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Sample records for road transport stress

  1. Road transportation stress promptly increases bovine peripheral blood absolute NK cell counts and cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Kariya, Yoshihiro

    2010-06-01

    Livestock transportation effects on the number of circulating leukocytes have been reported. However, data related specifically to the relation between acute stress levels during transport and leukocyte differentiation, including lymphocyte subsets, are lacking. This study was undertaken to evaluate the distribution of peripheral blood leukocyte differential counts, CD25+ lymphocytes and NK cells in calves subjected to truck transportation on different road types. Healthy Japanese Black calves were divided into three treatments: 1) those moved around in a mountainous area (Group M); 2) those moved around on flatland (Group F); and 3) those that were not transported (control). The plasma cortisol levels in Group M increased during transport. The increase was significantly higher at the end of transport than in the controls (P<0.05); a slight increase was noted in Group F. Total leukocytes and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in Group M were elevated with neutrophilia at 2 hr post-transport (P<0.05); the former levels remained higher than those in the controls for 4 hr. The numbers of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and CD25+ lymphocytes remained unchanged throughout the observations. The number of circulating NK cells in Group M increased during transport and peaked shortly after transport (P<0.05). Subsequent to these time points, the counts in Group F showed a trend toward elevation. The circulating NK cell counts were positively correlated with the plasma cortisol level during transport (M, r=0.755, P<0.0005; F, r=0.653; P<0.005). These results suggest that circulating NK cells might be more rapidly mobilized than other leukocytes. Therefore, they might reflect acute stress levels in calves during road transportation.

  2. Characterization of acute phase proteins and oxidative stress response to road transportation in the dog.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Francesco; Casella, Stefania; Giannetto, Claudia; Giudice, Elisabetta; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cells (WBC), reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), the antioxidant barrier (Oxy-adsorbent) and thiol groups of plasma compounds (SHp) were measured in ten dogs that had been transported a distance of about 230 km within 2 h (experimental group) and in ten dogs that had not been subjected to road transportation (control group). Blood was collected via cephalic venipuncture before road transportation (T0), after road transportation (T1), and more than 6 (T6) and 24 (T24) hours after road transportation in the experimental group (Group A) and at the same time points in the control group (Group B). The GLM (general linear model) Repeated Measures procedure showed a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.0001) and a significant rise (P<0.0001) in the concentrations of Hp, SAA, CRP, WBC, ROMs, Oxy-adsorbent and SHp after road transportation in Group A, underlining that physiological and homeostatic mechanisms are modified differently at various sampling times.

  3. Amino Acid Transport Associated to Cluster of Differentiation 98 Heavy Chain (CD98hc) Is at the Cross-road of Oxidative Stress and Amino Acid Availability.

    PubMed

    de la Ballina, Laura R; Cano-Crespo, Sara; González-Muñoz, Elena; Bial, Susanna; Estrach, Soline; Cailleteau, Laurence; Tissot, Floriane; Daniel, Hannelore; Zorzano, Antonio; Ginsberg, Mark H; Palacín, Manuel; Féral, Chloé C

    2016-04-29

    CD98hc functions as an amino acid (AA) transporter (together with another subunit) and integrin signaling enhancer. It is overexpressed in highly proliferative cells in both physiological and pathological conditions. CD98hc deletion induces strong impairment of cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro Here, we investigate CD98hc-associated AA transport in cell survival and proliferation. By using chimeric versions of CD98hc, the two functions of the protein can be uncoupled. Although recovering the CD98hc AA transport capacity restores the in vivo and in vitro proliferation of CD98hc-null cells, reconstitution of the integrin signaling function of CD98hc is unable to restore in vitro proliferation of those cells. CD98hc-associated transporters (i.e. xCT, LAT1, and y(+)LAT2 in wild-type cells) are crucial to control reactive oxygen species and intracellular AA levels, thus sustaining cell survival and proliferation. Moreover, in CD98hc-null cells the deficiency of CD98hc/xCT cannot be compensated, leading to cell death by ferroptosis. Supplementation of culture media with β-mercaptoethanol rescues CD98hc-deficient cell survival. Under such conditions null cells show oxidative stress and intracellular AA imbalance and, consequently, limited proliferation. CD98hc-null cells also present reduced intracellular levels of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAAs and ARO AAs, respectively) and induced expression of peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1). Interestingly, external supply of dipeptides containing BCAAs and ARO AAs rescues cell proliferation and compensates for impaired uptake of CD98hc/LAT1 and CD98hc/y(+)LAT2. Our data establish CD98hc as a master protective gene at the cross-road of redox control and AA availability, making it a relevant therapeutic target in cancer.

  4. Intelligent Transport Systems in the Management of Road Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalupová, Blanka; Hlavoň, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    Extension of European Union causes increase of free transfer of people and goods. At the same time they raised the problems associated with the transport, e.g. congestion and related accidents on roads, air traffic delays and more. To increase the efficiency and safety of transport, the European Commission supports the introduction of intelligent transport systems and services in all transport sectors. Implementation of intelligent transport systems and services in the road transport reduces accident frequency, increases the capacity of existing infrastructure and reduces congestions. Use of toll systems provides resources needed for the construction and operation of a new road network, improves public transport, cycling transport and walking transport, and also their multimodal integration with individual car transport.

  5. Risk management model in road transport systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhapov, R. L.; Nikolaeva, R. V.; Gatiyatullin, M. H.; Makhmutov, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents the results of a study of road safety indicators that influence the development and operation of the transport system. Road safety is considered as a continuous process of risk management. Authors constructed a model that relates the social risks of a major road safety indicator - the level of motorization. The model gives a fairly accurate assessment of the level of social risk for any given level of motorization. Authors calculated the dependence of the level of socio-economic costs of accidents and injured people in them. The applicability of the concept of socio-economic damage is caused by the presence of a linear relationship between the natural and economic indicators damage from accidents. The optimization of social risk is reduced to finding the extremum of the objective function that characterizes the economic effect of the implementation of measures to improve safety. The calculations make it possible to maximize the net present value, depending on the costs of improving road safety, taking into account socio-economic damage caused by accidents. The proposed econometric models make it possible to quantify the efficiency of the transportation system, allow to simulate the change in road safety indicators.

  6. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system has been designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganic compounds. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site`s specific needs.

  7. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.

    1995-04-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities around the country have, over the years, become contaminated with radionuclides and a range of organic and inorganic wastes. Many of the DOE sites encompass large land areas and were originally sited in relatively unpopulated regions of the country to minimize risk to surrounding populations. In addition, wastes were sometimes stored underground at the sites in 55-gallon drums, wood boxes or other containers until final disposal methods could be determined. Over the years, these containers have deteriorated, releasing contaminants into the surrounding environment. This contamination has spread, in some cases polluting extensive areas. The DOE would benefit greatly if it had reliable, road transportable, fully independent laboratory systems that could perform on-site the full range of analyses required. The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soils, ground water and surface waters. This document describes the requirements for such a laboratory.

  8. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    PubMed

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  9. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities around the country have, over the years, become contaminated with radionuclides and a range of organic and inorganic wastes. Many of the DOE sites encompass large land areas and were originally sited in relatively unpopulated regions of the country to minimize risk to surrounding populations. In addition, wastes were sometimes stored underground at the sites in 55-gallon drums, wood boxes or other containers until final disposal methods could be determined. Over the years, these containers have deteriorated, releasing contaminants into the surrounding environment. This contamination has spread, in some cases polluting extensive areas. Remediation of these sites requires extensive sampling to determine the extent of the contamination, to monitor clean-up and remediation progress, and for post-closure monitoring of facilities. The DOE would benefit greatly if it had reliable, road transportable, fully independent laboratory systems that could perform on-site the full range of analyses required. Such systems would accelerate and thereby reduce the cost of clean-up and remediation efforts by (1) providing critical analytical data more rapidly, and (2) eliminating the handling, shipping and manpower associated with sample shipments. The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system has been designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganic compounds. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site`s specific needs.

  10. Effects of road type during transport on lamb welfare and meat quality in dry hot climates.

    PubMed

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Monge, Paula; Villarroel, Morris; Olleta, Jose Luis; García-Belenguer, Sylvia; María, Gustavo A

    2011-06-01

    This study determined whether transporting lambs on paved (PR) or unpaved roads (UR) for 3 h had an effect on plasma stress indicators (cortisol, lactate, glucose, creatine kinase [CK], red blood cells, white blood cells, hematocrit, and neutrophil/lymphocyte [N/L] ratio) and instrumental meat quality (pH24, bruising score, water holding capacity [WHC], color, and texture). A total of 48 Rasa Aragonesa male lambs were used that were approximately 100 days old (12.5 kg ± 1.64, carcass weight). The results suggest that transport on unpaved roads had a significant influence on physiological and hematological stress parameters. Road type had a significant effect on all variables, except for white and red blood cells, and hematocrit levels. The UR lambs had significantly higher (at least p ≤ 0.01) cortisol, lactate, glucose, and CK levels and a higher N/L ratio than PR lambs. Meat from UR lambs had some dark-cutting characteristics, with a darker color, higher ultimate pH, and higher tenderness values than PR. In conclusion, lambs transported on unpaved roads had a more intense stress response and poorer meat quality than lambs transported on paved roads. An effort to improve the logistics associated with route planning is necessary to prevent welfare problems during transport to slaughter.

  11. Road transportable analytical laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.

    1996-12-31

    Remediation of DOE contaminated areas requires extensive sampling and analysis. Reliable, road transportable, fully independent laboratory systems that could perform on-site a full range of analyses meeting high levels of quality assurance and control, would accelerate and thereby reduce the cost of cleanup and remediation efforts by (1) providing critical analytical data more rapidly, and (2) eliminating the handling, shipping, and manpower associated with sample shipments. Goals of RTAL are to meet the needs of DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. The system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or together, to meet specific site needs: radioanalytical lab, organic chemical analysis lab, inorganic chemical analysis lab, aquatic biomonitoring lab, field analytical lab, robotics base station, decontamination/sample screening module, and operations control center. Goal of this integrated system is a sample throughput of 20 samples/day, providing a full range of accurate analyses on each sample within 16 h (after sample preparation), compared with the 45- day turnaround time in commercial laboratories. A prototype RTAL consisting of 5 modules was built and demonstrated at Fernald(FEMP)`s OU-1 Waste Pits, during the 1st-3rd quarters of FY96 (including the `96 Blizzard). All performance and operational goals were met or exceeded: as many as 50 sample analyses/day were achieved, depending on the procedure, sample turnaround times were 50-67% less than FEMP`s best times, and RTAL costs were projected to be 30% less than FEMP costs for large volume analyses in fixed laboratories.

  12. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport.

    PubMed

    García, Carmelo R; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-07-16

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network.

  13. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport

    PubMed Central

    García, Carmelo R.; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  14. On the Road to Transportation Efficiency (Video)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    Reducing emissions and oil consumption are crucial worldwide goals. Reducing transportation emissions, in particular, is key to reducing overall emissions. Electric vehicles driving on electrified roadways could be a significant part of the solution. E-roadways offer a variety of benefits: reduce petroleum consumption (electricity is used instead of gasoline), decrease vehicular operating costs (from about 12 cents per mile to 4 cents per mile), and extend the operational range of electric vehicles. Plus, e-roadway power can come from renewable sources. This animation was sponsored by the Clean Transportation Sector Initiative, and interagency effort between the U.S. Department of Transportation and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system: Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.; De Avila, J.C.; Keith, V.F.

    1996-08-01

    This report describes a portable laboratory system for the analysis of soils, ground water, and surface waters for the detection and quantification of hazardous materials, organics, and radioactive contaminants. The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) is a sample throughput of 20 samples per day, providing a full range of analysis on each sample within 16 hours of preparation with high accuracy.

  16. How stressful is transportation?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is common for cattle to be transported multiple times during their production life cycle. Transportation events may include calves shipped to backgrounding facilities and feed yards, as well as pregnant cows that may be transported to sale barns or relocated due to drought to access a pasture or ...

  17. On the Road to Transportation Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-21

    Reducing emissions and oil consumption are crucial worldwide goals. Reducing transportation emissions, in particular, is key to reducing overall emissions. Electric vehicles driving on electrified roadways could be a significant part of the solution. E-roadways offer a variety of benefits: reduce petroleum consumption (electricity is used instead of gasoline), decrease vehicular operating costs (from about 12 cents per mile to 4 cents per mile), and extend the operational range of electric vehicles. Plus, e-roadway power can come from renewable sources.

  18. Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise Transported Via Road at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In this view looking northwest over the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise is seen heading South on Rideout Road near the Redstone Arsenal Fire Station as it is being transported to MSFC's building 4755 for later Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT) at MSFC's Dynamic Test Stand. The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including Orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  19. Who is in control of road safety? A STAMP control structure analysis of the road transport system in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Paul M; Read, Gemma J M; Stevens, Nicholas J

    2016-11-01

    Despite significant progress, road trauma continues to represent a global safety issue. In Queensland (Qld), Australia, there is currently a focus on preventing the 'fatal five' behaviours underpinning road trauma (drug and drink driving, distraction, seat belt wearing, speeding, and fatigue), along with an emphasis on a shared responsibility for road safety that spans road users, vehicle manufacturers, designers, policy makers etc. The aim of this article is to clarify who shares the responsibility for road safety in Qld and to determine what control measures are enacted to prevent the fatal five behaviours. This is achieved through the presentation of a control structure model that depicts the actors and organisations within the Qld road transport system along with the control and feedback relationships that exist between them. Validated through a Delphi study, the model shows a diverse set of actors and organisations who share the responsibility for road safety that goes beyond those discussed in road safety policies and strategies. The analysis also shows that, compared to other safety critical domains, there are less formal control structures in road transport and that opportunities exist to add new controls and strengthen existing ones. Relationships that influence rather than control are also prominent. Finally, when compared to other safety critical domains, the strength of road safety controls is brought into question.

  20. Use of certain alternative fuels in road transport in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gis, W.; Pielecha, J.; Waśkiewicz, J.; Gis, M.; Menes, M.

    2016-09-01

    The development of biomethane and hydrogen technology in the road transport in the EU countries is recommended, among the others, in the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council 2014/94/EU of 22 October 2014. Under the provisions of the said Directive, it is recommended to EU countries to use biomethane and progressively ensure accessibility to hydrogen cars on their territories, and above all to ensure the possibility of driving hydrogen vehicles between the member States. The territorial accessibility for biomethane vehicles is determined by the availability of biomethane refuelling infrastructure in the first place in cities and then on the road network distances recommended in this directive. The territorial accessibility for hydrogen vehicles is determined by the availability of hydrogen refuelling infrastructure, in the first place along the TEN-T network. The article presents the possibilities of using these alternative fuels in Poland, presenting some of the results of research and analysis in this area.

  1. Engineering and design of vehicles for long distance road transport of livestock: the example of cattle transport in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Lapworth, John W

    2008-01-01

    The author outlines the design of road vehicles for the long distance transport of livestock, mainly cattle, which are used in the tropical and sub-Mediterranean climatic regions of Australia and which have been engineered to meet animal welfare principles. Over 50% of journeys exceed 500 km. Journeys of 2 000 to 3 000 km do occur and involve the resting of animals once or twice during the journey. Specialised vehicles, known as 'road trains', are employed and these consist of multiple trailers with multi-deck containers or stock crates for animals, which are hauled by a prime mover or tractor. The starting point for design is safety for both people and animals and the need to preserve transport infrastructure such as roads and bridges. The move to volume livestock loading, where livestock are loaded according to the volume they occupy rather than their weight, was a major early breakthrough. Details are given of the design of vehicles and loading facilities. Vehicle design includes suspensions and the floors, interior walls, doors, partitions and penning, deck supports and arrangements for through loading of stock crates. Loading and unloading ramps can be a major source of stress and standardised heights have been adopted in Australia.

  2. Pituitary-adrenocortical adjustments to transport stress in horses with previous different handling and transport conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fazio, E.; Medica, P.; Cravana, C.; Ferlazzo, and A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The changes of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis response to a long distance transportation results in increase of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels. The purpose of the study was to quantify the level of short-term road transport stress on circulating ACTH and cortisol concentrations, related to the effect of previous handling and transport experience of horses. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on 56 healthy horses after short-term road transport of 30 km. The horses were divided into four groups, Groups A, B, C, and D, with respect to the handling quality: Good (Groups A and B), bad (Group D), and minimal handling (Group C) conditions. According to the previous transport, experience horses were divided as follows: Horses of Groups A and D had been experienced long-distance transportation before; horses of Groups B and C had been limited experience of transportation. Results: One-way RM-ANOVA showed significant effects of transport on ACTH changes in Groups B and C and on cortisol changes in both Groups A and B. Groups A and B showed lower baseline ACTH and cortisol values than Groups C and D; Groups A and B showed lower post-transport ACTH values than Groups C and D. Groups A, B, and C showed lower post-transport cortisol values than Group D. Only Groups A and B horses have shown an adequate capacity of stress response to transportation. Conclusion: The previous transport experience and quality of handling could influence the HPA axis physiological responses of horses after short-term road transport. PMID:27651674

  3. Effects of road transportation on metabolic and immunological responses in Holstein heifers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyeok-Joong; Lee, In Kyu; Piao, Min-Yu; Kwak, Chae-Won; Gu, Min Jeong; Yun, Cheol Heui; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Ahn, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Hee-Bal; Kim, Gyeom-Heon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Ko, Jong-Youl; Ha, Jong K; Baik, Myunggi

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of road transportation on metabolic and immunological responses in dairy heifers. Twenty Holstein heifers in early pregnancy were divided into non-transported (NT; n = 7) and transported (T; n = 13) groups. Blood was collected before transportation (BT), immediately after transportation for 100 km (T1) and 200 km (T2), and 24 h after transportation (AT). The T heifers had higher (P < 0.05) blood cortisol and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations after T1 and T2 than did NT heifers. By contrast, the T heifers had lower (P < 0.05) serum triglyceride concentrations after T1 and T2 than had the NT heifers. The serum cortisol and triglyceride concentrations returned (P > 0.05) to the BT concentrations at 24 h AT in the T heifers. The granulocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio and the percentage of monocytes were higher (P < 0.05) after T2 in the T heifers than in the NT heifers, suggesting that transportation stress increased the numbers of innate immune cells. T heifers had higher (P < 0.01) plasma haptoglobin concentrations than NT heifers 24 h AT. In conclusion, transportation increased cortisol secretion and was correlated with increased metabolic responses and up-regulation of peripheral innate immune cells in dairy heifers.

  4. Molecular road ecology: exploring the potential of genetics for investigating transportation impacts on wildlife.

    PubMed

    Balkenhol, Niko; Waits, Lisette P

    2009-10-01

    Transportation infrastructures such as roads, railroads and canals can have major environmental impacts. Ecological road effects include the destruction and fragmentation of habitat, the interruption of ecological processes and increased erosion and pollution. Growing concern about these ecological road effects has led to the emergence of a new scientific discipline called road ecology. The goal of road ecology is to provide planners with scientific advice on how to avoid, minimize or mitigate negative environmental impacts of transportation. In this review, we explore the potential of molecular genetics to contribute to road ecology. First, we summarize general findings from road ecology and review studies that investigate road effects using genetic data. These studies generally focus only on barrier effects of roads on local genetic diversity and structure and only use a fraction of available molecular approaches. Thus, we propose additional molecular applications that can be used to evaluate road effects across multiple scales and dimensions of the biodiversity hierarchy. Finally, we make recommendations for future research questions and study designs that would advance molecular road ecology. Our review demonstrates that molecular approaches can substantially contribute to road ecology research and that interdisciplinary, long-term collaborations will be particularly important for realizing the full potential of molecular road ecology.

  5. Road and Roadside Feature Extraction Using Imagery and LIDAR Data for Transportation Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ural, S.; Shan, J.; Romero, M. A.; Tarko, A.

    2015-03-01

    Transportation agencies require up-to-date, reliable, and feasibly acquired information on road geometry and features within proximity to the roads as input for evaluating and prioritizing new or improvement road projects. The information needed for a robust evaluation of road projects includes road centerline, width, and extent together with the average grade, cross-sections, and obstructions near the travelled way. Remote sensing is equipped with a large collection of data and well-established tools for acquiring the information and extracting aforementioned various road features at various levels and scopes. Even with many remote sensing data and methods available for road extraction, transportation operation requires more than the centerlines. Acquiring information that is spatially coherent at the operational level for the entire road system is challenging and needs multiple data sources to be integrated. In the presented study, we established a framework that used data from multiple sources, including one-foot resolution color infrared orthophotos, airborne LiDAR point clouds, and existing spatially non-accurate ancillary road networks. We were able to extract 90.25% of a total of 23.6 miles of road networks together with estimated road width, average grade along the road, and cross sections at specified intervals. Also, we have extracted buildings and vegetation within a predetermined proximity to the extracted road extent. 90.6% of 107 existing buildings were correctly identified with 31% false detection rate.

  6. The effect of road transport in comparison to a novel environment on the physiological, metabolic and behavioural responses of bulls.

    PubMed

    Earley, Bernadette; Drennan, Michael; O'Riordan, Edward G

    2013-10-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of 18 h road transport with a 12h mid-journey rest period in comparison to the exposure of bulls to a novel environment on physiological, metabolic and behavioural responses of beef bulls. Thirty Charolais sired crossbred beef bulls (mean 486.0, s.d. 57.0 kg) were assigned by live weight to one of the two treatments, transport (T) (9h+9h) (n=15) and not-transported (NT) (n=15) on day 0. The bulls were transported at a spatial allowance of 1.3m(2)/animal by road for 9h, unloaded and rested for a 12h rest period, re-loaded and transported for a further 9h journey by road followed by a 2h rest period on the transporter, then unloaded and rested in a lairage for 24h with access to hay and water. Plasma albumin and urea concentrations increased (P<0.05) after the first 9h journey with values returning to baseline at the end of the 24h recovery period. There was a transient increase in haematocrit% in T and NT at sampling time points corresponding to the completion of the first 9h journey. Bulls spent longer time lying (P<0.05) during the first 9h journey compared with the percentage time spent lying during the second 9h journey. Differences in live weight, behaviour, and some blood variables show that transport is more stressful for bulls than being subjected to a novel environment and management, and while some biological variables returned to baseline values, others require a longer time (plasma haptoglobin, total protein, glucose and NEFA concentrations). Thus, the effective recovery of bulls exposed to an 18 h transport journey by road would suggest that a rest period of at least 24h with access to feed and water is required before further transport.

  7. 25 CFR 170.808 - Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... IRR transportation facilities? 170.808 Section 170.808 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities? No. BIA Road Maintenance Program funds cannot be used to improve roads or other IRR transportation facilities to a...

  8. 25 CFR 170.808 - Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... IRR transportation facilities? 170.808 Section 170.808 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities? No. BIA Road Maintenance Program funds cannot be used to improve roads or other IRR transportation facilities to a...

  9. 25 CFR 170.405 - Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road construction and other projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road... Reservation Roads Program Facilities Transportation Planning § 170.405 Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road construction and other projects? Yes, any tribe can request to have its...

  10. Sediment Transport through Road Culverts Retrofit for Fish Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, M.; Cashman, E.; Siegfried, L.; Smith, W. J.; Dillon, A.

    2007-12-01

    A critical component of watershed restoration includes improved mobility within the watershed for fish and other aquatic organisms. At the large scale, this effort includes installation of fish ladders around dams and at smaller scales replacement or retrofit of road culverts or installation of roughened channels to mitigate steep channel slopes. A project to quantify changes in culvert hydraulic performance and hydraulic capacity for three culvert shapes and six fish passage retrofit designs was initiated in June 2005. In 2007, laboratory physical model experiments were conducted to evaluate sediment transport and trapping characteristics of these designs over a range of flows. Generally, experimental results indicate trapped sediment in culverts retrofit to improve fish passage decreases the effectiveness of the retrofit due to sediment deposition in areas with lower velocities (where fish can rest). Other observations include: 1. Trapped sediment reduced the effective culvert barrel roughness and, thus, decreased water depths and increased velocities through the culvert, compared to clear water experiments with the retrofit baffles. 2. High flows (culvert barrel water depth/culvert height greater than 0.5) successfully cleared trapped sediment under conditions of minimal transport from upstream 3. Preliminary results indicate moderate flows (culvert barrel water depth/culvert height between 0.25 to 0.5) in combination with moderate sediment feed rates caused the greatest accumulation of trapped sediment These experiments highlight the importance of including sediment accumulation in design and analysis, and potentially impact design recommendations for culverts retrofit for fish passage and other similar fish passage improvement structures.

  11. Integrating air pollution modelling with scenario testing in road transport planning: the TRAEMS approach.

    PubMed

    Affum, J K; Brown, A L; Chan, Y C

    2003-08-01

    Transport add-on environmental modelling system (TRAEMS) is a GIS-based environmental modelling system designed to evaluate the environmental consequences of road traffic in urban areas. Its development has been underpinned by the premises that the evaluation of road traffic impacts is best undertaken during the early planning stages of road networks, and that this can utilise much of the data generated by the transport planners themselves as they apply their travel demand models as to planning of road networks. The system integrates information about traffic-usually from travel-forecasting models-with information about land use, to provide the input data to a range of commonly used models that estimate pollution from a road traffic system, and the energy consumption of that system. TRAEMS facilitates this integration and allows land use, transport and environmental planners to have rapid feedback on the environmental effects of road transport network scenarios that are being developed and tested. Its purpose is to aid in the selection of environmentally-preferred road networks and to highlight where management of pollution levels on future road networks will be required. TRAEMS has a modular structure. This paper describes the main features of the air pollution and fuel consumption modules of the system and illustrates the system's utility through case studies at both metropolitan-wide- and local-area scales.

  12. A multiclass vehicular dynamic traffic flow model for main roads and dedicated lanes/roads of multimodal transport network

    SciTech Connect

    Sossoe, K.S.; Lebacque, J-P.

    2015-03-10

    We present in this paper a model of vehicular traffic flow for a multimodal transportation road network. We introduce the notion of class of vehicles to refer to vehicles of different transport modes. Our model describes the traffic on highways (which may contain several lanes) and network transit for pubic transportation. The model is drafted with Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates and uses a Logit model to describe the traffic assignment of our multiclass vehicular flow description on shared roads. The paper also discusses traffic streams on dedicated lanes for specific class of vehicles with event-based traffic laws. An Euler-Lagrangian-remap scheme is introduced to numerically approximate the model’s flow equations.

  13. Reforming the road freight transportation system using systems thinking: An investigation of Coronial inquests in Australia.

    PubMed

    Newnam, Sharon; Goode, Natassia; Salmon, Paul; Stevenson, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Road freight transport is considered to be one of the most dangerous industries in Australia, accounting for over 30% of all work fatalities. Whilst system reform (i.e., change to policy and practice) is needed, it is not clear what this reform should be, or what approaches should be used to drive it. This article argues that road freight transportation reform should be underpinned by a systems thinking approach. Efforts to understand crash causation should be focused beyond the driver and identify contributing factors at other levels with the road freight system. Accordingly, we present the findings from a study that examined whether Australian Coronial investigations into road freight crashes reflect support appropriate system reform. Content analysis was used to identify the contributing factors and interrelations implicated in the road freight crashes described in publicly available Australian Coroner's inquest reports from the last 10 years (2004-2014; n=21). The results found evidence to suggest that the Coronial inquests provide some understanding of the complex system of factors influencing road freight transportation crashes in Australia. However, there was a lack of evidence to suggest an understanding of system-based reform based on the identification of reductionist-focused recommendations. It is concluded that researchers and practitioners (ie., government and industry) need to work together to develop prevention efforts focused on system reforms. Systems thinking based data collection and analysis frameworks are urgently required to help develop this understanding in road freight transportation.

  14. Dynamic performances of cattle transporting vehicle on Scandinavian roads and behavioural response of animals.

    PubMed

    Wikner, I; Gebresenbet, G; Tolo, E

    2003-03-01

    Driving performance, air quality in the vehicle, and handling during loading and unloading are the main factors, which could affect animal welfare. During transport of animals from farms to abattoirs, animals on the vehicle are subjected to vibrations in all directions. Performances of a typical vehicle for cattle transport have been studied under field commercial conditions. During the experiment, tri-axial vibrations on the vehicle, as well as velocity, slope and position were measured. The animals were video recorded for behavioral analyses. Geographical positions, speed and slope of roads were recorded using, GPS. Measurements were made with and without animals on the vehicle. The roads in the region are narrow almost everywhere, but rather plane and of good quality. Three road types were identified: straight and plain, curvy and graveled roads. Events such as sudden stops and curves were observed and noted. Vibration levels in tri-axial directions have been measured and analysed for different speeds and road types both when the vehicle was fully loaded and unloaded. There is a significant difference between the performances of the vehicle when loaded and unloaded. Very high vibrations values have been noted during the empty driving and these values were reduced by up to 9 times when the vehicle was loaded. Less vibrations amplitudes were observed and animals were calmer on ferry transport than on road transport. It has also been noted that animals prefer to stand perpendicular to the direction of vehicle's motion during transport.

  15. Identifying the Critical Links in Road Transportation Networks: Centrality-based approach utilizing structural properties

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Supriya

    2016-04-01

    Surface transportation road networks share structural properties similar to other complex networks (e.g., social networks, information networks, biological networks, and so on). This research investigates the structural properties of road networks for any possible correlation with the traffic characteristics such as link flows those determined independently. Additionally, we define a criticality index for the links of the road network that identifies the relative importance in the network. We tested our hypotheses with two sample road networks. Results show that, correlation exists between the link flows and centrality measures of a link of the road (dual graph approach is followed) and the criticality index is found to be effective for one test network to identify the vulnerable nodes.

  16. Satellite Remote Sensing and Transportation Lifelines: Safety and Risk Analysis Along Rural Roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, R.

    the application of satellite Earth Observation (EO) methods to the analysis of transportation networks. Other geospatial technologies, including geographic information systems (GIS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS), sharply enhance the utility of EO data in identifying potential road hazards and providing an objective basis for allocating resources to reduce their risks. In combination, these powerful information technologies provide substantial public benefits and increased business opportunities to remote sensing value-added firms. departments in rural jurisdictions improve the trafficability of the roads under their management during severe weather. We are developing and testing these methods in the U.S. Southwest, where thousands of kilometers of unimproved and graded dirt roads cross Native American reservations. This generally arid region is nevertheless subject to periodic summer rainstorms and winter snow and ice, creating hazardous conditions for the region's transportation lifelines. Arizona and Southeast Utah, as well as digital terrain models from the U.S. Geological Survey. We have analyzed several risk factors, such as slope, road curvature, and intersections, by means of multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) on both unimproved and improved roads. In partnership with the Hopi Indian Nation in Arizona, we have acquired and analyzed GPS road centerline data and accident data that validate our methodology. hazards along paved and unpaved roads of the American Southwest. They are also transferable to the international settings, particularly in similarly arid climates.

  17. Estimation of economic costs of particulate air pollution from road transport in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X. R.; Cheng, S. Y.; Chen, D. S.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, H. Y.

    2010-09-01

    Valuation of health effects of air pollution is becoming a critical component of the performance of cost-benefit analysis of pollution control measures, which provides a basis for setting priorities for action. Beijing has focused on control of transport emission as vehicular emissions have recently become an important source of air pollution, particularly during Olympic games and Post-games. In this paper, we conducted an estimation of health effects and economic cost caused by road transport-related air pollution using an integrated assessment approach which utilizes air quality model, engineering, epidemiology, and economics. The results show that the total economic cost of health impacts due to air pollution contributed from transport in Beijing during 2004-2008 was 272, 297, 310, 323, 298 million US (mean value), respectively. The economic costs of road transport accounted for 0.52, 0.57, 0.60, 0.62, and 0.58% of annual Beijing GDP from 2004 to 2008. Average cost per vehicle and per ton of PM 10 emission from road transport can also be estimated as 106 US /number and 3584 US $ t -1, respectively. These findings illustrate that the impact of road transport contributed particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in Beijing, whether in physical and economic terms. Therefore, some control measures to reduce transport emissions could lead to considerable economic benefit.

  18. [Key technologies and implementation of the medical equipment road transportation simulation platform based on 6-DOF parallel robots].

    PubMed

    Pei, Yidong; Pei, Baoqing; Li, Hui; Fan, Yubo

    2013-01-01

    In view of the shortage of medical equipment road transportation simulation platform, we put forward a road transportation simulation method based on 6-DOF parallel robots. A 3D road spectrum model was built by the improvement of the harmonic superposition method. The simulation model was then compared with the standard model to verify its performance. Taking the road spectrum as the excitation, we could get the robot motion data to control the parallel robot through the S-shaped linear interpolation of the absolute position. It can simulate the movement of vehicles with different speed under various road conditions efficiently and accurately.

  19. Transport Mode Selection for Toxic Gases: Rail or Road?

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Morteza; Verma, Manish; Verter, Vedat

    2014-01-01

    A significant majority of hazardous materials (hazmat) shipments are moved via the highway and railroad networks, wherein the latter mode is generally preferred for long distances. Although the characteristics of highway transportation make trucks the most dominant surface transportation mode, should it be preferred for hazmat whose accidental release can cause catastrophic consequences? We answer this question by first developing a novel and comprehensive assessment methodology-which incorporates the sequence of events leading to hazmat release from the derailed railcars and the resulting consequence-to measure rail transport risk, and second making use of the proposed assessment methodology to analyze hazmat transport risk resulting from meeting the demand for chlorine and ammonia in six distinct corridors in North America. We demonstrate that rail transport will reduce risk, irrespective of the risk measure and the transport corridor, and that every attempt must be made to use railroads to transport these shipments.

  20. Acclimation of zebrafish to transport stress.

    PubMed

    Dhanasiri, Anusha K S; Fernandes, Jorge M O; Kiron, Viswanath

    2013-03-01

    Welfare of fish is commonly neglected when they are transported. This study examines the effect of a 72-h mock transport on certain aspects of the stress physiology of two groups of zebrafish-the first transported in water enriched with a nitrifying bacterial consortium and the second in water without the enrichment. Zebrafish were examined at different time points-before packing (BP), immediately after packing them in transport bags (AP), at the end of transport (AT), and 72 h thereafter (PT)-to assess the primary (cortisol) and secondary (glucose) stress responses. In addition, the relevant genes in hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis (crf in brain, mc2r, star, cyp11c1, and hsd11b2 in kidney), including that of mineralocorticoid receptor (mr in kidney), were studied. Procedures during packing caused an increase in whole body cortisol levels of both fish groups. Only in the fish transported without the bacterial consortium, an increase in the levels of whole body cortisol as well as blood glucose was observed at the end of the transport. At the same time point and in the same fish group, the transcripts of mr and hsd11b2 were enhanced, probably to cope with the stress and to maintain homeostasis. The mRNA levels of the other genes in the HPI stress axis (crf, mc2r, star, and cyp11c1) were not significantly altered. Zebrafish transported in water enriched with the bacterial consortium exhibited a speedier stress acclimation. Nevertheless, only through in-depth studies the beneficial effect of the consortium can be confirmed.

  1. GHG emissions inventory for on-road transportation in the town of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Laura; Ferrara, Roberto; Zara, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2016-04-01

    The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) accounts an increase of the total annual anthropogenic GHG emissions between 2000 and 2010 that directly came from the transport sector. In 2010, 14% of GHG emissions were released by transport and fossil-fuel-related CO2 emissions reached about 32 GtCO2 per year. The report also considers adaptation and mitigation as complementary strategies for reducing the risks of climate change for sustainable development of urban areas. This paper describes the on-road traffic emission estimated in the framework of a Sardinian regional project [1] for the town of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy), one of the Sardinian areas where the fuel consumption for on-road transportation purposes is higher [2]. The GHG emissions have been accounted (a) by a calculation-based methodology founded on a linear relationship between source activity and emission, and (b) by the COPERT IV methodology through the EMITRA (EMIssions from road TRAnsport) software tool [3]. Inventory data for annual fossil fuel consumption associated with on-road transportation (diesel, gasoline, gas) have been collected through the Dogane service, the ATP and ARST public transport services and vehicle fleet data are available from the Public Vehicle Database (PRA), using 2010 as baseline year. During this period, the estimated CO2 emissions accounts for more than 180,000 tCO2. The calculation of emissions due to on-road transport quantitatively estimates CO2 and other GHG emissions and represents a useful baseline to identify possible adaptation and mitigation strategies to face the climate change risks at municipal level. Acknowledgements This research was funded by the Sardinian Regional Project "Development, functional checking and setup of an integrated system for the quantification of CO2 net exchange and for the evaluation of mitigation strategies at urban and territorial scale", (Legge Regionale 7 agosto 2007, No. 7). References [1] Sanna L., Ferrara R., Zara P. & Duce P. (2014

  2. The Road Less Traveled: Sustainable Transportation for Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toor, Will

    2003-01-01

    Provides a survey of innovative approaches to campus transportation in the United States. Explains that the high costs of parking expansion have propelled many institutions toward a transportation demand management strategy, using parking pricing, transit passes for students and employees, and investment in bicycle infrastructure to shift many…

  3. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system: Volume II, Appendices A and B. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.; De Avila, J.C.; Keith, V.F.

    1996-08-01

    The Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) provides a portable analytical system for the analysis of soils, ground water, and surface water for the detection of hazardous materials, metals, organics, and radioactive material. This report presents the data results for an aqueous sample VOA report and an aqueous sample SVOA report.

  4. The Indonesian's Road Transportations as the Contexts to Support Primary School Students Learning Number Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kairuddin; Darmawijoyo

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights the Indonesian's road transportation contexts, namely, angkot, that used in learning and teaching of addition and subtraction in first grade and second grade MIN-2 Palembang. PMRI approach that adopt from RME [Realistic Mathematics Education] was used in this design research. From teaching experiment was founded that the…

  5. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system: Volume III, Appendices C through J. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.; De Avila, J.C.; Keith, V.F.

    1996-08-01

    The Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) provides a portabler laboratory for the analysis of soils, ground water, and surface water. This report presents data from a soils sample TCLP VOA and SVOA report, aqueous sample RCRA metals report, soils sample total and isotopic uranium report, SVOA sample analytical performance report, and and RCRA metal sample analytical performance report.

  6. Continuous Vocational Training in the Road Freight and Passenger Transport Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education, Training, and Youth.

    Continuous vocational training (CVT) in the road freight and passenger transport sectors in the member states of the European Community (EC) was examined to identify exemplary and significant practices across the EC and determine the extent of the transferability of the identified exemplary training between and among the member states. In all,…

  7. Estimating emissions from the Indian transport sector with on-road fleet composition and traffic volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization and rising household incomes in India have led to growing transport demand, particularly during 1990-2010. Emissions from transportation have been implicated in air quality and climate effects. In this work, emissions of particulate matter (PM2.5 or mass concentration of particles smaller than 2.5 um diameter), black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), were estimated from the transport sector in India, using detailed technology divisions and regionally measured emission factors. Modes of transport addressed in this work include road transport, railways, shipping and aviation, but exclude off-road equipment like diesel machinery and tractors. For road transport, a vehicle fleet model was used, with parameters derived from vehicle sales, registration data, and surveyed age-profile. The fraction of extremely high emitting vehicles, or superemitters, which is highly uncertain, was assumed as 20%. Annual vehicle utilization estimates were based on regional surveys and user population. For railways, shipping and aviation, a top-down approach was applied, using nationally reported fuel consumption. Fuel use and emissions from on-road vehicles were disaggregated at the state level, with separate estimates for 30 cities in India. The on-road fleet was dominated by two-wheelers, followed by four-and three-wheelers, with new vehicles comprising the majority of the fleet for each vehicle type. A total of 276 (-156, 270) Gg/y PM2.5, 144 (-99, 207) Gg/y BC, and 95 (-64, 130) Gg/y OC emissions were estimated, with over 97% contribution from on-road transport. Largest emitters were identified as heavy duty diesel vehicles for PM2.5 and BC, but two-stroke vehicles and superemitters for OC. Old vehicles (pre-2005) contributed significantly more (∼70%) emissions, while their share in the vehicle fleet was smaller (∼45%). Emission estimates were sensitive to assumed superemitter fraction. Improvement of emission estimates requires on-road emission factor measurements

  8. Extending natural hazard impacts: an assessment of landslide disruptions on a national road transportation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postance, Benjamin; Hillier, John; Dijkstra, Tom; Dixon, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Disruptions to transportation networks by natural hazard events cause direct losses (e.g. by physical damage) and indirect socio-economic losses via travel delays and decreased transportation efficiency. The severity and spatial distribution of these losses varies according to user travel demands and which links, nodes or infrastructure assets are physically disrupted. Increasing transport network resilience, for example by targeted mitigation strategies, requires the identification of the critical network segments which if disrupted would incur undesirable or unacceptable socio-economic impacts. Here, these impacts are assessed on a national road transportation network by coupling hazard data with a transport network model. This process is illustrated using a case study of landslide hazards on the road network of Scotland. A set of possible landslide-prone road segments is generated using landslide susceptibility data. The results indicate that at least 152 road segments are susceptible to landslides, which could cause indirect economic losses exceeding £35 k for each day of closure. In addition, previous estimates for historic landslide events might be significant underestimates. For example, the estimated losses for the 2007 A83 ‘Rest and Be Thankful’ landslide are £80 k day-1, totalling £1.2 million over a 15 day closure, and are ˜60% greater than previous estimates. The spatial distribution of impact to road users is communicated in terms of ‘extended hazard impact footprints’. These footprints reveal previously unknown exposed communities and unanticipated spatial patterns of severe disruption. Beyond cost-benefit analyses for landslide mitigation efforts, the approach implemented is applicable to other natural hazards (e.g. flooding), combinations of hazards, or even other network disruption events.

  9. Transportation noise and annoyance related to road traffic in the French RECORD study.

    PubMed

    Méline, Julie; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thomas, Frédérique; Karusisi, Noëlla; Chaix, Basile

    2013-10-02

    Road traffic and related noise is a major source of annoyance and impairment to health in urban areas. Many areas exposed to road traffic noise are also exposed to rail and air traffic noise. The resulting annoyance may depend on individual/neighborhood socio-demographic factors. Nevertheless, few studies have taken into account the confounding or modifying factors in the relationship between transportation noise and annoyance due to road traffic. In this study, we address these issues by combining Geographic Information Systems and epidemiologic methods. Street network buffers with a radius of 500 m were defined around the place of residence of the 7290 participants of the RECORD Cohort in Ile-de-France. Estimated outdoor traffic noise levels (road, rail, and air separately) were assessed at each place of residence and in each of these buffers. Higher levels of exposure to noise were documented in low educated neighborhoods. Multilevel logistic regression models documented positive associations between road traffic noise and annoyance due to road traffic, after adjusting for individual/neighborhood socioeconomic conditions. There was no evidence that the association was of different magnitude when noise was measured at the place of residence or in the residential neighborhood. However, the strength of the association between neighborhood noise exposure and annoyance increased when considering a higher percentile in the distribution of noise in each neighborhood. Road traffic noise estimated at the place of residence and road traffic noise in the residential neighborhood (75th percentile) were independently associated with annoyance, when adjusted for each other. Interactions of effects indicated that the relationship between road traffic noise exposure in the residential neighborhood and annoyance was stronger in affluent and high educated neighborhoods. Overall, our findings suggest that it is useful to take into account (i) the exposure to transportation noise

  10. Using Massive Vehicle Positioning Data to Improve Control and Planning of Public Road Transport

    PubMed Central

    Padrón, Gabino; García, Carmelo R.; Quesada-Arencibia, A.; Alayón, Francisco; Pérez, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    This study describes a system for the automatic recording of positioning data for public transport vehicles used on roads. With the data provided by this system, transportation-regulatory authorities can control, verify and improve the routes that vehicles use, while also providing new data to improve the representation of the transportation network and providing new services in the context of intelligent metropolitan areas. The system is executed autonomously in the vehicles, by recording their massive positioning data and transferring them to remote data banks for subsequent processing. To illustrate the utility of the system, we present a case of application that consists of identifying the points at which vehicles stop systematically, which may be points of scheduled stops or points at which traffic signals or road topology force the vehicle to stop. This identification is performed using pattern recognition techniques. The system has been applied under real operating conditions, providing the results discussed in the present study. PMID:24763212

  11. Implications of diesel emissions control failures to emission factors and road transport NOx evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Papadimitriou, Giannis; Ligterink, Norbert; Hausberger, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Diesel NOx emissions have been at the forefront of research and regulation scrutiny as a result of failures of late vehicle technologies to deliver on-road emissions reductions. The current study aims at identifying the actual emissions levels of late light duty vehicle technologies, including Euro 5 and Euro 6 ones. Mean NOx emission factor levels used in the most popular EU vehicle emission models (COPERT, HBEFA and VERSIT+) are compared with latest emission information collected in the laboratory over real-world driving cycles and on the road using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS). The comparison shows that Euro 5 passenger car (PC) emission factors well reflect on road levels and that recently revealed emissions control failures do not call for any significant corrections. However Euro 5 light commercial vehicles (LCVs) and Euro 6 PCs in the 2014-2016 period exhibit on road emission levels twice as high as used in current models. Moreover, measured levels vary a lot for Euro 6 vehicles. Scenarios for future evolution of Euro 6 emission factors, reflecting different degree of effectiveness of emissions control regulations, show that total NOx emissions from diesel Euro 6 PC and LCV may correspond from 49% up to 83% of total road transport emissions in 2050. Unless upcoming and long term regulations make sure that light duty diesel NOx emissions are effectively addressed, this will have significant implications in meeting future air quality and national emissions ceilings targets.

  12. The Road to Stress-Free Science Fairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2006-01-01

    While few disagree that science fair projects have great potential for student learning, the preparation and execution of projects can be stressful for teachers, students, and parents alike. While working as a fourth-grade teacher, the author's goal was to provide students with a science fair experience minus the pressure of trying to figure out…

  13. Global Scenarios of Air Pollutant Emissions from Road Transport through to 2050

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents global scenarios of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) emissions from road transport through to 2050, taking into account the potential impacts of: (1) the timing of air pollutant emission regulation implementation in developing countries; (2) global CO2 mitigation policy implementation; and (3) vehicle cost assumptions, on study results. This is done by using a global energy system model treating the transport sector in detail. The major conclusions are the following. First, as long as non-developed countries adopt the same vehicle emission standards as in developed countries within a 30-year lag, global emissions of SO2, NOx, and PM from road vehicles decrease substantially over time. Second, light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty trucks make a large and increasing contribution to future global emissions of SO2, NOx, and PM from road vehicles. Third, the timing of air pollutant emission regulation implementation in developing countries has a large impact on future global emissions of SO2, NOx, and PM from road vehicles, whereas there is a possibility that global CO2 mitigation policy implementation has a comparatively small impact on them. PMID:21845172

  14. Minimum space allowance for transportation of swine by road.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Terry L; Brandt, Steve

    2002-03-01

    Space allowance for animals in transit is a consistent concern in many countries that are developing codes of practice and regulations to assure humane treatment of food producing animals. The minimum space allowance requirements for a broad size range of swine in transit has not been well described or scientifically substantiated. A maximal loading pressure recommendation for pigs weighing from 5 to 250 kg was derived by a consultative process involving the swine transportation industry, animal welfare groups, and a literature review. The recommended maximal loading pressure under ideal conditions for swine loaded in groups can be described as a hoerl model y = (37.53)(0.9969)w(W0.5008), where y = loading pressure in kg body weight/m2 and W = average animal body weight in kilograms.

  15. 25 CFR 170.405 - Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road construction and other projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... funds be used for road construction and other projects? Yes, any tribe can request to have its planning... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road construction and other projects? 170.405 Section 170.405 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. 25 CFR 170.405 - Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road construction and other projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... funds be used for road construction and other projects? Yes, any tribe can request to have its planning... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road construction and other projects? 170.405 Section 170.405 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. Adjustable shear stress erosion and transport flume

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Jepsen, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring the total erosion rate and downstream transport of suspended and bedload sediments using an adjustable shear stress erosion and transport (ASSET) flume with a variable-depth sediment core sample. Water is forced past a variable-depth sediment core sample in a closed channel, eroding sediments, and introducing suspended and bedload sediments into the flow stream. The core sample is continuously pushed into the flow stream, while keeping the surface level with the bottom of the channel. Eroded bedload sediments are transported downstream and then gravitationally separated from the flow stream into one or more quiescent traps. The captured bedload sediments (particles and aggregates) are weighed and compared to the total mass of sediment eroded, and also to the concentration of sediments suspended in the flow stream.

  18. Can we prevent road rage?

    PubMed

    Asbridge, Mark; Smart, Reginald G; Mann, Robert E

    2006-04-01

    Road rage has become a serious concern in many countries, and preventive efforts are required. This article reviews what can be done to prevent road rage by exploring potential prevention avenues in five areas. First, legal changes aimed at increasing the penalties for road rage behavior could be instituted, drawing on models from aggressive-driving or impaired-driving laws. A second approach would involve the adoption of court programs for convicted road ragers. Third, car redesign offers a means of reducing crime through environmental design. Fourth, mass media education could be implemented to inform drivers of the risk from road rage and how to avoid situations that facilitate road rage. Finally, prevention efforts could be directed to long-term societal changes that emphasize structural modifications, such as reducing congestion on the roads, reduced driver stress, or promoting public transportation. The strengths and weaknesses of these strategies are discussed.

  19. Air pollution and climate change co-benefit opportunities in the road transportation sector in Durban, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thambiran, Tirusha; Diab, Roseanne D.

    2011-05-01

    The contribution of the road transportation sector to emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases is a growing concern in developing countries. Emission control measures implemented within this sector can have varying counteracting influences. In the city of Durban, South Africa, the growing dependence on privately-owned motor vehicles and increasing usage of roads for freight transport have all resulted in significant air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, an emissions inventory was developed for the road transport sector and was used as a basis to explore intervention opportunities that are likely to reduce simultaneously, air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions in this sector. It was found that reducing the vehicle kilometres travelled by privately-owned motor vehicles and improving the efficiency of road freight transport offered the greatest potential for achieving co-benefits.

  20. Influence of Modern Stormwater Management Practices on Transport of Road Salt to Surface Waters.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, Joel W; Moore, Joel; Lev, Steven M; Casey, Ryan E; Ownby, David R; Flora, Robert F; Izzo, Grant

    2017-03-29

    Application of road salts in regions with colder climates is leading to ground and surface water contamination. However, we know little about how modern stormwater management practices affect the movement of road salt through urban watersheds. We investigated groundwater contamination and transport of road salts at two stormwater ponds in Baltimore County, Maryland. In association with the ponds, we documented a plume of contaminated groundwater that resulted in Cl(-) loadings to the adjacent stream of 6574 to 40 008 kg Cl(-) per winter, depending on winter snowfall. We also monitored Na(+) and Cl(-) ion concentrations and the temporal dynamics of conductivity at a range of stream sites in watersheds with and without stormwater management ponds. Streams draining watersheds with stormwater ponds had consistently higher conductivities and Cl(-) concentrations during base flow conditions and often exhibited greater peaks in Cl(-) and conductivity associated with winter storms and subsequent melting events, despite the degree of watershed development. Our results indicate that modern stormwater management practices are not protecting surface waters from road salt contamination and suggest they create contaminated plumes of groundwater that deliver Cl(-) and Na(+) to streams throughout the year.

  1. Road, rail, and air transportation noise in residential and workplace neighborhoods and blood pressure (RECORD Study)

    PubMed Central

    Méline, Julie; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thomas, Frederique; Chaix, Basile

    2015-01-01

    Associations between road traffic noise and hypertension have been repeatedly documented, whereas associations with rail or total road, rail, and air (RRA) traffic noise have rarely been investigated. Moreover, most studies of noise in the environment have only taken into account the residential neighborhood. Finally, few studies have taken into account individual/neighborhood confounders in the relationship between noise and hypertension. We performed adjusted multilevel regression analyses using data from the 7,290 participants of the RECORD Study to investigate the associations of outdoor road, rail, air, and RRA traffic noise estimated at the place of residence, at the workplace, and in the neighborhoods around the residence and workplace with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and hypertension. Associations were documented between higher outdoor RRA and road traffic noise estimated at the workplace and a higher SBP [+1.36 mm of mercury, 95% confidence interval (CI): +0.12, +2.60 for 65-80 dB(A) vs 30-45 dB(A)] and DBP [+1.07 (95% CI: +0.28, +1.86)], after adjustment for individual/neighborhood confounders. These associations remained after adjustment for risk factors of hypertension. Associations were documented neither with rail traffic noise nor for hypertension. Associations between transportation noise at the workplace and blood pressure (BP) may be attributable to the higher levels of road traffic noise at the workplace than at the residence. To better understand why only noise estimated at the workplace was associated with BP, our future work will combine Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking, assessment of noise levels with sensors, and ambulatory monitoring of BP. PMID:26356373

  2. Road, rail, and air transportation noise in residential and workplace neighborhoods and blood pressure (RECORD Study).

    PubMed

    Méline, Julie; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thomas, Frederique; Chaix, Basile

    2015-01-01

    Associations between road traffic noise and hypertension have been repeatedly documented, whereas associations with rail or total road, rail, and air (RRA) traffic noise have rarely been investigated. Moreover, most studies of noise in the environment have only taken into account the residential neighborhood. Finally, few studies have taken into account individual/neighborhood confounders in the relationship between noise and hypertension. We performed adjusted multilevel regression analyses using data from the 7,290 participants of the RECORD Study to investigate the associations of outdoor road, rail, air, and RRA traffic noise estimated at the place of residence, at the workplace, and in the neighborhoods around the residence and workplace with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and hypertension. Associations were documented between higher outdoor RRA and road traffic noise estimated at the workplace and a higher SBP [+1.36 mm of mercury, 95% confidence interval (CI): +0.12, +2.60 for 65-80 dB(A) vs 30-45 dB(A)] and DBP [+1.07 (95% CI: +0.28, +1.86)], after adjustment for individual/neighborhood confounders. These associations remained after adjustment for risk factors of hypertension. Associations were documented neither with rail traffic noise nor for hypertension. Associations between transportation noise at the workplace and blood pressure (BP) may be attributable to the higher levels of road traffic noise at the workplace than at the residence. To better understand why only noise estimated at the workplace was associated with BP, our future work will combine Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking, assessment of noise levels with sensors, and ambulatory monitoring of BP.

  3. Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients Injured in Road Traffic Crashes and Transported by Emergency Medical Services

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Ying; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Chuang, Jung-Fang; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the injury characteristics and mortality of patients transported by emergency medical services (EMS) and hospitalized for trauma following a road traffic crash, data obtained from the Trauma Registry System were retrospectively reviewed for trauma admissions between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013 in a Level I trauma center. Of 16,548 registered patients, 3978 and 1440 patients injured in road traffic crashes were transported to the emergency department by EMS and non-EMS, respectively. Patients transported by EMS had lower Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores and worse hemodynamic measures. Compared to patients transported by non-EMS, more patients transported by EMS required procedures (intubation, chest tube insertion, and blood transfusion) at the emergency department. They also sustained a higher injury severity, as measured by the injury severity score (ISS) and the new injury severity score (NISS). Lastly, in-hospital mortality was higher among the EMS than the non-EMS group (1.8% vs. 0.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). However, we found no statistically significant difference in the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for mortality among patients transported by EMS after adjustment for ISS (AOR 4.9, 95% CI 0.33–2.26), indicating that the higher incidence of mortality was likely attributed to the patients’ higher injury severity. In addition, after propensity score matching, logistic regression of 58 well-matched pairs did not show a significant influence of transportation by EMS on mortality (OR: 0.578, 95% CI: 0.132–2.541 p = 0.468). PMID:26907318

  4. The impact of European Registers of Road Transport Undertakings on security and enforcement of the system of digital tachograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rychter, M.; Rychter, R.

    2016-09-01

    Secure digital tachograph system is indisputably a means having the great influence on road safety, enforcement of the social conditions for drivers in road transport as well as supporting the fair competition between road transport undertakings. In order to better monitor the compliance of road transport with the rules in force, inter alia the provisions on usage the digital tachographs, the European Union regulation introduces the European Registers of Road Transport Undertakings (ERRU), a system that allows a better exchange of information between Member States. The main purpose of this analysis is to present the measures for enforcement the execution of the provisions on obligation of installation and usage of digital tachographs in road transport and for improving the security of data recorded within digital tachograph system especially through exchange of the information on the most serious infringements committed by hauliers in any Member State, which may lead to the loss of good repute and the e-document engineering method used by the ERRU system.

  5. The effects of road transportation on physiological responses and meat quality in sheep differing in age.

    PubMed

    Zhong, R Z; Liu, H W; Zhou, D W; Sun, H X; Zhao, C S

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 8 h of road transportation on physiological responses and meat quality traits of sheep at 6, 12, and 24 mo of age. Seventy-two male sheep were equally divided into transported (TRANS) and nontransported (CON) treatments (n = 36), and each treatment was subdivided into 3 groups by age (n = 12). Sheep in CON groups were weighed, blood sampled, and slaughtered, whereas sheep in TRANS groups were weighed, transported, blood sampled, and slaughtered to collect meat samples. The BW of sheep in TRANS groups was reduced significantly (P < 0.001) compared with CON sheep, and older sheep lost more BW than younger animals. However, dressing percentages of TRANS sheep were significantly (P < 0.001) greater than those of CON sheep. Some meat quality variables were affected by transportation, and responses of different ages of sheep varied. Total pigment content and lipid oxidation of LM and gluteus medius of TRANS sheep increased significantly (P < 0.001) compared with CON sheep. Cooking loss of LM and gluteus medius was influenced significantly (P < 0.01) by interaction effect between transportation and age, and the values for 6-mo-old TRANS sheep were less than those of CON sheep. Serum total protein (P = 0.036), globulin (P = 0.026), triglyceride (P < 0.001), and total cholesterol concentrations (P = 0.028) of TRANS sheep decreased compared with CON sheep. Serum NEFA concentration of TRANS sheep increased in relation to CON sheep with a significant interaction (P < 0.001) between transportation and age effect. Numbers of white blood cells were influenced (P = 0.002) by an interaction effect between transportation and age, and values for 6-mo-old sheep were not influenced by transportation. Numbers of platelets were influenced (P = 0.014) by age; they decreased more in 6-mo-old sheep than in older sheep. Transportation and age had no significant effects (P > 0.05) on packed cell volume and lymphocyte number. Serum creatine

  6. Characterization of road freight transportation and its impact on the national emission inventory in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. F.; Liu, H.; Man, H. Y.; He, K. B.

    2015-02-01

    Diesel trucks are major contributors of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and primary particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in the transportation sector. However, there are more obstacles to existing estimations of diesel-truck emissions compared with those of cars. The obstacles include both inappropriate methodology and missing basic data in China. According to our research, a large number of trucks are conducting long-distance intercity or interprovincial transportation. Thus, the method used by most existing inventories, based on local registration number, is inappropriate. A road emission intensity-based (REIB) approach is introduced in this research instead of registration-population-based approach. To provide efficient data for the REIB approach, 1060 questionnaire responses and approximately 1.7 million valid seconds of onboard GPS monitoring data were collected in China. The estimated NOx and PM2.5 emissions from diesel freight trucks in China were 5.0 (4.8-7.2) million tonnes and 0.20 (0.17-0.22) million tonnes, respectively, in 2011. The province-based emission inventory is also established using the REIB approach. It was found that the driving conditions on different types of road have significant impacts on the emission levels of freight trucks. The largest differences among the emission factors (in g km-1) on different roads exceed 70 and 50% for NOx and PM2.5, respectively. A region with more intercity freeways or national roads tends to have more NOx emissions, while urban streets play a more important role in primary PM2.5 emissions from freight trucks. Compared with the inventory of the Ministry of Environment Protection, which allocates emissions according to local truck registration number and neglects interregional long-distance transport trips, the differences for NOx and PM2.5 are +28 and -57%, respectively. The REIB approach matches better with traffic statistical data on a provincial level. Furthermore, the different driving conditions on the

  7. Characterization of road freight transportation and its impact on the national emission inventory in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. F.; Liu, H.; Man, H. Y.; He, K. B.

    2014-06-01

    Mobile source emission inventories serve as critical input for atmospheric chemical transport models, which are used to simulate air quality and understand the role of mobile source emissions. The significance of mobile sources is even more important in China because the country has the largest vehicle population in the world, and that population continues to grow rapidly. Estimating emissions from diesel trucks is a critical work in mobile source emission inventories due to the importance and difficulties associated with estimating emissions from diesel trucks. Although diesel trucks are major contributors of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and primary particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), there are still more obstacles on the existing estimation of diesel truck emissions compared with that of cars; long-range freight transportation activities are complicated, and much of the basic data remain unclear. Most of existing inventories were based on local registration number. However, according to our research, a large number of trucks are conducting long-distance inter-city or inter province transportation. Instead of the local registration number based approach, a road emission intensity-based (REIB) approach is introduced in this research. To provide efficient data for the REIB approach, 1060 questionnaire responses and approximately 1.7 million valid seconds of onboard GPS monitoring data were collected. Both the questionnaire answers and GPS monitoring results indicated that the driving conditions on different types of road have significant impacts on the emission levels of freight trucks. We present estimated emissions of NOx and primary PM2.5 from diesel freight trucks for China in 2011. Using the REIB approach, the activity level and distribution data are obtained from the questionnaire answers. Emission factors are calculated with the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model that interpolated local on-board measurement results in China according to the GPS

  8. Modeling hydrology and reactive transport in roads: the effect of cracks, the edge, and contaminant properties.

    PubMed

    Apul, Defne S; Gardner, Kevin H; Eighmy, T Taylor

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this research was to provide a tool for regulators to evaluate the groundwater contamination from the use of virgin and secondary materials in road construction. A finite element model, HYDRUS2D, was used to evaluate generic scenarios for secondary material use in base layers. Use of generic model results for particular applications was demonstrated through a steel slag example. The hydrology and reactive transport of contaminants were modeled in a two-dimensional cross section of a road. Model simulations showed that in an intact pavement, lateral velocities from the edge towards the centerline may transport contaminants in the base layer. The dominant transport mechanisms are advection closer to the edge and diffusion closer to the centerline. A shoulder joint in the pavement allows 0.03 to 0.45 m(3)/day of infiltration per meter of joint length as a function of the base and subgrade hydrology and the rain intensity. Scenario simulations showed that salts in the base layer of pavements are depleted by 99% in the first 20 years, whereas the metals may not reach the groundwater in 20 years at any significant concentrations if the pavement is built on adsorbing soils.

  9. Modeling hydrology and reactive transport in roads: The effect of cracks, the edge, and contaminant properties

    SciTech Connect

    Apul, Defne S. Gardner, Kevin H. Eighmy, T. Taylor

    2007-07-01

    The goal of this research was to provide a tool for regulators to evaluate the groundwater contamination from the use of virgin and secondary materials in road construction. A finite element model, HYDRUS2D, was used to evaluate generic scenarios for secondary material use in base layers. Use of generic model results for particular applications was demonstrated through a steel slag example. The hydrology and reactive transport of contaminants were modeled in a two-dimensional cross section of a road. Model simulations showed that in an intact pavement, lateral velocities from the edge towards the centerline may transport contaminants in the base layer. The dominant transport mechanisms are advection closer to the edge and diffusion closer to the centerline. A shoulder joint in the pavement allows 0.03 to 0.45 m{sup 3}/day of infiltration per meter of joint length as a function of the base and subgrade hydrology and the rain intensity. Scenario simulations showed that salts in the base layer of pavements are depleted by 99% in the first 20 years, whereas the metals may not reach the groundwater in 20 years at any significant concentrations if the pavement is built on adsorbing soils.

