 272 (STORAGE STRUCTURE A-2) IN BACKGROUND. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  9. 14. SOUTH PLANT MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 728) AND WAREHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. SOUTH PLANT MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 728) AND WAREHOUSE (BUILDING 729) FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. Building Formal and Informal Partnerships Through a Land-Based, Hands-on Research Expedition for Earth and Ocean Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slough, S.; Prouhet, T.; Peart, L.; Leckie, M.; St. John, K.; Karz-Cooper, S.; Klaus, A.; Petronotis, K.; Firth, J.; Guerin, G.; Buckholtz, C.; Crowder, L.; Peng, C.

    2007-12-01

    Scientific Ocean drilling has a rich legacy which is largely responsible for our current understating of the complex linkages among the different parts of the Earth System. Relaying these understandings to Earth and ocean educators is a challenge that the Joint Oceanographic Institutes (JOI) Alliances has undertaken through sponsorship of the School of Rock (SOR). Building on the successful ocean-going, hands-on SOR (Leckie et al. 2006), the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) - United States Implementing Organization (USIO) piloted a land-based, hands-on research expedition for Earth and ocean science teachers, the School of Rock Expedition II (SOR II). During this seven-day workshop, 18 educators from across the United States were hosted at the IODP Gulf Coast Repository at Texas A&M University where they were mentored and taught by scientists who are actively engaged in IODP research, shipboard technical staff, SOR I veteran teachers, and science educators. Teachers participated in a series of research experiences similar to those that take place on a scientific drilling research vessel or in a post-cruise research lab. These experiences allowed educators to increase their knowledge of IODP and scientific methods as demonstrated by the entire ocean drilling program (proposals, drilling, lab analysis, data acquisition, and post-cruise research). This case study describes the formal and informal partnerships developed through the SOR II with an emphasis on identifying and nurturing informal partnerships.

  11. Building a Road from Light to Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Anton; Bilby, David; Barito, Adam; Vyletel, Brenda

    2013-07-18

    Representing the Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion (CSTEC), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE energy. The mission of the Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion (CSTEC) is to design and to synthesize new materials for high efficiency photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric (TE) devices, predicated on new fundamental insights into equilibrium and non-equilibrium processes, including quantum phenomena, that occur in materials over various spatial and temporal scales.

  12. 25 CFR 170.809 - Can a tribe perform road maintenance under a self-determination contract or self-governance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe perform road maintenance under a self..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.809 Can a tribe perform road maintenance under a self-determination contract or self-governance...

  13. Building and calibrating a large-extent and high resolution coupled groundwater-land surface model using globally available data-sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutanudjaja, E. H.; Van Beek, L. P.; de Jong, S. M.; van Geer, F.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    The current generation of large-scale hydrological models generally lacks a groundwater model component simulating lateral groundwater flow. Large-scale groundwater models are rare due to a lack of hydro-geological data required for their parameterization and a lack of groundwater head data required for their calibration. In this study, we propose an approach to develop a large-extent fully-coupled land surface-groundwater model by using globally available datasets and calibrate it using a combination of discharge observations and remotely-sensed soil moisture data. The underlying objective is to devise a collection of methods that enables one to build and parameterize large-scale groundwater models in data-poor regions. The model used, PCR-GLOBWB-MOD, has a spatial resolution of 1 km x 1 km and operates on a daily basis. It consists of a single-layer MODFLOW groundwater model that is dynamically coupled to the PCR-GLOBWB land surface model. This fully-coupled model accommodates two-way interactions between surface water levels and groundwater head dynamics, as well as between upper soil moisture states and groundwater levels, including a capillary rise mechanism to sustain upper soil storage and thus to fulfill high evaporation demands (during dry conditions). As a test bed, we used the Rhine-Meuse basin, where more than 4000 groundwater head time series have been collected for validation purposes. The model was parameterized using globally available data-sets on surface elevation, drainage direction, land-cover, soil and lithology. Next, the model was calibrated using a brute force approach and massive parallel computing, i.e. by running the coupled groundwater-land surface model for more than 3000 different parameter sets. Here, we varied minimal soil moisture storage and saturated conductivities of the soil layers as well as aquifer transmissivities. Using different regularization strategies and calibration criteria we compared three calibration scenarios

  14. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, March 27, 1935 CLOSE-UP OF MARBLE MANTEL IN PARLOR - Montgomery-Jones-Whitaker House, County Road 4 (Reynolds Mill Road), Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  15. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer Oct. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer Oct. 17, 1940 (f) PRESCOTT BOULDER. FARMERS ROW - Doctor Oliver Prescott Milestones, Farmers Row & Main Street; Great Road & Old Ayer Road, Groton, Middlesex County, MA

  16. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer Oct. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer Oct. 17, 1940 (e) 30- MILE STONE. MAIN STREET - Doctor Oliver Prescott Milestones, Farmers Row & Main Street; Great Road & Old Ayer Road, Groton, Middlesex County, MA

  17. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer Oct. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer Oct. 17, 1940 (c) 36- MILE STONE. MAIN STREET - Doctor Oliver Prescott Milestones, Farmers Row & Main Street; Great Road & Old Ayer Road, Groton, Middlesex County, MA

  18. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer Oct. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer Oct. 17, 1940 (b) 35- MILE STONE. MAIN STREET - Doctor Oliver Prescott Milestones, Farmers Row & Main Street; Great Road & Old Ayer Road, Groton, Middlesex County, MA

  19. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer Oct. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer Oct. 17, 1940 (d) 29- MILE STONE. FARMERS ROW - Doctor Oliver Prescott Milestones, Farmers Row & Main Street; Great Road & Old Ayer Road, Groton, Middlesex County, MA

  20. 1. VIEW NORTHWEST, operations building, height finder radar tower, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHWEST, operations building, height finder radar tower, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  1. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Marvin Eickenroht, Photographer May 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Marvin Eickenroht, Photographer May 25, 1936 NAVE AND ALTAR (NORTH ELEVATION). - Mision Nuestra Senora del Socorro, Moon Road at Farm Road 258, Socorro, El Paso County, TX

  2. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Marvin Eickenroht, Photographer May 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Marvin Eickenroht, Photographer May 25, 1936 SOUTH ELEVATION (FRONT). - Mision Nuestra Senora del Socorro, Moon Road at Farm Road 258, Socorro, El Paso County, TX

  3. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Marvin Eickenroht, Photographer May 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Marvin Eickenroht, Photographer May 25, 1936 DETAIL OF ENTRANCE (SOUTH ELEVATION). - Mision Nuestra Senora del Socorro, Moon Road at Farm Road 258, Socorro, El Paso County, TX

  4. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Marvin Eickenroht, Photographer May 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Marvin Eickenroht, Photographer May 25, 1936 NORTH ELEVATION (REAR). - Mision Nuestra Senora del Socorro, Moon Road at Farm Road 258, Socorro, El Paso County, TX

  5. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Marvin Eickenroht, Photographer May 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Marvin Eickenroht, Photographer May 25, 1936 NAVE (SOUTH ELEVATION). - Mision Nuestra Senora del Socorro, Moon Road at Farm Road 258, Socorro, El Paso County, TX

  6. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Marvin Eickenroht, Photographer May 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Marvin Eickenroht, Photographer May 25, 1936 SOUTHEAST ELEVATION OF REAR PORTION (EAST SIDE). - Mision Nuestra Senora del Socorro, Moon Road at Farm Road 258, Socorro, El Paso County, TX

  7. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Marvin Eickenroht, Photographer May 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Marvin Eickenroht, Photographer May 25, 1936 NORTH ELEVATION OF FRONT PORTION (EAST END). - Mision Nuestra Senora del Socorro, Moon Road at Farm Road 258, Socorro, El Paso County, TX

  8. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Marvin Eickenroht, Photographer May 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Marvin Eickenroht, Photographer May 25, 1936 NAVE (SOUTH ELEVATION). - Mision Nuestra Senora del Socorro, Moon Road at Farm Road 258, Socorro, El Paso County, TX

  9. 14. View inside Building 802, the "Escape Hatch" at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View inside Building 802, the "Escape Hatch" at the rear of the "Sleeping Quarters", facing south. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  10. 23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 7, 1935 REAR VIEW, SHOWING SMALL OLD-TIME WINDOW OF SLAVE HOUSE - Forks of Cypress, Savannah Road (Jackson Road), Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  11. General view of Antenna Array and building complex, looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Antenna Array and building complex, looking northeast - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Six Antenna Array, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  12. General view of Antenna Array and building complex, looking southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Antenna Array and building complex, looking southwest - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Six Antenna Array, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  13. 32. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, March 27, 1935 OLD SLAVE SMOKE HOUSE, N.E. CORNER - Stone-Young-Baggett House, County Road 54 (Old Selma Road), Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