  10. The Physics of Traffic Congestion and Road Pricing in Transportation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, David

    2010-03-01

    This presentation develops congestion theory and congestion pricing theory from its micro- foundations, the interaction of two or more vehicles. Using game theory, with a two- player game it is shown that the emergence of congestion depends on the players' relative valuations of early arrival, late arrival, and journey delay. Congestion pricing can be used as a cooperation mechanism to minimize total costs (if returned to the players). The analysis is then extended to the case of the three- player game, which illustrates congestion as a negative externality imposed on players who do not themselves contribute to it. A multi-agent model of travelers competing to utilize a roadway in time and space is presented. To realize the spillover effect among travelers, N-player games are constructed in which the strategy set includes N+1 strategies. We solve the N-player game (for N = 7) and find Nash equilibria if they exist. This model is compared to the bottleneck model. The results of numerical simulation show that the two models yield identical results in terms of lowest total costs and marginal costs when a social optimum exists. Moving from temporal dynamics to spatial complexity, using consistent agent- based techniques, we model the decision-making processes of users and infrastructure owner/operators to explore the welfare consequence of price competition, capacity choice, and product differentiation on congested transportation networks. Component models include: (1) An agent-based travel demand model wherein each traveler has learning capabilities and unique characteristics (e.g. value of time); (2) Econometric facility provision cost models; and (3) Representations of road authorities making pricing and capacity decisions. Different from small-network equilibrium models in prior literature, this agent- based model is applicable to pricing and investment analyses on large complex networks. The subsequent economic analysis focuses on the source, evolution

  11. Comparison of minimum space allowance standards for transportation of cattle by road from 8 authorities.

    PubMed

    Whiting, T L

    2000-11-01

    Space allowance for animals in transit is a consistent concern in many countries developing codes of practice and regulations to assure humane treatment of food producing animals. Describing minimum space allowance requirements for cattle in transit has proven to be difficult, as the space required increases as the animal grows. Loading pressure, defined as weight of live animal per unit area, has proven to be a clear method of communicating with transporters and inspection staff what the maximum safe stocking limit is based on individual animal weight. The loading density recommendations in the Canadian code of practice for beef cattle are compared with other standards by using loading pressure charts as a visual aid. Loading pressure charts are recommended in preference to a tabular format to describe the minimal space allowed per animal for cattle transported by road.

  12. Risk reduction in road and rail LPG transportation by passive fire protection.

    PubMed

    Paltrinieri, Nicola; Landucci, Gabriele; Molag, Menso; Bonvicini, Sarah; Spadoni, Gigliola; Cozzani, Valerio

    2009-08-15

    The potential reduction of risk in LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) road transport due to the adoption of passive fire protections was investigated. Experimental data available for small scale vessels fully engulfed by a fire were extended to real scale road and rail tankers through a finite elements model. The results of mathematical simulations of real scale fire engulfment scenarios that may follow accidents involving LPG tankers proved the effectiveness of the thermal protections in preventing the "fired" BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion) scenario. The presence of a thermal coating greatly increases the "time to failure", providing a time lapse that in the European experience may be considered sufficient to allow the start of effective mitigation actions by fire brigades. The results obtained were used to calculate the expected reduction of individual and societal risk due to LPG transportation in real case scenarios. The analysis confirmed that the introduction of passive fire protections turns out in a significant reduction of risk, up to an order of magnitude in the case of individual risk and of about 50% if the expectation value is considered. Thus, the adoption of passive fire protections, not compulsory in European regulations, may be an effective technical measure for risk reduction, and may contribute to achieve the control of "major accidents hazards" cited by the European legislation.

  13. Hydrogeologic Processes Impacting Storage, Fate, and Transport of Chloride from Road Salt in Urban Riparian Aquifers.

    PubMed

    Ledford, Sarah H; Lautz, Laura K; Stella, John C

    2016-05-17

    Detrimental effects of road salt runoff on urban streams are compounded by its facilitated routing via storm drains, ditches, and flood channels. Elevated in-stream salinity may also result from seasonal storage and discharge of chloride in groundwater, and previous work has hypothesized that groundwater discharge to streams may have the effect of diluting stream chloride concentrations in winter and enriching them in summer. However, the hydrogeological processes controlling these patterns have not been thoroughly investigated. Our research focuses on an urban stream and floodplain system in Syracuse, NY, to understand how groundwater and surface water exchange impacts chloride storage, fate, and transport. We created a 3D groundwater flow and solute transport model of the floodplain, calibrated to the distributions of floodplain hydraulic heads and groundwater fluxes to the stream throughout the reach. We used a sensitivity analysis to calibrate and evaluate the influence of model parameters, and compared model outputs to field observations. The main source mechanism of chloride to the floodplain aquifer was high-concentration, overbank flood events in winter that directly recharged groundwater. The modeled residence time and storage capacity of the aquifer indicate that restoration projects designed to promote floodplain reconnection and the frequency of overbank flooding in winter have the potential to temporarily store chloride in groundwater, buffer surface water concentrations, and reduce stream concentrations following periods of road salting.

  14. Rapid Assessment of Environmental Health Impacts for Policy Support: The Example of Road Transport in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Briggs, David; Mason, Kylie; Borman, Barry

    2015-12-22

    An integrated environmental health impact assessment of road transport in New Zealand was carried out, using a rapid assessment. The disease and injury burden was assessed from traffic-related accidents, air pollution, noise and physical (in)activity, and impacts attributed back to modal source. In total, road transport was found to be responsible for 650 deaths in 2012 (2.1% of annual mortality): 308 from traffic accidents, 283 as a result of air pollution, and 59 from noise. Together with morbidity, these represent a total burden of disease of 26,610 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). An estimated 40 deaths and 1874 DALYs were avoided through active transport. Cars are responsible for about 52% of attributable deaths, but heavy goods vehicles (6% of vehicle kilometres travelled, vkt) accounted for 21% of deaths. Motorcycles (1 per cent of vkt) are implicated in nearly 8% of deaths. Overall, impacts of traffic-related air pollution and noise are low compared to other developed countries, but road accident rates are high. Results highlight the need for policies targeted at road accidents, and especially at heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles, along with more general action to reduce the reliance on private road transport. The study also provides a framework for national indicator development.

  15. Rapid Assessment of Environmental Health Impacts for Policy Support: The Example of Road Transport in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, David; Mason, Kylie; Borman, Barry

    2015-01-01

    An integrated environmental health impact assessment of road transport in New Zealand was carried out, using a rapid assessment. The disease and injury burden was assessed from traffic-related accidents, air pollution, noise and physical (in)activity, and impacts attributed back to modal source. In total, road transport was found to be responsible for 650 deaths in 2012 (2.1% of annual mortality): 308 from traffic accidents, 283 as a result of air pollution, and 59 from noise. Together with morbidity, these represent a total burden of disease of 26,610 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). An estimated 40 deaths and 1874 DALYs were avoided through active transport. Cars are responsible for about 52% of attributable deaths, but heavy goods vehicles (6% of vehicle kilometres travelled, vkt) accounted for 21% of deaths. Motorcycles (1 per cent of vkt) are implicated in nearly 8% of deaths. Overall, impacts of traffic-related air pollution and noise are low compared to other developed countries, but road accident rates are high. Results highlight the need for policies targeted at road accidents, and especially at heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles, along with more general action to reduce the reliance on private road transport. The study also provides a framework for national indicator development. PMID:26703699

  16. Guilt is associated with acute stress symptoms in children after road traffic accidents

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Ann-Christin; Zehnder, Daniel; Landolt, Markus A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although previous research has consistently found considerable rates of acute stress disorder (ASD) in children with accidental injuries, knowledge about determinants of ASD remains incomplete. Guilt is a common reaction among children after a traumatic event and has been shown to contribute to posttraumatic stress disorder. However, its relationship to ASD has never been examined. Objective This study assessed the prevalence of ASD in children and adolescents following road traffic accidents (RTAs). Moreover, the association between peritraumatic guilt and ASD was investigated relying on current cognitive theories of posttraumatic stress and controlling for female sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES), injury severity, inpatient treatment, pretrauma psychopathology, and maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Methods One hundred and one children and adolescents (aged 7–16 years) were assessed by means of a clinical interview approximately 10 days after an RTA. Mothers were assessed by questionnaires. Results Three participants (3.0%) met diagnostic criteria for full ASD according to DSM-IV, and 17 (16.8%) for subsyndromal ASD. In a multivariate regression model, guilt was found to be a significant predictor of ASD severity. Female sex, outpatient treatment, and maternal PTSS also predicted ASD severity. Child age, SES, injury severity, and pretraumatic child psychopathology were not related to ASD severity. Conclusions Future research should examine the association between peritraumatic guilt and acute stress symptoms in more detail. Moreover, guilt appraisals in the acute phase after an accident might be a relevant target for clinical attention. PMID:26514158

  17. Cost-benefit analysis of passive fire protections in road LPG transportation.

    PubMed

    Paltrinieri, Nicola; Bonvicini, Sarah; Spadoni, Gigliola; Cozzani, Valerio

    2012-02-01

    The cost-benefit evaluation of passive fire protection adoption in the road transport of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was investigated. In a previous study, mathematical simulations of real scale fire scenarios proved the effectiveness of passive fire protections in preventing the "fired" boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), thus providing a significant risk reduction. In the present study the economical aspects of the adoption of fire protections are analyzed and an approach to cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is proposed. The CBA model is based on the comparison of the risk reduction due to fire protections (expressed in monetary terms by the value of a statistical life) and the cost of the application of fire protections to a fleet of tankers. Different types of fire protections were considered, as well as the possibility to apply protections to the entire fleet or only to a part of it. The application of the proposed model to a real-life case study is presented and discussed. Results demonstrate that the adoption of passive fire protections on road tankers, though not compulsory in Europe, can be economically feasible, thus representing a concrete measure to achieve control of the "major hazard accidents" cited by the European legislation.

  18. Rules of the road: A qualitative and quantitative synthesis of large wood transport through drainage networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Natalie; Wohl, Ellen

    2017-02-01

    To effectively manage wood in rivers, we need a better understanding of wood mobility within river networks. Here, we review primarily field-based (and some numerical) studies of wood transport. We distinguish small, medium, large, and great rivers based on wood piece dimensions relative to channel and flow dimensions and dominant controls on wood transport. We suggest further identification and designation of wood transport regimes as a useful way to characterize spatial-temporal network heterogeneity and to conceptualize the primary controls on wood mobility in diverse river segments. We draw analogies between wood and bedload transport, including distinguishing Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches, exploring transport capacity, and quantifying thresholds of wood mobility. We identify mobility envelopes for remobilization of wood with relation to increasing peak discharges, stream size, and dimensionless log lengths. Wood transport in natural channels exhibits high spatial and temporal variability, with discontinuities along the channel network at bankfull flow and when log lengths equal channel widths. Although median mobilization rates increase with increasing channel size, maximum mobilization rates are greatest in medium-sized channels. Most wood is transported during relatively infrequent high flows, but flows under bankfull can transport up to 30% of stored wood. We use conceptual models of dynamic equilibrium of wood in storage and of spiralling wood transport paths through drainage networks, as well as a metaphor of traffic on a road, to explore discontinuous wood movement through a river network. The primary limitations to describing wood transport are inappropriate time scales of observation and lack of sufficient data on mobility from diverse rivers. Improving models of wood flux requires better characterization of average step lengths within the lifetime travel path of a piece of wood. We suggest that future studies focus on: (i) continuous or high

  19. Evaluation of the stress response of heifers during transportation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the stress associated with transportation; 22 heifers (326 ± 47 kg) were randomly assigned to a control (Con) or transport (Tran) group. On d 0, 12 h prior to the transportation, heifers were weighed and fitted with an indwelling rectal temperature (RT) probe, jugular catheters, and hear...

  20. Economic and Social Aspects of Applying Biodiesel Fuel in Road Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukljaš Skočibušić, Mihaela; Jolić, Natalija; Bukljaš, Zdravko

    The world trend in automotive industry represents the improvement of the existing vehicle power plants and their further development as well as the use of various alternative fuels. Such tendencies should not be considered only from an entirely technical aspect, but also from the economic, social and strategic aspects of the modern society. In this sense it is necessary to give priority to biodiesel fuel. The production of biodiesel fuel has to be developed in compliance with the increasingly severe exhaust emission standards in designing and realization of road transport means. From the economic aspect at macro-economic level, the development of biodiesel will reflect on the condition of industrial production, employment, additional inflow of financial means into agriculture and the economic development of rural areas, as well as the foreign currency reserves of a country along with the reduction in the dependence of macroeconomic parameters on the external factors.

  1. Transport of hydraulic fracturing waste from Pennsylvania wells: A county-level analysis of road use and associated road repair costs.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Lauren A; Maloney, Kelly O

    2016-10-01

    Pennsylvania's rapid unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development-from a single well in 2004 to more than 6700 wells in 2013-has dramatically increased UOG waste transport by heavy trucks. This study quantified the amount of UOG waste and the distance it traveled between wells and disposal facilities on each type of road in each county between July 2010 and December 2013. In addition, the study estimated the associated financial costs to each county's road infrastructure over that period. We found that UOG wells produced a median wastewater volume of 1294 m(3) and a median of 89,267 kg of solid waste. The median number of waste-transport truck trips per well was 122. UOG wells existed in 38 Pennsylvania counties, but we estimated trucks transporting well waste traveled through 132 counties, including counties in West Virginia, Ohio, and New York. Median travel distance varied by disposal type, from 106 km to centralized treatment facilities up to 237 km to injection wells. Local roads experienced the greatest amount of truck traffic and associated costs ($1.1-6.5 M) and interstates, the least ($0.3-1.6 M). Counties with oil and gas development experienced the most truck traffic and incurred the highest associated roadway costs. However, many counties outside the active development area also incurred roadway repair costs, highlighting the extension of UOG development's spatial footprint beyond the active development area. An online data visualization tool is available here: www.nicholasinstitute.duke.edu/transportation-of-hydraulic-fracturing-waste.

  2. Transport of hydraulic fracturing waste from Pennsylvania wells: A county-level analysis of road use and associated road repair costs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, Lauren A.; Maloney, Kelly O.

    2016-01-01

    Pennsylvania’s rapid unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development—from a single well in 2004 to more than 6700 wells in 2013—has dramatically increased UOG waste transport by heavy trucks. This study quantified the amount of UOG waste and the distance it traveled between wells and disposal facilities on each type of road in each county between July 2010 and December 2013. In addition, the study estimated the associated financial costs to each county’s road infrastructure over that period. We found that UOG wells produced a median wastewater volume of 1294 m3 and a median of 89,267 kg of solid waste. The median number of waste-transport truck trips per well was 122. UOG wells existed in 38 Pennsylvania counties, but we estimated trucks transporting well waste traveled through 132 counties, including counties in West Virginia, Ohio, and New York. Median travel distance varied by disposal type, from 106 km to centralized treatment facilities up to 237 km to injection wells. Local roads experienced the greatest amount of truck traffic and associated costs ($1.1–6.5 M) and interstates, the least ($0.3–1.6 M). Counties with oil and gas development experienced the most truck traffic and incurred the highest associated roadway costs. However, many counties outside the active development area also incurred roadway repair costs, highlighting the extension of UOG development’s spatial footprint beyond the active development area. An online data visualization tool is available here: www.nicholasinstitute.duke.edu/transportation-of-hydraulic-fracturing-waste.

  3. Potential emissions reduction in road transport sector using biofuel in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaquat, A. M.; Kalam, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Jayed, M. H.

    2010-10-01

    Use of biofuels as transport fuel has high prospect in developing countries as most of them are facing severe energy insecurity and have strong agricultural sector to support production of biofuels from energy crops. Rapid urbanization and economic growth of developing countries have spurred air pollution especially in road transport sector. The increasing demand of petroleum based fuels and their combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines have adverse effect on air quality, human health and global warming. Air pollution causes respiratory problems, adverse effects on pulmonary function, leading to increased sickness absenteeism and induces high health care service costs, premature birth and even mortality. Production of biofuels promises substantial improvement in air quality through reducing emission from biofuel operated automotives. Some of the developing countries have started biofuel production and utilization as transport fuel in local market. This paper critically reviews the facts and prospects of biofuel production and utilization in developing countries to reduce environmental pollution and petro dependency. Expansion of biofuel industries in developing countries can create more jobs and increase productivity by non-crop marginal lands and wastelands for energy crops plantation. Contribution of India and China in biofuel industry in production and utilization can dramatically change worldwide biofuel market and leap forward in carbon cut as their automotive market is rapidly increasing with a souring proportional rise of GHG emissions.

  4. High resolution inventory of GHG emissions of the road transport sector in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puliafito, Salvador Enrique; Allende, David; Pinto, Sebastián; Castesana, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Air quality models require the use of extensive background information, such as land use and topography maps, meteorological data and emission inventories of pollutant sources. This challenge increases when considering the vehicular sources. The available international databases have uneven resolution for all countries including some areas with low spatial resolution associated with large districts (several hundred km). A simple procedure is proposed in order to develop an inventory of emissions with high resolution (9 km) for the transport sector based on a geographic information system using readily available information applied to Argentina. The basic variable used is the vehicle activity (vehicle - km transported) estimated from fuel consumption and fuel efficiency. This information is distributed to a spatial grid according to a road hierarchy and segment length assigned to each street within the cell. Information on fuel is obtained from district consumption, but weighted using the DMSP-OLS satellite "Earth at night" image. The uncertainty of vehicle estimation and emission calculations was tested using sensitivity Montecarlo analysis. The resulting inventory is calibrated using annual average daily traffic counts in around 850 measuring points all over the country leading to an uncertainty of 20%. Uncertainties in the emissions calculation at pixel level can be estimated to be less than 12%. Comparison with international databases showed a better spatial distribution of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in the transport sector, but similar total national values.

  5. 19 CFR 18.4a - Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... under customs seal; requirements. 18.4a Section 18.4a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... General Provisions § 18.4a Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal... under Customs seal (see § 18.4) if (i) durably marked with the name and address of the...

  6. 19 CFR 18.4a - Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... under customs seal; requirements. 18.4a Section 18.4a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... General Provisions § 18.4a Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal... under Customs seal (see § 18.4) if (i) durably marked with the name and address of the...

  7. 19 CFR 18.4a - Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... under customs seal; requirements. 18.4a Section 18.4a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... General Provisions § 18.4a Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal... under Customs seal (see § 18.4) if (i) durably marked with the name and address of the...

  8. 19 CFR 18.4a - Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... under customs seal; requirements. 18.4a Section 18.4a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... General Provisions § 18.4a Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal... under Customs seal (see § 18.4) if (i) durably marked with the name and address of the...

  9. Assessment of the Electrification of the Road Transport Sector on Net System Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, James

    As worldwide environmental consciousness grows, electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming more common and despite the incredible potential for emissions reduction, the net emissions of the power system supply side plus the transportation system are dependent on the generation matrix. Current EV charging patterns tend to correspond directly with the peak consumption hours and have the potential to increase demand sharply allowing for only a small penetration of Electric Vehicles. Using the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) data a model is created for vehicle travel patterns using trip chaining. Charging schemes are modeled to include uncontrolled residential, uncontrolled residential/industrial charging, optimized charging and optimized charging with vehicle to grid discharging. A charging profile is then determined based upon the assumption that electric vehicles would directly replace a percentage of standard petroleum-fueled vehicles in a known system. Using the generation profile for the specified region, a unit commitment model is created to establish not only the generation dispatch, but also the net CO2 profile for variable EV penetrations and charging profiles. This model is then used to assess the impact of the electrification of the road transport sector on the system net emissions.

  10. Quantitative Risk Analysis on the Transport of Dangerous Goods Through a Bi-Directional Road Tunnel.

    PubMed

    Caliendo, Ciro; De Guglielmo, Maria Luisa

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative risk analysis (QRA) regarding dangerous goods vehicles (DGVs) running through road tunnels was set up. Peak hourly traffic volumes (VHP), percentage of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs), and failure of the emergency ventilation system were investigated in order to assess their impact on the risk level. The risk associated with an alternative route running completely in the open air and passing through a highly populated urban area was also evaluated. The results in terms of social risk, as F/N curves, show an increased risk level with an increase the VHP, the percentage of HGVs, and a failure of the emergency ventilation system. The risk curves of the tunnel investigated were found to lie both above and below those of the alternative route running in the open air depending on the type of dangerous goods transported. In particular, risk was found to be greater in the tunnel for two fire scenarios (no explosion). In contrast, the risk level for the exposed population was found to be greater for the alternative route in three possible accident scenarios associated with explosions and toxic releases. Therefore, one should be wary before stating that for the transport of dangerous products an itinerary running completely in the open air might be used if the latter passes through a populated area. The QRA may help decisionmakers both to implement additional safety measures and to understand whether to allow, forbid, or limit circulation of DGVs.

  11. On-road PM2.5 pollution exposure in multiple transport microenvironments in Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Rahul; Gani, Shahzad; Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Wilson, Daniel; Tiwari, Geetam

    2015-12-01

    PM2.5 pollution in Delhi averaged 150 μg/m3 from 2012 through 2014, which is 15 times higher than the World Health Organization's annual-average guideline. For this setting, we present on-road exposure of PM2.5 concentrations for 11 transport microenvironments along a fixed 8.3-km arterial route, during morning rush hour. The data collection was carried out using a portable TSI DustTrak DRX 8433 aerosol monitor, between January and May (2014). The monthly-average measured ambient concentrations varied from 130 μg/m3 to 250 μg/m3. The on-road PM2.5 concentrations exceeded the ambient measurements by an average of 40% for walking, 10% for cycle, 30% for motorised two wheeler (2W), 30% for open-windowed (OW) car, 30% for auto rickshaw, 20% for air-conditioned as well as for OW bus, 20% for bus stop, and 30% for underground metro station. On the other hand, concentrations were lower by 50% inside air-conditioned (AC) car and 20% inside the metro rail carriage. We find that the percent exceedance for open modes (cycle, auto rickshaw, 2W, OW car, and OW bus) reduces non-linearly with increasing ambient concentration. The reduction is steeper at concentrations lower than 150 μg/m3 than at higher concentrations. After accounting for air inhalation rate and speed of travel, PM2.5 mass uptake per kilometer during cycling is 9 times of AC car, the mode with the lowest exposure. At current level of concentrations, an hour of cycling in Delhi during morning rush-hour period results in PM2.5 dose which is 40% higher than an entire-day dose in cities like Tokyo, London, and New York, where ambient concentrations range from 10 to 20 μg/m3.

  12. Stress and Auditory Responses of the Otophysan Fish, Cyprinella venusta, to Road Traffic Noise

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Noise pollution from anthropogenic sources is an increasingly problematic challenge faced by many taxa, including fishes. Recent studies demonstrate that road traffic noise propagates effectively from bridge crossings into surrounding freshwater ecosystems; yet, its effect on the stress response and auditory function of freshwater stream fishes is unexamined. The blacktail shiner (Cyprinella venusta) was used as a model to investigate the degree to which traffic noise impacts stress and hearing in exposed fishes. Fish were exposed to an underwater recording of traffic noise played at approximately 140 dB re 1 μPa. Waterborne cortisol samples were collected and quantified using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Auditory thresholds were assessed in control and traffic exposed groups by measuring auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). After acute exposure to traffic noise, fish exhibited a significant elevation in cortisol levels. Individuals exposed to 2 hours of traffic noise playback had elevated hearing thresholds at 300 and 400 Hz, corresponding to the most sensitive bandwidth for this species. PMID:26398211

  13. Osmotic stress alters chromatin condensation and nucleocytoplasmic transport

    SciTech Connect

    Finan, John D.; Leddy, Holly A.; Guilak, Farshid

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} The rate of nucleocytoplasmic transport increases under hyper-osmotic stress. {yields} The mechanism is a change in nuclear geometry, not a change in permeability of the nuclear envelope. {yields} Intracytoplasmic but not intranuclear diffusion is sensitive to osmotic stress. {yields} Pores in the chromatin of the nucleus enlarge under hyper-osmotic stress. -- Abstract: Osmotic stress is a potent regulator of biological function in many cell types, but its mechanism of action is only partially understood. In this study, we examined whether changes in extracellular osmolality can alter chromatin condensation and the rate of nucleocytoplasmic transport, as potential mechanisms by which osmotic stress can act. Transport of 10 kDa dextran was measured both within and between the nucleus and the cytoplasm using two different photobleaching methods. A mathematical model was developed to describe fluorescence recovery via nucleocytoplasmic transport. As osmolality increased, the diffusion coefficient of dextran decreased in the cytoplasm, but not the nucleus. Hyper-osmotic stress decreased nuclear size and increased nuclear lacunarity, indicating that while the nucleus was getting smaller, the pores and channels interdigitating the chromatin had expanded. The rate of nucleocytoplasmic transport was increased under hyper-osmotic stress but was insensitive to hypo-osmotic stress, consistent with the nonlinear osmotic properties of the nucleus. The mechanism of this osmotic sensitivity appears to be a change in the size and geometry of the nucleus, resulting in a shorter effective diffusion distance for the nucleus. These results may explain physical mechanisms by which osmotic stress can influence intracellular signaling pathways that rely on nucleocytoplasmic transport.

  14. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system. Quarterly report, November 1995--January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system has been designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganics. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site`s specific needs. After evaluating the needs of the DOE field activities and investigating alternative system designs, the modules included in the RTAL are: radioanalytical laboratory; organic chemical analysis laboratory; inorganic chemical analysis laboratory; aquatic biomonitoring laboratory; field analytical laboratory; robotics base station; decontamination/sample screening module; operations control center; and protected living quarters. The goal of the integrated laboratory system is a sample throughput of 20 samples per day, providing a full range of analyses on each sample within 16 hours (after sample preparation) with high accuracy and high quality assurance. The RTAL will provide the DOE with very significant savings in terms of both cost and time. This will accelerate and improve the efficiency of clean-up and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex. At the same time, the system will provide full protection for operating personnel and sensitive analytical equipment against the environmental extremes and hazards encountered at DOE sites.

  15. Characterization of chloride transport in the unsaturated zone near salted road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lax, Samanta; Peterson, Eric W.

    2009-09-01

    The application of road salts as deicing agents contributes to the anthropogenic loading of chloride (Cl-) on the environment. Using a 2D solute model, the potential of the unsaturated zone to serve as a reservoir and the mechanisms controlling the movement of Cl- were examined. Physical properties and initial pore-water Cl- concentrations were derived from an array of soil borings. Initial pore-water concentrations show the presence of a Cl- “slug” approximately 0.75 m below the surface. Simulations show that within the unsaturated zone, Cl- transport is predominantly vertical, driven by molecular diffusion. After a 1-year simulation, a Cl- slug similar to the background observation was noted. While Cl- is retained in the unsaturated zone, a net loss of Cl- from the unsaturated zone was simulated for the first 10 years. In year 11, an equilibrium between the Cl- input and output is achieved. The presence of Cl- in the unsaturated zone becomes a long-term source of chloride to the groundwater, which eventually discharges into the surface water. Historically, surface water chemistry data support the continual discharge of chloride to the surface water in the area, further supporting the hypothesis that the unsaturated zone serves as a Cl- reservoir.

  16. Transport of torsional stress in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Philip

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that transcription can induce torsional stress in DNA, affecting the activity of nearby genes or even inducing structural transitions in the DNA duplex. It has long been assumed that the generation of significant torsional stress requires the DNA to be anchored, forming a limited topological domain, because otherwise it would spin almost freely about its axis. Previous estimates of the rotational drag have, however, neglected the role of small natural bends in the helix backbone. We show how these bends can increase the drag several thousandfold relative to prior estimates, allowing significant torsional stress even in linear unanchored DNA. The model helps explain several puzzling experimental results on structural transitions induced by transcription of DNA. PMID:10588707

  17. Regional intensive care transports: a prospective analysis of distance, time and cost for road, helicopter and fixed-wing ambulances

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are three different types of ambulance systems, all of which can manage the same secondary intensive care patient transport mission: road ambulance, rotor-wing ambulance, and fixed-wing ambulance. We hypothesized that costs for specific transport distances would differ between systems. We aimed to analyze distances and observed times for ambulance intensive care secondary transport missions together with system costs to assess this. Methods We prospectively collected data for consecutive urgent intensive care transports into the regional tertiary care hospital in the northern region of Sweden. Distances and transport times were gathered, and a cost model was generated based on these together with fixed and operating costs from the three different ambulance systems. Distance-cost and time–cost estimations were then generated for each transport system. Results Road ambulance cost relatively less for shorter distances (within 250 kilometers/155 miles) but were relatively time ineffective. The rotor-wing systems were most expensive regardless of distance; but were most time-effective up to 400–500 km (248–310 miles). Fixed-wing systems were more cost-effective for longer distance (300 km/186 miles), and time effective for transports over 500 km (310 miles). Conclusions In summary, based on an economic model developed from observed regional ICU patient transports, and cost estimations, different ambulance system cost-distances could be compared. Distance-cost and time results show that helicopters can be effective up to moderate ICU transport distances (400–500), though are expensive to operate. For longer ICU patient transports, fixed-wing transport systems are both cost and time effective compared to helicopter-based systems. PMID:24902480

  18. Emissions of air pollutants from road transport in Lebanon and other countries in the Middle East region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waked, Antoine; Afif, Charbel

    2012-12-01

    Road transport is a major contributor to pollutant emissions in the Middle East region (MEA). Emissions originating from this sector have a significant impact on the atmosphere, health and the climate change. Identification and quantification of these emissions in this region is of great importance in order to develop emissions reductions strategies. For this purpose and because a detailed emission inventory for road transport is nonexistent for Lebanon (a small developing country in the MEA region) and for its capital city Beirut, a spatially-resolved and temporally-allocated emission inventory for road transport was developed for Lebanon and for the city of Beirut using a bottom-up approach where possible. In order to compare emissions between developed and non-developed cities on the Mediterranean basin, road transport emissions originating in normal (February-June and September-November) and touristic periods (July-August and December-January) were compared between Beirut, Barcelona and Athens, respectively. The comparison obtained between Beirut, Barcelona and Athens showed that emissions per capita for CO and SO2 are highest in Beirut while emissions of particulate matter were highest in Barcelona. The different patterns between these cities showed that emissions increases in winter in Beirut and Barcelona (11 and 9% respectively) and decreases in the city of Athens by 9%. In summer, an increase of 15% in traffic intensities is observed in Athens while in Beirut and Barcelona, traffic intensities decrease by 10 and 40% respectively. At a national level, emissions were calculated for 14 countries in the MEA in order to inter compare them with those of Lebanon. The results show that in the MEA, the highest contributors to total carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions (78 and 79% respectively), are countries having a population that exceeds 20 million inhabitants such as Iran, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt. For Lebanon, emissions per

  19. [Sediment transport characteristics at different erosion stages for non-hardened roads of the Shenfu Coalfield, west China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming-ming; Wang, Wen-long; Li, Jian-ming; Huang, Peng-fei; Zhu, Bao-cai; Wang, Zhen; Luo, Ting

    2015-02-01

    Non-hardened roads formed in the production of the Shenfu Coalfield have a unique condition of underlying surface. The road surface is composed of a regolith layer with a certain thickness resulted from long-term rolling and thus, is characterized by weakened anti-scourabilty and anti-erodibility. In contrast, soil layer below the regolith has a higher bulk density and anti-erodibility. The processes of soil erosion on the non-hardened roads exhibit some differences under rainfall condition. The process of sediment transport and the relationship between sediment transport rate and erosion factors at different erosion stages were studied on non-hardened roads with slope degrees ranging from 3° to 12° (3°, 6°, 9°, 12°) by a field experiment under artificial rainfall. Results showed that the first peak of sediment transport on the regolith surface was observed at the sheet erosion stage. Sheet erosion occurred only at 3° slope degree, with an average variation coefficient of 0.07 for sediment transport rate. Rills in every testing began to develop at slope degrees of 6° to 12° about 15 min after runoff initiation. At the sheet erosion stage, the process of sediment transport fluctuated considerably at rainfall intensities of > 1.5 mm · min(-1), but the differences in its variation were little at the three slope degrees, with average variation coefficients of 0.20, 0.19 and 0.16, respectively. Rainfall intensity had a more significant impact on sediment transport rate than slope degree. The process of sediment transport at the rill erosion stage fluctuated, but the fluctuation was obviously smaller than that at the sheet erosion stage, with average variation coefficients of 0.05, 0.09 and 0.10 at the three slope degrees. Many wide and shallow rills evolved at the rill erosion stage. The sediment transport rate could be well predicted by a power function of rainfall intensity and slope degree at the sheet and rill erosion stages. The stable sediment transport

  20. Emergence of anomalous transport in stressed rough fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Peter K.; Brown, Stephen; Juanes, Ruben

    2016-11-01

    We report the emergence of anomalous (non-Fickian) transport through a rough-walled fracture as a result of increasing normal stress on the fracture. We show that the origin of this anomalous transport behavior can be traced to the emergence of a heterogeneous flow field dominated by preferential channels and stagnation zones, as a result of the larger number of contacts in a highly stressed fracture. We show that the velocity distribution determines the late-time scaling of particle spreading, and velocity correlation determines the magnitude of spreading and the transition time from the initial ballistic regime to the asymptotic anomalous behavior. We also propose a spatial Markov model that reproduces the transport behavior at the scale of the entire fracture with only three physical parameters. Our results point to a heretofore unrecognized link between geomechanics and particle transport in fractured media.

  1. Reynolds stress and the physics of turbulent momentum transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Peter S.; Handler, Robert A.

    1990-11-01

    The nature of the momentum transport processes responsible for the Reynolds shear stress is investigated using several ensembles of fluid particle paths obtained from a direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow. It is found that the Reynolds stress can be viewed as arising from two fundamentally different mechanisms. The more significant entails transport in the manner described by Prandtl in which momentum is carried unchanged from one point to another by the random displacement of fluid particles. One-point models, such as the gradient law are found to be inherently unsuitable for representing this process. However, a potentially useful non-local approximation to displacement transport, depending on the global distribution of the mean velocity gradient, may be developed as a natural consequence of its definition. A second important transport mechanism involves fluid particles experiencing systematic accelerations and decelerations. Close to the wall this results in a reduction in Reynolds stress due to the solving of sweep-type motions. Further away Reynolds stress is produced in spiralling motions, where particles accelerate or decelerate while changing direction. Both transport mechanisms appear to be closely associated with the dynamics of vortical structures in the wall region.

  2. Effects of farm management practices and transport duration on stress response and meat quality traits of suckling goat kids.

    PubMed

    Alcalde, M J; Suárez, M D; Rodero, E; Álvarez, R; Sáez, M I; Martínez, T F

    2017-01-24

    Studies aimed to assess up to what extent farming and transport previous to slaughtering might affect physiology and meat quality in young goat kids are needed, with the ultimate purpose of promoting practices that minimize stress in these animals. In this regard the effects of on-farm management and transport duration on some physiological responses and meat quality parameters in goat kids were assessed. Two farms representing 'high' and 'low' welfare-friendly management practices were selected. In total, 32 suckling kids were withdrawn from each farm, transported by road for 2 or 6 h, and then slaughtered. Blood samples were collected both on-farm and in the slaughterhouse, and biochemistry, cell counts and haematocrit were determined. After slaughtering, carcass quality parameters were measured. Longissimus dorsi muscle was dissected and pH, colour parameters, water holding capacity and shear force were measured throughout 8-day ageing period. Results indicate that, regardless its duration, transport caused significant effects on some blood parameters suggesting stress in live animals, like glucose, cortisol or creatine kinase. Despite the marked stress status in animals, this condition was not decisively reflected on L. dorsi quality parameters, but some effects were observed regarding fat cover in carcasses and colour parameters. The results suggest that postmortem changes throughout ageing were more decisive in terms of meat quality than stressful management either on-farm or during transport.

  3. Stress in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) following overland transportation.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Remy; Boerrigter, Jeroen; Roques, Jonathan; van der Heul, Jan; van den Bos, Ruud; Flik, Gert; van de Vis, Hans

    2014-02-01

    Of the many stressors in aquaculture, transportation of fish has remained poorly studied. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the effects of a (simulated) commercial transportation on stress physiology of market-size African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Catfish weighing approximately 1.25 kg were returned to the farm after 3 h of truck-transportation, and stress-related parameters were measured for up to 72 h following return. Recovery from transportation was assessed through blood samples measuring plasma cortisol, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and gill histology. Also, the number of skin lesions was compared before and after transport. Pre-transport handling and sorting elevated plasma cortisol levels compared to unhandled animals (before fasting). Plasma cortisol levels were further increased due to transportation. In control fish, plasma cortisol levels returned to baseline values within 6 h, whereas it took 48 h to reach baseline values in transported catfish. Plasma glucose and NEFA levels remained stable and were similar across all groups. Transported catfish did not, on average, have more skin lesions than the handling group, but the number of skin lesions had increased compared to unhandled animals. The macroscopic condition of the gills was similar in control, transported and unhandled catfish; however, light microscopy and immunohistochemistry revealed atypical morphology and chloride cell migration normally associated with adverse water conditions. From our data, we conclude that transportation may be considered a strong stressor to catfish that may add to other stressors and thus inflict upon the welfare of the fish.

  4. Effect of 12-hour road transportation on physiological, immunological and haematological parameters in bulls housed at different space allowances.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Earley, B; Crowe, M A

    2007-05-01

    The effects of transporting Holstein Friesian bulls (n=72; bodyweight 403+/-3.5 kg) for 12h by road were examined. Adrenal, haematological and immune responses, body temperature and performance were recorded. The animals had been previously housed for 96 days at three space allowances (1.2, 2.7 or 4.2m(2) per bull). The bulls were allocated to one of two treatments: T (transport for 12h; n=16 per space allowance) and C (control; n=8 per space allowance). Basal cortisol plasma concentrations and interferon (IFN)-gamma production from cultured lymphocytes did not show any statistically significant difference (P>0.05) following the housing period. Removing bulls from their home pens and walking them to the pre-loading crush facility, loading onto the transporter, and unloading following the 12h road journey, significantly (P<0.001) increased plasma cortisol concentration. The bulls housed at 4.2m(2) had greater (P<0.05) plasma cortisol concentrations than bulls housed at 1.2m(2) at loading, unloading, or on return to the crush holding facility; those housed at 1.2m(2) had greater (P<0.05) plasma cortisol concentrations than bulls housed at 2.7 and 4.2m(2) in their home pens after transport. There was an increased (P<0.05) plasma cortisol response in the T than in the C bulls following adrenocorticotrophic hormone administration. Transport significantly reduced (P<0.05) IFN-gamma production, lymphocyte % and body weight and significantly increased (P<0.05) neutrophils, eosinophils, packed cell volume, red blood cell numbers and haemoglobin. In conclusion, housing bulls for 96 days in a range of space allowances did not affect basal cortisol response or immune function parameters. Whereas transport increased plasma cortisol and reduced the immune response in the short-term, the changes were transient and within normal physiological ranges, suggesting that 12h road transport had no adverse effect on welfare status over the longer term. Furthermore, transport of bulls

  5. Renormalization group methods for the Reynolds stress transport equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Yakhot-Orszag renormalization group is used to analyze the pressure gradient-velocity correlation and return to isotropy terms in the Reynolds stress transport equations. The perturbation series for the relevant correlations, evaluated to lowest order in the epsilon-expansion of the Yakhot-Orszag theory, are infinite series in tensor product powers of the mean velocity gradient and its transpose. Formal lowest order Pade approximations to the sums of these series produce a rapid pressure strain model of the form proposed by Launder, Reece, and Rodi, and a return to isotropy model of the form proposed by Rotta. In both cases, the model constants are computed theoretically. The predicted Reynolds stress ratios in simple shear flows are evaluated and compared with experimental data. The possibility is discussed of deriving higher order nonlinear models by approximating the sums more accurately. The Yakhot-Orszag renormalization group provides a systematic procedure for deriving turbulence models. Typical applications have included theoretical derivation of the universal constants of isotropic turbulence theory, such as the Kolmogorov constant, and derivation of two equation models, again with theoretically computed constants and low Reynolds number forms of the equations. Recent work has applied this formalism to Reynolds stress modeling, previously in the form of a nonlinear eddy viscosity representation of the Reynolds stresses, which can be used to model the simplest normal stress effects. The present work attempts to apply the Yakhot-Orszag formalism to Reynolds stress transport modeling.

  6. Climate forcing by the on-road transportation and power generation sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Nadine; Shindell, Drew T.; Wang, James S.

    The on-road transportation (ORT) and power generation (PG) sectors are major contributors to carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions and a host of short-lived radiatively-active air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone and fine aerosol particles, that exert complex influences on global climate. Effective mitigation of global climate change necessitates action in these sectors for which technology change options exist or are being developed. Most assessments of possible energy change options to date have neglected non-CO 2 air pollutant impacts on radiative forcing (RF). In a multi-pollutant approach, we apply a global atmospheric composition-climate model to quantify the total RF from the global and United States (U.S.) ORT and PG sectors. We assess the RF for 2 time horizons: 20- and 100-year that are relevant for understanding near-term and longer-term impacts of climate change, respectively. ORT is a key target sector to mitigate global climate change because the net non-CO 2 RF is positive and acts to enhance considerably the CO 2 warming impacts. We perform further sensitivity studies to assess the RF impacts of a potential major technology shift that would reduce ORT emissions by 50% with the replacement energy supplied either by a clean zero-emissions source (S1) or by the PG sector, which results in an estimated 20% penalty increase in emissions from this sector (S2). We examine cases where the technology shift is applied globally and in the U.S. only. The resultant RF relative to the present day control is negative (cooling) in all cases for both S1 and S2 scenarios, global and U.S. emissions, and 20- and 100-year time horizons. The net non-CO 2 RF is always important relative to the CO 2 RF and outweighs the CO 2 RF response in the S2 scenario for both time horizons. Assessment of the full impacts of technology and policy strategies designed to mitigate global climate change must consider the climate effects of ozone and fine aerosol particles.

  7. Control of transportation death rates by varying road microstructure using segmental pavers

    SciTech Connect

    Halperin, K.

    1995-06-01

    It is known that redesign of older roads to limit the mean and top speeds along them can prevent crashes and save lives. In many parts of the world, a standard part of this redesign for lower speeds consists of repaving with segmental pavers, particularly concrete pavers. Yet no controlled experimentation has been done to establish the relationship between paver texture, speed and crash, injury and mortality rates. Two possible experiments are proposed. It is further proposed that governments in English-speaking North America cannot await the results of such experiments to begin redesigning older roads to lower their death rates.

  8. Predicting boundary shear stress and sediment transport over bed forms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, S.R.; Wolfe, S.R.; Nelson, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    To estimate bed-load sediment transport rates in flows over bed forms such as ripples and dunes, spatially averaged velocity profiles are frequently used to predict mean boundary shear stress. However, such averaging obscures the complex, nonlinear interaction of wake decay, boundary-layer development, and topographically induced acceleration downstream of flow separation and often leads to inaccurate estimates of boundary stress, particularly skin friction, which is critically important in predicting bed-load transport rates. This paper presents an alternative methodology for predicting skin friction over 2D bed forms. The approach is based on combining the equations describing the mechanics of the internal boundary layer with semiempirical structure functions to predict the velocity at the crest of a bedform, where the flow is most similar to a uniform boundary layer. Significantly, the methodology is directed toward making specific predictions only at the bed-form crest, and as a result it avoids the difficulty and questionable validity of spatial averaging. The model provides an accurate estimate of the skin friction at the crest where transport rates are highest. Simple geometric constraints can be used to derive the mean transport rates as long as bed load is dominant.To estimate bed-load sediment transport rates in flows over bed forms such as ripples and dunes, spatially averaged velocity profiles are frequently used to predict mean boundary shear stress. However, such averaging obscures the complex, nonlinear interaction of wake decay, boundary-layer development, and topographically induced acceleration downstream of flow separation and often leads to inaccurate estimates of boundary stress, particularly skin friction, which is critically important in predicting bed-load transport rates. This paper presents an alternative methodology for predicting skin friction over 2D bed forms. The approach is based on combining the equations describing the mechanics of

  9. Emissions of air pollutants from the road transport sector in Greece: year to year variation and present situation.

    PubMed

    Symeonidis, P; Ziomas, I; Proyou, A

    2003-06-01

    It is common knowledge that atmospheric emissions of various pollutants, from mobile and stationary sources, affect quality of life and public health. The impact of these emissions can be of a small (urban smog) or regional scale (acid deposition, troposheric ozone), as a result of the transportation of pollutants in the atmosphere. In terms of a local scale, road traffic is considered to be the most important pollutants source. In the present work, air pollutants emissions from road transport in Greece will be presented. The reference date for the calculations is the year 2000, but additionally, a year-to-year variation (from 1992 to 2000) of the emissions will be examined in order to clarify the impact of the vehicle fleet and the engine technology changes. To calculate emissions, a methodology developed for the European Commission in the framework of the CORINAIR project has been applied. This methodology was further improved and adjusted to the greek fleet characteristics taking into account the vehicle age, the level of the vehicle maintenance etc. Calculations have shown that, despite during the last years the amount of the emitted pollutants per vehicle has significantly decreased, the total pollutants emitted have increased as a result of the increase the number of circulating vehicles. More specifically, in heavy duty vehicles and passenger cars have the most important role for emitting NOx, whilst motorcycles are the most important polluters for non-methene article organic compounds.

  10. Ozone attributed to Madrid and Barcelona on-road transport emissions: Characterization of plume dynamics over the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Víctor; Pay, María T; Baldasano, José M

    2016-02-01

    Despite the ~30% emission decrease of the main tropospheric ozone (O3) precursors in Spain in the 2001-2012 period, the O3 concentration in summer still exceeds the target value for the protection of the human health of the Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC). On-road transport is the main anthropogenic contributor to O3 precursor's emissions in Madrid and Barcelona metropolitan areas (65%/59% of NOx, 40%/33% of NMVOC, and 67%/85% of CO emissions) but this contribution to O3 formation is not well understood. The present work aims at increasing the understanding on the role of on-road transport emissions from main Spanish urban areas in O3 dynamics over Spain under typical circulation types. For that purpose, the Integrated Source Apportionment Method is used within the CALIOPE modelling system (WRF/CMAQ/HERMES/BSC-DREAM8b). The results indicate that the daily maximum O3 concentration attributed to the on-road transport emissions from Madrid (O3T-MAD) and Barcelona metropolitan areas (O3T-BCN) contribute up to 24% and 8% to total O3 concentration, respectively, within an area of influence of 200 km. The contribution of O3T-MAD and O3T-BCN is particularly significant (up to 80-100 μg m(-3) in an hour) to the O3 concentration peak during the central hours of the day in the high O3 concentration season (April-September). The maximum O3T-MAD concentration is calculated within the metropolitan area of Madrid but the plume, channelled by the Tajo and the Henares valleys, affects large areas of the Iberian Peninsula. The O3T-BCN plume is more driven by sea-land and mountain-valley breezes than by the synoptic advection and its maximum concentration is usually registered over the Mediterranean Sea. The O3 concentration transported long-range to the Iberian Peninsula is significant in the area of influence of Madrid and Barcelona, being maxima under cold (70-96%) and minima in warm circulation types (35-70%).

  11. Conception of "4 Goals and 3 Levels" in Risk Management in Road Transport Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanek, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    "Four goals and three levels" conception of risk management in transport comes out from triple interpretation the notion of system and from process approach to transport system interpretation. The title of the lecture suggests hierarchical risk management, but it is not so obvious and that is why is better saying about risk management at three levels of transport system: 1. level of system structure elements; 2. level of processes which realize system purposes; 3. level of system "attitude". In presented conception risk is a "multidimensional" constructor and relates all negative effects of transport (NET-s). It is, among the others, about risks: life loss (safety aspect), natural environment degradation, transport congestion arising.

  12. Road transport of farm animals: effects of journey duration on animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, B L; Dybkjær, L; Herskin, M S

    2011-03-01

    Transport of farm animals gives rise to concern about their welfare. Specific attention has been given to the duration of animal transport, and maximum journey durations are used in legislation that seek to minimise any negative impact of transport on animal welfare. This paper reviews the relatively few scientific investigations into effects of transport duration on animal welfare in cattle, sheep, horses, pigs and poultry. From the available literature, we attempt to distinguish between aspects, which will impair welfare on journeys of any duration, such as those associated with loading, and those aspects that may be exacerbated by journey time. We identify four aspects of animal transport, which have increasing impact on welfare as transport duration increases. These relate to (i) the physiological and clinical state of the animal before transport; and - during transport - to (ii) feeding and watering; (iii) rest and (iv) thermal environment. It is thus not journey duration per se but these associated negative aspects that are the cause of compromised welfare. We suggest that with a few exceptions, transport of long duration is possible in terms of animal welfare provided that these four issues can be dealt with for the species and the age group of the animals that are transported.

  13. Mass Transport and Shear Stress in the Carotid Artery Bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorder, Riley; Aliseda, Alberto

    2010-11-01

    The carotid artery bifurcation (CAB) is one of the leading sites for atherosclerosis, a major cause of death and disability in the developed world. The specific processes by which the complex flow found at the bifurcation and carotid sinus promotes plaque formation and growth are not fully understood. Shear stress, mass transport, and flow residence times are considered key factors. Although the governing equations closely link shear stress and mass transfer, the pulsatile, transitional, and detached flow found at the CAB can lead to differences between regions of WSS and mass transfer statistics. In this study, CAB geometries are reconstructed from patient specific 3D ultrasound medical imaging. Using ANSYS FLUENT, the fluid flow and scalar transport was solved using realistic flow conditions and various mass transfer boundary conditions. The spatial and temporal resolution was validated against the analytical solution of the Graetz-Nusselt problem with constant wall flux to ensure the scalar transport is resolved for a Peclet number up to 100,000. High residence time regions are investigated by determining the number of cardiac cycles required to flush out the carotid sinus. The correlations between regions of low WSS, high OSI, and scalar concentration are computed and interpreted in the context of atherosclerotic plaque origin and progression.

  14. A vibroacoustic diagnostic system as an element improving road transport safety.

    PubMed

    Komorska, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical defects of a vehicle driving system can be dangerous on the road. Diagnostic systems, which monitor operations of electric and electronic elements and devices of vehicles, are continuously developed and improved, while defects of mechanical systems are still not managed properly. This article proposes supplementing existing on-board diagnostics with a system of diagnosing selected defects to minimize their impact. It presents a method of diagnosing mechanical defects of the engine, gearbox and other elements of the driving system on the basis of a model of the vibration signal obtained adaptively. This method is suitable for engine valves, engine head gasket, main gearbox, joints, etc.

  15. Environmental injustices of children's exposure to air pollution from road-transport within the model British multicultural city of Leicester: 2000-09.

    PubMed

    Jephcote, Calvin; Chen, Haibo

    2012-01-01

    The significant contribution of road-transport to air pollution within the urban arena is widely acknowledged, and traditionally explored in relation to health outcomes across a temporal scale. However, the structure of the urban environment is also of importance in dictating the existence of extremely variable traffic pollutant levels, which often tend to be linked with social disparities. Nevertheless 'Environmental Justice' studies have rarely tackled the adverse health implications of exposures from mobile sources (Chakraborty, 2009), or have applied statistical techniques that are appropriate for such spatial data (Gilbert and Chakraborty, 2011). This article addresses these gaps by spatially examining the distribution of respiratory hospitalisation incidents of children aged 0-15 years in relation to social circumstances and residential exposures of annual PM(10) road-transport emissions within Leicester during 2000-09. Continuing upon the theme of 'Environmental Justice', the research explores the intra-urban spatial distribution of those who produce and residentially experience the majority of road-transport emissions. The findings indicate significant global relationships to exist between children's hospitalisation rates and social-economic-status, ethnic minorities, and PM(10) road-transport emissions within Leicester. Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) identified important localised variations within the dataset, specifically relating to a double-burden of residentially experienced road-transport emissions and deprivation effecting inner city children's respiratory health. Furthermore, affluent intra-urban communities tended to contribute the highest levels of emission from private transport, while residentially experiencing relatively low exposure of transport emissions. This would suggest that environmental injustices prevail across the model British multicultural city of Leicester.

  16. Effects of road transportation or droving on the weight and metabolism of young bulls.

    PubMed

    D'Oliveira, Marcella Cândia; Souza, Maria Inês Lenz; Corrêa Filho, Ruy Alberto Caetano; Morais, Maria da Graça; Itavo, Camila Celeste Brandão Ferreira; Franco, Gumercindo Loriano

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the mode of transportation on weight and metabolism of young bulls, which are generally transported by two systems: droving and truck. This experiment consisted of two phases: transportation and refeeding and involved transportation by droving and truck. Fifty young Nellore bulls were separated in equal numbers in both groups, droving group and truck group. In the transportation phase, animals were moved, in a 640-km journey. The refeeding phase consisted of 84 days and commenced after the animals arrived at the fattening farm. The effect of the transportation system on animals' weight, metabolic hormones, and serum biochemistry was assessed after 28, 56, and 84 days. During the transportation phase, animals in the droving group lost 10.11 kg and animals in the truck group gained 13.1 kg. The truck group showed 20.5 kg of weight gain at the end of the refeeding phase. The highest triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations were observed on days 0 and 60 in the transportation phase in both droving and truck groups. The serum cortisol concentration was higher in the droving group than in the truck group on day 56 of the refeeding phase. The IGF-I concentrations were higher during the refeeding phase in the droving group than in the truck group. Our results showed that transportation by droving leads to increased weight loss and reduced further weight gain compared to transportation by truck and that serum concentrations of T4, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) hormones are altered by the transportation system.

  17. Renormalization group analysis of the Reynolds stress transport equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, R.; Barton, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    The pressure velocity correlation and return to isotropy term in the Reynolds stress transport equation are analyzed using the Yakhot-Orszag renormalization group. The perturbation series for the relevant correlations, evaluated to lowest order in the epsilon-expansion of the Yakhot-Orszag theory, are infinite series in tensor product powers of the mean velocity gradient and its transpose. Formal lowest order Pade approximations to the sums of these series produce a fast pressure strain model of the form proposed by Launder, Reece, and Rodi, and a return to isotropy model of the form proposed by Rotta. In both cases, the model constant are computed theoretically. The predicted Reynolds stress ratios in simple shear flows are evaluated and compared with experimental data. The possibility is discussed of driving higher order nonlinear models by approximating the sums more accurately.

  18. Faster Growth of Road Transportation CO2 Emissions in Asia Pacific Economies: Exploring Differences in Trends of the Rapidly Developing and Developed Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotullio, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have identified how in some rapidly developing countries, road and aviation transportation CO2 emissions are rising faster (over time) when compared to the experiences of the USA at similar levels of economic development. While suggestive of how experiences of the rapidly developing Asia are different from those of the developed world…

  19. Assessing the unintended health impacts of road transport policies and interventions: translating research evidence for use in policy and practice

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Hilary; Jepson, Ruth; Hurley, Fintan; Douglas, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Background Transport and its links to health and health inequalities suggest that it is important to assess both the direct and unintended indirect health and related impacts of transport initiatives and policies. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) provides a framework to assess the possible health impacts of interventions such as transport. Policymakers and practitioners need access to well conducted research syntheses if research evidence is to be used to inform these assessments. The predictive validity of HIA depends heavily on the use and careful interpretation of supporting empirical evidence. Reviewing and digesting the vast volume and diversity of evidence in a field such as transport is likely to be beyond the scope of most HIAs. Collaborations between HIA practitioners and specialist reviewers to develop syntheses of best available evidence applied specifically to HIA could promote the use of evidence in practice. Methods Best available research evidence was synthesised using the principles of systematic review. The synthesis was developed to reflect the needs of HIA practitioners and policymakers. Results Aside from injury reduction measures, there is very little empirical data on the impact of road transport interventions. The possibility of impacts on a diverse range of outcomes and differential impacts across groups, make it difficult to assess overall benefit and harm. In addition, multiple mediating factors in the pathways between transport and hypothesised health impacts further complicate prospective assessment of impacts. Informed by the synthesis, a framework of questions was developed to help HIA practitioners identify the key questions which need to be considered in transport HIA. Conclusion Principles of systematic review are valuable in producing syntheses of best available evidence for use in HIA practice. Assessment of the health impacts of transport interventions is characterised by much uncertainty, competing values, and differential or

  20. Ancient road transport devices: Developments from the Bronze Age to the Roman Empire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Cesare; Chondros, Thomas G.; Milidonis, Kypros F.; Savino, Sergio; Russo, Flavio

    2016-03-01

    The development of transportation systems has significantly enhanced the welfare and modernization of society. Wooden vehicles pulled by animals have been used for land transportation since the early Bronze Age. Whole-body gharries with rigid wheels pulled by oxen appeared in Crete by 2000 BC or earlier. Horses originating from the East were depicted in early Cretan seal-rings of the same period. The two-wheeled horsedrawn chariot was one of the most important inventions in history. This vehicle provided humanity its first concept of personal transport and was the key technology of war for 2000 years. Chariots of Mycenaean and Archaic Greece with light and flexible four-spoked wheels acting as spring suspensions were depicted in vase paintings. The development of this vehicle incorporated the seeds of a primitive design activity and was important for engineering. The Trojan horse since 1194 BC and the helepolis since 700 BC were the first known machines on a wheeled base transported by horses or self-powered. Ancient engineers invented bearings lubricated with fat, and Romans introduced the ancestors of ball bearings for their wagons and carts. The historic evolution of wheeled transportation systems, along with early traction, suspension, and braking systems, is presented in this paper. Analytical and numerical methods are incorporated to analyze the most conceivable loading situations of typically reconstructed wheeled transportation systems in ancient times. Traction requirements both for horse-driven machines and the power for internal motors are also analyzed. This study can serve as a basis for further development of detailed reconstruction of transportation systems in antiquity.

  1. Fate and Transport of Road Salt During Snowmelt Through a Calcareous Fen: Kampoosa Bog, Stockbridge, Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, A. L.; Guswa, A. J.; Pufall, A.

    2007-12-01

    Kampoosa Bog is the largest and most ecologically diverse calcareous lake-basin fen in Massachusetts. Situated within a 4.7 km2 drainage basin, the open fen (approx. 20 acres) consists of a floating mat of sedges (incl. Carex aquatilis and Cladium mariscoides) that overlie peat and lake clay deposits. Mineral weathering of marble bedrock within the drainage basin supplies highly alkaline ground and surface waters to the fen basin. The natural chemistry has been greatly altered by road salt runoff from the Massaschusetts Turnpike, and in question is whether disturbance from the Turnpike and a gas pipline has facilitated aggressive growth by the invasive species Phragmites australis. Considered to be one of the most significant rare species habitats in the state, Massachusetts has designated Kampoosa Bog an Area of Critical Environmental Concern, and a committee representing several local, regional, and state agencies, organizations, and citizens manages the wetland. The purpose of this study is to characterize the hydrologic and chemical response of the wetland during snowmelt events to understand the fate and movement of road salt (NaCl). Concentrations of Na and Cl in the fen groundwater are greatest close to the Turnpike. Concentrations decrease with distance downstream but are still greatly elevated relative to sites upstream of the Turnpike. During snowmelt events, the fen's outlet shows a sharp rise in Na and Cl concentrations at the onset of melting that is soon diluted by the added meltwater. The Na and Cl flux, however, is greatest at peak discharge, suggesting that high-flow events are significant periods of export of dissolved salts from the fen. Pure dissolution of rock salt produces an equal molar ratio between Na and Cl, and sodium and chloride imbalances in stream and ground waters suggest that ~20% of the Na is stored on cation exchange sites within the peat. The largest imbalances between Na and Cl occur deeper within the peat, where the peat is

  2. Stress and human spirituality 2000: at the cross roads of physics and metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Seaward, B L

    2000-12-01

    Although stress is defined as a perceived threat, the implications of stress go well beyond physical well-being. In the words of Carl Jung, "Every crisis is a spiritual crisis." Western science, so strongly influenced by the Cartesian Principle of Reductionism, has ignored the essence and significance of human spirituality in the health and healing process. Holistic healing honors the integration, balance, and harmony of mind, body, spirit, and emotions, where the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. Stress (unresolved issues of anger and fear) chokes the human spirit, the life force of human energy, which ultimately affects the physical body. From the perspectives of both physics and metaphysics, stress is a disruption in the state of coherence between the layers of consciousness in the human energy field. The emerging paradigm of health reunites mind, body, and spirit, and considers health as a function of coherence among the energy levels of these components.

  3. Cancer therapy and replication stress: forks on the road to perdition.

    PubMed

    Kotsantis, Panagiotis; Jones, Rebecca M; Higgs, Martin R; Petermann, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated DNA replication occurs in cancer where it contributes to genomic instability. This process is a target of cytotoxic therapies. Chemotherapies exploit high DNA replication in cancer cells by modifying the DNA template or by inhibiting vital enzymatic activities that lead to slowing or stalling replication fork progression. Stalled replication forks can be converted into toxic DNA double-strand breaks resulting in cell death, i.e., replication stress. While likely crucial for many cancer treatments, replication stress is poorly understood due to its complexity. While we still know relatively little about the role of replication stress in cancer therapy, technical advances in recent years have shed new light on the effect that cancer therapeutics have on replication forks and the molecular mechanisms that lead from obstructed fork progression to cell death. This chapter will give an overview of our current understanding of replication stress in the context of cancer therapy.

  4. A longitudinal follow-up of posttraumatic stress: from 9 months to 20 years after a major road traffic accident

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although road traffic accidents (RTA) are a major cause of injury and a cause of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in the aftermath, little is known about the long-term psychological effects of RTA. Methods This prospective longitudinal study assessed long-term PTS, grief, and general mental health after a bus carrying 23 sixth-grade schoolchildren crashed on a school outing and 12 children died. Directly affected (i.e., children in the crash) and indirectly affected children (i.e., all pupils in the sixth grade who were not in the crash) were surveyed at 9 months (N = 102), 4 years (N = 51), and 20 years (N = 40) after the event. Psychological distress was assessed by single items, including sadness, avoidance, intrusions, and guilt. After 20 years, PTS was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Results Stress reactions were prevalent 9 months after the event, with sadness (69%) and avoidance (59%) being highly represented in both directly and indirectly affected groups, whereas, nightmares (60%) and feelings of guilt (50%) were only frequent in those directly affected. The frequency of sadness and avoidance decreased after 4 years in the indirectly exposed (ps < .05). After 20 years, the directly affected had a higher prevalence of PTS (p = .003), but not decreased general mental health (p = .14), than those indirectly affected. Conclusions The limitations preclude assertive conclusions. Nonetheless, the findings corroborate previous studies reporting traumatic events are associated with long-term PTS, but not with decreased general mental health. PMID:21396118

  5. Assessment of ground transportation stress in juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii).

    PubMed

    Hunt, Kathleen E; Innis, Charles J; Kennedy, Adam E; McNally, Kerry L; Davis, Deborah G; Burgess, Elizabeth A; Merigo, Constance

    2016-01-01

    Sea turtle rehabilitation centres frequently transport sea turtles for long distances to move animals between centres or to release them at beaches, yet there is little information on the possible effects of transportation-related stress ('transport stress') on sea turtles. To assess whether transport stress is a clinically relevant concern for endangered Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii), we obtained pre-transport and post-transport plasma samples from 26 juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles that were transported for 13 h (n = 15 turtles) or 26 h (n = 11 turtles) by truck for release at beaches. To control for effects of handling, food restriction and time of day, the same turtles were also studied on 'control days' 2 weeks prior to transport, i.e. with two samples taken to mimic pre-transport and post-transport timing, but without transportation. Blood samples were analysed for nine clinical health measures (pH, pCO2, pO2, HCO3, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, lactate and haematocrit) and four 'stress-associated' parameters (corticosterone, glucose, white blood cell count and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio). Vital signs (heart rate, respiratory rate and cloacal temperature) were also monitored. Corticosterone and glucose showed pronounced elevations due specifically to transportation; for corticosterone, this elevation was significant only for the longer transport duration, whereas glucose increased significantly after both transport durations. However, clinical health measures and vital signs showed minimal or no changes in response to any sampling event (with or without transport), and all turtles appeared to be in good clinical health after both transport durations. Thus, transportation elicits a mild, but detectable, adrenal stress response that is more pronounced during longer durations of transport; nonetheless, Kemp's ridley sea turtles can tolerate ground transportation of up to 26 h in good health. These results are likely

  6. The effectiveness of policy on consumer choices for private road passenger transport emissions reductions in six major economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercure, J.-F.; Lam, A.