  14. 33. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, April 11th, 1934. ORIGINAL KITCHEN AND SMOKE HOUSE - Stone-Young-Baggett House, County Road 54 (Old Selma Road), Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

  15. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 7, 1935 A LARGE SYRUP TROUGH IN S. W. ROOM OF BASEMENT - Forks of Cypress, Savannah Road (Jackson Road), Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  16. View of EPA Farm cattle shelters (Building 1506 in background), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of EPA Farm cattle shelters (Building 15-06 in background), facing southeast - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  17. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey John O. Brostrup, Photographer April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey John O. Brostrup, Photographer April 30, 1936 1:50 P. M. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST (front) - Dr. David Ross House, Annapolis Road (moved to Preservation Hill, Western Run Road, Cockeysville), Bladensburg, Prince George's County, MD

  18. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey C. E. Peterson, Photographer VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey C. E. Peterson, Photographer VIEW OF END - Dr. David Ross House, Annapolis Road (moved to Preservation Hill, Western Run Road, Cockeysville), Bladensburg, Prince George's County, MD

  19. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Delos H. Smith, Photographer 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Delos H. Smith, Photographer 1936 - Dr. David Ross House, Annapolis Road (moved to Preservation Hill, Western Run Road, Cockeysville), Bladensburg, Prince George's County, MD

  20. 16. Photograph of Structural Building Plans. Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photograph of Structural Building Plans. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  1. 9. View inside Building 802, "Toilet", facing east. Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View inside Building 802, "Toilet", facing east. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  2. 6. View of Building 802 towards front entry, facing south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View of Building 802 towards front entry, facing south. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  3. 15. Photograph of Architectural Building Plans. Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photograph of Architectural Building Plans. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  4. 8. View inside Building 802, "Control Area", facing southeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View inside Building 802, "Control Area", facing southeast. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  5. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, July 17, 1935. RAIL ROAD TO SPRING SHOWING WATER POURING INTO BUCKET - Octavia Adkinson House, Wilson Road, Peachburg, Bullock County, AL

  6. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, April 23, 1935 WEST ENTRANCE. REPRODUCTION FROM PHOTOGRAPH MADE IN 1914 (VIEW FROM INSIDE) - Mount Vernon Arsenal, Gates, Old Saint Stephens Road (County Road 96), Mount Vernon, Mobile County, AL

  7. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 7, 1935 MANTEL IN S. W. FRONT ROOM, FIRST FLOOR (PARLOR) - Forks of Cypress, Savannah Road (Jackson Road), Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  8. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 7, 1935 MANTEL IN N. W. REAR ROOM, FIRST FLOOR (MASTER BEDROOM - 1ST FLOOR) - Forks of Cypress, Savannah Road (Jackson Road), Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  9. 2. ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SOUTH WALL AND EAST FRONT, LOOKING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SOUTH WALL AND EAST FRONT, LOOKING NORTHWEST. GENERAL UTILITY BUILDING (BLDG. NO. 2) AT LEFT. - Tucson Plant Materials Center, Administration Building, 3241 North Romero Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  10. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey COPIED E. W. Russell, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey COPIED - E. W. Russell, Photographer, August 31, 1936 75TH ANNIVERSARY YEARBOOK (NOT COPYRIGHT) - VIEW OF ORIGINAL BUILDING - Spring Hill College, Original Building, Old Shell Road, Spring Hill, Mobile County, AL

  11. 2. VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST FRONT OF BUILDINGS 25. 26; NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST FRONT OF BUILDINGS 25. 26; NORTH FRONT OF BUILDING 24: ROOF GABLE OF BUILDING 27 - U.S. Plant Introduction Station, Soil Conservation Service Cluster, 11601 Old Pond Road, Glenn Dale, Prince George's County, MD

  12. 3. VIEW SHOWING RELATIONSHIP OF EAST SIDES OF BUILDINGS 15 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW SHOWING RELATIONSHIP OF EAST SIDES OF BUILDINGS 15 ON LEFT, BUILDING 40 GARAGE IN CENTER, AND BUILDING 4 IN DISTANCE. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  13. 1. VIEW LOOKING NORTH IN SHOP AREA. BUILDING 15 ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING NORTH IN SHOP AREA. BUILDING 15 ON RIGHT, BUILDING 22 ON LEFT, AND BUILDING 1 IN DISTANCE. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  14. 1. WEST SIDE, NORTH END OF BUILDING 1. SHOWS ADDITIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST SIDE, NORTH END OF BUILDING 1. SHOWS ADDITIONAL ANGLES IN BUILDING AT SOUTHERN END. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  15. 47 CFR 32.2111 - Land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2111 Land. (a) This account shall include... with buildings thereon, is acquired, the original cost shall be fairly apportioned between the land and... category for Account 6121, Land and Building Expense. (d) When land is acquired for which there is not...

  16. Geomorphological aspects of road construction in a cold environment, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seppälä, Matti

    1999-12-01

    Traditionally, road alignments followed easy landscapes and suitable landforms. When traffic and the size and weight of vehicles increased and higher speeds were used, straighter roads were required; the easygoing relief could not always be used, and problems arose. Road contractors could save money in building and maintenance costs by considering the geomorphic facts. The examples from Finland document why road construction is very expensive in the conditions generated by severe winters. In Finland, more paved roads cross the Arctic Circle than in the whole of North America. This paper gives examples of geomorphic elements affecting road construction in a cold environment: eskers, drumlins, plains of late and postglacial glaciolacustrine and marine sediments, mires, steep rock cliffs, river channels and ice-dams, fluvial erosion, and palsas. Solutions to these problems include removal of frost sensible materials and replacement by more favorable sediments. Road surfaces, kept snow-free in the wintertime, are subjected to deep freezing. The maintenance of roads can be supported with some solutions that affect snowdrift and icing problems, avoidance of geomorphic factors that cause problems, and by using natural processes to help people. Some examples of how road construction affects geomorphic processes and vice versa are provided. For example, bridges block moving river ice, and on special occasions, road banks cause icing.

  17. Explaining the road accident risk: weather effects.

    PubMed

    Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Debbarh, Mohammed; Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    This research aims to highlight the link between weather conditions and road accident risk at an aggregate level and on a monthly basis, in order to improve road safety monitoring at a national level. It is based on some case studies carried out in Work Package 7 on "Data analysis and synthesis" of the EU-FP6 project "SafetyNet-Building the European Road Safety Observatory", which illustrate the use of weather variables for analysing changes in the number of road injury accidents. Time series analysis models with explanatory variables that measure the weather quantitatively were used and applied to aggregate datasets of injury accidents for France, the Netherlands and the Athens region, over periods of more than 20 years. The main results reveal significant correlations on a monthly basis between weather variables and the aggregate number of injury accidents, but the magnitude and even the sign of these correlations vary according to the type of road (motorways, rural roads or urban roads). Moreover, in the case of the interurban network in France, it appears that the rainfall effect is mainly direct on motorways--exposure being unchanged, and partly indirect on main roads--as a result of changes in exposure. Additional results obtained on a daily basis for the Athens region indicate that capturing the within-the-month variability of the weather variables and including it in a monthly model highlights the effects of extreme weather. Such findings are consistent with previous results obtained for France using a similar approach, with the exception of the negative correlation between precipitation and the number of injury accidents found for the Athens region, which is further investigated. The outlook for the approach and its added value are discussed in the conclusion.

  18. 7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD TRAVERSING DISTANT RIDGE BEYOND BRIDGE. SEEN FROM WEST OF HIGHWAY FROM OLD HIGHWAY LOOP. LOOKING E. - Lassen Park Road, Mineral, Tehama County, CA

  19. 7. VIEW OF OLD ENTRANCE ROAD (NOW WILLOW FLATS ROAD) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF OLD ENTRANCE ROAD (NOW WILLOW FLATS ROAD) FACING EAST INTO PARK. - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  20. View looks east northeast (64°) along North Base Road, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looks east northeast (64°) along North Base Road, showing North Base as it appears on approach by automobile. From left to right, one sees Building 4505 with its ancillary buildings; Building 4500, Control Tower; followed by Buildings 4402 (Hangar No. 2), 4401 (Hangar No. 1), and 4305 (Unicon Portable Hangar) with their respective ancillary structures. - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, c. 1920's, LAUNDRY BUILDING, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, c. 1920's, LAUNDRY BUILDING, LOOKING NORTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Washhouse & Canning Factory, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  2. Road and Roadside Feature Extraction Using Imagery and LIDAR Data for Transportation Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ural, S.; Shan, J.; Romero, M. A.; Tarko, A.