    2015-06-01

    The effectiveness of fiscal policy to influence vehicle purchases for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset and analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of price, engine size and emissions distributions. We argue that choices and aggregate elasticities of substitution can be predicted using this data, enabling us to evaluate the effectiveness of potential fiscal and technological change policies on fleet-year emissions reductions. We provide tools to do so based on the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We find that markets differ significantly between nations, and that correlations between engine sizes, emissions and prices exist strongly in some markets and not strongly in others. We furthermore find that markets for unconventional engine technologies have patchy coverages of varying levels. These findings are interpreted in terms of policy strategy.

  7. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  8. Information technology and road transport industry: how does IT affect the lorry driver?

    PubMed

    de Croon, Einar M; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Broersen, Jake P J; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2004-07-01

    A quasi-experimental design was used to study the effect of on board computer-systems (OBC-systems) on the Dutch lorry drivers' psychosocial work environment (i.e., control and demands) and coinciding mental health (i.e., need for recovery after work) and job attitudes (i.e., organisational commitment). The intervention group (n = 26) started working with an OBC-system between 1998 and 2000 and was compared with two matched reference groups (n = 26 in both groups). All participants were from a cohort of 650 drivers who participated in a prospective study on occupational stress and health. All outcome variables were quantified by standardised and validated questionnaires. Results showed that the application of OBC-systems negatively affected the drivers' job control and organisational commitment. However, OBC-systems did not influence the drivers' psychological job demands and need for recovery after work. Accordingly, it is concluded that the application of OBC-systems negatively affects the lorry driver's psychosocial work environment and job attitudes.

  9. Renal sympathetic nerve, blood flow, and epithelial transport responses to thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thad E

    2017-05-01

    Thermal stress is a profound sympathetic stress in humans; kidney responses involve altered renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), renal blood flow, and renal epithelial transport. During mild cold stress, RSNA spectral power but not total activity is altered, renal blood flow is maintained or decreased, and epithelial transport is altered consistent with a sympathetic stress coupled with central volume loaded state. Hypothermia decreases RSNA, renal blood flow, and epithelial transport. During mild heat stress, RSNA is increased, renal blood flow is decreased, and epithelial transport is increased consistent with a sympathetic stress coupled with a central volume unloaded state. Hyperthermia extends these directional changes, until heat illness results. Because kidney responses are very difficult to study in humans in vivo, this review describes and qualitatively evaluates an in vivo human skin model of sympathetically regulated epithelial tissue compared to that of the nephron. This model utilizes skin responses to thermal stress, involving 1) increased skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA), decreased skin blood flow, and suppressed eccrine epithelial transport during cold stress; and 2) increased SSNA, skin blood flow, and eccrine epithelial transport during heat stress. This model appears to mimic aspects of the renal responses. Investigations of skin responses, which parallel certain renal responses, may aid understanding of epithelial-sympathetic nervous system interactions during cold and heat stress.

  10. An uncertainty analysis of air pollution externalities from road transport in Belgium in 2010.

    PubMed

    Int Panis, L; De Nocker, L; Cornelis, E; Torfs, R

    2004-12-01

    Although stricter standards for vehicles will reduce emissions to air significantly by 2010, a number of problems will remain, especially related to particulate concentrations in cities, ground-level ozone, and CO(2). To evaluate the impacts of new policy measures, tools need to be available that assess the potential benefits of these measures in terms of the vehicle fleet, fuel choice, modal choice, kilometers driven, emissions, and the impacts on public health and related external costs. The ExternE accounting framework offers the most up to date and comprehensive methodology to assess marginal external costs of energy-related pollutants. It combines emission models, air dispersion models at local and regional scales with dose-response functions and valuation rules. Vito has extended this accounting framework with data and models related to the future composition of the vehicle fleet and transportation demand to evaluate the impact of new policy proposals on air quality and aggregated (total) external costs by 2010. Special attention was given to uncertainty analysis. The uncertainty for more than 100 different parameters was combined in Monte Carlo simulations to assess the range of possible outcomes and the main drivers of these results. Although the impacts from emission standards and total fleet mileage look dominant at first, a number of other factors were found to be important as well. This includes the number of diesel vehicles, inspection and maintenance (high-emitter cars), use of air conditioning, and heavy duty transit traffic.

  11. Crocins transport in Crocus sativus: the long road from a senescent stigma to a newborn corm.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Trapero, Almudena; Ahrazem, Oussama; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2010-09-01

    Saffron, the desiccated stigmas of Crocus sativus, is highly appreciated by its peculiar colour, flavour and aroma. The main compounds that accumulated throughout stigma development in C. sativus are crocetin, its glucoside derivatives, crocins, and picrocrocin, all of which increased as stigmas reached a fully developed stage. After anthesis, and in the absence of fertilization, the flower enters in a senescence programme, which represents the ultimate stage of floral development and results in wilting of whole flower. The programmed senescence of flowers allows the removal of a metabolically active tissue. We studied the composition of saffron apocarotenoids during the senescence of C. sativus flowers, and observed that changes in crocins were due to their transport from the senescent stigma to the ovaries and the developing corm. Afterwards, deglucosylation of crocins in these tissues results in crocetin accumulation. This mobilization mimics the export to storage cells (resorbed) of different compounds during leaf senescence avoiding loss of nutrients in leaves that would otherwise be cycled back into the soil system through leaf litter decomposition. In C. sativus, the resorbed apocarotenoids are stored within the developing corm, where they are not further detected in the advanced stages of development, suggesting that they are metabolized during the early and active phases of corm development, where the glucose molecules from crocins might contribute to cell initiation and elongation.

  12. A Modular Localization System as a Positioning Service for Road Transport

    PubMed Central

    Brida, Peter; Machaj, Juraj; Benikovsky, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    In recent times smart devices have attracted a large number of users. Since many of these devices allow position estimation using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals, a large number of location-based applications and services have emerged, especially in transport systems. However GNSS signals are affected by the environment and are not always present, especially in dense urban environment or indoors. In this work firstly a Modular Localization Algorithm is proposed to allow seamless switching between different positioning modules. This helps us develop a positioning system that is able to provide position estimates in both indoor and outdoor environments without any user interaction. Since the proposed system can run as a service on any smart device, it could allow users to navigate not only in outdoor environments, but also indoors, e.g., underground garages, tunnels etc. Secondly we present the proposal of a 2-phase map reduction algorithm which allows one to significantly reduce the complexity of position estimation processes in case that positioning is performed using a fingerprinting framework. The proposed 2-phase map reduction algorithm can also improve the accuracy of the position estimates by filtering out reference points that are far from the mobile device. Both algorithms were implemented into a positioning system and tested in real world conditions in both indoor and outdoor environments. PMID:25353979

  13. Global Plant Stress Signaling: Reactive Oxygen Species at the Cross-Road

    PubMed Central

    Sewelam, Nasser; Kazan, Kemal; Schenk, Peer M.

    2016-01-01

    Current technologies have changed biology into a data-intensive field and significantly increased our understanding of signal transduction pathways in plants. However, global defense signaling networks in plants have not been established yet. Considering the apparent intricate nature of signaling mechanisms in plants (due to their sessile nature), studying the points at which different signaling pathways converge, rather than the branches, represents a good start to unravel global plant signaling networks. In this regard, growing evidence shows that the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the most common plant responses to different stresses, representing a point at which various signaling pathways come together. In this review, the complex nature of plant stress signaling networks will be discussed. An emphasis on different signaling players with a specific attention to ROS as the primary source of the signaling battery in plants will be presented. The interactions between ROS and other signaling components, e.g., calcium, redox homeostasis, membranes, G-proteins, MAPKs, plant hormones, and transcription factors will be assessed. A better understanding of the vital roles ROS are playing in plant signaling would help innovate new strategies to improve plant productivity under the circumstances of the increasing severity of environmental conditions and the high demand of food and energy worldwide. PMID:26941757

  14. Economical Space Transportation: a Road not yet Traveled or Gleanings of a Lifelong Rocketman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truax, R. C.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-two years have past since I criticized the design of the shuttle in my article in Aeronautics and Astronautics, entitled Shuttles--What Price Elegance? At that time I predicted that the shuttle would not reduce the cost of space transportation, as its proponents almost pleadingly averred. I called it a money sponge of unparalleled capacity. I have since labeled it as the worst combination of primary features that could possibly be assembled into one vehicle. While I called the concept puerile, I lauded its makers for their execution - for their ability to make such a ludicrous concept work at all. It has been nearly sixty years since I pointed the way to low cost space transportation with my Sea Dragon concept. Simple, reusable, two stages to orbit, pressure-fed propulsion and recovery in the ocean by parachute. Since that date, billions have been spent on even more elegant approaches to reusable vehicles, and substantially nothing on the big, dumb reusable booster concept. As of now, all of the more elegant approaches have been cancelled, but the urge to elegance above common sense is still with us. I am sure that a single stage to orbit, reusable vehicle is possible, or will be within the next fifty years. I am equally sure, however, that it will not be economical. It will very probably be worse than the shuttle. We want two stages rather than one because it allows the upper stage to use very low pressures. We want parachute recovery in the ocean because it offers 70% of the Earth's surface to land in, and easy tow-back from anywhere. Perhaps it is necessary for the older generation to die out for the realities of over- sophistication to sink into the heads of our space engineers. All technologies mature, and ultimately reach a point where further sophistication is uneconomical. Launch vehicles reached this point long before they were invented. The big liquid ICBMs were useless as ballistic missiles and more sophisticated than necessary as space launch

  15. Removing Traffic Emissions from CO2 Time Series Measured at a Tall Tower Using on-Road Measurements and WRF-Stilt Transport Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, A.; Rella, C.; Goeckede, M.; Hanson, C. V.; Yang, Z.; Law, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide with high precision and accuracy have become increasingly important for climate change research, in particular to inform terrestrial biosphere models. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning have long been recognized to contribute a significant portion of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Here, we present an approach to remove the traffic related carbon dioxide emissions from mole fractions measured at a tall tower by using the corresponding carbon monoxide measurements in combination with footprint analyses and transport modeling. This technique improves the suitability of the CO2 data to be used in inverse modeling approaches of atmosphere-biosphere exchange that do not account for non-biotic portions of CO2. In our study region in Oregon, road traffic emissions are the biggest source of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. A three-day mobile campaign covering 1700 km of roads in northwestern Oregon was performed during summer of 2012 using a laser-based Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer. The mobile measurements incorporated different roads including main highways, urban streets, and back-roads, largely within the typical footprint of a tall CO2 observation tower in Oregon's Willamette Valley. For the first time, traffic related CO:CO2 emission ratios were measured directly at the sources during an on-road campaign under a variety of different driving conditions. An average emission ratio of 7.43 (±1.80) ppb CO per ppm CO2 was obtained for the study region and applied to separate the traffic related portion of CO2 from the mole fraction time series. The road traffic related portion of the CO2 mole fractions measured at the tower site reached maximum values from 9.8 to 12 ppm, depending on the height above the surface, during summer 2012.

  16. Meso-scale on-road vehicle emission inventory approach: a study on Dhaka City of Bangladesh supporting the 'cause-effect' analysis of the transport system.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Asif; Allan, Andrew; Zito, Rocco

    2016-03-01

    The study aims to develop an emission inventory (EI) approach and conduct an inventory for vehicular sources in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. A meso-scale modelling approach was adopted for the inventory; the factors that influence the emissions and the magnitude of emission variation were identified and reported on, which was an innovative approach to account emissions unlike the conventional inventory approaches. Two techniques for the emission inventory were applied, viz. (i) a combined top-down and bottom-up approach that considered the total vehicle population and the average diurnal on-road vehicle speed profile in the city and (ii) a bottom-up approach that accounted for road link-specific emissions of the city considering diurnal traffic volume and speed profiles of the respective roads. For the bottom-up approach, road link-specific detailed data were obtained through field survey in 2012, where mid-block traffic count of the day, vehicle speed profile, road network and congestion data were collected principally. The emission variances for the change in transport system characteristics (like change in fuel type, AC usage pattern, increased speed and reduced congestion/stopping) were predicted and analysed in this study; congestion influenced average speed of the vehicles, and fuel types in the vehicles were identified as the major stressors. The study performance was considered reasonable when comparing with the limited number of similar studies conducted earlier. Given the increasing trend of private vehicles each year coupled with increasing traffic congestion, the city is under threat of increased vehicular emissions unless a good management strategy is implemented. Although the inventory is conducted for Dhaka and the result may be important locally, the approach adopted in this research is innovative in nature to be followed for conducting research on other urban transport systems.

  17. Seerley Road Fire Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A barn caught fire at on Seerley Road, Indianapolis. Five storage drums believed to contain metallic potassium were involved in the fire. EPA will perform additional sampling as part of removal operations and safe offsite transportation.

  18. Classification of road surface profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Rouillard, V.; Bruscella, B.; Sek, M.

    2000-02-01

    This paper introduces a universal classification methodology for discretely sampled sealed bituminous road profile data for the study of shock and vibrations related to the road transportation process. Data representative of a wide variety of Victorian (Australia) road profiles were used to develop a universal classification methodology with special attention to their non-Gaussian and nonstationary properties. This resulted in the design of computer software to automatically detect and extract transient events from the road spatial acceleration data as well as to identify segments of the constant RMS level enabling transients to be analyzed separately from the underlying road process. Nine universal classification parameters are introduced to describe road profile spatial acceleration based on the statistical characteristics of the transient amplitude and stationary RMS segments. Results from this study are aimed at the areas of road transport simulation as well as road surface characterization.

  19. A multi-methodological approach to study the temporal and spatial distribution of air quality related to road transport emissions in Madrid, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Pedro; Miranda, Regina

    2013-04-01

    The traffic-related atmospheric emissions, composition and transport of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air toxic pollutants (ATPs), are an important environmental problem that affect climate change and air pollution in Madrid, Spain. Carbon dioxide (CO2) affects the regional weather and particularly fine particle matter (PM) translocate to the people resulting in local health problems. As the main source of emissions comes from road transport, and subsequent combustion of fossil fuels, air quality deterioration may be elevated during weekdays and peak hours. We postulate that traffic-related air quality (CO2, methane CH4, PM, volatile organic compounds VOCs, nitrogen oxides NOx and carbon monoxide CO contents) impairs epidemiology in part via effects on health and disease development, likely increasing the external costs of transport in terms of climate change and air pollution. First, the paper intends to estimate the local air quality related to the road transport emissions of weeks over a domain covering Madrid (used as a case study). The local air quality model (LAQM) is based on gridded and shaped emission fields. The European Environmental Agency (EEA) COPERT modeling system will provide GHGs and ATPs gridded and shaped emission data and mobile source parameters, available for Madrid from preliminary emission inventory records of the Municipality of Madrid and from disaggregated traffic counts of the Traffic Engineering Company and the Metropolitan Company of Metro (METRO-Madrid). The paper intends to obtain estimates of GHGs and ATPs concentrations commensurate with available ground measurements, 24-hour average values, from the Municipality of Madrid. The comparison between estimated concentrations and measurements must show small errors (e.g. fractional error, fractional bias and coefficient of determination). The paper's expected results must determine spatial and temporal patterns in Madrid. The estimates will be used to cross check the primary local

  20. HKT transporters mediate salt stress resistance in plants: from structure and function to the field.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Shin; Horie, Tomoaki; Hauser, Felix; Deinlein, Ulrich; Schroeder, Julian I; Uozumi, Nobuyuki

    2015-04-01

    Plant cells are sensitive to salinity stress and do not require sodium as an essential element for their growth and development. Saline soils reduce crop yields and limit available land. Research shows that HKT transporters provide a potent mechanism for mediating salt tolerance in plants. Knowledge of the molecular ion transport and regulation mechanisms and the control of HKT gene expression are crucial for understanding the mechanisms by which HKT transporters enhance crop performance under salinity stress. This review focuses on HKT transporters in monocot plants and in Arabidopsis as a dicot plant, as a guide to efforts toward improving salt tolerance of plants for increasing the production of crops and bioenergy feedstocks.

  1. Impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere - Part 1: Tropospheric composition and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Jia, W.; Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Dubey, M. K.; Rockett, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    Vehicles burning fossil fuel emit a number of substances that change the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere, and contribute to global air and water pollution and climate change. For example, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted as byproducts of fossil fuel combustion are key precursors to ground-level ozone and aerosol formation. In addition, on-road vehicles are major CO2 emitters. In order to tackle these problems, molecular hydrogen (H2) has been proposed as an energy carrier to substitute for fossil fuels in the future. However, before implementing any such strategy it is crucial to evaluate its potential impacts on air quality and climate. Here, we evaluate the impact of a future (2050) H2-based road transportation sector on tropospheric chemistry and air quality for several possible growth and technology adoption scenarios. The growth scenarios are based on the high and low emissions Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, A1FI and B1, respectively. The technological adoption scenarios include H2 fuel cell and H2 internal combustion engine options. The impacts are evaluated with the Community Atmospheric Model Chemistry global chemistry transport model (CAM-Chem). Higher resolution simulations focusing on the contiguous United States are also carried out with the Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ) regional chemistry transport model. For all scenarios future air quality improves with the adoption of a H2-based road transportation sector; however, the magnitude and type of improvement depend on the scenario. Model results show that the adoption of H2 fuel cells would decrease tropospheric burdens of ozone (7%), CO (14%), NOx (16%), soot (17%), sulfate aerosol (4%), and ammonium nitrate aerosol (12%) in the A1FI scenario, and would decrease those of ozone (5%), CO (4%), NOx (11%), soot (7%), sulfate aerosol (4%), and ammonium nitrate aerosol (9%) in the B1 scenario

  2. The impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere - Part 1: Tropospheric composition and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Jia, W.; Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Dubey, M. K.; Rockett, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    Vehicles burning fossil fuel emit a number of substances that change the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere, and contribute to global air and water pollution and climate change. For example, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted as byproducts of fossil fuel combustion are key precursors to ground-level ozone and aerosol formation. In addition, on-road vehicles are major CO2 emitters. In order to tackle these problems, molecular hydrogen (H2) has been proposed as an energy carrier to substitute for fossil fuel in the future. However, before implementing any such strategy it is crucial to evaluate its potential impacts on air quality and climate. Here we evaluate the impact of a future (2050) H2-based road transportation sector on tropospheric chemistry and air quality for several possible growth and technology adoption scenarios. The growth scenarios are based on the high and low emissions Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, A1FI and B1, respectively. The technological adoption scenarios include H2 fuel cell and H2 internal combustion engine options. The impacts are evaluated with the Community Atmospheric Model Chemistry global chemistry transport model (CAM-Chem). Higher resolution simulations focusing on the contiguous United States are also carried out with the Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ) regional chemistry transport model. For all scenarios future air quality improves with the adoption of a H2-based road transportation sector, however, the magnitude and type of improvement depend on the scenario. Model results show that with the adoption of H2 fuel cells decreases tropospheric burdens of ozone (7%), CO (14%), NOx (16%), soot (17%), sulfate aerosol (4%), and ammonium nitrate aerosol (12%) in the A1FI scenario, and decreases those of ozone (5%), CO (4%), NOx (11%), soot (7%), sulfate aerosol (4%), and ammonium nitrate aerosol (9 %) in the B1 scenario. The

  3. The impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere - Part 2: Stratospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Jia, W.; Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Dubey, M. K.; Rockett, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    The prospective future adoption of hydrogen to power the road transportation sector could greatly improve tropospheric air quality but also raises the question whether the adoption would have adverse effects on stratospheric ozone. The possibility of these undesirable impacts must be fully evaluated to guide future policy decisions. Here we evaluate the possible impact of a future (2050) H2-based road transportation sector on stratospheric composition and chemistry, especially on stratospheric ozone, with the MOZART chemical transport model. Since future growth is highly uncertain we evaluate the impact for two world evolution scenarios, one based on a high emitting scenario (IPCC A1FI) and the other on a low emitting scenario (IPCC B1), as well as two technological options: H2 fuel cells and H2 internal combustion engines. We assume a H2 leakage rate of 2.5% and a complete market penetration of H2 vehicles in 2050. The model simulations show that a H2-based road transportation sector would reduce stratospheric ozone concentrations as a result of perturbed catalytic ozone destruction cycles. The magnitude of the impact depends on which growth scenario the world evolves and which H2 technology option is applied. For the same world evolution scenario, stratospheric ozone decreases more in the H2 fuel cell scenarios than in the H2 internal combustion engine scenarios because of the NOx emissions in the latter case. If the same technological option is applied, the impact is larger in the A1FI emission scenario. The largest impact, a 0.54% decrease in annual average global mean stratospheric column ozone, is found with a H2 fuel cell type road transportation sector in the A1FI scenario; whereas the smallest impact, a 0.04% increase in stratospheric ozone, is found with applications of H2 internal combustion engine vehicles in the B1 scenario. The impacts of the other two scenarios fall between the above two bounding scenarios. However, the magnitude of these changes is

  4. A Harmonized Perspective on Transportation Management in Smart Cities: The Novel IoT-Driven Environment for Road Traffic Modeling.

    PubMed

    Masek, Pavel; Masek, Jan; Frantik, Petr; Fujdiak, Radek; Ometov, Aleksandr; Hosek, Jiri; Andreev, Sergey; Mlynek, Petr; Misurec, Jiri

    2016-11-08

    The unprecedented growth of today's cities together with increased population mobility are fueling the avalanche in the numbers of vehicles on the roads. This development led to the new challenges for the traffic management, including the mitigation of road congestion, accidents, and air pollution. Over the last decade, researchers have been focusing their efforts on leveraging the recent advances in sensing, communications, and dynamic adaptive technologies to prepare the deployed road traffic management systems (TMS) for resolving these important challenges in future smart cities. However, the existing solutions may still be insufficient to construct a reliable and secure TMS that is capable of handling the anticipated influx of the population and vehicles in urban areas. Along these lines, this work systematically outlines a perspective on a novel modular environment for traffic modeling, which allows to recreate the examined road networks in their full resemblance. Our developed solution is targeted to incorporate the progress in the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, where low-power, embedded devices integrate as part of a next-generation TMS. To mimic the real traffic conditions, we recreated and evaluated a practical traffic scenario built after a complex road intersection within a large European city.

  5. A Harmonized Perspective on Transportation Management in Smart Cities: The Novel IoT-Driven Environment for Road Traffic Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Masek, Pavel; Masek, Jan; Frantik, Petr; Fujdiak, Radek; Ometov, Aleksandr; Hosek, Jiri; Andreev, Sergey; Mlynek, Petr; Misurec, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    The unprecedented growth of today’s cities together with increased population mobility are fueling the avalanche in the numbers of vehicles on the roads. This development led to the new challenges for the traffic management, including the mitigation of road congestion, accidents, and air pollution. Over the last decade, researchers have been focusing their efforts on leveraging the recent advances in sensing, communications, and dynamic adaptive technologies to prepare the deployed road traffic management systems (TMS) for resolving these important challenges in future smart cities. However, the existing solutions may still be insufficient to construct a reliable and secure TMS that is capable of handling the anticipated influx of the population and vehicles in urban areas. Along these lines, this work systematically outlines a perspective on a novel modular environment for traffic modeling, which allows to recreate the examined road networks in their full resemblance. Our developed solution is targeted to incorporate the progress in the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, where low-power, embedded devices integrate as part of a next-generation TMS. To mimic the real traffic conditions, we recreated and evaluated a practical traffic scenario built after a complex road intersection within a large European city. PMID:27834796

  6. [Information digital technologies and medical psychologic prevention of stress state in railway transport workers].

    PubMed

    Kostin, A V; Kostina, S A

    2015-01-01

    The authors determined criteria of medical and psychologic training of railway transport workers, with applied information digital technologies. The results obtained prove that application of software "Railway worker" ("Zheleznodorozhnik") reduces frequency and duration of "emotional stress states".

  7. STRESS LEVELS IN CAPTURED RIVER OTTERS (LONTRA CANADENSIS) DECREASED AFTER TRANSPORTATION TO REINTRODUCTION SITES.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rebekah T; Wong, Jennifer A; Serfass, Thomas L

    2016-12-01

    The level of stress that animals endure during capture, handling, transportation, and release processes is a major concern of animal reintroduction projects. Animals under chronic stress are more susceptible to disease and other deleterious issues that could reduce their survival in a new environment. Northern river otters ( Lontra canadensis ) have been reintroduced in 22 states in the United States and may be susceptible to developing chronic stress during the reintroduction process. We assessed stress levels in five river otters captured from wild populations in Washington, held in captivity for up to 21 days, and then transported to New Mexico for reintroduction. Glucocorticoid levels in fecal samples of all otters tested decreased from when they were held captive in Washington to the time of release. This outcome suggests that habituation to captivity before transport and release may serve to minimize the likelihood of an otter being released while experiencing a potentially burdensome level of stress.

  8. The influence of future non-mitigated road transport emissions on regional ozone exceedences at global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. E.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Berntsen, T. K.; Dessens, O.; Gauss, M.; Grewe, V.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Olivié, D.; Prather, M. J.; Tang, Q.

    2014-06-01

    Road Transport emissions (RTE) are a significant anthropogenic global NOx source responsible for enhancing the chemical production of tropospheric ozone (O3) in the lower troposphere. Here we analyse a multi-model ensemble which adopts the realistic SRES A1B emission scenario and a “policy-failure” scenario for RTE (A1B_HIGH) for the years 2000, 2025 and 2050. Analysing the regional trends in RTE NOx estimates shows by 2025 that differences of 0.2-0.3 Tg N yr-1 occur for most of the world regions between the A1B and A1B_HIGH estimates, except for Asia where there is a larger difference of ˜1.4 Tg N yr-1. For 2050 these differences fall to ˜0.1 Tg N yr-1, with shipping emissions becoming as important as RTE. Analysing the seasonality in near-surface O3 from the multi-model ensemble monthly mean values shows a large variability in the projected changes between different regions. For Western Europe and the Eastern US although the peak O3 mixing ratios decrease by ˜10% in 2050, there is an associated degradation during wintertime due to less direct titration from nitric oxide. For regions such as Eastern China, although total anthropogenic NOx emissions are reduced from 2025 to 2050, there is no real improvement in peak O3 levels. By normalizing the seasonal ensemble means of near-surface O3 (0-500 m) with the recommended European Commission (EC) exposure limit to derive an exceedence ratio (ER), we show that ER values greater than 1.0 occur across a wide area in the Northern Hemisphere for boreal summer using the year 2000 emissions. When adopting the future A1B_HIGH estimates, the Middle East exhibits the worst regional air quality, closely followed by Asia. For these regions the area of exceedence (ER > 1.0) for 2025 is ˜40% and ˜25% of the total area of each region, respectively. Comparing simulations employing the various scenarios shows that unmitigated RTE increases the area of exceedence in the Middle East by ˜6% and, for Asia, by ˜2% of the total

  9. Impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere - Part 2: Stratospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Jia, W.; Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Dubey, M. K.; Rockett, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    The prospective future adoption of molecular hydrogen (H2) to power the road transportation sector could greatly improve tropospheric air quality but also raises the question of whether the adoption would have adverse effects on the stratospheric ozone. The possibility of undesirable impacts must be fully evaluated to guide future policy decisions. Here we evaluate the possible impact of a future (2050) H2-based road transportation sector on stratospheric composition and chemistry, especially on the stratospheric ozone, with the MOZART (Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers) model. Since future growth is highly uncertain, we evaluate the impact of two world evolution scenarios, one based on an IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) high-emitting scenario (A1FI) and the other on an IPCC low-emitting scenario (B1), as well as two technological options: H2 fuel cells and H2 internal combustion engines. We assume a H2 leakage rate of 2.5% and a complete market penetration of H2 vehicles in 2050. The model simulations show that a H2-based road transportation sector would reduce stratospheric ozone concentrations as a result of perturbed catalytic ozone destruction cycles. The magnitude of the impact depends on which growth scenario evolves and which H2 technology option is applied. For the evolution growth scenario, stratospheric ozone decreases more in the H2 fuel cell scenarios than in the H2 internal combustion engine scenarios because of the NOx emissions in the latter case. If the same technological option is applied, the impact is larger in the A1FI emission scenario. The largest impact, a 0.54% decrease in annual average global mean stratospheric column ozone, is found with a H2 fuel cell type road transportation sector in the A1FI scenario; whereas the smallest impact, a 0.04% increase in stratospheric ozone, is found with applications of H2 internal combustion engine vehicles in the B1 scenario. The impacts of the other two scenarios fall

  10. Prenatal Transportation Stress Alters Temperament and Serum Cortisol Concentrations in Suckling Brahman Calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment examined the relationship between prenatal stress and subsequent calf temperament through weaning. The prenatal stressor utilized was repeated transportation of pregnant Brahman cows for 2 hours at 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 days of gestation. Prenatally stressed calves (n = 41) were ...

  11. Relationship of prenatal transportation stress with postnatal temperament of Brahman calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prenatal stress resulting from repeated transportation during gestation has been shown to increase postnatal adrenal responsiveness of calves to a stressor. The objective of the current experiment was to examine the relationship between prenatal stress and gestation length, calf birth weight, and su...

  12. Coaction of Stress and Serotonin Transporter Genotype in Predicting Aggression at the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Christopher C.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Lind, Penelope A.; Najman, Jake M.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite consistent evidence that serotonin functioning affects stress reactivity and vulnerability to aggression, research on serotonin gene-stress interactions (G x E) in the development of aggression remains limited. The present study investigated variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) as a moderator of the…

  13. Assessment of ground transportation stress in juvenile Kemp’s ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii)

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Kathleen E.; Innis, Charles J.; Kennedy, Adam E.; McNally, Kerry L.; Davis, Deborah G.; Burgess, Elizabeth A.; Merigo, Constance

    2016-01-01

    Sea turtle rehabilitation centres frequently transport sea turtles for long distances to move animals between centres or to release them at beaches, yet there is little information on the possible effects of transportation-related stress (‘transport stress’) on sea turtles. To assess whether transport stress is a clinically relevant concern for endangered Kemp’s ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii), we obtained pre-transport and post-transport plasma samples from 26 juvenile Kemp’s ridley sea turtles that were transported for 13 h (n = 15 turtles) or 26 h (n = 11 turtles) by truck for release at beaches. To control for effects of handling, food restriction and time of day, the same turtles were also studied on ‘control days’ 2 weeks prior to transport, i.e. with two samples taken to mimic pre-transport and post-transport timing, but without transportation. Blood samples were analysed for nine clinical health measures (pH, pCO2, pO2, HCO3, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, lactate and haematocrit) and four ‘stress-associated’ parameters (corticosterone, glucose, white blood cell count and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio). Vital signs (heart rate, respiratory rate and cloacal temperature) were also monitored. Corticosterone and glucose showed pronounced elevations due specifically to transportation; for corticosterone, this elevation was significant only for the longer transport duration, whereas glucose increased significantly after both transport durations. However, clinical health measures and vital signs showed minimal or no changes in response to any sampling event (with or without transport), and all turtles appeared to be in good clinical health after both transport durations. Thus, transportation elicits a mild, but detectable, adrenal stress response that is more pronounced during longer durations of transport; nonetheless, Kemp’s ridley sea turtles can tolerate ground transportation of up to 26 h in good health. These

  14. 49 CFR 391.31 - Road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Road test. 391.31 Section 391.31 Transportation... COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.31 Road test. (a) Except as provided in subpart G, a... test and has been issued a certificate of driver's road test in accordance with this section. (b)...

  15. Bottom stress estimates and sand transport on northern California inner continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Ferreira, J.T.; Tate, G.B.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of velocities and light transmission in the bottom boundary layer on the continental shelf off northern California demonstrate the importance of storms in the transport of sediment along the coast and offshore in this region. Time-series estimates of bottom stress obtained from a combined wave-current bottom boundary layer model in which wave and current measurements from the Geoprobe tripod were used as input show high stress values of 10 dynes cm-2 during two distinct storm events in early February and early March, 1991. These stresses induce significant offshore sediment transport, achieving maximum values of about 0.5 g cm-1 s-1. The net transport over the entire measurement period from 30 January 1991 to 13 March 1991 was along the coast toward the north and offshore. This transport pattern explains slow migration of low amplitude, broad crescentic dunes along and across this portion of the inner continental shelf. ?? 1994.

  16. The site of water stress governs the pattern of ABA synthesis and transport in peanut

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bo; Cao, Jiajia; Ge, Kui; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is one of the most important phytohormones involved in stress responses in plants. However, knowledge of the effect on ABA distribution and transport of water stress at different sites on the plant is limited. In this study, water stress imposed on peanut leaves or roots by treatment with PEG 6000 is termed “leaf stress” or “root stress”, respectively. Immunoenzyme localization technolony was first used to detect ABA distribution in peanut. Under root stress, ABA biosynthesis and distribution level were all more pronounced in root than in leaf. However, ABA transport and the ability to induce stomatal closure were still better in leaf than in root during root stress; However, ABA biosynthesis initially increased in leaf, then rapidly accumulated in the vascular cambium of leaves and induced stomatal closure under leaf stress; ABA produced in root tissues was also transported to leaf tissues to maintain stomatal closure. The vascular system was involved in the coordination and integration of this complex regulatory mechanism for ABA signal accumulation. Water stress subject to root or leaf results in different of ABA biosynthesis and transport ability that trigger stoma close in peanut. PMID:27694957

  17. Impurity Effects on Momentum Transport and Residual Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Sehoon; Jhang, Hogun; Singh, R.

    2015-11-01

    Impurities are inevitable during tokamak plasma operation because of strong interaction of plasma and plasma facing component and helium ash as a byproduct of fusion process. They cause problems such as radiation power loss and fusion fuel dilution. On the other hands, they are used to diagnosis plasma parameters (CES, XICS etc) and to suppress edge-localized mode by wall-coating. In this research, we study the impact of impurities on turbulence driven intrinsic rotation (via residual stress) in the context of the quasi-linear theory. A two-fluid formulation for main and impurity ions is employed to study ion temperature gradient modes in sheared slab geometry modified by the presence of impurities. An effective form of the parallel Reynolds stress is derived in the center of mass frame of a coupled main ion-impurity system. Analyses show that the contents and the radial profile of impurities have a strong influence on the residual stress. In particular, an impurity profile aligned with that of main ions is shown to cause a considerable reduction of the residual stress, which may lead to the reduction of turbulence driven intrinsic rotation.

  18. Drivers' and conductors' views on the causes and ways of preventing workplace violence in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Workplace violence (WPV) is an occupational health hazard in both low and high income countries. To design WPV prevention programs, prior knowledge and understanding of conditions in the targeted population are essential. This study explores and describes the views of drivers and conductors on the causes of WPV and ways of preventing it in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique. Methods The design was qualitative. Participants were purposefully selected from among transport workers identified as victims of WPV in an earlier quantitative study, and with six or more years of experience in the transport sector. Data were collected in semi-structured interviews. Seven open questions covered individual views on causes of WPV and its prevention, based on the interviewees' experiences of violence while on duty. Thirty-two transport professionals were interviewed. The data were analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis. Results The triggers and causes of violence included fare evasion, disputes over revenue owing to owners, alcohol abuse, overcrowded vehicles, and unfair competition for passengers. Failures to meet passenger expectations, e.g. by-passing parts of a bus route or missing stops, were also important. There was disrespect on the part of transport workers, e.g. being rude to passengers and jumping of queues at taxi ranks, and there were also robberies. Proposals for prevention included: training for workers on conflict resolution, and for employers on passenger-transport administration; and, promoting learning among passengers and workers on how to behave when traveling collectively. Regarding control and supervision, there were expressed needs for the recording of mileage, and for the sanctioning of workers who transgress queuing rules at taxi ranks. The police or supervisors should prevent drunken passengers from getting into vehicles, and drivers should refuse to go to dangerous, secluded neighborhoods. Finally

  19. Effects of dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin E supplementation on meat quality, stress response and intestinal morphology in pigs following transport stress

    PubMed Central

    ZOU, Yi; HU, Xiao Ming; ZHANG, Ting; WEI, Hong Kui; ZHOU, Yuan Fei; ZHOU, Zhong Xin; PENG, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of dietary oregano essential oil (OEO) and vitamin E (Vit E) supplementation on meat quality, stress response and intestinal morphology in pigs following transport stress. A total of 288 finishing pigs were randomly assigned to three groups: a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented either with 200 mg/kg Vit E or 25 mg/kg OEO. After a 28-day feeding trial, total of 132 finishing pigs according diet and transport stress were assigned to one of four treatment groups: 1) control treatment without transport stress (Control group), 2) control treatment with 5-hr transport stress (Negative group), 3) Vit E treatment with 5-hr transport stress and 4) OEO treatment with 5-hr transport stress. Transport stress pigs had lower muscle 45 min pH (pHi) and higher drip loss than control pigs. Dietary OEO and Vit E supplementation significantly increased 45min pH under transport stress, and the OEO groups produced lower 24-hr drip loss values (P<0.05) than that of pigs from the negative group. The OEO-supplemented pigs showed decreased serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and cortisol (P<0.05), and decreased Hsp 27 (heat shock protein 27) and Hsp 70 (heat shock protein 70) mRNA expression in the muscle (P<0.05). Additionally, histological analysis revealed intestinal epithelial damage in transport stress pigs that was reversed by dietary supplementation with OEO. In conclusion, supplementation with dietary OEO may be superior to supplementation with dietary Vit E in alleviating the meat quality, stress response and intestinal morphology of pigs after challenge due to transportation stress. PMID:27916788

  20. Co-regulation of water and K(+) transport in sunflower plants during water stress recovery.

    PubMed

    Benlloch, Manuel; Benlloch-González, María

    2016-06-01

    16-day-old sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants were subjected to deficit irrigation for 12 days. Following this period, plants were rehydrated for 2 days to study plant responses to post-stress recovery. The moderate water stress treatment applied reduced growth in all plant organs and the accumulation of K(+) in the shoot. After the rehydration period, the stem recovered its growth and reached a similar length to the control, an effect which was not observed in either root or leaves. Moreover, plant rehydration after water stress favored the accumulation of K(+) in the apical zone of the stem and expanding leaves. In the roots of plants under water stress, watering to field capacity, once the plants were de- topped, rapidly favored K(+) and water transport in the excised roots. This quick and short-lived response was not observed in roots of plants recovered from water stress for 2 days. These results suggest that the recovery of plant growth after water stress is related to coordinated water and K(+) transport from the root to the apical zone of the ​​stem and expanding leaves. This stimulation of K(+) transport in the root and its accumulation in the cells of the growing zones of the ​​stem must be one of the first responses induced in the plant during water stress recovery.

  1. Serotonin transporter genotype modulates HPA axis output during stress: effect of stress, dexamethasone test and ACTH challenge

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, Andrea N.; Sullivan, Erin C.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Capitanio, John P.; Higley, J. Dee

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies show that the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is dysregulated in depression. Some studies suggest that variation in the serotonin transporter genotype (hereafter 5HTT) modulates both risk for depression and psychopathological HPA axis responsiveness. Rhesus monkeys are well suited to model such relationships. Rhesus macaque models of human psychopathology have assessed the effect of the serotonin transporter (rh5HTT) on levels of cortisol in stressed subjects. These studies show that that under conditions of stress, heterozygous females (Ls) reared under adversity exhibit high levels of cortisol. Studies have not to our knowledge, however, assessed the potential additive effect on the cortisol response in a number of macaque subjects homozygous for the serotonin transporter short allele (ss). Moreover, little is known about the level of the central or peripheral nervous system at which the 5HTT genotype acts to modulate the cortisol response. Methods This study assesses a relatively large number of subjects homozygous and heterozygous for the rh5HTT short and long alleles (a) during stress; (b) following a dexamethasone suppression test; and (c) following an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge. Subjects included 190 infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta – 84 males and 106 females; 118 LL, 60 Ls, and 12 ss subjects), obtaining two blood plasma samples during the stress of separation from their mothers. Then on the following day, we obtained a blood sample following a dexamethasone test, and later that day we obtained a blood sample after an ACTH challenge test. Subjects ranged in age between 90 and 128 days, with a mean age of 107 days. Results Subjects homozygous for the short allele had significantly higher levels of cortisol across all test conditions, when compared to those homozygous for the long allele, or those heterozygous with Ls alleles. Subsequent analyses showed a high correlation between individual cortisol

  2. Blood pressure of urban school children in relation to road-traffic noise, traffic density and presence of public transport.

    PubMed

    Paunovic, Katarina; Belojevic, Goran; Jakovljevic, Branko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between noise levels, traffic density and the presence of public transport and children's blood pressure. Another aim was to assess the applicability of public transport as a proxy indicator of noise exposure. A cross-sectional study involved 1113 children aged 7-11 years from a central municipality in Belgrade. Equivalent noise levels were measured in front of all schools and in the middle of all streets. Traffic density was defined as number of light and heavy vehicles per hour. The number of public transport vehicles was calculated from official timetables. Children's addresses were matched with noise levels and transport maps. A physician measured blood pressure with the sphygmomanometer. Children attending schools with public transport running nearby had by 1.3 mmHg higher systolic pressure than did children from schools without public transport. This relationship was independent from children's age, gender, and body mass index, family history of hypertension, some dwelling characteristics, and lifestyle habits. The association between diastolic pressure and public transport was statistically insignificant. The study indicated a possible positive association between the presence of public transport in the vicinity of schools with systolic blood pressure in 7-11 year-old schoolchildren. The presence of public transport may serve as an auxiliary indicator of noise exposure in undeveloped countries with limited capacities for noise measurement or modeling.

  3. Sharing the responsibility for driver distraction across road transport systems: a systems approach to the management of distracted driving.

    PubMed

    Young, Kristie L; Salmon, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Distracted driving is acknowledged universally as a large and growing road safety problem. Compounding the problem is that distracted driving is a complex, multifaceted issue influenced by a multitude of factors, organisations and individuals. As such, management of the problem is not straightforward. Numerous countermeasures have been developed and implemented across the globe. The vast majority of these measures have derived from the traditional reductionist, driver-centric approach to distraction and have failed to fully reflect the complex mix of actors and components that give rise to drivers becoming distracted. An alternative approach that is gaining momentum in road safety is the systems approach, which considers all components of the system and their interactions as an integrated whole. In this paper, we review the current knowledge base on driver distraction and argue that the systems approach is not currently being realised in practice. Adopting a more holistic, systems approach to distracted driving will not only improve existing knowledge and interventions from the traditional approach, but will enhance our understanding and management of distraction by considering the complex relationships and interactions of the multiple actors and the myriad sources, enablers and interventions that make up the distracted driving system. It is only by recognising and understanding how all of the system components work together to enable distraction to occur, that we can start to work on solutions to help mitigate the occurrence and consequences of distracted driving.

  4. Geophysical methods for road construction and maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasul, Hedi; Karlson, Caroline; Jamali, Imran; Earon, Robert; Olofsson, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Infrastructure, such as road transportation, is a vital in civilized societies; which need to be constructed and maintained regularly. A large part of the project cost is attributed to subsurface conditions, where unsatisfactory conditions could increase either the geotechnical stabilization measures needed or the design cost itself. A way to collect information of the subsurface and existing installations which can lead to measures reducing the project cost and damage is to use geophysical methods during planning, construction and maintenance phases. The moisture in road layers is an important factor, which will affect the bearing capacity of the construction as well as the maintenances. Moisture in the road is a key factor for a well-functioning road. On the other hand the excessive moisture is the main reason of road failure and problems. From a hydrological point of view geophysical methods could help road planners identify the water table, geological strata, pollution arising from the road and the movement of the pollution before, during and after construction. Geophysical methods also allow road planners to collect valuable data for a large area without intrusive investigations such as with boreholes, i.e. minimizing the environmental stresses and costs. However, it is important to specify the investigation site and to choose the most appropriate geophysical method based on the site chosen and the objective of the investigation. Currently, numerous construction and rehabilitation projects are taking places around the world. Many of these projects are focused on infrastructural development, comprising both new projects and expansion of the existing infrastructural network. Geophysical methods can benefit these projects greatly during all phases. During the construction phase Ground Penetrating radar (GPR) is very useful in combination with Electrical Resistivity (ER) for detecting soil water content and base course compaction. However, ER and Electromagnetic

  5. The impacts of water stress on phloem transport in Douglas-fir trees.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, David R

    2014-01-01

    Despite the critical role that phloem plays in a number of plant functional processes and the potential impact of water stress on phloem structural and phloem sap compositional characteristics, little research has been done to examine how water stress influences phloem transport. The objectives of this study were to develop a more accurate understanding of how water stress affects phloem transport in trees, both in terms of the short-term impacts of water stress on phloem sap composition and the longer-term impacts on sieve cell anatomical characteristics. Phloem sieve cell conductivity (kp) was evaluated along a gradient of tree height and xylem water potential in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees in order to evaluate the influence of water stress on phloem transport capacity. The Hagen-Poiseuille equation was used with measurements of sieve cell anatomical characteristics, water content of phloem sap, non-structural carbohydrate content of phloem sap and shoot water potential (Ψl) to evaluate impacts of water stress on kp. Based on regression analysis, for each 1 MPa decrease in mean midday Ψl, sieve cell lumen radius decreased by 2.63 µm MPa(-1). Although there was no significant trend in sucrose content with decreasing Ψl, glucose and fructose content increased significantly with water stress and sieve cell relative water content decreased by 13.5% MPa(-1), leading to a significant increase in sugar molar concentration of 0.46 mol l(-1) MPa(-1) and a significant increase in viscosity of 0.27 mPa s MPa(-1). Modeled kp was significantly influenced both by trends in viscosity as well as by water stress-related trends in sieve cell anatomy.

  6. Intestinal microbial affects of yeast products on weaned and transport stressed pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Study objectives were to determine effects of a commercially available yeast product (XPC, Diamond-V Mills) and stress of transportation on total Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, coliforms, and Lactobacilli populations in the intestine of weaning pigs. In a RCB design with a 2 x 2 factorial ar...

  7. Evaluation of temperament and transportation stress on body composition traits and meat quality in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the first study was to evaluate the combined effects of transportation stress and animal temperament on real-time ultrasound body composition traits (primarily percentage of intramuscular fat) in Angus Crossbred (n = 68) and Brahman (n = 60) steers. Temperament scores (1 to 5 scale)...

  8. Multiple transport systems mediate virus-induced acquired resistance to oxidative stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we report the phenomenon of acquired cross-tolerance to oxidative (UV-C and H2O2) stress in Nicotiana benthamiana plants infected with Potato virus X (PVX) and investigate the functional expression of transport systems in mediating this phenomenon. By combining multiple approaches, we...

  9. Arabidopsis PPR40 Connects Abiotic Stress Responses to Mitochondrial Electron Transport1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zsigmond, Laura; Rigó, Gábor; Szarka, András; Székely, Gyöngyi; Ötvös, Krisztina; Darula, Zsuzsanna; Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Koncz, Csaba; Koncz, Zsuzsa; Szabados, László

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative respiration produces adenosine triphosphate through the mitochondrial electron transport system controlling the energy supply of plant cells. Here we describe a mitochondrial pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) domain protein, PPR40, which provides a signaling link between mitochondrial electron transport and regulation of stress and hormonal responses in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Insertion mutations inactivating PPR40 result in semidwarf growth habit and enhanced sensitivity to salt, abscisic acid, and oxidative stress. Genetic complementation by overexpression of PPR40 complementary DNA restores the ppr40 mutant phenotype to wild type. The PPR40 protein is localized in the mitochondria and found in association with Complex III of the electron transport system. In the ppr40-1 mutant the electron transport through Complex III is strongly reduced, whereas Complex IV is functional, indicating that PPR40 is important for the ubiqinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity of Complex III. Enhanced stress sensitivity of the ppr40-1 mutant is accompanied by accumulation of reactive oxygen species, enhanced lipid peroxidation, higher superoxide dismutase activity, and altered activation of several stress-responsive genes including the alternative oxidase AOX1d. These results suggest a close link between regulation of oxidative respiration and environmental adaptation in Arabidopsis. PMID:18305213

  10. Dehydration, stress, and water consumption of horses during long-distance commercial transport.

    PubMed

    Friend, T H

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize progressive dehydration, stress responses, and water consumption patterns of horses transported long distances in hot weather and to estimate recovery time after 30 h of transport. Thirty adult mares and geldings were deprived of access to feed and water for 6 h, blocked by age, sex, breed, and body condition score, and assigned to one of the following treatments: penned, offered water (Penned/Watered, n = 5); penned, no water (Penned, n = 5); transported, offered water (Transported/Watered, two groups of n = 5); or transported, no water (Transported, two groups of n = 5). None of the horses had access to feed while on treatment. A commercial, single-deck, open-top, 15.8-m-long trailer was divided into four compartments to accommodate the two Transported/Watered and two Transported groups at 1.77 m2 per horse. At 8, 17, 22, 27, 30, and 33 h after initiation of transport, the truck returned and stopped for 1 h to allow for data collection and to give the Transported/Watered and Penned/Watered horses 10 min of access to water in individual buckets. Treatments for the non-watered horses (Penned and Transported) were terminated after 30 h due to dehydration and fatigue, whereas the watered horses (Penned/Watered and Transported/Watered) could continue for another 2 h. Mean weight loss after 30 h was greater in the Penned (57.1 kg, 12.8%) and Transported (52.2 kg, 10.3%) groups than in the Transported/Watered (20.7 kg, 4.0%) and Penned/Watered (17 kg, 3.5%) groups (P < 0.0001). Respiration, heart rate, sodium, chloride, total protein, and osmolality were significantly elevated in the non-watered horses (P < 0.0001), and sodium, chloride, total protein, and osmolality greatly exceeded normal reference ranges, indicating severe dehydration. Although not statistically significant, the horses penned in full sun, with or without water, had a dehydration response that was slightly greater than that of the transported horses. Plasma

  11. Effort-reward imbalance at work and driving anger in an Australian community sample: is there a link between work stress and road rage?

    PubMed

    Hoggan, Benjamin L; Dollard, Maureen F

    2007-11-01

    Both workplace stress and road rage are reported to be on the increase. This study examined the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model of work stress and its relationship with general anger and driving anger in a community sample of 130 Australian workers. It also examined international differences in driving anger, with Australian motorists reporting lower levels of driving anger than American motorists but higher levels than British motorists. Hierarchical multiple regressions confirmed ERI increased driving anger via the mediating variables of general anger and overcommitment; individuals suffering ERI may develop increased general anger or overcommitment, in turn increasing propensity to experience driving anger. Regressions also showed that overcommitment (but not general anger) moderated the effect of ERI on driving anger; ERI has a greater influence on increasing driving anger in individuals with high overcommitment at work. The results have considerable implications for the safety and emotional health of individuals who perceive an imbalance between their efforts and rewards at work, and overcommitted individuals may be at greater risk. The wider implications of the relationship between work stress, emotional well-being and driving anger in employees, along with the potential of driver education interventions, are discussed as public health issues.

  12. Chronic postnatal stress induces voluntary alcohol intake and modifies glutamate transporters in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Odeon, María Mercedes; Andreu, Marcela; Yamauchi, Laura; Grosman, Mauricio; Acosta, Gabriela Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Postnatal stress alters stress responses for life, with serious consequences on the central nervous system (CNS), involving glutamatergic neurotransmission and development of voluntary alcohol intake. Several drugs of abuse, including alcohol and cocaine, alter glutamate transport (GluT). Here, we evaluated effects of chronic postnatal stress (CPS) on alcohol intake and brain glutamate uptake and transporters in male adolescent Wistar rats. For CPS from postnatal day (PD) 7, pups were separated from their mothers and exposed to cold stress (4 °C) for 1 h daily for 20 days; controls remained with their mothers. Then they were exposed to either voluntary ethanol (6%) or dextrose (1%) intake for 7 days (5-7 rats per group), then killed. CPS: (1) increased voluntary ethanol intake, (2) did not affect body weight gain or produce signs of toxicity with alcohol exposure, (3) increased glutamate uptake by hippocampal synaptosomes in vitro and (4) reduced protein levels (Western measurements) in hippocampus and frontal cortex of glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and excitatory amino-acid transporter-3 (EAAT-3) but increased glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) levels. We propose that CPS-induced decrements in GLT-1 and EAAT-3 expression levels are opposed by activation of a compensatory mechanism to prevent excitotoxicity. A greater role for GLAST in total glutamate uptake to prevent enlarged extracellular glutamate levels is inferred. Although CPS strongly increased intake of ethanol, this had little impact on effects of CPS on brain glutamate uptake or transporters. However, the impact of early life adverse events on glutamatergic neurotransmission may underlie increased alcohol consumption in adulthood.

  13. Gyrokinetic simulation of momentum transport with residual stress from diamagnetic level velocity shears

    SciTech Connect

    Waltz, R. E.; Staebler, G. M.; Solomon, W. M.

    2011-04-15

    Residual stress refers to the remaining toroidal angular momentum (TAM) flux (divided by major radius) when the shear in the equilibrium fluid toroidal velocity (and the velocity itself) vanishes. Previously [Waltz et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 122507 (2007); errata 16, 079902 (2009)], we demonstrated with GYRO [Candy and Waltz, J. Comp. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] gyrokinetic simulations that TAM pinching from (ion pressure gradient supported or diamagnetic level) equilibrium ExB velocity shear could provide some of the residual stress needed to support spontaneous toroidal rotation against normal diffusive loss. Here we show that diamagnetic level shear in the intrinsic drift wave velocities (or ''profile shear'' in the ion and electron density and temperature gradients) provides a comparable residual stress. The individual signed contributions of these small (rho-star level) ExB and profile velocity shear rates to the turbulence level and (rho-star squared) ion energy transport stabilization are additive if the rates are of the same sign. However because of the additive stabilization effect, the contributions to the small (rho-star cubed) residual stress is not always simply additive. If the rates differ in sign, the residual stress from one can buck out that from the other (and in some cases reduce the stabilization.) The residual stress from these diamagnetic velocity shear rates is quantified by the ratio of TAM flow to ion energy (power) flow (M/P) in a global GYRO core simulation of a ''null'' toroidal rotation DIII-D [Mahdavi and Luxon, Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 2 (2005)] discharge by matching M/P profiles within experimental uncertainty. Comparison of global GYRO (ion and electron energy as well as particle) transport flow balance simulations of TAM transport flow in a high-rotation DIII-D L-mode quantifies and isolates the ExB shear and parallel velocity (Coriolis force) pinching components from the larger ''diffusive'' parallel velocity shear driven component and

  14. Encapsulating Urban Traffic Rhythms into Road Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution. PMID:24553203

  15. Re-energizing energy supply: Electrolytically-produced hydrogen as a flexible energy storage medium and fuel for road transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emonts, Bernd; Schiebahn, Sebastian; Görner, Klaus; Lindenberger, Dietmar; Markewitz, Peter; Merten, Frank; Stolten, Detlef

    2017-02-01

    ;Energiewende;, which roughly translates as the transformation of the German energy sector in accordance with the imperatives of climate change, may soon become a byword for the corresponding processes most other developed countries are at various stages of undergoing. Germany's notable progress in this area offers valuable insights that other states can draw on in implementing their own transitions. The German state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) is making its own contribution to achieving the Energiewende's ambitious objectives: in addition to funding an array of 'clean and green' projects, the Virtual Institute Power to Gas and Heat was established as a consortium of seven scientific and technical organizations whose aim is to inscribe a future, renewable-based German energy system with adequate flexibility. Thus, it is tasked with conceiving of and evaluating suitable energy path options. This paper outlines one of the most promising of these pathways, which is predicated on the use of electrolytically-produced hydrogen as an energy storage medium, as well as the replacement of hydrocarbon-based fuel for most road vehicles. We describe and evaluate this path and place it in a systemic context, outlining a case study from which other countries and federated jurisdictions therein may draw inspiration.

  16. Osmotic Stress Responses and Plant Growth Controlled by Potassium Transporters in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Osakabe, Yuriko; Arinaga, Naoko; Umezawa, Taishi; Katsura, Shogo; Nagamachi, Keita; Tanaka, Hidenori; Ohiraki, Haruka; Yamada, Kohji; Seo, So-Uk; Abo, Mitsuru; Yoshimura, Etsuro; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2013-01-01

    Osmotic adjustment plays a fundamental role in water stress responses and growth in plants; however, the molecular mechanisms governing this process are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that the KUP potassium transporter family plays important roles in this process, under the control of abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin. We generated Arabidopsis thaliana multiple mutants for K+ uptake transporter 6 (KUP6), KUP8, KUP2/SHORT HYPOCOTYL3, and an ABA-responsive potassium efflux channel, guard cell outward rectifying K+ channel (GORK). The triple mutants, kup268 and kup68 gork, exhibited enhanced cell expansion, suggesting that these KUPs negatively regulate turgor-dependent growth. Potassium uptake experiments using 86radioactive rubidium ion (86Rb+) in the mutants indicated that these KUPs might be involved in potassium efflux in Arabidopsis roots. The mutants showed increased auxin responses and decreased sensitivity to an auxin inhibitor (1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid) and ABA in lateral root growth. During water deficit stress, kup68 gork impaired ABA-mediated stomatal closing, and kup268 and kup68 gork decreased survival of drought stress. The protein kinase SNF1-related protein kinases 2E (SRK2E), a key component of ABA signaling, interacted with and phosphorylated KUP6, suggesting that KUP functions are regulated directly via an ABA signaling complex. We propose that the KUP6 subfamily transporters act as key factors in osmotic adjustment by balancing potassium homeostasis in cell growth and drought stress responses. PMID:23396830

  17. Osmotic stress responses and plant growth controlled by potassium transporters in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Osakabe, Yuriko; Arinaga, Naoko; Umezawa, Taishi; Katsura, Shogo; Nagamachi, Keita; Tanaka, Hidenori; Ohiraki, Haruka; Yamada, Kohji; Seo, So-Uk; Abo, Mitsuru; Yoshimura, Etsuro; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2013-02-01

    Osmotic adjustment plays a fundamental role in water stress responses and growth in plants; however, the molecular mechanisms governing this process are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that the KUP potassium transporter family plays important roles in this process, under the control of abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin. We generated Arabidopsis thaliana multiple mutants for K(+) uptake transporter 6 (KUP6), KUP8, KUP2/SHORT HYPOCOTYL3, and an ABA-responsive potassium efflux channel, guard cell outward rectifying K(+) channel (GORK). The triple mutants, kup268 and kup68 gork, exhibited enhanced cell expansion, suggesting that these KUPs negatively regulate turgor-dependent growth. Potassium uptake experiments using (86)radioactive rubidium ion ((86)Rb(+)) in the mutants indicated that these KUPs might be involved in potassium efflux in Arabidopsis roots. The mutants showed increased auxin responses and decreased sensitivity to an auxin inhibitor (1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid) and ABA in lateral root growth. During water deficit stress, kup68 gork impaired ABA-mediated stomatal closing, and kup268 and kup68 gork decreased survival of drought stress. The protein kinase SNF1-related protein kinases 2E (SRK2E), a key component of ABA signaling, interacted with and phosphorylated KUP6, suggesting that KUP functions are regulated directly via an ABA signaling complex. We propose that the KUP6 subfamily transporters act as key factors in osmotic adjustment by balancing potassium homeostasis in cell growth and drought stress responses.

  18. Targeting Transporters: Promoting Blood-Brain Barrier Repair in Response to Oxidative Stress Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ronaldson, Patrick T.; Davis, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a physical and biochemical barrier that precisely regulates the ability of endogenous and exogenous substances to accumulate within brain tissue. It possesses structural and biochemical features (i.e., tight junction and adherens junction protein complexes, influx and efflux transporters) that work in concert to control solute permeation. Oxidative stress, a critical component of several diseases including cerebral hypoxia/ischemia and peripheral inflammatory pain, can cause considerable injury to the BBB and lead to significant CNS pathology. This suggests a critical need for novel therapeutic approaches that can protect the BBB in diseases with an oxidative stress component. Recent studies have identified molecular targets (i.e., endogenous transporters, intracellular signaling systems) that can be exploited for optimization of endothelial drug delivery or for control of transport of endogenous substrates such as the antioxidant glutathione (GSH). In particular, targeting transporters offers a unique approach to protect BBB integrity by promoting repair of cell-cell interactions at the level of the brain microvascular endothelium. This review summarizes current knowledge in this area and emphasizes those targets that present considerable opportunity for providing BBB protection and/or promoting BBB repair in the setting of oxidative stress. PMID:25796436

  19. On Displacement Height, from Classical to Practical Formulation: Stress, Turbulent Transport and Vorticity Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Kelly, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Displacement height ( d) is an important parameter in the simple modelling of wind speed and vertical fluxes above vegetative canopies, such as forests. Here we show that, aside from implicit definition through a (displaced) logarithmic profile, accepted formulations for d do not consistently predict flow properties above a forest. Turbulent transport can affect the displacement height, and is an integral part of what is called the roughness sublayer. We develop a more general approach for estimation of d, through production of turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent transport, and show how previous stress-based formulations for displacement height can be seen as simplified cases of a more general definition including turbulent transport. Further, we also give a simplified and practical form for d that is in agreement with the general approach, exploiting the concept of vortex thickness scale from mixing-layer theory. We assess the new and previous displacement height formulations by using flow statistics derived from the atmospheric boundary-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes model SCADIS as well as from wind-tunnel observations, for different vegetation types and flow regimes in neutral conditions. The new formulations tend to produce smaller d than stress-based forms, falling closer to the classic logarithmically-defined displacement height. The new, more generally defined, displacement height appears to be more compatible with profiles of components of the turbulent kinetic energy budget, accounting for the combined effects of turbulent transport and shear production. The Coriolis force also plays a role, introducing wind-speed dependence into the behaviour of the roughness sublayer; this affects the turbulent transport, shear production, stress, and wind speed, as well as the displacement height, depending on the character of the forest. We further show how our practical (`mixing-layer') form for d matches the new turbulence-based relation, as well as

  20. Plasmodesmal-mediated cell-to-cell transport in wheat roots is modulated by anaerobic stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleland, R. E.; Fujiwara, T.; Lucas, W. J.

    1994-01-01

    Cell-to-cell transport of small molecules and ions occurs in plants through plasmodesmata. Plant roots are frequently subjected to localized anaerobic stress, with a resultant decrease in ATP. In order to determine the effect of this stress on plasmodesmal transport, fluorescent dyes of increasing molecular weight (0.46 to 1OkDa) were injected into epidermal and cortical cells of 3-day-old wheat roots, and their movement into neighboring cells was determined by fluorescence microscopy. Anaerobiosis was generated by N2 gas or simulated by the presence of sodium azide, both of which reduced the ATP levels in the tissue by over 80%. In the absence of such stress, the upper limit for movement, or size exclusion limit (SEL), of cortical plasmodesmata was <1 kDa. The ATP analogue TNP-ADP (mw 681) moved across the plasmodesmata of unstressed roots, indicating that plasmodesmata may be conduits for nucleotide (ATP and ADP) exchange between cells. Upon imposition of stress, the SEL rose to between 5 and 10 kDa. This response of plasmodesmata to a decrease in the level of ATP suggests that they are constricted by an ATP-dependent process so as to maintain a restricted SEL. When roots are subjected to anaerobic stress, an increase in SEL may permit enhanced delivery of sugars to the affected cells of the root where anaerobic respiration could regenerate the needed ATP.