    2015-03-01

    Transportation agencies require up-to-date, reliable, and feasibly acquired information on road geometry and features within proximity to the roads as input for evaluating and prioritizing new or improvement road projects. The information needed for a robust evaluation of road projects includes road centerline, width, and extent together with the average grade, cross-sections, and obstructions near the travelled way. Remote sensing is equipped with a large collection of data and well-established tools for acquiring the information and extracting aforementioned various road features at various levels and scopes. Even with many remote sensing data and methods available for road extraction, transportation operation requires more than the centerlines. Acquiring information that is spatially coherent at the operational level for the entire road system is challenging and needs multiple data sources to be integrated. In the presented study, we established a framework that used data from multiple sources, including one-foot resolution color infrared orthophotos, airborne LiDAR point clouds, and existing spatially non-accurate ancillary road networks. We were able to extract 90.25% of a total of 23.6 miles of road networks together with estimated road width, average grade along the road, and cross sections at specified intervals. Also, we have extracted buildings and vegetation within a predetermined proximity to the extracted road extent. 90.6% of 107 existing buildings were correctly identified with 31% false detection rate.

  3. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  4. The Road Less Traveled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Brent

    2007-01-01

    The federal journey into public education has followed a long and winding road. Most educators know that the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act is simply the latest version of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), which dates all the way back to 1965. In the years since its initial passage, the ESEA road has taken a number of…

  5. Quantifying rockfall risk on roads in the Port Hills, Christchurch, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unterrader, Stefan; Fuchs, Sven

    2016-04-01

    The Canterbury earthquake sequence starting on 22 September 2010 triggered widespread mass movements in the Port Hills area of Christchurch, the largest agglomeration of New Zealand's South Island. The MW 6.2 Christchurch earthquake of 22 February 2011 in particular generated the largest ground motions ever recorded in New Zealand and as a result initiated several thousands of rockfalls. Over 6,000 boulders were released and mapped shortly after the event. The risk from rockfall to residents in the Port Hills was quantitatively assessed by the regulatory authorities in order to develop an adjusted land zoning policy. Apart from damaging residential buildings many of these boulders also hit several road sections across the Port Hills. Due to the inherent differences between identifying hazard and risk to people in static structures and in moving objects, a recently carried out risk assessment of rockfall was limited to exposed properties. However, given the importance of local road infrastructure for commuter traffic, local risk management strategies would clearly benefit from quantifying the threat of boulders endangering traffic lines. For this study, existing datasets describing the hazard including recently estimated frequency-magnitude bands for earthquakes and non-seismic triggering events, boulder production rates, boulder size distribution and associated run-out distances, were used. These data were provided by the Christchurch City Council's (CCC) GIS web service. A digital layer of the local road network as well as a detailed dataset of traffic counts was used for GIS analysis, and the probability of individuals being hit by boulders was calculated for each road segment that intersects one or more rockfall hazard zones. Finally, risk was computed. The method applied follows a state-of-the-art approach in risk assessment which is generally based on the risk equation defining risk as the probability of occurrence of an event times the expected loss. More

  6. Within compound, from Guard Tower, looking southeast, Power Plant (Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Within compound, from Guard Tower, looking southeast, Power Plant (Building 5761) to left, Satellite Communications Terminal (Building 5771) center, Supply Warehouse (Building 5768) to left - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  7. Within compound, looking southwest, Guard Tower (Building 5762) and Technical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Within compound, looking southwest, Guard Tower (Building 5762) and Technical Equipment Building (Building 5760) - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  8. 13. Missile site control building, third and fourth floor interior, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Missile site control building, third and fourth floor interior, showing east corner and former electrical equipment area, room #306. This building was salvaged and sealed in the 1970's; the lower floors also suffered flooding - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  9. 43 CFR 420.25 - Reclamation lands administered by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.25 Reclamation lands administered by other agencies. (a) Off-road vehicle use will be administered in...

  10. 77 FR 33235 - Public Land Order No. 7791; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6928; Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Schurman, Bureau Land Management, Wyoming State Office, 5353 Yellowstone Road, Cheyenne, Wyoming 82009, 307..., 43 U.S.C. 1714, it is ordered as follows: Public Land Order No. 6928 (57 FR 22659, (1992)), which withdrew 30 acres of National Forest System land from location and entry under the United States...

  11. Modeling socioeconomic and ecologic aspects of land-use change. A case study of Central Rondonia

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; Pedlowski, M.A.; O`Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F.

    1992-11-01

    Land use change is one of the major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Prevalent types of land-use change include replacing forests with agriculture, mines or ranches; forest degradation from collection of firewood; and forest logging. A global effect of wide-scale deforestation is an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, which may affect climate. Regional effects include loss of biodiversity and disruption of hydrologic regimes. Local effects include soil erosion, siltation and decreases in soil fertility, loss of extractive reserves, and disruption of indigenous people. Modeling land use change requires combining socioeconomic and ecological factors because socioeconomic forces frequently initiate land-use change and are affected by the subsequent ecological degradation. This paper describes a modeling system that integrates submodels of human colonization and impacts to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land use scenarios. Immigration which follows road building or paving is a major factor in the rapid deforestation of previously inaccessible areas. Roads facilitate colonization, allow access for large machines, and provide transportation routes for mort of raw materials and produce.

  12. Looking west down the South Perimeter Road. Visible, from right ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking west down the South Perimeter Road. Visible, from right to left, are Buildings 10, 9, 8, 7, and two garages in the distance - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Building No. 1 (House), 30601 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  13. Dust emissions from unpaved roads on the Colorado Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duniway, M.; Flagg, C.; Belnap, J.

    2013-12-01

    On the Colorado Plateau, elevated levels of aeolian dust have become a major land management and policy concern due to its influence on climate, weather, terrestrial ecosystem dynamics, landscape development and fertility, melting of snow and ice, air quality, and human health. Most desert soil surfaces are stabilized by plants, rocks, and/or physical or biological soil crusts, but once disturbed, sediment production from these surfaces can increase dramatically. Road development and use is a common surface disturbing activity in the region. The extent and density of roads and road networks is rapidly increasing due to continued energy exploration, infrastructure development, and off-highway recreation activities. Though it is well known that unpaved roads produce dust, the relative contribution of dust from existing roads or the implications of future road development to regional dust loading is unknown. To address this need, we have initiated a multifaceted research effort to evaluating dust emissions from unpaved roads regionally. At 34 sites arranged across various road surfaces and soil textures in southeastern Utah, we are: 1) monitoring dust emissions, local wind conditions, and vehicle traffic and 2) evaluating fugitive dust potential using a portable wind tunnel and measuring road characteristics that affect dust production. We will then 3) develop a GIS-based model that integrates results from 1 & 2 to estimate potential dust contributions from current and future scenarios of regional road development. Passive, horizontal sediment traps were installed at three distances downwind from the road edge. One control trap was placed upwind of the samplers to account for local, non-road dust emissions. An electronic vehicle counter and anemometer were also installed at monitoring sites. Dust samples were collected every three months at fixed heights, 15 cm up to 100 cm above the soil surface, from March 2010 to the present. Threshold friction velocities (TFV

  14. Road networks predict human influence on Amazonian bird communities.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sadia E; Lees, Alexander C; Moura, Nárgila G; Gardner, Toby A; Barlow, Jos; Ferreira, Joice; Ewers, Robert M

    2014-11-22

    Road building can lead to significant deleterious impacts on biodiversity, varying from direct road-kill mortality and direct habitat loss associated with road construction, to more subtle indirect impacts from edge effects and fragmentation. However, little work has been done to evaluate the specific effects of road networks and biodiversity loss beyond the more generalized effects of habitat loss. Here, we compared forest bird species richness and composition in the municipalities of Santarém and Belterra in Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon, with a road network metric called 'roadless volume (RV)' at the scale of small hydrological catchments (averaging 3721 ha). We found a significant positive relationship between RV and both forest bird richness and the average number of unique species (species represented by a single record) recorded at each site. Forest bird community composition was also significantly affected by RV. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between RV and forest cover, suggesting that road networks may impact biodiversity independently of changes in forest cover. However, variance partitioning analysis indicated that RV has partially independent and therefore additive effects, suggesting that RV and forest cover are best used in a complementary manner to investigate changes in biodiversity. Road impacts on avian species richness and composition independent of habitat loss may result from road-dependent habitat disturbance and fragmentation effects that are not captured by total percentage habitat cover, such as selective logging, fire, hunting, traffic disturbance, edge effects and road-induced fragmentation. PMID:25274363

  15. Analysis of dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong; Su, Boni; Zhao, Jinlong

    2015-07-01

    Knowing the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation and having an efficient evacuation plan play a very important role in the serious disasters such as earthquake, tsunami and hurricane. In this paper, the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation in a densely populated area of Beijing was studied with consideration of different influencing factors. Firstly, the eight influencing factors including road width, node degree, safety betweenness, road resistor coefficient, building threat, pedestrian counterflow, illegal vehicle parking and traffic flow were considered to assess the road risk for pedestrian evacuation. Secondly, based on complex network theory, electric circuit theory and real situation of the roads, the comprehensive assessment function for road risk was developed quantitatively based on the eight influencing factors. Thirdly, we analyzed road risk for pedestrian evacuation considering different situations: current condition, regular condition, and optimal condition; the risk distribution maps were drawn to directly show the risk level. Through assessments, the roads with high risk for pedestrian evacuation were found, and an optimized evacuation plan was obtained and analyzed. This mathematical model can guide the emergency evacuation in real time. The process and the results are essential for improving the efficiency of evacuations which should considerably reduce the possibility of injuries, deaths and other losses in the disaster.

  16. Road networks predict human influence on Amazonian bird communities

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sadia E.; Lees, Alexander C.; Moura, Nárgila G.; Gardner, Toby A.; Barlow, Jos; Ferreira, Joice; Ewers, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Road building can lead to significant deleterious impacts on biodiversity, varying from direct road-kill mortality and direct habitat loss associated with road construction, to more subtle indirect impacts from edge effects and fragmentation. However, little work has been done to evaluate the specific effects of road networks and biodiversity loss beyond the more generalized effects of habitat loss. Here, we compared forest bird species richness and composition in the municipalities of Santarém and Belterra in Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon, with a road network metric called ‘roadless volume (RV)’ at the scale of small hydrological catchments (averaging 3721 ha). We found a significant positive relationship between RV and both forest bird richness and the average number of unique species (species represented by a single record) recorded at each site. Forest bird community composition was also significantly affected by RV. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between RV and forest cover, suggesting that road networks may impact biodiversity independently of changes in forest cover. However, variance partitioning analysis indicated that RV has partially independent and therefore additive effects, suggesting that RV and forest cover are best used in a complementary manner to investigate changes in biodiversity. Road impacts on avian species richness and composition independent of habitat loss may result from road-dependent habitat disturbance and fragmentation effects that are not captured by total percentage habitat cover, such as selective logging, fire, hunting, traffic disturbance, edge effects and road-induced fragmentation. PMID:25274363

  17. Road networks predict human influence on Amazonian bird communities.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sadia E; Lees, Alexander C; Moura, Nárgila G; Gardner, Toby A; Barlow, Jos; Ferreira, Joice; Ewers, Robert M

    2014-11-22

    Road building can lead to significant deleterious impacts on biodiversity, varying from direct road-kill mortality and direct habitat loss associated with road construction, to more subtle indirect impacts from edge effects and fragmentation. However, little work has been done to evaluate the specific effects of road networks and biodiversity loss beyond the more generalized effects of habitat loss. Here, we compared forest bird species richness and composition in the municipalities of Santarém and Belterra in Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon, with a road network metric called 'roadless volume (RV)' at the scale of small hydrological catchments (averaging 3721 ha). We found a significant positive relationship between RV and both forest bird richness and the average number of unique species (species represented by a single record) recorded at each site. Forest bird community composition was also significantly affected by RV. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between RV and forest cover, suggesting that road networks may impact biodiversity independently of changes in forest cover. However, variance partitioning analysis indicated that RV has partially independent and therefore additive effects, suggesting that RV and forest cover are best used in a complementary manner to investigate changes in biodiversity. Road impacts on avian species richness and composition independent of habitat loss may result from road-dependent habitat disturbance and fragmentation effects that are not captured by total percentage habitat cover, such as selective logging, fire, hunting, traffic disturbance, edge effects and road-induced fragmentation.

  18. Haul road dust control

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, W.R.; Organiscak, J.A.

    2007-10-15

    A field study was conducted to measure dust from haul trucks at a limestone quarry and a coal preparation plant waste hauling operation. The study found that primarily wind, distance and road treatment conditions notably affected the dust concentrations at locations next to, 50 ft from, and 100 ft away from the unpaved haulage road. Airborne dust measured along the unpaved haul road showed that high concentrations of fugitive dust can be generated with these concentrations rapidly decreasing to nearly background levels within 100 ft of the road. Instantaneous respirable dust measurements illustrated that the trucks generate a real-time dust cloud that has a peak concentration with a time-related decay rate as the dust moves past the sampling locations. The respirable dust concentrations and peak levels were notably diminished as the dust cloud was transported, diluted, and diffused by the wind over the 100 ft distance from the road. Individual truck concentrations and peak levels measured next to the dry road surface test section were quite variable and dependent on wind conditions, particularly wind direction, with respect to reaching the sampling location. The vast majority of the fugitive airborne dust generated from unpaved and untreated haulage roads was non-respirable. 6 figs.

  19. Corrugation of roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Both, Joseph A.; Hong, Daniel C.; Kurtze, Douglas A.

    2001-12-01

    We present a one dimensional model for the development of corrugations in roads subjected to compressive forces from a flux of cars. The cars are modeled as damped harmonic oscillators translating with constant horizontal velocity across the surface, and the road surface is subject to diffusive relaxation. We derive dimensionless coupled equations of motion for the positions of the cars and the road surface H( x, t), which contain two phenomenological variables: an effective diffusion constant Δ( H) that characterizes the relaxation of the road surface, and a function a( H) that characterizes the plasticity or erodibility of the road bed. Linear stability analysis shows that corrugations grow if the speed of the cars exceeds a critical value, which decreases if the flux of cars is increased. Modifying the model to enforce the simple fact that the normal force exerted by the road can never be negative seems to lead to restabilized, quasi-steady road shapes, in which the corrugation amplitude and phase velocity remain fixed.

  20. Carbon isotopes and iodine concentrations in a Mississippi River delta core recording land use, sediment transport, and dam building in the river's drainage basin.

    PubMed

    Santschi, Peter H; Oktay, Sarah D; Cifuentes, Luis

    2007-04-01

    Sedimentary material from coastal and nearshore areas in the Mississippi Delta region are comprised of different organic carbon sources with diverse ages that require isotopic and elemental records for resolving the various sources of plant residues. Carbon isotopic ((13)C, (14)C) values were used to differentiate contributions from plants using the C3, C4, and/or CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) carbon fixation pathways., and iodine concentrations indicated that wetland plant residues are a significant source of organic carbon in a sediment core from the Mississippi River delta region collected at a 60 m water depth. This sediment core had been extensively described in Oktay et al. [Oktay, S.D., Santschi, P.H., Moran, J.E., Sharma, P., 2000. The (129)Iodine Bomb Pulse Recorded in Mississippi River delta Sediments: Results from Isotopes of I, Pu, Cs, Pb, and C. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64 (6), 989-996.] and significantly, includes unique features that had not previously been seen in the marine environment. These special features include a plutonium isotopic close-in fallout record that indicates a purely terrestrial source for these sediment particles and the elements associated with it, and a distinct iodine isotopic peak (as well as peaks for plutonium and cesium isotopes) that indicate little bioturbation in this core. Our carbon isotopic and iodine data can thus be compared to published records of changes in drainage basin land use, river hydrology, and hydrodynamic sorting of suspended particles to elucidate if these changes are reflected in nearshore sediments. This comparison suggests a significant contribution for organic carbon (OC) from C4 plants to these sediments during the 1950's to early 1960's. Relative older carbon isotopes, and episodically high iodine concentrations (up to 34 ppm) were observed during this time period that (1) indicate sediment deposition that is coincident with the times of major hydrological changes induced from dam and levee

  1. 14. VIEW OF NORTHSOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF NORTH-SOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28). NOTE MODERN 'LAY DOWN' FENCE ON ROAD. ROAD LIES TO THE WEST OF THE HATCH ADIT AND PHOTOGRAPH IS VIEW TO THE SOUTH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  2. 123. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April 25, 1940. PENDENTIVE, EAST TRANSEPT. (NORTHEAST ELEVATION). - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  3. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Victor Stankiewicz, Photographer November 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Victor Stankiewicz, Photographer November 5, 1936. NORTH AND FRONT ELEVATIONS - Squire Michael Porter House, Jacob & Kendall Roads, Sharon Hollow, Washtenaw County, MI

  4. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Victor Stakiewicz, Photographer November 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Victor Stakiewicz, Photographer November 5, 1936. BARN - SOUTH ELEVATION FROM WEST. - Squire Michael Porter House, Jacob & Kendall Roads, Sharon Hollow, Washtenaw County, MI