  1. Do Handling and Transport Stress Influence Adrenocortical Response in the Tortoises (Testudo hermanni)?

    PubMed Central

    Medica, Pietro; Ferlazzo, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze circulating cortisol levels from tortoises (Testudo hermanni) to establish reference intervals and to develop guidelines for the interpretation of the effect of handling and transport stress. Blood samples were obtained from the caudal venous from 23 healthy juvenile tortoises (9 males and 14 females), aged 8–20 years, in basal condition, four weeks prior to and four weeks following handling and short transportation. The study was carried out on the experimental group: 10 tortoises, 4 males and 6 females, and on a control group: 13 tortoises, 5 males and 8 females. Compared to basal values, circulating cortisol concentrations was higher after handling and transport (+286%; P < 0.001), with an increase of +246% (P < 0.001) in males, +236% (P < 0.005) in females, +370% (P < 0.005) in subjects aged 8–12 years, and +240% (P < 0.001) in subjects aged 13–20 years. These observations support the hypotheses that cortisol may act to mediate the effects of handling and transport stress in this species and that four weeks following handling and transport were insufficient to restore their homeostasis. PMID:24977048

  2. Comparative stress responses to short transport and related events in Hereford and Brahman steers.

    PubMed

    Browning, R; Leite-Browning, M L

    2013-02-01

    Three summer experiments compared responses to transportation-related events in 2- to 4-yr-old Brahman (Bos indicus) and Hereford (B. taurus) steers. In Exp. 1, steers were hauled round-trip (4 h) or fasted in holding pens. Transport transiently increased (P < 0.01) plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations, decreased (P < 0.05) plasma triglyceride concentrations, and increased total leukocyte counts. Blood constituents were not altered for steers fasting in holding pens. Treatment-day BW shrink was greater (P < 0.01) in transported steers than penned steers. Blood constituent responses were unaffected (P < 0.05) by subspecies. Hereford experienced greater (P < 0.05) transport-day BW shrink than Brahman across treatments. Steers in Exp. 2 were hauled to a new farm for a 1-wk relocation period or hauled round-trip an equal time (0.67 h) and returned to the home station. Both treatments similarly experienced transport-day BW shrink and increased (P < 0.01) plasma cortisol and glucose. Subspecies did not affect (P < 0.05) blood constituent responses to transport. Hereford experienced greater (P < 0.05) transport-day shrink than Brahman. Relocation did not elicit (P < 0.05) changes in blood profiles beyond the day of transport. In Exp. 3, steers were loaded and unloaded without transport, transported round-trip (1 h), or fasted in a holding pen for 3 h. Cortisol increased (P < 0.01) after transport and after loading/unloading. Leukocytes and glucose increased (P < 0.01) after the 1 h transport. Steers transported experienced greater treatment-day BW shrink than those fasted or loaded and unloaded (P < 0.01; -3.13 vs. -1.36 and -0.35 ± 0.76%, respectively). The subspecies did not vary (P < 0.05) for blood constituent responses or shrink in Exp. 3. Animal responses were not evident 24 h after treatments in each experiment. In summary, transport caused stress, but Brahman steers were not more sensitive than Herefords. Hereford steers were susceptible to greater

  3. The earliest long-distance obsidian transport: Evidence from the ∼200 ka Middle Stone Age Sibilo School Road Site, Baringo, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Blegen, Nick

    2017-02-01

    This study presents the earliest evidence of long-distance obsidian transport at the ∼200 ka Sibilo School Road Site (SSRS), an early Middle Stone Age site in the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya. The later Middle Pleistocene of East Africa (130-400 ka) spans significant and interrelated behavioral and biological changes in human evolution including the first appearance of Homo sapiens. Despite the importance of the later Middle Pleistocene, there are relatively few archaeological sites in well-dated contexts (n < 10) that document hominin behavior from this time period. In particular, geochemically informed evidence of long-distance obsidian transport, important for investigating expansion of intergroup interactions in hominin evolution, is rare from the Middle Pleistocene record of Africa. The SSRS offers a unique contribution to this small but growing dataset. Tephrostratigraphic analysis of tuffs encasing the SSRS provides a minimum age of ∼200 ka for the site. Levallois points and methods of core preparation demonstrate characteristic Middle Stone Age lithic technologies present at the SSRS. A significant portion (43%) of the lithic assemblage is obsidian. The SSRS obsidian comes from three different sources located at distances of 25 km, 140 km and 166 km from the site. The majority of obsidian derives from the farthest source, 166 km to the south of the site. The SSRS thus provides important new evidence that long-distance raw material transport, and the expansion of hominin intergroup interactions that this entails, was a significant feature of hominin behavior ∼200 ka, the time of the first appearance of H. sapiens, and ∼150,000 years before similar behaviors were previously documented in the region.

  4. Oxysterol generation and liver X receptor-dependent reverse cholesterol transport: not all roads lead to Rome.

    PubMed

    Pannu, Parveer S; Allahverdian, Sima; Francis, Gordon A

    2013-04-10

    Cell cholesterol metabolism is a tightly regulated process, dependent in part on activation of nuclear liver X receptors (LXRs) to increase expression of genes mediating removal of excess cholesterol from cells in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. LXRs are thought to be activated predominantly by oxysterols generated enzymatically from cholesterol in different cell organelles. Defects resulting in slowed release of cholesterol from late endosomes and lysosomes or reduction in sterol-27-hydroxylase activity lead to specific blocks in oxysterol production and impaired LXR-dependent gene activation. This block does not appear to be compensated by oxysterol production in other cell compartments. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about oxysterol-dependent activation by LXR of genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport, and what these defects of cell cholesterol homeostasis can teach us about the critical pathways of oxysterol generation for expression of LXR-dependent genes.

  5. Elements in Mud and Snow in the Vicinity of the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System Road, Red Dog Mine, and Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William J.; May, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    A small number of mud, road bed soil, and snow samples were collected in 2005 and 2006 to assess metal concentrations and loadings to areas adjacent to the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) road in northwest Alaska. The DMTS road is used by large trucks to transport lead and zinc concentrates from Red Dog Mine to the shipping facility at Red Dog Port; it traverses 32 kilometers of land in Cape Krusenstern National Monument (CAKR). Mud collected in the summer of 2005 from wheel-wells of two passenger vehicles used for transport between Red Dog Mine and the port facility were enriched in cadmium, lead, and zinc by factors of about 200 to 800 as compared with mud collected from a vehicle stationed in Kotzebue, Alaska, whereas DMTS road bed soil samples were enriched by factors of 6 to 12. Thus, as of 2005, dispersal of mine ore wastes or concentrates by vehicles appeared to remain a potential source of metals along the DMTS road. Compared to snow samples obtained near a gravel road located near Kotzebue, Alaska, metal loadings estimated from individual snow samples collected in CAKR in April 2006 near three creeks, 13 to 50 meters from the road, were greater by factors of 13 to 316 for cadmium, 28 to 589 for lead, and 8 to 195 for zinc. When averaged for all three creek locations, mean loadings of cadmium, lead, and zinc calculated from snow samples collected at a nominal distance of 15 meters to the north of the road were 0.63, 34, and 89 milligrams of metal per square meter, respectively. Variability of particulate and metal loadings between individual samples and the three creek locations probably was affected by localized meteorological conditions and micro-topography on the snow drift and scour patterns, but road orientation on attainable truck speeds also might have been a factor. Results indicated that the ?port effect?, previously attributed to fugitive metal-enriched dusts stemming from concentrate transfer operations at the port facility

  6. Photosynthetic electron transport and specific photoprotective responses in wheat leaves under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Zivcak, Marek; Brestic, Marian; Balatova, Zuzana; Drevenakova, Petra; Olsovska, Katarina; Kalaji, Hazem M; Yang, Xinghong; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2013-11-01

    The photosynthetic responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves to different levels of drought stress were analyzed in potted plants cultivated in growth chamber under moderate light. Low-to-medium drought stress was induced by limiting irrigation, maintaining 20 % of soil water holding capacity for 14 days followed by 3 days without water supply to induce severe stress. Measurements of CO2 exchange and photosystem II (PSII) yield (by chlorophyll fluorescence) were followed by simultaneous measurements of yield of PSI (by P700 absorbance changes) and that of PSII. Drought stress gradually decreased PSII electron transport, but the capacity for nonphotochemical quenching increased more slowly until there was a large decrease in leaf relative water content (where the photosynthetic rate had decreased by half or more). We identified a substantial part of PSII electron transport, which was not used by carbon assimilation or by photorespiration, which clearly indicates activities of alternative electron sinks. Decreasing the fraction of light absorbed by PSII and increasing the fraction absorbed by PSI with increasing drought stress (rather than assuming equal absorption by the two photosystems) support a proposed function of PSI cyclic electron flow to generate a proton-motive force to activate nonphotochemical dissipation of energy, and it is consistent with the observed accumulation of oxidized P700 which causes a decrease in PSI electron acceptors. Our results support the roles of alternative electron sinks (either from PSII or PSI) and cyclic electron flow in photoprotection of PSII and PSI in drought stress conditions. In future studies on plant stress, analyses of the partitioning of absorbed energy between photosystems are needed for interpreting flux through linear electron flow, PSI cyclic electron flow, along with alternative electron sinks.

  7. Liver transcriptome changes in zebrafish during acclimation to transport-associated stress.

    PubMed

    Dhanasiri, Anusha K S; Fernandes, Jorge M O; Kiron, Viswanath

    2013-01-01

    Liver plays a key role during the stress acclimation, and liver transcriptome analysis of shipped zebrafish could reveal the molecular adjustments that occur in the organ. Transcriptional changes in liver were analyzed with a 44 K oligo array using total RNA from fish prior to transport and during a mock transport process--immediately after packing (0 h), at 48 and 72 h. Large numbers of genes related to a variety of biological processes and pathways were regulated, mainly during transport (at 48/72 h). Immediately after packing, transcripts of genes related to both gluconeogenesis and glycolysis were induced. During transport, induction of gluconeogenesis-linked genes and reduction of glycolysis-related genes may be supporting the increase in blood glucose levels. Inhibition of genes involved in fatty acid beta-oxidation may be pointing to the poor ability of fish to utilize energy from fatty acids, under transport conditions. Genes involved in some of the mechanisms that regulate body ammonia were also affected. Even though genes associated with certain transaminases were inhibited in liver, sustained glutamate deamination may have led to high ammonia accumulation in liver/body. Enhanced levels of gene transcripts in ubiquitination and MAPK signalling cascade and reduced levels of gene transcripts related to ROS generation via peroxisomal enzymes as well as xenobiotic metabolism may be signifying the importance of such cellular and tissue responses to maintain homeostasis. Furthermore, transcripts connected with stress and thyroid hormones were also regulated. Moreover, suppression of genes related to specific immune components may be denoting the deleterious impact of transport on fish health. Thus, this study has revealed the complex molecular adjustments that occur in zebrafish when they are transported.

  8. Liver Transcriptome Changes in Zebrafish during Acclimation to Transport-Associated Stress

    PubMed Central

    Dhanasiri, Anusha K. S.; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.; Kiron, Viswanath

    2013-01-01

    Liver plays a key role during the stress acclimation, and liver transcriptome analysis of shipped zebrafish could reveal the molecular adjustments that occur in the organ. Transcriptional changes in liver were analyzed with a 44 K oligo array using total RNA from fish prior to transport and during a mock transport process - immediately after packing (0 h), at 48 and 72 h. Large numbers of genes related to a variety of biological processes and pathways were regulated, mainly during transport (at 48/72 h). Immediately after packing, transcripts of genes related to both gluconeogenesis and glycolysis were induced. During transport, induction of gluconeogenesis-linked genes and reduction of glycolysis-related genes may be supporting the increase in blood glucose levels. Inhibition of genes involved in fatty acid beta-oxidation may be pointing to the poor ability of fish to utilize energy from fatty acids, under transport conditions. Genes involved in some of the mechanisms that regulate body ammonia were also affected. Even though genes associated with certain transaminases were inhibited in liver, sustained glutamate deamination may have led to high ammonia accumulation in liver/body. Enhanced levels of gene transcripts in ubiquitination and MAPK signalling cascade and reduced levels of gene transcripts related to ROS generation via peroxisomal enzymes as well as xenobiotic metabolism may be signifying the importance of such cellular and tissue responses to maintain homeostasis. Furthermore, transcripts connected with stress and thyroid hormones were also regulated. Moreover, suppression of genes related to specific immune components may be denoting the deleterious impact of transport on fish health. Thus, this study has revealed the complex molecular -adjustments that occur in zebrafish when they are transported. PMID:23762281

  9. A Golgi-localized MATE transporter mediates iron homoeostasis under osmotic stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Pil Joon; Park, Jungmin; Park, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Youn-Sung; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Park, Chung-Mo

    2012-03-15

    Iron is an essential micronutrient that acts as a cofactor in a wide variety of pivotal metabolic processes, such as the electron transport chain of respiration, photosynthesis and redox reactions, in plants. However, its overload exceeding the cellular capacity of iron binding and storage is potentially toxic to plant cells by causing oxidative stress and cell death. Consequently, plants have developed versatile mechanisms to maintain iron homoeostasis. Organismal iron content is tightly regulated at the steps of uptake, translocation and compartmentalization. Whereas iron uptake is fairly well understood at the cellular and organismal levels, intracellular and intercellular transport is only poorly understood. In the present study, we show that a MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) transporter, designated BCD1 (BUSH-AND-CHLOROTIC-DWARF 1), contributes to iron homoeostasis during stress responses and senescence in Arabidopsis. The BCD1 gene is induced by excessive iron, but repressed by iron deficiency. It is also induced by cellular and tissue damage occurring under osmotic stress. The activation-tagged mutant bcd1-1D exhibits leaf chlorosis, a typical symptom of iron deficiency. The chlorotic lesion of the mutant was partially recovered by iron feeding. Whereas the bcd1-1D mutant accumulated a lower amount of iron, the iron level was elevated in the knockout mutant bcd1-1. The BCD1 protein is localized to the Golgi complex. We propose that the BCD1 transporter plays a role in sustaining iron homoeostasis by reallocating excess iron released from stress-induced cellular damage.

  10. A new transport phenomenon in nanostructures: a mesoscopic analog of the Braess paradox encountered in road networks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Braess paradox, known for traffic and other classical networks, lies in the fact that adding a new route to a congested network in an attempt to relieve congestion can degrade counterintuitively the overall network performance. Recently, we have extended the concept of the Braess paradox to semiconductor mesoscopic networks, whose transport properties are governed by quantum physics. In this paper, we demonstrate theoretically that, alike in classical systems, congestion plays a key role in the occurrence of a Braess paradox in mesoscopic networks. PMID:22913510

  11. Mass Transport and Shear Stress as Mediators of Flow Effects on Atherosclerotic Plaque Origin and Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorder, Riley; Aliseda, Alberto

    2009-11-01

    The carotid artery bifurcation (CAB) is one of the leading site for atherosclerosis, a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the developed world. The specific mechanisms by which perturbed flow at the bifurcation and in the carotid bulge promotes plaque formation and growth are not fully understood. Shear stress, mass transport, and flow residence times are considered dominant factors. Shear stress causes restructuring of endothelial cells at the arterial wall which changes the wall's permeability. Long residence times are associated with enhanced mass transport through increased diffusion of lipids and white blood cells into the arterial wall. Although momentum and mass transfer are traditionally coupled by correlations similar to Reynolds Analogy, the complex flow patterns present in this region due to the pulsatile, transitional, detached flow associated with the complex geometry makes the validity of commonly accepted assumptions uncertain. We create solid models of the CAB from MRI or ultrasound medical images, build flow phantoms on clear polyester resin and use an IOR matching, blood mimicking, working fluid. Using PIV and dye injection techniques the shear stress and scalar transport are experimentally investigated. Our goal is to establish a quantitative relationship between momentum and mass transfer under a wide range of physiologically normal and pathological conditions.

  12. Type VI Secretion System Transports Zn2+ to Combat Multiple Stresses and Host Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenhan; Gao, Fen; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Weipeng; Wei, Gehong; Luo, Zhao-Qing; Shen, Xihui

    2015-01-01

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are widespread multi-component machineries that translocate effectors into either eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells, for virulence or for interbacterial competition. Herein, we report that the T6SS-4 from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis displays an unexpected function in the transportation of Zn2+ to combat diverse stresses and host immunity. Environmental insults such as oxidative stress induce the expression of T6SS-4 via OxyR, the transcriptional factor that also regulates many oxidative response genes. Zinc transportation is achieved by T6SS-4-mediated translocation of a novel Zn2+-binding protein substrate YezP (YPK_3549), which has the capacity to rescue the sensitivity to oxidative stress exhibited by T6SS-4 mutants when added to extracellular milieu. Disruption of the classic zinc transporter ZnuABC together with T6SS-4 or yezP results in mutants that almost completely lost virulence against mice, further highlighting the importance of T6SS-4 in resistance to host immunity. These results assigned an unconventional role to T6SSs, which will lay the foundation for studying novel mechanisms of metal ion uptake by bacteria and the role of this process in their resistance to host immunity and survival in harmful environments. PMID:26134274

  13. Impaired retrograde transport of axonal autophagosomes contributes to autophagic stress in Alzheimer’s disease neurons

    PubMed Central

    Tammineni, Prasad; Ye, Xuan; Feng, Tuancheng; Aikal, Daniyal; Cai, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Neurons face unique challenges of transporting nascent autophagic vacuoles (AVs) from distal axons toward the soma, where mature lysosomes are mainly located. Autophagy defects have been linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the mechanisms underlying altered autophagy remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that defective retrograde transport contributes to autophagic stress in AD axons. Amphisomes predominantly accumulate at axonal terminals of mutant hAPP mice and AD patient brains. Amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers associate with AVs in AD axons and interact with dynein motors. This interaction impairs dynein recruitment to amphisomes through competitive interruption of dynein-Snapin motor-adaptor coupling, thus immobilizing them in distal axons. Consistently, deletion of Snapin in mice causes AD-like axonal autophagic stress, whereas overexpressing Snapin in hAPP neurons reduces autophagic accumulation at presynaptic terminals by enhancing AV retrograde transport. Altogether, our study provides new mechanistic insight into AD-associated autophagic stress, thus establishing a foundation for ameliorating axonal pathology in AD. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21776.001 PMID:28085665

  14. Three transporters mediate uptake of glycine betaine and carnitine by Listeria monocytogenes in response to hyperosmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, Apostolos S; Smith, Gary M

    2003-02-01

    The uptake and accumulation of the potent osmolytes glycine betaine and carnitine enable the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to proliferate in environments of elevated osmotic stress, often rendering salt-based food preservation inadequate. To date, three osmolyte transport systems are known to operate in L. monocytogenes: glycine betaine porter I (BetL), glycine betaine porter II (Gbu), and a carnitine transporter OpuC. We investigated the specificity of each transporter towards each osmolyte by creating mutant derivatives of L. monocytogenes 10403S that possess each of the transporters in isolation. Kinetic and steady-state osmolyte accumulation data together with growth rate experiments demonstrated that osmotically activated glycine betaine transport is readily and effectively mediated by Gbu and BetL and to a lesser extent by OpuC. Osmotically stimulated carnitine transport was demonstrated for OpuC and Gbu regardless of the nature of stressing salt. BetL can mediate weak carnitine uptake in response to NaCl stress but not KCl stress. No other transporter in L. monocytogenes 10403S appears to be involved in osmotically stimulated transport of either osmolyte, since a triple mutant strain yielded neither transport nor accumulation of glycine betaine or carnitine and could not be rescued by either osmolyte when grown under elevated osmotic stress.

  15. Three Transporters Mediate Uptake of Glycine Betaine and Carnitine by Listeria monocytogenes in Response to Hyperosmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Angelidis, Apostolos S.; Smith, Gary M.

    2003-01-01

    The uptake and accumulation of the potent osmolytes glycine betaine and carnitine enable the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to proliferate in environments of elevated osmotic stress, often rendering salt-based food preservation inadequate. To date, three osmolyte transport systems are known to operate in L. monocytogenes: glycine betaine porter I (BetL), glycine betaine porter II (Gbu), and a carnitine transporter OpuC. We investigated the specificity of each transporter towards each osmolyte by creating mutant derivatives of L. monocytogenes 10403S that possess each of the transporters in isolation. Kinetic and steady-state osmolyte accumulation data together with growth rate experiments demonstrated that osmotically activated glycine betaine transport is readily and effectively mediated by Gbu and BetL and to a lesser extent by OpuC. Osmotically stimulated carnitine transport was demonstrated for OpuC and Gbu regardless of the nature of stressing salt. BetL can mediate weak carnitine uptake in response to NaCl stress but not KCl stress. No other transporter in L. monocytogenes 10403S appears to be involved in osmotically stimulated transport of either osmolyte, since a triple mutant strain yielded neither transport nor accumulation of glycine betaine or carnitine and could not be rescued by either osmolyte when grown under elevated osmotic stress. PMID:12571024

  16. The impact of vehicle motion during transport on animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Santurtun, Eduardo; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-06-01

    Motion sickness is a common response in humans and some species of farm livestock during transport, but research on the impact of motion has been primarily focused on the use of animal models for humans. During livestock transportation, animals seek to minimise uncontrolled movements to reduce energy consumption and maintain posture. Road and sea transport of livestock can produce motion sickness and stress responses. Clinical signs are the result of autonomous nervous system activation. Studies conducted on road transportation effects in domestic animals showed several motion sickness behaviours including vomiting and, in ruminants, a reduction in rumination. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of sea transport motion. Despite the paucity of data on livestock, there is sufficient evidence to believe that motion might affect animal welfare when animals are transported by road or sea.

  17. Transportation stress and the incidence of exertional rhabdomyolysis in emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae).

    PubMed

    Menon, Deepa G; Bennett, Darin C; Schaefer, Allan L; Cheng, Kimberly M

    2014-02-01

    Many emu farms are located in areas lacking processing facilities that can handle these birds. Thus, long-distance shipping of birds to an abattoir is necessary. Two experiments were conducted, wherein emus were transported in a modified horse trailer for 6 h to an abattoir. Changes in the indices of stress and metabolic homeostasis (hematology, serum biochemistry, enzymes, and body temperature and weight) were used to evaluate the physiological response to transport. The activities of enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase increased significantly (P < 0.001) from pretransport to slaughter, indicating muscle cell wall damages. The body temperature of emus was significantly (P < 0.001) increased from 37.0 to 39.6°C after transport in experiment 1 and from 37.2 to 38.9°C in experiment 2. Transport resulted in significant weight loss in both experiments (P < 0.001; 2.1 ± 0.2 kg vs. 0.6 ± 0.2 kg) and posttransport resting at lairage led to slight regaining (P < 0.01) of BW. Oral administration of supplements before and after transport was effective in protecting against muscle damage and faster recovery of BW losses during lairage. The clinical findings were suggestive of the incidence of exertional rhabdomyolysis and thus underlined the need for careful handling and improved transport conditions of emus.

  18. Membrane transport, sensing and signaling in plant adaptation to environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Conde, Artur; Chaves, M Manuela; Gerós, Hernâni

    2011-09-01

    Plants are generally well adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Even though they have notably prospered in our planet, stressful conditions such as salinity, drought and cold or heat, which are increasingly being observed worldwide in the context of the ongoing climate changes, limit their growth and productivity. Behind the remarkable ability of plants to cope with these stresses and still thrive, sophisticated and efficient mechanisms to re-establish and maintain ion and cellular homeostasis are involved. Among the plant arsenal to maintain homeostasis are efficient stress sensing and signaling mechanisms, plant cell detoxification systems, compatible solute and osmoprotectant accumulation and a vital rearrangement of solute transport and compartmentation. The key role of solute transport systems and signaling proteins in cellular homeostasis is addressed in the present work. The full understanding of the plant cell complex defense mechanisms under stress may allow for the engineering of more tolerant plants or the optimization of cultivation practices to improve yield and productivity, which is crucial at the present time as food resources are progressively scarce.

  19. Activation of chronic toxoplasmosis by transportation stress in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bang; Yuan, Yuan; Cheng, Jianxi; Pan, Ming; Xia, Ningbo; Zhang, Weichao; Wang, Yifan; Zhou, Yanqin; Zhao, Junlong

    2016-12-27

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite infecting 25% of the world population and enormous number of animals. It can exist in two forms in intermediate hosts: the fast replicating tachyzoites responsible for acute infection and the slowly replicating bradyzoites responsible for life-long chronic infection. The interconversion between tachyzoites and bradyzoites plays critical roles in the transmission and pathogenesis of T. gondii. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern the interconversion are largely unknown. In this study, we established a chronic infection model in mice and examined the impact of transportation stress on the status of chronic infection. Our results demonstrated that, treating chronically infected mice with conditions mimicking transportation stress reduced the levels of several key cytokines that restrict the infection at chronic stage. Increased expression of the tachyzoite specific gene SAG1 (surface antigen 1) was detected in brain cysts of stress treated mice, indicating activation and conversion of bradyzoites to tachyzoites. Using this model, we identified fifteen toxoplasmic proteins that had significant abundance changes during stress induced cysts reactivation. These proteins serve as a basis for further investigation of the mechanisms governing bradyzoite conversion.

  20. Activation of chronic toxoplasmosis by transportation stress in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bang; Yuan, Yuan; Cheng, Jianxi; Pan, Ming; Xia, Ningbo; Zhang, Weichao; Wang, Yifan; Zhou, Yanqin; Zhao, Junlong

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondiiis an obligate intracellular parasite infecting 25% of the world population and enormous number of animals. It can exist in two forms in intermediate hosts: the fast replicating tachyzoites responsible for acute infection and the slowly replicating bradyzoites responsible for life-long chronic infection. The interconversion between tachyzoites and bradyzoites plays critical roles in the transmission and pathogenesis of T. gondii. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern the interconversion are largely unknown. In this study, we established a chronic infection model in mice and examined the impact of transportation stress on the status of chronic infection. Our results demonstrated that, treating chronically infected mice with conditions mimicking transportation stress reduced the levels of several key cytokines that restrict the infection at chronic stage. Increased expression of the tachyzoite specific gene SAG1 (surface antigen 1) was detected in brain cysts of stress treated mice, indicating activation and conversion of bradyzoites to tachyzoites. Using this model, we identified fifteen toxoplasmic proteins that had significant abundance changes during stress induced cysts reactivation. These proteins serve as a basis for further investigation of the mechanisms governing bradyzoite conversion. PMID:27895319

  1. Distributed road assessment system

    DOEpatents

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  2. Combined effects of compact cevelopment, transportation investments, and road user pricing on vehicle miles traveled in urbanized areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ewing, Reid; Hamidi, Shima; Gallivan, Frank; Nelson, Arthur C.; Grace, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) is the primary determinant of traffic congestion, vehicle crashes, greenhouse gas emissions, and other effects of transportation. Two previous studies have sought to explain VMT levels in urbanized areas. This study updates and expands on previous work with more recent data, additional metrics, and structural equation modeling (SEM) to explain VMT levels in 315 urbanized areas. According to SEM, population, income, and gasoline prices are primary exogenous drivers of VMT. Development density is a primary endogenous driver. Urbanized areas with more freeway capacity are significantly less dense and have significantly higher VMT per capita. Areas with more transit service coverage and service frequency have higher development densities and per capita transit use, which leads to lower VMT per capita. The indirect effect of transit on VMT through land use, the so-called land use multiplier, is more than three times greater than the direct effect through transit ridership.

  3. Exploring safety impacts of pedestrian-crossing configurations at signalized junctions on urban roads with public transport routes.

    PubMed

    Gitelman, Victoria; Carmel, Roby; Doveh, Etti; Hakkert, Shalom

    2017-04-07

    This study explored the impacts of pedestrian-crossing configurations and other design features, on accident occurrences at signalized junctions situated on central public transport routes (PTRs) of urban arterials. Statistical tests and negative-binomial regression models were applied to identify factors affecting accidents and to examine accident numbers of the PTR junctions as opposed to comparison-sites. At the PTR junctions, a consistent impact of pedestrian-crossing configurations on accidents was found, where a gradated-crossing with mixed-shifting is the least safe. Four-legged junctions tend to higher accident numbers relative to the three-legged junctions. PTR junctions are characterized by higher accident numbers, related to comparison-sites, when controlling for other design characteristics. The study findings may assist in selecting preferable design solutions while planning PTR.

  4. A long and winding road: Skeletonema sp transport by Northern Adriatic Dense Waters to the Southern Adriatic Pit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcello Falcieri, Francesco; Bernardy Aubry, Fabrizio; Barbariol, Francesco; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bergamasco, Andrea; Boldrin, Alfredo; Bonaldo, Davide; Carniel, Sandro; Finotto, Stefania; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    The semi enclosed Adriatic Sea is a sub basin of the Mediterranean Sea located in its northeastern part; it has a shallow northern part (average depth of 40 m) and a deep Southern Adriatic Pit (SAP) that reaches 1200m. The presence of a wide continental shelf exposed to strong heat and momentum fluxes during winter months makes the Northern Adriatic a formation site of dense waters, generally referred to as Northern Adriatic Dense Water (NAdDW). Once produced, it moves south as a quasi-geostrophically adjusted vein , flowing along the Italian coast and enters the SAP giving origin to descent and cascading dense shelf water bringing into the deep layers oxygen, nutrients and organic compound. In February 2012 a long and intense cold air outbreak, with strong Bora winds, interested the northern part of the Adriatic sea causing a drop in water temperature to less than 6 °C and an increase in density to values as high as 1030.2 kg/m3 (likely the maximum values since 1929). This resulted in a massive production of NAdDW. In order to study the behavior of the NAdDW vein, a rapid response 2 legs cruise (ODW2012) was organized in the southern Adriatic. During the cruise, along with physical and chemical measurements, water and phytoplankton samples were collected at different depths. Usual abundance and distribution with a general decrease in phytoplankton abundance from the surface to the bottom were found in all stations with one exception. The bottom sample of a station located roughly 40 km at 120 m depth in front of Gargano showed a significantly high dominance (40%) of the small diatom Skeletonema sp whose flowering is typical in the surface waters of the northern Adriatic in late winter. The physical parameters of the water column showed signs of the passage of the dense water vein (lower temperature and higher dissolved oxygen concentrations) hence it was hypothesized that those diatoms were actively transported by the NAdDW near-bottom stream. A further

  5. Development and calibration of algebraic nonlinear models for terms in the Reynolds stress transport equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjögren, Torbjörn; Johansson, Arne V.

    2000-06-01

    A simple and straightforward method is presented for the derivation and calibration of algebraic nonlinear models for terms in Reynolds stress turbulence closures. The method extensively utilizes data from direct numerical simulations to allow an investigation of the model performance over the entire Reynolds stress anisotropy-invariant map. The model constants are determined from the condition of minimizing the mean square error over the invariant map, in order to give good model behavior for as wide a class as possible of flow situations. A low Reynolds number closure is proposed based on the most general form for closing the Reynolds stress transport equations in terms of Reynolds stresses and total dissipation rate. It is shown that forcing the closure to satisfy realizability in a strict sense leads to a good model behavior even for the complicated flow situation near a wall, without any use of ad-hoc wall damping functions in the closure. The model behavior in homogeneous turbulent flow is analyzed by formulating equations for invariant measures, yielding several quite general results for the behavior of the present and other existing models. A new approach to the modeling effects of rotation in the context of Reynolds stress closures is presented and tested for some different homogeneous flows subjected to rotation.

  6. Transcriptional response of Medicago truncatula sulphate transporters to arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis with and without sulphur stress.

    PubMed

    Casieri, Leonardo; Gallardo, Karine; Wipf, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Sulphur is an essential macronutrient for plant growth, development and response to various abiotic and biotic stresses due to its key role in the biosynthesis of many S-containing compounds. Sulphate represents a very small portion of soil S pull and it is the only form that plant roots can uptake and mobilize through H(+)-dependent co-transport processes implying sulphate transporters. Unlike the other organically bound forms of S, sulphate is normally leached from soils due to its solubility in water, thus reducing its availability to plants. Although our knowledge of plant sulphate transporters has been growing significantly in the past decades, little is still known about the effect of the arbuscular mycorrhiza interaction on sulphur uptake. Carbon, nitrogen and sulphur measurements in plant parts and expression analysis of genes encoding putative Medicago sulphate transporters (MtSULTRs) were performed to better understand the beneficial effects of mycorrhizal interaction on Medicago truncatula plants colonized by Glomus intraradices at different sulphate concentrations. Mycorrhization significantly promoted plant growth and sulphur content, suggesting increased sulphate absorption. In silico analyses allowed identifying eight putative MtSULTRs phylogenetically distributed over the four sulphate transporter groups. Some putative MtSULTRs were transcribed differentially in roots and leaves and affected by sulphate concentration, while others were more constitutively transcribed. Mycorrhizal-inducible and -repressed MtSULTRs transcripts were identified allowing to shed light on the role of mycorrhizal interaction in sulphate uptake.

  7. Design of Dual-Road Transportable Portal Monitoring System for Visible Light and Gamma-Ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Cunningham, Mark F; Goddard Jr, James Samuel; Cheriyadat, Anil M; Hornback, Donald Eric; Fabris, Lorenzo; Kerekes, Ryan A; Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Bradley, Eric Craig; Chesser, Joel B; Marchant, William

    2010-01-01

    The use of radiation sensors as portal monitors is increasing due to heightened concerns over the smuggling of fissile material. Transportable systems that can detect significant quantities of fissile material that might be present in vehicular traffic are of particular interest, especially if they can be rapidly deployed to different locations. To serve this application, we have constructed a rapid-deployment portal monitor that uses visible-light and gamma-ray imaging to allow simultaneous monitoring of multiple lanes of traffic from the side of a roadway. The system operation uses machine vision methods on the visible-light images to detect vehicles as they enter and exit the field of view and to measure their position in each frame. The visible-light and gamma-ray cameras are synchronized which allows the gamma-ray imager to harvest gamma-ray data specific to each vehicle, integrating its radiation signature for the entire time that it is in the field of view. Thus our system creates vehicle-specific radiation signatures and avoids source confusion problems that plague non-imaging approaches to the same problem. Our current prototype instrument was designed for measurement of upto five lanes of freeway traffic with a pair of instruments, one on either side of the roadway. Stereoscopic cameras are used with a third alignment camera for motion compensation and are mounted on a 50 deployable mast. In this paper we discuss the design considerations for the machine-vision system, the algorithms used for vehicle detection and position estimates, and the overall architecture of the system. We also discuss system calibration for rapid deployment. We conclude with notes on preliminary performance and deployment.

  8. Auxin and its transport play a role in plant tolerance to arsenite-induced oxidative stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Aparna; Rathinasabapathi, Bala

    2013-10-01

    The role of auxin in plant development is well known; however, its possible function in root response to abiotic stress is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate a novel role of auxin transport in plant tolerance to oxidative stress caused by arsenite. Plant response to arsenite [As(III)] was evaluated by measuring root growth and markers for stress on seedlings treated with control or As(III)-containing medium. Auxin transporter mutants aux1, pin1 and pin2 were significantly more sensitive to As(III) than the wild type (WT). Auxin transport inhibitors significantly reduced plant tolerance to As(III) in the WT, while exogenous supply of indole-3-acetic acid improved As(III) tolerance of aux1 and not that of WT. Uptake assays using H(3) -IAA showed As(III) affected auxin transport in WT roots. As(III) increased the levels of H2 O2 in WT but not in aux1, suggesting a positive role for auxin transport through AUX1 on plant tolerance to As(III) stress via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signalling. Compared to the WT, the mutant aux1 was significantly more sensitive to high-temperature stress and salinity, also suggesting auxin transport influences a common element shared by plant tolerance to arsenite, salinity and high-temperature stress.

  9. Simulation of hypothetical Asian carp egg and larvae development and transport in the Lockport, Brandon Road, Dresden Island, and Marseilles Pools of the Illinois Waterway by use of the Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Duncker, James J.

    2016-04-05

    As part of the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Interbasin Study, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting an assessment of the vulnerability of the Chicago Area Waterway System and Des Plaines River to Asian carp (specifically, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp) and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp)) spawning and recruitment. As part of this assessment, the USACE requested the help of the U.S. Geological Survey in predicting the fate and transport of Asian carp eggs hypothetically spawned at the electric dispersal barrier on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal and downstream of the Brandon Road Lock and Dam on the Des Plaines River under dry weather flow and high water temperature conditions. The Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) model predicted that approximately 80 percent of silver carp eggs spawned near the electric dispersal barrier would hatch within the Lockport and Brandon Road pools (as close as 3.6 miles downstream of the barrier) and approximately 82 percent of the silver carp eggs spawned near the Brandon Road Dam would hatch in the Des Plaines River (as close as 1.6 miles downstream from the gates of Brandon Road Lock). Extension of the FluEgg model to include the fate and transport of larvae until gas bladder inflation—the point at which the larvae begin to leave the drift—suggests that eggs spawned at the electric dispersal barrier would reach the gas bladder inflation stage primarily within the Dresden Island Pool, and those spawned at the Brandon Road Dam would reach this stage primarily within the Marseilles and Starved Rock Pools.

  10. 3. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, WIRE MILL ROAD BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION, CA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, WIRE MILL ROAD BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION, CA. 1935. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, Wire Mill Road Bridge, Spanning Merritt Parkway, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  11. 2. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW TO WEST ROCKS ROAD BRIDGE, CA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW TO WEST ROCKS ROAD BRIDGE, CA. 1940. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, West Rocks Road Bridge, Spanning Merritt Parkway, Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT

  12. Relational Security Moderates the Effect of Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on Stress Generation and Depression among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Lisa R.; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Najman, Jake M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that carriers of the short allele of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) show both greater susceptibility to depression in response to stressful life events and higher rates of generation of stressful events in response to depression. The current study examines relational security (i.e., self-reported beliefs…

  13. Chronic and Acute Stress, Gender, and Serotonin Transporter Gene-Environment Interactions Predicting Depression Symptoms in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hazel, Nicholas A.; Najman, Jake M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many recent studies of serotonin transporter gene by environment effects predicting depression have used stress assessments with undefined or poor psychometric methods, possibly contributing to wide variation in findings. The present study attempted to distinguish between effects of acute and chronic stress to predict depressive…

  14. Effects of Escherichia coli Challenge and Transport Stress on Hematology and Serum Chemistry Values of Three Genetic Lines of Turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Males and females from 3 genetic lines of turkeys were compared for their response to an Escherichia coli airsac challenge followed by transport stress (Transport). The turkey lines were a slow growing line selected for increased egg production (Egg line), a fast growing line selected for increased...

  15. Effect of shear stress on water and LDL transport through cultured endothelial cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hongyan; Cancel, Limary M; Tarbell, John M

    2014-04-01

    Previous animal experiments have shown that the transport of LDL into arterial walls is shear stress dependent. However, little work has probed shear effects on LDL transport in vitro where conditions are well defined and mechanisms are more easily explored. Therefore, we measured shear induced water and LDL fluxes across cultured bovine aortic endothelial (BAEC) monolayers in vitro and developed a three-pore model to describe the transport dynamics. Cell apoptosis was quantified by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. We also examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) in shear induced water and LDL fluxes by incubating BAEC monolayers with an NO synthase inhibitor, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). Our results show that direct exposure of endothelial monolayers to 12 dyn/cm2 shear stress for 3 h elicited a 2.37-fold increase in water flux (Jv), a 3.00-fold increase in LDL permeability (Pe), a 1.32-fold increase in LDL uptake, and a 1.68-fold increase in apoptotic rate. L-NMMA treatment of BAEC monolayers blocked shear induced Jv response, but had no significant effect on shear responses of Pe and cell apoptosis. A long time shear exposure (12 h) of endothelial monolayers reduced Pe and apoptotic rate close to the baseline. These results suggest that an acute change in shear stress from a static baseline state induces increases in water flux that are mediated by an NO dependent mechanism. On the other hand, the permeability of endothelial monolayers to LDL is enhanced by a short term-shear application and reduced nearly to the baseline level by a longer time shear exposure, positively correlated to the leaky junctions forming around apoptotic cells.

  16. Reduced Stress Tensor and Dissipation and the Transport of Lamb Vector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jie-Zhi; Zhou, Ye; Wu, Jian-Ming

    1996-01-01

    We develop a methodology to ensure that the stress tensor, regardless of its number of independent components, can be reduced to an exactly equivalent one which has the same number of independent components as the surface force. It is applicable to the momentum balance if the shear viscosity is constant. A direct application of this method to the energy balance also leads to a reduction of the dissipation rate of kinetic energy. Following this procedure, significant saving in analysis and computation may be achieved. For turbulent flows, this strategy immediately implies that a given Reynolds stress model can always be replaced by a reduced one before putting it into computation. Furthermore, we show how the modeling of Reynolds stress tensor can be reduced to that of the mean turbulent Lamb vector alone, which is much simpler. As a first step of this alternative modeling development, we derive the governing equations for the Lamb vector and its square. These equations form a basis of new second-order closure schemes and, we believe, should be favorably compared to that of traditional Reynolds stress transport equation.

  17. The world's road to water scarcity: shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability.

    PubMed

    Kummu, M; Guillaume, J H A; de Moel, H; Eisner, S; Flörke, M; Porkka, M; Siebert, S; Veldkamp, T I E; Ward, P J

    2016-12-09

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20(th) century. Water scarcity is analysed using the fundamental concepts of shortage (impacts due to low availability per capita) and stress (impacts due to high consumption relative to availability) which indicate difficulties in satisfying the needs of a population and overuse of resources respectively. While water consumption increased fourfold within the study period, the population under water scarcity increased from 0.24 billion (14% of global population) in the 1900s to 3.8 billion (58%) in the 2000s. Nearly all sub-national trajectories show an increasing trend in water scarcity. The concept of scarcity trajectory archetypes and shapes is introduced to characterize the historical development of water scarcity and suggest measures for alleviating water scarcity and increasing sustainability. Linking the scarcity trajectories to other datasets may help further deepen understanding of how trajectories relate to historical and future drivers, and hence help tackle these evolving challenges.

  18. The world’s road to water scarcity: shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummu, M.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; de Moel, H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Porkka, M.; Siebert, S.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Ward, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20th century. Water scarcity is analysed using the fundamental concepts of shortage (impacts due to low availability per capita) and stress (impacts due to high consumption relative to availability) which indicate difficulties in satisfying the needs of a population and overuse of resources respectively. While water consumption increased fourfold within the study period, the population under water scarcity increased from 0.24 billion (14% of global population) in the 1900s to 3.8 billion (58%) in the 2000s. Nearly all sub-national trajectories show an increasing trend in water scarcity. The concept of scarcity trajectory archetypes and shapes is introduced to characterize the historical development of water scarcity and suggest measures for alleviating water scarcity and increasing sustainability. Linking the scarcity trajectories to other datasets may help further deepen understanding of how trajectories relate to historical and future drivers, and hence help tackle these evolving challenges.

  19. The world’s road to water scarcity: shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Kummu, M.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; de Moel, H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Porkka, M.; Siebert, S.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Ward, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20th century. Water scarcity is analysed using the fundamental concepts of shortage (impacts due to low availability per capita) and stress (impacts due to high consumption relative to availability) which indicate difficulties in satisfying the needs of a population and overuse of resources respectively. While water consumption increased fourfold within the study period, the population under water scarcity increased from 0.24 billion (14% of global population) in the 1900s to 3.8 billion (58%) in the 2000s. Nearly all sub-national trajectories show an increasing trend in water scarcity. The concept of scarcity trajectory archetypes and shapes is introduced to characterize the historical development of water scarcity and suggest measures for alleviating water scarcity and increasing sustainability. Linking the scarcity trajectories to other datasets may help further deepen understanding of how trajectories relate to historical and future drivers, and hence help tackle these evolving challenges. PMID:27934888

  20. Negative effects of stress immediately before slaughter on pork quality are aggravated by suboptimal transport and lairage conditions.

    PubMed

    Hambrecht, E; Eissen, J J; Newman, D J; Smits, C H M; den Hartog, L A; Verstegen, M W A

    2005-02-01

    The objectives of the present experiment were 1) to study the effects of transport conditions and lairage duration on stress level, muscle glycolytic potential, and pork quality; and 2) to investigate whether the negative effects of high stress immediately preslaughter are affected by preceding handling factors (transport and lairage). In a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design, halothane-free pigs (n = 384) were assigned to either short (50 min) and smooth or long (3 h) and rough transport; long (3 h) or short (<45 min) lairage; and minimal or high preslaughter stress. Pigs were processed in eight groups (48 pigs per group) on various days at a commercial plant. Blood samples were taken at exsanguination to measure plasma cortisol and lactate concentrations. Muscle pH and temperature were measured at 30 and 40 min, respectively, and both were measured at 3 h, postmortem. A LM sample was taken 135 min postmortem to estimate glycogen content and rate of glycolysis. Pork quality attributes were assessed 23 h postmortem. Short transport increased cortisol when followed by short lairage (transport x lairage; P < 0.01). Long transport, but not lairage (P > 0.30), tended to increase (P = 0.06) muscle glycolytic potential. Long transport tended to increase (P = 0.08) electrical conductivity, and decreased a* (P < 0.01) and b* (P < 0.02) values. Decreasing lairage from 3 h to <45 min decreased (P < 0.05) the L* value, but it did not (P > 0.10) affect other pork quality traits. High stress decreased (P < 0.001) muscle glycolytic potential, and increased (P < 0.001) plasma lactate, cortisol, muscle temperature, rate of pH decline, and ultimate pH. Except for decreased (P < 0.001) b* values, pork color was not (P > 0.40) affected by high stress, but water-holding properties (measured by electrical conductivity, filter paper moisture, and drip loss) were impaired (P < 0.001) by high stress. Fiber optic-measured light scattering and Warner-Bratzler shear force were not (P > 0.12) affected

  1. Measuring Road Network Vulnerability with Sensitivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jun-qiang, Leng; Long-hai, Yang; Liu, Wei-yi; Zhao, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of a method for road network vulnerability analysis, from the perspective of capacity degradation, which seeks to identify the critical infrastructures in the road network and the operational performance of the whole traffic system. This research involves defining the traffic utility index and modeling vulnerability of road segment, route, OD (Origin Destination) pair and road network. Meanwhile, sensitivity analysis method is utilized to calculate the change of traffic utility index due to capacity degradation. This method, compared to traditional traffic assignment, can improve calculation efficiency and make the application of vulnerability analysis to large actual road network possible. Finally, all the above models and calculation method is applied to actual road network evaluation to verify its efficiency and utility. This approach can be used as a decision-supporting tool for evaluating the performance of road network and identifying critical infrastructures in transportation planning and management, especially in the resource allocation for mitigation and recovery. PMID:28125706

  2. Tweets on the Road

    PubMed Central

    Lenormand, Maxime; Tugores, Antònia; Colet, Pere; Ramasco, José J.

    2014-01-01

    The pervasiveness of mobile devices, which is increasing daily, is generating a vast amount of geo-located data allowing us to gain further insights into human behaviors. In particular, this new technology enables users to communicate through mobile social media applications, such as Twitter, anytime and anywhere. Thus, geo-located tweets offer the possibility to carry out in-depth studies on human mobility. In this paper, we study the use of Twitter in transportation by identifying tweets posted from roads and rails in Europe between September 2012 and November 2013. We compute the percentage of highway and railway segments covered by tweets in 39 countries. The coverages are very different from country to country and their variability can be partially explained by differences in Twitter penetration rates. Still, some of these differences might be related to cultural factors regarding mobility habits and interacting socially online. Analyzing particular road sectors, our results show a positive correlation between the number of tweets on the road and the Average Annual Daily Traffic on highways in France and in the UK. Transport modality can be studied with these data as well, for which we discover very heterogeneous usage patterns across the continent. PMID:25141161

  3. Road Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckenbauer, Thomas

    Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

  4. Polyamines control of cation transport across plant membranes: implications for ion homeostasis and abiotic stress signaling

    PubMed Central

    Pottosin, Igor; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Polyamines are unique polycationic metabolites, controlling a variety of vital functions in plants, including growth and stress responses. Over the last two decades a bulk of data was accumulated providing explicit evidence that polyamines play an essential role in regulating plant membrane transport. The most straightforward example is a blockage of the two major vacuolar cation channels, namely slow (SV) and fast (FV) activating ones, by the micromolar concentrations of polyamines. This effect is direct and fully reversible, with a potency descending in a sequence Spm4+ > Spd3+ > Put2+. On the contrary, effects of polyamines on the plasma membrane (PM) cation and K+-selective channels are hardly dependent on polyamine species, display a relatively low affinity, and are likely to be indirect. Polyamines also affect vacuolar and PM H+ pumps and Ca2+ pump of the PM. On the other hand, catabolization of polyamines generates H2O2 and other reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydroxyl radicals. Export of polyamines to the apoplast and their oxidation there by available amine oxidases results in the induction of a novel ion conductance and confers Ca2+ influx across the PM. This mechanism, initially established for plant responses to pathogen attack (including a hypersensitive response), has been recently shown to mediate plant responses to a variety of abiotic stresses. In this review we summarize the effects of polyamines and their catabolites on cation transport in plants and discuss the implications of these effects for ion homeostasis, signaling, and plant adaptive responses to environment. PMID:24795739

  5. Low-stress mounting configuration design for large aperture laser transport mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zheng; Quan, Xusong; Yao, Chao; Wang, Hui

    2016-10-01

    TM1-6S1 large aperture laser transport mirror is a crucial optical unit of high power solid-state laser in the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) facility. This article focuses on the low-stress and precise mounting method of large-aperture mirror. Based on the engineering practice of SG-III, the state-of-the-art and key problems of current mounting configuration are clarified firstly. Subsequently, a brand new low-stress mounting configuration with flexure supports is proposed. Opto-mechanical model of the mirror under mounting force is built up with elastic mechanics theory. Further, numerical methods and field tests are employed to verify the favorable load uniform capacity and load adjust capacity of flexure supports. With FEM, the relation between the mounting force from new configuration and the mirror surface distortion (wavefront error) is clarified. The novel mounting method of large aperture optics could be not only used on this laser transport mirror, but also on the other transmission optics and large crystals in ICF facilities.

  6. Numerical modeling of physical vapor transport under microgravity conditions: Effect of thermal creep and stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowski, Daniel W.; Knight, Roy W.

    1993-01-01

    One of the most promising applications of microgravity (micro-g) environments is the manufacture of exotic and high-quality crystals in closed cylindrical ampoules using physical vapor transport (PVT) processes. The quality enhancements are believed to be due to the absence of buoyant convection in the weightless environment - resulting in diffusion-limited transport of the vapor. In a typical experiment, solid-phase sample material is initially contained at one end of the ampoule. The sample is made to sublime into the vapor phase and deposit onto the opposite end by maintaining the source at an elevated temperature with respect to the deposit. Identification of the physical factors governing both the rates and uniformity of crystal growth, and the optimization of the micro-g technology, will require an accurate modeling of the vapor transport within the ampoule. Previous micro-g modeling efforts have approached the problem from a 'classical' convective/diffusion formulation, in which convection is driven by the action of buoyancy on thermal and solutal density differences. The general conclusion of these works have been that in low gravity environments the effect of buoyancy on vapor transport is negligible, and vapor transport occurs in a diffusion-limited mode. However, it has been recently recognized than in the non-isothermal (and often low total pressure) conditions encountered in ampoules, the commonly-assumed no-slip boundary condition to the differential equations governing fluid motion can be grossly unrepresentative of the actual situation. Specifically, the temperature gradients can give rise to thermal creep flows at the ampoule side walls. In addition, temperature gradients in the vapor itself can, through the action of thermal stress, lead to bulk fluid convection.

  7. Conduction-only transport phenomena in compressible bivelocity fluids: diffuse interfaces and Korteweg stresses.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Howard

    2014-04-01

    "Diffuse interface" theories for single-component fluids—dating back to van der Waals, Korteweg, Cahn-Hilliard, and many others—are currently based upon an ad hoc combination of thermodynamic principles (built largely upon Helmholtz's free-energy potential) and so-called “nonclassical” continuum-thermomechanical principles (built largely upon Newtonian mechanics), with the latter originating with the pioneering work of Dunn and Serrin [Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 88, 95 (1985)]. By introducing into the equation governing the transport of energy the notion of an interstitial work-flux contribution, above and beyond the usual Fourier heat-flux contribution, namely, jq = -k∇T, to the energy flux, Dunn and Serrin provided a rational continuum-thermomechanical basis for the presence of Korteweg stresses in the equation governing the transport of linear momentum in compressible fluids. Nevertheless, by their failing to recognize the existence and fundamental need for an independent volume transport equation [Brenner, Physica A 349, 11 (2005)]—especially for the roles played therein by the diffuse volume flux j v and the rate of production of volume πν at a point of the fluid continuum—we argue that diffuse interface theories for fluids stand today as being both ad hoc and incomplete owing to their failure to recognize the need for an independent volume transport equation for the case of compressible fluids. In contrast, we point out that bivelocity hydrodynamics, as it already exists [Brenner, Phys. Rev. E 86, 016307 (2012)], provides a rational, non-ad hoc, and comprehensive theory of diffuse interfaces, not only for single-component fluids, but also for certain classes of crystalline solids [Danielewski and Wierzba, J. Phase Equilib. Diffus. 26, 573 (2005)]. Furthermore, we provide not only what we believe to be the correct constitutive equation for the Korteweg stress in the class of fluids that are constitutively Newtonian in their rheological response

  8. Simulator of Road Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danišovič, Peter; Schlosser, František; Šrámek, Juraj; Rázga, Martin

    2015-05-01

    A Tunnel Traffic & Operation Simulator is a device of the Centre of Transport Research at the University of Žilina. The Simulator allows managing technological equipment of virtual two-tube highway tunnel, which is interconnected with simulation of vehicle traffic in tunnel. Changes of the traffic-operation states and other equipment are reflecting at the simulated traffic, as well as simulations of various emergency events in traffic initiate changes in tunnel detecting and measuring devices. It is thus possible to simulate emergency states, which can be affected by various faults of technology as well as by climatic conditions. The solutions can be found in irreplaceable experiences of Slovak road tunnel operators, changes of trafficoperation states, visualizations of operator technological display screens, technological devices labelling in order to increase operational safety of road tunnels.

  9. Na+ dependent glutamate transporters (EAAT1, EAAT2, and EAAT3) in primary astrocyte cultures: effect of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Miralles, V J; Martínez-López, I; Zaragozá, R; Borrás, E; García, C; Pallardó, F V; Viña, J R

    2001-12-13

    The Na+ -dependent L-glutamate transporters EAAT1(GLAST), EAAT2 (GLT-1) and EAAT3 (EAAC1) are expressed in primary astrocyte cultures, showing that the EAAT3 transporter is not neuron-specific. The presence of these three transporters was evaluated by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, immunocytochemical techniques, and transport activity. When primary astrocyte cultures were incubated with L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), a selective inhibitor of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, the GSH concentration was significantly lower than in control cultures, but the expression and amount of protein of EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3 and transport of L-glutamate was unchanged. Oxidative stress was created by adding H(2)O(2) or tert.-butyl hydroperoxide (t-bOOH) to the primary astrocyte cultures and cell damage was evaluated by measuring activity of lactate dehydrogenase. Under oxidative stress, GSH levels were significantly lower than in control astrocytes; but the expression and the amount of protein of the three transporters remained unchanged. However, L-glutamate uptake was significantly lower in astrocytes under oxidative conditions when compared to controls. L-Glutamate uptake was not changed in the presence of ascorbate, but was partially recovered in the presence of DTT and GSH ethyl ester. This report emphasizes that oxidative stress and not GSH depletion alters transporter activity without changing transporter expression.

  10. Evolution of Deformability and Transport Properties of Fractured Rocks Under the Action of Stress and Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsworth, Derek; Taron, Josh; Faoro, Igor; Lee, Dae-Sung; Liu, Jishan; Niemeijer, Andre; Yasuhara, Hideaki

    2010-05-01

    Fluids in the shallow crust exert important controls on a wide spectrum of natural and engineered phenomena. The complex interaction of stress and particularly that of chemistry exhibit important feedbacks which influence the evolution of the mechanical and transport properties of rocks. These feedbacks in turn relate crucially to the subsurface recovery of hydrocarbons from the full spectrum of conventional through unconventional reservoirs, to the recovery of hydrothermal and non-hydrothermal geothermal resources, to the secure and enduring sequestration of energy by-products, and to the earthquake cycle, for example. We report on enigmatic interactions between stress and chemistry in mediating the evolution of permeability and strength in natural and engineered systems pushed far-from equilibrium. These include the roles of excess pore fluid pressures in driving transient changes in permeability and as well as the influence of changes in chemical potential in systems driven far-from-equilibrium. These effects are shown to result in significant changes in permeability that may vary on timescales of minutes to years as feedbacks switch from mechanically-driven to chemically-driven and as the length-scale of the prototype grows. These interactions are explored through coupled modeling including feedbacks in stress and chemistry as relevant to high-carbon through low-carbon energy systems. Examples are selected to illustrate the significance of these interactions in controlling the response of hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs, fracture treatments and radioactive waste disposal.

  11. Impact of trehalose transporter knockdown on Anopheles gambiae stress adaptation and susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kun; Dong, Yuemei; Huang, Yuzheng; Rasgon, Jason L.; Agre, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae is a major vector mosquito for Plasmodium falciparum, the deadly pathogen causing most human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Synthesized in the fat body, trehalose is the predominant sugar in mosquito hemolymph. It not only provides energy but also protects the mosquito against desiccation and heat stresses. Trehalose enters the mosquito hemolymph by the trehalose transporter AgTreT1. In adult female A. gambiae, AgTreT1 is predominantly expressed in the fat body. We found that AgTreT1 expression is induced by environmental stresses such as low humidity or elevated temperature. AgTreT1 RNA silencing reduces the hemolymph trehalose concentration by 40%, and the mosquitoes succumb sooner after exposure to desiccation or heat. After an infectious blood meal, AgTreT1 RNA silencing reduces the number of P. falciparum oocysts in the mosquito midgut by over 70% compared with mock-injected mosquitoes. These data reveal important roles for AgTreT1 in stress adaptation and malaria pathogen development in a major vector mosquito. Thus, AgTreT1 may be a potential target for malaria vector control. PMID:24101462

  12. Washboard Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwaine, Jim; Dalziel, Stuart; Taberlet, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen

    2006-11-01

    The tendency of unpaved road surfaces to develop lateral ripples (``washboard'' or ``corrugated'' road) is annoyingly familiar to drivers on dry gravel roads. Similar ripples are well known on railroad tracks and many other rolling or sliding, load bearing surfaces. Our approach combined laboratory experiments, soft-particle direct numerical simulations and simple nonlinear dynamics models. The experiment consisted of a rotating table 60 cm in radius with a thick layer of sand forming a roadbed around the circumference. A 6 cm radius hard rubber wheel, with a support stationary in the lab frame, rolled on the sand layer. We varied the speed of the table and the details of the suspension of the wheel. The onset of the ripple pattern exhibits a sharp threshold and was strongly subcritical with a large hysteresis as a function of the speed of the table. The ripple pattern appears as small patches of travelling waves which eventually spread to the entire circumference. The ripples move slowly in the driving direction. Interesting secondary dynamics of the saturated ripples were observed. All of these effects are captured qualitatively by a 2D soft particle simulations. The simulations clearly indicate that neither compaction nor particle size segregation are crucial for the appearance of the ripples, and we present a simple model to describe the wavelength and amplitude of the ripples.

  13. Effect of heat stress on amino acid digestibility and transporters in meat-type chickens.

    PubMed

    Habashy, W S; Milfort, M C; Adomako, K; Attia, Y A; Rekaya, R; Aggrey, S E

    2017-03-02

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of heat stress (HS) on performance, digestibility, and molecular transporters of amino acids in broilers. Cobb 500 chicks were raised from hatch till 13 d in floor pens. At d 14, 48 birds were randomly and equally divided between a control group (25°C) and a HS treatment group (35°C). Birds in both treatment classes were individually caged and fed ad libitum on a diet containing 18.7% CP and 3,560 Kcal ME/Kg. Five birds per treatment at one and 12 d post treatment were euthanized and the Pectoralis major (P. major) and ileum were sampled for gene expression analysis. At d 33, ileal contents were collected and used for digestibility analysis. Broilers under HS had reduced growth and feed intake compared to controls. Although the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) was consistently higher for all amino acids in the HS group, it was not significant except for hydroxylysine. The amino acid consumption and retention were significantly lower in the HS group when compared to the control group. Meanwhile, the retention of amino acids per BWG was higher in the HS group when compared to the control group except for hydroxylysine and ornithine. The dynamics of amino acid transporters in the P. major and ileum was influenced by HS. In P. major and ileum tissues at d one, transporters SNAT1, SNAT2, SNAT7, TAT1, and b0,+AT, were down-regulated in the HS group. Meanwhile, LAT4 and B0AT were down-regulated only in the P. major in the treatment group. The amino acid transporters B0AT and SNAT7 at d 12 post HS were down-regulated in the P. major and ileum, but SNAT2 was down-regulated only in the ileum and TAT1 was down-regulated only in the P. major compared with the control group. These changes in amino acid transporters may explain the reduced growth in meat type chickens under heat stress.

  14. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program...

  15. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program...

  16. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program...

  17. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program...

  18. Ground transport stress affects bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle: A real-time PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lixin; He, Cong; Zhou, Yanwei; Xu, Lifan; Xiong, Huijun

    2016-10-03

    Transport stress syndrome often appears in beef cattle during ground transportation, leading to changes in their capacity to digest food due to changes in rumen microbiota. The present study aimed to analyze bacteria before and after cattle transport. Eight Xianan beef cattle were transported over 1000 km. Rumen fluid and blood were sampled before and after transport. Real-time PCR was used to quantify rumen bacteria. Cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured. Cortisol and ACTH were increased on day 1 after transportation and decreased by day 3. Cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens), Ruminococcus amylophilus and Prevotella albensis were increased at 6 h and declined by 15 days after transport. There was a significant reduction in Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, Prevotella bryantii, Prevotella ruminicola and Anaerovibrio lipolytica after transport. Rumen concentration of acetic acid increased after transport, while rumen pH and concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were decreased. Body weight decreased by 3 days and increased by 15 days after transportation. Using real-time PCR analysis, we detected changes in bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle after transport, which might affect the growth of cattle after transport.