  5. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey, Carl F. Waite, Photographer April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey, Carl F. Waite, Photographer April, 1934 INTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST, SECOND FLOOR - Kirtland Temple (Mormon), 9020 Chillicoth Road, Kirtland, Lake County, OH

  6. Looking Northeast Along Hallway between Pellet Plant and Oxide Building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Northeast Along Hallway between Pellet Plant and Oxide Building, including Virgin Hopper Bins - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Pellet Plant, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  7. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Bill Finney, Photographer 1976 SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Bill Finney, Photographer 1976 SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION TAKEN FROM SOUTHEAST - Shaker Church Family Dwelling House, Shaker Village Road, Canterbury, Merrimack County, NH

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, DETAIL OF FRONT ELEVATION SHOWING PROJECTING VERANDA. - Laurelton Hall, Laurel Hollow & Ridge Roads, Oyster Bay, Nassau County, NY

  9. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, FRONT ELEVATION SHOWING BELLTOWER AND PROJECTING VERANDA. - Laurelton Hall, Laurel Hollow & Ridge Roads, Oyster Bay, Nassau County, NY

  10. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, September, 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, September, 1936 DETAIL TRANSOM ENTRANCE DOOR #201 (EXTERIOR) - Parlange Plantation, State Highway 93, New Roads, Pointe Coupee Parish, LA

  11. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Harry L. Starnes, Photographer December ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Harry L. Starnes, Photographer December 23, 1936 FRONT PORCH DETAIL ELEVATION. - Colonel John Dewberry Plantation House, Farm Road 346, Bullard, Smith County, TX

  12. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Victor Stakiewicz, Photographer November 6, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Victor Stakiewicz, Photographer November 6, 1936. WEST AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS - Hiram Smith House & Barn, Michigan & Wolf Lake Roads, Grass Lake, Jackson County, MI

  13. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick Tilberg, Photographer August 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick Tilberg, Photographer August 25, 1957 DETAIL OF EXTERIOR OF OVEN. - Bricker Outdoor Bake Oven, Taneytown & Wheat Fields Roads, Gettysburg, Adams County, PA

  14. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick Tilberg, Photographer August 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick Tilberg, Photographer August 25, 1957 INTERIOR OF OVEN CHAMBER. - Bricker Outdoor Bake Oven, Taneytown & Wheat Fields Roads, Gettysburg, Adams County, PA

  15. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer April 16, 1936 EXTERIOR - NORTHWEST ELEVATION - Hollingshead-Peacock House, Pemberton-Vincetown Road, Vincentown, Burlington County, NJ

  16. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer April 16, 1936 EXTERIOR - SOUTHEAST ELEVATION - Hollingshead-Peacock House, Pemberton-Vincetown Road, Vincentown, Burlington County, NJ

  17. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Cervin Robinson, Photographer September 1959 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Cervin Robinson, Photographer September 1959 INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, FROM WEST - Parson John Williams House, Albany Road, Deerfield, Franklin County, MA

  18. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Cervin Robinson, Photographer September 1959 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Cervin Robinson, Photographer September 1959 INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, FROM EAST - Parson John Williams House, Albany Road, Deerfield, Franklin County, MA

  19. Case study: the Argentina Road Safety Project: lessons learned for the decade of action for road safety, 2011-2020.

    PubMed

    Raffo, Veronica; Bliss, Tony; Shotten, Marc; Sleet, David; Blanchard, Claire

    2013-12-01

    This case study of the Argentina Road Safety Project demonstrates how the application of World Bank road safety project guidelines focused on institution building can accelerate knowledge transfer, scale up investment and improve the focus on results. The case study highlights road safety as a development priority and outlines World Bank initiatives addressing the implementation of the World Report on Road Traffic Injury's recommendations and the subsequent launch of the Decade of Action for Road Safety, from 2011-2020. The case study emphasizes the vital role played by the lead agency in ensuring sustainable road safety improvements and promoting the shift to a 'Safe System' approach, which necessitated the strengthening of all elements of the road safety management system. It summarizes road safety performance and institutional initiatives in Argentina leading up to the preparation and implementation of the project. We describe the project's development objectives, financing arrangements, specific components and investment staging. Finally, we discuss its innovative features and lessons learned, and present a set of supplementary guidelines, both to assist multilateral development banks and their clients with future road safety initiatives, and to encourage better linkages between the health and transportation sectors supporting them. PMID:24722740

  20. Case study: the Argentina Road Safety Project: lessons learned for the decade of action for road safety, 2011-2020.

    PubMed

    Raffo, Veronica; Bliss, Tony; Shotten, Marc; Sleet, David; Blanchard, Claire

    2013-12-01

    This case study of the Argentina Road Safety Project demonstrates how the application of World Bank road safety project guidelines focused on institution building can accelerate knowledge transfer, scale up investment and improve the focus on results. The case study highlights road safety as a development priority and outlines World Bank initiatives addressing the implementation of the World Report on Road Traffic Injury's recommendations and the subsequent launch of the Decade of Action for Road Safety, from 2011-2020. The case study emphasizes the vital role played by the lead agency in ensuring sustainable road safety improvements and promoting the shift to a 'Safe System' approach, which necessitated the strengthening of all elements of the road safety management system. It summarizes road safety performance and institutional initiatives in Argentina leading up to the preparation and implementation of the project. We describe the project's development objectives, financing arrangements, specific components and investment staging. Finally, we discuss its innovative features and lessons learned, and present a set of supplementary guidelines, both to assist multilateral development banks and their clients with future road safety initiatives, and to encourage better linkages between the health and transportation sectors supporting them.

  1. Roads and traffic: Effects on ecology and wildlife habitat use; applications for cooperative adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ouren, Douglas S.; Watts, Raymond D.

    2005-01-01

    The land of the United States in dissected by more than 4 million miles of roads that fragment wildlife habitat on both public and private lands. Traffic on these roads causes additional effects. On secondary roads, which provide access to the most natural habitat, the levels, timing, and types of traffic are seldom known. In order to understand the effects of traffic on wildlife, USGS is conducting research cooperatively with the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Forest Service, the National Park Service, and the Colorado Division of Wildlife.

  2. If They Build It....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushweller, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Impact fees are one-time charges assessed to residential developers that help pay for new roads, libraries, school buildings, and other infrastructure needed for growing populations. The fees' highly political nature has pitted school officials against developers, with mixed results. Utah, South Carolina, Florida, and Colorado initiatives are…

  3. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  4. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  5. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  6. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc.

    PubMed

    Blok, J

    2005-09-15

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the "technosphere" and the "target zone" beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The "technosphere" of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle "free zone" that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m(2) year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m(2) year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The emission from safety fence corrosion does not enter

  7. A method for mapping flood hazard along roads.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Zahra; Nickman, Alireza; Lyon, Steve W; Olofsson, Bo; Folkeson, Lennart

    2014-01-15

    A method was developed for estimating and mapping flood hazard probability along roads using road and catchment characteristics as physical catchment descriptors (PCDs). The method uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) to derive candidate PCDs and then identifies those PCDs that significantly predict road flooding using a statistical modelling approach. The method thus allows flood hazards to be estimated and also provides insights into the relative roles of landscape characteristics in determining road-related flood hazards. The method was applied to an area in western Sweden where severe road flooding had occurred during an intense rain event as a case study to demonstrate its utility. The results suggest that for this case study area three categories of PCDs are useful for prediction of critical spots prone to flooding along roads: i) topography, ii) soil type, and iii) land use. The main drivers among the PCDs considered were a topographical wetness index, road density in the catchment, soil properties in the catchment (mainly the amount of gravel substrate) and local channel slope at the site of a road-stream intersection. These can be proposed as strong indicators for predicting the flood probability in ungauged river basins in this region, but some care is needed in generalising the case study results other potential factors are also likely to influence the flood hazard probability. Overall, the method proposed represents a straightforward and consistent way to estimate flooding hazards to inform both the planning of future roadways and the maintenance of existing roadways.

  8. Land Cover and Topography Affect the Land Transformation Caused by Wind Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Compton, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    Land transformation (ha of surface disturbance/MW) associated with wind facilities shows wide variation in its reported values. In addition, no studies have attempted to explain the variation across facilities. We digitized land transformation at 39 wind facilities using high resolution aerial imagery. We then modeled the effects of turbine size, configuration, land cover, and topography on the levels of land transformation at three spatial scales. The scales included strings (turbines with intervening roads only), sites (strings with roads connecting them, buried cables and other infrastructure), and entire facilities (sites and the roads or transmission lines connecting them to existing infrastructure). An information theoretic modeling approach indicated land cover and topography were well-supported variables affecting land transformation, but not turbine size or configuration. Tilled landscapes, despite larger distances between turbines, had lower average land transformation, while facilities in forested landscapes generally had the highest land transformation. At site and string scales, flat topographies had the lowest land transformation, while facilities on mesas had the largest. The results indicate the landscape in which the facilities are placed affects the levels of land transformation associated with wind energy. This creates opportunities for optimizing wind energy production while minimizing land cover change. In addition, the results indicate forecasting the impacts of wind energy on land transformation should include the geographic variables affecting land transformation reported here. PMID:24558449

  9. Land cover and topography affect the land transformation caused by wind facilities.

    PubMed

    Diffendorfer, Jay E; Compton, Roger W

    2014-01-01

    Land transformation (ha of surface disturbance/MW) associated with wind facilities shows wide variation in its reported values. In addition, no studies have attempted to explain the variation across facilities. We digitized land transformation at 39 wind facilities using high resolution aerial imagery. We then modeled the effects of turbine size, configuration, land cover, and topography on the levels of land transformation at three spatial scales. The scales included strings (turbines with intervening roads only), sites (strings with roads connecting them, buried cables and other infrastructure), and entire facilities (sites and the roads or transmission lines connecting them to existing infrastructure). An information theoretic modeling approach indicated land cover and topography were well-supported variables affecting land transformation, but not turbine size or configuration. Tilled landscapes, despite larger distances between turbines, had lower average land transformation, while facilities in forested landscapes generally had the highest land transformation. At site and string scales, flat topographies had the lowest land transformation, while facilities on mesas had the largest. The results indicate the landscape in which the facilities are placed affects the levels of land transformation associated with wind energy. This creates opportunities for optimizing wind energy production while minimizing land cover change. In addition, the results indicate forecasting the impacts of wind energy on land transformation should include the geographic variables affecting land transformation reported here.

  10. Land cover and topography affect the land transformation caused by wind facilities.

    PubMed

    Diffendorfer, Jay E; Compton, Roger W

    2014-01-01

    Land transformation (ha of surface disturbance/MW) associated with wind facilities shows wide variation in its reported values. In addition, no studies have attempted to explain the variation across facilities. We digitized land transformation at 39 wind facilities using high resolution aerial imagery. We then modeled the effects of turbine size, configuration, land cover, and topography on the levels of land transformation at three spatial scales. The scales included strings (turbines with intervening roads only), sites (strings with roads connecting them, buried cables and other infrastructure), and entire facilities (sites and the roads or transmission lines connecting them to existing infrastructure). An information theoretic modeling approach indicated land cover and topography were well-supported variables affecting land transformation, but not turbine size or configuration. Tilled landscapes, despite larger distances between turbines, had lower average land transformation, while facilities in forested landscapes generally had the highest land transformation. At site and string scales, flat topographies had the lowest land transformation, while facilities on mesas had the largest. The results indicate the landscape in which the facilities are placed affects the levels of land transformation associated with wind energy. This creates opportunities for optimizing wind energy production while minimizing land cover change. In addition, the results indicate forecasting the impacts of wind energy on land transformation should include the geographic variables affecting land transformation reported here. PMID:24558449

  11. Land cover and topography affect the land transformation caused by wind facilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Compton, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    Land transformation (ha of surface disturbance/MW) associated with wind facilities shows wide variation in its reported values. In addition, no studies have attempted to explain the variation across facilities. We digitized land transformation at 39 wind facilities using high resolution aerial imagery. We then modeled the effects of turbine size, configuration, land cover, and topography on the levels of land transformation at three spatial scales. The scales included strings (turbines with intervening roads only), sites (strings with roads connecting them, buried cables and other infrastructure), and entire facilities (sites and the roads or transmission lines connecting them to existing infrastructure). An information theoretic modeling approach indicated land cover and topography were well-supported variables affecting land transformation, but not turbine size or configuration. Tilled landscapes, despite larger distances between turbines, had lower average land transformation, while facilities in forested landscapes generally had the highest land transformation. At site and string scales, flat topographies had the lowest land transformation, while facilities on mesas had the largest. The results indicate the landscape in which the facilities are placed affects the levels of land transformation associated with wind energy. This creates opportunities for optimizing wind energy production while minimizing land cover change. In addition, the results indicate forecasting the impacts of wind energy on land transformation should include the geographic variables affecting land transformation reported here.

  12. Building Trades. Block II. Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Twelve informational lessons and eleven manipulative lessons are provided on foundations as applied to the building trades. Informational lessons cover land measurements; blueprint reading; level instruments; building and site planning; building site preparation; laying out building lines; soil preparation and special evacuation; concrete forms;…

  13. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization Phase I, site development and roads, subproject W-505

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G.

    1997-06-05

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the site development, construction of new roads and improvements at existing road intersections, habitat mitigation, roadway lighting, and construction power needed for the construction of two Private Contractor (PC) Facilities. Approximately 50 hectare (124 acres) land parcel, east of the Grout Facility, is planned for the PC facilities.

  14. 43 CFR 420.22 - Criteria for off-road vehicle areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.22 Criteria for... the public lands. (3) To minimize harassment of wildlife or significant disruption of...

  15. An image, looking southeast down the passage between E Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    An image, looking southeast down the passage between E Building and M Building immediately to the east. The east entrance and the south wing of the building are visible - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Electronics Laboratory Building (E Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  16. 1. SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (RIGHT), COVERED INCLINE CONVEYOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (RIGHT), COVERED INCLINE CONVEYOR (LOWER RIGHT) THAT EXTENDS TO THE SAND-SORTING BUILDING, AND REMAINS OF ORIGINAL (1917) WASHING, DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (LEFT), VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM TOP OF SAND-SORTING BUILDING - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  17. 51. CONTEXT VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST OF BUILDING 365 (ARMAMENT TESTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. CONTEXT VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST OF BUILDING 365 (ARMAMENT TESTING BUILDING) IN BASE SPARES AREA WITH BUILDING 367 (ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE BUILDING) IN MIDDLE GROUND AND BUILDING 368 (WAREHOUSE) IN BACKGROUND. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  18. Exterior building details of Building A; west façade: white painted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building A; west façade: white painted brick wall of road and second level, road level: paired four-light casement window and a small single-light wood casement window; second level: four-over-four wood double-hung window and a six-light horizontal pivot over a three-light fixed window; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  19. A generalised model for traffic induced road dust emissions. Model description and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Janne; Denby, Bruce

    2011-07-01

    This paper concerns the development and evaluation of a new and generalised road dust emission model. Most of today's road dust emission models are based on local measurements and/or contain empirical emission factors that are specific for a given road environment. In this study, a more generalised road dust emission model is presented and evaluated. We have based the emissions on road, tyre and brake wear rates and used the mass balance concept to describe the build-up of road dust on the road surface and road shoulder. The model separates the emissions into a direct part and a resuspension part, and treats the road surface and road shoulder as two different sources. We tested the model under idealized conditions as well as on two datasets in and just outside of Oslo in Norway during the studded tyre season. We found that the model reproduced the observed increase in road dust emissions directly after drying of the road surface. The time scale for the build-up of road dust on the road surface is less than an hour for medium to heavy traffic density. The model performs well for temperatures above 0 °C and less well during colder periods. Since the model does not yet include salting as an additional mass source, underestimations are evident under dry periods with temperatures around 0 °C, under which salting occurs. The model overestimates the measured PM 10 (particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter) concentrations under heavy precipitation events since the model does not take the amount of precipitation into account. There is a strong sensitivity of the modelled emissions to the road surface conditions and the current parameterisations of the effect of precipitation, runoff and evaporation seem inadequate.