  19. Regulation of ethanol intake under chronic mild stress: roles of dopamine receptors and transporters

    PubMed Central

    Delis, Foteini; Rombola, Christina; Bellezza, Robert; Rosko, Lauren; Grandy, David K.; Volkow, Nora D.; Thanos, Panayotis K.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that exposure to chronic mild stress decreases ethanol intake and preference in dopamine D2 receptor wild-type mice (Drd2+/+), while it increases intake in heterozygous (Drd2+/−) and knockout (Drd2−/−) mice. Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the basal forebrain plays a major role in the reinforcing actions of ethanol as well as in brain responses to stress. In order to identify neurochemical changes associated with the regulation of ethanol intake, we used in vitro receptor autoradiography to measure the levels and distribution of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors and dopamine transporters (DAT). Receptor levels were measured in the basal forebrain of Drd2+/+, Drd2+/−, and Drd2−/− mice belonging to one of four groups: control (C), ethanol intake (E), chronic mild stress exposure (S), and ethanol intake under chronic mild stress (ES). D2 receptor levels were higher in the lateral and medial striatum of Drd2+/+ ES mice, compared with Drd2+/+ E mice. Ethanol intake in Drd2+/+ mice was negatively correlated with striatal D2 receptor levels. D2 receptor levels in Drd2+/− mice were the same among the four treatment groups. DAT levels were lower in Drd2+/− C and Drd2−/− C mice, compared with Drd2+/+ C mice. Among Drd2+/− mice, S and ES groups had higher DAT levels compared with C and E groups in most regions examined. In Drd2−/− mice, ethanol intake was positively correlated with DAT levels in all regions studied. D1 receptor levels were lower in Drd2+/− and Drd2−/− mice, compared with Drd2+/+, in all regions examined and remained unaffected by all treatments. The results suggest that in normal mice, ethanol intake is associated with D2 receptor-mediated neurotransmission, which exerts a protective effect against ethanol overconsumption under stress. In mice with low Drd2 expression, where DRD2 levels are not further modulated, ethanol intake is associated with DAT function which is upregulated under stress leading to ethanol

  20. Global EDGAR v4.1 emissions of air pollutants: analysis of impacts of emissions abatement in industry and road transport on regional and global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Olivier, J. G.; Doering, U. M.; van Aardenne, J.; Monni, S.; Pagliari, V.; Peters, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    The new version v4.1 of the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) compiled by JRC and PBL provides independent estimates of the global anthropogenic emissions and emission trends of precursors of tropospheric ozone (CO, NMVOC, NOx) and acidifying substances (NOx, NH3, SO2) for the period 1970-2005. All emissions are detailed at country level consistently using the same technology-based methodology, combining activity data (international statistics) from publicly available sources and to the extent possible emission factors as recommended by the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook. By using high resolution global grid maps per source category of area sources and point sources, we also compiled datasets with annual emissions on a 0.1x0.1 degree grid, as input for atmospheric models. We provide full and up-to-date inventories per country, also for developing countries. Moreover, the time series back in time to 1970 provides for the trends in official national inventories a historic perspective. As part of our objective to contribute to more reliable inventories by providing a reference emissions database for emission scenarios, inventory comparisons and for atmospheric modellers, we strive to transparently document all data sources used and assumptions made where data was missing, in particular for assumptions made on the shares of technologies where relevant. Technology mixes per country or region were taken from other data sources (such as the Platts database) or estimated using other sources or countries as proxy. The evolution in the adoption of technologies world-wide over the 35 years covered by EDGAR v4.1 will be illustrated for the power industry and the road transport sectors, in particular for Europe and the US. Similarly the regional and global impacts of implemented control measures and end-of pipe abatements will be illustrated by the examples of - NOx and SO2 end-of pipe abatements being implemented since the late

  1. The contribution of on-road studies of road user behaviour to improving road safety.

    PubMed

    Lenné, Michael G

    2013-09-01

    For over 40 years transport safety researchers have been using methods of vehicle instrumentation to gain greater insights into the factors that contribute to road user crash risk and the associated crash factors. In the previous decade in particular the widespread availability of lower cost and more advanced methods of vehicle instrumentation and recording technologies are supporting the increasing number of on-road research studies worldwide. The design of these studies ranges from multi-method studies using instrumented test vehicles and defined driving routes, to field operational tests, through to much larger and more naturalistic studies. It is timely to assess the utility of these methods for studying the influences of driver characteristics and states, the design and operation of the road system, and the influences of in-vehicle technologies on behaviour and safety for various road user groups. This special issue considers the extent to which on-road studies using vehicle instrumentation have been used to advance knowledge across these areas of road safety research. The papers included in this issue illustrate how research using instrumented test vehicles continues to generate new knowledge, and how the larger scale United States and European naturalistic and field operational test studies are providing a wealth of data about road user behaviour in real traffic. This is balanced with a number of studies that present methodological developments in data collection and analysis methods that, while promising, need further validation. The use of on-road methods to accurately describe the behaviours occurring in everyday real-world conditions, to quantify risks for safety critical events, and an improved understanding of the factors that contribute to risk, clearly has huge potential to promote further road trauma reductions.

  2. Dysfunction of Wntless triggers the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport of Wingless and induces ER stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Lujun; Pei, Chunli; Lin, Xinhua; Yuan, Zengqiang

    2016-02-18

    Secreted Wnts play diverse roles in a non-cell-autonomous fashion. However, the cell-autonomous effect of unsecreted Wnts remains unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is observed in specialized secretory cells and participates in pathophysiological processes. The correlation between Wnt secretion and ER stress remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that Drosophila miR-307a initiates ER stress specifically in wingless (wg)-expressing cells through targeting wntless (wls/evi). This phenotype could be mimicked by retromer loss-of-function or porcupine (porc) depletion, and rescued by wg knockdown, arguing that unsecreted Wg triggers ER stress. Consistently, we found that disrupting the secretion of human Wnt5a also induced ER stress in mammalian cells. Furthermore, we showed that a C-terminal KKVY-motif of Wg is required for its retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport, thus inducing ER stress. Next, we investigated if COPI, the regulator of retrograde transport, is responsible for unsecreted Wg to induce ER stress. To our surprise, we found that COPI acts as a novel regulator of Wg secretion. Taken together, this study reveals a previously unknown Golgi-to-ER retrograde route of Wg, and elucidates a correlation between Wnt secretion and ER stress during development.

  3. Dysfunction of Wntless triggers the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport of Wingless and induces ER stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Lujun; Pei, Chunli; Lin, Xinhua; Yuan, Zengqiang

    2016-01-01

    Secreted Wnts play diverse roles in a non-cell-autonomous fashion. However, the cell-autonomous effect of unsecreted Wnts remains unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is observed in specialized secretory cells and participates in pathophysiological processes. The correlation between Wnt secretion and ER stress remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that Drosophila miR-307a initiates ER stress specifically in wingless (wg)-expressing cells through targeting wntless (wls/evi). This phenotype could be mimicked by retromer loss-of-function or porcupine (porc) depletion, and rescued by wg knockdown, arguing that unsecreted Wg triggers ER stress. Consistently, we found that disrupting the secretion of human Wnt5a also induced ER stress in mammalian cells. Furthermore, we showed that a C-terminal KKVY-motif of Wg is required for its retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport, thus inducing ER stress. Next, we investigated if COPI, the regulator of retrograde transport, is responsible for unsecreted Wg to induce ER stress. To our surprise, we found that COPI acts as a novel regulator of Wg secretion. Taken together, this study reveals a previously unknown Golgi-to-ER retrograde route of Wg, and elucidates a correlation between Wnt secretion and ER stress during development. PMID:26887613

  4. Cyclic-stress analysis of notches for supersonic transport conditions. [using finite element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of using the finite element method to account for the effects of cyclic load and temperature on local stresses and strains at a notch was demonstrated. The behavior of a notched titanium panel was studied under variable loads and temperatures representative of flight conditions for the lower wing surface of a Supersonic Transport (SST). The analysis was performed with the use of the BOPACE finite-element computer program which provides capability to determine high temperature and large viscoplastic effects caused by cyclic thermal and mechanical loads. The analysis involves the development of the finite-element model as well as determination of the structural behavior of the notched panel. Results are presented for twelve SST flights comprised of five different load-temperature cycles. The results show the approach is feasible, but material response to cyclic loads, temperatures, and hold times requires improved understanding to allow proper modeling of the material.

  5. The effects of long-duration, low-temperature ground transportation on physiological and biochemical indicators of stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Shim, Sun Bo; Lee, Se Hyun; Kim, Chuel Kyu; Kim, Byoung Guk; Kim, Yong Kyu; Jee, Seung Wan; Lee, Su Hae; Sin, Ji Soon; Bae, Chang Joon; Lee, Byoung Chun; Jang, Mee Kyung; Cho, Jung Sik; Chae, Kab Ryong; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2008-03-01

    Transportation can cause stress to laboratory animals and alter physiological characteristics that may confound experimental results. The authors investigated stress-related effects of 3-4 h of transportation by truck in two strains of mice (C57BL/6, which are known to be aggressive, and ICR, which are less aggressive). Transported mice had sufficient space and access to water, though temperature in the truck was lower than what is usually recommended. Transportation affected the following parameters in both strains of mice: (i) serum corticosterone concentrations, (ii) expression of the chaperone proteins Hsp70 and Grp78 in various tissues and (iii) concentrations of serological enzymes that are associated with liver disease. These parameters also differed substantially between the two strains of mice.

  6. Heat Stress Reduces Intestinal Barrier Integrity and Favors Intestinal Glucose Transport in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Sarah C.; Mani, Venkatesh; Boddicker, Rebecca L.; Johnson, Jay S.; Weber, Thomas E.; Ross, Jason W.; Rhoads, Robert P.; Baumgard, Lance H.; Gabler, Nicholas K.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive heat exposure reduces intestinal integrity and post-absorptive energetics that can inhibit wellbeing and be fatal. Therefore, our objectives were to examine how acute heat stress (HS) alters intestinal integrity and metabolism in growing pigs. Animals were exposed to either thermal neutral (TN, 21°C; 35–50% humidity; n = 8) or HS conditions (35°C; 24–43% humidity; n = 8) for 24 h. Compared to TN, rectal temperatures in HS pigs increased by 1.6°C and respiration rates by 2-fold (P<0.05). As expected, HS decreased feed intake by 53% (P<0.05) and body weight (P<0.05) compared to TN pigs. Ileum heat shock protein 70 expression increased (P<0.05), while intestinal integrity was compromised in the HS pigs (ileum and colon TER decreased; P<0.05). Furthermore, HS increased serum endotoxin concentrations (P = 0.05). Intestinal permeability was accompanied by an increase in protein expression of myosin light chain kinase (P<0.05) and casein kinase II-α (P = 0.06). Protein expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the ileum revealed claudin 3 and occludin expression to be increased overall due to HS (P<0.05), while there were no differences in claudin 1 expression. Intestinal glucose transport and blood glucose were elevated due to HS (P<0.05). This was supported by increased ileum Na+/K+ ATPase activity in HS pigs. SGLT-1 protein expression was unaltered; however, HS increased ileal GLUT-2 protein expression (P = 0.06). Altogether, these data indicate that HS reduce intestinal integrity and increase intestinal stress and glucose transport. PMID:23936392

  7. The Arabidopsis root stele transporter NPF2.3 contributes to nitrate translocation to shoots under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Taochy, Christelle; Gaillard, Isabelle; Ipotesi, Emilie; Oomen, Ronald; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Zimmermann, Sabine; Peltier, Jean-Benoît; Szponarski, Wojciech; Simonneau, Thierry; Sentenac, Hervé; Gibrat, Rémy; Boyer, Jean-Christophe

    2015-08-01

    In most plants, NO(3)(-) constitutes the major source of nitrogen, and its assimilation into amino acids is mainly achieved in shoots. Furthermore, recent reports have revealed that reduction of NO(3)(-) translocation from roots to shoots is involved in plant acclimation to abiotic stress. NPF2.3, a member of the NAXT (nitrate excretion transporter) sub-group of the NRT1/PTR family (NPF) from Arabidopsis, is expressed in root pericycle cells, where it is targeted to the plasma membrane. Transport assays using NPF2.3-enriched Lactococcus lactis membranes showed that this protein is endowed with NO(3)(-) transport activity, displaying a strong selectivity for NO(3)(-) against Cl(-). In response to salt stress, NO(3)(-) translocation to shoots is reduced, at least partly because expression of the root stele NO(3)(-) transporter gene NPF7.3 is decreased. In contrast, NPF2.3 expression was maintained under these conditions. A loss-of-function mutation in NPF2.3 resulted in decreased root-to-shoot NO(3)(-) translocation and reduced shoot NO(3)(-) content in plants grown under salt stress. Also, the mutant displayed impaired shoot biomass production when plants were grown under mild salt stress. These mutant phenotypes were dependent on the presence of Na(+) in the external medium. Our data indicate that NPF2.3 is a constitutively expressed transporter whose contribution to NO(3)(-) translocation to the shoots is quantitatively and physiologically significant under salinity.

  8. Effect of heat stress and feeding phosphorus levels on pig electron transport chain gene expression.

    PubMed

    Weller, M M D C A; Alebrante, L; Campos, P H R F; Saraiva, A; Silva, B A N; Donzele, J L; Oliveira, R F M; Silva, F F; Gasparino, E; Lopes, P S; Guimarães, S E F

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of temperature and different levels of available phosphorus (aP) on the expression of nine genes encoding electron transport chain proteins in the Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of pigs. Two trials were carried out using 48 high-lean growth pigs from two different growth phases: from 15 to 30 kg (phase 1) and from 30 to 60 kg (phase 2). Pigs from growth phase 1 were fed with three different levels of dietary aP (0.107%, 0.321% or 0.535%) and submitted either to a thermoneutral (24°C and RH at 76%) or to a heat stress (34°C and RH at 70%) environment. Pigs from growth phase 2 were fed with three different levels of dietary aP (0.116%, 0.306% or 0.496%) and submitted either to a thermoneutral (22ºC and RH at 77%) or to a heat stress (32ºC and RH at 73%) environment. Heat stress decreased (P<0.001) average daily feed intake at both growth phases. At 24°C, pigs in phase 1 fed the 0.321% aP diet had greater average daily gain and feed conversion (P<0.05) than those fed the 0.107% or 0.535% while, at 34°C pigs fed the 0.535% aP had the best performance (P<0.05). Pigs from phase 2 fed the 0.306% aP had best performance in both thermal environments. Gene expression profile was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Irrespective of growing phase, the expression of six genes was lower (P<0.05) at high temperature than at thermoneutrality. The lower expression of these genes under high temperatures evidences the effects of heat stress by decreasing oxidative metabolism, through adaptive physiological mechanisms in order to reduce heat production. In pigs from phase 1, six genes were differentially expressed across aP levels (P<0.05) in the thermoneutral and one gene in the heat stress. In pigs from phase 2, two genes were differentially expressed across aP levels (P<0.05) in both thermal environments. These data revealed strong evidence that phosphorus and thermal environments are key factors to

  9. Recalibration of the Shear Stress Transport Model to Improve Calculation of Shock Separated Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Yoder, Dennis A.

    2013-01-01

    The Menter Shear Stress Transport (SST) k . turbulence model is one of the most widely used two-equation Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence models for aerodynamic analyses. The model extends Menter s baseline (BSL) model to include a limiter that prevents the calculated turbulent shear stress from exceeding a prescribed fraction of the turbulent kinetic energy via a proportionality constant, a1, set to 0.31. Compared to other turbulence models, the SST model yields superior predictions of mild adverse pressure gradient flows including those with small separations. In shock - boundary layer interaction regions, the SST model produces separations that are too large while the BSL model is on the other extreme, predicting separations that are too small. In this paper, changing a1 to a value near 0.355 is shown to significantly improve predictions of shock separated flows. Several cases are examined computationally and experimental data is also considered to justify raising the value of a1 used for shock separated flows.

  10. A suite of tools for monitoring and assessing impacts of road networks and off-road vehicle activity on rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite increasing amounts of transportation related activities on rangelands globally, few tools exist for assessing and monitoring impacts of roads, road networks and off-road vehicle traffic. This is in part due to an historical emphasis on grazing issues in rangelands and the complexity of monit...

  11. Role of the Glycine Betaine and Carnitine Transporters in Adaptation of Listeria monocytogenes to Chill Stress in Defined Medium

    PubMed Central

    Angelidis, Apostolos S.; Smith, Gary M.

    2003-01-01

    The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes proliferates at refrigeration temperatures, rendering refrigeration ineffective in the preservation of Listeria-contaminated foods. The uptake and intracellular accumulation of the potent compatible solutes glycine betaine and carnitine has been shown to be a key mediator of the pathogen's cold-tolerant phenotype. To date, three compatible solute systems are known to operate in L. monocytogenes: glycine betaine porter I (BetL), glycine betaine porter II (Gbu), and the carnitine transporter OpuC. We investigated the specificity of each transporter towards each compatible solute at 4°C by examining mutant derivatives of L. monocytogenes 10403S that possess each of the transporters in isolation. Kinetic and steady-state compatible solute accumulation data together with growth rate experiments demonstrated that under cold stress glycine betaine transport is primarily mediated by Gbu and that Gbu-mediated betaine uptake results in significant growth stimulation of chill-stressed cells. BetL and OpuC can serve as minor porters for the uptake of betaine, and their action is capable of providing a small degree of cryotolerance. Under cold stress, carnitine transport occurs primarily through OpuC and results in a high level of cryoprotection. Weak carnitine transport occurs via Gbu and BetL, conferring correspondingly weak cryoprotection. No other transporter in L. monocytogenes 10403S appears to be involved in transport of either compatible solute at 4°C, since a triple mutant strain yielded neither transport nor accumulation of glycine betaine or carnitine and could not be rescued by either osmolyte when grown at that temperature. PMID:14660402

  12. Role of the glycine betaine and carnitine transporters in adaptation of Listeria monocytogenes to chill stress in defined medium.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, Apostolos S; Smith, Gary M

    2003-12-01

    The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes proliferates at refrigeration temperatures, rendering refrigeration ineffective in the preservation of Listeria-contaminated foods. The uptake and intracellular accumulation of the potent compatible solutes glycine betaine and carnitine has been shown to be a key mediator of the pathogen's cold-tolerant phenotype. To date, three compatible solute systems are known to operate in L. monocytogenes: glycine betaine porter I (BetL), glycine betaine porter II (Gbu), and the carnitine transporter OpuC. We investigated the specificity of each transporter towards each compatible solute at 4 degrees C by examining mutant derivatives of L. monocytogenes 10403S that possess each of the transporters in isolation. Kinetic and steady-state compatible solute accumulation data together with growth rate experiments demonstrated that under cold stress glycine betaine transport is primarily mediated by Gbu and that Gbu-mediated betaine uptake results in significant growth stimulation of chill-stressed cells. BetL and OpuC can serve as minor porters for the uptake of betaine, and their action is capable of providing a small degree of cryotolerance. Under cold stress, carnitine transport occurs primarily through OpuC and results in a high level of cryoprotection. Weak carnitine transport occurs via Gbu and BetL, conferring correspondingly weak cryoprotection. No other transporter in L. monocytogenes 10403S appears to be involved in transport of either compatible solute at 4 degrees C, since a triple mutant strain yielded neither transport nor accumulation of glycine betaine or carnitine and could not be rescued by either osmolyte when grown at that temperature.

  13. Stress during simulated emergency transportation in a rescue helicopter: cross-correlation between stress hormones, vital functions and subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Witzel, K; Elzer, M; Koch, Horst J

    2009-06-01

    Vital functions and stress hormone levels during simulated emergency helicopter transport in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three volunteers were subjected to a simulated 15 minute rescue helicopter transport. We determined vital functions, ACTH, cortisol and prolactin during the flight and filled in a standardized questionnaire before and after the flight. Data were analysed descriptively, by means of cross tabulation, Spearman rank correlation and cross-correlation technique. During take-off we recorded a significant increase of vital parameters such as heart rate. Prolactin concentration rose slightly after the start. Maximum cortisol and ACTH levels were found before take-off and then they decreased gradually. As expected, ACTH and cortisol cross-correlated significantly without any relevant time lag. Test items showed a feeling of fear and concern before take off. After the flight the volunteers reported having less stress than expected. Particularly, diastolic blood pressure and prolactin levels were markedly associated with questionnaire items such as behaviour of the staff or nausea. Heart rate significantly correlated with anxiety scores. Helicopter transportation induced a marked stress reaction in healthy volunteers, which speaks in favour of smooth transports in modern helicopters and adequate behaviour towards the patient of the staff.

  14. Assessment of metals exposure and sub-lethal effects in voles and small birds captured near the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System Road, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Mora, Miguel A.; May, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Voles (n=6) and small ground-nesting birds (n=12) were live-captured near the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument in northwest Alaska in 2006 to assess metals exposure and sub-lethal biological effects. Similar numbers of animals were captured from a reference site in southern Cape Krusenstern National Monument for comparison. Histopathological examination of selected organs, blood analysis, and analysis for aluminum, barium, cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations in liver and blood samples were performed. Voles and small birds captured from near the haul road had about 20 times greater blood and liver lead concentrations and about 3 times greater cadmium concentrations when compared to those from the reference site. Barium and zinc tissue concentrations of animals collected from different sites were not remarkably different, and aluminum concentrations were below the reporting limits in most samples. There was no clear evidence of serious sub-lethal biological effects such as lesions in internal organs or DNA damage in blood in any of the animals. Accordingly, blood and liver lead concentrations in animals captured near the haul road generally were less than tissue concentration thresholds associated with serious biological effects reported from other studies; however, subtle effects resulting from lead exposure, such as the suppression of the activity of certain enzymes, cannot be ruled out for those animals nearest the haul road. Notably, liver lead concentrations of voles and small birds at the reference location were considerably less than those previously reported for similar animals at reference sites in other parts of the United States, Canada, and Europe. Results from this reconnaissance-level study indicate that voles and small birds inhabiting this area are not suffering serious biological effects as a result of metals exposure; however, continued monitoring of lead and other metals is

  15. Involvement of Potassium Transport Systems in the Response of Synechocystis PCC 6803 Cyanobacteria to External pH Change, High-Intensity Light Stress and Heavy Metal Stress.

    PubMed

    Checchetto, Vanessa; Segalla, Anna; Sato, Yuki; Bergantino, Elisabetta; Szabo, Ildiko; Uozumi, Nobuyuki

    2016-04-01

    The unicellular photosynthetic cyanobacterium, able to survive in varying environments, is the only prokaryote that directly converts solar energy and CO2 into organic material and is thus relevant for primary production in many ecosystems. To maintain the intracellular and intrathylakoid ion homeostasis upon different environmental challenges, the concentration of potassium as a major intracellular cation has to be optimized by various K(+)uptake-mediated transport systems. We reveal here the specific and concerted physiological function of three K(+)transporters of the plasma and thylakoid membranes, namely of SynK (K(+)channel), KtrB (Ktr/Trk/HKT) and KdpA (Kdp) in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803, under specific stress conditions. The behavior of the wild type, single, double and triple mutants was compared, revealing that only Synk contributes to heavy metal-induced stress, while only Ktr/Kdp is involved in osmotic and salt stress adaptation. With regards to pH shifts in the external medium, the Kdp/Ktr uptake systems play an important role in the adaptation to acidic pH. Ktr, by affecting the CO2 concentration mechanism via its action on the bicarbonate transporter SbtA, might also be responsible for the observed effects concerning high-light stress and calcification. In the case of illumination with high-intensity light, a synergistic action of Kdr/Ktp and SynK is required in order to avoid oxidative stress and ensure cell viability. In summary, this study dissects, using growth tests, measurement of photosynthetic activity and analysis of ultrastructure, the physiological role of three K(+)transporters in adaptation of the cyanobacteria to various environmental changes.

  16. Effects of yeast extract and vitamin D on turkey mortality and cellulitis incidence in a transport stress model.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated yeast extract (YE) and vitamin D (VD) in turkeys treated with dexamethasone (Dex) at intervals designed to simulate transport stress during a 3 stage growout. YE but not VD decreased early mortality (P = 0.001) and mortality at wk 7 (P= 0.02) and wk 12 (P = 0.002) but not wk 16. Celluli...

  17. Sediment-transport events on the northern California continental shelf during the 1990-1991 STRESS experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, C.R.; Butman, B.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Gross, T.F.; Sternberg, R.W.; Wiberg, P.L.; Williams, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of currents and light transmission were made at bottom tripods and moorings arrayed across the northern California continental shelf along the Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment (CODE) "C" transect as part of the 1990-1991 Sediment Transport Events on Shelves and Slopes (STRESS) experiment. In combination with meteorological and wave data from the National Data Buoy Center Buoy 46013, these measurements provide information about the physical forcing and resultant resuspension and transport of bottom material between 21 November and 8 March. Sixteen events were identified in the wave, wind and current-meter records for this period. Only two were local storms with southerly winds, but they caused about half of the seasonal net transport. Seven were swell events that combined long-period waves generated by distant storms with local currents. At the 90-m site, swells interacted with the mean northward flow to produce northward transport. During six northerly wind events, upwelling-favorable winds often were sufficient to slow or reverse the mean northward flow and thus caused southward transport. A single current event, which produced moderate southward transport, was observed at the 130-m site. Net transport during the winter experiment was offshore at all sites, northward at the inner- and mid-shelf sites, but southward at the outer-shelf site. The results suggest that local storms with southerly winds may dominate seasonal transport, as on the Washington shelf, but significant transport also can occur during fair weather and during periods of northerly winds. ?? 1994.

  18. Alanylglutamine dipeptide and growth hormone maintain PepT1-mediated transport in oxidatively stressed Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Alteheld, B; Evans, M E; Gu, L H; Ganapathy, V; Leibach, F H; Jones, D P; Ziegler, T R

    2005-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by gut mucosal cells during conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may impair mucosal repair and nutrient transport/absorptive function. Absorption of di- and tripeptides in the small intestine and colon is mediated by the H(+)-dependent transporter PepT1, but effects of oxidative stress on di- and tripeptide transport are unknown. We assessed whether exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) influences dipeptide transport in human colonic epithelial (Caco-2) cells. Uptake of [(14)C]glycylsarcosine (Gly-Sar) was used to evaluate PepT1-mediated dipeptide transport. Exposure to 1-5 mmol/L H(2)O(2) for 24 h caused a dose-dependent decrease in Gly-Sar transport, which was associated with decreased PepT1 transport velocity (V(max)). Treatment with alanylglutamine (Ala-Gln) or growth hormone (GH) did not alter Caco-2 Gly-Sar transport in the absence of H(2)O(2). However, both Ala-Gln and GH prevented the decrease in dipeptide transport observed with 1 mmol/L H(2)O(2) treatment. Ala-Gln, but not GH, maintained cellular glutathione and prevented the decrease in PepT1 protein expression. Thus, these agents should be further investigated as potential therapies to improve absorption of small peptides in disorders associated with oxidative injury to the gut mucosa.

  19. Effects of heat stress on the gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens ( Gallus gallus domesticus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Zhang, Haichao; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    In broiler chickens, heat stress disrupts nutrient digestion and absorption. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clearly understood. Hence, to investigate the effects of high ambient temperatures on the expression levels of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens, seventy-two 35-day-old male broiler chickens with similar body weights were randomly allocated into two groups: control (24 ± 1 °C) and heat-stressed (32 ± 1 °C). The chickens in the heat-stressed group were exposed to 10 h of heat daily from 08:00 to 18:00 and then raised at 24 ± 1 °C. The rectal temperature and feed intake of the chickens were recorded daily. After 7 days, nine chickens per group were sacrificed by exsanguination, and the jejunum was collected. The results show that heat exposure significantly decreased the feed intake and increased the rectal temperature of the broiler chickens. The plasma concentrations of uric acid and triglyceride significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the heat-stressed group. No significant differences in the levels of plasma glucose, total amino acids, and very low-density lipoprotein were observed between the heat-stressed and control groups. However, the plasma concentration of glucose tended to be higher ( P = 0.09) in the heat-stressed group than in the control group. Heat exposure did not significantly affect the mRNA levels of Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1 and amino acid transporters y + LAT1, CAT1, r-BAT, and PePT-1. However, the expression levels of GLUT-2, FABP1, and CD36 were significantly decreased by heat exposure. The results of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms by which heat stress affects nutrient absorption in broiler chickens. Our findings suggest that periodic heat exposure might alter the jejunal glucose and lipid transport rather than amino acid transport. However, intestinal epithelial damage and cell loss should be considered when interpreting the effects of heat

  20. Effects of heat stress on the gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaolei; Zhang, Haichao; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    In broiler chickens, heat stress disrupts nutrient digestion and absorption. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clearly understood. Hence, to investigate the effects of high ambient temperatures on the expression levels of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens, seventy-two 35-day-old male broiler chickens with similar body weights were randomly allocated into two groups: control (24 ± 1 °C) and heat-stressed (32 ± 1 °C). The chickens in the heat-stressed group were exposed to 10 h of heat daily from 08:00 to 18:00 and then raised at 24 ± 1 °C. The rectal temperature and feed intake of the chickens were recorded daily. After 7 days, nine chickens per group were sacrificed by exsanguination, and the jejunum was collected. The results show that heat exposure significantly decreased the feed intake and increased the rectal temperature of the broiler chickens. The plasma concentrations of uric acid and triglyceride significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the heat-stressed group. No significant differences in the levels of plasma glucose, total amino acids, and very low-density lipoprotein were observed between the heat-stressed and control groups. However, the plasma concentration of glucose tended to be higher (P = 0.09) in the heat-stressed group than in the control group. Heat exposure did not significantly affect the mRNA levels of Na(+)-dependent glucose transporter 1 and amino acid transporters y + LAT1, CAT1, r-BAT, and PePT-1. However, the expression levels of GLUT-2, FABP1, and CD36 were significantly decreased by heat exposure. The results of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms by which heat stress affects nutrient absorption in broiler chickens. Our findings suggest that periodic heat exposure might alter the jejunal glucose and lipid transport rather than amino acid transport. However, intestinal epithelial damage and cell loss should be considered when interpreting

  1. Electrical-stress-induced transport and surface potential characterizations of metal/ TiO 2/metal planar junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Haeri; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2011-03-01

    Electric-field-induced resistive switching (RS) phenomena in metal oxides have attracted considerable research interest due to their potential use in nonvolatile memory device applications. Intensive investigations have revealed that coupled electron ion dynamics play a key role the RS mechanism. Metal/single crystal junction can be an ideal model system to study how the ionic drift and diffusion can affect the resistance. We investigated transport and local electrical properties of Pt/ Ti O2 single crystal/Ti planar junctions with micron- sized gaps between the electrodes. Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) showed that negative (positive) electrical stress to the Pt electrodes significantly reduced (hardly affected) the Pt/ Ti O2 contact resistance. The SKPM results also revealed that the electrical stress caused alteration of the local work function of Ti O2 . The comparative investigations of the transport and SKPM results suggested that the electrical stress induced redistribution of ions, resulting in the change of the junction resistance.

  2. Variation in the reference Shields stress for bed load transport in gravel-bed streams and rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, E.R.; Pitlick, J.; Nelson, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines variations in the reference shear stress for bed load transport (??r) using coupled measurements of flow and bed load transport in 45 gravel-bed streams and rivers. The study streams encompass a wide range in bank-full discharge (1-2600 m3/s), average channel gradient (0.0003-0.05), and median surface grain size (0.027-0.21 m). A bed load transport relation was formed for each site by plotting individual values of the dimensionless transport rate W* versus the reach-average dimensionless shear stress ??*. The reference dimensionless shear stress ??r* was then estimated by selecting the value of ??* corresponding to a reference transport rate of W* = 0.002. The results indicate that the discharge corresponding to ?? r* averages 67% of the bank-full discharge, with the variation independent of reach-scale morphologic and sediment properties. However, values of ??r* increase systematically with average channel gradient, ranging from 0.025-0.035 at sites with slopes of 0.001-0.006 to values greater than 0.10 at sites with slopes greater than 0.02. A corresponding relation for the bank-full dimensionless shear stress ??bf*, formulated with data from 159 sites in North America and England, mirrors the relation between ??r* and channel gradient, suggesting that the bank-full channel geometry of gravel- and cobble-bedded streams is adjusted to a relatively constant excess shear stress, ??bf* - ??r*, across a wide range of slopes. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Trk2 Potassium Transport System in Streptococcus mutans and Its Role in Potassium Homeostasis, Biofilm Formation, and Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Binepal, Gursonika; Gill, Kamal; Crowley, Paula; Cordova, Martha; Brady, L. Jeannine; Senadheera, Dilani B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Potassium (K+) is the most abundant cation in the fluids of dental biofilm. The biochemical and biophysical functions of K+ and a variety of K+ transport systems have been studied for most pathogenic bacteria but not for oral pathogens. In this study, we establish the modes of K+ acquisition in Streptococcus mutans and the importance of K+ homeostasis for its virulence attributes. The S. mutans genome harbors four putative K+ transport systems that included two Trk-like transporters (designated Trk1 and Trk2), one glutamate/K+ cotransporter (GlnQHMP), and a channel-like K+ transport system (Kch). Mutants lacking Trk2 had significantly impaired growth, acidogenicity, aciduricity, and biofilm formation. [K+] less than 5 mM eliminated biofilm formation in S. mutans. The functionality of the Trk2 system was confirmed by complementing an Escherichia coli TK2420 mutant strain, which resulted in significant K+ accumulation, improved growth, and survival under stress. Taken together, these results suggest that Trk2 is the main facet of the K+-dependent cellular response of S. mutans to environment stresses. IMPORTANCE Biofilm formation and stress tolerance are important virulence properties of caries-causing Streptococcus mutans. To limit these properties of this bacterium, it is imperative to understand its survival mechanisms. Potassium is the most abundant cation in dental plaque, the natural environment of S. mutans. K+ is known to function in stress tolerance, and bacteria have specialized mechanisms for its uptake. However, there are no reports to identify or characterize specific K+ transporters in S. mutans. We identified the most important system for K+ homeostasis and its role in the biofilm formation, stress tolerance, and growth. We also show the requirement of environmental K+ for the activity of biofilm-forming enzymes, which explains why such high levels of K+ would favor biofilm formation. PMID:26811321

  4. Disodium cromoglycate reverses colonic visceral hypersensitivity and influences colonic ion transport in a stress-sensitive rat strain.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Siobhan Yvonne; O'Mahony, Siobhain Mary; Grenham, Susan; Cryan, John Francis; Hyland, Niall Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The interface between psychiatry and stress-related gastrointestinal disorders (GI), such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), is well established, with anxiety and depression the most frequently occurring comorbid conditions. Moreover, stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, which display anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, exhibit GI disturbances akin to those observed in stress-related GI disorders. Additionally, there is mounting preclinical and clinical evidence implicating mast cells as significant contributors to the development of abdominal visceral pain in IBS. In this study we examined the effects of the rat connective tissue mast cell (CTMC) stabiliser, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on visceral hypersensitivity and colonic ion transport, and examined both colonic and peritoneal mast cells from stress-sensitive WKY rats. DSCG significantly decreased abdominal pain behaviors induced by colorectal distension in WKY animals independent of a reduction in colonic rat mast cell mediator release. We further demonstrated that mast cell-stimulated colonic ion transport was sensitive to inhibition by the mast cell stabiliser DSCG, an effect only observed in stress-sensitive rats. Moreover, CTMC-like mast cells were significantly increased in the colonic submucosa of WKY animals, and we observed a significant increase in the proportion of intermediate, or immature, peritoneal mast cells relative to control animals. Collectively our data further support a role for mast cells in the pathogenesis of stress-related GI disorders.

  5. Mitochondrial stress-induced dopamine efflux and neuronal damage by malonate involves the dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Moy, Lily Y; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Sonsalla, Patricia K

    2007-02-01

    Endogenous striatal dopamine (DA) overflow has been associated with neuropathological conditions resulting from ischemia, psychostimulants, and metabolic inhibition. Malonate, a reversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, models the effects of energy impairment in neurodegenerative disorders. We have previously reported that the striatal DA efflux and damage to DA nerve terminals resulting from intrastriatal malonate infusions is prevented by prior DA depletion, suggesting that DA plays a role in the neuronal damage. We presently report that the malonate-induced DA efflux is partially mediated by reverse transport of DA from the cytosol to the extracellular space via the DA transporter (DAT). Pharmacological blockade of the DAT with a series of structurally different inhibitors [cocaine, mazindol, 1-(2-(bis(4-fluophenyl methoxy) ethyl)-4-(3-(4-fluorophenyl)-propyl)piperazine) dimethane sulfonate (GBR 13098) and methyl(-)-3beta-(p-fluorophenyl)-1alphaH,5alphaH-tropane-2beta-carboxylate1,5-naphthalene (Win 35,428)] attenuated malonate-induced DA overflow in vivo and protected mice against subsequent damage to DA nerve terminals. Consistent with these findings, the DAT inhibitors prevented malonate-induced damage to DA neurons in mesencephalic cultures and also protected against the loss of GABA neurons in this system. The DAT inhibitors did not modify malonate-induced formation of reactive oxygen species or lactate production, indicating that the DAT inhibitors neither exert antioxidant effects nor interfere with the actions of malonate. Taken together, these findings provide direct evidence that mitochondrial impairment and metabolic stress cause striatal DA efflux via the DAT and suggest that disruptions in DA homeostasis resulting from energy impairment may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Impacts of feeding selenium-methionine and chromium-methionine on performance, serum components, antioxidant status, and physiological responses to transportation stress of Baluchi ewe lambs.

    PubMed

    Mousaie, Amir; Valizadeh, Reza; Naserian, Abbas Ali; Heidarpour, Mohammad; Mehrjerdi, Hossein Kazemi

    2014-12-01

    The effects of selenium-methionine (Se-Met) and chromium-methionine (Cr-Met) supplementation on performance and response to transportation stress were studied on 24 Baluchi ewe lambs (18-20 weeks of age) for 9 weeks. The lambs were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: (1) control; (2) 1.5 mg supplemental Se-Met/kg dry matter (DM) of diet; (3) 0.8 mg supplemental Cr-Met/kg DM of diet; and (4) 1.5 mg Se-Met plus 0.8 mg Cr-Met/kg DM of diet (Se-Cr-Met). At the commencement of week 8, a road transportation stress (TS) was carried out for 30 min. Lambs fed Cr-Met and Se-Cr-Met diets had higher feed intake than the control and Se-Met animals (P < 0.0001). Lambs on Cr-Met diet showed higher average daily gain (ADG) compared to the control group (P = 0.007). Se-Met and Cr-Met supplementation alone or in combination significantly (P < 0.05) reduced feed conversion ratio (FCR). The animals that received Se-Met (P = 0.014), Cr-Met (P = 0.005), and Se-Cr-Met (P = 0.003) supplemented diets had lower glucose concentration than the control. Lambs on Cr-Met had higher blood T3 concentration than control animals (P = 0.040), while Cr-Met (P = 0.039) and Se-Cr-Met (P = 0.032) supplementation increased triiodothyronine (T3) to thyroxin (T4) ratio. Animals fed Se-Met and/or Cr-Met supplements had lower blood malondialdehyde (MDA) in week 9 of the experiment (P < 0.05). Blood ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) tended to be higher in the Se-Met- and Se-Cr-Met-supplemented groups (P < 0.1).TS reduced feed intake in lambs fed the control diet in week 8 of the experiment (P = 0.003). The lambs given with supplemental Cr-Met exhibited lower glucose concentration before transportation (BT) (P = 0.029) and after transportation (AT) (P = 0.016) compared to the control. Lambs fed Se-Cr-Met had the lowest cortisol concentration BT (P < 0.05). It was concluded that feeding Se-Met and/or Cr-Met supplements could improve

  7. Assessment of thermal load on transported goats administered with ascorbic acid during the hot-dry conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minka, N. S.; Ayo, J. O.

    2012-03-01

    The major factor in the induction of physiological stress during road transportation of livestock is the complex fluctuations of the thermal transport microenvironment, encountered when animals are transported across different ecological zones. Recommended guidelines on optimum "on-board" conditions in which goats should be transported are lacking, and there are no acceptable ranges and limits for the thermal loads to which goats may be subjected during long-distance road transportation in hot-dry conditions. Panting score (PS), rectal temperature (RT), heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) were employed as reliable stress indices to assess the effects of different thermal loads, measured as temperature humidity index (THI), encountered in the vehicle during 12 h of road transportation of 40 goats, and to suggest the administration of 100 mg/kg body weight of ascorbic acid (AA) as an ameliorating agent. The results obtained showed that the PS, RT, HR and RR rose above normal reference values with increase in the THI and journey duration. The rise in PS value, which is a visual indicator of the severity of thermal load, was the most pronounced. The results suggest that values of THI in the vehicle up to 94.6 constitute no risk, while at of 100 it presents a moderate risk and above 100 may result in severe stress. The relationships between the thermal load and the physiological variables were positive and significant ( P < 0.05). They reflect the degree of stress imposed by each THI value during the transportation, and may be used as recommended ranges and limit thermal load values in transported goats. The results demonstrated that administration of 100 mg/kg body weight of AA before road transportation mitigated the risk of adverse effects of high THI values and other stress factors due to road transportation in goats.

  8. Osmolyte and Na+ transport balances of rat hepatocytes as a function of hypertonic stress.

    PubMed

    Wehner, F; Tinel, H

    2000-11-01

    The initial event in the regulatory volume increase (RVI) of rat hepatocytes is an influx of Na+ that is then exchanged for K+ via stimulation of Na+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). In this study, we analysed the activation pattern of the Na+ transporters underlying RVI as a function of the degree of hypertonic stress. In confluent primary cultures, four hypertonic conditions were tested (changes from 300 to 327, 360, 400 or 450 mosmol/l) and the activities of Na+ conductance, Na+/H+ antiport, Na+-K+-2Cl- symport and Na+/K+-ATPase were quantified using intracellular microelectrodes, microfluorometry and time-dependent, furosemide- or ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake, respectively. Neither Na+ conductance nor Na+-K+-2Cl- symport responded to 327 mosmol/A. At 360, 400 and 450 mosmol/l, uptake via these transporters would lead to increases of cell Na+ by 33.0, 49.0 and 49.0 and by 4.5, 10.4 and 9.2 mmol/l per 10 min, respectively. In contrast, Na+/H+ antiport exhibited 65% of its maximal activation already at 327 mosmol/l. At the four osmolarities tested, this transporter would augment cell Na+ by 6.9, 8.9, 9.8 and 10.6 mmol/l per 10 min. The sums of Na+ import were consistent with the amounts of Na+ exported via Na+/K+-ATPase plus the actual increases of cell Na+ (21.2, 58.5, 63.6 and 68.3 mmol/l per 10 min and 2.2, 4.0, 6.3 and 8.2 mmol/l, respectively). In addition, these elevations of cell Na+ plus the increases of cell K+ (via Na+/K+-ATPase) that amounted to 5.0, 6.5, 17.5 and 18.4 mmol/l were consistent with the increases of intracellular osmotic (cationic) activity of 2.5, 11.5, 21.0 and 28.5 mmol/l, respectively, computed from RVI data. It is concluded that the principle of rat hepatocyte RVI, i.e. an initial uptake of Na+ that is then exchanged for K+ via Na+/K+-ATPase, is realized over the entire range of 9-50% hypertonicity tested. The set-point for the activation of RVI clearly lies below 327 mosmol/l. Na+/H+ antiport is the most sensitive Na+ importer

  9. Structural Uncertainties in RANS Models: Reynolds Stress Transport contra Eddy Viscosity Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Aashwin; Edeling, Wouter; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2016-11-01

    A vast majority of turbulent flow studies, both in academia and industry, utilize Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes based models. There are different RANS modeling frameworks to select from, depending on their complexity and computational requirements, such as eddy viscosity based models, second moment closures, etc. While the relative strengths and weaknesses of each modeling paradigm (vis-a-vis their predictive fidelity, realizability, etc) are roughly established for disparate flows, there are no extant comparative estimates on the relative uncertainty in their predictions. In this investigation, we estimate the structural uncertainty inherent to different RANS modeling approaches for select internal flows. This involves comparisons between models conforming to the same framework, and, across different modeling frameworks. We establish, compare, analyze and explicate the model inadequacy for flows such as in parallel, curved, converging and diverging channels for different models. One of the novel facets of this study involves the estimation of the structural uncertainties of established Reynolds Stress Transport models, and, contrasting these against simpler eddy viscosity models. This work was supported under the DARPA EQUiPS project(Technical Monitor: Fariba Fahroo).

  10. Alternative oxidase: a respiratory electron transport chain pathway essential for maintaining photosynthetic performance during drought stress.

    PubMed

    Vanlerberghe, Greg C; Martyn, Greg D; Dahal, Keshav

    2016-07-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration are the hubs of energy metabolism in plants. Drought strongly perturbs photosynthesis as a result of both diffusive limitations resulting from stomatal closure, and in some cases biochemical limitations that are associated with a reduced abundance of key photosynthetic components. The effects of drought on respiration, particularly respiration in the light (RL ), are less understood. The plant mitochondrial electron transport chain includes a non-energy conserving terminal oxidase called alternative oxidase (AOX). Several studies have shown that drought increases AOX transcript, protein and maximum capacity. Here we review recent studies comparing wild-type (WT) tobacco to transgenic lines with altered AOX protein amount. Specifically during drought, RL was compromised in AOX knockdown plants and enhanced in AOX overexpression plants, compared with WT. Significantly, these differences in RL were accompanied by dramatic differences in photosynthetic performance. Knockdown of AOX increased the susceptibility of photosynthesis to drought-induced biochemical limitations, while overexpression of AOX delayed the development of such biochemical limitations, compared with WT. Overall, the results indicate that AOX is essential to maintaining RL during drought, and that this non-energy conserving respiration maintains photosynthesis during drought by promoting energy balance in the chloroplast. This review also outlines several areas for future research, including the possibility that enhancement of non-energy conserving respiratory electron sinks may be a useful biotechnological approach to increase plant performance during stress.

  11. TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation outline: transport principles, effective solubility; gasoline composition; and field examples (plume diving).
    Presentation conclusions: MTBE transport follows from - phyiscal and chemical properties and hydrology. Field examples show: MTBE plumes > benzene plu...

  12. Transient magneto-peristaltic flow of couple stress biofluids: a magneto-hydro-dynamical study on digestive transport phenomena.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Dharmendra; Anwar Bég, O

    2013-11-01

    Magnetic fields are increasingly being utilized in endoscopy and gastric transport control. In this regard, the present study investigates the influence of a transverse magnetic field in the transient peristaltic rheological transport. An electrically-conducting couple stress non-Newtonian model is employed to accurately simulate physiological fluids in peristaltic flow through a sinusoidally contracting channel of finite length. This model is designed for computing the intra-bolus oesophageal and intestinal pressures during the movement of food bolus in the digestive system under magneto-hydro-dynamic effects. Long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations have been employed to reduce the governing equations from nonlinear to linear form, this being a valid approach for creeping flows which characterizes physiological dynamics. Analytical approximate solutions for axial velocity, transverse velocity, pressure gradient, local wall shear stress and volumetric flow rate are obtained for the non-dimensional conservation equations subject to appropriate boundary conditions. The effects of couple stress parameter and transverse magnetic field on the velocity profile, pressure distribution, local wall shear stress and the averaged flow rate are discussed with the aid of computational results. The comparative study of non-integral and integral number of waves propagating along the finite length channel is also presented. Magnetic field and non-Newtonian properties are found to strongly influence peristaltic transport.

  13. Risky Roads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, David

    2008-01-01

    A business that depends on a fleet of vehicles to deliver its products or services to customers usually recognizes the risk that comes with driving from one place to another. To an organization that does not see movement as part of its main mission, however, the need to consider transportation liability may be less obvious. In today's litigious…

  14. Differential Modulation of Cocaine’s Discriminative Cue by Repeated and Variable Stress Exposure: Relation to Monoamine Transporter Levels

    PubMed Central

    Decicco-Skinner, Kathleen L.; Johari, Shirin; Hurwitz, Zachary E.; Baumann, Michael H.; Riley, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    Discriminative stimulus functions of drugs of abuse play an important role in the acquisition, maintenance and reinstatement of drug-taking behavior. The present study tested whether two different schedules of stressor presentation, i.e., repeated and variable, for 10 days, can modify the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine in male rats trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) from saline. Dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporter levels in mesocorticolimbic areas were also measured using western blotting after stress exposure to determine if the relative ratio of these proteins may explain differences in behavior. Rats exposed to both repeated and variable stress displayed shifts in the cocaine dose-response curve but with different patterns of responding. In handled controls, ED50 values for cocaine-like responding were stable after 10 days of handling compared to baseline. Repeated stress produced a transient left-ward shift in cocaine-like responding, indicating increased sensitivity to the cocaine cue. ED50 values after variable stress did not differ from baseline, although maximal cocaine-like responding was lower at the two highest doses of cocaine tested at which variably stressed rats switched from cocaine to saline-like responding. Alterations in DAT and NET were found in the Repeated stress group and DAT and SERT in the Variable stress group in select brain regions which may be responsible for differences in behavior. PMID:22516586

  15. Effects of purinergic stimulation, CFTR and osmotic stress on amiloride-sensitive Na+ transport in epithelia and Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, R; König, J; Sun, J; Markovich, D; Kunzelmann, K

    2003-03-15

    Both stimulation of purinergic receptors by ATP and activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibit amiloride-sensitive Na+ transport and activate Cl- secretion. These changes in ion transport may well affect cell volume. We therefore examined whether cell shrinkage or cell swelling do affect amiloride-sensitive Na+ transport in epithelial tissues or Xenopus oocytes and whether osmotic stress interferes with regulation of Na+ transport by ATP or CFTR. Stimulation of purinergic receptors by ATP/UTP or activation of CFTR by IBMX and forskolin inhibited amiloride-sensitive transport in mouse trachea and colon, respectively, by a mechanism that was Cl- dependent. When exposed to a hypertonic but not hypotonic bath solution, amiloride-sensitive Na+ transport was inhibited in mouse trachea and colon, independent of the extracellular Cl- concentration. Both inhibition of Na+ transport by hypertonic bath solution and ATP were additive. When coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes, activation of CFTR by IBMX and forskolin inhibited the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) in a Cl- dependent fashion. However, both hypertonic and hypotonic bath solutions showed only minor effects on amiloride-sensitive conductance, independent of the bath Cl- concentration. Moreover, CFTR-induced inhibition of ENaC could be detected in oocytes even after exposure to hypertonic or hypotonic bath solutions. We conclude that amiloride-sensitive Na+ absorption in mouse airways and colon is inhibited by cell shrinkage by a mechanism that does not interfere with purinergic and CFTR-mediated inhibition of ENaC.

  16. A statistical model for road surface friction forecasting applying optical road weather measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippi, M.; Juga, I.; Nurmi, P.

    2009-09-01

    surface, the amount of water was the best predictor for friction. The models were tested with an independent sample from winter 2008/09. Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) has been running an operational road weather prediction model for about ten years. The model predicts e.g. the road surface temperature and the layers of snow, ice and water on the road. With the addition of the statistical friction model, road surface friction will be a new forecast parameter. There are, however, some challenges to be solved before operational applicability. A major issue is how to take road maintenance activities, and especially the salting, into account. This study is carried out within the EU/FP7 Project ROADIDEA, where the major frame of reference is to develop new and innovative products for traffic and transport sectors.

  17. Multispectral Image Road Extraction Based Upon Automated Map Conflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin

    Road network extraction from remotely sensed imagery enables many important and diverse applications such as vehicle tracking, drone navigation, and intelligent transportation studies. There are, however, a number of challenges to road detection from an image. Road pavement material, width, direction, and topology vary across a scene. Complete or partial occlusions caused by nearby buildings, trees, and the shadows cast by them, make maintaining road connectivity difficult. The problems posed by occlusions are exacerbated with the increasing use of oblique imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. Further, common objects such as rooftops and parking lots are made of materials similar or identical to road pavements. This problem of common materials is a classic case of a single land cover material existing for different land use scenarios. This work addresses these problems in road extraction from geo-referenced imagery by leveraging the OpenStreetMap digital road map to guide image-based road extraction. The crowd-sourced cartography has the advantages of worldwide coverage that is constantly updated. The derived road vectors follow only roads and so can serve to guide image-based road extraction with minimal confusion from occlusions and changes in road material. On the other hand, the vector road map has no information on road widths and misalignments between the vector map and the geo-referenced image are small but nonsystematic. Properly correcting misalignment between two geospatial datasets, also known as map conflation, is an essential step. A generic framework requiring minimal human intervention is described for multispectral image road extraction and automatic road map conflation. The approach relies on the road feature generation of a binary mask and a corresponding curvilinear image. A method for generating the binary road mask from the image by applying a spectral measure is presented. The spectral measure, called anisotropy-tunable distance (ATD

  18. H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress Affects SO4= Transport in Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Morabito, Rossana; Romano, Orazio; La Spada, Giuseppa; Marino, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to verify the effect of H2O2-induced oxidative stress on SO4= uptake through Band 3 protein, responsible for Cl-/HCO3- as well as for cell membrane deformability, due to its cross link with cytoskeletal proteins. The role of cytoplasmic proteins binding to Band 3 protein has been also considered by assaying H2O2 effects on hemoglobin-free resealed ghosts of erythrocytes. Oxidative conditions were induced by 30 min exposure of human erythrocytes to different H2O2 concentrations (10 to 300 μM), with or without GSH (glutathione, 2 mM) or curcumin (10 μM), compounds with proved antioxidant properties. Since SO4= influx through Band 3 protein is slower and better controllable than Cl- or HCO3- exchange, the rate constant for SO4= uptake was measured to prove anion transport efficiency, while MDA (malondialdehyde) levels and –SH groups were estimated to quantify the effect of oxidative stress. H2O2 induced a significant decrease in rate constant for SO4= uptake at both 100 and 300 μM H2O2. This reduction, observed in erythrocytes but not in resealed ghosts and associated to increase in neither MDA levels nor in –SH groups, was impaired by both curcumin and GSH, whereas only curcumin effectively restored H2O2-induced changes in erythrocytes shape. Our results show that: i) 30 min exposure to 300 μM H2O2 reduced SO4= uptake in human erythrocytes; ii) oxidative damage was revealed by the reduction in rate constant for SO4= uptake, but not by MDA or –SH groups levels; iii) the damage was produced via cytoplasmic components which cross link with Band 3 protein; iv) the natural antioxidant curcumin may be useful in protecting erythrocytes from oxidative injury; v) SO4= uptake through Band 3 protein may be reasonably suggested as a tool to monitor erythrocytes function under oxidative conditions possibly deriving from alcohol consumption, use of drugs, radiographic contrast media administration, hyperglicemia or

  19. H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress Affects SO4= Transport in Human Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Rossana; Romano, Orazio; La Spada, Giuseppa; Marino, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to verify the effect of H2O2-induced oxidative stress on SO4= uptake through Band 3 protein, responsible for Cl-/HCO3- as well as for cell membrane deformability, due to its cross link with cytoskeletal proteins. The role of cytoplasmic proteins binding to Band 3 protein has been also considered by assaying H2O2 effects on hemoglobin-free resealed ghosts of erythrocytes. Oxidative conditions were induced by 30 min exposure of human erythrocytes to different H2O2 concentrations (10 to 300 μM), with or without GSH (glutathione, 2 mM) or curcumin (10 μM), compounds with proved antioxidant properties. Since SO4= influx through Band 3 protein is slower and better controllable than Cl- or HCO3- exchange, the rate constant for SO4= uptake was measured to prove anion transport efficiency, while MDA (malondialdehyde) levels and -SH groups were estimated to quantify the effect of oxidative stress. H2O2 induced a significant decrease in rate constant for SO4= uptake at both 100 and 300 μM H2O2. This reduction, observed in erythrocytes but not in resealed ghosts and associated to increase in neither MDA levels nor in -SH groups, was impaired by both curcumin and GSH, whereas only curcumin effectively restored H2O2-induced changes in erythrocytes shape. Our results show that: i) 30 min exposure to 300 μM H2O2 reduced SO4= uptake in human erythrocytes; ii) oxidative damage was revealed by the reduction in rate constant for SO4= uptake, but not by MDA or -SH groups levels; iii) the damage was produced via cytoplasmic components which cross link with Band 3 protein; iv) the natural antioxidant curcumin may be useful in protecting erythrocytes from oxidative injury; v) SO4= uptake through Band 3 protein may be reasonably suggested as a tool to monitor erythrocytes function under oxidative conditions possibly deriving from alcohol consumption, use of drugs, radiographic contrast media administration, hyperglicemia or neurodegenerative

  20. Sustainable road safety: a new (?) neighbourhood road pattern that saves VRU lives.

    PubMed

    Wei, Vicky Feng; Lovegrove, Gord

    2012-01-01

    Both the UN (2007) and World Health Organizations (2004) have declared the enormous social and economic burden imposed on society by injuries due to road collisions as a major global problem. While the road safety problem is not new, this prominent global declaration sends an important signal of frustration regarding progress to date on reducing road collisions. It is clear that governments, communities, businesses and the public must discover ways of reducing this burden, especially as it relates to vulnerable road users (VRUs), typically meaning pedestrian and bicyclist road users. Recent comparisons of global VRU collisions statistics suggest that, in addition to mixed land use density, the layout of neighbourhood roads plays a vital role in the encouragement of walkable, safe and quiet, yet accessible and sustainable communities. The purpose of this paper was to: The Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) Program has produced a number of innovative land use and transportation initiatives for vehicular road users as well as non-vehicular VRUs. Following from the Dutch initiatives, these new 3-way offset, and fused grid neighbourhood patterns appear to not only have positive effects in encouraging mode split (i.e. increasing walking and bicycling, and transit), slowing traffic, and reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions; but also, to hold potential to improve road safety. To test the road safety hypothesis, UBCO researchers evaluated the level of road safety relative to five neighbourhood patterns - grid, culs-de-sac, and Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) (or limited access), 3-way offset, and fused grid networks. Analysis using standard transportation planning methodology revealed that they would maintain both mobility and accessibility. Analysis using standard road safety analysis methodology further revealed that these 3-way offset, and fused grid patterns would significantly improve road safety levels by as much as 60% compared to prevalent patterns (i

  1. Dioscin Protects ANIT-Induced Intrahepatic Cholestasis Through Regulating Transporters, Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hong; Xu, Youwei; Yin, Lianhong; Tao, Xufeng; Xu, Lina; Qi, Yan; Han, Xu; Sun, Pengyuan; Liu, Kexin; Peng, Jinyong

    2017-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis, a clinical syndrome, is caused by excessive accumulation of bile acids in body and liver. Proper regulation of bile acids in liver cells is critical for liver injury. We previously reported the effects of dioscin against α-naphthylisothio- cyanate (ANIT)-induced cholestasis in rats. However, the pharmacological and mechanism data are limited. In our work, the animals of rats and mice, and Sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCHs) were caused by ANIT, and dioscin was used for the treatment. The results showed that dioscin markedly altered relative liver weights, restored ALT, AST, ALP, TBIL, GSH, GSH-Px, MDA, SOD levels, and rehabilitated ROS level and cell apoptosis. In mechanism study, dioscin not only significantly regulated the protein levels of Ntcp, OAT1, OCT1, Bsep and Mrp2 to accelerate bile acids excretion, but also regulated the expression levels of Bak, Bcl-xl, Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase 3 and Caspase 9 in vivo and in vitro to improve apoptosis. In addition, dioscin markedly inhibited PI3K/Akt pathway and up-regulated the levels of Nrf2, GCLc, GCLm, NQO1 and HO-1 against oxidative stress (OS) caused by bile acids. These results were further validated by inhibition of PI3K and Akt using the inhibitors of wortmannin and perifosine in SCHs. Our data showed that dioscin had good action against ANIT-caused intrahepatic cholestasis through regulating transporters, apoptosis and OS. This natural product can be considered as one active compound to treat intrahepatic cholestasis in the future. PMID:28337145

  2. Stressful life events and the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) in recurrent clinical depression.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Hosang, Georgina M.; Uher, Rudolf; Powell-Smith, Georgia; Keers, Robert; Tropeano, Maria; Korszun, Ania; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Owen, Mike; Craddock, Nick; Craig, Ian W.; Farmer, Anne E.; McGuffin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background An interaction between recent stressful life events (SLEs) and a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in depression has been inconsistently reported. Some of this variability may be due to a previous focus on sub-clinical depression, inclusion of individuals at the lower or upper ends of the age-span, or assumptions concerning the degree of dominance of the low expressing allele. Therefore, a large sample of patients with recurrent clinically diagnosed depression and controls screened for absence of depression was utilised to examine the moderating effect of each 5-HTTLPR genetic model on the association between SLEs and severe depressive episodes. Method A sample of 1236 recurrent unipolar depression cases and 598 age-matched, never psychiatrically ill controls completed the List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire to assess the number of SLEs experienced in the 6 months prior to the most severe depressive episode (cases) or interview (controls). DNA extracted from blood or cheek swabs was genotyped for the short (s) and long (l) alleles of 5-HTTLPR. Results A greater number of SLEs were reported by cases than controls and this held across all genotypic groups. There was no main effect of 5-HTTLPR on depression and no evidence of interaction between total SLEs and any of the 5-HTTLPR genetic models. The results were the same for men and women. Limitations Utilisation of retrospective self-reported SLEs may have reduced the accuracy of the findings and the cross-sectional design prevents causal inference. Conclusions This study failed to find evidence of gene-environment interplay in recurrent clinical depression. PMID:21982504

  3. Effects of floor space during transport and journey time on indicators of stress and transport losses of market-weight pigs.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, C M; Ellis, M; Rojo-Gómez, A; Curtis, S E; Wolter, B F; Peterson, C M; Peterson, B A; Ritter, M J; Brinkmann, J

    2011-11-01

    The effects of floor space on the trailer and journey time during transport from the farm to the packing plant on indicators of stress (open-mouth breathing, muscle tremors, and skin discoloration) and on the incidence of transport losses (dead on arrival, nonambulatory, noninjured, and nonambulatory, injured) were evaluated in a study involving 160 loads of market-weight pigs (BW 124.7 ± 4.38 kg) using a split-plot design with a 2 × 6 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) journey time [main plot; short (<1 h) and long (3 h)] and 2) floor space (subplot; 0.396, 0.415, 0.437, 0.462, 0.489, and 0.520 m(2)/pig, which is equivalent to 0.317, 0.332, 0.350, 0.370, 0.391, and 0.416 m(2)/100 kg of BW, respectively). Two consecutively loaded trailers were randomly allotted to journey time treatment. Floor space treatments were compared in the front 3 compartments on the top and bottom decks of the trailer and were created by varying the number of pigs per compartment, which confounds the effect of floor space with group size. Of the 17,652 pigs transported in 954 test compartments, 0.24% died or became nonambulatory. Neither journey time nor floor space had an effect (P > 0.05) on the incidence of dead and nonambulatory, injured pigs, or on total transport losses. There were interactions (P < 0.05) between journey time and floor space treatments for the incidences of nonambulatory, noninjured pigs and open-mouth breathing. For 2 of the smallest floor spaces (0.415 and 0.437 m(2)/pig), the incidence of nonambulatory, noninjured pigs was greater on short than on long journeys; for the other 4 floor spaces there was no effect (P > 0.05) of journey time. The incidence of open-mouth breathing for the 3 smallest floor spaces was greater (P < 0.05) for short than long journeys, whereas there was no effect (P > 0.05) of journey time for the 3 greatest floor spaces. The frequency of skin discoloration was greater (P < 0.001) for pigs transported at the 2 smallest floor spaces

  4. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  5. 5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, deck view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. 4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, elevation view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  7. Road network safety evaluation using Bayesian hierarchical joint model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Huang, Helai

    2016-05-01

    Safety and efficiency are commonly regarded as two significant performance indicators of transportation systems. In practice, road network planning has focused on road capacity and transport efficiency whereas the safety level of a road network has received little attention in the planning stage. This study develops a Bayesian hierarchical joint model for road network safety evaluation to help planners take traffic safety into account when planning a road network. The proposed model establishes relationships between road network risk and micro-level variables related to road entities and traffic volume, as well as socioeconomic, trip generation and network density variables at macro level which are generally used for long term transportation plans. In addition, network spatial correlation between intersections and their connected road segments is also considered in the model. A road network is elaborately selected in order to compare the proposed hierarchical joint model with a previous joint model and a negative binomial model. According to the results of the model comparison, the hierarchical joint model outperforms the joint model and negative binomial model in terms of the goodness-of-fit and predictive performance, which indicates the reasonableness of considering the hierarchical data structure in crash prediction and analysis. Moreover, both random effects at the TAZ level and the spatial correlation between intersections and their adjacent segments are found to be significant, supporting the employment of the hierarchical joint model as an alternative in road-network-level safety modeling as well.

  8. How Long Do the Dead Survive on the Road? Carcass Persistence Probability and Implications for Road-Kill Monitoring Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Sara M.; Carvalho, Filipe; Mira, António

    2011-01-01

    transportation agencies with accurate numbers of road-kills, realistic mitigation measures, and detailed designs for road monitoring programs. PMID:21980437

  9. Impact of oral meloxicam on circulating physiological biomarkers of stress and inflammation in beef steers after long-distance transportation.

    PubMed

    Van Engen, N K; Stock, M L; Engelken, T; Vann, R C; Wulf, L W; Karriker, L A; Busby, W D; Lakritz, J; Carpenter, A J; Bradford, B J; Hsu, W H; Wang, C; Coetzee, J F

    2014-02-01

    Transportation stress can result in significant economic losses to producers due to decreased animal productivity and increased medication costs associated with sickness such as bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Meloxicam (MEL) provides pain relief and anti-inflammatory effects in cattle for several days after a single oral treatment. Our hypothesis was that MEL administration before shipping would reduce the impact of long-distance transportation on circulating physiological biomarkers of stress and inflammation in beef steers. Ninety-seven beef steers were blood sampled for baseline biomarker determination and then randomly assigned to receive either 1 mg/kg MEL (n = 49) or a placebo (CONT; n = 48) per os before a 1,316-km transportation event lasting approximately 16 h. Calves were then blood sampled on arrival and 5 d later. Changes in the hemogram, circulating plasma proteins, total carbon dioxide (TCO2), fibrinogen, substance P (SP), cortisol, haptoglobin (Hp)-matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) complexes, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) between treatments over time were compared using a mixed effects model with statistical significance designated as P < 0.05. Analysis of covariance was conducted to assess the relationship between circulating MEL concentrations and biomarker changes over time. An increase in neutrophil, platelet, monocyte, white blood cell, and red blood cell counts occurred after transportation (P < 0.0001) and a decrease in lymphocyte count were observed (P < 0.0001). Meloxicam treatment reduced the stress-induced neutrophilia (P = 0.0072) and circulating monocyte count (P = 0.013) on arrival. Mean corpuscle hemoglobin (P = 0.05), mean corpuscle volume (P = 0.05), and lymphocyte count (P = 0.05) were also greater in the CONT calves compared with MEL calves after transportation. Furthermore, Hp-MMP-9 complexes, TCO2, TNFα, plasma proteins, and SP increased and cortisol decreased after shipping (P < 0.01). Meloxicam treatment tended to

  10. Transcriptional changes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after embryonic exposure to road salt.

    PubMed

    Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Song, You; Kleiven, Merethe; Mahrosh, Urma; Meland, Sondre; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Teien, Hans-Christian

    2015-12-01

    Road salt is extensively used as a deicing chemical in road maintenance during winter and has in certain areas of the world led to density stratifications in lakes and ponds, and adversely impacted aquatic organisms in the recipients of the road run-off. Aquatic vertebrates such as fish have been particularly sensitive during fertilisation, as the fertilisation of eggs involves rapid uptake of the surrounding water, reduction in egg swelling and in ovo exposure to high road salt concentrations. The present study aimed to identify the persistent molecular changes occurring in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) eggs after 24h exposure to high concentrations (5000 mg/L) of road salt at fertilisation. The global transcriptional changes were monitored by a 60k salmonid microarray at the eyed egg stage (cleavage stage, 255 degree days after fertilisation) and identified a high number of transcripts being differentially regulated. Functional enrichment, pathway and gene-gene interaction analysis identified that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mainly associated with toxiciologically relevant processes involved in osmoregulation, ionregulation, oxidative stress, metabolism (energy turnover), renal function and developmental in the embryos. Quantitative rtPCR analysis of selected biomarkers, identified by global transcriptomics, were monitored in the eggs for an extended range of road salt concentrations (0, 50, 100, 500 and 5000 mg/L) and revealed a positive concentration-dependent increase in cypa14, a gene involved in lipid turnover and renal function, and nav1, a gene involved in neuraxonal development. Biomarkers for osmoregulatory responses such as atp1a2, the gene encoding the main sodium/potassium ATP-fueled transporter for chloride ions, and txdc9, a gene involved in regulation of cell redox homeostasis (oxidative stress), displayed apparent concentration-dependency with exposure, although large variance in the control group precluded robust statistical

  11. Refining the Candidate Environment: Interpersonal Stress, the Serotonin Transporter Polymorphism, and Gene-Environment Interactions in Major Depression.

    PubMed

    Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Mineka, Susan; Zinbarg, Richard E; Craske, Michelle G; Griffith, James W; Sutton, Jonathan; Redei, Eva E; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Hammen, Constance; Adam, Emma K

    2014-05-01

    Meta-analytic evidence supports a gene-environment (G×E) interaction between life stress and the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on depression, but few studies have examined factors that influence detection of this effect, despite years of inconsistent results. We propose that the "candidate environment" (akin to a candidate gene) is key. Theory and evidence implicate major stressful life events (SLEs)-particularly major interpersonal SLEs-as well as chronic family stress. Participants (N = 400) from the Youth Emotion Project (which began with 627 high school juniors oversampled for high neuroticism) completed up to five annual diagnostic and life stress interviews and provided DNA samples. A significant G×E effect for major SLEs and S-carrier genotype was accounted for significantly by major interpersonal SLEs but not significantly by major non-interpersonal SLEs. S-carrier genotype and chronic family stress also significantly interacted. Identifying such candidate environments may facilitate future G×E research in depression and psychopathology more broadly.

  12. Root ABA Accumulation in Long-Term Water-Stressed Plants is Sustained by Hormone Transport from Aerial Organs.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Matías; Lado, Joanna; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2015-12-01

    The reduced pool of the ABA precursors, β,β-carotenoids, in roots does not account for the substantial increase in ABA content in response to water stress (WS) conditions, suggesting that ABA could be transported from other organs. Basipetal transport was interrupted by stem-girdling, and ABA levels were determined in roots after two cycles of WS induced by transplanting plants to dry perlite. Leaf applications of isotope-labeled ABA and reciprocal grafting of ABA-deficient tomato mutants were used to confirm the involvement of aerial organs on root ABA accumulation. Disruption of basipetal transport reduced ABA accumulation in roots, and this decrease was more severe after two consecutive WS periods. This effect was linked to a sharp decrease in the β,β-carotenoid pool in roots in response to water deficit. Significant levels of isotope-labeled ABA were transported from leaves to roots, mainly in plants subjected to water dehydration. Furthermore, the use of different ABA-deficient tomato mutants in reciprocal grafting combinations with wild-type genotypes confirmed the involvement of aerial organs in the ABA accumulation in roots. In conclusion, accumulation of ABA in roots after long-term WS periods largely relies on the aerial organs, suggesting a reduced ability of the roots to synthesize ABA from carotenoids. Furthermore, plants are able to transport ABA basipetally to sustain high hormone levels in roots.

  13. Hypotonic stress-induced calcium signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves TRP-like transporters on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, M; Groppi, S; Belotti, F; Ambrosini, R; Filippi, G; Martegani, E; Tisi, R

    2015-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells respond to hypotonic stress (HTS) by a cytosolic calcium rise, either generated by an influx of calcium from extracellular medium, when calcium is available, or by a release from intracellular stores in scarcity of extracellular calcium. Calcium release from intracellular compartments is peculiarly inhibited by external calcium in a calcineurin-independent and Cch1-, but not Mid1-, driven manner. HTS-induced calcium release is also negatively regulated by the ER protein Cls2 and involves a poorly characterized protein, FLC2/YAL053W gene product, previously proposed to be required for FAD transport in the ER, albeit, due to its molecular features, it was also previously classified as an ion transporter. A computational analysis revealed that this gene and its three homologs in S. cerevisiae, together with previously identified Schizosaccharomyces pombe pkd2 and Neurospora crassa calcium-related spray protein, belong to a fungal branch of TRP-like ion transporters related to human mucolipin and polycystin 2 calcium transporters. Moreover, disruption of FLC2 gene confers severe sensitivity to Calcofluor white and hyper-activation of the cell wall integrity MAPK cascade, suggesting a role in cell wall maintenance as previously suggested for the fission yeast homolog. Perturbation in cytosolic resting calcium concentration and hyper-activation of calcineurin in exponentially growing cells suggest a role for this transporter in calcium homeostasis in yeast.

  14. Allantoin accumulation mediated by allantoinase downregulation and transport by Ureide Permease 5 confers salt stress tolerance to Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Lescano, Carlos Ignacio; Martini, Carolina; González, Claudio Alejandro; Desimone, Marcelo

    2016-07-01

    Allantoin, a metabolite generated in the purine degradation pathway, was primarily considered an intermediate for recycling of the abundant nitrogen assimilated in plant purines. More specifically, tropical legumes utilize allantoin and allantoic acid as major nodule-to-shoot nitrogen transport compounds. In other species, an increase in allantoin content was observed under different stress conditions, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this work, Arabidopsis thaliana was used as a model system to investigate the effects of salt stress on allantoin metabolism and to know whether its accumulation results in plant protection. Plant seedlings treated with NaCl at different concentrations showed higher allantoin and lower allantoic acid contents. Treatments with NaCl favored the expression of genes involved in allantoin synthesis, but strongly repressed the unique gene encoding allantoinase (AtALN). Due to the potential regulatory role of this gene for allantoin accumulation, AtALN promoter activity was studied using a reporter system. GUS mediated coloration was found in specific plant tissues and was diminished with increasing salt concentrations. Phenotypic analysis of knockout, knockdown and stress-inducible mutants for AtALN revealed that allantoin accumulation is essential for salt stress tolerance. In addition, the possible role of allantoin transport was investigated. The Ureide Permease 5 (UPS5) is expressed in the cortex and endodermis of roots and its transcription is enhanced by salt treatment. Ups5 knockout plants under salt stress presented a susceptible phenotype and altered allantoin root-to-shoot content ratios. Possible roles of allantoin as a protectant compound in oxidative events or signaling are discussed.

  15. Experimental Investigation of the Shuttle Transportation System Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels for Stress Rupture Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Nathanael; Saulsberry, Regor; Yoder, Tommy; Forsyth, Brad; Carillo, Marlene; Thesken, John

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing stress rupture testing on Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV) is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose for Testing; 2) NASA WSTF COPV Test Program; 3) NASA WSTF Test Facilities; 4) COPV Impact Study; 5) Fluids Compatibility Testing; 6) Stress Rupture Testing; and 7) COPV Lifting.

  16. Modeling aeolian sediment transport thresholds on physically rough Martian surfaces: A shear stress partitioning approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, John A.; Nickling, William G.; King, James; Lancaster, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    This paper explores the effect that large roughness elements (0.30 m × 0.26 m × 0.36 m) may have on entrainment of sediment by Martian winds using a shear stress partitioning approach based on a model developed by Raupach et al. (Raupach, M.R., Gillette, D.A., Leys, J.F., 1993. The effect of roughness elements on wind erosion threshold. Journal of Geophysical Research 98(D2), 3023-3029). This model predicts the shear stress partitioning ratio defined as the percent reduction in shear stress on the intervening surface between the roughness elements as compared to the surface in the absence of those elements. This ratio is based on knowledge of the geometric properties of the roughness elements, the characteristic drag coefficients of the elements and the surface, and the assumed effect these elements have on the spatial distribution of the mean and maximum shear stresses. On Mars, unlike on Earth, the shear stress partitioning caused by roughness can be non-linear in that the drag coefficients for the surface as well as for the roughness itself show Reynolds number dependencies for the reported range of Martian wind speeds. The shear stress partitioning model of Raupach et al. is used to evaluate how conditions of the Martian atmosphere will affect the threshold shear stress ratio for Martian surfaces over a range of values of roughness density. Using, as an example, a 125 µm diameter particle with an estimated threshold shear stress on Mars of ≈ 0.06 N m - 2 (shear velocity, u* ≈ 2 m s - 1 on a smooth surface), we evaluate the effect of roughness density on the threshold shear stress ratio for this diameter particle. In general, on Mars higher regional shear stresses are required to initiate particle entrainment for surfaces that have the same physical roughness as defined by the roughness density term ( λ) compared with terrestrial surfaces mainly because of the low Martian atmospheric density.

  17. Comparative transcriptome analysis of transporters, phytohormone and lipid metabolism pathways in response to arsenic stress in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Yu, Lu-jun; Luo, Ying-feng; Liao, Bin; Xie, Li-juan; Chen, Liang; Xiao, Shi; Li, Jin-tian; Hu, Song-nian; Shu, Wen-sheng

    2012-07-01

    • Arsenic (As) contamination of rice (Oryza sativa) is a worldwide concern and elucidating the molecular mechanisms of As accumulation in rice may provide promising solutions to the problem. Previous studies using microarray techniques to investigate transcriptional regulation of plant responses to As stress have identified numerous differentially expressed genes. However, little is known about the metabolic and regulatory network remodelings, or their interactions with microRNA (miRNA) in plants upon As(III) exposure. • We used Illumina sequencing to acquire global transcriptome alterations and miRNA regulation in rice under As(III) treatments of varying lengths of time and dosages. • We found that the response of roots was more distinct when the dosage was varied, whereas that of shoots was more distinct when the treatment time was varied. In particular, the genes involved in heavy metal transportation, jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis and signaling, and lipid metabolism were closely related to responses of rice under As(III) stress. Furthermore, we discovered 36 new As(III)-responsive miRNAs, 14 of which were likely involved in regulating gene expression in transportation, signaling, and metabolism. • Our findings highlight the significance of JA signaling and lipid metabolism in response to As(III) stress and their regulation by miRNA, which provides a foundation for subsequent functional research.

  18. Involvement of a glucosinolate (sinigrin) in the regulation of water transport in Brassica oleracea grown under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ballesta, Maria del Carmen; Muries, Beatriz; Moreno, Diego Ángel; Dominguez-Perles, Raúl; García-Viguera, Cristina; Carvajal, Micaela

    2014-02-01

    Members of the Brassicaceae are known for their contents of nutrients and health-promoting phytochemicals, including glucosinolates. The concentrations of these chemopreventive compounds (glucosinolate-degradation products, the bioactive isothiocyanates) may be modified under salinity. In this work, the effect of the aliphatic glucosinolate sinigrin (2-propenyl-glucosinolate) on plant water balance, involving aquaporins, was explored under salt stress. For this purpose, water uptake and its transport through the plasma membrane were determined in plants after NaCl addition, when sinigrin was also supplied. We found higher hydraulic conductance (L0 ) and water permeability (Pf ) and increased abundance of PIP2 aquaporins after the direct administration of sinigrin, showing the ability of the roots to promote cellular water transport across the plasma membrane in spite of the stress conditions imposed. The higher content of the allyl-isothiocyanate and the absence of sinigrin in the plant tissues suggest that the isothiocyanate is related to water balance; in fact, a direct effect of this nitro-sulphate compound on water uptake is proposed. This work provides the first evidence that the addition of a glucosinolate can regulate aquaporins and water transport: this effect and the mechanism(s) involved merit further investigation.

  19. Abscisic acid accumulation modulates auxin transport in the root tip to enhance proton secretion for maintaining root growth under moderate water stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weifeng; Jia, Liguo; Shi, Weiming; Liang, Jiansheng; Zhou, Feng; Li, Qianfeng; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of root growth is essential for plant adaptation to soil drying. Here, we tested the hypothesis that auxin transport is involved in mediating ABA's modulation by activating proton secretion in the root tip to maintain root growth under moderate water stress. Rice and Arabidopsis plants were raised under a hydroponic system and subjected to moderate water stress (-0.47 MPa) with polyethylene glycol (PEG). ABA accumulation, auxin transport and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity at the root tip were monitored in addition to the primary root elongation and root hair density. We found that moderate water stress increases ABA accumulation and auxin transport in the root apex. Additionally, ABA modulation is involved in the regulation of auxin transport in the root tip. The transported auxin activates the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase to release more protons along the root tip in its adaption to moderate water stress. The proton secretion in the root tip is essential in maintaining or promoting primary root elongation and root hair development under moderate water stress. These results suggest that ABA accumulation modulates auxin transport in the root tip, which enhances proton secretion for maintaining root growth under moderate water stress.

  20. Bearing Capacity Assessment on low Volume Roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zariņš, A.

    2015-11-01

    A large part of Latvian road network consists of low traffic volume roads and in particular of roads without hard pavement. Unbounded pavements shows serious problems in the form of rutting and other deformations, which finally lead to weak serviceability and damage of the road structure after intensive exploitation periods. Traditionally, these problems have been associated with heavy goods transport, overloaded vehicles and their impact. To find the specific damaging factors causing road pavement deformations and evaluate their prevention possibilities, and establish conditions that will allow doing it, the study was carried out. The tire pressure has been set as the main factor of load. Two different tire pressures have been used in tests and their impacts were compared. The comparison was done using deflection measurements with LWD together with dielectric constant measurements in a road structure using percometer. Measurements were taken in the upper pavement structure layers at different depths during full-scale loading and in different moisture/temperature conditions. Advisable load intensity and load factors for heavy traffic according to road conditions were set based on the study results.

  1. Construction of Listeria monocytogenes mutants with in-frame deletions in putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and analysis of their growth under stress conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that is difficult to eliminate since it can survive under multiple stress conditions such as low pH and low temperature. Understanding its survival under stress conditions is important to control this pathogen in food. ABC transporters have been shown...

  2. Auxin Biosynthesis, Accumulation, Action and Transport are Involved in Stress-Induced Microspore Embryogenesis Initiation and Progression in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sanz, Héctor; Solís, María-Teresa; López, María-Fernanda; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Risueño, María C; Testillano, Pilar S

    2015-07-01

    Isolated microspores are reprogrammed in vitro by stress, becoming totipotent cells and producing embryos and plants via a process known as microspore embryogenesis. Despite the abundance of data on auxin involvement in plant development and embryogenesis, no data are available regarding the dynamics of auxin concentration, cellular localization and the expression of biosynthesis genes during microspore embryogenesis. This work involved the analysis of auxin concentration and cellular accumulation; expression of TAA1 and NIT2 encoding enzymes of two auxin biosynthetic pathways; expression of the PIN1-like efflux carrier; and the effects of inhibition of auxin transport and action by N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and α-(p-chlorophenoxy) isobutyric acid (PCIB) during Brassica napus microspore embryogenesis. The results indicated de novo auxin synthesis after stress-induced microspore reprogramming and embryogenesis initiation, accompanying the first cell divisions. The progressive increase of auxin concentration during progression of embryogenesis correlated with the expression patterns of TAA1 and NIT2 genes of auxin biosynthetic pathways. Auxin was evenly distributed in early embryos, whereas in heart/torpedo embryos auxin was accumulated in apical and basal embryo regions. Auxin efflux carrier PIN1-like gene expression was induced in early multicellular embryos and increased at the globular/torpedo embryo stages. Inhibition of polar auxin transport (PAT) and action, by NPA and PCIB, impaired embryo development, indicating that PAT and auxin action are required for microspore embryo progression. NPA also modified auxin embryo accumulation patterns. These findings indicate that endogenous auxin biosynthesis, action and polar transport are required in stress-induced microspore reprogramming, embryogenesis initiation and progression.

  3. A quasi-linear analysis of the impurity effect on turbulent momentum transport and residual stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, S. H.; Jhang, Hogun; Singh, R.

    2015-08-01

    We study the impact of impurities on turbulence driven intrinsic rotation (via residual stress) in the context of the quasi-linear theory. A two-fluid formulation for main and impurity ions is employed to study ion temperature gradient modes in sheared slab geometry modified by the presence of impurities. An effective form of the parallel Reynolds stress is derived in the center of mass frame of a coupled main ion-impurity system. Analyses show that the contents and the radial profile of impurities have a strong influence on the residual stress. In particular, an impurity profile aligned with that of main ions is shown to cause a considerable reduction of the residual stress, which may lead to the reduction of turbulence driven intrinsic rotation.

  4. A quasi-linear analysis of the impurity effect on turbulent momentum transport and residual stress

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, S. H. Jhang, Hogun; Singh, R.

    2015-08-15

    We study the impact of impurities on turbulence driven intrinsic rotation (via residual stress) in the context of the quasi-linear theory. A two-fluid formulation for main and impurity ions is employed to study ion temperature gradient modes in sheared slab geometry modified by the presence of impurities. An effective form of the parallel Reynolds stress is derived in the center of mass frame of a coupled main ion-impurity system. Analyses show that the contents and the radial profile of impurities have a strong influence on the residual stress. In particular, an impurity profile aligned with that of main ions is shown to cause a considerable reduction of the residual stress, which may lead to the reduction of turbulence driven intrinsic rotation.

  5. [Fluorescein transport and antioxidant systems in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae under acid stress].

    PubMed

    Abrat, O B; Semchyshyn, H M; Miedzobrodski, J; Lushchak, V I

    2008-01-01

    The influence of acetic acid induced stress on the activity of fluorescein extrusion system and cell survival in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been studied. It was shown that acetic acid caused the inhibition of fluorescein efflux from the cells of both parental strain and its derivative defective in the transcriptional factor War1 which regulates the system of acetate efflux from the cell. The stress induced by 200 mM CH3COOH decreased almost 10 times the survival of strains deficient in the regulatory proteins War1 and Yap1 as compared with respective wild strains. However, pretreatment of the yeast by sublethal concentrations of hydrogen peroxide resulted in the increased resistance to acid stress. Thus it may be supposed that several systems exist which are responsible for acetate extrusion from the yeast cells. Regulatory proteins War1 and Yap1 are involved in the yeast adaptation to the stress induced by acetic acid.

  6. The Development of Screening Methods to Identify Drugs to Limit ER Stress Using Wild-type and Mutant Serotonin Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Katarao, Kazusa; Murakawa, Seiya; Asano, Masaya; Usuki, Naoto; Yamamoto, Hikaru; Shirafuji, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Shigeru; Hide, Izumi; Sakai, Norio

    2016-01-01

    The function of the serotonin transporter (SERT) is regulated by its membrane trafficking. Previously, we showed that the C-terminus-deleted mutant of SERT (SERTΔCT) exhibited an aberrant membrane trafficking and subsequent retention at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In addition, we found that proteasome inhibitor-induced ER stress resulted in the impairment of SERT membrane trafficking and retention of SERT at the ER, an impairment very similar to that of SERTΔCT. Based on the result that the chemical chaperone 4-phnylbutulic acid (4-PBA), which relieves ER stress, accelerated the membrane trafficking and upregulated SERT activity, we hypothesized that drugs that facilitate the membrane trafficking of SERT would have potential therapeutic effects on an ER stress-related disease. In this study, we aimed to develop simple screening methods for such drugs using SERT. We first validated the serotonin uptake assay using fluorescent substrates. This simple and reliable assay method was useful for screening for drugs that affected the wild-type SERT but not SERTΔCT. In addition, we verified an assay focusing on the formation of SERTΔCT aggregates. The drugs 4-PBA and SKF-10047 facilitated the trafficking of SERT to the membrane and reduced SERTΔCT aggregates, indicating that the drugs with such characters could be potential candidates for ER stress relief. For both assays, we clarified the usefulness of a high-content screening microscope. These results could pave the way for high-throughput screening for such drugs. PMID:28127108

  7. The Bartonella henselae SitABCD transporter is required for confronting oxidative stress during cell and flea invasion.

    PubMed

    Liu, MaFeng; Bouhsira, Emilie; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Biville, Francis

    2013-10-01

    Bartonella henselae is a zoonotic pathogen that possesses a flea-cat-flea transmission cycle and causes cat scratch disease in humans via cat scratches and bites. In order to establish infection, B. henselae must overcome oxidative stress damage produced by the mammalian host and arthropod vector. B. henselae encodes for putative Fe²⁺ and Mn²⁺ transporter SitABCD. In B. henselae, SitAB knockdown increases sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide. We consistently show that SitAB knockdown decreases the ability of B. henselae to survive in both human endothelial cells and cat fleas, thus demonstrating that the SitABCD transporter plays an important role during the B. henselae infection cycle.

  8. Differential effects of cyclic and constant stress on ATP release and mucociliary transport by human airway epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Button, Brian; Picher, Maryse; Boucher, Richard C

    2007-01-01

    In the lungs, the first line of defence against bacterial infection is the thin layer of airway surface liquid (ASL) lining the airway surface. The superficial airway epithelium exhibits complex regulatory pathways that blend ion transport to adjust ASL volume to maintain proper mucociliary clearance (MCC). We hypothesized that stresses generated by airflow and transmural pressures during breathing govern ASL volume by regulating the rate of epithelial ATP release. Luminal ATP, via interactions with apical membrane P2-purinoceptors, regulates the balance of active ion secretion versus absorption to maintain ASL volume at optimal levels for MCC. In this study we tested the hypothesis that cyclic compressive stress (CCS), mimicking normal tidal breathing, regulates ASL volume in airway epithelia. Polarized tracheobronchial epithelial cultures from normal and cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects responded to a range of CCS by increasing the rate of ATP release. In normal airway epithelia, the CCS-induced increase in ASL ATP concentration was sufficient to induce purinoceptor-mediated increases in ASL height and MCC, via inhibition of epithelial Na+-channel-mediated Na+ absorption and stimulation of Cl− secretion through CFTR and the Ca2+-activated chloride channels. In contrast, static, non-oscillatory stress did not stimulate ATP release, ion transport or MCC, emphasizing the importance of rhythmic mechanical stress for airway defence. In CF airway cultures, which exhibit basal ASL depletion, CCS was partially effective, producing less ASL volume secretion than in normal cultures, but a level sufficient to restore MCC. The present data suggest that CCS may (1) regulate ASL volume in the normal lung and (2) improve clearance in the lungs of CF patients, potentially explaining the beneficial role of exercise in lung defence. PMID:17317749

  9. Developing a 3D Road Cadastral System: Comparing Legal Requirements and User Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gristina, S.; Ellul, C.; Scianna, A.

    2016-10-01

    Road transport has always played an important role in a country's growth and, in order to manage road networks and ensure a high standard of road performance (e.g. durability, efficiency and safety), both public and private road inventories have been implemented using databases and Geographical Information Systems. They enable registering and managing significant amounts of different road information, but to date do not focus on 3D road information, data integration and interoperability. In an increasingly complex 3D urban environment, and in the age of smart cities, however, applications including intelligent transport systems, mobility and traffic management, road maintenance and safety require digital data infrastructures to manage road data: thus new inventories based on integrated 3D road models (queryable, updateable and shareable on line) are required. This paper outlines the first step towards the implementation of 3D GIS-based road inventories. Focusing on the case study of the "Road Cadastre" (the Italian road inventory as established by law), it investigates current limitations and required improvements, and also compares the required data structure imposed by cadastral legislation with real road users' needs. The study aims to: a) determine whether 3D GIS would improve road cadastre (for better management of data through the complete life-cycle infrastructure projects); b) define a conceptual model for a 3D road cadastre for Italy (whose general principles may be extended also to other countries).

  10. A seamless hybrid RANS-LES model based on transport equations for the subgrid stresses and elliptic blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadai-Ghotbi, Atabak; Friess, Christophe; Manceau, Rémi; Borée, Jacques

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop a seamless hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) large-eddy simulation (LES) model based on transport equations for the subgrid stresses, using the elliptic-blending method to account for the nonlocal kinematic blocking effect of the wall. It is shown that the elliptic relaxation strategy of Durbin is valid in a RANS (steady) as well as a LES context (unsteady). In order to reproduce the complex production and redistribution mechanisms when the cutoff wavenumber is located in the productive zone of the turbulent energy spectrum, the model is based on transport equations for the subgrid-stress tensor. The partially integrated transport model (PITM) methodology offers a consistent theoretical framework for such a model, enabling to control the cutoff wavenumber κc, and thus the transition from RANS to LES, by making the Cɛ2 coefficient in the dissipation equation of a RANS model a function of κc. The equivalence between the PITM and the Smagorinsky model is shown when κc is in the inertial range of the energy spectrum. The extension of the underlying RANS model used in the present work, the elliptic-blending Reynolds-stress model, to the hybrid RANS-LES context, brings out some modeling issues. The different modeling possibilities are compared in a channel flow at Reτ=395. Finally, a dynamic procedure is proposed in order to adjust during the computation the dissipation rate necessary to drive the model toward the expected amount of resolved energy. The final model gives very encouraging results in comparison to the direct numerical simulation data. In particular, the turbulence anisotropy in the near-wall region is satisfactorily reproduced. The contribution of the resolved and modeled fields to the Reynolds stresses behaves as expected: the modeled part is dominant in the near-wall zones (RANS mode) and decreases toward the center of the channel, where the relative contribution of the resolved part increases

  11. Investigation of Thermal Creep and Thermal Stress Effects in Microgravity Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowski, D. W. (Principal Investigator); Knight, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Reported here are the results of our numerical investigation into the mechanisms which affect the transport and growth processes in physical vapor transport (PVT) crystal growth ampoules. The first part of the report consists of a brief summary of the major accomplishments and conclusions of our work. The second part consists of two manuscripts, submitted to the Journal of Crystal Growth, which provided a detailed description of the findings in our investigation.

  12. Electron Transport Chain Dysfunction in Neonatal Pressure-Overload Hypertrophy Precedes Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis Independent of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Eric R.; Friehs, Ingeborg; Scherr, Elisabeth; Poutias, Dimitrios; McGowan, Francis X.; del Nido, Pedro J.

    2009-01-01

    Background We have previously shown in a model of pressure overload hypertrophy that there is increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis during the transition from peak hypertrophy to ventricular decompensation. Electron transport chain dysfunction is believed to play a role in this process through the production of excessive reactive oxygen species. In this study we sought to determine electron transport chain function in pressure overload hypertrophy and the role of oxidative stress in myocyte apoptosis. Methods and Results Neonatal rabbits underwent thoracic aortic banding at 10 days of age. Compensated hypertrophy (4wks of age), decompensated hypertrophy (6wks of age), and age-matched controls (n=4–8/group) as identified by serial echocardiography were studied. ETC complex activities were determined by spectophotometry in isolated mitochondria. Complex I was significantly decreased (p=0.005) at 4wks and further decreased at 6 wks (p=0.001). Complex II was significantly decreased at both time points (4wks p=0.003; 6wks p=0.009). However, H202 production, measured in isolated mitochondria by fluorescence spectroscopy, was significantly decreased at 4wks of age in banded animals compared to controls (p=0.038), and mitochondrial DNA oxidative damage (measurement of 8-OHdG by ELISA) was also significantly decreased at 4wks of age (p=.031). Mitochondrial activated apoptosis was determined by Bax/Bcl-2 ratios (immunoblotting). Bax/Bcl-2 levels were significantly increased in banded animals at 6wks. Conclusions In pressure overload hypertrophy, the transition from compensated LVH to failure and cardiomyocyte apoptosis is preceded by mitochondrial complex I and II dysfunction followed by an increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratios. The mechanism of apoptosis initiation is independent of increased oxidative stress. Ultramini Abstract In neonatal pressure overload hypertrophy of the LV, electron transport chain dysfunction characterized by decreased activity of electron transport chain

  13. Assessment of the Potential to Reduce Emissions from Road Transportation, Notably NOx, Through the Use of Alternative Vehicles and Fuels in the Great Smoky Mountains Region

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.

    2001-08-30

    Air pollution is a serious problem in the region of the Great Smoky Mountains. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) may designate non-attainment areas by 2003 for ozone. Pollutants include nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), lead, and particulate matter (PM), which are health hazards, damage the environment, and limit visibility. The main contributors to this pollution are industry, transportation, and utilities. Reductions from all contributors are needed to correct this problem. While improvements are projected in each sector over the next decades, the May 2000 Interim Report issued by the Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative (SAMI) suggests that the percentage of NO{sub x} emissions from transportation may increase.

  14. TA-59 North Parking Lot and Pajarito Road Corridor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide traffic engineering services for the TA-59 North Parking Lot/Pajarito Road corridor Analysis at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The following tasks were accomplished to assess the development of the north parking lot and Pajarito Road in the vicinity of TA-59: conducted turning-movement counts from 7 AM to 9 AM and from 4 PM to 6 PM at the Pajarito Road/TA-59 intersection; conducted a parking supply and demand survey for all the parking lots within TA-59 on half-hour intervals between 0600--1800 (6 AM to 6 PM); conducted mid-day directional speed study along Pajarito Road, just east or south of the TA-59/Pajarito Road intersection; conducted peak hour gap study on Pajarito Road in the vicinity of TA-59; reviewed the TA-59 Parking Lot North of Pajarito Road, FY-94 Weapons GPP Short List Candidate {number_sign}9 report and other documents pertaining to past transportation studies; reassigned current turning-movement volumes with a 100 space parking lot being built on the north side of Pajarito Road; prepared traffic projections for the Pajarito Road/TA-59 intersection according to the proposed development on the north side of Pajarito Road that would employee 246 people; and assigned pedestrian crossing volumes between the northern lot/future development site and areas south of Pajarito Road.

  15. Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... flu shot, are less effective for them. Some people cope with stress more effectively than others. It's important to know your limits when it comes to stress, so you can avoid more serious health effects. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  16. Trauma to the Psyche and Soma: A Case Study of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Comorbid Problems Arising from a Road Traffic Collision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wald, Jaye; Taylor, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Randomized controlled studies have shown that cognitive-behavioral therapies are effective for treating various forms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with most research focusing on combat or sexual-assault-related PTSD. A challenge currently facing researchers and practitioners is to develop specialized protocols for treating other forms…

  17. Candidate-gene approach in posttraumatic stress disorder after urban violence: association analysis of the genes encoding serotonin transporter, dopamine transporter, and BDNF.

    PubMed

    Valente, Nina Leão Marques; Vallada, Homero; Cordeiro, Quirino; Miguita, Karen; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Andreoli, Sergio Baxter; Mari, Jair Jesus; Mello, Marcelo Feijó

    2011-05-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, disabling anxiety disorder marked by behavioral and physiologic alterations which commonly follows a chronic course. Exposure to a traumatic event constitutes a necessary, but not sufficient, factor. There is evidence from twin studies supporting a significant genetic predisposition to PTSD. However, the precise genetic loci still remain unclear. The objective of the present study was to identify, in a case-control study, whether the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism (rs6265), the dopamine transporter (DAT1) three prime untranslated region (3'UTR) variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), and the serotonin transporter (5-HTTPRL) short/long variants are associated with the development of PTSD in a group of victims of urban violence. All polymorphisms were genotyped in 65 PTSD patients as well as in 34 victims of violence without PTSD and in a community control group (n = 335). We did not find a statistical significant difference between the BDNF val66met and 5-HTTPRL polymorphism and the traumatic phenotype. However, a statistical association was found between DAT1 3'UTR VNTR nine repeats and PTSD (OR = 1.82; 95% CI, 1.20-2.76). This preliminary result confirms previous reports supporting a susceptibility role for allele 9 and PTSD.

  18. Dietary resveratrol supplementation prevents transport-stress-impaired meat quality of broilers through maintaining muscle energy metabolism and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Wang, L; Zhao, X H; Chen, X Y; Yang, L; Geng, Z Y

    2017-03-02

    This experiment was to evaluate the effect of dietary resveratrol (Res) supplementation (0, 400 mg/kg) on growth performance, meat quality, and muscle anaerobic glycolysis and antioxidant capacity of transported broilers. A total of 360 21-day-old male Cobb broilers was randomly allotted to 2 dietary treatments (Res-free group and Res group) with 12 replicates of 15 birds each. On the morning of d 42, after a 9-hour fast, 24 birds (2 birds of each replicate) were selected from the Res-free group and then equally placed into 2 crates, and the other 12 birds (one bird of each replicate) were selected from the Res group and then placed into the other crate. All birds in the 3 crates were transported according to the following protocols: 0-hour transport of birds in the Res-free group (control group), 3-hour transport of birds in the Res-free group (T group), and 3-hour transport of birds in the Res group (T + Res group). The results showed that Res not only improved feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05) but also tended to improve birds' final body weight (P < 0.10). In the Res-free group, a 3-hour transport increased serum corticosterone concentration, muscle malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate contents, and muscle lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, while it decreased muscle glycogen content, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activities (P < 0.05), which induced decreased breast meat quality (lower pH24h and higher drip loss and L*24 h, P < 0.05). Nevertheless, compared with the T group, Res increased muscle glycogen content and T-SOD and GSH-PX activities (P < 0.05 or P < 0.10), while it decreased muscle MDA content and LDH activity (P < 0.05), which is beneficial to the meat quality maintenance of transported broilers (lower drip loss, L*24 h, and higher pH24h, P < 0.05 or P < 0.10). This study provides the first evidence that dietary resveratrol supplementation prevents transport-stress-impaired meat quality of broilers

  19. Staufen Recruitment into Stress Granules Does Not Affect Early mRNA Transport in Oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, María G.; Tosar, Leandro J. Martinez; Loschi, Mariela; Pasquini, Juana M.; Correale, Jorge; Kindler, Stefan; Boccaccio, Graciela L.

    2005-01-01

    Staufen is a conserved double-stranded RNA-binding protein required for mRNA localization in Drosophila oocytes and embryos. The mammalian homologues Staufen 1 and Staufen 2 have been implicated in dendritic RNA targeting in neurons. Here we show that in rodent oligodendrocytes, these two proteins are present in two independent sets of RNA granules located at the distal myelinating processes. A third kind of RNA granules lacks Staufen and contains major myelin mRNAs. Myelin Staufen granules associate with microfilaments and microtubules, and their subcellular distribution is affected by polysome-disrupting drugs. Under oxidative stress, both Staufen 1 and Staufen 2 are recruited into stress granules (SGs), which are stress-induced organelles containing transiently silenced messengers. Staufen SGs contain the poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), the RNA-binding proteins HuR and TIAR, and small but not large ribosomal subunits. Staufen recruitment into perinuclear SGs is paralleled by a similar change in the overall localization of polyadenylated RNA. Under the same conditions, the distribution of recently transcribed and exported mRNAs is not affected. Our results indicate that Staufen 1 and Staufen 2 are novel and ubiquitous SG components and suggest that Staufen RNPs are involved in repositioning of most polysomal mRNAs, but not of recently synthesized transcripts, during the stress response. PMID:15525674

  20. Effect of Pressure and Stress on Water Transport in Intact and Fractured Gabbro and Granite

    SciTech Connect

    Trimmer, D.; Bonner, B.; Heard, H.C.; Duba, A.

    1980-12-10

    New laboratory data are reported on the effect of confining pressure (to 60 MPa), pore-water pressure (to 30 MPa), and stress difference (to 0.88 of the fracture stress) on permeability of intact and fractured White Lake gneissic granite. Westerly granite, and Creighton gabbro. Permeabilities as low as 10/sup -24/ m/sup 2/ (10/sup -2/ darcy) have been measured using a transient technique. Fracture displacement, electrical conductance, compressional velocity, and pulse amplitude are determined simultaneously. The loads applied to the 0.15-m-diameter by 0.28-m-length test sample are controlled automatically, and most data are taken by microprocessor. Tests on the intact gneissic granite indicated permeabilities of 10/sup -22/ to 10/sup -24/ m/sup 2/ that appeared to be unaffected either by effective pressure or by stress. The granite yielded permeabilities of 4 +- 10/sup -20/ m/sup 2/ that decreased by a factor of 2 as effective pressure increased to 25 MPa and varied by a factor of 2 as stress was increased to 0.5 of the fracture stress. Permeability of the gabbro linearly decreased from 2 x 10/sup -22/ to 8 x 10/sup -24/ m/sup 2/ with effective pressures to 25 MPa. Loading of the gabbro up to 0.88 of the fracture stress increased permeability by a factor of 7. The introduction of a throughgoing fracture increased the apparent permeability by 10/sup 6/ to 10/sup 9/ over the intact values in both granite and gabbro. When compared to the initial value, compressional velocities increased by 5% with pressure to 30 MPa in the gneissic granite. For granite, pressurization from 2 to 25 MPa increased the velocity and pulse amplitude by 5 and 30%, and decreased the conductance by 50%. Velocity, amplitude, and conductance were weakly dependent on pressure in gabbro. The addition of stress decreased velocity and amplitude while increasing conductance markedly on both granite and gabbro.

  1. 72. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW OF THE BOSTON POST ROAD, WESTPORT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW OF THE BOSTON POST ROAD, WESTPORT, 1928. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, Beginning in Greenwich & running 38 miles to Stratford, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  2. 12. VIEW FROM PARKWAY MEDIAN TO SPORT HILL ROAD BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW FROM PARKWAY MEDIAN TO SPORT HILL ROAD BRIDGE, Copy of photograph ca. 1940. Collection Connecticut Department of Transportation. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  3. 30 CFR 817.150 - Roads: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for transporting coal or spoil; (ii) Frequently used for access or other purposes for a period in... erosion, siltation, and the air pollution attendant to erosion, including road dust and dust occurring on... public or private property, including the prevention or mitigation of adverse effects on lands within...

  4. 30 CFR 816.150 - Roads: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for transporting coal or spoil; (ii) Frequently used for access or other purposes for a period in... erosion, siltation, and the air pollution attendant to erosion, including road dust as well as dust... public or private property, including the prevention or mitigation of adverse effects on lands within...

  5. Stress-induced stimulation of choline transport in cultured choroid plexus epithelium exposed to low concentrations of cadmium.

    PubMed

    Young, Robin K; Villalobos, Alice R A

    2014-03-01

    The choroid plexus epithelium forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and accumulates essential minerals and heavy metals. Choroid plexus is cited as being a "sink" for heavy metals and excess minerals, serving to minimize accumulation of these potentially toxic agents in the brain. An understanding of how low doses of contaminant metals might alter transport of other solutes in the choroid plexus is limited. Using primary cultures of epithelial cells isolated from neonatal rat choroid plexus, our objective was to characterize modulation of apical uptake of the model organic cation choline elicited by low concentrations of the contaminant metal cadmium (CdCl₂). At 50-1,000 nM, cadmium did not directly decrease or increase 30-min apical uptake of 10 μM [(3)H]choline. However, extended exposure to 250-500 nM cadmium increased [(3)H]choline uptake by as much as 75% without marked cytotoxicity. In addition, cadmium induced heat shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase-1 protein expression and markedly induced metallothionein gene expression. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine attenuated stimulation of choline uptake and induction of stress proteins. Conversely, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) enhanced stimulation of choline uptake and induction of stress proteins. Cadmium also activated ERK1/2 MAP kinase. The MEK1 inhibitor PD98059 diminished ERK1/2 activation and attenuated stimulation of choline uptake. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 activation abated stimulation of choline uptake in cells exposed to cadmium with BSO. These data indicate that in the choroid plexus, exposure to low concentrations of cadmium may induce oxidative stress and consequently stimulate apical choline transport through activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinase.

  6. The influence of temperament, transportation stress, and endotoxin challenge on body composition traits in Brahman bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the influence of temperament of bulls on ultrasound body composition traits in response to transportation and an endotoxin challenge. Purebred Brahman bulls were selected from a pool of 60 bulls based on temperament scores measured at weaning (n=8 each: calm, int...

  7. Transport versus on-farm slaughter of bison: physiological stress, animal welfare, and avoidable trim losses.

    PubMed

    McCorkell, Robert; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Galbraith, Jayson; Schaefer, Al; Caulkett, Nigel; Boysen, Soren; Pajor, Ed

    2013-08-01

    Ranched bison are typically less acclimated to handling than are domesticated livestock, suggesting that they might be more vulnerable to handling and transportation stressors. Grain-finished bison were slaughtered on-farm (n = 11), or held for 48 h, transported to a research abattoir, held in lairage for 18 h, and then slaughtered (n = 11). An additional group (n = 10) was sampled at a conventional fixed location abattoir. Measures included serum cortisol and corticosterone concentrations during on-farm handling and exsanguination, serum glucose, creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and trim losses. Transport was associated with an increase in trim loss. On-farm, glucose was elevated, CPK was positively associated with handling order over 12 h, and corticosterone concentration, although lower than cortisol concentration, showed a greater response to prolonged disturbance. With appropriate on-farm handling facilities, the use of on-farm slaughter and mobile abattoir could avoid muscle damage and trim losses, and mitigate injuries sustained during handling and transport of bison.

  8. Interaction between serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and stressful life events in adolescents' trajectories of anxious/depressed symptoms.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Isaac T; Bates, John E; Goodnight, Jackson A; Dodge, Kenneth A; Lansford, Jennifer E; Pettit, Gregory S; Latendresse, Shawn J; Dick, Danielle M

    2012-09-01

    Caspi et al. (2003) found an interaction between the serotonin transporter polymorphism gene (5-HTTLPR) and stressful life events on depression. Subsequent attempts to replicate have been inconsistent. The present research included long allele variants modified by SNP rs25531 and tested the interaction on adolescents' trajectories of anxious/depressed symptoms, with consideration of possible age effects. Adolescents (N = 574), of whom 436 were genotyped, were followed from ages 12 to 17. Analyses demonstrated a G × E interaction in predicting the development of anxious/depressed symptoms. Specifically, adolescents with lower serotonin transcriptional efficiency (TE) genotypes whose mothers reported more stressful events were reported to show more anxious/depressed symptoms and greater increases in the development of symptoms of anxiety and depression than were higher TE adolescents, particularly at ages 16 and 17. Interactions did not differ by gender. Findings demonstrate that stress may affect adolescents' likelihood of experiencing anxious/depressed symptoms when they have a low serotonin TE (A/G-modified 5-HTTLPR) genotype and suggest that the vulnerability may be stronger in late than early adolescence.

  9. 7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD TRAVERSING DISTANT RIDGE BEYOND BRIDGE. SEEN FROM WEST OF HIGHWAY FROM OLD HIGHWAY LOOP. LOOKING E. - Lassen Park Road, Mineral, Tehama County, CA

  10. A versatile proline/alanine transporter in the unicellular pathogen Leishmania donovani regulates amino acid homoeostasis and osmotic stress responses.

    PubMed

    Inbar, Ehud; Schlisselberg, Doreen; Suter Grotemeyer, Marianne; Rentsch, Doris; Zilberstein, Dan

    2013-01-15

    Unlike all other organisms, parasitic protozoa of the family Trypanosomatidae maintain a large cellular pool of proline that, together with the alanine pool, serve as alternative carbon sources as well as reservoirs of organic osmolytes. These reflect adaptation to their insect vectors whose haemolymphs are exceptionally rich in the two amino acids. In the present study we identify and characterize a new neutral amino acid transporter, LdAAP24, that translocates proline and alanine across the Leishmania donovani plasma membrane. This transporter fulfils multiple functions: it is the sole supplier for the intracellular pool of proline and contributes to the alanine pool; it is essential for cell volume regulation after osmotic stress; and it regulates the transport and homoeostasis of glutamate and arginine, none of which are its substrates. Notably, we provide evidence that proline and alanine exhibit different roles in the parasitic response to hypotonic shock; alanine affects swelling, whereas proline influences the rate of volume recovery. On the basis of our data we suggest that LdAAP24 plays a key role in parasite adaptation to its varying environments in host and vector, a phenomenon essential for successful parasitism.

  11. Protective effect of quercetin on pig intestinal integrity after transport stress is associated with regulation oxidative status and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    ZOU, Yi; WEI, Hong Kui; XIANG, Quan-Hang; WANG, Jun; ZHOU, Yuan-Fei; PENG, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of quercetin supplementation on intestinal integrity, intestinal reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and intestinal inflammation in pigs under transport stress. A total of 170 finishing pigs were randomly assigned into two groups. Animals in the control group consumed a basal diet, while those in the treatment group consumed the same diet supplemented with 25 mg quercetin per kg feed. After a 4-week period, pigs were transported for 5 hr. The quercetin-supplemented pigs showed decreased serum levels of endotoxin (P<0.05), increased height of jejunum villi (P<0.05), and increased occludin and zonula occudens-1 (ZO-1) mRNA expression in the jejunum (P<0.05). These parameters are associated with intestinal health and were markedly improved by quercetin supplementation. Pigs consuming the quercetin-supplemented diet had lower intestinal levels of ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA) compared with the control group (P<0.05). This finding coincided with greater inhibition of the innate immune system (P<0.05), including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein kinase B (Akt) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways, as well as decreased expression of inflammatory cytokines in the jejunum. These results indicate that quercetin alleviates intestinal injury in pigs during transport, probably through modulation of intestinal oxidative status and inflammation. PMID:27301842

  12. Ascorbate transport in pig coronary artery smooth muscle: Na(+) removal and oxidative stress increase loss of accumulated cellular ascorbate.

    PubMed

    Holmes, M E; Samson, S E; Wilson, J X; Dixon, S J; Grover, A K

    2000-01-01

    Pig deendothelialized coronary artery rings and smooth muscle cells cultured from them accumulated ascorbate from medium containing Na(+). The accumulated material was determined to be ascorbate using high-performance liquid chromatography. We further characterized ascorbate uptake in the cultured cells. The data fitted best with a Hill coefficient of 1 for ascorbate (K(asc) = 22 +/- 2 microM) and 2 for Na(+) (K(Na) = 84 +/- 10 mM). The anion transport inhibitors sulfinpyrazone and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (DIDS) inhibited the uptake. Transferring cultured cells loaded with (14)C-ascorbate into an ascorbate-free solution resulted in a biphasic loss of radioactivity - an initial sulfinpyrazone-insensitive faster phase and a late sulfinpyrazone-sensitive slower phase. Transferring loaded cells into a Na(+)-free medium increased the loss in the initial phase in a sulfinpyrazone-sensitive manner, suggesting that the ascorbate transporter is bidirectional. Including peroxide or superoxide in the solution increased the loss of radioactivity. Thus, ascorbate accumulated in coronary artery smooth muscle cells by a Na(+)-dependent transporter was lost in an ascorbate-free solution, and the loss was increased by removing Na(+) from the medium or by oxidative stress.

  13. Zinc Transporter SLC39A7/ZIP7 Promotes Intestinal Epithelial Self-Renewal by Resolving ER Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Wakana; Kimura, Shunsuke; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Furusawa, Yukihiro; Irié, Tarou; Izumi, Hironori; Watanabe, Takashi; Hara, Takafumi; Ohara, Osamu; Koseki, Haruhiko; Sato, Toshiro; Robine, Sylvie; Mori, Hisashi; Hattori, Yuichi; Mishima, Kenji; Ohno, Hiroshi; Hase, Koji; Fukada, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Zinc transporters play a critical role in spatiotemporal regulation of zinc homeostasis. Although disruption of zinc homeostasis has been implicated in disorders such as intestinal inflammation and aberrant epithelial morphology, it is largely unknown which zinc transporters are responsible for the intestinal epithelial homeostasis. Here, we show that Zrt-Irt-like protein (ZIP) transporter ZIP7, which is highly expressed in the intestinal crypt, is essential for intestinal epithelial proliferation. Mice lacking Zip7 in intestinal epithelium triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in proliferative progenitor cells, leading to significant cell death of progenitor cells. Zip7 deficiency led to the loss of Olfm4+ intestinal stem cells and the degeneration of post-mitotic Paneth cells, indicating a fundamental requirement for Zip7 in homeostatic intestinal regeneration. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the importance of ZIP7 in maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis through the regulation of ER function in proliferative progenitor cells and maintenance of intestinal stem cells. Therapeutic targeting of ZIP7 could lead to effective treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:27736879

  14. Physical And Technical Energy Problems. Factors of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction in the Road Transport of Latvia / Siltumnīcefekta Gāzu Emisiju Samazināšanas Faktori Autotransportā Latvijā

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grackova, L.; Klavs, G.

    2013-02-01

    The admissible scenarios are considered as related to reduction in the greenhouse gas emissions from the road transport in Latvia by 2020. All of the scenarios are analysed, and the proofs are presented for the possibility to reduce such emissions as well as the energy consumption through a more extensive use of efficient cars and biofuel. Izmantojot scenāriju modelēšanas pieeju un COPERT IV modeli, novērtēts siltumnīcefekta gāzu emisiju samazināšanas potenciāls autotransportā Latvijā līdz 2020. gadam. Modelēšanas rezultāti un analīze ļauj secināt, ka neskatoties uz sagaidāmo automašīnu skaita palielināšanos, jaunu energoefektīvu automašīnu ar augstākiem izmešu standartiem izmantošana un biodegvielas piemaisījuma palielināšana autotransportā izmantojamā degvielā ļauj ierobežot siltumnīcefekta gāzu emisiju pieaugumu.

  15. The Serotonin Transporter Promoter Variant, Stress, and Attentional Biases in Middle Childhood.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikova, Yuliya; LeMoult, Joelle; Mackrell, Sarah V M; Sheikh, Haroon I; Singh, Shiva M; Joormann, Jutta; Gotlib, Ian H; Hayden, Elizabeth P

    2016-09-01

    Although evidence suggests that 5-HTTLPR variants may shape risk for depression, the influence is likely complex, and involves effects on endophenotypes. We examined associations between 5-HTTLPR and biases in attention to affective stimuli in a sample of girls and a sample of both boys and girls. Children with at least one short (S) variant of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism had lower positive attentional bias scores in both samples. This association was qualified by an interaction with stress in one sample, such that links between the S allele and decreased positive attentional bias was significant only when life stress was elevated. This difference in findings between the two samples was explained by sex differences in samples; the GXE interaction was significant only in boys. Findings are discussed in the context of sex differences in GXE.

  16. Cellular stress stimulates nuclear localization signal (NLS) independent nuclear transport of MRJ

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Joel F.; Sykora, Landon J.; Barik-Letostak, Tiasha; Menezes, Mitchell E.; Mitra, Aparna; Barik, Sailen; Shevde, Lalita A.; Samant, Rajeev S.

    2012-01-01

    HSP40 family member MRJ (DNAJB6) has been in the spot light for its relevance to Huntington’s, Parkinson’s diseases, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, placental development, neural stem cells, cell cycle and malignancies such as breast cancer and melanoma. This gene has two spliced variants coding for 2 distinct proteins with significant homology. However, MRJ(L) (large variant) is predominantly localized to the nucleus whereas MRJ(S) (small variant) is predominantly cytoplasmic. Interestingly MRJ(S) translocates to the nucleus in response to heat shock. The classical heat shock proteins respond to crises (stress) by increasing the number of molecules, usually by transcriptional up-regulation. Our studies imply that a quick increase in the molar concentration of MRJ in the nuclear compartment is a novel method by which MRJ responds to stress. We found that MRJ(S) shows NLS (nuclear localization signal) independent nuclear localization in response to heat shock and hypoxia. The specificity of this response is realized due to lack of such response by MRJ(S) when challenged by other stressors, such as some cytokines or UV light. Deletion analysis has allowed us to narrow down on a 20 amino acid stretch at the C-terminal region of MRJ(S) as a potential stress sensing region. Functional studies indicated that constitutive nuclear localization of MRJ(S) promoted attributes of malignancy such as proliferation and invasiveness overall indicating distinct phenotypic characteristics of nuclear MRJ(S). PMID:22504047

  17. How Farm Animals React and Perceive Stressful Situations Such As Handling, Restraint, and Transport

    PubMed Central

    Grandin, Temple; Shivley, Chelsey

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary A common animal welfare question is: how stressful is handling and restraining farm animals for veterinary procedures even when no surgical or invasive procedures are done? It depends on how a particular animal perceives it. For one animal, restraint for an injection may be a positive experience associated with food treats and a different animal may be highly fearful and actively resist being restrained. The animal’s response is highly dependent on both its previous experiences and inherited traits such as temperament. Abstract An animal that has been carefully acclimated to handling may willingly re-enter a restrainer. Another animal may have an intense agitated behavioral reaction or refuse to re-enter the handling facility. Physiological measures of stress such as cortisol may be very low in the animal that re-enters willingly and higher in animals that actively resist restraint. Carefully acclimating young animals to handling and restraint can help improve both productivity and welfare by reducing fear stress. Some of the topics covered in this review are: How an animal perceives handling and restraint, the detrimental effects of a sudden novel event, descriptions of temperament and aversion tests and the importance of good stockmanship. PMID:26633523

  18. Cellular stress stimulates nuclear localization signal (NLS) independent nuclear transport of MRJ

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Joel F.; Sykora, Landon J.; Barik Letostak, Tiasha; Menezes, Mitchell E.; Mitra, Aparna; Barik, Sailen; Shevde, Lalita A.; Samant, Rajeev S.

    2012-06-10

    HSP40 family member MRJ (DNAJB6) has been in the spot light for its relevance to Huntington's, Parkinson's diseases, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, placental development, neural stem cells, cell cycle and malignancies such as breast cancer and melanoma. This gene has two spliced variants coding for 2 distinct proteins with significant homology. However, MRJ(L) (large variant) is predominantly localized to the nucleus whereas MRJ(S) (small variant) is predominantly cytoplasmic. Interestingly MRJ(S) translocates to the nucleus in response to heat shock. The classical heat shock proteins respond to crises (stress) by increasing the number of molecules, usually by transcriptional up-regulation. Our studies imply that a quick increase in the molar concentration of MRJ in the nuclear compartment is a novel method by which MRJ responds to stress. We found that MRJ(S) shows NLS (nuclear localization signal) independent nuclear localization in response to heat shock and hypoxia. The specificity of this response is realized due to lack of such response by MRJ(S) when challenged by other stressors, such as some cytokines or UV light. Deletion analysis has allowed us to narrow down on a 20 amino acid stretch at the C-terminal region of MRJ(S) as a potential stress sensing region. Functional studies indicated that constitutive nuclear localization of MRJ(S) promoted attributes of malignancy such as proliferation and invasiveness overall indicating distinct phenotypic characteristics of nuclear MRJ(S).

  19. Development and assessment of road weather information in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sanghoo; Lee, Jonghak; Kim, Mingyu; Choi, Youngjean

    2016-04-01

    Road-based transport is essential for populations operating in large urban environments. Driving conditions are impacted by the intensity of rainfall. However, rainfall is not directly measured on roads. In this study, we evaluated road weather prediction accuracy using representative rainfall days in Seoul, South Korea, during 2013.Data were collected by 190 weather stations, of which 33 were located within 20 meters of a road and were used as model validation sites, while the remaining 157 were used as model fitting sites. Inverse distance weighting (IDW) and ordinary kriging (OK) based on variograms were considered for interpolation. We used the bias, root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and correlation coefficient (CC) as the prediction performance criteria. The prediction performance of OK was higher than that of IDW. As expected, prediction performance increased when the number of rainfall observations increased. We also simulated road conditions using the accumulated historical rainfall data. Generating road information for the entire urban road network is very expensive; therefore, 177,599 road positions were reproduced from 22,184 road link units. Finally, safe driving speeds were calculated from simulated rainfall, stopping distance, and visibility distance.We hope that the results of this study will provide a basis for the safety information given to road users.

  20. Allocation, stress tolerance and carbon transport in plants: how does phloem physiology affect plant ecology?

    PubMed

    Savage, Jessica A; Clearwater, Michael J; Haines, Dustin F; Klein, Tamir; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Sevanto, Sanna; Turgeon, Robert; Zhang, Cankui

    2016-04-01

    Despite the crucial role of carbon transport in whole plant physiology and its impact on plant-environment interactions and ecosystem function, relatively little research has tried to examine how phloem physiology impacts plant ecology. In this review, we highlight several areas of active research where inquiry into phloem physiology has increased our understanding of whole plant function and ecological processes. We consider how xylem-phloem interactions impact plant drought tolerance and reproduction, how phloem transport influences carbon allocation in trees and carbon cycling in ecosystems and how phloem function mediates plant relations with insects, pests, microbes and symbiotes. We argue that in spite of challenges that exist in studying phloem physiology, it is critical that we consider the role of this dynamic vascular system when examining the relationship between plants and their biotic and abiotic environment.

  1. Effects of Water-misting Sprays with Forced Ventilation after Transport during Summer on Meat Quality, Stress Parameters, Glycolytic Potential and Microstructures of Muscle in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, N. N.; Xing, T.; Wang, P.; Xie, C.; Xu, X. L.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport during summer on meat quality, stress parameters, glycolytic potential and microstructures of muscle in broilers were investigated. A total of 105 mixed-sex Arbor Acres broilers were divided into three treatment groups: i) 45-min transport without rest (T group), ii) 45-min transport with 1-h rest (TR group), iii) 45-min transport with 15-min water-misting sprays with forced ventilation and 45-min rest (TWFR group). The results showed the TWFR group significantly increased (p<0.05) initial muscle pH (pHi) and ultimate pH (pHu) and significantly reduced L* (p<0.05), drip loss, cook loss, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase activity, plasma glucose content, lactate and glycolytic potential when compared with other groups. Microstructure of the muscle from TWFR group broilers under light microscopy showed smaller intercellular spaces among muscle fibers and bundles compared with T group. In conclusion this study indicated water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport could relieve the stress caused by transport under high temperature, which was favorable for the broilers’ welfare. Furthermore, water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport slowed down the postmortem glycolysis rate and inhibited the occurrence of PSE-like meat in broilers. Although rest after transport could also improve the meat quality, the effect was not as significant as water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport. PMID:26580445

  2. The truth about genetic variation in the serotonin transporter gene and response to stress and medication.

    PubMed

    McGuffin, Peter; Alsabban, Shaza; Uher, Rudolf

    2011-06-01

    The question of whether a functional variant in the promoter of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) influences response to adversity and/or antidepressants has generated great interest and controversy. A review of the literature suggests that the issue is complicated by differences in methodology and sample ethnicity. When these confounders are accounted for, there probably is a real, if small, effect of 5-HTTLPR on response to both serotonin reuptake inhibitors and environmental adversity.

  3. Evaluation and development of tools to quantify the impacts of roadside vegetation barriers on near-road air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulatory and urban planning programs require an accurate evaluation of how traffic emissions transport and disperse from roads to fully determine exposures and health risks. Roadside vegetation barriers have shown the potential to reduce near-road air pollution concentrations; ...

  4. Approach to novel functional foods for stress control 4. Regulation of serotonin transporter by food factors.

    PubMed

    Ito, Mikiko; Haito, Sakiko; Furumoto, Mari; Kawai, Yoshichika; Terao, Junji; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2005-11-01

    Serotonin transporters (SERTs) are pre-synaptic proteins specialized for the clearance of serotonin following vesicular release at central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system synapses. SERTs are high affinity targets in vivo for antidepressants such as serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). These include 'medical' psychopharmacological agents such as analgesics and antihistamines, a plant extract called St John's Wort (Hypericum). Osteoclasts are the primary cells responsible for bone resorption. They arise by the differentiation of osteoclast precursors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. The expression of SERTs was increased in RANKL-induced osteoclast-like cells. Using RANKL stimulation of RAW264.7 cells as a model system for osteoclast differentiation, we studied the direct effects of food factor on serotonin uptake. The SSRIs (fluoxetine and fluvoxamine) inhibited markedly (approximately 95%) in serotonin transport in differentiated osteoclast cells. The major components of St. John's Wort, hyperforin and hypericine were significantly decreased in serotonin transport activity. Thus, a new in vitro model using RANKL-induced osteoclast-like cells may be useful to analyze the regulation of SERT by food factors and SSRIs.

  5. Distal retinal ganglion cell axon transport loss and activation of p38 MAPK stress pathway following VEGF-A antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Foxton, R; Osborne, A; Martin, K R; Ng, Y-S; Shima, D T

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that VEGF-A antagonists may be detrimental to neuronal health following ocular administration. Here we investigated firstly the effects of VEGF-A neutralization on retinal neuronal survival in the Ins2Akita diabetic and JR5558 spontaneous choroidal neovascularization (CNV) mice, and then looked at potential mechanisms contributing to cell death. We detected elevated apoptosis in the ganglion cell layer in both these models following VEGF-A antagonism, indicating that even when vascular pathologies respond to treatment, neurons are still vulnerable to reduced VEGF-A levels. We observed that retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) seemed to be the cells most susceptible to VEGF-A antagonism, so we looked at anterograde transport in these cells, due to their long axons requiring optimal protein and organelle trafficking. Using cholera toxin B-subunit tracer studies, we found a distal reduction in transport in the superior colliculus following VEGF-A neutralization, which occurred prior to net RGC loss. This phenomenon of distal transport loss has been described as a feature of early pathological changes in glaucoma, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease models. Furthermore, we observed increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and downstream Hsp27 stress pathway signaling in the retinas from these experiments, potentially providing a mechanistic explanation for our findings. These experiments further highlight the possible risks of using VEGF-A antagonists to treat ocular neovascular disease, and suggest that VEGF-A may contribute to the maintenance and function of axonal transport in neurons of the retina. PMID:27148685

  6. Vehicular road influence areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, María E.; Huertas, José I.; Valencia, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Vehicle operation over paved and unpaved roads is an emission source that significantly contributes to air pollution. Emissions are derived from vehicle exhaust pipes and re-suspension of particulate matter generated by wind erosion and tire to road surface interactions. Environmental authorities require a methodology to evaluate road impact areas, which enable managers to initiate counter-measures, particularly under circumstances where historic meteorological and/or air quality data is unavailable. The present study describes an analytical and experimental work developed to establish a simplified methodology to estimate the area influenced by vehicular roads. AERMOD was chosen to model pollutant dispersion generated by two roads of common attributes (straight road over flat terrain) under the effects of several arbitrary chosen weather conditions. The resulting pollutant concentration vs. Distance curves collapsed into a single curve when concentration and distance were expressed as dimensionless numbers and this curve can be described by a beta distribution function. This result implied that average concentration at a given distance was proportional to emission intensity and that it showed minor sensitivity to meteorological conditions. Therefore, road influence was defined by the area adjacent to the road limited by distance at which the beta distribution function equaled the limiting value specified by the national air quality standard for the pollutant under consideration.

  7. Energy 101: Sustainable Public Transportation

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-09-20

    You may already know that public transportation reduces pollution and eases congestion on the road. However, many transit fleets are switching over to cleaner, alternative fuels and technologies, making this mode of transportation even more sustainable.

  8. Energy 101: Sustainable Public Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    2016-09-07

    You may already know that public transportation reduces pollution and eases congestion on the road. However, many transit fleets are switching over to cleaner, alternative fuels and technologies, making this mode of transportation even more sustainable.

  9. Pregnane X receptor regulates drug metabolism and transport in the vasculature and protects from oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Swales, Karen E.; Moore, Rick; Truss, Nicola J.; Tucker, Arthur; Warner, Timothy D.; Negishi, Masahiko; Bishop-Bailey, David

    2012-01-01

    Aims Circulating endogenous, dietary, and foreign chemicals can contribute to vascular dysfunction. The mechanism by which the vasculature protects itself from these chemicals is unknown. This study investigates whether the pregnane X receptor (PXR), the major transcriptional regulator of hepatic drug metabolism and transport that responds to such xenobiotics, mediates vascular protection by co-ordinating a defence gene programme in the vasculature. Methods and results PXR was detected in primary human and rat aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cells (SMC) and blood vessels including the human and rat aorta. Metabolic PXR target genes cytochrome P450 3A, 2B, 2C, and glutathione S-transferase mRNA and activity were induced by PXR ligands in rodent and human vascular cells and absent in the aortas from PXR-null mice stimulated in vivo or in rat aortic SMC expressing dominant-negative PXR. Activation of aortic PXR by classical agonists had several protective effects: increased xenobiotic metabolism demonstrated by bioactivation of the pro-drug clopidogrel, which reduced adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation; increased expression of multidrug resistance protein 1, mediating chemical efflux from the vasculature; and protection from reactive oxygen species-mediated cell death. Conclusion PXR co-ordinately up-regulates drug metabolism, transport, and antioxidant genes to protect the vasculature from endogenous and exogenous insults, thus representing a novel gatekeeper for vascular defence. PMID:22166712

  10. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Transported from Roots to Shoots Promotes Leaf Abscission in Cleopatra Mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) Seedlings Rehydrated after Water Stress.

    PubMed

    Tudela, D; Primo-Millo, E

    1992-09-01

    The effect of water stress and subsequent rehydration on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content, ACC synthase activity, ethylene production, and leaf abscission was studied in Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) seedlings. Leaf abscission occurred when drought-stressed plants were allowed to rehydrate, whereas no abscission was observed in plants under water stress conditions. In roots of water-stressed plants, a high ACC accumulation and an increase in ACC synthase activity were observed. Neither increase in ACC content nor significant ethylene production were detected in leaves of water-stressed plants. After rehydration, a sharp rise in ACC content and ethylene production was observed in leaves of water-stressed plants. Content of ACC in xylem fluid was 10-fold higher in plants rehydrated for 2 h after water stress than in nonstressed plants. Leaf abscission induced by rehydration after drought stress was inhibited when roots or shoots were treated before water stress with aminooxyacetic acid (AOA, inhibitor of ACC synthase) or cobalt ion (inhibitor of ethylene-forming enzyme), respectively. However, AOA treatments to shoots did not suppress leaf abscission. The data indicate that water stress promotes ACC synthesis in roots of Cleopatra mandarin seedlings. Rehydration of plants results in ACC transport to the shoots, where it is oxidized to ethylene. Subsequently, this ethylene induces leaf abscission.

  11. Antioxidant and oxidative stress parameters in brain of Heteropneustes fossilis under air exposure condition; role of mitochondrial electron transport chain.

    PubMed

    Paital, Biswaranjan

    2013-09-01

    Many fishes are exposed to air in their natural habitat or during their commercial handling. In natural habitat or during commercial handling, the cat fish Heteropneustes fossilis is exposed to air for >24h. Data on its oxidative metabolism in the above condition are not available. Oxidative stress (OS) indices (lipid and protein oxidation), toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS: H2O2) generation, antioxidative status (levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reductase, ascorbic acid and non-protein sulfhydryl) and activities of electron transport chain (ETC) enzymes (complex I-IV) were investigated in brain tissue of H. fossilis under air exposure condition (0, 3, 6, 12 and 18 h at 25°C). Decreased activities of antioxidant (except catalase) and ETC enzymes (except complex II) with increased H2O2 and OS levels were observed in the tissue under water deprivation condition. Positive correlation was observed for complex II activity and non-protein thiol groups with time period of air exposure. The critical time period to induce OS and to reduce most of the studied antioxidant level in brain was found to be 3-6h air exposure. The data can be useful to minimize the stress generated during commercial handling of the live fishes those exposed to air in general and H. fossilis in particular.

  12. N-acetylcysteine reverses existing cognitive impairment and increased oxidative stress in glutamate transporter type 3 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, L; Li, L; Zuo, Z

    2012-09-18

    Oxidative stress contributes significantly to brain aging. Animals lacking glutamate transporter type 3 (EAAT3) have a decreased level of glutathione, the major intracellular anti-oxidant, in neurons, and present with early onset of brain aging including brain atrophy and cognitive impairment at 11 months of age. Here, 12-month-old male EAAT3 knockout mice received intraperitoneal injection of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) at 150 mg/kg once every day for 4 weeks. NAC is a membrane permeable cysteine precursor that can work as a substrate for glutathione synthesis. EAAT3 knockout mice that received saline injection or did not receive any injection were also included in the study. EAAT3 knockout mice had significantly less freezing behavior than age- and gender-matched wild-type mice in context- and tone-related fear conditioning tests. The knockout mice also had decreased levels of glutathione and increased levels of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and proteins containing nitrotyrosine, indicators of oxidative stress, in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. NAC but not saline injection attenuated these behavioral and biochemical changes in the EAAT3 knockout mice. These results suggest that improvement of anti-oxidative capacity in neurons reverses the existing cognitive impairment in aging brains, implying a potential role of glutathione replacement in cognitive improvement of aging population.

  13. Propofol reverses oxidative stress-attenuated glutamate transporter EAAT3 activity: evidence of protein kinase C involvement.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jung-Yeon; Park, Kum-Suk; Kim, Jin-Hee; Do, Sang-Hwan; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2007-06-22

    The authors investigated the effects of propofol on EAAT3 (excitatory amino acid transporter 3) activity under oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), and the mediation of these effects by protein kinase C (PKC). Rat EAAT3 was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and L-glutamate (30 microM)-induced membrane currents were measured using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. Exposure of these oocytes to t-BHP (1-20 mM) for 10 min dose-dependently decreased EAAT3 activity, and t-BHP (5 mM) significantly decreased the Vmax, but not the Km of EAAT3 for glutamate, and propofol (1-100 microM) dose-dependently reversed this t-BHP-attenuated EAAT3 activity. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (a PKC activator), also abolished this t-BHP-induced reduction in EAAT3 activity, whereas staurosporine (a PKC inhibitor), significantly decreased EAAT3 activity. However, as compared with staurosporine or t-BHP alone, t-BHP and staurosporine in combination did not further reduce EAAT3 activity. A similar pattern was observed for chelerythrine (also a PKC inhibitor). In oocytes pretreated with combinations of t-BHP and PMA (or staurosporine), propofol failed to change EAAT3 activity. Our results suggest that propofol restores oxidative stress-reduced EAAT3 activity and that these effects of propofol may be PKC-mediated.

  14. Fine-tuning of DDES and IDDES formulations to the k-ω shear stress transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritskevich, M. S.; Garbaruk, A. V.; Menter, F. R.

    2013-06-01

    Modifications are proposed of two recently developed hybrid CFD (computational fluid dynamics) strategies, Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES), and DDES with Improved wall-modeling capability (IDDES). The modifications are aimed at fine-tuning of these approaches to the k-ω SST (shear stress transport) background RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) model. The first one includes recalibrated empirical constants in the shielding function of the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) based DDES which are shown to be suboptimal (not providing a needed level of elimination of the Model Stress Depletion (MSD)) for the SST-based DDES model. For the SST-IDDES variant, in addition to that, a simplification of the original SA-based formulation is proposed, which does not cause any visible degradation of the model performance. Both modifications are extensively tested on a range of attached and separated flows (developed channel, backward-facing step, periodic hills, wall-mounted hump, and hydrofoil with trailing edge separation).

  15. Response of antioxidative enzymes and apoplastic bypass transport in Thlaspi caerulescens and Raphanus sativus to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Benzarti, Saoussen; Hamdi, Helmi; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

    2010-01-01

    A hydroponics experiment using hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) and non-specific accumulator Raphanus sativus (common radish) was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 microM) on metal uptake, chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzymes, and apoplastic bypass flow. As expected, T. caerulescens generally showed better resistance to metal stress, which was reflected by higher Cd accumulation within plant tissues with no signs of chlorosis, or wilt. Glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in fresh leaves were monitored as the plant metal-detoxifying response. In general, both plant species exhibited an increase trend of GR activity before declining at 100 microM likely due to excessive levels of phytotoxic Cd. SOD activity exhibited almost a similar variation pattern to GR and decreased also at 100 microM Cd. For both plant species, fluorescent PTS uptake (8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulphonic acid) increased significantly with metal level in exposure solutions indicating that Cd has a comparable effect to drought or salinity in terms of the gain of relative importance in apoplastic bypass transport under such stress conditions.

  16. Clinically significant avoidance of public transport following the London bombings: Travel phobia or subthreshold posttraumatic stress disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Rachel V.; Salkovskis, Paul M.; Scragg, Peter; Ehlers, Anke

    2009-01-01

    Following the London bombings of 7 July 2005 a “screen and treat” program was set up with the aim of providing rapid treatment for psychological responses in individuals directly affected. The present study found that 45% of the 596 respondents to the screening program reported phobic fear of public transport in a screening questionnaire. The screening program identified 255 bombing survivors who needed treatment for a psychological disorder. Of these, 20 (8%) suffered from clinically significant travel phobia. However, many of these individuals also reported symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]. Comparisons between the travel phobia group and a sex-matched group of bombing survivors with PTSD showed that the travel phobic group reported fewer re-experiencing and arousal symptoms on the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (Brewin et al., 2002). The only PTSD symptoms that differentiated the groups were anger problems and feeling upset by reminders of the bombings. There was no difference between the groups in the reported severity of trauma or in presence of daily transport difficulties. Implications of these results for future trauma response are discussed. PMID:19765946

  17. Stress effect of different temperatures and air exposure during transport on physiological profiles in the American lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Lorenzon, S; Giulianini, P G; Martinis, M; Ferrero, E A

    2007-05-01

    Homarus americanus is an important commercial species that can survive 2-3 days out of water if kept cool and humid. Once caught for commercial purpose and shipped around the world, a lobster is likely to be subjected to a number of stressors, including emersion and air exposure, hypoxia, temperature changes and handling. This study focused on the effect of transport stress and specifically at different animal body temperature (6 and 15 degrees C) and air exposure during commercial transport and recovery process in water. Animals were monitored, by hemolymph bleeding, at different times: 0 h (arrival time at plant) 3 h, 12 h, 24 h and 96 h after immersion in the stocking tank with a water temperature of 6.5+/-1.5 degrees C. We analysed the effects by testing some physiological variables of the hemolymph: glucose, cHH, lactate, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, chloride and calcium concentration, pH and density. All these variables appeared to be influenced negatively by high temperature both in average of alteration from the physiological value and in recovering time. Blood glucose, lactate, total protein, cholesterol were significantly higher in the group with high body temperature compared to those with low temperature until 96 h after immersion in the recovery tank.

  18. Detoxifying Enzymes at the Cross-Roads of Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Drug Hypersensitivity: Role of Glutathione Transferase P1-1 and Aldose Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Gómez, Francisco J.; Díez-Dacal, Beatriz; García-Martín, Elena; Agúndez, José A. G.; Pajares, María A.; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Phase I and II enzymes are involved in the metabolism of endogenous reactive compounds as well as xenobiotics, including toxicants and drugs. Genotyping studies have established several drug metabolizing enzymes as markers for risk of drug hypersensitivity. However, other candidates are emerging that are involved in drug metabolism but also in the generation of danger or costimulatory signals. Enzymes such as aldo-keto reductases (AKR) and glutathione transferases (GST) metabolize prostaglandins and reactive aldehydes with proinflammatory activity, as well as drugs and/or their reactive metabolites. In addition, their metabolic activity can have important consequences for the cellular redox status, and impacts the inflammatory response as well as the balance of inflammatory mediators, which can modulate epigenetic factors and cooperate or interfere with drug-adduct formation. These enzymes are, in turn, targets for covalent modification and regulation by oxidative stress, inflammatory mediators, and drugs. Therefore, they constitute a platform for a complex set of interactions involving drug metabolism, protein haptenation, modulation of the inflammatory response, and/or generation of danger signals with implications in drug hypersensitivity reactions. Moreover, increasing evidence supports their involvement in allergic processes. Here, we will focus on GSTP1-1 and aldose reductase (AKR1B1) and provide a perspective for their involvement in drug hypersensitivity. PMID:27540362

  19. 14. VIEW OF NORTHSOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF NORTH-SOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28). NOTE MODERN 'LAY DOWN' FENCE ON ROAD. ROAD LIES TO THE WEST OF THE HATCH ADIT AND PHOTOGRAPH IS VIEW TO THE SOUTH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  20. The effect of bilayer composition on calcium ion transport facilitated by fluid shear stress.

    PubMed

    Giorgio, T D; Yek, S H

    1995-10-04

    Passive calcium ion permeability across liposome bilayers is increased during exposure to fluid shear forces attainable in the mammalian vasculature. In this study, liposomes prepared from three different lipid mixtures (phosphatidylcholine alone; phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol; a mixture of anionic and cationic phospholipids plus cholesterol) are exposed to uniform shear stress in a rotational viscometer. Liposome permeability to calcium ion is estimated from continuous measurement of free intraliposome calcium ion concentration using a fluorescence technique. Calcium ion permeability in the absence of fluid force and susceptibility to shear-induced permeability modulation are positively correlated with estimated bilayer compressibility. Fluid shear forces are presumed to influence bilayer packing and modulate defect formation in proportion to bilayer compressibility. Bilayer defects produced by fluid forces may increase liposome permeability.

  1. Norepinephrine transporter function and tolerance to hypergravitational stress: A pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Christoph; Strempel, Sebastian; Boese, Andrea; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Tank, Jens; Luft, Friedrich C.; Jordan, Jens

    Pharmacological norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibition improves orthostatic tolerance on a tilt table while increasing heart rate. We tested the cardiovascular response to NET inhibition during a graded human centrifuge run in seven healthy men. g-Load was increased in 0.5 g steps with 3 g maximal g-load. On two separate days, patients were tested after selective NET inhibition with reboxetine or with placebo in a double-blind, randomized, crossover fashion. Resting diastolic blood pressure increased moderately with NET inhibition. Resting heart rate was profoundly increased by NET inhibition. NET inhibition augmented the heart rate response while attenuating the increase in blood pressure during hypergravitation. NET inhibition could be tested for its potential to improve cardiovascular g-tolerance.

  2. A transporter for abiotic stress and plant metabolite resistance in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma vaccinum.

    PubMed

    Schlunk, Ines; Krause, Katrin; Wirth, Sophia; Kothe, Erika

    2015-12-01

    Fungi exposed to toxic substances including heavy metals, xenobiotics, or secondary metabolites formed by co-occurring plants or other microorganisms require a detoxification system provided by exporters of several classes of transmembrane proteins. In case of mycorrhiza, plant metabolites need to be exported at the plant interface, while the extraradical hyphae may prevent heavy metal uptake, thus acting as a biofilter to the host plant at high environmental concentrations. One major family of such transporter proteins is the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) class, a member of which, Mte1, was studied in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma vaccinum. Phylogenetic analyses placed the protein in a subgroup of basidiomycete MATE sequences. The gene mte1 was found to be induced during symbiotic interaction. It mediated detoxification of xenobiotics and metal ions such as Cu, Li, Al, and Ni, as well as secondary plant metabolites if heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  3. Season, Transport Duration and Trailer Compartment Effects on Blood Stress Indicators in Pigs: Relationship to Environmental, Behavioral and Other Physiological Factors, and Pork Quality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Sommavilla, Roberta; Faucitano, Luigi; Gonyou, Harold; Seddon, Yolande; Bergeron, Renée; Widowski, Tina; Crowe, Trever; Connor, Laurie; Scheeren, Marina Bergoli; Goumon, Sébastien; Brown, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Factors, such as ambient conditions, travel duration and vehicle design/compartment location have an impact on the welfare of pigs during transport, carcass bruises and meat quality. Based on this, we aimed to assess the effects of these factors on blood creatine kinase, lactate and cortisol concentrations in 384 pigs and assess their relationships with trailer temperature, and pigs’ heart rate and gastrointestinal tract temperature, behavior, carcass damage scores and meat quality. Although increased blood cortisol and creatine-kinase levels appear to indicate a physical stress condition in transported pigs, the weak to moderate correlations with environmental and other animal welfare indicators suggest that blood stress parameters can only be used as a complementary measurement in the assessment of the pigs’ response to transport stress. Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the effects of the season, travel duration and trailer compartment location on blood creatine-kinase (CK), lactate and cortisol concentrations in 384 pigs and assess their relationships with trailer temperature, heart rate and gastrointestinal tract temperature (GTT), behavior, carcass damage scores and meat quality. Blood CK was greater in pigs transported in summer (p = 0.02), after 18 h transportation (p < 0.001) and in pigs located in C4, C5 and C10 (p = 0.002). In winter, the concentration of blood lactate was higher (p = 0.04) in pigs transported for 6 h in C5. Pigs located in C10 showed higher (p = 0.01) concentration of cortisol than those transported for 18h in C4 in summer. The highest correlations were between blood cortisol and GTT (r = 0.53; p < 0.001), and between blood CK and GTT (r = 0.41; p < 0.001), truck temperature (r = 0.42; p < 0.001), and pHu in the longissimus muscle (r = 0.41; p < 0.001). In conclusion, although increased blood cortisol and CK levels appear to indicate a physical stress condition in transported pigs, the weak to

  4. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  5. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  6. Aspergillus fumigatus mitochondrial electron transport chain mediates oxidative stress homeostasis, hypoxia responses, and fungal pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Grahl, Nora; Dinamarco, Taisa Magnani; Willger, Sven D.; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Cramer, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary We previously observed that hypoxia is an important component of host microenvironments during pulmonary fungal infections. However, mechanisms of fungal growth in these in vivo hypoxic conditions are poorly understood. Here, we report that mitochondrial respiration is active in hypoxia (1% oxygen) and critical for fungal pathogenesis. We generated Aspergillus fumigatus alternative oxidase (aoxA) and cytochrome C (cycA) null mutants and assessed their ability to tolerate hypoxia, macrophage killing, and virulence. In contrast to ΔaoxA, ΔcycA was found to be significantly impaired in conidia germination, growth in normoxia and hypoxia, and displayed attenuated virulence. Intriguingly, loss of cycA results in increased levels of AoxA activity, which results in increased resistance to oxidative stress, macrophage killing, and long-term persistence in murine lungs. Thus, our results demonstrate a previously unidentified role for fungal mitochondrial respiration in the pathogenesis of aspergillosis, and lay the foundation for future research into its role in hypoxia signaling and adaptation. PMID:22443190

  7. 77 FR 21577 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and Road Vehicle Certification for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and... collection requirement concerning the Cargo Container and Road Vehicle for Transport under Customs Seal. This...: Title: Cargo Container and Road Vehicle for Transport under Customs Seal. OMB Number: 1651-0124....

  8. [A review on road ecology].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuehui; Hu, Yuanman; Li, Xiuzhen; Xiao, Duning

    2003-03-01

    Roads are a widespread and increasing feature of most landscapes, and have great ecological effects, e.g., increased mortality of animals and plants and habitat loss from road construction, alteration of the physical and chemical environment, and changes in roadsides vegetation. The great impact on animal population includes road-kills, limiting population, road avoidance causing home arrange shift, modification of movement pattern and barrier effect subdividing habitat and populations. Roads alter landscape spatial pattern and interrupt horizontal ecological flows strongly. These impacts can be assayed by indices of road density, road-effect zone and road location. Furthermore, important applications of road ecology to planning, conservation and management are essential and potential. Road ecology presents us a surprising frontier of ecology.

  9. Evaluation of the influence of prenatal transportation stress on GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone and testosterone secretion in sexually mature Brahman bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the relationships of prenatal transportation stress (PNS) with cortisol, luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone secretion before and after gonadotrophin releashing hormone (GnRH) stimulation of sexually mature Brahman bulls derived from the calf crop of 96 Brahman cows (48 co...

  10. A novel chloroplast localized Rab GTPase protein CPRabA5e is involved in stress, development, thylakoid biogenesis and vesicle transport in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Karim, Sazzad; Alezzawi, Mohamed; Garcia-Petit, Christel; Solymosi, Katalin; Khan, Nadir Zaman; Lindquist, Emelie; Dahl, Peter; Hohmann, Stefan; Aronsson, Henrik

    2014-04-01

    A novel Rab GTPase protein in Arabidopsis thaliana, CPRabA5e (CP = chloroplast localized) is located in chloroplasts and has a role in transport. Transient expression of CPRabA5e:EGFP fusion protein in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves, and immunoblotting using Arabidopsis showed localization of CPRabA5e in chloroplasts (stroma and thylakoids). Ypt31/32 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are involved in regulating vesicle transport, and CPRabA5e a close homolog of Ypt31/32, restores the growth of the ypt31Δ ypt32(ts) mutant at 37 °C in yeast complementation. Knockout mutants of CPRabA5e displayed delayed seed germination and growth arrest during oxidative stress. Ultrastructural studies revealed that after preincubation at 4 °C mutant chloroplasts contained larger plastoglobules, lower grana, and more vesicles close to the envelopes compared to wild type, and vesicle formation being enhanced under oxidative stress. This indicated altered thylakoid development and organization of the mutants. A yeast-two-hybrid screen with CPRabA5e as bait revealed 13 interacting partner proteins, mainly located in thylakoids and plastoglobules. These proteins are known or predicted to be involved in development, stress responses, and photosynthesis related processes, consistent with the stress phenotypes observed. The results observed suggest a role of CPRabA5e in transport to and from thylakoids, similar to cytosolic Rab proteins involved in vesicle transport.

  11. Serotonin Transporter-Linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) Genotype and Stressful Life Events Interact to Predict Preschool-Onset Depression: A Replication and Developmental Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Tillman, Rebecca; Luby, Joan L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Scientific enthusiasm about gene × environment interactions, spurred by the 5-HTTLPR (serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region) × SLEs (stressful life events) interaction predicting depression, have recently been tempered by sober realizations of small effects and meta-analyses reaching opposing conclusions. These mixed findings…

  12. Case study: the Argentina Road Safety Project: lessons learned for the decade of action for road safety, 2011-2020.

    PubMed

    Raffo, Veronica; Bliss, Tony; Shotten, Marc; Sleet, David; Blanchard, Claire

    2013-12-01

    This case study of the Argentina Road Safety Project demonstrates how the application of World Bank road safety project guidelines focused on institution building can accelerate knowledge transfer, scale up investment and improve the focus on results. The case study highlights road safety as a development priority and outlines World Bank initiatives addressing the implementation of the World Report on Road Traffic Injury's recommendations and the subsequent launch of the Decade of Action for Road Safety, from 2011-2020. The case study emphasizes the vital role played by the lead agency in ensuring sustainable road safety improvements and promoting the shift to a 'Safe System' approach, which necessitated the strengthening of all elements of the road safety management system. It summarizes road safety performance and institutional initiatives in Argentina leading up to the preparation and implementation of the project. We describe the project's development objectives, financing arrangements, specific components and investment staging. Finally, we discuss its innovative features and lessons learned, and present a set of supplementary guidelines, both to assist multilateral development banks and their clients with future road safety initiatives, and to encourage better linkages between the health and transportation sectors supporting them.

  13. Differential expression and alternative splicing of rice sulphate transporter family members regulate sulphur status during plant growth, development and stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Smita; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Sulphur, an essential nutrient required for plant growth and development, is mainly taken up by the plants as inorganic sulphate from the soil and assimilated into the sulphur reductive pathway. The uptake and transport of sulphate in plants is carried out by transporters encoded by the sulphate transporter gene family. Plant sulphate transporters have been classified with respect to their protein sequences, kinetic properties and tissue-specific localization in Arabidopsis. Though sulphate transporter genes from few other plants have also been characterized, no detailed study with respect to the structure and expression of this family from rice has been carried out. Here, we present genome-wide identification, structural and expression analyses of the rice sulphate transporter gene family. Our analysis using microarray data and MPSS database suggests that 14 rice sulphate transporters are differentially expressed during growth and development in various tissues and during biotic and abiotic stresses. Our analysis also suggests differential accumulation of splice variants of OsSultr1;1 and OsSultr4;1 transcripts during these processes. Apart from known spliced variants, we report an unusual alternative splicing of OsSultr1;1 transcript related to sulphur supply in growth medium and during stress response. Taken together, our study suggests that differential expression and alternative splicing of members of the sulphate transporter family plays an important role in regulating cellular sulphur status required for growth and development and during stress conditions. These findings significantly advance our understanding of the posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms operating to regulate sulphur demand by the plant.

  14. Development of an Effective Transport Media for Juvenile Spring Chinook Salmon to Mitigate Stress and Improve Smolt Survival During Columbia River Fish Hauling Operations, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wedemeyer, Gary A.

    1985-02-01

    Selected transport media consisting of mineral salt additions (Na/sup +/, Cl/sup -/, Ca/sup + +/, PO/sub 4//sup -3/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/, and Mg/sup + +/), mineral salts plus tranquilizing concentrations of tricaine methane sulfonate (MS-222), or MS-222 alone were tested for their ability to mitigate stress and increase smolt survival during single and mixed species hauling of Columbia River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). Successful stress mitigation was afforded by several formulations as indicated by protection against life-threatening osmoregulatory and other physiological dysfunctions, and against immediate and delayed hauling mortality. Effects on the seawater survival and growth of smolts hauled in transport media were used as the overall criterion of success. Of the fourteen chemical formulations tested, 10 ppM MS-222 emerged as top-rated in terms of ability to mitigate physiological stress during single and mixed species transport of juvenile spring chinook salmon at hauling densities of 0.5 or 1.0 lb/gallon. Immediate and delayed mortalities from hauling stress were also reduced, but benefits to early marine growth and survival were limited to about the first month in seawater. The two physical factors tested (reduced light intensity and water temperature) were generally less effective than mineral salt additions in mitigating hauling stress, but the degree of protection afforded by reduced light intensity was nevertheless judged to be physiologically beneficial. 36 refs., 1 fig., 19 tabs.

  15. Stress responses of the endemic freshwater cururu stingray (Potamotrygon cf. histrix) during transportation in the Amazon region of the Rio Negro.

    PubMed

    Brinn, R P; Marcon, J L; McComb, D M; Gomes, L C; Abreu, J S; Baldisseroto, B

    2012-06-01

    Potamotrygon cf. histrix (cururu stingray) are endemic freshwater stingrays from the middle region of the Rio Negro in the Brazilian Amazon basin and are exported worldwide as ornamentals caught by artisanal fishermen. The transport process from capture to final destination is long and stressful. This study quantified stress related changes in corticosterone, blood and water samples (baseline, pre-transport, 3h, 12h and 24h) analyzed during a transport experiment which tested two water additives (tetracycline and the probiotic Efinol). There was a significant stepwise increase in corticosterone levels in stingrays over transport time in combination with osmoregulatory disturbances suggesting a stress related role of this corticosteroid. There were significant increases in water conductivity, Na(+) and K(+) losses and ammonia excretion. Blood parameters such as glucose, hematocrit, red blood count and urea did not change significantly during the experiment. Glucose levels did not increase significantly during transport and this may be due to the fact that other elasmobranchs have been shown to rely more on ketone bodies for energy rather than glucose and produce ammonia as their main nitrogenous waste. The mineralocorticoid action of this hormone has been shown in elasmobranchs and most likely plays a role in osmotic homeostasis. The use of probiotic and especially antibiotic should be avoided since no beneficial effects were observed.

  16. 49 CFR 1242.16 - Road property damaged-other (account XX-19-48).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Road property damaged-other (account XX-19-48). 1242.16 Section 1242.16 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS SEPARATION OF COMMON OPERATING EXPENSES BETWEEN...

  17. [Impacts of road network on forest landscape pattern in Great Xing' an Mountains of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Li, Yue-Hui; Wu, Zhi-Feng; Chen, Hong-Wei; Li, Na-Na; Hu, Yuan-Man; Chang, Yu

    2012-08-01

    By characterizing the composition of road network in the Huzhong Forestry Bureau in Great Xing' an Mountains, Northeast China, we investigated the effects of road networks on landscape pattern by quantifying 1989 landscape pattern for each of the 17 forestry farms on maps with and without roads by principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that road networks, including the main and secondary timber-transport roads, were distributed evenly among the observed 17 forestry farms with a density of 2.3 m x hm(-2) and spread along the river networks throughout each farm. The emergence of roads significantly altered the landscape pattern at the landscape level in each farm, which was characterized by landscape fragmentation involving a decline in patch area and an increase in patch number and distance among patches. Furthermore, no significant correlation was found between fragmentation and road density. The road network had more impact on fragmentation than on aggregation at the landscape level.

  18. Multifractal and singularity analysis of weighted road networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Lei; Wu, Wei

    2014-08-01

    Road is an important element of modern traffic infrastructures in national economic construction. Accurately, road networks might be multifractal systems. The mathematics of multifractal can be used to provide a quantitative signature in many fields. The roads in this paper are endowed with weights according to their respective traffic abilities. With the aim in mind, the weighted road networks in three country-level cities (Danyang, Yangzhong and Jurong) which belong to Zhenjiang, China, are studied. We analyze the heterogeneities of the three weighted road networks with multifractal spectrum, which correspond to their socio-geographical contexts. Besides, we extract the singularity regions of three country-level cities with the annular segmentation method and the singularity exponent method, which can be helpful in further transportation planning.

  19. Efficient road geometry identification from digital vector data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrášik, Richard; Bíl, Michal

    2016-07-01

    A new method for the automatic identification of road geometry from digital vector data is presented. The method is capable of efficiently identifying circular curves with their radii and tangents (straight sections). The average error of identification ranged from 0.01 to 1.30 % for precisely drawn data and 4.81 % in the case of actual road data with noise in the location of vertices. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is faster and more precise than commonly used techniques. This approach can be used by road administrators to complete their databases with information concerning the geometry of roads. It can also be utilized by transport engineers or traffic safety analysts to investigate the possible dependence of traffic accidents on road geometries. The method presented is applicable as well to railroads and rivers or other line features.

  20. Road safety control: Application in urban environment in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charisoudis, A.; Mintsis, G.; Basbas, S.; Taxiltaris, Ch.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine what is and what is not a "road safety control" on the one hand and on the other hand to examine the procedure of the realization of this control in different countries in the level of the organization as well as in the level of the praxis through the Road Safety Manuals of each country. The countries under examination are: The United Kinghdom, Danish, U.S.A, Australia and New Zeeland. The Road Safety Manual of the International Organization World Road Association-PIARC is also mentioned. Finally examples of the application of road safety control, which were realized in the frame of the research programs of the research team of the Department of Transportation Engineering, School of Rural and Surveing, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in the town of Aridea, are given.(in Greeks)

  1. Wall shear stress and near-wall convective transport: Comparisons with vascular remodelling in a peripheral graft anastomosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambaruto, A. M.; Doorly, D. J.; Yamaguchi, T.

    2010-08-01

    Fluid dynamic properties of blood flow are implicated in cardiovascular diseases. The interaction between the blood flow and the wall occurs through the direct transmission of forces, and through the dominating influence of the flow on convective transport processes. Controlled, in vitro testing in simple geometric configurations has provided much data on the cellular-level responses of the vascular walls to flow, but a complete, mechanistic explanation of the pathogenic process is lacking. In the interim, mapping the association between local haemodynamics and the vascular response is important to improve understanding of the disease process and may be of use for prognosis. Moreover, establishing the haemodynamic environment in the regions of disease provides data on flow conditions to guide investigations of cellular-level responses. This work describes techniques to facilitate comparison between the temporal alteration in the geometry of the vascular conduit, as determined by in vivo imaging, with local flow parameters. Procedures to reconstruct virtual models from images by means of a partition-of-unity implicit function formulation, and to align virtual models of follow-up scans to a common coordinate system, are outlined. A simple Taylor series expansion of the Lagrangian dynamics of the near-wall flow is shown to provide both a physical meaning to the directional components of the flow, as well as demonstrating the relation between near-wall convection in the wall normal direction and spatial gradients of the wall shear stress. A series of post-operative follow-up MRI scans of two patient cases with bypass grafts in the peripheral vasculature are presented. These are used to assess how local haemodynamic parameters relate to vascular remodelling at the location of the distal end-to-side anastomosis, i.e. where the graft rejoins the host artery. Results indicate that regions of both low wall shear stress and convective transport towards the wall tend to be

  2. Biotic stress induced demolition of thylakoid structure and loss in photoelectron transport of chloroplasts in papaya leaves.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Rashmi Madhumita; Biswal, Basanti

    2008-04-01

    Papaya mosaic virus (PMV) causes severe mosaic symptoms in the papaya (Carica papaya L.) leaves. The PMV-induced alterations in photosystem II (PS II) structure and photochemical functions were probed. An increase in chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence polarization suggests pathogen-induced transformation of thylakoid membrane to a gel phase. This transformation in physical state of thylakoid membrane may result in alteration in topology of pigments on pigment-binding proteins as reflected in pathogen-induced loss in the efficiency of energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophylls. The fast Chl a fluorescence induction kinetics of healthy and PMV-infected plants by F(O)-F(J)-F(I)-F(P) transients revealed pathogen-induced perturbation on PS II acceptor side electron transfer equilibrium between Q(A) and Q(B) and in the pool size of electron transport acceptors. Pathogen-induced loss in photosynthetic pigments, changes in thylakoid structure and decrease in the ratio of F(V)/F(M) (photochemical potential of PS II) further correlate with the loss in photoelectron transport of PS II as probed by 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP)-Hill reaction. Restoration of the loss by 1,5-diphenyl carbazide (DPC), an exogenous electron donor, that donates electron directly to reaction centre II bypassing the oxygen evolving system (OES), leads towards the conclusion that OES is one of the major targets of biotic stress. Further, the data suggest that chlorophyll fluorescence could be used as a non-invasive handy tool to assess the loss in photosynthetic efficiency and symptom severity in infected green tissues vis-a-vis the healthy ones.

  3. Naringin dietary supplementation at 0.15% rates does not provide protection against sub-clinical acidosis and does not affect the responses of fattening lambs to road transportation.

    PubMed

    López-Campos, O; Bodas, R; Prieto, N; Giráldez, F J; Pérez, V; Andrés, S

    2010-06-01

    Forty Assaf fattening lambs (initial age 13 to 15 weeks) offered a diet of barley straw and a commercial concentrate were used to assess the effect of naringin (a type of citrus flavonoid with proven antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties in monogastric animals) at a dose of 1.5 g/kg per dry matteron plasma lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), immune response, ruminal bacterial community and protection provided by the ruminal wall against subclinical acidosis. After 49 days of the experimental diets, lambs were subjected to a 4-h transportation stress period. As expected, TBARS values were significantly increased in all the lambs just after the transportation period, but no effect of naringin was observed. Although naringin lowered red blood cell count, neither the total white blood cells counts nor the production of IFN-γ were affected by naringin. No anti-inflammation activity preventing rumenitis was detected, but a clear effect on ruminal bacterial community was observed in lambs consuming naringin. Further experiments, using different doses of naringin might show health benefits of naringin supplementation in lambs, but a clear beneficial effect on health was not readily apparent in this study.

  4. PLATINUM, FUEL CELLS, AND FUTURE ROAD TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A vehicle powered by a fuel cell will emit virtually no air polution and, depending on fuel choice, can substantially improve fuel economy above that of current technology. Those attributes are complementary to issues of increasing national importance including the effects of tra...

  5. Hitting the Road: Safe Student Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labriola, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the importance of school administrators' taking an active role in selecting motor coach carriers for their school trips. School administrators must be able to prove due diligence in selecting safe motor carriers. If not, they risk significant liability exposure for neglecting this critical responsibility. The article…

  6. A combined road weather forecast system to prevent road ice formation in the Adige Valley (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Antonacci, Gianluca; Todeschini, Ilaria; Apolloni, Roberto; Pretto, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    Road ice is a dangerous meteorological hazard to a nation's transportation system and economy. By reducing the pavement friction with vehicle tyres, ice formation on pavements increases accident risk and delays travelling times thus posing a serious threat to road users' safety and the running of economic activities. Keeping roads clear and open is therefore essential, especially in mountainous areas where ice is likely to form during the winter period. Winter road maintenance helps to restore road efficiency and security, and its benefits are up to 8 times the costs sustained for anti-icing strategies [1]. However, the optimization of maintenance costs and the reduction of the environmental damage from over-salting demand further improvements. These can be achieved by reliable road weather forecasts, and in particular by the prediction of road surface temperatures (RSTs). RST is one of the most important parameters in determining road surface conditions. It is well known from literature that ice forms on pavements in high-humidity conditions when RSTs are below 0°C. We have therefore implemented an automatic forecast system to predict critical RSTs on a test route along the Adige Valley complex terrain, in the Italian Alps. The system considers two physical models, each computing heat and energy fluxes between the road and the atmosphere. One is Reuter's radiative cooling model, which predicts RSTs at sunrise as a function of surface temperatures at sunset and the time passed since then [2]. One is METRo (Model of the Environment and Temperature of Roads), a road weather forecast software which also considers heat conduction through road material [3]. We have applied the forecast system to a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route [4]. Road and atmospheric observations from RWIS have been used as initial conditions for both METRo and Reuter's model. In METRo observations have also been coupled to

  7. An effective road management system using web-based GIS software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Ramli Nik Yusoff, Nik; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Muniandy, Ratnasamy

    2014-06-01

    Recently, there is a rapid development of road transportation network. This situation arises due to the number of vehicle on the road that keeps increasing year by year. Thus, this will increase the possibility of dangerous situations to the road users if roads are not being maintained appropriately. Therefore, in order to keep the road in safe condition, the road management activity should be improved. A complete system for road management has been applied in the developed countries for the past decades. However, the usage of application programming interface (API) from GIS software has limitation to make modification in terms of interactivity of the system. Open source software was proposed as a way to assist in reducing the development cost of developing road monitoring system. In this paper, open source software was proposed as a way to assist in reducing the development cost in developing road management system. OpenLayers framework was used as map rendering platform. The system can be used by administrator of road network to update the road information. At the same time, it can be used by the road user as well to view the information regarding road-related incidents.

  8. Recommendations for road surface dressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidance is provided for the preparation of specifications needed to cater to the wide range of traffic conditions and types of surfaces likely to be encountered on country lanes as well as other motorways. Both chippings and binders are considered as well as their application. Topics covered include surface preparation; application of the binder; spraying time; joining strips of sprayed binder; applying chips; rolling; and traffic management during and after operations. Special areas discussed include heavily trafficked high speed roads; hard shoulders; open-textured and porous bituminous surfaces; unbound surfaces; sealing roadbases, subgrades, and subbases; bituminous mist sprays; high stressed sites (epoxy resin based systems); the treatment of fatted surface dressings; and the control of materials and workmanship. Procedures for measuring hardness, and the rate of spread of spray binders and of chippings are included.

  9. Mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes, catalase and markers of oxidative stress in platelets of patients with severe aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Anand, R; Sharma, D R; Verma, D; Bhalla, A; Gill, K D; Singh, S

    2013-08-01

    Aluminum phosphide (ALP), a widely used fumigant and rodenticide, leads to high mortality if ingested. Its toxicity is due to phosphine that is liberated when it comes in contact with moisture. The exact site or mechanism of action of phosphine is not known, although it is widely believed that it affects mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Basic serum biochemical parameters, activity of mitochondrial complexes, antioxidant enzymes and parameters of oxidative stress were estimated in the platelets of 21 patients who developed severe poisoning following ALP ingestion. These parameters were compared with 32 healthy controls and with 22 patients with shock due to other causes (cardiogenic shock (11), septic shock (9) and hemorrhagic shock (2)). The serum levels of creatine kinase-muscle brain and lactate dehydrogenase were higher in patients poisoned with ALP, whereas a significant decrease was observed in the activities of mitochondrial complexes I, II and IV. The activity of catalase was lower but the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were unaffected in them. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation was observed, whereas total blood thiol levels were lower. In patients severely poisoned with ALP, not only cytochrome c oxidase but also other complexes are involved in mitochondrial electron transport, and enzymes are also inhibited.

  10. 23 CFR 661.49 - Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., and Toll Road IRR bridges? 661.49 Section 661.49 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.49 Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges? Yes....

  11. 23 CFR 661.49 - Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and Toll Road IRR bridges? 661.49 Section 661.49 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.49 Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges? Yes....

  12. 49 CFR 37.169 - Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service operated by private entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service... Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service operated by private entities. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 57936, September 19, 2011. (a) Private entities operating over-the-road buses,...

  13. 49 CFR 37.169 - Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service operated by private entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service... Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service operated by private entities. (a) Private entities operating over-the-road buses, in addition to compliance with other applicable provisions of this...

  14. Distance to nearest road in the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Raymond D.

    2005-01-01

    The new dataset is the first member of the National Overview Road Metrics (NORM) family of road related indicators.  This indicator measures straight-line or Euclidean distance (ED) to the nearest road, and is given the compound name NORM ED.  NORM ED data can be viewed and downloaded from the transportation section of the web viewer for The National Map, http://nationalmap.usgs.gov.  The full-resolution dataset for the conterminous states is made of 8.7 billion values.

  15. The serotonin transporter gene is a substrate for age and stress dependent epigenetic regulation in rhesus macaque brain: Potential roles in genetic selection and Gene × Environment interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lindell, Stephen G.; Yuan, Qiaoping; Zhou, Zhifeng; Goldman, David; Thompson, Robert C.; Lopez, Juan F.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Higley, J. Dee; Barr, Christina S.

    2015-01-01

    In humans, it has been demonstrated that the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype moderates risk in the face of adversity. One mechanism by which stress could interact with genotype is via epigenetic modifications. We wanted to examine whether stress interacted with genotype to predict binding of a histone 3 protein trimethylated at lysine 3 (H3K4me3) that marks active promoters. The brains (N = 61) of male rhesus macaques that had been reared in the presence or absence of stress were archived and the hippocampusi dissected. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed with an antibody against H3K4me3 followed by sequencing on a SolexaG2A. The effects of age, genotype (5-HTTLPR long/long vs. short), and stress exposure (peer-reared vs. mother-reared) on levels of H3K4me3 binding were determined. We found effects of age and stress exposure. There was a decline in H3K4me3 from preadolescence to postadolescence and lower levels in peer-reared monkeys and no effects of genotype. When we controlled for age, however, we found that there were effects of 5-HTTLPR genotype and rearing condition on H3K4me3 binding. In a larger sample, we observed that cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels were subject to interactive effects among age, rearing history, and genotype. Genes containing both genetic selection and epigenetic regulation may be particularly important in stress adaptation and development. We find evidence for selection at the solute carrier family C6 member 4 gene and observe epigenetic reorganization according to genotype, stress, and age. These data suggest that developmental stage may moderate effects of stress and serotonin transporter genotype in the emergence of alternative adaptation strategies and in the vulnerability to developmental or psychiatric disorders. PMID:23062305

  16. View southwest along Brown Road showing residential and commercial buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Brown Road showing residential and commercial buildings on the north and south sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  17. The driver, the road, the rules … and the rest? A systems-based approach to young driver road safety.

    PubMed

    Scott-Parker, B; Goode, N; Salmon, P

    2015-01-01

    The persistent overrepresentation of young drivers in road crashes is universally recognised. A multitude of factors influencing their behaviour and safety have been identified through methods including crash analyses, simulated and naturalistic driving studies, and self-report measures. Across the globe numerous, diverse, countermeasures have been implemented; the design of the vast majority of these has been informed by a driver-centric approach. An alternative approach gaining popularity in transport safety is the systems approach which considers not only the characteristics of the individual, but also the decisions and actions of other actors within the road transport system, along with the interactions amongst them. This paper argues that for substantial improvements to be made in young driver road safety, what has been learnt from driver-centric research needs to be integrated into a systems approach, thus providing a holistic appraisal of the young driver road safety problem. Only then will more effective opportunities and avenues for intervention be realised.

  18. Assessment of Susceptibility to Liquefaction of Saturated Road Embankment Subjected to Dynamic Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowiec, Anna; Maciejewski, Krzysztof

    2014-03-01

    Liquefaction has always been intensely studied in parts of the world where earthquakes occur. However, the seismic activity is not the only possible cause of this phenomenon. It may in fact be triggered by some human activities, such as constructing and mining or by rail and road transport. In the paper a road embankment built across a shallow water reservoir is analyzed in terms of susceptibility to liquefaction. Two types of dynamic loadings are considered: first corresponding to an operation of a vibratory roller and second to an earthquake. In order to evaluate a susceptibility of soil to liquefaction, a factor of safety against triggering of liquefaction is used (FSTriggering). It is defined as a ratio of vertical effective stresses to the shear stresses both varying with time. For the structure considered both stresses are obtained using finite element method program, here Plaxis 2D. The plastic behavior of the cohesionless soils is modeled by means of Hardening Soil (HS) constitutive relationship, implemented in Plaxis software. As the stress tensor varies with time during dynamic excitation, the FSTriggering has to be calculated for some particular moment of time when liquefaction is most likely to occur. For the purposes of this paper it is named a critical time and established for reference point at which the pore pressures were traced in time. As a result a factor of safety distribution throughout embankment is generated. For the modeled structure, cyclic point loads (i.e., vibrating roller) present higher risk than earthquake of magnitude 5.4. Explanation why considered structure is less susceptible to earthquake than typical dam could lay in stabilizing and damping influence of water, acting here on both sides of the slope. Analogical procedure is applied to assess liquefaction susceptibility of the road embankment considered but under earthquake excitation. Only the higher water table is considered as it is the most unfavorable. Additionally the

  19. Reciprocal MicroRNA Expression in Mesocortical Circuit and Its Interplay with Serotonin Transporter Define Resilient Rats in the Chronic Mild Stress.

    PubMed

    Zurawek, Dariusz; Kusmider, Maciej; Faron-Gorecka, Agata; Gruca, Piotr; Pabian, Paulina; Solich, Joanna; Kolasa, Magdalena; Papp, Mariusz; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta

    2016-09-22

    Prolonged stress perturbs physiological balance of a subject and thus can lead to depression. Nevertheless, some individuals are more resilient to stress than the others. Defining molecular factors underlying resilience to stress may contribute to the development of a new antidepressant strategy based on the restoration of resilient phenotype in depressed subjects. We used chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm-well-characterized animal model of depression which caused in rats behavioral deficits (anhedonia) manifested by decreased consumption of sucrose solution. CMS also generated a proportion of resilient rats which did not alter sucrose consumption despite being stressed. Recently, regulation of a gene expression associated with microRNA (miRNA) is considered as an important factor modulating biochemical response to stress. Based on our previous work and literature survey, we investigated changes in the expression level of seven miRNAs (i.e., miR-18a-5p, miR-34a-5p, miR-135a-5p, miR-195-5p, miR-320-3p, miR-674-3p, miR-872-5p) in mesocortical circuit-crucially involved in stress response in order to find differences between susceptible and resilient phenotype. Bioinformatic analysis showed that all miRNAs of interest potentially target serotonin transporter (SERT). Chronic stress caused global increase in the expression of the abovementioned miRNAs in ventral tegmental area (VTA) of stressed rats followed by parallel decrease in miRNA expression in prefrontal cortex (PCx). This effect was more profound in resilient than anhedonic animals. Moreover, we observed decreased level of SERT in VTA of resilient rats. Our findings show that mesocortical circuit is involved in the response to stress and this phenomenon is more efficient in resilient animals.

  20. Molecular analysis of the role of osmolyte transporters opuCA and betL in Listeria monocytogenes after cold and freezing stress.

    PubMed

    Miladi, Hanene; Elabed, Hamouda; Ben Slama, Rihab; Rhim, Amel; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2017-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen of humans and other animals. The striking ability to survive several stresses usually used for food preservation makes L. monocytogenes one of the biggest concerns to the food industry. This ubiquity can be partly explained by the ability of the organism to grow and persist at very low temperatures, a consequence of its ability to accumulate cryoprotective compound called osmolytes. A quantitative RT-PCR assay was used to measure mRNA transcript accumulation for the stress response genes opuCA and betL (encoding carnitine and betaine transporters, respectively) and the housekeeping gene 16S rRNA. Assays were conducted on mid-exponential phase L. monocytogenes cells exposed to conditions reflecting cold and freezing stress, conditions usually used to preserve foods. We showed that expression of the two cold-adapted genes encoded the transporters of the cryoprotectants carnitine and betaine in ATCC 19115 and the food-isolated L. monocytogenes S1 is induced after cold and freezing stress exposure. Furthermore, transcriptional analysis of the genes encoding opuCA and betL revealed that each transporter is induced to different degrees upon cold shock of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 and S1. Our results confirm an increase in carnitine uptake at low temperatures more than in betaine after cold-shocked temperature compared to the non-stress control treatment. It was concluded the use of carnitine and betaine as cryoprotectants is essential for rapid induction of the tested stress response under conditions typically encountered during food preservation.

  1. FORMATION PROCESS AND HISTORICAL FUNCTIONS OF OLD AKIHA ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakane, Yoji; Okuda, Masao; Kani, Yukihiko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Matsui, Tamotsu

    An object of this study is the old Akiha road located along the southern parts of the Akaishi Mountains in Sizuoka Prefecture. The old Akiha road between Hamamatsu city in Enshu and Iida city in Shinshu had been utilized by people for the purposes of making a pilgrimage, megalithic faith, transporting obsidian since the primitive age, practicing the mountaineering asceticism, operating the military activities in the warlike age, transporting salt from coastal area to mountainous area and so on. Through the investigation of literature, site reconnaissance and hearing, the formation process and the historical functions of the old Akiha road were studied, including the situation in medieval times or before. As the results, it was elucidated that the oldest road between two cities had located over the Hyoukoshi Pass, the road routes had the lowering trend from mountainside to riverside, and the historical functions of old Akiha road were the passage for transportation of various kinds of goods and human being, faith and culture.

  2. Transport induced inflammatory responses in horses.

    PubMed

    Wessely-Szponder, J; Bełkot, Z; Bobowiec, R; Kosior-Korzecka, U; Wójcik, M

    2015-01-01

    Deleterious response to road transport is an important problem in equine practice. It determines different physiological, immunological and metabolic changes which lead to increased susceptibility to several disorders such as pneumonia, diarrhea, colics, laminitis, injuries and rhabdomyolisis. The aim of our study was to look for possible relationships between transportation of female young and older horses over a long and short distance and an inflammatory state reflected by an increase of acute phase protein concentration, oxidative stress and muscle injury. The study was conducted on 24 cold-blooded female horses divided into four groups. Six fillies aged 6-18 months and six mares aged 10-12 years were transported over the distance of about 550 km, six fillies aged 6-18 months and six mares aged 10-12 years were transported over the distance of about 50 km. Plasma and serum were obtained from blood samples taken before transportation (T0), immediately after transportation (T1) and at an abattoir during slaughter (T2). In these samples fibrinogen, MDA, AST and CK were assessed. Fibrinogen increased in all studied groups especially in fillies after long distance transportation, where it reached 205±7.07 mg/dl before transportation, 625±35.35 mg/dl after transportation, and 790±14.14 mg/dl during slaughter. MDA concentrations rose after transportation and reached the maximal level during slaughter. CK activity was more elevated after short transportation in younger horses, whereas initial activity of AST was higher in older horses. We estimated that intensified responses from acute phase, oxidative stress and muscle injury parameters indicated an inflammatory state.

  3. DNA methylation of the serotonin transporter gene in peripheral cells and stress-related changes in hippocampal volume: a study in depressed patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Booij, Linda; Szyf, Moshe; Carballedo, Angela; Frey, Eva-Maria; Morris, Derek; Dymov, Sergiy; Vaisheva, Farida; Ly, Victoria; Fahey, Ciara; Meaney, James; Gill, Michael; Frodl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin plays an important role in the etiology of depression. Serotonin is also crucial for brain development. For instance, animal studies have demonstrated that early disruptions in the serotonin system affect brain development and emotion regulation in later life. A plausible explanation is that environmental stressors reprogram the serotonin system through epigenetic processes by altering serotonin system gene expression. This in turn may affect brain development, including the hippocampus, a region with dense serotonergic innervations and important in stress-regulation. The aim of this study was to test whether greater DNA methylation in specific CpG sites at the serotonin transporter promoter in peripheral cells is associated with childhood trauma, depression, and smaller hippocampal volume. We were particularly interested in those CpG sites whose state of methylation in peripheral cells had previously been associated with in vivo measures of brain serotonin synthesis. Thirty-three adults with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) (23 females) and 36 matched healthy controls (21 females) were included in the study. Depressive symptoms, childhood trauma, and high-resolution structural MRI for hippocampal volume were assessed. Site-specific serotonin transporter methylation was assessed using pyrosequencing. Childhood trauma, being male, and smaller hippocampal volume were independently associated with greater peripheral serotonin transporter methylation. Greater serotonin transporter methylation in the depressed group was observed only in SSRI-treated patients. These results suggest that serotonin transporter methylation may be involved in physiological gene-environment interaction in the development of stress-related brain alterations. The results provide some indications that site-specific serotonin transporter methylation may be a biomarker for serotonin-associated stress-related psychopathology.

  4. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  5. New 100 + Year Road RALE System With T-Beam Foundation Saves Energy and Increases Safety by Reducing Work Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressler, David

    2007-05-01

    Traffic crashes represents a loss of 2.2 percent of the U.S. Gross Domestic Product a year. By reducing congestion and the number of dangerous construction zones it is possible to increase user safety with fewer accidents. This new system once implemented eliminates many major national road preservation projects, which include replacing or reconstructing the highway pavements over the long period. Other included costs like those of lost time and lost fuel incurred by passenger and freight transportation on the section being reconstructed amount to well over 100 billion dollars a year. All other things being equal, thicker concrete highway pavements will last longer, however, thicker pavement costs more. By utilizing the physics of the T-Beam or the ``floor-joist,'' concept where the upper deck of the highway is supported and reinforced by longitude beams or rails that protrude into the soil, there is a great improvement in the strength of the pavement system. The pavement structure configuration of rails supports and carries vehicle loads, which is transferred ``down-the-road.'' Much like a snowshoe or like a rail bridge this device spreads out the applied stresses over a much larger area and the high strength pavement resists flexing of the concrete. Stress reduction reduces concrete fatigue and this allows the highway to last three to four times as long without major road reconstruction. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.OSS07.P1.2

  6. 24. OLD TIOGA ROAD VIEW, NOW MAY LAKE ROAD , ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. OLD TIOGA ROAD VIEW, NOW MAY LAKE ROAD , AT SNOW FLAT. MOUNT HOFFMAN AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING NW. GIS: N-37 49 34.6 / W-119 29 58.2 - Tioga Road, Between Crane Flat & Tioga Pass, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  7. Physiological integration modifies δ15N in the clonal plant Fragaria vesca, suggesting preferential transport of nitrogen to water-stressed offspring

    PubMed Central

    Roiloa, S. R.; Antelo, B.; Retuerto, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims One of the most striking attributes of clonal plants is their capacity for physiological integration, which enables movement of essential resources between connected ramets. This study investigated the capacity of physiological integration to buffer differences in resource availability experienced by ramets of the clonal wild strawberry plant, Fragaria vesca. Specifically, a study was made of the responses of connected and severed offspring ramets growing in environments with different water availability conditions (well watered or water stressed) and nitrogen forms (nitrate or ammonium). Methods The experimental design consisted of three factors, ‘integration’ (connected, severed) ‘water status’ (well watered, water stressed) and ‘nitrogen form’ (nitrate, ammonium), applied in a pot experiment. The effects of physiological integration were studied by analysing photochemical efficiency, leaf spectral reflectance, photosynthesis and carbon and nitrogen isotope discrimination, the last of which has been neglected in previous studies. Key Results Physiological integration buffered the stress caused by water deprivation. As a consequence, survival was improved in water-stressed offspring ramets that remained connected to their parent plants. The nitrogen isotope composition (δ15N) values in the connected water-stressed ramets were similar to those in ramets in the ammonium treatment; however, δ15N values in connected well-watered ramets were similar to those in the nitrate treatment. The results also demonstrated the benefit of integration for offspring ramets in terms of photochemical activity and photosynthesis. Conclusions This is the first study in which carbon and nitrogen isotopic discrimination has been used to detect physiological integration in clonal plants. The results for nitrogen isotope composition represent the first evidence of preferential transport of a specific form of nitrogen to compensate for stressful conditions

  8. The road most travelled: the geographic distribution of road traffic injuries in England

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both road safety campaigns and epidemiological research into social differences in road traffic injury risk often assume that road traffic injuries occur close to home. While previous work has examined distance from home to site of collision for child pedestrians in local areas, less is known about the geographic distribution of road traffic injuries from other modes. This study explores the distribution of the distance between home residence and collision site (crash distance) by mode of transport, geographic area, and social characteristics in England. Methods Using 10 years of road casualty data collected by the police, we examined the distribution of crash distance by age, sex, injury severity, area deprivation, urban/rural status, year, day of week, and, in London only, ethnic group. Results 54% of pedestrians, 39% of cyclists, 17% of powered two-wheeler riders and 16% of car occupants were injured within 1 km of home. 82% of pedestrians, 83% of cyclists, 54% of powered two-wheeler and 53% of car occupants were injured within 5 km of home. We found some social and geographic differences in crash distance: for all transport modes injuries tended to occur closer to home in more deprived or urban areas; younger and older pedestrians and cyclists were also injured closer to home. Crash distance appears to have increased over time for pedestrian, cyclist and car occupant injuries, but has decreased over time for powered two-wheeler injuries. Conclusions Injuries from all travel modes tend to occur quite close to home, supporting assumptions made in epidemiological and road safety education literature. However, the trend for increasing crash distance and the social differences identified may have methodological implications for future epidemiological studies on social differences in injury risk. PMID:23738624

  9. Climate Projection Data base for Roads - CliPDaR: Design a guideline for a transnational database of downscaled climate projection data for road impact models - within the Conference's of European Directors of Roads (CEDR) TRANSNATIONAL ROAD RESEARCH PROG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matulla, Christoph; Namyslo, Joachim; Fuchs, Tobias; Türk, Konrad

    2013-04-01

    The European road sector is vulnerable to extreme weather phenomena, which can cause large socio-economic losses. Almost every year there occur several weather triggered events (like heavy precipitation, floods, landslides, high winds, snow and ice, heat or cold waves, etc.), that disrupt transportation, knock out power lines, cut off populated regions from the outside and so on. So, in order to avoid imbalances in the supply of vital goods to people as well as to prevent negative impacts on health and life of people travelling by car it is essential to know present and future threats to roads. Climate change might increase future threats to roads. CliPDaR focuses on parts of the European road network and contributes, based on the current body of knowledge, to the establishment of guidelines helping to decide which methods and scenarios to apply for the estimation of future climate change based challenges in the field of road maintenance. Based on regional scale climate change projections specific road-impact models are applied in order to support protection measures. In recent years, it has been recognised that it is essential to assess the uncertainty and reliability of given climate projections by using ensemble approaches and downscaling methods. A huge amount of scientific work has been done to evaluate these approaches with regard to reliability and usefulness for investigations on possible impacts of climate changes. CliPDaR is going to collect the existing approaches and methodologies in European countries, discuss their differences and - in close cooperation with the road owners - develops a common line on future applications of climate projection data to road impact models. As such, the project will focus on reviewing and assessing existing regional climate change projections regarding transnational highway transport needs. The final project report will include recommendations how the findings of CliPDaR may support the decision processes of European

  10. Effects of dietary supplementation with creatine monohydrate during the finishing period on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and muscle glycolytic potential of broilers subjected to transport stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Li, J L; Gao, T; Lin, M; Wang, X F; Zhu, X D; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2014-12-01

    A total of 320 male Arbor Acres broiler chickens (28 days old) were randomly allotted to one of the three experimental diets supplemented with 0 (160 birds), 600 (80 birds) or 1200 mg/kg (80 birds) creatine monohydrate (CMH) for 14 days. On the morning of 42 day, after an 8-h fast, the birds of CMH-free group were divided into two equal groups, and all birds of these four groups were transported according to the follow protocol: 0.75-h transport without CMH supplementation (as a lower stress control group), 3-h transport without CMH supplementation, 3-h transport with 600 or 1200 mg/kg CMH supplementation. Each treatment group was composed of 8 replicates with 10 birds each. The results showed that supplementation of CMH for 14 days before slaughter did not affect the overall growth performance and carcass traits of stressed broilers (P>0.05). A 3-h transport decreased plasma glucose concentration, elevated plasma corticosterone concentration, increased bird live weight loss, breakdown of muscle glycogen, as well as the accumulation of muscle lactate (P<0.05), which induced some detrimental changes to breast meat quality (lower ultimate pH and higher drip loss, P<0.05). Nevertheless, supplementation of 1200 mg/kg CMH reduced chicken weight loss, decreased the contents of lactate and glycolytic potential in pectoralis major of 3-h transported broilers (P<0.05), which is beneficial to maintain breast meat quality by reducing the drip loss (P<0.05). These findings suggest that the reduction of muscle glycolysis is probably the reason for maintainance of meat quality by supplementation of CMH in transported broilers.

  11. Increased expression of the dopamine transporter leads to loss of dopamine neurons, oxidative stress and l-DOPA reversible motor deficits.

    PubMed

    Masoud, S T; Vecchio, L M; Bergeron, Y; Hossain, M M; Nguyen, L T; Bermejo, M K; Kile, B; Sotnikova, T D; Siesser, W B; Gainetdinov, R R; Wightman, R M; Caron, M G; Richardson, J R; Miller, G W; Ramsey, A J; Cyr, M; Salahpour, A

    2015-02-01

    The dopamine transporter is a key protein responsible for regulating dopamine homeostasis. Its function is to transport dopamine from the extracellular space into the presynaptic neuron. Studies have suggested that accumulation of dopamine in the cytosol can trigger oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Previously, ectopic expression of the dopamine transporter was shown to cause damage in non-dopaminergic neurons due to their inability to handle cytosolic dopamine. However, it is unknown whether increasing dopamine transporter activity will be detrimental to dopamine neurons that are inherently capable of storing and degrading dopamine. To address this issue, we characterized transgenic mice that over-express the dopamine transporter selectively in dopamine neurons. We report that dopamine transporter over-expressing (DAT-tg) mice display spontaneous loss of midbrain dopamine neurons that is accompanied by increases in oxidative stress markers, 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine and 5-S-cysteinyl-DOPAC. In addition, metabolite-to-dopamine ratios are increased and VMAT2 protein expression is decreased in the striatum of these animals. Furthermore, DAT-tg mice also show fine motor deficits on challenging beam traversal that are reversed with l-DOPA treatment. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that even in neurons that routinely handle dopamine, increased uptake of this neurotransmitter through the dopamine transporter results in oxidative damage, neuronal loss and l-DOPA reversible motor deficits. In addition, DAT over-expressing animals are highly sensitive to MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. The effects of increased dopamine uptake in these transgenic mice could shed light on the unique vulnerability of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease.

  12. Increased expression of the dopamine transporter leads to loss of dopamine neurons, oxidative stress and L-DOPA reversible motor deficits

    PubMed Central

    Masoud, ST; Vecchio, LM; Bergeron, Y; Hossain, MM; Nguyen, LT; Bermejo, MK; Kile, B; Sotnikova, TD; Siesser, WB; Gainetdinov, RR; Wightman, RM; Caron, MG; Richardson, JR; Miller, GW; Ramsey, AJ; Cyr, M; Salahpour, A

    2015-01-01

    The dopamine transporter is a key protein responsible for regulating dopamine homeostasis. Its function is to transport dopamine from the extracellular space into the presynaptic neuron. Studies have suggested that accumulation of dopamine in the cytosol can trigger oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Previously, ectopic expression of the dopamine transporter was shown to cause damage in non-dopaminergic neurons due to their inability to handle cytosolic dopamine. However, it is unknown whether increasing dopamine transporter activity will be detrimental to dopamine neurons that are inherently capable of storing and degrading dopamine. To address this issue, we characterized transgenic mice that over-express the dopamine transporter selectively in dopamine neurons. We report that dopamine transporter over-expressing (DAT-tg) mice display spontaneous loss of midbrain dopamine neurons that is accompanied by increases in oxidative stress markers, 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine and 5-S-cysteinyl-DOPAC. In addition, metabolite-to-dopamine ratios are increased and VMAT2 protein expression is decreased in the striatum of these animals. Furthermore, DAT-tg mice also show fine motor deficits on challenging beam traversal that are reversed with L-DOPA treatment. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that even in neurons that routinely handle dopamine, increased uptake of this neurotransmitter through the dopamine transporter results in oxidative damage, neuronal loss and LDOPA reversible motor deficits. In addition, DAT over-expressing animals are highly sensitive to MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. The effects of increased dopamine uptake in these transgenic mice could shed light on the unique vulnerability of dopamine neurons in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25447236

  13. On the Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Veteran development officers say the experience of visiting and traveling to different places or countries often feels like an endless cycle of getting lost, missing flights, and eating midnight dinners from hotel vending machines. Despite ongoing travel challenges, experienced road warriors have learned how to maximize their effectiveness,…

  14. Road-Cleaning Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  15. The Road Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, Molly

    2016-01-01

    "Children have the potential to create a world we cannot imagine. This is our hope." In choosing Montessori, O'Shaughnessy says that we are choosing the road less traveled. We are choosing education as an aid to life. We are choosing an approach that respects the innate and unique potential of each child and that calls upon us to serve…

  16. Effect of salt stress on the expression of NHX-type ion transporters in Medicago intertexta and Melilotus indicus plants.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Hamdi H; Marín-Manzano, M Carmen; Sánchez-Raya, A Juan; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Venema, Kees; Rodríguez-Rosales, M Pilar

    2007-09-01

    Medicago intertexta and Melilotus indicus, two wild leguminous herbs with different tolerance to salinity were investigated for NaCl-induced changes in the expression level of some Na(+) transporters. M. indicus plants grew well at NaCl concentration from 0 to 400 mM, whereas growth of M. intertexta plants was severely inhibited at NaCl concentrations higher than 100 mM. In M. intertexta, increasing NaCl in the growth media caused a strong increase in Na(+) content concomitant with a decrease in K(+) content in leaves and, above all, roots. In comparison, M. indicus plants cultivated in the presence of NaCl accumulated much less Na(+) in leaves and roots and no differences in K(+) content among plants grown in nutrient solution containing 100-400 mM NaCl were detected. The expression levels of four genes coding for NHX-type Na(+)/H(+) antiporters in the above two wild legumes were studied in plants cultivated under the different NaCl concentrations. Expression levels of the genes were higher in M. intertexta as compared with M. indicus plants. In M. intertexta, salt treatments increased MtNHX1, MtNHX3 and MtNHX4 transcript levels in leaves and roots. However, in M. indicus NaCl treatments only induced the expression of MtNHX1 in roots. Our data suggest that two different mechanisms, Na(+) avoidance or accumulation into cellular compartments, are developed by the two wild legumes to cope with salt stress, and that expression of NHX antiporters is linked to the accumulator phenotype.

  17. Discontinuous Galerkin discretization of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the shear-stress transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenawa, Stefan; Hartmann, Ralf

    2014-04-01

    In this article we consider the development of Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for the numerical approximation of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the shear-stress transport (SST) model by Menter. This turbulence model is based on a blending of the Wilcox k-ω model used near the wall and the k-ɛ model used in the rest of the domain where the blending functions depend on the distance to the nearest wall. For the computation of the distance of each quadrature point in the domain to the nearest of the curved, piecewise polynomial wall boundaries, we propose a stabilized continuous finite element (FE) discretization of the eikonal equation. Furthermore, we propose a new wall boundary condition for the dissipation rate ω based on the projection of the analytic near-wall behavior of ω onto the discrete ansatz space of the DG discretization. Finally, we introduce an artificial viscosity to the discretization of the turbulence kinetic energy (k-)equation to suppress oscillations of k near the underresolved boundary layer edge. The wall distance computation based on the continuous FE discretization of the eikonal equation is demonstrated for an internal and three external/aerodynamic flow geometries including a three-element high-lift configuration. The DG discretization of the RANS equations with the SST model is demonstrated for turbulent flows past a flat plate and the RAE2822 airfoil (Cases 9 and 10). The results are compared to the underlying k-ω model and experimental data.

  18. Chronic social stress in pigs impairs intestinal barrier and nutrient transporter function, and alters neuro-immune mediator and receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yihang; Song, Zehe; Kerr, Katelyn A.; Moeser, Adam J.

    2017-01-01

    Psychosocial stress is a major factor driving gastrointestinal (GI) pathophysiology and disease susceptibility in humans and animals. The mechanisms governing susceptibility to stress-induced GI disease remain poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the influence of chronic social stress (CSS) in pigs, induced by 7 d of chronic mixing/crowding stress, on intestinal barrier and nutrient transport function, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) signaling and immunological responses. Results from this study showed that CSS resulted in a significant impairment of ileal and colonic barrier function indicated by reduced transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in the ileum and increased FD4 flux in the ileum (by 0.8 fold) and colon (by 0.7 fold). Ileal sodium glucose linked transporter 1 (SGLT-1) function, measured as glucose-induced changes in short-circuit current (Isc), was diminished (by 52%) in CSS pigs, associated with reduced body weight gain and feed efficiency. Although reductions in SGLT-1 function were observed in CSS pigs, mRNA expression for SGLT-1, villus heights were increased in CSS pigs. Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA was upregulated (by 0.9 fold) in the ileum of CSS pigs but not in the colon. Urocortin 2 (Ucn2) mRNA was upregulated (by 1.5 fold) in the colon of CSS pigs, but not in the ileum. In CSS pigs, a downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines mRNA (IL1B, TNFA, IL8, and IL6) was observed in both ileum and colon, compared with controls. In contrast CSS induced a marked upregulation of mRNA for IL10 and mast cell chymase gene (CMA1) in the ileum and colon. Together, these data demonstrate that chronic stress in pigs results in significant alterations in intestinal barrier and nutrient transport function and neuro-immune mediator and receptor expression. PMID:28170426

  19. Chronic social stress in pigs impairs intestinal barrier and nutrient transporter function, and alters neuro-immune mediator and receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Yihang; Song, Zehe; Kerr, Katelyn A; Moeser, Adam J

    2017-01-01

    Psychosocial stress is a major factor driving gastrointestinal (GI) pathophysiology and disease susceptibility in humans and animals. The mechanisms governing susceptibility to stress-induced GI disease remain poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the influence of chronic social stress (CSS) in pigs, induced by 7 d of chronic mixing/crowding stress, on intestinal barrier and nutrient transport function, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) signaling and immunological responses. Results from this study showed that CSS resulted in a significant impairment of ileal and colonic barrier function indicated by reduced transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in the ileum and increased FD4 flux in the ileum (by 0.8 fold) and colon (by 0.7 fold). Ileal sodium glucose linked transporter 1 (SGLT-1) function, measured as glucose-induced changes in short-circuit current (Isc), was diminished (by 52%) in CSS pigs, associated with reduced body weight gain and feed efficiency. Although reductions in SGLT-1 function were observed in CSS pigs, mRNA expression for SGLT-1, villus heights were increased in CSS pigs. Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA was upregulated (by 0.9 fold) in the ileum of CSS pigs but not in the colon. Urocortin 2 (Ucn2) mRNA was upregulated (by 1.5 fold) in the colon of CSS pigs, but not in the ileum. In CSS pigs, a downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines mRNA (IL1B, TNFA, IL8, and IL6) was observed in both ileum and colon, compared with controls. In contrast CSS induced a marked upregulation of mRNA for IL10 and mast cell chymase gene (CMA1) in the ileum and colon. Together, these data demonstrate that chronic stress in pigs results in significant alterations in intestinal barrier and nutrient transport function and neuro-immune mediator and receptor expression.

  20. Studies of renal injury. II. Activation of the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) gene and glycolysis in LLC-PK1 cells under Ca2+ stress.

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, J H; Song, B; Liu-Chen, S; Qulali, M; Howard, R; Lee, C H; McAteer, J

    1996-01-01

    Injury to the renal proximal tubule is common and may be followed by either recovery or cell death. The survival of injured cells is supported by a transient change in cellular metabolism that maintains life even when oxygen tension is reduced. This adaptive process involves the activation of the gene encoding the glucose transporter GLUT1, which is essential to maintain the high rates of glucose influx demanded by glycolysis. We hypothesized that after cell injury increases of cell Ca2+ (Ca2+i) initiate the flow of information that culminates with the upregulation of the stress response gene GLUT1. We found that elevations of Ca2+i caused by the calcium ionophore A23187 activated the expression of the GLUT1 gene in LLC-PK1 cells. The stimulatory effect of Ca2+i on GLUT1 gene expression was, at least in part, transcriptional and resulted in higher levels of GLUT1 mRNA, cognate protein, cellular hexose transport activity, glucose consumption, and lactate production. This response was vital to the renal cells, as its interruption severely increased Ca2+-induced cytotoxicity and cell mortality. We propose that increases of Ca2+i initiate stress responses, represented in part by activation of the GLUT1 gene, and that disruption to the flow of information originating from Ca2+-induced stress, or to the coordinated expression of the stress response, prevents cell recovery after injury and may be an important cause of permanent renal cell injury and cell death. PMID:8755650

  1. Calmodulin-binding proteins in bryophytes: identification of abscisic acid-, cold-, and osmotic stress-induced genes encoding novel membrane-bound transporter-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Takezawa, Daisuke; Minami, Anzu

    2004-04-30

    Plant responses to environmental stresses are mediated in part by signaling processes involving cytosolic Ca2+ and a Ca(2+)-binding protein, calmodulin. Screening with radiolabeled calmodulin of a cDNA library of the moss Physcomitrella patens resulted in identification of genes encoding novel membrane transporter-like proteins, MCamb1 and MCamb2. These proteins each had a central hydrophobic domain with two putative membrane spans and N- and C-terminal hydrophilic domains, and showed sequence similarity to mammalian inward rectifier potassium channels. Calmodulin binds to MCamb1 and MCamb2 via interaction with basic amphiphilic amino acids in the C-terminal domain. Levels of MCamb1 and MCamb2 transcripts increased dramatically following treatment with low temperature, hyperosmotic solutes, and the stress hormone abscisic acid, all of which were previously shown to increase cellular tolerance to freezing stress. These results suggest that calmodulin participates in cellular signaling events leading to enhancement of stress resistance through regulation of novel transporter-like proteins.

  2. View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel Putnam Memorial - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  3. [Function of transport H+-ATPases in plant cell plasma and vacuolar membranes of maize under salt stress conditions and effect of adaptogenic preparations].

    PubMed

    Rybchenko, Zh I; Palladina, T O

    2011-01-01

    Participations of electrogenic H+-pumps of plasma and vacuolar membranes represented by E1-E2 and V-type H+-ATPases in plant cell adaptation to salt stress conditions has been studied by determination of their transport activities. Experiments were carried out on corn seedlings exposed during 1 or 10 days at 0.1 M NaCl. Preparations Methyure and Ivine were used by seed soaking at 10(-7) M. Plasma and vacuolar membrane fractions were isolated from corn seedling roots. In variants without NaCl a hydrolytical activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPase was increased with seedling age and its transport one was changed insignificantly, wherease the response of the weaker vacuolar H+-ATPase was opposite. NaCl exposition decreased hydrolytical activities of both H+-ATPases and increased their transport ones. These results demonstrated amplification of H+-pumps function especially represented by vacuolar H+-ATPase. Both preparations, Methyure mainly, caused a further increase of transport activity which was more expressed in NaCl variants. Obtained results showed the important role of these H+-pumps in plant adaptation under salt stress conditions realized by energetical maintenance of the secondary active Na+/H+ -antiporters which remove Na+ from cytoplasm.

  4. Induction of the high-affinity Na(+)-dependent glutamate transport system XAG- by hypertonic stress in the renal epithelial cell line NBL-1.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Martinez, A; Felipe, A; Nicholson, B; Casado, J; Pastor-Anglada, M; McGivan, J

    1995-01-01

    The high-affinity Na(+)-dependent glutamate transport system XAG- is induced (threefold increase in Vmax. with no change in Km) by hypertonicity in the renal epithelial cell line NBL-1. This effect is dependent on protein synthesis and glycosylation and is accompanied by an increase in EAAC1 mRNA levels. Other Na(+)-dependent transport systems in this cell line do not respond to hypertonic stress. In contrast to recent findings [Ruiz-Montasell, Gomez-Angelats, Casado, Felipe, McGivan and Pastor-Anglada (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91, 9569-9573] showing that increased system A activity after hyperosmotic shock results from induction of a regulatory protein, this is the first demonstration that hypertonicity may increase the expression of the gene for an amino acid transport protein itself. Images Figure 4 PMID:7654212

  5. [Supervising road safety in Peru].

    PubMed

    Sagástegui, Freddy

    2010-06-01

    In this article some problems in road safety are described, which have been detected by the Ombudsman of Peru, as part of its role of public administration supervisor, amongst these problems we mention: lack of and inadequate elaboration of the statistics on road traffic accidents, the inconsistency of the National Council for Road Security and the lack of responsibility of the local and regional governments reflected by the lack of application of the National Plan of Road Safety. Facing this, the Ombudsman suggests that the State develops a rigorous statistical system, strengthens the National Council of Road Safety and that the different sectors of the government develop the mentioned National Plan.

  6. A review of models relevant to road safety.

    PubMed

    Hughes, B P; Newstead, S; Anund, A; Shu, C C; Falkmer, T

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 1.2 million people die worldwide as a result of road traffic crashes and some 50 million are injured per annum. At present some Western countries' road safety strategies and countermeasures claim to have developed into 'Safe Systems' models to address the effects of road related crashes. Well-constructed models encourage effective strategies to improve road safety. This review aimed to identify and summarise concise descriptions, or 'models' of safety. The review covers information from a wide variety of fields and contexts including transport, occupational safety, food industry, education, construction and health. The information from 2620 candidate references were selected and summarised in 121 examples of different types of model and contents. The language of safety models and systems was found to be inconsistent. Each model provided additional information regarding style, purpose, complexity and diversity. In total, seven types of models were identified. The categorisation of models was done on a high level with a variation of details in each group and without a complete, simple and rational description. The models identified in this review are likely to be adaptable to road safety and some of them have previously been used. None of systems theory, safety management systems, the risk management approach, or safety culture was commonly or thoroughly applied to road safety. It is concluded that these approaches have the potential to reduce road trauma.

  7. A novel approach to produce road-level inventories of on-road greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J.; Butenhoff, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Emissions inventories are an important tool often built by governments tomanage and assess greenhouse gases and other air pollutants. High resolutioninventories, both in space and time, are necessary to capture localcharacteristics of on-road transportation emissions in particular. Emissionsvary widely due to the local nature of the fleet, fuel, and roads and thisheterogeneity must inform effective emissions modeling on the urban level. Inaddition, widespread availability of low-cost computing now makes highresolution climate and air quality modeling feasible, but efforts to improveinventories have not kept pace. There currently is a lack of inventories atcomparable resolutions. This motivated similar work such as the VULCAN projectwhich used county-level data to estimate on-road emissions. We are motivatedto improve upon this by using site-level traffic count data where available.Here we show a new high resolution model of CO2 emissions for the Portland,OR metropolitan region. The backbone is an archive of traffic counterrecordings taken by the Portland Bureau of Transportation intermittently at9,352 sites over 21 years and continuing today (1986-2006 data are summarizedhere) and by The Portland Regional Transportation Archive Listing at 309freeway sites. We constructed a regression model to fill in traffic networkgaps using GIS data such as road class and population density. After stepwisetesting of each of eighteen road classes (from minor streets to freeway), wewere able to select ten variables that are significant (P < 0.001) predictorsof traffic; particularly freeway, unimproved road, and minor streets. Themodel was tested by holding back one-third of the data. The R2 for the linearmodel (based on road class and land use) is 0.84. The EPA MOVES model was thenused to estimate transportation CO2 emissions using local fleet, traffic, andmeteorology data.

  8. The welfare of livestock transported by ship.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Clive J C; Santurtun, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    The transport of livestock by ship is growing in importance, but there are concerns about the welfare impact on the animals. Short sea journeys are usually completed in the vehicles that are used to transport the animals by road, and injury and stress can result. Long sea journeys require offloading of the animals into pens, where they are mixed and provided with feed, water and sometimes artificial ventilation. In addition, animals are often exposed to high stocking densities, elevated temperature and ammonia concentration, as well as noise and changes in photoperiod and light intensity. Mortality rate is the main measure of welfare used by the Australian live export industry for long distance shipments, and the rate is higher at sea compared to the same period of transport on land. Heat stress often challenges livestock when they are transported from cold to hot regions at high stocking densities with no diurnal temperature fluctuation. Sheep cope with heat stress better than cattle, but can still develop respiratory alkalosis if hyperventilation ensues. Bos taurus cattle cope less well with heat stress than Bos indicus breeds. High ammonia concentrations may accumulate on long voyages, causing mucosal irritation and pulmonary inflammation. Some sheep and goats do not adapt to the pellets provided after extensive grazing in Australia, resulting in inanition, often in combination with salmonellosis, which together are the main cause of high mortality rates. Long distance transport may also result in disease transmission to the recipient country and high standards of biosecurity are necessary. It is concluded that there are significant risks to the welfare of livestock caused by transporting them in ships, especially over long distances.

  9. 25 CFR 170.932 - Are there other funding sources for tribal transportation departments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Tribal Transportation Departments § 170... license fees; (d) Tribal fuel tax; (e) Federal, State, private, and local transportation grants...

  10. Monitoring road losses for Lushan 7.0 earthquake disaster utilization multisource remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, He; Yang, Siquan; Li, Suju; He, Haixia; Liu, Ming; Xu, Feng; Lin, Yueguan

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake is one major nature disasters in the world. At 8:02 on 20 April 2013, a catastrophic earthquake with Ms 7.0 in surface wave magnitude occurred in Sichuan province, China. The epicenter of this earthquake located in the administrative region of Lushan County and this earthquake was named the Lushan earthquake. The Lushan earthquake caused heavy casualties and property losses in Sichuan province. After the earthquake, various emergency relief supplies must be transported to the affected areas. Transportation network is the basis for emergency relief supplies transportation and allocation. Thus, the road losses of the Lushan earthquake must be monitoring. The road losses monitoring results for Lushan earthquake disaster utilization multisource remote sensing images were reported in this paper. The road losses monitoring results indicated that there were 166 meters' national roads, 3707 meters' provincial roads, 3396 meters' county roads, 7254 meters' township roads, and 3943 meters' village roads were damaged during the Lushan earthquake disaster. The damaged roads mainly located at Lushan County, Baoxing County, Tianquan County, Yucheng County, Mingshan County, and Qionglai County. The results also can be used as a decision-making information source for the disaster management government in China.

  11. A Putative Mitochondrial Iron Transporter MrsA in Aspergillus fumigatus Plays Important Roles in Azole-, Oxidative Stress Responses and Virulence.

    PubMed

    Long, Nanbiao; Xu, Xiaoling; Qian, Hui; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient and enzyme co-factor required for a wide range of cellular processes, especially for the function of mitochondria. For the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, the ability to obtain iron is required for growth and virulence during the infection process. However, knowledge of how mitochondria are involved in iron regulation is still limited. Here, we show that a mitochondrial iron transporter, MrsA, a homolog of yeast Mrs4p, is critical for adaptation to iron-limited or iron-excess conditions in A. fumigatus. Deletion of mrsA leads to disruption of iron homeostasis with a decreased sreA expression, resulted in activated reductive iron assimilation (RIA) and siderophore-mediated iron acquisition (SIA). Furthermore, deletion of mrsA induces hypersusceptibility to azole and oxidative stresses. An assay for cellular ROS content in ΔmrsA combined with rescue from the mrsA-defective phenotype by the antioxidant reagent L-ascorbic acid indicates that the increased sensitivity of ΔmrsA to the azole itraconazole and to oxidative stress is mainly the result of abnormal ROS accumulation. Moreover, site-directed mutation experiments verified that three conserved histidine residues related to iron transport in MrsA are required for responses to oxidative and azole stresses. Importantly, ΔmrsA causes significant attenuation of virulence in an immunocompromised murine model of aspergillosis. Collectively, our results show that the putative mitochondrial iron transporter MrsA plays important roles in azole- and oxidative-stress responses and virulence by regulating the balance of cellular iron in A. fumigatus.

  12. A Putative Mitochondrial Iron Transporter MrsA in Aspergillus fumigatus Plays Important Roles in Azole-, Oxidative Stress Responses and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Long, Nanbiao; Xu, Xiaoling; Qian, Hui; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient and enzyme co-factor required for a wide range of cellular processes, especially for the function of mitochondria. For the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, the ability to obtain iron is required for growth and virulence during the infection process. However, knowledge of how mitochondria are involved in iron regulation is still limited. Here, we show that a mitochondrial iron transporter, MrsA, a homolog of yeast Mrs4p, is critical for adaptation to iron-limited or iron-excess conditions in A. fumigatus. Deletion of mrsA leads to disruption of iron homeostasis with a decreased sreA expression, resulted in activated reductive iron assimilation (RIA) and siderophore-mediated iron acquisition (SIA). Furthermore, deletion of mrsA induces hypersusceptibility to azole and oxidative stresses. An assay for cellular ROS content in ΔmrsA combined with rescue from the mrsA-defective phenotype by the antioxidant reagent L-ascorbic acid indicates that the increased sensitivity of ΔmrsA to the azole itraconazole and to oxidative stress is mainly the result of abnormal ROS accumulation. Moreover, site-directed mutation experiments verified that three conserved histidine residues related to iron transport in MrsA are required for responses to oxidative and azole stresses. Importantly, ΔmrsA causes significant attenuation of virulence in an immunocompromised murine model of aspergillosis. Collectively, our results show that the putative mitochondrial iron transporter MrsA plays important roles in azole- and oxidative-stress responses and virulence by regulating the balance of cellular iron in A. fumigatus. PMID:27433157

  13. The Transcriptional Response of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM 20451T and Its tcyB Mutant Lacking a Functional Cystine Transporter to Diamide Stress

    PubMed Central

    Stetina, Mandy; Behr, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    As a result of its strong adaptation to wheat and rye sourdoughs, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis has the smallest genome within the genus Lactobacillus. The concomitant absence of some important antioxidative enzymes and the inability to synthesize glutathione suggest a role of cystine transport in maintenance of an intracellular thiol balance. Diamide [synonym 1,1′-azobis(N,N-dimethylformamide)] disturbs intracellular and membrane thiol levels in oxidizing protein thiols depending on its initial concentration. In this study, RNA sequencing was used to reveal the transcriptional response of L. sanfranciscensis DSM 20451T (wild type [WT]) and its ΔtcyB mutant with a nonfunctional cystine transporter after thiol stress caused by diamide. Along with the different expression of genes involved in amino acid starvation, pyrimidine synthesis, and energy production, our results show that thiol stress in the wild type can be compensated through activation of diverse chaperones and proteases whereas the ΔtcyB mutant shifts its metabolism in the direction of survival. Only a small set of genes are significantly differentially expressed between the wild type and the mutant. In the WT, mainly genes which are associated with a heat shock response are upregulated whereas glutamine import and synthesis genes are downregulated. In the ΔtcyB mutant, the whole opp operon was more highly expressed, as well as a protein which probably includes enzymes for methionine transport. The two proteins encoded by spxA and nrdH, which are involved in direct or indirect oxidative stress responses, are also upregulated in the mutant. This work emphasizes that even in the absence of definitive antioxidative enzymes, bacteria with a small genome and a high frequency of gene inactivation and elimination use small molecules such as the cysteine/cystine couple to overcome potential cell damage resulting from oxidative stress. PMID:24795368

  14. Comprehensive Analysis and Expression Profiling of the OsLAX and OsABCB Auxin Transporter Gene Families in Rice (Oryza sativa) under Phytohormone Stimuli and Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Chenglin; Subudhi, Prasanta K.

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin regulates many aspects of plant growth and developmental processes. Auxin gradient is formed in plant as a result of polar auxin transportation by three types of auxin transporters such as OsLAX, OsPIN, and OsABCB. We report here the analysis of two rice auxin transporter gene families, OsLAX and OsABCB, using bioinformatics tools, publicly accessible microarray data, and quantitative RT-PCR. There are 5 putative OsLAXs and 22 putative OsABCBs in rice genome, which were mapped on 8 chromosomes. The exon-intron structure of OsLAX genes and properties of deduced proteins were relatively conserved within grass family, while that of OsABCB genes varied greatly. Both constitutive and organ/tissue specific expression patterns were observed in OsLAXs and OsABCBs. Analysis of evolutionarily closely related “gene pairs” together with organ/tissue specific expression revealed possible “function gaining” and “function losing” events during rice evolution. Most OsLAX and OsABCB genes were regulated by drought and salt stress, as well as hormonal stimuli [auxin and Abscisic Acid (ABA)], which suggests extensive crosstalk between abiotic stresses and hormone signaling pathways. The existence of large number of auxin and stress related cis-regulatory elements in promoter regions might account for their massive responsiveness of these genes to these environmental stimuli, indicating complexity of regulatory networks involved in various developmental and physiological processes. The comprehensive analysis of OsLAX and OsABCB auxin transporter genes in this study would be helpful for understanding the biological significance of these gene families in hormone signaling and adaptation of rice plants to unfavorable environments. PMID:27200061

  15. 76 FR 6328 - Official Release of the January 2011 AP-42 Method for Estimating Re-Entrained Road Dust From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ...-entrained road dust emissions from cars, trucks, buses, and ] motorcycles on paved roads. This document... emissions analyses for transportation conformity determinations (``regional conformity analyses''). This new...: For questions about using AP-42 in SIPs and transportation conformity, contact David Bizot at...

  16. Assessment of Climate Change Adaptation Costs for the U.S. Road Network

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. road network is one of the nation’s most important capital assets and is vital to the functioning of the U.S. economy. Climate change may represent a risk or an opportunity to this network, as changes in climate stress will affect the resources necessary for both road m...

  17. Effect of sulfide, osmotic, and thermal stresses on taurine transporter mRNA levels in the gills of the hydrothermal vent-specific mussel Bathymodiolus septemdierum.

    PubMed

    Nakamura-Kusakabe, Ikumi; Nagasaki, Toshihiro; Kinjo, Azusa; Sassa, Mieko; Koito, Tomoko; Okamura, Kei; Yamagami, Shosei; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Tsuchida, Shinji; Inoue, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal vent environmental conditions are characterized by high sulfide concentrations, fluctuating osmolality, and irregular temperature elevations caused by vent effluents. These parameters represent potential stressors for organisms that inhabit the area around hydrothermal vents. Here, we aimed to obtain a better understanding of the adaptation mechanisms of marine species to hydrothermal vent environments. Specifically, we examined the effect of sulfide, osmolality, and thermal stress on the expression of taurine transporter (TAUT) mRNA in the gill of the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus septemdierum, which is a dominant species around hydrothermal vent sites. We analyzed TAUT mRNA levels by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the gill of mussels exposed to sulfide (0.1 or 1mg/L Na2S·9H2O), hyper- (115% seawater) and hypo- (97.5%, 95.5%, and 85% seawater) osmotic conditions, and thermal stresses (12°C and 20°C) for 24 and 48h. The results showed that mussels exposed to relatively low levels of sulfide (0.1mg/L) and moderate heat stress (12°C) exhibited higher TAUT mRNA levels than the control. Although hyper- and hypo-osmotic stress did not significantly change TAUT mRNA levels, slight induction was observed in mussels exposed to low osmolality. Our results indicate that TAUT is involved in the coping mechanism of mussels to various hydrothermal vent stresses.

  18. Experiments on Washboard Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Stephen; Taberlet, Nicolas; McElwaine, James; Dalziel, Stuart

    2007-03-01

    Granular surfaces to develop lateral ripples (so-called ``washboard" or ``corrugated" road) under the action of rolling wheels. Similar ripples are observed on railroad tracks and many other rolling, load bearing surfaces. Our aim was to investigate this instability of the flat road surface from the point of view of driven, dissipative granular dynamics. We report the results of both laboratory experiments and soft-particle direct numerical simulations. The experiment consisted of a rotating table 60 cm in radius with a thick layer of sand forming a roadbed around the circumference. A 6 cm radius hard rubber wheel, with a support stationary in the lab frame, rolled on the sand layer. We varied the speed of the table, the details of the grains and the suspension of the wheel. The ripple pattern appears as small patches of travelling waves which eventually spread to the entire circumference. The ripples drift slowly in the driving direction. Interesting secondary dynamics of the saturated ripples were observed, as well as various ripple creation and destruction events. The wavelength of the ripples can be quantized by the finite circumference of the road. All of these effects are captured qualitatively by 2D soft particle simulations in which a disk rolls over a 2D bed of polydisperse particles in a periodic box.

  19. Hungarian intelligent road information system (IRIS) Technical Development Agency (TDA) project inception report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The report provides an overview of the Hungarian Intelligent Road Information System (IRIS), which is designed to apply the latest technologies and transportation skills to provide Hungarians and international road users with the best possible service on the Hungarian roadway system.

  20. Expression profile of PIN, AUX/LAX and PGP auxin transporter gene families in Sorghum bicolor under phytohormone and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Shen, ChenJia; Bai, YouHuang; Wang, SuiKang; Zhang, SaiNa; Wu, YunRong; Chen, Ming; Jiang, DeAn; Qi, YanHua

    2010-07-01

    Auxin is transported by the influx carriers auxin resistant 1/like aux1 (AUX/LAX), and the efflux carriers pin-formed (PIN) and P-glycoprotein (PGP), which play a major role in polar auxin transport. Several auxin transporter genes have been characterized in dicotyledonous Arabidopsis, but most are unknown in monocotyledons, especially in sorghum. Here, we analyze the chromosome distribution, gene duplication and intron/exon of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP gene families, and examine their phylogenic relationships in Arabidopsis, rice and sorghum. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that most of these genes were differently expressed in the organs of sorghum. SbPIN3 and SbPIN9 were highly expressed in flowers, SbLAX2 and SbPGP17 were mainly expressed in stems, and SbPGP7 was strongly expressed in roots. This suggests that individual genes might participate in specific organ development. The expression profiles of these gene families were analyzed after treatment with: (a) the phytohormones indole-3-acetic acid and brassinosteroid; (b) the polar auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acids, 1-naphthylphthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid; and (c) abscissic acid and the abiotic stresses of high salinity and drought. Most of the auxin transporter genes were strongly induced by indole-3-acetic acid and brassinosteroid, providing new evidence for the synergism of these phytohormones. Interestingly, most genes showed similar trends in expression under polar auxin transport inhibitors and each also responded to abscissic acid, salt and drought. This study provides new insights into the auxin transporters of sorghum.

  1. CAX-ing a wide net: Cation/H(+) transporters in metal remediation and abiotic stress signalling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cation/proton exchangers (CAXs) are a class of secondary energised ion transporter that are being implicated in an increasing range of cellular and physiological functions. CAXs are primarily Ca(2+) efflux transporters that mediate the sequestration of Ca(2+) from the cytosol, usually into the vacuo...

  2. Proline transport and stress tolerance of ammonia-insensitive mutants of the PUT4-encoded proline-specific permease in yeast.

    PubMed

    Poole, Kate; E Walker, Michelle; Warren, Tristan; Gardner, Jennie; McBryde, Colin; de Barros Lopes, Miguel; Jiranek, Vladimir

    2009-12-01

    The imino amino acid, proline, has roles in both cellular nutrition and response to stress. Proline uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is largely mediated by a high affinity, specific permease, Put4p, and a low affinity general amino acid permease, Gap1p. Both are subject to nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) and nitrogen catabolite inactivation (NCI). In order for proline to be fully exploited, its transport must be derepressed, as occurs upon depletion of preferred nitrogen sources, and molecular oxygen must be present to allow the first step of catabolism via proline oxidase. This study focuses on the isolation of variants of Put4p, which are insensitive to repression by a preferred nitrogen source (ammonia) and their subsequent effect on proline transport and stress tolerance. Specific amino acid residues in the carboxy-terminal region of Put4p were targeted by site-directed mutagenesis. Substitution at Serine(605), a potential phosphorylation target, led to the amelioration of ammonia-induced down-regulation of Put4p. When combined with a promoter mutation (-160), the S(605)A mutation resulted in increased proline uptake and accumulation. This increase in proline accumulation was associated with increased cell viability in conditions of high temperature and osmotic stress raising possible benefits in industrial fermentation applications.

  3. Serotonin transporter polymorphism in major depressive disorder (MDD), psychiatric disorders, and in MDD in response to stressful life events: causes and treatment with antidepressant.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Antonella; Divella, Rosa; Paradiso, Angelo; Mattioli, Vittorio; Romito, Francesca; Giotta, Francesco; Casamassima, Porzia; Quaranta, Michele

    2011-01-01

    A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the 5-hidroxytryptamine transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), alters its transcription. Short allele (SS) variation decreases the transcriptional efficacy of serotonin, causing psychiatric disorders, major depressive disorder (MDD) and major depression in response to stressful life events. The aim of this study was to determine the current understanding of the role of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the development of depressive episodes and its response to treatment. Twenty-five articles were identified from PubMed, utilizing the following keyword, 5-HTT transporter gene, polymorphism, depression, stressful condition, psychiatric disorder. All articles were read and notes were made regarding study participant, measures, data analysis and results, and were used to write this review. The distribution of the SS allele in patients is associated with an increased risk of MDD following exposure to stressful events of life. Additionally, this genetic variant is closely associated with several psychiatric conditions such as suicidal behaviour, psychoses, personality disorders, and aggressive-impulsive traits.

  4. Impact of mechanical stress on ion transport in native lung epithelium (Xenopus laevis): short-term activation of Na+, Cl (-) and K+ channels.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Roman; Veith, Christine; Clauss, Wolfgang; Fronius, Martin

    2008-09-01

    Epithelia, in general, and the lung epithelium, in particular, are exposed to mechanical forces, but little is known about their impact on pulmonary ion transport. In our present study, we employed transepithelial ion transport measurements on Xenopus lung preparations using custom-built Ussing chambers. Tissues were exposed to mechanical stress by increasing the water column (5 cm) at one side of the tissues. Apical exposure to hydrostatic pressure significantly decreased the short circuit current (I (SC): 24 +/- 1%, n = 152), slightly decreased the transepithelial resistance (R (T): 7 +/- 2%, n = 152), but increased the apical membrane capacitance (C (M): 16 +/- 6%, n = 9). The pressure-induced effect was sensitive to Na+ (amiloride), Cl(-) (DIDS, NFA, NPPB) and K+ channel blockers (Ba2+), glibenclamide). Further on, it was accompanied by increased extracellular ATP levels. The results show that mechanical stress leads to an activation of Na+, Cl(-), and K+ conductances in a native pulmonary epithelium resulting in a net decrease of ion absorption. This could be of considerable interest, since an altered ion transport may contribute to pathophysiological conditions, e.g., the formation of pulmonary edema during artificial ventilation.

  5. The potassium transporter OsHAK21 functions in the maintenance of ion homeostasis and tolerance to salt stress in rice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yue; Shen, Like; Shen, Zhenxing; Jing, Wen; Ge, Hongliang; Zhao, Jiangzhe; Zhang, Wenhua

    2015-12-01

    The intracellular potassium (K(+) ) homeostasis, which is crucial for plant survival in saline environments, is modulated by K(+) channels and transporters. Some members of the high-affinity K(+) transporter (HAK) family are believed to function in the regulation of plant salt tolerance, but the physiological mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report a significant inducement of OsHAK21 expression by high-salinity treatment and provide genetic evidence of the involvement of OsHAK21 in rice salt tolerance. Disruption of OsHAK21 rendered plants sensitive to salt stress. Compared with the wild type, oshak21 accumulated less K(+) and considerably more Na(+) in both shoots and roots, and had a significantly lower K(+) net uptake rate but higher Na(+) uptake rate. Our analyses of subcellular localizations and expression patterns showed that OsHAK21 was localized in the plasma membrane and expressed in xylem parenchyma and individual endodermal cells (putative passage cells). Further functional characterizations of OsHAK21 in K(+) uptake-deficient yeast and Arabidopsis revealed that OsHAK21 possesses K(+) transporter activity. These results demonstrate that OsHAK21 may mediate K(+) absorption by the plasma membrane and play crucial roles in the maintenance of the Na(+) /K(+) homeostasis in rice under salt stress.

  6. Proximity to a high traffic road: glucocorticoid and life history consequences for nestling white-crowned sparrows.

    PubMed

    Crino, O L; Van Oorschot, B Klaassen; Johnson, E E; Malisch, J L; Breuner, C W

    2011-09-01

    Roads have been associated with decreased reproductive success and biodiversity in avian communities and increased physiological stress in adult birds. Alternatively, roads may also increase food availability and reduce predator pressure. Previous studies have focused on adult birds, but nestlings may also be susceptible to the detrimental impacts of roads. We examined the effects of proximity to a road on nestling glucocorticoid activity and growth in the mountain white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha). Additionally, we examined several possible indirect factors that may influence nestling corticosterone (CORT) activity secretion in relation to roads. These indirect effects include parental CORT activity, nest-site characteristics, and parental provisioning. And finally, we assessed possible fitness consequences of roads through measures of fledging success. Nestlings near roads had increased CORT activity, elevated at both baseline and stress-induced levels. Surprisingly, these nestlings were also bigger. Generally, greater corticosterone activity is associated with reduced growth. However, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis matures through the nestling period (as nestlings get larger, HPA-activation is greater). Although much of the variance in CORT responses was explained by body size, nestling CORT responses were higher close to roads after controlling for developmental differences. Indirect effects of roads may be mediated through paternal care. Nestling CORT responses were correlated with paternal CORT responses and paternal provisioning increased near roads. Hence, nestlings near roads may be larger due to increased paternal attentiveness. And finally, nest predation was higher for nests close to the road. Roads have apparent costs for white-crowned sparrow nestlings--increased predation, and apparent benefits--increased size. The elevation in CORT activity seems to reflect both increased size (benefit) and elevation due to road

  7. An approach for economic analysis of intermodal transportation.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Bahri; Yilmaz, Huseyin; Ust, Yasin; Guneri, Ali Fuat; Gulsun, Bahadir; Turan, Eda

    2014-01-01

    A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode.

  8. An Approach for Economic Analysis of Intermodal Transportation

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Bahri; Ust, Yasin; Guneri, Ali Fuat; Gulsun, Bahadir; Turan, Eda

    2014-01-01

    A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode. PMID:25152919

  9. Beneficial Roles of Melatonin on Redox Regulation of Photosynthetic Electron Transport and Synthesis of D1 Protein in Tomato Seedlings under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoting; Zhao, Hailiang; Cao, Kai; Hu, Lipan; Du, Tianhao; Baluška, František; Zou, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin is important in the protection of plants suffering various forms of abiotic stress. The molecular mechanisms underlying the melatonin-mediated protection of their photosynthetic machinery are not completely resolved. This study investigates the effects of exogenous melatonin applications on salt-induced damage to the light reaction components of the photosynthetic machinery of tomato seedlings. The results showed that melatonin pretreatments can help maintain growth and net photosynthetic rate (PN) under salt stress conditions. Pretreatment with melatonin increased the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII), the photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) and the proportion of PSII centers that are “open” (qL) under saline conditions. In this way, damage to the photosynthetic electron transport chain (PET) in photosystem II (PSII) was mitigated. In addition, melatonin pretreatment facilitated the repair of PSII by maintaining the availability of D1 protein that was otherwise reduced by salinity. The ROS levels and the gene expressions of the chloroplast TRXs and PRXs were also investigated. Salt stress resulted in increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which were mitigated by melatonin. In tomato leaves under salt stress, the expressions of PRXs and TRXf declined but the expressions of TRXm1/4 and TRXm2 increased. Melatonin pretreatment promoted the expression of TRXf and the abundances of TRXf and TRXm gene products but had no effects on the expressions of PRXs. In summary, melatonin improves the photosynthetic activities of tomato seedlings under salt stress. The mechanism could be that: (1) Melatonin controls ROS levels and prevents damaging elevations of ROS caused by salt stress. (2) Melatonin facilitates the recovery of PET and D1 protein synthesis, thus enhancing the tolerance of photosynthetic activities to salinity. (3) Melatonin induces the expression of TRXf and regulates the abundance of TRXf and TRXm gene products

  10. The auxin transporter, OsAUX1, is involved in primary root and root hair elongation and in Cd stress responses in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Yu, ChenLiang; Sun, ChenDong; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Suikang; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yan; Chen, YunLong; Li, Chuanyou; Qian, Qian; Aryal, Bibek; Geisler, Markus; Jiang, De An; Qi, YanHua

    2015-09-01

    Auxin and cadmium (Cd) stress play critical roles during root development. There are only a few reports on the mechanisms by which Cd stress influences auxin homeostasis and affects primary root (PR) and lateral root (LR) development, and almost nothing is known about how auxin and Cd interfere with root hair (RH) development. Here, we characterize rice osaux1 mutants that have a longer PR and shorter RHs in hydroponic culture, and that are more sensitive to Cd stress compared to wild-type (Dongjin). OsAUX1 expression in root hair cells is different from that of its paralogous gene, AtAUX1, which is expressed in non-hair cells. However, OsAUX1, like AtAUX1, localizes at the plasma membrane and appears to function as an auxin tranporter. Decreased auxin distribution and contents in the osaux1 mutant result in reduction of OsCyCB1;1 expression and shortened PRs, LRs and RHs under Cd stress, but may be rescued by treatment with the membrane-permeable auxin 1-naphthalene acetic acid. Treatment with the auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acid and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid increased the Cd sensitivity of WT rice. Cd contents in the osaux1 mutant were not altered, but reactive oxygen species-mediated damage was enhanced, further increasing the sensitivity of the osaux1 mutant to Cd stress. Taken together, our results indicate that OsAUX1 plays an important role in root development and in responses to Cd stress.

  11. Beneficial Roles of Melatonin on Redox Regulation of Photosynthetic Electron Transport and Synthesis of D1 Protein in Tomato Seedlings under Salt Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoting; Zhao, Hailiang; Cao, Kai; Hu, Lipan; Du, Tianhao; Baluška, František; Zou, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin is important in the protection of plants suffering various forms of abiotic stress. The molecular mechanisms underlying the melatonin-mediated protection of their photosynthetic machinery are not completely resolved. This study investigates the effects of exogenous melatonin applications on salt-induced damage to the light reaction components of the photosynthetic machinery of tomato seedlings. The results showed that melatonin pretreatments can help maintain growth and net photosynthetic rate (PN) under salt stress conditions. Pretreatment with melatonin increased the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII), the photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) and the proportion of PSII centers that are "open" (qL) under saline conditions. In this way, damage to the photosynthetic electron transport chain (PET) in photosystem II (PSII) was mitigated. In addition, melatonin pretreatment facilitated the repair of PSII by maintaining the availability of D1 protein that was otherwise reduced by salinity. The ROS levels and the gene expressions of the chloroplast TRXs and PRXs were also investigated. Salt stress resulted in increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which were mitigated by melatonin. In tomato leaves under salt stress, the expressions of PRXs and TRXf declined but the expressions of TRXm1/4 and TRXm2 increased. Melatonin pretreatment promoted the expression of TRXf and the abundances of TRXf and TRXm gene products but had no effects on the expressions of PRXs. In summary, melatonin improves the photosynthetic activities of tomato seedlings under salt stress. The mechanism could be that: (1) Melatonin controls ROS levels and prevents damaging elevations of ROS caused by salt stress. (2) Melatonin facilitates the recovery of PET and D1 protein synthesis, thus enhancing the tolerance of photosynthetic activities to salinity. (3) Melatonin induces the expression of TRXf and regulates the abundance of TRXf and TRXm gene products, which

  12. Effect of Trehalose and Trehalose Transport on the Tolerance of Clostridium perfringens to Environmental Stress in a Wild Type Strain and Its Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Park, Miseon; Mitchell, Wilfrid J.

    2016-01-01

    Trehalose has been shown to protect bacterial cells from environmental stress. Its uptake and osmoprotective effect in Clostridium perfringens were investigated by comparing wild type C. perfringens ATCC 13124 with a fluoroquinolone- (gatifloxacin-) resistant mutant. In a chemically defined medium, trehalose and sucrose supported the growth of the wild type but not that of the mutant. Microarray data and qRT-PCR showed that putative genes for the phosphorylation and transport of sucrose and trehalose (via phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems, PTS) and some regulatory genes were downregulated in the mutant. The wild type had greater tolerance than the mutant to salts and low pH; trehalose and sucrose further enhanced the osmotolerance of the wild type to NaCl. Expression of the trehalose-specific PTS was lower in the fluoroquinolone-resistant mutant. Protection of C. perfringens from environmental stress could therefore be correlated with the ability to take up trehalose. PMID:28058047

  13. 25 CFR 170.803 - What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... facilities such as public roads, highway bridges, trails, and bus stations; and (4) Other transportation... as signs, traffic signals, pavement striping, trail markers, guardrails, etc.; (2) Highway bridges and drainage structures; (3) Airport runways and heliport pads, including runway lighting;...

  14. 17. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, GRADE SEPARATION. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, GRADE SEPARATION. Photocopy of drawing (original in Connecticut Department of Transportation, Wethersfield); Connecticut State Highway Department, Approved February 1936. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  15. The Road to Mandalay: A Journey towards Cultural Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moult, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Rudyard Kipling wrote "The Road to Mandalay" in 1892 when Burma was a British colony and Queen Victoria was the Empress of India. In the poem, Mandalay is a city some 500 miles along the Irrawaddy River from the capital, Rangoon. British troops stationed in Burma were transported on the river by paddle steamers. The picture painted of…

  16. 15. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, FRAME AND WING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, FRAME AND WING WALL DETAILS. Photocopy of drawing (original in Connecticut Department of Transportation, Wethersfield); Connecticut State Highway Department, Approved February 1936. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  17. 13. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, GENERAL PLAN. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, GENERAL PLAN. Photocopy of drawing (original in Connecticut Department of Transportation, Wethersfield); Connecticut State Highway Department, Approved February 1936. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  18. 14. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, FOOTING PLAN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, FOOTING PLAN AND LEG DETAILS. Photocopy of drawing (original in Connecticut Department of Transportation, Wethersfield); Connecticut State Highway Department, Approved February 1936. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  19. 16. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, RAILING AND PYLON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, RAILING AND PYLON DETAILS. Photocopy of drawing (original in Connecticut Department of Transportation, Wethersfield); Connecticut State Highway Department, Approved February 1936. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  20. Effects of crustal stresses on fluid transport in fractured rock: Case studies from northeastern and southwestern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Savage, W.Z.

    2003-01-01

    The link between stress and hydrologic properties was examined at two sites that are distinguished by different rock types and different stress states. This investigation is based upon the analysis and interpretation of geophysical logs obtained in water wells at the two locations. At the northeast site (Newark Basin), the hydrologic characteristics of sedimentary rocks are dependent upon the relationship to the current regional stress field of two primary types of orthogonal features that serve as preferential pathways for fluid flow. Subhorizontal bedding-plane partings are highly transmissive near the surface and delineate transversely isotropic fluid flow at shallow depths. With increasing depth, the subhorizontal planes become less dominant and steeply dipping fractures become more influential hydrologically. These high-angle features define anisotropic flow pathways that are preferentially oriented along strike. At the southwest site (west Texas), extrusive rocks are subjected to topographically modified tectonic and gravitational stresses that vary spatially within a valley setting. The attendant changes in stress invariants cause fracture connectivity within the rock mass to systematically increase with depth along the valley flanks, but to remain relatively low in the central valley. The degree of fracture connectivity predicted within this valley configuration is consistent with variations in transmissivity determined at several well locations. In each of these cases, the idealized understanding of the hydrologic system is enhanced by considering the effects of regional and local stresses that act upon the fractured-rock aquifer.

  1. Zymosan-induced immune challenge modifies the stress response of hypoxic air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus Bloch): Evidence for reversed patterns of cortisol and thyroid hormone interaction, differential ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response.

    PubMed

    Simi, S; Peter, Valsa S; Peter, M C Subhash

    2016-11-18

    Fishes have evolved physiological mechanisms to exhibit stress response, where hormonal signals interact with an array of ion transporters and regulate homeostasis. As major ion transport regulators in fish, cortisol and thyroid hormones have been shown to interact and fine-tune the stress response. Likewise, in fishes many interactions have been identified between stress and immune components, but the physiological basis of such interaction has not yet delineated particularly in air-breathing fish. We, therefore, investigated the responses of thyroid hormones and cortisol, ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response of an obligate air-breathing fish Anabas testudineus Bloch to zymosan treatment or hypoxia stress or both, to understand how immune challenge modifies the pattern of stress response in this fish. Induction of experimental peritonitis in these fish by zymosan treatment (200ngg(-1)) for 24h produced rise in respiratory burst and lysozomal activities in head kidney phagocytes. In contrast, hypoxia stress for 30min in immune-challenged fish reversed these non-specific responses of head kidney phagocytes. The decline in plasma cortisol in zymosan-treated fish and its further suppression by hypoxia stress indicate that immune challenge suppresses the cortisol-driven stress response of this fish. Likewise, the decline in plasma T3 and T4 after zymosan-treatment and the rise in plasma T4 after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish indicate a critical role for thyroid hormone in immune-stress response due to its differential sensitivity to both immune and stress challenges. Further, analysis of the activity pattern of ion-dependent ATPases viz. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, H(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/NH4(+)-ATPase indicates a functional interaction of ion transport system with the immune response as evident in its differential and spatial modifications after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish. The immune-challenge that produced differential pattern

  2. Effect of acid stress on sodium transport by isolated skins and on osmotic permeability of intact frogs

    SciTech Connect

    Fromm, P.O.

    1981-08-01

    The experiments reported here were designed to determine the effects of increased external hydrogen ion concentrations on the ion transport capability of isolated frog skins measured as short-circuit current and to determine the nature of the interaction of hydrogen ions to sodium transport. Results from a study of the effects of acid exposure on the osmotic permeability of intact frogs are also reported.

  3. 25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge in background. Van Nest, Bronx Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 12.75./78. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  4. Detection and Extraction of Roads from High Resolution Satellites Images with Dynamic Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzouai, Siham; Smara, Youcef

    2010-12-01

    The advent of satellite images allows now a regular and a fast digitizing and update of geographic data, especially roads which are very useful for Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications such as transportation, urban pollution, geomarketing, etc. For this, several studies have been conducted to automate roads extraction in order to minimize the manual processes [4]. In this work, we are interested in roads extraction from satellite imagery with high spatial resolution (at best equal to 10 m). The method is semi automatic and follows a linear approach where road is considered as a linear object. As roads extraction is a pattern recognition problem, it is useful, above all, to characterize roads. After, we realize a pre-processing by applying an Infinite Size Edge Filter -ISEF- and processing method based on dynamic programming concept, in particular, Fishler algorithm designed by F*.

  5. Emerging research methods and their application to road safety.

    PubMed

    Tarko, Andrew; Boyle, Linda Ng; Montella, Alfonso

    2013-12-01

    The study of road safety has seen great strides over the past few decades with advances in analytical methods and research tools that allow researchers to provide insights into the complex interactions of the driver, vehicle, and roadway. Data collection methods range from traditional traffic and roadway sensors to instrumented vehicles and driving simulators, capable of providing detailed data on both the normal driving conditions and the circumstances surrounding a safety critical event. In September 2011, the Third International Conference on Road Safety and Simulation was held in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, which was hosted by the Purdue University Center for Road Safety and sponsored by the Transportation Research Board and its three committees: ANB20 Safety Data, Analysis and Evaluation, AND30 Simulation and Measurement of Vehicle and Operator Performance, and ABJ95 Visualization in Transportation. The conference brought together two hundred researchers from all over the world demonstrating some of the latest research methods to quantify crash causality and associations, and model road safety. This special issue is a collection of 14 papers that were presented at the conference and then peer-reviewed through this journal. These papers showcase the types of analytical tools needed to examine various crash types, the use of naturalistic and on-road data to validate the use of surrogate measures of safety, and the value of driving simulators to examine high-risk situations.

  6. GNSS-based Road User Charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrhovski, Drazen; Moore, Terry; Bennett, Lloyd

    2004-01-01

    The last few years have seen a rapid growth of applications based on positioning information provided by satellite positioning systems. In transport management and control, satellite positioning has proven to be the most promising means for spatial location data collection. With the GPS modernisation programme well underway, and the recent developments of the Galileo project, even more GNSS-based applications are to be expected in the future. One such GNSS-based application is the use of position and velocity information as the prime input to a road user charging (RUC) scheme. However, navigation in urban environments raises a number of problems. Most important are the difficulties related to signal obstruction by features such as tall buildings, urban canyons, bridges and trees, as well as the effects of multipath caused by signal reflections from buildings and other vehicles. Given the inevitable limitations of road trials, the use of simulation modelling to assess the present and future satellite positioning systems' performance to support urban RUC seems indispensable. The main objective of the research undertaken at the University of Nottingham Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), and the Nottingham Centre for Infrastructure (NCI), was to develop a tool to simulate GPS for Satellite Positioning-based Road User Charging (SPRUC). In this regard, an existing GPS simulator was modified to rectify one of its major weaknesses, namely the inability to address properly the change in non-static GPS measurements with respect to changes in built environment. For this purpose, state-of-the-art Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software was used to complement the simulator, and consequently a seamless interface between the two software has been developed. Finally, in order to provide a prime input to the simulator, field tests have been undertaken and significant amounts of GPS data were collected. Statistics were also derived for positioning

  7. Cultural Resource Investigations for a Multipurpose Haul Road on the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda R. Pace; Cameron Brizzee; Hollie Gilbert; Clayton Marler; Julie Braun Williams

    2010-08-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is considering options for construction of a multipurpose haul road to transport materials and wastes between the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and other Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site facilities. The proposed road will be closed to the public and designed for limited year-round use. Two primary options are under consideration: a new route south of the existing T-25 power line road and an upgrade to road T-24. In the Spring of 2010, archaeological field surveys and initial coordination and field reconnaissance with representatives from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes were completed to identify any resources that may be adversely affected by the proposed road construction and to develop recommendations to protect any listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. The investigations showed that 24 archaeological resources and one historic marker are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation south of the T-25 powerline road and 27archaeological resources are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation along road T-24. Generalized tribal concerns regarding protection of natural resources were also documented in both road corridors. This report outlines recommendations for additional investigations and protective measures that can be implemented to minimize adverse impacts to the identified resources.

  8. The Influence of Landscape Features on Road Development in a Loess Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Xiaoli; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Rui

    2011-10-01

    Many ecologists focus on the effects of roads on landscapes, yet few consider how landscapes affect road systems. In this study, therefore, we quantitatively evaluated how land cover, topography, and building density affected the length density, node density, spatial pattern, and location of roads in Dongzhi Yuan, a typical loess region in China. Landscape factors and roads were mapped using images from SPOT satellite (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre), initiated by the French space agency and a digital elevation model (DEM). Detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA), a useful ordination technique to explain species-environment relations in community ecology, was applied to evaluate the ways in which landscapes may influence roads. The results showed that both farmland area and building density were positively correlated with road variables, whereas gully density and the coefficient of variation (CV of DEM) showed negative correlations. The CV of DEM, farmland area, grassland area, and building density explained variation in node density, length density, and the spatial pattern of roads, whereas gully density and building density explained variation in variables representing road location. In addition, node density, rather than length density, was the primary road variable affected by landscape variables. The results showed that the DCCA was effective in explaining road-landscape relations. Understanding these relations can provide information for landscape managers and transportation planners.

  9. The influence of landscape features on road development in a loess region, China.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiaoli; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Rui

    2011-10-01

    Many ecologists focus on the effects of roads on landscapes, yet few consider how landscapes affect road systems. In this study, therefore, we quantitatively evaluated how land cover, topography, and building density affected the length density, node density, spatial pattern, and location of roads in Dongzhi Yuan, a typical loess region in China. Landscape factors and roads were mapped using images from SPOT satellite (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre), initiated by the French space agency and a digital elevation model (DEM). Detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA), a useful ordination technique to explain species-environment relations in community ecology, was applied to evaluate the ways in which landscapes may influence roads. The results showed that both farmland area and building density were positively correlated with road variables, whereas gully density and the coefficient of variation (CV of DEM) showed negative correlations. The CV of DEM, farmland area, grassland area, and building density explained variation in node density, length density, and the spatial pattern of roads, whereas gully density and building density explained variation in variables representing road location. In addition, node density, rather than length density, was the primary road variable affected by landscape variables. The results showed that the DCCA was effective in explaining road-landscape relations. Understanding these relations can provide information for landscape managers and transportation planners.

  10. Road Extraction from AVIRIS Using Spectral Mixture and Q-Tree Filter Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Margaret E.; Roberts, Dar A.; Funk, Chris; Noronha, Val

    2001-01-01

    Accurate road location and condition information are of primary importance in road infrastructure management. Additionally, spatially accurate and up-to-date road networks are essential in ambulance and rescue dispatch in emergency situations. However, accurate road infrastructure databases do not exist for vast areas, particularly in areas with rapid expansion. Currently, the US Department of Transportation (USDOT) extends great effort in field Global Positioning System (GPS) mapping and condition assessment to meet these informational needs. This methodology, though effective, is both time-consuming and costly, because every road within a DOT's jurisdiction must be field-visited to obtain accurate information. Therefore, the USDOT is interested in identifying new technologies that could help meet road infrastructure informational needs more effectively. Remote sensing provides one means by which large areas may be mapped with a high standard of accuracy and is a technology with great potential in infrastructure mapping. The goal of our research is to develop accurate road extraction techniques using high spatial resolution, fine spectral resolution imagery. Additionally, our research will explore the use of hyperspectral data in assessing road quality. Finally, this research aims to define the spatial and spectral requirements for remote sensing data to be used successfully for road feature extraction and road quality mapping. Our findings will facilitate the USDOT in assessing remote sensing as a new resource in infrastructure studies.

  11. View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial and residential buildings on the east and west sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  12. Magnetohydrodynamic peristaltic transport of couple stress fluid through porous medium in an inclined asymmetric channel with heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, K.; Devakar, M.

    2015-11-01

    In the present paper, the effects of magnetic field and heat transfer on the peristaltic flow of an incompressible couple stress fluid through porous medium in an inclined asymmetric channel have been studied under the long wavelength approximation. The exact solutions of the resultant governing equations have been obtained for the stream function, pressure gradient, temperature and heat transfer coefficients. The pressure difference and frictional forces have been computed numerically. The effects of Hartmann number, Darcy number, Grashof number, couple stress parameter, heat generation parameter and inclination angle on the heat characteristics, velocity characteristics, pumping characteristics and trapping phenomena are discussed in detail. It is found that the pressure gradient increases from horizontal channel to vertical channel. The best pumping can be seen at higher Hartmann number. The size of trapped bolus decreases with the increase of couple stress parameter and the strength of the magnetic flied. Increase of heat generation parameter increases the pressure gradient, temperature and the size of the bolus.

  13. Sucrose preload reduces snacking after mild mental stress in healthy participants as a function of 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter gene promoter polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Markus, C Rob; Jonkman, Lisa M; Capello, Aimee; Leinders, Sacha; Hüsch, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) dysfunction is considered to promote food intake and eating-related disturbances, especially under stress or negative mood. Vulnerability for 5-HT disturbances is considered to be genetically determined, including a short (S) allele polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) that is associated with lower serotonin function. Since 5-HT function may be slightly increased by carbohydrate consumption, S-allele 5-HTTLPR carriers in particular may benefit from a sugar-preload due to their enhanced 5-HT vulnerability. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a sugar-containing preload may reduce appetite and energy intake after exposure to stress to induce negative mood, depending on genetic 5-HT vulnerability. From a population of 771 healthy young male and female genotyped college students 31 S/S carriers (8 males, 23 females) and 26 long allele (L/L) carriers (9 males, 17 females) (mean ± S.D. 22 ± 1.6 years; body mass index, BMI, 18-33 kg/m(2)) were monitored for changes in appetite and snacking behavior after stress exposure. Results revealed an increased energy intake after mild mental stress (negative mood) mainly for high-fat sweet foods, which was significantly greater in S/S carriers, and only in these genotypes this intake was significantly reduced by a sucrose-containing preload. Although alternative explanations are possible, it is suggested that S/S participants may have enhanced brain (hypothalamic) 5-HT responsiveness to food that makes them more susceptible to the beneficial satiation effects of a sucrose-preload as well as to the negative effects of mild mental stress on weight gain.

  14. Scale invariance in road networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalapala, Vamsi; Sanwalani, Vishal; Clauset, Aaron; Moore, Cristopher

    2006-02-01

    We study the topological and geographic structure of the national road networks of the United States, England, and Denmark. By transforming these networks into their dual representation, where roads are vertices and an edge connects two vertices if the corresponding roads ever intersect, we show that they exhibit both topological and geographic scale invariance. That is, we show that for sufficiently large geographic areas, the dual degree distribution follows a power law with exponent 2.2⩽α⩽2.4 , and that journeys, regardless of their length, have a largely identical structure. To explain these properties, we introduce and analyze a simple fractal model of road placement that reproduces the observed structure, and suggests a testable connection between the scaling exponent α and the fractal dimensions governing the placement of roads and intersections.

  15. Molecular phylogenetic study and expression analysis of ATP-binding cassette transporter gene family in Oryza sativa in response to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Saha, Jayita; Sengupta, Atreyee; Gupta, Kamala; Gupta, Bhaskar

    2015-02-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter is a large gene superfamily that utilizes the energy released from ATP hydrolysis for transporting myriad of substrates across the biological membranes. Although many investigations have been done on the structural and functional analysis of the ABC transporters in Oryza sativa, much less is known about molecular