  20. 3. INTERIOR DETAIL OF BOILERS IN BUILDING 1602. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR DETAIL OF BOILERS IN BUILDING 1602. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ammunition Demolition Building-Paint Storage, 40 feet North of Road EW-2; 2900 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  1. 2. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1602. VIEW TO WEST. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1602. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ammunition Demolition Building-Paint Storage, 40 feet North of Road EW-2; 2900 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  2. 1. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 1602. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 1602. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ammunition Demolition Building-Paint Storage, 40 feet North of Road EW-2; 2900 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  3. 11. Front elevation of building 101, administration, recreation, and storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Front elevation of building 101, administration, recreation, and storage building, showing front sentry box on far right, looking west - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  4. Looking Northeast in Oxide Building at Reactors on Second Floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Northeast in Oxide Building at Reactors on Second Floor Including Reactor One (Left) and Reactor Two (Right) - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Oxide Building & Oxide Loading Dock, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  5. View of North End of Oxide Building Interior Including Roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of North End of Oxide Building Interior Including Roof and Wall Juncture and Crane Trolley - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Oxide Building & Oxide Loading Dock, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  6. Looking Southwest at First Floor View of Oxide Building Interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Southwest at First Floor View of Oxide Building Interior Including Steam Lines, Weigh and Sample Hood, and Superheater - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Oxide Building & Oxide Loading Dock, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  7. 1. Oblique view of Portsmouth Naval Hospital Building looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oblique view of Portsmouth Naval Hospital Building looking north from roof of 1960 high-rise hospital - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  8. 1. July 5, 1935 GENERAL VIEW OF BUILDING COMPLEX A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. July 5, 1935 GENERAL VIEW OF BUILDING COMPLEX A portion of the Machinery Shed is visible left center between the Superintendent's Cottage and the General Utility Building - Tucson Plant Material Center, 3241 North Romero Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  9. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD BUILDING T-8100. BUNKER, BUILDING T-8104, IN FOREGROUND. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  10. WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO EAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  11. NORTH (SIDE) AND EAST (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH (SIDE) AND EAST (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO SOUTH. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  12. DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE ON EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION OF BUILDING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE ON EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION OF BUILDING. view TO SOUTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  13. EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO SOUTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  14. EAST (FRONT) AND SOUTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST (FRONT) AND SOUTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO WEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  15. SOUTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO NORTH. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  16. 1. NEUTRAL BUOYANCY SIMULATOR BUILDING (NBS) EXTERIOR ELEVATION LOOKING NORTH; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NEUTRAL BUOYANCY SIMULATOR BUILDING (NBS) EXTERIOR ELEVATION LOOKING NORTH; TANK BUILDING TO LEFT, CONTROL ROOM ETC. TO RIGHT OF CONNECTING BAY. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. 7. View east of southeast corner of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View east of southeast corner of filtration bed building. Laboratory building is at center left of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  18. 13. SANDSORTING BUILDING, THIRD FLOOR, VIBRATING SCREENS FOR SAND SORTING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SAND-SORTING BUILDING, THIRD FLOOR, VIBRATING SCREENS FOR SAND SORTING, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand-Sorting Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  19. 5. SANDSORTING BUILDING, VIEW OF UPPER LEVELS ALONG NORTH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SAND-SORTING BUILDING, VIEW OF UPPER LEVELS ALONG NORTH AND EAST FACADES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand-Sorting Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  20. 7. SANDSORTING BUILDING, VIEW OF ROOF ALONG NORTH FACADE LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SAND-SORTING BUILDING, VIEW OF ROOF ALONG NORTH FACADE LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARDS EXCAVATED SAND PIT - Mill "C" Complex, Sand-Sorting Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  1. 2. SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR OF BUILDING No. 3 DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR OF BUILDING No. 3 - DETAIL OF ROOF FRAMING TO SHOW TALL WOOD COLUMNS, BEAMS AND WOOD PLANK ROOFING - Whiting-Plover Paper Mill, Building No. 3, 3243 Whiting Road, Whiting, Portage County, WI

  2. 1. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR OF BUILDING No. 1 TRUSSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR OF BUILDING No. 1 - TRUSSED WOOD GIRDERS WITH TWO STRUTS AND TENSION ROD FITTINGS AT BEAM ENDS - Whiting-Plover Paper Mill, Building No. 1, 3243 Whiting Road, Whiting, Portage County, WI

  3. 1. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR OF BUILDING No. 3 DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR OF BUILDING No. 3 - DETAIL OF WOOD FRAMING TO SHOW WOOD COLUMNS, WOOD GIRDERS AND BEAMS WITH COLUMN CAPS - ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION - Whiting-Plover Paper Mill, Building No. 3, 3243 Whiting Road, Whiting, Portage County, WI

  4. View southeast from 1968 building showing metal connector between 1930 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast from 1968 building showing metal connector between 1930 and 1968 building and the Southwest Wing (Wing 4) and the Northwest Wing (Wing 5) - Hospital for Sick Children, 1731 Bunker Hill Road, Northeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 2. CONNECTING TUNNEL AT LEFT, CONTROL BUILDING B AT CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONNECTING TUNNEL AT LEFT, CONTROL BUILDING B AT CENTER, WATER TANK AT TOP CENTER, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHWEST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Control Building B, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  6. 48. FRONT ENTRY DETAIL ON SOUTHWEST ELEVATION OF BUILDING 361 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. FRONT ENTRY DETAIL ON SOUTHWEST ELEVATION OF BUILDING 361 (MUNITIONS MAINTENANCE SQUADRON ADMINISTRATION BUILDING) IN BASE SPARES AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  7. 5. SOUTHWEST CORNER, SHOWING WEST ELEVATION WITH BUILDING 8251 (AIRCRAFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTHWEST CORNER, SHOWING WEST ELEVATION WITH BUILDING 8251 (AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR SHOPS BUILDING ADDITION) AT LEFT. - Loring Air Force Base, Arch Hangar, East of Arizona Road near southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, April 25, 1934. VIEW ACROSS PARK TOWARD CLIFF AND BANK BUILDING. - First National Bank, Jefferson Street & Fountain Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  9. 5. Oblique view of center and south sections of building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Oblique view of center and south sections of building. VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF CENTER SECTION. - Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, Building No. 3022, 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, Mesa County, CO

  10. 2. INTERIOR OF SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING WITH DRYING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR OF SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING WITH DRYING BINS TO THE RIGHT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  11. 27. BUILDING 1006, HALLWAY IN XRAY DEPARTMENT ON SECOND FLOOR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. BUILDING 1006, HALLWAY IN X-RAY DEPARTMENT ON SECOND FLOOR. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 (From snapshot made by Survey employee.) (b) Ext- Main building, south end. - Pollard Tavern, Great Road, Bedford, Middlesex County, MA

  13. 1. Northeast side of Building 1042 (brig), looking southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Northeast side of Building 1042 (brig), looking southwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1042, Ofstie Road, .6 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  14. 4. Southwest side of Building 1042 (brig), looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Southwest side of Building 1042 (brig), looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1042, Ofstie Road, .6 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  15. 5. Interior of Building 1042 (brig), cell, looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Interior of Building 1042 (brig), cell, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1042, Ofstie Road, .6 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  16. 2. Southeast side of Building 1042 (brig), looking northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Southeast side of Building 1042 (brig), looking northwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1042, Ofstie Road, .6 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  17. 3. Southwest side of Building 1042 (brig), looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Southwest side of Building 1042 (brig), looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1042, Ofstie Road, .6 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  18. 5. WEST SIDE. VIEW FROM BUILDING 18 SHOWING SOUTH PORTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. WEST SIDE. VIEW FROM BUILDING 18 SHOWING SOUTH PORTION OF BUILDING 22 WITH TALLER NORTH PORTION BEYOND.. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Public Works Shop, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  19. 38. Overall view showing building 161, fallout shelter on far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Overall view showing building 161, fallout shelter on far right, and building 102, officers quarters and enlisted men barracks on far left, looking east - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, PHOTOCOPY OF AN OLD STEREOGRAM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, PHOTOCOPY OF AN OLD STEREOGRAM, BUILDING DESTROYED BY FIRE c. 1850. Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Second Family Herb House, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  1. NORTH (FRONT) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH (FRONT) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO SOUTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  2. SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  3. OVERALL VIEW OF FRONT AND EAST SIDE OF MAINTENANCE BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF FRONT AND EAST SIDE OF MAINTENANCE BUILDING, WITH CEMETERY SECTION B IN FOREGROUND AND LODGE BUILDING IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Port Hudson National Cemetery, 20978 Port Hickey Road, Zachary, East Baton Rouge Parish, LA

  4. WEST (SIDE) AND SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST (SIDE) AND SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  5. NORTH (FRONT) AND WEST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH (FRONT) AND WEST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  6. 6. VIEW SOUTH TOWARD SOUTHERN PORTION OF BUILDING 1. GARAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SOUTH TOWARD SOUTHERN PORTION OF BUILDING 1. GARAGE ADDITION AT LEFT. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  7. 9. LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD SOUTHERN SIDES OF BUILDING 1. GARAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD SOUTHERN SIDES OF BUILDING 1. GARAGE ADDITION AT RIGHT. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  8. 11. NORTHWEST SIDE, BUILDING 1026, 1024, 1022, AND 1020, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. NORTHWEST SIDE, BUILDING 1026, 1024, 1022, AND 1020, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. MOST OF BUILDINGS OBSCURED BY VEGETATION. - Letterman General Hospital, Nurses' Quarters, Girard Road & Lincoln Boulevard, Presidio of San Francisco, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. 2. VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING #2300 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING #2300 FACING NORTHWEST. NOTE CURVED KNEE-BRACES ON SUPPORT POSTS. - Medford Service Center, Covered Storage Building, 1319 McAndrews Road, Medford, Jackson County, OR

  10. OVERALL view OF CONTROL BUILDING AND SECURITY GATE. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL view OF CONTROL BUILDING AND SECURITY GATE. view TO EAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Security Police Entry Control Building, Off Perimeter Road in Weapons Storage Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  11. OVERALL VIEW OF CONTROL BUILDING AND SECURITY GATE. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF CONTROL BUILDING AND SECURITY GATE. VIEW TO NORTH. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Security Police Entry Control Building, Off Perimeter Road in SAC Alert Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  12. INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY REPORT FOR THE REACTOR BUILDING, HOT LABORATORY, PRIMARY PUMP HOUSE, AND LAND AREAS AT THE PLUM BROOK REACTOR FACILITY, SANDUSKY, OHIO

    SciTech Connect

    Erika N. Bailey

    2011-10-10

    In 1941, the War Department acquired approximately 9,000 acres of land near Sandusky, Ohio and constructed a munitions plant. The Plum Brook Ordnance Works Plant produced munitions, such as TNT, until the end of World War II. Following the war, the land remained idle until the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics later called the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) obtained 500 acres to construct a nuclear research reactor designed to study the effects of radiation on materials used in space flight. The research reactor was put into operation in 1961 and was the first of fifteen test facilities eventually built by NASA at the Plum Brook Station. By 1963, NASA had acquired the remaining land at Plum Brook for these additional test facilities

  13. Soil erosion on road and railways embankments in the Canyoles river Basin. Eastern Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Antonio, Giménez-Morera; Félix Ángel, González-Peñaloza; María, Burguet; Paulo, Pereira; José Reyes, Ruiz

    2013-04-01

    ., 2009). This paper concludes that the soil erosion on road and railways are not sustainable and they are the highest soil losses measured in the study area. Road embankments are triggering land degradation and Desertification processes as less water is available for the soil processes and more soil is lost. Keywords: Road, Railway, Embankments, Erosion, Runoff. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857 supported this research. References Bakr, N., Weindorf, D.C., Zhu, Y., Arceneaux, A.E., & Selim, H.M. 2012. Evaluation of compost/mulch as highway embankment erosion control in Louisiana at the plot-scale Journal of Hydrology, 468-469, 257-267. Bel, G. 2011. Infrastructure and nation building: The regulation and financing of network transportation infrastructures in Spain (1720-2010), Business History, 53:5, 688-705. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00076791.2011.599591 Cerdà, A. 2007. Soil water erosion on road enbankments in eastern Spain. Science of the Total Environment, 378, 151-155. Cerdà, A., Hooke, J. Romero-Diaz, A., Montanarella, L., & Lavee, H. 2010. Soil erosion on Mediterranean Type-Ecosystems Land Degradation and Development. Editors. DOI 10.1002/ldr.968. De Oña, J., Osorio, F., & Garcia, P. A. 2009. Assessing the effects of using compost-sludge mixtures to reduce erosion in road embankments. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 164(2-3), 1257-1265. García-Orenes, F., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Bodí, M.B., Arcenegui, V., Zornoza, R. & Sempere, J.G. 2009. Effects of agricultural management on surface soil properties and soil-water losses in eastern Spain. Soil and Tillage Research, doi:10.1016/j.still.2009.06.002 Jordán, A., & Martínez-Zavala, L. 2008. Soil loss and runoff rates on unpaved forest roads in southern Spain after simulated rainfall. Forest Ecology and Management, 255 (3-4), 913-919. Persyn, R. A., Glanville, T. D., Richard, T. L., Laflen, J. M., & Dixon, P. M. 2004. Environmental effects of applying

  14. View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  15. View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  16. Rapid road repair vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Mara, L.M.

    1999-09-07

    Disclosed are improvements to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  17. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  18. "The Road from Coorain": A Journey of Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Sandra

    "The Road from Coorain" is the autobiographical story of Jill Ker Conway, the first woman president of Smith College. The story traces Conway's journey from powerlessness to power. Born in the outback of Australia, where all people were powerless in the face of the vacillations of nature, forced off the land into a city life to which she was…

  19. Assessing impacts of roads: Application of a standard assessment protocol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the impacts of network impacts on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support adaptive management...

  20. 36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of vehicles off roads. 261.15 Section 261.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... or property. (h) In a manner which damages or unreasonably disturbs the land, wildlife, or...

  1. The National Wind Erosion Research Network: Building a standardized long-term data resource for aeolian research, modeling and land management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 as a collaborative effort led by the USDA Agricultural Research Service and Natural Resources Conservation Service, and USDI Bureau of Land Management, to address the need for a broad and coordinated research program to develop wind ...

  2. The National Wind Erosion Research Network: Building a standardized long-term data resource for aeolian research, modeling and land management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 as a collaborative effort led by the United States Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service and Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, to a...

  3. 24. OLD TIOGA ROAD VIEW, NOW MAY LAKE ROAD , ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. OLD TIOGA ROAD VIEW, NOW MAY LAKE ROAD , AT SNOW FLAT. MOUNT HOFFMAN AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING NW. GIS: N-37 49 34.6 / W-119 29 58.2 - Tioga Road, Between Crane Flat & Tioga Pass, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  4. VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD TO WINDOWS SECTION AT LEFT, BALANCED ROCK NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  5. 6. VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD TO WINDOWS SECTION AT LEFT, BALANCED ROCK NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO. - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  6. 16. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #102, electrical equipment room; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #102, electrical equipment room; the prime power distribution system. Excellent example of endulum-types shock isolation. The grey cabinet and barrel assemble is part of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) retrofill project - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  7. 26. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #301, transmitter area no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #301, transmitter area no. 2; power supply assembly (in foreground) and amplifier modulators - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  8. 33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar operations center (PAROC), contains the tactical command and control group equipment required to control the par site. Showing spacetrack monitor console - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  9. Within compound, looking southeast Power Plant (Building 5761) to left, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Within compound, looking southeast Power Plant (Building 5761) to left, Satellite Communications Terminal (Building 5771), center - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  10. 19. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #105, sign reads: Three ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #105, sign reads: Three 660-ton trane chillers, each chiller can supply enough cooling for approximately 250 average air-conditioned homes - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  11. 18. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #105, deionizers (filter tanks) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #105, deionizers (filter tanks) for data processor cooling and ice backup; sign reads: Deionizer units provide high-purity water by removal of oxygen, and organic and mineral content from water - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  12. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, March 19, 1935 REAR OF CENTER BLDG. OF GROUP OF 3 THAT WERE USED FOR OFFICERS QUARTERS (W. SIDE OF PARADE GROUNDS) - Mount Vernon Arsenal, Center Building, Old Saint Stephens Road (County Road 96), Mount Vernon, Mobile County, AL

  13. 1. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF THE WEST ELEVATION OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF THE WEST ELEVATION OF BUILDING 120. BUILDING 120 HOUSES THE PROTECTIVE FORCE PERSONNEL RESPONSIBLE FOR CONTROLLING ENTRANCE TO AND EGRESS FROM THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT WEST ENTRANCE. - Rocky Flats Plant, Guard Facility, South side of west access road, approximately 2,323 feet east of Colorado Highway 93 & West Road, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. 31. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, data storage "racks"; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, data storage "racks"; sign read: M&D controller, logic control buffer, data transmission controller - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  15. Within compound, looking northwest, Power Plant (Building 5761) and Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Within compound, looking northwest, Power Plant (Building 5761) and Guard Tower (Building 5762) to left, Electrical Substation to right - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  16. 3. View of EPA Farm Lab Building 1506 (with sliding ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of EPA Farm Lab Building 15-06 (with sliding doors open to slaughter addition) and Sioux silo, facing north-northwest - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Laboratory Building, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  17. 5. View of interior, EPA Farm Lab Building 1506 slaughter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of interior, EPA Farm Lab Building 15-06 slaughter addition (featuring cold slaughter area), facing north-northeast - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Laboratory Building, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  18. 2. Oblique view of EPA Farm Lab Building 1506 (with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oblique view of EPA Farm Lab Building 15-06 (with slaughter addition at far left), facing southwest - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Laboratory Building, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  19. 4. Oblique view of EPA Farm Lab Building 1506 (with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Oblique view of EPA Farm Lab Building 15-06 (with sliding door open to milking area), Sioux silo and slaughter addition, facing northeast - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Laboratory Building, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  20. 29. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, data processing system ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, data processing system area; data processor maintenance and operations center, showing data processing consoles - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND